VOLATILES FROM THE HISTORY OF Adam and Eve: Containing, Many unquestioned Truths, and allowable Notions of several Natures.

By Sir John Pettus, Knight.

LONDON, Printed for T. Bassett at the George in Fleet-street, 1674.

To the Right Honourable LEISTER DEVEREƲX, Lord Viscount Hereford.

My Lord,

HAving the Honour of being your Neighbour in Suffolk, it London, and in our Publick Imployments; and your Lordship knowing the occasion of my Wri­ting, upon this subject, affords me some reasons of Dedicating this to your Lordship, to shew you how I spent my time (when I had any little leisure from business, which I seldom neglected) persuant to An­toninus advice, that if one should ask me at any time what I was thinking, I might be able to give an account of some worthy matter, and therefore I made Choice of this [Page] Story, which hath furnish'd me with above an 100 several Sub­jects, which always fed my Thoughts with such safe Varieties, that they fenc'd out the Consideration of other troubles which might have perplex'd them: My Method of Writing, I borrow'd from Mal­vezzi his Davido persecutato my Extravagant way, from Moun­taine, who in his Essayes, under­takes in one Chapter to write of Thumbs, and yet not one word of them in all that Discourse, for have observ'd in the Countrey, that when I forsook the path, which would have guided me to the place I design'd, and cross'd the Pastures somtimes I started Hares, somtimes sprang Partridges, or observ'd some curious Plants; which plea­sures I had never injoy'd if I had confin'd my self to the path, yet [Page]I kept my Eye on it, (least I should stray too far) and return'd home by it, and inliven'd or inrich't my thoughts with the Contempla­tions of what happen'd by my di­gressions.

Possibly, these Excursions might have been more excusable to me in my Youth, than in my Age; but it is a solace to me, that I can be yet youthful in my notions, and if your Lordship please to peruse these as a Recreation, your Lordship will very much Honour,

My Lord,
Your Lordships most humble Servant Jo. Pettus.

The Stationer to the Courteous Reader.

THere are some Errata's occasion'd by the Indisposition of the Printer, for want of Orthography, Comma's, Conjunctions, Parenthesis, expunging of needless Adverbs, mi­stakes of Singulars for Plurals; which may be amended by the Ingenuity of the Reader upon the intended sense of the Sentence; but the most mate­rial are, viz.

PAG. 14. l. 5. read sixteen, and l. 18. r. graines. p. 18. l. 1. r. Life, p. 30. l. 10. r. Undermines, and l. 25. r. humid part, and l. 28. r. prae-efficient, p. 40. l. 21. r. adjectively, p. 79. l. 25. r. feminine, p. 96. l. 4. r. tunes, p. 110. l. 1. r. of, p. 125. l. 30. r. are none, p. 163. l. 13. r. Jonathan.



IN the beginning. Whilst all we can apprehend was God, in the be­ginning of his manifestation of himself by Parts: In the begin­ning of those Parts, from whence we account the beginning of Time: In the beginning, when that Time was an Emanation of Eternity: In the beginning, when God afforded us Visibility out of his Invisibility, God Created Heaven and Earth. And from that Mass of Creation divers other parts were (as we may say in re­spect of their Comparative Excellen­cy) also created, as it appears Verse the 3. And God said, Let there be Light. Se­condly, And God said, Let there be a Fir­mament. Thirdly, And God said, Let the [Page 2]Earth appear. Fourthly, And God said, Let the Earth bring forth grass. Fifthly, And God said, Let there be Lights. Sixth­ly, And God said, Let the waters bring forth Fowl. Seventhly, And God said, Let the Earth bring forth Cattle. So that there was a Septenary or seven Fiats, and no more (seven being a perfect number.) And those being done, God begins with Man in another Dialect; for instead of Let there be God said, Let us make: Cap. 1. ver. 26. Now whether these words Let us are to be understood as more Majestically spoken, or an Invocation of the Trinity, imployed in the word Elohim, Et dixit Domi­nus an­gelis mini strantibus­coram eo, qui creati sunt die secundo creationis mundi. Targ. Hier. or a summoning of Angels or other spiritual Instruments: Or Let us, that is, let the Creatures which I have Created on the five former days, together with such a Soul as I shall in­fuse into Man, Let us make Man; that is, let man be constituted of Light, Air, Water, and Earth, and of the Qualities and Virtues of those and other Creatures, and of a Soul peculiar to himself, yet derivative in some man­ner from us (his Creator, and my o­ther Creatures) I shall not here dis­pute; but leave it to other volumi­nous Writers: For not onely the Dia­lect [Page 3](as I said concerning Mans creation) is different, but it is clear that Moses gives only a Concise Narrative of the things created before Man, not im­parting to us any circumstances used in their Creation. But as to Man he gives a full and ample discourse, from the seventh Verse of the second Chap­ter, to the end of the same Chapter, being wholly spent in it; and indeed is but a Parenthesis proper to be read between the 26 and 27 Verses of the first Chapter: the words, Let us make Man, in the 26 verse, being either the Consultative part of Mans Crea­tion, or as Gods declarative Resoluti­on so to do; and the words in the 27th. verse (So God created man) shews the compleating that deliberation or resolution. And therefore I shall begin with those words of the seventh verse Chapter second, And the Lord God (made) as being the beginning of the active part of his Creation, and so descant upon that whole second Chapter; and that being finished, re­turn to the 27th. verse of the first Chapter, (So God created man) and then to the 28 and 29 verses, with which I shall conclude the first part of these dis­courses.

[Page 4] The second part shall begin with the 30th. of the first Chapter, because it is an Induction to the offences of the Serpent, and thence pass to the whole third Chapter: to which shall be add­ed so much of the 4th. and 5th. Chap­ters as shall make the History and va­riety of discourses concerning Adam and Eve intire and pleasurable to the Reader, and I hope without the least offence to the sacred Method, or dissa­tisfaction to any.

The Notions which I have us'd here­in are chiefly from my Notes out of Dr. Waltons Laborious and Learned Polyglotta, some parts of St. Augustine, Pererius, Sir Walter Rawleigh, Dr. Donne, Paulus Lovatius, Crook, and some others cited on the Margin; and if I have hit upon any others veins which I have not cited, it is the error of my Memory not of my Grati­tude, so that till I know them I may be excus'd: and if the Style and Method be somewhat above, or out of the u­sual road, it may be ascribed to my Education, which hath been not like a Pedant, but a Gentleman.

The Text of the first Part.

Cap. 2.

Verse 7. THe Lord God made Man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his Nostrils the breath of Life, and the Man became a Li­ving Soul.

8. And the Lord God planted a Garden Eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

9. And out of the ground made the Lord to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food, the tree of Life also in the midst of the Garden, and the tree of Knowledge of good and evil

10. And a River went out of Eden to water the Garden, and from thence it was parted into four Heads.

11. The name of the first is Pison, that is it which incompasseth the whole Land of Havilah, where is Gold.

12. And the Gold of that Land is good: there is Bdellium, and the Onyx Stone.

13. And the name of the second River is Gihon: the same is it which incompasseth the whole Land of Aethiopia.

[Page 6] 14. And the name of the third River is Hidekell, which is it which goeth towards the East of Assyria: and the fourth River is Euphrates.

15. And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it, and to keep it.

16. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, of every tree of the Garden thou mayst freely eat:

17. But of the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil thou shalt not cat of it, for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

18. And the Lord God said, It is not good that man should be alone, I will make an help meet for him.

19. And out of the ground the Lord God formed every Beast of the field, and every Fowl of the air, and brought them to A­dam to see what he would call them, and whatever he called every living Creature, that was the name thereof.

20. And Adam gave names to all Cat­tle, and to the Fowls of the Air, and to e­very Beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.

21. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his Ribs and closed up the flesh instead thereof.

[Page 7] 22. And of the Rib which the Lord God had taken from man made he a Woman, and brought her unto the man.

23. And Adam said this is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh, she shall be called Woman because she was taken out of man.

24. Therefore shall a man leave his Fa­ther and Mother, and shall cleave unto his Wife, and they shall be one flesh.

25. And they were both naked, and were not ashamed.

Cap. 1.

27. So God created man in his own Image, in the Image of God created he him, male and female created he them.

28. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the Earth, and subdue it, and have Dominion over the fish of the Sea, and over the fowl of the Air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the face of the Earth.

29. And God said, behold I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of the Earth, and every tree in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat.

Cap. 2. Ver. 7.

The Lord God. § 1. This is the first time that any Additional Attribute is added to the word God; for though Lord God is twice used in the two preceding verses of this second Chapter, yet the matter of those verses is subsecuent to the Creation of Man: For man was made before the Sabbath, and before the Creation was finished; so that this addition of Lord shews what delibera­tion and power was used in Creating and making Man, expressed in the words, Let us make: and here being made, 'tis said, the Lord God made Man; for as God he created Man, as Lord he governs and rules him being made: to which I shall add this Observation, that Jehovah (expressing God) hath se­ven Letters, and so hath Dominus (ex­pressing Lord;) and Lord God joyned consists also of seven Letters: so sacred is that number of Seven to the diffe­rent Languages. And the word God (consisting of a Ternary of Letters) as used onely in the general Creation; but in the Creation of Man, viz. from the seventh verse to the end of the Chapter, Lord God is mentioned nine [Page 9]times and no more; which two num­bers seven and nine are most applicable to the business of Creation.

For the Creation consisted of seven dayes (as some Fathers write) seven Planets, seven properties of the two great Lights, nine Orbes or Sphears (and three times seven generations, of which I have writ a particular Trea­tise) and though our Common Tran­slations do not mention the numbers of the parts of Man, yet the Targum of Jerusalem says, the Lord created Adam with 248 Membranes, and 365 Nerves, (so many it seems as there are dayes in the year) and covered all with a Skin which he filled with Flesh and Blood; so that there are but five similar parts here mention'd, but these that are more exact (collected also from the Text) do make the Body of Man to consist of twice seven similar parts, viz. Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, Membranes, Nerves, Arteries, Veins, Fibras, Tuni­cles, Spermaticks, Fat, Blood, Flesh, Skin; but to satisfie the Reader with some variety before I proceed in my intended method, I take leave to in­sert here my sense of Spencer's Stanza, concerning those two numbers of seven [Page 10]and nine, and if I differ in the inter­pretation thereof from the Learned Sir Kenelm Digby, I may be excused because I leave it to the Reader to please himself in the allowance or dis­allowance of it.

Spencer in his Fairy Queen (Chapter 22th. Of Temperance) describes the Castle of Alma (or Mans Body thus:

The frame thereof seem'd partly Circular,
And part Triangular O Work Divine!
These two the first and last Proportions are,
The one Immortal, Perfect, Masculine;
The other Mortal, imperfect, Feminine.
And 'twixt them both a Quadrate is the Base.
Proportion'd equally by Seven and Nine:
Nine was the Circle set in Heavens place,
All which compacted make a goodly Diapase.

Which is thus to be understood as I conceive,

The Frame thereof seem'd partly Circular.

The Body of a Man or Woman be­ing exactly extended makes a true Circle, by fixing the Center at the Na­vel, and the Circumference to touch the extreame points of the fingers and toes. Then draw a Diametrical Line o­ver the Navel point, so that the passing over the head touch no further down­wards than the Navel Line, and it will be partly Circular, or Semi-circular.

[Page 11] And Part Triangular.

Then the inferior part from the Navel (both legs being divided and extended to the Circumferating Line) makes a Triangle, there being as much distance from foot to foot, as from the Extream point of each to the Navel; so 'tis part Circular and part Triangu­lar.

O Work Divine!

And this is the Divine Work to give all things their Numberand Mea­sure, Geometrical Proportion, as shall be further shewed.

These two the first and last Proportions are.

This fully explains, that the Cir­cular proportion hath reference to the Superior part of the body, the Trian­gular to the inferior, calling them the first and last proportion.

The one Immortal, Perfect, Masculine.

Now in the first Superior or half Circular proportion, which is from the head to the Navel, is properly seated [Page 12]the Soul, (although virtually it oppe­rates in all other parts of the Body) and therefore is called the Immortal, Per­fect, Masculine part.

The other Mortal, Imperfect, Feminine:

In the last inferior or Triangular part, which is from the Nave to the feet (alluding to the flesh) is nothing but Corruption, Imperfection, and the excrementitious parts of Nature, and may justly be called the Mortal, Imperfect, Feminine.

And 'twixt them both a Quadrate is the Base,
Composed equally by Seven and Nine.

The Exterior extensive parts of Man being thus composed and descri­bed by a Circular and Triangular sorm, here he shews the proportion both of Man and Woman: for for as Hercules his whole body was delineated by ma­king use only of his Thumb, so may every mans (the exact length of his Face being once known:) for every bo­dy is eight, nine, or ten times as long as his face, according as he is nearer or further from a true proportion. [Page 13]But the most famous Arcists agree, that the exact length of a man ought to be but nine faces, of a woman but seven: that is, the body of man from the Chin ought to be eight times as long as the face, and of a woman six times. And lest the Error of the face should give an Error to the body, the face ought to be so composed, that from the top of the forehead to the dint of the Nose, and from the dint of the Nose, the length of the Nose, and from the bottom of the Nose to the turn of the Chin, should be of an equal measure and distance. And so likewise from the dint of the Nose to the exterior parts of each Eye, and from that part of the Eye to the setting on of each Ear of the same distance; the rule for the pro­portion and measure of which di­stance ought to be from the top of the thumb to the second joynt of the thumb. Then his bredth stom side to side, and thickness from back to stomach is answerable. And this sym­metry is not onely in the outward Li­neaments, but in the inward; for the Guts of Man do also confirm this pro­portion of seven and nine, being nine [Page 14]or seven times the length of the body. Had not this exactness been observed, the sixteen Italian Artists had never agreed; who resolving each man to make a sixth part of a Man, without seeing each other, or any model gi­ven, but what was apprehended by them to be the just proportion of Man, when each of them brought their part to be joyned together, it seemed as the Act of one intire Artist and Workman, and not of many. And 'tis not onely thus in number and mea­sure, but in weight; for the Heart as I have shewed elsewhere (by the Con­jectures of some, for it cannot other­wise be demonstrated) weighs two strains at the Birth, and increaseth to fifty grains, and then decreaseth by two grains as he declines in years to his Infant Age, if the Almighty thinks fit to give him such a Continuation. And not onely man, but woman is made by this Geometrical proportion of seven and nine, which numbers being con­joyned make sixteen, that is, a Qua­drat, a Quadrat number being that which is formed of its own parts: and there is a proper and improper Quadrat, because it consists of odd [Page 15]parts; as three times three is nine, which is an improper Quadrat; but four times four is sixteen, which is a proper Quadrat, because it consists of equal parts, which is the Quadrat here meant; and this Quadrat is called Base, which if it be meant according to the English word Base, (id est, vile or beastly) this Conjunction of Man and Woman so improperly used, or with such immoderacy, that thereby we weaken or abuse our Castle of Alma, or Temperance, it is most base, sordid, and beastly: Or if from the Geometrical or Musical word Base or Basis, which is most significant; then if this ground­work or Foundation, or Musical Key be compacted by a divine, chaste, and solemn compact, we make a proper Quadrat and perfect Diapase.

Nine is the number set in Heavens place,
All which compacted make a goodly Diapase.

And this compact is made when nine stands in Heavens place; for Man being understood by nine, consisting (as I said) of nine parts, is oft called God; and as God being himself a Trinity governs Man; so Man (an Inferior God, having in himself a [Page 16]Triple Trinity nine, or three times three) should govern the Woman, by keeping the proper distance above seven, (of which proportion Woman consists) which God hath allowed him, that is two, (seven being so many short of nine;) rather allowing her one to make her even with him, then either by too much subtracting from himself, and giving her a number a­bove him, or robbing her of less then she should have. But this fair compact by allowing her one out of his num­ber, God himself allowed when he made her of one of his Ribs; by the addition of which one, the seven be­comes eight, so there is two eights, which makes the goodly Diapase. The sweetest, the most Harmonious and Mystical concord in Musick, as we see by two Lutes or silver Bowls, the one being struck, the other answers an eight without striking. Thus num­bers from oddness become even; when Circles, Triangles, Genders, Per­fection and Imperfection, Mortality and Immortality concurred and were com­bined in so Divine a Work.

But to return to the word of our Translation. The Lord God

[Page 17] Made. Translators do promiscu­onsly render these words, viz.§ 3. Made, Formed, Framed, and Created: But where the word Created is used after the general Mass of Creation (as in the zith. verse, God created the Whale; and in the 27th. verse, God created Man) it is to be understood, that God created some singular and more emi­nent Piece, besides the original Mass; and so saith the Targum of Jerusalem, Creavit eum duabus creationibus, i. e. He created Man by two singular and universal Creations. Now the word Made signifies a Temperament of that singular Creation with the universal; Framed relates to the proportions; and Formed to the Life or Soul of the thing created: so that Man was crea­ted with other Creatures out of the main Mass; then he was created with some peculiar additions; after which he was made into Quantities and Qua­lities in gross; then Framed into cer­tain regular dimensions and proporti­ons; and lastly Formed, or (as the Schools call it) informed with a Soul. Now whether God did all this in order of Time I shall not dispute; for in te­spect of Gods Works they have no di­stinction [Page 18]of Time, but in respect of Man we may so apprehend them (without offence;) because other­wise Gods Omnipotency cannot clear­ly be conceived by mans capacity.

But as to these words made, framed, and formed, (as they are notionally di­st inct from Created) they may be thus considerable, viz. made into a Vegeta­tive (intimated by the dust of the Earth) framed into a Sensitive life (in­timated by the breath of Lile) and for­med into a rational life (intimated by a Living Soul:) so that in this notion we may apprehend also our similitude to God by a Trinity in Unity. And that these words ought to be distinctly understood, appears from the words in the second Chapter, verse 2. And God rested from all his works which he had creaded and made; and likewise in the fourth verse, These are the Generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that God made the earth and the heavens. And the words framed and formed are used in other places in different senses; but I con­ceive the word made is most proper to be used here, because it is onely ap­plyed to Creatures of the greatest E­minency, [Page 19]and that nine times. 1. To the firmament. 2. To the two great lights. 3. To the stars; and four times in the second and third verses of this Chapter, where the word is exprest by way of Enumeration, of what was created and made: and then it is twice more named by change of the number, as in the 27th. verse, Let us make; and in the 18th. verse of the second Chap­ter, I will make: Let us make deno­ting either the Trinity or Angels, or the composition of his Qualities assimila­ting God; And I will make denoting his peculiar care. But however here 'tis said, The Lord God made man; which are plural appellations, though the verb be singular; so that Let us make, and the Lord God made, do answer each other as to the Trinity, or what concerns the eminency of mans being made.

Man. If David ask'd the question,§ 4. Lord, what is man? so many hundred years after he was made, and answer­ed himself, that man is altogether vani­ty, or is nothing, and his days as a shadow; what can we imagine man to be be­fore he was made? he was nothing as the word Creation implys; and being [Page 20]made, he was made of little more then nothing; for he was made of the dust of the earth, and yet still continuing in this Compact of dust, he is still but vanity or nothing. And so we may Collect from his four names, for he is called Adam, Enoch, Ishe, Chebor; the first name Adam signifies earth, or red earth, that seems to have some colour of a substance; and yet when we see how changeable it is into other Ele­ments, the earth it self is but a mo­mentary something. Secondly Enoch, which signifies sickness or calamity, we feel something of that, and yet that vanisheth; for pain or calamity may en­dure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning. The third is Ishe, which signifies crying or laughing, both of which are so oft exprest in one wind (as the Proverb saith) they are scarce distinguishable. And for the last Chebor, signifying Excellency, it is said that man being in honour hath no under­standing, but is compared to the beasts that perish. So that we may well con­ceive these four words signifie the four Elements of which he is Compacted; Adam, Earth, the grosser part of his body: Enoch, Water, the redundancy [Page 21]of which causeth sickness and deluges of Rhumes: Ishe, Air, from whence allso unds are procreated: and Cheber, Fire, which is the most excellent of all the Elements, and so is either com­mon and culinary, or supercelestial, con­sisting of Love, or au intellect, or such properties as belong to an Angelical Nature.

Of the dust of the ground. Man is said to be made of the dust of the ground; and in the ninth verse 'tis said, Out of the ground the Lord God made to grow every tree; and verse 19th. Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast, &c. Out; here it is meerly out of the dust of the ground, to shew that there was a difference between Man and other Creatures in their ma­king; so that by the dust of the ground is to be understood the superficial part of the earth, of which man onely was made; for all Creatures are said to be made out of the ground, but not of the dust of the ground; but Man of the dust of the ground or earth. Now whi­ther this dust was made by a peculiar omnipotent Calcination, or other Ra­rification is not demonstrated; but we may conceive it of the most at­tenuated [Page 22]part of the earth, and there­in the more Noble part, because capa­ble of the most activity; for if we con­sider our commondust, it flies like Atoms over the Surface of the earth, oft­times being raised into as many dry Clouds as there are moist, and by the co-operation of these two, dry and wet, those varieties of Naturals and Preternaturals (which are so oft show­red down upon us, and seen among us, as Moths and other flies, Mice and o­ther Vermine) are produced. And mostly they are Agile creatures, whe­ther we respect their volatile or rep­tile, or aquatick natures; which I mention to shew, that if the ordinary dust produceth such agile Creatures, we may collect that our Creator hath adapted to our more agaile body (in relation to our Souls) far more agile dust the to other Creatures. For the Targum of Jerusalem adds to our honor, that we are made ex palvere Sanctuarii, i. e. of holy dust, differing from all o­ther dusts: which should raise this Contemplation in us, that as we are not like beasts or other Creatures in our Temperaments, they made of the ground, that is, of the faeces or dregs [Page 23]of the Earth, we of the Superficies (or of some peculiar sanctify'd dust;) so ought the habits of our bodies to be sublime, and alwaies ascending to an higher sphere, and not to be alloyed and turned into various Corrupti­ons.

And breathed the breath of life. § 6. God at first breathed upon the face of the waters: this was the first universal Vegetative and Sensitive life and moti­on which he infused into the Mass of Creation, of which Man was also par­taker. But this breath which God breathed into man, was of a higher na­ture, not onely giving life and motion (for Man had that by universal breath, but by this man became a living Soul.) And as our bloud within us (for all things have a bloud or spirit of the nature of bloud) is said to be the Vehi­cle or Conveyor of the Vegetative or Sensitive life; so the Air without us, in which is the universal breath, may be said to be the Vehicle of that life in­to us; and the spirit or life is the ve­hicle of our rational life, or of that divine Soul which flows into us; for God works all things by fit Instru­ments: so that our Soul is conveyed [Page 24]to us by this spirit or breath of life; the spirit of life passes by air, the air, by bloud (and other parts adapted for such receprions;) so traversing the whole body by Circulation, returns again to the place from whence it came; for we see when the bloud and air (which are more evident to us) meet with any obstructions either by nature or accident, the Soul thereby is deprived of all its faculties.

Into his Nostrils. § 7. The Egptians were wont to signifie a wise and pru­dent mind by the figure of a Nose, and of strength to his wisdom by the ex­tension of the Nostrils; for here it is that the breath of life first enters, and consequently wisdom and strength. The Anatomists call them Nares, be­cause the Spirits of the air do Na­re or Swim continually in them; nor is the mouth or pores fit­ted for such receptions. The three properties of Inspiration, Expiration, and Respiration, being peculiar onely to the Nostrils; for if the Nostrils be not clear, the mouth will be foul, the breath stinking, and the pores unapt for sudation: for the Nostrils having through its little hairs suckt in the air [Page 25]free from commixtures, it passeth from thence to certain spungy bones, and from thence into Mammillary pro­cesses, or things like the teats of Udders, and so immediately to the Brain, where the commonsense sits as Judge, and resolves to pleasure the body with what is fit for the senses, or by certain perforations does again distil in­to the mouth, or throws them out by efflations as obnoxious. Now it is certain (as Anatomists find) that there are two Nervous inductions, which go from the nostrils to the very middle of the brain, whereby the Life and Soul first enters by the help of the air into the Nostrils, and thence to the brain, and from thence by the breath of life is virtually transfused into all parts of the body; but the Nostrils must have the honor of the first ingress of life, and of the first infused Crea­tion, or Created infusion of the Soul.

And Man became a Living Soul. § 8. The Arabick renders it a Rational Soul, which properly distinguisheth it from the Soul of other Creatures. But the word Living is sufficient: for all Creatures have a share in the [Page 26]breath of life, but Man onely is said to be a Living Soul, or a Soul which is alwaies Living: It lives here under a notion of Mortality in respect of the bo­dy, but lives here in respect of it self under a certain notion of Immortality, dying as to the body, but always li­ving to its self. The bloud returns it through the brain and nostrils to the spirit of life, that universal spirit of life to the peculiar spirit of humanity, to be disposed into individual Glorifi­cations.

Cap. 2. Ver. 8.

And the Lord God planted a Garden East­ward in Eden. § 9. The garden here is not meerly to be understood in our usual phrase, a place of Flowers, or Orchard for Plants, but a place which contains all sorts of plants and Flowers from the Hysop to the Cedar, from the least to the greatest, as the Seminary and Nursery for all future Plantations: and this place was Eastward, which the Sun saluted in the morning; to set us an example of our duty to all orderly motions. A place where no Edifices were to hide our lazy or surfeited bo­dies; a place where was no bed to re­pose [Page 27]on, but the lap of our Mother Earth; no Valences or Curtains but the shade of trees; no covering to in­nocent nakedness, but their leaves; no mixtures to heighten our tasts; all pure simples; no Pensils to deceive or flatter our eyes; all true natural, and a perfect representation of what a Country life should be. And this is as the word signifies the true Garden of Eden, in which happy solitude or safe pleasure, see what Adam enjoyed; He had every tree that was pleasant to the sight, or good for the taste, but princi­pally a tree for Life, a tree for know­ledge. There was also flowing and enriching Rivers: Besides there was gold and precious stones enough to sa­tisfie a contented mind, not Avarice: And above all he had opportunity there to express a harmless industry (it seems one of the pleasures of Para­dise)

And there he put the Man whom he had formed. § 10. Not the man whom he had Created out of nothing, and by meer Creation could do nothing; but be­ing formed, or a Soul infused into that lump of Creation, he was thereby im­powered to act; and that he might [Page 28]have some materials to work upon, he was there put or placed. And certain­ly not onely Adam, but every man hath his native Paradise, every part of the World hath its varieties, and may afford us satisfaction for the body and the mind. And it is either the ori­ginal Itch in us, or want of true Education or Instruction, or curious ambition, or an uncontented mind, or a continued punishment upon us mor­tals, that no place, no station where we are, can hold us, nor no Paradise or pleasure retain us from further inqui­ries. It is not said he put the Man there whom he had created, or made, or fra­med; but the Man that he had formed, to shew that the Mind or Soul of Man wheresoever placed with the body might make any place contenting, if it transgressed not its Rules and Boun­daries.

Cap. 2. Ver. 9.

And out of the ground. § 11. Man (as I shewed in the seventh verse) is said to be made not onely of the ground, but of the dust of the ground; and here e­very tree is said to be made out of the ground, but not of the dust; so that Man [Page 29]hath a Constitution by himself, and yet as made of the ground, he partakes of all plants; for homo est Arbor in­versa, i. e. man is a tree invers'd: and is called homo, because he is ex humo, or ex humida parte terrae, i. e. out of the humid part of the earth. He hath his dust and moisture, i. e. he is agile and apt for motion, yet fixt in his mate­rials; whereas plants are not so they are fixed in the ground, and have no motion but of Vegetation, except what is said of the Mandrake and the feed­ing Lamb;Perkinson, p. 118. yet they also die if the fibras that oblige them to the earth be cut asunder. And Man hath very little advantage, when we consider that in all his postures, sitting, lying, or standing, still he is fixed to the earth or to some materials made of the earth, (swimiming in the water, leap­ing in the air, being but forced moti­ons, and of no continuance.) And this is called our Vegetative life; although in a plant there is also a sensitive life, [...] as is seen in the sensible and other known plants of that nature. Now as man is made of the dust of the ground, plants are more proper out of the ground, and they have two advantages [Page 30]over Man, first in their heighth above ground, 300 foot and more high; and next by perforation in the ground, some conceiving that the sap root of an Oak will run 9 foot perpen­dicular downward, which is as I con­jectured is in solid earth the uttermost Orb of the Liquid Element: But Man by his ingenuity mounts the heighest and mines the deepest rooted plants.

Now the other part of the earth further from the superficies is more compact and solid, affording Quarries, Mines, and Precious Stones; but yet all varieties of colours, tasts, odours, Instruments of Harmony, and indeed all things which please the senses, are produced out of this superficies of the humid part of the earth, being in the middle between air and Minerals, which have their colours and vertues onely by attraction, then consolida­tion.

The Lord made to grow. § 12. That is, they had their energy of growth from his humid part; for we must distin­guish between Creation and Genera­tion, the one being an existency out of no p [...] efficient matter, the other the motion or operation of that existency, [Page 31]according to the several natures of se­veral kinds, adapted for various O­perations, always moving in the uni­versal Soul, being the spring of the World, which makes the wheels to move in order, if we consider the whole; but if we consider the parts, 'tis more difficult to apprehend the Connexion of all things as it were in one: but we can look on it no other­wise then as a Watch, the spring gi­ving motion to every wheel, where the nimbler motion of the balance is as considerable as the Majestick grada­tion of the great wheel, both serving to one end. Thus the little Mite of the Cheese hath its proportioned use, as the great Crocodile produced out of the slime of Nile; the little Wren, as the Ostridgae or the great bird Ibis; the harmless Lamb, as the Elephant, or the great beast that devours Coun­tries; the Pigmy, as the Giant; the Hysop as the Cedar; the pleasant Southern air, as the the great Diapa­son of Saturn, (accounting the motion of this lower air to move harmoniously with the other seven Orbs.) So that in the whole Creation this growing is no other then the motion of the univer­sal [Page 32]spirit diversifyed by various Or­gans for several uses to one common end.

Every Tree. § 13. We must apprehend this garden called Paradise to be grea­ter then Geographers do allow it; or else we must (as Sir Walter Rawleigh doth with the beasts that went into the Ark) confine them to their origi­nal kinds, and then less ground may be affigned; or otherwise the whole Earth is but sufficient to contain the several Species: for if we admit of such exuberant Plants as some Au­thors mention, few trees might fill such a Garden: for the Jewish Targuns tells us, that the tree of life therein was 500 years journey high (the bredth they mention not,Cujus al­titudo erat Iteneris quingento­rum an­norum. Targ. Hier. but proportions therein must be also admitted.) And othersSir W. Rawleigh. speak of an Indian Figtree, which extends it self in some Coun­tries twenty or thirty miles: nor need we much doubt of the latter, in re­spect it is possible by art of several in­layings to make a Vine, or any other exuberant Plant to extend as far. But we may suppose here was the Se­minary of all beneficial plants; from whence the rest of the world had their [Page 33] Seeds, Cions, or Transplantations by winds or birds, or exhalations to con­vey their seeds into other Regions; and after by nature, art and industry, di­versifyed into Plants preternatural to their originals.

That is pleasant to the sight, § 14. or good for food. The Eye is the noblest part of man, being the Index of the Soul; and food is not onely a subject or sustenta­tion of our whole, but especially our Ocular part. The Eye is the first dis­coverer of want or supersluity of su­stenance; the eye is the first Judge of what is offensive or inoffensive to our appetite; for if the eye dislike, we re­fuse, if approves, we eat, though it proves our poyson; for the stomach oft surfets by the pleasure of the eye, when the appetite takes its dimension from what the eye fees, and not what the little bag of the stomach contains; for nature is content with a little, if that little be good. And since nature hath confined her self to certain re­ceptacles for food, it were against its rules to fill those with the unlimited appetites of the eye, unless we make our stomach to imitate our eyes, which are meerly satisfied with outward ob­jects; [Page 34]yet something must be to sup­port their spirits. And therefore the eye may be pleased with what it sees, the stomach satisfied not with what the eye sees or pleasant to the sight, but with that which is good for food or su­stentation.

The Tree of of Life in the midst of the Garden. § 15. I do not apprehend this tree to be planted in the midst of the garden, as the Center to a Circumference, but rather as vertue is said to be in the midst, or to consist in the mean or me­diocrity, or temperance. To shew that if Adam could have been so temperate as not to aspire to life till it were re­vealed to him what kind of life he should enjoy, or what Knowledge he should know, he had been happy; for we shall find by the subsequent, that God imparted life and knowledge to him by degrees. Or possibly in the midst may be taken for the chief, namely that among all the trees of the garden the tree of life was the chief; the garden being an Emblem of our bodies, our Heart being as is thought the seat of life in the midst of our body. But it may well be said also in the midst, because a tree of that stupendious [Page 35]height, as to be 500 years journey to the top as before mentioned, must needs be seen in all parts of the garden, the proper and true distance undiscernable to the eye.

And the tree of knowledge of good and evil. § 16. This was not placed in the midst as the tree of life, but as it were con­cealed till God thought fit to impart the knowledge of its vertues, or for­bid the use of it as he did: And though Adam did eat of it, yet it produced no such Science as was satisfactory; for by eating he knew good and evil so con­fusedly, that he and we know not how to distinguish them, many things being good or bad according to doubting In­teations or Commands. But I con­ceive as the vertue of one tree was to enliven, a Man to a sound Constituti­on, the other was a fruit of a marvel­lous, luxurious nature, and provoked Adam to the evil of Concupiscence and Carnal desires and actions; and so by eating knew both good and evil, that is, good whilst they knew not Carna­lity; evil in the knowing Carnalty: and Man hath the reward of his Libi­dinous disobedience, his body being so full of Diseases and Infirmities, that [Page 36]the means of propagation seems to be­get more Diseases then Children.

Cap. 2. Ver. 10.

And a River went out of Eden to water the garden, § 17. and from thence divided into four Chanels or Heads. Adam had seen the pleasure of the Heavens in their glorious ornaments, and the pleasures of the Earth in its various tapistry, whose odoriferous influence offorded also a most pleasing breath; he was now shewed the pleasures of the waters in Eden, where was a preg­nant River, or rather Fountain, which issued forth such abundance of delight­ful waters, that they divided into four Chanels, Heads or Rivers; the Earth gave way to their gentle motions, and as it were left the rich valleys for them to dance upon whilst it self still rose higher and higher into Hills and Mountains meerly to overlook their pleasures. And it is to be observed here that four is the next number re­peated after 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, as being the first Quadrat number of great use in Physical proportions; and possibly these three, Gold, Bdellium, and the Onyx, were only mention'd, & no more to make [Page 37]the four streams in the same Narrative seven, to shew the perfection of this Fountain. But some allude the four Chanels to the four parts of the Earth, Europe, Asia, Africa and America: But doubtless they were neither known nor so divided in Moses time, certainly not in Adams. Others allude them to the four Cardinal Vertues, but vertue was then so intire, that there needed no distinction; for pure vertue is not divisible; for he that is truely just, must be Stout, Temperate and Prudent; and he that is stout must be temperate, and prudent must have the other ver­tues. True vertue can admit of no separation from it self. The streams of vertue come out of the Spring Head in Eden; and though it may seem to divide, yet every stream is contiguous to the Fountain, and so is vertue. Now where this Eden may properly be placed, and from whence these waters flow and return, I shall afford a larger Discourse something different from former notions both in History and Philosophy, and yet I hope rational.

Cap. 2. Ver. 11.

The name of the first is Pison: § 18. that is it which compasseth Havilah, where there Gold. See my Introduction in my Book called Fodinae Regales.

Cap. 2. Ver. 12.

And the gold of that land is good: § 19. there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone. I remember not my Author who saith that there are three eminent stones in the nature of Minerals, which were known to Adam; the one is a stone that hath a vertue of transmutation of Metals, and possibly this may be meant by gold; the other hath a vertue to discover the quality of all Sensibles and Vegetables, and this may be meant by Bdellium; and the third of a more transcending nature, by im­parting to us all Angelical operations, and this may be meant by the Onyx: But whether or no there were or are such stones by nature or art, the fruit­less labours of others shall cease my further inquiry. I confess there are such admirable qualities in such as are of common use, that I can run very high in my Credit, that in respect of [Page 39]their solid temper they are more fit to retain such Excellent vertues: As in the Loadstone for Navigation and In­telligence, the Saphire against Poy­sons, the Vitriol against Corruptions; and above all the Bolonian stone which upon Calcining receives and the beams of the Sun, and constantly after affords a soft light like the Gloworm. But whatever this Bdel­lium was, which Sir Walter Rawleigh saith was a tree bearing Gum and Pearl, or what the Onyx or Beril were, the Text saith, the gold was good, and if ever since there hath been in Man such a Sacra fames auri, a sacred hunger of gold, I hope it is onely to get that gold which Pison embraced, which gold onely is said to be good; 'tis good whilst it is here, but whether it be good to be got or carried from thence is the question: but admit we have it, 'tis still good so as it be not adulterated by the bad use of it. In short, it is the Cordial to all humane Commerce, and therefore said to be near a River, as more fitted for tran­sportation; for as Adam was to la­bour at home, so upon the increase of his Posterity he was to traffick abroad. [Page 40]And it may be observable upon the number 3, that as Gold, Bdellium, and Onyx, were the first Jewels that nature offered to Adam before his fall; so Gold, Myrrh, and Frankincense were the first offers which were made to the second Adam; the first by a wise God, the other by Wise men.

Cap. 2. Ver. 13, 14.

And the name of the second River is Gi­hon: § 20. the same is it which compasseth the Land of Aethiopia. The name of the third River is Hiddekel: that is in which goeth towards the East of Assyria: And the fourth River is Euphrates. Though the Scriptures differ in the names of the Countrys where these four Rivers are, as the Land of Havi­lah, call'd also Evilat, and Indies, so Aethiopia call'd Chush, and what those Countrys contains; viz. Gold, which some adjutively call Bonum & Electum, and others Electrum (which is the ri­chest composition of Gold:) and for Bdellium, which some esteem a tree yielding sweet Gum, others render it Carbuncules, and Oniones, Pearls: and for the Onyx, others render Beril, Lapi­des Chrystali, or Chrystal, and Dia­monds. [Page 41]And though they differ as much in the Rivers Hiddekel (which some call Tygris and Diglath) and Eu­phrates (Perath;) yet these seeming dif­ferences are but noble invitations to the Study of Geography, Hydrography, and other Sciences, thereby to learn the Wonders of the Land and Deeps; insi­nuating also to us the richest Minerals, Plants, and Precious Stones; and that the natural progress of Creation may ea­sily conduct us to them, for the Foun­tains direct us to their Streams or Ri­vers, those Rivers to the Seas, the Sea carries us into and from other Creeks by Fluxes and Refluxes; and so the Art of Navigation is known and im­prov'd, and Merchandizing thereby en­encouraged: and it may not be amiss to think that those Names and Places of Territories, Rivers, Minerals, Plants, and Precious Jemms, and Stones, were purposely render'd ambiguous, that we may not be lazy in our Inquiries after them; for mistakes are many times clews to guide us into certainties; and therefore it may be inquir'd whither the four great Rivers (as Ortelius tells us) which come from the Artic Pole, and are the origin and source of all Seas [Page 42]and Waters, were not those four Ri­vers here intended; and whether the circle of those impassable Mountains about that Pole was not the defending Angel to the place of Paradice, the Sun keeping always an equal distance and heat from that Pole or Point; and though it be called the Frigid Zone, and the Antartick the Torrid, yet those are but as imaginary as the Circles.

This Text also teacheth us the East Point of the Compass; which though certain to every Countrey, yet every Countrey hath a different East from another according to its position, from the first appearance of the Sun upon their several Horizons: The next Point is West, Gen. 12.8. which is opposite to every East or Rising of the Sun to that Horizon where it appears. And Verse the 9th. the South is mention'd, which is the middle Point when the Sun is at its heighth between its appearance or Ascension, and disappearance or Descen­sion, upon any Horizon. Then in the 13th. Chapter verse 14. the North, which is the opposite Point to the South, is mentioned, and placed before the other three as the most principal and certain Point, viz. Northward, [Page 43]Southward, Eastward, Westward; that is, toward the North, South, East, West. For I question whether Moses then knew the exact Points (as now we do by the use of the Loadstone) which now are also taught us from the natural incli­nation of all things to that North point by Plants, other Stones, Birds, Fishes, Waters, &c. though possibly they might know the Load Star or North Star, yet I do not find that the Use of the Compass was known till about Christs Time, as I collect from the 27th. of the Acts verse 12. where the Southwest and Northwest are mentioned; by which time they had got two Points more of the thirty two, which Compass now is the Seamans Alphabet. However we have sufficient hints from this Text to traverse the world for the better mani­festation of our Creators glory, by the in­sight and benefit of his various and wonderful Operations and Products in the Elements.

Cap. 2. Verse 15.

And the Lord God took the man, § 21. and put him into the garden to dress it, and to keep it. God knew that Idleness corrupts the best natures, and therefore Man [Page 44]was imployed in that humble vocati­on;Vt coleret legem & observaret mandata ejus. Targ. Hier. for though God did at first create the kinds of all Plants, yet doubtless man had and yet hath an honest Al­lowance to procreate a Diversity of Species by Transplantations, Ingrast­ings, Inoculatings, and other various Cultivations, which were Incestuous in other Creatures; but as I conceive allowed from the words here to dress and keep it.

Nature is of her self rude in Exube­rancies, so that if Art do not polite it, even the Winds, Frosts, Birds, and Beasts do supply their Prunings. And 'tis not onely thus in Plants but other Creatures: the Eagle with her art breaks off her overgrown Beak, and renews her age; and Man himself would scarce be discerned from Beast, if Art and Care did not preserve his Excrescencies from defacing him. Nature is dull and idle; Art is the Soul of Nature; and Sedulity the Spirit or Mind that unites them. It is Motion that keeps all things Celestial and Sublunary in order; should that cease, 'tis thought the upper World would be in a flame, and our lower World a rude Chaos. That which we [Page 45]call Quiet is onely the result of a Lazy Mind, true Quiet is onely our Content­ment in all orderly and allowable mo­tions, to the improving and preserving Nature in her best form, whither con­sidered as to Individuals or Gene­rals.

Cap. 2. Verse 16, 17.

And the Lord God commanded the man saying, Of every tree, &c. thou mayest eat, § 22. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat. Besides the Law of Nature, whereby God had fixed to every Creature its order, as the Sun to rule the Day, and the Moon the Night, and Man next under God to have the Dominion of all Terrestrial Creatures, God did think fit to exhibit to Man a Law of Trial, or rather a Command of Reason; for what need­ed God to command whenas there was nothing could have power but from him to disobey? yet that Man might not think all things so tied to the order of Nature without variation, as that his Posterity, which were not to have such immediate conversation with God, might easily judge by the rule of Trial or Reason what was expedient [Page 46]for such a Creature to perform to a Creator. And therefore did God command this Law of Trial or Rea­son, for it was but reason that God should be obeyed (even in seeming Tri­vials) seeing Nature it self, which he hath constituted, invites us to the same. 'Tis true, sin came not till the Law: Now the Law is but the Memorials of Nature, which are that every thing should be kept in order, Servants obey Masters, Wives Husbands, Children Parents, Subjects their Superior Ma­gistrates; (accoeding to several or­ders:) and for want of which, Rebel­lions in States, Commotions in Fami­lies, do arise. God did know Man would disobey, and God permitted him to disobey, that by Adams example all his Posterity might see the effect of Disobedience to the Law of Reason; for it was most rational and just, that Man should obey whatever God impo­sed, especially seeing God had given him such a latitude, and so small a li­mitation.

And though we may think this Law of Reason too strictly imposed upon us, yet upon due inquiry we had no other way left us in our Creation to [Page 47]express our gratitude, but by this Law of Trial or Reason: for though we know not exactly what God hath im­powered us to do or not do, what to act, or what to forbear; yet now by the rules of Reason we may judge what things are not fit to be done, and as much as in us lieth retire our Wills, Desires, or Acts from them. As for example, Adam might thus have dis­coursed: I may eat of all Fruits except one or two; I have sufficient by this freedom to please my tast and sight; why should I be so ambitious by eating of the Tree of Life to live another life, whereas that wherein I live enjoys so many varieties? Why should I be so curious to know more by eating of the Tree of Knowledge, whenas already I know so much as God thinks fit to im­part, and I find that he is still instructing me? And thus may every man judge by the Law of Reason whether he dis­obeys God or no. The first examina­tion is from the rules of Nature in the point of Obedience, and therefore 'tis said, that Obedieuce is better then sacrifice: for those Rules which we have of Mo­rality or Christianity are but the Pro­duct of the Rules of Nature formed in­to [Page 48]rational Doctrines. I do not here include the Rules of Faith, and yet these are Rules of Trial and Reason; for what can be a safer Trial then to believe because he commands? and then in reason how safe is it to believe that which may be hazardous to our Souls if we do not believe? And even here do we follow the Dictates of Na­ture, rather in obeying what is said to be his command, then in disobeying in those things wherein we have not his command; but especially in such things wherein both in Nature and Reason we find Natural, Rational, and Christian Injunctions. So that Gods command (how mean soever the com­mand may seem) was but to shew, that besides the Law of Nature he did ex­hibit unto us a Law of Reason; and unless we return to his commands as well a rational subjection as a natural, we submit as Irrational Creatures, but not as Men: and though possibly we cannot do otherwise then what is de­creed, yet to will, to desire, to endea­vour the doing what we are command­ed to do, or prohibited from doing, can­not but prove an acceptable sacrifice.

Cap. 2. Verse 17.

For in the day thou catest thereof. § 23. I cannot but admire that the God of U­nion should ordain Disunions, seem­ing Sympathies and Antipathies, Even­ing and Morning, Day and Night, Light and Darkness, Life and Death, Good and Evil: But when I consider, that the Morning could not be known but by the terminating it with the Even, or the Day but by terminating it with Night, or the Light but by terminating it with Darkness, or Life but by terminating it by Death, or Good but by terminating it with Evil; I find that these terminations were a­greeable to our knowledge: for the several appellations of Light had been infinite, and thereby not fitted for a manifestation to us; and we must in their knowledge have been made coe­qual with God in glory and eternity, if they had not been thus manifested. But these appellations of Darkness were the Foils to set off the splendor of the Creation, and Evil was no other then as the evening to the morn, or as night to the day, or as darkness to the light; nor was death any other then [Page 50]the smooth transition to immortality, without fear, pain, or trouble, or onely a sudden rapture or exstacy in the in­effable change from terrestrial con­tentments to supercelestial beatitudes. But from the breach of this command ariseth the evil of evils, death of death, evening, night, and darkness. It is wonderful that Adam should so much erre in the first trial which God made upon his obedience, and it is as won­derful that God did command Adam to forbear that which was the best piece of Mankind, the Knowledge of good, and the termination of it; which was all the evil which then could be called evil: But Man was forbidden it doubtless that he might not conceit within himself that he had attained Knowledge from the virtue or nature of that Plant, but from the immediate gift and instruction of God; for cer­tainly God did inform him of the whole system of the Creation, (by what we may collect by the foregoing and fol­lowing verses) which was a sufficient Knowledge; so that the Knowledge he had by this Tree was onely a Know­ledge of Intoxication, and Knowledge of the termination of Life, and a con­fused [Page 51]Knowledge of Distinction be­tween good and evil, (which Know­ledges were forbidden;) his Know­ledge before being a complete Know­ledge consisting of a perpetual blessed­ness: for his Knowledge thereof was onely this, that goodness did now ter­minate by his disobedience, and that life should have a period or terminati­on, which was a death; for by this Knowledge he got a Critical Know­ledge, as we find by Eves Dispute, that Disobedience was the extreme of O­bedience, Death the extreme of Life; whereas whilest he was under Gods teaching and instruction, he knew no­thing but a quiet obedience, and an in­nocent life, free from thoughts of dis­order, or fear of what should happen; but now he knew the termination of that life, and that sentence, In the day thou catest thereof thou shalt surely die.

Thou shalt surely die. § 24. If it be true what some Divines affirm, that Adam continued but six hours in Paradice, three before the eating the Fruit, and three after; I should wonder how A­dam should be made sensible of death, seeing before his eating he was in a [Page 52]perfect and immortal condition; for a Blind man cannot understand a Co­lour, nor he that had never seen the se­paration of Soul and Body know the effects of it; but certainly God did ei­ther shew him the Horary Plant, (or other Creatures of the like nature) that hath its birth, flourish, and close, in an hour, and is never seen after; or else taught him the way of Sacrificing Beasts, and by their expiration to know his own, in case he disobeyed this com­mand; or else the nature of the Death was represented unto him, not as an immediate separation of the Soul and Body, (for we find he lived many hun­dred years after) but his death, feretold here was a certainty of a future dy­ing.

Cap. 2. Verse 18.

And the Lord God. § 25. God is seven times repeated in the first Chapter, and the eighth time in the 26th. verse; but in the second Chapter verse 7. where the Narrative of Mans Creati­on is more fully described, it is exprest that not God alone, but the Lord God said. And so here concerning Wo­man, the words Lord God are also used [Page 53]to testifie, that in the Creation and Making of both of them God did as­sume another Title to himself then the single word God; God seeming to be a name relating to all his Creatures, but Lord more peculiarly to Man and Wo­man, as before is hinted concerning Man onely.

Said. § 26. This word said is repeated seven times in the first Chapter, viz. verse 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, and 24. Now where it is thus expressed that God said, Let there be, we must apprehend rather as an act, then a discourse or de­liberation; for though we discuss be­fore we act, proceeding from the im­perfection of our Knowledge, and want of power to act (things being known to us onely in the abstract) and when we do know them, we are uncertain of our Abilities to put them in action; yet God knows all things in the concrete, and his perfect Wisdom and Power re­quires no discourse or deliberation: so that it must be understood in the seven other places, that God said and did at one and the same instant; but in the eighth and ninth places the word said is not to be understood as a fiat onely, but as a word of deliberation rather [Page 54]then action, which is inferred from the words Lord God, and Let us, and I will: for in all the entrances of the other parts of Creation it is said onely Let there be; but in the 7th. and 18th. ver­ses (being the eighth and ninth time) the Lord God said, Let us make, and I will make.

It is not good for man to be alone. § 27. Man is a noble and sociable creature; a se­cluse and monastick temper neither be­comes him, nor was safe in the primi­tive and most eminent time of Adam, much less in ours: for it oft produceth such prodigious Copulations, or con­tranatural Restrictions, as Nature is as much injur'd in the one as in the other; therefore to be avoided as be­ing not good for Adam nor his Posteri­ty. And of all Societies surely that is most complacent that consists of su­table Tempers.

Yet some of the Fathers hold, that Man is never alone when he is alone; Angels or Spirits that attend his most private meditations are such contenting Companions, that though he conver­seth with no other body, yet his Mind hath the fruition of an ineffable Socie­ty: so that in respect of the Mind it is [Page 55]good to be alone, but in respect of the Body it is not good to be alone. And therefore to prevent that solitariness or other beastial society, God did make the Woman to be the Wife or Consort to Man. And it is not good for either to be separate, as to leave the other to be alone; he or she that doth it is guil­ty of the breach of that originally in­stituted good thus provided for them by a Conjunction: for when it is said, They shall be as one, that is, of one socie­ty; he is not to be alone, nor she alone, but both to make an unseparable socie­ty, so as to leave all other Relations or Interests to be two, all one, or two alone, and yet not alone so long as they two concenter in an happy and affecti­onate Unity.

I will make an help meet for him. § 28. That is, I will make him into such a posture or condition, that a meet help shall be extracted from him, and so to be to him as his Companion.

Here I must observe, that in all the Works of Creation the words Let there be, and Let us, seem to be results of plu­rality, and may relate to the Trinity or Angels, or some subordinate Instru­ments; but in making Woman God [Page 56]speaks it in the Singular Number, I will make; to shew, that God did more appropriate to himself the making of Woman then any Creature of the whole Creation; for she cannot but be apprehended the most singular and unexpressible piece: for when Adam had seen the Light, Firmament, Wa­ters, Earth, with all their Ornaments, and all the varieties of Fowl and Beasts, and could discourse with them in their own Dialects, (and doubtless some of them might have afforded a satisfacto­ry contentment in a Conversation;) yet (I say) none of those glorious Crea­tures (either Celestial or Terrestrial) were thought fit Helps for him: and therefore the Lord God said, (it must be so implied) I will make a more excel­lent piece then all my former pieces, a Woman; which shall be a more meet Help for Man then all those glorious things which I have created: and God seems to appropriate the Womans making more peculiarly to himself; for fecit (he made) is applied to the uni­versality of all Creatures; faciamus (let us make) applied to Man; but faci­am (I will make) applied onely to Wo­man. I shall adde this, that the pro­ductive [Page 57]Mass of all Creatures was made out of nothing, and Man in his Elementary Parts was made out of that Mass which was made out of no­thing, and Woman was made out of him, who was made out of them, that were made out of nothing: so that Ex nihilo nil fit; she, and we, and all Crea­tures in their most beauteous appear­ances, are still but appearances, mere nothings; and yet nothing is, nothing ought to be, more helpful to Man then Woman; for whilest that nothing is something, she is to be a meet Help,Faciamus ei mulie­rem, ut sit sustentacu­lum in ad­versa ejus. Targ. Hier. a Help meet, for him for whom she is made, & to whom she is conjoyned, and that is her duty; and to this end woman was made, to be a Help meet for him, (adjutorium) an helper, a delight and ease to Man, and that in the most meet, apt, fit, and agreeable manner. The Arabick adde to adjutorium (e regione ejus) that is, an Help, but still such an Help as should keep within the bounds, limits, or region of Mans government: and that certainly was the intent of Gods making of her. And if she proves otherwise, methinks I hear God say, I will make her to be a meet Help for Man; if she will not, she shall know [Page 58]more sorrow then Eve. And certain­ly the Man is to take care that he lays no servile (or such other) Impositions upon her, then she is able to bear: she is to be a meet Help, to go hand in hand in helping and supporting their mutual Interests. This is all the dif­ference I can observe; an help does imply that one is to be assisted, so that it is his part to give the first motion to all affairs, and she is to help without dispute, and not to run away or sepa­rate from the burthen.

Cap. 2. Verse 19, 20.

And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, § 29. and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto A­dam, to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living crea­ture, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattel, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field. Man being made of a cleer in­tellect and insight into all Creatures un­der his subjection, God as a perfect Workman having made so exquisite an engine to put in motion those vari­ous parts of Creation, tried how those excellencies with which he had en­dowed [Page 59]him would operate; for the mo­del or framing of any piece to such an end as it was designed, shews onely its outside and not its vertue, till it doth operate to that end. And certainly as Adam was so qualified in his Intellects, so are we in some proportion; for could we but follow old Bias his Rule of Nosce teipsum, Know thy self, we should find by Anatomy the perfect composure of all mechanick engines: For instance, by the circulation of the bloud (more clearly discovered to us by Dr. Harvey then in former ancient Authors) which circulation must not be understood as moving by the rule and just proportion of a circle, but rather by retrogressions; for very few are circular, but rather perpendicular oblique, &c. and those who will busie their brains about a perpetual motion, may sooner obtain it for sixty or eighty years from perpendicular and oblique motions of our bloud for so ma­ny years, then by any circular motion to perpetuity. And if I have time to di­gest my notions into practical rules, I doubt not but to make as evident a System of Philosophy as Aristotle, (who makes the Sun go round, and the Earth stand still;) or Copernicus (who makes [Page 60]the Sun stand still, and the Earth turn round;) and therein shew that the cause of Fluxes and Refluxes of the Sea, and the Circular motions of the Planets, are mostly deceptions, and those caus'd from perpendicular and oblique impressions for­cing their vertiginations. Also by this inquiry into our selves we may learn the use of the Almbecks, and all sorts of distillations, and indeed all the Seven Liberal Sciences, and Seven Mechanick Arts. And those who are so large in their Constitutions, as to drive at a more universal knowledge of Creatures, may by a due inspection into them gain the whole Body of Philosophy; which doubtless were sooner obtained if we could be informed of the true primitive Names of all Creatures, and the mystical Interpretations of theose Names; which some say Selomon attained to as far as concerned Plants, and thereby under­stood the nature of them even from the Cedar to the Hysop; which Book of his is mentioned in the Holy Writ, but is either utterly lost or conceal'd, (which is equal to us) and is the great error of Mankind in not communicating what we know; for by wanting these impartments we make most things dia­bolical [Page 61]which are onely Secrets of Na­ture unrevealed: and thus we wilfully banish our selves out of the Paradice of Knowledge, either by not seeing, try­ing, or inquiring into the nature of our selves or other Creatures, or not freely imparting what we do know, or foolish­ly condemning or censuring the kind and laborious impartments of others. And hereupon even some of the pious Fa­thers of our Church were condemned as Hereticks for asserting the Antipodes, which no Geographers now dispute: and hence the Loadstone, and other marvel­ous effects of the natures of other pie­ces of Creation, were at first esteemed Witchery, which now are safely allow­ed: and hence came the loss of those Impartments, of which Pancirollus hath writ a Book called De rebus perdi­tis.

Some are of opinion, that if the O­riginal names of those Creatures were known, we also should know their pri­mitive and intrinsick natures; which Adam did know when he first fix'd their distinct and different names. And herein did God as it were entertain A­dam, and enrich his Knowledge by all the ways and progresses of the Creati­on, [Page 62]teaching him the nature and con­stitution of all things: so that there was no need of any addition but what God himsest imparted; the other (as I said) was but Intoxicated Knowledge, or a Fruit that would rather blind his Knowledge then improve it. And yet for all these impartments and society, God did not think Beasts fitting Com­panions for Man, for he was to have the dominion over them, and therefore not fit to be equal or meet Helpers to him: so that (as it were upon further cons­deration) God saith again, But as for A­dam there was not found an Help meet for him. So then in order to such an Helper:

Cap. 2. Verse 21.

And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, § 30. and he slept. Here seems to be a supernatural and a natural sleep; the supernatural (which Adam fell into being caused by God for the end which was design'd, the producing of Eve;) the natural sleep, and he slept; sleep being as adequate to nature as night to day, or darkness to light. In our natural we have Dreams, in our supernatural Revelations; and every [Page 63]such Revelation (when true) is an Eve, or an Helper either in our Devotions or Actions. But all the difficulty is to judge them; and certainly they ought to be as evident and manifest to us, as Eve was to Adam after he awa­ked: for Phancy does so deceive men, that we take those representations which we have in our sleep to be real, which are but imaginary, and the re­creations which Nature affords us du­ring the recess of our Spirits to be Di­vine Revelations, which in truth are nothing but Chymera's. I cannot say but God may impart such truths to us; but then they will be always attended with some real and warrantable subse­quences: But here we find tht is les­sened Adams Perfection, after a nap he lost a Rib, to shew that sleep in our best Constitution takes something from us in the abbreviation of our Lives.

And he took out one of his ribs, and cle­sed up the flesh instead thereof. The cu­riosity of Anatomists concerning our Ribs is not to be a rule to our belief in the Text; or whether we should dispute of the truth from the number of those which remain, for it is impossible to know what the Original of the number [Page 64]of Ribs were.Deus acce­pit unam ex costis ejus, illa est costa de­cima ter­tia lateris dextri. Targ. Hier. Gallen affirms, that Man hath now but eleven, but accord­ing to the Jewish Targum Adam had thirteen; and then the odd Rib being taken out, twelve remain: now Eve being made like to him, she had then twelve Ribs also, equal in number to those were left to him; but accounting her whole self one Rib, she had thir­teen. But to pass this; the more ge­neral Anatomists hold that Man hath twelve Ribs, whereof five are called true or perfect Ribs, because they are Circular; seven bastard or imperfect Ribs, because they want that proporti­on. Now there may be made a que­stion, Whether Eve were made of one of those which were perfect and circu­lar, or those which were imperfect; for had he not parted with some of his perfection, he could not so easily have fallen into error. On the other fide, had she been partaker of his perfecti­on, she would not so easily have been tempted; or rather by dividing their perfection, both of them became sub­ject to imperfection.

Cap. 2. verse 22.

And of the Rib, § 32. which the Lord God had taken from Man, made he a Woman. The Latines use the word aedificavit, or built, to shew that she was to be an house, or mansion place; but the English transla­tors use the word made. And it is here observable, that she was not said to be created as Man, in the Image of God, or after his likeness, nor for­med, nor framed; but Made, a word of a lesser signification, relating to the temperament of her body only. Nor was she made of the dust or purer part of the Earth, but of a Bone, which is the hardest, dryest, coldest, and most terrestrial part of Man, according to Physicks. Nor had she the Breath of Life breathed into her Nostrills, but that Life Eve had went with the Bone. Nor is it said she became a Liv­ing soul, her soul being as it were the same, or a Ray of his: the truth is, she was abstracted either out of a so­poriferous temper, which is all Phan­cy, or from some suparnatural efflu­vium; or that she was like him in his Creation, unlike after the separati­on. But this may be observed, that [Page 66]when God made Eve he took a Rib from Adam, and of it made Woman; so that he could not but fall, being les­sened in the perfection of his Creati­on. Now when Jesus was born of a Virgin, God took that part from her which the woman had before from Adam, so he became perfect; as by this, God did in a manner bring forth such a substantial revelation from A­dam's sleep, that it seemed to be a con­tinued divine Apparition. But (as I said) that there are two sorts of sleep, so there are two sorts of Women, the one Snpernatural and most civinely qualified, the other meer Natural, Fantastical, and Quelque chose: the first a revealed blessing from God, the other only disturbers of the mind, and distraction to mans quiet sleep and re­posement.

But she was made of a Rib; from whence it happens that mans, heart which was surrounded all with Bones, now lyes open; so that all its Loves and desires had no fence against her; for we see even Adam, when God brought her to him, so soon as he saw her was immediately transported: and Adam [Page 67]said with a divine implicite asseverati­on,Hac tempo­re non rar­sus creabi­tur mulier ex viro. Targ. Hier This glorious piece which thou hast brought to me is Bone of my bone, and Flesh of my flesh. As if he should have added, this is she that (like my Bones) is to be my helper, and supporter to all my regular motions; she that (like my bones) ought to give stability, rectitude, and form to all my actions; This is she that (like my flesh) is to be the Pillow of my Body; this is she which is to be as a Wall or Safeguard to all my Vital functions; this is she that according to the property of Flesh, is to allay the rage of all my natural heates. Now it is here to be observed, that God brought all Beasts to Adam, who only gave Names to them, but no Instructions, they being uncapable of reason; but when God brought the Woman to Adam, Adam began first with instruction, and taught her her duty towards him, which was in short, that Look of what ever use the bone is within us, or the Flesh without us, she is to act these parts for mans pre­servation.

And brought her unto the man. § 33. From hence probably came the Jewish and Roman Customs, to lead the Spouse [Page 68]between two to the Nuptialls: and the Latins still continue the phrase of duce­re uxorem, which we call Marrying, and is a kind of tacit compulsion on her part, more to represent her mo­desty towards that ceremony, then any disinclination of Nature in operating to a mutual contact, there being a cer­tain Sympathy lodgd in the progresses of propagation, which tends to coi­tion, which future, times have made more ceremonial, restrictive, or coer­cive.

Cap. 2. Ver 23.

And Adam said, § 34. this is now Bone of my Bone, and Flesh of my flesh. Anatomists reckon 302 Bones in Mans body; so that this Rib it seems was the bone of all these bones, or the spring of all the rest; and they are the most inflexible of all the parts of the body; and there­fore to assist that temper he adds, that she was also flesh of his flesh (though there is no mention of any flesh ta­ken from him.) Now the Flesh is the most soft and tender part, consist­ing of a pleasing ruddy colour, to shew that she should not only be steady in her affections, but tender, com­passionate, [Page 69]gentle, and amiable in all her proceedings towards him.

And when he had thus declard her Constitution, he gave her a name, and said,

She shall be called Woman because she came out of Man. § 35. She was not named like to the beasts,Hanc deus vult voca­re viragi­nem quia ex viro de­sumpta est̄. Targ. Hier who had names giv­en them without any reason given for imposing their names upon them; but here is a reason given, i. e. she shall be called Woman, saith he, Because she came out of man: And this was to teach her her original, and also how she should demeane her self towards him. It shews Mans superiority to the Wo­man; because that which is derived cannot be equall to that from which it was derived: it shews also her useful­ness by obedience; and this is not an humane, (as some Woman would have it) but a meer Natural, or ra­ther a divine imposition upon the sex; for the Bone cannot but move when it is incited, nor the Flesh cannot but expose it self to outward accidents; so those pieces of natural Kindnesses which we call Obedience, (and 'tis pitty any Woman should stumble at the word) are but the Instruments of [Page 70]Nature, & would prove easy and natu­ral if it were not for a wilful resistance which destroys the Fabrick, Harmony, & Cooperation of the Union between Man and Woman, as is between the whole Man and his Flesh and Bones. From which disunion the English Pro­verb comes, that Woman is a Woe to Man; but the Latine conceit is more kind, and makes Mulier quasi Mollior, a more soft, tender, and delicate Crea­ture then Man; and the Hebrew Eva, fignifying Viva or Vivens, being as it were the life or living part of Man, that is, when they execute the Duty which belongs to the preservation of Man, and when they do thus perform their function.

Cap. 2. Ver 24.

Therefore (or for that cause) a Man shall leave his Father and Mother, § 36. and cleave to his Wife, and they two shall be one Flesh. This seems to be spoken in an exstacy upon Adams beholding of her Excellencies;S [...]perabi­tur ex do­mo ipsius cubilis pa­tris sui & matris suae. Targ Hier for Adam had no o­ther Father but God, nor no other Mother but Earth, both of which he forsook when he was tempted by her to Eat the Fruit which God his Father [Page 71]had forbidden to eat, and neglected his Mother Earth, which he should have been dressing and keeping, when he spent his time in desputing the question with her and the Serpent. But this was intended rather for a Law to them that were to succeed him, for neither he nor we are to make our Kindness to a Wife superintendent to the Commands of God: we owe a Na­tive duty to one, Conjunctive duty to the other. For though 'tis said the man and his Wife shall be one Flesh, yet the Father, Mother, and Child are one flesh also. The mystery that is to be enquired is, which hath the greater Unity of Flesh, the Parent and Child, or the Man and Wife; the Child is but the effect of the Woman, the subject of propagation, and when the effect is effected, the cause, Liga­ment, and vertue of producing the effect, is as it were lost and Consum­mated in the substantialls of the effect; but the Husband and Wife, so long as the Union Continues, have constant desires to produce the effects of their desires; and desires, so long as they are in any ability to effect, are far more strong and fervent, then [Page 72]those are which have received the end or satisfaction to their desire. So that upon the continuance of this Love or desire they may justly be said to have a more proper conjunction and uni­ty, of Flesh then Parents and Chil­dren, and God and Nature ties them to a more secret affection then can be had to Father and Mother. And that which may fitly be added is, that man is not to forsake his Wise with his af­fections, nor his Parents which his o­bedience; and this Command to Man belongs to the Wowan also; for we may see a sad example not onely in A­dam but Eve, in forsaking God and his precepts; for although the man was only forbidden to eat of the Fruit, yet they two being one, the Command to one was the Law to both; nor did the Ser­pent so much as tempt her with this Argument. And this may be added, that the Latin calls Flesh Carv, and Chara (Deer) in the Adjective; and Charitas, which is a relative word to them both, shews that this deareness or fleshly affection between Man and Wife ought to consist of perfect Love and Charity towards each other.

Cap. 2. verse 25.

And they were both Naked, § 37. and were not ashamed. Shame (as I conceive) pro­ceeds either from Pride or sense of out­ward or inward imperfections: Now they had not the Armor of the Rheno­ceros, nor the Furrs of the Ermine, or Wool of the tender Lambe, or the va­riety of Plumes which adorn the Fowls of the Aire: But they had a perfect reason to continue naked or covered ac­cording to the nature of situation, from which the other could not depart were they never so burthensome, when ere they changed their Climates.

Adam well knowing that those out­ward coverings were but the Excre­ments of their tempers, so that Adam and Eve could not be ashamed in the want of these superfluities, nor could they be guilty of imperfections being perfectly formed; their minde could represent nothing to them but harmless thoughts, their shape nothing but exact proportions, the motion of their Blood was according to the Course of nature, no obstructions from the spleen, or diffidence of their mutual goodness, to raise or alter the Current of nature [Page 76](to a blush, or dejection of their eyes, filled onely with the Beames of Inno­cency and constancy to God and them­selves.) A Condition of life apt to meet with envious and subtil disturbers of so happy a Calme and quiet: they were united in perfect Innocency, and being made Male and Female, Moses renders them to us in the most eminent expression,Et erunt ambo ipst Japienties. Targ. Hier as in the first Chapter, to which I return for the Reasons in the Proem.

Cap. 1. Vese 27.

So God created Man. § 38. That is, after he was made,sed non mo­rari fue­runt in gloria. Targ Hier framed, and formed out of nothing, he was said to be Created, the matter or form, or both, of which he was made, being peculiar to Man, or more eminent in him then in any other Creature: for the word Created is mentioned but to 3 opera­tions; 1st. to the Heavens and the Earth, next to the Whale, and 3ly. to Man; and they that would advance the invocation of the Trintiy in the Consultative part of Mans Creation from the words Let us in the 7. Verse, may be assisted from this consummative Verse (where the word Created is three [Page 77]times repeated, viz. so God Created Man in his own Image, (referring to the first person;) 2ly. In the Image of God Created he him, (referring to the second Person;) 3ly. Male and Female Created he them, (referring to the Holy Ghost.)

In his own Image. § 39. After his like­ness, as in the 26. verse, being here left out; which shews that it inten­ded one and the same thing. Now what this Image or Likeness is I may borrow from Plato, who saith, that there was a certain Idea, platform, or inward representation of all things in God before they were; according to which the matter being created, the formes by which things were distin­guished were also made: so that this Image and Likeness signifies no other­wise, then that Man should be made like to that Idea or imagination which God designed to that Creature; or as I conceive that this World (as Spagne­tus, in his Enchiridion Physicae) is no­thing but God manifested, and so saw himself as in a Glass; & Man the little World is his Image or Likness in the Epitome of that great Image or mani­festation of God, Tanquam in minori spe­culo; but to conceit any Figuratine or [Page 78]Lineamentive Image of God St. Agu­stine saith, Let him be cursed that referreth the Deity of God to the Lineaments of mans Body; and Philo saith, That God is not partaker of humane formes, nor can humane bodies be partakers of the form divine: but as Sir Walter Rawliegh saith from some other, that if any thing comes neer the similitude of God, it is more the virtue that is in Man then the figure. Right Rea­son is the Image of God, and Man hath in his mind a certain similitude of God; and this is safe to believe, safe to continue in by a vertuons & good life. But according to the Context of the words, So God created Man in his Image, may be considered that he was Created according to his Geometrical Image in all things consisting of number, weight, and measure. In his Image, even of the dust, being within the Image of the representative World: In his Image, participating of the universal breath and peculiar soul: In his Image, by par­ticipating of his general manifestation and enjoyment of all Creatures: In his Image, by a social and Communica­tive nature: In his Image, by a peculi­ar Love to his Elect: And in his Image, by multiplication and dominion: So [Page 79]that God is Man in great, and Man is God in Little.

Male and Female Created he them. § 40. Some do from hence conceit: that they were Created Hermaphrodites; but whoever consults rightly with Physicks will find almost an impossibility in that Conceit, for the intent of Male and Female was propagation, which would rather be hindred then advan­ced by such improbable Copulation, where the Agent and Patient must at one time naturally have a mutal ope­ration or desire with each other; and by this preternatural form which are in some, they would make a perfecti­on of the imperfection, or rather exu­burancy, which happens to others of Humane race. So that by Male and Female is to be understood, that Man was made the Male, or Masculine, or Agent; Woman, or the Wife, the Feminine, or the Patient: And though it is said that God created them Male and Femane, yet Grammarians know, that where an Adjective hath relation to two Substantives (apt for life) of the singular number, and different gen­ders, the Adjective shall be of the plural, and of the gender of the most [Page 80]principal word; so it is said, Creavit eos, not eas; they were not both Cre­ated Males and Females, but man was Created male, and Woman the femal, and so created he then. And here is to be observed, that the word Created is applied to the Woman, though in the whole order of her pro­duction it is only said that she was made; which shews, that when she was united, and made one with man as man and wife, she was adopted into that title of Creation, and that not single but united; for Creating is a Masculine word, making or Produ­ction femine: And God did think fit to Crown the Conjugal union of Man and Wife with the Title of Creation, when as she being not joyned must be content without that Title; yet this may be said for her, that Man by Cre­ation was made out of nothing, or at most out of the dust, but she was made out of somthing, or Dust enlive­ned.

The Jews in one of their Targums are most exact, who say, that God made Man in his Image, according to the simi­litude of God Created he him, with 248. members, and 365 Nerves, and covered [Page 81]him over with a Skin, and filled it with Flesh and Blood, Male and Female crea­ted he them; in noble form, & distinct sexes, of whose excellency and geome­trical proportions I have writ in the preceding Chapters; but being crea­ted, made, framed, formed, whether in that manner which I have menti­oned, I shall not dispute.

Cap. 1. Verse 28.

And God blessed them and said, § 41. Be fruitful and multiply. I have observed that the word Created is used onely in the universal Creation in the works of the 5. days, and in the 6th. day in the Creation of Man; so here I observe, that this Benediction is onely used in this place, & in the 5th. daies work, and in no other parts of the seven daies, but only in the seaventh day, where 'tis said, God blessed & sanctified it. The reason of this is, that all the works of the other days either produced no sutable species, as the Sun, Stars, &c. or if they did, yet it was by a natural production, without any Local action or copulati­on, as Trees, Herbs, &c. but Fish, Foul, and Man have Local and active motions of production, one only natu­ral, [Page 82]the other natural and voluntary. Now to the seventh day or Sabbath there is a benediction or sanctification, but not the addition of fructification or multiplication for rest; or the Sab­bath doth only quiet and preserve the Creation, but Action continues it with multitudes of species.

However this was the first Joynt Commission which was given to man and wife, and if we may believe the Jews, Adam and Eve had in their chaste Wedlock 30. Sons and 30. Daughters; whereas extravagant tem­pers seldom enjoy such a multiplying Condition: and we see that in those countries, where Laws of Wedlock are sacredly observed, the people are more numerous then in other Countries where there is a greater Liberty; for the Wombe is quickly vitiated, by Commixtures, and either destroyed by heat, or over cooled by diversities.

And replenish the Earth, § 42. and subdue it. In the Syriack it is, Fill the Earth instead of replenish; and in the Arabick, Possess it instead of Subdue it; which are bet­ter then the other, for replenish signi­fies a filling of that which was once full and now empty, and subduing that [Page 83]which was once conquered and rebeld again, which here could not be, if we believe that there was no Man till Adam, or Cultivations till he practis­ed them; or else it must be thus under­stood, that besides the productions of nature (I mean as to terrestrial things) there are productions of Art; the pro­ductions of nature are those properly which were at first created, the pro­ductions of Art are those with which mans Industery (under the title of till­ing the Earth) Adam did, and man since doth, replenish the Earth; as by Sow­ing Seed and Planting Trees he caused Herbs and Trees to grow, which is a replenishment to the first Creation; and by plowing, digging, dressing, &c. of grounds, he may be said to subdue the Earth, or conquer those extra­vangancies of nature, which other­wise without mans assistance would de­stroy those Vegetables which are most profitable for mans use; and thus he re­plenishes and subdues it, or thus fills & possesseth the earth. And this was the second joynt Commission to Adam and Eve, wherein both were enjoyned from Idleness; the Man was not to work a­lone, nor the Woman alone, but he to [Page 84]set on the work, and she to help and assist him in prosecution of it.

The third clause of their Commissi­on was, to

Have dominion over the Fish of the Sea, § 43. and over the Fowls of the Air, and over every Living thing that creepeth or moveth upon the face of the Earth. The word Dominion signifies the chief authority or power of ruling or taming, all which man hath over all other creatures; God did not give them a natural power to resist, but man either by his superi­our reason, ingenuity, or strength per­swades or sorceth them to a subjection. When they endeavour to violate this original supremacy given to Man, they may for a time fly, run, swim, or creep from his Commands; but he hath a Stand for the Eagle, a Toyl for the Lyon, a Hook for the Fish, and a Spade for the Mole: or when he desires to make his Soveraignty a pleasure, he sends the Hawk to fetch the Hern and the Partridge, the Hound to bring the Woolf, the Hart, and the Hare; the Cormorant and the Otter to fetch the Fish, and the Ferret the Coney; so that they are not only submissive to his will, but obey all his subordinate [Page 85]commands. I conceive at this time the domination did not extend, that they should be food for man: This, ex­travagant appetites brought into use; and when they begun to make Gods of men, they offered these creatures to their bellies God, which were designed for sacrifices to the only true God and Creator.

And it is observable, that the Earth, and all that moveth in the Sea, Air, and Earth, were given to mans domi­nion; but not the Sea, nor the Air, nor so much as mention of Fire. One Element is sufficient for us, the other three have a dominion over us, yet subordinate to Gods dispose; and there­fore why should we too much wade in their Curiosities, or be troubled like A­ristotle at our ignorance of them, seeing they are not within our Commission.

The fourth Joynt Commiffion was for their sustenance, and for that,

Cap. 1. Ver. 29.

God said, § 44. Behold I have given you every Herb bearing Seed, and every Tree bear­ing Fruit; to you it shall be for meat. Herbs and its seed, trees and their fruit, in which are Comprehended all Roots, [Page 86]afford so great varieties to please the Pallat and fill the Appetite, that we need not seek for any other natriment; especially under those Climats where their vertues are more excellent. And when at first that food was assigned to our Forefathers, it was sufficient, and I conceive there was no edible use made of living Creatures, but only for sacrifices, till after Noah came out of the Ark; and I am apt to think that God was angry with Cain (not as Jose­phus saith; for offering things extract­ed from the ground) but for offering the fruit of the ground to God, which God himself had clearly disposed off to man, having appropriated beasts to be sacrifices to himself, as may be col­lected by Abels offering of the First­lings; which was therefore so accept­able, because God reserved them for himself; but Cains was not accepted, because they were given to man: so it was a mere breach of Gods disposure. We are not to cross Gods order; those things which he seperates to himself ought to be devoted to him; those things which he allows us, are not so fit for him: we are neither to rob Peter that we may be enabled to pay Paul, [Page 87]nor to satisfy God with the fruits of our worldly imployments, and omit the offering of those oblations which are more peculiar to himself.

But whether this was Cains offence or not I shall not dispute with Josephus: I do not find that mans dominion did, extend to the eating of Flesh till after Noah went out of the Ark, and then it was permitted: but certainly if we could return to our Primitive diet, that life we should live by that food would be more full of health and vigour. But I will say no more to this Point, lest I offend the Chemical Doctors; onely that man and beast did participate of one food, Mans with a pleasurabe in­dustry (for so it was doubtless before the fall) where 'tis said, God put man into the garden to dress it and to keep it; but beasts with ease only, without in­dustry. And therein man had the ad­vantage; for what food man produced by his industry, satisfyed his know­ledge equal to his appetite; & certainly the knowledge of the nature of pro­ductions, and then the use of them to please all the senfes with their nutri­ture & medicine, was a gift as magni­ficent as reason is beyond insenfibility.


The Text of the second Part.

Cap. 1.

ANd to every beast of the earth,Verse 30. & to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat, and it was so.

Cap. 3. Verse 1.

Now the serpent was more subtile then any beast of the field which the Lord God had made, and he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

2 And the woman said to the Serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye dye.

4 And the Serpent said unto the woman, Yea shall not surely dye;

[Page 89] 5 For God doth know that in the day you eat thereof then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God knowing good and evil.

6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also to her husband with her, and he did eat.

7 And the eyes of them both were open­ed, and they knew that they were naked, and they sowed fig leaves together: and made themselves aprons.

8 And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool (or wind) of the day, and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden.

9 And the Lord God called to Adam, & said unto him, Where art thou?

10 And he said I heard thy voyce in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked, and I hid myself.

11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? hast thou eaten of the tree whereof I commanded thee, that thou shouldst not eat?

12 And the Man said, The woman thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.

[Page 89] 13 And the Lord said unto the Woman, What is this that thou hast done? and the Woman said, The Serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

14 And the Lord said unto Serpent, Be­cause thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all the cattel, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the daies of thy life.

15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

16 And to the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrows and thy con­ception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth Children, and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

16 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast harkned to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of the which I commanded thee, saying thou shalt not eat of it: Cursed is the ground for thy sake, in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the daie: of thy life.

18 Thornes also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herbs of the field.

19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; [Page 90]for out of it wast thou taken, for dust thou art and unto dust thou shalt return.

20 And Adam called his wifes name Eve, because she was the mother of all liv­ing.

21 Unto Adam also and his wife aid the Lord God make coats of skins, and cloath­ed them.

22 And the Lord God said, Behold the man is become like one of us to know good and evil; and now lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and live for ever.

23 Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden to till the ground from whence he was taken.

24 So he drove out the man, and he pla­ced at the East end of the garden of Eden Cherubims & a flaming sword, which turnd every way to keep the way of the tree of life.

Cap. 4. Ver. 1.

And Adam knew his wife, and she con­ceived and bare Cain; and she said, I have gotten a man from the Lord. And she again bore his brother Abel, and Abel was a keep­er of Sheep, and Cain a tiller of the ground.

Cap. 5. Ver. 3, 4, 5.

3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty [Page 91]years, and knew his wife again, and begat a son in his likeness, after his Image, and called his name Seth, for she said, God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.

4. And the daies of Adam after he begat Seth were eight hundred years, and he begat sons and daughters.

5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty yeares, and he dyed.

Cap. 1. Ver. 30.

And to every Beast of the Earth, § 1. and to every Fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the Earth, wherein there is life, I have given every Green Herb for meat. Beasts & Man being created as is supposed much about one time, their food also was appointed the same; there is only this differance, that we find not any food assigned to them, until Man was first served; and then to shew the difference of their Appetites, it is said to Man, Behold, I have given you every herb, &c. But to Beasts, Fowls, and creepers, every green herb; to shew that Beasts were led to their Food by Sence, but Man by his Intellect. If the [Page 92]vertue of the Plant do not satisfy his knowledge of it, the Colour is not to in­tice, the Eye is not to be judge of his Appetite, though allowed to Beasts.

This Green is the first Colour that is mentioned in Scripture, and this pro­perly the first place; and indeed no co­lour is so pleasing to nature, and so stu­pifies the understanding, it being im­possible to find out why nature should mantle her self more universally with this colour then any other; unless it be admitted that the beams of the Sun on the sudden reflecting upon Earth, do usually produce a Yellow colour, which being mixt with the Azure colour of the Air, and contemperd with the Li­quid part of the Earth, sends forth a Green: For the mixture of Yellows and Blues produceth Greens. And where it is denied to the superficies of the earth by shades or otherwise, it unites its force, and runs into the bodies of trees, & after asecret ascention mounts to the highest branches with a more sublime verdure. And these green Vegetables were to invite the appetite of Beasts without inquiry; it was Mans part properly to know their Natures and vertues.

Cap. 3. Verse 1.

Now the serpent was more subtil then a­ny Beast of the field which the Lord God had made. § 2. It is conceived that beasts were made the Evening before man, being the very fore-recited piece to Man, so as they had the very assimilation of man by way of approximation to his creation; and doubtless they did understand each o­thers Dialects, and God had them in so great regard above other Terrestrial Creatures, that when he gave Domi­nion to Man, Cap. 1. Verse 28. It was over Fish, and Fowl, and creep­ing things, but not over beasts, so that that Now, whilst there was this Amity, this conjugation of Tem­pers and Disposition between Man and Beast, even Now, That is, Then The serpent was more subtile, &c.

Whether this mas really a Serpent,§ 3. or the Devil in the Serpents shape, I dispute not; but conceive the Tempta­tion might be by either: for those who writ of Serpents, make some of them (even known to our age, as the Basilisk and Scytala) so beautiful and cunning, that by their beauty, splendor, and sub­tilty, [Page 94]entice many into destrustion: and there is an other sort, as the Ly­zard, that are so affectionate to Man, that is preserves him from all dangers. As for the first sort, it was not likely that Eve in the state of Innocency should meet with such Nocent creatures; and as to the other sort, their nature dispos­eth not them to nocency. But possibly the fruit being pleasant, and the serpent discoursive, the one might allurethe o­ther, perswade her to eat out of no evil intention, but as incredulous that God would deny Eve the eating of so deli­cate a fruit. But if it were the Devil in the Serpents shape, then indeed he was Serpens Versatilis, as the Vulgar read it; that is, Viro subtilior, and consequent­ly the subtilest Beast of the field.

And he said to the woman, § 4. Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? What Language the De­vil or Serpent spake is not material, but that which was natural to either was understood by both: For it seems by the Text, that that which was said by the Serpent was but as a reply to the Woman: For saith the Serpent, Yea, hath God said (as you tell me) that you are not to eat of every tree of the garden? So [Page 95]we see here were discourses tending to a temptation, and she must be more Innocent then Eve in her Innocency who admits of such. For methinks I hear the serpent say, Hath that God who hath made you so beautiful, endu­ed you with all perfections, given you all pleasures for your senses, plac'd you in so sweet a garden where nothing is wanting to content your Mind, or recreate your Body; and can that God be so unkind after all his kindness to forbid you the Eating of a fruit so in­considerable? Yea, hath God said so? surely I will not believe it. And so she takes the Devils Argument as granted, without consulting her husband, (to whom the Command was given, though inclusively to both:) By which means the Temptation went gently on. Now though this discourse of the ser­pent may seem strange to remoter A­ges; yet I apprehend that in that time of Perfection Man could not be a stranger to the Dialect of all Crea­tures, I mean in the highest conside­rations of comparing the Chaps, and the Lips, or other Tendons, with in­ward intentions or desires; and this is done by the judgment of the Eye. But [Page 96]for that which we use by the judgment of the Ear, we read that some in eve­ry age have attained to such diversities of times, calls, cryes, expressing the mirth, assistance, acclamations, joys, or sorrows of several Birds and Beasts; that Men, Birds and Beasts have enjoyed a mutual intercourse of affecti­ons: And the meanest Capacity finds, that every kind of Creature which af­fords a sound, is known not only in its distinct kind by its tone, but every individual species of each kind is also known by their Guttural, Labial, Dental, or Rostral sounds. Nor is it prodigious to me, that the Serpent should afford such perswasive dis­courses, finding by Common obser­vations that all Beasts, Birds, &c. have a certain Raticination, and a Language to express it; the Horse speaks for his Provender, the Dog for his meat, and the Bird in the Cage for its seeds.

But I wonder more that Eve having doubtless a more perfect reason as yet in her unspotted Innocency, could be perswaded by a beast (or the Devil him­self) from neglecting her husband. But they that will suffer their senses to [Page 97]master their Reason, Love, and Obe­pience, will quickly prove wholly re­bellious: And therefore without her husband she replies,

Cap. 3. Verse 2. & 3.

2. And the Woman said to the Serpent, We may eat of the trees of the garden: 3. But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the Garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat thereof. § 5. See Part 1. Sect 15. I Observe that the Command was given to Adam before Eve was made of his Rib, but it seems Adam had imparted that Command to Eve, and that Command and in uncti­on was sufficient for her to say, that We may eat, or we may not eat. The wifes obedience (implicitly) depending upon the husbands: He is to obey God, and she him; and in that she hath a double reward from God and him: But when she strays from her husbands dictates (for she had none from God) we see what a curse she brought upon her self, and on her tender and com­plying husband, yea and upon the ser­pent which (if not the Devil.) It may be meant only a piece of Courtship to her. And therefore it is dangerous to admit of Temptations against positive Com­mands.

[Page 98] Neither shall ye touch it lest ye dye. § 6. Here she gave the Serpent (or Devil) the first advantage by a false reply: For first, God had Commanded Adam that he should not eat of the tree, cap. 2.17. and no mention in that Text of the fruit. Secondly, Nor did God e­ver command that he should not touch it Thirdly, the tree of life was said to be in the miost of the garden, which was not forbidden; but the place of the tree of Knowledge is not mention­ed; and he had Liberty to eat of the tree of life, but not of the tree of Knowledge: So that the Serpent had sufficient Advantage by the Mistake of the command. Whereupon,

Cap. 2. Verse 4.

The Serpent said, § 7. Ye shall not surely dye. You shall not dye, either for eat­ing the Fruit (which was not mention­ed) or for touching the tree (which is not Commanded) or for eating of the Tree in the midst of the garden (which was the Tree of life) and not forbid­den. And when the Serpent had thus possest her, that she should not dye for eating or touching of that which was not forbidden, he returns to the [Page 99]truth of punishment, yet depending upon the former asseveration, and saith, ye shall not surely dye. For the Serpent had got so much advantage by the dis­course with Eve, and understanding the Nature of her death, not to be a seperation of the Soul and Body, but a deprivatian of Gods Love, did tell her to this effect; so good a God would not inflict so rigorous a punishment up­on her; for she should not dye, but Live, and live now with farr more satis­faction: For her eyes which were only as Senses, shall then represent all thing in their perfect Knowledge of them, For ye shall be like Gods knowing good and evil. But in this discourse hitherto both the Devil and Eve left out one expres­sion in that command, namely, In the day thou eatest; they were both willing it seems to omit the point of time. And well may Procrastination continue as a punishment upon our humane Nature; she thought God would not be so pun­ctual to a day, or it may be she did not understand what a day was, or it may be she had too various opinions of it, and not Considered as intended in Pun­cto temporis, either 12. or 24. hours, or a year, according to the Natural mo­tion [Page 100]of the Sut: But it may be she con­ceivd the day to be a Thousand years, which are but as a day with God. So that the day she should die should be a thou­sand years after the Eating, or a time undeterminable. Some of these Con­ceptions might make them omit the day; for it is certain, he neither sin­ned the last day of his life, nor dyed the first day of his death. So that we may understand it to be a death Con­tracted, but not instantly inflicted; and in stead of Morte Morieris, we may read Mortalis eris; Thou shalt dye the death, that is, thou shalt be Mortal, or have a daily disposition in thee to death.

Cap. 3. Verse 5.

For God doth know, § 8. that in the day you eat thereof then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be like God's knowing good and Evil. Now the Devil boldly menti­ons the day, when by his subtile intan­gling discourses he had gotten the day of the Woman: But (poor soul!) it prov'd her night; Their Eyes which till now were open to see all sorts of Felicity, are now dimmed with the shades of ensuing Mortality; so that though they have Eyes, yet they can [Page 101]see nothing, but the effects of their Ambition. For that knowledge of goodness which they had in perfection, by continuing in obedience to Gods Commands, is now turned by their disobedience to an imperfect know­ledge, which is the greatest Evil at­tending human Nature: For by this imperfection we scarce know what good is to be followed, or what evil to be shunned. Regions, Climes, Tempers, Accidents, and even Laws of Nations, giving Latitudes or Cir­cumscriptions enough to puzzle the de­voutest souls; and doubtless this is no similitude of a Divine knowledge, or to know as God, who I presume knows Evil no otherwise, then by suffering our Knowledge to be puzzled in at­taining the unspeakable Mystery of goodness. And therefore the Targum of Jerusalem being tender, I suppose, in ascribing the knowledge of Evil to God, instead of you shall be like Gods, knowing Good and Evil; say, you shall be like the great Angels, who are indued with Wisdome to determin good and evil. And if the Planets and Spheres have their operations from the Angels, then the astrologians have the advan­tage [Page 102]of knowing good and evil by Collection: however, it is an equal infelicity not to know the distinction of good & evil, as not to be able to im­prove the one, or prevent the other. And the Chaldee Paraphrase says, Ye shall be like Princes; as if Princes were to be the Judges of Good and Evil: For good or bad things (which some call indifferent) are made good or bad according to the Nature and obligati­on of their Command.

Cap. 3. Ver. 6.

And when the Woman saw that the Tree was good for food, § 9. and that it was Plea­sant to the Eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise Here we see the foun­dation of disobedience: We first ar­gue from necessity, It is good for Food; and without Food we cannot susteine Nature: and who hath more reason to be Careful of that then our selves? And why did God exhibit us the view of Food, yea and good food, if we may not be our own Carvers? Then we argue from Pleasure; does God (say we) Create in us organs of sight, and those attended with such Agents, that we are pleased and displeased ac­cording [Page 103]to our objects; & seeing content gives life to every fruition why should we not injoy what is most pleasurable? and at once please our taste and sight? And then steps in Ambition, and says, We shall not only please our senses, but our Intellectuals: We shall be wise as God, Angels, or Prin­ces; that is, as any of our superiours. And thus by these insinuations we give our selves Latitude to our own destructi­ons; and this is the ground of ru­ine to Families as well as to States: The Servant would evade the Masters Commands, the Wife the Husbands, the Subject the Princes; Judging the Commands to be of small consequence, and so the breach easily forgiven, or advantagious to our selves, and there­fore naturally dispensibe. But doubt­less the less the command be the more we are obliged to perform, because the performance seems more in our Power; and the more advantagious it is to our private Capacities the greater affront we give to the publick by our disobedience, and ingrossing that which should be either common or restrained, by so being perswaded and resolved to disobey.

[Page 104] She took of the Fruit thereof, § 10. and did eat. This Fruit which Eve did eat is com­monly taken for an Apple, but I can­not tell for what reason, unless that Malum is Latine for an Apple, as also for Evil. And then the next doubt is (for none knew the original of Latine) whether Eve did speak Latine in Paradise. But the small reason that I have heard for the Apple is, because if one Cut an Apple cross the Core, that is, beteen the stalk and the top, the Beds of the Seeds are just ten in number, representing the ten Com­mandments; all which Eve did at once break by eating the Apple, and that Fruit continues still which those ten marks. But whether it were an Apple eaten, or any other Fruit, as Ficu [...] In­dicus, &c. is not meterial; the breach of a command is that which is denoted to us, and our Ambitious Curiosity in medling or inspecting such things, though seeming trivial, yet are the Ar­cana Imperii, and not to be toucht but by God, or Angels, or Princes them­selves. Let the tree of Knowledge a­lone; 'tis meat only for our superiors: you who are Subjects be content to [Page 105]plant your Gardens, and sow your Fields, and converse with the innocent Beasts thereof, The Woman must not prattle her self into temptations, nor be courted by the subtilty of those who would beguile her into forbidden Acti­ons. We see the Consequence; her diso­bedience breaks the Conjugal Bond of obedience, and proves to be both the ruine of her self and her Superior. And as 'tis in private Families, so in States, Schismes beget Faction, Faction Se­dition, Sedition Rebellion, Rebellion Wars, Wars Murders, Depopulati­ons, and even ruine to themselves and the whole Fabrick of which they are Compos'd. So that certainly the great sin against God and Nature is disobe­dience, and the greatest Ignorance is not to know the true Nature and de­pendences of obedience, from a Child to his Parent, from a Servant to his Master, from a Souldier to his Captain, from a Wife to her Husband, from a Subject to his Prince; and not to be in­tic'd, or go out of the Limits of either, till the guidance of Superiours directs us; wherein God is to be served in the first place, Princes in the next, and the other degrees according to subor­dinations. [Page 106]Yet the great deceit in these gradations is, that we are apt to say, That God would not have done what our Superiours Command, or would have done what they forbid. Wherein the safest and justest Rule is, Not to think our selves wiser then our Superiours, for they and we have our very orders and stations from God; and Angels, Princes, and Superiors are nearer to him in thier several degrees, then those who are subordinate to them. And he is a dangerous Casuist, who undertakes to cleave a Hair be­tween a Superiours positive Command and his own private Judgment, of what is fit or not fit to be done therein. For the Orders of all Men, yea even of all Creatures, are so Known and ascertained, that it is only a Criti­cisme tending to Rebellion, when by subtil perswasions of others, which is meant by the Serpent, or our own in­clinations, we are diverted from that harmonious Method which God hath constituted in the Government of the World, and more especially of Men: And it is much better to err in the O­bedience, then in the Repugnancie. If a­ny one in his own time makes but a due [Page 107]Collection of what Rewards he hath seen to the one, and what inflictions to the other, he shall need no other ar­gument for the one, or disswasions from the other.

6.§ 11. And gave also to her Husband with her, who did eat. What Moral man can say, but Eve was a kind Wife to let her Husband pertake of the plea­sures of her Eye, tast, and great expe­ctation of Knowledge? For with these three arguments did Eve present to him the fruit: And it was from a Wife, whose very Beauties (she being then in perfection) were temptation suffici­ent to receive a meaner Present from so fair a hand, whose kindness was so full of duty and goodness, that he could not doubt of incurring the least prejudice from the tenders of her Love. And how could he, who had the com­mand to forsake Father and Mother and cleave to his Wife, be so unkind, as to make the least expostulation or denyal of the Testimonies of her af­fection? And possibly, (if the story be not altogether Allegorical) as some Fathers would have it, or Chemical, (according to Paracelsus) the Serpent might whisper in the Ear of Eve to [Page 108]this effect: Well, you think Adam Loves you, when possibly he only pretends this Commnnd from God merely to deprive you of so great advantage as you may have by eating that fruit, and thereby be equal in Knowledge with him. Or it may be he is Jealous of you, because I have been so long discoursing with you; and therefore it may be he will deny you, because I have per­swaded you to it. Upon the whole matter, it is an evident Testimony of his want of Love to you if he deny you so Kind an offer, or the grant of that wherein there is no trouble, but seeming advantages to you both by your Condescention.

Who at her perswasion did eat. § 12. It is a riddle to my thoughts, when I consi­der that the fulfilling of the Law, and the breach of the Law, have both of them their foundation from Love. And in those the Jews were so Criti­cal, that they accounted the number of the Mosaical Precepts to be seven hundred ninety and three, whereof four hundred twenty and eight affirma­tives, which were what we should do; and three hundred sixty and five Ne­gatives, which were what we should not do. And the Moralists call those Virtues, and these Vices. And the [Page 109]truth is, in these there are no di­stinctions Real or formal; for even Lust and drunkenness, &c. are but the Excesses of Love: so that the same God, who bids us Love, and gives us Variety of amiable enjoyments, Bids us also forbear Love. Now, how can the Temper of one Man give Law or proportion to the temper of another, and make that Lust which is but a dis­charge of a different Temper; or that Drunkenness, which is but the natural satisfaction of thirst? And therefore are to forbear too severe a Censure, for every Man hath a proportion'd Love, some but sparks, some Coals, and some Flames; and it is (or ought to be) the wisdom of every Man to know the Temper of his own Love, and not thereby to bound or limit anothers; & his own (once known) not to suffer his Love either to injure others by a breach of Commutative Justice, or prejudice himself in not giving a true balance to his affections, by making that neces­sary to his Constitution, which is but adventitious either by habit, or ad­mitting temptations, or willful pro­vocations. But herein we shew our true Love, when our Love is fixed in [Page 101]obedience to the Lawes superiours, and by restraining our Appetites to subor­dinate Loves, and bringing our Tem­pers to observe superior Commands: for God commanded Adam that he should not eat; so the delights of the Eyes, the pleasures of the tast, the Inticements of the Woman ought to have been subservient Loves to the love of his command; and though there are certain natural and inherent Loves, as to see, and taste, even things desirable in themselves; yet he is most happy that can make his Nega­tive Loves subservient to the affirma­tives of higher Powers, and such Law as are made intentionally equal.

Cap. 3. Ver. 7.

And the eyes of them both were opened, § 13. and they knew that they were naked. We must not think that Adam and Eves eyes were shut in their Perfection, and opened by their transgression; for be­fore they saw each other in their full Accomplishments of Nature, and had no cause to blush or be ashamed: But being now sensible of their Disobedi­ence, and not knowing how to blame one another, her for tempting, and he [Page 111]for yielding, they now not onely blush, and are ashamed of their Disobedi­ence, but like the Beast, that by hiding his head thinks his body undiscerned; so they by making themselves Gar­ments thought that their fault should not be discovered. And it still conti­nues in the Nature of Man to find out shifts, clokes, and umbrages for his offences.

And they sowed fig-leaves together, § 14. and made themselves aprons. It is probable Adam made choice of these fig-leaves rather then any other, both for the breadth, substance, and excellent qua­lities of repelling all Tumours; but whether of them they made Aprons, Coats, or Girdles, or Breeches, Tran­flators differ: But the Targum of Jeru­salem saith, Nudati erant a veste Onychi­na, in qua creati erant; that is, They were disrobed of their Garment, which in the time of their Perfection was made of the Onyx stone. For there are stones in Italy of which they make most curious threds, and those spun into Cloth resembling our finest flexen Linen: and the like might be made of this. Now this Onyx stone hath a peculi­ar quality (as Authors write) to strength­en [Page 112]the Spirits, and heighten Venery: And whether their offence was Vene­reous, adumbraged under the name of forbidden Fruit, may be Considered on. And great Reason had God to be An­gry, if they injoyed that forbidden Fruit, till God (as it were) had fully considered whether it had been more advantageous to Man to arise from the ground like the Mandrake, or the Sensi­tive Lamb, or like Barnacles from trees or shells) or that there should have been Incubents and Succubents to dispose of their Nocturnal ejacula­tions or decostations, without pain to Male or Female: like that of Adam and Eve, he only in the loss of a rib, she in being one.

Cap. 3. Verse 8.

And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the Garden. § 15. This voice and walking is not to be Considered in an humane sense, but every incli­nation to good, or declination of what is evil, is a voice from God to incite or prohibit; And every Motion which tends to an act of goodness, or devia­tion from evil, is within the Compass of Gods perambulation. He walks in [Page 113]this world as his Garden, where we injoy all pleasing objects to the Eyes, and other senses, and by our senses we improve our Knowledge, both in Moral and Divine Concerns; his Voyce still attends, and his Motion gently perswades us. And yet mise­rable Men as we are, we see and ap­prove of the best things, but pursue the Worst. And it seems a strange Con­demnation to be punisht for our inqui­sition and tryal of all things, when­as by sacred Writ we are advised so to do; and that those things which are good for us to injoy, yet are made destruction to us, by (as it were) a se­cret Inhibition. So that our Tryal of all Things consisteth even of Nothing but Circumspections, lest in the most seeming Innocent Actions we should offend: For our Eating, Drinking, Sleeping, and inquiries into Lawful Knowledge, have in them almost un­deservedly both a Necessity and Of­fence: And therefore the Apostle might justly tell us, that we are to work out out Salvation with Fear and Trembling. And it is remarkable, that as God is said to be walking in a Garden, where Adam Committed his offence: So [Page 114]Christ himself (as Religion teaches us) was walking in a Garden, and as Man he was Crucified for that sin in a Gar­den. And he that will observe the Divine Motion of punishment shall find (both in Sacred and Profane Histo­ries) Examples enough to teach, that God is (as it were) punctual in his pu­nishments, both as to Time, Place, and Circumstance, even to the third and fourth Generation of them who hate him; which Third and Fourth I take to be a septenary time. And as Adam & Eve consists of seaven Letters, so their ensuing punishment was upon the sea­ven Ages of mankind, whether Consi­dered Individually to Man, or General­ly to the seaven Ages of the World.

Walking in the cool of the day. § 16. God is said to be the Lord of hosts, to shew his courage; and a God of anger; and yet a God of patience, though provoked eve­ry day. And even now when Adam had offended, and his offence known, yet he shewed not his anger, but walked without any seeming passion in the cool of the day. And it is of great use in Morality, when we know our temper to be inclined to wrath, or that we have just provocations thereunto, that [Page 115]we endeavour to allay them by some outward or inward temperament; by walking, that is, by a private discussing of the matter; or by arguments of For­bearance, to mould our thoughts from anger or revenge. And in a garden, that is, by Diversions; and in the cool of the day, that is, by mollifying or re­frigerating of that heat, unto which the Sun of Passion would otherwise in­cite us.

And Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. § 17. I wonder that Adam and Eve, who had so lately eat of the tree of Knowledge, should so soon lose their Knowledge, to think that Gods Omnipresence could be sheltered by the shade of trees. And we are more foolish in following their steps thus; when we have done amiss, we run as it were from Gods presence, and in­stead of imploring his forgiveness or assistance, we study which way to um­brage our faults, and mix our selves with the society of others; as if ei­ther the innocence of others should be a plea for our selves, or the diversions which Company affords should oblite­rate the sense of our transgressions.

Cap. 3. Ver. 9.

And the Lord God called to Adam, § 18. and said to him, Where art thou? It is said that King Mithridates understood se­venty two Languages, yet he had thou­sands more to learn: for every indivi­dual Creature hath a language, and that language (though diversified by Organs) is universally the same, for if several men of several Nations stand near a Tree, which by the force of the Hewers is ready to fall, the universal language is Take heed. And though men differ in Letters and Articulations, yet we differ not in the sense which the Tree kindly speaks to us, and the Standers by are Interpreters. And thus upon all occasions the voice of God by his several Organs calls upon us, and his voice is labial, dental, and guttural, even as ours; for if he speak from his lips, that is, things pleasing to us; or from his teeth, that is, things displeasing to us; or from his throat, that is, things indifferent; yet still in all he affords an intelligible voice to us, which Adam well understood be­fore God said in express terms, Adam, where art thou? And doubtless the in­visible [Page 117]expostulations between them were to this effect: How now, Adam? Thou, whom I created from nothing; thou, whom after Creation I made superintendent of all Creatures, and for whose sake I made them all to be a pleasure to thee; thou, who wert to Prune & Dress those delicacies which I had Planted in the Garden; Thou, who hadst the freedome of Art to imitate and imbellish what I had fixt in the nature of each Plant; Thou who hadst the Knowledge of all Creatures, and a more particular, neerness to the Creator; must thou so se­clude thy self, that I must say, Where art thou? Art thou performing thy duty? art thou injoying what I allow thee, or doing what I Commanded thee? And to this effect did the voice of God speak to Adam; who answered;

Cap. 3. Verse 10.

And Adam said, § 19. I heard thy voice in the Garden, &c. It is not enough to heare Gods reproving voice, but Di­vines say, that to repentance there be­longs Confession, Contrition, and sa­tisfaction. He confest his fear, but not his fault; nor was there any Con­trition, but for his Nakedness, not his Crime: and for satisfaction, it [Page 118]was impossible, for he having diso­bey'd in eating what was forbidden, he could not satisfie by uneating what he had eat. Vomit is not a discharge of drunkenness, but an additional Crime. Charitable Actions do not satisfie for extortion, but rather adds a greater Crime, by getting and dosposing of that which ought not justly to be at his disposition. So that he heard Gods voice, and shewed his Terror, but no Confession, de discovered his guilt, but no Contrition; he gives Excuses, but no satisfaction to a God who had been so kind, so liberal, so indulgent to him.

And I was affeard. The proper Eng­lish word expressing Fear is affeard, not affraid; for affraid comes from Fray or Fraction of that Unity which ought to be with men; but affeard is from au­ferre, or a supposition that something shall be taken from us. And the Latin word for Fear is timor, that is, a present apprehension te mori, that the object of fear will produce death to the event: for though we do not discoursively (as here) dilate upon the Circumstances, yet whatever happens to a man by loss or cross, yet the result is immediately [Page 119]in the breast of man, timor, or te mori, that such an accident will occasion death. And I find it in the Syriac, (of which I have writ in my Preface to the Proverbs) where 'tis said, The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; 'tis translated Timor Mortis, The fear of death is the beginning of wisdom. And this was the beginning of Adams Wis­dom in his imperfections; for whilst he was in Perfection he neither feared nor was ashamed of his Actions, or that Death would ensue: And Doubtles the nearer our Actions are done to such uprightness, the nearer wee are to his primitive perfection: But sin, or diso­bedience, either to God or Man, cau­seth both shame and fear. Now the reason of his fear is given;

Because I was naked. § 20. He was depri­ved (says the Chaldee) De veste Ony­china, of his garment of vertue which was restrained to obedience, in not eat­ing the Fruit, or forbearing to do what was forbidden; in not dressing the Gar­den, or pursuing just, honest and bene­ficial imployments to himself and o­thers; and thereby not doing what was Commanded, and being sensible that he had divested himself of his garment [Page 120]Perfection, and that he had no defence for his disobedience, he tryed what the Shades of the evening and the trees would do.

And I hid my self. § 21. The Text saith not in what manner he hid himself, but it is much that neither the Tincture of his former perfection, nor the fear of God which is the beginning of Wisdom, which certainly he knew as well as So­lomon. And we may see by this Text, that he had the fear of the Lord, yet it did not teach him Davids lesson, If (said he) I ascend up to Heaven thou art there; if into the deep, thou art there also, &c. For then he could not have been, so ignorant of Gods omnipresence, as to think that a few trees, or bushes, or caves, or the night could hide him. For my part I think his hiding an ad­ditional sin equal to the eating the Fruit: first, by distrust of Gods kind­ness, who might have pardoned him, if he had not fled from the offence; for this in our Laws Consummates the Crime: and next as great a distrust, that God could or would not cloath him in his nakedness. And it continues still an Error in his posterity, who (in Want, or Poverty, or in our offences) betake [Page 121]our selves to subterfuges, which aggra­vates the crime even with God and Man.

Cap. 3. Ver. 11.

And God said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? § 22. Hast thou eat of the tree whereof I commanded thee that thou should­est not eat? This word Who might be an argument for the Prae-Adamite; as if there were some other man to con­verse with, had not God explained him­self in the sequel of the question, Hast thou eaten of the tree? &c. To shew, that even dumb Creatures may con­vince us of our errors, and the virtues which are in them correct us of our vices. Things which are of a sanative nature tell us our charitable duty to o­thers; things of a destructive nature tell us we are to avoid the doing of what is prejudicial to others. And it seems this tree had a double nature; it had a virtue to tell him the goodness he had lost by his disobedience, and an evil quality to teach him excuses. And 'tis no wonder this tree should have this double quality, when we see the Bee suck out of every herb Honey, full of good and medicinal virtues; and sup­plies [Page 122]her sting with a matter poisonous, hurtful, and evil. And the truth is, not this Tree onely, but all individual Creatures have their good and evil in them. The good of the Tree was in the present pleasure to the eye and taste, the evil was in some poisonous quality, which not onely infected him and Eve with all their infirmities, but by a traductive quality hath made us desire and do those things we should not. Nor need we wonder at this continuing quality, when we see the Gums of Trees continue a Balsom for an hundred years: And the Italians hold, that the longer some Poisons are kept, they are the more efficacious. And both of them have not onely pow­er over the Body, but the very Mind, (which is very near of kin to the Soul.) So that the virtues of some things make men good by rectifying their tempers, the vicious quality of the same intoxicate, and make men mad or worse: Nay, the virtues of the same individual Creature restores to life, the vicious part a present death. But that which is more considerable, is the Nicety between good and evil things; many times good things prove poisons [Page 123]by their ill use, and Poisons or ill things prove sometimes the best Anti­dotes.

Cap. 3. Ver. 12.

And the man said, § 23. The woman thou ga­vest to be with me, she gave me of the tree to eat, and I did eat. Disobedience is the Nurse of Ingratitude, and Ingrati­tude of Impudence. Thus Adam in­stead of thanks for his Meet helper im­plicitly reviles God, who gave her; not considering that she was given rather to help then advise; or if to advise, yet he had the deliberative part in him­self, to do or not to do, as he thought most prudent; but without debating that with God, he with impudence told God as it were, that it was Gods fault to give her to him; and since he had given her, and that he was to shew all expressions of kindness unto her, who had recommended it to him, he thought himself obliged rather to observe her then him: and thereupon without any more circumstance or excuse heard, She gave it me, and I did eat.

Cap. 3. Verse 13.

And the Lord God said to the woman, § 24. What is this that thou hast done? God [Page 124]said to Adam, Where art thou? though he knew where he was; and to the Wo­man, What hast thou done? though he knew what; yet neither of these kind Questions could beget a civil or con­fessive answer, but the Man said, the Woman gave it to me; and the Woman said, the Serpent beguiled her: but nei­ther of them, though they knew they had done the fact, would acknowledge their own disobedience in doing it; for then possibly God would have raised some Antidote from that, or some o­ther tree, without a future Saviour, to have Cured the infection of the Evil, and to have fixt the benefit of the good. But she ungrateful and Impu­dent as he, Replies, that the Serpent beguiled her, and she did eat.

And the Woman said, § 25. The Serpent be­guiled me. There need no inquiry into the History of Nature, to know what kind of Serpent that was which beguil­ed Eve, when as we see every Man is daily subject to be tempted by the same or the like Serpent. Pride is this Ser­pent that tempts us to Ambitious acti­ons; Covetousness this Serpent that tempts us to injure others; Luxury this Serpent that tempts us into forbid­den [Page 125]Embraces; Wine this Serpent that steales into our veines with argu­ments of Collour and Taste, Improv­ing the spirits, and solacing our de­jections, until at last it so Captivates our Reason, that when God asks where we are, we cannot answer; or what we have done, we can only say with Eve, The Serpent hath beguiled us. Cer­tainly it is a great punishment on our Natures that we cannot Judge; or if we do, that we connot refrain from Excuses, and make those offences, which in themselves are none. For Ambition rightly placed is a vertue, Covetousness Frugality, Luxury (if derived from the Constitution) is but a more natural desire, Wine a Com­forter. He is happy who can carry a Balance alwayes in his Mind to weigh his intentions and actions: And what is thought or done, not to be too Cen­sorious of himself or others. For there are certain positives wherein our Judgments connot err, and therein to say the Serpent beguiled, is no justifi­able Excuse, but in things indifferent.Ecel. 5. Solomons Rule is very good, My Son, let not thy mouth accuse thy self of sin: make not those things sins which are, more; [Page 126]and Commit not those, which Cer­tainly are.

Cap. 3. 14.

The Lord said unto the Serpent. § 26. The Serpent is call'd the subtilest Beast, yet doubtless every Creature hath a pro­portionable understanding of Gods voice. Psal. 19. The Heavens declare (or speak) the Glory of God; (which he first Communicates to them) the Fir­mament speaks his handy work: one day tells another what is to be done the next, & one night certifie another what deeds are done therein, there is neither speech nor Language but their Voice is heard through the world. Every individual thing ei­ther in its operation or virtual Com­munication speaks that to others which God speaks to them: For speech is not only that of which the Ear par­ticipates, but the other senses do (as it were) heare it equally with the Ear. We see the flowers speak their various colours; this flower says, I am Red, another Yellow, a third Mixt; and we do but repeat their speech in saying what Colour they bear. And besides, what individuals do afford our senses, they also administer discourses to our [Page 127]Reason and Judgment; how this or that is to be virtually applyed: from one we get a letter, from another a syl­lable, from a third a word, from a fourth a sentence, from a fifth an ef­fectual speech. And all Creatures, though we know not how they under­stand their proportion of speech which God speaks to them, yet they under­stand it, and only Man hath the dispu­tative part granted to him; for though the Serpent was the subtilest Beast, yet God would hear none of his subtile re­plications or Evasions. But God said to Adam, Where art thou? And, Who told thee that thou wert naked? And, Hast thou eaten? &c. To which three questi­ons Adam gave three answers; Thou gavest me the Woman; she gave it me, and and I did eat. Then he put but one Question to Eve, What hast thou done? To which she made two answers, The Serpent beguiled we, And I did eat: to shew that she also was Limited in her tongue, though she would give two an­swers to one question. So that by this Text we see, that Man may enjoy a certain discourse, or ratiocination with God (for this was after Adams fall) but the Woman a very little. But other [Page 128]Creatures are Subject to his Voyce without ratiocinating, for without An­swer from the Serpent The Lord said to the Serpent,

Because thou hast done this, § 27. &c. It is not sufficient to refrain from Evil our selves, but we are not to tempt others to it either by precept, suggestion, or Example. That this Serpent had a Cunning wit the Text shews, that he was Beautiful, some Writers affirm; Whether he eat or not let Commen­tators agree; for if considered as a Serpent, what good was the knowledg of good to him? if Considered as the Devil, the eating could not add to his Knowledge of goodness, because he knew more in his Primitive perfection then could be added to him by secon­dare meanes. However we may be­lieve, either by remembrance of his former Condition, or by eating this, he knew goodness notionally, not practi­cally; but the Evil he not only knew, but tempted Eve to the Knowledge of it. And this by his subtilty and Beau­ty, two such temptations to that sex, that their vertues must seem to resist the harmony of Nature by resisting of them, especially when they meet in one [Page 129]Persorn. And herein methinks Eve was more excusable then Adam, for here was a Lovely Serpent, a delicate Fruit pleasing to the Eye, delightful to the taste, and of a promising virtue; What Woman could well resist those Temptations? Now Adam had no more to tempt him, (as appears by the Text) then an implicit Love and Kind­ness to his Wife, for she gave it him, (without any perswasive induction that we read of) and he did eat. Now God did justly begin the punishment with the first offender (the Serpent) and gave sentence on him for tempting before he did it on those that were tempted, one being a premeditate, wilful and af­fronting act, against his possitive Com­mands, the other occasional.

Thou art Curst. § 28. Cursing is an inten­tional Revenge, and Revenge is mine, saith God. But because 'tis sweet and pleasant to the tast, and indeed hath a relish of Ambition, we Mortals) who have only power to intend, and not a positive power to act revenge) do La­vish our spirits into execrations, which is an affront to the Deity, as high as can be given; and it is oft seen, that by them they heap Coales of fire on their [Page 130]own heads; for when there is such a Concretion of Evil spirits (as attend Curses) summon'd together, they must fix somwhere, and (saith Solomon) A curse causeless shall not take effect where it was intended: And then it must ne­cessarily fall upon him that did intend it, which is but sutable to Divine Ju­stice; and therefore in things provoking our passions we must follow Gods Ex­ample herein, who first examined the fact by these Interrogatives, Where? Who? What? and those acknowledged, he gave his Curse, and not before: we are not to be guided by provocations, but deliberations; and the Targum says, God call'd these three, viz. Adam, Eve and the Serpent into Judgment before he gave his sentence; and we see that a Curse is a thing of that transendent Nature, even Man and Beast, and the Earth it self, have felt th'effects of it. And though David (a Man after Gods heart) did abound with them, as we may read in his Psalms, and imprecated God for their performance, and many of them granted; yet upon perusal of the History of his life we shall find many of them to take no effect on those he de­sired, and some of them Retorted on [Page 131]himself and family. God knows his own disposures best, and that many times the success of our Curses would be the greatest Curse to our selves, for he will execute them his own way. So that we shew our duty and piety to­wards him in forbearing, and our greatest folly in pronouncing them.

Above all Cattel, § 29. and all beasts of the field. By Cattel is meant tame Beasts, and by Beasts of the field, wild beasts. (as I have shewn elswhere.) Now in the first part of the third Chap. the Serpent is said to be the subtilest of the wild beasts, and consequently more subtile then the tame, for their want of fears, and their having (by a domestick At­tendance) almost all things necessary provided for them, they have need of that subtilty or craft which is requisite for the wilder. However the Curse seems first to descend on the tame beasts, which in our Translation is ren­dered instead of Cattel, Cursed be thou above thy fellows; to shew that the tame were his fellows, for therein was part of the Serpents subtilty, to be too subtil for the tame, by his dissimulation of his tameness; and more subtile then the wild, by Contriving more inventi­ons. [Page 132]I must confess I am posed at the Almighties severity herein, unless it were because they were such fools to associate with a Beast of such a subtile and trecherous nature; and it ought to be a Caveat to all innocents, to be circumspect in their intermixture with such dangerous Companions; yet this daily happens both in Families and States; which can carse be prevent­ed but by a sedulous care of our selves and actions, and well weighing the nature and inclinations of others; see­ing it is our Fate to be intermixed with such, we mush abstract the wisdom of the Serpent from his subtilty, and be as wise as he, and retain that innocen­cy wherein we are Constituted, whe­ther it be like the Dove, or Lamb, or such other Creatures, whose gentle na­tures ought to be our examples.

On thy Belly shalt thou go, § 30. and Dust shalt thou eat all the dayes of thy Life. The Targum of Jerusalem adds, Thy feet shall be cut off, and thou shalt cast thy skin every seaven years, and there shall be de [...]ly poy­son in thy Mouth. Here the Targum ex­plains this Curse by reading, that his feet should be cut off, and that he should cast his skin, and his mouth [Page 133]be full of poyson which intimates, that he had feet, and that his skin or beauty was permanent, and that his breath was sweet and pleasing before the curse. Now it was not the want of feet that made the curse, for many creatures have the like want, as Snakes and Insects, yet are accompted perfect in their kind: Nor the eating dust, for most do so; for what creature in some proportion doth not daily eat it? For though 'tis said the Camelion lives by Aire, yet it is the Atomes or dust in the aire that nourisheth it: Nor cast­ing the skin, for most creatures do so every seaventh year; and Physicians hold that the skins of serpents and Snakes so exuviated are very Medici­nal, nor having poyson in their mouth; for most Creatures in some proportion afford the like, both Man and Beast; but the changing of that due frame, proportion and constitution to another which is worse, and that was, and still is the curse that hangs on us: For if our Eyes be made perspicuous, our Eares Musical, our Touch delicate, our Tast distinctive, our smell pre­servative, our Limbs streight, and our Minde pure and serene, in bodies har­moniously [Page 134]Composed; yet if we dim our Eyes, deafen our Eares, vitiate our touch, taste, or smell, obfuscate our mindes by the ill contracts or ha­bits of our bodies; These are the cur­ses upon the use of forbidden fruits, that is, the use and habit of Evil Acti­ons; for to use our sound and perfect constitutions otherwise then God by Reason prompts us to, is a decurtation of our feet, and an exuviation of our Constituted beauty, which sills us with such venomous qualities, that e­ven our very Breaths are infections to those who are more virtuous.

Cap. 3. Verse 15.

And I will put Enmity between thee and the Woman, § 31. and between thy seed and her seed, and it shall bruise his Head, and thou shalt bruise his Heel. The Targum of Onkelous reads the latter part of this verse thus, Ipse Recordabitur, He shall remember thee, and what thou didst to him from the beginning, and thou shalt observe him in the end.

The Targum of Jonathan renders that part thus; Et erit, And it shall come to pass, when there shall be Sons of the Wo­man which obey the precepts of the Law, [Page 135]they shall use their endeavour to strike thee at thy head: but when they shall forsake the precepts of the Law, thou shalt study to bite them in their heels; but to them it shall be a medicine to thee, because they applied the medicine to the heels in the days of the King Messias.

This Text is of an ambiguous na­ture; but because Jews and Christians make it the first Prophetick Text con­cerning a Messias, and having written something of the Diversity of Religi­ons, I shall refer this to some other place, to be discoursed of more at large. And though my Notions herein may differ from other Writers, yet without prejudice I hope to Christian Religion.

Cap. 3. Ver. 16.

And to the woman he said, § 32. I will greatly multiply thy sorrows in thy conception, and in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children. The Targum reads it, I will multiply thy affliction and pains by the bloud of thy vir­ginity and conceptiou: which shews, that as the Virgin Mary without fraction of any Membranes, which causeth that virginate effusion of bloud, and conse­quently pain; and also without pain in conception or eduction brought forth a [Page 136]child: so should every woman ('tis sup­pos'd) have enjoyed the like benefit, had not this curse come upon them. I confess, 'tis scarce conceivable how fra­ctions or extensions of parts could be without pain, but we see how Oyls and other Arts prove Emunctions and Le­nitives. And we need not doubt of the Almighties power and kindness in imparting unto them such knowledge, whereby they should have enjoyed a progeny with pleasure, both in Admis­sion; Ejection, Conception, and Emis­sion, without that Philosophical doom (not onely upon Man but other crea­tures) that all creatures after Coition are sad; which I will not dispute whe­ther it is because the pleasure is so short, or some intermixture of pain con­current or expectant; so that there is an immediate and inexpressible sense of the departure of some Animal Spirits from them, which are to supply ano­ther body, as it were robbing them of their Native properties. But for her complying with the Serpent, and there­by disobeying God and Man, she is just­ly doomed to those pains, which cer­tainly are no way compensated with those pleasures which Tirisius tells us [Page 137]of, for those pleasures which are, are rather Inductives, and insnare into pains and tortures, then any real plea­sures: for we may observe, that those who enjoy the most, are loaded with Diseases and Distempers, either in Youth or Age, able to restrain the most Libidinous from enjoying their Phansies more then Realities.

And thy desire shall be to thy husband. § 33. Our Translation in the word Desire follows the Hebrew; and Desires are in Latin Desideriae, derived from Sydera, the Stars; in which formerly, and now in this Age, we place such an efficacy, as to think they have a power over, or vertue to guide our actions: and such a desire ought every woman to have towards her husband.

Other Translators call Desire Cupi­ditas, from Cupid, which is Cuipio: that is, that our desires should be to such, as to whom we may attribute a Piety or Goodness: and upon the like account the wife ought to have her desires to­wards her husband.

Others render the Latin for Desire Amor, that is, a morte: that she is to believe, he is of power to preserve her even from dying by his vigilant care [Page 138]over her: and therefore she ought to have her desires towards him, even for her own preservation.

Others read Desire Conversio tua, &c. that she is to turn and move according as her husband thinks fit to govern: for going two ways can never be suc­cesful and is opposite to a Conjugated Love.

Others read Necessitus tua; that is, Necessasesse; that is, there is so perfect a necessity in obedience, that it must be performed by the wife, lest she cease to be, or at least to enjoy any content­ment to her self or husband.

The Targum reads it Appetitus tua, (a petione;) that is, whatever she desires of her husband must be in a submissive and petitionary way.

Now though our Version saith onely Thy desire shall be to thy husband, it doth not exclude his to her, even in the same senses as before recited: for doubtless as the question is undecided, whether we see by Extramission or In­tromission: so it is in the desires be­tween Man and Woman, whether the object of him attracts her desires, or the object of her attracts his; or whe­ther it be an unexpressible uniting of [Page 139]visuals in a moment; (by visuals I mean the form and figure of what is seen, as well as that which sees.) And it is hard to find out this Attraction by other demonstration then this or the like Experiment: Take a piece of Iron untouch'd by a Loadstone, and such an other piece of Iron as hath been touch­ed, of an equal weight with that which is untouch'd; lay these upon two pie­ces of Cork of equal weight, and flote them upon the edges of a vessel of wa­ter: then fix a thred from side to side of the vessel, at an equal distance from the two Irons, mounted on their Corks opposite to each other, and the Irons with their Corks will by an equal pace swim towards the thread or centre to meet each other, and then both will joyn with an amicable embrace, as if neither would yield to an Attraction, but by a stately, easie, and equal mo­tion, so mutually move to an union at their centre. And though 'tis said, her desire shall be to her husband, yet he is not to hide or retract his mutual and reci­procal love and desires; but to let them meet in one centre and conjugated affe­ction.

[Page 140] And he shall rule over thee. § 34. Regulabi [...] in our Translation; that is, he shall be as a King to guide thy publick affairs: & dominabitur, says another; that is, he shall be a Director also in thy dome­stick concerns. Both which we tran­slate, He shall rule over thee; that is, be a rule or guide to thy actions. Or, as Stars are supposed to guide inferior bodies by their influence; so by his pi­ety and exemplary life to direct and guide her to an upright conversation, and in all hazards of life and death to cherish or prevent them. And were this disposition in husbands, and that imitation in wives, the curse would be a blessing; but the curse is still in re­fractoriness of obedience. And wo­men are still subject to repeat what the Serpent taught, viz. that they may eat: that is, that they may tast of forbid­den fruit, and take irregular courses, thinking to gain experimental know­ledge, and that they shall not die, or be accused thereby for disobedience.

Cap. 3. Ver. 17.

And to Adam he said, § 35. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree the which I commanded [Page 141]thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it. It is the voice that gives the chief distincti­on to the several kinds of living crea­tures, and the species of those kinds are also distinguished by it; so that there is scarce any individual of any kind, which hath not some audible found or voice different from each individual of the same kind; and though each kind agree in the intention of their voice ap­propriate to each kind, so that they understand each other, as the Horse his kind, the Sheep his; yet Man, who is the rational Judge, doth perfectly ap­prehend (even in his imperfect station) that the individuals of each kind have different voices: even the Nightin­gales differ, though not in their Notes, yet in their Keys, some higher, some lower. But in all creatures which have Musical voices Man undertakes the Umpirage: and in respect of his own race, there is no creature to whom he attributes so much pleasure, as to the voice of a Woman; and the more if he hath some additional Affection for her person: for 'tis known, that their very speech hath captivated some men, not for the Rhetorick of what she speaks, but the mere Phantasm of her [Page 142]voice. And if we do this whilest we are under this state of Imperfection, who almost could blame Adam whilest he had the perfection of Judgment, and she the accomplishment of what could make her a perfect voice, so far to in­dulge his harmonious mind as to hear­ken to it? So that certainly God was not angry with him for this, but is was for his hearkening to her voice of tem­ptation, to such a voice as did not on­ly please the appetite of Adams ear, (for that was dispensible;) but such a voice as provoked him to an inordinate act, in doing what he was forbidden; for our delights and contentments ought to be guided, not by what is simply plea­surable and contenting to our selves, but what is just and sutable to Gods commands.

Cursed be the ground for thy sake. § 36. We had need to take care of our actions, whenas we sey by the Text, and daily see how many Innocents suffer by our misactions. The Targum saith, that the ground was cursed because it did not warn Adam of this transgression. And it may be the Lord Bacon had his Phansie from the Targum, that the Earth was a great animal, and that the breath [Page 143]thereof was the Sea, which caused the Ebbing and Flowing. If so then, as it had knowledge within it self of all Gods commands, so it ought to have admonished Adam, and not doing it occasioned this curse.

In sorrow (or tears.) § 37. Tears and Sor­rows are synonimous, for we do not ex­press our sorrows so effectually as by tears; for grones and sighs are but eva­porations of our troubled spirits, but tears are a more condensed and con­tracted evidence of our sorrows, as if recollected and distilled from all the suffering parts of Man. And there­fore David prays, that God would im­bottle his tears; of which I have spoke more in the Chapter of Immorta­lity.

And though we ost shed tears for joy, yet they give such a compressure to all parts, that they seem to be derived ra­ther from the cistern of sorrow then joy, because there usually follows such an immediate discomposure both to the body and mind of those who shed them.

Shalt thou eat thereof all the days of thy life. § 38. The Chyle that feeds us in the womb, the Milk when we are born the [Page 144]varieties of food in our Youth and Age, is but a nimble transmutation of the Earth, so little, that the greatest part in few hours naturally turns to earth again; and that which stays longer, (our Bloud, Flesh, and Bones) is still but earth in various forms and colours, even every minute subject to accidental alteratioas into its original mass: this is our Curse. But what food we should have had void of such transmutations or corruptions, nor Schools nor Human Reason can inform us, onely our Faith believes, that when the days of life are ended, that our cor­ruption shall put on incorruption, and our mortality immortality: in which state we shall be above the use and decay of Elements, because that Beautifical Visi­on which we expect will make us per­fect, without any other supplement but it self, which consists not in fulness of any matter, but unexpressible Illumi­nations.

Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee. § 39. We may observe that Gods curses upon those Innocents have some mixture of blessings; for the Earth is made part of our Human bodies, and Thorns and Thistles have their sana­tive [Page 145]vertues on us, as well as prickles to hurt us. Spina signifies as well the Backbone, wherein our strength and health consists, as those prickles which offend us. And Joseph of Arimathea's Staff was transform'd into a Thorn ra­ther then any other Shrub, as a Signal of his Profession. And Tribulus (a Thistle) may as well be called Tri [...]bulla, a threefold Ornament, intimating the Trinity, which should be more disco­vered to us, as Tribulations or Trou­ble. And these Tribuli (or Thistles) have their virtues too as well as their offences: and it is remarkable, that one of the kinds of these Thistles is cal­led Christs Thistle by the Herballists, up­on supposition that the Crown where­with Christ was in part crucified, was made of the pricky substance of that Thistle. So that as the Earth was cur­sed in bringing them forth, yet they had some kind of honour to be made use of upon so signal an occasion. And Thorns are of that great use in this part of the world, as that whereas before things seemed to have a Community, now by Inclosures and Fences made of them each man enjoys his own proprie­ty with more secureness. And the [Page 146]Thistles give a testimony of the rich' ness of the ground where they grow and by Transplantation turn to an ef­fectual nourishment, as Artichokes, &c. Thorus and Thistles do not ex­clude more pleasant Plants, for amongst Gods curses there are blessings, and his mercies flourish with his justice.

Cap. 3. Ver. 18.

And thou shalt eat the herb of the field. § 40. Soon after Man was created, in the 29th. verse of the first Chapter, saith God to Adam, I have given you every herb, and it shall be to you for meat: there the Injunction was upon the Herb, that it should be for the food of man; but here 'tis said, Thou shalt eat the herb of the field, and here the Injunction was up­on Adam to eat. He was at some liber­ty before to eat, but now his food is restrained; and therefore some do que­stion whether we do not multiply A­dams transgression by our continued eat­ing of other creatures, which were not then allowed to us: for if we consider the numerous living creatures, whose bloud is shed to fill our Appetites, we have nothing almost to plead for the doing so but Custom, or some necessi­ty [Page 147]to lessen the number of those crea­tures, lest they should grow so numer­ous as to destroy those herbs of the field that should feed us; or their Carca­ses by death be more offensive then the Ordure which we extracted from them. So that by this extravagancy of food we seem to continue our curse, in that we cannot frame and comply our Appetites to that which doubtless would be most beneficial to our tem­pers; especially if we consider the vir­tue of herbs, either in their flowers, brauches, or roots, not onely sanative, but more safely nutrimental to our health then any other food.

Cap. 3. Ver. 19.

In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, untill thou return unto the ground. § 41. As Tears proceed from the motions of Joy and Sorrow, and seem to be extra­cted from the most internal parts, and so distilled from the eye, the most deli­cate part of Man: so Sweat by labour or pain is the extraction of the outward parts into a liquid matter, passing through the Pores, to ease it self by discharging that oily and watery sub­stance. Now some parts are more apt [Page 148]then others to vent it, and such in Phy­sick are called the Sudatory parts, as the Armholes, &c. because being na­turally kept more warm, the Pores are more passable: Now the Brow or Face being more bony then those, yet do as quickly send forth that humour as the other parts, and the rather be­cause the Spirits run towards the Brain, and that Pan hath many Sutures about it, through which that humour is more quickly vented. And there is some re­lation to the word Sudor Sweat, and Suturae Sutors; for through those the Brain doth more easily purge itself by Sweats; and they more commonly up­on the Brow, near which the Sutures are, then any other part.

Thou shalt eat bread. § 42. It is not pro­bable that Bread (as we now take it) was known in Paradise; therefore the word Cibum is more used by Tran­slators then Panem: that is, whatever food he should eat for the future, he was to labour and take pains for it, and that must necessarily produce sweat to the brow or face.

Untill thou return to the ground: § 43. for of dust thou wert made, and to dust thou shalt return again. Concerning these read [Page 149]my Discourse of Immortality. The Targum adds, And from dust thou shalt rise again, that thou mayest give a reason for all things thou hast done in the day of the great judgment.

Cap. 3. Ver. 20.

And Adam called his wife Eve (or Eva) because she was the mother (filiorum) of all (the sons of men) living. § 44. If we will give credit to the History of other Nations, there were other people then in being, and many years before; but the Chil­dren of Adam and Eve (say they) were the select people from which God did derive that Church, which hath spread over the greatest part of the world; first by them, then the Patriarchs, then the Jews, then Christians: and the Turks and Jacobines assume an Interest, and do as hardly admit us as we them to the undeniable Progeny of those two Ancestors. But all agree, that at one time or other we came from the earth both by Father and Mother; and by experience we agree thither we shall return again: and most agree to a Re­surrection of rewards or punishments for our virtues or offences.

Cap. 3. Ver. 21.

And to Adam and his wife the Lord God made coats of skins, and clothed them. § 45. Our English cannot render the words better then coats and clothed; though we can­not suppose that there were either coats or clothes in the infancy of the world, unless we will make it an argument for the Prae-Adamites: but according to the Arabic they were clad with the Hides of Beasts. But the Targuim of Ʋz saith, God took off the Serpents skin which tempted them, and put it on them: and it was but just that the Tempter should be so served; and 'tis wished those garments have not infused such a continued subtilty into their successive Generations, that the most part of the world consists of Subtilty and Cheats even to this day, and their former gar­ment of Onyx or Virtue is now scarce known to us but by its name.

Cap. 3. Ver. 22.

And the Lord God said, § 46. Behold, the man is become like one of us, to know good and evil: and now lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and live for ever. The tree of good and evil, and [Page 151]the tree of life, have been discoursed of in the precedent Sections: that which may be added concerning the tree of life is, that it should have such virtue as to make Adam by his eating thereof live for ever. It is much that Eterni­ty should so puzzle the world, whenas we see here that it had been gained merely by the sense of tasting or eat­ing; for certainly even the best things we know or can attain to come first to our Senses, then to our Reason and In­tellect; yea, even the greatest Notions of Faith have their original from some Sense, because by being sensible of things which Sense illustrates to us, we believe greater that are not so sen­sible: And Eternity it self is appre­hended by us with the contemplation of a Beatifical Vision, which we see comparatively by those glorious crea­tures of light, &c. which with varie­ty of contentments we daily behold; and so by the gradations of whatever we see, touch, taste, hear, or smell, the Contemplative man may mount them to such a pious degree, that every sense will as it were injoy a present eternity, which doth not altogether consist in an undetermined continuance, but in a [Page 152]continuance which infolds all imagina­ry contentments, which can be gradual­ly supposed by the most elevated sen­ses. And though Adam was debarred from eating of this tree, yet our Divines say, that we now eat it Sacramentally; & without a Manducation there can be no Sacramental Faith. So that Sense is the first act which leads us to an in­effable higher sense, communicated to us by that tree of life of which we so eat; and this gives us so perfect a sense of eternity, that this thin shadow of Mortality cannot keep even the pre­sent fruition from our senses, and those senses wrap us in their present enjoy­ment. For we see in common Experi­ments, that Salts (and things of such agile natures) pass with ease through several Mediums: so may our Seases if they will imploy their activities other­wise then to carnal uses. Which Adam not doing,

Cap. 3. Verse 23.

Therefore the Lord God sent him forth to till the ground, § 47. from whence he was ta­ken. It appears by the seventh verse, that Adam was made of the dust of the ground, not within the circuit of the [Page 153]Garden or Paradise; and in the 15. ver. that he was put into Paradise, and there to dress and keep pleasurable what God had made pleasant to him: but here in this three and twentieth he is put out of the garden to till that ground from whence he was taken; and there by tilling to adde Art to Na­ture, to change his pleasure into labour, and his ease into industry. He, who was the first man, had but a small en­joyment of felicity; and we, who are his successors, feel the momentariness of our contentments here; they pass away like a flash of Lightning, which vanisheth with its sight. Advance­ments to Honour do but tumble us so many degrees lower, Riches sill us with cares, Plenty with diseases, Pleasures with sorrows; and the same dust that in the Sunshine of Prosperity is raised beyond its centre, is by the Showres of Adversity turned into mire and dirt, and made so contemptible, that all pas­sers by do shun it. And thus by a cir­cular motion we are made, exhal'd, de­prest, and involved in the restless com­mon mass of earth, undistinguishable from all things. But in our souls, which seem to have nothing to do here, [Page 154]but to attend the motions of our dust, and to give an account of every atom thereof, when the Cherubims shall be permitted to admit us into that heaven­ly Paradise, which we believe is reserv­ed for us.

Cap. 3. Ver. 24.

So he drove out the man, § 42. and he placed at the east end of the garden of Eden Cheru­bims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. The Arabick Translation saith Angels instead of Cherubims, which word Angels in a general notion in­cludes all the Degrees of Angels: now the Schoolmen agree that there are nine Orders of them, viz. (according to Dionysius) Seraphims, Cherubims, and Thrones, Archangels, Angels, and Ver­tues; Dominations, Principalities, and Potestates. Yet they do not all agree in the ranking them; for some place Cherubims in the last Order but one: but whether first or last, we find the Order of Chetubims onely ap­pointed to this service. And as for the Flaming Sword, the word Versatilis is used here for Turning every way, and is the same word which described the Serpent that tempted Eve, viz. Serpens [Page 155]versatilis, and thereupon it may well be conjectured, that by this flaming sword, &c. is meant an order of evil Angels, appointed also to guard the way to the tree of life. For as there are Nine Orders of good Angels, so the Schools make nine Orders of Evil Angels, viz. Belzebub, Diabolus, and Be­lial; Asmodeus, Sathan, and Merim; Abaddon, Asteroth, and Mammon. Now of these Merim (the sixth Order) is cal­led Daemon Igneus, and is that Order (say they) which guides the Lightning and Thunder, and all ignital motions: and the study of Divination by fire is called Piromancy. So that this Tree being kept by Evil Angels, Intimates to us that Immortality should not be gained by any of the race of Humanity, untill God thought fit to open the way to it, and dismiss those Guards, and then the Good shall eat of that tree of Life, and the one thereby enjoy their endless felicities, and the others their endless miseries, if Origens Opinion be not more favourable to the latter. But concerning Angels I have written else­where.

Cap. 4. Verse 1.

And Adam knew his Wife, § 49. and she conceived and bare Cain, and she said, I have gotten a man of the Lord. The A­rabic Translation saith Coivit instead of Cognovit; however both words signi­fie the Doing the Act of Generation, which is still but a Tilling of earth, according to command. For how many have died in the very act, either by suffocating of the Spirits, or too violently transmitting them? But I observe, that the word Cognovit is used by almost all Latine Translators, and I conceive justly rendered from their Original, which comes from Cognitio, Knowledge. And therefore we need not wonder that so many Philosophers did contend, that the Venereal Sense should be ordained a Sixth Sense, be­cause (as I suppose) all our Knowledge is made Derivative by that act. Be­sides, the commixture of Spirits in Coi­tion make such Congratulatory ex­pressions to each other, that their very souls seem to be in an Extacy, whilst the spirits are thus in Communication, and mutually imparting, as it were the Method of Creation, now in the in­stant [Page 157]to be traduced into a procreati­on. By the way I observe 'tis said, that God drove out the Man, but the Womans expulsion not mentioned; yet here she shewed the first example of her goodness and kindness, without Cumpulsion to follow and accompany him in all his labours and misfortunes, which is the most excellent property of a wife: yet she was no sooner come into the wide world, but she shewed her Ambitious mind; for the Targum of Jerusalem reads this, and Adam knew his wife, who desired an Angel: and that Targum saith, that she Conceived and brought forth Cain and said, I have got a Man, or Angel of the Lord; from whence that opinion might arise, That Mens bodies were only prisons here below for Angels, and that which we call souls are no other then impri­soned Angels, and that after this Con­finement they return again to the Bea­tifical vision. However her ambition was punisht in her production of Cain, who set the first bad example of Cru­elty and Imhumanity.

Cap. 4. Ver. 2.

And she again bore his brother Abel: § 50. and Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a tiller of the ground. We find nothing in this Text of the Education of A­dams two sons in their Infant years; but so soon as they were fit for im­ployment, Adams discretion guided the choice, and Eves fondness did not ob­struct it, (which is a good rule for mo­thers:) He saw the mild nature of A­bel, and robustous nature of Cain, (as is evident by their story.) And it is said here by the Septuagint, Fact us est instead of Fuit; Abel was made, that is, Abel by that nature which God had infused into him was made fit for that Imploy­ment: And Adam perceiving his sons temper pursued it, and made Abel, that is, imployed him in that calling which was sutable to his nature. And the like Adam did by his son Cain, accord­ing to his nature. We cannot force the temper or natural inclinations of our children, but when we know them, we should rather improve then divert their honest inclinations; and certain­ly these two Imployments, as they were at first insused into the two sons [Page 159]of Adam, so there is room enough for all their posterity to take a share of them. For if we consider the Pasto­rul life of Abel, which is not onely re­strained to Sheep, for pastor is as well a Herdsman as a Shepherd, but hath a la­titude of inspection into all such Crea­tures as keep together in Flocks and Herds; which indeed is most usual in tame beasts: and from thence we learn Wisdom, Sagacity, Sobriety, Tempe­rance, and almost all Moral vertues; by them we come to know Govern­ment, the effects of Union, which keeps them from danger; and indeed almost all Physical Notions, as well Terrestrial as Celestial: and therefore it is no marvel that a Pastoral life hath such real and universal Encomiums, seeing it affords not onely all the varie­ties that Contemplation can afford or administer to us, but withall so multi­farious a mixture of the Active life, that nothing can be more satisfactory to us; especially if we consider the Products of those Creatures which are under their Tuition, whether alive or dead, by their Wool, Hair, Ordure, Teeth, Fat, Entrals, &c. (of which I have writ elsewhere.) Next, if we [Page 160]consider the Agricolist from Cain, where Industry, Art, and Nature do concur; how many various Productions there are to encourage Labour and Art by several Grains, Trees and their Fruit, Quarries, Minerals, and Earths, we may safely conclude that there is no Constitution but may be fitted with a sutable Imployment, both advantage­ous to themselves and others. Nei­ther can any Parent be to seek in their election and recommendation of Im­ployment to their Children, because their Infant years seem as it were to be allowed to the Parent, during that time to weigh and consider of Imployments adequated for them. Now those other Professions, which fill the world with Contests, are not the proper Imploy­ments which were transmitted to us by Abel and Cain, but rather adventitious and intrusive; and we may see by their stories how dangerous it was and hath been to admit a Diversion from those Original Rudiments, especially in ma­king Religion their pretence, as will be shewn in the next Discourse between Cain and Abel.

Cap. 4. ver. 3. to 17.
A Digression concerning Cain and Abel.

And Cain offered to the Lord of the fruit of the ground, § 51. and Abel of the firstlings of his flock; and the Lord accepted Abels, and not Cains. Whereupon Cain was an­gry, and upon dispute with Abel slew him, for which God was displeased, and banished him. But yet Cain seemed to repent of the fact, whereupon God in favour set a mark upon him that none should kill him: and he went and lived in the east of Eden, where he begot children, built a city, and called it by his sons name. What had Cain to do with a voluntary oblation of his la­bours, (for as yet we see no order therein from God) as if he took a pride in them? Abel had as much reason to begin as he, but Abel did not meddle in such matters, till Cain set him an ex­ample: and this may be the chief rea­son why Cainn sacrifice was rejected, whatever Josephus affirms; for hereby he did intrude to that which did not concern his vocation, and afterwards as it were to sit in judgment with God Almighty, by disputing what Sacrifice was acceptable, and what not, and why [Page 162]God refused one and accepted the o­ther, and which should be best the Contemplative or Active life. In which controversie methinks I hear Cain (as discontented at Gods refusal) say to Abel; Is this that just God our father Adam tells us of? Was it Ju­stice in that God, think you, to punish him so severely for eating a little fruit; whereas he that had power to make him, had as much power to hinder him from committing that offence a­gainst his Creator? Was it Justice, think you, to banish him from all fe­licities, and make him the subject of all miseries, who but a little before was made his Image and similitude? How can it consist with a Divine Power to be so inconstant? Or was it Justice towards me, that seeing we were commanded to till the ground in the sweat of our brows; and ac­cording to that command I have dig­ged and delved, and from my industry, and meerly from a pious mind, have dedicated my Labours to him as an acceptable sacrifice; was it Justice in him to refuse my sacrifice, and ac­cept of yours, brother Abell? for you lead a meer Lazy life, and offered no­thing [Page 163]as the Issue of your sweating Labours, or worthy to be esteemed a sacrifice; yet doth this God accept of your Laziness, and reject my Indu­stry. And therefore (saith Cain) I understand no more than this, (which is the Targum of Jerusalem) that there is a God that created the world; but yet he governs without any relation to good works, and is meerly partial; for else why should he accept thine, and not accept mine? And the Tar­gum of Jerusalem makes him more passionate, and affirms, that there is no judge of good or bad, nor no world to come, nor reward for the just, nor punishment for the wicked, nor that the world was created or governed by his mercy, because (saith he) my of­fering is not accepted, and thine is. But Abel was as positive (in which the Targums agree) who replied and said, There is a God; that he is no ac­cepter of persons; that there will be a day of Judgment; and that he is a Righteous Judge; and that there is another world to come; and that there is a reward for the just, and a punish­ment for the wicked: and this affir­mative was sealed with Abel's blood; [Page 164]for in this heat of contest Cain slew him, and thereby made him the first Martyr for Religion. And thus we see how the Disputes of the Ceremo­nial parts of it introduced the questio­ning of the Fundamentals, (as at this day:) and here we see Disputes turn'd into Passion, Passion to Rebellion, (the younger Brother, that is, the inferiour against the elder or superiour;) Rebel­lion to Murder, and almost the highest Murder, Fratricide. And yet it is a Riddle to us, how God disposeth of his Justice; for notwithstanding Cain's great offences against God and Man, by murthering his Innocent Brother, by his rugged answer to God, (Am I his Keeper?) and by his despair of God's Mercy; Yet I say, Cain, being con­vinced (as appears by his acknowledg­ment) that he had finned both in shed­ding bloud, and denying God's Power, Goodness and Justice, order and dispo­sure; and that his sin was beyond for­giveness, and greater than he could bear; God was so merciful as to set a mark upon Cain, to keep him from dan­ger: and Cain had so much glory in the world as to build a City for a Monu­ment to his posterity; whilst innocent [Page 165] Abel never obtained any higher Me­morial than a great stone called by that name, 1 Sam. 6.8. and that bloud which lay weltering in the dust, was called the bloud of Righteous Abel, Mark 23.35. neer 4000 years after the shedding of it. From whence it may be observed, that unless we know the time, circumstances, occasions, and secret reasons and designs of God's disposures, we cannot make any true collections who are good or bad by outward appearances, actions, or acci­dents; for the good endure Miseries, and are punish'd with infamous death; the bad go free from impunities, and enjoy felicities, Titles, Honors, Preser­vations, and pass in quiet to their graves, and both good and bad have sometimes a share of both. Nor is it possible to make a Judgment or these Rewards, because no man can punctu­ally know the exact time of anothers Conversion or Perversion; that secret is only known to God himself, and we are not to doubt of Gods Power or Justice from the Consequences of hu­mane felicities or infelicities; or think that present Rewards are Gods appro­bations, or infelicities his inflictions: [Page 166]nor ought we to trouble our selves with the Method or differences of o­ther mens devotions, but we are to mind our own quiet or industrious Im­ployments, there being sufficient choice (as I said) out of those principles of Pasturage and Agriculture to busie all sorts of ingenious Natures and Tem­pers, without medling with any Con­troversie in Devotions, or questioning of God's acceptation of what we or others do, being done with outward Conformity of worship, and inward clear intentions to please him. For the business of Religion is a particular Imployment not pertaining to Pastu­rage or Agriculture, which, as I said, contains all Temporal Imployments. And when men did multiply, God did think fit to set up Melchisedeck, which was thought to be Seth, because men for the future should not make their voluntary Oblations without directions from such a function as was properly ordained for it. And after him the Levitical Order, purposely to direct and instruct men in their duty of Devotion and Spirituals. And as Cain and Abel were punish'd for intruding into their Function (which may seem to be then [Page 167]dispensible, in respect there were none ordained to it,) so it is as inconsistent and dangerous for that Order to med­dle with the Functions of Cain and Abel, unless it be by way of inspecti­on, or contemplation of God's Crea­tures, but not of occupation or mix­ing of Functions; for by one the State is destroyed, by the other the Church. And I further observe, that the first Priest we read of was King of Salem, to shew that the directions in that fun­ction did proceed from the King or Government, which is best able to judge of its own Method in offering to God what is fit and consonant to its constitution: and the Order of Priests are to give their sutable instructions, so as these different Vocations may neither interfere nor incroach on each other, as properly belonging to the su­preme Magistrate to keep them in a true Balance.

Cap. 5. Verse 3.

And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and knew his wife again, § 52. and be­got a Son in his Likeness, after his Image, and called his name Seth. For she said, God hath appointed me another seed instead [Page 168]of Abel, whom Cain slew. I observe that these two exemplary Parents did not torment themselves with passion for the murther of their eldest, and deprivement of their youngest son; or that they (as it were) lost them in the prime of their youth, when they had been instructed in civil and Religious duties, and were Capable of such Im­ployments (as may be collected by the Text;) or for the want of such asso­ciates and assistants to their injoyned Labours: None of these (I say) did promote a passion in them, or any re­luctancy against their Creators dispo­sure, it seeming equal to have no Children, or to have them with the care of Education and the anxieties in the loss of them, or the discontents which may happen by their ill deport­ments; but with patience and silence they undergo what God thought fit to permit, and a blessing did follow it; for he had another son in his Likeness after his Image, which (saith the Tar­gum) was like him in features, and like Abel in goodness of disposition; for as Abel was a keeper of Sheep, and Cain a husbandman, this son Seth (as is conceived by some) was that Melchise­deck, [Page 169]as I said, who was a Priest of the Living God. And thus in some measure every mans Patience and sub­mission begets some Reward, which hath a similitude to his expectation.

Cap. 5. verse 4.

And the dayes of Adam after he begat Seth were eight hundred years, § 53. and he be­gat Sons and Daughters. According to some Rabbins Adam had thirty sons and thirty daughters; and though it be said here, he begat sons and daughters; yet it doth not exclude such danghters as were begotten before Seth, which those Rabbins say were two, Calma­na and Deborah, and that they were the Wives of Cain and Abel, and if so, then probably when Abel was slain Cain took them both to be his wives; and then admit that they were all four born within four years of Adams Ex­pulsion out of Paradice, then within thirty years they might be all four ca­pable of procreation, and have Chil­dren; so that the pre-Adamite needs not seek for the assistance of another Nation to People the Land of Nod, or the City of Enoch, since upon an easy multiplication in less then one hundred [Page 170]years, they and their progeny might easily produce and carry thither above five thousand persons.

Cap. 5. verse 5.

And all the days of Adam were nine hundred and thirty years. § 54. Eternity is so Circular, that a thousand years are but as a day, and a day but as a thou­sand years; our knowledge of it is in the Abstract, and therefore there is framed to us some Epoches and progres­ses by which this Eternity moves in its Circle; and to pass by Minutes, Hours, and those smaller gradations, we come to days, weeks and moneths, and years; and we make the Year to consist of Moneths, the Moneths of Weeks, and the Weeks of days. Now those who are not guided by those pro­portions, do make a diversion from these equal paths wherein Eternity would guide us; and those who seem to be confounded in their va­rious Commensurations; for some ac­counted four weeks or eight and twen­ty days to be a year, others seven moneths or eight and twenty weeks; others accounted their years by Win­ters, others by Summors; some by [Page 171]Nights and Dayes artificial, suppo­sing I presume the Winter to be the dead time of the year, and the Night no part of our life, and therefore ought not to be Computed within the compass of the Living year. But in later Ages the year was settled ac­cording to the Natural day, consist­ing of four and twenty hours, and the Sun and Moon dividing it into twelve Moneths, or thirteen Moones, or fifty two Weeks; within the year contained three hundred sixty five dayes; but there happening six hours over in the yeare (to supply all defects by way of Intercalation) they have ad­ded one day at the end of every fourth year, which is called the Bisseztile or Leap year, because in that year by that addition of one day there happens two days which must necessarily be cal­led Sextilis Calend arum Martii, by rea­son of the interposition of that day, consisting of the forty six hours inter­posed; so that all those lesser Compu­tations of the year being reconciled to my hand, I may go clearly upon the Literal sense (as I have hitherto done in these discourses) and affirm, that Adam lived Nine handred and thirty [Page 172]years, accounting the years either ac­cording to the Julian or Gregorean Set­tlements, one being but 186. days more then the other in 930. years: For were it moneths or quarters, Mahala­el and Enoch, who begat children at sixty five years, would not have been out of their Infancy when they are said to beget Children: nor do I see any ground why we should doubt that they lived so many years (accounting accor­ding to our Computations) when as they were neerer to the original perfection wherein Adam was made, and knew the sanative virtues of all things; nor had they those temptations of Exorbi­tancies which grew up with the exube­rancy of the world. Besides, we see even in our times to what great Ages Men and Women have arived even to two and three hundred years, though Climes, constitutions, vitiations by food, and other inordinacies do dis­temper that harmony of nature, by which our forefathers did subsist.

Now nine hundred and thirty years want but seventy of a thousand, and a thousand are but as a span; the span is but what it can grasp, and why should we labour to grasp that which [Page 173](whether we hold or not) is equal at present, but disadvantagious not only in the riddance of Anxieties, but also procrastinating those happy Expecta­tions, which even Common Reason guides us to believe. For though there is no mention made in our Translations how Adam was disposed of after he di­ed, yet the Targum of Jerusalem says, Mortuus est, & collectus fuit e medio Mundi: And it is sufficient he was ta­ken out of the midst of the troubles and anxieties of the world. And there can be no doubt, but that he who was imprisoned here nine hundred and thir­ty years for his offence, and had worn the badges of mortality in the skins of dead Beasts for his cloathing, and digg'd his grave so oft in cultivating the Earth, as a reward for his fruga­lity and industry (after his death) enjoy­ed such quiet felicities as I hope will be given to all such as shall live and die here in a clear submission to our Creators Will.

And he died. § 55. We read of three sorts of death; the Violent, which befel Abel; the Natural, Adam; and the Transmutative, Enoch: yet these di­stinctions relate only to the manner, [Page 174]for death is the same to all; and as the Poet saith, there are a thousand ways to it. If it be forced, 'tis still a death; or transmuted, (which is a kind of in­sensible force) it is still a death; or according to the extent of Nature, when she or the soul being weary of the confusions of this life, retires and hides it self from performing any fur­ther offices to the body; it is still a death. And though Adam is said to live nine hundred and thirty years, which is three hundred thirty nine thousand six hundred thirty six days, (in which I compute the Bissextile days) and if those days be accounted by hours, and those hours by minutes; yet it may truly be said, that so many minutes as he lived, so many minutes he died; for the Casualities which occasion death are as many as those which attend our lives, and therefore he which lives longer than another, passeth by only so many more Casual­ties; his life is not the longer, though prolonged, because death hath still an Interest in every prolongation, and is so clearly concerned, that 'tis not to be judged, who is living or who dy­ing. At our Birth we break the Pri­sons [Page 175]of Death, and lie at the mercy of Midwives, or other Keepers for our Evasions; in our Infancy, Nurses and Tutors; in our Youth, our Extrava­gancies; in our riper years, our dis­cretion and indiscretion, madness and sobriety, are equal attendants; in Age, diseases and infirmities are ready to usher us to the Grave (a more severe Prison;) and yet with little difference, for the grave of the womb gives life to us, and the other by our death gives life to multitudes of vermine; they by Corruption enrich the Earth, the Earth by that fertility affords us food, that food supports life: And so there is a Circulation of Generation and Corruption; and those possibilities being in either, 'tis hard to judge which is living which dying. And it is not only thus in Terrestrials, but even in Celestials: The day dies, the night produceth another, that dies again. And so in those glorious Creatures in the heavens there is also a visible Ro­tation of living and dying, and our life and death is but as night and day. And it seems an incivility towards God, or rather an affront to his disposure, to desire a long life, as if we would [Page 176]afford no room to our successors, or permit God to be seen by any but our selves in his unexpreffible variations. And therefore the most consonant way to our Immortality is to live in a con­tinued mortification: For so we shall live by dying, and die by living.

Of Life, Death, Resurrection, and Immortality: As also of the Chemistry of Nature operating in our souls and bodies by which they are forced to re­joyn.
1 Cor. 15.22.

FOr as in Adam all die, so in Christ (the second Adam) all shall be made alive, or have resurrection from the dead. The joynt operation of mans soul and body is called Life; the Cessations of those joynt motions Death. The ope­rations and constant exchanges which Nature admits of are perplexities; for nothing in life is pleasure but the en­joyment of an equal and contented mind; knowing our selves totally, or in our [Page 177]particles, to be every minute hurled about with the vicissitude of Constitu­tions; the Cessation, (or at least our want of knowledg what is done in the grave) seeming to be our quiet: But how far, or how long it conti­nues 'tis hard to judge, seeing our cor­rupted parts are hourly traversing into various Productions, of which we con­sist, and into which we return again. But by reason of this Cessation or seeming separation (not only of soul and body, but of the parts of the body into millions of forms) we (to support our belief in the union of our parts) seek after the progresses and inclinations of other Creatures to theirs, (notwith­standing their several Contingent ob­structions;) and therefore I think fit to set down several observables. And in the first place that Experiment of re­viving a Plant out of its ashes is a noble piece of Chemistry, Dr. Browns Religio Medici. and serves well to this purpose. And though such a re­vived Plant may want some of its Ac­cidents, yet the very revivification of it, if it gains not a full satisfaction to Im­mortality, yet it affords us a fair testi­mony of the possibilty of our Resur­rection; for then all the Accidental [Page 178]defects of nature shall be volatile, but the virtues and perfections of nature fixed. Indeed if we could find out by art a revivification of Vegetables in all their accidents, we should make Immor­tality too common: it is enough if a man can make any experimental in­ducement to his faith, and give an imi­tation to future perfection.

The whole Art of Chemistry, what is it (as I conceive) but to dissolve the nature of a Creature, and to recollect it again, if not into its superfluous acci­dents, yet into a noble Evidence of its virtues? And this is done not so much by the force of Arts, as by the secret instinct and greediness of its own dis­position to unite its scattered nature. And that which is worthy of obfer­vation for our use in this Art is, Let the gross body of any Creature be dissolved or dissected into many parts, that remaining part which is visible to us, after its dissolution, may by art be made to represent the form of it self whilst it had an entire being. This may be seen from the distillation of Plants, (that is, the Extract of them:) As for example; Make of Rosemary such a Liquor as we call the sulphur, by [Page 179]some the essence or spirit of it, and put it into a Viol or glass closed up, as Chemists do, after a little setling it shall by a certain kind of vapour or mist re­present to the eyes the very shape of Rosemary.

And this may be more easily illu­strated by another Experiment: About the spring time (when the bark begins to run,) take a young Ash, and saw it off about a foot from the ground; then make a Concave hole in it, and cover it, and the sappy juice or bloud of it will rise up and fill the hole: then Lave out so much water as rises in it, and put it into a glass, and stop the glass, as Che­mists do, by closing the Metal of the glass, and every spring you shall discern in the glass as it were an Ash tree. Now I cannot tell whether the Mist men­tioned in Genesis was the Essence with which God then indued all Vegetables, making them conspicuable to Man, which before was not. And by this we may judg of the rational and vegetative soul; this had perfection of information from this Mist which watered the Earth: The other from the breath of the Almighty. And whether by this breath is meant a misty and waterish hu­mour [Page 180](if with reverence we may so conceive of the divine breath, or ac­cording to my former opinion) is un­certain: But if either, then the Ope­rations of the one may well advance the belief of the other. And if this Ex­periment should hold in mans body as in Vegetables, how easie is it to con­ceive the manner of mans resurrection, when by God Chemistry the Essence of each man in an instant represents to God (or to Man, being made capable of such a sight) the true Effigies and pro­portion of his body?

And in this notion, why may not I make use of that Metaphorical Speech of David? Put my tears into thy bottle, O Lord; which tears were the tears of Compunction and sorrow for sin, pro­ceeding from a Contrite heart, and a de­vout brain, not from the Redundancy of a salt humour: so that I may call such tears the very Liquor of life. Now whether such Cordial tears, if they were put into a glass, would represent Man, David (that understood the se­crets of God) knew best. And the ex­periment were not unworthy the Tryal by a Penitent Christian, to weep till he saw himself in his own tears. But be­cause [Page 181]there is seldom in man that true distillation or extract of tears which there ought to be, the experiment may be fallible.

But that which may more easily be tried, is to take a Starling, and cover it with two wooden hollow dishes, and it will weep it self to death; and that Liquor were a fit subject for the Ex­periment of sensitive souls, till we can meet with a more certain one for the rational. But to go a little further with some notions or fancies concern­ing our Resurrection.

If by a Cabalistical Geometry it could be found out how many humane bo­dies the Earth could afford out of its bulk, of which mens bodies were at first, are still, and shall be (as it were) remade, allowing to each humane bo­dy, such a proportion of its mould or dust as will make it suitable to the most perfect pattern, (for the best Di­vines hold we shall rise with perfect bodies, and of such perfect dimensions as I have writ in a former Chapter in this book) I believe the general resur­rection might then be known. If also by an Historical Accompt it might be given in how many such parts of the [Page 182]Earth have been already informed by souls, and how much still remains to be informed. But because Art may be fallible in so great a work of Phancy, we must submit to Faith; by which I believe, that when the whole Earth shall be disposed into bodies, that which we call the General Resurrection will follow: And that when Heaven and Earth shall pass away, the bodies of the wicked shall remain in the place of the Earth, which shall be their Hell; and the bodies of the just in the place of the Coelestial Orbs, which shall be their Hea­ven.

This kind of Resurrection or resump­tion of our Earth doth not cross the Scriptures, but confirm them; which sayes, the Earth shall be no more, and that it shall be Consumed by fire: for by this resumption or transformation, the Earth shall (as it were) be turned into nothing, because its parts shall become another thing. And there is a necessity that fire should do this, for we see how metals will admit several mixtures with other metals; but let fire come once to dissolve them, and they will all run with violence each to his proper kind. Now seeing this, I can easily believe [Page 183]that each body (though divided into Millions of parts) in the general Con­flagration will run nimbly through all mediums to that soul, which once in one bulk they own'd, and which I still be­lieve with a diffusive virtue constantly hovers over it in its dissections. And in this dissolution or mutation (to confine my speculations to what our Divinity imparts) the godly, being of a more re­fined metal, shall run one way, and the ungodly (as David says) shall be put away like dross.

Now that our Terrestrial bodies shall not be consumed or annihilated by this fire, I have seen experimented in Iron Kilns, (where the Iron stone is dissolved) there you shall very often find large pieces of Charcole fall down with the Liquid Iron into the Furnace,This Char­cole is made of the Withy-tree, which grows fre­quently in Worcester­shire, where I first ob­served it. and from thence, when the Iron is let forth, it will swim out with it, but floting on the top of the Iron; and those pieces of Charcole the fire hath no power over, or doth not con­sume.

But that which gives a more deli­cate relish to the soul is another tri­vial Experiment, that if a Combustible matter be joyned to that which is not [Page 184]so Combustible, the less Combustible will preserve the Combustible from destructi­on. As for example:

Take a piece of Thred, and tie it close about a piece of Iron, and the flame of a Candle will never burn it; so out bodies (though combustible) be­ing then joyned to our souls of a spiri­tual and uncombustible matter, will be preserved from destruction and power of the Fire.

And though these Conclusions by Fire be pertinent to the manner of our resurrection in so many variations, yet because the reunion of our parts is the knottiest piece of our belief, I shall assist mine with two Observations, concerning the Magnetick and concate­nating virtue of most Creatures, either entire, or in parts; by which may be seen their inclination to union. As in the greedy society of men to men, and sometimes fat men to lean, and lean to fat, either to supply the defect, or de­duct the superfluity of either; beasts to beasts, Fowls, Fishes, Trees, Herbs, and Stones, to their kind; or in the dis­membring or dividing of most of these, how sensibly the parts divided seem to covet and fly to a Rejunction: [Page 185]as may be experienced in our dismem­bred parts, but more fully in Snakes, Eels, Worms, (whose divided parts will run to each other.) The Expe­riment is more eminent in two pieces of raw Beef (cut from one Beast) put into a pot of water, wherein adding a competent proportion of Comfrey, let them boyl a while, and they will close together; but if the flesh be from two beasts, the Comfrey will not cement them. But the Demonstration is more noble in Metals, of which take several pieces of Gold, Brass, Silver, Iron, Tin; make them into the shape of Pins, two of each sort, and lay them gently upon water in a Bason, (and if it be carefully done they will not sink;) then you shall perceive, that as they float, they will naturally hunt about to find each its proper kind; As Brass to Brass, Tin to Tin, &c. and drawing near to their own, will seem to embrace with a cer­tain joyful violence. The second ob­servation is of water: Take of that which runs through several Minerals, and distil it, and when the liquid part is evaporated, the fixt matter that remains will lie in distinct parts, according to the number of Minerals which the [Page 186]water hath passed through. Thus our bodies, like several Liquors of different weight, (though jumbled together) will of themselves return to their due place, and position; and though they be promiscuously tossed and used for the pre­sent by the several contrary and oblique course of the sphears, and other interpo­sures, yet the first mover once ceasing and giving stop to the rest, all nature will return to a quiet harmony, and every Genius to embrace its own indi­viduals: Or else I conceive that the Composition of Man (in his secundary productions since his Creation) being meerly compacted of variated or cor­rupted Elements; which makes some incline to Philosophy, others to Rusticity; some of the disposition of Birds, others of Beasts. Having thus past through the whole nature of other Creatures, as Trees, Flies, Worms, Birds, Beasts, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, &c. All substan­ces, from whence innumerable species are derived, shall at the last Conflagra­tion or general Resurrection be dissolved into humanity, to make each man more or less intelligible, according to the na­tures of those individuals of which he hath had an ingrossment or participation.


THese several Philosophical Notions support my Faith in the belief of Divine Matters. If there be any man of so stedfast a faith, who cares not for the use of Reason, Sense, or Phancy, in the conceiving of these and other My­steries, I commend and admire him; he may in time remove Mountains: for my part, God hath made me a Rational Creature, and in Divine matters, what cannot be comprehended by my Reason, I shall implore his grace to give me faith to believe the possibility of them. In the mean time I shall be humble in my Enquiry after them, and if I may borrow something from Nature, and from Phancy, from Sence, or Reason, to instruct me in such Mysteries I shall not neglect them: But I shall study by not knowing them, to keep my Devo­tion, For the Etymolo­gy of Phansee is no mere than I would fain see. rather than to lose it by too cu­rious a speculation. My Knowledge in Na­ture, my Phansie, Sense, and Reason, shall be all subject to Faith; not doubting [Page 188]but Faith will afford them all such a supernatural Light as shall be profitable to their dull constitutions. The know­ledge of Nature is fallible; Sense, Phansie, and Reason, may be deceived; but true Faith cannot: Therefore they shall al­ways follow my Faith. In which pur­suit if they meet with any stop, I will give them leave to stay awhile, but not too long, lest they lose her way, her guide, and her object.



  • ADam, pag. 149.
  • Affections, 139.
  • Angels, 154, 157.
  • Apparel, 150.
  • Appetite, 138, 141.
  • Art, 82.
  • BAse, 15.
  • Beasts, 96, 130.
  • Birds, 96.
  • Breath, 13.
  • CArnality, 35.
  • Cattel, see Beasts,
  • Circumspection, 131.
  • Coition, 156.
  • Colours, 96.
  • Contentment, 27.
  • Creation, 1, 2, 17, 28, 30.
  • Cupidity, 137.
  • Cursing, 129, 133, 142.
  • DArkness, see Light:
  • Day, 49, 98, see Years.
  • Death, 51, 98, 173.
  • Desire, 137, 138.
  • Disobedience, see Obedience.
  • Devil, 93.
  • Dominion, 84.
  • Dust, 21, 29.
  • EArth, 144.
  • Eye, 33.
  • Education, 158.
  • Evil, see good.
  • FAith, 171, 187.
  • Fear, 118.
  • Felicity, 153.
  • Food, 144, 146, 148.
  • Fruit, see Trees and Plants, 102.
  • GArden, 26.
  • Garments, 111
  • God, 28, 52, 53, 112, 117.
  • Gold, see Minerals, 19, 20, 40.
  • Good, 100.
  • HErbs, 95, 96, 146.
  • Hermaphrodite, 79.
  • Husband, 140.
  • INdustry, 43. 152.
  • Image, 77.
KNowledge, 58.
  • LAW, 45.
  • Life, see Soul and Trees, 54, 158, 172, 176.
  • Light, 49.
  • Love, 108.
  • MAn, 9, 10, 20, 21, 29, 76, 79.
  • Marriage, 70, 72.
  • Messias, 134.
  • Midst, 34.
  • Minerals, 34, 185.
  • Months, see Years.
  • Multiplying, 82.
  • NAkedness, 75.
  • Names, 58.
  • Navigation, 41.
  • Necessity, 138.
  • Noses and Nostrils, 24.
  • Nothing, 57.
  • Numbers, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 36, 38, 52, 53.
OBedience, 45, 57, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109, 123, 136, 140.
  • PAradise, see Garden.
  • Passion. 114.
  • Patience, 168.
  • People, 169.
  • Plants, see Trees, 29, 32, 34, 144.
  • REason, 151, 187.
  • Religion, 161.
  • Resurrection, 176.
  • Rib, see Bones, 16, 63, 65, 68.
  • Rivers, 36, 40.
  • SAcrifice, 87.
  • Serpent, 93, 94, 124.
  • Sin, 124, 128, 129, see Vertue and Vice.
  • Sleep, 62.
  • Sorrow, 143.
  • Soul, 18, 25, 133, 176.
  • Speech, 126, 127.
  • Spirit, 26, 31.
  • Stones, 38, 40.
  • Sweat, 147.
  • TEars, 143.
  • Temptation, 95, 96.
  • Time, see Years.
  • Trees, 34, 35, 40, 45, 48. 52. 116, 151. see Plants.
  • Tryals, 112.
  • VErtue and Vice, 121.
  • Voice, 140, 112.
  • Voluptuousness, 137.
  • Wife, 107. See Marriage and Man and Obedience.
  • Woman, 55, 56, 57, 65, 69, 70, 80, 128, 135, 137. See Man.
YEars, 170.

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