St. Foine Improved, A DISCOURSE Shewing the Vtility and Benefit which ENGLAND Hath and may receive by the GRASSE CALLED St. FOINE, And answering the Objections urged against it.

Being useful for all Ingenious Men.

Written by a Person of Honour lately deceased.

LONDON, Printed by S. G. and E. G. for Nath. Brooke, at the Angel in Cornhill, 1671.

Vindicated and Commended to all that delight in Hus­bandry, and other ingenious Men.

NOtwithstanding the great benefit which divers places of this Kingdome have already in part, and are like hereafter to receive more abundant­ly, by the improvement of dry and barren Ground, and the increase of Pasture and Meadow upon them, through the Sewing of the Grass-seed called St. Foine, yet there are not wanting some, who not only speak themselves, but would also engage the State against it; as if the common Mother of all the People, could be perswaded to discourage the industry of some of her Children (for the common good and wealth of the King­dome, as well as their own particular advantage) to grati­fie some others with the monopoly of all the Hay and Herbage thereof; and to satisfie rather their imaginary fears (as anon shall be declared) than their real sufferings; although all they can suffer, is but the abatement of that [Page 2]gain which they have so long time made by the sufferings of their Neighbours, making their advantages upon o­thers necessities: And it were very great partiality, to force any part (and by far the greater part of the Nation to labour still under their necessities, and not to suffer them to supply themselves by the improvement of their own Grounds (which proportionably improveth the stock and riches of the Nation) that some Men might still have the opportunity to sell their Hay, and let their Pasture so much the dearer.

If these Men could alleadge, that by this improvement of the dry and barten Ground, their rich Grounds were made poorer, or less fruitful, or that what was abated in their Lands was gained by Forraigners, and not by their own fellow Subjects (which secureth the Kingdome from any loss) they had more colour of reason on their side; but in this case they have none at all: For as the Com­monwealth receives no detriment by it, so neither doth any particular man receive any prejudice thereby, but by accident, if at all; but on the other side the Kingdome in general is thereby enriched, many private men advan­taged in their estates, without the least injury to any par­ticular Man whatsoever: for it is well known how great and vast a quantity of Land there hath been, and still is in England and Wales, which of its own nature is neither Meadow, or any confiderable pasturage, in respect of so great a proportion of ground, insomuch that the Inhabi­tants of divers places have been forced to buy Hay at ex­cessive dear rates, 20 s. 30 s. 40 s. and sometimes 3 l. and 5 l. a Tun, and to fetch it by Cart, six, ten, fifteen miles. Others have been forced to supply the want of Hay by Turnips (as in Norfolk) and all this not sufficing, men have set their wits on work to get more Pasture and Mea­dow, [Page 3]whereupon, great Levels of Fens have been Drain­ed in some Countries; and in other places Meadow and Pasture hath been exceedingly increased by the water­ing of dry and course Grounds, and those that having so done, have had opportunity to sell their Hay, and set their Herbage at very dear rates to their neighbours, now that their own turn is served, they would pull up the ladder (as they say) after them, and would hinder others from improving their dry Grounds, in such ways as they are capable of improvement; as if the Rain were to fall, and the Sun to shine only on some Mens Lands. The Men of the Vale might as well desire that those of the Hill-country might not Fold, or Dung their Ground, or Sow any Corn, that so (having no Corn of their own) they might be forced to buy it at a higher rate from those of the Dale; and with far greater ap­pearance of reason might they urge such a restraint, be­cause the Vale being the Granary of the Kingdom would thereby be encouraged to Sow more Corn, and forbear to turn so much Tillage into Pasture, and that the Tillage of the Hill-countries doth but waste the strength of Men and Beasts, and the stock of the King­dom to little purpose, and will fail the Nation in dry years, and supply it but a little in wet years. In like man­ner the Wood-land-countries might with as good rea­son desire that no French Furze might be sown (as in De­vonshire and Cornwall) nor any Wood planted in naked Countries, that they might sell their Wood the dearer, or that no Turfs or Coals might be made use of, (as I have heard) that when Sea-coal began to be first burnt in London, those that feared the fall of their Wood from the prizes they formerly sold at, procured a Petition to be preferred to the House of Commons, against the bur­ing of Sea-coal, as corrupting the Air of the City. Now [Page 4]though there is hardly any thing so innocent, or useful to Mankind, but that envy, and self-interest may find some­what in it to cavil at, yet could I never hitherto hear of any thing that was objected particularly against this im­provement by St. Foine, faving only that it fills the Nation with over much Meadow and Pasture, which if it be ac­compted a nuisance, the same thing bath been done many other ways, and those not altogether free from particu­lar exceptions against them.

It cannot be objected here, as against the Draining of the Fens, or the watering of Meadow, that the Slabb and Mud which remains after the Water is drawn off the Ground, and the Suns heat comes upon, it corrupts the Air, and makes it unwholesome. Nor that it indanger­eth Cattle with the Murrain, for want of Water, in dry years, as it is found that low and Fen-grounds do, or that it rotteth or deceiveth Gattle (as the Hay of some watred Ground doth) and which is but course, and not very good for Sheep at the best. Nor that it destroys any Fish, or prejudices any Mill, nor hinders Navigation, or pens the Water up too long upon other Mens Ground above, or keeps it too long from them below, or that thereby any mans ground is cut away, or that any Mans Common, Fishing, Fowling, or other way of live­lihood is destroyed, or that the Water is carried off one part, to lye heavier, and more dangerously on another side. All, or some of which, may be truly objected against Draining of Fens, and Watering of Meadows, notwith­standing all which the Kingdome hath been thought in ge­neral so much advantaged by the increase of Pasture and Meadow (all which St, Foine doth, as anon shall be shewn) that it hath by particular Acts countenanced the own, and never discountenanced the other.

But now say some (and this is the only objection that [Page 5]ever I heard against St. Foine) there is so much Meadow and Pasture in the Kingdome, that there is not stock to spend it. A strange paradox, that plenty should make the Kingdome poor; but before I speak directly to that principle (which is that of all monopolists, tending to the inriching of a few, by the impoverishing of many) I de­mand how doth the truth of this assertion appear; be­cause in some parts, where in plentiful years there is al­ways Hay to spare, especially where they were used to sell their Hay, and never look out to provide stock, there­fore they conclude, that it is so generally and constantly; whereas there cannot be a clearer demonstration of the contrary, than the cost Men are still at of 40 s. and 50 s. an Acre to improve their Grounds by St. Foine, which they would never do if they knew not how to get stock to eat their Grass and Hay, when they had been at so much cost, aad charge to promote it. Nay, it is so far from that, that notwithstanding the great plenty of old Hay, that was left the last year, and the improvement by St. Foine, the Inhabitants (even in some Parishes where there is a considerable proportion of St. Foine) have yet this last year bought Hay at 20 s. the Tun and more, and fetched it six miles and more by Cart. And I know a Gentleman that hath above 40. Acres of St. Foine, and yet is forced still to buy Hay for the ordinary stock of his Farm: And surely none need to fear, but if there be Meat there will be Mouths, and the increase of Grass and Hay will proportionably increase the stock of the King­dome; and as there is more sustinance for Cattle, there will be more buyers of them, and then there will be more Breeders; and rather than stock should be wanting, the Improvers by St. Foine will in time breed for themselves and others too, that Grass having a special quality to be­get [Page 6]store of Milk, and that very good, whence amongst other names it is called Idygala, and will be as proper to breed, as to feed Cattel.

Now whereas some are ready to impute the abatement of the price of their rich Grounds and Meadow, to the improvement of St. Foine, it is in (probability) but a mis­take of non causa pro causa, for there hath not been so much of it yet sown, as that it can be generally felt through the Kingdome, as the abatement of Rents hath been, and that as much or more in such Countries where none of that Grass hath been, nor in many miles near them, as in those Countries where it hath been Sown. And as much or more in Farms chiefly consisting of Corn, and little of Meadow and Pasture, and that for these ten years last past, when very little St. Foine was Sown or spoken off. So that such abatements of Rent must pro­ceed from some other causes of the general decay in Trade.

On the other side, that which is feared will be an effect of this, and the like improvements, is not like to be, for the Sowing of St. Foine doth not make the rich Grounds, and Meadows poor, or more barren. And whereas it may be thought that the more plenty there is of Grass and Hay, of the less value they will be, that doth not fol­low neither, and if it did, yet would there no inconveni­ence thereby happen to the publick. I say it doth not necessarily follow, that the more store there should be of Hay and Grass, the cheaper they should be, for as I said before, the more meat the more mouths both of Men and Beasts, and the more of them the more Merchandizers, the more Manufactures, and the more Money; and every way the more will be the Riches, Strength, Prosperity, and Glory of a Nation. It may be, that as an uncertain [Page 7]temper of weather (sometimes heats and sometimes colds) is prejudicial to the natural body, so will an uncer­tain and vatiable state of scarcity and plenty prove hurt­ful to the body politick, the one starving, and the other glutting it; but whatsoever layeth a foundation of a cer­tain plenty, must needs be of great advantage to the pub­lick; and though there may be some little appearing, or possibily some real loss to some Men, till such time as they have accommodated their particular concerns and inte­rests, to such alteration in Trade, as may happen upon a new Improvement, and till such time as plenty hath wrought out it self a vent, yet this loss is no other than such as the Husbandman seems to sustain in casting away his Seed, which he will find again at Harvest with great advantage. As for example, in this Improvement where­by the sustenance of all sorts of Cattle is increased, as Men find they have more keeping, so will they look out for more stock of all sorts, and the more Buyers there be the more Breeders there will also be, and the more Breed­ers the more Feeders, the means of feeding as well as of breeding being increased. So that scarcity of Hay and Grass will sooner make goods cheap than plenty thereof, for Men will not buy above the prop rtion of the means they have to maintain or feed of what they buy, and yet those that are necessitated to sell for want of means to keep their stock must sell though at low rates, which in­deed is when there are but few that have means to keep stock, is the advantage of those few, because they may buy cheap, and sell deat, but withal it is (as all Monopo­lies are) very disadvantagious to the publick; for it dis­courages the Breeders of Stock, and the less Stock the less Compost and Dung, and the fewer working Oxen and Horses, and so the less Corn, and the less Meat, Drink, [Page 8]and Cloathing, the fewer people will be in a Nation, and so fewer Souldiers, fewer Tradesmen, fewer Merchants, because fewer Workmen, and fewer Materials to work upon, and lesser sustinance for the Workmen.

And if it shall be demanded where we shall have a suf­ficient stock of Men? I answer, there is little doubt of the fertility of these Northern Nations of England and Scotland, if the want of means and subsistance did not put a restraint upon Marriage (which draws after it divers other inconveniences, of Bastards, Beggars, &c and we find by experience that the richest Countries are best peo­pled, and freest from Beggars; and it is not to be doubt­ed, but that as the good husbandry of Densuring or De­vonshering of Land (and the like) hath rendred the Coun­ty of Devonshire a rich and populous Country, which of its own nature is but a barren Soill. So in time will this improvement by St. Foine, and other such like, render the Downy and dry parts of England and Wales more rich and populous. And if it might be supposed that the Kings Dominions could not afford a sufficient stock of Men and Cattle, for the consumption and working of inner Com­modities when increased: Plenty of good and valuable Commodities will draw Men from all parts of the world, or at least such Commodities will be of value in all parts of the world.

If we had such plenty of Corn, Meat, Tallow, Lea­ther, Butter, Cheese, Wax, and Honey, (for them also St. Foine will certainly increase Bees, so exceedingly de­lighting to feed on the Flowers thereof) as that with the surplusage of our own Consumption we might send over great quantities beyond Seas, and also be able out of our own aboundance to under sell other Nations, we should not need to fear the vent of them, for our Commodities [Page 9]would be most vendible, because cheapest. Besides, by having a great quantity of such substantial Commodities for the life of Man to Transport, we should bring our Ex­port to be far greater than our Import, which now is fear­ed to fall be ow it, and to be the chief cause of the want of Money, and Consequently of the decay of Trade in the Kingdome, and must needs (if not prevented) in time begger it in the end.

But to such as are afraid of plenty, I shall further say, that it is greater riches not to need, than to have much money. What are Men the worse, though they receive less money from their Lands or goods, if all things they stand in need of for Meat, Drink, Cloathing, and other necessaries, may be bought with less money. And what if Men sell off Goods cheaper, if they can buy them in as much cheaper.

Indeed some persons would not have so much Money in their Pockets to carry on a Trade, which is neither pro­sitable to themselves, nor the Kingdome, but very preju­dicial to both; that is excessive Gameing, and Betting at Cockings, and Races, and other superfluous, that I may not say, luxurious expences upon Forraign Commodities, tending (for the most part) to the impairing of the health of the body, or to the nourishing and venting of the vani­ty of the mind, and withal exhausting the estates of par­ticular Men, and the general stock of the Kingdome, or at least diverting so much thereof from useful Trades and Imployments, to those that are far from being useful or profitable. Wherein if Gentlemen would by their own moderation set a law to themselves, or that there might be a restraint put upon them by wholesome Laws (as the Romans both anciently, and of latter times under the Em­per ours were very strict therein) there would not be such [Page 10]great sums of money diverted from the Trade of the Na­tion, for the carrying on of such superfluous and vain ex­pences (I speak as to the excess) whilst others in the mean time keep up their monies, for to be ready to purchase the Estates of such Unthrists at easie rates, to omit many o­ther inconveniences that follow thereupon: If such as have no Lands left to be improved by St. Foine (as few that have any considerable estates but have) would spare somewhat out of such superfluous and hurtful ways of ex­pence, they may at easie rates enough purchase good quantities of such Lands, which by this way of im­provement they might sufficiently ballance any dammage they doubt they might sustain thereby in their rich Grounds and Meadows.

Again, as I said before, that he is richer that needs not money, than he that hath it, so the best way for a Nati­on to have plenty of money is not to need it; for it is ne­cessity that drains away the money of a Nation, and forc­eth them to buy of Forraigners at dear rates, but when they have abundance for all necessary uses of their own, what they have to spare brings them in so much clear money without any deductions for the supply of their own wants from abroad; and the cheaper our Commo­dities are in Forraign Markers, the more money will come into the Nation in the end, and make our Commo­dities the most vendible, because cheapest, and because we are able to afford them so. And the contrary course held by our Merchant-Adventurers in starving the Markets beyond Sea hath not a little prejudiced us in our Manu­facture of Cloath, inforcing other Nations out of necessi­ty to set up the Manufacture of Cloath, which they neither would, nor could have done (having none or few Materials of their own growth) if we had not held our Cloath at [Page 11]too high rates, and served Forraign Markets so sparingly, so that our Neighbours are now able in some sort of Cloaths to under sell us. I have said all this to satisfie the doubts and jealousies of such as are the owners of rich Pastures and Meadows: but now admitting they may have some cause of jealousie and doubt; yea, say it be some dammage for a while, yet if it shall excite their indu­stry, as necessity hath done theirs that were possessors of dry and barren Lands, Faelix necessitas quae ad meliora con­ducit, and those that have rich Grounds, have far the bet­ter Ground to work upon, for rich Soils are capable of holding their value at least, if not of improvement seve­ral ways; but the dry and high Grounds are capable of very few ways of improvement. If increase of Pasture and Meadow in the hill and barren Countries, should in­duce men in the vale and other parts to return again to Tillage, and especially to imploy some of their rich Grounds for Hemp and Flax, though it might be some trouble and cost at the first, it would after turn to far greater profit to the owners, and of singular advantage to the publick, by the increase of such fort of Commo­dities of our own growth, and the Manufactures relate­ing thereunto, besides the advantage which would after acrew by the change of the Seed; sometimes one sort of Grain, and sometimes another, which those Grounds would bring forth in great abundance; as also Rape and Cole-seed, all sorts of Fruits and Garden-stuff, and after return to good Pasture and Meadow again. A rich Soil is capable of any thing almost, and the constantly using of it one way, only gratifieth sloath and idleness; but sea­sonable change of the best suits with the nature of almost all Grounds, but especially of rich Soils, and is most pro­sitable to the owners, and to the publick.

I shall now add something, as to the parallel which I heat some in discourse make between St. Foine and the Planting Tabacco in England, as if there were the like reason for the prohibiting of the one, as of the other; whereas the difference between them is very appatent in Reason; Justice, and Policy.

First in Reason, for the English Tabacco (which is laid down as a principal reason for the restraint thereof) is not so whole some as that which comes from beyond Sea, nor in reason can be, for want of the like influence of the Sun; whereas St. Foine is so far from being unwhole­some, that it is the most wholesome Grass that Cattle can eat; from whence some have thought it to be called St. Foine, that is to say, sanum, faenum, but 'tis indeed called in French St. Foine, Country-farm page 697 and 698. that is sanctum faenum; for that as some say (and those Doctors of Physick too) it may seem seem to spring out of the Earth, as it were of a more especial favour from God, not only for the nourishing and facting of Herds of Cattle, but also to serve for Physick for Beasts that are sick, and in that respect is called of the Latines Medica.

Secondly, there was cause to restrain the Planting of English Tabacco in Justice to those that have adventured their lives and fortunes in those Colonies; so far off from their Native Countries, for the in largentent of the Kings Territories and Dominions, and have engaged themselves to vend their Tabacco, only in his Majesties Dominions, upon promise and assurance, that their Trade should not be prejudiced by the Planting of Tabacco here in Eng­land.

Now the owners of rich Ground and Meadows have no such point of Justice to insist upon in opposition to such as improve their Lands by St. Foine, but on the [Page 13]other side it would be great partlality, if not in justice, to hinder men from improving their Land by their industry, which of common right every man may do and will be in­couraged therein by every wise State, if the publick re­ceive no prejudice there by, as in this improvement I doth not but great advantage; neither doth any particular man suffer any injury thereby; for if he did, the Law would do him right, nor can any man suffer thereby, but by accident, (if at all) nor at all, but out of his sloth and want of industry.

Thirdly, In Policy: As the Cases relate to the Publick, there is a vast and wide difference. For in that of English Tabacco, as is largely declared in the preamble of the Act, the Navigation of the Kingdom, and the Consequen­ces thereof, the inlargement of the King's Domin [...]ons and Territories by those American Colonies, the vent of our native Commodities to them, the great Trade that relates to them, and the King's Customs out of it would be lost, or much impaired, only to gratifie a few Persors in a pedling profit, which they attempt to make in some patches of Ground, to raise a small quantity of unwhole­some Tabacco, which could not (in any sort) supply the defect of the other; much less countervail all those other great and weighty Considerations before mentioned, and yet might be sufficient to discourage those Plantations, which after would not be so easily restored again.

But in the improvement by St. Foine there is nothing of all this, or like it, but the contrary in all respects. It is so far from prejudicing Navigation, or any of the Ameri­can Colonies, that it rather promoteth both, by furnish­ing this Kingdom with great aboundance of such Com­modities as we vent there, and in other parts, whereby more Shipping will be imployed, and also by this meant [Page 14]there will be a greater plenty of Beef, Butter-Cheese, &c. for the Provision of Ships and Seamen: Neither is there any danger of destroying a great and certain Trade, in at­tempting to raise a petty one, that will in no sort supply the want, or countervail the damage of the other. For should St. Foine fail (as Clover Grass doth in a few years) the rich Grounds, and watted Meadows, are not thereby made more barren, or less capable to supply the necessi­ties of the Nation then they were before; neither are the Grounds sowed with St. Foine made barren thereby after­wards, but on the contrary, it renders Ground more fer­tile and fit for Corn; in so much that such Ground as be­fore was would bring none, or very mean crops of Corn, being ploughed up after St. Foine, the roots thereof are as good as any dung unto it, and will make it bear some good crops of Corn; and then being sowed again with St. Foine, it will, bear it again as well as ever it did; so that it may continually be renewed when the spirit of it is spent, with the advantage of some intervening crops of Corn: And in this sort they in other Countries do or­der it; and so no doubt shall we also do in England, when there is more plenty of it.

To conclude, there is not any sort of improvement more profitable, and withal so innocent as this; for most of other improvements, together with their usefulness, are some ways injurions to particular men, and inconve­nient to the Publick (as in watred Meadows, and draining of Fens hath before been remembred) and yet there is no­thing objected against St. Foine, which might not and may not equally be objected against them, if the increas­ing of Meadow and Pasture be a nuisance. And they that are equally and first in the transgression, ought equally and first to be supprest: and much rather then an improvement [Page 15]whereof the usefulness is very great, and in some parti­culars (as anon shall be remarked) not to be paralelled by any sort of Natural or Artificial Herbage or Fodder what­soever; and yet it is so far from being injurious to any, that it doth not so much as offend the senses, by any ill sight or smell, as watering and burning Ground doth, but is very, pleasant to the eye by its Vernal and Autumnal verdure and Summers purple vesture, which Flowers (from whence the Bees so greedily suck their Nectar) can­not but render the Air also more sweet and wholesome.

To sum up in the end of my discourse the Commodities which will accrew to particular Men, and the Publick by St. Foine; I shall mention in the first place that which the opposers of it (out of a principle common to all Mo­nopolists) call a nuisance, viz. the increase and plenty of Pasture and Meadow, and consequently of the stock of store, and wealth of the Kingdom; and that especially in such places where there was, and yet is most need thereof.

Secondly, the Grass and Hay that is raised thereby, is beyond all sorts of Grass and Fodder, in that it is not only Meat, but Medicine, as hath before been said.

Thirdly, this Grass when once well rooted, runneth down so deep into the Ground, that is neither in danger of heat not cold, stirreth betimes in the Spring, lasteth long in the Autumn, springeth suddenly again after it is cut down or fed, and wherein it exceedeth all sorts of Pasture and Meadow, (except some watered Meadows on great Rivers, which is not without some prejudice to Mills and Navigation.) In the driest years, when all the richest Pasture and up-land Meadows are burnt away, this will be both good Pasture and Meadow. What a mis­chief then would it be to deprive the Kingdom of such a [Page 16]Commedity, which will supply its necessities, when other means generally fail.

Fourthly, this Grass is good both for breeding and feeding of all sorts of Cattle, and begetteth so much Milk, and so good, that the Dary maid shall in one weeks space find a great alteration for the better, both in the colour, quantity, and quality of the Milk, from what any ordinary Pasture will yield.

Fifthly, (to conclude with that sweet and very profi­table Commodity It must certainly raise very much and very good Honey and Wax, Bees delighting so much to feed upon it.

And therefore unless that which God promised as a Blessing to the Israelites, seem a Curse to England, viz. A Land flowing with Milk and Honey. I hope no man will from henceforth indeavor to hinder the increase of St. Foine.

This and the like improvements (if incouraged) can­not but make the Nation rich, populous and prosperous as we see that of our Neighbors of France and Flanaers are, from whenee we learn these and the like improve­ments: but if we shall chuse to follow them in their Va­nities and Superfluities, and shall not withal imitate them in their Vertues and Industry, but discourage what they in­courage and thrive so much by; we may justly fear, we shall be the Tail and not the Head; always Borrowers and Buyers, and never Lenders or Venders: and so become the Object of all our Neighbors Affronts and Scorns, which God forbid.

THE SOILS, HVSBANDRY, And VSES proper for St. FOINE VVith the several Manners of its Improvement; Fit to be known by all that delight in HƲSBANDRY.

THe Soils proper for St. Foine, The soils proper. are the most of dry Grounds, though they be very bar­ren, trial having been made plentifully on Stony and Chalky Grounds, not worth two shillings the Acre, which have thereby been improved to be worth forty shillings the Acre, and have so continued for thirty years.

Sheer and sleight Sands,The impro­per soils. are the only proper dry Grounds; but mixed Sands, as are generally the Red and Brown, bear it singularly well: all Clays and other cold and wet Grounds bear it not.

The times of sowing it are in Autumn, The times of sowing. from the beginning of August, till the end of September: In the Spring, from the beginning of February till the end of March; but the earlier it is sown in either season the better.

For sowing it in Autumn, Sowing it in Autumn. the Tillage ought to in all respects the same as for Wheat, with this difference: That before it be sown, the land must [Page 18]be harrowed very fine to level it: Then sew it, and harrow it in, as other Grains.

There is this way also of doing it with small charge,Another way. and good success. If Land be sowed with Summer-Corn, and is very free from Weeds, let the Corn be Mowed low; and so soon as it is off the Ground, turn up the Land with a Plow, and Harrow it very well, dragging off as much of the Stubble as conveniently may be; when it is fine, Sow the St. Foine, Harrowing it in, as before. To wrap or wreath, or raddle the spiks or teeth of the Harrow not to go into the Ground above two inches and an half.

Note,Note. In the Autumn, it must ever be sowed alone without Corn.

In Spring,Sowing in the Spring. the Husbandry, it must be in all respects the same as for Batley: for the Land must be made very fine, and be Harrowed before it be sowed, as is before directed. In this season it may be sown with Oats or Barley (but Oats are the better;) or without either, which is surely best.

If without Corn,Without Corn. the manner of Husbandry differs not from the former Description of sowing it in the Autumn. If with Corn, the Corn must be first sowed and harrowed after the usual manner; then sow the St. Foine and harrow it, as before directed.

New broken Ground cannot be sowed with it,With Corn new ground till the Crop be first had; after which, the Ground be­ing presently turned up, and harrowed about Alhol­lontide, it will be fit to sow the Spring following.

To make present trial whether any Ground will bear it,Fo [...] p [...]esent T [...]ial. let a small Plot about four yards square be [Page 19]digged with a Spade, and made fine with a Garden­take, and sow the St. Foine in rows, as is wont to be done with Garden Pease: If the ground be sward ground, the Turf must be [...]aven off and cast away, that the remaining Earth may be fine: This must be carefully inclosed, and if it prosper well, it shews the soil proper: This may be done in several places, if the soil very, for more assurance.

The conse­vat on of it.It must be carefully fenced and conserved from Cattel the first year, nothing being suffered to come into it: the second year generally it may be Mown, and the after-grass fed about Alhollontide; but Cat­tel would not be suffered to stay in it in wet seasons till the root be strong, which will be the third Sum­mer. If it be not of sufficient growth to mow the se­cond year, (as in very dry Grounds, in cold and dry Springs it will not) it may then be fed with Cattel about the middle of May; but the Cattel would not be suffered to stay very long on it, for much treading will be hurtful to it being yet tender.

The Uses.After the second year, all the time it lasts, which is various (for in some soils it hath endured much longer then in others) it may be annually mowed or fed as is desired, without any repair by dung, or other soile whatsoever: but it is not convenient to mow the same Grounds constantly, but they should be sometimes mowed, and other times fed.

For Hay.If it must be reserved for mowing, it must be laid in by the middle of April at latest, but Lady day is a fitter time. It is fit to cut when it begins to flower, which commonly is about the middle of May, some­times later: It is made in all respect as other Hay. [Page 20]This Hay is very good for most uses, that other Hay is; only it seems too gross for Sheep, for Horses it excels.

The seeding it g [...]een, with great beasts.When it is designed for Pasturage, it must be laid early, as the beginning of March, which will render it fit to be fed by the middle of April or May-day at latest. None but great Cattel would be pastured on it at this time of the year, which it feeds singularly well, without danger of suffocation, which is inci­dent to Clover-grass. It breeds aboundance of Milk in Milch-Beasts, and the Butter that is made of it is excellent.

Feeding it with Sheep.The After-Moth, and Grass that springs in Au­tumn, in the Grounds that have been pastured, may Sheep safely be fed with, which it fats suddenly: it is very good for Ews and Lambs, keeping them in high state, and promoting growth, but they must not be suffered to go on it past Lady-day.

Note there must be sowed four Bushels upon an Acre.


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