S. John Pettus of Suffolk Knt. 1641 One of the Depty. Governors of the Mines Royall. 1651. Auratus Infletatus. 1679.

AEt. 70. 1683

Honestus at Pie.



THE LAWS OF ART and NATURE, IN Knowing, Judging, Assaying, Fining, Refining and Inlarging the BODIES of confin'd METALS.

In Two Parts.

The First contains ASSAYS of Lazarus Erckern, Chief Prover (or Assay-Master General of the Empire of Germany) in V. Books: originally written by him in the Teutonick Language, and now translated into English.

The Second contains ESSAYS on Metallick Words, as a DICTIONARY to many pleasing DISCOURSES.

By Sir John Pettus, of Suffolk, Kt. Of the Society for the MINES ROYAL.

Illustrated with 44 Sculptures.

Mal. 3. 3. Numb. 31. 31.

Jehovah Chimista Supremus.

Carolus D. G. Secundus.

LONDON, Printed, for the Author, by Thomas Dawks, his Majesty's British Printer, at the West-end of Thames-street. 1683.

Collegium Emmanuelis Cantabrigiae

TO THE Kings most Excellent MAJESTY.


THE Materials of this Book are derived from your Majesties undoubted Prerogative to the Mines (in your Dominions,) of which Me­tals are made; Of them Moneys: And then honoured with your Majesties Superscription. And so by a Chri­stian Circulation, the Possessors do, or ought to render to Caesar the things which are Caesar's.

Thus Your Majesty hath a double Right to the Mines, and to the Products of the Chimical Art, by which Metals are fitted for their Journey to Publick Commerce.

Herein I humbly offer my Endeavours to assist their motions, and onely to refresh your Majesties Memory, not to inform Your Knowledg: for (as 'tis hinted in the Title Page) Your Majesty is (in the Science of Chi­mistry, as in all Sciences of Humanity) Nulli Secundus.

These Perfections are evident in Your Majesties publick and private Elaboratories, from which pure Ju­stice, and pleasing Arts and Sciences are communica­ted to Your Subjects.

[Page] In these I have observed Your Majesties particular respects to Chimistry (of an Ʋniversal Extent,) and thereupon I resolved to transplant this German Twig of L. Erckern (on that Subject) into Your Majesties Nur­sery; and Humbly Dedicate it to Your Majesty, (with my Additionals) and also Humbly crave your Ac­ceptance, as an encouragement to my further Progress in serving Your Majesty with more Fruits; but at pre­sent it is to shew, That I am intent in promoting the Services I owe Your Majesty, as well with my seden­tary Passive Pen, as before with my personal Active Duty, having (upon some significant occasions) had the Honour to be known to Your Majesty near Forty Years.

Now, Great Sir, Wherein I am incapacitated to ex­press my Duty, for want of Ability of Mind or Body, or secular Fortunes; they shall be supplied by my con­stant Prayers for Your Majesties Health, Happiness, and Serenity in Your Government, being

Your Majesties most Obedient and Humble Subject, JOHN PETTƲS.

To the Right Honourable, George Marquess, Earl, Vis­count Hallifax, and Baron of Eland, Lord Privy Seal, and one of His Majesties most Honourable Privy Coun­cel; and Governour of the Society of the Mines Royal, and Battery Works.

My Lord,

YOur Lordships free acceptance of the Government of the Mines Royal, hath encouraged me to add it to your Ti­tles, and I hope without the least disparagement to your other Honours, deservedly conferred upon your Lordship by His Majesty.

It is a Trust of great Concern (and I doubt not but it will be so managed by your Lordship) and of Honour too, (as it hath been always esteemed) for (not to trouble your Lordship with very Antient Records,) I find that King Edward the Fourth did make Richard Earl of Warwick (who soon after was made one of the Governors of this Kingdom, during its Troubles) and John Earl of Northumberland, his Guardians and Gover­nors jointly of all his Mines in England; and King Henry the Seventh made Jasper Duke of Bedford, and other Earls and Lords, his Guardians also of all the Mines in England (ad­ding Wales.) And Queen Elisabeth, in the 10th. of her Reign, did form the Government thereof into Societies, by the Names of Governors, Deputy-Governors, and Assistants for the Mines Royal and Battery-Works, and then made Sir Ni­cholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, and other eminent persons, her Governors for England and Wales, (adding those within the English Pale in Ireland,) which Government did continue Suc­cessively to the Earl of Pembrook, and others for some Years: [Page] and after, his late Highness Prince Rupert was made a Go­vernour; and your Lordship to our contentment, doth succeed him.

Now, my Lord, As for my self, I have been one of the De­puty Governors for above 30 Years, and do think my self ob­liged in point of Gratitude to the late Governours, and present Members (who were pleased unanimously to order a Contributi­on to the Charge of this Book, and for some former Favours,) to endeavour the advancing of their Concerns (especially now we have the Honour to be under your Lordships Regiment,) and therefore as an Introduction to my real Intents, I not only pub­lish this, but by some Additionals, I shall study to make the Go­vernment more advantagious to the Society, and much more to His Majesty; and even to other Proprietors of Mines, wherein I have sat still some Years, because I found that I should be obstructed by some who studied the advance of themselves more than His Majestics Revenues, which I do not aim to do by any Oppressing Method, or projecting Humour (for I hate it) but by an honest just way, and I hope not displeasing to any, but such as nothing will please.

And these I shall in due time communicate to your Lordship, being so confident of your Lordships great Abilities, (join'd with your perfect Loyalty to your King, and Love to your Country) that your Lordship will not approve of any thing that I shall of­fer, if it agrees not with your Lordships sound Judgment and deep Wisdom, for which all who knows your Lordship have an high value, and particularly

Your Lordships most humble and obliged Servant, JOHN PETTUS.

To the Noble and Honoured Subscribers and Contributers to this BOOK.

My Lords and Gentlemen,

I Did design to have publish't your Names in a way that should have more fully manifested your Favours, and my Acknowledgments; but this Book extending to above 50 sheets more than I design'd, or at first proposed, took up my limited time, so as I must respit that intention, for I have not done with this Subject; intending not to trouble you or my self with Subscriptions, but such as have Subscribed to this, shall have notice when the next is ready▪ and if they approve of this so well as to take the next from me, it will be an additional Obligation to me, for I am prepared to go through the Body of this ART, upon these Reasons▪ First, That it contains the Grounds and Maxims of most admirable Speculations; and next, That I may divulge their chifest and most curious Experiments and Practicks: Now, that which in­cited me to this, was occasioned from hence, That having caused Erckern's Books to be Translated about Ten years since; some eminent persons did perswade me (like the Sto­ry in Bocalino,) not to publish it, lest the Common sort of People should make an ill use of its impartments, alledging, That it was not well Translated: whereupon I betook my self to the German Language, and in a short time I was so much Master of it, That with the help of a German here, I did indeed find many Errors, and Corrected them, which an­swers one Objection; and I have Printed such a conve­nient Number as may answer the other; And yet I am not altogether satisfied therein; for, what hath made Arts and [Page] Sciences flourish more in the time of King Charles the First, and now in His Majesties Reign, than their Majesties en­couragements to the free communication of such things as had many Ages before lain secret? so that we hope that all Pan­cerollus his lost things may in a short time be found again.

We punish our selves by fixing and disputing on the Theo­rems of antient Writers, and thereby making things to be Di­abolical, which are only Divine Favours shewn us by Natural Agents, so as for want of knowing the true Practicks & Ex­periments, they are divulged either by umbraging Sophisticati­ons, or concealed under the Name of Philosophical Secrets, which, no doubt, but GOD intends for a publick and common Good: and this ill Fortune befell the Ʋnguentum Armarium, as a piece of Witchcraft, 'till our Eyes were inlightned; and in many other things (which were they clearly communi­cated) such Superstructures would be raised from them, as might arive us to a kind of Angelical Knowledg in this World, and make us more apprehensive of our Happiness in the next: and therefore it shall be my study to unfold the Metaphysical Notions of this SCIENCE: by Pra­cticks especially about the Philosophers Stone, which Study I value only for its fine Pursuits and Products of Experiments, but more, because the Laborers for it are, by their own Af­firmations, obliged to a strict and religious Life:

I shall trouble you no further at this time, but with my humble and hearty Thanks: and so subscribe my self

My Lords and Gentlemen
Your most humble Servant JOHN PETTUS.

To my Worthy Friend, Richard Manlove, Esq Warden of the Fleet.


I Am here, a confined Person, for my being too kind to others, and too unjust to my self▪ and for not doing what was not in my Power to perform, by wanting the Justice of my Debtors, whereby I am rather a Prisoner to them than to my Creditors.

Yet I can dispense with all these, because they have occasi­oned my happiness, in your Acquaintance, and my contenting Retirement in this place, which was once a Palace, after, a Staple of Comerce, and long since and still, a Repository of our Laws: And now, like Homers Iliads in a Nut-shell, here are all sorts of Degrees, from Prince to Peasant, all sorts of Pro­fessions, from the Doctor to the Novice; all sorts of Trades and Manufactures, and all sorts of Virtues; but your Prudence doth still suppress the Vices.

And I ingeniously confess, that by yours, & your Ladies con­stant Kindness & Indulgence to my declining years, I have made it a Colledge of Learning, and so may other Gentlemen do (if they please) it being so qualified, that in an hours time there is no Art or Science wherein one may not be punctually instructed.

Now, Those that think themselves Prisoners to you are much mistaken, for they are Prisoners to the LAWS, and may make themselves Students of All-Souls in Le Fleet, of which you are Warden.

A Guardian-ship very needful for the People, as a Completion of JƲSTICE, in point of Restraints: For, (besides many other wise Considerations) they are good for Cooling the Animosities between Creditors and Debtors, and between the LAWS and Contemners of them, (and thereby prevents the Effusion of Blood, which hath often hapned) and for Curing the sullen and contemptuous Dispositi­on of others to their Superiours.

[Page] For, I can truly say, That, by my patient Submission to them and my Misfortunes (being prepared with my 14 months Impri­sonment in Windsor Castle, under the late usurped Power) I do now with more Satisfaction to my self, undergo this under a Le­gal Power, and thereby I affirm, That no Gentleman hath receiv'd greater Respects from you than my self, and therefore I take this Occasion to make my publick Ac­knowledgments, that it may be a Guid to other mens Con­tentments, for, as I have observ'd, That as you never were out-Hector'd by Affronts or Resistances, so you were never out-done by Civilities or Compliableness to your Methods.

As to the first▪ I never gave Occasion, and as to the other, my studious temper complying with your Love to Learning have so won on your good Disposition, that I must acknow­ledg to my honored Subscribers, and others, that had it not been for your Incouragement and particular Assistance with your purse; (though with some Inconveniencies to your own Occa­sions) I could not have finished this Book, as now I have done, and therefore as one Memorial of your kindness, I have given it the name of FLETA, and in my Picture minted the word insletatus from this Place.

I could with delight to my self and others, spend more time on this Subject; but I must end with this request, That as you have given House-room here to the whole Impression of my Books, so you will please (in respect my person is restrain'd in Execution of the Laws,) to encourage it in its Travels a­broad; and so not doubting of your Favour, I shall conclude with Ovid (then, in my present Condition, but I will not pu­nish my self with his Tristibus's,)

Parve nec invideo sine me Liber ibis in Aulam Ʋrbem

Which I have thus Englisht,

Go little Book, leave me, but make report,
Who treats thee best, the City or the Court.

However you shall have the continuing thanks of

Your Obliged Friend and Servant▪ JOHN PETTUS.

To the Courteous READER.

I Think fit before you read this Book, to instruct you in the Method of it, so as you may read the whole, or part, as your leisure serves.

1. It is divided into two parts (as the Title mentions,) viz. Erckern's V. Books, and my Dictionary.

2. Whereas the Original of Erckern's 5 Books had no Nu­meral distinction of Chapters and Sections, I have divided them into Chapters and Sections, and Printed them before the Five Books, with numeral referrences to their chapters where they are contain'd.

3. Whereas the Sculptures had only Literal, and no Nume­ral Directions of their Contents, I have in the second part of the Contents before the Five Books, Printed the Contents of the Sculptures, with references to the Pages where they may be seen and read.

4. Whereas the Original of Erckern's 5 Books hath no Coma's, Colons, Periods, Parenthesis, or Interrogatory Points, perti­nent to the distinction of Words or Sentences (which are also wanting in many German Books) I have comply'd them to our way of Orthography, (which was no little trouble,) and there­fore if the Reader find some few Omissions, they may upon that account be the more kindly dispens't with.

5. I do retain many antient and Saxon Words, upon the account of their affinity to the like Words which are still used among us, and these are hinted in the Dictionary.

6. In the Dictionary or second part, the first Words which I thought fit to explain, are in Capital Letters, and next, the Teutonick and Latine Words for those Capitals; (and other [Page] Languages, as occasion requires,) and these I collected from G. Agricola, Alstidius, Cowel, Minshaw, and Skinners Di­ctionarys for the Teutonick, from Cooper and Holiock for the Latine; from Florio for the Italian, from Cotgrave for the French; and from Waltons Lexicon for the Oriental Tongues, which, with a German was all the help I had for the use of above 600 Words; but the two chief Languages, of which I make the greatest use, are the Teutonick and Latine, this from the old Romans, (who continued among us above 500 years) the other from the Saxons (who were mixt with us as long,) from both of which Nations we gain'd a particular knowledg of Mines and Metals, as may be evident from many Roman and Saxon Works▪ which remain here under their Names to this day; and many of our Monarchs, particularly Queen Elizabeth did think fit to desire the assisting SKILL of the Germans, to improve OURS; to prevent which trouble, I here publish part of their Art, and intend more.

Lastly, I have given it the Title of FLETA, which is borrowed from an eminent Lawyer, who whilst he was Priso­ner in the FLEET, writ his Learned Book of the Common Laws of England, and thereupon (as 'tis said,) he call'd his Book FLETA (Cowel) to which I add MINOR, in sub­mission to his great Learning, and for its affinity to the word MINER, viz. one who Labours in the Mines, as I do in Learning the Metallick Art.

To conclude, I have writ some things from Authentick Au­thors (too many to recite here,) and some from my own Con­ceptions and Observations; now as they pleased me in writing, so I hope they will not displease others in reading.


THE PREFACE OF Lazarus Erckern, To his five following BOOKS.

Of the Art of Assaying. TO learn and understand the way of Assaying, Proving and Refining of Metalls, is an Excellent, Noble Science, and an Antient and profitable Art, long since found out by the Art of Alchi­my and Chimistry, as also all other Works of the Fire, by which not only the nature of Oars and Mines, and what Metalls contained in them are known; but also how much there is in a Centner, or in greater or lesser Weights, and not only so, but this Art also teacheth how to Examine each Metal by it self, as whether there be any Adulterated or mixt Metal with it; what, and how much the same is, and then which way those Metals may be separated from such mixtures or adulterations, as also by several ways to cleanse and separate other incorpo­rated Metals, so that they may be judged to be fine, clean and free from mixtures, therefore this Art is very profita­ble to Minerists and such as work in Mines and intend to have benefit by them, and such Artists must endeavour [Page] by all means to learn and exercise themselves in the same, that they may thereby reap a Profit to themselves and others, and preserve themselves from Inconveniencies and Dangers by their want of knowledge therein.

By this Art of Refining and the Profit that acrews by it, many good and rich Mines have been discovered, which otherwise would have lain concealed: and by the Advantage of these Discoveries many Cities and Villa­ges have been built, Lands have been improved in their Values, and People thereby increased and plentifully main­tained: As also great and mighty Trades and dealings with Gold, Silver, Copper and other Metals here, and in other Countreys exercised, and the Coiners of Coin and Minting Works have been multiplyed by their Guar­dians and Masters; for from Gold and Silver, Money is made and much improved, so that the true Insight, Try­al and Examination of this Art, cannot be in any wise omitted or neglected, as that which is highly necessary to be known.

Rewarded by Princes. And such Artists as have exercised themselves in the Knowledge of Assaying, and fundamentally and diligently practised the same, are by Princes, Lords and Com­munities thought worthy not only of great Thanks, but been also promoted and recompenced by them.

Mother of ARTS. For this ART of Assaying is the very Inlet and Mo­ther of many other honorable and profitable Sciences as Experience teaches us, and the more a man finds out, the more he is stir'd up to the contemplating and doing things of an higher Nature.

To know Metals ne­cessary. So that the Knowledg of Metallick Oars and Minerals are first to be inquir'd into, namely, How each one accor­ding to their Nature, Figure, Form and Colour are distin­guishable from each other: Which without great diligence and daily Practice cannot be known, because God the Almighty Creator, in the beginning of the Creation of the [Page] World, hath placed Metals and Minerals in the Moun­tains, Valleys and Veins of the Earth, and causeth them to grow there: He hath also given to all and each of them an outward Form and Colour by which the one from the other may be distinctly known.

How to use Fire in Me­tals. Secondly, The Knowledg of the Fire is a principal part of this Science, and very necessary to be inquired in­to, that he may the better know how to govern the same, so that he may give no Metal more Fire than its due, but to every one its proportion of Heat and Cold, as ne­cessity requires to add or take from it, in its Operation.

To make Instru­ments. After the Knowledg of Governing the Fire, the Ar­tists must have the Knowledg also of making all the In­struments and Furnaces for this, either by his own han­dy Furnaces.work, skillfully to prepare them, or at least to direct that they may be well made, whereby he may not be hin­dred in his working, but by his own diligence accomplish them.

Weights and Scales. In like manner he must be careful in procuring good and just Scales and Weights, and to know also how to make them (in case such Artificers should be wanting) and fit them to all Metals, and he must have great Care in preser­ving them from Dust, and that they be alwayes pure and clean so that (as occasion serves) he may rely on the cer­tainty of Proofs by them.

To be skill'd in Arith­metick. Next to the former Directions he must be well skill'd experienced and exercised in the Art of Arithmetick, for the numbring and casting up Accounts (which to As­saying Coins and Refining Works are very necessary, and is one of the Master▪pieces in this Metallick ART) And every Assayer must not only diligently learn this numeral Science (necessary to be known for the Proving of Metals or what belongs thereto) but also all such Arts and Sciences as may accomplish his full Designs there­in.

[Page] Now, though it would not have been unserviceable to have writ of all such things more largely in this Pre­face and Entrance to what follows, as also of the Rise and Springs of metallick Oars, and how they grow in the Mountains, Veins and Chanels of the Earth, and how generated (of which the old and later Philosophers have had many different Opinions) as also of the Streams, Cha­nels and their Entervals (and other Accidents which do discover and produce Oars, whereby the Miners do guid themselves in their Proceedings and Works.) Yet be­cause it would have been too long and endless to recite the Opinions of Philosophers, and the various Operations of Miners (in respect they do not agree in all things, and miss very much of their Aims, and have written many Books to little purpose) therefore, for brevity sake, I have omitted them, and proposed only my own Practice, for the better advancing this Metallick ART.

The first PART, Consisting of V. BOOKS.

The CONTENTS of the Chapters and Sections of the first BOOK.
CHAP. I. of Silver Oars.
Sction 1. The I. SCULPTURE Deciphered. 2. The II. SCULP­TURE Deciphered. 3. The purpose of this first Book. 4. Why Sil­ver in the first place.
CHAP. II. How Silver Oars are distinctly known.
SEction 1. Of the difference in Assaying Oars, and of the several sorts of Silver Oars, as followeth. 2. Of Glassy Oars. 3. Of white Goldish Oars. 4. Of Horny Oars. 5. Of Red Goldish Oars. 6. Of Black Oars. 7. Of Ironish Oars. 8. Of Leadish Oars. 9. Of Glittering or Bismutick Oars 10. Of Float Oars. 11. Of Azure or Mountain-Green Oars. 12. Of Flinty Oars many sorts. 13. Of Blanch, Cobolt, mispeckle or speckle Oars. 14. Of Glimmer, Wolferan, Talk, Cat-Silver and sparkling Oars. 15. Of Spelter or Spizy Oars. 16. Of Spady Oars. 17. Of Slacks and Copper-Stone Oars. 18. Of the wayes of Assaying them.
CHAP. III. How the Assay-Ovens to prove Silver and other Metals are to be prepared and made.
SEction 1. Of special Ovens, adorning them not profitable. 2. The Assay-Ovens variously used to make good Loam. 3. An Assay Oven made by Norimbergers. 4. An Assay Oven made of Tiles. 5. An Assay Oven in which the fire is best governed. 6. Assay Ovens of Armour Plates. 7. The III. SCUPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. IV. How Muffles, Bottom Plates, Tests, and other small Potters Works are to be made for Assays.
SEction 1. The Assayers are to be skill'd in making them. 2. Of making the Loam for them. 3. The Frame for Assay Tests. 4. To make Muffles. 5. How the bottoms of them are to be framed. 6. Of drying and Calcining the Loam. 7. The IV. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. V. Of Copels, how they may be made firm and good.
SEction 1. Of good Clay and Clar. 2. What Ashes to be used and how washt. 3. Of Vine-Wood and common Ashes. 4. Of Bone Ashes, which best. 5. Of Instruments for the Clar. 6. Of glew Water for Copels.
CHAP. VI. How good Copels may be made, wherein the Tryals will not leap or sparkle.
SEction 1. Bones for Copels, of Calves and Sheep. 2. Bones of Fishes the best.
CHAP. VII. How good Clar is to be made for Copels.
SEction 1. Clar of Calves-head Bones 2. Clar of Harts-horn. 3. Clar of Fish Bones. 4. How to be kept for Use. 5. The V. SCULPTURE Deciphered. 6. The VI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. VIII. How Lead Glass is to be made.
SEction 1. To what Oars Lead Glass is to be used. 2. To prepare the Fluss or Lead Glass. 3. Another way to prepare it. 4. Another way to make it. 5. To cleanse the Lead Glass.
CHAP. IX. Of the Weights that belong to the proving of Silver.
SEction 1. Of the Centner Weight. 2. Of dividing the Centner Weight in­to Drams, Loths, Ounces and Pounds. 3. Of the Penny-Weights. 4. Of dividing the Penny-weights into Hellers, Pence, Drams, Loths and Marks. 5. Of dividing the Dutch Penny-Weights, into Grains, Pence and Marks. 6. Of dividing the Grain-Weights into Loths, Ounces and Marks.
CHAP. X. How all Silver Oars are to be Tryed and Assayed.
SEction 1. Of Assaying soft Oars. 2. Of Assaying hard Oars. 3. Of quick boyling Silver Oars. 4 A way to Assay Raw Oars. 5. To help raw Oars. 6. Of Assaying Coppery Flacky Oars. 7. Of cleansing gross sulphurous flinty Oars after boyling. 8. To Assay Cobolt Oars. 9. Of Roasting Oars in the Ovens. 10. How the full worth of proofs may be sound. 11. To Assay with Lead Glass. 12. How many Oars may be Tryed in one Oven. 13. To Assay Oar to a Dram. 14. How to weigh the try'd Grain. 15. To boyl Rich Oars with Fluss or Lead Glass.
CHAP. XI. How poor Oars of Silver are to be Assayed.
CHAP. XII. To Assay Muddy Water coming from Springs of Silver.
CHAP. XIII. How a true Lead-Grain is to be drawn from the Assay.
SEction 1. Care in the Assaying. 2. The poorest Lead not without Silver. 3. Of Copper to be added to the Lead Grain. 4. Another way to make a Lead Grain.
CHAP. XIV. How Slack-Stone and Copper-Stone are to be Tryed for Silver.
SEction 1. What Slack-stone is. 2. How to separate it from Sulphur, &c. 3. How the Cakes of the Slacks are to be used.
CHAP. XV. To Assay Hard Work and Copper-Laech for Silver.
CHAP. XVI. To Assay melted Speize.
SEction 1. What Speize is. 2. The difference between Spize and Slack­stone▪ 3. To take the Silver out of the Spelter.
CHAP. XVII. How black Copper is to be melted and cast into Ingots.
SEction 1. The difference of black Coppers. 2. How to be cut in pieces or Ingots. 3. How to cast these Ingots. 4. Differences in Proof Ingots. 5. The Assaying an Ingot. 6. To govern the fire for it. 7. Of the Grains produced from the Assay. 8. Another way to try Copper for Silver. 9. Care of Instruments. 10. The proving of black and raw Copper. 11. The Weight of the Copels.
CHAP. XVIII. To Assay Bell-Metal for Silver.
CHAP. XIX. How old Silver-Plate or Coyns are to be Granulated.
SEction 1. The graining of Silver profitable 2. Why Crucibles break of­ten in this Work. 3. To make Grains round, or hollow, and thin. 4. How to govern the Fire in this work of Granulation.
CHAP. XX. How to Granulate Silver out of a Kiln.
SEction 1. The manner of performing it, 2. A quick way of Granulation. 3. What to do if the Crucible break. 4. The VII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXI. How the Granulated Silver is to be Assayed for fine Silver.
SEction 1. Of the different Contents of grained Silver. 2. The different quantitys of Lead to be used. 3. Of the Assay Grains. 4. Of the rich Assayed Grains. 5. When the Proof hath too little Lead. 6. When the Proof goes too hot. 7. To Assay Grains with fine Silver.
CHAP. XXII. How Coyn'd Money of great or small sorts may be Assayed.
SEction 1. To Assay Dollars and Rix Guilders. 2. To Assay with cove­red Ovens. 3. To Assay double Stivers. 4. The quantity of Lead to be used for them. 5. To Assay Pence. 6. To find the Proof of small Mo­ney. 7. To Assay Silver by the Centner Weight. 8. To Assay the Con­tents in Grains.
CHAP. XXIII. How burnt Silver pieces and Plates are to be cut out for Assays.
SEction 1. Of burnt Silver. 2. Of Plates. 3. Of blink Silver or Silver not clean.
CHAP XXIV. How Touch-Needles or Proof-Needles for Silver are to be made.
SEction 1. Generally used by Refiners. 2. How to make them. 3. How to forge them. 4. Needles of the half Loth. 5. The VIII. SCULP­TURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXV. How Metalls that are melted must be cut out and Assayed for Silver.
SEction 1. Of clean Work. 2. Of unclean Work. 3. Some customs of Assayers about these VVorks. 4. Of the addition of Lead to them. 5. Harth-Works for Tryals.
CHAP. XXVI. How Tin is to be Assayed for Silver.
SEction 1. Of the Tryal of it. 2. Of the Lead-Grain to this Tryal. 3. A­nother way to prove Tin.
CHAP. XXVII. How to separate Iron and Steel from Silver.
SEction. 1. Of Iron rich in Silver. 2. To Assay it with Brimstone. 3. To Assay it with Antimony. 4. To Assay it with gross Flints. 5. To sepa­rate them. 6. Of Coppery Iron, holding Silver to be made profitable. 7. Of Iron Stone containing Silver.
CHAP. XXVIII. How blinck or unclean Silver is to be burnt clean, and how Tests for it are to be made.
SEction 1. Of Deft or neat Silver. 2. To prepare the Tests. 3. The man­ner of Trying them. 4. The best VVood for burning Silver. 5. The Contents of burnt Silver. 6. How to cool the Silver. 7. Of Silver not burnt too high. 8. Of Coppery blink Silver. 9. How to know when well burnt. 10. The IX. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXIX. How to burn Silver under the Muffle.
SEction 1. Of Tests with Iron Rings. 2. Of Muffles for the burning. 3. A clean way of burning Silver. 4. VVhat to do with it after burning. 5. To keep the Tests. 6. The X. SCULPTURE Decipheted.
CHAP. XXX. How Copper is to be Assayed for fine Silver.
SEction 1. How much Lead is to be added. 2. To take the smoak of Lead from Silver.
CHAP. XXXI. To separate Silver from Tin.
SEction 1. The making a Test for it. 2. To make Tin thus separated pro­fitable. 3. To precipitate the Silver from Tin.
CHAP. XXXII. How to drive all sorts of Silver that they be deft smooth and fine.
SEction 1. The Use of Lead for the same. 2. Brittle hard Silver made deft. 3. A Fluss for Brittle Silver.
CHAP. XXXIII. How to boyl Copper from the pagment or old Silver in Coin'd-Money, or from thin beaten Plates of Silver.
CAAP. XXXIV. How good Proof-Ballances are to be made.
SEction 1. An Assayer able to make Ballances. 2. How to help their de­fects. 3. Of the Scales. 4. Of the VVaretzs and Tong of the Bal­lance. 5. The Fork of the Ballance. 6. How to prove the Ballance. 7. Of Gold-Solder to be used. 8. To make the Ballance look blew. 10. The XI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXXV. Of Filing and joyning the Proof-Scales or Ballances.
[Page] SEction 1. To fit Scales. 2. The weight of the Ballance and of the Scales. 3. The strings and knots. 4. The motion. 5. To make all parts move or stand true it Equilibrio. 6. Cases with oyld Paper to preserve them in. 7. The XII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXXVI. How the Proof-VVeights are to be made and divided into Grains, Pence and Carrat-VVeights.
SEction 1. To be made of Silver or Brass. 2. VVeights of a Mark. 3. Proof weights. 4. A referrence to the ninth Chapter of this Book.
CHAP XXXVII. Of dividing the Centner VVeight.
SEction 1. Of Carrats. 2. By unequal parts. 3. VVhether the Proof VVeights be true. 4. To number the VVeights. 5. The XIII. SCULPTURE Deciphered. 5. The Authors Apology.
The CONTENTS of the Chapters and Sections in the second BOOK.
CHAP. I. Of Gold Oars and Gold Slicks.
SEction 1. The purpose of the second Book. 2. Of the knowledge of Gold Oars. 3. Gold is intermixt with other Metals. 4. Gold in Horny Oar. 5. Gold in VVolferan, Tin and Iron Oar. 6. Rivers have Gold in them. 7. Of the River Nile having Gold. 8. Grains of Gold found in Germany. 9. Iron-Man Oar hath Gold in it. 10. Gold in Flints. 11. Gold in the Marchasite.
CHAP. II. What Proofs and Washings are used by the Gold VVashers.
SEction 1. How much may be washt in a day. 2. Of Cricers, Gilders or Penny weight of Gold. 3. Of Gold Grains. 4. To prepare boards for washing it. 5. An especial Wash-work. 6. the proportion of a Ratar or Sieve to cleanse the Stuff. 7. The XIV. SCULPTURE Deciphered. 8. Of seircing the Gold Oars. 9. The sorts of Cloth that are to be used for scircing. 10. How to use the long Ratars. 11. The XV. SCULPTURE Deciphered. 12. To purify the Gold Slicks. 13. Of great grain'd Gold. 14. How mingled with dig'd Gold. 15. Of Flinty or Horny Oars, how to be used. 16. A Roasting Oven for it. 17. How to use the Roasting Oven, and to quench it. 18. The XVI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. III. Of Gold Slicks.
SEction 1. Of poor Gold slicks. 2. Of rich slicks called Gold ram. 3. To bring both to profit.
CHAP. IV. How Gold slicks with dig'd Gold is to be prepared and quickned.
SEction 1. To get Gold out of the slicks, by Quicksilver and Vinegar. 2. Of pressing the Quick-silver through a Leather. 3. VVhen the Gold hath Silver in it, what to do. 4. Of melting the dig'd Gold. 5. The manner of quickning Gold by Gold-VVashers.
CHAP. V. How clean Gold slicks are to be made to profit without Quick-silver.
SEction 1. By Littarge, Lead-Glass, &c. 2. To make firm Tests for it. 3. How to boyl it up.
CHAP. VI. To make Fluss for boyling up of Oars.
CHAP. VII. How Gold may be separated very clean from Quick-silver.
SEction 1. Of the use of Quick-silver in the work. 2. How an Iron Jugor Pot is to be made and covered with Loam. 3. To refresh Quick-silver. 4. An Earthen Jug for the use. 5. Of the use of a Limbeck herein. 6. To avoid the poysonous smoak of it. 7. The XVII. SCULPTURE Deci­phered.
CHAP. VIII. How Gold Oars are to be proved.
SEction 1. Of mild flowing Gold Oars. 2. Of Flinty Gold Oars. 3. A­nother way of proving them. 4. A Proof of fine Gold, with advice to the Assayers.
CHAP. IX. How Gold in Lumps, Plates, Ingots, or Coined Gold is to be Assayed, how to be toucht, and by Touch-Needles for Gold.
SEction 1. Shews the deceipts in Touch-Needles. 2. How to use both the Gold and Silver Touch-Needles called white and red.
CHAP. X. Of white Touch-Needles, how to be made.
CHAP. XI. How Touch-Needles are to be made and used for Crown Gold and Coyned Gold.
CHAP. XII. How to divide the Touch-Needles, when the Metals are half white, half red, or half Silver and half copper with Gold.
CHAP. XIII. How Touch-Needles are to be made for Rhenish Gold, in which there is two parts white and one red.
SEction 1. The Division of the Metals for Touch-Needles. 2. Needles, of Copper for Gold. 3. The Divisions cast together. 4. The Needles to be beaten into Lengths. 5. The common Goldsmiths Touch-Needles. 6. The XVIII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XIV. How Touch-Needles are to be used.
SEction 1. Of Touch-stone. 2. Concerning the touch of hard and brittle Gold.
CHAP. XV. How Gold is to be Assayed by Aqua Fortis.
SEction 1. To cut pieces for tryal. 2. Of the Carrat-Weight, Grains or Marks. 3. The Assay Proof. 5. To make the Carrat. 5. The tryal of it. 6. How to beat the Rolls. 7. How to dissolve them. 8. To dulcify them. 9. To Neal them. 10. Proving Coin'd Gold. 11. To make the true Carrat. 12. Another way to find out the red and white in Gold.
CHAP. XVI. How to prove Aqua Fortis, and how much it doth leave in the Gold proof.
SEction 1. Manner of trying it. 2, Another way. 3. The remainder. 4. Some Rules for it. 5. Of Glasses and Instruments for separating it. 6. An Instrument for the Glasses.
CHAP. XVII. How Silver is to be proved for Gold.
SEction 1. The first tryal. 2. To Dulcify it. 3. To glow it. 4. A second tryal. 5. A third tryal. 6. Differences of proofs. 7. A singular way dissolving it.
CHAP. XVIII. How to prove Goldish Silver by Water-weight.
SEction 1. The first Experiment. 2. The second Experiment. 3. Known by Arithmetick.
CHAP. XIX. To find without such proof, whether Silver contains Gold.
SEction 1. The first way. 2. The second way. 3. The XIX. SCULP­TURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XX. How to separate Gold and Silver, and how to burn and distil Aqua Fort. and to prepare Instruments and Clay for the Work.
SEction 1. Of the Clay for Ovens. 2. Of Luting the parts of the Oven. 3. An other Clay for Bottles. 4. Of Venetian Glass. 5. To prepare Jugs and Retorts. 6. Of Iron Jugs or Pots. 7. Of Luting those Jugs. 8. To get the Caput. Mort. out of those Jugs or Pots. 9. The XX. SCULP­TURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXI. How to make Ovens for distilling Aqua Fort.
SEction 1. Ovens of several sorts. 2. Of the Athanor or great Furnace. 3. Earthen Pots better than Iron. 4. Covers for them. 5. The XXI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXII. Of the Species or Compositions used for distilling and making Aqua Fort.
SEction 1. Of Calcining Vitriol for it. 2. Of Nitre or Salt-Petre.
CHAP. XXIII. How Aqua Fort. is to be distilled.
SEction 1. In a Glass Bottle. 2. Copels for it. 3. Another way. 4. Wa­ter in the Receiver. 5. A tryal of Vitriol.
CHAP. XXIV. How Aqua Fort. is to be distilled in an Iron Jug.
SEction 1. Jugs cast or Hammer'd. 2. How to place them in the Atha­nor. 3. Of governing the Athanor. 4. Of disposing the grosser Spi­rits. 5. To order the fire when too hot. 6. The drops to be counted. 7. To force the Spirits. 8. When the Glasses, Limbecks and Receiver are to be taken away.
CHAP. XXV. How to Distil Aqua Fortis in 4 or 5 hours.
CHAP. XXVI. Another good way to distil Aqua Fort.
SEction 1. With uncalcined Vitriol. 2. Such Vitriol as is boyled out of Flints. 3. Another way.
CHAP. XXVII. How to make an excellent strong Aqua Fort.
SEction 1. Of the Ingredients. 2. More Gold produced by this way than any other. 3. A luting on which the Spirits do not operate.
CHAP. XXVIII. How to distil Aqua Fortis (called Aqua Regis, which dissolveth Gold, Copper, Iron, Lead and Tin) also Mercury Sublimate and Arsnick.
SEction 1. Ingredients. 2. How to distil it by degrees. 3. The XXII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXIX. To Distil Aqua Fort. in Retorts, with the Advantages by it.
SEction 1. No new Invention. 2. The use of Calx Viva. 3. For want of a Receiver, what is to be done. 4. Earthen Receivers. 5. To fit the Glasses to the Helm. 6. The placing By-Ovens to the Athanor. 7. A long Oven and the use of it. 8. Strong and weak Aqua Fort. 9. The XXIII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXX. How Aqua Fort. is to be separated and cleansed from its Feces.
SEction. 1. The manner of doing it. 2. The Feces useful.
CHAP. XXXI. How weak Aqua Fort. is to be made stronger.
SEction 1. The preparation. 2. Second Proceeding. 3. To draw off the Flegm.
CHAP. XXXII. How Gold and Silver in Aqua Fort. is to be separated.
SEction 1. The preparation. 2. The second proceeding. 3. To Dulcify the Gold Calx. 4. To glow out the Gold Calx. 5. To Cast the Gold. 6. What to do if much is to be cast. 7. To separate the Silver for granu­lating. 8. Aqua Fort. for the granulated Silver. 9. When a glass breaks what to do. 10. To Dulcify the Silver. 11. The Contents of the parted Gold. 12. That it may not shoot into Crystals. 13. When the Aqua Fort. remains Silvery, what to do. 14. The XXIV. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXXIII. When the Gold is abstracted, how to bring the Silver out of the Aqua Fort.
SEction 1. The manner of doing it. 2. Why the Silver Calx is dulcified. 3. Of the Content of this precipitated Silver. 4. To make profit of the blew water. 5. To precipitate Silver in an Earthen Vessel. 6. Iron La­mins to be used in the precipitation.
CHAP. XXXIV. How Aqua Fort. drawn from Silver may be used again.
CHAP. XXXV. How to separate Gold and Silver by Fusion.
[Page] SEction 1. How to understand separation by Fusion. 2, 3, 4, 5. What precipi­tation or casting down is. 6. When the Scorias contains Gold what to do. 7. When the Regulus is poor of Gold what to do. 8. How much may be set at once in the Oven. 9. How the Gold may be precipitated at once. 10. A­nother way.
CHAP. XXXVI. How the Scorias or Dross is to be made to profit.
SEction 1. The first way. 2. The second way. 3. To make the Scorias malliable. 4. The Uses of it.
CHAP. XXXVII. The Fluss for Precipitation.
SEction 1. How to make it. 2. Separation in the Fluss requires dilligence. 3. The uses of the used Tests. 4. The XXV. SCULPTURE De­ciphered.
CHAP. XXXVIII. How to make good and sound Crucibles for separating the Fluss.
SEction 1. To prepare Clay for them 2. How to make them. 3. To preserve them. 4. The XXVI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXXIX. Of Cementing, what it is.
CHAP. XL. How the covered Oven for Cement is to be made.
The XXVII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XLI. How Rhenish Gold is to be Cemented.
SEction 1. How to prepare it. 2. The first Cement Pouder. 3. The second Cement Pouder. 4. To Cement Rhenish Gilders.
CHAP. XLII. Other Cements for light Gold.
CHAP. XLIII. A common Cement for all Golds.
CHAP. XLIV. More Instructions for Cementing.
SEction 1. The Composition. 2. Another way of making it. 3. To Ce­ment brittle Gold. 4. Another manner. 5. To make profit of Cements. 6. Of Philosophical Cements.
CHAP. XLV. How to Graduate Gold or give it an higher colour.
Sections 5. or V. ways how to Gild.
CHAP. XLVI. How to make brittle Gold deft.
Sections 6. By Six several ways.
CHAP. XLVII. Another way to make Gold Deft.
SEction 1. By a flat Test. 2. To bring Gold clean out of the Crucible. 3. To take away the ill Vapour. 4. Of the use of Mercury Sublimate. 5. Of the use of Sulphur and Antimony.
CHAP. XLVIII. How to make Gold Deft on the Copel.
CHAP. XLIX. How to Cast Gold through Antimony.
SEction 1. Through fine Gold. 2. Through Poor Gold. 3. The XXVIII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. L. How blick or light Gold, containing much Silver is to be separated.
Four several ways.
CHAP. LI. How to separate Antimony that hath been used.
Sections 4. By four Methods.
CHAP. LII. How Gold is to be made fine and clean through Aqua Regis.
The CONTENTS of the Chapters and Sections of the third BOOK.
CHAP. I. Of Copper Oars.
SEction 1. The purpose of this Book. 2. Copper of various colours and sorts. 3. Of Copper Glass. 4. Of Green or Azure Copper. 5. Of brown Copper. 6. Of Copper Shiffer. 7. of Copper Flint. 8. Of Copper Stone.
CHAP. II. How to make Crucibles and Ovens to prove Copper.
SEction 1. The Mould. 2. The form of the Crucibles. 3. The Clay. 4. Little Ovens for proof. 5. Another form of Ovens. 6. Ovens of Tile. 7. Proof Furnaces. 8. The XXIX. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. III. How to make Fluss to prove Copper Oars.
CHAP. IV. How soft flowing Copper Oars are to be proved.
CHAP. V. How hard flowing Copper Oars are to be proved.
SEction 1. The manner of it. 2. The Oar must be burnt quite dead. 3. Some Copper not fit for Brass. 4. To boyl Copper Oars with boyled Copper.
CHAP. VI. How to prove light Copper, six several ways.
CHAP. VII. How light Copper Oars which are mixed and insperged with Flints may be brought to profit.
CHAP. VIII. How to prove Copper Oar from Copper Stone, &c.
CHAP. IX. How to prove Copper-Oars another way.
SEction 1. Preparations. 2. Of Copper Shiffer. 3. When no stone in the Proof. 4. Roasted Oar do separate better than raw or fresh Oars. 5 and 6. Are other Methods.
CHAP. X. To prove melted Copper Stone.
SEction 1. The method of it. 2. The use of Venetian Glass. 3. The XXX. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XI. To prove Flinty Copper by Sulphur.
SEction 1. The first proceeding. 2. The Retorts for it. 3. The red Sul­phur of it.
CHAP. XII. How to prove black Copper by defty and smooth Copper.
[Page] SEction 1. Of Copper Needles. 2. A Proof easy but not certain. 3. An other way. 4. How Copper Flint and Tin Stone are to be separated.
CHAP. XIII. To prove whether Lead be Copperish.
CHAP. XIV. Profitable Instructions for an Assayer.
SEction 1. How Iron may be made Copper. 2. Iron will precipitate Copper; and Copper, Silver.
CHAP. XV. How to separate Silver from Copper in the great Work.
12. Directions.
CHAP. XVI. 13. Additional Instructions about good Copper.
CHAP. XVII. Six Additional Instructions about the proving of fresh Oar, called
Hard Lead.
CHAP. XVIII. Six Additions concerning Thornels or little pieces of Oar not fully melted.
CHAP. XIX. Six more Instructions concerning good and deft Coppers.
CHAP. XX. Seven more Additional Instructions for good Copper.
The XXXI. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXI. Nine Rules how the Regulus of poor black Copper Oar is to be Assayed.
CHAP. XXII. Seven more Instructions for the Hungarian way of Assaying.
CHAP. XXIII. How Littarge pieces are to be made, by 6 ways.
CHAP. XXIV. How Silver from speizy and unclean black Copper is to be made.
CHAP XXV. Instructions for driving Lead and Copper for Silver.
[Page] CHAP. XXVI. Of driving the Keinstocks or Thornels.
The XXXII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP XXVII. A singular way of melting in the Assaying-Work.
SEction 1. For Copper. 2. Copper Roasted. 3 & 4. Addition of parts and poor Copper-Stone. 5. Hard Oar and Littarge. 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10. To make the Oven for this Work, and to cast the peices. 11, 12 & 13. The profit of the Assay▪Work. The XXXIV. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XXVIII. How Copper is to be made into Brass.
SEction 1. Of the difference of Copper for it in many Countrys. 2. Of the mixture of Lapis Calaminaris, for the making Brass. 3. The Ovens for it. 4 & 5. Of Lapis Calaminaris which comes from Great Britain to make them Brass. 6, 7 & 8. Of the proportions of Copper and Lapis Calaminaris for Brass. 9. The XXXV. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
The CONTENTS of the Chapters and Sections in the fourth BOOK.
CHAP. I. Of Lead Oars, Tin, Antimony, Quick-silver, Iron, Steel and Load-stone.
SEction 1. The purpose of the Book. 2. Lead known from other Me­tals. 3. Of bright Lead-Oar. 4. Of white Lead-Oar. 5. Of red Lead-Oar. 6. Of yellow Lead-Oar. 7. Of flinty Lead-Oar. 8. Of Lead-Oar unseparable.
CHAP. II. How to prove Defty Lead-Oar for Lead.
SEction 1. The mixtures for it. 2. How to dispose it in Crucibles and Ovens. 3 & 4. Iron to be added to it.
CHAP. III. How to prove an undefty Lead-Oar for Lead.
CHAP. IV. To prove poor separable Oars, by boyling it and trying it by Smelting.
SEction 1, 2 & 3. A good way of beating Oars. 4. A hurtful way of beating. 5 & 6. Of smelting Mills and differences in beating the Lead Oar.
[Page] CHAP. V. How to try common Lead-Oar for Lead in little Ovens.
CHAP. VI. How the inseparable and light Lead-Oars are to be Assayed in a little Oven.
SEction 1. Of the little Oven. 2. Of Crucibles for it. 3. Of unroasted Oars.
CHAP. VII. To make a Lead-Proof on a Table or in a Stove.
CHAP. VIII. How to make Lead-Oars (though they will not separate in the water) to be profitable.
SEction 1. Of Rocky Lead-Oars. 2. Of Sulphury Slacks. 3. Of Go­slarish Oar. 4. Two melting Ovens on one Spring. 5. Of melt-Ovens for the Oar. 6. Of Crucibles for the Lead. 7. Of closing the Work in the Ovens. 8. Of kindling the fire. 9. The use of Copper to this melting. 10. Of opening the Oven. 11 & 12. Of the Cakes or Sows of Lead produ­ced from the Lead. 13. Of Galmay or Lapis Calaminaris. 14. The Mine at Goslar wrought above 700 years together. The XXXVI. SCULP­TURE Deciphered.
CHAP. IX. Of melting Oars with Moll or Turf and Coales.
SEction 1. The Property of Moll or Turf.
CHAP. X. How to prove Spelter or Wismuth Oar, which some call Bismuth.
SEction 1. Two ways of melting it. 2. The difference of its Contents. 3. To melt them by the Wind. 4. To melt them in an Oven. 5. The XXXVII. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. XI. Of Tin-Oar called Zwitter.
CHAP. XII. To prove Tin-Stone for Tin.
SEction 1. The way of proving it. 2. In the Coals. 3. With the Fluss. 4. By a suddain heat.
CHAP. XIII. How to prove Tin-Stone in the little Ovens.
CHAP. XIV. Of beating and preparing the Zwitter or Tin Oar.
SEction 1. & 2. To melt old gathered Slacks. 3. & 4. The loss of burning it. 5. The way of burning it. 6. The Goslar way of melting it.
[Page] CHAP. XV. An Instruction for Tin Sope-work.
SEction 1. Of Seeve-work.—
CHAP. XVI. To prove Tin by Addition.
SEction 1 & 2. The light Tin the best.—
CHAP. XVII. To prove Antimony.
CHAP. XVIII. Of Quick-Silver Oar.
SEction 1. Described.—
CHAP. XIX. How to prove Quick-silvet Oar for Quick-silver.
SEction 1. Jugs and Bottles to be fitted for it.—
CHAP. XX. To prove Iron and Steel Stone.
CHAP. XXI. To prove whether Iron-Stone be rich in Iron.
SEction 1, 2 & 3. To be tryed by the Load-stone. 4 How to melt the Iron Stone.
CHAP. XXII. Of Magnets or Load-Stone.
SEction 1. 5. Several uses of it.—
The CONTENTS of the Chapters and Sections of the fifth BOOK.
CHAP. I. Of Salt-Petre.
SEction 1. The purpose of this Book. 2. How to boyl Salt-Petre.
CHAP. II. What Earths do afford the best Salt-Petre.
SEction 1. From Sheep-Cotes 2. From under old Walls. 3. From under Earthen and unplastered Houses. 4. From under Horse-Stables.
[Page] CHAP. III. How to prove the several Earths for it.
SEctions, 6. Several ways of proving it. 7. The XXXVIII. SCULPTURE Deci­phered.
CHAP. IV. How to make a Lixivium, Menstruum or Lees of the Earth.
SEction 1. Of Tubs for the Lees. 2. Of Sticks and Reeds to be used. 3, 4 & 5. Of weak and Raw and strong Lees. 6. Of strong Lees or Suds. 7. The XXXIX. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. V. How to boyl the Lees or Suds.
CHAP. VI. How to prepare Lees for a crude and raw Salt-Petre.
SEction 1. How the Salt is to be taken out. 2. XL. SCULPTURE Deciphered.
CHAP. VII. How to cleanse the raw Salt-Petre.
SEction 1 & 2. Of Raw Salt-Petre. 3 & 4. Of Purifying it. 5. Of course Salt-Petre. 6. Proofs set out. 7. Of purifying it again. 8. Another proof. 9. Of scum­ming it. 10. Of cleansing the Kettle. 11. Of what Salt-Petre is generated, and how spoiled. 12. Mingling splinters of Wood with it. 13. Reference to the XL. SCULP­TURE.
CHAP. VIII. How to cleanse the great grain'd or black Salt-Petre.
SEctions. 1. The uses of it. 2. To make it white. 3. To purify it through Ashes.
CHAP. IX. How to make the raw Salt-Petre rich before boyling of it.
SEction 1. The manner of doing of it. 2. The profit by it. 3. To water out the Earth and enrich it. 4. To enrich the Lees of Allum. 5. The XLI. SCULP­TURE Deciphered. 6. The Sheds for Salt Petre, how built.
CHAP. X. How Flints are to be proved for Vitriol, and Allum-Oar for Allum.
SEction 1. To make Lees or Suds of it. 2. To make Lees of Allum. 3. To make Lees of Vitriol. 4. The Conclusion to the V. Books, and the Authors Apology and thanks to God.
Represents 1. THE Effigies of Lazarus Erckern the Assayer. 2. The Scales and Boxes of Weights. 3. Glasses for Aqua Regis, Aqua Fortis, Aqua Vitrioli, Aqua Ar­genteae or Quick-Silver, &c.
Represents 1. THE Form of an Athanor or great Furnace. 2. The Forceps or Tongs and Forks. 3. The Copels, Tests and Philosophical Bellows. 4. The digestive Pot, with its Cover and Fire about it. 5. A covered Crucible. 6. The long Bell or Ma­trass Glass, in a Sand Furnace. 7. The Wind-Furnace, with a blowing Pipe. 8. A Furnace with a Copper-Head and its Receiver. 9. A Furnace with a naked and open fire. 10. A Pestle and Mortar with a Man beating the Metals. 11. The Owls Head, or another form of a cover to the eighth Figure in this Section. 12. A Retort.
Represents 1. AN Assay Oven used by the Antient Refiners (joyned with Iron Plates.) 2. An Assay Oven used by the Norimbergers in Germany. 3. The Foot of it. 4. An Assay Oven made of Tiles joyned together, which may quickly be done. 5. An As­say-Oven made of Potters Loam and fastned with Iron Bonds or Hoops. 6. The up­per Mouth-hole of it. 7. The lower Mouth-hole of it. 8. The Holes for Iron Bars to be put in. 9. An Assay-Oven made of Armour Plates.
Represents. 1. THE form of Muffles, which the Ancient Assayers did, and still the common Assayers do use. 2. The Muffle to the Norimburg Assay Oven. 3. The Muffle to the Assay Oven with two Mouth▪holes. 4. The Stopples. 5. The [Page] bottom Plate. 6. The wooden Frame for that Muffle. 7. The lower part of the As­say Test. 8. The upper part of it. 9. The Mould for the Assay-Tests. 10. The lower part of the Assay-Tests. 11. the upper part. 12. The Assay-Crucible. 13. The small Instruments for governing the fire, made of Potters Clay.
Represents 1 &. 3. THE Copel Cases. 2 & 4. The Copels that are made in them. 5. The Copels set on one another. 6. The washt Ashes made into Balls. 7. He that works the Ashes. 8. He that forms and strikes the Copels.
Represents 1. THE Copel Case. 2. The Copel for Copper Proof and common Oars. 3. The Copels fot Metals that are poor in Silver, or grain'd and common Oars. 4. The Copels for common Silver Tryals, which are Assayed according to Weight. 5. The Co­pels for Sterling Silver Proof. 6. How the Copels are placed upon each other in the Fire.
Represents 1. THE Grain or Grainulating Kiln or Furnace. 2. The Wind-Oven. 3. Another Wind-Oven of Potters Loam, girt with Iron, and placed on a three Foot Iron Frame. 4. The Crucible in which the Siver is to be melted. 5. The Crucible in which the melted Metal is taken out of the bigger Crucible. 6. The Copper Bason with two Ears, wherein the Granulating of Metals is performed. 7. An Iron Roast where­in the Silver is heated and roasted. 8. He that tends that Grain Kiln. 9. The Broom holder for Granulation. 10. The Granulating Vessel. 11. The Bellows to the Grain Kiln. 12. The Instrument used by him that tends the Kiln. 13. A Tub and Tankard for Water. 14. Pieces that are Granulated.
Represents 1 & 2. THE Proportion of Touch Needles for Silver. 4 & 5. The Ingots to be compared with the Touch-Needles.
Represents 1. THE burning Fnrnace. 2. The Test which is put into it. 3. How Silver is to be burnt on the Test. 4. The bellows blowing it. 5. The Iron Plates luted over the Clay, used against the heat. 6. A Fork and Hook to stir the matter, and the Irons used about proofs. 7. A compleat Test unwarm'd. 8. A Test which is in warming. 9. The Roaster or Iron on which the burnt Silver is dryed. 10. The Wa­ter-Tub, over which the burnt Silver is brush'd clean. 11. The Ball and Pestle for making the Test. 12. The Block on which the Silver is beaten with the Hammer. 13. The split or riven Wood for burning the Silver. 14. A Test that hath been used or broken. 15. A three footed Stool for several uses. 16. A Tankard to take out or Put in Water into. Fig 10.
[Page] Page 80. SCULPTURE X.
Represents 1. THE Oven in which the Silver is to be burnt. 2. The inside of that Oven. 3. The Wind-holes of that Oven, which drives the fire upwards into the Work. 4. The Test that is set in it. 5. The Iron Ring or Mould, into which the Tests are to be beaten. 6. A Test-Ring made compleat. 7. The Ring filled with Ashes for the Test. 8. The round Muffles for it. 9. The Ball and Hammer for making the Test. 10. The Servant that beateth the blink Silver into pieces, and the Instruments for it. 11. The Man (that takes care for the burning of the Silver) standing on the backside of the Oven. 12. The Vessel of Water, into which the burnt Silver is to be cast and cleansed. 13. Bellows and Instruments belonging to the Oven.
Represents 1. THE forged Ballance. 2. The forged Fork. 3. The half forged Fork. 4. The filed Scales with the half Fork. 5. The two pearls, the one as a Pendula, the other on the top of the Tong in the Fork. 6. The end of the Beam, and the like is to be supposed for the other end. 7. How the Ballance, Fork and Pendula are to hang on the Wartz on each side of the bottom of the Tong. 8. 8. The holes in the whole Fork. 9, 9. The little holes at each end of the Beam, in which the strings hang. 10. The Scales like small Dishes. 11. Pincers to take up small Weights or pieces.
Represents 1. THE outside of a Case for the Ballance. 2. The inside of that Case, wherein the whole Ballance is to hang, and to be kept free from Dust.
Represents 1. THE form of the Boxes or Cases for Weights standing open. 2. The same Case as it is shut.
The CONTENTS of the SCƲLPTƲRES In the second Book Of GOLD OARS.
Represents 1. THE Man that worketh with the Ratter. 2. The middle Floor, whereon that which goeth through the Ratter doth fall. 3. The lower Floor, whereon that which comes from the middle Floor doth fall. 4. The plain Receiver of that which falls from both. 5. The Man that stands on a board, and out of a Wheel-barrow throws the matter or Oar into the Tunnel which guids it into the Ratter. 6. The Channel in which Water doth run upon the Ratter.
[Page] Page 108. SCULPTURE XV.
Represents 1. THE Miners which carries the matter to be washt in the Ratter. 2. The parts of the Ratter (more visible than in the former Figure.) 3. The Washman that governs the Ratter. 4. The upper and lower falls from the Ratter. 5. The plain Boards or Harth on which they fall. 6. He that stirs about the muddy matter of both fallings. 7. The Tub in which that which falleth on the Hearth is to be put and washed.
Represents 1. THE form of Roasting Ovens. 2. The Shutters to them. 3. The inside of them. 4. The Partitions in them made of Tiles, and a Man attending at the Mouth of the Oven. 5. He that pours water into the Roasting-Oven. 6. The wood that is used for those Roasting Ovens. 7. The Instruments to cleanse the Oven. 8 8. The Ladder to go to the top of the Oven. 9. The pieces of Metal to be used.
Represents 1. THE Athanor or great Furnace. 2. The Ovens on the sides of it. 3. The Earthen Receiver for it. 4. The Earthen Helmet for it. 5. The blind Helmet with a Pipe, on which Water may be poured. 6. He that fitteth the matter. 7. He that presseth the Quick-silver through a Leather. 8. The lower part of an Iron Jug or Receiver. 9. The upper part of it. 10. The Leather purse whereby the Quick-sil­ver may be prest out. 11. He that causeth the Gold to melt by help of the Bellows. 12. The pieces of Metal.
Represents 1. THE proportion of Touch-Needles for Gold. 2. The Ingots to be compared with those Touch-Needles, as also by the Touch Stone.
Represents. 1. HOW the Assayer stands before the Assay-Oven to prove the Metals. 2. The Iron on which the proof is to be cast. 3. A Wooden Instrument to see through into the Fire, to prevent hurt to the Eyes. 4. A separating-Glass for proving Gold, placed on a little foot. 5. He that doth wash the Goldish Silver in water. 6. The Block, Hammer and Stool.
Represents 1. A Luted Glass Bottle covered with an Helm. 2. A luted Glass Bottle without an Helm. 3. Another kind of Glass Bottle. 4. The form of an Helm. 5. A Glass scale or half Pot, with one Ear and Mouth. 6. A Receiver with a pipe. 7. An [Page] common Receiver without a Pipe. 8. An Earthen Retort. 9. An Earthen Jug or Culb to burn Aqua Fortis in. 10. Other kind of Bottles, Glasses and half Glasses, or Pipkins and Tunnels.
Represents 1. THE Athanor. 2. The Mouth-hole of it over the Grate. 3. The Mouth-hole under the Grate. 4. The Grates in the By-Oven. 5. The form of the By-Oven. 6. The Instruments to open or shut the wind-holes. 7. The Covers for the By-Ovens. 8. The Pins for the Registers or wind-holes. 9. A Semi-Circle piece of Wood by which the Athanor is to be made. 10. The Cover for the Athanor. 11. The Man that tends it. 12. A dish of pieces to be used.
Represents 1. THE Tower of the Athanor in which the Coales are to be put. 2. The By-Oven in which the Bottle is to be placed. 3. How the Bottle is to be placed in the Oven. 4. The Glass Helmet made for it. 5. The Recipient or Receiver. 6. The Pot full of materials prepared. 7. The same Pot empty. 8. The Man that tends the Athanor and By-Ovens.
Represents 1. THE Tower of the Athanor. 2. 2. The two sides or By-Ovens in which the Jugs are to be set with the stuff. 3. 3. The Glass Receivers. 4. The earthen Jug or Receiver. 5. The Oven for the Retorts. 6. The little Receivers to be added to the great Receivers that there may be room for drawing the Spirits, 7. The long Oven. 8. The By-Oven in which the Spirits are to be forc't into the Aqua Fort.
Represents 1. THE Tower of the Athanor. 2. The side-Ovens upon which the Copels are to be placed on Sand. 3. 3. The Glass Bottles for separation covered with Helmets. 4. The Receivers which are laid to the Helmets. 5 How the Aqua Fort. is by them to be drawn from the Silver. 6. An Iron Instrument with which the Glasses are to be taken out and in. 7. The Man that attends the Operations in the Glasses. 8. Ano­ther Man to attend the other Glasses upon shelves. 9. The Ingredients prepared in a Dish or Pan.
Represents 1. THE inward part of Wind-Ovens. 2. The outward parts compleated. 3. The holes next the Wind-Holes. 4. The Pots in which the Sulphur and grained Metals is to be prepared, with a Fire under it and a Man attending it. 5. A single Crucible and cover to it. 6. The Iron Tongs by which Crucibles are put in and ta­ken out of the Fire. 7. The Frame on which the Crucible is to be set. 8. The Iron [Page] Vessel into which the stuff or melted matter is to be cast. 9. The Man attending the Wind-Ovens.
Represents 1. THE lower part of a wooden Frame of a Press for making Crucibles. 2. The shape of the whole Press, and how the Crucibles are to be forc't under it. 3. The Iron Rings or Hoops about the Frame. 4. The shape of the Crucibles which are to be made in the Press. 5. The handle by which the Scrue of the Press is to be turned.
Represents 1. THE Athanor and lower Mouth-hole of it. 2. The upper Mouth-hole. 3. The Edge on which the Iron Plates do lay on the Iron Grates. 4. The registers or air-holes above the Grates. 5. The little air-holes near the top of the Athanor. 6. The stopples for the registers or Air-holes. 7. A Test fitted for the Athanor. 8 & 9. Cement-Pots. 10. An Hook to stir the Coals. 11. The man that stirs the Furnace and works.
Represents 1. THE form of a common Cup, cast in Brass. 2. The Cup of Smiths Work. 3. A Crucible for the Work. 4. A Flat Test for it. 5. The Ingot. 6. The Plates of Antimony with the Gold Regulus. 8. The Antimony when the Gold Regu­lus is beaten from it.
The CONTENTS of the SCƲLPTƲRES In the third Book of COPPER OARS.
Represents 1. THE inside of the little Oven made with Tiles. 2, The same when it is closed 3. The foot of the Crucible upon the Grate. 4. The little Oven of Potters Clay, strengthned by Iron Hoops and Bars. 5. The foot of it. 6. The Iron Grate in it. 7. The Crucible on the Grate, with the Proof in it. 8. The wind-hole wherein the Bellows are put. 9. The whole Oven open with the Bottom. 10. The Iron Hoop which goes about it. 11, 12 & 13. The Bellows, Brush and Instruments.
Represents 1. THE Melting-Oven to try Copper Oars from Copper-Stone. 2. The luting it with Clay. 3. The buck't or washt Oar. 4. The little Ovens in which the [Page] Copper-Oars are to be proved, with ordinary Bellows, and a Man to attend them. 5. The Bellows as they are used. 6. A Copper Instrument (with a Neck) in which water is put and set over the Fire, and used instead of Bellows (called Philosophical Bellows, see Lib. 1. Sculp. 2.) 7. The Pot in which the Fluss is to be made. 8. The Assay Crucibles. 9. The Block, Hammer and Pieces to be beaten.
Represents 1. THE Copper and Lead Pieces weighed, and a Man that attends them. 2. The Oven for melting fresh Oars. 3. The Copper Pan into which the fresh pieces are to be cast. 4. The form of the fresh pieces melted. 5. The Melter. 6. The Vault which receives the dust and smoak. 7. The little Door out of which the dust is to be cleansed. 8. The Wheel that brings in Water with the Tub to receive it.
Represents 1. THE Assay Oven for Copper. 2. The supporters to be made of Copper. 3. The Assayed pieces as they stand in the Oven. 4. The VValls or four sides of the Oven, with the fire in it, and how the Oven is braced with Iron Hoops. 5. The stampt pieces and Coals on the top of the Oven. 6. The Copper or Iron little Pans, with a man putting the melted stuff into them. 7. The Kinstocks. 8. The Crane or draught by which the Assay pieces are to be lifted out of the Assay-Oven, or otherwise disposed of. 9. Instruments, viz. Ladle, Pitcher, Fork and Hook. 10. The Trough or place to cool the Instruments in water.
Represents 1. A Drying Oven. 2. An Oven soon made, according to the Hungarian way. 3. A common ready Harth attended with two Men. 4. The Kinstocks which are to be pickt with an Iron Tool and beaten by a Man. 5. An Harth for spizing, according to the Hungarian way. 6. 6. 6. The Copper Cakes, quench't in a Cistern of Water by a Man.
Represents 1. A Fresh Oven. 2. A little By-Oven for Lead. 3. A fresh piece, with a Man lift­ing it. 4. The separation of roasted and weighed Lead, brought by a Man with a VVheel-barrow, and laid in heaps. 5. The Vault for the smoak and dust. 6. The Tunnel for the Smoak. 7. The fresh Oven without a fore Wall. 8. 8. The Assay-Oven. 9. The little Pans for the melted Work.
Represents 1. AN Oven in which Brass is to be made, the shape of it in the inside, and how the Pots and Crucibles are to be placed in it. 2. How the Brass Ovens are to be placed in the Work. 3. The shapes of the Pots and Crucibles. 4. The Shovel for [Page] the beaten Calaminaris Stone, which is to be mixt with Copper for the making Brass. 5. The Tongs by which the Pots are to be set in and taken out. 6. The Wind-holes in the Oven. 7. The Pieces of Britain Stone, or Lapis Calaminaris unbeaten. 8. The place for the Master that sets-in the Pots.
The CONTENTS of the SCƲLPTƲRES In the fourth Book Of Lead OARS, Tin, Antimony and Quick-silver, Iron and the Load-Stone.
Represents 1. THE Walls of the Furnace. 2. The Lines on them shews the Gradations of the Metal descending. 3. The Man that manageth the Metal in the Furnace. 4. The back of the Furnace with the Coals, and Pieces of Metal flowing. 5. The grand Test. 6. The Oven for that Test. 7. The pieces from the Test. 8. The Man that beats the Oar. 9▪ The pieces of Oar and Cinders. 10. An heap of Char­coal. 11. The Water-Troughs to wash the Oar in. 12. The Pipes by which the foul water is cast out. 13. The Instruments for the Furnaces and Tests.
Represents 1. THE little Iron Pans for Spelter or Wismuth Oar, 2. The Wood Fire for them. 3. The melted Spelter that is to be made clean in the Iron Pans, and the work­man that tends it. 4. He that draws the Oar out of the Mine.
The CONTENTS of the SCƲLPTƲRES In the fifth Book of Salt-Petre, Vitriol and Allum.
Represents 1. THE Tub in which the Lees is made for Salt Petre, and out of which it is to be extracted, and the Can or vessel to put water into the Tub. 2. The greater Tub into which the Lees doth run. 3 & 4. The Master and the Ballance by which he proves the goodness of the Lees. 5. The Lamin. 6. The Candle. 7. The Pincers.
Represents 1. THE 8 Tubs into which the Petre-Earth is to be put. 2. The Pipe with Brass Cocks, into which the water is let into the 8 Tubs. 3. The channel by which the Lees fall from each Tub, and so into the Receiver. 4. The Sink or great Receiver [Page] of the Lees. 5. The ninth Tub from which the Lees run into the Kettle. 6. The Oven wherein the Kettle stands. 7. The Kettle. 8. The Iron Door by which the wood is to be put into the Oven under the Kettle. 9. The wind-hole, in the bottom of the Oven. 10. How the Oven may be seen in the inside. 11. The Iron Grate on which the wood lays. 12. The door into the working-House.
Represents 1. THE long narrow Tubs wherein to cool the Lees. 2. The Oven wherein the Kettle is placed. 3. The Master which makes and lets out the Salt Petre and puts it into separating Baskets. 4. The separating Baskets. 5. The Tub out of which the strong Lees run into the Kettle. 6. The Melting Vessels in which the Salt-Petre im­proves. 7. The 4 Kettles standing on the ground, wherein the Salt-Petre also improves it self. 8. A strong Tub into which the Salt-Petre is to be be cast, as it improves.
Represents 1. THE fore-part of the Salt-Petre-House wherein the Lee Tubs do stand. 2. The back part of it, wherein the Kettle and the Oven are placed and wherein the Salt-Petre is to be boyled. 3. The old pieces of Earth, out of which Salt-Petre is to be made. 4. The wood used for boyling it. 5. The Servant that shaves and fits the Earth for boyling.

In the second Part of ESSAYS, THERE are the Twenty four English Letters, artificially Cut in Wood: and two more SCULPTURES Engraven in Copper. viz. under the Word Limbeck one, and Load-stone the other.

THE best Artists may commit Mistakes or Errors, but they are Pardonable, when they pro­ceed not from a willful and careless Neglect, and therefore 'tis hoped that the Ingenious Reader will connive at the want, or misplacing of Comma's, Periods, or Parenthesis, and for the rest they are here set down, that there may be no Mistake in the Sense of the Author.

PAge 12. Line 24. for Essay, read Assay-Oven. p. 38. l. 15. r. Petre. p. 63. l. 13. r. Needles. p. 72. l. 2. r. Blink. p. 75. Fig. 7. r. a compleat unused. p. 89. Fig. 7. r. the Fork and Pendula. p. 103. l. 24. r. a black Hair Sieve. dele Sicher Troy. p. 114. l. 27. r. rough Stones. p. 118. l. 15. r. Sandiver. p. 154. l. 3. for washeth r. weighed. p. 167. l. 16. r. which you. p. 171. l. 15. for Rape r. Linseed. p. 181. l. 14. r. Silver. p. 186. l. 14. r. hath. p. 189. l. 2. r. put in. p. 242. l. 17. r. with which. p. 252. dele 12. Neces­sary r. Profitable. p. 280. for Loths r. pounds. p. 287. Fig. 2. r. How the. ibid Fig. 6. r. Wind-holes. p. 313. l. 2. r. Tin by. p. 333. dele 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. r. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

Lazarus Erskerus CAP. I aliàs Erckern.


CHAP. I. Of Silver Oars.

Sculpture I. Section 1


The Assayer 1. the Scales 2. the Cases for Weights 3. Glasses for Aqua Regis, Aqua Fortis, Aqua Vitri­oli, Aqua Argentea or Quicksilver, &c. 4.

[Page 2]

CAP. I Section 2 Sculpture II.
  • 1. The form of an Athanor or great Furnace.
  • 2. The Forceps or Tongs and Fork.
  • 3. The Coppel or Test, with Philosophers Bellows.
  • 4. The Digestive Pot with its Cover and Fire about it.
  • 5. A cover'd Crucible.
  • 6. The long Bell, or Matras-Glass on a Sand Fur­nace.
  • 7. The Wind Furnace with a Blow-pipe.
  • 8. A Furnace with a Copper head, and its Receiver.
  • 9. A Furnace with a naked and open Fire.
  • 10. The Pestel and Mortar, with one beating the Metals.
  • 11. The Owl's Head, or another form of a Cover to the Figure 8.
  • 12. A Retort.

[Page 3] CAP. I Section. 3 THIS first Book speaks of Silver Oars, how they may be distinguished by The Pur­pose of the Book.their several Sorts, and afterwards by Assay-Scales and Assay-Tests; Of Muffles, Coppels, and of Clar for Lead, of Lead-Glass, of Fusion-Pouder, of Ballances and Weights, and how a Lead Grainer may be made, and then how every particular sort may be certainly assay'd or tried, as also of Slake and Slake-stone, Flakes and Hard-Work, See the Dictionary.of Laech-Speize, Black Copper, Pagment, and of Granula­tions; as also of Planches or Plates of Silver and burnt Silver, with a fundamental Information how to burn Silver in the common way, and under the Muffle: as also the preparing and making Tests: and how to cast Silver which is Tuff or hard, as well as that which is not tuff or more ductile: also how to assay Tin, Iron or Steel for Silver, and to know what any Silver or coined Mony is worth: and to make stroking or tou­ching Needles, or Ingots of Silver for distinguishing the fine from the less fine Silver.

Section. 4 Why Silver first treated of.Now, because I have in this Treatise first begun with the Description of Silver Oar and its Tryals, some may wonder why I did not rather begin with Gold, (which is treated of in the Second Book) and why I did not give Gold the Preheminence, it being the high­est and chiefest Metal of the Earth, and so by right it should have been first treated of.

Therefore I think fit to inform the READER that I have not done this without good Reason; For, from Silver Tryals, all other Assays and Preparations of In­struments do flow, as out of a Fountain, and have their Rise from thence; for which cause I have judg'd it necessary, in the first place, to give information of the same, and to place it in this first Book, because it is [Page 4] CAP. I to the Honour of the Crown of Bohemia, and border­ing Countrys in Germany, viz. Miechfin, Sachsen, Shes­ren, Manhren, and other Countrys where there are ma­ny Mines containing good Quantities of Silver, and many Miners, Gardians of Mines, Refiners, Pro­vers, Smelters and Melters, who exercise themselves in proving of Silver-Oars, and of such Metals as con­tain Silver in them, and yet because there are many in these parts who have not gained the true Knowledge thereof, or have not in all things pertinent to this Science, obtained a fundamental Information, I have proposed to my self to be serviceable to such, and therefore I have more largely treated of Silver, and its Tryals than of any other Metals, and am not willing to leave this unmentioned in this entrance of what I am to write.

CHAP. II. How Silver Oars are distinctly known.

Section. 1 Section SIlver Oars are found to be of many sorts and Colours, yet if they be not very fine, they are not to be judged by their Looks (how rich soever they are in Silver) and therefore 'tis proved by Artists (who have diligently search'd in­to this Science, and by them found out many years past, as also by others who have since improv'd this Art) that the worth of every Oar may be certainly found out, so that the very smelting, melting, refining and ac­count thereof, may be demonstrated both as to its worth and the Charges.

[Page 5] Now it is here necessary to be known, that so many as there are Sorts of Silver Oars, so many are their Na­tures and ways of melting and refining them; and there­fore Difference of assaying Oars.the Tryals of Silver Oars must be ordered according to the Nature of the Oars, because the hard, harsh, gross and crude Oars, cannot be proved like those of an easier Fusion; or of a more mild, subtil and ductile nature, because, as an Oar proves either harsh or hard of fusion, so it must be help'd (in the proving) by the Government of the fire, or by other wayes; as, by much Experience in proving such Oars have been and may be discern'd according as they melt in the fire: so that if there be not a knowledg of the Nature of an Oar before melting, and how it will do in the fire, such an Oar, cannot be melted to profit.

Now for the better attaining the knowledg of the Difference of Oars; as, which are of an easy, and which of an harsh and crude Fusion; the most excellent and experienced Miners do give every Mine (and Oar from thence) Names, according to their Natures: all which according to the Terms used by them are hereafter named.

Section 2 Glass-Oar.First, there are reckoned to the Easy-flowing Silver-Oars, these Nominall distinctions, viz. Glass-Oars (as the cheifest of the leaden Coloured Oars) almost to be compared to the best digested Silver, for it doth not loose above a sixth part in the fire, and the rest is pure and good Silver, and this dig'd Oar is a ccounted the best Silver Oar.

Section. 3 White gold­ish Oar.Also there is found white-Goldish Oar, not that it contains Gold, but because it is good in Silver, it hath this name in respect of its Goodness.

Section. 4 Horn Oar.Also the Horny Oar, (which is called so from its transparency or rather lucidation like Horn) and is very rich in Silver next to the three last mentioned Oars.

[Page 6] Section. 5 There is a Silver-Oar which is Brown-red (almost like Cinabar, but not so light) and this they call Red-gol­dish Oar, and this doth yield above half Silver, and it Red goldish Oar.is found that these Oars do break like one another, and the difference not easily discern'd.

Section. 6 Black Oar.As for all Oars which are gray and black in breaking and withall heavy, they are often rich in Silver, but such as break black and light, or brown and yellow are not alwayes rich, and it happens often that there is little or no Silver in them.

Section. 7 Ironish OarAll Ironish brown and Yellowish streamy Oars are from decaying Mines, pierc'd by cold winterly Winds, and these contain some, but are not rich in Silver.

Section. 8 Leadish OarAlso the leadish, or Oar that looks like mud (and there­fore call'd muddy Oar) is somtimes rich and somtimes very poor in Silver, and indeed all leaden, horny, stony Oars, if they be yellow, white, gray, black, brown, red or green do not contain in themselves (if no other Oar be mingled with them) much Silver, and for the most part none at all.

Section. 9 Glittering Oar.Also there is reckoned among the Easy-flowing Oars, all such Lead-Oars as are of a bright, glittering, shining Nature, or of a gray, brown or white Colour, yet these of themselves alone have little Silver, but the small flaky glittering or Wismet Oars, from the Mines in Bohemia, as also the much flaky, shining Oars from the Mynes of Fryburgh in Misnia, do contain from 6 to 10 ounces in a centner.

Section. 10 Float Oars many Sorts. Also all float or Easy-flowing Oars that are Yellow, white, brown, blew, green, or gray, do contain near that proportion.

Section. 11 Azure or blew Oar.Also Copper-grass Oar or Copper of a Mountain green, or Copper glass-Colour do hold some Silver, but the Course Oars of an Azure, Mountain-Green Colour, are comonly poor.

See the Di­ctionary.In fine, all Silver Oars in all sorts of Mynes free from Flint, Blent, Cobolt, Mispickle, Glimmer, Wolferan, course spelter and Wismet (or be spizy and Copery) are called, saft flowing mild Oars.

Section. 12 Flinty Oars many Sorts.On the contrary, all flinty Oars are reckoned among the harsh, gross and hard flowing Oars, and of these Oars there are also several sorts, namely the gross Flinty-Oar, the water flinty-Oar, and the square flinty-Oar, these contain little Silver (and the most part of them none) or not above half an ounce in a Centner: also Copper-flinty Oars that are yellow like Brass, al­so the Brown and Blew-staind-Flinty Oars, they do con­tain much good Copper (as may be Seen in the third Book) but such Oars contain little Silver, yet one sort more than another.

Section. 13 Cobolt blent mispickle Oars.There are also rich-copper-Flinty Oars which have no Silver but the Blent, Cobolt or mispickle Oars (as in Section 11.) if they be speckled or spotted with round black or gray spots, they are sometimes rich in Silver and sometimes poor.

Section. 14 Glimmer, Wolferan, Talk, Cats-silver and sparkling Oar.Also all common-white Glimmer or wolferan (as in Section 11.) or glimmering or sparkling Oars, or Talk or Cat-silver are very poor in silver, yet the black Glimmers are sometimes rich; but for the most part all such glim­mery Oars are commonly poor, so as I account these but as Paterns to other metalick Oars.

Section. 15 Spelter and spizy Oars.Also all course-Spelter, spizy or coppery-spizy Oars (as in Section 11.) or the like kind, they are common­ly poor in Silver and contain none at all.

Section. 16 Spady Oars.Also all spady Oars (or such as may be dig'd with a Spade (if they be red, green, yellow or white (if there be no other mixt silver-Oars with them) for the most part do contain little or no Silver in them.

Section. 17 Slack and Copper stoneAlso there is reckoned among the harsh, or hard-flow­ing Oars, the raw slack-stone, and copper-stone, spelter, be­ing [Page 8] alike in cleaving and splitting of Furnaces which proceeds from the stirring of the flinty parts, as also from the scummy part in melting them.

Section. 18 The Ways of assaying them.But how the Proofs of the above-named soft-flowing, as also of the hard-flowing silver Oars are to be wrought, I shall by the following DISCOURSE distinctly and ex­actly inform the READER.

Now, because that in many places there are no Workmen who can well make Instruments, belonging to the proving of these Oars, I will for the better Informa­tion, shew first what is chiefly necessary to be done in such proofs, both in the whole, and in parts; as also what matter or stuff is to be used about them; as also what Instruments are to be made and prepared for them.

CHAP. III. How the Assay-Ovens to prove Silver and other Metals are to be prepared.

Section. 1 Special Ovens. THERE must be special Furnaces (for Assaying) made of good Potters Clay, and bound with strong Iron wyre or Hoops, that they may not fall asunder by reason of the strong heat which they must endure. But some diligent As­sayers which intend to carry on their Work effectually, do form and adorn their Furnaces fairly and comely, so as they may be pleasing to the Sight: This indeed do's Adorning them.give them an adornment, but there is no more done with it, than with a Common Furnace (that is made well, though plain.)

Now there are many sorts of Assay-Ovens which As­sayers [Page 9] made use of according to their several wayes of working, but this is to be noted, That in one Oven, the Fire is to be better governed than in another, either by heat or cold, as the difference may be seen in the following Sculpture: But I intend to mention first, how the Ancients have made their Furnaces.

Section 2 Iron Assay Ovens of the Ancients.The Common Assay-Ovens, in which the Ancients have made small Tryals, they have caused to be made square, of strong iron Plates about fifteen Inches wide below, and sixteen Inches high, and sloping from be­low to the top, so that the square was about ten Inches at the top, and this Square had no Bottom, but in the Fire part it had a Mouth-hole (of four Inches and a half wide) and the other three sides had each of them at the Bottom a wind hole, four Inches long, and one and an half high: there was also every where about the plate, holes cut into it, so that it was ruffe and sharp for the Loam to stick the better to the luting of their Furnaces.

To make a good Loam. Now to make such a special good Loam, (as will hold well in the fire) take good and well▪wrought Loam, beat among it Flocks of Wooll, or Horse▪dung, Blood of Oxen, scales of Iron and common Salt, with which lute the Furnace two inches and a half thick, let it dry, then take small ground Venice-glass, Bone­ashes, and a small quantity of Loam, mingle it well to­gether, and plaster it all over the inside of the Furnace, let it dry well, then make a gentle fire in it, that it may be neald, and when the Furnace is to be used, there must first be a smooth fire-place, and upon that Copell-Ashes are to be laid the breadth or thickness of a finger, and this on the Furnace must be placed; and in the Oven upon the Fire-place a Muffle (which is for­med as the following Sculpture doth shew:) and thus the Assay-Oven is made ready: and when there is any [Page 10] Tryal to be made of the Furnace, after it is well glaz'd within by the last plastering over of the Furnace with the Venice-glass and Ashes, it will last the longer.

And when the Furnace in length of time is quite burnt out, then the old Loam is only to be knock'd out, and fresh put in the room thereof, and proceed as before.

In such a Furnace, he that knows well the Govern­ment of the Fire, and is an experienc'd Assayer, may make all manner of Tryals, only the Registers are soo­ner stopped with the Ashes than the Furnace with the two mouth-holes, of which there will be information hereafter.

Section. 3 Norinberg Assay Ovens made of Potters Loam.Some Assayers do use in their tryal of Furnaces (which are made of Potters Clay, and formed like the above-named Furnace) and tye them with wyre, and set them upon a foot which is broad and hollow, and hath in each of the four sides wind-holes (as the follow­ing Sculpture will shew.) And in this Furnace it is more easy to govern the Fire, than in the above named Fur­nace, because the wind-holes in that Furnace (which are in the foot) do stop themselves easily; and such Assay-Ovens are called Proof-Ovens of Noringberg, and the Muffles appertaining to them, are also seen in the Scul­pture.

Section. 4 A slight Assay Oven of Iiles.But if a man should be in a place where no Assay-Ovens are to be had, and yet would assay a few tryals in haste; in such case, Take only a few Tyles, place them together in a square, and leave in the sides Wind-holes, and in the fore-part leave also a Mouth-hole, and with a Pipkin cut in two, make a Muffle in it, and in such Furnaces Assays and tryals may be well performed.

Section. 5 Assay Ovens in which the fire is best gover­ned.But in such Assay Ovens, in which most commodi­ously Assayes may be made, and in which the Fire may be right and duely govern'd, also as such as are not easily [Page 11] stop'd with ashes, and in which all the Tryals (that may be made in any Furnace) may be tryed, they are to be made thus, viz. eleven Inches wide, and sixteen in­ches high, which is the full hight of the Assay-Oven, when you have measured eight inches high, then work it a lit­tle in, also that the Oven at the top may remain seven inches wide, and the thickness must be one inch and a half, and the lowermost Bottom three quarters of an inch thick, then measure from the bottom three inches high, and four inches and a half wide, which is for the lower Ovens mouth, then measure two inches above the lower Mouth-hole (which is for separating of the upper and lower Ovens mouth:) in like manner measure the height, three inches and a half, and four inches wide, then after a separation of an inch thick, make the upper­most mouth-hole about the bigness of a little finger, so that from the middle of the hole to the top of the O­ven there may remain yet six inches and an half, then on both sides of the Ovens-mouth, towards the corner, measure three quarters of an Inch: and make there two holes a pretty-big Fingers widness, which must go strait through the Oven, as also the like behind: when all this is done, you must then also make a declination, from whence the Ashes may fall; which must stand two in­ches and a half from the bottom, and two inches and a half from the sides of the Furnace, and the declination must stretch hollow upward from the bottom, six in­ches and an half: Only observe this, That if you in­tend to make any thing of Clay, then you must add so much as the Clay useth to shrink, because one sort of Clay doth shrink more than another, but most common­ly Clay doth shrink the tenth part: When this As­say-Oven is also finished, and is yet soft, then there must be edges cut in it, in which the Iron-bonds or wyer may lay, after that, let it dry well in the Sun, and then let it [Page 12] be hard baked in a Potter's Furnace or Brick-kiln.

Section. 6 There are also in like manner Assay Ovens made, which outwardly are of a square form, like the above­named Assay Ovens of strong Armour-plate. Furnace, and are made very neat and clean, of strong Armor-plate, and writhen with Ironpins, on which the Lute may stick well, and artificially brought toge­ther, also that such a Furnace may be taken asunder into five pieces, which Furnace, like to that of Iron-plate, must be neatly luted with a good and firm Lute, and to the strong plate of Iron at the outside of the oven, there must be little plates to put forward and backward in small Crevices, and so according to necessity the Tryal may be well made: Of such Assay Ovens there is much Estimation made, but there can no more be accompli­shed with it, than in one of the other mentioned Fur­naces, if only an Assayer have well the knowledge of the Fire, after which all Proofs are to be governed, then can he, without question, do well in all these Ovens.

In this following Sculpture is to be seen how this and the afore-named Ovens are to be formed, which is thus

  • 1. An Assay-Oven used by the Antient Refiners, joy­ned with Iron Plates.
  • 2. An Essay-Oven used by the Norinburgers (in Ger­many.)
  • 3. The Foot of it.
  • 4. An Assay-Oven made of Tiles joyned together, which may quickly be done.
  • 5. An Assay-Oven made of Potters-Loam, and fastned with Iron Bonds.
  • 6. The upper mouth-hole of it.
  • 7. The lower mouth hole of it.
  • 8. The holes for Iron-barrs to be put in.
  • 9. An Assay Oven made of Armour-plates.

[Page 13]

Sculpture III.

When any one of these Assay-Ovens is thus prepa­red, then cause two Iron-bars to be made of an equal length, which must go through the holes that are be­tween the upper and lower Mouth-holes (Figure 6 and 7) and stand out about three Inches, on the out-side of the Oven, on which the plate must rest before the up­per Mouth-hole, and cause a bottom-plate to be made no bigger than from the Bars to the lower part of the upper Mouth-hole, and so broad that it may reach a lit­tle above the Iron-Bars, and from the bottom-plate to­wards the sides, so as there may remain near an inch of room on the Back part of the Furnace, whereby the Wind may pass through it into the Oven, so that the fire may do its work.

[Page 14] To this Assay-Oven there belongs singular Muffles, which may be seen in their full proportions, in the fourth following Sculpture.

There must be also a Cover to the Furnace, with lit­tle Instruments to be made of Potters stuff, to govern the fire, the Forms of which are also in the fourth fol­lowing Sculpture.

CHAP. IV. How Muffles, Bottom-plates, Tests, and other small Potters-Work (necessary for Assayers) are to be made.

Section. 1 EVERY Assayer ought to have so much knowledg, that in case of necessity he may be able to make his Assay-Ovens himself, as also his Tests, Crucibles, Muffles and what other Ʋtensils or In­struments are daily used as necessary to Assaying, because there are not in every place Masters of this ART to be found who know how to make the same, and although much pains may be taken to instruct a Potter (in case of Necessity) how to make some In­struments belonging to this ART, yet it often happens that they do not make them well, nor in good shapes; whereby an Assayer may perform his Work: and therefore I (as well as others, when we could not have good Instruments made fitting for us) have been forc'd to make them our selves, which are done thus.

Section. 2 Of prepar­ing Loam for Instru­ments.Take good Potters-Loam (as good as may be had) but the Loam or Clay that is blew and becomes white in the fire, is found to be the best for use; Let such [Page 15] Loam dry in the Sun till it be hard, and when you do intend to make Instruments of it, let it be well pulveri­zed, then moisten it with Water till it become soft, and let it be well troden or broken with an Iron, then put among it the Washings of Pibble-stones or very fine sand, as much as the Clay can well bear, but that you may not add too much or too little, be sure to make out of such stuff some Assay-Tests or Crucibles, and put into them some hard-flowing Oar and place them in the fire, which will offer thee a Tryal, whereby thou maist see, if the stuff will hold, well, sound and firm; some do mingle among it some Chalk-stone, or the subtile red Talk or Glimmer in such place where there is much of it, but which is most necessary, Experience will teach: some take in stead of it the broken Pots or Crucibles, beaten small and sifted through a sine Seeve, and put so much among the Clay that they may vvork it vvell, because of its britleness, such Crucibles and Tests as are made of it hold vvell, (but vvhen Pibble-stones, as hath been said before, are mingled vvith it, that it doth bind together in the fire, and the bigger the heat is, the more doth it bind) and this Proof-Test may be taken vvhole out of the Frame.

Section. 3 Whem the Loam is prepared you must then have a Frame, in vvhich you may beat the Proof-Test and How the Cases and Frames and Assay-Tests are made. Crucibles: the Frames are best made of Brass, but they that cannot have such may cause them to be made of good Wood of Pear-tree, and an Iron-ring may be put upon it, very closely, that the Frame, by reason of much use may not split or break: then anoint the Frame vvith a little Bacon, and put in it a little Ball of the prepared stuff, as much as may be enough, and grease also the upper part of the Frame, vvhich is cal­led the Monk, and beat the upper part vvith a vvoo­den Mallet into the Case or Frame, then is the Test for­med; [Page 16] press it out vvith your Fingers, but have a care that the Clay be not too moist, otherwise you can not press the Assay-Test whole out: Some do put the Case with the Test upon a suddain and quick heat, and so the Test will come out whole, this is a very good way to make the small Crucibles, but with the great Assay-Tests, it would be too long and tedious.

Section. 4 To make Muffles you must have wooden sticks cut To make Muffles of Clay over wooden­sticks or Fromes.in form of that bigness the Muffles must be, grease them with Bacon, and frame a Lump of Lute or Clay, of a convenient bigness, that it may be cut with a copper wyer, into a thin leaf or piece, and put it over the sticks or frame, and cut out of it such another leaf, as may make it a half round piece, that you may close it behind, all this must be done upon the form, and must with a moist hand be stuck close to it: then let it stand, nigh three hours, that the Clay may be a little hardned, then cut the Muffle out, so as you will have it cut upon the sides and behind; and let it stand yet a little longer, that it may go easily from the sticks: Some do strew a lit­tle fine sand or ashes upon the Frame after it is greased with Bacon, that the Muffle may come easily from the Frame: But that many Muffles may be prepared to­gether, therefore cause more than one of these Frames to be made, that in the mean time while one doth dry several more may be made.

Section. 5 But, to the bottom Leafs or pieces you must have How the bottom of them are to be fram'd.Frames of Wood, in Widness as the bottom leafs are, thick and broad; they must be prest full with the pre­pared Loam, then they will dry quickly, and come out easily; or cut out of a piece of Clay, a leaf with a small wyer, so thick as you would have it, and shape it fur­ther as is necessary.

Section. 6 Of drying and calci­ning the Loam for Assaying.These Tests, Muffles, Bottoms, Leafs and Crucibles thus prepared, must be very well dryed, and then in a [Page 17] Kiln or Potters-Oven well calcined, although the Muf­fles and bottom Leaves are also used raw and uncalci­ned in the Assay-Oven, but there must be a very gentle fire, and the fire in the Assay-Oven, must first be kindled from above, downwards, and so they will remain whole, otherwise they will all fly in pieces; and thus you are fully instructed how the Potters-Clay is to be made into Instruments, and if they be not good and firm they are a great hindrance to the Assayer: the Forms of vvhich are truly to be seen in the follovving Sculpture.

Sculpture IV.
  • 1. The Muffles which the ancient Assayers did use, and the common Assayers do still.
  • 2. The Muffle to the Norimgberg Assay-Oven.
  • [Page 18] 3. The Muffle to the Assay-Oven with the two mouth'd holes.
  • 4. Stopples.
  • 5. Bottom Plates.
  • 6. Covers.
  • 7. Wooden Frames or Moulds for Muffles.
  • 8. The lower part of an Assay-Test.
  • 9. The upper part of an Assay Test.
  • 10. The Frames or Moulds for Assay-Tests.
  • 11. The lower part of the Assay-Crucible.
  • 12. The upper part to it.
  • 13. The Assay-Crucible perfected.
  • 14. The small Instruments for governing the fire made of Potters-Clay.

CHAP. V. Of Copels, and how they may be made firm and good.

Section. 1 IT is necessary for a Refiner to have his Copels made well, because if the Copels Copels of good staff.be not made of good Loam or Clay they will devour the fine Metal very much, especially when the Clar is not well made which is to be put upon the Copel, because it will rise, and so the silver Grain will be hid under it, and if the Clar be not good, the silver Grain will be lost under the Lead and not fined. Also, if the Ashes be not good, or something fat or oyly, then will the Copels melt in the fire, which will prove of ill Con­sequence, because with such there can be no Tryall made.

[Page 19] But, that you may have good Copels, that your Try­als may be the better perform'd, make them in this fol­lowing Manner.

Section. 2 Of Ashes for Copils.Take Ashes burnt from any light Wood, (as Sal­lows, &c. for such are best for this use) and put them into a Seeve, and pour Water on them that the Ashes may be wash'd through the Seeve into a Tub, so the Coals and grosser parts may remain in the Seeve, then pour into the Tub so much water more, that the Ashes may be covered-over, then stirr it about, and let it stand an hour or two: whereby the water will draw out the fatness and oilyness out of the Ashes, then pour the remaining water very gently off, that the thick trou­bled water may not go along with the clear water; and then pour another water on it, and let it stand also till the upper water grow clear; then pour it again gent­ly off, and this do till the water hath no fatness or sharp­ness: then the third time pour clear water on the Ashes and stir them about with a stick, as before, and pour that water, whilst it is thick and muddy, into another Tub, that the gross part of the Ashes in the first may remain till the water in the other Tub be clear and well setled; then let the water run clear from it again, this is the first clearing: then pour another water upon the wash'd settled Ashes, and stir them again with a stick, then pour the thick again into another Tub or Boul, that is to try if there remains any Fatness or gross Ashes, that it may all be cleanly separated, and let the muddy water settle very well because it is the last washing: and when the Ashes are thus far prepared, then make Balls thereof, let them dry well in the Sun, or in a Bakers O­ven, and keep them clean for use.

Section. 3 Of Vine­wood ashes and com­mon Ashes.There are some Refiners that in stead of Ashes (burnt off light Wood) do take Ashes of Vine-wood, [Page 20] (but they are not every-where to be had) and they do wash and prepare them as abovesaid, some do use on­ly such Ashes of which the common Lixivium or Lye is made, but the two former are better, which you will also finde by use and Experience, only there must be a care that the Ashes be clear and well prepared.

Section. 4 Secondly, You must have to your Copels good Of Bone-ashes, and which Bones are most serviceable.and clean Bone-Ashes, for which take Bones that have no Marrow or Gravy, and burn them white, pulve­rize, and pass them through a hair Seeve, then grinde them upon a stone, like Meal, and so you have Bone-Ashes prepared: then take two parts of the wash'd A­shes which have first past through the hair Seeve, that they may not remain in Lumps; and with one part of the ground Bone-Ashes, and mingle these two well to­gether, and moisten them with strong-Beer (but first let the Beer boil away one third) or, with a Glew-water: But, if you will bestow somthing more upon it, then beat the whites of Eggs in water, and moisten the A­shes therewith, but not too much, that when you press a handful together, the Ash-ball may well remain intire: then let the Copel-case be well fill'd with Ashes and put in, but be sure to scrape the superfluous Ashes off it, Munich.and give the Monk three or four blows vvith a wooden Mallet upon the Copel-frame, wipe the Monk clean off, and strew (with a little wooden shovel) good Clar upon the Copel, vvhile 'tis yet in the Case, and part the Clar, vvith your finger, and set the Monk strait upon it a­gain, and give tvvo or three Blovvs to fasten the Clar upon the Copel (as necessity doth require) that the Clar may be fixed upon it, then take the Monk off, press up­on other Ashes the Copel out of the Case, so is the Copel ready; in such a manner may you make Copels great and small, then let them dry till you have need of them, so vvill they be firm and good.

[Page 21] Some do use a special Instrument made of Latten Section 5 which is full of little holes at the bottom, in which they put the Clar, and with a wyer that hath underneath a An Instru­ment to strew the Clar.little cross-Plate, they cause it to run through, but I do not like it so well, as if it were parted with the finger.

Some do take also among the Copel-Ashes the tenth Section. 6 Of Glew for Copels.part of good Potters-Loam (which must also be wash'd like unto the Copel-Ashes) and dry it in the Sun, and this is necessary to be used with it, and when the Clay is good and holds well in the fire: otherwise it may do more hurt than good in the Copels, and I conclude, when a man hath good Ashes that are well washed (as I have hinted before) good Copels may be made that need no mixture, and those Ashes may well be moistned with fair water, but the Copels are more brickle by it, and not so firm, as with the strong Beer or glew-water.

CHAP. VI. How good Copels may be made, wherein the Tryals will not leap nor sparkle.

SUCH Copels as I have hitherto thought Section. 1 fit to mention, are good to be used, by vvhich the true quantity and proof may be found in them, vvhen the Governance of the Fire is vvell observed, but if this be not minded, and the Copel be cool and hot, then some part of the Silver is soon lost, but if an Assayer is uncertain in the Silver and Money-proofs, and hath not a full knovvledg of the Fire, it is better for him to cause the following Copels be made for Tryals.

Section. 2 Let Knuckle-Bones, or other Bones be burnt very Bones for Copels. [Page 22] white (the Calves or Sheeps-bones are best) among com­mon Bones) stamp them fine, and grind them upon a Grind stone fine as flower, then mosten such subtile bone-ashes (like other Copel-Ashes) with strong Beer, and of this make Copels, and strew Clar on them, as hath been done with the other before named Copels, and let them dry; so are they prepared.

Section. 3 But good and clean Bones of Fishes may be had, (which of all Bone-Ashes are the best to be used for Co­pels.) When you would assay upon these Copels, set them in the Proof-Oven, and when they are only glow­ing hot, then put what you do intend to try in then, and although they are only thus, the Proofs vvill not leap, but be purely finished: only this is to be noted, that the Assayes upon these Copels are much colder, lon­ger and go more subtilly than upon the other Copels, therefore there cannot easily any thing of Silver be lost; and vvhen the proof is finished than may the Grain be taken off very pure and clean, and nothing stick to it, although it had been a Coppery-Silver that vvas refined in it, vvhich Grains do commonly enter into the Clar, and they cannot alvvays be taken off cleanly from other Copels.

CHAP. VII. How good Clar is to be made.

Section. 1 IT is necessary that good Clar must be had for the making of Copells, because if the same be not good, then there can be no good Copels made, although the Ashes be prepared as vvell as can be. Novv (as for my part) I have vvith Diligence try'd many Bones, and have found that Calve's-head Bones or the Scales that come from their Forehead are the best: Take them and wash them from a boiling hot water, or let them boil well in the water, that the fatness and foul­ness may be separated from the other, then dry them and burn them untill they be fair and white, then stamp and grind them on a stone, still moistning them with a little water, and put them in a glaz'd Pot with a Cover luted on it, and set them once more in a fire or Potters-Oven, and let them burn well for four hours, then let them cool; this done, take these burnt Ashes out of the Pot, and grind them once more very fine upon a smooth (or Marble) stone, that they may be very clear (of which clear preparation, the Clar hath its Appellation or name) keep it from Dust, and it will serve for your use at any time.

Section. 2 Some also do use Harts-horn to make Clar, and they Clar of Harts hornburn it and order it as the other abovesaid, and this doth yield good Clar, but those of the Scales of Calves-heads I like better.

Section. 3 There is also of Fish-bones (as Pike and other Fi­shes Of Fish­bone. Bones) very good Clar to be made, but the Fat­ness [Page 24] must be first separated from it, by boyling and bur­ning them (as before) but this according to ones plea­sure, and which Clar any one likes best, he may use, only he must be careful to see that they be finely ground to Pouder.

Section. 4 When the Clar is ground to pouder, then some do How to be kept.wash it in fair water, and make four-square Pieces of it, or Balls (like Chalk-stone) as I my self did some years since, but I find that if it be finely ground, and dryed only, it is the better, because by washing and drying it, and making them into pieces or Balls, they will grow hard, and cannot be so well scraped from the Lumps, as with that which is in Pouder.

Now, how the Copel-Case and the Copel is to be or­dered and performed the following Sculpture will shew.

Sculpture V.
  • [Page 25]1. 3. The Copel-cases.
  • 2. 4. The Copels that are made in them.
  • 5. The Copels as they are set upon one another.
  • 6. The Wash'd Ashes (or Clar) made into Balls.
  • 7. He that works the Ashes.
  • 8. He that strikes the Copels into their Frames or Cases.

But that the Forms and Proportions of the Copels may Section. 4 the better be seen, the following Sulpture doth demon­strate. Forms of Copels.

Sculpture VI.
  • 1. The Copel-Case.
  • 2. The Copel for the Copper-Oars and common Proof of Common Oars.
  • 3. The Copels for Oars that are poor in Silver, and also for common Oar Tryals.
  • [Page 26] 4. The Copel for common Siver-Tryals, which are as­sayed according to Weight.
  • 5. The Copel to Starling-silver Proof.
  • 6. How the Copels are set one upon the other in the Ovens.

CHAP. VIII. How Glass of Lead, or Lead-Glass is to be made.

Section. 1 FURTHER, that every one may have good and fundamental Information of what belongs to Assayes, therefore I do intend, before I further proceed, to shew Lead-glass to what Oars it is to be used.how the Fluss, or lead Glass must be pre­pared, which lead Glass is a Fluss, and is used to the very hardest and unflowing Oars, to the end that they may as easily be boiled up as the soft Oars: of which boyling, hereafter shall follow more full Di­rection.

Section. 2 To prepare Flus or lead-glass.Prepare this Fluss or Lead-glass, thus, Take fair and white pibble-stones, burn them in a Potters-Oven, stamp them small, and pass it through an hair Seeve, pour clean water on it, and wash the Mud from it, that the pouder of the pibble-stones may be clean and pure: of these pib­ble stones take one part, and half a part of red Littorage or Littarge, mingle it dry together, put it into a Cruci­ble, but not above two thirds full, and put common Salt on the top of it, or Salt-peter (if such can be had) about three Fingers height above the matter, and lute it well; and let it flow together with a strong heat in a Wind-Oven or Tyle-Oven; let the Crucible cool of it self, then open it, and all will be mingled in a yellow Glass; only a little Regulus of Lead at the Bottom, which is to be [Page 27] separated, but preserve the Glass, which is the Fluss.

Section. 3 You may also melt the Littarge first by it self, and of the slakes that come from it, take ten parts to one Another way.part of prepared pibble-stones, and cover it with Salt, (as above) cause them to flow, and so a good Lead-glass will come of it.

Section. 4 Another way.Or take instead os the wash'd Pibbles, good wash'd Loam, which is dry and firmly pulverized, one part, and three parts of good red Littarge, cover it with Salt, let it flow in a strong heat, this doth yield a fair Lead glass.

Section. 5 To cleanse the Lead­glass.When the Lead-glass is made, and again melted in a Crucible, put a little Niter in it, and cause it to flow a while after, so the Lead-glass will become cleaner or more flowing: or one may use among it a fourth part of Caput Mort▪ and cause them to flow together, this al­so causes the Fluss to become finer and more flowing.

CHAP. IX. Of the Weights which belong to the proving of Silver-Oars.

Section. 1 THE Centner-weight by which all Oars, Slicks or wash'd slake-stones and what else of this nature are prov'd) is by the old Assayers proportioned thus: That the Centner is orderd to be just an Hundred pound weight: for this Rea­son, because in many places the Oars or slake-stones, and the silvery unwash'd black Copper is bought by weight, and the fine Silver in it according to the Proof (before it is melted out of it) is paid for this end, that the Buy­er may not be a Looser (because of the waste in melt­ing [Page 28] to get out the Silver) therefore hath he so many pounds as the Common Centner of the Mine yields (or where it doth weigh more or above) which Centner of the Mynt doth commonly weigh an Hundred and ten pounds, so that he may have the ten Pounds that is above, with the Silver in it, to help to bear the loss) therefore in a well ordered melting of poor Oars they do hold most commonly 3, 4, or 5 loth of Silver, for the loss of the Silver in Melting should not be a­bove the Silver contained in the ten Pounds of the Oar, that was over, comparing it with the proof-Centner: but in rich work and rich Oars, or concerning very rich Cop­per, the ten pounds which are above are also justly taken along with it.

Section. 2 1Dram.
Of dividing the common Proof Cent­ner.
2Drams or half a Loth.
1Loth or two Ounces.
16A Pound.
25A quarter of a Centner.
50Half a Centner.
100A whole Centner.

Section. 3 Two sorts of Penny weights.The Peny-weights are of two sorts, the one is with us in High Germany, the other is as 'tis used in Holland, after which the Silver or Grains may be tryed, upon a [Page 29] just proportion how much a Mark hath in it of fine Silver.

1Heller, or Half-penny. Section 4
Of dividing the Penny-weight in High Ger­many.
1Loth, or, 4 half Ounces.
16Loth is a Mark, or 256 pence.
Section. 5 ½
Of dividing the Low Dutch Peny Weight.
The single Grains.
12Grains is a Half penny.
6Pence is a Mark, or 288 Grains.
12There are so much as 256 pence.

The Mark in the Grain-weight, is parted into Loths and Grains, like as the Low Dutch Peny-weight is parted into Loths, Pence and Grains, and this Weight is most commonly used for Tryals in the Crucible for Coyn'd Mo­ny, to which it doth best serve: for this Reason, because [Page 30] the Grains here are reduced into greater Numbers, and the Contents more exactly found out, because in the Peny-weight it is only parted into Pence, and Half-Pence, and although the fourth part of a Grain (as to its Contents) is not usually reckoned, yet it is necessa­ry for an Assayer to have such a fourth part in his part­ing or sharing for Information and Exactness sake,

¼Single Grains.
1Grains is half a Loth.
4Loth, or two Ounces.
16Loth is a Mark, or 288 Grains.

CHAP. X. How all Silver-Oars are to be tryed.

Section. 1 I HAVE mentioned before, That a dif­ference is to be made among Oars, be­cause Assaying of soft flowing Oars.some are harsh, hard-flowing and raw; as also that some are soft-flowing and mild: The soft-flowing Oars are thus to be tryed for Silver: Take the Oar, grind it with an Hammer upon a broad Iron, [Page 31] (fitted to that purpose) as small as pouder, weigh of it a Section. 1 Centner (with thy Assay-weight) put it on a well-made Test, and mingle eight times as much of Lead in Grains among it, and set in a warm Assay-Oven, and presently make it hot, and set Coles before the Ovens mouth, so the Lead will begin to drive and turn quickly to Slacke or Dross, and when it hath stood so long in the Proof-Oven, that the Lead upon the Test is all covered over with dross, then it hath dross enough; (this is called Boy­ling up or Ʋp-boyling) then take an Iron hook, lay it that it may be a little red hot, and stir the Oar with it clean­ly about, which is done for this Reason, that if there should stick any of the Oar on the sides of the Test, it may be made loose, and that the Lead also may work on it, and consume it: After the stirring, let it stand a while, and then take it out of the Assay-Oven, and pour the Lead and dross upon an Iron-plate, in one of the lit­tle holes that are to be made upon the Plate, and let it cool, and then separate the dross clean from the Lead, so is the proof of the Ʋpboyling ready, which is done in the space of about half an hour, afterwards set Coppels in the Assay Oven, and let them glow well for half an hour, (and this is called Nealing) and upon these well neal▪d Coppels put your Lead so wrought, which hath been boi­led up, and make it warm that the same may first begin to work, and when it begins to drive, then keep the fire not too high, that the Lead or work may drive well, and go off upon the Coppel in a conveient heat, and so the Lead will all be drawn into the Coppel, and the grain of Silver will remain alone, (provided that the Oar hath Silver in it) upon the Coppel, although it be very small, then take the Coppel out of the Assay-Oven, and take with your Pincers the Grain from it, so is the proof finished: Now, how this Grain is to be weighed, with the Assay-Scales, it doth require a special dili­gence; [Page 32] and of this you shall be more exactly instructed afterwards.

Section. 2 You shall Assay these harsh and hard flowing Oars in Tryals of harsh Oars.this manner, Take the Oar ground small, and weigh of it a Centner with your Assay-weight, put it on a good Test, and add to it its due weight of Lead, to wit, Four­teen Centners: set it in an Assay-Oven, and give it pre­sently heat, that the Lead in the Assay-Test may begin to drive, as you have done with the soft-flowing Oars, and when the Lead begins to drive, then let it be cold again, which will be, when you do shut the lower mouth­hole, and do open the upper, then will the Oar rise, and come to be roasted upon the Lead; when it is roasted e­nough upon the Lead (that is when it is seen to leave smoaking much and begins to slacke) then maist thou give it heat again, as much as can be. This happens when you do lay Coals before the upper Mouth-hole of the Assay-Oven, so the great heat will force it, that the Oar will turn to slackes, but it doth slacke small and not easily, and when the Oar is almost boyled up, and hath slacked finely, then stir it cleanly with an Iron-hook, let it stand again a pretty while in the Oven, and when all is turn'd to fine slakes, then pour it as before upon a Plate hollowed, or let it cool in the Test, and beat the slackes from it, so is the proof of up-boyling ready.

Section. 3 A quick up­boyling of Silver OarsIn such manner, almost, may all Pibbles or raw Oar be boyled up, and this is a right and good way to do it, but the up-boyling is hardly done in an hour, yet it may be done sooner in this manner; when you have weigh­ed your Oar, and set it on the Test without Lead in the Assay-Oven, give first some heat until the oar upon the Test is roasted, and smoak no more: then set the Lead, (as much as belongs to the Tryal) upon the Test; give it a great heat, so will the Oar boyl up something easier, and in less time than if it should have been roasted upon the Lead.

[Page 33] Section. 3 Although there are some that believe such a Tryal in which the Oar also is roasted without Lead) is false and not right, yet I do give this Information, That I have oftentimes, (with one sort or other) tryed both wayes, and I do truly affirm, That I have found no difference: But there must be a Care taken, that when the Oar is set alone upon the Test, that it may not be put into a violent suddain heat, because such an heat doth raise the small Oar, and doth cause it to dust away, especially when the Oars are stony, for it makes the Tryal false (this excepted) I know no fault, but be carefull and you will find it true.

Section. 4 Another way to try raw Oar.Some have also another way to try raw mild Oar; as thus, They set first the Test in the Oven, that it may glow, and then put the Lead in it, and let it by it self slack pretty well, after that put upon the slack'd Lead, the weighed Oar in small Papers, so the hot Lead, and hot Slack will draw the Oar quickly to it self, and will not let it rise much, or boil up very well: this way I also like, only that in drawing the Oar upon the hot Lead, (especially the mild Oars) it will dust, and when there are many Proofs to be made together, there will some­thing be neglected, and the Proofs may become false.

Section. 5 If one doth know the Nature and Property of such Oars as will not easily boil or slack, but remain upon the Lead (for so will the Chalk-stones) the gross and raw blind or Cobolt, the mispeckle, as also the mild and fresh Pibbles and water-pibbles which must (assoonas they are weighed) be mingled with Flus or Lead-glass (as hath been before mentioned) which vvill hold the raw Oar, and doth not suffer it to rise high, because it hath help by the Lead-glass, so that it vvill become soft Slacks and slacks vvell, and boyls up clean, as may be seen in melt­ing: harsh Oars (vvhich in Ʋp-boyling each one by his proper addition may be helped) that they vvill be vvell [Page 34] separated, or else there vvill remain some Silver in the slacks, and so there vvould be some Dammage.

Section. 6 Of Assay­ing the Cop­per slacky Oar.In S. Joakims Valley (so called) there are Oars bro­ken, vvhich are called Coppery-Oars or flaky Oars, vvhen they are once boyled up, the Work or lead vvill not go off upon the Coppel, but casts up a Ring or border, and eats much in, and makes the Proof false: and vvhen this is knovvn by an Oar, then must the vvork or Lead vvhich hath been boyled up (and from vvhich the dross is separated) be again set upon the Test, and be slack'd again, and then the Lead vvill come off clean and white; This is called, the Lead cleansed of its Foulness, then it must go off upon the Coppel, as before.

Section. 7 Cleansing of the gross sul­phury Flints after Ʋp­boyling.It happens also often, that the gross Sulphury oars do also make the Lead black and harsh, also that upon a well neal'd Coppel it doth not drive, but leap off, which makes the Tryals oftentimes come false, because of its Foulness, such Lead you must once more set upon a new Test or upon the same, and let it slacke again, so will it be white and clean and go well off upon the Coppel, and loose nothing.

Section. 8 To try Co­bolt Oars.Concerning the Cobolt oars, there are many sorts of them, some fresh and some milde, black and gray, some in trying do go easily into the Lead, but such Lead that comes by Ʋp-boyling from it, is black and red, and it afterwards doth work upon the Coppel, and dissolves, therefore it must after the first Ʋp-boyling, be cleansed again of its Wildness and must be slackd once more, so it will become white, and go clean off from the Coppel: One may also set the weightiest Cobolt Oar in a Test in the Oven, and let the smoak pass away, some of which sort do leave gray Ashes, and some a black grain upon the Test, and the rest will burn all away, but put a lit­tle Lead to it, and it will easily go in it, and also go [Page 35] clean off from the Coppel, and is found alike with the other Tryals.

Section. 9 But some do take it as above-mentioned, That when the raw oar upon the Test is roasted without Lead, the Roasting Oar in the Ovens. roasting doth take away some of the Silver, and that the gross Sulphur doth carry it away, and they will de­monstrate it by some volatile raw Flints, and the raw slackestone, which comes from it; which after they are roasted do not yield so much Silver as if they were mel­ted raw through the Furnace, to which I do yield, and have found the same true: But because the roasting ge­nerally in the great Work with quantities of oars is done in the naked fire, in which it also must lye several hours▪ contrariwise in the Assay-oven and small Proofs there is but little oar put in, and that in a close Fire is roasted in a short time, I judg for certain, that through such roast­ing of the Oars in the Assay oven, nothing can be lost of the Silver.

Section. 10 Probation by which the right and full worth may be found.Some may ask, If this way of using, trying and boyling up of Oars in the Test (and to let them so go off in the Test) be the right way, or no, by which the true worth, and how much Silver the Oar contains in it may be known? To which I answer, That this is the right proving, after which the melting Works may be order­ed, and set up: But the true worth, how much Silver the Oar hath in it, is not found there.

But to know this, Set a great Coppel (as is used to Copper Assayes for Silver) in the Assay-oven, and neal it well, and put sixteen Centners of Lead in it, let it be­gin to drive, then put one Centner of the ground-oar, which must be parted into many parts, and put it in small Papers, one after another, when the one part doth come first on it, it will seem stubborn upon the Lead, and vvill cover it all over, but let not this hinder thee; Do it first a little cool, and then hot, so it vvill soon slack in the [Page 36] Section. 10 Coppel, and the slacks vvill pass avvay, then set an other part of the Oar on the Lead, and that vvill do like the first, vvhich slackes vvill soon pass avvay, then put in like manner the Oar all singly upon the Lead, and it vvill all pass clean avvay in the Coppel, so that it vvill hardly be discerned, but seem like any other vvork upon the Coppel.

In this manner may all other Works (if they be flow­ing or harsh, as also melted slack stone and Copper stone) be tryed through; in vvhich you vvill finde a great difference, if you try the other usual Way of Refining, but this vvay cannot be used generally, except of all Oars that are melted, to slacks vvhich are not altogether without Silver; therefore the common way of Assaying (with the Ʋp-boyling upon Tests, of which all slacks do come, which cannot be wholly without Silver) is the best way: I have only mentioned these Assayes, to demon­strate, That with the same (out of every Oar) the right and full worth of Silver may be found in it, as fully as in the other Common Assayes: For several years, some vvorthy Assayers have weighed the Oars with the Cent­ner-weight, Section. 11 To try with Lead glass.which they intended to try upon silver Proofs mingled with Lead-glass, and covered with Salt in a Crucible, and placed it before the Bellows, and did melt it into a Regulus, after which when the Crucible vvas cold, then have they beaten out the Regulus, and toge­ther vvith the slackes have set it again upon a Test in an Assay-Oven, and caused it to slack fully, vvhich vvay is nothing vvorth, especially vvhen many Oar-Proofs are to be made: then Refiners have soon seen it, and have 12 When many Oars are▪to be tryed.thereupon ordered their Tryals according to our vvay.

Here I must mention also, That vvhen an Assayer hath dayly much to try (to vvhose hands vvithout Question harsh and hard▪flowing Oars come often) and if he be then vvell skill'd he knoweth by much and dai­ly [Page 37] Experience and Practice) how each Oar is in the Tryal; therefore when he hath prepared the Oar for Assaying (and so he must because of the many sorts) use a bigger Assay-oven, that he may set several Proofs together at Work, whereby his Tryals may be made the sooner, and must keep this Order, when he will set his Assays in the Oven, if they be 8, 9, or more, he must place them accordingly upon the Assayes, which are prepared in this manner; viz. That always the hard-flowing Oars may be hindmost in the Oven, and that the soft-flowing may stand before: for they are soonest boiled up, and so may be taken out of the Oven without hindrance to those that must be longest in the fire, and then be cast upon an Iron-plate, vvhich Plate must be made thus, It must have as many Holes and Vents as there are Tests to be set in the oven at once: so that each Oar may be poured out from its ovvn hole, that you may not mistake: But if it should happen that (be­cause of thy many Tryals) you must have above one Fur­nace, then put all the hard-flowing Oars into one Fur­nace, and the soft-flowing into the other; othervvise you must stay one Tryal for the other, which would be an hinderance. This vvay of Assaying is at Kuttingburgh (because of the great Oar-Trade in common use there) so that in some places every Week 200 Tryals of Oars are made, and the Contents are delivered to a Dram.

Section 13 To assay to a Dram▪Take Notice, That it is vvith this, as vvith other Tryals, (as was before mentioned) only have a Care that you make use of an Assay-weight which may not be too little, and to have good and quick Scales upon which you may know the weight to a dram, or the fourth part of an Ounce, so then if you do well with the Proof in the Fire, then may you safely and surely give in the true Contents of as many Loths and Drams as you do find, after that one is weighed.

[Page 38] Section. 14 Further, take Notice, That when thy Tryal is made and that you will draw up or weigh your small proof­grains, How to weigh the tryd grain.let your Scales be kept in a Case of Glass (that the same may be preserv'd from the Wind and Dust) then put into the one Scale the small grain of Silver, and into the other the grain of Lead (as small as it is) and put as much of the Assay-weight to it, that it may stand even with the grain in the other Scale, when this is done, then change the Scales that are in the Proof-scales, and see if the Scales stand even as before, if then the Proof be found alike on the one side as on the other, and just with the weight, then may the same be judged true, and be given in.

Section. 15 To boil rich Oar with Fluss.Such silver Oars as are very rich may also with the Fluss (made of Salt-petar and Argol asshall follow here­after) be mingled and put into a Crucible and covered over with Salt, and may be melted like unto the Copper Oars before the Bellows, and there will be a silver Re­gulus, in the bottom of the Crucible (which is not very tuff nor pure, because of other incorporated Metals) the which you may make fully tuff upon a Test, and in this manner the silver is very easily to be had out, but it is not the true Contents, because the Slacks do yet contain part of the Silver in them, the grain also doth not come very fine from the Test except it be done upon the Coppel.

CHAP. XI. How poor Oars of Silver are to be Assayed.

Section▪ 1 AS for poor and unclean silver Oars which are mingled with stones (and yet may be wash'd off with water) Assay them thus; stamp and grind them in an Iron Morter very fine (like flower) mingle all well to­gether; and weigh 28 Centners of it with the Assay weights, then put it into a smooth Tub, wash it with water till it remain like a fine slick or Clay, then weigh this wet slick and you will find how much those Oars do weigh and afford of clean slick, in one Center (because the slicks that are made clean by washing are also weiged vvet) try it upon silver (as you have been taught above) after such a Proof you may make your Accounts: and if by preparing and vvorking thus you can subsist: such a Proof hath preserved many an Assayer from danger of loss.

CHAP. XII. To try Muddy-vvater springs of Silver.

Section. 1 SOMETIMES it comes to pass that from mild silver Veins, there springs out of the Mountain a blackish or yellowish muddy water, which doth often contain Silver: this you must try thus, Take a Potfull of this Water, boil it that there [Page 40] may remain a slime or settlement, weigh this, and do with it as with other Silver Oar, so will you finde what it contains.

CHAP. XIII. How a true Lead-Grain which is usually drawn off in the Proof, is to be made.

Section. 1 EVERY Assayer hath need to have great Care of the Lead-grain which he may make of the Lead that he uses dayly more than one grain, that he may be certain, because all Lead, almost, doth contain Silver, and although the Lead of Vil­lach is counted the best for to assay withall, yet there is but little to be found of it that is quite without Silver.

Section. 2 So then there is no grounding upon this, because The Lead of Villach not without Sil­ver.unexpert Assayers that do run off upon the Copel four Centners of Lead, and vvhen they find no Silver there­in, do therefore conclude that there is no Silver in the Lead, but there is need to run off so much Lead upon the Coppel, as much as is required to every Assay, and to try it more than once, and if then there is found no­thing in all this, then may it be concluded, That the Lead holds no Silver, and yet one is not to rely altoge­ther upon it, but an Assayer is to prove his Lead several times over and over, again: that if a piece or lump should differ one from another (because the Pieces of Lead are not all cast at once in the smelting House where it is made) that he may be certain of his Lead, which is of much concernment: and so you will finde that also the [Page 41] Villach-Lead doth leave a grain of Silver when the full weight of Lead is assayed, which silver-grain is to be laid upon the Scales with the Assay-weight, that it may be abated from the other Grain of Silver which came from the Proof-Oar.

Section. 3 Further some Assayers are of the mind, That if there is a little Copper added that holds no Silver at all, and The Lead-grain with the Additi­on of Cop­per.doth cause it to go off on the Coppel, that then the Lead-grain is found the better: this is well, if one desires to try Copper upon Silver, and so to make the Lead-grain; but to Oar-proofs, and to other things which are not Cop­pery such a Lead-grain must not be used.

Section. 4 To make another Lead grain▪Because all Oar-Tryals do slack in the proving such as are very rich of Lead, and yet do afford some Silver: the Opinion of some is, to take the weight of Lead, and a Centner of Earth of the Mine or common Oar which hath little or no silver, and boyl them up together, that they may turn to slacks, as is done with the Oar-Try ­als; then the slacks will draw in part of the Lead grain, which is to be counted for a true Lead-grain for use. But I judge because the Lead grain is otherwise poor, that the Difference herein is not great, yet it is left to every ones pleasure to make use of his own way.

CHAP. XIV. How a Slackstone or Copper-stone is to be made, and to be tryed for Silver, and what the Slackstone is.

Section. 1 What Slack­stone is. SLACKSTONES (as the Philosophers do judg) are Sulphur and Arsnick min­gled vvith a subtil Earth, and doth sepa­rate in fusion from the Dross, and doth draw the Copper and Silver to it self, de­monstrated thus; The Brimstone in the [Page 42] beginning doth roast away, and the Arsnick doth sub­lime it self with a strong heat, but the Earth in which the Silver is and the Copper doth remain, which is after­wards easily brought to slacks, that the Metal may be separated, which otherwise could not be if the Arsnick had been with it, from hence may be known how to draw the Silver and Copper out of the Slackstone, so can it be no otherwise than to separate the Sulphur and Arsnick first from it, which is done by roasting, as may be seen in the great works of Smelting; thus, that the Slackstone in the beginning may have but small heat (and not a strong fire) so that the Section. 2 To separate it from Sul­phur.cold Air may easily fall upon it, and cause the veno­mous Sulphur to rise, (which doth fly from cold, and loves the heat) and so doth easily separate, which other­wise doth stay in a violent heat, and remains alwayes Slack stone, and is afterwards not so easily separated, yet a small heat only doth it not, therefore in roasting, the fire must be increased by degrees, and in the End, when the Sulphur is almost roasted away from the Slack stone, then with a strong fire the remaining Sul­phur and Arsnick must be driven away, although the roast should flow with it, yet it is no hurt to it: I do write this, That it may be seen, that the Searchers of Nature, have also with Diligence searched into these things, and that Roasting hath had its rise from thence.

3 Which way the Cakes are to be knock'd out.When the Red Slacks or Copper-stones are prepared and the Cakes set upon one another, and you are wil­ling to try them for Silver, then beat out of every Cake a piece, not quite in the middle nor quite at the end, which is the best for proof (because the Silver runs toward the Cold) so that the stone-Cakes are found richer at the end than in the midst:) Take all the pie­ces that are cut out, mingle them together, and make a [Page 43] proof of it (this is called Younger proof) which you may grind very small, and weigh of it a Centner with thy Assay-weight, and assay such a Stone (as you have been taught above) and as hath been done with the harsh Oars, put presently its due of Lead to it, and let it first roast off upon the same. In the end give it good heat, that the proof may be boyled up; But because this Proof is of much Concernment, therefore take six­teen weight of Lead, that the Tryal may have enough, because for a Tryal it is better to have the weights of Lead too much than too little.

CHAP. XV. To try Hard Work and Copper-Laech upon Silver.

Section. 1 DRY and fat hard Work or Copper Laech some Founders (especially them of Cut­tenberg) Two Sorts of Hard Work.do use for an Addition to work the silvery Oars into slacks, that such Addition may be rich in Copper, and that fresh Cakes may be cast, and the Sil­ver separated, to which in Comparison to common Refining, there belongs a particular Account and Un­derstanding, for such dry and fat Hard Work must be tryed for Silver, like unto a Leadish black Copper (which is almost one thing) and of which there will soon follow Direction.

CHAP. XVI. To Assay melted Speiz, and what it is.

Section. 1 THE Spiez Oar is in many places (espe­cially in Joakim's Valley) and is found What Speiz is.out in melting: the Philosophers do think that it consists of Arsnick and Brimstone mingled with a subtil Earth, vvhich doth separate it self from the slacks, like unto the Copper slack stones, only in the Spiez Oar and the slack stone there is this Difference: For, as the Brimstone doth surpass (as abovesaid) the Arsnick, so in the Spiezy Oar the Arsnick surpasseth the Brimstone: therefore the Speiz is vvhiter than the Slackstone, and doth loose but little either in the strong, or small fire, nor by roasting; nor can it be overcome by Lead, but is always found again, and doth loose but little; only this is necessary to be known, that when the Speize is melted in the flintish-Lead Oar gently, and not Section. 2 To take the Silver out of Speize.over-heated, and doth then mingle with the slacks of Iron and (according to the manner of the City of Goslar) doth melt among the light Dust, so comes the Speiz to be lost, and none of it is found again, and the Silver en­ters into the Lead, which is caused by the Antimony in the Lead-oar, and the red Sulphur in the Flints: which are both again in the Arsnick. But when there is a de­sire to Assay the Speiz for Silver, you must grind it small, and weigh it, and with so much Lead (as a slack­stone hath need of) set it on a Test in an Assay oven, and in the beginning a great Grain of speiz vvill be found svvimming upon the Lead, vvhich cannot be consumed [Page 45] by it, some Refiners do take this Grain with Pincers out of the Lead, and although the silver of the speiz doth enter into the Lead, yet without question such Grain doth contain some silver: But that the full Con­tents thereof may be found out, Leave the Grain on the Test, and add to the speiz on the Test, some filings of Iron, that hath no silver, and then the speiz will be quite consumed, and become dross or slacks.

CHAP. XVII. How Black Copper is to be melted and cast into Ingots.

Section. 1 THERE are many sorts of Black Copper, one part is very good, but others un­clean Difference of the Black Coppers.and harsh, as Iron-slacky, leadish, speizy, and also sometimes tinny, accord­ing as a Copper Oar doth break by an­other metallick Oar, or, if any of them hath veins through the Copper Oars, such a Metal comes to be mingled with the Copper, and is the worse for it.

2 So then, if you will cut out such black Copper and will cast an Ingot of it, Take of the Cakes which have been How black Copper is to be cut out.made upon the roast at once into Copper, cut a small piece of every Cake above and under, and not quite in the middle, nor at the end, according to proportion and bigness of the Cake; and here you must be careful that you do not cut a small piece out of a great Cake, nor a great piece out of a small Cake, because one Cake con­tains more silver than the other, and so a Proof may be soon made false.

3 How the Proof-Ingot is to be cast.When the Cakes are all cut out, then put all the pie­ces [Page 46] into a Crucible, melt them before the Bellows toge­ther, and when the Copper begins to flow and drive, then stir it about with a dry splinter or stick, and let it stand a little longer, then take a clean Ingot rub'd with a little tallow, and cast the Copper into it, all at once, that no­thing remain in the Crucible, but set the Ingot smooth, that the Copper may be no thicker at one end than the other, because where the Ingot doth hang, the Copper runs that way, and is richer there in silver, especially in rich Copper. You must also quench in water the cast Ingot, if the Copper hath not been leady or tinny, and with a hard Charcoal the tallow may be scoured off, and the Ingot cleansed, but the Lead and Coppery cast Ingot must be left cooling in the Ingot, that the Lead may not rise up, so is the Ingot finished, which is to be cut half­through the Ingot, and beat it cross vvay, then vvith a Hammer and Chisel strike it into two, so in the breadth the goodness of the Copper may be seen, and how the Ingot hath been together: and one half is to be given to the Buyer, and the other to the Seller, that if there should be an Error in the Proof then the Ingot might be assayed again.

Section. 4 It is also necessary to know, that if the Copper doth Difference of the Proof Ingot.drive too long in the Crucible, it doth waste and become richer in the Contents, which is easily to be seen, be­sides, if the Ingot be cast too hot, it will be in some places full of little holes, also if it is not all over smooth, but wrinkly and with knots, then it is cast too cold, so it is not found alike in Contents: if any of this happens in Casting by negligence, then such an Ingot is to be done away, and the Copper Cakes again cut out, to cast an­other Ingot, and thereby you will fine the right proof, and contents; because if the first should be melted and cast again, then it must drive again in the Crucible, and [Page 47] the Copper would waste more, so the Contents would be richer, and the Tryal false.

Section. 5 If you intend to assay such, Cast Copper Ingots for silver: Cut (with a Chissel) at the end of the Ingot a Assaying the Ingot.little piece, put that away and cut another, beat it flat upon a clean Anvil, or, if tis brittle, then to small bits, which you may weigh and assay thus: weigh of such pieces equally two Centners, put each in a small paper by it self, make it so that it may lye flat in the papers, and not in heaps, put also two great well-made and well neal'd Coppels in the Assay-oven, in the middle under the Muffle, and in each sixteen Centners of good clean Lead: but before all this, make a flame in the Oven with a Copper pipe, and the Oven and Coppel must be clean that no Ashes may remain in it, make it at the begin­ning warm, and when it begins to glow, and when the Lead doth go upon the Coppel, and doth not leap; then put the weighed Copper upon it; make it hot again untill it begins to melt or to go fresh. After this open the upper Mouth-hole, and shut the lower, cover the O­ven with a Cover, yet not quite close, but that it may remain open about an inch wide, or as necessity doth re­quire; Afterwards set behind (and upon the sides of the Muffle) the little Instruments, so the Copper will soon begin to go, then let it have a requisite Cold­ness (because the Copper among other Metals (try'd for silver) can endure the most cold. And after it hath gone a while cold, then lay before the upper Mouth-hole a few live coals that do not sparkle, or, if you do make your tryal in the Furnace made of Armour-plate, as in Sculpture Ill. Figure 9. then put before the up­per Ovens-mouth the little plate full of holes, and go­vern the fire with such live Coals on the plate with holes, or by moving the Cover above, that the tryal may be hotter and hotter untill the end, then take the Cover [Page 48] Section. 6 quite from the Oven, and cause the Grain of Silver to be all over bright and clean from spots, because the Cop­per Assay and government of the fire is of much con­cernment, The Regi­ment of the fire.and is accounted so, because it is necessary to know how to give heat and cold (as it requires) if the same be duly perform'd) but if it is not so, and that the tryal be too hot, then there will be an ounce of Silver less in a Centner of rich Copper, and the Contents will be found so much poorer, but because such a Knowledg and Government of the fire cannot be described, but is learned only out of much Experience, therefore do I rest here: But yet know thus much, that if the Proof on the Coppel doth grow high and clear, then it is hot, but if it doth go flat and darkish, then doth it go cold; There must in the Copper Assay in all Tryals, the middle way is to be observ'd, and the true contents will be found: although young Assayers do much esteem their own Works, and do slight knowledg of the fire, yet it is cer­tain, as the Copper for silver by such means is right as­sayed, so must it be done with all other Copper Tryals, and he that is well acquainted with such Copper proof in the fire, he will want nothing in other Tryals, as hath been said.

Section. 7 Of the Grain pro­duced from the Assay.Thus, when the Grains of such two tryals have twin­kled, fresh and clean, then take the Coppel out of the O­ven, and take the Grains off, while the Coppel is yet hot, so they will part clean from the clear, and the Coppels which bring the yellow subtil Littarge alwayes vvith it. Provided it hath had its due Heats and Colds (as hath been said before) but if it hath had too great heats then there vvill be no Littarge and it is not good to trust to such Tryals, but vvhen the two Assay Grains in the drawing up of the Scales are of a like vveight, then is it a sign that the proof hath been well made, but if they differ, although the Tryals have been diligently [Page 49] performed, yet there is no certainty to ground upon it, and it is better that such be made anew; but forget not vvhen you do intend to dravv up the Proof vvith thy vveight, to put it in the scales vvith thy vveight lead grain of the Assay lead, and to beat it off from thy proof grains, although it be very small.

Section. 8 Another way to try Copper for Silver.One may as vvell lay the vveigh'd copper first upon the coppel, and let it glovv vvell, and aftervvards the due vveight of Lead, vvhich is as vvell; only the cop­pel must first be vvell vvarmed, othervvise the Lead will leap upon it, and the proof become false, which cannot be by the former way, because if the Lead which is set first alone upon the Coppel should leap, it may then quickly be made still again, if a live Coal be laid a little while on the top of it, and afterwards put the Cop­per upon it, so it will not hinder the Tryal.

Section. 9 Proof In­struments to have great care ofFurther, every Assayer ought to know when the Cop­pels are not made of good Ashes and well prepared, for hereby they become tender, and will rob the proof of some Silver; likewise, when he doth use a new Assay-Oven, to which he is not used, and doth not know well the Degrees of fire in it, so it is better that he may learn first to know well the nature of his Coppel and Oven, that he may trust to it, and this may be done in the following manner: Take a Copper Ingot, of which a Centner contains about forty Loth, or twenty Ounces of Silver (which in many Tryals hath been found of a certain Content) and of this make one or two Tryals one after another, as often as you do intend to change your Instruments; then, if you finde the first contents, you are certain of your Instruments, and there is no fault in them.

Section. 10 Concerning the black-iron-streamy-slacky and raw Cop­per they are not to be assay'd like the abovenamed good Proving of the black & raw Copper Copper upon the Coppel, therefore when you do intend [Page 50] to try such, beat them small and weigh of them two equal Centners, put each of them in a particular clean Test, place them in an Assay-Oven, and when they are glow­ing through, put to every Tryal its due proportion of Lead, to wit, sixteen Centners (like them before) and make them warm, and so they will begin to slacke, but you must not let them slacke too much, for then the Lead will enter into the slacks, and there vvill remain too little Lead with the Copper, and so cannot go clean off, but if the proofs be right boyld up, then take them out, and let them cool in the Tests; afterwards separate the dross from it, and cause the Lead or work to go off upon the Coppel, as cold as can be, yet so as that the proofs (as hath been taught before) may not congeal too soon, but appear pure and bright, and hereby you will have the true Contents, because such unclean coppers when they are not boyled up at first, but enter raw upon the Coppel into the Lead, then they do slacke up­on the Coppel and fret on it, and the proofs must be hotter, so that the true contents cannot be exactly found out.

Section. 11 The weight of the Cop­pels.Further also, I cannot leave unmentioned, That the Coppels after the proving of Copper do alwayes come heavyer out of the fire, than they were set▪in at first, vvhich thing although it brings little profit to a Refiner to knovv; yet it is to be vvondred, vvhat the cause of it might be.

CHAP. XVIII. To try Bell-metal for Silver.

Section. 1 BELL-metal, of old broken-Bells (vvhich is sometimes rich in Silver) must be try­ed Bell Metal.like unto the black raw Copper; but because of the Tin that is in it, it must be boyled up stronger, therefore there must be to such Tryals, four parts more of Lead than to Copper, by which also the Lead doth loose more: Or, weigh of such Bell-metal only half a Centner, and allow to it so much Lead, as to a Centner of Copper, so it will slack clean, and there will remain e­nough of Lead with it, (after it is boyl'd up) to drive off in the Coppel.

CHAP. XIX. How old Silver-plate or Coyn is to be made into Grains.

Section. 1 For what the Graining of Silver is profitable. GRAINING of Silver is done for the most part when bad, broken or other forbid­den Money (coyned in Hand) that the same may be all melted together and af­terwards to Assay it, and to fit it for bet­ter coining, that also the bad Money may be rooted out of it: this is to be done thus; When there is much of it to be granulated, then must there first be a furnishing of necessary Instruments, viz. Crucibles [Page 52] and Wind-Ovens, that one may easily granulate a great quantity of Silver in Plate or coin, and when you have all Necessaries, then set the crucible empty into the wind-oven, a good hand-breadth higher than the grate, and cover it with an Iron▪ cover, cover the crucible all over with coals and ashes, and upon them live coals, let the fire kindle from above downwards, then you need not fear, that it will be crack'd (as it happens sometimes Section. 2 when it is set in a suddain heat) and when the crucible Why the Crucible so easily breakshath been set thus in the fire, and that the fire hath vvell kindled downwards, so that the crucible is red hot all over, then uncover it, and see if it is yet vvhole, and hath no crack, vvhich is soon seen in the glovving heat, then put in the Silver that hath been first vveighed in the cru­cible, and cover it, put coals over it, and give it a strong heat, that the Silver may sink, then may you put more Silver, if you have it into the crucible, and give it fire again, that it may sink, and also follovv it vvith the Sil­ver, until the crucible be full, vvhen that is done, then give it fire enough, so long till the Silver in the cruci­ble begins to drive, and when thou seest it drive then throw upon the Silver (in the Crucible) coal-dust, or Ashes that the Silver may be covered with it all over; stirr it well about with a glowing hot iron hook, and af­terwards with a small warm Crucible take the Silver out of the greater Crucible, and pour it in cold vvater.

Section. 3 To granu­late the Sil­ver round.If you vvill have round Grains, then pour the Silver through a vvet Broom, but if you vvill have your Sil­ver hollow and thin for separation then stir the vvater vvith a stick vvell about and pour the silver into the boyling vvater, so vvill it become hollovv and thin, or granulate it over a Waltzen. Role, (vvhich being half in and half out, the water vvill run about, so will it be hollow, after it is granulated; then pour the water off from the Grains, and dry them in a Copper bason over the fire.

[Page 53] Section. 4 But if there be many to be melted and granulated; the Crucible is to be set likewise into the wind Oven, and first kindle the fire by degrees, that it grow warm, that you may see if the Crucible doth remain whole, because How to go­vern the fire.if the same in the first kindling doth remain whole, it will hold well in melting, provided the first be well tended, so that the Crucible may not stand naked, but that it may have a like heat, because the place that is left naked the cold doth work upon it, and in that part doth easily break, therefore it is necessary to put the coals sometimes down about the Crucible with an iron Instrument, that the Crucible may by preserv'd, and when the Crucible is glowing warm and whole, then put with an iron Instru­ment (which is made purposely for it) the old Silver therein, that the Crucible may be heap'd full, and put the cover upon it, and afterwards coals, and give it convenient heat, and the Silver will easily sink down, and still go on in putting in Money so long till the Cru­cible be full with the melted stuff, and then give it a strong fire or two, that it may be fully hot in the Cru­cible, and when you see that it doth cast a black Scum upon the Crucible (which scum you must take off with a Scummer full of holes, and let it be cold) then sift it through a fine hair seeve, that the grains of Silver which have been taken (with the scummer) out of the Cruci­ble may be put to the other Grains; keeping the black dust that falls through the hair Seeve, because there is yet silver in it, which afterwards you may make to pro­fit; when you have taken all the scum from the Cruci­ble, then cast again some clean coal-dust upon it, give it fire once more, that it may be very warm, and drive it, if it be not so, then the contents of the grains comes not alike, and it happens sometimes, that that which is not alike must be granulated again, which can not be done without loss, therefore be carefull at the first, and [Page 54] do not hasten too much with it, so when it is full hot in the Crucible, then may it in the same manner (as hath been taught above) be taken out of the Crucible, and be cast through a wet Broom (which hath not many small twigs) into the water, or, if there be much to be cast, then have two Brooms to cast through, that the one after the other may be dipt into the water, this is the common way of granulating, and it is the best vvay to do it, by vvhich the grains have an equal content, and near finely round.

CHAP. XX. To granulate out of a Kiln.

Section. 1 FURTHER, there is another way to gra­nulate (novv used) call'd Granulating out of the Kiln, and is thus: Cause a Kiln The manner of perform­ing it.to be made of Potters earth (a little above a Span diameter within) which must have Iron-hoops, and the middle ring or hoop must have a long Iron-handle, and at the end of the han­dle a ring; likewise the Kiln is to be cut out on that side towards the Bellows, and when there is an Intention to granulate in the Kiln, then it must be set before the mouth of strong Bellows, and coals put in it, and after let the Bellows blow into it, that it may glow well; and then the old Silver (with an Iron-ladle) must be put on the top of the Coals, and the Bellows must blow al­ways, so will it melt easily; and put still more silver, and let it flow: do this so long till as much Silver is in the Kiln as it can hold▪ stir it well about, after that, Take the Kiln vvith the coals in it, from the Bellows, and take it vvith the handle upon thy arm, and the ring which is at the end of the handle in thy hand, by which [Page 55] you may govern the Kiln, and so granulate it out of the Kiln, through Brooms as hath been said before.

This is a quick way to granulate, but the Contents of the old Silver is sometimes not found alike, and it Section. 2 doth also waste more than by other grainings or granu­latings: A quick way of gra­nulating.Now as often as there is need to melt in such a Kiln, it is necessary to do it alvvayes well over with a good Clay, that may hold well in the fire, otherwise, when the Metal is warm, it may flow through it.

It happens also often, that if a Crucible doth leak or or run out; and in that case sweep all clean together, put 3 it in a Vessel and pour vvater on it, and that vvhich When the Crucible doth break.doth swim at top, take off, and throw away, and pour other water on it, this do so long untill the water doth go clear off, then out of the Residue pick out the course sand and stones, and stamp the rest in a Morter and searse it through a hair seeve, that which doth not pass keep it, because it is good, but that which goeth through, vvash that again in a long Tub made of Firr, that the residue of the good may be got out: because where much is to be granulated there will be sometimes some Mischance, so that a Crucible may run out, and cannot be rectifi'd again without loss and dammage. The follovving Sculpture is thus

  • 1. The Grain or granulating Kill or Kiln.
  • 2. 2. The Wind-Oven of Potters-stuff upon a Trevet or three-foot Frame.
  • 3. Another Wind-Oven of Potters-Loam with Iron-Hoops, on a three-foot Iron-trevet or frame.
  • 4. The Crucible in which the Silver is to be melted.
  • 5. The crucible in which the melted Metal (that is ta­ken out of the fire) is to be put.
  • 6. The copper▪Bason in which the granulating is per­form'd.
  • [Page 56] 7. An iron-roaster on which the Silver is heated and roasted.
  • 8. He that tends the Grain-Kiln.
  • 9. The Broom-holder for Granulation.
  • 10. The granulating Vessel.
  • 11. The Bellovvs to the Grain-Kiln.
  • 12. The Instrument used by him that tends the Grain-Kiln or Furnace.
Sculpture VII.

CHAP. XXI. How the grain'd or granulated Silver is to be assayed for fine Silver.

Section. 1 GRanulated Silver hath different Con­tents, therefore according to its con­tents The diffe­rent Con­tents of Graind Silver.the Addition of Lead must be: but that there may be a true Under­standing of the difference, so the Ad­dition of Lead (according to the Con­tents) must be taken thus, viz. to that vvhich contains fifteen Loth of fine Silver, the Lead must be 5 or 6 times the quantity, and to that vvhich is burnt Silver, (and is 15 Loth and three drams in the Contents) to such there needs but four times the quantity. But if the Grains are from 12 to 14 Loth, then take to one Mark, ten Marks of Lead, and upon 14 Loth Contents, take Section. 2 The diffe­rent Quan­tities of Lead.nine quantities, from 9 unto 12 Loth Contents, take 16 quantities; and from one to eight Loth-Contents, take 18 quantities: and although upon some Contents there might well be one or two quantities more, than one too little: so that the Proof may have its due of Lead, and if the proof is right governed there will be no vvant.

3 When you are ready to assay such Grains or old silver, then set first the Coppels into the Oven, and not Assay Grains.above tvvo silver Tryals at a time: Let them be vvell neale'd and heated, and then put the vveight of the silver or grains, to two equal marks of thy penny weight, place each of them into a small Test or put first the pre­pared Lead for the proof upon the Coppel, and let it be­gin to work, and after it, also the weighed grains; go­vern the fire by covering the Furnace, as also by put­ting [Page 58] the Instruments under the Muffle, that the proof may go off alike, and pretty cool; cause afterwards the Grains to shine bright, yet not over hot, that they may not bolt or fly out, else the proof will be false.

Further, know also, that the Grains which are rich in Copper (and can endure much cold in trying) must be kept coldest, and afterwards let it shine clear (if the Contents be truly to be found) and that which is not rich 4 To assay rich Grains.in Copper, with less coolness vvill leave its subtil Littarge on the Coppel (as hath been said above.) But the Burnt silver and the very rich Grains cannot endure the cold because it hath no streamy Copper with it, and the proof would easily congeal, and if this should happen there would be no Remedy afterward, but it must be done again, therefore such proofs must go off a little hotter.

Section. 5 When the Proofs have too little Lead.But if it should happen (by not minding it) that to one poof, there should be one or two quantityes of Lead too little, then the Proof will not shine clearly at all; which is easily to be seen by the Grains, when there are little Spots upon them: as also black and wrinkly, and not very clean, such Tryals are false, and must be begun anew.

Section. 6 When the Proofs do go too hot.Also it is to be noted, That if the proof do go too hot, then the Lead will carry more than ordinary, of Silver with it into the Coppel: and what one hath in the beginning of the proof, that he vvill finde; only have a Care that the Grains (in the end) may be clean and clear, so you vvill finde the true Contents.

Section. 7 To make assay grains fine.When the Grains are gone off clean, then they must be struck off from the Coppels while they are vvarm, so do they go off clean from the Clar, but if there should yet stick something about it, then press the Grains with clean flat tongs, and the unclean will fly avvay: Fur­ther, Brush it vvith an hard Brush, clean off, and vvhen they are very clean, then vveigh them one against ano­ther, [Page 59] if they be alike and do stand even at the Globe of the Ballance, then is the proof right: weigh then one grain by it self, and see hovv many Loths, Drams and Pence, it hath by thy Assay-weight, that you may find by it, the true Contents, and see that the Lead-grain be alwayes abated, though it be never so little.

CHAP. XXII. How coin'd Money in great or small Sorts may be Assayed.

Section. 1 WHAT concerns good and Gross Money, as Dollers and new Rix Gilders, try them Of Dollers and rix Gil­ders.thus, Take the piece you do intend to try, beat it flat at one end, upon a smooth clean Anvil, that it may be cut with small Sheers used for Silver, and so cut it into little pieces, and weigh them according to your Grain weight, two, alike Marks, put this into a small Test, and make a Tryal; if it be Dol­lers: put nine quantities of pure Lead, and to the new Gilders, put eight quantities, cause them to glow off in a reasonable heat) and cold (as you have been before in­structed) and such proofs (when they are govern'd well in the fire) do yield a pretty deal of fine and subtil Litarge on the Coppel, which the unexpert Assayer knows not.

Section. 2 It is also necessary to know, That neither these nor other proofs do leave any Littarge on the Coppel, if they To assay with coverd Assay ovensbe not done in Coverd Ovens, of which Tryals many Re­finers do know nothing (as hath been said) therefore they do seldom bring a Proof to its true contents, for they know not how they must order their Coppels according to the quantities of Lead, which is of no small Concern, [Page 60] that they may not have too many nor too few Ashes, because, if there be too few Ashes, then the Coppel will become soft, because of the much Lead which they suck in, which easily doth draw the silver with it into the Coppel, so the Contents is lessened, and if there be too many Ashes then the Coppel will be too big, and take too much room in the Furnace, and are not so convenient for use.

Section. 3 To assay sin­gle and dou­ble Stivers.Concerning single and double Stivers, they must be Assay'd in the following manner, Take two or three and cut them with Sheers into little pieces, and weigh two equal Marks, or pieces or parcels according to the Grain­weight, and take great care that you have some of the out-side for the Tryal to both alike, because the proof that hath most of the out-side will be found richer in the Contents than the other that hath not so much of the outside.

Section. 4 The Lead quantity.Put to each Mark or Proof eighteen Quantities of pure Lead, cause them to go off pretty cool, and at last to shine clear, which then also doth leave subtil Littarge upon the Coppel, yet not so much as of the Dollers; then if the Grains are of an equal weight, the Proof is right, draw one of the two up, with the Grain-weight, and as many Loths and Grains as you do find, so much is there Content in a Mark of fine silver.

Section. 5 Upon white Pence, Reinish and other Pence the proof To Assay Pence.is thus; Take twelve of them, and cut of each of them a bit or two for a Tryal, only take notice that you do take of such Pence, some bit where it is thick, and of some where they are thin, that to each Tryal there may be some of the thin and some of the thick Bits: add to each Tryal eighteen Qantities of pure Lead, and cause them to go at first fine and cool; and lastly, to shine bright, so will the Grains be alike; but, if in the one Proof there be much of the thin, and in the other much of the [Page 61] thick Pence should come, then the Grains would not be alike, but oft times the proof in which much of the thin Penny did come, that fine Grain will be almost two Grains more; and the other so much less in which most of the thick did come.

This is not much minded by some Refiners, but when their Grains do differ, then they do take the middle of it, but it is better the proof be right and that by dili­gence, the proofs may come out alike, because the Section. 6 small Money by boiling white doth differ in the Con­tents, To finde the true Proof in small Money.so is the proof now adays better to be found than to melt a Mark of the Money in a Crucible, and so soon as it begins to drive, to cast it into an Ingot, and then to make a tryal of it so (without question) the true Contents will be found, and agree with the other proof made of the thin and thick Bits.

I must mention also, that some Refiners and Assayers are about to prove Coyn'd Money with the Low Dutch Penny weight (which is not amiss) because the Con­tents do agree with the Grain-weight; as for Exam­ple, Suppose you have assayed new Gilders, according to the Grain-weight, and have found that the Mark doth contain fourteen Loth and sixteen Grains, but ac­cording to the Low Duch Penny-weight, twelve pence and four grains, these twelve pence and four grains make just so much as 14 Loth, and 16 Grains, and so both of these are of one Content, yet of two Denominations.

Section. 7 To Assay the Silver, according to the Com­mon Cent­ner weight.If it should happen that an Assayer should be in such a place where he hath no more then one Cent­ner-weight, nor could have any more, and there should come before him Grains of coyn'd Money, or a Lump of Silver to try, how much a Mark of the same doth contain (of Loths, Drams and Pence, or of Loths A loth is Half an ounce.and Grains) of fine Silver, he must take out of the Centner-weight sixteen pound, and let them be a [Page 62] Mark or sixteen Loths, the eight Pound, eight Loths; the four Pound, four Loths; the two Pound, two Loths, and one Pound, one Loths; after that, the sixteen Loths two drams; the eight Loth one dram, the four Loths, two Peny-weight: the two Loths, one Peny: and one Loth, a Heller or Half-penny.

If he hath then assayed a piece of Silver according to such weights, then may he find the Contents easily upon Loths, Drams or Pence, but concerning new Gilders, which commonly do hold fourteen Loths sixteen Grains, they will hold in such a peny-weight fourteen pound, and 28 Loths, or a little more (which would be according to the above-named Directions) also fourteen Loths, three Drams, two Pence, and almost half an Heller or half-penny, do carry 14 Loths and 16 grains.

Section. 8 In like manner one may for Gold take to 24 Carats 16 pounds of the Centner-weight, and assay the Gold To assay the Centners upon Grains.according to it, but it is better if an Assayer hath by hand the Assay-weight, already parted to make use of the same, because to mind this doth require an expert Assay­er, for an unexpert one will easily err.

CHAP. XXIII. How Burnt silver Pieces and Plates are to be cut out.

Section. 1 IF you will cut-out a piece of burnt Sil­ver, then first cut a piece out at the top, with a small half-round Chissel, not quite Burnt silver Pletes.in the middle, nor quite at the end, then turn that piece of Silver, and cut in like manner a piece out of the bottom, that it may not be all from one side, but opposite to the piece that was cut at the top of the other side, that is to be cut on the back side.

[Page 63] Section. 2 But concerning Plates, cut them out at one side above, and the other below, and weigh of each half a Mark for a proof, put them together in the Proof-Scales, that is into one Scale, and into the other put the whole Mark, Plates.opposite into the other Scale, if it be not just alike, as it should be, then make it so, that the Scales may stand equal (and assay as you have been taught)▪

Blink Silver. Clear Silver may also be cut out also above and be­low in like manner for to be assay'd; and so the Contents will alwayes be found just when the Proofs have been well made.

CHAP. XXIV. How Silver Touch-Needes are to be made.

Section. 1 THE silver Touch-Needles (which are al­so called Proof-Needles) they are gene­rally made and used by all Refiners and Guardians, and they that deal in Silver: by which Touch all Silver-Contents may very nearly be known: Now to make Section. 2 such it is very necessary to have weights that are a pret­ty To make them.deal bigger than common Assay-Weights: And then take good fine Silver, and of it make the first Needle, (and make a Mark on it) viz. 16 Loth of fine: And to the Second Needle, take 15 Loth of fine Silver, and one Loth of fine Copper: and

[Page 64]

  • To the Third 14 Loth of fine Silver and 2 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Fourth 13 Loth of fine Silver and 3 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Fifth 12 Loth of fine Silver and 4 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Sixth 11 Loth of fine Silver and 5 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Seventh 10 Loth of fine Silver and 6 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Eighth 9 Loth of fine Silver and 7 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Ninth 8 Loth of fine Silver and 8 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Tenth 7 Loth of fine Silver and 9 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Eleventh 6 Loth of fine Silver and 10 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Twelveth 5 Loth of fine Silver and 11 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Thirtenth 4 Loth of fine Silver and 12 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Fourteenth 3 Loth of fine Silver and 13 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Fifteenth 2 Loth of fine Silver and 14 Loths of Copper.
  • To the Sixteenth 1 Loth of fine Silver and 15 Loths of Copper.

Section. 3 To try themWhen you have weighed all these, then put every Needle's proportion into a Crucible, and do not let it drive much, for thereby the Needles may prove false: but so soon as the Silver and Copper in the Crucible begins to drive then stir it with a dry Splinter (or stick) and cast each proportion into a small Ingot, out of which the Needles are to be made, which you may shape as you please, and put a mark or distinction on each Needle, according to the Contents of each, thereby to see how many loths of fine Silver a Mark doth con­tain, that you may not be deceived by the Touch, but thereby make a right Judgment.

Section. 4 Needles half Loth.Some do part and divide the Needles into two half­loths, which is left to every ones Freedom, and there is enough in it, where the Touch may not be certainly known by the loth, Now when thou dost intend to use the Needles, then upon the Silver which thou hast made, scrape a fine shining stroak, and also make another stroak on the Needle by it, and see which stroak on the Needle is most like the Silver-stroke, and so you will see by [Page 65] them how much the Silver doth contain: and that the form of the Touch-Needles may be seen, this following Sculpture doth represent.

Sculpture VIII.
  • 1. 2. The Touch-Needles.
  • 3. 4. The Ingots to be compared with the Touch-needles.

CHAP. XXV. How Mettals that are melted must be cut out, and assayed for Silver.

Section. 1 OF wrought (lead which is Cast in melting of the silver Oars) some are clean and Clean work. pure, and others are foul and unclean; the Clean which come from the mild and good Oars, them, you may by them­selves prove like unto Lead, and take a Proof out of it, when 'tis going to melt, and weigh [Page 66] of it at least a Centner, or else when the work is cast forth, as much as it doth weigh is to be cut and assayed together: And keep this Order, that always of the whole that is cast, a special proof may be made, and to take it out of 2 or 3 proofs: or else the true Con­tent will not be found, except it be that of each cast piece the whole quantity be weighed in, and to go off upon a great Coppel altogether; but if you would have for a Proof some cut out of the Cakes, you may cut out of each (especially if the Work be rich) according to the bigness above and below, to weigh some of all, and to prove it.

Section. 2 There are also some works which are very missy Ʋnclean work.and speizy and very unclean (like Kobolt and course Wismet and other speizy Oars) which are melted; and some among the rest are so very unclean that when the Cakes do lye a few daies, they do fall asunder: such stub­born and unclean Oars, in general, cannot be assayed like unto the good; but when such Work hath been weigh­ed, then cut or beat out of every Cake a piece, and weigh it so unclean as it is, viz. of every cut, and assay as fol­loweth: Take of the work as much as it is in weight, put it on the Test in the Assay-oven, cause it to slack, that the Fury and wildness may be consumed, let it cool and knock it off, and cause it to go clear off from the Coppel, but if it be not slacked at first, but set raw upon the Coppel, then it will work upon the Coppel, and will not go clean off, as is shewn.

Some Assayers do use to take the Content of such un­clean 1: Another Custom among As­sayers.work, and cause it to go together in a great Assay-Test or Iron-Kiln, and cast it forth, and then weigh of it for a Tryal, which is not right (although they do think they shall obtain the true Contents) because by this running together the Contents comes finer, and the proof is made richer, therefore the abovesaid way is much better, by which the true Contents is found.

[Page 67] Section. 4 But when an unclean Work is put upon the Coppel, then to imagine (when a work of it self will not go off that to add some other clean Lead, and to help it that When there is lead ad­ded to the work Tryal.way, that it may go off pure) is vain. For this cannot be a certain way of their Proofs, nor are you to trust to the same: Because in the Work-houses the Lead is not altogether without Silver, so the Silver is found in the lead that is added (as little as it is in the other Contents) which becomes so much richer.

Section. 5 Harth tryalsLikewise as it hath been said, of casting and working, how they are to be tryed, so it must be done with hearth Tryals, they which are overlaid with Silver and rich­wrought Lead, and taken from the Hearths, let it be good, or unclean, only that at least, the half of the whole weight may be weighed and tryed, so will you finde the fine Silver very near, yet not altogether fully, because the un­clean that was at first in the Work, and hath been weighed with it (before the Harth▪ proof was taken off the work) when it is in driving was dissolved and taken off; as also sometimes the Proof is taken off too hot, and sometimes too cold, by this may every Assayer understand the Con­tents: and which (although, as hath been said, in com­parison of the Silver that is brought forth) is not much out of the way.

CHAP. XXVI. How Tin is to be assayed for Silver.

Section. 1 TIN among the rest of Metals doth en­ter most freely into Lead, but the strength of the fire will not permit it to remain therewith, because as soon as there comes great heat to it, then doth it go again, and rise upon the Lead, and becomes al­together [Page 68] together stubborn, so that with no force of fire, besides other help, can it be brought to a true Ʋp-boyling upon the Test, because the Tin doth oft times contain much Silver, and the Tryal of it is very necessary: Therefore was I the more willing to instruct young Assayers of the Tryal of it, which is done thus: Weigh two equal half Centners of the Tin, and to each half Centner, a Centner of good sound Copper, and sixteen quantities of pure Lead, put each half Centner with its Copper and Lead upon a Test, each by themselves: Begin first with a slow heat, and when it begins to drive upon the Test, it will begin to rise, then let it go very cool, and take two Centners off the abovesaid Lead-glass put it also to it, upon the Test, and the Lead-glass will cover it all, and will not suffer the Tin to rise so much: and when you have let it go cool so long (till the risen Tin upon the Test doth no more look bright, but black and dark) then give it again as much Heat as you can, and boyl it up (as you do an unflowing harsh Oar) and when it hath slack'd well, then stir it with an hot Iron-hook, let it stand a while lon­ger, untill it be boyl'd up very clean, then take it out of the Oven, suffer it to cool, beat the slacks off from the work or Lead, and let it go off upon a Coppel: if then the Tin doth hold Silver, there will remain a grain upon the Coppel, draw it up, and you will finde the Contents.

Section. 2 The Lead­grain to this Tryal.To such a Proof must you make a Lead-Grain on purpose, thus; Take a Centner of the Copper of which you did add to the Proof, cause it diligently to go off upon the Coppels with the Lead quantity: and keep the Grain of Silver that comes from it which (in the draw­ing up of the Proof-Grain all times to the Weight) is to be laid and abated, else one cannot be certain of the Contents: and after this manner in Tin the right Con­tents is to be found.

[Page 69] Section. 3 Some Assayers are of another Opinion, to beat the Tin thin, and weigh of it two half Centners, and put every one upon a Test by it self in the Assay-oven, give Another way to prove the Tin.it a gentle heat that the Tin may be wasted into Ashes; and into the same Ashes (yet every one apart) they put 16 Centners of Lead and two Centners of the Flus upon a Test, and boil it up like unto an Hard-flowing Oar, and let it go off upon the Coppel, this proof is also right, but it requires a little more time than the former, although the Tin doth also rise upon the Plate (yet it may easily (by governing of the fire, when it hath first cooled and af­terwards yery hot) be forc'd to slack cleanly.

CHAP. XXVII. How to separate Iron and Steel from Silver.

Section. 1 ALSO there is found sometimes Iron very rich in Silver, the reason is, because the Hammer-smiths do not mind the small contents in it, also they do not know that it contains any Silver, and so, that Silver in melting cometh among the I­ron: to prove this, that the certain contents of the Sil­ver may be given in: File the Iron very small (which you do intend to assay) weigh of it half a Centner, and add to it a Centner of yellow Brimstone, and let it go off Section. 2 With Brim­stone.mingled well together and set it in a gentle heat, that only the Brimstone may flow and penetrate the Iron, and that it may be brought out of its substance, and let the Iron cool again in the Test, grind it again upon a Stone or Iron, and mingle two Centners of Flus, or Lead-glass among it; and add to it twelve Centners of Lead, cause it to boyl up (as you are wont to do, with a hard flow­ing [Page 70] OAR) and in the end the work that cometh off, let it go off upon the Coppel, and you will find the Contents of the Silver.

Section. 3 With Anti­mony.Some Assayers do use to prove Iron for Silver ano­ther way, namely, they weigh the Iron (although it be not fyled small) viz. half a Centner and put it in a Crucible, and add to it a Centner of Antimony, let them go together, then let the Crucible cool, and put that which did drive in the Crucible upon an Assay-Test, let it smoak away, and grind it again upon an Iron-plate or Stone very small; mingle it with Flus (with an additi­on of the Lead as hath been shewed in the proof before) then cause it to boyl up clean, and let it go off upon a Coppel, but if the Lead be black (because of the An­timony) then set it upon the Test alone, cause it to slack (as other wild unclean Work) then it will go off upon the Coppel.

Section. 4 With gross-Flint.Others take small fil'd or thin beaten Iron, cut of it half a Centner, as also a Centner of raw gross-water flints, which holdeth no Silver (with its due of Lead) mingle it to­gether and assay it (as raw Flint is assayed upon Silver) so the Brimstone which is in the Flint will devour the Iron, that it will become Slacks, and will then go into the Lead, and although the Flint holdeth a little Silver, yet that may be abated instead of the Lead-grain, and this way of Assaying Iron for Silver; I have found to be most fit, and it is done with little trouble, and the con­tents is also found right.

Section. 5 Copper and Iron, as also Silver and Iron love one ano­ther To separate the Copper, Iron, and Silver.well, and these three Metals cannot be so separated, that a part may remain, to do any profit with: yet by a right understanding of their Nature this is possible; that from the two most constant among these three (as Sil­ver and Copper) the Iron may be separated (being as an unclean Metal to those two) also the Copper dross, [Page 71] (which is separated in the Melting and doth contain Sil­ver) may be separated; which parting is done in the following manner.

Section. 6 The Lead-Oar hath commonly Antimony with it, How the Coppery I­ron which holds Silver is to be made to profit.which (in melting as a soft flowing Metal) doth enter into it and devoureth it) for this end, and to prevent it, a due proportion of Lead must be added to the Iron in melting (as there shall be further Instruction given in the Fourth Book) for the Lead Oar (by Reason of the Antimony that is in it) doth work upon the Iron, and taketh the Copper and Silver to it self, which is the Reason, that at such places where the Lead-Oar is melted, the iron rich Copper Dross (which doth contain some Silver) may be used with Lead-oar in stead of old Iron, which is to be put among it by degrees, and so the Iron will be consu­sumed, and the Silver and Copper will enter into the Lead, which to my mind could not be imploy'd better; but in the melting after the Gosslarish manner, the Lead doth mingle among the dust, whereby it doth partake of much of the uncleaness and wildish Nature which is in the Dust and slacks, and so is left with it: But how the Copper is to be separated from the Lead will follow hereafter.

Section. 7 Iron-stone that con­tains Silver.And in this manner the Iron-stone (that contains Sil­ver may be made to enter into the Lead-Oar, that it may take the Silver out of it, which cannot be done better; and this I was willing to impart for the better instruct­ing of them, that Assay Iron and such melting works.

CHAP. XXVIII. How Black or white Silver is to be burnt clean, and how the Tests for it are to be made right.

Section. 1 SILVER-burning is to burn Silver pure and clean and deft upon a Test, and this Deft or neatis to be done to the Blink Silver (which is not yet clean enough) by two ways; one way under the wood, before the Bellows) the other under the Muffle, and is only done with Coales.

But I intend to write first of the Tests in which the Silver is to be burnt clean; they are to be made and 2: To prepare the Tests.prepared thus, Take Ashes from which Lees hath been made, which are not sharp or salt: wash them and let them be dry, and keep them for your use, and when you do intend to make a Test, first get an earthen unglazed test such as the Potters use to make in their frames, and so large as thou wouldst have them, pour water in it, and make it wet all over, that the Ashes may stick the better, then put some Ashes into it, which must first be moistned like unto the Copel-Ashes, put it two fingers high in the Test, press it together with a woo­den Pestel, which hath about eight Angles: then put more Ashes after it, press them also down, do it so long till the Test be full, then stroke off the superfluous Ashes with an Iron made on purpose from the test, and turn it about the Brim (with a round wooden Ball) so as the Ashes may lye smooth doon upon the test, after­wards cut it, with a round sharp bent Iron, according to the bigness of the Silver that is to be burnt upon it, and when the test is cut out, then must you have a small hair [Page 73] Seeve, and put ground Bone-Ashes in it, and swigle or strew it over the test, that it may be white all over, and then turn the Ball over it, that it may lye smooth upon the test, so is the test ready.

3: The manner of this Burn­ing.When you intend to use such test, and to burn in it, then first make a Small-coal fire upon it, that it may be dry, then set it before the Bellows very even, so that the Bellows may blow just into it, which is to be known thus, hold a shovel over the test, and if the blowing of the Bellows do go off from the shovel and blows off all the Ashes and dust out of the test, it doth stand right, and then beat the piece of Blink-silver into bits, but first put a little straw into the test, and the bits of silver up­on it; Give it fire and coals that the test and the silver may be well covered, then begin to blow, so the silver will melt easily, and begin to drive, then put away with an iron-hook all the Coals from the silver, and stroak the silver also clean off, yet so that nothing may be lost, then lay split wood, or other wood for fire, and fit for the purpose, and cause the Bellows to blow under Section. 4 Wood for the burning of Silver.the Wood upon the silver, so the silver will begin to drive under the wood, and that lead which did remain among the silver will be drawn into the test: only con­sider▪ when such split wood is burnt upon the test, then put more wood by or upon it, that still the silver may be burnt with a fresh flame, and so will it be sooner clean, while the silver doth yet go upon the test, and it must be stirred about with a round bowed Iron-hook, and made glowing hot, whereby the silver may be clean, or else it will retain some lead underneath.

Section. 5 The content of burnt Sil­ver.But that the Silver may not be Burnt so much, but may have a right and true content, namely, fifteen loth, and three drams, (which commonly the burnt Silver is to have) then you may in the mean time once or twice, with a well pointed Iron, (thrust a little into the Silver) [Page 74] and take a proof out (which will hang easily about it) then beat it off, and see if it hath much yellow Litharge, or beat it upon an Anvile, and if it be Deft, then the Silver is well burned, if not put the proof in again, and let the Silver drive longer upon the Test, until you do find the proof upon the Iron, white and deft, but the Silver upon the Test cannot be overdone, because the Test grows soft from superfluous heat, and take more Silver to it than it ought; all which is well to be observed, and di­ligent exercitation or use is needful, if one will burn blinck Silver upon a certain content.

Section. 6 How the Silver doth cool.And if by negligence, the Silver (before it is done) doth become cool, put again Coals upon it, begin it a­gain and burn it that it may be right, for the hard burnt Silver do (in Coyning) hurt: of which afterwards a great dammage will follow.

Section. 7 Silvers that are not burnt too high.Some of the Refiners in the burning of Silver do put upon every Mark of Silver a half Loth or Dram of good Copper that the Silver may not come too high, but upon their just content, not that it remaineth with the Silver, but because it goes together with the Lead in the Test, that the same burnt Silver (as we have heard) may not become of such a high content; this is a good intention in such places, where the Silver for Payment up­on a certain content are given in, and, without proving, accepted, and there reasonable dilligence in burning may be so observed, that none of the parts may be wronged and hurt.

Section. 8 Coppery Blinck Sil­vers.Whole Coppery blinck Silvers, such as they make in the Refining Houses, may be burnt very Deft, but they will remain too light on the Content, to the same must be put a little Lead, (as much as it will permit) as some­times likewise may be done to the Silvers which are mel­ted of speizy and Cobolt Oars for their Wildness and uncleanness sake.

[Page 75] Section. 9 Now when the Burning is finished, and the Silver ta­ken out of the Test, then is it to be fully quenched, where­by the Ashes will fall easily away, which stick about When the Silver bur­ning is fi­nished.it, and the rest of the Ashes must be taken away cleanly, with a strong Brush, and let the Silver be dry, and when the Thornels (if there be any) and the Silver hath ta­ken hold on the Ashes, they must be beaten down with a Hammer, that the piece on all sides may be smooth.

But that the Reader may have a larger understanding of the Silver Burning, also how the France, and Test, with all other things appertaining to them, are to be formed, is clearly to be seen by the following Sculpture, which is thus

  • 1. The Burning Furnace.
  • 2. The Test which is put into it.
  • 3. How the Silver is burnt on the Test.
  • 4. The Bellows blowing.
  • 5. The Iron-plates Luted over with Clay and used against the heat.
  • 6. A Fork and Hook to stir the Melted stuff or Me­tals, as also for Iron-proofs.
  • 7. An un-used or unwarmed Test.
  • 8. A Test that is in warming.
  • 9. A Roaster or Iron, on which the burnt Silver is made dry.
  • 10. The Water-Tub over which the burnt Metals is brusht and cleansed.
  • 11. The Ball and Pestle for making Tests.
  • 12. The Block upon which Silver is beaten with an Hammer.
  • 13. The split-wood for the Silver burning.
  • 14. A Test that hath been used and Broken.
  • [Page 76] 15. A three footed stool for several uses.
  • 16. A Tankard to put Water, into Fig. 11.
Sculpture. IX.

CHAP. XXIX. How to burn Silver under the Muffle.

Section. 1 B ƲRNING of Silver which principally is used in lower Saxony) requireth a singular and better Diligence than the Common silver burning, and also parti­cular Tests and Muffles: The Tests you must make thus: Let the prepared Tests to be made with with Iron rings. Hoops be of Iron, of the bigness as you intend to burn a great or small piece of silver, they must be high of a hand square, but at the top a little wider than at the Bottom, in one of them put in the prepared Test-Ashes, and fill it to the top, still beating down gently (with a broad Hammer) the Ashes about the Brim; and so fur­ther and further till you have beaten down all the Ashes that are left, or are too much upon the Test, stroak them off with an Iron, and then overturn the Rings and test alike upon a little Ashes, which is to be laid under; then take them with your hand out of the test, till it is half empty, and make the Ashes small again with your hands, then press the test full again with a heap beating it down also with the Hammer, as is before directed, and the rest of the Ashes also stroak off with an Iron, then turn the test again, and make the Ashes smooth with the Ball, then the test is prepared: Now the tests after this manner pre­pared are much better and stronger than they which are beaten into the tests.

Section. 2 The Muffles for Silver burning.Concerning the Muffles which pertain to this Silver-burning, they are to be made over little round sticks af­ter the bigness of the upper part of the test, and are to be cut out in the like form with the tests; and other [Page 78] pertaining Instruments which the Sculpture following will shew.

If now you will burn Silver, then put the Test with the Ring between four square burnt Stones in Sand or Ashes, as deep that the Sand may be even with the test above, in an Oven for it prepared, in which several tests may be put together, and such Wind-Ovens must have alwayes one Wind-hole, which may drive two Ovens, especially in such places wherein many pieces of Silver come together, and once in one day are to be burnt.

Afterwards put the Muffle on the test, which is made after its bigness, and a burnt stone on the top, that nothing may fall upon the Silver, put coals up­on and under the Muffle, and about and upon the test, and when the test is grown warm then put in the beaten silver, and let it begin to work, but if you would have it soon melted, then you may blow it with Hand­bellows, through the Mouth-hole under the Muffle, and then it quickly goeth, and when it is melted take away the Coals again, and let it go also under ths Muffle, stir it once or thrice with the Iron, as you have done in the other, then it will go upon the test, under the Muffle, all off: (just as the Silvers upon the Coppels.) With this burning of Silver both great and small pieces may be burnt, as with the Bellows, and without loss or any great damage upon the Content.

Section. 3 A clean sil­ver burningAfter this manner, I have seen at Goslar in the Work­house (when it was kept) upon one Test on one piece near one Hundred mark of Silver burning: If now you will (while the Silver goeth) take out with an Iron one or two provings (as is done in the Silver-burning before) you may do it (and it is not to be despised) but who in this ART is conversant, the same needeth not so many provings, but he knoweth it upon sight, when it hath enough.

[Page 79] Section. 4 Now when the Silver under the Muffle is burnt clear and begins to stay, one may let water run upon it in a Copper Channel and cool it, then with strong Tongs take it out and purify it from the Ashes, (as is above­said) then the Silver is burnt.

Section. 5 Tests to be kept.The Tests may be kept together, because they are not without Silver, the same in some Mine-works the Work-men use to take to themselves, but in some they belong to the Republique: They may be made at any time to profit, and the Silver that is in them may be melted out, as may be seen in the following Sculpture, and is thus

  • 1. The Oven in which the Silver is to be burnt.
  • 2. The inside of that Oven.
  • 3. The Wind-holes of that Oven which drives the fire upwards into the Work.
  • 4. The Test that is set into it.
  • 5. The Iron Mould or Ring into which the Tests are to be put.
  • 6. The form of the Iron­ring.
  • 7. The Ring fill'd with ashes for making a Test.
  • 8. A round Muffle.
  • 9. A Ball and Hammer for making of Tests.
  • 10. A person that breaketh the burnt Silver.
  • 11. Another person standing on the back-side of the Oven who takes Care for the burning of the silver.
  • 12. A Vessel of water into which the burnt silver is to be cast.
  • 13. Bellows and Instruments belonging to the Oven.
[Page 80]
Section. 1 Sculpture X.

CHAP. XXX. How Copper is to be Assayed for fine Silver.

Section. 1 IN respect it is of use to burn the light-content silver fine (for many times they How much Lead is to be added.who should do it, know not fundamen­tally how much Lead is to be added, whereby they do too much, or too little) therefore to such light-silvers, if the Mark containeth eight Loths of silver, then ten times the weight of Lead is to be added, and if the Silvers contain­eth from eight to twelve Loths, eight weights of Lead, and then from twelve to fifteen Loth, six weights of Lead must be added, but if the burnt silvers centent should be fifteen Loth, then the Lead may be two weight less, but if it should be wholly cleansed, then tis better one weight too much then one too little, that the silver may be the cleaner: And when you have put it in the Test, let it be warm, and add two weights of Lead, and when it begins to go, then draw in the Silver gently, and let it go together, and when the Lead is almost gone, then add again two weights of Lead, do this as long till the Lead is all put in; and the Silver becomes clean, and when the Lead is done and singly added) there needs not so much Lead, as when the Lead is added to the Silver all at once: you must not force it, but do it as cool as it will permit, else the Silver will go more into the Test than otherwise; when now the Silver is almost purifyed, then gently turn it with a glowing Hook, least it retain a leady lump, or much smoak of Lead, but by this way it may clear it self and look pure.

But as to the Coppery Silvers, if they are to be burnt [Page 82] fine upon the Test it cannot be done more conveniently than under the Muffle.

Section. 2 The Silvers which are to be burnt pure and clean with To take the smoak of Lead from Silver. Lead, do retain with them a smoak of Lead, if now one would bring it off, the same must be set upon a plain plate, and blow it with the Bellows, then they may be­come very clean.

CHAP. XXXI. How Silver is to be separated from Tin.

Section: 1 MANY times it happens that in burn­ing Silver-Ware, Monys, Copper, and other Metals melted together (of which A Test for it.the most part oft times is TIN) that the same cannot be made to profit, nor se­parated by every common Gold-smith and Prover, therefore let this following way be an in­struction (as the most convenient) namely, Put a test in an Oven, and a Muffle upon it, let both first well glow, and if the burnt matter be ten pounds then add upon the test twenty pounds of pure Lead at once together, and when it begins to go, then put in it of silvery rich TIN half a pound, then the Lead will take it soon to it self, which will quickly (from the great heat) begin to ascend, and to raise it self up; let it stand a while upon it, then draw it with an Iron Hook clear off from the Lead, then add more TIN to it, let it stand its time also in it, then draw it off also, and this infunding the Lead and drawing away, do as long till the burnt matter do all come up­on the test, and if the Lead in working becomes weak, then refresh it again with one or two pound of new Lead, that it may endure the longer in the heat; but if the burnt matter be Coppery, it is the better; if not, you must [Page 83] add somewhat of Copper, because it becomes more Deft by it, and the Lead doth take the Silver and Gold easi­er in than out of the stubborn TIN only.

In this work the Gold and Silver will go into the Lead, and the most of the Copper is drawn off with the TIN, then let the Lead go clean off, (as the Custom is) then have you the silver separated from it.

Section. 2 But to bring the Copper and Tin (which is drawn off) to profit, it may be done thus; let such stuff dry, and How to make the se­parated Tin profitable.cause it to melt in a strong Fire, and so the Bell-caster, or Founder may mingle it among their stuff and cast it toge­ther (as in Anno 1567. the City of Slakenword, in the Bohemish Borders was burnt down, and within the Walls of the City there remained not one House) when I my self did (after this manner) bring much burnt Metals to right, and separated the Silver from it, which no body else would take upon him to do.

Section. 3 To precipi­tate the Sil­ver from Tin.The Philosophers do write of precipitating, by which the Silver in common tin may be put down, and formed into a Regulus; thus, one must set the tin apart in a lit­tle Oven, make it very hot, and then precipitate it, and with such a precipitation the Silver in the tin will be brought down a hand square, and the same in the same deepness may be cut off, and the remaining Tin may be again and again and so often cut off until the Silver in the bottom may be brought to a Regulus, and then (though tin be with it) it will purify fully, and that which doth precipitate will not hurt the tin, but they do write nothing of it: I signify this, for the sake of such, who have a pleasure to this Art, and are willing to Exercise them­selves in it, and so take it into their further Meditation, that they may have hereby a way of doing it: I for my part suppose, that because the Gold in the Silver, and the Sil­ver in Copper; is to be precipitated, that likewise this pre­cipitation is possible in the tin.

CHAP. XXXII. How to drive out all sorts of Silver, that it may be Deft, smooth and fine.

Section. 1 BECAUSE it happens many times that Silver in casting together from an evil smoak (or when happily a little tin comes among it, or, that among the old Silver there hath been tinny, false and gross mixtures,) becomes hard: then is it, as Section. 2 A little Lead Ball.follows, to be made Deft, again: Put the Silver upon a plain Test (which is done over with clean and fine Clar, blow it till the Silver runs and goes well, then add two or three Balls of very clean Lead, according to the quan­tity of Silver, blow it again until the Silver doth bear the Bellows, and becomes Deft; but you must (in the blowing upon the Test) once or tvvice (with a glovving Iron-Hook) stir the Silver that it may be Deft through­out, then let it cool, and put it in a Pot together as it plea­seth you, and take notice, that if somevvhat of the Cop­per be blovvn avvay, by vvhich the Silver on the content becomes richer, then if it shall retain the Content, vvhich it had before, it must (in the casting again) be helpt by adding so much Copper.

Section. 3 To Brickle hard burnt Silver.But hard burnt silver, (or other good silver, which might become brickle from a leady Lump) that same Silver (if a little Lead be with it) may (in this manner upon a plain Test) be made Deft without any addition; except it hath too much Lead with it self, then it must [Page 85] be made upon a plain little Test (as above is taught) by the Silver, burning-pure and Deft.

Section. 4 Also there may a Flus be prepared to make the Sil­ver deft, (which doth cleanse the Metals very much:) A Flus to brickle Sil­ver.thus, Take sal Alkali, Nitre, Red Argol, and salt Petre, of one so much as of the other, calcine, and dissolve it again in warm Water, and let it go through a filter and coa­gulate; so is the Flus prepared.

CHAP. XXXIII. How to boyl Copper from the pagment or old Silver in Coined Money, or from thin beaten plates of Silver.

TAKE sulphur and vitriol of both alike in quantity, grind them small, and make them a little wet with Vinegar that it become as a Pap, mingle the Coyn or old Silver among it, then take a long Lin­nen sack, put the Money with these ad­ditions in it, sow the Sack on the sides from the top to the bottom, so that the Mony may not lye too thick in it, pour Water into a pot, and hang the Sack in it, that it may neither touch below, nor on the sides; boyl it well ten or twelve hours with the fire, and so much as the Water does wast by boyling, you must add to it again with warm Water, so that the Pot may be always full of Water, whereby the Copper will be boyled out of the Silver or Coyn, and the Silver will remain in the Sack, then wash it with warm Water and pour it together, but the Water will boyl and dry in, and the rest melt together (with the Flus vvhich is used to Copper Oar) [Page 86] thus you have the Copper which hath been boyled out of the Money, only the silver by this is not altogether fine but retaineth some small quantity of Copper in it.

CHAP. XXXIV. How good proof Ballances are to be made and fitted.

Section. 1 APROVER hath not only need that he have clean and just Ballances for pro­ving, An Assayer able to make Ballances,but he must know also when they do fail (or else become changeable or uncertain) how to mend and help them again, so I judge it for a great piece of Ignorance (and it is also not well,) That some who profess themselves Provers of this ART, do often (when a little is amiss in the Ballance, or worn out, or for any other small matter) use to send to Neurembirg and other more remote places in Germa­ny, to mend their false Proof-Ballances, whereas they themselves should have so much Knowledg as to make and fit them with their Proof-weights, and Proof Instru­ments, so as they may be certain and sure of their Proofs.

Section. 2 And how to help their Defects.Therefore, That a fundamental Instruction may be given, I will instruct all who do love this Proof ART (especially the young Provers) because there are not al­wayes Masters to be had, who know right well to mannage such things: and to teach how the Proof-Bal­lances and weights, and other Proof-Instruments are to be made, and also (if it be needful) to mend and recti­fy them: and first I shall begin with the Proof-Ballance, Section. 3 The Bal­lance of the Proof­seales.which is to be made as followeth.

Cause a small Ballance to be forged out of the blade [Page 87] of an old Sword, that it may have a little broad and thin Tongue, and throughout be pure and well wrought, and nothing ruff or shivery be on it; this formed Bal­lance make fast with a little Screw, and file the thickest part, and then search the middle on the same place, and make a little hole with a drill through it, and fasten a round point in it, that it may stand out at both ends; fit it in, with thin bits of Brass, and soder it (with Silver­soder} fast into the Ballance, so the soder will easily flow after the thin Brass.

Section. 4 Out of this sodered point are filed the little Irons on which the Ballance moves, and afterwards the little Tongue. Tongue beaten thin upon a smooth Anvil, and glow it often in a small Wood-fire, that it may not crack, then Wartz See the Di­ctionary.search the middle of the Tongue, from the Wartz or little Iron streight upward unto the end of the same (and its length is to be the same from the Wartz to the end) and mark it with a stroak, then cut upon the one side of the Tongue next to the stroak a bit of the Iron clean off, and on the other side of the Tongue, cut some also close by the Wartz, that the Tongue may rowl over from one side to the other, then may you also cut off the rest of the I­ron on that side, when this is done, then glow the Tongue and dress it again straight upwards, then file it (upon a soft piece of Wood, very smooth, according to your plea­sure; you may also pierce (or make holes) neatly in the Tongue near the Ballance for curiosity sake) after­wards bend a little the two ends of the Ballance alike, be­fore the Ballance be quite fitted, that the two ends may be of equal length, and then file the Ballance according to shape and form, as a well proportioned proof Bal­lance, and so make an end; but how the filing and o­ther Work is to be performed, that cannot be written, but it requireth a dilligent exercise.

[Page 88] The Fork in which the Ballance useth to hang, that must also in like manner be subtilly Filed, also the holes (in which the little Wartz come to lye) may be thin, clean and strait through it, and must be pollisht with a smooth little Stone, that no shivers may remain, which Fork must be so long as the Tongue, that the Ballance may not slide out of it.

Section. 6 When the Fork is prepared, then take the Fyled How the fi­led Ballance is to be pro­ved. Ballance, and hang it in the Fork with the Tongue down­wards, and see if it be alike weight on both sides, if you find that one side is heavier than the other, you must help it until it does hang even, then make it smooth and clean all over with a gentle Fyle or with a soft Whet­stone, and pollish it with the hard Haemathite. Bloudstone, (which is called Glasscup) when the Ballance is fully finished, then prove it again, that the Fork may hang even, and that it want nothing. But if there is no Smith, which can forge the Ballance with the little Tongue (because all Smiths cannot make it so well of one piece) then take a clean steel Wyer, or a forged Iron in the form of a of a Ballance without the Tongue) and soder it with sil­ver soder, and fix the little Tongue upon it, the Tongue may also be garnisht vvith Brass, aftervvards File a Bal­lance for it, (as hath bin said above) but if you vvill not take the pains to Garnish it with Brass, then may you take Gold-soder and soder all vvhat is necessary about Golden sol­der.the Ballance very cleanly, because this soder vvill flovv upon the Iron vvithout any addition or increase, and if any thing doth break upon it, it may be neatly so­dered with Gold soder, as experience vvill teach.

Section. 8 The proof scales are used to be made blew, (that they To cause the proof Bal­lance to be blew. may not rust so easily) and is done thus, cause a pretty thick Iron to be warm in the fire, but do not suffer it to be quite brown, lay the Ballance with one end upon it, and draw it a long as it takes colour and becomes blew, [Page 89] which is soon done, only take notice the more a place is thin, so much sooner doth it heat and cool, therefore it is soon seen, that such places do turn white a­gain in fair Weather, and clear shining, and these Bal­lances become of a fairer blew, then if they were done in dull Weather, as experience does manifest. Now how that forged Ballance, as also the Filed Scales are to be formed, is to be seen in the following Sculpture thus

  • 1. The forged Ballance.
  • 2. The Fork of that Ballance forg'd.
  • 3. The half forg'd Fork.
  • 4. Filed Scales with the half Fork.
  • 5. The Pearl and Pendula's, the one fastned on the top of the Fork, the other fastned to the bottom of the Tongue and Fork.
  • 6. One end of the Beam, (and the like is to be suppos'd at the other end of it.
  • 7. How the Ballance the Pearch and Pendula are to hang, on the Wartz (or little Filed pieces of Iron,) on each side of the bottom of the Tongue.
  • 8. The Holes in each end of the Fork.
  • 9. The little Hole at the end of the Ballance, (and the like is to be supposed at the other end of it.)
  • 10. The Scales like small dishes.
  • 11. Pincers to take up small Weights or pieces.
[Page 90]
Sculpture XI.

CHAP. XXXV. Of Filing or Joyning the proof Ballance or Scales.

Section. 1 FILING and Joyning of proof Scales is a special Science, and is the true Master­piece, To fit Scales. which is not known to every one that can make them, and is done thus; when the proof Ballance is Filed out, (as hath been said before) then make, of Sil­ver, two flat clean and smooth scales, and also two very Section. 2 The weight of the Scales to the Bal­lance. thin small scales, the which are called inset scales, which altogether are to be as heavy as the Ballance, or rather a little heavier than lighter, and put fine silk Thred to them, in length of the whole Ballance, from one end to the other, such Threads are to have a neat Knot on the top, Section. 3 The Knots,whereby the strings may hang to the ends of the Bal­lance, and when the strings are made fast to the scales, then weigh them one against the other, with another proof scales, and see if they do weigh alike, then hang them to the ends of the Ballance, put the inset scales therein, and hang the Assay-ballance in a Case made on purpose, and draw them up gently, if then the scales do turn on the one side; that is, when you do press the scales down on the one side, that the scales remain down, as also on the other side, and will not go back but remain standing, then the fault is in the Beam, that on the same places is fitted Section. 4 When the ballance fal­leth.too high, from which the Ballance falleth on both sides, and will not stand just; if you know this, then make the Beam on both sides somewhat lower, but so that it be not higher on one side than on the other; to the rectifying of this, you should have a little smooth plate of Pear­tree, [Page 92] upon which make a Cross stroak, and in the midst of the Cross must be a little Hole, and upon this lay the fi­led Beam of the Ballance, so that the little Wartz in the little Holes, and the Beam and little Tongue may come to lye upon the stroak, then you may soon see how the Beam, the little Tongue, and the Ends are fitted, that so you may help and fit it.

So when the little Beam is thus prepared, that it may stand near the Ends, a little lower than the Line upon the little plate, then lay it in the Fork, in its place; give it the right quickness so that it draw well and distinctly the smallest of the Weights of the Proof-Weights (and not stop in its lodge) nor have too much room (that is to say) that the holes below of the Fork may not stand too far off from the little Wartz, but only that one may see through to try it.

Section. 5 Now, when the Proof-Scales are thus made with To make the Ballance, to stand true.the greatest dilligence, see that it has its quickness, and does not stand; also that there be no fault neither in the Beam or little Wartz, it must stand right both with the scales and also without them, if it doth not this, but goes heavy on the one side and light on the other, there is the greatest fault, which to mend many do not understand; but thus is it to be done, help the Ballance above on the one end, and on the other side on the scale, (that is thus) bend the one end a little down, or a little narrower, then doth it give presently the Ballance on the other side, weight, for the length, and takes so much from the other side of the scale, that the Ballance may stand in again in the Fork, then try it again whether it do well either with a Burthen or without a burthen, and that it may have its right quickness; but if it does not so, but goes still a little at one side, then have you done too much, then help it with bowing back of the end, and the scale; but if you have not bowed the end on the right side, then the Bal­lance [Page 93] will go more false, therefore you may easily see on which side it is to be helped with binding and fitting them, and you may also use this dilligence, that when you have bent the end on the one side, and that you also do the like on the other side of the scale, but make it even with Weights, that the Ballance may stand right in the Fork, by which you may see how it doth stand in ei­ther with Weight, or without, and then it is easily to be corrected.

It requires great Pains to fit a Ballance thus, for it doth try many times a Master; yea, it maketh him so err, that he cannot know oft times how further to pro­ceed: yet this way which I have here proposed is the best to such a fittingness: and it must certainly be mana­ged by an ingenuous, and not a dull Soul. Thus much I thought good to signify, for the clearer Instruction, be­cause 'tis very pertinent to our present Discourse of Pro­ving, therefore I omitted it not.

Section. 6 And that the Proof-Ballance may be preserved clean and pure from Dust, and also that in time of use the wind The Case for the Proof Ballance.may be no hindrance, but stand firm, therefore it is to be put in a clean and well formed Proof-Case made of wood, which on both sides is to be set with bright and Or, oyld Pa­per.clear Glass, that the Light may come into it, and that all things may well be seen (the Form is shewn in the following Sculpture: And, for conveniency of the Sight, it were best to colour the Inside of this Case green, because the Fire is hurtful to the Eyes, and by this colour they are again quickned and refreshed.

[Page 94]

Sculpture. XII.


1. The Out-side of the Case for the Ballance.

2. The In-side of that Case wherein the whole Ballance is to hang, and be kept from Dust.

CHAP. XXXVI. How Proof-Weights are to be made and divided, and first of the Grains Pence and Carrat weights.

Section 1 BECAUSE both the making and parting of the Weights is no small thing, there­fore To be made of Silver or Brass.I am obliged further to demonstrate how, and of what such are best to be made: First, it is better they be of good Silver than of Brass, for the Silver daubeth not, neither coloureth it so soon as Brass [Page 95] doth, but remaineth all times pure and clean, if now the Silver be cast into an Ingot, then one may cut out four square pieces in the proportion and bigness (as every piece of Proof-weight shall weigh) heavy or light, and file all such pieces pure and clean, upon a Whet­stone, draw them smooth: also every one in particular (in respect of the Division) is with diligence to be put upon the Proof-Balance, that if it be still too heavy, it may be made lighter, and true; and so lastly, it may stand just. But some Provers think one should make and divide the Proof-weights from above, that is from the greatest still to the smallest; again, some from the smallest to the greatest; but know that it is best to be done in the following manner.

Weights of a Mark. If Proof-Weights are to be prepared anew, they must Section. 2 be divided from the greatest to the smallest, for this Reason, Because one may better and more easily have the just and certain weight of a Mark, than of one from the smallest, as from the half-Grain or Heller, and should make a Weight out of it, there the Mark would be either much too heavy or much too light, in which an error is easily committed, Therefore use, in such a di­viding from above, a small Grain of seeved and wash'd Copper, by which may be seen how much must be ta­ken away and filed off from a piece, which is yet too heavy; when now such Proof-weight is finished, then 3 Proof-Weights.shall it be drawn up from below, from the smallest to the greatest with diligence upon a quick and good Proof-Balance, and if there is yet any want, which cannot be great, that it may be compleatly helped.

Now, how the Proof-weights, piece by piece are to be divided, may be seen in the IX Chapter of this first Book.

CHAP. XXXVII. For dividing the Weight of the Centner.

Section. 1 AS the Grain-Penny and Carrat Weights Carrats.may certainly be divided from the high­est to the lowest, so it may be done with the Centner-weight, but because in the pounds there are unequal parts, under­stand it thus, The Centner hath a Hun­dred pound: the half, 50 pounds: and Section. 2 Ʋnequal parts.the fourth part, twenty five pounds; and if one would out of it divide sixteen pounds, (which one that is not well skilled in Division may have great labour therein) then you should do thus, when you have made right the Di­vision of the Centner to the fourth part, then weigh the fourth part of the Centner with a proof weight (it may be a Centner or penny-weight) and how much it weigheth, then you may make your account how much sixteen pounds shall weigh: (an example.) I put, the new divided twenty five pounds which do weigh on the penny-weight 13 loths, three drams; then I say, the twenty five pounds will weigh one Mark, thirteen loths, and three drams, which may weigh sixteen pounds, which amounts to nineteen loth, no dram, no penny, one heller, and do prove a little more than a fourth part of a heller, so much then must weigh sixteen pounds, after this weight or sixteen pounds: divide your weight with small grain'd Copper, (the smal­lest as you are informed before) and although the Cent­ner had more pounds, nevertheless the unequal division of it may likewise be found.

Now when the proof weight is all perfected then draw it up likewise with dilligence from the smallest to the [Page 97] greatest, as you have done with the other, if there should be found an Errour, then mend it also, so there will be small Difference, and the Centner will remain in the desired Weight.

Section. 3 But that you may be sure whether the Proof-weights be right and just, set them aside, and make one Proof-weight Whether the Proof-weights are made right;more, as heavy as this, then put the made weights which pertain to a Proof-weight altogether in a quick Proof-Ballance, and weigh them one against the other, and if they stand even together, then you have made them right; if not, and that thou findest them not alike, then look where the Error is, and mend it, for, whoever will be sure of his Weights, must not think much of this Labor.

Section. 4 Lastly, Number and Mark every piece of the Proof-Weight with a small iron or steel Punch, how much each piece doth weigh, by which it may be known: (but the marking must be done after its made smooth on a Whet­stone whereby the Shivers which it had from the Stamp may be made smooth again) and lay them into a little clean Box, made on purpose of wood (the form of which is to be seen in the following Sculpture▪) in which there must be as many little round or square Holes, as there are weights, then shut the sides that it may be kept from Dust, and that the Weights may remain clean and pure. The Sculpture is thus

  • 1. The little Case for Weights opened.
  • 2. The same Case shut.
[Page 98]
Sculpture XIII.

Section. 5 Thus much I was willing to signify and write con­cerning the Proving of Silver Oars, and what appertain­eth to them; and though it had seemed needful to In­struct, How such and every particular Oar according to their Natures and Properties, should be melted and made to more Advantage in the great Fires of Furnaces and Smelting works: yet because, in this Treatise, I have only purposed to write of Proofs in Small Fires, and lesser Ovens, and because these now mentioned works are almost common in the Smelting and great Mine-works: Therefore I am willing to let it rest here; yet some great Works and Meltings, I have mentioned (in this and other Following Books) because thy are not so common, and meerly for the Instruction of other Assayers.

The End of the first Book.



Section; 1 THIS Second BOOK describeth how Gold oars are to be known, and how to Roast Boil and Prove them; also of Washing, Purifying and Quickning the Gold Wash-works: and further, how Touch-Needles are to be made, and to Divide the Gold-weights; also to di­still Aqua Fortis, and to rectify it: also how Silver and Gold are to be parted by Aqua Fortis and by Fu­sion; and to make the Gold deft to cement it, and give it an high Colour, and how it must be cast through An­timony, and be brought to its hight with the Ovens, glas­ses and Instruments which are used to all these.

Section. 2 To know Gold Oars▪The Knowledge of Silver-Oars having been now treated of; We proceed to the Gold Oars, (although they are not found in so many Kinds and Colors) which must after their external Modes be known also, together with their proving and ordering of them. But they have this Condition attends them, (as Experience hath taught me) That no Oar hath GOLD only of it No oar by it self Gold▪self, without other incorporated Metals) unless it be ap­parent [Page 100] CAP. I and seen, how small soever it be intermixed with Section.them, and the same Gold, which is thus to be found in these Oars is not wholly pure and clean, but common­ly Silvery, although one more than the other.

Section. 4 Gold in Horn Oar.Now, the fair Gold that is found thus Intermixed or commonly standing in a whitish Flint, and sometime in a blew and yellow Horn-stone, and also in a Blew shiffer streamy and yellow iron, but very small and flaming with Gold, and this is found in the Mine at Knein, two miles from the Eal in Bohemia, towards the West, where there is also found a grenish Silvery Flint, in a firm Quarry; and when this is ground and wash'd, then a fair and high Duke Gold comes out of it, which otherwise is not seen in the Flint, at the present: I know no place in Germany, where, out of any Oar, any higher Gold can be made.

Section. 5 Further, all Goldish oars (which are commonly san­dy) Gold in Woolfrain. Tin, and Iron Oars.have good Duke gold, yet not all alike, some are gross and in grains▪ others are flaming and light Gold, and there is almost in all such works a heavy Shurl, ger. Temper (or wolfram wash) especially in Tin and Iron stone, which with the Gold have been driven far by the Deluge, and it is both wonderful and neat, and the work and colour Section. 6 Why the Rivers carry Gold with them.and difference may easily be discerned, of these sorts: and the Rivers and Channels which do flow over such works are so seeded with it, that Duke gold in many places is found in them, not only in remote Kingdoms and Coun­tryes, but also with us in Germany, it is brought to pro­fit, yet in Germany for the most part it is poor, and can­not bear the charge of Washing.

Section. 7 But some old Writers say, That (out of the River Of the Ri­ver Nile. Nile in Aegypt, which did flow into the Sea in the time of the Deluge, in which all Sand was brought toge­ther) other Rivers and Channels have also been seeded with Duke gold; But, to this I cannot consent, for this [Page 101] Reason, Because this River is very great, and goeth CAP. I through that part of Ethiopia, (which is called In­dia) in which also is found much Gold, and it is said to be the greatest of all other Rivers, and doth flow the furthest; yet I esteem it much too small to inrich so many Gold-Mines with Gold-sand and channels in so innumerable places of the World.

Section. 8 Grains which are carryed a­way by For­reigners.There is also with us in Germany all sorts of Grains which are found in many Mountains and Channels, and are carried away by out-landish men; some of them are flinted, in part brown yellow and black, and within like Glass, and in form commonly round, and also square, of which, as 'tis said, Gold is also made: for my part, I esteem such not at all, because I have assayed many times such Grains in the Fire, and other ways tryed, but could not find Gold in them. But thus much I have from very credible Persons, who have assured me, That such Grains have not Gold in them, nor none is made out of them, but by such persons brought far into Italy and other places, for an Addition, out of which fine Colours and Amel is to be made, which colours and Amel by them is thus esteemed and sold dear, as if it were Gold, which also is agreeable to reason and may be believed, especially because many sorts of Mines, with us in Germany, are found which do yield glossy and fine Colours.

Section. 9 Gold in I­ron-man Oar.Further, sometimes with the digg'd Gold (which lies in flints, especially in the Gold-Mine at the Eal in the Kingdom of Bohemia) there breaks a small grey spissy Oar, which, after its colour, is called Iron-man, that same also is not only rich in Gold, but 'tis also silvery, therefore it is not to be compared with the other dig'd Gold which standeth in flints. Also there is found much Gold flints which have not only Gold but silver also, and common­ly Section. 10 Gold in flint▪more of silver than gold, likewise flints which are ve­ry [Page 102] CAP. II copery and silvery, the silver of it is also rich in gold; as also some white flints which have no Copper at all, and but a little silver, and are goldy, but the flints which are coppery, and whose Silver hath Gold are found common­ly with small flints intermixed.

Section. 11 Concerning the Marcasite, of which many make Fa­bles, Gold Mar­casite.and do write as if it were a meer flint, is very rich in Gold (because it doth not loose the fourth part in the Fire) and in roasting and glowing becomes more and more fine: I have many times diligently enquired after it, but never receiv'd any good account concerning it, much less could I hear of one who had seen such a flint.

But, as far as I can comprehend, the Marcasite can and must be nothing else than a very good Gold-oar: Now whether this Name be given it, or any other, it matters not: But how these (one after another call'd Gold-oars and wash'd Works) are to be proved and try'd, shall plainly follow.

CHAP. II. What Proofs and Washings the Gold-washers use in Gold-works.

Section. 1 How much may be wash'd in a day. GOLD-Washers who go abroad in the Country for Gold-washing, and get their Livelihood by it, they have for the Gold-works a special proving, whereby they do observe how much Gold they wash in one day, and accordingly make their Accounts, whether the VVork will bear the charge of Washing, and whether it be poor or rich, and to this Proof they use a particular Weight, which is di­vided by the weight of an Hungary-Gilder, after the [Page 103] worth of so much as is used to pay for such wash-Gold. CAP. II

Section. 2 But because commonly 92 Creicers are given for an Hungary Gilder weight of wash Gold, therefore they Of Creicers Golden and a Peny-Weight.make forth the greatest weight as high as an Hungury Gil­der, and sign it with 92 Creicers, the second piece or half of the weight with 46 Creicers, and so of all the other pieces, one after another, with their Worth, till to the single penny, as followeth,

  • 92 Creicers the weight of a Gilder.
  • 46 Creicers the half Gilder.
  • 23 Creicers the fourth part of a Gilder.
  • 12 Creicers
  • 6 Creicers
  • 3 Creicers
  • 2 Creicers
  • 1 Creicers
  • 2 Penny weight Bohemish Money.
  • 1 Penny weight Bohemish Money.

Section. 3 Of Gold Grains.By these Weights every one may be informed of a grain of Gold, how much it is worth when weighed, therefore commonly the Gold-washers which go into the Lands for such Work carry with them such a Weight, with a black Sichertro­egel. Sicher Troy, and a little Box full of Quick-silver, and a soft Leather, a proof Test, and a little Bal­lance (to all these things pertaining) then as soon as one of them enters upon a sandy or soft Work, and worketh upon it: if he finds Gold in it (how small soever it be) then doth he cleanse a little of it, and doth cause it to enter cleanly into the Quick silver, and doth afterwards press it through the Leather, from it, and that which doth remain in the Leather he puts upon a Proof Test, into the fire, which he doth presently kindle, either in the [Page 104] CAP. II Woods or Mountains and causeth it to go off, and the Gold to be red-hot, and what it doth afterwards weigh according to his Creicer and penny weight, so doth he make his Reckoning, how much of such Oar he can wash and make it return to an account in one day, and so in a Week.

Section. 4 If upon Search he doth find by such proof that the To prepare Boards for Washing it. Wash▪work will recompence his labour pains and charges, then each one, according as he is best instructed doth wash the same, and make his profit thereby, among which there are some who do wash that which doth lye in the Fields under the moist earth, as also the Sand out of the flowing Rivers or Channels, and do wash it over a Board, in which are cut little Gutters and wrinkles, here and there, into which the heavy Gold will descend and remaineth; but part of it will wash over, especially if the work be rich and hath grain Gold; but if it doth go slow, it requires more pains.

Section. 5 Some years past, there was found upon such Work A special good wash work▪and sand, by the water-side, a special wash-Work by which, in one day near 300 weight of rubbish have been wash'd away, and the Gold saved: which is done thus, There must first be made of Brass Wire a Rattar or Section. 6 The Bigness of the Rat­tar.Seeve as wide or narrow as the Work requireth, and it is to be tyed from above downward with Brass wyer, and it must be stretch'd fast upon Iron-stays; that it may not bend or rise, the bigness of the Rattar is to be seven spans long, and five wide, and in depth a good span, with a bottom that doth enter two thirds into the Rat­tar, and with one third part to be extended for carry­ing the matter out (which is to be done over with Tin) the Rattar must also have, on each side, little wooden pieces fastned to it, by which he may reach to the fore­most Instruments, that the gross matter that doth not go through may easily be emptyed.

[Page 105] CAP. II As also the lower bottom under the Rattar must have on each side Boards fastned to it, that nothing may fall from the Rattar, for from that place the Work pas­seth from the Rattar, upon the flat hearth (which is to be thirty spans in length, and four broad) and the Cha­nel through which the Water doth run-out must be wi­der than that above, and also covered-over with Tin: to this there is also Water used more or less, according as the Work is foul or sandy.

Section. 7 This Wash-work serveth only for Sandy-works, but not at all for the clean and deft: yet because this work is not common to this day, therefore (for them that have not seen it) I have delineated it in the follow­ing Sculpture, thus

  • 1. The man that worketh with the Rattar.
  • 2. The middle Floor whereon that which goeth through the Rattar doth fall.
  • 3. The lower Floor whereon that which cometh from the middle Floor doth fall.
  • 4. The Plain Receiver of that which falls from both.
  • 5. The person that stands on a Board, and out of a Wheel-barrow throws the Matter or Oar, into the Tunnel, which guides it into the Rattar.
  • 6. The Channel in which Water doth run into the Rattar.
[Page 106]
CAP. II Sculpture XIV.

Section▪ 8 Then some of the Gold-washers use upon their Of Seircing Gold Oar.hearths the strong Timode black and russet woollen Cloth, over which they do drive their Works, because the wool­len cloth is rough and hairy, so that the small and round grains of Gold will remain, and not run forth (as it will from the Timode) whereby the Gold (upon the black Cloth may apparently be known, though it be small and little.

[Page 107] CAP. II Section. 9 Others use in stead of the Timode or black woolen Cloaths Linsy-woolsy (half linnen and half woollen; wrought in the manner as the Timode is) upon which the The sorts of cloth to be used for seircing it. Gold doth stick better, and such Cloths do last longer, because of the Linnen that is among the Woollen which doth strengthen it, therefore it is better for this Work.

Section. 10 How to use the long Rattars.But there is another way of Washing (not much in use) which is called Driving and Washing through the long Rattar; but according to my mind, it is not so convenient a way for the small VVorks, which have great and small Gold, and are both sand and Clay toge­ther, yet I do not much decline from the before descri­bed Rattar-work: For, in this Labor or washing, be­cause of the turning in the upper and lower falls, the run­ning Gold is preserv'd better, and the Gold goeth with the small common Work over the plain hearth, upon which it is driven: and the manner of doing it is seen in the fol­lowing Sculpture; thus

  • 1. The Miner which caries the matter to be wash'd in the Rattar.
  • 2. The Parts of the Rattar, more visible than in the for­mer Sculpture.
  • 3. The Washer that governs the Rattar.
  • 4. The upper and lower Falls from the Rattar.
  • 5. The plain Boards, or Hearth) on which they fall.
  • 6. He that stirs about the muddy water from both Fal­lings.
  • 7. The Tub wherein that which falleth from the hearth is to be wash'd.
[Page 108]
CAP. II Sculpture XV.

Section. 11 Thus much I was willing in short to discourse about To purify the Gold Slicks.the Gold-Washing, as a Direction how the Work is to be done to Advantage. If now a Work be rich, then it is the better, and then may easily be found and used a manner of Washing, that the loose Gold by it may be preserved: and when the Slick is brought into a nar­rowness, and the Gold drawn out with the great Instru­ment, or with the slender and long one (which is called a [Page 109] Saxen) then may it be quickned and pressed through CAP. II the Leather; then glow out and cast all together, of which more shall be written in what followeth.

Section. 13 Thus far I have spoken of the Gold and Seyfen or Soper. wash-works which do need Boxes: Now I intend to write also of the Gold Oars which are had in the Mines out of the Veins▪ and how that must be buckt or washt; in which Of great Grain'd gold.the digg'd Gold is clearly to be seen, and such must have a special way of preparing it) namely, those Oars in which the Gold standeth in great Grains, and may be parted with the hand, or beaten in a great Iron Mortar, and, if there be much, then set it over a Seeve, made on purpose, and so cleanse it, and it needeth no more pains, nor greater Art: and it is better than that the Oars (without difference) were brought under the Buck, or washing place (especially because one useth to observe such a hand parting in smaller Mettals, as Silver, Cop­per and Lead Oars.)

Section. 14 How digg'd Gold is min­gled.But the poor Gold Oars which are mingled with small Gold (and cannot be separated with the hand) the same if they can be wrought without Roasting, may be Buck'd and prepared two wayes, viz. by a wet and a dry Bucking or beating; by the wet Bucking is the Oar washed through Tin plates and Channels (and like unto silvery Oar, driven over a plain Hearth, and afterwards made clean) but in the dry beaten Work, the Floor is driven over the plain Hearth with Wool­len or Linsy-Woolsy stuff (as above, where the Gold-work hath been taught) and so wash'd and made clean and quickned.

Section. 15 Flinty and Horn stony Gold Oars how to be us'd.There are also Flinty and Horn-stony Gold Veins, in which the Gold is very subtil and thin, and is mingled with other Water-flowing Gold Oars, the best way of preparing them is, That such Flints and Horn-stones, provided there may be had Wood enough in the place, [Page 110] CAP. II may in a special Roast Oven, made on purpose, be burnt: first, very hard and well, and when it standeth in the greatest heat, pour water upon it, that it may cool sud­denly, and so the subtil flaming Gold will be, as it were, frighted, at the incorporated Oar, and run together, and become a round Body, and is strengthned and remain­eth the better in washing, also 'tis better preserv'd: like­wise, the Flint by quenching doth become so brickle, that afterwards in great quantity, it may easily be buckt and separated, and is not so hurtful (after it is roasted) to the tender Gold, as before when it was raw) because the hard Flint among the Gold-Oar doth more hurt in Bucking in respect of its weight, and the muddiness carri­eth away some of the Gold with it, in the mudy Water, but seing that it is very rare to find plenty of wood in such places where flinty, Horn-stone Gold Veins are; therefore every one is left to try the best way.

Section. 16 The Roast-Ovens in which those flinty Oars are roast­ed, Roast ovens.and afterwards quenched with water, make them thus: Give to each Oven two Ells in square, and six Ells high, and cause it to be built up with stones, that the Oven before the lower part may remain, open so high that the roasted Oar may be drawn out of the hole (af­ter the Oar which is to be roasted is put in) then it must be closed up with Clay, also there must be in the Oven, in stead of the roast, Separations, made of Tiles an Ell high, upon which the wood is to be laid, that the Wind may go between the Tyles into the Oven, whereby the fire may burn clear.

VVhen you intend to roast in such an Oven, then lay into the Oven upon the Tile-stones, short split wood, two Ells high; upon which put the stony Oar, as gross as it doth come out of the Pit, but the small which are not in ve­ry great pieces set along the sides of the Oven▪ that the great pieces may be in the middle, so that the flame and [Page 111] heat of the fire may wind about it, and also the heat CAP. II of the fire remain together in the Oven, and force it self through it to the top of the Furnace, and such for­and inclosed Heat doth much more than in an open Roast, and when the Roast in the Oven burneth at the fiercest, then must water be poured on it, and be quen­ed suddenly, therefore such a Roast Oven for better Ad­vantage is to be built in such a place where water may Section. 17 To quench the Roast.easily be poured into it, so the subtil Gold will run to­gether in grains, and the stone will becom brickle (as hath been said before) although the same do become brickle only with burning, yet it becommeth more brickle by quenching, and it is done more especially for the Gold sake.

The form of such Roast-Ovens, and how they must stand in its proportion and shape, will be seen in this following Sculpture, thus

  • 1. The Form of the Roasting-ovens.
  • 2. The Shutters to them.
  • 3. The In-side of them.
  • 4. The Partitions in them, made of Tile, and a person atending at the mouth of them.
  • 5. He that pours Water into the top of the Oven.
  • 6. The wood that is used in those Roasting-ovens.
  • 7. The Instruments to close the Ovens.
  • 8. The Ladder to go to the Top of the Oven.
  • 9. The Pieces of Metal that are to be used.
[Page 112]
CAP. II Sculpture XVI.

Section. 18 If there be a great quantity of the Gold-stones, then there may be made more Ovens, as also bigger, and ac­cording as necessity requireth, regulate them that the Fire may have its full force.

Thus much I was willing to mention concerning the Preparation of the Gold Oars: But because I have not from my youth, medled so much in it, as with other Oars, therefore have I shortned my Discourse: and others that know better Methods have their Liberty to inlarge.

CHAP. III. Of Gold Slicks▪

Section. 1 FURTHER, know also that when the Gold Oars and Gold Slicks are clean­sed Of poor Gold slicks.for to quicken: and the Gold drawn out, with the Quick silver, and hath been quickned, yet there will remain from the quickning a Slick, of which some is poor in Gold, and some rich, yet the rich Slicks may be made to pofit and melted like as a rich Silver Oar: But the other common Gold Slicks, especially if they be of the Gold-Mine at the River Eal) are flinty, and that the Centner which hath but a dram of Gold, cannot better be melted than over the raw Slicks into Slackstones; but if the Slicks be not flinty of themselves, then there must be another flint, (which yields much Stone) added to the Slick in melting, and when the Slackstone doth not come out rich in Gold, then add more of such Flints to it, to help the Flint, until a Centner of the Slack-stone doth contain 13 or 14 Drams in Gold, but it must not be wrought by adding more to it, because if it should become too rich in Gold (it is to be feared that) the Slakes would remain too rich: therefore, if there be enough of such flints to be had, let them be added to it, or if the Slick it self be flin­ty, and yield stones, then 'twere better that the Slack-stone were brought no further in Contents, than to 10 drams of Gold in the Centner, and so the Slack will re­main the poorer: thus the Iron flaky Oars (which have very subtil flaming Gold, and commonly the Centner of [Page 114] it doth contain a dram or two in Gold) may return to great Advantage.

Section. 2 But the rich Gold Ram or Slick (out of which Gold is quickned) which in part useth to be very rich in Gold that sometimes it doth contain a Centner from three to Of rich slicks.many Loths of silvery Gold, such can no better way be melted than with Lead; yet because that same Slack is very subtil, therefore the blast in melting doth raise it up very easily, so that it doth fly out, and is lost by it: to prevent this, Let the Slick be mingled with strong Yest, and let it dry, then break it into Bits, or before it is quite dry, cut it to small Bits, and put it in­to the Oven, and so it will remain better in the fire.

Section. 3 To bring both to Pro­fit.'Tis necessary I further direct, That when one hath a Gold Slick, and would melt it, and that a Centner thereof doth hold from two to five drams of Gold, and is not stony in it self, there must be other flints added so that the flint and slick may not be throughly mingled together, nor run upon the slick, for by this there will be danger, because the flint doth spread it self, and gives a little rough stone, whereby there will remain much of the Gold behind, but weigh the flint and the slick, each by themselves, and if any of it be melted, so much (according to the quantity, partly flint and partly slick and slacks) must be set into the melting Oven, and it will fine it self well enough together, and by this means (as Experience teacheth) more row stones and more Gold will be wrought out, than if such slick, flint and slacks had been mingled together, because the work re­maineth close together and is not spread.

CHAP. IV. How Gold-Slicks with Gold from digg'd Oar are to be prepared.

Section. 1 WHEN the Gold-slicks which do contain Gold are made clean, and there is a desire to make more profit of it, by quickning and getting the Gold out of them, then the slicks must first be prepar'd in the following manner: viz. Take good strong Wine Vinegar, put into every gallon half a pound of Allum, cause it to boyl up a little, and then let it cool, then put the Gold-slicks in a clean prepared Vessel, and pour the prepared Vinegar upon it, that it may cover the slicks, let it stand two or three nights in it, and work well upon it, so the Vi­negar will make a fresh ground to the flamy Gold, that it will not easily enter into the Quick silver, and that which is yet among it of deft Oar will become slimy, and the Gold is made less, and when the Vinegar hath stood the mentioned dayes over it, then separate the Vinegar clear from it, and wash the slicks clean and fair with warm water, and let it dry, then put it in the grinding Tub or wooden Vessel, and so much Quick-silver to it as the quantity of the Gold in the slicks doth require, and rub it well together with the hands, afterwards with a wooden Pestel, fitted for it, grind it well and so long, till the Quick silver hath taken up all the Gold; when this is done, then pour warm water upon it, and wash the slicks and Quick silver clean, and pour out the mud­dy matter, and the Quick silver will run together again: [Page 116] which must be separated very clean from the slicks, that nothing remain behind, because it is more Goldish: when this is done, dry it with a spunge; and put it in a double strong Timode or into a fine leather (which is Section. 2 To press the Quick silver through Leather.better) and force it with a strong Coard so as the Quick-silver being so prest will pass through such Timodes or leather, and the Gold with almost as much Quick-silver will remain in the Leather; put this on a flat Test upon a coal fire, and the remaining Quick silver will cooperate and the Gold will remain alone; then glow it well and melt it together before the Bellows with Borax, so long till it doth hold the wind, then pour it into an Ingot: The prepared Vinegar (as hath been said) with Allom, is for the most part used by all Refiners, but they quick­en Gold only simply with slick, but 'tis better that such Vinegar be prepared and used.

Section. 3 When the Gold h [...]lds Silver.But if the Gold be a little silvery (as commonly wash Gold is, which do not come out of an higher Content than they are in the Oar) beat it thin, put it in Cement; as hereafter shall be discoursed, then it will be clean and have a high Colour.

Section. 4 T [...] p [...] the d [...]g [...]d Gold.What Gold hath been pick'd out and is wholly dig'd (or else separated by the hand) such Gold may be melted with Borax and cast, and if there is yet any uncleanness then set it first upon a flat Test, let it drive with a little Ball of pure Lead until it doth hold the Blast, and after­wards again with Borax melted into an Ingot, and so it will be deft.

This manner of quickning doth serve upon all slicks; (which have digg'd Gold) because as the same is wash­ed in Sand, and pick'd out of the Oars; in the same man­ner it will come out in quickning, and doth not hurt the Quick-silver at all, and when it is forced out, then may it be used again.

Section. 5 There have been also some Gold-washers which have [Page 117] had a singular manner in the Gold-washing and quick­ning; Section. 5 namely, they have first ground in a Mill the Gold Oars (or Slicks) very small (as small as Meal) after­wards they have moistned it with strong, hot Salt-wa­ter, and have mingled it very well like unto Copel Ashes, that the Salt may every where touch the Slicks upon the Oar; and while the Salt water is yet warm and hot they have upon five pound of the Oar poured twenty pound of Quick silver, and have mingled the Slick or Oar several times with it, and stirred it well, so long untill the Quick silver could hardly be discerned in it, and they have afterwards put the Oar into several Ves­sels full of Water, made on purpose, and have stirred it, but one Vessel did always stand lower than the other, that that which did fall out of the upper vessel, (and so to the second or third) might be received and settle in the fourth.

And thereby washed the most of the Muddiness away; then they have taken the Oar and mingled it with the Quick silver, and put it upon the Mill (which hath an hollow stone) and have ground it with water, that it might flow through it, untill no more Muddiness did go from it, till all that which is come through the Mills be setled in the Vessels and preserv'd, so that nothing was lost: Lastly, the Quick silver was taken out of the Mill, and with diligence kept together, and dryed, and pressed through Leather. This Work I like well upon great Quantities of poor Oars, in which the digg'd Gold is very subtil and not flinty, and yieldeth no stone, which cannot be melted otherwise to Advan­tage.

This is a neat work, and is worthy of Deliberation; But I for my part have this further Consideration in it, That poor Gold slicks, cannot be much Charge; because, first, the Slick must be ground, and the Charge of the [Page 118] Salt or mingling, well considered, as also the Charge of the other grindings, and the waste of the Quick silver; but lastly, to make the Gold compleatly clean (besides the charges of the building up of the Gold-Mill) 'tis ne­cessary to be careful herein, for, some Gold-Oar may have so much subtil Gold, as will pay richly for all the Charges.

CHAP. V. How Clean Gold-slicks are to be made to pro­fit without Quicksilver.

Section. 1 IN want of Quick silver one may melt the clean and rich Gold slicks with grained By Lead-glass. &c. Lead, Litharge and Lead-glass in a Cru­cible with a little of Caput Mort. and Sandover, and cover it over with Salt, and so cause it to flow well in a Wind-Oven, and afterwards cause the Regulus to go upon a flat Test, because of the Black-stoney Veins there will be also much fine slick thrust out among the Iron, therefore the Iron is first to be drawn out with a good Loadstone, otherwise it will be much hindred in the upboyling, but if the Gold slick be flinty or the like, then it must first be roasted, so all the Gold which is not loose in the slick will enter into the Regulus of Lead, and be made to profit.

Section. 2 To make firm Tests for Gold.The Test to such work must be prepared with wash'd Ashes, among which must be mingled half the quantity of small Bone▪Ashes, and a little Potters-clay, and the up­per part must be done over with good Clar, that nothing of the Gold be drawn into it, and when it is all thus pre­pared, then water must be poured into it, and let it suck it in, whereby the Test will be made firm and good, [Page 119] and when the Gold is gone off upon the Test, then take the appearing Gold, which is yet unclean, put it upon a flat Test, done over with a little Clar, and let the Bel­lows blow upon it, so long until the Gold doth endure the blast, and so it will be deft, and then you may (if it have yet a little smoak of Lead) cause it to melt in a Crucible with a little Borax, and cast it into an Ingot, or presently let it go into the Cement, as hereafter you will be instructed.

Section. 3 To boil up the clean Gold slick.The rich cleansed Gold slick may also be boyl'd up with the following Fluss, like unto the Copper Oars: thus, Take Slick, mingle among it twice so much Fluss, put it in a Crucible cover it over with Salt, cause it to flow well, with a strong heat in a Wind-furnace, and there will be as much Gold Regulus in the Crucible as there was in the slick; then cause it to cool well, and knock the Regulus clean off from the Fluss, but because it is yet unclean from the Fluss, therefore cause it to go off upon a flat Test with a small lead Ball, until it melts and becomes deft: and altho in the quantity of the slick, the quickning is most fit to be used, yet there may (by this Ʋpboiling) be ten pound at once melted in a Cruci­ble, and the Gold be brought into a Regulus.

CHAP. VI. Of Fluss to boyl up the Oars.

FLUSS (of which hath been spoken) is made thus, Take one part of Salt-pe­ter and two parts of Argol (both stampt small and mingled together) cause a gla­zed Pot to glow, put the matter into it, and cover the Pot quickly, so the fluss will [Page 120] be presently burnt out and become a black-grey Pouder; or else, when the pulverized matter is put into the Pot, then put a live Coal into it, so it will burn out to a Fluss, mingle also Salt Petre, melted Salt and Sandover, and crude Argol with it, then is the Fluss ready.

CHAP. VII. How Gold may be separated very clean from the Quicksilver.

Section. 1 AFTER Gold is quickned, and the Quick­silver The use of Quicksilver in this work.press'd through a leather and forc'd from it, yet there will remain common­ly a little Gold with it, especially when the Gold-slicks and Gold Oars have been poor, and that the Quicksilver did not become rich, such Quicksilver may be preserved for other Work of the like nature. But if there were no more such slicks to be done, yet the Gold (which did go with the Quick silver through the Lea­ther) must be separated from it very clean, by an Ar­tificial Separation, and such Quicksilver doth common­ly contain two or three Loths of Gold in the Centner, es­pecially when the Quicksilver came from poor slicks, and Section. 2 How a Iron Jug or Pot is to be made and Leamed.such separation is done thus,

Cause an Iron Jug to be made, which may be taken asunder at the belly, lute the lower part of the inside, about half a finger thick, with very good and weighty Loam, (that will hold well in the fire, and not crack) cause it to dry, set the upper part upon it, and bind them both very fast, and close together with an Iron Wyer, and then do it all over on the out­side [Page 121] with good Clay, and when it is dry, then set it in an Oven (which is called an Athanor with which one useth to burn Aqua fortis) and put in it fifty pound of Quick silver (if you have such a quantity of it) and place an Helmet upon it, and also an earthen Jug before it, in which there must be full three quarts of Water, and all must be luted well on the outside, and cause it to dry, then let the fire burn by degrees to be stronger from one hour to the other, un­till at last the Jug be very red, yet make it not sud­denly hot, that the Jug may not burst, nor the Quick-silver fly out, so the Quick-silver will all come over into the water in the Receiver, which when the fire is kept in good order) is done in seven or eight hours: when all is come over, then let the Jug cool well, and take it out of the fire, and open it, so will you find all the Gold in the bottom, then take it from the Loam, and let it flow together.

After this manner (now directed) the Gold which remaineth in the Leather (which hath Quick silver with it) may be put in and drawn off: and the Quick silver may return to Advantage.

Section. 3 To refresh QuicksilverBut because the Quick-silver will become a little weak from the drawing over (so that it will not attract so soon as in the beginning) and if you would have it fresh again, then put it into a Vessel of Wood, draw warm salt Water upon it, grind it with your hand well toge­ther, and dry it with a Spunge, then it is as good again as it was before, and you may use it again: also there is no great loss by it in the drawing it off, if the Pots and Glasses be well luted.

Section. 4 In case you cannot have always in readiness an iron Jug, cause one to be made of earth (which will endure the fire) and lute the same likewise with good and firm Clay, as you did to the iron Jug; so put the Quick-silver [Page 122] into it, and Helmet upon it, and set before it the Jug with water, and lute it well altogether, then force the Quick silver over it, and you may have it again for use, but such Labor is performed with Sorrow and danger, because if such an earthen Jug should crack or spring then the Quick silver will be lost, and will evapo­rate to smoak, therefore there must not be so much Quick-silver put in it, as into an iron Jug or Pot.

Section. 5 Some use to put upon such a Jug an earthy blind Another way to draw off the Gold. Limbeck (that on both sides hangeth over) and there­in they put water, and draw the Quicksilver from the prest Gold in it, and when it is a little cool, they put it out through the Pype which is above on the Helmet, and then the Gold will remain on the Jug.

Now, which of these (that is found most serviceable and convenient to any one) he may use: only take notice, That if you let the smoak away and the remaining Quicksilver from the Gold (without distillation) take heed the smoak or vapour go not into thy Belly, because it is a poysoning and cold Vapour, which lameth and kil­leth: for, he will find that it will there congeal and af­terwards spoil his body.

Now, that the Reader may know how the Jug and Instruments are to be made which are to be used for quickning, and attracting, he may find exactly in the following Sculpture, which is thus

  • 1. The Athanor or great Furance.
  • 2. The Ovens on the sides of it.
  • 3. The earthen Receiver for it.
  • 4. The earthen Helmet for it.
  • 5. The blind Helmet with a Pipe by which water may be pour'd in.
  • 6. He that fitteth the matter.
  • [Page 123] 7. He that presseth the Quicksilver through a Leather.
  • 8. The lower part of the iron pot or Receiver.
  • 9. The upper part of it.
  • 10. The Leather purse for the Quicksilver.
  • 11. He that causeth the Gold to melt, by help of the Bel­lows.
  • 12. The Pieces of Metal.
Sculpture XVII.

CHAP. VIII. How Gold-Oars are to be proved for Gold.

Section. 1 GOLD Oars are of two sorts, one is part­ly flowing, the other partly harsh (as is discours'd in the first Book) Now from the silver Oars the common Assayers have had in their proving two Proces­ses, namely, upon the mild and flow­ing Oars, viz. the Iron-streamy and bright Oars) and such as are without flints: their Pro­cess was thus: They used to grind their Oar or slick very small, and have weighed a Centner of the Fluss, which they had prepared for the Gold-Oars, (as we shall discourse hereafter) and have mingled altogether, and did put it into a clean Crucible, and covered it with Coals, and have set it before the Bellows, and did blow about it, and when the Fluss was melted, then have they put fifteen Centner of clean Lead into it, and when it did begin to slack, then they take the Crucible out of the fire, and suffer it to cool, then beat the Regulus with the slacks out of the Crucible, and put it together upon a proof Test, in an Assay Oven, and have caused it to boil up, and slack again, as other silver Oars; and have stirr'd it about with a clean Iron-hook, and when it was vvell boyld up, they did let it cool; finally, they have beaten off the slacks from the Work, and upon a well nealed Coppel caused it to go off, but they have made their fluss, (for such proving) of one part of Li­targe, and one part of Antimony well ground toge­ther and melted them, and when they did intend to use [Page 125] it with such Oars (as were not Iron-streamy Oars) they added a little filings of Iron, that the fluss might have something to devour and not hurt the Silver and Gold.

Section. 2 The flinty Gold Oars.But the flinty Oars and slick which are harsh and un­flowing they have assayed according to the former way, only they have first roasted it, and some do quench it in the roasting with Ʋrine, or with a particular prepa­red Lye, thinking thereby to obtain the more: But for my part, I do not esteem such Processes, because no more (by such Labour) can be brought out by it, than by the following Method, which I esteem more necessary, and through which the Proof may be accomplish'd clean­lier, and in a shorter time: yet, because the abovesaid Labour was by the Ancients in use, therefore I do leave it according to its esteem with others.

Section. 3 Another Proving.The other proving is done thus, take the Gold-Oar or slick, either flinty, raw, or deft, as it happens, and grind it small: Of this weigh a Centner with thy Proof-weight, and put to it fifteen Centners of granulated Lead, and mingle them together in an Assay-Test, then put to it a Centner of small grounded Lead-Glass, and set it in a warm Assay-Oven, make it first hot so long untill the Lead beginneth to drive, and the Oar to rise, then let it cool again, that the Oar may roast over the Lead, and rise no more, then cause it be hot again, so will it slack very clean, then stir it about with an iron Hook, and let it stand a little longer, when 'tis enough, then take the Test out of the Assay-Oven, let it cool, and beat the work clean off from the slacks, and let it go off upon a Copel; when this is done, then draw up the Grain against the Lead-grain, and as much as it is heavier, so much doth the Oar or slick contain of Gold, or Gold and Sil­ver, which thou maist know by this that when the Grain is very white, then put it in a separating-Glass, to [Page 126] dissolve in Aqua Fort. but if the Grain is too rich in Gold, so that the Aqua Fort. will not touch it, then add to the Grain a little fine Silver which holdeth no Gold: so that to one part of Gold, there may be three parts of Silver and cause this in a Copel, with pure Lead, to drive together: After this, take that Grain, beat it flat with an hammer, glow and dissolve it in Aqua fortis, as you have been instructed before, then pour the Aqua fortis off, and dulcify the Gold with warm water, put it out of the separating Glass and glow it well, when this is done, then draw it up with the Proof Scales, and you will see how much a Centner of the Oar or slick doth contain of Gold and Silver, and by this Proof the Assayer may know that all the Gold and Silver which is in an Oar is certainly found, and hath not need of other Circumstan­ces, because the Lead doth take very willingly the Gold and Silver to it self.

But how the Gold is to have its due dissolution, dul­cification, and what is else to be done with it, all this I intend to declare hereafter more fully.

Hereby one may know that there is no need to take any Lead-glass for such soft flowing or deft Gold Oars or Gold-Slicks, but it may easily be boyld up, by gover­ning the fire; one may also do the flinty Gold Oars in like manner, only they are sooner and better boyl'd up when Lead-Glass is added.

Section. 4 Some Assayers have also used to grind the Gold-slick-flint A fine Gold Pro [...]f.and other Gold Oars very small, and weigh them off, and put it in a separating-Glass, and pour into it good strong Aqua fortis, and they let it dissolve as much as it will, afterwards letting the Aqua fortis be evaporated, that it may all come hard in the Glass, they beat it out, and boil it up in a Test, with Lead, and cause it to go off upon the Coppel.

This proof I like well, and I judge, that if something [Page 127] more of Gold may be obtained, that it must be done this way: only the great quantities must not be regulated according to this Method: Therefore every Assayer is to take heed with good Diligence, that he may order his Assayes thus, that he may alwayes find the Contents as near as he can, so that he may afterwards in melting great quantities, find the same according to the pro­portion.

CHAP. IX. How Gold in Lumps, Plates, Ingots or coyned Gold is to be assayed, and first of Touch-Needles.

Section. 1 BECAUSE in Touch Needles of Gold, there is often used much Deceit, especi­ally Deceit in Touch nee­dles.by such who do buy Gold by the Touch, therefore to such Proving it is ne­cessary to make true Needles, without Deceit, That one may not be over-rea­ched by touching, so as when Gold is brought to a high colour by Graduation, that such a stroak upon the Touch-needles of eighteen Carats, with good Crown Gold may be made, and thereby may be judged.

Section. 2 But first you are to be instructed that some sorts of Gold (that come from separating and have no red, but Of Gold and silver touch needles, cal­led red and white.altogether white) cannot be touched upon a certainty with Touch Needles for Gold, on the contrary, such which have much red and little white, as the Crown-Gold, with white Needles, which are made for the separating, and wash'd Gold must not be touch'd, much less can the Rhe­nish Gold, which hath more white than red, be done by these now mentioned Needles, I will therefore first de­scribe the Needles which are most in use, how they must [Page 128] be prepared and made, and afterwards the others also with this Caution, that every Assayer may take good heed that he may so well order his Gold stroak, that he may not be esteem'd as one without understanding, and that he may not come to Dammage, because through false Needles, not only they who are unacquainted with the several sorts of Gold, but also such who handle them dayly, are oftentimes deceived.

CHAP. X. How the white Touch Needles are to be made.

Section. 1 TO all Touch Needles for Gold you shall take pure and fine Gold, although such can be as little demonstrated as fine Sil­ver, and I judge such Gold to be pure and fine, which is cast and diligently blowed off, and afterwards beaten thin, and by Cement and other ways cleansed (of which here­after) now you are to weigh such Gold off: (for Nee­dles) with a singular Carat-weight, which must be a lit­tle more than a common Carat weight, and to every one must be allowed, as followeth.

Section. 2 Weigh to the first Needle 24 Carats of fine Gold, which maketh the first Needle: to the Second, weigh 23 Carats and a half of fine Gold, and a half Carat, or six Grains of white fine Silver: to the Third, 23 Carats of fine Gold, and one Carat of white: to the Fourth, 22 Carats and a half of Gold, and one Carat and a half of White: to the Fifth, 22 Carats of Gold, and two Carats of White: to the Sixt, 21 Carats of Gold, and two Carats and a half of White: to the Seventh, 21 Carats of Gold, and three Carats of White: to the [Page 129] Eigth, 20 Carats and a half of Gold, and three Carats and a half of White: to the Ninth, 20 Carats of Gold, and four Carats of White: to the Tenth, 19 Carats and a half of Gold, and four Carats and a half of White: to the Eleventh, 19 Carats of Gold, and five Carats of White: to the Twelfth, 18 Carats and a half of Gold, and five Carats and a half of White: to the Thirteenth, 18 Carats of Gold, and six Carats of White: to the Fourteenth, 17 Carats and an half of Gold, and six Carats and an half of White: to the Fifteenth, 17 Carats of Gold, and seven Carats of White: to the Sixteenth, 16 Carats and a half of Gold, and seven Carats and an half of White: to the Seven­teenth, 16 Carats of Gold, and eight Carats of White: to the Eighteenth, 15 Carats and an half of Gold, and eight Carats and an half of White: to the Nineteenth, 15 Carats of Gold, and nine Carats of White: to the Twentieth, 14 Carats and an half of Gold, and nine Ca­rats and an half of White: to the One and Twentieth, 14 Carats of Gold, and ten Carats of White: to the Two and twentieth, 13 Carats and a half of Gold, and ten Carats and a half of White: to the Three and Twen­tieth, 13 carats of Gold, and 11 carats of White: to the Four and Twentieth Needle, 12 carats and an half of Gold, and eleven carats and an half of White.

Section. 3 One must also according to this Method make the Needles: yet further, if one would do it well (but it is not useful) to touch the meaner Gold under twelve carats: or one might make the Needles from carat to carat, so that the half carats are not brought in, for they are very difficult to be discerned) but the Nee­dles will be fewer in number: this now is left to every ones pleasure: and these white Needles are to be used upon the parted and washed Gold, as abovesaid.

CHAP. XI. How Touch-Needles are to be made and used for Crown-Gold.

Section. 1 CROWN-Gold is not to be order'd like the former Additions: for the Italian Crowns have more Red than the French Crowns: so that it will be necessary to make to every sort of Gold particular Needles: for the French Crowns have almost the half part white, (or Silver addition) on the contrary, the Italian Crowns have their addition of one part white and two parts red (though they are not all alike, for some part have addi­tion almost the half part white, and some parts more red then white:) therefore I will here set down the Division upon two parts red, and one part white; for, if the one sort of Gold should be whiter than the Nee­dles (hereafter mentioned) then the half white and half red are to be used.

Weigh then to the first Needle, 24 carats of fine gold, which maketh the first Needle: to the Second, 23 carats and an half of gold, and two grains of white, or fine silver, and four grains of red, that is, pure boiled copper: to the Third, 23 carats of gold, and four grains of white; and eight grains of red: to the Fourth, 22 carats and an half of gold, and six grains of white, and one carat of red: to the Fifth, 22 carats of gold, and eight grains of white, and one carat, and four grains of red: to the Sixth, 21 carats and a half of gold, and ten grains of white, and one carat and eight grains of red: to the Seventh 21 carats of gold, and one carat of white, [Page 131] and two carats of red: to the Eighth, 20 carats and a half of gold, and one carat and two grains of white, and two carats and four grains of red: to the Ninth, 20 carats of gold, and one carat and four grains of white, and two carats and eight grains of red: to the Tenth 19 carats and a half of gold, and one carat and six grains of white, and three carats of red.

Section. 2 After this Method and Instruction one may divide the Needles more or less, so as they may decrease or increase from carat to carat as one pleases: These Needles are used not only upon the Crown or Coin'd gold, but also upon all other Gold, which is of such Allay, or have in them the Addition, after the above-mentioned Instructions.

CHAP. XII. The Division of the Touch-Needles, when the Me­tal is half white, and half red.

Section. 1 BECAUSE some Crowns are ordered which have half white and half red, The fairest Crowns in Colour.which I esteem the finest in Colour, there­fore weigh in the division to the first Needle, 24 carats of fine Gold, as al­so in all the Needles, the highest best or first Needle shall be fine Gold: to the Second Needle, 23 carats and an half of gold, three grains of white, and three grains of red: to the Third Needle 23 carats of gold, six grains of white, and six grains of red: to the Fourth, 22 carats and an half of Gold, and nine grains of white, and nine grains of red: to the Fifth, 22 carats of gold, one carat of white, and one [Page 132] carat of red: to the Sixth, 21 carats and a half of gold, and one carat and three grains of white, and one carat and three grains of red: to the Seventh, 21 ca­rats of gold, and one carat and six grains of white, and one carat and six grains of red: to the Eighth, 20 carats and an half of gold, and one carat nine grains of white, & one carat nine grains of red: to the Ninth, 20 carats of gold, two carats of white, and two carats of red: to the Tenth, 19 carats and a half of gold, and two carats and three grains of white, and two carats and three grains of red: to the Eleventh, 19 carats of gold, and two carats six grains of white, and two carats six grains of red: to the Twelveth, 18 carats & a half of gold, and two carats and nine grains of white, and two carats & nine grains of red: to the Thirteenth 18 carats of gold, three carats of white, and three carats of red: to the Fourteenth, 17 carats and a half of gold, and three ca­rats and three grains of white, and three carats and three grains of red: to the Fifteenth, 17 carats of gold, and 3 carats and six grains of white, and three carats and six grains of red: to the Sixteenth, 16 carats and a half of gold, and three carats and nine grains of white, and three carats and nine grains of red: to the Seventeenth, 16 ca­rats of gold, and three carats of white, and three carats of red: to the Eighteenth, 15 carats and an half of gold, and four carats, and three grains of white, and four ca­rats, and three grains of red.

Section. 2 After this Method you may divide the Needles more or less, or to increase or decrease from carat to carat, as you were instructed before.

CHAP. XIII. How Touch-needles are to be made for Rhenish Gold, in which there is two parts white, and one part red.

Section. 1 ALTHOUGH some of the Rhenish Gold hath also the addition of half white and The Divisi­on of Me­tals for Needles. half red, to which the Needles before set down are to be used: Nevertheless if the Addition be two parts white, and one part red, upon such you shall divide the Needles thus,

To the first Needle weigh 24 Carats of fine Gold, which maketh the first Needle: to the Second needle, 23 Carats and a half of fine Gold, and four Grains of white, and two grains of red: to the Third, 23 Carats of Gold, and eight grains of white, and four grains of red: to the Fourth, 22 Carats and a half of Gold, one Carat of white, & six grains of red: to the Fifth, 22 Carats of Gold, one Carat and four grains of White, and 8 grains of red: to the Sixt, 21 Carats and a half of Gold, and one Carat and eight grains of White, and ten grains of red: to the Seventh, 21 Carats of Gold, and two Carats of White, and two Carats of red: to the Eight, 21 Carats and a half of Gold, and two Carats and four grains of white, and one carat and two grains of red: to the Ninth, 20 carats of gold, and two carats and eight grains of white, and one carat and four grains of red: to the Tenth, 19 carats and a half of gold, and three ca­rats of white, and one carat and six grains of red: to the Eleventh, 19 carats of gold, and three carats four grains of white, and one carat and eight grains of red: to the Twelfth, eighteen carats and an half of gold, [Page 134] three carats, and eight grains of white, and one ca­rat and sixteen grains of red: to the Thirteenth, eigh­teen carats of gold, and four carats of white, and two carats of red: to the Fourteenth, 17 and an half ca­rats of Gold, and and four carats and four grains of white, and two grains of red: to the Fifteenth, 17 carats of gold, and four carats and 8 grains of white, and two carats and four grains of red: to the Six­teenth 16 carats and a half of Gold, and five carats of white, and two carats and six grains of red: to the Seventeenth, 16 carats of gold, and five carats and four grains of white, and two carats and eight grains of red: to the Eighteenth, 15 carats and an half of gold, and five carats and eight grains of white, and two carats and ten grains of red: to the Nineteenth, 15 carats of gold, and 6 carats of white, and three carats of red: to the Twentieth, 14 carats and a half of gold, six ca­rats and four grains of white, and three carats and two grains of red:

Although now the Rhenish Gold useth not to be of so small a content, nevertheless the Needles are thus to be made for the Allay or additions sake, that one may by the Touch know the Mean-Gold by it, and judge of the nearest Content.

Section. 2 One may also according to this manner dress or or­der Needles of Copper:some few Needles with all red or Copper, for some Golds especially they which are rich among the Coynes, (the Hungarians having all red:) But when one would make Touch-Needles upon a certain Content of gold, which with the addition of the Allay should be other­wise than they which are shewn before, then they may be divided after the above-mentioned instruction: which you are to understand thus: Let the Contents of gold be with Allay or addition, as it will, yet order thy Touch-Needles thus, That alwayes gold and the ad­dition [Page 135] may make together a full Mark, as is to be seen in the above-mentioned instruction of the Needles.

Section. 2 When you have divided the Needles with dili­gence, then let the division of every one severally be put The Divisi­on to cast to­gether.in a little Crucible with a little Borax, flow it together and when it is flowed put it quickly out, for the soon­er the division of the composed Metals flow together and come out of the fire, the better it is. Some let it go together in a Charcoal fire, but the Divisions remain not alwayes deft of it, and sometimes the Coals break, and by that division does come to nothing, therefore 'tis better to let it flow together in a small Crucible, whereby there will not be so much care of running through.

Section. 4 The Nee­dels to be beaten into lengths.When the Divisions are cast together, then beat them every one severally into Lengths, and form them accord­ing to thy pleasure, beat and cut also upon the Needles the Figures what every one containeth of fine Gold and Allay, that one may see how many carats and grains of fine Gold, every Needle hath, that in the Touch there may be no Mistake.

If one hath a mind he may soder together the ordered Needles upon copper or silver pieces, that only the ends may be Golden divided Needles, as also commonly of the Gold-Touch, and usually Needles are made so, else they would come to much Mony, as may be seen by the following Sculpture. The Touch Needles of the Common Gold smiths.

Section. 5 But the Gold-Smiths take not so much Pains, nor are at so large Expences, but cut a piece of a Duccate and of a Crown, and of a Rhenish Gilder, and soder eve­ry on Copper piece, after this they touch their Gold: And by this they can very well see whether the Gold have its right Content either of Duccats, Crowns, or Rhe­nish Gold, but if there be a different Content, then they cannot know how much properly the Content is less.

[Page 136]

Sculpture XVIII.
  • 1. The Proportions of Touch Needles for Gold.
  • 2. The Ingot to be compared with those Touch-Needles.
  • 3. As also by the Touch▪stone.

CHAP. XIV. How the Touch Needles are to be used.

Section. 1 WHEN then the Touch-needles are prepa­red Touch stoneswith diligence, and one would use them, there is need of a good Touch-stone upon which the Gold is to be tou­ched, of such are found some part which are grey and pale green, but the black ones are the best, although the same be not all good, especially, if they are either too hard or too weak. The weak ones have this property, that upon them no Gold doth touch [Page 137] bright, but the Gold doth only grind on it, and becom­eth in the aspect weak and ruffe, also the Hungarish or other weak Gold will not touch it self right upon Touch-stones which are too hard, for the Gold doth run over it, that the stroak is not very well to be seen, and that Touch-stone is not good which doth not touch the Gold, of what Contents soever it be, with a fine good and strong stroak, that it be bright upon it, and also the Touch-needles as long untill the same stroak be like the Gold-stroak in the colour, and as high: then you have ve­ry nigh the Content of the Gold: only, as I have given an account above, Observe well, whether the Gold be high-grain'd; viz. whether it hath much Copper added, or much white, which is called Pale Gold, according to Ginnys.this, use the Needles, which every one doth not under­stand, and therefore he must have the Knowledge of the righ stroak from great Practice. But as to the hard Section. 2 Concerning hard and brickle Gold. Gold, they do not give a right stroak, but they do touch all of a smaller content than they have in fine Gold, therefore such stroaks are to be judg'd false and uncer­tain.

CHAP. XV. How the Gold is to be proved by Aqua fortis.

Section. 1 To cut pieces for Treal. IF you have Pieces of Gold either in Plates or Ingotts, and wouldst assay them, then first cut Pieces or Plates a­bove, at one end of it, and below at the other end, and beat the Bits thin that you may weigh so much as you have necessity to use for a tryal, but if it is a cast Ingot, then [Page 138] beat it thin only at one end, and weigh of it for thy Tryal.

Section. 2 To such a Tryal of Gold and Gold-Gilders, you The Carat weight must be small,must have a particular Carat-weight fitted for it, and it must be small because of the Silver-cut, otherwise the Ballance cannot carry the Cut (concerning which shall be treated of hereafter) the dividing of the Carat weight is as followeth.

Division of the Carat-weight.
  • 24 Carats is one Mark.
  • 12 Carats
  • 6 Carats
  • 3 Carats
  • 2 Carats
  • 1 Carats
  • 6 Grains is half a Carat.
  • 3 Grains
  • 2 Grains
  • 1 Grain
  • ½ Grain
  • ¼ Grain
  • ¼ Grain

If you would prove the Gold, see if it be of a rich or poor Content, and would also certainly judge how much a Mark▪ of it hath of fine Gold, then you must know first (and before the nearest Content of the Gold according to which you are to make your Tryal, as shall follow.) That for such contents you shall have two sorts of wayes to inform your self, First, by the Touch with the before made Golden Touch-Needles;) Secondly, One may make a nearer Trial of the Gold, for, although the Proof do not remain whole in the A­qua fort▪ yet you may see very near what the Gold doth [Page 139] hold, Therefore it is best to use the Assay-proof upon Section. 3 it, by which one may also find, what the Gold contain­eth both in white or fine Silver. When now you have Assay proof▪found by these waies the nearest content of the Gold, then make the cut of fine Silver (which must be with­out Gold;) take then the Gold and beat it with a Ham­mer upon an Anvil fine and thin, and make thy cut so, that the white or Silver, which is already with the Gold) may be counted with the Tryal or fourth part (for it must contain three times as much Silver as of fine Gold.) To comprehend this the better, the following Example shall demonstrate it, which I have found by the tryed Proof, that of the Gold which containeth 14 Carats, 8 grains of fine Gold, and 7 Carats, and four grains of white; I weigh it with the small carat weight to two alike half-Marks, then there will be in every half Mark 7 carats, and four grains of Gold, and 3 Ca­rats and eight grains of white, to which I add three times the weight of fine Silver as the gold containeth of fine gold; this is my Proportion. Now I do multiply Section. 4 To make the Carat.the seven carats and four grains (which containeth the half Mark) of fine gold, with three, and there will come 22 carats of white or Silver to the Addition or to the Cut: from this I reckon, That of three carats, and eight grains of white there will be as much as the half Mark had of Silver with it before, so there will remain 18 carats, and 4 grains, and thus much fine Silver you must add in an half Mark.

Section. 5 The Tryal of it.As this Silver or Cut and the half weighed Mark do make together 30 carats, and 4 grains, so much also must be the inweighed gold, of the other half Mark cut. Put every one of these with its Cut upon a well neal­ed Copel, and add nine weights of pure Lead into it, let it go off together, and see whither the grains come a­like, then lay one of the grains in the Scale, and as much [Page 140] as it now weigheth less than thirty carats and four grains, so much containeth a half Mark of Gold-Red-Copper, but to the fine Silver because it looseth upon the Copel, if it goeth off upon it with Lead as much as the Lead hath carryed away, may by a grain weight be account­ed; for, understand it thus; In case every grain did weigh after it was gone▪ of 29 carats, and 4 grains: also a grain wast of fine Silver, there would be wasted one Carat upon the half Mark, then there will come upon the whole Mark two carats; thus much Copper (or red) containeth a Mark of mixt Gold.

Section. 6 To beat the little Rolls.If the grains are diligently drawn and weighed, then beat out of every grain a fine and clean piece or Roll, not too thin, and glow it often that it may not be shive­ry, and that nothing may go off; at the last glow the little Roll, and roll it gently over, that you may see whether by the often glowing and beating somewhat be come off: When now the Rolls are clean prepared, glow them once more, and if they from the glow­ing and rolling be come hard, let such things be men­ded.

Section. 7 Disselving.But the glowing must be done in a golden little half Pipkin made on purpose, that nothing unclean may come in it, put then the Rolls together in a little separating Glass, put to it near so much Aqua fortis made for Gold­proofs, that it may go an half finger broad over the lit­tle Rolls, stop the Separating Glass above with a hard twisted paper, that no vapors may go out, and put it thus into a little Vessel of Iron or brass made on purpose, over a few live Coals, that the Aqua fort. may begin to work, so will the separating-Glass become brown, but let it not work too much or too fast, yet take it a little while from the fire, and then put it on again, un­till the Aqua fortis hath done its working, and the Glass become white again: Then put off the Aqua fortis [Page 141] again and put fresh Aqua fortis upon it, set it again with the Vessel over the fire, and let it work: this is done, because if the first Aqua fort. were grown too weak, and had lost somewhat of Silver by the Rolls, that the other Aqua fort. might touch it again, and make it clean. Take notice also, That you may cause the last Aqua fort. to work in great Bubbles, that the Roles may become very clean, and put in the second Aqua fort. which hath not beenused, for it hath its strength as before.

Section. 8 To sweeten or dulcify.Then put clean sweet warm water upon the little Rolls, (Rain Water is the best for it) let it stand a little, and put more warm, or rain Water, upon it again, and set the Glasses with the Rolls over a coal fire, let it boil and work in great Bubbles, then take it off, and casting the water again away, this do three times with warm or rain water, that the silvery Aqua fort. which did hang about the little Rolls be dulcified, then is it enough: When the little Rolls are thus clean and sweet, then put them out very gently, with the last sweet water in a glaz'd pot or glass bottle, and pour the water off from it, and take the Golden Rolls with clean Pincers out of the Pot, and put them in a clean cloth to suck the rest of the water into it, and the Rolls will look very fine and brown.

9 To neal the little Gold Rolls.Then put them into the Golden pott, and after, put them into an Assay-Oven, but not in an exstream heat­ing, and glow them well and they will become as fine as a pure Gold: When this is done, Take the two little Rolls, weigh them one against the other, and if they are alike in weight, then have you proved them right: next, put them together in a weigh-scale, and weigh them with the Carat-weight, and how much they do weigh, so much containeth the Mark (of the mixt Gold) in fine Gold: this only is to be observed, That the weight of the Wa­ter, [Page 142] (as much as the Water hath left after it with the Golden Rolls) must be substracted always in the Weight from such Content. But how much there will be to substract you must search with a singular Proof, with which you use to prove the Aqua fort. but when you have once proved the Aqua fort. then you have no need to prove it any more, but may keep it for use: yet 'tis commonly found that upon a Mark of fine Gold, as from 24 carats you must substract one and a half, sometimes two grains for the weight of the water, and so you must substract according to the Example of the before mentioned Proof, as upon 14 carats, and 9 grains, as much as the Golden Roll of one grain, did weigh, then there will remain 14 carats and 8 grains of fine gold, for in the gold proof, in many places, one useth not to give in, in buying, a half grain, but in the coin-works they use all wayes to count, and give in the half grain: If then the little Rolls contain in fine gold 14 carats and eight grains, then a mixt mark of Gold will contain 7 carats and four grains of white or fine silver substracted.

Now, the Gold of 24 carats and 8 grains of the whole cut, and 24 carats of Gold & 44 Carats of silver, you shall finde (as I have said) that the Contents will be a mixt▪ mark, 14 carats 8 grains of fine gold, and 7 carats, and 4 grains of white, and two carats of red, and these three Contents will make together a full Mark.

Section. 10 After this manner and method are to be proved all Coyned Gold.other Golds, likewise the coyned Gold, and one needeth not the Assay-Proof, in the coined Gold, if one know­eth the nearest Contents, but if one doth not know the Contents certain upon a carat, then an Assay of it must be made.

Section. 11 To make the true Carats.Now I use this Method in my Cut (and common­ly on the silver or Cut) to take two carats or some­what [Page 143] less for a tryal which doth agree with the Multi­plication (as above-heard, of the three Contents,) and it is better to take two Carats of silver less than one too much, and so the Rolls will remain the firmer and more intire, and there is no fear though somewhat of the Rolls were lost or torn off.

Section. 12 Another way to find red in Gold.You may also finde in a Gold (of which you intend to prove the red and white) that if you make the Assay-Proof, (as above demonstrated) then cut one Mark of the Gold more, and put it with its due of Lead without any other Cut) upon the Coppels, and let it go off with the Try-proof, then weigh the same Grain, and you will see what is gon off, and how much it comes out lighter, so much hath been red with it.

Thus you have the right and clear Instruction for Gold Proofs, and if you will follow it, you will do well, and thereby not be apt to err in your proofs.

CHAP. XVI. How to prove the Aqua fort▪ and how much Gold it doth leave in the Proof.

Section. 1 ALSO, if thou wilt prove an Aqua fort. how much is substracted in the Gold-Proof, The manner of Trying it.Take Gold which is cast divers times, through Antimony, and is brought to the highest: and make the proportion upon 24 carats▪ and weigh it also in two half Marks (as you have been instructed before) and multiply it by 3▪ then there will come upon every half Mark of fine Gold 36 carats of fine Silver, then put every half Mark of its propor­tion [Page 144] by it self, upon well neal▪d Coppels, let it go off to­gether, weigh the grains off, and see whether they come alike, and beat them in slender Rolls, and put them in­to separating Glasses, and put upon them so much A­qua fort. as one doth use to take to a Gold-proof, as hath been shewn before in the Gold proof: then place it with an iron Trevet over a little Coal-fire: Let it dissolve, and put upon it the Second time fresh Aqua fort. set it over again; when now it is right, and well dissolved, pour the Aqua fort. on it, and make the Rolls with warm vvater very clean, and dry them, and glovv them in a little melting pot for Gold, and they vvill become fine, then weigh them one against the other, and if the Rolls be alike then the Proof is right; then lay them together, and against it thy whole mark: (after you have weigh­ed it) and as the Golden Rolls do come out heavier, so much is to be substracted in the Gold-proof upon this one Mark of fine Gold.

Section. 2 Another way.Take this for an Example: I have weighed in two half Marks upon one Mark of fine Gold, and have par­ted it vvith the Aqua fort. (as above is mentioned) and after the dissolving, dulcifying and glowing, then the two little Rolls have weighed one Mark or 24 carats and one grain and a half, so that the Aqua fort. hath left behind two grains, in the Proof, thus much is to be substracted in this Aqua fort. upon 42 carats.

Section. 3 Know also that such as is kept back in the Aqua fort. What the Remainder is.is nothing else but silver which the Aqua fort. could not draw out so clean, by which the Gold doth not become so very clean and fine, which is to be seen. If one let­teth the Golden part go off with a little clean Lead upon a Coppel, to see how they become smaller or retain their weights. But if the Aqua fort. do leave its strength or spirits with the Gold, (as some do think) then the same could not remain nor consist upon the Coppels.

[Page 145] Out of which may be concluded, That by Aqua fort. fine Gold is made: But this is sure, That a good and well purified Aqua fort. bringeth the Gold in part­ing (especially if the Gold Calx (as shall follow) hath been cleanly dulcified) to 23 Carats and 11 Grains. But it is not yet quite fine Gold, for the remainder with the Gold is nothing else (as is said before) than Silver: (as well in the parting the Gold, as in the Proof) else one may drive away what is left with the Bellows, and make it clean.

Section. 4 But if you have no fine Gold, to the Proof of the Aqua fort. then take Hungarish Gold, whose Content Rules for it.you know certainly, and make of the same Content the Divisions and Proportions, then you may find what is to be left behind of the Aqua fort. and how much is substracted of it: But the Gold which is cast through Antimony (as is before mentioned) is for such use much surer and better: And know, That the same Aqua fort. after the Distilling must be purified and settled, before you do prove or use it to the Gold-Proof, of which after­wards an Instruction shall follow.

Section. 5 Separating Glass, and other Glass InstrumentsTo all such proving you must have clean separating Glasses, Tunnels and little glass Pots for Gold to sweeten in, these are to be made of good Venetian Glass, and the brighter, whiter and clearer they are, the better it is, that the proofs may well be seen in them.

Section. 6 But the Iron or Brazen Instrument, upon which the little separating Glass must stand, is to be made four foot­ed, An Instru­ment for the Separating glass.that it may stand fast, and also with a little handle, by which it may be taken off, likewise another little foot or instrument of Copper or Iron, which must be flat, upon which is to be set the Golden little Pots (if one will have it set in the proof-Oven for the out-glowing) because this Proof is the finest, most glorious and lovely, therefore all [Page 146] things pertaining to it must be made and prepared with all diligence and cleanliness.

CHAP. XVII. How Silver is to be proved for Gold.

Section. 1 THAT I may not mix the Proving First Tryal.of Metals together, but give to every proof its due, and to write of every one apart, how it must be done: Know then if one would prove a goldish silver upon Gold, it must first be proved upon fine Silver, that one may find the right Content, both of the fine Silver and also of the fine Gold: Therefore when it is proved upon the fine (as I have taught in the Sil­ver proof) then take the same proof Grains, beat them thin, glow them, and weigh a Mark of it with thy Penny­weight, and dissolve the Silver in a little separating glass in Aqua fort. then there will remain a brown Gold-Calx: Section. 2 To dulcify it.pour off the Aqua fort. very gently, then take warm sweet water (as you have done before in the Gold Proof) and put it upon the Gold-Calx, and let it boil over the Coal-fire in a little Culbe or bottle: now when the Gold Calx hath setled it self again, then drain the water off, and put upon the Gold Calx two or three warm waters more, that thus the silvery water may be clean taken off from the Gold Calx, then put the Gold Calx clean out of the Culbe, into a glass pott, that nothing may remain, then drain the water very clean off from it, and bring the Gold Calx in the golden little Pot clean together, and if there be wetness about the Gold-Calx, then press it with a clean little cloth where 'tis made moist, and gently on [Page 147] the end of one side, that the wetness may be suck'd in (only touch not the Gold Calx with the Cloth.)

Section. 3 When this is done, then set the little golden Pot upon the Trevet in the Assay Oven, but not suddenly (that To glow.the Gold may not leap, and the proof become false) and glow out the Gold calx, so will it become fair, then put it again out of the golden little Pot into the inward Scale of the Proof-Ballance, and see how much it weighs according to the divided Penny-weight, with which you have weighed it, so you will have the Content; now how much a Mark of Silver containeth, I put this as an Example, for I have proved, That a Goldish silver or grain'd Gold, of this mixt Mark) hath contained 14 loths and a dram of fine Silver, and such fine Silver hath in a dram a penny-weight of Gold, then the Content in the Goldish Silver upon a Mark doth signify that it doth contain 13 loths, 3 drams, and three peny weight of fine silver, and one dram and one peny weight of Gold.

Section. 4 A Second Tryal.Likewise in this manner one may also prove the fine Gold which is come from grained Silver, if one doth weigh a Mark of it, and dissolve it, and if the fine Mark in such a proof do contain one dram, one peny-weight, and one Heller of Gold, and is the Contents: and if a Mark of the grained Silver containeth 14 loths one dram be reckoned upon fine Silver, then the Mark will signify one dram, one peny, one heller of Gold, and of such proof it is counted, that by it the Gold is found a little less than the former, but I leave it to every ones pleasure to try and judge.

5 A third way.Some Assayers have this Method, when they would prove a goldish grain'd Oar for Silver and Gold, then they weigh the grain'd Metal with their penny weight, and prove it upon fine Silver, (as 'tis usual) and they weigh in a grain such grain'd Metal after the mentioned weight (as at first) and dissolve it raw in Aqua fort. [Page 148] Section. 6 and as much then as they do find in Gold, they sub­stract it from the fine-Silver, and this they count for the right proof to prove Silver upon Gold.

Difference of the Proof. But that one may know that this their Proof is false and unjust, although somewhat more of Gold is to be found by it, therefore I will shew some Reasons why the same Gold is not so high in Fineness as the Gold which is separated out of the Proof of the fine Silver by Aqua fort.

First, although the Copper doth dissolve, yet the green Coppery water sets it self rather on the Gold than on the silvery water, and then the Copper which hath set it self cannot be brought off again so clean from the Gold, as from the tender silvery-water.

Secondly, Gold cometh higher out of the separation than when the silver is Coppery, upon which the Aqua fort. doth not work so easily, as on the fine Silver: Therefore no Separater of Gold doth take upon him to separate such Silver after such proof, but all the Silvers which he separates in Aqua fort. must first be burnt up­on a Test.

Section. 7 Thirdly, Although the first Process to prove the A Singular Dissolving. Goldish Silver upon Gold is the common way, and also the right Proof, by which the true Content is to be found. Nevertheless, I must further mention a singu­lar proof (which is found upon such goldish silver and grain'd Work) by which, in the dissolution the little grains or small cut pieces of Silver will remain whole in the Aqua fort. (of what light Contents soever they be of Gold) and how small and subtil soever the grains be: also that one may number all the little grains of Gold af­ter the number of the little pieces of Silver, how many there be laid in the Aqua fort. and no splitting will go off from it (as in the other proofs) yet if the grains should be weighed in, (also raw) the Gold will remain the bet­ter [Page 149] whole, but this proving is to be done thus, when you have weighed off the Silver put upon it a very weak Aqua fort. which the Silver cannot well touch, and put it in a Culbe to dissolve over a little Coal-fire (as is usual) and let it be very hot, that the Aqua fort. may work with great Bubbles, and almost boyl over, this dissolution do, so long until thy inweighed Silver be almost dissolved, but that it may have the better help, put (if the Silver be dissolved) a little more than half of new and a somewhat stronger Aqua fort. into the Culbe, and the Silver will dissolve it self clean out, and will split no more, although the second time, there be put to it, the stronger Aqua fort.) but what it doth will be done at first.

This is a fine way through which the Gold remain­eth together in grains close, but 'twill have somewhat more time than the other common proof: there are also other wayes to such proofs, as follows.

CHAP. XVIII. To prove Goldish-Silver by the Water-weight.

Section. 1 I MUST further signify, That the old Artists have also proved the Silvers First Way.through common flowing Water, and known in the Weight, whether they have been rich or poor with Gold, This their Invention, because it proceedeth from natural Reason, doth please me, and is an inductive Meditation to many other serviceable things: Now the Water-weighing with the Silver is done thus, Take a Ballance, and put in one of the Scales [Page 150] the Goldish-silver, and in the other Scale so much Silver, (which containeth no Gold) as that they may be equal weight, then let down both Scales just together into a Vessel full of clean water, so you shall find and see clear­ly that that Silver which is Goldish shall have in the wa­ter greater weight, but not so much as the Silver which hath Gold with it. The Reason of this Difference, is because the Gold in a like greatness excelleth all other Me­tals in weight, and is the heaviest Metal; Therefore such (as every one himself may judge) cannot swim so easily in the water, but must much sooner sink down on the ground, than they which are lighter: as the like is to be seen in the Lead, which goeth much before Tin and other Metals in the Water.

Section. 2 How the Gold is to be found by the Water-weighing.But that I may give the Reader to understand, That 'tis possibly by such Water-weighing to reckon how much may properly be in the Silver, therefore know that such (in my thoughts) may be done and found out in this following manner.

First, Take fine grain'd Silver which is without Gold, lay to it good pure Gold, put it in one of the weigh-Scales, and in the other Scale lay fine grain'd silver also, so that it standeth just even: then sink both together in the water, and so much as the Silver goeth before with the Gold, so much you must supply with good Gold to the weigh-Scale in the vvater, then take the Ballance out of the water again, dry it well, and weigh it, and take so much from the Silver as the Gold hath drawn to it in the water, until the Ballance standeth even in Aequilibrio, then sink it in the Water again, and supply again the difference with good Gold, and then take off from the Silver; this do as long until both weigh-scales stand just (both within and out of the water) then you shall find that in one scale will lye so much Gold as in the other: and by this way (if you do [Page 151] it carefully) you may also prove in weighing a goldish silver, whose content you did not know.

Section. 3 Secondly, The water-weighing may also be done by Arithmetical Proportions, to which the Demonstrations Arithme­tick.will be serviceable, but they are not to every one known, namely thus, That if the Gold (as I have tryed it) weigheth against the silver in a like quantity 405 Marks, and 8 Loths, and the fine silver also the like quantity with the Gold two hundred twenty sev'n Marks, 4 Loths; this observe well, Then take the silver vvhich contains Gold, lay it in one of the weight-scales, and weigh it a­gainst the Weights which are made of pure silver, that you may know the weight to be proper, then sink them together into the water: now, as much as it doth go for the Goldish silver, so much you must supply of with the silver weights, then make an account and observe the Proportions how the Gold and Silver stand together, as you have been instructed before, and I doubt not but you may come to a right proof by this Example.

CHAP. XIX. To find without such water-Proof, whether Silver con­tains Gold.

Section. 1 BECAUSE the Metals have divers Quan­tities of like greatness, one against the First Way.other (as has been spoken of the Gold and silver) if then you would know and finde the difference of the mixture in the Goldish silvers you must draw the Gold through an Iron plate wherein an hole is made, in­to which a thin and subtil wyer is to be put, and do [Page 152] the good silver also through the same hole, then cut a piece of both, equally in one length as near as possible, and weigh one against the other with a Proof-weight, upon a quick Ballance, and so you will soon finde the difference betwixt the Gold and Silver. Now, if you have a Goldish-silver, and do draw it through the men­tioned hole, and doth take the right length of it, like the aforesaid former Wyer, and doth weigh it likewise upon the proof-Ballance against the silver-Wyer, then you will finde a difference in the weight, out of vvhich you may count the weight of the Gold (as much as is in the wy­ers which you have weighed) then also weigh such with the proof-weight, how much it weigheth, and you may compute (after this thy Account) how much Gold is in the whole weight of the Goldish-silver.

After this manner all other Metals may also be pro­ved and accounted, because they have one against the other divers Quantities in like Greatness: likewise in the coyn'd Money, if it be drawn to a Wyer (in the same thickness with the Wyers before mentioned) you may find in it the Copper and fine silver by this Rule.

Section. 2 Also, this I would not leave unmentioned, as an In­struction The second Way.for further Consideration, and it is necessary to be known, That there is a difference in weight, be­twixt Tin and Lead, if they be mixed together, as also in other Metals, which I have found in my diligent search­ing; For, one Copper against another, and one Tin against another, hath a difference also in the weight, else I would have proceeded further and surer with such reckoning.

[Page 153]

Sculpture XIX.
  • 1. How the Assayer stands before the Assay-Oven to prove Metals.
  • 2. The Iron on which the Proof is to be cast.
  • 3. A wooden Instrument to see through into the fire to prevent hurt to the Eyes.
  • [Page 154] 4. A separating▪ Glass for proving Gold, placed on a lit­tle foot.
  • 5. He that washeth the Goldish Silver in water.
  • 6. The Block, Hammer and stool.

CHAP. XX. How to separate Gold and Silver, and how to burn or distil Aqua fort. and prepare Instruments and Clay for the Work.

Section. 1 HOW, in respect that to the Burning of A­qua fort▪ there belong many Preparations, it is necessary that of such I write some­what, and signify the same: Where­fore, I will first speak of the Clay where­with they use to Lute the Helms and Receivers, and to coat the Separating The Clay. Glass which ought to be prepared thus; Take good sound and substantial Clay, wash it in water that the stones and the course sand may come off, make it into Balls, and dry it well in the Sun; Of such wash'd Clay take ten parts, and two parts of wash'd Ashes, three parts of clean Stone-Horse-dung, one part of the scales of Iron, and two parts of Cow-hair beaten well, and min­gle all these together, and moisten it with warm Oxen or sheeps-blood, and whilst it is warm, work it with an iron Instrument: one might also take, among this Clay, Venetian Glass beaten small, but not too much: and with this Clay one may lute-over the separating Glasses and the great Glasses, in which the Aqua fort. is to be distilled, such as will hold in the fire: it may also serve to joyn together the Ovens which are called Athanors, [Page 155] because it holdeth fast, and doth neither break nor crack.

Section. 2 But the Clay and thin mixture with which one useth to lute over the Joynts of the Helmets and Receivers, is To lute the joynings.is to be made thus, Take the white of Eggs, as many as you think fit, beat them well, in a Peuter dish, and take a clean spunge, and press the clear of the Eggs into it, by squeesing it out of the spunge into the dish, and do this until it becometh clear like Well-water, then take Mill­dust, 4 Loths, Bole Armoniak, one Loth, white dryed Cheese without Crust or rind, two Loths, and of Sanguis Draconis, one Loth; Grind all these very small, and sift them through a hair Seeve, mingle these with the whites of the Eggs, and with it, Lute over the Joynts, which you must understand thus, That such Joynings be first with the above-mentioned Clay luted over and dryed well again, then this thin mixture is to be put upon a little cloth and laid over it, and let it dry of it self, but this ought to be done before you bring it into the warmth, or makest a fire to it, then such mixture will hold fast, and the spirits will not go through, but if the Joynings should afterwards let the spirits go out, then do it over in the heat with Tallow, vvhereby the Clay will become hard and fast.

Section. 3 Another Clay to bodies.Here followeth another Clay wherewith to lute or glaze-over the Culbs or bottles, which will endure the fire, Take a good wash'd dry Clay, a little Dragons blood and Bole Armoniak, and add to it a third part of Potters clay, & a third part of a half part of Calx vive, make each apart into Pouder, and moisten it with the white of Eggs, as is taught above, or with warm Ox or Sheeps-blood, add to it so much flox of woollen Cloth or wooll shav'd or shorn, as of the Bolus, mingle all well together with a stick or wand, and with it lute over the Glasses, but▪ not thick, also lute over the joynts with it, and this vvill [Page 156] hold fast in the fire. Likevvise other Clays are to be used to lute-over, which do also hold well: But because these now mentioned do suffice, I have omitted for bre­vity sake to set down others: therefore every one may try which are the most serviceable unto him.

Section. 4 The Glasses or Bottles in which one useth to separate, Venetian Glass.and in which they put Aqua fort. are to be made of good Venetian Glass, of an equal thickness in the midst, for if they be made too strong or thick of Glass, they will not hold well, but they which have a right equal thickness, and are not strong will endure the fire the bet­ter, but if the Glasses be made of other Glass, then the Aqua fort. will work on them, and they are subject to break the sooner, by which there cometh dammage, and they will be also dark and pale.

Section. 5 To prepare Jugs and Retorts with saw­dust.One may also cause Juggs of Potters-work to be made for Distilling Aqua fort. or mixing Clay with Bran or clean fine Sawdust, this therefore is done, That when the Juggs are made and burnt raw, that the Bran or Saw-dust may burn out, and then to glaze such over with Venetian glass within and without, that the Glass flow into the holes, out of which the Bran and Sawdust is burnt away, whereby they will prove very firm and hold very well in the fire, of such stuff very good Re­torts are made, which will not break in the fire, but are much better to use than the over-luted Glass bottles, therefore such stuff is very convenient to use for Retorts: But how great the Juggs, Glasses or Bottles must be, I conceive, that every ones Work will teach what he may make according to it, for if one hath much Aqua fort. to burn at once, then it will require a great Jug or Re­tort for it, in which the stuff is to be put, and also the Recipient must be the bigger.

Section. 6 Iron jugs.Also 'tis in use to burn Aqua fort. in Iron Jugs which are of two pieces, and can be done asunder, whose form [Page 157] you will see in the next Sculpture. In such a Jug one may set in more at one time than in a glass-bottle; also they need not fear the breaking of such Jugs, or that the stuff will be spoil'd in it; and the Gold hath been of a better colour by such Aqua fort. made in Iron.

For this and other Reasons, I judge it to be better alwayes to burn Aqua fort. in such Iron Jugs, than in glaz'd Bottles, which can but once be used, the bigness of which must be as one may put in near 20 pounds of stuff at once, but if one would burn less, the Opportu­nity will shew it self, how to proportion it, but for strength it must be the thickness of a finger, so it will en­dure the longer.

Section. 7 If now one will burn Aqua fort. in such Jugs then must the joynings be well luted over, that no spirits may Luting the Jug.go out, lute-over also the Jug without, with thin Clay, that the fire may the less hurt it, and lay before it a Reci­pient of Glass, but of such a bigness that the mentioned spirits may have room enough in it, and that such may not break out of necessity or force, by which there will be dammage.

Section. 8 After the vvork is finished then must the Jug be suffe­red To gain the Caput. mort out of the Jug.to cool, and put water in it, then will it mollify the Caput Mort. put it out gently with an Iron, and so the Jug will become clean again.

The form and likeness of such separating Glasses and earthen Juggs you may see in the following Sculpture, thus

  • 1. Aluted glass-bottle covered with anHelm.
  • 2. Aluted glass-bottle without anHelm.
  • 3. Anothersort ofGlass-bottle.
  • 4. TheForm of anHelm.
  • 5. An half Glass, or half
    Pipkin with one Ear, and a Mouth.
  • [Page 158]6. AReceiver with aPipe.
  • 7. AReceiver withouta Pipe.
  • 8. An earthenRetort.
  • 9. Anearthen Jug orCulb to burnAqua fort.
  • 10. Other kind of Bottles, Glasses, half-Glasses, Tunnels.
Sculpture XX.

CHAP. XXI. How to make Ovens to Distill Aqua Fort.

Section. 1 EVERY one useth to prepare the Ovens to the distilling of Aqua Fort. according to his pleasure: But there is one Form much better, and more profitable than the other (as I have seen and used many my self▪ for I finde, That the Ovens called Athanors, which, as in the following Sculpture is Section. 2 Athanor.properly delineated, are the best to be used to distil Aqua fort. and they are to be formed thus, Make a Steeple in square or round four Els high, and below in it lay an Iron Grate, under vvhich must be a Wind-hole, according to the demonstration in the next Sculpture: and then make again on both sides of the steeple, in the same wideness, according to the height of the Juggs or Glass-bottles round or square Ovens, in which the Glas­ses or Juggs may stand: Put also below in the steeple or tower, Iron-Grates, so that it may have wind-holes below: in such By-Ovens must be left holes from the Tower, that the heat (as you shall hear) may come out of it, and if they are about a large span wide, and four fingers and a span high, then are they wide and high enough: only observe, That when you do set up the high Tower, you do not make it two thick near to the holes, but rather narrower▪ that the fire or heat may go the better into the By-Ovens, then cause to such holes, through which the heat doth pass, fit Instruments of Potters-work, with which you may govern the fire as you please.

[Page 160] Section. 3 Some cause such Instruments or Registers to be made of strong Iron, but they are not so good as the earthen, for, if the Iron one become hot and glowing, then they give likewise great heat, and if they are drawn before the fire, then they cannot well be managed or govern'd by it, and there is also danger therein.

Section. 4 Further, you must also have to every By-Oven (in vvhich you set the Jugs or Glass-Bottles) covers made of Earth or Potters-clay, which must be cut out also, that they close just on the neck of the Jug or Glass-Bot­tle, and that the Ovens may be shut very close, and leave Air-holes through it (being called Registers) and have Pins of Wood which go in very close to govern the Fire by it, as you may see in the eighth figure of the next Sculpture. Likewise upon the Tower a cover is to be set, which must be so large that it may cover all the upper holes of the Tower; and so is the Oven or Atha­nor prepared to distil the Aqua fort. But how it should be governed with the Wind-holes followeth hereafter in the next Sculpture

  • 1. The Athanor.
  • 2. The Mouth-hole over the Grate.
  • 3. The Mouth-hole under the Grate.
  • 4. The Grates in the By-Ovens.
  • 5. The By-Ovens.
  • 6. Instruments to open or shut the By-Ovens Mouth.
  • 7. A Cover for the By-Oven.
  • 8. The Pins for the Registers or Wind-holes.
  • 9. A Semicircle piece of Wood by which the Athanor is to be made round.
  • 10. The Cover for the Athanor.
  • 11. The person that tends them.
  • 12. A dish of Metals to be used.
[Page 161]
Sculpture XXI.

CHAP. XXII. How the Ingredients are to be prepared for distilling of the Aqua fort.

Section. 1 FOR distilling of the common Aqua fort. there are used only two Ingredients, Ni­tre and Vitriol, which must be prepared Calcining of Vitriol.before they are put in: first, the Vitriol must be calcined which is to be done thus, Take at once four pound of those Ingre­dients, [Page 162] Section. 1 and put them in an earthen glazed Crucible, set it over the fire, that the Vitriol may melt to a water, Calcining of Vitriol.let it boil gently, and stir it about continually with a woo­den spatula, until the wateriness be evaporated away, and the Vitriol begins to be thick, then take with the wooden spatula, some part out of the Crucible while it is warm, and grind it upon a Grinding-stone before it be cold, then take more out of the Crucible, upon the Grindingstone until all the Vitriol is out of the Crucible and ground small, for if you do not take the Vitriol warm out of the Crucible, but lettest it be cold in it, then it will become as hard as a stone, and so 'tis difficult to be brought out, neither is it easy to grind: Thus the Vi­triol is to be prepared for the distilling of the Aqua fort.

Section. 2 Salt-Petre.Concerning the Nitre, it needs not be calcin'd, yet one may set it upon a Oven that it may be dry, and then beat and grind it fine and small, then is it also pre­pared: But because it is not all pure, but some part of it is very Salt, therefore it is first to be clarified and purified from its Salt (which every one who converseth with Distillation of Aqua fort. certainly should know) and that with the hand: But how the clearing should be done▪ see full Instruction in the first Book.

CHAP. XXIII. How Aqua fortis is to be distilled.

Section. 1 In a Glass Body. TAKE four pound of clean Nitre, and three pound and a half of calcin'd Vi­triol (as is mentioned) grind them very small, and put them in an over-luted Glass-body (brush'd with an Hares-foot bound to a little stick) the neck of the [Page 163] Bottles being taken off, that the water may go clean over, and not have cause to ascend, when then the stuff is put into the Bottle or Jugg, then put it in one of the By-Ovens, on the Grate (with a Copel made for it on purpose) and lay upon the By-Oven a Cake made of Earth or Clay, and daub it close about the neck of the Jug, and over-lute the joynings every where with the Clay very well, that no heat or vapours may go out of it, and let the Air-holes on the side be open (as you see in the former Sculpture) yet not too wide (for if they are open near three fingers wide, then 'tis wide enough:) But you must not put the Bottle (as now 'tis mention­ed) Section. 2 naked into the Oven upon the Iron-grate, as you Copels to burn Aqua Fort.do with the Iron Jug, but in a small earthen Test (made on purpose) which hath below a little Foot which is called a Coppel: and in this put ashes or clean Sand, that the Glass Bottle may come to stand a good square hand above the Grate: when you have put in the Stuff set an Helm upon it, and dawb the Joynings very well over with the Clay, which you have prepared.

Section. 3 But some have another way, viz. When the Bottle is put in, then they lay round about the Neck good pre­pared Another way. Clay, and over the Clay they lay Paper, so that the Helm may not quite stand on the Clay, and this is done for this Reason, that the Helm, (after the distilling) may loosen it self clean; and then they do set upon it the Helm, and lute it over with good Clay; and lastly, ap­ply the thin stuff upon a little Cloth, that no spirits at all may go out.

Section. 4 Water in the Recei­ver.You ought also to prepare the By-Oven, and likewise the Jug or Bottle with the Helm set in Order, that the mouth of the Helmet may go out a pretty distance over the Oven, then lay before it the Receiver, that the mouth of the Helm may well reach into it, that you may see how the water doth go, and the drops fall.

[Page 164] Section. 5 And that you may also know how much the Vi­triol hath lost of its weight; first, in the Calcining, you must' put sweet or flowing Water in the Receiver, else the Water will be too strong, and very little water will remain, also lute all very well over the Joynings on the Receiver and Helm, thus, Take some of the prepar'd Clay, and lay it about the Joynings, then put in the Clay (through the joynings, in the Receiver) with a little smooth sprig of a Broom) which will do this Service, that the first and gross spirits (as you shall hear hereafter) may come through it; then upon the Clay lay a little Cloth, as abovesaid, that the Joynings may every where be luted-over, and let it be dry: Thus also you may set into the Oven, the Jugs with the stuff on both sides the Athanor, and with one fire burn and make perfect two or three works, and mannage every one according to its necessity without hindrance to the other, of giving or taking heat, as hereafter somwhat more may follow.

CHAP. XXIV. How Aqua fortis is to be distilled in an Iron Jug or Pot.

Section. 1 BUT if you will put the stuff in an Iron Jug, which is cast or hammered, and di­still Of Jugs cast or hammer­ed. Aqua fort. in it, then put the Jug with its short feet, upon an Iron Grate or Roaster, that it may stand firm and fast, but if the Jug hath no legs, then it must stand upon a three-legg'd Iron, proportioned to the Jug, and before you do put the Helm on it, first place upon the Jugs neck an old broken neck of a glass Bottle, and [Page 165] then put the Helm upon it, so the Helm will remain whole in taking off: But if you have not a glazed Neck (as is said) then lute the Jug's neck round about with the prepared Clay, and lay over the Clay a Paper (as abovesaid) upon the Helm, and over lute it the best you can, then the Helm will go from it the better.

Section. 2 When you have set into the Athanor the stuff with the Jug, and all the over-luting is well dryed, then put To place the same.into the Tower of the Athanor, live Coals upon the same, with other dead Coals; so that the Tower may be full to the top; then cover the Tower with a thick Co­ver made of Potters-Earth, but you must lay Ashes up­on the Tower half an hand thick, and so fit the Cover, that no vapor at all may goe out, and let the wind-hole below, on the Athanor, be open which is mark'd in the beforesaid Sculpture, with Figure 3: and shut the wind­holes of the By-ovens, and the Mouth-hole of the Atha­nor very close, mark'd with the figure 2. and draw it not open too soon with the Instruments noted at Figure 6.

Section. 3 But, when the Aqua fort. doth begin to go, then Of govern­ing the A­thanor.open but one wind-hole, and, if it will not go well, then draw the Instruments a little nearer to the Tower, so the heat will go through the same space, under the Jug or Bottle which is set in, and in which the Ingredients are, and presently, the water will begin to run better.

Section. 4 Of disposing the gross spi­rits.Now, if it thus proceeds, then a Vapour will come into the Receiver (these are the gross spirits) then let them go out through the little Pin of Wood near the Lym­beck of the Helm, then stick it in again, and lute it over the best way you can, that no more spirits may go out, and when the drops fall into the Receiver to five or six, so the water will go in the beginning from the calcination stuff, with which governing, shutting and opening of the Instruments, you may alwayes keep the Oven in order that the water may go well. But when you put the stuff [Page 166] raw, uncalcined in; then you must do it very gently in the beginning, that the drops may fall in, to 15 and 16, &c. But 'tis a tedious and long while in distilling, and there can no more water be had than of the calcined stuff, therefore it is always first to be calcined, and when from the calcin'd stuff, the drops are fallen one or two hours to 5, 6 and 7 drops, then you may draw a little more with the Instruments which are between the Atha­nor and By-Ovens, and then the heat will be stronger, and the Drops will fall faster.

Section. 5 Now, when the Drops come but to two and three, When it doth go too hot.it goeth too hot: then with the mentioned Instrument shut the under wind-hole again, very close: whereby they will go slower again, for in too hot going there is danger, that the stuff should ascend, and dash all in pieces (where­by cometh Dammage) and although the calcined stuff doth not easily ascend, yet it may so happen in going on (especially if the Jugg be filled too much with the stuff.)

Section. 6 How the drops must be counted.And know that You must number the drops accord­ing as one beateth with a hammer or fist, or keepeth a tact or time as in Musick: viz. as many common stroaks as can be done betwxt the drops, may be 4, or 5, or more, they are to be called stroaks, therefore govern the sire also in an equal heat, untill the water come al­most over, and the Helm and Receiver become Cherry­brown.

Section. 7 To force the spirits.Then you must strengthen the fire with opening of the Instruments while the Spirits go through the Limbeck or Nosel of the Helm and Receiver of the water, by which the Helm and Receiver (as is said) becomes brown. Then hasten not with the forcing of the fire, till at last, when the spirit is gone an hour to six or more, accor­ding to the quantity of the stuff, and the Receiver be no more so brown, then open the Wind-holes markd with [Page 167] the figure 8. and lay in the same holes under the Jug or Bottle) small split Wood, and force it with the fierceness of the flame, that the rest of the spirits may come over, and that all strength may come into the wa­ter, so as the Helm and Receiver become white again, and that also the Jug or Bottle which is put in, may glow near an hour well with the Caput mort. so that which remaineth behind in the Jug or glass, may have no more sharpness in it but become dry and of a reddish Brown.

When the Aqua fort. is thus distilled, then let the Athanor be opened and cool well, and lay over (above the neck of the Helmet, where it is luted) a wet cloth, also near the Lymbeck of the Helm over the Recei­ver, mollifying the overluted hard Clay well, that it may go off, that you may not break the Limbeck of the Helm, Section. 8 The Glass Limbick and Recei­vers to be taken off.which may use afterwards (the Receiver being first to be taken away) then put the made Aqua fort. into a Glass, and stopt it with wax: thus you have good Aqua fort.

You may also be instructed, That when you are di­stilling of Aqua fort. and that the Coals in the Athanor are almost gone out (which happens hardly in 10 or 11 hours) then lift up the Cover from the Athanor, make it full again with Coals and cover it, else the Fire will go out, and all will be cold, as Oportunity it self will teach thee and make thee to remember.

CHAP. XXV. How to distil Aqua fort. in 4, or 5 Hours.

Section. 1 IF one in haste would distil Aqua fort. and cannot have such an Athanor, then must be made a little Oven on a wall three quarters of an Ell square, and two Ells high, and put in it an Iron-Grate. so that below there may remain a Wind­hole, [Page 168] and on this little Oven make another little Oven, in which may be put the Jug with the stuff, cause an Hole to go out of the Oven, which is set first into the By-Oven▪ lay also a Grate in it, as you have done in the Atha­nor, and you may in stead of the earthen Instrument before noted with Figure 1. use a smooth Pan-tile, and it will do the same thing: or, if you will not spend so much time about an Oven, then make but one square Oven, which hath a grate below, and under it a winde­hole, in which you may set the Jug or Bottle with the stuff, take then of the above-mentioned stuff four pound of Nitre, and three pound and an half of calcined Vi­triol; Grind both very small, and among it put six pound of Calx viva, and let all be well mingled toge­ther (but put not so much water in the Receiver, as above is taught.)

Section. 2 Now therefore, when all things are well luted over, and become dry, then make a fire under it, and let the water go strong over it, so that at all times the water and spirit may come over together, and because the stuff is mingled with Calx viva, therefore you need not take care for running over, then strengthen the fire immediately untill the water and spirits are come over.

Section. 3 And lastly, the stuff in the Jug will glow so well through this Labour, that you may distil in 5 or 6 hours an Aqua fort. to which else you must have 24 hours, but you will have but little water, yet 'twill be very good to use for Separation.

CHAP. XXVI. Another good way to distil Aqua fort.

Section. 1 TO use uncalcin'd Vitriol for Aqua fort. it must be dryed in the Sun till it be To use un­calcin'd Vi­triol. white, then take thereof four pound, and two pound of Salt-Petre, beat it small, mingle it together, and set it in the O­ven (as is done with the first stuff) put no sweet or clear water into the Receiver: this also yields good Aqua fort. only you must (as abovesaid) do ve­ry gently in going on, that the stuff may not run over:

Section. 2 Take to such Aqua fort. good Hungarian or Goslarish Hungarian, Goslaran Vitriol, or such as is boyld out of flints. Vitriol, or which is boyled out of a flint, and of a fine and high colour, and not of such Vitriol of which Alum is made, for the pale Alumish Vitriols do not yield good strong Aqua fort. Some take also one part of Cop­per water, and burn Alum among their Additions, which is left to every ones freedom. This only is needful to be mentioned, That if one take much Vitriol among the stuff, such Aqua fort. which cometh out of it, doth very well work in separating, and gives much brown spirit, nor do they improve in the separation, as other Aqua fort. for they hold not fast on in separation.

Section. 5 Likewise some take to their Aqua fort. four pound of Another way. Nitre and as much Vitriol, which of the two is the best, you may (like my self and others) learn by Experience.

CHAP. XXVII. How to make an Excellent strong Aqua fort.

Section. 1 YOU must, for the making of strong Aqua fort. Take three pound of calcined Vi­triol, 3 pound of Nitre, one pound of burnt Bruxish Alum, out of Belgia, and two pound of burnt flints; burn these to a water, the first water let go, untill the Helm begins to be colored, cast it away, lay the Recipi­ent again before it, and lute it all over vvell again, and let the other vvaters go over (as I have taught above) at last, force all the spirits over vvith a strong fire: this water keep in a good Vessel, and put to it, in an over­luted glass Bottle, 6 Loths of Nitre, 4 Loths of Vitriol, and tvvo Loths of burnt flints, and one Loth of Verdi­grease, and one Loth of roasted Antimony, and one Loth of filed Iron, and half a pound of white Lead, and let all these be beaten to small pouder, and put upon it, of the Water now distill'd, a little and a little at a time (for it useth to make a Noise until 'tis all put in) then cover it very vvell, let it stand some dayes in a Celler, and stir it every day tvvice, then set it in and distill it as an A­qua fort. only that the Helm may soon come upon it, and let it go as long as 'tvvill go, for it vvill begin of its ovvn accord to go; then give it very gentle fire, and dravv it most gently over so long till all the water is brought over, then augment the fire, the fiercer the bet­ter, until the spirits vvith great heat are all come over, (which hardly is done in two dayes and two nights) like as you have done before with the Aqua fort. then let the Oven be cool, and take of the Aqua fort. and cleanse [Page 171] it from the feces, and preserve it in a sound Vessel which holdeth well, for 'tis an exceeding strong water, and use it.

Section. 2 Some will say of this Water, That by it somewhat more of Gold, in the Separation, is to be obtain'd, than More Gold by this way.by common Aqua fort. Experience will manifest it; for my part, I believe it not: and for such Hopes without ground, I was neither willing to except, nor to try in distilling.

Section. 3 A Lute up­on which the Spiris do not work.You may also be instructed, That to this Water you had need of a great Recipient, wherein the spirits may have room; and, if you will take off the Recipient, and lay it before again, then you may lute over the Joy­nings with lute made of two parts Clay, and one part of Quick lime, and moistned with Rape Oyl, and lute it: such a Clay the spirits do not touch, but the other which is used, by some, to lute with, they touch, and thereby are made alwayes leaky, and never holds well.

CHAP. XXVIII. How to distil an Aqua fortis, called Aqua Regis, which dissolveth Gold, Copper, Iron, Lead and Tin; also Mercury sublimate and Arsnick.

Section. 1 Ingredients. PROVIDE good Aqua fort. which is distilled only from Salt-Petre and Vi­triol, and purified with Silver from its dregs and faeces, and in which one may dissolve Silver as necessity requires, put it into a sound well luted glass Bottle or Culb, and add 8 Loths of melted Salt, which Salt in flowing must not run▪over, but as soon as it floweth must be put out, that it may remain in its strength and [Page 172] virtue, and only come off from the flegm or superflu­ous moisture; now, as soon as the Salt comes in it, then lay the luted glass Bottle with the Aqua fort. and Salt side-wayes in the Oven in which one useth to distil Aqua fort. but thus, That you may lay to the Bottle the Recipient also, and lute it well, then it will soon begin to go off, by its own Virtue, then draw the flegm over with a small fire, and strengthening the fire more and more, at last force the spirits to come over, as is usual in distilling the Aqua fort. and you must drive the spirits much longer because of the Salt.

Section. 2 To draw o­ver by de­grees.Then you may finde that by this way of distilling by degrees, there will be a fine yellow and stronger water, because the spirits will not ascend too high, (as over the Alembeck:) But it requires good diligence and obser­vation to prevent the water from running over: This Aqua Regis when 'tis thus burnt, may presently be used, and hath no need to be purified from its feces.

But how to distil it by degrees you may see in the following Sculpture, thus

  • 1. The Tower of the Athanor, in which the Coals are to be put.
  • 2. The Oven in which the Bottle is to be plac'd.
  • 3. How the Bottle is to ly in the Oven.
  • 4. The Glassy Helmet, made for it.
  • 5. The Recipient or Receiver.
  • 6. The Pot full of Materials prepared.
  • 7. The empty Pot.
  • 8. The Person that tends the Athanor and By-Ovens.
[Page 173]
Sculpture XXII.

CHAP. XXIX. To distil Aqua fort. in Retorts with other Ad­vantages.

Section 1 DISTILLING Aqua fort. in Retorts is no old Invention, and no long Labour, but a short way; if Retorts may be had which are made of one piece, and will hold Aqua fort. and Oyl; then lute such over with good and sound Clay, let it be well dry, put in it the Ingredients or stuff, which shall be calcin'd and mingled with Calx viva, and lay the Retort in an Oven made on purpose (whose Descrip­tion shall follow hereafter) and fill a Receiver with wa­ter before it, then make a fire in the Oven (and speedi­ly [Page 174] Section. 2 increase it) then the stuff, because it is mingled with Calx viva, will not run so soon over, because the spi­rits Calx viva hinders the running overand water are to go over together, at last force the spirits with Fire, so that the Retort may glow bright, near two hours, at least: In such a Retort you may di­still the Aqua fort. in 5 or 6 hours, but it will not yield so much water as through the Alimbeck, but it will be strong and good for use.

Section. 3 For want of a Receiver.If you cannot have a great Receiver (as it often hap­pens) to the distilling of the Aqua fort. then take a great Waldenburgish Jug, or one made of the like Clay, (that it may hold Aqua fort. lay that before as a Receiver, and make the Process, as now is signified, such an one I esteem better to the distilling of Aqua fort. in Retorts, than in a glazed Receiver.

But when you will use it (in stead of the glazed Re­ceivers to lay before the Jug and Helm) then you must have a neck of a glass Bottle: Lute it well over in the Jug, so that the Neck may reach out of the Jug near a Span, in the same Neck lay the nossel of the Helm, and lute it also well over, so you may see in the neck of the glass Bottle, how the drops do fall, and govern the fire ac­cordingly.

Section. 4 Earthen Re­ceivers with Glass.Some who distil Aqua fort. do make (on purpose for the Receiver) great Jugs with great Bellies, of good and solid Clay, so that near the Jug▪s neck, are to be cut in it square holes, then they fit to it square Glasses of good Venetian Glass, and then they lute over the Jugg with a thin Clay made of Varnish and Bole Ar­moniack, and cause it to be dryed well, and when they will lay the Jug before, then they place the Glasses to the Jug and Nossel of the Helm, so that they may see the drops fall well, and that they may govern the fire as it Section. 5 To sit the glass spouts to the Helm.should be.

Also it often comes to pass, that the Helms have not [Page 175] always right spouts, they are either too high or too low: Now, these you may make your self, as followeth, viz. slake a Coal-fire upon a Test, hold the spout so as that it may be only warm, then nearer and nearer; at last, lay it on the glowing Coals, and the nosel will glow, then bow it in the fire, as you wouldst have it, but you must not take it so quickly out of the fire again, lest it break in pieces, according to this way others are to be bent and fitted like Pellicans.

Section▪ 6 I have taught before, how the Ovens are to be made and prepared in which Aqua fort. is to be distilled: if it To set By-Ovens to an Athanor.now should happen, that one would at once resolve to distil more than two at a time: then for such the Atha­nor must be made somewhat greater and larger than for others, but not much, yet may serve three or four By-Ovens, which are to be governed with one fire, only the Instruments which in other Athanors are drawn on the sides, in this must be drawn upwards, and hang them on the wall by nails, as the following Sculpture doth shew.

Section. 7 Another long Oven.Besides this, one may make another Oven to distill Quantities, in which four or more Jugs may be set in length one after another: so that the Oven standeth free, and you may alwayes come to lay one Receiver on one side, and also another on the other side; for this Reason, not only that it may not hinder one the other, but also that on the backside under every Jug may be laid wood, and that the spirits may be forced strongly.

Besides, such an Oven must have on the lowest part but one hole, in which the fire upon a grate is to be sto­red with wood, and under the grate one wind-hole more, and the same must not be opened, till the water is almost over, that one may strengthen the heat; like­wise on the upper part, as on the head must be placed [Page 176] wind-hole, that the fire may have its draught in the length.

Section. 8 If then you would distill Aqua fort. in such an Oven, then first calcine, and prepare the stuff afterwards; put it into the Jugs, and the first Jugg which stands next the fire mingle with Calx, then there will not be so much danger, that the stuff will run over: After this, when the water is almost over, then open the wind-holes, which are alwaies to be behind by the Jugs, and force the spirits over, according to every stuffs necessity, by this you will have also good Aqua fort. and maist distil much of it at once, but how the Oven is to be formed you may see at the figure 7. in the next Sculpture.

Section. 9 But to return to the Aqua fort. I find it necessary Strong and weak Aqua fort.to mention, That some conceive, if they have too strong Aqua fort, they will go as far in separating one Mark, as of two Marks with weak Aqua fort. which cannot be: the Reason is, that though the strong Aqua fortis do touch strongly, yet it cannot take more Silver to it self, than the Aqua fort. hath wetness: I say then, That an Aqua fort. which is of a middle strength, and made of good stuff doth more in separating according to its worth, than a very strong water, for the weak water endures longer in the operation, on the contrary the very strong water consumeth away suddenly, and leaveth off the sooner. The following Sculpture

  • 1. The Tower of the Athanor.
  • 2. The two sides or By-ovens in which the Jugs are to be set, with the Stuff. 2. 2.
  • 3. The Glass Receivers. 3. 3.
  • 4. The earthen Jug or Receiver.
  • 5. The Oven for the Retorts.
  • 6. The little Receivers to be added to the great Recei­ver, [Page 177] that there may be room for drawing the Spirits.
  • 7. The Long Oven.
  • 8. The By-Ovens, by which the spirits are to be forc'd into the Aqua fort.
Sculpture XXIII.

CHAP. XXX. How Aqua fort. is to be separated and cleansed from its Feces.

Section. 1 WHEN the Aqua fort. is distilled, (accord­ing The way.to the Instruction given) then it is not to be used raw, as it comes from di­stilling, but it must be first cleansed and precipitated from its feces, that it may be pure and clear, and this is done thus, If the distilled Aqua fort. be two pounds, then put near 2 loths of it into a little glass Vial, and dissolve in it half a dram of fine silver, and while the Solution is yet warm, put in, the other new burnt Aqua fort. so it will be­come white and thick as milk, stir it once or twice a day, every day, then let it stand one day, and one night till the feces do settle in the bottom like a Calx, when it is become wholy clean and clear, then put it off, and you have purified or precipitated the Aqua fort. for the separation prepared; only take notice that the A­qua fort. distill'd in an Iron Jug. doth not give so much feces, neither is it so unclean as that which is burnt in a glass Bottle, because the Iron-Jug is a Metal of it self, upon which the Aqua fort. doth partly purify it self, and it likewise gives to the Gold a higher and finer colour than the other: Keep the feces clean together, pour it off, enter them into the Lead, and let it go off upon a Copel, so you will find the most part of the Silver in it, which you have used to the precipitation.

Section. 2 To bring the feces to pro­fit.Some use this Method, viz. They do precipitate the new distilled Aqua fort. with Hungarian or Bohemish Pence, or such like Money, which to the separating is [Page 179] all one, only the Aqua fort. remains not so clear, fine and white, but because there is Copper in it, therefore the Aqua fort. becomes a little green: for this Reason, this Aqua fort. settled with Coppery Money cannot be used to the Gold-Proof, for the Copper which is in the water sticks rather to the Gold Calx than to the Silver, and then 'tis not easily wash'd off so clean: which is pre­judicial to the Proof: but, if after the first setling, the Aqua fort. be unclean, then you may settle it once more, and then use it to Separate or prove Gold, according to your pleasure.

CHAP. XXXI. How weak Aqua fort is to be made stronger.

Section 1 IF it should be neglected in the distilling of the Aqua fort. as easily may be done, To Prepare iron.when the Joynings are not well luted over, so that the water will become too weak, and in the separating will not touch the Silver: such weak waters may be made stronger by two wayes: First, set in again a new stuff of Nitre, and calcined Vitriol, and put the weak Aqua fort. in the Receiver before it, and distil the stuff: after this make the spirits to go well over, so the Aqua fort. will become stronger, that it may be used well and safely in separations.

Section. 2 Second pre­ceeding.The other way isshorter: thus, Set the weak Aqua fort. in a glass Bottle or Culb, which must be luted over upon a Coal-fire, heat it till it begin to boil, then the wateriness of it will boil off, which you may often prove while it is boyling, whether the water do become strong enough. Or, set the weak Aqua fort. in a Bottle, which is luted [Page 180] over in the Athanor, or in another Oven, (in which one useth to burn Aqua fort.) and put an Helm upon it, and draw off from it the Flegm or superfluous wateri­ness, until the Helm begins to be brown, fo the weak A­qua fort. will become stronger and is fit for use.

Section. 3 The Flegm which is dravvn off you may retain, for To draw off the flegm.if you do distil another Aqua fort. then you may use it in the Receiver again, for this flegm is much better than common vvater.

CHAP. XXXII. How Gold and Silver in the Aqua fort. is to be separated.

Section. 1 The Pre­paration. TO separate Gold from Goldish Silver in the Aqua fort. Knovv that the Silver must first be burnt clean upon a Test, then cast it into an Ingot, and beat it thin upon an Anvil, and cut it into lit­tle lamins or thin pieces, bovv them that they become hollovv, glovv them in a Crucible that the Aqua fort. may touch them the better, such glovved Lamins vvhen they are cold, put them into a luted neck separating Glass, and put not above five or six of those Mark-Goldish-silver Lamins in at once; (because of the Danger in breaking,) and if you have much Silver (for they take much room vvith the Bot­tles) then put upon it so much of the purify'd and set­tled Aqua fort. that it go over the Silver a good large Finger, and as soon as it begins to vvork of it self, put the separating Glass vvith the Silver upon a warm Sand in a great earthen Test of good stuff upon an Athanor, that the Sand, may alvvays remain hot, and vvhen the [Page 181] first Aqua fort. hath work enough, that it will touch no more, then put away the Silvery Water into another luted Bottle, but not too hot, that the Bottle may not break, and put upon it other good Aqua fort. which hath not been used, set it in warm Sand, and let it work the second time, but a little stronger than at first, until it will work no more: Then put it clean off to the Silvery Aqua fort. and put upon it the third time Aqua fort. and set it upon the hot Sand, and let it work strongly, and with great Bubbles, until all the Silver be dissolved from the Gold, which will come out very clean through the three waters now mentioned: But, if one had more to separate, one might use the last water upon other Silver, and put it upon it the first time, for it will touch and work so that somewhat of the Aqua fort may be spared.

Section. 2 The Second Proceeding.Know also, that upon one Mark of beaten Silver, there will remain one Mark and a half of good Aqua fort. and upon a Mark of thin graind Silver, (because the Grains remain somewhat thicker, and not so light as in beating) two Marks; now when the Aqua fort. hath separated and attracted all the Silver from the Gold, then put the Silvery Aqua fort. together in a Bottle, as abovesaid, and upon the Gold or Gold Calx (which remains in the Bot­tle) clean, boyling hot water, so that it go well over the Gold, and put it over again, let it boyl well with the Gold calx, then put it off in a particular Vessel, clean and Section. 3 pure, that nothing come off from the Gold, and put up­on To dulcify the Gold. Calx.it another clean hot water, let it boyl with it, do this until the water goes off from the Gold very clean and clear, and hath no sharpness at all in it, and that it take to it self the remaining Silver which the Aqua fort. hath left behind with the Gold in the moistness, till it co­meth clean, this is called dulcifying, but that you may be sure that you have the Silver sweetned clean, prove it [Page 182] thus, let fall a drop in a Coppery clean dish, and if it do not stain it, then 'tis dulcifyed clean, such sweet waters are all to be put together, because of the Silver in it, and use it for precipitation, (of which you shall have an in­struction hereafter) When the Gold calx after this man­ner is taken clean off, then hold in your hand the Bot­tle, and put the Gold or Gold calx very gently out into an half Glass Bottle, with the last clean water together; then put it again into the Bottle or Culb, and hold your hand before it again, and turn the Culb so that all the remainder of the Gold (together with the water) may flow against the hand, then put it finely and gently to the other Gold in the half Bottle.

Section. 4 To glow out the Gold Calx.When all the Gold calx is settled in the half Glass Bottle, then drain the water off cleanly, and put also the Gold calx (being moist) into a clean Crucible, and set it on the fire, and let the water softly evaporate, and boyl in; then set the Crucible warmer, and at the last very hot, that the Gold calx may glow clean out, then the Gold will receive a fine colour, let it be cold, and weigh it, then in the casting all together nothing will go from it.

Now if you will cast together the glowed Gold calx then mingle it with a little Borax, and put it in a new clean Crucible, (but rub it at first very clean with chalk) and set it in the Fire, and when the Crucible gloweth, blow to it that the Gold may come to flow, of this you may use a little in the Fluss, and when you will cast it, then lay Section. 5 To cast the Gold.a clean little Paper upon it, which is Luted with Ve­netian Soap and Wax, and while the Paper yet burns upon the Gold, cast it out under the Flames, so it will receive no scum, but will casts it self also clean, but if you will cast an Ingot, then make the Ingot warm, and Lute it with Wax, and then quench the cast Ingot with Ʋrine, and so the Gold will become fine and deft.

[Page 183] Section. 6 But if one have much to separate, if it be Golden grain'd or Gilt Silver, and you would separate it in the water, then it must be first burnt clean upon a Test, and the burnt Silver must be Grained, (for it would be a hindrance to the Separator, if all Silver should be beaten) especially in a great quantity, yet he who hath time and opportunity, will do better to beat the Silver, or cause it to be beaten, whereby the separation will be done soo­ner and with less Aqua fort. (as above is signified) but if you want time and opportunity to beat it, then take the burnt Goldish Silver, and set it in a Crucible in a Wind Oven, and grain it with a split or round stick, or stir the water with a stick fast about in the Vessel, to make the Silver cast it self into Bubbles, whereby it will Section. 7 To separate the Silver for granula­ting. grain it self thin and hollow, and when 'tis drayn'd, then dry and glow it, and put it in the separating Glass, and put Aqua fort. upon it, that it may go over it pretty well, and set an Alimbeck upon it, that it may begin to move of it self, and, when it ceaseth working, then set the separating glass upon the Copels in the sand upon the Athanor, and let the Alimbeck or Helm stand continually upon it, and what Water goeth off from the Aqua fort. keep that same by it self, for 'tis in the distilling of the Aqua fort. to be put into the Re­ceiver, and is better than common Aqua fort. and you must still govern the fire in the Athanor by strength­ning and weakning it as the work requires: and of this graind Silver, put 9 or 10 Mark of it into a bot­tle at once, for it will not take so much room as the beaten, yet if there were a quantity to separate of the Gol­den silver, one may prepare more of such Athanors than Section. 8 Aqua fort▪ for the gra­nulated Silver.one, that divers of the Bottles may be set in at once, but you ought to observe this, that one must put upon the Graind more than three times fresh Aqua fort. for the thick Grains sake, that the Gold may be pure.

[Page 184] Section. 9 And if it happens that a Glass Bottle should break, and the Silvery Aqua fort. run into the sand, 'tis not When a glass Bottle breaks:quite lost, for one may boil most part of the Silver out of the Sand again with warm Water, and that which remains in the sand may be mingled with that which is swept off, and passes through the melt Oven, and be made to profit, but of such danger there is little Fear upon the Athanor, especially if you have good separating Glasses, and also are careful.

Section. 10 To dulcify the Silver.When the Silver is separated clean from the Gold then sweeten the Gold Calx well out, dry, glow and cast it to­gether (as often as hath been mentioned) and know, if you have been diligent in separating and sweetning it the Gold which comes out by the separation, will be 23 Ca­rats and one grain; but commonly it cometh to 23 Carats and 7 or 8 grains.

Section. 11 Further, I add as a Caution, That you must not The Content of parted Gold.let the Aqua fort. evaporate too dry upon the Gold (as many times it happens by Negligence) whereby the Silver can not set it self on the Gold Calx again, which afterwards the other Aqua fort. will hardly touch, and therefore so soon as one part of the last Aqua fort. be poured from the Gold, one should quickly cast upon it hot flowing water before it be cold, that the Silver Section. 12 To shute in­to Cristals.may not settle it self too hard on the Gold, and turn to Cristals, and though hot boyling water will dissolve those Crystals, yet 'tis better, it may not be, but be soon dul­cified.

13 When the Aqua fort. remains Silver.Likewise, if it be neglected so that the Gold should come too white out of the separation, and were not of a high Content, then it is by the Cement (as in next Scul­pture is signified) to be perfectly cleansed. But that you may understand the Labour of the Separation, and how the Ovens and separating Glasses use to stand, you will al­so see in the following Sculpture.

[Page 185]

Sculpture XXIV.
  • 1. The Tower of the Athanor.
  • 2. The Side-Ovens upon which the Copels are placed on Sand.
  • 3. The Glass Bottle for Separation covered with Hel­mets, 3. 3.
  • [Page 186] 4. The Receivers which are laid to the Helmets.
  • 5. How Aqua fortis is by them to be drawn from the Silver.
  • 6. An Iron Instrument by which the Glasses are to be taken out and in.
  • 7. The Person that attends the Operation of the Glasses, in figure 5.
  • 8. Another person to take off and put on Glasses upon the shelves.
  • 9. The Ingredients prepared, in a dish or pan.

CHAP. XXXIII. When the Gold is abstracted, how the Silver is to be brought again, out of Aqua fort.

Section. 1 IF one have dissolv'd Silver from the Gold, through Aqua fortis, and the Aqua fort. hath suck'd the same into it self, and if one would bring it again out of the Aqua fortis; this may be done several wayes. The common Me­thod is this (which is used by most Goldsmiths) if they separate but a little silver, and require no great pains, then they take the settled water with which they have purified the Gold (as is said before) and put it in an half Bottle made of Copper, to the silvery Aqua fortis: only observe the right measure, for if the setled water be but little, and on the contrary, if the silvery Aqua fort. be too much, then it will begin to work too hard in the Copper Bottle: to prevent this, put into the Copper Bottle, to the settled water, and to the inweighed Aqua fort. a little more warm common flowing water, and then it will not so much hurt the Copper-bottle; and [Page 187] the Silver will quickly and apparently fall down in the Copper Bottle: Let it stand a while, then put the Cop­per Bottle (together with the water and fallen Silver) over the fire, let it boyl a little, then the Silver will the better and closer come together.

When this is done, then cause it to settle and pour the clean water off (which will be fair, clear and transpa­rent) put the silver Calx into an half-Glass bottle, or, if it be much, then into a clean Kettle, and pour clean warm water upon it, two or three times, until the silver Calx be clean and pure, and see that the Silver alwayes settle well, and preserve it carefully together, that nothing be lost.

Section. 2 The Reason why the silver Calx must be dulcified, is Because the sharpness which the Aqua fort. hath left in Why the Sil­ver Calx is sweetned.it may come out of it, for the sharpness doth rob some of the silver in the fire by drawing over the Helm as shall be shewn.

Now, when the water is drain'd from the silver Calx then put it in a clean Copper half Bottle, and let the wa­ter of it boil off and evaporate, that it may be very dry, then put it in a Crucible, set it in the fire in a wind-Oven or before the bellows, according as it is more or less: make it not too suddenly hot, that if there be left by the silver Calx, any Spirits of the Aqua fort. that they may evaporate before the silver Calx floweth, and the waste of the silver may become the smaller, which waste is not often small, and comes all from the spirits, for if they could be retained in the separating Glass then little would go off from the Silver.

Section. 3 The content of the Pre­cipitated Silver.After the melting together of the Silver in the Cruci­ble, then grain it, or cast it in an Ingot, as you please, this is the old manner of the Goldsmiths and common Se­parators to cleanse the silver out of the Aqua fort. and this silver which is thus settled out of the Aqua fort. is [Page 188] not fine silver: but it worketh on the Copper from which it is to be cleansed, and the stronger the water is in clean­sing, the more it will touch, and mingle among the silver Calx, and it holds commonly a Mark of cleansed silver, and this thus cast, holds near 15 Loth of fine silver.

Section. 4 To bring the blew water to profit.The settled blew water is to be used again with pro­fit when you distil Aqua fort. and have put the prepa­red stuff into a Jug (whereof Iron ones are best) then put of this blew water two pound upon ten pound of calcin'd stuff; as soon as this is done, set the Helm upon it, for it will presently go off it self, without any fire, and lay the Receiver before, (without any sweet Water) lute it well every where, and let it first go over the flegm, then increase the fire till all the spirits are driven into the water (as is said, when we spake of burning the A­qua fort.) then you may put this blew Aqua fort. into a great Culb glass, which is cut off in the Neck, and lu­ted over, and evaporate the moist flegm with the fire, then it will become stronger, and so put it to the stuff in the distilling.

But the Aqua fort. which comes of it, when the blew water is put upon the calcined stuff hath not so much fe­ces in cleansing and seething down, and is not so unclean as other common Aqua fort. which is burnt of other stuff, because the blew water becomes Metallick by the Copper in the precipitation, and hath purified it self in the Jug or Bottle.

Section. 5 To precipi­tate Silver in an earth­en vessel.Know also, That one may in a glazed or earthen Ves­sel (if it be good, and will hold Aqua fort. and Oyl) cleanse the used silvery Aqua fort. and the silver precipi­tated in it, namely, one must put such Aqua fort. toge­ther with the clear water, (as aforesaid) mixed in the glazed or earthen Vessel, and lay in it red hot pieces of Copper, and set the Vessel warm, then the silver will quickly fall to the Bottom, but 'tis better to cleanse it [Page 189] in a Copper Vessel, which may be done in a coppery or Section. 6 earthen vessel, yet in the cleansing of it, put iron La­mins, then the silver will come clean out of the water, as Experience teaches. Iron La­mins in the Precipitati­on.

CHAP. XXXIV. How Aqua fortis drawn from Silver may be used again.

Section. 1 THE Second manner of bringing the Sil­ver out of Aqua fort. and to draw off Aqua fort. so that it may be used again for Separation, is a singular ART and Dexterity; 'tis thus, Put the Silverish Aqua fort. in a good glass Bottle which is luted over, and wherein Aqua fort. may be distilled, set it in one of the Ovens which are for distilling, and lu­ted over (but in an Athanor is the best, and not so dan­gerous, as in a common Oven) let it be dry, then put the silverish Aqua fort. through a long glazed Tunnel, warm and not cold, into the Bottle, then set a Helm upon it, but not so strong luted over, lay the Receiver before, and lute the Joynings over so that you may take the Helm off again, (as you will hear hereafter.) And being thus set in, then dress the Athanor, and put fire and Coals in it. And by the Instruments (of which we have spoken above:) first give it a gentle fire, and let the flegm go over 9 or 10 beats or times (as before) and when the water or flegm is almost over, then shut all the Instruments on the Athanor, and take off the Helm again, and fill more silvery water through the long Tun­nel, warm into the Bottle, (else it may break and do hurt) and put the Helm on again, and lay the Receiver be­fore, [Page 190] it but lute it not too strong (as at the beginning) and let the water go over again gently.

In this manner 'tis to be done the second and third time with the silvery water; and when you think it be silvery enough in the Bottle, or hast no more to put in, and the flegms are over, then take off the Helm again, and cast into the Bottle (to the Silver or Stuff) a piece of Tallow as big as half a hazel Nut, then the Silver will not ascend in the Bottle, put on the Helm again and lay the Receiver before it, and lute it all over well, and the best thou canst: then let the fire go on the stuff again, and make the fire fiercer (as you see convenient) At last, give it a strong fire, and force the spirits, near 12 hours, pretty well, yet not too high in the beginning, but by degrees increase it, that the spirits may go over with great force, and that the Culb may glow very bright, let it stand in the fire, near two hours▪ that the Silver may almost melt in it, then the spirits will come all into the water, and the Silver freed of them, for if they were not clean forced from the Silver, but remain­ed by it, they would hurt it in the casting together, and draw it away; which may be seen apparently upon the Coals, that there will lye thick leaves upon it: They therefore who are ignorant of this, do many times work with danger, and great loss of Silver.

Section. 2 One may also put the silvery Aqua fort. into the glass Bottle luted over upon the Athanor in deep Sand, and draw the flegm (as now is mentioned) gently over, by which may be seen how it governs it self in the Bot­tle, and how the water decreaseth, and so have more care in putting in more water: finally, the spirits will be forc'd over, and the Silver be glowed out in the Bot­tle, yet the last out-glowing is better to do in my mind, as above in the Athanor.

Section. 3 When the water is thus drawn over, then let all be [Page 191] cold, and take off the Aqua fort. in the Receiver, which you may use again very well to separate, especially to the Gold-proof, and hath no need of further cleansing: then take out the Silver which was left in the Glass, and put it into a Crucible, and cast it together.

Section 4 Some of the Gold-Separators have also this manner in drawing over the water, that they do add to the sil­very Another way to draw over the Water. Aqua fort. in the separating Bottle, if it be six pounds, then one pound of the stuff, of the Aqua fort. (viz. of Nitre, and calcin'd Vitriol, as above is signifi­ed) and do not put it into the Bottle untill the water be almost gone over, and if the spirits begin to go over, they lute it again very diligently, and keep the Fire (as is necessary in burning of the Aqua fort.) that the spi­rits at last may come over too: and yet they do think that the Aqua fortis will receive a virtue and strength again from the added stuff, and is better for use in sepa­rations; then they force the Silver with the Caput Mort. (which yet is but little) into a Crucible, and cast it to­gether: Whether now this way be better than the first? Experience must teach: So then you will have a good and right Instruction concerning the Silver and Gold separation in the vvater; and 'tis a compleat vvay of se­parating; especially if one be provided vvith all things necessary to it.

CHAP. XXXV. How to separate Gold and Silver by Fusion.

Section. 5 How to un­derstand Se­paration by Fusion. AS it is an excellent piece of Art to sepa­pate Gold and Silver (in Aqua fort.) viz. The rich Gold containing Silver; so is also the Separation by Fusion upon the poor Golden Silver, where the Mark contains one peny and an half [Page 192] of Gold, to two or three drams, which is an handsome and profitable separation; so that I know no better way: but upon the rich Goldish Oar, that way is not to be used.

Section. 2 But this separating by Fusion is to be understood thus, That, because the Gold in the poor Content of Goldish Silver is largely distributed, (through the Addition of Gold in the Fusion in a little Silver) it may be brought into a narrowness; namely, as when the Goldish Sil­ver is thirty Mark, and one Mark contains a dram of Gold, then the thirty drams of Gold (which are in the thirty Mark of Silver, will bring in two Marks of Sil­ver, and then separate it in the Aqua fort. which is a very great profit, because that one hath not need to re­fine all the thirty Marks of Silver, and then to separate them in Aqua fort.

Section. 3 If you have a goldish Silver, which is poor of Gold, put it in a Crucible, let it flow, and grain it in the water, and if it be but wrought Silver, and not fine, 'tis no­thing: then weigh the graind Silver, and prove it up­on fine Silver and Gold, how much it contains, that you may keep this Account, that there remaineth no­thing behind on Gold or Silver, and also canst certain­ly know, how much the waste hath been in the Silver by the separation.

Section. 4 After such proving and weighing, make the grain a little wet again, and take to every Mark of Silver, four Loth of yellow small beaten Sulphur, put also the grains wet into a glazed Pot, and put the Sulphur upon it, min­gle it well together, and cover the Pot with a Cover, then lute it well over, and make a gentle fire round about: so that the sulphur may melt on the grains.

When this is done, Let the Pot cool, and break it in pieces, then you will find the grains and the Sulphur burnt very black together, beat it asunder, and take heed [Page 193] that nothing of it spring away. After this put the grains (thus with the Sulphur prepared) into a good Crucible, and upon the Grains put also a Mark of wrought Silver, and half a Loth of Copper; but if it be burnt silver, then take to every Mark two loths of Grain'd Copper, and set the Crucible in a Wind Oven, which is made taper-wise with good and sound Clay under the Iron grate before, towards the wind hole, that if the Crucible should run over, yet the scoria's or dross of all the stuff may flow out of the Oven into the hole under the wind-hole, then there is no need to gather it so largely dispersed; and, that also the Grates may be taken out and laid in again: After such Crucibles are set in, then cover them with an Iron-cover very close, let the stuff flow well, and when 'tis flowed, uncover the Crucible, and stir it well with a glowing Iron hook of a finger thickness, and cast the Silver first down with grained Lead, viz. that you may spread the grain'd Section▪ 5 Lead upon the stuff in the Crucible, in which the Gold will cast it self down with some little silver, then put Precipita­tion, or cast­ing down▪also upon it some of the stuff (as is directed hereafter) and stir it once with the Iron hook, then cover the Cru­cible again with the cover, and let it stand thus a while in the stuff, then uncover it again, and cast it down with grain'd Lead and a little grain'd Copper; do this three times, and always use afterwards of the mentioned fluss; but take notice, if you have in the Crucible 20 Marks of silver, that you may not use of the fluss (to three times casting down) above 10 loths, and one and a half of grain'd Lead, and 4 loths of Copper; for if you should use more, then the silver Regulus might be too great. Now when you have precipitated, or cast it down the third time, let the Crucible stand with the stuff a long time in good fluss, then take it out of the fire, and cool it, and beat it asunder, and of 20 Marks of silver you [Page 194] will find in the bottom, a Regulus of near 6 Marks weight, or something lesser, in which there will be as much Gold, as in 20 Mark of silver.

Section 6 After the finishing of the first running or casting the When the Scoria's con­tains Gold. Metal, then prove if you find the scoria's or dross up­on the Silver, and the Silver upon the Gold, and that if the scoria's doth contain Gold, set it again in a new Crucible, and let it flow, and use your casting with the grain'd Lead and a little Copper (as before) but not so much, unless the scoria's were rich in Gold, and then one useth much of the grain'd Lead and Copper, whereby the silver Regulus will become the greater, and the Gold will come better together; especially observe, that if much Gold be in the silver, then use at first most of the lower casting, that you may precipitate all the Gold, and when you have all the Gold in the two Regulus's, and do find Section. 7 When the Regulus is poor in Gold.that they are still too poor in Gold, that is, if you have not in the same a fourth, or at least a fifth part of Gold, by which the Gold in separating did not remain whole, then set in the Regulus again, grain'd and prepared with sulphur (as at the first time) and put the same ashed grains in a new Crucible, and spread a little Copper upon it, and cover it with fluss, and put a cover upon it, and set it, thus covered, again into the fire in the Wind-oven, and let it flow well, then precipitate it again with grain­ed Lead, and use to every one of the castings the fluss, (hereafter set down) and stir it well about with an Iron hook, now that the silver Regulus be not too great, and not so much (as that you need to separate it in the Aqua fort. in vain,) you may help it with the lower stuff or castings, whether the Regulus be great or small, (as above hath been demonstrated) and so deal also with the remaining scoria's, when such is yet rich in Gold; for by diligent proving one may always perceive whether the Gold be all in the Regulus, or whether some be yet [Page 195] behind in the scoria's, that you may regulate your self accordingly.

When then you have done all things in the Cruciple by precipitating and stirring about, and hast lifted out the Crucible, then cast the stuff out of the Crucible into an iron Morter, luted with Tallow and a thin Clay, and made a little warm (which I judge very good) for in such a casting the Regulus comes clean together; and as soon as this is cast out of the Crucible, then set the Cru­cible quickly in again in the Wind-Oven (especially if the Crucible be good, and, That you may trust to it) Put the stuff out of the Morter, and beat the Regulus from the Scoria's, and presently put the Scoria's in the Cru­cible, let it flow till it doth flow very easily, and cast it down again, and do it as you are instructed at the first, then put it again into the Morter, and cool it; Lastly, when all the Gold is cast down in the Silver-Regulus, then take the Regulus and burn it clean upon a Test, and grain it afterwards, either in the bubling water (as above mentioned) or cast it into an Ingot and beat it thin, then separate it in Aqua fort. as I have taught.

Section. 8 To this separating there doth belong good and sound Crucibles, in which you at once may set in to separare near 50 Marks of silver or more, besides, I have seen a Gold-separator in Saxony, in such a Crucible hath set in, and cast down near an hundred Marks of good burnt Silver, thus prepared with sulphur: But, because it causeth some fear to set in so much at once, therefore I judge it better, especially, if one cannot trust to the Cru­cibles, that one in one Crucible may set in no more than 50 Marks (except it were so much to separate) and then some more Wind-Ovens must be made, and more Cruci­bles be put in.

Section. 9 But for a true Instruction of the Precipitation (with the before given manuduction) know, That it hath this [Page 196] Condition, viz. When there is put (after the former Directions) much Goldish silver with sulphur prepared in a Crucible, and the Gold is cast down with the Lead, Copper and Fluss, then the Gold will precipitate or cast it self from above, so you may with a little glowing draw out of the Crucible some scoria's, but not the half part, then cover the Crucible again, and preciptate it again, and at last put the stuff (as I have mentioned before) in an Iron Morter, by this way, I suppose, that the sco­ria's of the Gold will be clean at once.

Section. 10 I must also further Instruct, That one may use upon Another Way to pre­cipitate at once.the poor Goldish Silver (of which a Mark contains but a Heller or Penny-Gold) this following Method of Separation in the Fusion, first, that one must put into a Crucible of the graind Gold, with sulphur prepar'd as above is taught) near 50 Marks, and let it flow well, then precipitate it with graind Lead, and a little Copper and when the Precipitation is right done, and the sco­ria's with all the stuff cast together with the precipitated Silver, and the Regulus and the Gold put in another hot Crucible, and again out of the same, into the first, and then to cast it into an iron Mould of an Oval form, well wash'd with Clay, and dry'd again, so that it may flow in bredth, and the silver Regulus with the Gold may settle (yet broad and thin) and then you will find, that in such casting that all the Gold will give it self in the silver Regulus at once, and you need not set it in the scoria's again, but it will be clean and free at once: this now is an ingenious Method, though I never used it: because the silver Re­gulus is so often cast through with the scoria's, and doth spread among the scoria's, so that the silver may the better catch the Gold, and take it to it self.

To such casting one must have a singular iron-Instru­ment made on purpose to open and close again with two handles, the same is to be holden with thick wet Gloves [Page 197] on the hands, and poured out to avoid the heat thereof; Every one may consider of this, but, I judge it most convenient, the casting of the Crucible, as followeth.

CHAP. XXXVI. How the Scoria's or dross is to be made to Profit.

Section. 1 The first way. THE remaining silver which in the preci­pitating comes not into the silver Re­gulus, but remains in the scoria's, you may make to profit, and bring it from it; only observe this, If one useth to the precipitation much Copper and little Lead, then the Scoria's will become rich in Copper, therefore to make such good again, requires much Lead: But if you use to it much grain'd Lead and little Cop­per (as hath been taught in my former Instructions) then the Scoria's will become rich in Lead and poor in Cop­per, and the Gold will precipitate never the less (after this manner) into a silvery Regulus, which in the well making of the Scoria's is very profitable, without any great dammage to the Silver.

Therefore make it thus, If the Scoria's be 30 Mark which you would make to advantage, Prepare a very flat Test, of good wash'd Ashes (as I have taught in the first Book of the silver work) set it before the Bellows, that it be not too strong, let it be warm, and then put upon it 15 pounds of clean Lead, blow it gently, and when it begins to drive, then put continually one piece after another of the Scoria's into it, so the Lead takes the Content of it to it self, and the Sulphur is blown off from the Test, also the Scoria's doth not stick so much in the Test, because 'tis poor in Copper: But if there [Page 198] be not enough of Lead, then you may add somewhat more, till all the scoria's be suck'd in: then drive it up­on the Test clean off, so you will find, that not much more than a dram is gone off from the Silver in the sepa­ration.

Section. 2 Another way.Also, one may put again all the Scoria's into a Cruci­ble, and let it flow in a wind-oven, and when 'tis flowed very well, the silver (with filed Iron, or Iron-Scales and grain'd Lead) is to be precipitated, stir it well about, and with the filed Iron follow it so long, till the scoria's doth touch no more the iron Hook, then lift it out of the fire, and let it cool well: In this precipitation (with the Iron) the Sulphur will loose its strength, and lets fall the Silver, and thus with this precipitation the most part of the Silver settles it self in the Crucible, which with the remaining scoria's is easy to be brought to profit, especially because it is rich in Lead.

Now, because I am just come to the scoria's, I must (in kindness to the Reader) mention somewhat of its rare Section. 3 The Scoria's is mallea­ble.nature; for first, When the Scoria's is cast into an In­got, while 'tis yet hot, it may be hammered and beaten, as one pleaseth, like Lead.

Section. 4 Then one may cast figures and medals which will look like glassy Oar, and if one cast forms of it, and turn it over, and lay it upon a gentle coal-fire, till they are warm, then set it over a coal-fire, and the silver will glow out of it, as if it grew in the Myne, and, 'twill look lovely and fair: and this I signify, that any one may use it at their plea­sure, and, like an Artist, know what is to be done there­with.

CHAP. XXXVII. How to make a Fluss for Precipitation.

Section▪ 1 FLUSS is made by taking Litharge, Glass­gall, and melted Salt, of each a like quan­tity, How to make it.small beaten, and filed Iron, and a like quantity of graind Lead, this Fluss or fluible Composition maketh the sco­ria's deft, so that the Gold will settle it self the easier, and precipitate gently, and not suddenly; and if you will use it, you may do it the more safely in the Precipitating with the Graind Lead and Copper, lest the silver Regulus be too great.

Section. 2 So you have a clear Instruction how you shall do Separation in the fluss requires di­ligence.with the Separation in the fluss all in all, which is well to be observed, for it requires a more singular and exact diligence in the Aqua fort. than in other separations, as you will finde.

Section. 3 The use of the Test.Concerning the old used Crucibles and Tests, which come from such separations, they are to be kept toge­ther, for they are not without Silver, and to make such serviceable, set one of the old Crucibles in the Wind-Oven full of Lead, let it drive gently, and lay the pie­ces of the used Crucibles one after another in it, then the Lead will draw all that remains of the Scoria's to it self, and becomes as wash'd: and you may use the same Lead, in stead of other Lead, or add but a little of it upon the Test, and then you may make it be profitable; for the more you keep all things together the less is the dammage of the Silver: but all is to be swept together, and wash'd at once alike, and then melted for your advan­tage.

[Page 200] Section. 4 And, when in this Separation a Crucible runs out, (as it oft hapneth) then is this stuff and scoria's (because 'tis heavy, and remains in the water) like another Silver to be search'd and found out. But, that you may see the Wind-Ovens (with all the appertaining Instruments and Vessels to this Labour severally formed) I have in the following Sculpture for this end delineated them.

Sculpture XXV.
  • 1. The inward part of the Wind-Oven.
  • 2. The outward part prepared.
  • [Page 201] 3. The holes next the wind-holes.
  • 4. The Pot in which the Sulphur and graind-Mettals are prepared, with a fire under it, and a person attend­ing it.
  • 5. A single Crucible, and a cover to it. 5. 5.
  • 6. The iron Tongs, by which Crucibles are put in, and taken out of the fire.
  • 7. The Instrument in which the Crucibles are to be set.
  • 8. The iron Vessel into which the stuff or melted matter is to be cast.
  • 9. The person attending the Wind-ovens.

CHAP. XXXVIII. How to make good and sound Crucibles for separating the Fluss.

Section. 1 BECAUSE there must be good and sound Crucibles to the Separation in the Fluss, therefore I will give here a little Instruction how they are to be made: The chief and that of most concernment is good Clay, that holdeth well in the fire, of which may be made good Crucibles. When you have such Clay, let it be well dryed in Section. 2 the Sun, beat it small, and sift it through an hair sieve, put among it the tenth part of small beaten flint-stones, which is burnt and wash'd: and half so much small ground Chalk, or in stead of that Glimer or Tallow, or in stead of these burnt Water-flints small grownd, min­gle all these well together, and moisten it a little; work it well together with your Feet, and after with your Hands: then take smooth pieces of Pear-tree, or other strong wood, suitable to the bigness of the Cruci­bles; [Page 202] which may be taken in two parts asunder, on which may be laid two iron Rings or moulds, beat and press the Crucibles into the same, but let the upper part of the Cru­cible be first well oyl'd over, that it may the better go out. After the preparation of the Crucible, let it be dry in the Frame, then the Crucible will go out whole, for if the lower part be oyl'd, then the wet Crucible might with the upper part, lift up it self out of the frame, and hardly remain whole; or, take one part of Potters clay, a fourth part of good Clay, and a fourth part of the above mentioned flind-stones: but you must observe whether the stuff or Clay be too fat or dry, and those Portions which you take unto it, and so you will have good Crucibles which will not fail.

Section. 3 Some use Crucibles having three feet, below, upon which stand the Ovens, and need not be set upon a foot of the Crucible; such Crucibles I much esteem of, for the heat may easily come without hindrance of the thick bottom, that the Silver or Mettal in it, may become sooner hot, than in such Crucibles which must be set upon a thick foot, they stand also and hold better and longer in the fire than they which are set upon particular feet of Crucibles, especially when the feet, as well as the Ashes of the Crucible are not so very dry, then it draw­eth the bottom of the Crucible, and the Moistness to it self, and cracketh it very easily, and by this may be seen that out of a common three-footed pot (used for boyling and casting Copper and Brass) in an hour and a half you may alwayes make warm and cast a Fluss of 12 pounds in a Wind-Oven; yea, one may well cast some Fluss out of it, especially, if one have tongs to it, to lift the Pot out of the Fire. I was willing to mention this as an Instruction, and the form of such Crucibles you will find in the following Sculpture.

[Page 203]

Sculpture XXVI.
  • 1. The lower part of the frame of a Press, for making Crucibles.
  • 2. The shape of the whole Press, and how the Crucibles are to be forc'd under it.
  • 3. The iron-Rings or Hoops about the Frame.
  • 4. The shape of Crucibles to be made in the Press.
  • 5. The Handle by which the Screw of the Press is to be turned.

CHAP. XXXIX. Of Cementing, and what it is.

Section. 1 CEMENTING is a singular fine ART through which one may draw and se­parate from the Gold, Silver, Copper, Brass, and other Metals, by a moist­ned Pouder, that the Gold may remain separated from its Addition and Allay: But 'tis only to be used to such Golds which are not much more than half Gold, for if the Silver and Copper be more than the Gold, to this the other Separations are better, and 'tis done with the same in a shorter time, and with less labour and expence: and according as the Gold is rich or poor, the Cements is likewise to be pre­pared.

Section. 2 But to Cement there appertains such stuffs and matter as will work upon the Silver and Copper, because of their sharpness, and consume them as a sharp Salt species, a­mong which is to be taken Verdigrise, calcin'd Brass, and such like, that they may give a fine and grateful colour to the Gold, or else Lapidem Haematitem, Crocum Mar­tis, Tutiam, or calcined Vitriol; which Ingredients, how to be put into the Cement, is left to every ones Liber­ty, but he must observe, that he take nothing which is contrary to the Gold, or that may make it unclean and do hurt. The Pouder of Tile is to be used in the Ce­ment, that it may attract what the other Ingredients do scarify, and loosen, as Silver and Copper from the Gold with their sharpness and moistness, which else would stick and hang about the Gold, whereupon the Gold becomes fine and clean.

[Page 205] Therefore I have set down some Cements which I have used and found very good; But, because in this Art of Cementing there is necessary a particular Oven, which holdeth fire long, therefore I shall first mention how it is to be made, with its Form.

CHAP. XL. How the cover'd Oven for Cement is to be made.

Section. 1 IF one hath much to Cement, there is no better way, than to prepare such an Oven as in the following Sculpture; and although there may be other Cement Ovens, yet I conceive that this is the most profitable; for it will hold about 24 hours such a continual fire, that there needs not any attending of it, and it is done thus: Make a square of Tile-stones, the inside an Ell wide, and an Ell­high, to the edge (where the Oven is to be tapering) and then from the same edge to the Tower of the Atha­nor is to go half an Ell high, and that the Tower of the Athanor be an Ell and a half or two Ells high, and the inside an Ell and half wide, and so the whole Oven three Ells, or three and a half high, and there must be on the foreside of the Oven two Mouth-holes, the lower a third part of an Ell long, and a sixth part of an Ell high, through which the wind may go, but the upper an Ell and half a quarter wide, and so high; and by the same Mouth-hole there must lye (in the inside of the Oven) an iron Grate, with an edge, as in the next Sculpture mar­ked with Figure 3. and out of the same Grate, before the Mouth-hole in the Oven, an earthen plate upon which a Muffle as high as the Mouth-hole is to be placed, and then [Page 206] under it the prepared Cement comes to stand pure and clean, or else the Pot with the prepared Cement is to be set in it without the Muffle: you must also make four smoak-holes upon every side one, as in the next Scul­pture at figure 4.

Section. 2 Now, if you will Cement in the Oven, and the Ce­ment Concerning the Cement oven.is set in, then put in above in the Athanor (or Tower) live Coals, and fill it after with dead Coals; then cover it so as no Air may go out of it, one­ly leave the Mouth-hole open (marked with the Fi­gure 1.) and the air of smoak-hole, (noted with figure 2.) that the fire may begin, and have air; then shut all the other air or wind-holes close, and let open only the uppermost hole of the Tower near the cover (noted with figure 5.) About the bigness of a little finger, that the Cement be not too hot, and not to suffer any dammage.

Section. 3 In such an Oven you may keep a Fire 24 hours, (as abovesaid) that there needs not much waiting on it, nor casting fresh Coals into it, for the Coals in the A­thanor will follow one another, and keep the fire all the time in due heat (as you please). But if there be cause to continue the heat longer than 24 hours, then put more Coals into the Athanor, and so keep the fire as long as is needful.

Section. 4 Now, concerning the Cement ovens which have been used formerly, those I leave in their esteem; and when you have try'd both, the Difference will be found.

Section. 5 But if one cannot quickly have such an Oven to the Cementing, then put the prepared Cement between Tile-stones in a clean Coal-fire, and let it glow its time (as hereafter) but so that it may not melt. Thus, you may do all the cementing: but be diligent, and careful of the coals: Now the form of the cement Ovens may be seen in the Sculpture following.

[Page 207]

Sculpture XXVII.
  • 1. The Athanor and lower Mouth-hole.
  • 2. The upper Mouth-hole.
  • 3. The Edge upon which the iron Plate doth lye on the iron Grates.
  • 4. The Registers or Air-holes above the Grates.
  • 5. The little air-holes near the top of the Athanor.
  • 6. The stopples for the Registers or air-holes.
  • [Page 208] 7. A Test fitted for the Athanor.
  • 8. 9. Cement Pots.
  • 10. An hook to stir the Coals.
  • 11. A person that attends the Furnace and works.

CHAP. XLI. How Rhenish Gold is to be Cemented.

Section. 1 How to pre­pare it. RHENISH Gold (to cement it either in Ingot or Plate) must be beaten thin, (the thinner the better) and cut it in littles pieces, as broad as Crowns. But if it be Rhenish Gilders which you would have cemented and clean, then beat them a little thinner, but if there be not much need of that, then beat them whole: Upon such beaten Gold, or Gold Gilders the Cementing is to be done thus, Take Section. 2 The first Ce­ment Pou­der.16 Loths of powder of an old dry Tile (not too hard burnt, neither too sandy) then 8 Loths of Salt, and 4 Loths of white Vitriol, grind these Ingredients all toge­ther small, and moisten them with Ʋrine or sharp Vi­negar, like Copel Ashes, so is the Cement powder pre­pared.

Then take that which you intend to cement, glow it first in the fire, and let it be cool, then spread some of the Powder in a Test or Pot, which is to be of an equal wide­ness, a finger thick, and lay the Gold (which you must first moisten in urine or vinegar) upon the cement Powder, one piece near the other, as broad as the Test, then spread upon it again some of the moistned Cement Pouder half a finger thick, and upon it (as now is mention'd) the urine moistned Gold, lay one lay upon another, until the Test [Page 209] or Pot be full, cover it over with the Cement pouder the thickness of one's Finger, that one may see the Gold: then put over it another Test, or cover very well luted, that no vapour or spirits may go out; then set the Test (or Pot) with the Gold, and cement, thus prepared, in a Cement Oven: and observe, that it may stand in like heat 24 hours, and glow brown, that the Gold may not flow in the cement (to prevent Dammage) for, if it should flow in the Cement, then the Silver and Cop­per which the Cement hath extracted, may suck in the Gold again, and thereby all pains of beating and Cemen­ting will be in vain.

Section. 3 Now, when the Gold hath stood in the Cement 24 hours, then shut the Oven every where, and let it be This second Cement.cool, then take it out and open it, and wash the Cement Pouder off with warm water, then the Gold will be found very near 23 Carats on the Content; and if you will have it higher Gold, then do the Gold over again with another singular fresh Cement (to which take 16 loths of Tile-pouder, and 8 Loths of Salt, and 4 loths of white Vitriol, one loth of Salt-petre, and one loth of Verdigrise) and let it cement again (as before) 24 hours, do this till the Gold is very clean, and high to your de­light: It is done well in a few hours, but when you have spare time, let it stand the 24 hours, 'tis then bet­ter and surer; But, how much properly every Cement makes the Gold better, the proof will shew.

Section. 4 To cement Rhenish Gil­ders whole.If one lay Rhenish Guilders whole in the Cement, and cement it, then there will not only come silver off from it, and Copper, but it will come to be of the Content of the Hungarish Gold, yet they retain their Impression and Cir­cumscription, only they become lighter as much as Cop­per and Silver have been in them: in this manner is to be cleansed through the Cement, a light Gold, in an Hun­garish Content: only observe, if you have according to [Page 210] XLIII your pleasure made it higher through the Cement, then you must boil the cemented Gold at last in clear water or lye, until all the sharpness come off from it, so it will become cleaner, than by washing only.

This you must do with all Cements, so you will re­ceive Gold as high as your desire is.

CHAP. XLII. Another Cement upon light or mean Gold.

Section. 1 UPON light Gold alwayes the first Ce­ment must be made of two parts of the pouder of Tyle, and one part Hunga­rish, or other Salt; but to the other shall be taken two Ingredients, viz. of Virdigrise, Lapis Haematites and calci­ned Vitriol, as much of the one as the other, and Ʋrine boiled very dry and small beaten, thus the Gold will become high and fine.

CHAP. XLIII. A good Common Cement for all Golds▪

Section. 1 The Ingre­dients. TAKE fourteen loths of Tyle-powder, 4 loths of Haematites, one loth of Cro­cum Martis, one loth of Verdigrise, six loths of white Vitriol, and three loths of Salt-petre; Grind them all small, and the Gold with Ʋrine moistned, and as before after the first Cement, to be cemented, and it gives a very fine Gold: Some use among this and other [Page 211] Cements, Antimony and Sal Gemmae, this is left to every ones freedom: but Reason tells us, That if one cement the Gold right, as it may be, with 2, 3 or 4 of those Ingredients, and, that it is not needful to take above 7 or 8 of them, for, I have found it so: But, if you will do something more for the Graduation sake, it may be done, for it is certain, That every Gold which is very clean and high, brings his right Gold-Graduation and fine natural right Gold-colour with it self, but one may give the Gold (besides this) a high colour, that it may ex­cell with this colour all other high Golds. But in my Judgment, the same looks not so lovely, as a Gold which hath with it self a high fine Colour.

CHAP. XLIV. More Instructions for Cementing.

Section▪ 1 WHEN the Gold is cemented, and almost clean then some do use this Method, The Compo­sition.they put the same Cemented Gold into an other Cement made of four parts of the Pouder of Tile, one part of Sal Armo­niack, one part of Sal Gemmae, and one of Salt, all small ground together, and the Gold moistned in Ʋrine, and put it into a Cement Test (lited as above) and clarified 12 hours: until the Gold becomes very clean: But why they use Sal Armoniack among it (which useth to touch the Gold) I cannot tell: therefore know, That it will not do it raw, especially when 'tis mingled with the watery Salt, (as here) but it purifieth rather that no other Metal (which is made loose of the other Ce­ment, and yet partly doth hang on it, and in it) may remain.

[Page 212] Section. 2 Then some when they have much to cement, and yet are not willing to beat the Gold thin, they put it in a ▪Another way.Crucible, and grain it in a water, and when it falleth thin and hollow, (as is mentioned in the silver work) they mingle such Grains with the cement Powder, and cover it also with it, that the graind Gold be not seen, and set it in, as they have done with the Ce­ment before, and when it hath stood its hours, they make the Grain clean from the cement Pouder by washing it with warm water, and set it in again, with the fresh ce­ment-Powder. But because the Grains cannot fall all alike thin in casting, but some are thicker than others, which the cement cannot quite bite through, like the thin Grains, and then they grain it (when it hath been twice thus in the Cement) once more, then it will come among the other again, and the cement will work the better, and purify the Gold.

Section▪ 3 This manner of cementing is best upon the light brickle To cement the brickle Gold. Gold, which suffers not it self to be beaten. And though the Gold must be graind once or twice (yet tis better, first to make the Gold deft with much pains) and then to beat it thin: Therefore when the brickle grains are set in, once, four or six times, and hath stood in the cement, and is become clean, and of an high content, to thy de­sire, then is it deft enough: For all Brittleness and un­cleanness of Tin or Brass the cement draws out of the Gold; And the Copper and Brass is much sooner and better drawn out of the Gold, through the cement than the silver. In this cement the Gold suffers a great dam­mage, for the silvers will still contain the Gold which is melted out of the cements.

Section. 4 Another manner.One might also cast the clear or light Gold in thin leaf's (like as is usual in the coin-works in casting of small Mo­ney) and then to lay the cast Ingots in the cement in pieces, which when they are cemented twice, and so [Page 213] become more deft, then one may beat them a little thinner, and cement them, and follow them with beating and ce­menting till the Gold becom's very deft, and so you may beat it thin, and then it will become high enough in the Content. By this way the Gold may be better holden together, and the Graind may be brought out of the Ce­ment; and will not go into the Gold, nor will any Gold come into the Cement.

When the Gold is thus made pure by the Cement and brought upon the Content, as one would have it, then make it clean from the Cement (as above) and do a Crucible over with Borax, put the Gold in it, and let it flow, force it off from the Bellows or in a wind-Oven, untill it appear very bright, and holdeth the blow, so is it deft, then lay a paper anointed with Wax or Tallow upon it, and while it yet burneth, cast it in an Ingot▪ which is done over with Wax, and is warm, then quench the Gold in Ʋrine, so you will have fine Gold and deft Gold.

5 You may also be instructed, if you have quite done cementing, and hast much of the used Cements in which To bring the Cement to profit▪is the Silver, and Addition which hath been in Gold, then melt the same Cement with other sweepings which is not Goldish through a melt Oven, and bring it to pro­fit, so that the Silver which the Cement hath suck'd in out of the Gold may be made again to profit, for the Ce­ment takes no Gold to it.

Section. 6 But, as for the Cement of which the Philosophers and Alchimists do write, by which one may change Cop­per Philoso­phick Ce­ments.into Silver, and Silver into Gold, those I leave to their worth, for such belong not to these Cements. For in my Books I write nothing else, but what is natural and approved, upon which one may trust, and not labour up­on a vain hope.

CHAP. XLV. How to graduate Gold.

Section. 1 The first way. GRADUATING Gold (that is to give the Gold a higher Colour above its fine natural Colour, to become more red, its right high Gold colour) is to be done thus: take good Rhenish Gold, add to it as much fine Copper, cast it together, beat it thin, and cement it off again that it may have its first Gold-weight, then set to the Gold, and so much pure Copper again, and cast it together, beat it thin again and cement it the second time, and so do untill the Colour pleaseth thee: By this Process, some think the Gold may come to such an high Colour, that it will exceed the Copper in colour, if it were thus cast 30 times with the Copper, and cemented off again, only that one must use the Cement (written hereafter) which is much better than a common Cement: namely, Take the Pouder of Tile which is well dryed in the Sun, and com­mon Section. 2 A very good Ce­ment. Salt once dissolved through the Filtre, purified and once glowed, make out of every one, a part of small powder searsed through a hair fieve, and then put in Ro­man Vitriol, first rubified, as followeth: Take good red Vinegar distilled through an Alimbeck, and in this dissolve the Vitriol, and purify it through a Filtre, fair and clear, and let it evaporate upon warm Ashes till you find it fair, then put it in a new Pot, set it betwixt Coals, and stir it about with a little wooden stick, till it becomes blood Red, let it be cool, and grind it small, and then 'tis rubified: also take Verdigrise, and dissolve it in distilled Vinegar, and distill it by Filtration, and let it [Page 215] evaporate, and glow it, as you have done with the Vi­triol: Take also so much Sal Armoniack, dissolved in red Vinegar: and of these now mentioned powders, take of one so much as of the other, mingle them well, and sprinkle them with the Vinegar wherein the Sal Ar­moniack was dissolved, so is the Cement prepared.

Section. 3 Some do write, That one may mingle the Gold with the Copper, alike in weight, and then to cast it through Another Sort. Antimony, and then blow it off and purify it, and again with the Copper, and so mingle and cast it through so often till the Gold receives thy desired high Colour: I believe also, That if one can have good Antimony, that it will give the Gold an higher Colour.

Section. 4 But the common Graduations may be done thus, That one may make a Powder of two parts Copper, and one part of Sulphur; Calcine them together till no blew flame goes off them, so you have a Graduation Powder, grind it: and when this Powder is used, the Gold will be of a little lighter Content.

Section. 5 How the Gold smiths may Gild.Of such high Graduated Gold, and how to be used, many of the Philosophers do write, but 'tis nothing to this, for in my Judgment, when 'tis indifferently brought high, it may be most convenient for the Goldsmiths to use for guilding, that they may reach the further with it, because of the Colour, yet it is free to every one to make Experience of it.

CHAP. XLVI. How to make brickle Gold, deft.

Section. 1 THIS Labour hath formerly been esteem­ed a singular Art of the Coin-workers and Goldsmiths and other Gold-workers, and indeed it is a fine and useful Art, not to every one known, and is necessary to be know to all Goldsmiths: For there are several wayes to make the Gold deft, only one is more easy and better than the other. And I will here shew some wayes, which partly I have tryed my self, and out of which every one, according to his occasion may take Instruction, to use that which will be most con­venient for him.

Section. 2 Hungarish Crowns or Rhenish Gold.When you have the brickle Gold (it may be Hun­gurian Crowns or Rhenish Gold) and wouldst make it deft, then do it thus: First, Cast the brickle Gold into an Ingot, then put it in a Crucible in a coyn'd Oven or be­fore the Bellows, and give it a strong fire, and observe when the Gold sweateth, and will soon flow: Then cast good purified Salt petre upon it, so the Gold will Salt Petre.burn, because of the Salt petre, and quickly flow, and as soon as it flows, then the Salt petre will quite cover the Gold, then you must not drive it hard, so as you may not see the Gold under the Salt Petre, but pour it out under it, into an Ingot, luted with Wax, so is it Deft; Calx viva.some use among the Salt Petre, Calx Viva, it doth the same, and the Gold becommeth deft.

But if it should be neglected, that the Gold in the set­ling in, might flow in the Crucible, before the Salt Petre were cast upon it, then pour it out again into an Ingot, [Page 217] and put it in again, for else it will not be smooth and deft although you do cast much Salt Petre upon it; but if the Gold (as in the Rhenish Gold sometimes hapneth) were not too brittle, that it at once doth not become very deft, then put it in the second time, and it will become deft, although there may be Brass in it.

Section. 6 You may know also, That when the Gold shall be driven too hard with the Salt Petre, and that it appear­eth and may be seen under the Salt Petre, then it is not deft, for the brittleness driveth it self again out of the Salt Petre into the Gold, therefore 'tis to be observed, That the Salt Petre be cast upon it in the right time, and also the Gold cast out again, in the right time, and so you will have deft Gold▪

CHAP. XLVII. Another way to make Gold, Deft.

Section. 1 By a flat Test. CONCERNING the good Gold, or of Hungarish Content, if the same be brickle, then take a flat Test, made for it on pur­pose, that the Gold may have room up­on it, Lute it over with pure Littarge, and set the Gold upon it (yet you must not set in it, at once, above two Mark) and set the Test with the Gold before the Bellows, and drive it; But if it will not endure the blowing, then add a little Ball of good clean Lead, and drive it again, until it will endure the Bellows and become deft, then put it in a Crucible, and cast it into an Ingot, and quench it in Ʋrine, and so the Gold will be deft, one may also cause the Gold to [Page 218] flow with fresh coals, upon a flat Test, and then drive it, and this also doth well.

Section. 2 To bring the Gold clean out of the Crucible.But if you will cast such Gold (if it be good or light) out of the Crucible on a Plate, then take a Paper, and dawb it over with Wax and Venetian Soap, cast a little piece upon it, and while it yet burns, lift the Cruci­ble off, and cast the Gold out under the flames, and so it will remain warm and have no scum, and cast it self clean, that nothing may remain hanging on the Crucible.

Section. 3 When the Gold is brickle by an evil Vapor.If a good or Hungarian Gold becoms brickle, because of an unclean Fire or bad smoak, then it may also be made deft, upon a flat Test, with the Bellows, or one may, when 'tis cast into an Ingot, lay in one of the before written Cement Pouders, an hour or two, and so it will become deft.

Or melt it with good Venetian Borax, and drive it before the Bellows, till it endureth the blowing, or in de­fect of all these Ingredients, if a Gold be only brickle by an evil smoak, then make it deft with Venetian Soap, and let the Venetian Soap burn upon the Test, then there will remain a gray Pouder, which you may use instead of the Borax, and so the Gold may be cast clean.

Section. 4 Some also cast upon the Brickle Gold in the Fluss, Mercurium Sublima­tum. Mercurium Sublimatum, and blow the Gold with it, and it will be deft (which is a good way) others on the con­trary use yellow Sulphur, but the Gold must be cast out soon after it, or take Antimony, and cause it to flow in a Crucible, and when it is flowing, then they cast as much Section. 5 Sulphur, Antimony, Glass. Sulphur and Argol in it, and let it stand so long in the fire, till it becoms a Glass, and with this Glass the brittle Gold is to be driven deft.

Section. 6 Some of the Goldsmiths use a Pouder, made of Brass calcin'd and Verdigrease, but it should not be so, for both these species are Metallish and go in the Gold, by which it becomes higher or meaner.

Section. 1 CHAP. XLVIII. How to make Gold Deft upon the Copel.

WHEN you have good Gold, set it with Lead upon a Copel, and let it be very hot that it may stand pure and clean up­on the Copel, but before it hardens upon it, put it with the Tongs gently on the Copel, that the Gold may simper and qui­ver; do this till it becoms hard and standeth still, then 'tis deft, but if it harden upon the Copel, before it be mo­ved, then 'tis not deft, but all such Gold receives a pale colour of the Lead.

Section. 2 And although many other Ingredients do make the Gold Deft, which are often used of many, yet I will not set them down (for brevity sake) but leave it to every ones freedom, to follow mine or their own Instructions, only I desire they would dilligently observe my meaning, not only in this, but in all my Books, and not neglect Section. 3 Alterationsthe Work it self, then I hope they will find it right, as they desire, and the Work will judge it self. For such a thing cannot well be so pictured on paper, as thereby to judge and comprehend all out of the writing, but by read­ing Instruction comes, and by Practice the Experi­ence.

CHAP. XLIX. How to cast Gold through Antimony.

Section. 1 Through fine Gold. IT is an old Invention to cast Gold through Antimony, so that the Gold by it may be made very clean and fine, and therefore, they have supposed, this to be the only means, and none else besides, by which such may be done. Now this is true (when the Antimony is good) that the Gold may be brought out very high, and almost fine out of the same, so that it will become the finest Gold that is, and no Cement can be made like it. But be­cause Antimony is not all alike good, but some much better than the other, therefore the Gold becomes some finer than the other: so it is not well to trust to this, that the Gold should alwaies come out sure and very clean. And although the casting through Antimony be used sometimes upon many Marks of Gold, yet 'tis not taught so, that all such with it may be brought out very fine, and upon the highest Content, but it may satisfy, if it be brought in the quan­tity, upon the Content of good Duccats, for by the higher driving, the Antimony comes into the Gold, and without a singular Care in purifying of it, it goeth much more off, than by Cementing; therefore the best casting through is upon a little Gold (to bring such almost very fine and to the highest) which is done thus, If the con­tent of the Gold be of 16, 17, 18 or 20 Carats, and you would make it very pure and fine, then take one part of the Gold (if it be of a pretty rich Content) and two parts of good clean Antimony (because the clean [Page 221] Gold is sooner to be cast through) put it together in a a Crucible, blow it, let it flow, and when well flown to­gether, then pour it into a warm Cup, made of Iron or Brass, and greased with Tallow or Wax, let the Antimony and the Gold be cool in it, then you must turn the Cup, and dash it upon a stone, whereby the Antimony may go together with the Regulus (which hath setled be­low and looks of a gray-yellow colour) and be easily beaten out.) But that you may bring the Gold upon the highest Content, cast such Regulus once or twice more with fresh Antimony, and at all times into the Cup, after set the Regulus upon a flat Test in the fire, blow to it, and it will melt quickly, but blow with the Bellows very gently, so that it may just blow upon the Gold in the Test, and do this until the Antimony be evaporated, again very clean from the Gold, and that the Gold do endure the blowing well, and becomes deft, then let it be cool, and quench it in Ʋrine, cast it then to thy pleasure, so you have very fine and high Gold, which is judged fine Gold.

Section. 2 To cast through poor Gold.But if the Gold be poor upon the Content, or very light, then take more of the Antimony, and add to a Mark of Antimony 4 Loths of Sulphur, and cast the Gold through with it, as hath been said, and put in the Regulus with fresh Antimony, the second and third time without the Sulphur: Lastly, drive it upon the Test, that the Gold may become very clean: you may also take to such casting through, upon every Mark of Gold, 4 Loths of Copper or scales of Copper, so it will re­ceive a fine colour from it, but when you take Copper to it then take the more Antimony that it may consume it and the Addition.

Section. 3 Another upon light Gold.Some use to the casting of light Gold, which containeth of it, from 12 to 18 carats, a singular Powder of one part Sulphur the other Antimony, and one part of prepared [Page 222] Caput Mort. and take to it of Mark Gold, 12 Loths: let it flow well together, then cast it into the Cup, and beat the Regulus from the slacks, and cast it with half so much Antimony again twice or thrice, then drive it upon a Test, so you have good high Gold.

Now, how the Cup, Ingot and other Instruments to the casting through are to be formed, the follow­ing Sculpture will shew.

Sculpture XXVIII.
  • 1. The Form of the Common Cup, cast in Brass.
  • 2. A Cup made of Smiths work.
  • 3. A Crucible for the Work.
  • 4. A flat Test for it.
  • 5. The Ingot.
  • 6. The Plates.
  • [Page 223] 7. Of Antimony with a Gold Regulus.
  • 8. Of Antimony when the Gold Regulus is beaten from it.

Section 7 To lay t [...] Gold whic [...] is cast through the Cement.When the Gold which is come out of the casting through, is blown clean, yet it may retain a smack of the Antimony: to prevent this: Beat the Gold very thin, lay it in a particular Cement made on purpose, as is men­tioned in the Description of the Cements: Let it stand some hours in it, so it will extract such also, and becomes clean.

CHAP. L. How the Blick or light Gold, containing much Silver, is to be separated.

THE Silvery rich Gold, especially that which comes of from melting, of which a Mark contains from 9, to above 12 Carats off fine Gold, this is to be separa­ted thus: Grain it in a boyling Wa­ter (as above is said of the fine, thin and even Silver) then prove it, so as it hath a like Content, then take the Grain'd and moisten it with water, and take to every Mark (of the above-mentioned Pouders) 12 loths, of good yellow Sulphur, and mingle it with them, and put it in to a glazed Pot, luted with a cover, and make a fire round about it, till the Pouder on the grain'd be well flown; let it cool, then beat the Pot in pieces, then take and put the grain'd into a Crucible, set it in a Wind-Oven, let it flow very well, and cast upon it a little ground Sandover, mingled with grain'd Lead, let it stand a little longer, then pour it into a warm luted Iron Mor­ter, [Page 224] and if much of it setleth to a Regulus on the bot­tom, and the Silver becomes a scorias, then beat it off from the Gold Regulus, which will be yellow and gray, but because the Silver of the first Fluss, will not all come into the scorias, therefore grain the Gold once more, and prepare it with the Pouder, and let it flow, and pour it again into the Morter; Lastly, take the Gold, and cast it through only with the Antimony, blow that which is cast through upon a Test, and cast it clean, so you will have good and Deft Gold; This casting through, is a way if one have need of the Gold in hast, else there are other and better ways, namely, when the Gold is cast once or twice with Sulphur, that it may be driven deft, and then cast into an Ingot, then beaten thin and cement­ed, whereby not so much will go off from the Gold, but it requires greater time.

Section. 2 To cast the used Anti­mony.The used Antimony, through which you have cast at last the Gold, retain singly, and put it again in a Cru­cible, and let it flow well, and add to it filed Iron, so much, that the stirring-hook with which you stir it about, may no more be touched, so the Antimony, eats it self Section. 3 T [...]e Iron [...]s the virtue of the Anti­mony.weak on the Iron, (which it doth easily touch) and doth let the Silver and Gold fall, as much as it hath with it, then pour it into a Morter, and according to the quantity, the Regulus will settle it self on the bottom, this retain singly or apart.

Section. 4 To beat down (through casting) the Scorias.The scorias which is come from the first casting (as a­bove is mentioned) put likewise into a Crucible, and beat down the Silver in it with grain'd Lead and filed Iron, as long until the scorias, with the Iron Hook (that stir▪reth it about) toucheth no more, by this time, almost all the Silver will fall down, and of this Silver, retain also a part.

The remaining scorias with the Antimony, which is left out of the Silver and Gold, (as now signified) be­ing [Page 225] precipitated; take them together and put the Lead upon a Flat Test, or in an unglazed Clay Dish, set two of them within one another, and when it is entred, then let it go off upon a Test (as is usual) and observe when the entred Lead begins to drive upon the Test and goes clean, then put the Silver Regulus (which is fallen out of the scorias) upon a Test, that it also may go off clean, and then this Silver Proof upon Gold, will shew how rich it is in Gold; also prove the Regulus, which is fallen out of the Antimony upon Gold. If now the same Re­gulus, (which before by it self is to be burnt upon a Test) be not very rich in Gold, then put it also among the Sil­ver, and separate it apart in Aqua fort. and you will hard­ly find a nearer way to make such Gold clean: and al­though this Instruction looketh as if there were an Ambi­guous way, yet it is not; but when one is in work, then it goeth soon to an end; for the Gold, thus with the Sul­phur and Antimony prepared, floweth easily, and thereby many castings may be done in a day, or in half a day▪ yet every one may require a consideration, how the best is to be done.

CHAP. LI. How to separate the used Antimony▪

Section. 1 To Refine Antimony. IN regard that the burnt Antimony keep­eth back somewhat of Gold, yet there re­mains Gold and Silver in it, now to bring this clean out of it (which is called to refine the Antimony) do it thus: Put the used Antimony together, in a Crucible, and if it be a pound, then add 4 Loths of filed [Page 226] Iron, 1 Loth of Copper, 4 Loths of Lead, and 4 Loths of Littarge to it, let it flow well together, then cast it into a Cup, or let it cool in the Crucible, then set the Antimony again in the Crucible, and beat it down with a little grain'd Lead and Littarge, and cast upon it Section. 2 To precipi­tate it. melted Salt; let it stand well in the Glass, and cast it into the Cup, then drive off the Regulus which cometh out of it, upon a Test, then you will receive the Gold and Sil­ver, as much as the Antimony had retained; this you may cast once more through with fresh Antimony, and so the Gold will come out, yet the Antimony will re­tain still some of the Gold, (which comes in the Silver, made out of the Antimony) and this is to be separated in the Aqua fort. and if it be too rich in Gold, then must be added to it, fine Silver, that the Water may touch it.

Section. 3 But some do use the parting of the Antimony thus, they take a part of Antimony and one part of Vitriol, one part of grain'd Lead, one part of Salt Petre, three quarters of filed Iron, and a little Copper, and this they put into a Test, and let it evaporate, so there will remain a­mong them another mixt matter, to this they add (ac­cording to the quantity of the Antimony) more fresh Lead, and boyl it clean up, then drive the Lead off upon the Test, and so will it find in it self the Silver and Gold, which the Antimony hath had by it self.

Section. 4 Rich Anti­mony.When the Antimony is very Rich in Gold and Sil­ver, then may it be made pure, as followeth (and it is the best cleansing, only that it taketh much labour and some­what longer time) Take the Antimony, put it upon a Test, let it flow well, and add to it filed Iron, and stir it about always with an Iron, and cast as much of the filed Iron into it, until the Iron, with which you stir it, touch no more the Antimony (as before mentioned) which is then very easy to be seen; then add to the same Anti­mony, [Page 227] Lead, and boyl it clean up, by this addition of the Iron, the wildness is taken away from the Antimony, so that then (which is very easily boyled up) it will go clean off upon the Test, and will not work upon the Test, which is a good way.

CHAP. LII. How Gold may be made fine and clean through Aqua Regis.

BECAUSE the Aqua Regis toucheth on­ly the Gold and not the Silver, therefore I judge the Gold may be made purest and finest by this way. Take good high Gold, set it upon a good Test, made on purpose for it) let it go off upon it, with clean Lead, that you may be sure no Copper remains in it, then blow the Gold upon the Test, unless it become deft, then beat it thin, glow it, and then put it in a good and well luted Glass Bottle, pour upon it Aqua Regis, and dissolve all the Gold, and what will not dissolve but remain in the bottom of the Glass, that is no Gold; then pour the Aqua Regis (in which the dissolved Gold is,) clean off, and put it in another glass Bottle, and draw the water from it, then the Gold will remain in the glass Bottle; cast it together and blow it clean, and this Gold thus prepared may be judged, as fine Gold, because the Aqua Regis toucheth nothing but Gold and Copper, and if the Gold be first made clean from the Copper, upon the Test, then can nothing else but [Page 228] pure Gold come out of the Aqua Regis, but how much good Aqua Regis (as I have said) is to be made, of this, you have been sufficiently instructed before.

Thus much Courteous READER, I was willing to describe of the Gold Oars and their Labour, as a furtherance to Experience, and for the use of common Mine-Workers, and yong As­sayers, and so leave it to further Considera­tion.

The END of the second Book.


CHAP. I. How to know Copper Oars.

Section. 1 THIS Third Book describeth Copper Oars, and how they are to be known, The Purpose of this Book.and then how to assay them, as also of the Black Copper; and lastly, how the pure Copper is to be tryed, and also how after the High Dutch and Hunga­an manner the Silver is to be refined out of Copper, with Instructions annexed of a singular new way to refine Copper, and how Brass is to be made out of Copper, and how white Iron may be made Copper.

Section. 2 Now, Copper Oars are more easily to be known than Coper Oars yield fine Colours.any other metallick Oars, as having in them varieties of Colours, so that many more delicate colours come out of them then from any other metallick Oars. And of these there are three sorts.

Section. 3 Copper Glass.First, Copper Glass, and this is to be numbred among the deft, and smooth flowery Copper Oars, for the Copper-Glass Oars which are blewish, (and yet their co­lour come near to Grey) are the richest Copper Oars, and contain the most Copper and Silver, and yield deft and good Copper.

Section. 4 [Page 230] Secondly, the green Coppers which are rich in Copper but poor in Silver, also the fair lazure colored Copper or blew and Green-mixt-copper-Oars contain likewise much Green and lazure Colours.and good Copper, but generally very little Silver.

Section. 5 Thirdly, the brown copper Oars (like an iron Vein) Brown Cop­per.if they be either harsh or mild, yet they are found rich in Copper but poor in Silver: likewise also the copper shiffers (in which there are Characters or Figures of Fi­shes, called Gamahes. Snails, and other Resemblances and representations of corporeal Creatures) and also rich in copper, and com­monly do contain Silver.

Section. 6 In brief, all copper Oars and shiffers that have no flin­ty, speizy or other harsh matter within them, are to be reckoned among the soft flowing Oars.

Section. 7 Copper flint.But there appertains to the harsh flowing copper Oars, the harsh copper Flint, and what is splendy, mispickly, gli­mery or spady, as also all flint Oars by themselves without any other Oars mingled with them, or shiffers in which the copper flint doth stand streamingly inter­mixed.

Section. 8 Copper stone.Also the raw slack stone, copper-stone (Oven-breach­ers occasioned from melting such raw Oars.)

Now, as the silver Oars are known before the proving and melting, (as to their natures) and how they may do in the fire, so it must be known likewise with the cop­per Oars, that one may help them in proving and melting: And because they differ, therefore the raw, unflowing copper oars do not prove like the weal flowing and milde, as will follow in my Instructions, but it must first be shewn how the Assay Crucibles also the little Ovens for proving copper Oars are to be made, (and in case of ne­cessity) that an Assayer himself may prepare his stuff and Instruments.

CHAP. II. How to make Crucibles and Ovens to prove Copper.

Section. 1 TO the copper Oars which are to be pro­ved for Copper, one must have little and good Crucibles for them, which the Goldsmiths do use: But, because they are not to be had in every place good, and in a fit Mould, therefore I Judge it convenient, That every Assayer do make such himself.

Section. 2 Crucible form.To the making such Crucibles, Frames or Moulds of Brass are necessary (or of Pear-tree wood, so that one may put on it an Iron ring, that the Mould may not be so apt so break.)

Section. 3 The Clay.The stuff or clay out of which you intend to make such Crucibles, prepare them of Potters Clay, like the Tests for making Proofs of Silver Oars (as is before si­gnified) then take a Ball of such Clay (as much as you think fit) and press it into the frame or mould, so that the Clay on the sides may well go up and in the mid­dle remain a pretty deep hole: after the manner that the Crucible is to be: then anoint the upper part over with Bacon, or Oyl; and put it into the Frame, in which the Clay is to be pressed until it toucheth the top of the Frame, then turn the upper part of the Frame down­wards, and that which is put in will easily be drawn out again; and thus the Crucible is formed in the frame, as it ought to be, set also the frame (while the Crucible stands yet in it) a little while before the Sun to be war­med, then the Crucible will go out very well and sound, and, although it might be pressed out otherwise, yet it [Page 232] cannot be done so conveniently as when it hath stood a little near the warmth, because thereby the Clay doth shrink, so that the Crucible by that heat may well fall out of it self.

But why the lower part of the Frame must not be fastned, the reason is, that the Crucible may be lifted out of the upper part of the frame, and it could not be brought off again without spoil, therefore it is better the lower part remain ungreased, that the Crucible may be brought out whole. But when the stuff is made very brittle, and the clay not fast, then annoint the lower part with fat, and the Crucible will easily be brought out with your fingers, and so remain whole.

Thus they make Assay-Crucibles, and when they are well dryed, let them burn in a Potters-Oven, or a Tile-Oven, yet let them not be set in too strong a heat (lest they melt) and they must be taken out in time.

Section. 4 But what concern the little Ovens, (wherein they use Little Ovens for Copper. Proof.to take the Copper proofs) the best are prepared of Pot­ters stuff or Clay, to be set and used at pleasure: and make them thus, Take the prepared Potter-stuff, and form of it a little round-Oven, the diameter nine inches wide, with which the Proof-Oven useth to be divided, (of which Instruction is given in the first Book) and 12 inches high, and in the midst a Belly of 11 Inches, and no bottom below, yet it must be an Inch and half thick, and as much as the clay shrinketh, so much must be ad­ded again, and whilst 'tis yet soft, it must be cut in the edges, that one may put Iron-hoops about it, and with Cross-Bars joyn the upper and lower Hoops, or else it will very easily fall asunder: Now, when this Oven is very well dryed in the Sun (or warm place) then let it be burnt hard in a Potters or Tile-Oven, and lute it well about with the Iron-hoops and bonds (as has been already taught)

[Page 233] After this make a foot with a bottom, to this Oven of Potters stuff, being three square fingers deep within, and just so broad as the little Oven below, having a hole in the side, as wide as the breadth of a large Fin­ger, through which the Bellows is to blow (as you will hear hereafter) and there may be an edge within the top upon which you may lay a little Iron-Grate, as in the Sculpture: this foot must also be burnt in a Pot­ters-Oven, and bound about with iron-hoops and bonds, as the Oven: then lay the Iron-Grate in it, and set the Oven upon it, then 'tis prepared as it ought to be.

Now, when you will prove in it, set it upon the Grate, in the little Oven, on a little foot made of Poters Clay, which must be three square fingers high, but not full three fingers broad above, upon which the Crucible is to stand with the Proof.

Also there must be little Covers to the Copper-Proofs, which must be put to, or luted upon the Assay Cruci­bles: and they must also be made of Potters-stuff, and burnt as the other, but not by a sudden heat lest they crack: and be careful to cover the Crucibles, that no Coals or uncleanness fall therein, whereby the proof may become false.

Section. 5 There may also a little Oven be made, just in the form and wideness as before, only that it have a Bottom and Another Form of a little Oven.be 14 Inches high from the bottom, and that two inches from the bottom there be two holes quite through it, in which you must fix two Iron Bars a finger thick, and lay upon it a little iron Grate (like that before) and under the Grate let there be made a hole of a finger wide for the Bellows, This little Oven which also must be Hoopt about with Iron, and is in all things like the other only this is whole, but the other may be taken asunder in two pieces.

Section. 6 A little Oven of Tiles.In case you want Bellows to such Ovens, there is ano­ther [Page 234] Oven to be made, in which the proofs may be pro­ved: thus, Take burnt Tiles, joyn them together in a square, about a span wide, with good Clay, and lute the joynings with it, and leave a Wind-hole before, as wide as the Oven is, a Tile and half high, and over the Wind-hole in the Oven, lay a little Grate of Iron, and four square Bars, a finger thick, and a span high from the Grate, so is your little Oven prepared, but before you prove in it, you must glow it with fire; that it vapour not in proving, then set upon the little Grate a little foot, for the Crucible to stand on, and when the Crucible with the proof is set in, and coals and fire put upon it, and that it grows warm, then fan in some air with a wing, by the Wind-hole in the little Oven, so the wind will ascend through the Grate into the fire strongly, and the Copper-Proof will boyl it self up in the Crucible: This is an easy way for preparing this little oven, but you must observe to do things exactly, that the Proof may be compleat in the fire.

Section. 7 There are also used to the Copper Proving Furnaces (such as Gold-smiths have) to boil up the Proofs before Proof of Furnaces.the Bellows: but I judge because the blowing in the Fur­nace goes but on one side of the Crucible, therefore the Proofs cannot be so well boyl'd up on all sides, as with Bellows which go from below upwards. Also when the Bellows blow but on one side, the Crucible is apt to break, especially when 'tis not good: therefore how the above-mentioned Ovens are to be formed within and without, is shewed in the Sculpture following.

[Page 235]

Sculpture XXIX.
  • 1. The inside of the little Oven made of Tiles.
  • 2. The same, when it's closed.
  • 3. The foot of the Crucible upon the Grate.
  • 4. The little Oven of Potters-Clay, bound with Hoops.
  • 5. The foot of it.
  • 6. The iron Grate in it.
  • 7. The Crucible upon the Grate with the proof in it.
  • 8. The Wind-hole through which the Bellows are put.
  • 9. The Whole little Oven open with the Bottom.
  • 10. The Iron-hoops which go about it.
  • 11 12 13 The Bellows, Brush and Instruments.

CHAP. III. How to make a Fluss to prove Copper Oars.

TAKE two parts of Argol, and one part of Sulphur, grind them small and mingle them, put it in an unglazed Pot, then put live Coals in it, when it begins to burn in the Pot, let it burn till it gives over of it self, let the Pot be cool, so the Fluss is prepared; then take it out of the Pot, put the Coals away, and keep the Fluss small ground in a warm place, so it will remain good; for, if it be set in a cool and moist place, it will turn to oyl: or, take the pot, let it be warm, pour the Fluss into it, and cover it; thus the Fluss will kindle it self in the pot, and burn out: this Fluss is to be used to good and deft Copper Oars: But what be flinty, and other Oars which are hard to separate, to such this Fluss is too weak, and there must be something added to it, as you will hear in the se­quel.

CHAP. IV. How soft flowing Copper Oars are to be proved.

RICH smooth-flowing and good copper Oars (which are not flinty and speizey) prove them thus, Grind the Oar small, and weigh of it with thy proof-weights two Centners, and put them in a Cruci­ble, and three times so much of the be­fore [Page 237] mentioned Fluss, both well mingled, and cover the Crucible above the Oar and Fluss with common Salt a full finger thick, press it down and cover the Cru­cible luted with Clay, that it go not off, nor Coals fall therein, and make a fire in one of the said little Ovens, set the Crucible upon the little foot, cover it with Coals higher than a hand breadth, let it be warm, and blow through the hole under the Grate, that the wind may go alike round about the Crucible, and let it stand a while in the fusion, so the proof will boyl clean up, and if the Crucible doth not break, then take the upper fire off and lift the Crucible hot, out of the Oven: set it upon a plain Tile, that if the Grains of Copper be not run al­together, it may be helpt: Then let the Crucible cool, open it, and in the bottom you will find a grain of Copper which is fine. For these good smooth Oars will yield fine Copper: Then draw it up with thy proof­weights, and try how many pounds of Copper a Cent­ner of Oars doth yield. But you must observe in the proving, that you drive not the proof too hard in the Crucible, for the Copper will burn, and drive it self very easy in the slacks, as one may see in the slacks; (which will soon receive the colour of the Copper Oars) for when they are very red in the Crucible: then the Copper-Proof is driven too hard, and the Content is lighter, but if the slacks are brown, then the Proof is made.

CHAP. V. How hard flowing Copper Oars are to be proved.

Section. 1 HARD flowing Oars are not to be pro­ved The manner of it.as the smooth, but in another man­ner: thus, Take the Copper Oars, beat them as small as the Seeds of Hemp, and and mingle them together: weigh two Centners of it in the proof-weight, put it in a proof-Test, set it in a proof-Oven, give it a very gentle fire, that it may begin to roast it self, then stir it with an iron about the Test, else the Oar will turn to Ashes together in the Test, and will not rost: and when 'tis stir'd the first time, then give it a little stronger fire, that it may glow well, lift it out of the Oven, and let it cool, then put it in the Oven again, and let it roast again untill it hath done smoak­ing (and smells not of Sulphur) then grind it a little smaller, yet not so small as Mill-dust, and roast it again till it stinks no more Sulphurish, then stir▪ it once or twice with the little hook, that it may not be ashes again.

Section. 2 When 'tis thus ground anew, and wash'd the second The Oar burnt quite dead.time, let it cool, and set it the third time in the Assay-Oven, then roast it, and grinde it very small, then wash it once more that it may be burnt quite dead, then grinde it again very small, so is it prepared for the Proof. Then divide the Oar upon a Ballance in two equal parts, and put one part in an Assay-Crucible with 3 times so much of the foresaid Fluss, and with a fixt part of flowing Glass-Gall, mingle them well in the Crucible, and cover it with common or flowing Salt (as in the proof before) [Page 239] and lute it over on the top with Clay, that the Cover be fast, so that no Coals may fall in, then set it in a little Oven, blow the Bellows, give the proof a strong sud­den fire (a little stronger then the former proof) and when the proof hath stood in a pretty good Fluss, then lift the Crucible out of the fire, and let it cool, and break it, and so you may find in the bottom a Grain of black Copper, of such Goodness as the Oar and Flint is in the melting, and may thereby get Copper, which is the right proof of it.

Section. 3 Yet there is of one sort of flinty Oar, fairer Copper than of another, and commonly all flints which are of an Some Cop­per not fit for Brass. iron Nature) yields iron streamy Copper, therefore they are not to be used for making of Brass.

Of this graind Copper (as it comes out of the Proof) weigh it with a Centner weight, then you may see how many pound of black Copper, a Centner of flint or raw Coper Oar do yield, so you may easily reckon how many such Centners, do afford one Centner of Copper: and know therefore, that if you do weigh two Centners of flinty Oars to the proof, if the proof should be amiss, then you have a Centner more of the roasted Oar or flint, to make another proof, otherwise it will be a great hindrance to roast but one Centner to the Proof.

But on the contrary, the old Assayers have used this Method, and proved every Copper Oar or flint upon pure Copper, and thereby know how many Centners of it, will yield one Centner of pure Copper: this I believe to be a just proof for them, who have roasted and purifyed the Copper themselves. But those who work the Silver in it, and sell it with the Silver, it is better for them to know how many Centners of black Copper they may have in a roast, so they may know how many Loths of Silver, a Centner of black Copper contains.

And among all meltings, the Operation of Copper [Page 240] (upon which is to be made a proper Account) is the most pleasant and fairest Experiment; for if the Proof be right, then what is produced will be so too.

Section. 4 To boil Oars for Copper.Therefore, if you will (with the old Assayers) prove the Copper-Oars upon boiled Copper, do it thus, Grind the Oars small, weigh of it two Centners: if they be unflowing or flinty then roast them (as above) in an Assay-Crucible, and weigh to it four Centner of Fluss or Lead-glass, made of Littarge and Flint-stones (as in the first Book of Silver Oars) and mingle them well, and cover it with Salt, and also cover the Crucible, and set it in a little Oven before the Bellows: and let it flow like another Copper-Proof, and when 'tis cool open the crucible, and in the Bottom is the Regulus, among which is copper, and lead together, put it upon a flat Test luted with Littarge, drive it till the copper appears to be of a clear Green, then lift the Graind-copper from the Test, and quench it in Water, and weigh it with thy Proof Weight, so you may finde how many pound of boyled copper you have from two centners of flinty-cop­per Oar in the Proof: one may also very easily burn the copper, especially if the Oar be poor in copper (as you may finde by the Operation). Therefore I con­ceive it better, to prove the copper Oars first upon black copper, and then upon boild copper: and this way, the Proof of the light contenty copper Oars cannot so easily be hurt.

CHAP. VI. How to prove light Coppers.

Section. 1 POOR copper-Oars (especially the cop­per Flints and copper-Glass which are in the Mountains or in light shiffer Mines) they must be proved thus; Take a common Proof of the Oar, grind it well, and weigh with thy Proof weight twenty or more centners, and draw it in a Vessel, so that therewith the light clay may be separated from the pure slick and copper Oars; weigh the slick which comes from it, thus, and mark how many centners yields a pound, that you may know how many centners of raw Oar (from the Rock or vein in the Mine) do yield a clean centner.

2, Weigh then two centners of such pure slick, and put them in an Assay-test, to be roasted in an Oven (as you have done with the copper Oars) but that the proof may not be false, (because the slick doth use to sparkle in the first setting of it into the great heat, especially if pibbles be among it,) therefore cover the Test wherein the weighed slick is, with another Test; let it remain thus covered till the slick glow well; then take off the upper Test, and roast the slick (as you are instructed before) and then grinde it very small, and divide it into two equal parts, and mingle one of them with the Fluss (ap­pertaining to the copper Oars) and put it into a cruci­ble, covered with Salt, and do as you have done above with the harsh copper Oars, and you will find in the bot­tom of the crucible, a grain of copper: then weigh this with your Proof-weight, so you may know out of how [Page 242] many centners or quantities of such raw, rocky or wash­work you may make of a centner of black copper, which grain'd copper you may prove afterwards for Silver, and find the Content, and maist order thy matters ac­cordingly.

Section. 3 This proof upon poor mixt copper-Oars, I have put here because experience manifesteth, That the Copper Oars do not break throughout clean upon the Veins, but have much flint and subtil copper-glass mingled with them, yet in the washing they do willingly separate from it, and bring it into such a compass that one may know that all the rest of the Oars from those Veins may be wrought to good profit, which could not be, if they should be melted raw.

Section. 4 Concerning the poor Shiffer which contains very little Copper, they cannot well be brought into compass, for they rise for the most part in the Water, and are fu­gitives, although some do separate in the water, and af­ford a slick, and thus they may be brought into com­pass, and may be thus proved, and made to profit like the other Oars.

Section. 5 Then the Copper-flint will stand apparently mixt and streamy, in some shiffers which are to be proved either raw or among others, or the shiffer apart whereby it may be found what copper the Shiffer doth yield, and the melting ordered accordingly.

Section. 6 The other mixt copper-Oars (as Lasure Copper green, or brown rich copper-Oars) cannot be well separated in the water from their mixtures, for they are very light, and run not in weight, like the other flints, but go forth in the water, therefore such are first to be proved for Silver, if they have none (as commonly they are poor) then tis not much to try, but if they contain Sil­ver, glow them hard, and suddenly quench them in cold water, then the insperged or mixt Copper Oars will [Page 243] run together in little Grains (as above is signified of the Gold Oars) then wash and grind them small, and draw it into a slick, and when it separates, then you may in the great Work according to the quantity of slicks re­gulate your self. But how these copper Oars are to be dryed in the little oven, you will be directed hereafter.

CHAP. VII. How light Copper Oars which are mixt and insperged with flint, may be brought to profit.

THE light flinty insperged copper Oars (by reason of their hardness and un­flowingness) cannot well (in a great quantity) be melted throughly, or brought to profit (the flint being so hard, and before it becoms small enough in the Beating) it makes insperged oars, subtil, and rise in the water: therefore there can no surer or better Method be found for such Oars, than to roast them in an high roast Oven, made on purpose, (as be­fore is often mentioned.) And when it burns to a great heat, pour water upon it, and let it cool sudden­ly, so the frighted Metal will run together in grains in the flints, which are heavy, and remain fast by set­ting them in the water, and then they may be washed and separated, and that which is not clean Copper will be a good and heavy Copper-stone, that so the flinty cop­per Oars (when they are roasted and are brittle) may very easily (in a great quantity) be buck'd through, and the Metal which is gathered may be washed, or so much of it, as in one gathering can be melted through­ly (like raw Oar) which is to be made into ten or more [Page 244] equal parts. And the roast Oven which is to be used to this Washing, may be formed (as in the first and se­cond Book of flinty Gold Oars) are more fully de­scribed.

CHAP. VIII. How to prove Copper Oar from Copper-stone.

IF one would try and prove Copper Oars especially the flinty (containing much or little Copper, called raw slack-stones, or raw Copper-stones) you must doit thus; Grind the Copper oars or the flint small, weigh from it two Centners, put them thus, unroasted in an Assay-crucible, and weigh to it four Centners of the fluss made of Salt petre, and Ar­gol (as before) with two centners of flowing Glass-galls, mingle all in the crucible and cover it (like a copper-Oar) with Salt, and set it in a little Oven, and boil it up al­so before the Bellows, and let it be cold, then you will find in the bottom of the crucible a copper-stone, then se­parate it from the slacks, and weigh it, so you may see how many centners of the flint yields a centner of cop­per-stone. But if the flint be very rich in copper-water, then there will be no stone with the fluss; therefore try the flint in another manner, viz. Weigh it raw, and put it in a crucible, mingle among it three times so much of clean good slacks (smooth ground) which yield no stone, nor contains any Silver, but come from poor Oar, co­ver it with Salt, and set it in, let it flow with strong blowing: then you will find as much as the flint hath in it self: But the flints that are rich in copper-water do yield a slack-stone which is not good to be melted, for [Page 245] in the roasting, it will shrink too much and retain no Silver in it self, by which many times hurt is caused.

CHAP. IX. How to prove Copper Oar another way.

Section. 1 ALL Copper-Oars that are rich or poor in copper may be tryed upon copper-stone, after this manner, Take a pound of the Oar or Flint small ground, and prepare a little Oven of Tiles square or round of a span wide, or let it be joyn'd with Potters-clay, bind it about with iron­rings, and lay below in it, Powder of Coals and Clay, (as in the Melt-ovens) with a hole on the back of the Oven, through which the Bellows may go; then put in your fire and Coals, and blow them well, that it may glow, and set the raw Oar which is ground, in it; yet not at once, blow continually strong at it, that the oar may melt through the Coals down into the little Oven, and when it is enough, let it cool, and take it out of the Oven, and beat it, so you will see what it yields of cop­per or copper stone: if you finde in the stones either cop­per or slacks like grains, beat them small, and draw it in­to slicks, then will the copper and stone separate from the slicks.

Section. 2 Copper Shif­fer.This is a fine Tryal upon the copper shiffer and poor inspersed copper Oars, but when the Oar doth not yield stone or copper, you will see it in the slacks, when they are not coppery, but all is turn'd to slicks.

Section. 3 When there will be no stone in the proof.Further, if you would have such through-proofs of copper, and the flint yeild no stone, then first roast the flint quite dead, and melt it in the little Oven, and you [Page 246] will finde a Regulus of black copper, or such as the flint or copper Oars do yield, which put together and weigh, and see what it hath yielded, so you may know how ma­ny Centners of flinty copper it yieldeth from a Centner of copper, for all roasted Oars work themselves fresh, and separate better than raw Oars.

Section. 4 But if one will try more than one or two pound in the little Oven, then one may slick it off from the copper Another way.with a little hot Crucible, and separate it from the slacks, but what remains in the little Oven together with the Section. 5 slacks, which are not flown out, must be beaten and wa­shed, and what is found shall be reckoned the Content.

Section. 6 Also in this wise one may melt raw copper flint un­roasted in the little Oven, and drive it off, and see whe­ther it give good copper-stone or raw slack-stone; also whether the stone in the fire be fixt or volatile: Only observe, that the little Oven must be first very well glow­ed, before it be melted in it, or else it will become all cold in the little Oven, and will not come together, as ex­perience teacheth.

CHAP. X. How to prove melted Copper-stone.

Section. 1 COPPER STONES are best prov'd like a raw Copper-Oar or flint (as hath been formerly shewn) viz. if one beat the same very small like Hemp-seeds, and then weigh it, and in a gentle fire upon a Test, let it be roasted, and put in the ground pieces, until it burns it self dead, and then let it be ground smaller, and mingle it with fluss, and a lit­tle Glass-galls, and cover it with Salt in the Crucible lu­ted [Page 247] in a little Oven, it will boyl like a raw Copper Oar or flint before the Bellows, and will settle it self to a cop­per Grain in the bottom of the Crucible, draw this up and weigh how much it contains, and make thy account upon it, how many Centners of copper-stone yields one Centner of black and unpurify'd Copper.

Section. 2 There is another Tryal, namely, to weigh two Cent­ners of Copper-stone, and mingle them with Borax and a little Venetian Glass, and let it flow upon a Proof Test, and blow with a hand Bellows until it appears green, so you will see how much the Copper-stone yields of Copper: and in this Proof the Copper will become clean and pure and most ready, and yield no black Copper (as in the Proofs above it doth.)

That you may see the form of the little Ovens, and how to make the Copper-Proofs in them, they are in the following Sculpture

  • 1. The melting Oven to try the Copper Oars from the copper-stone, and the Man that blows the Bellows.
  • 2. The luting it with Clay.
  • 3. The buck'd and vvash'd Oar.
  • 4. The little Ovens in which the copper-Oars are to be proved with ordinary Bellovvs, and the man that at­tends them.
  • 5. The Bellovvs as they are used.
  • 6. A copper Instrument with a neck in which water is put, and then set over the fire, and used in stead of Bel­lows (call'd the Philosophical Bellovvs. See Sculpture II. Book I.
  • 7. The Pot in which the Fluss is to be made.
  • 8. The Assay Crucible.
[Page 248]
Sculpture XXX.

CHAP. XI. To prove Flinty Copper by Sulphur.

Section. 1 BECAUSE all Flints have Sulphur in them (yet some more than others,) if you will try them, and make a proof upon them, Weigh two centners of the Flinty raw Oar, and put it in a Proof-Test, and roast it dead (as I have men­tion'd [Page 249] before off the Copper-Oars) let it be cold and weigh such roasted Oar again, now so much as these two Centners have lost, so much they have had of Sul­phur, for the Sulphur goes in the fire and in the air, this proof is easy, yet it is not manifested what Sulphur it doth yield, but that you may have the same Sulphur ap­parently; Beat the flint small, to the bigness of an Hazel Section. 2 Retorts.nut, put it in a great Retort made of the best Potters-Clay, that the neck of the Retort may hang in water, make a wood-fire about it, then the Sulphur will ascend from the flint, and you will find most part before in the Receiver of the Retort, fine and yellow, but 'tis yet un­washed, and must be cleansed in a strong fire.

3 How, this is further to be done, is to be seen in great iron Retorts when the Sulphur becomes red. But this is to inform the Reader, That all flints burnt in iron Re­torts to Sulphur do yield red Sulphur, which Painters use to highten yellow or orange Colours, but the manner of making Sulphur, with great Retorts do not appertain to this Treatise, therefore I have named it only for the Proof-sake.

CHAP. XII. How to prove Black Coppers by defty or smooth Coppers.

Section. 1 AS all Coppers come black out of the Oars upon melting, yet some much fi­ner and cleaner than others, which must after be cleansed and made ready, as they which contain no silver, and not purified, must be made ready and deft: Also to know certainly how many Centners of it after [Page 250] cleansing it yields of clean Copper (which must be pro­ved in a little Fire.) Some think it may be known by Of Copper Needles.special copper Touch-Needles, made on purpose: but be­cause the black-Coppers are not all alike, but some iron­streamy, some tinny, spizy or leady, I cannot certainly determine concerning such Proofs: But the best way is thus, First, cut off from the cast Copper Ingot, and weigh 2 or 3 Centners of it, and lute a Test with small ground leady Glass, put the weigh'd Copper in it, and blow it in a fresh coal fire, till it hath a clean green copper Colour, then presently, take the Test out of the Fire, and take the Copper out of the slacks, and quench it off, then cut it asunder with a Chissel, and you will see whether it be good: then weigh and count how much the inset black Copper hath yielded ready Copper.

Section. 2 This Proof not certain.This proof, although the Copper be surer to be found, than by the Touch-Needles, yet 'tis not certain to ground upon; because the Proof is small and the Cop­per little, therefore very easily the Fire may take away somewhat too much if it be over-burnt, which in great Works cannot be done, and so somewhat more of red copper will be brought out.

If you will have the right proof, and know the right Content, the same must not be esteemed too great a La­bour, to make more than one Proof of the black-Copper, and then take the middle out of it.

You may use to this Proof, Borax, which cleanseth the Metal much, and brings the copper to be sooner ready: but, because one cannot use Borax in the great Works, it were better this proof (especially iron-streamy Copper) might be helpt with a little clean Lead, because 'tis used in cleansing: and the copper will become leady, which doth much cleanse the Copper, but if the copper Section. 3 Another Manner.be leady, then there needs no lead to be added.

Some Assayers use this Method in their Proofs, viz. [Page 251] They take a Test which is made moist, and make a lit­tle hearth in it of Coal Powder, mixt with clay, having a flat smooth hole cut out: upon this they set the cop­per which is to be proved, and blow it with the Addi­tion of a little Lead-glass, this will the sooner make it ready, but I think there is small difference in what ever is driven off from it: but be sure you drive not the copper too hard, and yet let it be of a right copper or blick colour.

Section. 4 Copper flint and Tin stone may be Seperated.And, because many times copper-flints are to be found, in which almost the half is Tinn-stone, and if cop­per be melted out of it, it would be very tinny and spi­zy, also if it were done among other coppers, all would be spoiled in the cleansing. To prevent this, there is a particular way, viz. that by beating and washing one may separate both Mettals by bucking or cleansing, and then melt every part asunder, and bring it to profit; of which way I should write something here, but be­cause I do not give a full Instruction in these my Books of the great Works viz. of Bucking, Washing and Smelting Metal Oars) but only lesser Works, therefore I will here end, till another more convenient time, when they may be further discoursed of.

CHAP. XIII. How to prove whether Lead be very Copperish.

IF you think your Lead have much Cop­per with it, and would be assured there­of, Then weigh with the great weight a Centner of the Lead, put it upon a ve­ry flat Hearth, and make a small fire of A flat Hearth.Wood upon it, lay also a green wood [Page 252] before, that the Lead may go and very gently pass away under the before laid wood: Now, when such lead hath copper in it, if only two pound in a Centner, so the cop­per will remain on the hearth, and what you find is but leady copper, but if you will have it very clean, then blow it with a Bellows upon a hearth, till it becomes ready, but in the little proof, 'tis seen upon the Coppel, for when the Lead which hath much, begins to go, then touch the Copper flowers, and the coppels will become black after 'tis gone off.

CHAP. XIV. Twelve necessary Instructions for an Assayer to follow.

Section. 1 FIRST, whether Iron doth become Cop­per? to which the Reader shall have this Answer, That I have a long while sup­posed, because the Iron in the Coppery waters, as in Vitriol, green Argol, and such like, do precipitate the Copper, that the Copper only is precipitated in such iron water, and not the Iron it self becomes Copper, yet I have seen in Vitriol Mines, (in a Mine called Hesper) when the nails and other Iron Pins fixt in the copper-Oar, by length of time have become a good Copper mearly by Penetrati­on; therefore I must conclude, That the Iron doth be­come Copper; for though in the Vitriol, and other cop­per waters, the Copper precipitateth the Iron, yet there is not so much of it therein, as to turn it to copper: only know this, That while the Iron in such Coppery waters doth precipitate the copper, so the copper will precipitate the Silver (if it be in it) therefore 'tis fit, that to the com­mon [Page 253] precipitation of Silver in the Aqua fort. that the copper with iron pieces or lamins be put into the clean­sing (as above is mentioned) with which the Copper and silver are precipitated, and what hath been in the Aqua fort. cometh out whole.

CHAP. XV. Twelve Directions how to separate Silver from Copper in the great Work.

Section. 1 TO separate thus is a curious ART, which for many years the Refiners have kept as a great Secret, how the Precipitati­ons are to be made right. But because the large Works are very great, there­fore Section. 2 One way of Preparati­on doth most serve for Copper.it could not remain secret, but is now known; yet there is still a difference, for in one Furnace it is better refined, and the prepared copper is made purer than in the other, also the Additions are not every where alike, and then many sorts of coppers can­not be refined all in one way, therefore for their sakes, who either know nothing, or but a little of such things, I will write somewhat as a tendency to that Art.

Section. 3 First, observe whether the black Copper be weak, deft, hard or brickle, for if they be weak and brickle before the refining, then the Silver will not come so soon out, but if one will give it its just due and heat, then the copper will flow under the lead through the Oven, and may cause hurt; therefore to the weak Coppers, there is no better way than to mingle other hard or brickle copper among it, that the one may hold the other.

Section. 4 Secondly, one must be instructed how much the Cop­per holds in Silver, by a diligent Proof, for according to it, the Copper must be mingled with lead. And if [Page 254] the Contents be unequal as from 24 Loths, to 14, 8, or 10 Loths, then it must be made into a Cake by weight, near 27 pounds and an half of rich Copper, and 55 pound of poor Copper, upon this make your Account, how much Silver is in this 3 quarters of the Centners of Copper, and how much the Lead containeth which is to be used to the Addition, and then to every Loth of Silver which is in the copper and lead) 17 pound of Section. 5 How much Lead to be used. lead is also to be counted; and thus, of the refined lead (which is to be parted from the copper) a Centner will not contain above six and a half, or at the highest seven Loths of Silver. But if the refined lead should contain more than 7 loths, it is a sign that the Cakes remain too rich, and that the silver is not all come forth of the cop­per, and that there was not lead enough to the Addi­tion.

Section. 6 But, that one may know how 'tis with the Additions upon every Copper, and what is to be observed in the re­fining Furnace, I shall demonstrate it by Examples.

Section. 7 Take two Centners of lead, and three quarters of a A profita­ble Rule. Centner of Copper (of a rich and poor Content) either weak, hard or brickle, one among another, if there­in is not 12 or 12 and an half loths of Silver, then take lead Oar or other lead to it which is silvery, that you may have the above mentioned silver in the fresh piece, and then add Lead, or Littarge, as much that there may come to four pieces, 8 Centner of Lead, and three Centners of Copper, and of this there will come out in parting 6 Centners of refined lead; every Centner of which contains 6 Loths and a half of Silver, the other Silver and lead will remain in the cakes and lead, which will almost all come to profit again, as you will hear hereafter.

Section. 8 Another Addition upon two and a quarter of a cent­ner of Lead, viz. take three quarters of a centner of cop­per, [Page 255] and if there be not in it 15 or 16 loths of Silver, then take to it rich lead, which may enter in a fresh piece of such Silver: or, Take fresh and hard lead and Litarge, so that from 4 Pieces (upon an Oven) may come 9 cent­ners of Lead, and 3 centners of copper, of this there will be 7 centners of refined Lead, of which a centner is to contain 6 loths and a half of Silver.

Section. 9 Also, take two and three quarters of a centner of Lead, and three quarters of a centner of copper, and if there be not 18 or 19 loths of Silver, then take rich lead that it may reach the Silver and Litarge, and hard and fresh lead, so that (upon an Oven) in 4 fresh Pieces may come 11 centners of lead, and 3 centners of copper; and in di­viding of this again, there will be 9 centners of fine lead, and one centner is to contain 6 loths and an half of Silver.

Section. 10 Or take three Centners of Lead, and three quarters of a Centner of Copper, if there be not therein 20 or 21 loths of Silver, then take rich lead which came in a fresh Piece of the silver, viz. from 4 Pieces (in one Oven) 12 Centner of lead, and three Centner of Copper, and when this shall be separated, then 10 Centner of pure lead; and one Centner will contain seven loths of Silver in the Keinstocks and Thornells, and there will remain 15 or 16 loths of Silver, and they are further to be wrought, as hereafter will follow.

Section. 11 But if there be very rich, or much other rich copper, and little of the light Contents, and that you cannot reach the right Addition, as above mentioned, then one must oft times add a rich fresh piece, viz. to three quar­ters of a Centner of rich copper add three Centner of lead, and so the separating Work will prove rich: and although the Keinstocks may also remain rich to 4, 6 or 7 loths: yet they may further be added to the rich Copper, and the fresh pieces be so right, that the [Page 256] refining lead may come out upon the true content, at six, or six and a half, or seven loths of Silver, at the highest.

Section. 12 But, if there are poor contenty coppers (not to be re­koned with the rich) yet you must do with them as be­fore; but never take more than three quarters of a Cent­ner of Copper to two or three quarters of a centner of lead, and if such black copper contains 8 loths, the cent­ner of the separating work will contain two loths and an half of Silver: and the poor separating lead which comes from poor fresh may be added again to other fresh pieces, (as by the following Instructions may be seen) but there is no help for it, and, if possible, the poor fresh lead may be left alone.

CHAP. XVI. Thirteen additional Instructions about good Copper.

Section. 1 ITEM, One piece shall have 2 Centners and an half of Lead, and three quarters of Copper, and there shall be no more in one piece than 18 loths.

Section. 2 Item, Three quarters of a Centner of fresh Copper to 21 loths, and three quar­ters of a centner of Lead: to three loths and a half, half a centner: to two loths three quarters of a centner of fresh lead, and a centner of Litarge: thus you have four Pieces of 77, and a half loth of silver, in 11 cent­ners.

Section. 3 Item, Three quarters of a centner of copper to 18 loths, and an half centner of lead: to four loths and an half, three quarters of a centner: to three loths, one quarter of a centner: to two loths, one quarter of a [Page 257] centner of fresh, and one centner▪ and 18 pounds of Litarge, mingled in 74 loths of lead, do yield 10: and a quarter and an half of a centner of lead.

Section. 4 Item, Half a centner of copper to 15 loths of Sil­ver content; and one quarter of a centner to 20 loths, and one centner of lead: To 4 Loths, half a centner: To two loths, one quarter of a centner of fresh: one centner of Litarge leaded in 70 loths of Silver doth yield 10 centners of lead▪

Section. 5 Item, Half a centner of copper to 15 loths: one quar­ter of a centner to 17 loths: One centner of lead to 5 loths: half a centner to one loth and an half; one quarter of a centner fresh; one centner of Litarge leaded in 70 loths will yield ten centners of good lead.

Section. 6 Item, Three quarters of a Centner of Copper to 17 loths: one centner of lead, to 4 Loths: one dram, one quarter of a Centner to 4 loths and an half: one quarter of a centner to one loth and an half: and one quarter of a centner fresh, one centner and 18 pound of Litarge leaded in 74 loths yields 10 and an half centners of lead.

Section. 7 Item, Three quarters of a centner of Copper to 18 loths and half a centner of lead: to three loths and an half, a quarter of a centner: to four loths and an half three quarters of a centner: to three loths one quarter of a centner: to two loths one quarter of a centner of fresh, and one centner of Litarge leaded in 76 loths and a half yields 10 centner of lead.

Section. 8 Item, Three quarters of a centner of copper to 16 loths and half a centner of lead: to 3 loths and a half: three quarters of a centner: to four loths and an half: one quarter of a centner: to two loths one quarter of a cent­ner of fresh: and one centner of Litarge (or instead of it, three quarters of a centner of fresh) leaded in 70 loths and a half do yield 10 centners of lead.

Item, Half a centner of copper to 19 loths: and a [Page 258] quarter of a centner to 7 loths: one centner and a half of lead to three loths and a half: and half a centner to one loth and a half; and one centner of Litarge leaded in 69 loths and a half, yieldeth 10 centners of lead.

Section. 10 Item, Half a centner of Copper to 19 loths: one quarter of a centner to 16 loths: one centner of lead to 4 loths: one dram and half centner to one loth and a half: one quarter of a centner fresh, and one centner and 18 pounds of Litarge leaded in 74 loths do yield 10 centners and an half of lead.

Section. 11 If there be no Litarge to be had, then take half a centner of good copper to 9 loths, one quarter of a centner of copper to 30 loths: one centner and a quar­ter of lead to 4 loths, and an half centner to one loth and an half, and a quarter of a centner fresh: thus make all times the additions upon the hard lead, that there may be in a piece 10 centners, 10 and an half, or 11 centners of lead, also the silver in 4 pieces, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77 loths, thus the lead doth contain 7 loths of sil­ver, happily one dram more or less.

Section. 12 Item, Three quarters of a centner of fresh copper to 20 loths: three quarters of a centner of lead to 4 loths; and half a centner to two loths, and one centner of Lit­targe: and half a centner of fresh lead leaded in 76 loths yields 10 centners of lead.

Section. 13 Item, Three quarters of a centner of Copper to 21 loths: three quarters of a centner of lead to three loths and an half; and half a centner to two loths: and half a centner of fresh lead, and one centner of litarge, or three quarters of a centner of fresh lead, leaded in 77 loths and a half do yield 10 centners of lead.

CHAP. XVII. Six additional Instructions about proving of fresh Oar, called hard Lead.

Section. 1 ITEM, Three quarters of a centner of Copper to 11 loths; and half a centner of fresh lead; 2 centner of Litarge is leaded in 8 centners, into 4 pieces, con­tain 33 loths.

Section. 2 Item, A half centner of copper to 8 loths; a quarter of a centner to 15 loths: one centner and a quarter fresh, is leaded in 8 centners, into 4 pieces contain 31 loths.

Section. 3 Item, Half a centner of copper to 15 loths; one quar­ter of a centner to six loths, three quarters of a centner to two centners of Litarge leaded into 9 centners, into 4 pieces, contain 36 loths.

Section. 4 Item, Three quarters of a centner of copper to 11 loths and a half, and half a centner of fresh; and two cent­ners of Littarge leaded in 8 centners, into 4 pieces, and contain 34 loths and a half.

Section. 5 Item, Half a centner of copper to 13 loths: a quar­ter of a centner to 10 loths: half a centner of fresh, two centners of Litarge leaded in 7 centners, into 4 pieces, contain 36 loths.

Section. 6 Take notice, if the Copper be very poor, then you may add such lead, as doth contain one and a half, or 2 loths of silver.

XIX CHAP. XVIII. Three Additions concerning Thornels, or parts of Oars not fully melted.

Section. 1 TAKE two Centners and an half of Thornells, that is half separated Oars, and half roasted, and a centner and a quarter of hard Lead: and a quarter of a centner of Litarge, the Lead must contain 3 and a half: 4 loths, 4 and a half, till to 5 loths.

Item, to a Centner of Littarge is counted 3 quarters of Lead; and a Centner of Littarge is counted at 135 pounds; and also upon 145 pounds of hard Lead, one centner of soft Lead, although to some separating Works are taken 130 pound of Litarge in stead of a centner of Lead, and 140 pound, hard Lead, instead of soft lead.

Also there goes commonly off from 10 centners one centner and a half of Lead; thus you may know how to substract from the additions together with the Loths, which will be found in the centner.

CHAP. XIX. Six more Instructions concerning good and deft Coppers.

ITEM, Take Copper to 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, Loths, and of this one may make hard Lead, being commonly ta­ken as Additions: of which 65 pounds will yield at all times in 4 pieces 39 loths of Silver; but if it be not [Page 261] enough (with the 65 pound of Copper in the Content) then one may take of the Copper three quarters of a Centner, and at all times upon one loth of Silver 29 pounds of lead, and this will make in one piece, three Centners four pounds of fresh lead, and in four pieces, 12 Centners, and 16 pounds, in which are 42 loths of Sil­ver.

Section. 2 Item, 65 pounds of Copper to 15 loths: one centner and a quarter of a centner of fresh lead, and 305 pounds of Litarge, there will come upon 4 pieces 11 centners 31 pounds of lead, in which will be 39 loths of Silver; and if one doth sever it in an Oven, and with such Ad­ditions, there will come out of it 9 centners of lead, which will contain to three and three quarters of a loth, or three loths and a half: this is together, 33 loths, three drams; so there will remain in the Thornels and Kein­stocks five loths (if well wrought) but it consumes much lead by it.

Section. 3 If the Copper contain 18, 19 or 20 loths, 'tis usual to take sixty or sixty five pounds of Copper, according as one hath poor or rich lead, and the Addition is made thus, that together in 4 pieces, may come 75 loths of Copper and lead; and upon this 75 loths, is taken one loth and 15 pounds of lead; if then one do sever it in an Assay-Oven, it will yield 9 centners and an half of lead; and this will contain 6 loths and a half, or six loths three drams, and then there will remain in Thornells and Kein­stocks, 11, 12 or 13 loths, but how the Additions are to be made, is hereafter specified.

4 Item, One piece shall have (with lead and copper,) 3 Centners, 25 pounds, and four pieces; together 13 Centners, and of lead 11 Centners, 25 pounds, so there will come in one piece 65 pounds of Copper, to 17 loths; and two Centners and a half of lead to three [Page 262] loths; yet the 4 pieces will contain no more in copper and lead, then 75 loths.

Section. 5 Item, 65 pounds of Copper to 18 Loths, make 47 Loths addition in the Lead. Take one centner three quarters of Lead to 4 loths, they do bring in 4 pieces; 28 loths one quarter of fresh, and 30 pounds of hard, so there will come 11 Centners, 25 pounds of lead, in 75 loths.

Section. 6 But the Thornels which are to be severed from it, must have this Addition, Take to one piece, one centner and a half of lead-Thornels, 1 Centner of roast Thornels, 1 centner 18 pounds of hard, and one quarter of a centner of fresh Lead, and 30 pounds of Litarge, then the lead will commonly contain 3, or 3 and a half, to 4 loths of silver.

CHAP. XX. Seven more additional Instructions about good Copper.

Section. 1 ITEM, if one take to a piece of 80 pounds of Copper, which may contain 15, 16, 17, 18 or 19 loths, and so there will be of 4 pieces, ten Centners of lead, and so in one piece, 2 Centners and an half, the process is thus, Take one Cent­ner of Litarge, one centner and a quarter of lead, to 4 loths, one quarter of hard lead, and a quarter of fresh lead, as it happens, yet that in 4 pieces will come to no more than 72 loths of Silver, and take to one loth 14 pound of lead, and this in one piece will be two Cent­ners and a half, and 2 pounds of lead, yet 'tis always bet­ter to take much Litarge and little lead, for the Litarge doth draw better to it self the Copper than the fresh lead, likwise much Copper than little, and so the lead will not [Page 263] consume so much, and there will be wrought much more copper with less lead. Therefore if you take 65 pounds of copper to one piece, then there will be to four pieces, eleven and a quarter of a centner of lead, and one melt­ting may make just so many pieces. But if you do take 80 pounds of copper, for 65 pounds of lead, then there will remain in the Thornels and Keinstocks, 10, 11, or 12 loths.

Section. 2 Item, Take 75 pounds of Copper (rich or poor) and in four pieces 72 loths, that upon one loth may come 14 pounds of lead into four pieces, 10 Centners, 8 pounds of lead, and this doth yield commonly good Keinstocks, and if this be thus severed, then the lead of it will contain 7 loths of Silver, and a dram more or less.

Section. 3 Item, to make hard lead, take 65 pounds of Copper to 19 loths, and 200 pounds of Litarge, and 190 pounds of hard lead, and 40 pounds of fresh lead, to two loths; and thus there will be in 4 pieces 52 loths, and one dram, and ten Centners, and 80 pounds of lead.

Section. 4 Item, take 75 pounds of Copper to 16 loths, and not more than 48 loths in 4 pieces, and to one loth 21 pounds of lead, that the most part may be Litarge, so the lead will contain 4 loths and a half, or 5, and remain in the Keinstocks 6 or 7 loths.

Section. 5 Fresh Cop­per. In brief, to fresh Copper one may take three quarters of a centner of Copper, and two Centners and an half of lead, and in four pieces not above 34 loths, this doth well; and to the hard lead, three quarters of a Centner of copper, two and a quarter of a centner of lead, and no more, and it will bring into it 33, 34, to 38 loths▪ of Silver.

Section. 6 Hungarian Copper.Concerning the poor coppers (they are partly seve­red in Hungary, and contain to five, six, seven, eight loths of Silver, or nine at the highest) they must be so [Page 264] severed, that the severed lead may come upon the right Content, as a centner upon six to seven loths of Silver, so the copper will be good, and if you add lead accord­ing to the Content, the copper will not have lead enough, and the Silver will not come all out, and the Keinstocks will remain rich.

Section. 7 Now, when the Melter makes the fresh Pieces, then must all their Additions first be weighed upon every piece apart, and then he must put the Copper and hard lead first in, and afterwards the Litarge; and lastly, the lead in the Oven, and when the Division of one part is almost gone down, put after it a quantity of slacks, that when he seeth the same, he may know how much hath been weighed (in one piece) out of the Oven, before he put in the other, and when that goes down in the Oven, pour the first piece out of the furthermost Cruci­ble into the pan, and then take care that one piece may not be heavier than the other, and so he must still labour till he hath cast all the pieces (as such practise will shew) But how the fresh Oven is formed, and the fresh pieces cast, you may see in the Sculpture following, thus

  • 1. Copper and Lead in pieces, weighed.
  • 2. The Oven for Assaying those piecs of fresh Oar.
  • 3. The Copper-pan into which those fresh pieces are to be put and melted.
  • 4. The fresh piece melted.
  • 5. The Melter.
  • 6. The Vault in which the Dust and Smoak is received.
  • 7. The little door out of which the dust is to be cleansed.
[Page 265]
Sculpture XXXI.

CHAP. XXI. Nine Rules, shewing how the Regulus of poor black Copper-Oar is to be assayed, after the Hungarian Method.

Section. 1 FIRST, I will mention how the poor Coppers are to be split before their mel­ting in the separating Works, and the content made rich, that they may the better be melted and separated.

Section. 2 Item, in the Sheds or Houses where The Melt­ing Oven for them. black Coppers (which commonly contain 5, 6, or 7 loths of Silver) are used to be smelted there, the melting Oven for them is formed like a driving harth with a Vault, and in the fore-part thereof the fire is to be made of Birch, or other small split fire-wood (as is used in Kitchins) and the melting Oven must have a Crucible before it, in which the black Copper (when 'tis wrought enough and be­comes good Copper) may run out of it: On the other place of the Oven are the slacks done off, and the Bel­lows are not to blow in the midst of the Oven, but on an iron Pipe, which is directed against a corner of the Oven, in which the Wind may blow, so that it may go through the Pipe into the spleiss Oven in the midst of it upon the copper.

Section. 3 If you will smelt them, then put into the smelting Oven 38 centners of black copper, of which the centner contains six loths of Silver) when this is smelted, let the slacks go off from it; that it may be 11 to 12 centners, then 4 to 4 centners and an half, in which you must be diligent, that you may know how to give it its due heat. After open the smelting Oven near the foremost Crucibles, and [Page 267] set the copper in it, and smelt of the 38 centners of black copper, out of the Crucibles 18 to 19 centners of good and rich copper, but of the smelted Copper, every Cake is to be cut out, and cast into Ingots, of which a centner holds commonly near 9 loths of Silver, the remaining Silver you will have in what is swept off, and in the slacks, as follows.

4 But because much smelting at once (as in great works) is counted by the Smelters a Work for half a week, therefore to this belongs a Master and a Servant, and they cannot work but twice a week in an Oven, and to such Operating in one work, there is to be used near 4 layes of Wood.

Section. 5 Red Copper Regulus.The slacks that come from the above-mentioned black Regulus, or which are twice done from the copper, must be beaten small as Wallnuts, and smelted through a smel­ting Oven, then draw the slacks off again from it in the crucible, and out of it you will have a red Regulus.

Section. 6 Of this red Regulus, one must take 40 centners for a smelting Oven (as above is signified) and may smelt of it 30 to 31 centners of red Copper, and of this the cent­ner contains two and a half, to 3 loths of Silver, which cannot all be brought out, therefore it must be forced out with an hammer. But if it be made to sell for Bells, then there must be smelted of this 40 centners, or 33 centners to 35 centners of red Copper, and to this one needs but one Oven, 2 to 2, and half the proportion of wood, and 'tis counted by the Smelters for two Works for a Week, as upon the black Coppers.

Section. 7 But the slacks which (of this 20 centners of Regulus) are to be done off out of the smelting Oven (and happi­ly 6, 7 centners to 7 centners and an half) they are to be beaten asunder and smelted through a smelting Oven, and one may draw off the slacks in the Crucible, and make of a Cobolt Re­gulus. Cobolt Regulus, or Copper-stone, 40 centners upon a smel­ting [Page 268] Oven, and smelt it off from 32 to 34 centners of Licbeter or spizy Cop­per. Licbeter or speizy or unclean Copper, of which a cent­ner contains one, or one and an half loth of Silver.

Section. 8 Now when all is smelted off, then take that which re­mains upon the brim of the driving harth, also that which is about the crucible, and some good slacks, and beat them stampt Copper.small with the stamp, upon which the water doth run, and then the good copper will fall on the ground, and that is to be gathered and washed and then settled: and, if it be at hand put 12 to 14 centners upon the smelting Oven. Likewise happily 5 or 6 centners of leady-Cop­per which remain'd upon the harth; and if the copper en­ters in it, and will not out again, then put to it 18 centners of black Regulus: and smelt again 20 centners of stampt Copper (which Copper is to contain 12 to 13 loths) and this same, being thus assayed, one may set it upon the driving harth, and drive it off with the poor and rich lead.

What comes off at last from the stamps in the casting and settlings, is also to be taken up, for 4 centners of this will yield a centner of copper, and such is to be smelted with the slacks.

CHAP. XXII. Seven more Instructions for the Hungarian way of sepa­rating, and how the first work or Instrick is to be performed.

TO the first Instrick (by which you must understand the first Schicht, work or operation which a Master with his Ser­vant can smelt in 8 or 9 hours) they do take 30 centners of rich or good Copper and fresh lead, which comes from Crac­caw, [Page 269] of which a centner contains near one loth of Sil­ver) 110 centners: in all 140 centners of Copper and lead: out of which work will come 40 pieces, this being put out of the former Crucible into a copper pan, there will come upon one piece of rich and good Cop­per, three quarters of a centner▪ of fresh lead, two and three quarters of a centner: And every Smelter must ob­serve, That the Addition of every piece come only to one piece, and that the piece may be cast equal, that to the whole work may not come more or less pieces than were weighed to it before (as above is signified) the slacks are afterwards to be drawn clean off, out of the foremost Crucible, and smelted again in the Oven, and out of this will come slack-lead, and the centner will con­tain one loth.

Section. 2 But the above-said 40 pieces are to be assay'd so that alwayes five pieces be set upon the Assay-Oven, and the lead which flows out of it (being in a hole) is af­terwards to be cast into little copper pans, and the Centner of the same lead (according as the copper is rich) will com­monly contain 2, to 2 loths and a half of Silver; and that which remains upon the Assay-Oven is called Keinstocks Keinstocks.(which are pieces yet undry'd or unroasted, and what falleth down from the Assay-Oven, and between the roast-Oven are called Thornels, of which Thornels they do weigh 80 or near 100 pounds.

Section. 3 Thornells.These Thornels are thus to be made to profit; Take 20 Centners of them from the Assay-Oven, and 20 centners from the roast-Oven, and 40 centners of hard lead, and Litarge, of each sort half; (in the whole 8 Cent­ners) out of this there will come from the Work 20 pieces: and there will come upon one piece 2 Centners of Thornels, and 2 centners of hard lead and Litarge, for it must be thus distributed upon the pieces, and the slacks upon the foremost Crucible must be drawn off [Page 270] clear, these are to be smelted apart, and out thereof will come the slacks of lead.

Section. 4 Afterwards 5 pieces of these 20 pieces of Thornels The first In­lay.are alwayes to be set upon an Assay-Oven, and assay the lead of it, of which a centner will contain near 2 loths of Silver, and the Keinstocks will remain above, and what falleth down betwixt the Oven is (called, as is said, Thornels) and they do weigh near 8 pounds, as above is mentioned.

Section. 5 The second Inlay.To the second Inlay, by which you must understand the second Work) the Additions are to be made thus, they do take rich or good broken Copper, 20 centners and 20 centners of Thornels from the separating and roast Oven, one with another, and 20 centners of Litarge, (in the whole 60 centners) out of this comes 40 pieces, so there is to each piece half a centner of good Copper, and half a centner of Thornels, and half a centner of Litarge, and these are to be set (as before) always 5 pieces upon a separating Oven, and assay'd, and the Lead of it is to be cast into little copper pans, and the centner will contain 3 and a quarter, to 3 loths and a half of Silver, and the Keinstocks will remain in the separating Oven, and the Thornels fall down: Now, this is not used in the com­mon work, but only when rich Copper is to be taken to Section. 6 The Third Inlay upon rich Copper.the work, or the store doth increase.

To the third Work you must understand the third measure, which is called Rich putting in: the Additions are to be made thus, Take 30 Centners of rich and good Copper, and of the Thornels of Lead, 120 centners (in the whole 150. centners) then smelt all through the Oven, and draw the slacks clean off, and of these will come 40 pieces, and of one piece will come three quar­ters of a Centner of Copper, and three Centners of Lead, and these 40 pieces are to be assayed, and every time set 5 pieces on a separating Oven, and the Centner of this [Page 271] lead will contain near 3, and three and a half loths, and of this there will also come Keinstocks and Thornels like as of the second Work.

Section. 7 But to this third Work or Inlay, To one piece is to be taken a quarter of a Centner more of lead than to the first; the reason is, because to the first there hath been added Crackaw lead, which hath contained Silver: se­condly, because it is Copper: and thirdly, That so the rich works in the lead (which in the working are become Coppery) may also be included.

CHAP. XXIII. How Litarge Pieces are to be made.

Section. 1 LITARGE Pieces are to be made thus, First, their addition is upon a Shich, to 15 centners of rich copper add 15 Cent­ners of Thornels from the Assay-Oven, 60 Centners of Litarge, and 37 cent­ners and a half of slacks or fresh Lead, (in the whole 127 centners and an half: This stuff may be smelted in the Oven by a Master and his servant in 8 hours, and the slacks being clean drawn off, and then being cast into a pan, it makes 30 pieces; and in one piece, will be half a centner of rich Copper, and half a centner of Thornels from the Assay Oven, 2 centners of Li­targe, one centner and a quarter of slacks, or fresh Lead.

Section. 2 These mention'd 30 pieces of Litarge are to be assay­ed, and alwayes 5 pieces to be set upon the Assay-Oven, Litharge.and out▪ of this willcome the lead which is called Litarge­lead, and one Centner will contain 2, to 2 and a dram of Silver, and there will come also out of the Assay-Oven Keinstocks, and Thornels, as in the second Assay­work.

[Page 272] Section. 3 Another Addition upon Litarge pieces is this, They take 15 centners of copper, 15 centners of Thornels (from the Assay Oven) 90 centners of Litarge, 15 centners of slacks or fresh lead (the whole 135 centners) and out of this will come 30 pieces, and to one piece will come half a centner of rich Copper, and half a centner of Thor­nels from the Assay-Oven, and three Centners of Litarge, and half a Centner of slacks or fresh lead.

Section. 4 The before-mentioned 30 Litarge pieces are to be as­sayed, and set 5 pieces at once upon an Assay Oven, and the Centner of lead which comes of it will contain two to two loths and a quarter of a loth of Silver: of this also there is Keinstocks and Thornels, as formerly hath been mentioned.

Section. 5 When all the before-written assayed rich and poor The last In­lay. lead are brought together, they make this account upon it (whereby they may know to make an Inlay, (that is a quantity of it) so that a centner in the same Inlay of rich Copper and lead in the assay'd lead may contain 5 loths and a quarter of a loth of Silver, and this Inlay is to be made thus. Take 26 centners and a half of rich cop­per, and 115 centners and a half of rich and poor lead (that they may come upon the before-mentioned reckoning) so that a centner may contain 5 and a quarter, or at most 5 loths and an half of Silver; what is done above, is with dammage, and the ready copper will become too rich: In short, 141 centners and three quarters of a cent­ner, are also to be smelted through an Oven, and the slacks drawn clean off upon the foremost Crucible, and a Master and servant to make this shich or work into 42 pieces, so there will be to one piece 5 eight parts of a centner of the rich Copper, and of all the sorts of rich and poor lead, 2 and three quarters of a centner.

Section. 6 These now mentioned 42 pieces they assay upon an Assay-Oven, but no more at once than 5 pieces of [Page 273] rich lead, that one centner with the other may contain 5 loths and a quarter of Silver, and there will remain also upon the Oven Keinstocks and Thornels, which are fallen down, such Thornels which come of rich lead they separate, for they are the best, and are to be used again, and to be laid among the Litarge-pieces: Upon this poor Contenty Copper Assaying, meditate with diligence, for 'tis a profitable Instruction.

CHAP. XXIV. How Silver is to be separated from spizy and unclean black Coppers.

WHEN the speizy and very unclean Silver Contenty coppers are to be separated from other good coppers, then they use the prepared coppers, which are deft of themselves, though they are brickle and unsmooth, and are not to be used to all sorts of Works: to avoid this, prepare to assay such degenerate black coppers as follows: Take such black Coppers, and dress them like a black Licbeter Copper with help of the lead, by these means they will become clean and deft, and brought thus into compass, so that often­times of three centners hardly remains one, yet nothing of the Silver gone off, but what hath been before in the three raw centners, and this is to be found together, and then separate this prepared copper, with good copper, or by it self (as is usual) and in Hungary they use this care about the poor Coppers, though not very unclean, which in their separating is often try'd, and the coppers becomes rich by it.

But that you may see how the copper Ovens are [Page 274] formed, and how to assay upon them, this following Sculpture will shew.

Sculpture XXXII.
  • 1. The separating Oven as it stands fram'd.
  • 2. The Supporters to it made of Copper, as they are to stand under the Oven.
  • 3. The cast pieces as they are to stand in the Oven.
  • 4. The Walls of the Oven (or the four sides of it) and the fire in it, and how the Oven is brac'd with iron hoops.
  • 5. The stamp'd Pieces, and coals on the top of the Oven.
  • [Page 275] 6. The copper or iron little pans, with a man putting the melted stuff into them.
  • 7. The Keinstocks.
  • 8. The Crane or draught by which the assayed pieces are to be lifted out of the assay-Oven, or otherwise dispo­sed of.
  • 9. Instruments, viz. Ladle, Picker, Fork and Hook.
  • 10. The troughs or place to cool the Instruments in water.

CHAP. XXV. Instructions for driving Lead and Copper from Silver.

IF you have enough of that rich Lead, of which a centner contains 5 loths and a quarter of Silver, then prepare the driv­ing harth, formed with a Vault like a great Bakers Oven, and lute it with all diligence, and lay 100 Centners of this lead upon it, and six centners of the richest copper, which is to be pick'd out of the harth of the speize Oven, of which the Centner contains 10 to 13 loths of Silver, (which is call'd the stamp'd Copper,) drive the work, but not quite off, and if it make lead slacks, then quench it and retain the same lead slacks, so in this will be near 50 marks of Hungarian Silver.

Two drive harths. But there must be two driving-harths one near the other, and while you drive off the one work, the other must be prepared with diligence for the other, and then put upon it six centners of the richest Copper, and an hundred Centners of rich Lead, which contains 5 loths and a quarter of Silver, and drive off the work (as aforesaid) and when the Silver will almost go to it, then add the said lead slacks in which the 50 marks of Silver [Page 276] are, and let the work go quite off, thus you have 100 marks of Silver to 15 loths of fine. But such works are used to drive them off in 4 or five weeks, that common­ly one week with another, is reckoned to make 125 marks of Silver, and 'tis needful to such a driving off, to have 4 layes of wood, and you must not feed the fire upon such driving harths with long split-wood, but (be­cause the Oven hath a singular Vault) it must be fed with good dry faggot-wood, and let the Bellows go true upon the work.

CHAP. XXVI. Of driving the Keinstocks and Thornels.

Section. 1 KEINSTOCKS are prepared upon the said Assay-Oven; and if it be of rich or poor Lead, or Thornels or Litarge pieces, put them together in a driving Oven, and let there be four such driving Ovens, and in every one 4 Rows or lanes: up­on these you are to set all sorts of Keinstocks, near 120 centners, then make a fire of dry split wood before and behind the Rows of Litarge, and dry the Keinstocks about 12 or 14 hours, and that which runs first out into the Litarge rows (which will be but little) this pour out, and it is fresh Lead, and what remains of the Thornels will fall down in the rows, then they are to be melted to thornels, like those which are flowen out under the melting Oven.

Section. 2 Item, such Keinstocks which remain above those O­vens, are not to be boiled in the great speize Ovens (like the raw black Coppers) but must be beaten and knock'd that the shiffer and other uncleanness of them may be re­moved, [Page 277] and then put them upon the boyling harth, and drive the copper to be pure, and when the slacks are clean drawn off, then split the plates or cakes one after ano­ther, this is ready and deft copper, and so the remains that are in a centner of such ready copper will be almost a loth of Silver, and one doth take to a shich 4 harths to contain near 18 centners; there are to be two such harths or copper-ovens in the separating houses or sheds, Section. 3 wherein you may spleize or work all working dayes.

Copper Re­gulus. The slacks which are to be drawn off from the harths are to be melted again through a melt Oven, and a Re­gulus made of them, which is called a copper Regulus, which I judge to be like the Copper, made at Swatk, set them in a dry Oven and dry them off, from this the thornels will fall down into the rows, these must be melt­ed into thornels, (as above is mentioned) for such cop­per Regulus must not be wrought by it self, for they are speizy, therefore you must mingle them among the Kein­stocks, which are to be dryed, and you may make pure copper of them.

Thus you have sufficient Directions how Coppers Section. 4 may be assayed and separated.

But concerning the reckoning which (alwayes in such Section. 5 things) is necessary to be made known, I will not recite here, for every ones Practice will teach them, and the keeping of the Book is the surest Rule for it. The next Sculpture is thus

  • 1. A drying Oven.
  • 2. An Oven soon made according to the Hungarian way.
  • 3. A common and ready Harth for drying.
  • 4. Keinstocks, as they are to be pick'd and beaten by a man.
  • 5. Harths for the Hungarian speizing or working.
  • [Page 278] 6. Copper Cake, quench'd in a Cistern of Water by a man, 6. 6. 6.
  • 7. A Pipe and Tub that lets water into the Cistern.
Sculpture XXXIII.

CHAP. XXVII. A singular way of melting in the Assaying work.

WHEN flint or Copper Oars are intended Section. 1 for Copper, then the Oars are to be roast­ed well and stick'd through; and then to make it Copper it must be burnt and roasted again.

In such work one may surely know the Content of the raw stone, and also by the Content of the Stone (which is stick'd through the little Proof) how much Copper and Silver is in it.

When the stone for making of Copper is perfectly pre­pared and burned; then take of this roasted Common proof (among some other) and prove it by 2 or 3 proofs upon Copper, and then the Copper upon Silver, and when the Copper-stone in the roast is of unequal content, it is not well mingled, yet you will find in the content, a very small difference; yea sometimes none at all, and then see whether the content of Copper (of the roast) doth agree with the content before, which is found in the through burnt stone.

Therefore try whether you have all the Silver in the roast which was in the Copper-stone, if there be a diffe­rence Section. 2 Copper roastto 3 or 4 loths in a Centner against the other, then take the middle of it, and make your Additions thus, In case you have found in a prepared roast (through the little proof) that two centners contains three quarters of a centner of Copper, and a centner of this Copper contains twenty loths of silver. Then weigh of Section. 3 Addition of parts.that which is melted 2 centners of the roast, and set them asunder, one heap after another, and of eve­ry [Page 280] heap two centners of roast, and to every part weigh its due of Lead, that may alwayes come upon a loth of Silver, (which is in the Copper 18 loths of lead) or if it be good, 17 pound: and are to be weighed to the roast-heap which is weighed off, and because two centners of the roast do contain three quarters of a Centner of copper, (and must be melted through, to one piece) then after the common proof, three quarters of a centner of Copper will contain 15 loths of Silver; then weigh to it 15 times 17 pounds of lead, so upon every fresh piece will come two centuers 35 pounds of lead, and one fresh piece will weigh 3 centners 7 pounds.

But 'tis to be observed (in making the Addition of the lead) that you must know what the lead contains, viz. whether the centner had 1 or 2 loths of Silver. Then upon the same Silver which the lead contains up­on every loth must be counted 17 pound of lead; for the Assay-work must contain but 7 loths, if they contain more, 'tis a sign the Keinstocks is too rich, and the Sil­ver comes not all out of the Copper (as is before men­tioned) therefore if one hath lead which contains silver, such cannot be taken to the rich Coppers, for the fresh pieces are too great and receive too much lead, and the Copper will go through the Assay-Oven with the lead to loss.

Section. 4 But if one have copper-stone or poor copper which may Addition of parts.yield to 10 or 12 loths, to this it may be used; especially if it becomes good, then the Addition must be thus: If you find by the Proof, That 2 centners of the roast-stone contains three quarters of a centner, and one centuer of the Copper 12 loths of Silver: then in 3 quarters of Copper, or in two centners of roast-stone there will be nine loths of Silver; to this add the due of lead, upon every loth of Silver, 17 pound; and because one hath not other lead than what the centner contains in 2 loths of Silver, [Page 281] then there will come upon the 9 loths of silver, in the cop­per, and of the silver in the lead to one piece, 2 centners and 1 pound of the two loths of lead: but to a fresh piece you must not take all such weak lead, or which doth con­tain silver, but mingle it with the fresh lead that the silver may come out cleaner, yet for want of fresh lead, som­times such weak lead is taken as necessity requires.

Hard oar and Litarge Upon the common melting Furnaces, the Additions Section. 5 are made in stead of the fresh lead: with hard lead or Li­targe, and substract the waste, what might go off in the fresh, and in stead of the 100 pound fresh lead you must take 125 pound hard lead and Litarge; yet the Litarge and hard lead must be refreshed with fresh lead, else, at the last when the hard lead is too weak, there will be damage: This may be used also in this labour and mel­ting, if one have Litarge and hard lead that (according as above is mentioned) to add to the 2 centners of roast the competent weight of hard lead and Litarge, and let it go through the Oven, and then the fresh pieces are cast right.

Spar-stones. But possibly some person may say, It could not well Section. 6 be done for the spar-stones sake; yet it must again be considered, Though the spar-stones may be leady yet they will be very poor in silver, and therefore they are not spoiled, though they be leady and mingled with them, and so bring them among the Copper-stones, in the roasts, which will afford but little profit, therefore 'twill be more profitable to melt them.

Further observe, If one would melt the stone, and beat the hard lead and Litarge, care must be taken that Section. 7 one doth put in the hard lead and Litarge when the stone is in the Oven; and then the lead needs not stand so long on the harth among the copper and slacks, and thereby burn: but it were better to refresh the Litarge and hard lead fully (after the Goslarish manner) whereby you [Page 282] may make (with one labour in one day and night) 100 Centner of fresh lead which else is lost, but when the Ad­ditions are to be made with it after it hath been refresh'd, then there goes nothing more off in the little by-Oven, only that it will flow and work through amongst the Copper, and such refreshing of the hard lead and Litarge may be done (if one thinks it not too great a labour) that the work might go the better.

Section. 8 How to make the Oven and cast the fresh pieces.When the Melter thinks fit to shut the Melt-Oven, then he must make the Crucible in the harth a little nar­row and deep like a fresh Oven, and near that Oven an­other little Oven, in which the wind may drive, and wher­in he may also warm the added lead; and when he begins to set it, and hath two centners of the weighed roast upon the Oven, then he must put in some weak slacks, by which he may see when the two centners of roast are throughly done when those slacks do come, then he stops the hole of the Oven, and draweth off the slacks and stones from the Copper: and then take out of the by-Oven the hot lead, and the Copper in the crucible, with a warm ladle to reach into the crucible, and take out a ladleful or two, that it may come among one another, and then he must cast into the pan the first fresh pieces, and when it is cast then weigh it, by which you may easily see whether the desired copper be come: and when the first two centners of the roast are melted throughly, and the weak slacks do come and the Eye or hole of the Oven is stopp'd, then the Melter must set up another heap of two centners of the weighed roast, but whilst he casts the fresh pieces, the Melter must take out again the gathered Copper which flows out upon the harth, and warm another weight of lead in the little by-Oven, that the work may go speedily on, and not be hindred.

Section. 9 When these two centners of roast are set▪in the second [Page 283] time, then the Melter must put in again some of the weak slacks, and when they come, then he must stop it (as before) and draw off the slacks, and must take the lead out of the little by-Oven, and cast the fresh piece, thus he may melt continually as long as he hath Copper-stone to put in.

Such fresh pieces when there are enough, cast into the Section. 10 melting-Oven, and they are to be melted off, while other fresh pieces are melting and making.

The profit of this Assay work. This melting-work is (in my judgment upon such Section. 11 Copper-stones which yield copper) very profitable in comparison to the other: because you have the Silver quickly out of the copper, with the same Expence as is spent upon the black Copper making, and used with pro­fit, better than when they must first be melted in the copper, and afterwards with great Expence to be wrought, and the Silver to be assayed out of it. Upon which every one who useth to melt may further con­sider.

This also I think fit to mention for the Instruction of Section. 12 the common copper-Melters, so that all who care for it may be diligent in it: for this is not only a supposition, but proved in the great work.

What and how the Thornels (and other things which Section. 13 come by melting) may be melted and made to profit (as before is shewn:) the form of the Melting-Oven and of the little by-Ovens will be seen in the Sculpture following, which is thus

  • 1. The Fresh Oven.
  • 2. The little By-Oven for lead.
  • 3. The fresh piece, with a man lifting it.
  • 4. The Separation of roasted and weighed lead, brought by a man in a Wheel-barrow and laid in heaps▪
  • [Page 284] 5. The Vault for the Smoak and Dust.
  • 6. The Tunnels to convey away the Smoak.
  • 7. The fresh Oven without fire in the Furnace, or fore­wall.
  • 8. The Assay-Oven. 8. 8.
  • 9. The little Pans for the melted Metal.
Sculpture XXXIV.

CHAP. XXVIII. How Copper is to be made Brass.

TO the Brass burning as it is observed in Section: 1 Cauffingen in Hessen, and as before in the Copper dif­ferent in Countrys.City of Goslar and in Ilsenberg on the Haiz, they use Goslarish Lapis Calami­naris which is sometimes gathered out of the Smelt-Ovens, where (in smelting the lead Oars into 10 or 12 pieces) it ofttimes lyes about a hand thick; but the Lapis Calaminaris at Galmay mountains, and other mountainous places, (as those near the River Ach in Schwaben or Swevia, in the County of Tyrol in Austria, and elsewhere) breaketh yellovv and gray, and is to be added to the Copper to make them of a yellow Colour, and which is called Brass, but the Goslarsh Lapis Calaminaris must be roasted or burnt and ground small upon a Mullet made on purpose, and then they prepare it as follovveth.

To prepare Lapis Cala­minaris. They take one part of it, and tvvo parts of small 2 ground Coal well quench'd, and well mingled; dry them with one another, then pour a bowl-full of water upon the Lapis Calaminaris that it may every where suck it in, let it stand an hour and moisten together, but some use Ʋrine instead of water, and add a little Allum; this gives the brass a fair colour in the first fire: then they have a crooked Instrument and draw all well together 3 or 4 times, then mingle it with a proportion of Salt, and draw it again with the Instrument twice or thrice, thus the Lapis Calaminaris is prepared: but they make alwayes so much Calaminaris together at once, as will be needful for two Ovens.

[Page 286] When they make Brass they make round Ovens in the ground, so that the wind may force the fire through Section. 3 The Ovens for it.the holes below in the Oven, and in one of these Ovens they set 8 pots or pipkins at once, and let them be warm and hot, and when they are so, take them out quickly, and put the Calaminaris in them, also they have a sho­vel made on purpose, that therewith they may take up and know how to distribute near 46 pounds in such eight pots. Then they lay in every pot upon the Lapis Ca­laminaris 8 pounds of small broken Copper pieces, and set-in the pots again, and let them stand 9 hours in a great heat, and in this 9 hours are to be taken one heap and a half of Coals, and when such Coals are burnt out, then stir the stuff in the pot with an iron, and see how 'tis flow'n, and let it stand in the fluss, and graduation an hour more, then lift the pots out of the Oven, and pour them (if you will have a piece of Brass) all in one hole, and while the stuff is warm, break them, yet so that they may remain and lye close together.

Section. 4 Brittain stones.Thus the Brass receives in the breaking a fair yellow colour, but if you make Kettles of it, and other work, then cast the stone into great pots and large pieces pur­posely for it, which stones are called Britanish Stones, or Lapis Calaminaris, (because they come thence) from which they cut afterwards some Ingots; and from them draw wyers, and beat out what they please for other uses.

Section. 5 Sometimes the Brass-burner sets in the Brass once more, especially if they will have the colour higher, but 'tis not with profit to be done, for the expence is more than the gain.

Section. 6 The Propor­tion of Cop­per and La­pis Calami­naris.Further, 'tis to be known, That the Brass receives in such burning a heaviness, for if you put in these eight pots 46 pounds of Copper, so the Brass will receive in 9 hours an increase of 26 pounds of Brass, so one pour­eth out again 90 pounds of Brass, this comes from one [Page 287] Oven in the week, as to 14 fires) to 3 Centners 34 pounds of Brass increase: And others say, That the Goslarish Calaminaris brings more increase than the mountanous Calaminaris, but it makes the Brass in the breaking gray, therefore in the glowing you must take care, that the stuff may not run in the work; and it must only be made glowing with the flames of wood.

This I was willing to mention in short, how Copper is to Section. 7 be burnt to Brass, for their sakes who know nothing of it: But how the Kettles are to be beaten, and the wyer to be drawn and extended by water, is to be seen at Ilsenberg, in their works, and in many other places.

How the Brass Ovens, the Pots, Shovels and lifting Section. 8 Tongs are to be framed, and the Britanish stone dispo­sed of, the Sculpture following shews, thus

  • 1. The Oven in which Brass is to be burnt: the shape of it in the inside, and how the pots and crucibles are to be placed in it.
  • 2. The little brass Ovens are to be placed in the other.
  • 3. How the Pots and crucibles are to be formed.
  • 4. The shovel to take up the beaten Lapis Calaminaris stone, which is to be mixt with Copper for the making of Brass.
  • 5. The tongs by which the Pots are to be set in, and ta­ken out.
  • 6. The holes in the Oven.
  • 7. The pieces of the Britanish stone or Lapis Calamina­ris unbeaten.
  • 8. The place for the workman that sets in the Pots.
[Page 288] Sculpture XXXV.

Thus I conclude the Third BOOK concerning Copper Oars, and its Labour, with other necessary Instructi­ons appertaining to it; and the Reader may consider further upon them: as also of other things which he may have occasion to use.

The END of the Third Book.


CHAP. I. Of Lead Oars.

THIS Book shews how to prove Lead Section▪ 1 Oar for Lead, and how the common The Purpose of this Book.or unseparable light Lead Oars are to be smelted in the great smelting Work: next, how to prove an Oar for Anti­mony and for Spelter, and how to bring the Spelter out again: Also to try Tin-stones for Tin, and Quick silver Oar for Quick silver: Also of Iron stone and Steel stone, for Iron and Steel, with some Instru­ments for Tin sope works, and trying of Tin stone in the little Oven: and also of the wonderful properties of the Magnet or Loadstone.

Lead known from other Metals. Now, concerning Lead oars they are usually to be well Section. 2 known among the other Metal oars, for they are mostly grey, heavy, bright of colour like the Lead it self, and from Section. 3 Bright Oar.its brightness is called bright oar; and such bright colo­red Section. 4 White lead Oar. Lead oars are the richest, and contain above half lead: then there is white lead oar like a Sand-stone and red lead Section. 5 Red Lead Oar. [Page 290] oar, like a reddish clay, these Two, viz. the white and red are heavy, but not so rich in lead as the bright: also Section. 6 Yellow lead Oar. yellow lead oar mixt with grey, which is called, the Lead ram: These and such like Oars are counted the smooth­flowing and deft oars: and the heavyer they are, the more they yield in lead.

Section. 7 Flinty Lead Oar.But the lead oars which are poor, and taken from flinty, blendy or mountainous places, are either visibly or invisibly insperg'd or sprinkled with brightness (like the Lead oar at Goslar) and are very heavy: yet commonly no visible Section. 8 Ʋnsepara­ble lead Oar.brightness in them, they are somewhat hard and unflow­ing, yet they do partly separate and purify in beating and washing, but partly they do stick fast in the water, that one with the other remain unseparated.

CHAP. II. How to prove defty-lead Oars for Lead.

Section. 1 The mix­tures for it. PROVING of Lead oars do require dif­ferent observations (as in other oars, therefore the pure-soft and flowing-lead oars, you must prove thus, first grind the oar small, and weigh of it two cent­ners, and put it in a crucible, with twice so much fluss which is made of Copper oars) with a lit­tle Sandiver, and mingle it with a little filed Iron, after this put also on the top of the Crucible a half square fin­ger high of common Salt, press it down a little and co­ver the Crucible, and lute the joynings with a thin Clay, that no coals fall into the crucible, for that will do hurt, especially in the Lead-Proof, by reason the fluss will boil up in the Crucible, and the lead will not come to­gether in one grain, but in the slacks, like grains.

[Page 291] When your Crucibles is thus prepared with the proof, then set it in a little Oven, prepared for the proof of the Copper Oars, put fire in it, and when the Cruci­ble Section. 2 is glowing, blow very hard with a hand-Bellows, that How to dis­pose it into Crucibles and Ovens.the proof may have a strong heat, so that it need not stand long: then take out the Crucible, and let it be cold, then beat it asunder, and you will find below a grain of Lead, so much as the 2 centner-proof-weights will yield; then draw up the Proof-weights, and you will see how many centners of the bright or deft-lead Oar will yield a centner of lead.

Iron is to be added to the melting of lead. But to this proof must be added filed Iron, that the Section. 3 Antimony which is in the raw lead-Oar may touch the Iron rather than the lead, for if it had no Iron to con­sume, it would begin on the weak Lead, therefore in many places, in the great fire, old Iron, or Iron scales, slacks and sinders are to be added to the melting, whereby more Lead is produced: it hath also this service in mel­ting, that some Lead yields foul and unclean vvork, which by the Addition of the Iron becomes clean, for the An­timony or remaining Sulphur vvill give it self (in the melting in the Lead-Kilns) to the Iron, and will come away that so the lead may be pure.

But some Assayers pretend to set the Grain-lead Section. 4 upon a Test, which in proving is found below in the cru­cible, and let it drive, so it vvill become clean: which is false, for the Lead being a vveak-volatile Metal, easily consumes it self in the fire: therefore I judge that vvhen the proof hath once suffered the fire, the Lead vvill become good and clean, unless the grain of the Proof be not clean, and that there doth hang on the same Lead, ravv glimmer or stone, which is a sign that the Proof hath not received its due heat, which ought to be observ'd by the Assayer) and then he must make the proof once more.

CHAP. III. How to prove an undefty, Lead-Oar for Lead.

BUT the right lead Oars (which have with them some flint, or other harsh stuff) they prove thus: Beat the lead Oar into pieces, as small as grains of hemp, and weigh of them 2 centners, and set them in an Assay test in a proof Oven, and roast them, but make it not too hot at first, that it may not run together like Sinders (and do just as is above mentioned with the Copper-proof) then grind the roast-Oar very small, mingle it with the fluss (cove­red rindxwith salt) and you need no filed Iron to this, for it hath two contrary Sulphurs which consume one another, so that the lead will remain sure, then boyl the proof in the little oven before the bellows (as before) thus the lead will be right in the proof.

CHAP. IV. How to prove poor separable Oar by boyling it, and trying it by smelting.

Section. 1 A goodway of beating Oar. MANY times also Silver containing Lead glimmer do break in the Oven (being insperged with stony-Oar) but when you have a separable Oar, let it separate it self from the glimmer in the water, viz. when the Oars are beaten that they may be drawn in washing and cleansing to a pure Oar: of these [Page 293] I must mention something for the good of the Mine-workers, what difference is to be observed in the beat­ing, because oftentimes by Negligence comes dammage; but first of the try-proof in the little work.

Take a common proof of the light oars, beat it small Section. 2 and mingle it well, weigh of it by the Proof-weight 20 centners, more or less, and draw it into a Tub to a clean Oar, and gently separate this from the light, and weigh how many centners of clean oar, the wash'd common oar will yield; and then you may easily reckon how many centners of common oar will yield a centner of good oar; and this pure oar may come to be so by the beating, sif­ting or washing it, (and do waste and prove, as above) but the good clean and bright oar is proved upon lead; thus you have the content of the Lead.

Now concerning the beating in the great work, the Section. 3 lead Oar you know is a heavy Oar, yet 'tis subtile and easy to be beaten into dust, which swims upon the wa­ter, and goeth forth; especially, if the same be in a glim­mery or flinty, or horny stone (which Quarryes or horn-stones do afford) to which add the glimmer in beating, and make it dust, and this subtile dust (which is the best of the Oar) doth oft times yield a blew, dust which will lay it self on the great walls or stones in the wash­ing, and comes to no profit.

Section. 4 A hurtful Beating.But, some use the Beaters or Workers (which build the Beat-works) to prepare thus the wet-works, viz. That the hindmost stamping Pestel which beates the light or rocky Oar from behind, and beats against the lamins or plates; understand it in this manner, That the hind­most Pestel may fall first, then the middle one, and at last, the first next the Plates.

This beating is not profitable because it causeth great dammage, by reason that the beaten stuff or rocky Oars set themselves before the Plates, so that the graind Oar [Page 294] cannot well come through, but beats it self into a small or subtil dust, and goes away in the beaten or wash'd Section. 6 stuff, therefore many Washers esteem the dry-beat Works Difference in Beating.better, where one may work over the Seeve, and have the great and small Oars asunder, and also make more sorts than with the wet work, which is found that if the wet-beaten work is built and prepared thus, the poor or rocky Oars will be beaten back from the plates, viz. that the Pestle nearest the plates will fall first, then the middle one, and at last, that which is behind, thereby the plates will remain clear, and the holes will not be stop'd, but the water will carry the pure Oar through without hin­drance, whereby not only more Oar will be preserv'd, but also the Oar may be made great or small, and so to greater profit: and having found this in the work, I would not leave it unmentioned being so fit for every Mine-worker and Assayer to know.

CHAP. V. How to try common Lead-Oars for Lead, in a little Oven.

LIKE as the Copper Oars (mentioned in the Third Book) are to be try'd in a little Oven, so may it be done with the Lead Oars, especially if they are ve­ry clean, right and good, let them be thus beaten raw, as small as half an Ha­zel nut, then set them upon a little Oven, but it were better 3 or 4 pounds of such small beaten oar might be laid first upon a Test, and gently roasted, and then beat­en and roasted again, that its great wildness may come off, and so the lead will easily separate from the slacks without other Additions.

CHAP. VI. How the inseparable and light Lead Oars are to be assay­ed in a little Oven.

CONCERNING the light-common-Lead-Oars, Section. 1 which do not separate in the water, they must be beaten in like manner as is spoken of the separable; on­ly they must be roasted somewhat better, and when they are thus prepared, then melt them through the little Oven, but when the lead is In the little Ovennot come altogether, then beat the slacks very small again, and take the clean lead from it, as you separate the stone; Now when the Lead oar is flinty (if one be diligent) then weigh the lead which is cleanly separated, and make your account how many centners of Oar may yield a centner of Lead; but if the lead oar be very coppery, 'tis to be roasted, whereby in the proof melting the Copper will come among the lead, therefore it must be separated upon a very flat harth, and you must cause the lead (as above in the Copper proof direction) to run off with a gentle fire, and so the lead will become clean, and the Copper will remain setled, and this makes clean work (as you are taught before.) But the little oven for proving the lead oars must be prepared (like to the Copper Oars and flints) that you may bring out the slacks and lead very clean, as such practise will shew.

Section. 2 In CruciblesBut in the Assay Crucibles the proof must be thus: Take the light lead oar, grind it small, weigh two Cent­ners of it with thy Proof-weight, set it upon a proof Test in the Oven, let it roast till it stink no more of Sulphur, then grind it small, put it in a little Crucible with four [Page 296] centners of the fluss (which is used to the deft lead Oar) put in it also melted Sandiver, and cover it with Salt, lute it with clay, and let it boyl in the little Oven before the Bellows, blow more strongly to this proof than to the clean bright proof, and thus you have the Content right.

Section. 3 Ʋnroasted.You must also know, That every lead Oar may be proved unroasted; thus, Grind it small, weigh two centners, use the fluss to it (according to Instruction given) only with the Sandiver take among-it raw Argol, mingle it together, cover it with Salt, and the crucible with a covering: Lute the joynings with clay, and set it in one of the little Ovens, blow strong to it like to a Copper proof (as above) thus you will find the Content of the Lead.

CHAP. VII. How to make a Lead-Proof on a Table or in a Stove.

THE Lead oar to this proof must be ve­ry clean and good, take and roast it a little, then make a fluss of two parts of good clean Salt-Petre, and one part of small ground Coals mingled together, put two parts of this fluss, and one part of the roast Lead Oar also well mingled into a Crucible, cast a little glowing coal in it, then it will begin to burn, and the Lead which is in it will flow together, and although this is an uncertain proof (not to be trusted to) yet thereby one may learn to know the property and nature of Minerals.

CHAP. VIII. How to make Lead Oars (though they will not separate in the water) to be profitable.

ALTHOUGH I intend not to write much of the smelting, and thus to mingle what pertains to the smelting and lesser proving; yet I could not but leave som­what to signify of smelting of the light lead Oars, because 'tis necessary, and no common labour, but to many unknown.

Section. 1 Rocky lead Oar.The Lead-Oars which are poor, and will not separate in the Water, are flinty Glimmer, or such as come from unseparable Oars, and yet to be made to profit (if one have a pretty quantity of them) but not by the com­mon smelt-work or arch'd Oven, for there the wild and sulphury slacks of the oars consume the Lead very easily, Section. 2 The Sul­pher Slaks▪ devour the Lead.that almost no Lead, or not half so much as in the little proof is found or can be made, but only after the useful melting at Goslar, with which the light contenty lead Oars of the same place are to be smelted in a great quan­tity, and by no other ways, as by me and many others have been tryed.

But that you may have a sure Instruction for this work, and how such volatile oars may be help'd, I shall therefore describe the whole Goslarish Method, which they use in preparing their Ovens, &c.

First, I will signify what manner of Lead-Ovens there are at Goslar, and what they contain, that one may the better find out what doth follow.

Section. 3 Goslarish Lead Oar.The Lead Oars at Goslar are commonly black Oars, also a white-gray flint with insperged Copper flint, and [Page 298] are very shining, which Glimmer is not to be seen in the Oar, but apparently in the melting and slacks, a Centner of the best of that Goslarish oar (if there appear not Glimmer) doth not contain above 16 pounds of Lead, but of the common Oar (mingled among the flint which cannot be separated from it, and breaketh the most) usually there is but 7 pound of Lead, and of the light­est less: this also hath an Oar Quarry which stands inter­mixt with it, and this Oar is to be roasted in very great Ovens, and to every one three fires given; and then a Centner will contain but little above 5 pound of Lead, and one dram of Silver (notwithstanding it contains more before the roasting) which I judg doth come of this, that in the roasting such Oars there comes among the others, light and good; and therefore the Content is more equal, and these 5 pounds of Lead, and one dram of Silver are for the most part melted out in the Smel­ting.

Section. 4 Two melt Ovens upon one water.Secondly, In the same place must be no more than two Smelt Ovens to one spring (though the Melters think (if it might be so for the Waterfalls-sake) that it were better that every Smelt Oven should have his own spring and wheel, because every one might order his Bel­lows most advantagiously, which must be with great might and with heaps (as will be shewn) to force the Oar through the Oven: yet it is at all times set through the smelt Oven nearer the Wheel, than through the other, and so where is more set, there is more Lead made, and with more profit of the Coals.

Section. 5 They make such Smelt ovens inward, within a wall of Smelt Ovens.two bricks and a half deep, and two bricks wide, and the Walls above it, two ells and a half high, of Shiffer­stones which are not thick, that one may, when he will, break out the Oven for the Lapis claminaris, which grows in it (as hereafter you may hear) for the Shiffer [Page 299] or slackstone in the same place will very well indure the fire, and they do lay the foundation of the same two ells deep under it, crossways; that it may go out against the bellows, yet some foundations extend or reach to the wheel-room, but I do not approve of it, for it they become moist thereby, or draw moistness to it self, then it is hurt in melting, therefore it matters not a little that the smelt Ovens be right in their wideness and hight, as also that the Foundations be in their right places, that no water may come in, not too deep nor too moist, for if the water go on the Foundations, then the stuff in the Lead will not separate nor work well; also that the forms may lay right according to every kind and condi­tion of the Oar, neither too sharp nor too flat, which should be fitted that the Bellows may blow in the midst of the stuff in the Oven, just near the forewall; The smelt Ovens at Goslar have very great Bellows, of six Ox hides to one pair, to force the Oar through in great quan­tities, therefore the Bellows must be strong.

Section. 6 Two Crvci­bles for the Lead.Concerning the Crucible in the Oven, it must be made thus, Lay upon the Foundation a great stone, which is called the Crucible-stone, upon this they make a harth of Clay, mingled with little slacks, and upon it, another harth of Clay, and when 'tis dry they wash the Crucible which is half in the Oven, and half out, the mid­dle standing right under the Wall) with burnt Oars of a thumbs thickness, and when 'tis dry and well warm'd, that it will glow very well, and become firm in the Cru­cible like steel, then the smelt Oven is prepared till the clo­sing: but such a Crucible must be to the smelt Oven five quarters of an ell deep, and without the oven, it must so bend it self that the Lead may come to stand before the oven in the Crucible, and not in the oven.

Section. 7 The Closing the work in the Ovens.When all this is done, then they put a vessel with Coals in the warm Crucible, and upon the Coals three [Page 300] Vessels full with light coal-dust, which they make thus: They make on the Wheel on the end of it a Beater or Mallet, and as the wheel goes round about, then the Mallet falls down twice upon little hard coals, which the servant of the Melter, when he hath time doth put under with a Shovel, albeit it is a slow work, yet they make so much dust with it as may serve two ovens, for they are not willing to lay so great a burden upon the Wheel, but they beat no Clay with it (as they use in the dust in other Smeltings) then they moisten their Coal-dust, and force and beat them with some heavy thing, into the Crucible in the oven, (commonly with an iron Beetle) that it may not come upon one another, and also before the oven, vvhere they make it a little higher, that the slacks may not flovv out, and leave a hole open belovv on the oven, under the forewall, (which is called an Eye) that one may almost reach his hand into the Oven.

Section. 8 Of kindling the Fire.After the preparation and closing of the oven, they put on the Top of it glowing and other Coals, and after that a dray or tvvo full of their slacks, then coals again, upon it the burnt oar, and so continually coals and oars till the Oven be full to the top, also they lay before it live coals, but not many, only that the dust may remain warm near the fore-vvall, vvhere the slacks flovv out: Novv vvhen the oven is set full, they stay till the fire burn in the Oven, and then they begin to melt, and make the Oven vvet, vvith vveak slacks, as in other meltings: nei­ther have they Iron-stones, but copper which is to lye pretty far in the oven, for the Iron gratty slacks vvill de­vour the Iron stones quite in tvvice vvorking, which they do not so easily to the Copper: yet in time they do con­sume also, so that they must be renevved once in a quar­ter of a year.

Section. 9 Their time to melt is 23 hours, in this they set into one Oven 66 to 70 Centner of roast oar, and the oar vvill [Page 301] flovv like vvater, and vvorks it self very fresh, and there is nothing else to be taken to it, but only the burnt Oar.

Now, when the Melter lifts off the uppermost slacks, Section. 9 (which is very heavy and thick) the rest under it will stand very clear, and then with a great iron Ladle he pours them out, which will run like lead, so fresh as they are, and the slacks look like a melted slack-stone. But the lead creeps through the light dust in the Oven, and hides it self under it near 23 hours, and therefore the wild Sulphurish slacks cannot reach it, nor the long during heat consume or devour it.

Opening the Oven. When the Melter hath observ'd his time, then he Section. 10 opens the Funnel below, and takes out the light dust to­gether with the slacks which are settled in it, and whilst the Melter is drawing the dust out of the Oven, a servant must gently pour water, that the Melter may endure the heat, and when all the dust is drawn out, then the Melter with his fork stirs the Lead in the Oven below, so that all the Lead may come together, then he casts the Lead into the harth standing by the Oven, and it must be kept warm continually.

Of the Cakes or Sows of Lead. Out of this he draws it into Cakes or sows of Lead Section. 11 (according to the old Fryberish Method, and brings out of the 60 or 70 Centner of melted Oar (in such a time well melted) near three centner of Lead, of which one cent­ner contains 4 loths of Silver, and the rest of the Lead and Silver will remain in the slacks; and though there be almost as much yet remaining, it is a Wonder that so much should be produced out of a poor contenty stub­born Oar.

But if you would melt other Oars besides this (after Section. 12 the Goslarish Method) you must be careful the Oar may vvork it self fresh; for if it do not, then you must help it, for the light dust cannot suffer the very soft slacks▪ also [Page 302] when the light lead Oar contains pretty much Silver and little Lead, then at all times, according to the con­dition of the Oars, there may be added hard Lead, that the Silver may have a refuge into the lead.

I must signify, that in the melt Oven of the Goslarish Lead oars, they lay on all four walls of the Oven a gray with a yellow mingled matter, every Row or Lay as Section. 13 Galmay, or Lapis Cala­minaris.thick as a straw bredth) which they call Galmay, used in the brass-melting (and adding as you have heard in the end of the Third Book:) and this matter must be put out of the melt Oven after 8 or 9 Rows or Lays are made, else the Oven will be too narrow, so that no more can be melted in it with profit.

Section. 14 Thus much I was willing to mention of Lead oar and Lead, that every Mine and Smelter, who will imploy himself in it, may know how every one may be help d; for 'tis a weak tender Metal, and may in Smelting quickly be hurt: And, 'tis manifest, if this way of Smelting of poor light oars of Goslar had not been in­vented The Goslar Mine 700 years conti­nuance.(by which they make their Lead) neither the Ci­ty, nor the Mine-work could have been thus long useful, having continued these 700 years, and by the help of the Lord may longer continue. The following Sculpture

  • 1. The The Walls of the Furnace.
  • 2. The Lines on them, shews the Gradations of the Me­tal descending.
  • 3. The man that manageth the metal in the furnace.
  • 4. The back of the Furnace with the coals and pieces of metal flaming.
  • 5. The grand Test.
  • 6. The Oven for that Test.
  • 7. The pieces from the Test.
  • 8. The man that beats the Oar.
  • [Page 303] 9. The pieces of Oar and Cinders.
  • 10. A heap of Charcoal.
  • 11. The water-troughs to wash the Oar in.
  • 12. The Pipes by which the foul water is cast out.
  • 13. The Instruments for the Furnace and Tests.
Sculpture XXXVI.

CHAP. IX. Of melting Oars with Moll or Turf.

BECAUSE some years since the Mi­ners and Smelters have pretended that all sorts of Oars might be melted with Sods or Turff (as the Saxons call it) I could not omit in this part, but give the Reader my Judgment. And because the Oars are not all of one sort, but partly harsh and hardy, and partly mild saft and flowing, and that the Turf yields very heavy and much Ashes, which in the Melt The proper­ty of the Molls. oven comes to be a slack (almost like a Glass) I judg it must not be used at all to the weak oars, to which this separating Work is unprofitable, for through their ma­ny heavy Ashes the weak flowing oars are hindered, and the Oven thereby stopped, and though you use half coals with it, yet it would not turn to profit. But what are harsh-hot-graty Oars (especially roasted lead oars by help of Coals) may be melted, and it will be serviceable, for they will work themselves more separable and deft: so that one need not much other addition (as aforesaid.)

But if one would melt such harsh Oars with Turf on­ly, I fear the Oven will be stopped many times, by which the work will be much hindred; therefore I conclude it better to melt with Coals, than with Moll, Sod or Turf.

CHAP. X. How to prove Spelter or Wizmet Oar, which some call Bizmuth.

SPELTER Oar is a white heavy Oar, and Section. 1 yields among other Oars the most flow­ing Metal, which needs no singular Pains to melt it down: But there are two sorts Two sorts of spelter Mel­ting.of melting it, in the Wind, and before the Bellows; as will follow: for, if you will prove this Oar, how much Spelter it may contain, then grind it small, and weigh a centner of it, and two centners of the fluss (before spoken of, made of Argol and Saltpeter) mingle it, and put it in a Crucible, cove­red wit Salt, and cover it, Lute it with Clay, and boyl it up in a little Oven before the bellows, like (to a flowing Lead proof) thus you will have the Spelter below in the Crucible like a lead Regulus; draw it up after thy proof weight, and you will find how much Spelter a centner of Oar yields: but, till of late, we had not the vvay to melt so much out of the Oar, as hath been found in the proof, and the difference is alike, for we finde almost the half part more in the little proof, vvhen the Spelter Section. 2 The Differ­ence of the Content.is melted out of it: But, as it hath been mentioned in the Tin-slacks (vvhich by a strong fire vvill melt the remaining Tin) so it is possible to do vvith the Spelter.

To melt on the wind. But to melt the Spelter out of the Oars tvvo methods Section. 3 are used: one by the wind, the other by Bellows: the vveakest sort of Spelter Oars are to be melted on the wind, vvhich is to be done thus; Take of the Oar, and beat it to little pieces, about the bigness of Walnuts, and put it in little iron Pans (set in order) that they may [Page 306] spread abroad, and set them in the field in the winde, and make a fire of dry wood, so that the wind may bring the flame into the pans upon the Oar; thus the Spelter will flow quickly out of the Oar into the pans, and when 'tis almost flown out, stir the Oar about, that what the flame hath not touch'd yet, may be melted all out.

Section. 4 This is the true proof for the Spelter oar (and the right melting) because after this, can nothing more be melted out of it; then lift the pans off the fire, and put out the oar, and make the spelter clean, let it be cold, and put fresh oar into the pans, and melt continually; this spelter so melted is the best and cleanest, and some centners may be made at a melting, which melting is clearly to be seen in the following Sculpture.

Section. 5 The other way of Melting it, is thus, make the Oar To melt in the Oven.clean and beat it small, and prepare a little Oven, a good span wide below, and four spans high, and above two spans square, then place a weak Bellows (like a little Smiths Bellows) behind, and in this melt the spelter Oars or slicks with wood and soft Coals; and before it be all slacks, draw it out of the Oven into a trough of wood, made on purpose, and in this stir the glowing Oar to and fro, and so the spelter will flow together, then Zevar Co­lour.separate it and make it clean; what remains at last of the dross (by either way of Melting) makes a blew colour in great quantity, and may be used for glass to give it a blew, 'tis here and there sold to the Glass-houses.

[Page 307]

Sculpture XXXVII.
  • 1. The little Iron Pans for Spelter or Wismet Oar.
  • 2. The fire of vvood for them.
  • 3. Melted Spelter that is to be made clean in the iron Pan, and the work-man that tends it.
  • 4. He that draws the Oar out of the Mine.


Section. 1 ZWITTER or Tin-stone whereof Tin Tin-stone or Zwitter.is made, is heavy Oar, yet the Metal which it produceth is the lightest of all other Metals; the Zwitter is to be known by its brown colour, which in­clines a little to yellow, yet the rich Zwit­ters are black and of fine growth, and so smooth as if they were polished, and very rich in Tin, yet sometimes the Zwitters are found in another form like Iron stone, or a pointed woolferan Oar (which the old Miners have not known) therefore 'tis needful to prove the Zwitter with diligence whether it be Tin-stone or not, and whe­ther it yields much or little, that the Mine-workers may the better know what to do.

But the Tin-stone, as well in the little proof as in the great work, must not only be burnt, but also purified clean before the melting, otherwise it yields not so much Tin, as when cleanly prepared.

Yet, 'tis to be known that every Tin-Mine-work hath a singular manner to prepare the Zwitter or Tin-stone, which is to be admired.

CHAP. XII. How to prove Tin-stone for Tin.

Section. 1 The way of Proving it. ALTHOUGH the proving of the Tin-stone how much properly doth contain a centner, be an uncertain proof, yet by it thus much may be learnt, that one may know whether the Tin-stone be good or light, likewise what happi­ly [Page 309] may be made of Tin, and to know its true content, and the most common way to be used therein is as here­after followeth.

First, when you have taken a common proof of the Zwitter, or well-beaten Tin-stone, then grind it small, and weigh of it vvith thy proof-weight vvhat you think fit, and dravv that which is vveighed off into the slick or dross, and weigh that too; then set it in an Assay-oven upon a test, and roast it in a pretty heat, and when it is cold again, grind it, wash that which is light in a wood­en trough, and weigh the clean slick again, and observe how much goes off from the slick in the roasting and shifting, and do this two, three or four times, till the stone is very clean, and that nothing more goes off from it; thus 'tis prepared to the proving.

In the Coals. Of this prepared Tin-stone weigh two Centners, and Section. 2 mingle among it small ground Pitch, and take a glowing hazel or Lime tree coal, or any other that doth not spring or break in the fire, but remains whole, cool it in the sand, and cut in it a Channel, and at the further end of the Chanel, make a little hole, into which put the mingled Tin-stone above, upon the broad place of the Channels, and lay upon the same Coals, other Coals, just as broad as the first, for which you must also have a hole below and above, that the Bellows may blow between, and lute the Coals on both sides, that they may remain to­gether; and when 'tis thus prepared, lay it together with a cool temperate fire, so that the Tin-stone may come above and in the little hole (in which the Tin is to flow) lay glowing coals upon it, and blow it with the Bellows, so that the blowing may just move upon the coals in which the Tin-stone is, so the Tin will flow out of it with a fresh flame, then lift the Coals out of it, and let it cool, and weigh how much Tin the two Centners of the prepared Tin-stone hath given, then you may make [Page 310] account how many Centners of the common Zwitter yields a Centner of Tin, this I judge the surest proof.

Section. 3 With the Fluss.Then one may weigh off the prepared Tin-stone, and with the fluss (made of Salt-peter and Argol mingled, and put into a Crucible and covered with Salt) boyl it in a little Oven (like to the Copper Oars) with the Bel­lows to give the Proof a strong and suddain heat: for the Tin will burn easily in a strong fire, and so you will find how much Tin the Tin-stone doth contain.

Section. 4 Vpon a sud­den Heat.But the Tin-Melters have a singular proof upon the bucking, and wash'd unburnt Tin-stone, namely, to cause a shovel to be very glowing hot upon which they put the Tin-stone that remains upon it, and springeth not off, and doth colour it self, this they account a good Tin-stone, but if there be much false Oar among it, they may see it, and I judge it more needful to prove the Tin this way, because you may know whether it be good or bad, and vvhat may be made out of it, but for those who have not long conversed with it, or well understand it, 'tis better to use the first proof.

CHAP. XIII. How to try Tin-stone in the little Ovens.

WHEN the Tin-stone is cleansed and burnt, then weigh an half, or vvhole pound or two of it: and set it through the little Ovens (as before is taught of the Copper and Lead Proof) and melt it with the Bellows, without any other Addition, whereby you may fully see how much Tin-stone it yields: but observe, if you will set the Tin-stone in the little Oven, or will melt it, 'tis to be put in [Page 311] wet, and no small or smooth Coals used to it, for the Tin cannot suffer the heat, like Copper and other Me­tals.

CHAP. XIV. Of beating and preparing the Zwitter.

BECAUSE in preparing the Zwitter, Section. 1 commonly so much Tin-stone cannot be made and washed from it, as in the little proof, which I do impute to the useful and long observed beating, be­cause the Pestels fall not (as I have men­tioned above in the Lead-work) I judge the other beat­ing (though not tryed and prepared upon the Zwitter­work) not to be unserviceable for the dressing it; but by it more Tin-stone is obtained, and it stands with Rea­son, because thereby the Lead-oar may be profitable to the Zwitter or Tin-oar which I leave to every ones con­sideration and pleasure.

To melt old gathered Slacks. There comes often many profitable works to light by Section. 2 trying, which otherwise would have been lost; as lately the Melting the old Tin-slacks which have lain long useless; also upon a new Method, that you need not melt them as before, through the Zwitter Oven, but over a common Melt Oven, which is used to raw Works, and may always add fresh, making it not only much but also good Tin.

But because commonly the Melters make not out of Section. 3 one Vessel of Tinstone, so much Tin as out of the other▪ that is not as I judge in burning and preparing; but the fault is in their way of Melting, else it were not possible to melt such Tin out of the slacks, as now is proposed.

[Page 312] I must further instruct the Reader, That I am of this mind in preparing and melting the Tin-stone, because 'tis Section. 4 sure, That out of the common Zwitter so much Tin The loss in Burning it.cannot be made in the great proof, with the usual beating and melting, as is to be found in the little proof, because in beating and melting, there may be loss, (as above is mentioned) therefore it follows, That to this preparing and melting some better ways may be invented, in my Judgment sutable to this way.

Section. 5 The way of burning it.For the Tin in melting cannot suffer so much, and is more volatile in the fire than Lead, and good clean Tin-stone goes off as well in beating, burning and washing as the Lead oar: and I judge it more profitable and fit to be tryed, that the Tin-stone be left in grains, and then well burned, but not made half so clean, as to the now usual melting; and when it is melted over the light dust with Goslarish Melting.strong blowing (after the Goslarish Method) under which the Tin may hide it self, and remain sure, for the slacks and great heat: and I doubt not but by this way, out of 60 Zwitters may be made more Tin than in the com­mon way of melting, considering the light Contents of the Goslarish Lead oars (are as is above written) which doth not separate in the water nor are made clean: but of the Lead which is in it, (as it is said) one Cent­ner commonly contains but five pound of Lead, by rea­son of the light Content, and the many flints vvith the Oar, vvhich vvill not let it vvaste avvay, and in no other Melting can Lead be melted out of it, as by the admirable vvay of Melting in this place is discovered; vvhereby I judge this trying vvould not be fruitless, if it vvere truly tryed, yet I leave it to every ones considera­tion. But if the Goslarish Method should not be used to this, then I knovv that through their Melt-ovens it can no vvays be done▪

CHAP. XV. An Instruction for Tin-stone Work.

THERE are many sorts of Tin-stone Section. 1 Working: some being rich and some poor; in the Stone, and in the washing there is much hurt by the great waters which the Tin-workers use, by which so much of the Tin-stone as is flowing and subtil runs avvay, so that for two, three or more Miles the Tin-stone is found under the Water: which in my Judgment may be the more profitable, because a full Mine-Tub of the Wash-work yields commonly one Loth of clean Tin-stone, and may be set over the Seeve-work and washed, so as a Wash-man may do as Seeve-Work.much in one day, as two Boys can bring.

But such cleansing must be in a Tub of water with a hole in the bottom, that the slicks may fall through upon a plain harth, and yet the Tub be always full of water, and in this the Tin-stone is to be driven over the plain harth made clean and preserv'd.

By this Work, if in one day 400 Mine-Tubs were filled and made clean (to which there needs but four persons) there might in a Weeks time almost half a Centner of Tin-stone be made clean and gathered, and this were to better profit than the other usual way; but I leave it to every one's pleasure.

XVII CHAP. XVI. To prove Tin Additions.

Section. 1 YOU must take clean Tin, wherein is no Addition, cast it into a round Ball in a frame (made on purpose) cut the Ingot clean off, and take the Tin you would prove against it, and cast also of it a round Ball like the other, and cut the Ingot also clean off, weigh the Balls against one another, as the pure Tin, and if they weigh alike, then they are of one sort of Tin, but if one Ball be heavier than the other, Section. 2 The light Tin the best.there is Addition either in the Melting, or put to it afterwards; but the lighter the Tin is, it is the better: but to know justly the Addition, you must have a par­ticular weight made on purpose▪ and when the Addi­tion is found, then such proof must be weighed against the clean wrought Tin, and the Tin Vessels made for the Tin, upon divers Mine-works, will have a difference on the weight (as is mentioned of the Coppers) and the Proofs will not agree.

CHAP. XVII. How to prove Antimony.

ANTIMONY is a fine heavy Oar bright like Lead, yet spizy, and in Germany and Bohemia it is found in great quantity, yet some better than other: and now, because it is used in some matters, I will shew the best way how to prove it: viz. [Page 314] Beat two or three pounds of the Oar small, put it in a pot vvith a hole at bottom, cover it, and set it on ano­ther pot, Lute the joynings, and set them between Tile-stones XIX in the fire, that the lovver part may be cool, and that the fire may not touch it, let the upper part stand in a glowing heat, so the Oar will flow easily, and also the Antimony from it through the hole, then cool it, and take out the Antimony, so you will see how much Antimony those pounds of Oar will produce, and accor­dingly you may order your self.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Quick-silver.

QUICKSILVER is a fine red and brown Oar, like Gold Oar, partly deft and partly insperged in the Mine. To prove this Oar it cannot be done in an ordinary fire (as the other Oars are, Quicksilver Oar▪nor melted out of it) but as a spirit must be driven off in a strong distillation, for its Metal is in the fire volatile like a spirit.

CHAP. XIX. How to prove Quick-silver-Oar for Quick-silver.

FOR the accomplishing whereof, the best way is to take half a pound of it, or somewhat less, beat it as small as half a Nut, and put it into a Retort or other well luted Instrument, and drive the spi­rit into another Instrument laid before it [Page 316] in water or other moistness, thus the vapours or spirit will presently resolve it self in the coldness or wetness in­to Quick silver: But if one hath no Retorts, he may use a well luted glass Bottle, and set upon the Bottle a Helmet (which hangs over) in which water is to be put, and the joynings every where well luted, that no spirit may go out, then let the Retorts on the Bottle in a little Oven, and make first a gentle fire with wood, then stron­ger, thus the Quick silver will drive it self from the Oar in the coldness or wetness, for the Quick silver loves cold­ness and moistness, and avoideth the heat as its Enemy: Now when you have found Quick silver in the proof, weigh it, and then you may see how much the Oar was which was set in, whereby your reckoning may be made accordingly.

But concerning melting of Quick silver in the great Jugs. Work, do thus, beat the Oar small as a little nut, put it into Juggs (made on purpose) in each about four pound: then prepare a flat harth of moistned Coal-A­shes, on which set round Tests, three square fingers deep after one another, and turn upon it the Jugs fill'd with Oar, stop it well with the moistned dust, about the Tests and Jugs: then make a wood fire upon it, and the Quick silver will avoid the heat, and seek the cold which it finds in the Test below.

This Labour in the great Work is to be seen in Ger­many, and in many places upon the Mine-works.

CHAP. XX. XXI Of Iron and Steel-stone, how to know and prove them.

IRON-STONE is brown, and its co­lour is so that commonly it looks like roasted Iron; but the best and rich­est Iron-stone its colour is blewish, like to a dug Iron, and some of these Iron-stones are Magnetish, and draw the Iron apparently, which proceeds from their hidden heat, as shall hereafter be discoursed of.

CHAP. XXI. How to prove whether the Iron-stone be rich in Iron.

Section. 1 Try'd by the Load­stone. SO this by the Loadstone; therefore if you will try the Iron-stone, roast it (though some take it unroasted) grind it small, and take a good Loadstone, turn or draw it about with it, and the good will hang all on the Magnet, stroak it off with an Hare's foot, and lift the Iron-stone up again with the Magnet as much as it can bear, and if at last any re­mains that will not be drawn up, that stone is drossy and not good: Thus you may see whether a Mine hath Iron, or whether the Iron-stone in it be rich or poor in Iron, for the Magnet (as is said) lifteth up no other Metal but Iron and Steel.

[Page 318] The Steel-stone and Iron-stone are alike, though not in colour, some look like yellow sparr, this the Magnet will Section. 2 not lift up raw: nor some Iron stone at all; but if By the Steel­stone.you roast the Steel stone, it colours it self, and is like the colour of the rich Iron stone, and then the Magnet will lift it very easily, and sooner than the Ironstone: and then the Iron may be made (with a long and strong heat, and with hard Coals in a Secret glow) without dammage to good Steel, and the common Steel by Smith-working will turn into Iron again.

Section. 3 When such proof is found by the Magnet that the Ironstone is good and rich, then the Hammer-smiths (with their Additions) use further to prove and try it, in the great fire.

Section. 4 The Iron stone being of an hot Nature, will not flow To melt Iron. stone.or melt with a small fire, as Gold and Silver will, but it must be a great and strong fire, and when 'tis forced to flow out of the Iron-Ovens, many Instruments may be cast, and its hot Sulphur will flow from it: also upon melting of it, somwhat of its substance will come out, and though it be refreshed in the fire with fresh Ironstone, yet so much of its substance will go from it as it hath lost in the first melting. But when the Iron stone is to be mel­ted in the high Ovens, or in the running work (with a true Addition as every Ironstone requires) then let it force it self, yet the twice melted Iron is best for use, and most deft for to work.

Thus much of the Ironstone, how to prove what it yields in the little work: But how the Iron may be boyled into Crocum Martis, as also to get Vitriol out of the roasted Iron (of which the Philosophers write much) and how the Iron is to be wrought after several Manners and Methods, and hardned: But all this be­longs not to proving of Metals, and so it falls not un­der [Page 319] my Instructions, but the Reader is left to find out other wayes.

CHAP. XXII. Of Magnets.

LOADSTONES or Magnets being mentioned in BOOK II. CAP. II. and in this IV. BOOK, I will discourse some­thing of its Nature and wonderful Pro­perties, because there is none amongst all Jewels which doth so naturally shew its Virtues as this Jewel or Magnet, and therefore I will let the Reader understand what Serapion an old Philo­sopher writes of it in his Book De Simplicibus & Mi­neralibus, where he sayeth thus, Take the Magnet, lay it in an earthen Vessel, and add much of Calx viva, lute the Vessel well about with Plaster, and make a great fire un­der it, and let it stand in the heat till the fire goes through the earthen Vessel that it may well glow; then set the earth­en Vessel with the matter to burn in a Potter's Oven, till the overluting be consumed on the Test, then take the Loadstone out of the Vessel, and mingle it again with Calx viva three or four times, and let it burn as before, and when 'tis taken out of the Oven the fourth time, then hold the Magnet in such a place that neither the Wind, Water nor Dew may come to it, nor any other Moistness, till it be cool, then beat it small and add yellow Sul­phur, in like weight; Thus the Magnet is prepared, and if one do drop Water only upon it, a great fire will spring out of the Magnet, which would burn all that it toucheth.

[Page 320] This was Serapion's Opinion, against which I have nothing to say, whence the Magnet doth so vehement­ly love the Iron, and the Iron the Magnet, as though they were both of one Nature, and created one for the other; the Magnet being very desirous of Iron, and draws it to it self with its whole Power, and the Iron presently shews it self by springing to it, and so remains hanging on it.

The Magnet is also called the Sail-stone, for the Sail­ors look upon it as their Chief Instructor in their way upon the Water, far and near; namely, after they have touch'd the little tonge or Needle in the Compass with the Loadstone.

Also the Magnet is used to the Compass Needle, in the Mine-work, and to direct their Glass and Audits; and also in the famous and worthy Art of Mark Schiden. Separation: and also with common Miners, the Sun-Compass is very useful; so for Brevity sake, I will conclude this Fourth Book: and desire the Reader, for this time, to be con­tented with the Instructions I have here given.

The END of the Fourth BOOK.


CHAP. I. Of Salt-Petre.

IN this BOOK Salt-Petre Earth is descri­bed, Section. 1 and its Properti