THE SIX SECONDARY CAVSES OF THE Spinning out of this Vnnaturall Warre.

By D. P. P.


The harvest is past, and the summer is ended, and yet we are not saved.

Octob. 19. 1644.



LONDON, Printed by George Miller, 1644.

To the Reader.

IF a small Sparrow cannot fall to the ground, nor Mat. 10. 29, 30, 31. a haire from our head without the will of our Heavenly Father; we may be the more confi­dent, that nothing shall nor can be fall to us, in this unnaturall Warre, except it be by the spe­ciall providence of God: for it is he only that disableth or in­ableth the secondary Causes, according as his will and pleasure is to humble, or to blesse us. And therefore if it doth seeme to some, that I impute the spinning of this Warre, more then I should to the secondary Causes; I intreate them to be more cha­ritable in their constructions; for my only aime is, to show, that the first and essentiall Cause is our sinnes, impenitency and ingra­titude for mercies heretofore received of our gracious God, that hath been inforced by them, to disable the secondary Causes from executing that as they might otherwise have done, if he had not intended to humble us for the aforesaid transgressions. Neither doe I as they may suppose, expose these secondary Cau­ses to the publique view; out of any private ends, or Cynick humour, to barke at, on to consine the actions of these times; (though I may boldly say; that it is not by our wisedome, po­licy or experience in Warre, that we are in so good a condition but by the meere mercy of our gracious God) but out of a desire to contribute my mite, to the advancement of the true Reforma­tion begun, and to lend a weake helping hand to draw this Civill warre (with the helpe of God) to a blessed and a more speedy end, that is spinned out by these secondary Causes. And so Prest,

Thy humble servant in the Lord, D. P. P.

The Contents.

  • I. THe retarding of the true Reforma­tion.
  • II. The delay of Justice.
  • III. The neglect of occasions, opportunities, or ad­vantages.
  • IV. The divisions and contentions that are a­mong us.
  • V. The strange Method of our Warre.
  • VI. The want of perseverance.

THE SIX Secondary Causes of the Spinning out of this Vnnaturall Warre.

The first Secondary Cause, is, The retarding of a True Reformation.

ALl the faithfull Ministers of God that were resident in this famous City, and that are come to it from all the parts of the Kingdome, as into a Sanctuary, to preserve themselves from the cru­elty of the Cannibals of these dayes; or that have been summoned to settle the Doctrine and the Discipline of the Church, according to the Word of God, and the forme observed in the best Reformed Churches of France, Germany and Scotland; Have not yet been able, by their infatigable labours, fer­vent prayers, orthodox Doctrine, profitable exhorta­tions, and loving admonitions, to mollifie our hearts, or worke in us a true and a cordiall Reformation; but rather like a stiffe necked people, we are growne more licentious in our lives and conversations, then we were before this [Page 2] great light of the Gospell did appeare to us as a morning Sunne; which impenitency and hardnesse of heart, should be lamented, if it were possible, with teares of blood, be­cause it is not to be parrelled; for it doth exceed that of Nineveh, for they converted themselves unto the Lord, and turned from their Jonah 3. 8. wicked wayes, by the preaching and the the threatnings of the Prophet Jonah; But alas! the preaching of all these faithfull Messengers of God, nor the Judgements that have been inflicted these three yeares upon this Nation, cannot move us to feare and ap­prehend the last Rev. 15. viols of the wrath of God, that are rea­dy to fall upon our heads, so insensible and stupid are our hearts, that they seeme like Nabals heart, to be turned into 1 Sam. 15. 7. stones: And yet there never was more Fasting; nor more dayes of Humiliation, nor prayers addressed to the Throne of Grace, in this Kingdome, then there is at this present time, and since these warres began; What may then be the reason, that our prayers are rejected at this time by our gracious God? It must assuredly be this, That our Fasts, our humiliations and our prayers, are all formall, and not sincere; and that we applaud the 2 Tim. 3. 5. forme, but deny the power of godlinesse; and that we serve God with our lipps, and deny him in our hearts; we bowe downe our heads for a day, like a Isa. 68. [...]5. bulrush, but all the moneth after, instead of mortifying our lusts, we inflame them by our carnall cogitations: Instead of examining our selves, and diving into the secret corners of our de­ceitfull hearts, we censure and reprehend the carriage and actions of others; instead of being lowly and humble in our own eyes, we are swollowed up with pride and selfe­conceitednesse; Mat. 7. 5. we can see a straw in our brothers eye, but we cannot see a beame in our owne: We are apt with our father Adam, to transfer our own sins upon others; Gen. 3. 5. [Page 3] or like the hypocriticall Pharisie, blesse our selves, when we are worse then Publicans; we can say, such a one is Luk. 18. 10, 11. this, and such a one is that, or these mens sins are the cause of our present miseries, but we doe not put our hands up­on our brests and confesse ingeniously, Lord my sins have a greater share in these publike calamities, then any other mans sins: O let us then in the Name of God, returne un­to him; judge our selves that we may not be judged, let us sweep before our own doores, and the streete will be soon cleansed; I meane, let us every one in particular mortifie our own corruptions, reforme our lives, manners and con­versations, 1 Cor. 11. 31. and abhorre formality the Rev. 3. 15. Laodicean tem­per; and be fervent, sincere and zealous in the wayes of righteousnesse; and not seeme only to be righteous, but strive to be really so; for by this spirituall dissimulation, we may deceive others and our selves, but we cannot de­ceive God, that searcheth the hearts; and will reward us, not according to our faire showes, but according to our reality or hypocrisie: And this personall Reformation, will be a good step to the Generall; which will never be attained, if every one of us doe not endeavour in particular to reforme our selves. And as concerning the Generall Reformation of the Doctrine and the Discipline of the Church; we are all bound to petition to the Honourable Houses of Parliament; that they would be pleased, to make the same the first worke of their unparrelled labours: And that it may have the precedency of the Civill, Poli­tick and Military Reformations; because the blessed issue of these last, depends altogether upon the setling of the first; as I will endeavour to make it appeare by these rea­sons following.

1. Our gracious God is a jealous God, that abhorres all mixtures of Religions; and hath been pleased to teach us, [Page 4] to prefer his Glory before all other respects: And that all other ends set apart, we are to give in all our consulta­tions and reformations, the precedency to the purity of his service, as he hath given us a president for it in the first Table of his Exod. 20. Commandements; wherein the Spirituall duties, have the precedency before the Morall, that are contained in the second Table. And this order hath been religiouslly observed by the Prophets, and the good Kings of Iudah; and out of a certaine instinct of nature, that teacheth men to reverence the Deity, by the very Heathen; as it may be collected out of the lives of Lycur­gus, Solon and See Plutarch in their lives. Numa Pompilius, the Legislators of the Lacedemonians, Athenians and Romanes: Now if we omit, out of carnall ends, to render unto our gracious God, that reverence that is due to him from us, in regard of his glory and worship, his jealousie will be so speedily inflamed, and his wrath so kindled against us, that we shall rather draw his judgements upon our heads, then blessings upon our Civill, Politique and Military enterprises.

2. As the feare of the Lord is the beginning of wisedome, even so the reestablishing of the purity of his service in the Church, is the first meanes to obtaine from him, in time of distresse and affliction, store of mercies and deliveran­ces; this point may be proved by may instances out of the Book of Iudges; when the children of Israel were pre­sently delivered, from great servitude and tribulations, (that were fallen upon them for neglecting the purity of See the whole Book of Iud­ges. the service that God had appointed them, to goe a who­ring after Idols, and strange Religions) as soone as they set a reforming hand to the Church abuses, and returned and cryed, with sincere hearts to the Lord their God. The incomparable Mercies and deliverances that God was pleased to give to 2 King. 193 350. Hezekiah King of Iudah, may also be a [Page 5] speciall Instance for the Proofe of this point; for they proceeded from the zeale he had at the beginning of his raigne to reforme the Church of God of all the abuses and Innovations that were crept in the same, in the time of Ahaz his Father. And the great Love and Mercies that the Lord shewed unto 1 Kin. 22, 30. Iosiah, may be another fit In­stance for the proofe of this point; for they sprang from that unparalelled zeale he had to reforme the abuses and idolatrie that was crept in the Church, and had defiled the Purity of the Service of God, in the time of Amon his Father; for in zeale, and diligent love and affection to purge the Church, and to establish a true and cordiall Reformation in Judah, he exceeded all the other good Kings of Judah; And therefore the Lord did for his sake delay and retard the judgements that he had long before intended to send upon Jerusalem, and granted him that mercy, as they happened not in his dayes; nor was not af­flicted with the sight of the lamentable desolation and de­struction that befell presently after upon the Citie, the Temple, and the whole Nation of the Jewes. Out of which Instances may be collected, That there is nothing more acceptable unto God then when Kings and Princes, or Magistrates doe begin their Reformations, and dedi­cate the Precedencie of it to the affaires of the Church, in case of reestablishing the true Puritie of his Service and Worship. 3. The retarding of a true Reformation, and reestablishing of the Purity of Gods worship is dange­rous in three manner of wayes to a Kingdome or Com­mon-weale. 1. Because diversitie of opinions in Religion breeds contentions; for alienation of affections are most apt to proceed from the contrarietie of opinions in points of Religion, as there is no greater bond to linke mens affections together, then an unanimous assent of judge­ment [Page 6] in matters of doctrine and discipline of the Church, and of that Religion they openly professe. And therefore it is no wonder if contentions and divisions doe abound among us, since every one is suffered to entertaine what opinion he pleases in points of Religion. Now publike contentions breed mutinies, combustions, and at last fa­ctions and an intestine warre; for the proofe of which point, we need no other instance then our owne miseries; for if the Popish Religion had been kept under in the Raigne of King Iames, and in the Raigne of his Majestie that now is our Soveraigne, this unnaturall warre of ours might according to humane reason and probabilities have been prevented; for by the raising of some of that profession to great honours and preferments, they have, to subsist and strengthen themselves, withdrawne the Person of his Majestie, and alienated his Love and his affections from his most faithfull Parliament, and from the rest of his most Loyall Subjects, whereby jealousies have been fomented, two parties formed, and this intestine war pro­cured. 2. The retarding of a true Reformation in the Church makes this Reformation more difficult to be performed; for since this warre begun, and this licentious libertie of opinions in Religion hath been connived at, the one partie is increased in Poperie, idolatry, superstiti­on, Profanenesse, Atheisme, Impietie, and Crueltie; and the other in Separatists, Independents, Brownists, Anabap­tists, Antinomians, Socinians, and Libertines, that like so many Giants oppose Godlinesse and a true Reformation; for a Civill warre, and a licentious liberty of erroneous opinions is Satans harvest, and the time that he soweth his pernicious seed in the field of Matt. 13. 25. Wheat of the painfull husbandman, and makes it increase as the weeds doe in a garden after a soaking showre of raine, or multiply like a [Page 7] swarme of Bees in the beginning of the Summer. And we see by experience that these Sectaries are not onely multiplyed into incredible multitudes, but are become also so impudent and bold, as to expostulate and make Apologies for to obtaine a free Liberty of Conscience, as they terme it, to cover their licentious and impious pro­jects, that is, to doe all manner of evill, and to teach all manner of heresies, and unheard of opinions; And that they may say and act what seemeth good in their owne eyes; As if there was neither King, nor a Parliament, nor any Magistrates in this Kingdome to suppresse and keepe them in awe; As there was none in Israel in the time of Judg. 17. 3. Micah that made a molten image and worship­ped the same in stead of the living God. Even so if their request were granted (which God forbid) we should have more sects among us then the Egyptians had deities. And such an Olio Podrigo of Religions as never was in any Nation, which would speedily produce a confusi­on, and this confusion would immediately after bring forth a generall desolation upon the land in lien of a true Reformation. 3. The retarding of the reestablishing of the Purity of the Service of God in our Church, makes many to stagger, not knowing on which side to stand, when they consider the one side infected with profanitie and impietie, and the other with Sectaries and Liber­tines; whereas if the Doctrine and the Discipline of the Church was published and settled, the true and faith­full Messengers of God that are among us might then be bold to propound to the people in their Sermons and publike Exhortations as 1 Kin. 18. [...]. Elijah did to the People of Is­rael this Quaerie, If the Lord be God, follow him; If Baal, follow him: for we cannot halt any longer between two opinions. Moreover this Galimafrey of Sects and Reli­gions, [Page 8] and the licentious, profane, and impious men, that shelter themselves in our Armies, in the Citie and Coun­ties, are the very Josh. 7. 1. Achans that are the cause of all our disgraces; for they foment the contentions that arise be­tween our Commanders in Chiefe, betweene their Offi­cers, between the Lievtenants and the Committees of our Counties: Nay, they dare presume to foment them in our Senate, Assembly, between the Magistrates, in our Militia, Hals, Citie, and between the Citizens and Com­mon People, to the end they may subsist and fish in the muddy waters of these Civill distractions; And there­fore there is no likelihood that a true Reformation may be procured before these Sectaries and licentious persons be banished into the unknowne Islands, that the venome of their contagious tenents may not infect no more any of the simple or ignorant souls of these three Kingdomes. I am not ignorant that the Honourable Houses were ve­ry fervent at the beginning of this Parliament to give the precedencie of this intended Generall Reformation to the affaires of the Church, and to the restoring of the Pu­ritie of the Service and Worship of God, and withall to have cleansed the Kingdom of this vermine of Sectaries, and accursed thing of licentious and impious men, as a most proper and peculiar work for such wise and pious Senators. But alas, our sins were the cause that this fer­vour was quenched, and that holy resolution retarded by the cunning of Satan, and the deluding insinuations of his agents, I meane, of the Prelacie and Jesuiticall faction, which under the colour of the publike good, infused the venome of these contagious positions into the hearts of men, That there was neither Wisdome nor Policy to esta­blish so speedily the Presbyterial Discipline in the Church of England, because it would deprive the Parliament of [Page 9] the great contributions that might be collected out of the multitudes of these Sectaries, that would rather goe be­yond the Seas, or side with the enemy, then to submit or conforme themselves to that Discipline; and that it were safer to delay till these differences were nearer to an Ac­commodation. Wise and carnall men, but blind and igno­rant in spirituall things, this Counsell being like to prove as fatall unto them, as the counsel that 2 Sam. 16. 21. Ahithophel gave to Absalom (to enter into his Fathers Concubines at noone day; that he might make him uncapable of reconciliati­on with his father) was to himselfe, for it was as pernici­ous in a two-fold manner. 1. That the Contributions of these Sectaries might prove among the Contributions of the Children of God, as the mothers that breed or come in a piece of rich cloth, that consume and spoile the same in a short time. 2. That by the conniving at these Sectaries against the speciall Word of God, we might be made ir­reconcileable with our gracious and heavenly Father. And for to make this pernicious Counsell more plausi­ble, they said it was the Policy of the Hollanders, that doe indeed give a free Toleration to all sorts of Religions, because they are of all the Nations of Christendome the most addicted to the Laodicean Temper, and will doe any thing for gain. But this carnall Policy of theirs is like to prove fatall unto them; for this Toleration of Re­ligions hath already fomented so many divisions and con­tentions among them, that will in all probabilitie be the cause of their ruine, if they prevent it not by a speedy and a cordiall repentance: for a Kingdome or a Common-weale divided within it selfe cannot Matth. 12. 25. subsist; And it is a wonder and a great mercy of God that we are not already consumed, for never was a Kingdome more rent with di­visions and contentions then England is. Now it stands [Page 10] not with the Honour, wisedome and pious inclination of the honourable Houses of Parliament to prefer carnall Counsels before the good of the Church of God. They may be as prudent as serpents, and as simple as doves; but to allow of, or connive at a small evill, to avoide a greater, it is not convenient to the Zerubbabels and the Nehemiahs of our times; they are rather to say, Should such a Nehem. 6. 11. man as I slee? or should such men as we displease God, in con­niving for a time at Sectaries for their Contributions? Alas, these contributions are vanished away like the chaffe that is driven away by a whirle wind, such a blow as we have had of late in the West would swallow three yeares of their Contributions, and who can tell if it were not for their Toleration that it was given us; and that these warres might have been ended two yeares agoe but for them; But I am sure that Josh 7. 25. Achan was to be stoned be­fore the Army of Israel could overcome Ai; And that Jonah 1. 15. Ionah was to be cast over-board into the sea, before the ship and the Marriners could obtaine a calme. Nay, the erectors of our New Jerusalem are to be like Moses, that rejected the honours, riches, and the pleasures of Egypt, to suffer reproach and affliction with his brethren, the Children of God; And like Zerubbabel and Nehemiah that forsooke the great preferments that they had at the Court of Cyrus and of Artaxerxes the two great Kings of Persia, for to erect the second Temple, and restore the pu­ritie of the ancient Service of the Jewes. Now so much more as the building of this New Jerusalem doth exceed in worth and infatigable labour, the reedifying of the old, and as much as the restauration of the puritie of the Service and of the true Worship of God doth exceed the ancient Service of the Jewes. So much should the Ze­rubbabels and the Nehemiahs of our daies endeavour to ex­ceed [Page 11] in courage, fervour, and zeale in this great worke and acceptable Service of the Lord, I meane, in perfect­ing this true Reformation in hand. But because they are but men, and subject to the like passions and infirmities as we are, we are all bound in generall, and every one in particular, to addresse our fervent prayers to the Throne of Grace, That God will be pleased to indue them with all such abilities of courage, resolution, wisedome, and unitie, that they may speedily erect the foundations of this so long hoped for Jerusalem upon the Rock of the true Word of God, that it may stand like Mount Sion for ever immoveable, notwithstanding all oppositions whatsoever, of the roaring waves, of the swelling bil­lowes, and of the inraged seas of these Civill distractions, to the great Glory of God, to the everlasting Consola­tion of his Children, and to the immortall honour of the Erectours.

The second Secondary Cause, is, The Delay of Iustice.

THe Heathen Poets to induce men to reverence Justice fained her to be a Goddesse descended from Heaven, wearing a skarfe over her eyes, holding a paire of ballan­ces in her left hand, and a naked sword in her right. To intimate by her skarfe, her impartiality; by the ballances, her wisedome; and by the sword, her activity. By her impartiality she is to make no distinction of persons, whe­ther they be noble, rich or poore, she is to doe Justice to all. By her wisdome she is to poise a right all actions, occurrences and circumstances whatsoever, to aggrave [Page 12] or moderate her censure or judgement; by her activity, she is to be speedy, avoiding delayes and reprives; for time is a producer of accidents that perverts & hinders the exe­cution of Justice, and so farre doth naturall morality in­struct men concerning Justice. But Gods Word and the Principles of Christianitie doth informe men, That Ju­stice is ordained of God, and one of his greatest Attri­butes; for he is as Just as Mercifull; and that he hath in­trusted the sword of Justice to Princes and Magistrates to execute impartially, justly, and speedily Justice and Judgement upon the sonnes of men, that are naturally prone to evill and backward to good by the seed of their originall corruption that remaineth in them, which like Tinder is apt to receive the sparkes of the fire that Satan strikes by the steele of his tentations, out of those carnall objects that are more sutable to their naturall inclinations. Now this aptnesse to evill, increased by the allurements of Satan, doth inflame their affections to all manner of licentious desires, and by degrees drawes their will to as­sent to the execution of them, and this execution or in­joyment of sin doth create an habite in evill, and this ha­bite produceth an allowance of sinne, that bringeth forth a shamelesse impudencie to uphold all manner of im­piety; and so by degrees conduces them to a hardnesse of heart, and without a speciall Grace of God, to a repro­bate sense, that would carry them head-long like wilde horses to eternall confusion; if God by his Law and his restraining Spirit did not bridle their licentiousnesse. Therefore knowing the naturall disposition of men; he was pleased for to curbe their wicked inclination, to write with his owne hand upon two Tables of stone his ten Exod. 20. Commandements, for the regulating of his owne elected people of Israel, over whom he committed his [Page 13] servant Moses, and intrusted him with the sword of Ju­stice, as his speciall Deputy, to administer Justice and Judgement to his People; But he finding himselfe over­burdered with so great a charge, by the Counsell of Je­thro appointed divers other subordinate Magistrates ele­cted out of the wisest men of all the Tribes of Israel, that judged the people, but only in some difficult cases, that he reserved to himselfe. Now these ten Commandements have been and are the Ground-worke of all other divine and humane Lawes, that have been multiplyed from time to time, according to the increase of the malice and the impiety of men. For in the yeare sixe hundred of the Foundation of Rome, the Romanes had no Law for See the Anti­quities of Rom. Pa­ricides, but at that time an impious sonne having mur­dred his Father, a law was made he should be sowne up into a lether sack, and cast alive into the River of Tyber. But it is not the multiplicity of Lawes that makes a Nati­on happy, it is rather the speedy and the unpartiall execu­tion of them; for it fals out too often, That delay of Justice is meere injustice, because many men are undone by the long and tedious delayes of Justice, and divers are con­strained to suffer wrong, rather then they will consume their estates in procuring of Justice. Now if this multi­plicity of Lawes are suffered to have a nose of wax, that may be turned or construed on the right, or on the left side, as the Judge pleaseth; Or like unto the she Spiders webb, that serveth onely to insnare small slyes, that the male Spider may devoure them; but permits the bussing Waspe to breake thorow the same without impediment; they will be like so many Leaches, to suck the bloud of the common people, and in a short time cast a Kingdome into intestine contentions, as ours is at this time, and all for want of the execution of the Lawes and wholesome [Page 14] Statutes that were established in Edward the sixth and Queene Elizabeths time against the Recusants and Secta­ries. The speedy and unpartiall execution of Justice is then the very Atlas that supports and maintaines a Kingdome in prosperitie and Peace; It entertaines for­raigne confederations; It drawes the blessing of God up­on it; It foments love and unity among Subjects; It in­creaseth Trade and commerce betweene Merchants, and between Citizen Trades-men and countrey people; Nay, it is the very Court of Guard of all his Majesties Sub­jects. In a word, the Omission and delay of Justice is odious to God, destructive to Kingdomes, and fatall to families and private men, the which I will endeavour to prove by Instances. But that I may goe on in a Methodi­call way, I will in the first place insist upon the danger of the delay and the omitting of it. Secondly, upon the bene­fits that accrew upon the speedy and unpartiall execution of it. And thirdly, how acceptable a thing it is to God if Justice be uprightly administred, and how odious it is to him if it be delayed, or neglected. 1. The Omission of Justice by Titus Livius, decad. 1. lib. 1. fol. 89. Tarquinius the Elder upon Sextus Tarquini­us his sonne for the Rape of Lucretia was the cause that he and his Posteritie were deprived of the Romane Mo­narchy. 2. The Omission of Justice by the nine Decem­viri upon Appius Claudius their Collegue for his injustice and impiety concerning Virginia was the cause of the death of that chast Titus Livius, deca. 2. lib. 3. fol 351. Virgin, of the abhorred end of Appius, & of the perpetuall banishment of his nine fellow tyrants. 3. The Omission of Justice by See Plutarch in Demetrius his life. Demetrius King of Mace­donia to his poore Subjects, for they having tendred him many Petitions to have their grievances redressed, he cast them all into a river, whereupon they were so incensed, that they refused to assist him against his forraine ene­mies, [Page 15] and so was deprived of his Kingdome, and taken prisoner by Seleucus the great. 4. The Omission of Ju­stice by See Plutar. in Alexanders life. Philip the first King of Macedonia upon some of his Favourites, that had abused a Gentleman in his ho­nour, that petitioned for redresse, was the cause that he was perfidiously murdered by the same Gentleman, con­trarie to the Lawes of God, that doth not allow a Sub­ject to avenge his private wrongs, or to conceive an ill thought for them against his Soveraigne. 5. The O­mission of Justice by the See Plut in Pelopodias life. Ephores of the Lacedemoni­ans upon two of their Military Officers, for the commit­ting of a Rape and Murder upon a Country-mans daugh­ter, was the cause that the Father of that Virgin slew him­selfe out of despaire, and that those two Officers and sixe thousand Lacedemonians more were slaine in a battell, fought close to the very same towne where that Rape and Murder had been committed; Plutarch affirming that the Gods were impatient to suffer any longer their delay of Justice. 6. The Omission of Justice by Cicero and some other Senators upon Iulius Caesar that was of the Conspi­racie of See Plut in Cicero's life. Catilina, was the cause of the losse of the Ro­manes Libertie, and of the miserable end of Cicero, and of the greater part of those Romane Senators. 7. The Omission of Justice by See Pierre Mat. in the Hi­story of France Henry the fourth King of France upon the whole Societie of Jesuites, inhabiting his domi­nions, for an attempt made upon his sacred Person by a Student of their Societie, was the cause he was three years after perfidiously murdered by their instigation by that horrid Paricide Ravilliac. 8. The deniall of Justice by the Inhabitants of See Iudg. 20. 20, 35. Gibeah for the Murder committed up­on the Levites Concubine, was the cause of the death of forty thousand Israelites, and of the utter extermina­tion of the Tribe of Benjamine, six hundred men only ex­cepted. [Page 16] 9. The Indulgence of Eli to his two 1 Sam. 4. 17. sonnes Hophni and Phineas was the cause of his suddaine death, of the miserable end of his sonnes, and of this heavie curse upon his Posteritie, I have sworne, saith the Lord, unto the house of Eli, that the wickednesse of Eli's house shall not be pur­ged with sacrifice nor offering for ever. 10. The Omission of Justice by King 2 Sam. 13. David upon Amnon his sonne for the Rape of Tamar, was the cause of the Murder of Am­non, of the rebellion and of the miserable end of Absalom. 11. The Omission of Justice by King 2 Sam. 20. 1. David upon the house of Saul, because he had contrarie to the Oath of the People of Israel destroyed the greater part of the Gibeo­nites, was the cause of three yeares famine in Israel, that ceased not before Justice had been executed upon seven men of the house of Saul. 12. The Omission of Justice by 1 Ki. 20. 42. Ahab upon Benhadad was the cause of his death, and of this fearefull denunciation against him, Thus saith the Lord, because thou hast let goe out of thy hands a man whom I had appointed to die, thy life shall goe for his life, and thy peo­ple for his people. For the second, of the benefits that accrew by the speedy and unpartiall execution of Justice. 1. A certaine King of the Locresians having made a Law against See Plut. in his Opuscui. Adultery, That whosoever should be convin­ced of it, should have both his eyes put out; His onely Sonne being the first, he immediately caused his sonnes left eye, and his own right eye to be put out before all his Subjects; to authorize his Law, and to execute Justice; for which he was reverenced, beloved, and honoured by all men in his life time; and is in these dayes admired for his unpartiall execution of Justice. 2. Lucius, Titus Livius in his first de­cad. lib. 2. Iunius, Brutus first Consul of the Romanes having been infor­med that two of his sonnes, divers of his Nephewes, and many young noble men had conspired to deliver up the [Page 17] City of Rome to Tarquinius, he caused them to be appre­hended, sate with the Judges at their Triall, and being convinced, accompanied them to the block, perswading the executioner to rid the world speedily of such Trai­tours to their Countrey; and so by this unpartiall Ju­stice of his he preserved his Common-weale, and was so beloved and honoured of his Citizens, that the Romane Ladies mourned a whole yeare for his death. 3. Titus Titus Livius in his first de­cad. lib. 9. Manlius Generall of the Romanes having caused to be proclaimed thorow his Army that none upon paine of death should fight against any of the Latines their ene­mies that were incamped within a mile of the Romanes Camp, his sonne being appointed the next day to disco­ver with a Troope of horse the posture of the enemie, was challenged by a Chiefe Officer of the enemies horse to a single fight, that came also to discover the Posture of the Romanes; but he refused the Challenge, because of his fathers Command; yet being overcome by the insolen­cie of his enemie that accused him of cowardize; he ad­vanced before his Troope, and fought with him, slew him and carried away his Horse and Armes; and was con­ducted with a great part of the Army in a Triumphant manner into the Camp: But comming into his fathers Tent he was apprehended, tried, and executed in the pre­sence of his father, notwithstanding the great intreaty of the Officers of the Army, Titus Manltus answering, either. I must by the naturall compassion of a father overthrow for ever the Military Discipline of the Romanes, in par­doning my son so great an offence, or by an unpartiall Justice preferre the good of my Countrey to my sonnes life. This unpartiall Justice of his upon so valiant a son, although it seemed rigorous to the younger sort, yet the ancient Senators did greatly commend it, for it fell out to [Page 18] be very profitable to the Romane Common-weale, be­cause it maintained their Discipline in force for a long time untill Scipio his dayes, the which was revived again by this noble action following. 4. Publius Scipio Ge­nerall of a great Army of the Romanes in Spaine, having in a manner finished the warres, and reduced that King­dome under the Romans yoke, fell sick at new Carthage; upon the report of his perillous sicknesse, eight thousand Romane souldiers that lay in an intrenched Camp, neare to the river Succo some twenty miles distance from Car­thage, to preserve the confederate Counties from the in­cursions of the enemies, began to mutiny for their pay, and some licentious souldiers among them fomented the same, and after they had driven away their Colonels and Captaines that opposed their rebellious actions, they made choice of Albinus Calenus and Atrius Vmber, two licentious common souldiers for their Commanders in Chiefe, and entertained correspondencie with Mandonius and Iudibilis the Generals of the enemie, and so fell a plundering their associated Counties, hoping to inrich themselves without danger, upon the report of their Ge­nerals death; but Titus Livius, decad 3. lib. 8. Scipio being somewhat recovered and past danger, he sent presently six well-affected Colo­nels to informe them of his recovery, and to perswade them to submit themselves to his mercy; whereupon they began to consult what they should doe to prevent their ruine, and so resolved to leave their Armes in their Camp, and to goe to Carthage for their pay, and to re­cover their Generals favour, disdaining any longer to submit themselves so low as to be at the beck of two such base and ambitious fellowes as Albinus and Atrius, whereupon Scipio being acquainted of their resolution fained to undertake a designe, and caused his forces and [Page 19] carriages to advance out of towne, to free the mutiners of all suspition, onely commanded some trusty souldiers to welcome the Heads of them, and under colour of com­plement to goe along with them to their lodging, by which meanes they were all apprehended and fettered that night, and in the morning caused all the rest to be summoned to appeare before his Tribunal; where they were no sooner come, but they were invironed with those Horse and Foot that seemed the day before to have gone out upon a designe, and hereupon were ex­tremely amazed for feare they should all be put to the sword; But Scipio having commanded silence, made an Oration to them, and reprehended their rashnesse, indis­cretion, and infidelity; and that by the Lawes of warre, he might make them all a publike example of Justice for the time to come, but considering that they had been for the greater part seduced by some pernicious Agents of Albinus and Atrius, he was contented upon Promise of Amendment to give them their pardon, and would con­tent himselfe with the death of thirty of the Chiefe Au­thors of this mutiny; And so caused them to be brought forth fettered as they were, and to be whipped with scourges before all the Army, and afterwards to be be­headed; This speedy and unpartiall Justice was very profitable to the Romanes to uphold their Military Di­scipline, that began to be corrupted, and Scipio obtained great honour by it, and the love of all his Army, having mingled Mercy with Justice. This point deserves to be taken into consideration by them in Authoritie, for our Generals are abused, and their honour and reputation be­trayd by the perfidious carriages and counsels of some of their Officers, which deserve to be made an Example of Justice to others, otherwise this warre is like to be spin­ned [Page 20] out till there be no more oyle in the Lampe to keep it burning. 5. Herodotus in his life. Cambyses King of Persia, notwithstan­ding that he was a Tyrant, yet to winne the love of his Subjects, he did administer speedy and unpartiall Justice, for hearing of a Judge that took bribes to pervert Justice, he caused him to be flead alive, and his skin to be nailed upon the Chaire where the Judges sate to give Judge­ment, for a memorandum to others to administer Justice speedily and unpartially. 6. Absalom to withdraw the hearts of the people of Isreal from his Father; and to win their love, complained that Justice was neglected, and used to utter this insinuating exclamation, 2 Sam. 15. 4. O that I were made a Iudge in the land, that any one that hath any suite or cause might come unto me: And I would doe him Iustice, &c. 7. Charles the fifth and See the hi­story of France. Lewis the twelfth Kings of France were so beloved and honoured of their Subjects for their speedy and unpartiall administration of Justice, that the first obtained the honourable attribute of a Wise King, and the second of a Just Prince, and the nursing Fa­ther of his People. 8. Speed Chron. the first of Henry the 8. Henry the eighth King of England never obtained more honour nor more love of his Sub­jects then when he gave way that Sr Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley Esquire, should be made publike Exam­ples of Justice for the incredible oppressions they had committed upon his Subjects in his Father Henry the sevenths time. 9. The speedy and unpartiall Justice of the Children of Levi in going out from gate to gate throughout the Camp, slaying every man his Exod. 32. 27. brother, and every man his Companion, and every man his neigh­bour, according to the Commandement of Moses, was so acceptable to God that it appeased his wrath. 10. The speedy and unpartiall execution of justice by King David upon the 2. Sam. 1. 15. Amalekite, that confessed before him, that he [Page 21] had slain King Saul his mortall enemie, was very accep­table unto God, and was the cause that the Tribes of Iu­dah and Benjamine proclaimed him King with great joy. 11. The speedy and unpartiall execution of Justice by the same King upon Rechab and 2 Sam. 4. 12. Baanah, that had persi­diously murdered Ishbosheth their Lord and Master, ho­ping thereby to obtain some great reward of King David, because he was his Competitor; was acceptable unto God, and the Cause that he won the love of all Israel, and was suddainly after proclaimed King over all the twelve Tribes of Israel. 12. It appeares in divers places of the second book of Samuel, how much King David was dis­contented, because he had not the power to administer speedy and unpartiall Justice upon Ioab Generall of his Army, for his persidious Carriage toward Abner and A­masa, whom he murdred under colour of love and courtly complements, yet on his death bed he commanded King Salomon his sonne, that he should not suffer the 1 King. 1. 6. hoary head of Ioab to goe down in peace to the grave; by which command it appeares how much this good Kings heart was inclined to execute Justice; and how just and won­derfull the judgements of the Lord are upon such murde­rers as Ioab was, that could not escape at the end his aven­ging hand, although it was deferred for a time. Now I come to the third point to prove how acceptable the speedy and unpartiall execution of Justice is to God; and how odious it is to him if it be delaid and omitted. 1. The speedy execution of Justice by Phinehas upon Zimri and Cozbi was so acceptable unto the Lord that it turned away his wrath from his people of Israel, and pro­cured to Num. 25. 12, 13. Phinehas this Promise, Wherefore, behold I give unto him my Covenant of Peace. And he shall have it, and his seed after him, even the Covenant of an everlasting Priest­hood, [Page 22] because he was zealous for his God, and made an atone­ment for the children of Israel, &c. 2. Moses the servant of God for an extraordinary blessing to the Deut. 33. 21. Tribe of Dan saith, And he came with the head of the people, he executed the Iustice of the Lord, &c. meaning that this Tribe above all others should have Rulers that would administer Justice speedily and impartially, which was in Moses opinion one of the greatest blessings that could befall men. 3. Job 8. 3. Bil­dad the Shuhite one of the three intimate friends of Iob, to prove the incomprehensible Justice of God, said to him, Doth God pervert Iudgement, or doth the Almighty pervert Iustice? &c. Now the more just and unpartiall Magi­strates are in the administration of justice, the neerer they approach in imitation to that incomprehensible perfecti­on of Justice that is in God. For by him Prov. 8. 15. Princes doe raigne and doe decree Justice, &c. for they are indeed his Deputies to administer Justice. 4. The Lord was so well pleased to see Justice unpartially administred by the Ru­lers that returned from the Captivitie of Babylon, that he bestowed this blessing upon Jerusalem for it, The Lord blesse thee, O habitation of Iustice, and Mountaine of Jer. 31. 23. holinesse, &c. Justice being reputed here for a speciall degree of holinesse. 5. To administer Justice unpartially, it is to obey the Commandement of the Lord, Keepe ye Isai. 56. 1. Iudge­ment, for my Salvation is at hand, &c. and again, Defend the poore and fatherlesse, doe Psal. 82. 3. Iustice to the afflicted and to the needy, &c. 6. The Lords wrath is inflamed when Ju­stice is delayed or omitted. They aske of me, saith he, the Isai. 58. 2. Ordinances of Iustice, &c. meaning to rebuke the people of Israel for their dissimulation for to delay Justice, be­cause they fained they did not know the Ordinances of Justice, &c. 7. The Lord is alwayes so prone to do Justice, that he complaines by his Prophet, none Isai. 59. 3. called for Ju­stice, [Page 23] &c. meaning that he was alwayes ready to doe that which the Rulers of Israel were so unwilling to doe; and that he was angry, because they did not give eare to them that required and called for Justice. 8. The Lord is ex­cremely displeased when Justice is delaid, or omitted; as may appeare by this passage of the Prophet Isaiah, Iudge­ment is turned backward, and Iustice Isai. 59. 14, 15. standeth afarre off: for Truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter, &c. yea, Truth faileth, and he that departeth from evill maketh himselfe a prey. By these humane Instances, and passages of the Word of God, we may see how dangerous it is to omit or delay Justice, and how pleasant and acceptable it is to God, when Justice is speedily and unpartially admini­stred: And therefore we are all bound in Generall, and every one in particular to addresse our fervent prayers to God, that he would be pleased to infuse into the hearts of all the members of the Honourable Houses, an earnest de­sire to administer speedy and unpartiall Justice. Now they have drawne the sword out of her sheath, by the Commissioners of war, they have lately appointed to bring to a speedy Triall all those Criminall offenders, that they have in their Custody. Foure of which have been the cause of the shedding of more Christian bloud then ever 1 Kin, 20. 42. Benhadad King of Damascus caused to be split of the people of Israel. And therefore the delay of their Triall is the more dangerous, for time produceth many accidents that hinder and pervert Justice. If all Christen­dome were not acquainted with the unmatchlesse Cle­mencie and indulgent proceedings of the Honourable Houses toward their prisoners, the Malignant spirits would inpute the long retention of so many prisoners to Cruelty. For the Emperour Tacitus in Tiberius life. Tiberius was used to say, when he was demanded the reason why he kept criminall [Page 24] prisoners so long in hold, Because, said he, they die daily, and it would be too great a mercy by a suddaine executi­on to end their miseries. Even so the Spanish See the Spa­nish History. Inquisition when they will favour any of their prisoners, they bring them speedily to their Triall, and as suddenly to their exe­cution; but such as they intend to Martyr, they keep them in continuall durance, that they may suffer by their hor­rid torments a thousand deaths for one. But our Priso­ners fare as well as See Plutarch in Demetrius his life. Demetrius King of Macedonia, that was detained prisoner three or foure yeares by Seleucus the great; for he never had lesse care, nor better fare, or more ease then he had in his durance; even so our Ma­lignants are more joviall, and in better liking then they were in the time of their liberty. It were then a laudable frugality in these dayes of Pecuniaefames; to bring the cri­minall Delinquents to a speedy Triall; that if they be guilty, they may be dealt withall as Quintus Fulvius dealt with the Senators of Titus Livius decad. 3. lib. 8. Capua. And for the prisoners of warre to expedite their exchange, to free the prisoners they have of ours from their miseries; And for such as are in hold for contempt, to release them upon fines; for feare their long retention disable them to give any; so should our Prisons be cleared, the state freed from danger and charges, and the second secondary cause of the spinning out of this Unnaturall Warre removed.

The third Secondary Cause, is, The neglect of occasions, opportunities, & advantages.

OCcasion or Opportunitie is a certaine nick of time unexpected, nor thought upon, that seemes to come [Page 25] accidentally, and yet is guided by the will and the speciall Providence of God. Now of all occasions or opportu­nities the Spirituall, Civill, and Military are of greatest concernment; for the first concernes our soules; the se­cond, our private and the publike welfare; and the last, our lives and liberties. And by consequence the embra­cing of them very profitable, and the omitting of them very prejudiciall to men. But of these three the Spirituall opportunities are as much more to be carefully embraced as the Soule is more pretious then our meanes, lives, and liberties; for upon the carefull and diligent observation of them depends our perpetuall Blisse, and upon the neglect of them our eternall woe. Neither can we expect to ob­taine the Grace to make a profitable use of the Civill and of the Military Opportunities, unlesse we be diligent and faithfull to observe all spirituall opportunities, that may conduce to the advancement of the Glory of God, the good of his Church, and to the Salvation of our Soules. For by the observation of the Spirituall, we ob­taine and preserve our selves in the favour of God; with­out which favour all civill and military opportunities va­nish away. The ancient Moralists have figured opportu­nitie under the shape of a Woman, having great wings at her back, and a locke of haire hanging over her face, but bald behind; to intimate by her lock and her wings, that if we let her slip when she offers her self to us, she will fly away, and never be recovered again. And therefore that we are to be very circumspect and observant to catch her by the fore-lock, as she presents her selfe to us; for if she doe but turne her back, having no hold behind, we loose her for ever. And the losse of one Spirituall, Civill, and Military opportunitie may endanger our Salvation, our meanes, and the Publike well-fare, and our lives and li­berties; [Page 26] As I will endeavour to prove by humane Histo­ries, and by Instances out of the Word of God. But be­fore, I desire (for feare of misprision) to ground my dis­course upon this Principle of Religion, That whensoe­ver the free-will, the good pleasure, and the eternall pur­pose of God, is pleased to blesse a Kingdome with Peace and Prosperity; he will then inable the King, his Coun­sellours, Generals of Armies, Magistrates, and all other subordinate Officers of that Kingdome to make use of all opportunities that may conduce to that end. But on the contrary side, If his will and pleasure be to humble, cor­rect, or destroy a Kingdome, then will he disable the King, his Counsellours, Generals of Armies, Magistrates, and all other subordinate Officers of that Kingdome, to omit and neglect all favourable opportunities that may be offered to them, that his will, pleasure, and eternall pur­pose concerning the humiliation, correction, or destructi­on of that Kingdome, Common-weale, families, or pri­vate persons may come to passe and be accomplished in his time. But some will object and say, If all opportuni­ties, occasions, or advantages in Spirituall, Civill, and Mi­litary actions depend meerly upon the free-will, the good pleasure, and the eternall purpose of God, whether we be carefull or carelesse, wise or imprudent, valiant or time­rous, or omit or imbrace all Spirituall, Civill, and Military opportunities it matters not. Why should we then trouble our selves to be diligent and zealous in spirituall duties? wise & prudent in Civill actions, and circumspect, valiant & expert in Military exploits, since the issue of all depends upon the will of God? I answer, that this secret will, and eternall purpose of God is a Mystery to men, and that the wisest men upon earth cannot dive into it, and therefore that we are to obey his revealed will; that is, that we [Page 27] should be fervent, zealous and diligent in all spirituall du­ties, to make our calling and 2 Pet. 1. 10. election sure; and to be wise and prudent in all Civill actions; according to that degree he hath beene pleased to indue us withall; and make use of the experience, valour, and courage in warre that we have obtained as a gift from him; to conduce all such things we undertake to the advancement of his Glo­ry, to the good of his Church, and to the peace and pro­speritie of our Countrie; and doing so, and in all our ends aiming at that blank, howsoever it pleaseth the Lord to give an issue to our unfained endeavours, we have dis­charged a good Conscience before God and men. But if men, in this glorious light, or Sunne-shine of the Gospel, will wilfully neglect the gracious meanes that God is pleased to afford them, to procure their Salvation by the merits of Christ with feare and Phil. 2. 10. trembling; and fall from the faith, and run a whoring after Popish Idolatry; or the vaine and erroneous opinions of Sectaries, or the licenti­ous and impious courses of the ungodly and profane men of these dayes; let them lay the cause of their condemna­tion upon themselves, and not upon the secret will of our most just and gracious God, that doth not desire the death of a sinner, but rather that he would Jer. 36. 7. Ezek. 33. 11. returne from his wicked wayes. Or if the wise and prudent men of these times should for some private ends omit to advise or counsell such things as in their owne judgement doe con­duce to the above blessed end, God notwithstanding will doe his worke, and they will remaine inexcusable before him. But if they advise or counsell sincerely such things as they judge to conduce to that blank abovesaid, accor­ding to the wisedome and prudence the Lord hath given them, howsoever the issue of their Counsell fall out, they have discharged a good Conscience before God and [Page 28] men. Even so if our Commanders in Chiefe, or their subordinate Officers doe embrace all opportunities that are offered to them, to end or to conduce this warre to a blessed peace, howsoever the issue of it be, they will be blamelesse before God and men; but if for any private ends they omit any opportunities, rules, Maximes, or Stra­tagemes of Military exploits to spinne out this Unnatu­rall Warre, whereby they may endanger the State and themselves (as oftentimes it comes to passe, that omissions in Military exploits hath overthrowne Kingdomes or Common-weales and their Commanders also) as it shall be proved by Instances; yet shall the issue of this warre turne to Gods Glory and to the good of his Church; for God is not tied to secondary meanes; but will in his due time notwithstanding their wilfull omissions grant us a blessed peace; but they shall be inexcusable before him, and loose their honour and reputation with men. For op­portunities, advantages in warre, are so many mercies that the Lord doth graciously offer to Commanders. Now if these mercies be despised, and these advantages omitted wittingly, God is an all-seeing God, that will find out a time how closely soever it be carryed, to reward them ac­cording to the intentions of their hearts. But because there hath beene many faire opportunities lost within these three yeares, that might, if they had been imbraced, have conduced this Unnaturall Warre to a blessed Pe­riod, and that they are imputed by them that are igno­rant of the events of warre, to the neglect and omission of some of our Commanders in Chiefe, I will endeavour to prove by Ancient and Moderne Ensamples; that when God hath been pleased to humble, correct, or destroy a Kingdome, that the wisest Politicians, and the most ex­perienced Commanders that ever were have omitted [Page 29] greater opportunities then they have done. 1. In the yeare 432. of the foundation of Rome; God being plea­sed to humble the Romanes, and utterly to destroy the Samnites, did so blind the Judgements of the Generals of these two Nations, that they let slip two faire oppor­tunities; first the two Consuls of the Romanes Titus Ve­turius and See Titus 1. vius, decad. 1. lib. 9. Sempronius Posthumius omitted the opportu­nitie they had to march with their Army to Luceria, a City they intended to besiege by the sea-shore, the way being plaine and secure, for to take a way thorow the mountaines, that led them to a passe called Caudium, invi­roned with steepe Rocks and high mountaines, where they were presently inclosed by the Samnites, and infor­ced for want of Provisions to require quarter, which they obtained upon these conditions, That they should leave six hundred Knights for hostages, surrender their Armes, This may be paralelled with our last blow in the West. Horses, Carriages, and baggage, and passe under the yoke for their over-sight. Secondly, the Samnites had here a faire opportunity to have concluded a perpetuall peace with the Romanes, if they had set at liberty, and provided the Romanes with Provisions for their returne, as they were counselled by a wise Senator of theirs Herenius fa­ther of their Generall; But they unadvisedly for a little booty were the Cause of their own destruction; for the Romanes were so incensed with this ignominy received, that they never ceased untill they had by force of Armes, reduced all the Samnites and their Countrey unto Ro­mane Colonies. 2. In the second Punick warre, The Romanes by the great victories obtained in Sycilia and Sardinia against the Carthaginians, being swollen up with pride, God was pleased to humble them againe, and so sent Hannibal with a great Army into Italy, that defeated them in the three famous battels of the River Trebie, of [Page 30] the lake Trasymene, and of Cannes; where they lost above one hundred thousand men; yet because God had decreed that Rome should be the fourth, and the Dan. 7. 19. greatest Monarchy in the world; he was pleased to infatuate the Judgement of See Hannibals life. Hannibal, the most provident, and the most active Generall that ever was, to omit the fairest opportunity that his heart could have wished to have ob­tained for his Common-weale a perpetuall Peace of the Romanes; or by advancing immediately after his victo­ry at Cannes to the wals of Rome, that was extraordi­narily amazed, and weakly manned; To have over-throwne by the taking of it, the whole Romane Com­mon-weale; but the Omission of this opportunity was the cause of his owne ruine, and of the destruction of his native Countrey. 3. The Omission of the opportunity that See Plutarch in Paulus & Ae­milius his life. Persus the last King of Macedonia had to proclaime warre against the Romanes when Hannibal was in Italy, and Scipio in Affrica, was the cause he was shortly after deprived of his Kingdome, and himselfe inforced to fol­low like a slave the Triumphant Chariot of Paulus Ae­milius his Conquerour; And yet it is not to be doubted but this King had wise Counsellours and Politicians about him; but God had decreed that the Kingdome of Macedonia should be of the number of those Kingdomes that should exalt the Romane Monarchy. 4. The omis­sion of the opportunity that See Plutarch in Lucallus his life. Antiochus the great had to proclaime warre against the Romanes when their forces were busied in Macedonia, was the cause that he was de­feated in divers battels, constrained to make a dishonoura­ble peace with the Romanes; and that Armenia the great was presently after brought under the Romane yoke by Lucullus and Pompeius; neither did this great Monarch want great Politicians and experienced Commanders; [Page 31] for Hannibal attended at his Court, but God had decreed that his large Dominions should increase the Romane Empire. 5. The omission of the opportunitie that Moun­sieur the See Des Serres Inventary in Francis the first his life. Lautrec Generall of the French in the King­dome of Naples had to take the Citie of Naples, if he had pursued the Prince of Orange, as the rules of warre requi­red, after he had routed his Army, was the cause of this valiant Commanders death, and the losse of the whole Kingdome of Naples. 6. The omission of the opportu­nity of an houres time that Henry the fourth See Des Serres Inventary in Henry the fourth his life. King of France had to defeat the Duke of Parme and all his Ar­my at a strait passage leading to the ford of a small River three small Leagues from Paris, where he had purposed to fall upon him, was the cause he was constrained to raise his siege, and to see before his face that great City relieved, that was then reduced to extreme Misery by want of Provisions. This slip of opportunity proceeding certainly from the secret will of God, that decreed that Paris should be yeelded presently after to the will and obedience of her lawfull Prince, without the shedding of a drop of bloud; for Henry the fourth was one of the most active and experienced Commanders of that Age. Now I come to prove by Instances out of the Word of God that all opportunities are guided and directed by the speciall providence of God. 1. The favourable op­portunity of Gen. 14. 15. Rebekah comming the first of all the Vir­gins to the well, according to the request of Abrahams ser­vant, cannot be said to be accidentall, for the circumstan­ces doe so clearly manifest, that it was guided by a speci­all Providence of God. 2. The gracious opportunity of the Gen. 37. 24, 25, 27. Ishmaelites comming by presently after Josephs bre­thren had cast him into a Pit; that he might be sold and led into Egypt, to become the preserver of all his fathers [Page 32] family, came not casually, but by a speciall and gracious providence of God, proceeding from the love and care he hath of his Children. 3. The blessed opportunity of Exod. 2. 5. Pharaohs daughter comming down to wash her selfe at the River Nylus was not accidentall, but directed by an admirable Providence of God, to save Moses, that he might be instructed in all the Sciences of the Egyptians, to be more able to discharge the great and honourable charge the Lord had appointed him unto, viz. to be the deliverer of his elected people of Israel, that groaned un­der the cruell bondage of the Egyptians. 4. The favou­rable opportunity for 1 Sam. 10. 4, 5, 6. Saul, of the losse of the Asses of Kish his father came not accidentally, but by a speciall Providence of God, that Saul might be privately anoin­ted King of Israel, according to the will and pleasure of the Lord; neither did those signes that the Prophet Sa­muel told him he should meet withall upon the way, as he returned homeward, happen casually, but by the speciall Providence of God; that the words he had spoken by his Prophet concerning the election of Saul to the Crowne of Israel might be confirmed. 5. The gracious oppor­tunity that. 2 Sam. 17. 7. Hushat tooke by the fore-lock, to overthrow the wise Counsell of Ahithophel, came not accidentally but by an admirable Providence of God, that Ahithophel might for his former impious Counsell concerning King Davids concubines, runne head-long to confusion, not­withstanding his worldly wisdome, and that Absalom should receive the just reward of his persidious and ab­horred rebellion against so loving a Father. 6. The blessed opportunity that 2 Kin. 9. 36. Hezekiah King of Judah tooke upon the blasphemies of Rabshakeh against God and the Temple of Jerusalem, to goe up into the House of the Lord, and there rehearsed all the words of Rabshakeh, and [Page 33] rent his clothes and humbled himselfe greatly, was the cause that the Lord hearkened to his prayer, and sent one of his Angels into the Camp of the Assyrians, and smote one hundred and fourescore thousand of his men; and caused Sennacherib to returne the same way he came. 7. The gracious opportunity that Neh. 2. 3. Nehemiah tooke upon the King Artaxerxes notice of his dejected countenance for his extraordinary humiliation, because of the desola­tion of Jerusalem, was the cause that he obtained a Com­mission from the King to erect again the Temple of Jeru­salem; and to restore there the true worship of God; and to deliver from Captivity many thousands of the Jewes. 8. The blessed opportunity that Queene Esth. 7. 3. Esther took by the fore-lock to petition to the King Ahasuerus when he was invited to her banket, for the preservation of herself and of her people, was the cause of one of the greatest blessings that ever happened to the Church of the Jewes; for it was the cause of the preservation of all the Nation of the Jewes, and of the House and Family of King David, from which our blessed Saviour according to the flesh was to descend; and therefore an incomparable blessing. By these and the former Instances we may see, that the observations or omissions of all Spirituall, Civill, and Mi­litary opportunities depend upon the speciall Providence of God; and that they are guided and directed by it to that end, that God in his wisedome knowes to be most convenient to conduce to the greater advancement of his glory, and the good of his Church. And that we are to addresse our humble supplications to him alone, if we in­tend for the future to prevent the slips of such opportuni­ties as he shall be pleased to afford unto us againe, or be able to embrace them as so many gracious mercies of his favour to us in Christ. And that we are also to humble [Page 34] ourselves before our gracious God, for having hitherto so carelesly omitted ten speciall opportunities, that might greatly have conduced to obtaine a blessed peace; and to procure a happy Period to this Unnaturall Warre, if he had been pleased to have given us the grace to have embraced them; by which omission of ours; and by as many more faire opportunities omitted by the other par­ty, by the like Providence of his, we may be perswaded upon a sure ground; since it is his pleasure to poise in the balance of his divine Justice the events of this Unnaturall Warre so equally, that our Humiliation must be greater and more sincere, before we can be esteemed fit for to see a gracious deliverance, and a blessed end of these publike miseries. I should now in this place to illustrate this point relate these twenty opportunities or advantages omitted on both sides; but I desire to be excused, since they are already but too evident to ingenious spirits; and there­fore will leave them to be exposed to the publike view in the next succeeding age by some that may then relate them truly and unpartially without feare to offend any of the Parties: And will conclude this point with this Christian admonition to the true Children of God; that they are all obliged in the generall, and every one in their particular to pray day and night unto the Lord, that he will be pleased to indue his sacred Majesty, the honou­rable Houses of Parliament, the Generals of their Armies, their Magistrates, and all their subordinate Officers with such supernaturall Graces, Wisedome, and fore-sight, that they may imbrace cheerefully all such opportunities and advantages that he shall be pleased to offer unto them, to obtaine a blessed Peace with Truth; and to give a happy Period to these Civill distractions, jealousies, and con­tentions that will by degrees if God in his Mercy, and [Page 35] they in their care and Wisedome prevent it not, reduce this Kingdome to an incurable consumption: for all ad­vantages and opportunities in warre, except they aime and tend to that blessed end of peace above-said, are com­monly fatall to such as require it not, when they have an advantage to doe it, for so it fell out with the Samnites and with Hannibal, as it doth appeare by the two first instances quoted in this Chap. for it is too late to enter­taine Treaties of Peace, when a Kingdome is so extenua­ted of meanes or abilities, that it can no longer contri­bute to the charges of warre; because such a peace can neither be profitable or honourable to any of the parties; for Necessity hath no law, and necessity will constraine men to hard conditions; There is more honour and wise­dome to give a Peace then to accept of it. This was the See Pierie Mat. in King Henry the fourth his life. Maxime of Henry the fourth both with his owne sub­jects, and with the House of Austria, whereby he obtained great honour, and restored a desolated Kingdome into a flourishing estate; over-rigorous conditions to one of the parties makes a peace of no continuance; It fell out so with u Charles the fifth Emperour of Germany by the rigorous peace he inforced upon Francis the first King of France, because of the advantage he had, the said King being then his prisoner; but it proved fatall unto him, for after he had consumed in warre thirty millions of gold; and spilt much Christian bloud, he wonne not a foot of ground in France for all his labour and charges. God grant we may rather give an honourable Peace, so it be with the continuance of his Truth and his Gospell, then to accept of a Peace of no continuance with seeming ad­vantages, &c.

The fourth Secondary Cause, is, Our Contentions and Divisions.

APelles the famous Athenian Painter was not more excellent in his Art then in wit and ingenuity; for to cast the beholders of his works into a greater admiration, he used to place next to the Picture of his beautiful Ve­nus, when he did expose her to the view of the Atheni­ans, the picture of an old deformed and wrinkle faced wo­man, that by her swarty complection, grim favour, and ill shape, the excellent Symetry, lineaments, and rare fea­ture of his Venus might seeme the more wonderfull. Even so it will not be impertinent for me to set forth the defor­mity of Contention, and the dangerous effects of this in­fernall fury, before I describe the perfection of the Ange­licall beauty of Concord and Unity, that she may bee more cherished and admired, and the other more abhor­red in these times of civill divisions. Contention proceeds from ambition, pride, and envie; as we may daily see by experience, that contentious persons are generally tainted with these vices, that come from fulnesse of bread, ease, and a long and continued Peace. Now contentions pro­duce divisions, and divisions breed factions, and factions an intestine warre; and all these an Antipathie of affections which never was greater in any Kingdome then it is in this at this present time; for the father is divided against his sonne, and the sonne against the father, and the hus­band against the wife, and the wife against her husband, one brother against his brother, and one servant against his fellow servant. So that there is not a City, Borough, [Page 37] Towne, Village, Hamlet, House or Family at this present in this Kingdome, but is infected with this contagious dis­ease or venome of Contention. And this is not happened casually nor accidentally, but by the speciall Providence of God for our correction and humiliation, if we returne unto the Lord unfainedly; but for our utter destruction if we remaine and continue in our impenitencie and hard­nesse of heart. But some may say, From whence doth proceed this Epidemicall disease, or this general division? we that are but wormes cannot dive into the Counsels of God, yet we may by his permission aime at the secon­dary causes of these our Civill divisions, and antipathie of affections, which I conceive to be these: The long peace that we have injoyed in the time of Queene Elizabeth, King Iames, and for 16. yeares together under our Sove­raigne King Charles his raigne, hath increased this King­dome in wealth, and inured us to ease, idlenesse, vanitie, and licentiousnesse; riches hath bred in some of us am­bition, pride, envie, and self-conceitednesse, the very in­cendiaries of contentions and divisions; And ease and idlenesse have begotten in us lascivious desires, stubborn­nesse and obstinacie to doe and beleeve what seemeth good in our own eyes; and so by degrees we have forgot­ten our Maker, and like stubborne horses have kicked at, and rebelled against our gracious God; I meane, that we are growne desperately sinfull, and have despised his Or­dinances, erected a will-worship, and gone a whoring af­ter new Innovations; And hereupon the ambition, pride, covetousnesse, and profanenesse of the Prelacie, seconded with the Loanes, Conduct, and Ship-money; and the ap­parent approaches and inclinations to Popery, by the bowing, crouching, and kneeling at Altars & Railes, have made us groane for a Reformation in Civill and Ecclesi­asticall [Page 38] miscarriages. The which to oppose the Prelacie and the Jesuiticall faction under colour to increase his Majesties Prerogative, have withdrawne his love and his person from his most faithfull Parliament, perswaded him to forsake his Royall Seat, to goe to York, to raise an Army under colour of a Guard for his Person, to annihi­late the Priviledges of Parliament, the Laws of the Land, and the Liberties of the Subjects, and so formed the first partie in the North; whereupon the honourable Houses were of necessity inforced to gather forces, not to oppose his sacred Majestie, but those that under his name, en­deavour as much as they can to undoe the whole King­dome. And this is the originall secondary cause of our state divisions, from whence arose that unparalelled ge­nerall division and Antipathie of affections, afore spoken of; But these state divisions are not them that I purpose to speak of, but only of those that raign and are fomented in the Religious partie, and in all members of it of what degree soever; And this proceeds specially from diver­sity of opinions in matter of Religion, as I have said alrea­dy in another place; which is a greater signe that the wrath of God is greatly inflamed against us; for it is against the course of nature, against the Lawes of Nati­ons, and against the Principles of Religion: That those that protest to fight for the true reformed Religion, The Priviledges of Parliament, The Lawes of the land, And the Libertie of the Subjects, should endeavour, as much as it is possible for them, to ruinate all these things at a blow by their daily contentions, grounded many times upon punctilloes of vanity, which they term honour. But it is a vain and a carnall one, and not a reall or Spirituall; for the true and spirituall Honour is to be lowly and humble in our own eyes; for the more we are such, the [Page 39] more honourable we are before God and religious men. Moreover, every time we contend and hinder the Cause by our contentions, everytime we breake our vowes, and the solemne Covenant we have made lately before our God. But to restraine or appease, if it be possible, these generall Contentions, I will prove by Instances what danger there is to foment them; first, between particulars and families. Secondly, between Common-weales; and lastly, between Kingdomes and Empires. 1. The envie and contention that Satan fomented betweene Cain and Gen. 4. 8. Abel, and between Romulus and Livius, de­cad. 1. lib. 1. Remus, was the cause the two elder brethren murdred their two younger bre­thren. 2. The envie, murmures, and contentions fo­mented by Satan in the hearts of the sonnes of Laban was the cause that Iacob departed from Gen. 31. 1. Laban, and returned discontented to Canaan with all his substance. 3. The spirit of division and contention that Satan infused by the permission of God betweene Abimelech and the men of Shechem, because of the murder of the threescore and ten sons of Judg. 9. 24. Zerubbabel, was the cause of Abimelechs shame­full end, and of the utter destruction of the men of She­chem. 4. The contentions that were fomented in Car­thage between Amilicar and Titus Livius, dec. 3. lib. 3. Hano, and their families, was the cause of the desolation and ruine of their Com­mon-weales. 5. The contentions that grew from a triviall occasion, and fomented by the envie and ambi­tion that raigned in See Plutarch in their lives. Marius and Sylla, filled the City of Rome and all Italy with murders and bloud. 6. The contentions fomented between Pompeius and See Plutarch in their lives and Caesar by their ambition and pride, inflamed the fire of a cruell Ci­vill warre in Europa, Asia and Affrica. 7. The contenti­ons increased by favourites and factious Courtiers, be­tween Caesar in his commentaries. Appian in the Civill wars of the Romans Augustus Caesar and Marcus Antonius divided the [Page 40] world into two parties, and filled the same with miseries and desolations. 8. The contentions and divisions that were fomented between the See the Tur­kish History. Emperours of Constanti­nople and their adjacent neighbours the Christian Prin­ces, was the cause of the losse of the East parts of the world, and that the two Empires of Trebisonde, and of Constantinople were reduced to the eternall dishonour of all Christendome, under the insulting yoke of the Barba­rous Turkes. 9. The contentions fomented betweene the House of Austria and the Houses of Valois and See Sleidan and the French Hist. Bourbon, have been and are still the cause of great effu­sion of Christian bloud; and for no other cause, but for the Precedencie and an ambitious desire of Superiority. 10. The ambitious contentions of the Houses of See Du Hali­an in the French History Orle­ance and of Bourgundy were the cause of the murder of two Dukes, and of the death of many thousand men. 11. The contentions fomented between the Houses of See Stowes and Speeds Chron. Lancaster and York were the cause of the death of the greater part of the English Nobility, and of the desola­tion of many Counties of this Kingdome. 12. The con­tention fomented in Fance by the Spanish faction, be­tween the Royalist and the Catholike See the Ci­vill Warres of France. League, and of late yeares in Germany, have been the cause of the death of divers millions of Christians, whose lives might have been better imployed to destroy the enemies of Chri­stendome. But because the emulations, contentions, and the Antipathy of affections betweene Commanders in Chiefe, are very dangerous, I will shew here by instances, that other Nations have to their cost, as well as we, found that it is perillous and destructive to a state, to employ two Commanders in Chiefe in one and the same designe or Service, if there be an Antipathy of affections between them, 1. The emulation and contention that was na­turally [Page 41] between See Tit. Liv. dec. 1. lib. 10. Appius Claudius and Lucius Volumnius, Generals of the Romanes, had like to have overthrowne their Common-weale, if it had not been suddenly preven­ted by the Senate. 2. The emulation and contention that grew between Fabius Maximus Generall, and Plutarch in Fabius Maxi­mus his life. Muni­tius the Master of his Horse had beene fatall to the Ro­manes, if Fabius for the good and love of his Coun­trey had not with admirable humility and meeknesse en­dured the affronts of Munitius, and relieved him in his eminent danger rather then let him perish to vindicate himselfe. 3. The emulation and contention that was fo­menced by some factious men betweene the two French Generals sent into Italy by Lewis the twelfth, the Lord See Des Serres Inventary in the year 1500. Aubigni and the Lord Trivulce, had been the cause of the losse of all Lombardia; for what the one built with one hand, the other flung downe with another; If that wise King hearing of it had not presently sent them as far distant one from another as Picardy is distant from Lom­bardia. The Antipathie of affections, and the contentions that had been fomented formerly between the See the Hi­story of France in the time of Henry the fourth. Admirall de Villars, and the Duke of Boullion, when he first sided with the League and the other with the Royalists; But being at that time all reconciled and united under the Ser­vice of Henry the fourth King of France; They were with equall Authority and Power sent by the King to besiege Douclance, and to over-runne and waste the Countie of Artois the Spaniards dominion, but meeting a strong Army of the enemies, they came to a fight, wherein the Admirall furiously and valiantly ingaged himself so deep with a Regiment of horse in the midst of the Battalia of the enemies, hoping it seemes to be as well seconded by the Duke, that he was slaine and the greater part of this Regiment. His death and want of reliefe being imputed [Page 42] to proceed from the sparkes of the fire of the former divi­sion of affections, that were not utterly quenched in the brest of the Duke. And so for a private vindication a great part of the French Army was routed, and the siege of Dourlance retarded. Many other Instances might be produced to prove how dangerous it is for a State to em­ploy Commanders in Chiefe in one Service, that have had formerly, or may yet have secretly, some Antipathie of affections; so much predominant are the passions of men over their naturall reason, except they be curbed and restrained by a great measure of supernaturall Grace. Now having sufficiently described some part of the de­formity, and of the dangerous effects of this fury of con­tention and division. I come to shew the sweet Harmo­ny and the excellent fruits of Unity and Concord. The whole frame of nature without Concord and Unity would suddenly be changed into a Chaos of confusion, if the powerfull hand of the Almighty did permit contenti­on to raigne between any of the elements; for we see what strange combustions happen in the aire for a small distemper that befals sometimes between the Meteors. Concord and Unity is the humane saviour and preserver of Kingdomes and Common-weales; A Matth. 12. 25. Kingdome di­vided against it selfe cannot subsist, saith our Saviour. And how much lesse shall a weaker party subsist, if it be divi­ded by contentions and Antipathies of affections, as ours is. It was an ingenious Metaphor used by a Scythian See Herodolus his History. King, to induce his sonnes to Unity, To command a ser­vant of his to bring before him a bundle of Arrowes knit together, and to charge his sonnes one after another to en­deavour to breake the same, but they were not able, whereupon he bad them to take them one by one, and they brake them all easily. Even so said he to them, If [Page 43] you remaine constantly united one with another, it will be impossible for the neighbour Nations to subdue or overcome you; but if you let divisions and contentions be fomented among you, you will become the prey of your meanest enemies. And for the greater confirmation of the point, I will endeavour to prove it by Instances both ancient and moderne. 1. As long as the Ancient Greeks continued in unitie one with another, it was im­possible for See Demo­sthenes his life. Philip the first King of Macedonia to re­duce them into servitude, But as soon as they by the co­vetousnesse of some of their Oratours were divided into factions, it was an easie thing for him and Alexander the great his sonne to deprive them of their liberty. 2. As long as the Romane Senatours were linked in unity one with another, the Romane liberty was preserved, and their Common-weale flourished and commanded the greater part of the world; but as soon as they were di­vided into factions, some for See Pompey his life. Pompeius, other for Caesar, other for Crassus, and other for Lepidus; Caesar in a short time deprived them of their liberty. 3. As long as the ancient See Caesars Commentaries Gaules and Britanes were united together, they flourished and sacked the Citie of Rome; But when they were divided into factions by the Romane agents, they were in a short time subdued by the Romanes. 4. The Unitie and Concord that was among the See the Civill Wars of France and La No [...]e his Politicke and Military Discourses. Comman­ders in Chiefe of the Protestant Party in the Civill warres of France was the only meanes after Gods favour, of their subsistance; for one cannot otherwise chuse that reads that History but admire the wisdome and meeknesse of the Admirall of Chatillon, and the great industry he used to accord with the incompatible dispositions and naturall inclinations of some that were violent and fiery in all their designes and enterprises, as was the Prince of [Page 44] Conde and Monsieur Dandelot and others; yet with his humility and meeknesse he did quench all contentions that did arise from this Antipathy of dispositions; and kept alwayes their will and affections constantly united to the Generall Cause. 4. The unity and concord that was between Fabius Maximus & P. Titus Livius, dec. 1. lib. 10. Decius two great Ge­nerals, and Scipio and Lellius two other great Comman­ders, was wonderfully profitable to the Romane Com­mon-weale; and that of Phocion and of Aristides to the Athenians Common-weale. 5. The unity of See Plutarch in their lives. Themi­stocles and Aristides (that were otherwise mortall enemies in their private affaires) was extremely profitable to all the Greeks in the Councell of warre, that was called by Euripidias their Generall before the battell of Salamine, for their unity in opinion was the cause to obtaine that famous victory, and of the preservation of all the Greeks. 6. As long as the Duke of See Stowes Chron. Sommerset and the Lord Admirall his brother, in the time of Edward the sixth King of England, were united and linked in love and affections one with the other, they preserved their credit and ho­nours at Court against all their opposites; But as soon as they came to be disunited, and that by the instigations of their Ladies, private discontents and contentions were fo­mented, the Lord Admirall was presently arraigned, by the connivance and the want of the assistance and support See Speeds Chron. of the Lord Protector his brother, and he himselfe shortly after by the potency of his adversaries brought to the same miserable end. To conclude this point, all the well affected Christians are obliged to pray daily to our graci­ous God, that he will be pleased to indue abundantly the honourable Houses, our Commanders in Chiefe, the As­sembly of Divines, the Civill Magistrates, the Militia, the Committees in the City and in all the well-affected [Page 45] Counties, the Citizens and common people with this speciall grace of Unity and Concord, and with an unani­mous spirit and resolution, to maintaine his Truth, his sacred Majesties just Prerogative, the Priviledges of Par­liament, the Lawes of the Land, and the Liberties of the Subject, according to our last Covenant.

The fifth Secondary Cause, is, The unknowne Method of our Warre.

OF all the Judgements of God that are familiar to men, the Pestilence, the Famine, and the Sword are reputed to be the greatest; And of these three, Warre is esteemed the most dreadfull; And of all Warres, the Ci­vill is conceived to be the most destructive. And there­fore it is no wonder, (when the Lord sent his Prophet Gad, to King David, saying, 1 Chron. 21. 12, 13. Thus saith the Lord, Choose thee Either three yeeres famine, or three monthes to be destroy­ed before thy foes (while that the sword of thine enemies over­taketh thee) or else three dayes the sword of the Lord, even the Pestilence, &c.) if that good King did rather chuse to fall into the hand of the Lord (for very great are his mercies) then into the hands of cruell men. Neither doe we finde in any ancient or moderne Histories, that any Nation or Kingdome hath been utterly destroyed by the Pestilence, or the famine; for these two Judgements proceed more immediately from the hand of God that is mercifull, and leave alwayes a remnant, as an evidence to men of his incomprehensible compassions and mercies. But Warre seemes more to proceed from men (yet there is not any warre that hath any beginning, continuance or end, with­out [Page 46] the speciall will and pleasure of God) that are of a more cruell disposition then Tygers, when the Lord hath cast the bridell of permission over their neckes. And therefore it is by warre that so many Nations, Kingdomes and Common-weales have been utterly destroyed and consumed, and above all by an intestine and Civill warre; for a Nation being weakned by her own hands, it breeds an opportunity for forraigne Princes to fall upon it, and subvert and conquer the same. But forraigne warres are often profitable to Kingdomes or Common-weales, so they be managed without the limits of those Kingdomes or Common-weales; Carthage flourished as long as See Hannibal in his life. Hannibal wasted Italy. But when Scipio came with a great Army to their gates, misery and destruction issued upon it; See the Chronicle of England. England flourished when war was maintained in France, but when the English were driven home, it was wasted and desolated by Civill commotions, and an in­testine warre; And therefore it is a sound and a sure Maxime or Reason of State to entertaine warre abroad, that a Kingdome may be freed from it at home; And this Maxime was carefully observed by the Romanes for a long time, but as soon as they neglected the same, they fell into civill contentions and into intestine warres. As long as the French Nation entertained warres in Italy to recover the right they had in the Kingdome of Na­ples and in the Duchy of Milan, France did prosper and flourish; but as soon as that fatall Peace was concluded between See the Hi­story of France. Henry the second King of France, and Philip King of Spaine by the procurement of the Constable of France (that aimed more at his own ends, then to advance the honour of his King and the good of his native Coun­trie.) And that Savoy, Piedmont, and the rest of the domi­nions that the French held in Italy were made over to the [Page 47] Duke of Savoy as an inconsiderate dowry of King Hen­ries daughter that he tooke to wife, then issued presently after the destructive Civill warres of France, that conti­nued three and thirty yeares, and consumed above eight hundred thousand men of the French Nation, and brought that Kingdome to the very brim of destruction. But when it had pleased God by an unexpected mercy, and by the wisedome, valour and clemencie of See Matth. in Henry the fourth [...]i e. Henry the fourth to reunite the alienated affections of that populous nation; and to keepe or observe the above-said Maxime, and to drive this intestine warre into Artois and Flanders, and to fire the dominions of the Incendiarie of the French Civill warres, then began that Kingdome to flourish again, for this diversion procured an honourable peace of ten yeares for the French, in the which that politick King to entertaine the foresaid Maxime sent most of the licen­tious and contentious spirits of his Kingdome unto Hun­garia and into the low Countries, and by these meanes re­stored that desolated Kingdome into a most flourishing estate. And his Counsellours of State that had the managing of the Military and Politick affaires of the King­dome after his death, during the Minority of Lewis the 13. his son, perceiving that for want of forraigne employ­ment the French Nobility began to soment Civill Com­motions in the Kingdome aided by the Spanish faction, they were constrained to embrace again this ancient Max­ime, which they have constantly observed to this day; and have by it maintained the honour of their King, and much increased their Dominions; Even so out of this principle or Reason of State did Queene See Queen Elizabeths life. Elizabeth undertake the protection of the Low Countries, that the English Nobi­lity might have employment abroad, and exercise them­selves in Military exploits, that she might have alwayes [Page 48] ready some experienced Commanders and Officers of Capacity to leade an Army, if her enemies attempted any invasion upon her dominions; and this her wise and poli­tick course succeeded most happily, for she maintained thereby her Kingdome in peace and in a prosperous con­dition, suppressed the rebellions in Ireland, aided the French with her Treasures, and with experienced Com­manders, Officers, and Souldiers, curbed the insolencie of the Spaniard by Sea, and made the naturall colour of that element to be often changed into Crimson, by the undaunted valour and the great experience of her Com­manders, Officers, and Mariners in Sea-fights: And by her warlike expeditions to Cales and the West India in­creased her Ships and Navies, and all manner of Trade and commerce, and left at her death England and Ireland in a prosperous peace and condition. By these Instances and many more that might be produced to the same end, it is apparent that forraigne warres are often times profi­table in these foure cases, so they be managed out of the limits of a Kingdome or Common-weale. 1. It purgeth them of licentious men. 2. It frees them of Civill com­motions, and intestine warres. 3. It is a Nurcery for Commanders and experienced Officers. 4. It increaseth commerce and trading, and doth rather inrich a King­dome then waste the same. 1. The Romanes never inro­led any souldiers for their forraign warres out of their in­habitants or Citizens before all the licentious and con­tentious men that are apt to breed Civill commotions had been See Titus Li­vius in his Decades. inroled; and when they had subdued a King­dome or Province, they erected Colonies in it, where they sent all the most licentious men of their City, and their old souldiers, to whom they appointed so much land as they might live with all. 2. It frees a Kingdome [Page 49] from Civill commotions; for if licentious and needy peo­ple find but some discontented Nobles to side withall, they will presently foment a party, and kindle the fire of a Civill warre; but as the only way to quench a fire is to take from it the combustible matter that increaseth the same; even so to prevent Civill distractions, we are to purge the City and Kingdome of licentious and decaied men, and to send them away into forraigne warres. 3. Few or none are ignorant that the Germane and the Low Countrie warres have beene the Nurcery of the greater part of the experienced English, French, and Scotch Commanders and Officers that are now in these dayes: It is true that of these three Nations, the number of the English is the smallest, because that in the peace­able Raigne of King James Commanders and Officers of experience in warre were not regarded, yet those that out of a naturall inclination to Armes, went thither to be trained up, are not inferiour to any, but the number of them is so small, that they are now constrained to em­ploy licentious Germanes for principall officers; but Germany, Sweden, and England it selfe is beholden to the Scots for Commanders and Officers of warre; And for the French the Maxime of Henry the fourth afore related hath much increased the Capacity of the French Nobili­ty, and of their foot souldiers in martiall exploits, so that for seiges, or battels, they are not inferiour to any. And therefore forraigne warres are the Nurcery of experien­ced Commanders and Officers of warre. 4. For the in­crease of Trade and Commerce, the forraigne warre that the French and the Hollanders have maintained these ma­ny yeares against the House of Austria hath much in­creased their trade and commerce, and are now growne more opulent in wealth then all other Nations in Chri­stendome. [Page 50] This may seeme a paradox to some, yet it is most certain, for although the French are extraordinarily burdened with taxes, yet because the Countrie men are freed from plundering and pillaging, and their cattell and corne secured, and trades men set at worke, and the com­merce of all manner of Commodities in request, to fur­nish the great Armies they entertaine upon the enemies frontiers, the money of their contributions remaineth in the Kingdome; & as it goes out of one hand for taxes and contributions, so it comes in on the other for the great ut­terance they have of all their Commodities. But alas it is cleane contrary in this Civill and Unnaturall Warre of ours; for the trading and commerce is utterly decaid in the City, and in all the Boroughs and Market Townes of the Kingdome, most of the Countrey people are plunde­red of their moneys, goods and cattell, the Gentlemen have their grounds cast up upon their hands, although they pay all charges, and abate halfe their rent, and no re­dresse to be had; and the Sequestrations of the one side or the other bring them to penury, and disable them be they never so willing to contribute any longer to this warre; by which meanes this Kingdome is likely to fall into an incurable consumption, because of three pernicious quali­ties (besides the miseries above-said) that pertaine to her alone, and not to other Civill warres. 1. It is of a con­suming nature. 2. It is accompanied with an unpara­lelled infidelity. 3. It is of an unknowne Method.

I. For her consuming nature, it may justly be compa­red to the Hectick Feaver, that consumes not onely the flesh of all the members of the body, but also by degrees, the vitall spirits, the radicall humours, and the very mar­row in the bones of her patients, untill she hath brought them to their grave, more like an Anatomy then a Corps. [Page 51] Or like unto a fire kindled in a house seated in one of the corners of a long street, the flames of which fire being driven by a violent wind along that row of houses, doth at last consume the whole street, for want of pulling down speedily three or foure houses, next to that house that was first of all set on fire, to stop the flames of it to proceed any further. Even so the flames of the fire of this unnaturall warre that brake forth in the North, was driven by the violent winds of jealousie and discontent into the North West, and then to the South West, and at last to the fur­thest part of the West; and so by degrees hath consumed already three parts of the Kingdome, and left in the other part but a small degree of vitall spirits, for want of pulling down three or foure houses to stop the flame of it from going any further. I meane, for want of such Counsell as was given to See the Hi­story of France Charles the seventh King of France by his wise Counsellours, that he should give over (to quench the fire of the Civill contentions fomented between the Houses of Orleance and Burgundy, that had almost con­sumed his Kingdome) into the hands of Justice, at the re­quest of Philip Duke of Burgundy, some of his Favourites that had their hands in the murder of his father; to which Counsell he condescended unto, although this murder had been committed with his assent, whereby such a firme reconciliation was procured between these two Houses, that it fell out to be the secondary Cause of the restoring of that desolated Kingdome into its former flourishing Estate. Or for want (after the Noble Ambassage, and the humble Petitions of the Honourable Houses had been rejected) to have sent speedily a thousand horse in the North, untill a strong Army had been sent to stop the flames of this fire to goe beyond the River of Trent. But by our accustomed delayes, and the small forces that were [Page 52] sent to Woster, the fire of this Unnaturall Warre hath spread it selfe, as it is to be seen at this present day, and is like to spread further and to consume the rest, if God in his Mercy prevent it not; and induce the Honourable Houses to change the Method of this lingring and de­structive Warre.

II. For the unparallelled infidelity of some of the Agents of one of the partiés, all the Civill warres of the ancient Greeks and Romanes, or of the moderne inte­stine warres of the French and the Germane Nation, can­not produce so much infidelity and apostacy as may be collected out of these three yeares warre. For where they sided at the first, they remained constant to the last in that party, and never deserted the same, untill an Accommo­dation was procured. Nay, divers of them have sealed their constancie with their See Caesars Comment. in the warre of Affrica. death, rather then to accept of their liberty upon condition to serve against their par­ty. But divers of ours that make show to fight for Religi­on more then for pay, betray the trust reposed in them, and doe us more mischiefe then any of the contrary party. And it is no wonder, for Christian Runagadoes are more cruell to Christians then the naturall Turks; and the Pro­testant Apostates, are greater enemies to the godly then the professed Papists; and the hypocriticall Saints, are more violent against the true Power of Godlinesse, then the Prince of darknesse. The cause of this infidelity may proceed 1. From the toleration of divers religions; for men that are not well grounded in the true Principles of Reli­gion are never cautious of their wayes, and will betray their own fathers for money. 2. From the great Clemen­cie of the Honourable Houses, for if the perfidious Synons of the North had been severely punished, so many Iudas­ses would not have been found in the West to procure [Page 53] that blow, that we have received there lately. Clemencie is an Heroicall vertue, but infidelitie is incapable of it, be­cause it is so pernicious a seed, that except it be pulled up by the root, it will over-grow the garden of the Com­mon-weale. 3. From the partiall election of our poli­tick and Military Officers, that are for the greater part preferred by favour, and not for their sincerity in Religi­on, or for their integrity and wisdome in politick or Ci­vill affaires; nor for their valour or experience in Marti­all exploits; but for feare to displease or to please some in Authoritie; and that is the reason why we have so many weake Committees in the City and in our Counties; and so many unexpert Commanders and Officers in our Ar­mies, that dare not look the enemies in the face; nor know not how to leade a Troope of horse to a charge; nor set a Company of foot in a posture of defence; And these are they that out of timiditie, inconstancie, and for want of experience in warlike affaires, spinne out this unnatu­rall Warre, by surrendring of places of great concerne­ment, that will prove deare favours unto us. The remedy of this is, to punish severely the Synons of these dayes, and to imitate in our elections the method and wisedome of See Du Hai­lian in his Hi­story of France Charles the fifth King of France; for it is recorded that he never elected any of his Chiefe Commanders or Offi­cers of warre, or any of his Counsellours of State, Judges or Magistrates, to favour any of his favourites, or at the sute of any of his Peeres; but for their own merits, made known to him, by their former actions in Military, Poli­tick and Civill employments; And by this Method and unpartiality in his elections, there never was King more successefull in his Military enterprises; nor more happy in his Politick Resolutions; nor more beloved of his Sub­jects, because Justice was unpartially administred in his dayes.

[Page 54] III. For the unknowne Method of this warre, it is dif­ferent from the Method of the ancient Greeks and Ro­manes, and from the moderne Method of the most war­like Nations of these dayes, In these particulars, 1. In the true season of warre. 2. In our Scouts. 3. In our marches. 4. In our preparations. 5. In our Discipline. 6. In our rules of warre. 7. In the stratagems of war. 8. In the true Maximes of warre.

1. In the season of our warre.

There hath been from time to time one season more fit and convenient for warre then another, as it may appeare 1. Chron. 20. 1. 1 Chro. 20. 1. At the time that Kings go out to battell, Ioab led forth the power of the Army, and wasted the countrey of the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah, &c. But because the seasons doe differ according to the climate of the seat of every Countrie or Nation, I will ground this observa­tion according to the Climate of those that come nearest to ours. In See Caesar in his Com­mentaries. Affrica the latter end of February was the ordinary season for Armies to take the field. In Italy in the midst of March, and in France in the beginning of April; so that our most convenient season should be to take the field at the furthest in the midst of April; and to withdraw our armies into their garrisons at Holland Tide, or at the latter end of October. But if we made use of Tents (as we should indeed for the greater expedition of this warre) then we might conveniently keepe the field, untill the latter end of November. But as the watermen that row against tide make lesse speed, and have far more labour to goe to their Journies end, then those that take the opportunity of the Tyde: Even so to spinne out this Warre, and to increase the labours of it, and to waste our men and money, we ordinarily imploy the greater part of the Winter time in actions of warre, and suffer the Sum­mer [Page 55] to passe away in recruiting our Armies, or in our pre­parations of warre, whereas Winter is the most conveni­ent time to raise and inrole Forces, and Reserves, to re­cruit those Forces; and to get ready all manner of pro­visions and necessary implements for warre; And this is a great cause of the spinning out of the publike miseries.

2. In our Scouts.

One of the greatest Secondary causes of the spinning out of this warre is our want of faithfull and diligent Scouts; The City of London should never be without sixteen young, active, and faithfull Scouts, that it might have every other day true intelligence from all the parts of the Kingdome, and every day from our Armies; for it would be the best spent mony of any, and that would soon come in again twenty for one; besides, it would prevent many false rumours, that are daily spread in the City, greatly prejudiciall to the City and State. Moreover, for want of faithfull Scouts, the City may very well be sur­prised or taken unprovided of many necessaries for a de­fensive posture, as many other have been for want of them; and divers others preserved by the speedy activity of their Scouts, as I might prove by instances, if I did not feare to make this Treatise greater then I purpose to doe. And for our Armies, faithfull and active Scouts would be the only preservation of them, and the way to prevent for the time to come the slips of such Military opportunities that they have lost heretofore; but these Scouts are to be experienced souldiers, and very swift horsemen, and not sillie countrey men, or unexpert souldiers, but such as are acquainted with all the stratagems of warre; and that have the capacity to judge by the march of the enemies their project or intentions. See Yu. Liv. dec. 3. lib. 8. Asdrubal Generall of the Car­thaginians was defeated and all his Army for want of di­ligent [Page 56] Scouts; for he never was acquainted that Claudius Nero and his Army was joyned with his Collegue Mar­cus Livius, untill his Army was routed and himself mor­tally wounded. 2. See Philip the Commi­nes. Lewis the eleventh and Charles Duke of Burgundy and both their Armies, were extremely ter­rified and amazed and like to fly away by the false report their Scouts brought to them, that both Armies were ad­vancing, because they judged in a misty morning some high thistles that grew upon a high and long banck in the fields between the two Armies to be so many Regiments of their enemies Lanciers. 3. See Plutarch in Marcellus his life. Marcellus an active and valiant Generall of the Romanes was slaine and his Col­legue mortally wounded and his men defeated by Hanni­bal for want of faithfull Scouts to discover an Ambush that was laid to intrap them. 4. Tiberius. See Titus Li­vius, 3. dec. li. 8. Graccus and all his followers were slain by another Ambush of Hannibals for want of Scouts to discover the same. 5. And See Marcus Crassus life in Plutarch. Crassus a Romane Commander was preserved and all his follow­ers by the diligence of his Scouts. 6. Sir William Waller was surprised the last yeare at the Vises; and my Lord Generall was insnared this Summer in Cornwall for want of faithfull Scouts, for to acquaint the one in time of the sudden coming of the enemies, and the other of the straites and narrow passages to Foy. The want then of diligent and faithfull Scouts in the City and in our Ar­mies is a Cause of the spinning out of this Unnaturall Warre.

3. In our Marches.

The Romane Souldiers did alwayes march when they did intrench themselves in a fortified Camp See Scipio ad­mirato in the ancient Disci­pline of the Romans. eight miles a day, and carried upon their backs three dayes provision, their Armes, and a Pallisado for the parapet of their Camp; and when they carryed nothing but their Armes [Page 57] and three dayes provision they marched 16. miles a day; the Germans in Hungaria marched in my time three Germane leagues which is 15. miles, when they had Waggons to carry their Lumber; and the French Ar­mies march ordinarily 5. French Leagues, that is above ten miles a day; and Claudius Nero marched with his Ar­my sevenscore miles in six dayes, by which activity and swift March he defeated Hannibals brother and all his Army; And See Plutarch in Caesars life. Caesars Marches were so swift, that he and his Army passed the Craggie mountaines of the Alpes, before the Romane Senate could have intelligence by their Scouts, that he was departed out of France. But our Armies require six weekes time to march sixscore miles, which is the overthrow of all Martiall expediti­ons, and the cause of the spinning out of this Unnaturall Warre; for by these long and tedious Marches the ene­mies conjoyne their Forces, or recruite their scattered Armies, and so make our designes vanish away to smoake. In a word, speed and activity in all Military attempts is as needfull as valour, to conduce an intestine warre, as ours is, to a blessed Period.

4. In our Preparations.

If our Marches are tedious our preparations are yet longer, and yet we omit in them the most necessarie im­plements of warre, I meane, Tents, Pick-axes, Shovels and Spades, Waggons, Hand-barowes, and Wheele-barowes, Tortues, Mantelets, and Ladders; If the Militia of the Ci­ty of London doth then desire to see a speedy and a bles­sed end of this unnaturall warre, they are to provide this Winter these necessaries following; for if our Armies were provided with them, they would expedite more warlike attempts in one month then they can now doe in three months, as it shall be proved when I come to speake [Page 58] of intrenching and sieges. 1. They should alwayes have ready twelve hundred Tents of six yards broad and eight yards long. 2. Foure hundred Waggons, two hundred of them close covered, and two hundred uncovered. 3. Foure hundred Ladders, two hundred of sixteen foot long, and two hundred of twelve foot long. 4. Foure­score light flat botes to crosse Rivers. 5. Foure hundred Barowes, two hundred with Wheeles, and two hundred Hand-barowes. 6. Twenty Tortues and twenty Mante­lets that are Engines that goe upon Wheeles, to preserve Souldiers from the Musket-shot, when they make their approaches, and are to be so made that they may sudden­ly be dismounted and carried in Waggons. 7. Two thou­sand Pick-axes, two thousand Shovels, two thousand Spades. 8. Eight Sommes of six peny Nailes, foure Sommes of ten peny nailes, and two Sommes of double ten peny nailes. 9. Foure hundred deale boards of twelve foot long, and foure hundred round deale Poles of twelve foot long, and of six Inches thick. 10. And twelve Ca­nons, twenty-foure Colverins, forty eight Drakes ready mounted with all their appurtenances, Balls, Pouder, and Match proportionable. 11. One hundred Ovens of iron plate to bake a Bushell of bread at a time. 12. Forty Ba­kers, forty Brewers, forty Butchers, twelve young Carpen­ters with their Tooles, and twelve Commissaries of Vi­ctuals, having every one of them six Waggons apiece be­longing to themselves to provide the Army with all ma­ner of Provisions: for if this warre continue but one yeere longer, our Armies will be famished, and not able to advance, because the Counties will be so desolated, except there be Commissaries of Victuals appointed to provide the Armie by Waggons out of the Adjacent Counties. But some will say, you perswade us to incredible and [Page 59] unnecessarie charges, for the greater part of these things we can procure in those Counties thorow which our Ar­mies doe march, or intend to lay siege against any of the enemies Garrisons: I answer, it is a great improvidence for an Army to be without the necessaries that belong to it; and we know by experience that before the Coun­trie can be summoned to bring in Ladders, Barowes, Pick-axes, Shovels and Spades, (for that only can be found in the Country) that an Army may be intrenched about a Garrison Towne; and suppose they bring them in sooner, yet are they so worn, broken, and out of repaire, that they are of no service but to spinne out time; I re­member when one of our Armies was last yeare to storme or to scale Basing House, that they were constrained to send to London to have them made, and so lost a fort­night of faire weather, and then when the Ladders came, the weather being rainy and cold, they were inforced to raise the siege for want of Tents; Now had they had all these implements with them, they had come off with ho­nour, and taken that house; and not left the worke to be done this yeare, or for the next, as they carry themselves before it: The very charges then, that hath been cast away about that house, would have paid for ten times as many implements as are here specified; besides, the losse of the time which is worth as much more, and the blemish of the reputation of the undertakers, which is more then all the rest. I conclude then, that an Army is not to advance without all these implements, to crosse Rivers, to besiege Townes, to intrench it selfe, to make mines, to erect plat-formes, gabions, and to storme, or assault strong-holds, without loosing halfe a dayes time by staying for materials, to hinder their prosecution in any warlike attempt.

5. In our Discipline.

Our indulgence in Military Discipline is also a great cause of the spinning out of this warre, for Souldiers doe what they please, their Generals Commands are not re­garded at all. For an Officer this Summer against the speciall order of his Commander forsook his Station, and by it indangered the whole Army, and was the cause of the losse of many valiant men. And in the West, many have this Summer forsaken their Station appointed by their Generall, and by their disobedience sold his honour and Reputation; And the last Brigade of the five Regi­ments that went out of the City, notwithstanding that an Order was expresly published a moneth afore they went out to be ready at an houres warning; yet there went out very few with their colours, but lingered away the time two or three dayes; our runawayes are neither de­graded nor punished, and that is the cause they make a custome of it, as they have lately done at Banbury, where three moneths time, and a great summe of money hath been cast away. If any See Scipio Admirato in the Discipline of the Romans. Officer or Souldier among the Romanes did forsake the Station appointed to him by his Generall, it was present death; if Souldiers did not go out of the City with their colours, they were tried by a Coun­cell of warre; if they runned away before the enemies, the tenth man suffered for it, the Officers were degraded, and the rest cashiered. The ten See Titus Li­vius in divers places of his. 3. Decade. thousand that ran away from the battell at Cannes, notwithstanding the Romane Common-weale had never so much need of men as at that time; yet all the Commanders and Officers were de­graded of their Nobility, and cashiered for ever to beare Armes; and the common Souldiers banished for ten yeare into Sicile. And surely if our Military Discipline be not reduced to the Roman austerity; or after the Greeks, that [Page 61] was that all runawayes should stand three market See Montag­nes Essayes, chap. 15. fol. 38. dayes in womens apparell upon a stage to be derided at for their cowardize, all will goe to confusion; and this Unnaturall warre will be spinned out, till there be no more oyle in the lamp of this Kingdome to give it life.

6. In our Rules of warre.

The order or rules of warre were never so neglected as they are in our dayes. 1. In intrenchments. 2. In fortify­ing Camps. 3. In scaling. 4. In mining. 5. In storming. 6. In our manner of assaults. Of all which particulars, I shall speake of as briefly as may be.

1. How we are to intrench our selves in a siege.

By the Rules of warre, a Commander in Chiefe that undertakes to besiege any strong hold, if he doth not be­girt the same with a strong trench, and incamp his Army in a fortified Camp in a fortnights time, and chance to be routed or constrained to raise his siege, is to be tried by a councell of Warre; This ancient Romane Law hath been lately revived in France, and many have been punished for neglecting of it; And a Commander in Chiefe in Artois had lost his head for it about three yeares since, if some great ones had not obtained his pardon. And our neglect of it hath been a great cause of the spinning out of this warre; for by this onely neglect we have been foiled at Newark, at Basing house both this yeare and the last, and now of late in Cornwall and at Banbury Castle; And had also been foiled at York, if God in his mercy had not pre­vented the same. All intrenchments are to be lined and directed by an experienced Engineer, that may according to the situation of the hold, and the small or great circum­ference of it, order the same after a regular or irregular forme, if it be but a Castle or a house, a square or a long square, or a Patagonde forme will serve the turne; so [Page 62] there befoure or five small Redoubts to flanke the tren­ches: if it be such another Towne as Newarke, an Octo­gone forme will serve, so there be two bridges erected over the river and two small redoubts erected to secure them, that the one side may be presently relieved by the other, if it be a great City the Dyadecagone forme is to be used, and the trenches are to be lined within pistoll-shot from the wals or rampiars; for the neerer the safer: And for the approches that are of al things the most dangerous, they are to be directed by the Engineers; by whose ad­vice and some Mantelets to preserve the Pioners from the enemies musket shot, there will be no great losse, so there be Brigades appointed to stand ready to hinder the Sallies out of the enemies. Two good Engineers in a siege may doe more service to the state then a thousand men, by their counsell and directions. And for want of experi­enced ones, we are daily foiled; there can be no money better imployed, nor that will be more beneficiall to the State, then by a good round pay to procure the most in­genious and experienced Engineers that can be obtained.

2. Of a fortified Camp.

There is no erecting of fortified Camps, without Tents; and that is the reason why I presse the Militia to have a thousand or twelve hundred alwayes ready of that size spoken of, for to expedite sieges, that will be long and te­dious without them, and will consume a number of men by diseases; but having Tents, a fortified Camp is to be erected upon a raising ground without Cannon shot of the Towne, if it be no bigger then Newark, one fortified Camp will serve, so it be seated in the midway of the cir­cumference of the Trenches between the two Bridges, that reliefe may be sent to all the trenches speedily; but if it be a great City that hath a river running in the midst of [Page 63] it, then there is to be two fortified Camps, on either side at a just distance on both sides of the river; I meane, that there may be no more distance on the right hand to the river side, then on the left, and from each of the two Camps there are lines of Communication to be made to relieve without danger the trenches or the two Brides, that are erected on both sides the City. I will therefore set out the proportion of a fortified Camp, to containe twelve hundred Tents of that size abovesaid, that will harbour foure thousand horse and eight thousand foot with conveniencie; if the Army be greater, it is to be in­creased, if smaller, it is to be diminished proportionably. The forme of this Camp is to be square and of six hun­dred yards on each side of the square, that makes foure and twenty hundred yards of continent, and is to have foure bulwarks at the foure Corners, to set two pieces of Ordnance in each bulwarke, for to flanke the Dikes of it; that are to be of six yards broad and foure yards deep, the rampier to be of six yards thick in the bottome; and of foure yards thick at top; and three yards high besides the Parapet, that is to be foure foot high and two yards thick. This Camp is to have foure broad gates, one in the midst of each side of the square, and a square market place of two hundred yards one each side of the square, that make eight hundred yards of continent just in the midst of the Camp; then it is to have foure broad streets, that are to be drawne upon a strait line from every gate to the market place of twelve yards broad, in manner of a perfect crosse, and foure great streetes more, drawne out from one cor­ner of the Camp to the other; and every one distant from the rampiar ten yards, that the souldiers may without im­pediment come from all parts to defend the rampier. Now the foure angles that remaine are to containe the [Page 64] Tents that are to be set up back to back, and on both sides a street of eight yards broad to come in to the Tents, the ends of which are to be close together, that there may be no passage between them, The two Angles toward the South are to be reserved for the lodging of men; and the other toward the North for the horse; The Generals Tent and other Chiefe Officers Tents are to be set up in the foure corners of the streetes next to the market place; that all the officers may the more speedily repaire to him, and the Courts of guard are to be placed in the eight Tents that make the eight corners of the foure Crosse streetes next to the gates. A Camp thus fortified and so ordered having lines of Communication to the trenches of the circumference that begirt the Towne or City, will be able to make good a siege against an Army that should come to raise the same of forty thousand men, as Caesar did in See Caesars Commentaries in the Wars of Affrica. Affrica before Adrumet, and Henry the fourth did before See the siege of Amiens in History of France. Amiens against the Archduke Mathias, and the last King of Sweden before See the Swe­den Souldier. Norenberg against the Duke of Walstaine. This fortified Camp may be finished by six thousand foot souldiers in eight dayes, if the Army be provided, as it is abovesaid, so the souldiers have but four pence a day paid them every night above their pay, as a gratuity to encourage them in this work; and a Towne so besieged will be sooner reduced in a moneths time, then it will be in three moneths, if the Army quarter in the ad­jacent villages, and with more ease and lesse danger of the enemies, or of any diseases to infect the Army, for in such a Camp with Tents and Straw they lie as warme and sa­fer then in a City; and for provisions the two hundred Waggons, and the twelve Commissaries of Victuals above spoken of will furnish the same plentifully, so the horse-men be appointed to cause the adjacent Townes [Page 65] to bring in Hay, Straw, Oates, and Pease to the Camp.

3. In our scaling.

The designe of the scaling of a hold, or Garrison Towne is to be kept very private, and then it may be done as well by the Garrison of a contrary partie ten or twelve miles distant as by a siege; so they march all night and keep all goers and commers in their Garrison the day be­fore. The fittest time to scale a Towne is one or two houres before day, for then the souldiers of a Garrison are most of all overcome with sleep, and the Ladders are to be set up all at an Instant; the number are to be two hundred at least, placed some six yards asunder, that if one Ladder should be cast downe, it may not cause seven or eight to fall after it, and also for the greater diversion of the enemies, that shall not be able to oppose in so many places, the souldiers are to be very active and speedy, and the foremost are to have Rondaches in the one hand, and swords in the other, and the next Musqueteers, and the last Pikemen, as soon as an hundred are upon the Rampier they are to fall upon the Court of guard that is neere to the next gate, that they may breake it open; some do also carry with them a couple of Petars that are to be made fast to the gates to blow them open, while the other scale the Towne. This way of taking a Castle or Garrison Towne should be used in these dayes for expedition more then it is, because of the small charge, and the little dan­ger there is in it; for all our Garrison Townes, Houses, or Castles have no Casamates that flank the Courtines even with the foot of the Rampiers or wals; the which Ca­samates were the preservation of Geneva when it was sca­led; for the Ordnance in them broke and cast downe all the Ladders, and therefore the scalers here are out of dan­ger of the Ordnance.

4. In our Mines.

We keep as little order in our Mines as in all other at­tempts; Mines are the cheapest way after the scaling, to take a hold or a Garrison Towne, only they cannot be done safely before the hold or the Garrison Town be begirt with trenches, for the Mines are to have their be­ginning in them; and although foure Mines are sufficient to take a great garrison Towne; yet I conceive it to be a safe Policy to begin eight Mines against a reasonable gar­rison Towne, and twelve against a greater. To delude the enemies, that if some of them be found out and counter­mined, some may be left to serve to performe the designe; the mouth of every one of them is to begin in the trench that begirts the hold or Towne, at equall distances, that they may goe round about the Towne, and they are to be made upon a strait line, untill the Mine be brought under the midst of the wall or Rampier, and when it is so, then every Mine is to be made as it was begun, ten yards on the right and ten yards on the left hand, like a perfect T. The Mine is not to be in no place above two yards broad and six foot high, and at every yard it is to be propt with two rowes of the deale poles spoken of, that are to be sawed in two, and the deale boards are to serve for bases below and above, for without boards under and above the props, they will sinke into the ground, and it will cause the earth of the Mine to cave and overthrow the worke; the Mines or foure of them being ready, the very morning that the Commanders intend to storme, there are foure, six, or eight barrels of Powder to be carried into each Mine, (for if they were carried the day before, they might be taken away before the next morning by the ene­mies,) according as they are fitted with powder; or in case of necessity foure will serve, but the more there is, the [Page 67] greater and the more levell will the breach be when the Mines are sprung; when these barrels of Powder are set in the Mines at an equall distance one from another, if there be foure barrels, at foure foot distance, if there be six, at three foot distance; then are the Cannoneers to set a traine of Powder between every barrell, and a traine to come from the crosse of the T. down to the foot of the trench; but the Mines are to be stopped at the crosse of the. T. with rammed clay, only a hole of foure Inches square is to be left being supported with stones or brickes for the traine of Powder to passe cleare from the very trench to all the parts of the Mines, and when the Commanders have set their reserves in order; as it is described in the next Chapter but one; then is the fire to be set to the Traine; that as soone as the powder of the Mines hath done her operation, the reserves may suddenly enter the breaches.

5. In our storming.

All sorts of Drakes, Sacres, demy Colverins or Col­verins are of no use for batteries, they serve but to spinne out the warre, and to make Cony-holes in stead of brea­ches; they are to be Canons, or at the very worst demy-Canons, and they are not to be lesse then six in number, and all planted of a row, upon a sufficient Platforme that is well plankt under foot, and so raised with earth, that the six Canons being pointed may batter within a foot of the foundation of the wall or rampier; for high batte­ries serve only to spend powder and shot in vaine. And these six Canons being charged and pointed they are to be fired all at one Instance, for such a thundring clap will molter more earth or shake a stone wall more then forty Canon shot will doe, if they be shot by intermission of time; besides, the defendants cannot repaire a breach that [Page 68] is made after so violent a blow, as they may when it is made by intermission of time. Now before the platformes for the battery be erected, the most experienced Com­manders, Officers and Engineers are to view the Ram­piers or wals of the Towne, for to take notice of the wea­kest places of it, and of the most convenient places about the towne to raise the platforme, for if there be neare the towne any rising ground, it will save a great deale of la­bour and charges if they erect their battery there, howso­ever the platforme is not to be erected at the most above a musket shot from the rampier or wall; for if it be but halfe a musket shot it is the more powerfull, and these platformes are to be defended with strong gabions of earth, to prevent that the enemies Canon doe not dis­mount some of the six Canons upon it, and also to pre­serve the Canoneers lives that would otherwise be expo­sed to the Canon shot of the enemies. If it be a City or a great garrison Towne, then it requires two platformes and two batteries with six Canons apiece, the one on the one side of the towne, and the other on the other side; and both these platformes and batteries are to be made, and to be­gin to play at the breake of the day that shall be appoin­ted for the storme; and so they are to continue without in­termission untill they have made two breaches of twenty yards broad apiece; and the dikes to be levelled with the rubbish even with the firme ground; Now if these brea­ches cannot be done in one day, then are the Comman­ders to give order that some Companies of Musquetteers be appointed to stand on the two flanks of the breaches all night, one company after another, to fire their Musquets at randome into the breaches, to hinder the defendants to repaire the breaches, or from retrenching of them­selves within it; And then the next morning to storme [Page 69] againe without intermission untill the breach be sufficient and the dike levelled as afore-said. And in the meane time the Commanders may set in order their reserves to come to a generall Assault after this manner following.

6. In our manner of Assaults.

There is an erroneous opinion crept in the minde of some men that say we are not to take Townes or Castles by storming & assaults, to avoid the shedding of Christi­an bloud, but we ought rather to take them by famine. But these men are either ignorant of the events of warre; or desire this unnaturall warre should be spinned out, un­till the Kingdome were utterly consumed. For it is cer­taine that long sieges consume more men by diseases ten for one, then are slaine by storming or assaults, as it shall be proved by Instances. 1. Titus Livius, Decad. 1. lib. 5. Vigentia a great City in Italy was besieged ten yeares by the Romans, (and at that siege was the use of Tents first of all invented, because of the number of Souldiers that perished by diseases, that did proceed from the wet and cold they endured in Winter time) and Furius Camilius took the same in a moneth by a Mine and a generall assault. 2. The siege of See the Hi­story of France Marseil­les under Francis the first, and the siege of Mests under Henry the second Kings of France, consumed above three­score thousand men by diseases; because the Emperour Charles the fifth strove to take them by famine. 3. The Protestants in the second Civill warre of France besieged the City of See the Ci­vill Warres of France. Poitiers with an Army of thirty thousand men, and because they did not storme it at their first co­ming, they lost above six thousand men by diseases, and were inforced to raise the siege. 4. The See Des Serres in his Inven­tory. Earle of Foix Generall for the French in the Kingdome of Naples, ha­ving besieged the City of Naples, lost his owne life and the greater part of his Army before it by the Pestilence, [Page 70] because he fell not a storming of it at his first coming. In a word, long sieges consume more men, treasure and time then townes that are taken by assault; There are so many accidents that happen by the long time that a Towne re­quires for to be taken by famine, that the events of it are very seldome successefull or happy, and there is no towne or Castle but may be taken by storming, as it may be proved by instances. 1. Henry the fourth took See Pierre Matthew in Henry the fourths life. Mout­meillan Castle in eight dayes that had required two yeares siege; for it stood upon a steep Rock, judged of the grea­ter part of his Commanders impregnable, and well pro­vided of Ammunition and provisions; But he having viewed thes at of it himselfe, saw there was another steep rock, within Canon shot of it; whereupon he gave a Re­giment of Switzers a Largesse, to draw up upon that rock six Canons with the strength of their armes; and these being pointed and storming the same furiously, the defendants yeelded upon composition; If the like was done to Scarborow Castle, it would be taken in three dayes; for it is nothing to the fore-named in seat and for­tifications, and it hath also a hill that commands the same; and likewise Beaver Castle, that is also commanded by a hill. 2. The Towne of Gravilling, one of the strongest Garrisons in Flanders that had required two yeares siege to take it by famine, because it had three double dikes of forty foot broad and twenty foot deep, and all flanked with bastions made with Casamates, and no probabilitie to come to an assault without Galleries; yet the French did so terrifie the defendants by their furious batteries and assaults, that they were constrained to deliver the same up­on composition, before it had been fully besieged three months. 3. Our brethren the Scots might have endured many a wet and cold night before New-Castle, and have [Page 71] spinned out that siege untill the next Spring, if they had not nobly and valiantly stormed the same. If Basing house and Banbury Castle had been stormed with sixe Canons that might have made such breaches as are spo­ken of before, and had the besiegers given such an assault, so ordered and the men so armed as followed, they had not lost their reputation as they have; nor left that work undone, to spinne out this warre to the next yeare.

When a breach of twenty yards broad is made, and the dike filled up, as aforesaid, even with the firme ground; then are three reserves to march after one another in this manner, but if there be two breaches then six reserves are to be in a readinesse, and every reserve is to consist of fifty nine men, that is for every breach one hundred three­score and seventeen men, and for the two breaches it is three hundred fifty foure men. These men are to be cho­sen men of the most valiant and experienced souldiers of the Army; for raw souldiers are not to have that honour, neither would they stand to so furious a storme; but would turne back and run away, and over-throw the de­signe; (for among the French the Marshals of France, Earles, and Barons doe not disdaine to be of the first ranke that go up to the breach;) and those of the first ranke are to be of the most See Montlus Commenta­ries. eminent in birth and degree; this first ranke are to be all Rondachiers, armed from the head to the knees with armour of proofe, with broad swords in their right hands to cut the enemies pikes, their Rondachi­ers in the left, and a Pistoll ready charged at their girdle, and are to be placed a foot asunder, that the next ranke of nineteene Musquetteers may fire their Musquets between that foot light, and these Musquetteers are to be armed with good swords on their side, a buffe coat on their back, and a Pistoll ready charged at their girdle, and a [Page 72] head piece on their head, they are to march two yards distant from the Rondachiers, and next to them are to be a ranke of twenty Pike-men armed with Corselets and Cuisiers of proofe; and are to march within two yards of the Musquetteers, as it is here prickt downe:

Now these three reserves are to march within three Rondachiers. Musquetteers. Pikemen. yards one of another, that if the first give ground the se­cond may succeed, and so the third; but if it get ground, they are to presse on; Now the nineteene Musquetteers of every reserve having fired their Musquets are to wheele about to shelter themselves behinde the Pikemen, for to charge their Musquets againe; And the Pike-men are to advance in their place to second the See Bayard Commentaries Rondachiers, and to make good the breach untill the other reserve comes up to the breach, if in case the Rondachiers were tired, or some of them wounded. Now on both sides of the breach there are fresh Regiments or Companies of Musquetteers to be placed for to second these reserves in case they loose ground, or to enter furiously the breach if the enemies loose it; for it is continuance and constancy that carries it away in assaults; for the besiegers being foure to one will by continuance tire the defendants, as it came to passe at the siege of Malte. In a word, if our breaches were made so broad, and our men so well armed, and this order ob­served, I make no question but our men would go on like Lions; but when they are to enter into Coney-holes in stead of breaches, and have no armour of proofe to with­stand the Musquet shot and the Pikes of the Defendants, it is no marvell if they turne their backes and come off with dishonour; now if there be two breaches or more [Page 73] made by Mines or by the storming of the Canon, they are all to be entered at one instant, for the greater diversi­on of the enemies forces; and besides these breaches it is wisedome to have two hundred Ladders ready and com­mandement to be made, they should be placed as farre di­stant from the breaches as they can, that fresh souldiers may get up upon the rampier, and so wheele about to fall upon the backes of the enemies, while they defend the breaches: for by this stratageme Scipio tooke the strong City of new See Titus Li­vius in his 3. decade lib. Carthage in one day, notwithstanding it had a garrison of eight thousand men within it. Now I returne to the seventh difference of our Method of warre.

7. In our stratagemes of warre.

The stratagemes of warre increase according to the acute ingenuity of Commanders, and are very usefull to reduce strong holds; or to preserve an Army if it be over­powred, or brought in narrow wayes, or in necessity of Provisions. Now of all the ancient Commanders, Caesar & Hannibal have exceeded all others in stratagemes of war; 1. Caesar being constrained by a storme at Sea, to land near to a garrison Towne of the enemies called See Caesars Commentaries of the War of Affrica. Adrumet, sea­ted upon the coast of Affrica, with onely three hundred horse, and three thousand foot, used such admirable stra­tagemes of warre, that he defended himselfe so valiantly against the potent Army of Juba, of Scipio, and of Labien­nus, that they could not force him in his Camp, nor streighten him frō provisions, but he continued there three moneths, untill new supplies came to him from Sicilia; and then he took the field, and by stratagemes, more then by valour, defeated them, although their Armies excee­ded his, foure for one. 2. Hannibal being in Italy, was led by the ignorance or the infidelity of his guides, into a [Page 74] valley incompassed with high mountaines, where he was presently invironed by Fabius See Plutarch in Fabius life. Maximus Army; And there he had perished with his Army; if he had not found out this stratageme of war to free himselfe: He caused some dry Bavins of shreds of Vines to be fastned between the hornes of two thousand oxen, that he led along with him for the provision of his Army; and at the begin­ning of the night commanded his souldiers to set them all at an instant on fire, and to drive the said oxen with vio­lence up the narrow passages of the mountaines, at which strange sight the Romanes that guarded them were so amazed, that they all run away for feare; and so opened a passage for him and his Army to passe without impedi­ment. 3. See Serres in the Inventory of Du Hailian in his History of France. Henry the fifth King of England, being in­compassed by an Army of the French near to Agincourt, exceeding his Army foure for one, commanded his soul­diers to dig in the night great and deepe trenches round about his Camp; and to stick in them long pointed stakes, and then to fill them againe up as lightly as they could with the loose earth; by which stratageme the French Army was utterly defeated; for the French horse coming in the morning furiously to fall upon the English Camp, they fell upō one anothers backs in these hallow grounded trenches, where the English Archers slew them at their pleasure. 4. Charles the eighth King of France, at his re­turne from the Conquest of the Kingdome of Naples, was incompassed by an Army of all the confederated Princes of Italy, (exceeding in number his Army three for one) as he came downe the Mountaines of the Alpe­lins, neare to See Des Ser­res in the In­ventory of France. Farnone, where he had perished and all his Army for want of provisions, if he had not by a strata­geme freed himselfe from the strait he was in, by com­manding over night that all his Ordnance, carriages, and [Page 75] baggage should be placed at the breake of day in the midst of his foot, and that his horse should equally be di­vided into two Brigades, the one for the Van, and the other for the reare, and himselfe riding in the front of his Van, charged the enemies so furiously, that he broke tho­row their Army, slew divers thousands of them, and ope­ned a passage for himselfe and all his Army to returne in­to France without impediment. Now had we not beene so barren in stratagemes of war as we are, our Army in Cornwall had, as well as these, come out of their straits with honour and reputation, for it was inferiour to all these: But as I have said heretofore, It was Gods pleasure it should be so, to humble us by that blow. 2. Strong holds that would require long sieges may be reduced by a stratageme of warre in an houres time. See the Mar­shall of Mont­luc his Com­mentaries. Montluc ha­ving intelligence by his Scouts that the Governour of a strong Castle seated upon the lake of Canstance, did usu­ally goe to recreate himselfe at a farme house of his with­in two miles of his Castle, placed an ambush to intrap him, that tooke him and brought him before his Castle gate, and by threatning to strike off his head from his shoulders, the Castle was yeelded and surrendred up. A good memorandum for some of our Governours, that goe a hunting with five or six horse, and indanger themselves and their garrison to be surprized by the enemies. 2. The Governour of Dorlance took the strong City of Amiens with this stratageme, he laid an Ambush in the night time within halfe a mile of the City of two thousand foot, and of a thousand horse, and sent sixe Waggons laden with Hay, under which Hay were six armed souldiers in every one of the Waggons, and upon the last Waggons two souldiers disguised like countrey-men, having some bas­kets full of Wall-Nuts, and commanded them they [Page 76] should not come to the City before the opening of the gates; where being come, the Souldiers of the Court of Guard knowing some of the Carters by sight, suffered the Waggons to enter, without driving a Pike (as the rules of War require) thorow the midst of their Loads of Hay, and the last Waggon staid still in the midst of the gate, to hinder that the Percullis might not be let downe, faining something was amisse at his See the French History Waggon, and then the dis­guised souldiers let willingly one of their baskets of Wal-Nuts fall down, whereupon all the souldiers of the Court of Guard forsooke their Armes, and ranne to the gate to scramble for these Nuts. But in the meane time, the ar­med souldiers of the enemies leapt out of the Waggons, and slew them all, secured the gate, and did let in their Ambush, and so possessed themselves of the City, before the Governour could gather Forces to oppose them. 3. The strong garrison Towne of Breda was taken also by the stratageme of a small Ship laden with Turffes, under which were hidden a Commander and twenty ar­med Souldiers, and this See Demetres History. Ship being suffered to enter the Towne, after it had been carelesly searched; The Com­mander and his souldiers tooke their opportunity in the dead time of the night to fall upon a Court of Guard next to the gate where their land Ambush was laid, and slew all the souldiers of it, secured the gate, and let in their Ambush, that possessed themselves of the Towne. 4. For to prove the antiquity of the Stratagemes of War; it is recorded that Josh. 8. 12. Ai and Judg. 20. 36. Gibeah two strong Cities of the Amorites were surprized by ambushes that were laid in a hallow, attending when the enemies should come forth, for to enter and set them on fire, and to fall upon the backs of the Inhabitants of them, whereby they were utterly destroyed. And hereupon I conclude, that our [Page 77] barrennesse in stratagemes of warre is one of the causes of the spinning out of this Unnaturall Warre. For ma­ny of the enemies garrisons might be taken with small charges, if the Governours of ours, were as active and as much experienced in stratagemes of warre, as other nati­ons are.

8. In the true Maximes of warre.

As it is impossible for a Christian that is not instructed in the true Principles of Religion to receive any consola­tion at all of his Progresse in Christianity, because the fur­ther he goes on upon erroneous Principles, the lesse are his comforts. Even so, according to humane Reason, there is small hope for us to see a speedy and a blessed issue of this warre, since we observe not the true Maximes of warre, and specially these two following. 1. It is dan­gerous for Generals of Armies to divide their forces in small parties; as it shall appeare by instances. 1. Tacitus in the warre of Ar­menia. Petus Generall of the Emperour Nero was defeated in Armenia because he had dispersed his Army in severall parties. 2. Tacitus, lib. 2. cap. 5. Cicinna Generall of the Emperour Vitelius was rou­ted by the Othonnians, because he had divided his Army into small parties, and did not march all in one body. 3. Tacitus, lib 3. cap. 12. Valans another Generall of the Emperour Vitellius was routed and his Army defeated by Antonius Primus Generall of the Emperour Vespasianus, because he had di­vided his Army into small Brigades. 4. Tacitus, lib. 4. cap. 10. Lucius Apronius was defeated, and his Army utterly routed by the Frize­landers, because he did not set upon them with his whole Army, but by intermission with small parties. 5. The French Army that was sent in the yeare 1497. to recover x See Guichar­din, li. 3. cap. 17. Genua, was defeated, (saith Guichardin;) because the French Generall had divided his Army, and marched in three bodies. 6. Monsieur de la Noüe in his Annotations [Page 78] upon the same passage of Guichardin saith, that an Army divided into small Brigades, except they be in sight one of another, is like to a river that is divided into divers channels, that is fordable any where: Even so an Army that marcheth not in a full body is easily routed and de­feated; for as it was impossible for See Herodo­tus in the life of Cyrus. Cyrus to take the City of Babylon before he had divided the great river of Euphrates into divers small channels; so is it almost impossible for to defeat a potent army if it march close in one body: because it is like a roaring flood that drives all before it. But small forces cannot performe any con­siderable service, because of their imbecility; and doe ra­ther consume the Counties where they are, then free them from the oppression of their enemies. For Instance, if we consider what the weak, the divided, and the independant Forces of the Counties of North-hampton, Warwicke, Darby, Nottingham, Rutland, and Leicester have done since the beginning of this warre, we shall finde they have onely wasted themselves upon a defensive posture, and have not hitherto freed their Counties of any of the ene­mies garrisons, that like so many leeches suck their bloud, and will consume them by degrees, like a lingering fire that consumes a blocke of Timber. Except it pleaseth God to infuse into the hearts of the Honourable Houses, to reduce all their forces into two potent Armies; the one for to endeavour to drive the flames of the fire of this un­naturall war in as small a circumference of ground as may be; for the smaller it shall be, the easier it will be quenched, and the sooner shall a blessed peace be obtained: And the other to endeavour to cleare all the Counties one after an­other of the enemies garrisons; for they are the fomenters of this war, and the virulent humour of our Hectick fea­ver, because they revive the fire of discord every where; [Page 79] and recruite suddenly the dispersed Armies of the ene­mie. Now the blessed fruits that the conjunction of three Armies into one hath produced this Summer should in my opinion induce the Honourable Houses to change this destructive Method of warre, to embrace this I speake of: for according to huumane reason, the rules of war, and our late experience, it is like to prove more suc­cessefull, because we see that the dividing of our Army this yeare into two bodies hath annihilated this Summers worke; whereas if it had kept it selfe in one body, it had in all probability freed the City from the fear of the South­west garrisons of the enemies, and driven the flames of the fire of this unnaturall war into the Westerne parts; And so by the omission of this Maxime of war, the Jer. 8. 10. harvest is past, and the Summer is ended, and yet we are not saved, &c. Now I come to the second, that is of greater con­cernment then the first; viz. That peace is the end of war, and that no war can have a blessed end, except the princi­pall end of it tend to peace: And that the fittest season for a state to tender propositions of peace, is when it is in a prosperous condition in Armes: And notwithstanding this prosperity, their propositions are to be equall and just, that the peace grounded upon them may be of continu­ance. For the first, if the Carthaginians had required a peace of the Romanes after their victory at Cannes, they had undoubtedly obtained a peace upon honourable con­ditions; but because they delaid to require a peace till See Tit. Liv. dec. 3. lib. 12. Hannibal and Syphax with their Armies were utterly de­feated, and Scipio his Army advanced to the wals of Car­thage; they were inforced to embrace any conditions of peace. If See Plutarch in the life of Lucullus. Antiochus the great had required a peace of the Romanes, when they had warre with Phillip King of Macedonia, he had obtained honourable conditions of [Page 80] Peace, but because he delaid to require a peace, till he and all his Forces were driven out of Greece, and himself with a potent Army defeated in Asia, he was inforced to accept very hard conditions of peace, which was, to forsake all the dominions he had on this side the Mount Taurus, & to leave thē to the will & pleasure of his victorious enemies. For the second, a peace cōcluded upon unequall cōditions is never of any long continuance. The first See Titus Li­vius, decade. Punick warre was ended by a rigorous peace for the Carthaginians; And therefore as soon as they had an opportunity, they brake that Peace, and began a more cruell war; And the first Peace made between the Romanes and Philip the se­cond King of See Titus Li­vius, decad. 3. and 4. Macedonia was of no continuance, be­cause the conditions were too rigorous for the Macedo­nians. The peaces that were concluded between Charles the ninth and Henry the third See the Hi­story of France. Kings of France, and their Protestant Subjects, were of no continuance, because they were not sincere, but only varnisht over with dissimulati­on, and proved rather snares to the poore Protestants then profitable Accommodations; but on the other side the Peaces that See Pierre Matthew in Henry the fourths life. Henry the fourth concluded with his rebelli­ous Subjects, and with the House of Austria, were of long continuance, because it was the Maxime of that generous King, to be rather too remisse then rigorous in his conditi­ons of peace: for when he had brought the Catholike See Pierre Matthew in Henry the fourths life. League upon their knees, that had rebelliously proclai­med him incapable of the Crowne, injured his sacred per­son, and desolated his Kingdome by the forraigne For­ces they brought in to dis-throne their naturall King; yet did he grant unto them honourable conditions of peace; and spilt not a drop of their bloud in vindication of their abhorred carriage towards him. And for the House of Austria, although it had hatched that Cockatrice of the [Page 81] Catholike League, and fomented the Civill warre in France for three and thirty yeares together; yet after he had recovered the City of Amiens out of their hands, and driven back the potent Army of the Archduke Matthias into Flanders with great losse and dishonour, and was ad­vancing into Artois with his victorious Army; he embra­ced the Propositions of peace that were offered him by Philip the second King of Spaine, and was so just and equall in his demands; (notwithstanding he had the ad­vantage in Armes) that the Peace that was then conclu­ded was of long continuance. But the Emperour Charles the fifth by the rigorous conditions of Peace he imposed upon Francis the first King of France (that was his priso­ner) against the wise counsell of that famous Politician See the Spa­nish History. Cardinall Ximenez, (that counselled him to set freely the said King at libertie, and to take no advantage at all of his imprisonment, nor to require but equall and just con­ditions of Peace from him;) filled all Christen dome with war, and brought upon himselfe such incredible charges, that caused his hoary head to descend to the grave with sorrow and vexation of mind. And the greatest Politici­an of our dayes, the See this Car­dinals life. Cardinall de Richlieu did counsell Lewis the thirteenth King of France, to be in all the condi­tions of peace that he tendered to the Dukes of Savoy and Lorraine, and to his owne Protestant subjects, rather re­misse thē too rigorous; as being the safer way for to attain to a sure and a constant peace. Now since it hath pleased God to infuse into the hearts of all the Members of the honourable Houses such an earnest desire to Peace, as they are now ready to tender, and to send Propositions of Peace to his sacred Majestie, I conceive we are all obliged in generall & in particular to addresse our fervent Prayers to the throne of Grace, that God would be pleased to in­fuse [Page 82] into his Majesties heart a true desire to conclude such a peace, as may tend to the advancement of Gods glory, the good of his Church, and to the reunion of his Maje­sties love with his most loyall Parliament, as the onely meanes to make his sacred Person, and all his dominions, blessed and happy; And that he may for ever hereafter have in his mind his Royall Fathers Motto, Beati pacisici.

The sixth Secondary Cause, is, The want of Perseverance.

THe Perseverance in the wayes of righteousnesse is a supernaturall Grace, and a free gift of God, but in Ci­vill, Politike and Military actions, it is a gift of nature, or a property acquired by education or practise, that doth of­tentimes overcome the naturall instinct in men, and in un­reasonable creatures, as it shall appeare by these instances: 1. See Plutarch in his Morals. Socrates that was reputed by the Oracle of Apollo the wisest, the most temperate, and the meekest man of all the Greeks, was naturally inclined to inconstancie, licentious­nesse, and wrath, as he did aver before his Disciples, when they derided in their schooles one that affirmed by the Phisiognomy of Socrates, that he was naturally addicted to these infirmities; but he overcame them by a constant observation of the rules and of the Principles of Phyloso­phy. 2. See Plutarch in Lycurgus his life. Lycurgus to induce the Lacedemonians to a constant Perseverance in the austere diet and Military Di­scipline he had established in their Lawes, caused a Masty, a Greyhound, a Hare, and a Porrige Pot, to be brought be­fore them, and having loosed the Dogs, set down the Pot, and let goe the Hare; the Masty ranne after the Hare, the [Page 83] Grey-hound to the Porrige Pot; whereupon he spake thus to them, this Grey-hound was reared in a kitchin, and this Masty among a kenell of hounds, and custome hath over-mastered their naturall instinct; even so, this austere diet, and military Discipline, that seemes irksome to you, will be easie and pleasant in continuance of time. Whereupon I observe, that our want of Perseverance in Armes doth rather proceed from the long neglect of our breeding and practise in war, then from our naturall incli­nation that was formerly addicted to See the En­glish Chron. in the lives of Edward the 3. & Henry the 5. Martiall exploits. But before I come to the particulars of this want of a con­stant perseverance in Military actions, and to prove the ne­cessity of the redresse of it by instances, I desire to answer an objection that will be objected by such as are not ac­quainted with the degrees of this perseverance. You ac­knowledge (will they say) in your last Chapter, that our Civill warre is the greatest evill and the most dreadfull judgement of God that could fall upon this nation; And notwithstanding you perswade us to persevere in it, and complaine that the want of our perseverance in it, is the cause of the spinning out of this war; which seemes a para­dox to us, because we conceive the lesse we persevere in it the sooner we shall have an end of it? I answer that I do not perswade any to persevere in this war, to the end to prolong the same, but to endeavour by a constant Perse­verance in Armes, to obtaine by Gods favour a blessed peace, from which we are deprived yeare after yeare, by our want of perseverance in Military actions, as it shall be proved in this Chapter: Neither doe I complaine onely that it is the cause of the spinning out of our miseries; But do also wish that my head were full of Jer. 9. 1. water and mine eyes a fountain of teares, that I might weep day and night for the desolations that this unnaturall war and this want [Page 84] hath brought already upon this Nation. The which to redresse, if it be possible, I will endeavour to prove that a constant perseverance in all professions, is the way to at­tain to honour in this life, to peace in this world, and to eternall blisse in the life to come. If a tradesman be indued with this gift of a constant perseverance in his trade, he will excell all others in excellencie of worke; If a merchant be indued with this gift, he will excell all other merchants in wealth and commerce; if a student be indu­ed with this gift, he will excell his fellowes, and will at­taine to great promotion before them; If a Statesman be indued with this gift, he will excell in Policy, and reasons of State, all his fellow Councellours; If a simple Christi­an be indued with this gift of a constant perseverance in the wayes of Righteousnesse, he will excell the learned Doctors in the power of Godlinesse, and dive deeper in the Mysterie of our Salvation, and in the Resolutions of difficult cases of Conscience then they shall: If a Com­mander in Chiefe be indued with this gift above others, he will excell all other Commanders of that age in Marti­all exploits; As it shall appeare by these great Comman­ders hereafter expressed, because they persevered in Arms from their youth, to the end of their lives. Publius Titus Livius, dec. 3. lib. b. Scipio rescued his father in a battell out of the enemies hand at fifteen yeares of age, and at five and twenty he was Gene­rall in Chiefe for the Romanes in Spaine and in Affrica. Titus Livius, dec. 3. lib 2. Hannibal was sent from Carthage into Spaine to be trai­ned up in Armes under Asdrubal Generall of the Cartha­ginians, at nine yeares of age. Plut. in Pom­peyes life. Pompeius the great appea­sed a mutiny in his fathers Camp at fifteen yeares of age; and triumphed at Europe, Asia, and Affrica before he was thirty yeares of age. Alexander the Marcus Cur­tius. great conquered the greater part of the world before he was three and thirty [Page 85] yeares of age. Plutarch in Caesars life. Caesar was a Commander in Chief at two and twenty yeares of age, and for his active and constant Perseverance in Armes he excelled all the Commanders that ever were to this day. La Noüe in his Military Discourses. Henry the fourth King of France was sent to the Protestant Army at eighteen years of age, and was their Commander in Chiefe at two and twenty. Gustavus the last King of Sweden was trained up I See the Swe­den souldier. in Armes very young under his father, and persevered constantly in Military exploits in Polonia, Lituania, Prus­sia, and in Germany, till he was slaine in the second battell of Lipsick. And so all these admirable Commanders crowned their heads with Military Trophees by a con­stant perseverance in Armes. But these following peri­shed or blemished their reputation by their discontinuance in Military exploits; See Plut in Mar. Antonius his life. Marcus Antonius the competitor of Augustus Caesar in the Empire, for want of this constant perseverance in Armes, was surprised by the activitie of Augustus, his Army defeated, and he himselfe inforced to fly to Alexandria, where he slew himselfe. The Noble Prince of Transilvania See the Tur­kish History. Sigismundus Battor, that was in his youth the Bulwarke of Christendome against the Turkish Invasions, and had defeated in open field Sinan Bassa the Grand Visier of the Ottoman Emperour, for want of this constant Perseverance in Armes, made over his Principality of Transilvania for a petty Countie in Slesia, and a yearly revenew to the Emperour Rodolphus, to the great blemish of his former reputation, and to the incredi­ble losse of Christendome. See the French History Henry the third King of France by his discontinuance in Armes, lost the honour he had obtained in his youth in Military exploits; and was inforced to give over the managing of his Army to the Duke of Guise, and to some others of his Abbettors of the House of Lorraine; whereby he came to be so despi­sed [Page 86] of his Nobility, and of his meanest Subjects, that they grew so impious, as to plot and combine in his own court the Catholique League, that endeavoured to dis-throne this indulgent King; but their plot being prevented by the death of the Duke of Guise, they caused him to be perfi­diously murdred by a Jacobin Friar. The victorious Ar­my of See Hannibal his life. Hannibal was utterly overthrowne for want of Perseverance in Armes, for in stead to keepe the same in their Winter Camp, as his use was, he lodged them in the lascivious City of Capua, whereby they became so effe­minate, that they lost by it their former valour, and could never be reduced againe to their austere Military Disci­pline; And for this reason did See Plut. in Marius his life. Marius, and divers other wise Commanders of the Romans, keepe their Armies in their Winter Camps, farre from any Citie, or Market Townes, that they might exercise their souldiers in the austere labours of war, and rather then they should be idle, (for idlenesse breeds licentiousnesse) they kept them at work in digging deep channels, to come out of one River into another, to inrich the Countrey by Navigation. This point deserves to be taken into consideration by them in Authoritie, that the Winter quarter of our Army may be placed upon the enemies Counties, and as far distant from the City of London as may be, for it is the bane of our Officers and souldiers, because they grow licentious and effeminate, by their swilling and drinking in the City all the Winter time, whereas if they lay constantly in their Winter quarter farre from the City, and in the enemies Counties; they would be constrained to be in action, and this would inable them in the perseverance of the austere labours of war, and greatly preserve our Counties that are now wasted by our owne Armies; and by degrees would reduce the enemies to that smallor circumference [Page 87] of ground, of which I have spokē of before. Now we may conceive by all these Instances, how necessary it is for us to obtaine this constant perseverance in Armes, that hath three degrees. 1. The slow. 2. The swift. 3. The mo­derate and constant: The slow is irksome and of no per­formance: the swift is fiery, dangerous, and of no conti­nuance; but the moderate and constant carries the Bell away; and this is the degree of Perseverance that we should endeavour to attaine, because the want of it, is the cause of the spinning out of this unnaturall war; but it is altogether unknowne to us: but the slow and the swift are too familiar with us. The slow is seen in our tedious marches and preparations; and the swift appeares in our fights and skirmishes, that are fierce and fiery, but of no greater continuance then the fire of thornes under a Pot. See Plut. in Sertorius his life. Sertorius a wise Commander of the Romanes that was constrained to fly into Spain, to avoid the tyrannicall pro­ceedings of Sylla; to induce his Army that was composed of raw souldiers, to this constant and moderate perseve­rance in war I speake of: caused a strong and a weak horse to be brought before them, and commanded one of his strongest souldiers, to endeavour to pull off the weakest horse taile at a pull, but being derided by the Army for his vaine attempt, Sertorius charged a young youth to pull haire by haire the taile off the strong horse, and so by de­grees pulled the same quite away in a short time; where­upon Sertorius spake thus to his Army: If you persevere constantly in your Military attempts, it will be as impossi­ble for the Romanes to overcome you, as it was for this strong souldier to pull off this weake horse taile at a Pull: but if you fight by fits, and then lye still, as your Method is; It will be as easie for the Romanes by their constant perseverance in Armes, to reduce you under their yoke, as [Page 88] it was for this youth, to pull away by degrees this strong horses taile. This Metaphor cannot be applied in a more seasonable time then this; for our warre may properly be compared to barley-breake players, for after they have by their swift running brought in some of their opposites, that were issued out of their Centry, they breathe and rest themselves for halfe an houre together, and so goe to it againe: Even so, if we have obtained by Gods favour some victory, we breath and rest our selves so long, till our enemies have recruited their routed Armies stronger then ever they were before. The Lord was pleased to fight for us at Keinton, at Newbery, and neare to Win­chester; but for want of this constant perseverance in war I speake of, we made no use at all of these three vi­ctories; And yet such goodly Trees, according to the rules of war, should not come without fruits. I meane without the reducing of some Counties, or strong holds of the enemies; our Commanders can by Gods favour overcome their enemies, as well as Hannibal, but we lack a See Hannibals life. Maharbell, a Master of their horse, to tell them they can make no use of their victories; And as it is with our Armies, so is it with the forces of our Garrison townes, in the greater parts of our Counties; for if they have by Gods blessing defeated the Forces of one of the enemies garrisons, and greatly weakned the same, in stead to make use of their victory, and suddenly (according as the rules of war doe require) to besiege and to begirt with strong trenches that towne, and to endeavour by storming and violent assaults to carry it away, while the defendants are amazed and weakly manned, because of their last blow: They retreat homeward, breathe and rest themselves for three months together, and then they will endeavour to have another bout; Or will, it may be, undertake to be­siege [Page 89] that towne, when there is no probability to take the same; because it is better provided then ever it was; and so are inforced to come off with the same reputation as the besiegers of Basing and Banbury have done. Surely this is not the way to conduce this war to a speedy and a bles­sed period; but rather to spinne out the same, untill the Kingdome be consumed. It must be upon a constant per­severance in Armes, that we must relye upon, for to ob­tain a blessed peace; it is not thirty, threescore or an hun­dred or two hundred horse taken in this or that skirmish, that will give an issue to these warres, that is as a little oyle cast into the fireto inslame it the more; The Counties are to be freed of these garrisons, and all the fire of this war is to be driven into a small circumference of ground by po­tent Armies, that it may be the sooner quenched; and our advantages in war are to be followed close at the heeles; for it is more dangerous for souldiers to play with the ad­vantages of war, then it is for children to play with sharpe edged tooles. See Hannibals life. Hannibal lost himself and his Common-weale by this kinde of play; and Monsteur de See Des Serres in the reigne of Francis the first. Lautrec and a great part of the French Nobility came to a miserable end by it, in the Kingdome of Naples, and many other more. And therefore the ancient Romans held it for a spe­ciall honour, if they were speedy in their expeditions of war; and Titus See [...]. Liv. in his first [...]. Livius in his Decades doth purposely re­cord the names of divers Dictators that delivered their Countrie in sixteen, twenty, and thirty dayes of perillous war; (that would require so many yeares in these spinning times of ours) for their greater glory. And since it is the end of the work that crownes the head of the workman; and that the triumph could not be obtained by the ancient Roman Generals before the war they undertook was en­ded by armes, or by a firme peace; I doe therefore won­der [Page 90] that our Commanders in Chiefe doe not endeavour to attaine to this honour, to be called after God, the deli­verers of their Countrie. And specially since they fight for the advancement of Gods glory, his sacred Majesties just prerogatives, the Priviledges of Parliament, and their own liberties. See Plutarch in Solons life. Solon being demanded by Croesus King of Lydia, which of all the Citizens of Athens had in his opi­nion lived and died most happily, he named a Citizen of Athens that had lived vertuously and died valiantly figh­ting in a battell for the defence of the liberty of his Coun­trey. Now if this heathen did repute him happy, that lived and died thus; our Commanders, Officers, and Souldiers have better grounds to be perswaded, that they shall be eternally blessed, if they live religiously, and die valiantly in the defence of the cause they have in hand. And this as­surance should in my opinion be a great motive to induce them to expedite this war; and to conjoyn with their con­stant perseverance in armes, the spirituall perseverance that I now come to speake of (for the first will not availe with­out the second) that is of a higher nature and of greater concernment then the Civill, Politicke and Military, as much as the Salvation of mens soules is more precious and more excellent; and by consequent more to be regar­ded, then the preservation of their bodies; because it is the most necessary Grace for Christians, to attain to eter­nall blessednesse; for upon their perseverance in the wayes of righteousnesse, or the neglect and intermission of it, de­pends their eternall woe, or their eternall blisse. And this supernaturall grace is as free a gift of God, as faith and re­pentance is, and not incident to naturall, or unregenerate men, but only peculiar to the true children of God; and is as it were the very seale of their Election, Adoption, Cal­ling, and Justification, and a true earnest of their future [Page 91] Glorification. For except they persevere in the wayes of Piety and Righteousnesse, from their first Calling to their end, in mortifying their corruptions, carnall desires, the lust of the flesh, and live religiously and soberly in this present world; they will utterly fall away from the faith, as did Tim. 2. 17. Hymeneus and Philetus, and loose all that they have wrought. Now the greater this gift of Perseverance is the more are they to be earnest and diligent by fervent and continuall prayers, and humble Supplications to God to obtaine it; and the greater is their obligation to him, when they have received the same. This excellent Grace is compared to a Race, where all run, but none obtaines the prize, but such as persevere to the end: for it is nothing for men to begin well, and to be fervent and active in all the duties of Piety for a moment of time, or to cast forth flashes of zeale, to seeme to advance the Glory of God, and their owne private, or the generall Reformation that is now in hand, except they continue till the worke be done, that they may so run, that they may 1 Cor. 9. 24. obtaine. The Architector that begins an excellent structure, and does not make an end of it, nor finish it after that exquisite Sy­metry that it was begun, but for want of patience or to save charges leaves it unperfected, or changeth the forme or composition of the first erection, from a Corinthian forme to the Toscan, or Jonique, that are inferiour to it in charges, beauty and excellency, doth diminish his repu­tation and not increase the same; for it is not the begin­ning but the compleating of a work in all perfection that honours and recommends the workmen. Even so will it be with private men, that begin well and walke fervently in the wayes and duties of Piety, but doe not continue to the end. And also with our Worthies, if they should not porsevere to the end in this blessed worke of the true [Page 92] Reformation they have begun: For as the Apostle saith concerning our Christian Calling; That there are not ma­ny wise, nor many mighty, nor many noble after the flesh called: Even so among so many millions of men of all 2 Cor. 1. 26. degrees, that inhabite these three Kingdomes, there are but some few hundreds, that have been called to this blessed worke of the Lord; And this extraordinary grace and honour they have received of him, should, in my opi­nion, induce them to persevere in this great worke, till it be perfected; for the lesser the number is, the greater will be their honour, because their unparalelled labours will be the greater: And as for those that out of that small number have deserted the work, preferring, like 2 Tim. 4. 10. Demas and Alexander, the love of this world before the glory of God; let not their Apostasie be a motive of dis­couragement to the faithfull Ones, but rather of a greater assurance of their perseverance in grace, from which the others are fallen off, as I will endeavour to make it ap­peare by instances. 1. They began to run in the race, but they continued not; for as the Apostle saith, If they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us, but they went out, that they might be made 1 Joh. 2. 19. manifest, that they were not of us, &c. 2. They had but a generall and su­perficiall calling, and not the eternall, nor speciall, perso­nall, and peculiar calling. For the gifts of God, saith the Apostle, are without Rom. 11. 1. 29. repentance, &c. 3. Nor the pa­tience to run the race that was set Heb. 12. 1. before them, &c. 4. Nor the grace to consider that the prize of this race was not to be obtained by the swift, nor the victory of the Eccles. 9. 11. battell by the strong, but by the grace of the Lord of Hosts, &c. 5. Neither did they by prayers and supplica­tions, nor by Ephes. 6. 18. watching and reiterated petitions require this grace of Perseverance of God, &c. 6. Nor conside­red [Page 93] that the Laodiceans, and faint-hearted men cannot obtain the Kingdome of God; but onely the fervent and the Matth. 21. 12. violent carrie it away, &c. 7. and such that presse toward the Phil. 3. 14. marke for the price of the high calling in Christ Jesus, &c. O what a measure of supernaturall Grace, hath been then infused into those members of the Honourable Houses that have remained constant un­till this day, and that shall by the grace of God persevere unto the end; and finish and compleate upon the im­moveable Rocke of the Word of God, this excellent Fa­bricke of the true Reformation already begun: The grea­test worke that ever was done in Christendome, conside­ring the potent and numerous opposers they are like to have, that like so many Giants, will with all the malice and power of the agents of the Prince of darknesse, en­deavour to traverse this spirituall building. But let them not be discouraged, for since they have God on their side, none shall be able to oppose, nor hinder the per­fecting of it. If they doe but persevere as they have be­gun; and tread for the time to come under their feet all carnall policies, although they seeme according to hu­mane reason, necessary, and much conducing to that end, but truly and really most destructive to it; as I have noted in my first Chapter; for the true Worship of God is to have the precedencie in all Reformations, for the de­layes of it, that are grounded upon Civill, Politicke, or Military respects, doe but spinne out this warre, and make all other endeavours fruitlesse; and the very worke it selfe more difficult; as we have had woefull experience of it since this warre begun. And will alwaies be so, untill it be prosecuted before all other affaires, by an unanimous Perseverance and integrity of heart, by them in Authority, that God out a speciall mercy to [Page 94] this Nation hath elected, and preordained by his eternall purpose, out of so many millions of men, to doe this worke, before the beginning of the Creation, and to be the faithfull Reformers of the abuses and Innovations that were crept into the Church of England; and the fa­mous Restorers of the Purity of the true Worship of God, in all the Dominions of his sacred Majestie, as it is now in Scotland, and in all the best reformed Churches of Chri­stendome. That the mindes and affections of the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland may be for the future united and bound with the strongest links and bounds that be under the Sunne, that is, by a spirituall Conformi­ty of Doctrine and Discipline; and that the Church of God, and these three Kingdomes may flourish againe un­der one King, one Law, and one Religion. And that we may the sooner obtaine from our gracious God, so great and so wonderfull and unexpected mercy; let all the Children of God addresse their fervent Prayers to the Lord our God, that he will be pleased to returne the Person, the love, and the affections of his Majestie, to his most loyall Parliament, and that he will indue him as the head, and them as the principall members of the Politicke Body of this Monarchy, with this spirituall Grace of Perseverance, that he may be the Josiah, and they the Iehoiadaes to finish and compleate this great worke of Reformation, to the increase of Gods glory, the Consolation of his Church, and their immortall ho­nour in this life, and their eternall blisse in the life to come.



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