Primitive Christianity REVIVED IN THE Faith and Practice Of the PEOPLE called QUAKERS. Written, in Testimony to the present Dispensation of God, through Them, to the World: That Prejudices may be removed, the Simple informed, the Well-enclined Encouraged, and the Truth and its Innocent Friends Rightly Represented.

By William Penn.

This People have I formed for my self: They shall shew forth my Praise, Isa. 43. 21.

LONDON, Printed and Sold by T. Sowle, near the Meeting-house in White-Hart-Court in Gracious-Street, and at the Bible in Lea­den-Hall-Street near the Market, 1696.



BY this short Ens [...]ing Treatise, [...] perceive the Subject, of it, viz. The Light of Christ in Man, as the Manifesta­tion of Gods Love, for Mans Happiness. Now, for as much as this is the [Page] Peculiar Testimony and Characteristick of the Peo­ple called Quakers; their great Fundamental in Re­ligion: That by which they have been distinguished from other Professors of Christianity, in their Time, and to which they refer all People about Faith, Wor­ship, and Practice, both in their Ministry and Wri­tings: That as the Fingers shute out of the Hand, and the Branches from the Bo­dy of the Tree, so, true Re­ligion, [Page] in all the Parts and Articles of it, Springs from this Divine Princi­ple in Man: And because the Prejudices of some are very great against this Peo­ple and their Way; and that others, who Love their Se­riousness and commend their good Life, are yet, through Mistakes, or want of Inqui­ry, under Jealousie of their Vnsoundness in some Points of Faith; and that there are not a few in all Perswa­sions which desire earnestly [Page] to know and enjoy God in that sensible Manner this People speak of, and who seem to long after a State of Holiness and Acceptance with God; but are under Doubts and Dispondings of attaining it, from the want they find in themselves of in­ward Power to enable them, and are unacquainted with this Efficacious Agent, which God hath given and appointed for their Supply▪

For these Reasons and Motives know, Reader, I [Page] and so often trod upon and treated as the Off-scour­ing of the Earth, are the People of God, and Chil­dren of the most High. Bear with me Reader, I know what I say, and am not high minded but fear. For I write with Humi­lity towards God, though with Confidence towards thee. Not that thou shouldst believe upon my Authority nothing less, for that's not Act upon Knowledge but Trust: But that thou [Page] shouldst try and prove what I write: For that is all I ask, as well as all I need, for thy Conviction and my own Justification: The whole, indeed, being but a spiritual Experiment upon the Soul, and therefore seeks for no implicite Credit, be­cause it is Self-evident to them that will uprightly try it.

And when thou, Rea­der, shalt come to be ac­quainted with this Princi­ple, and the plain and hap­py [Page] Teachings of it, thou wilt, with us, admire thou shouldst live so long a Stran­ger to that which was so near thee, and as much won­der that other Folks should be so blind as not to see it, as formerly thou thoughtest us singular for obeying it. The Day, I believe, is at hand, that will declare this with an uncontroulable Au­thority, because it will be with an unquestionable E­vidence.

I have done, Reader, [Page] with this Preface, when I have told thee. First, That I have stated the Principle, and opened, as God has en­abled me, the Nature and Virtue of it in Religion: Wherein the common Do­ctrines and Articles of the Christian Religion, are deli­vered and improved; and in which, I have endeavoured to express my self in Plain and Proper Terms, and not in Figurative, Allegorical, or Doubtful Phrases; that so I may leave no room for [Page] an Equivocal or Double Sence; but that the Truth of the Subject I treat upon, may appear Easily and Evi­dently to every common Vnderstanding. Next, I have confirmed what I have writ, by Scripture, Reason and the Effects of it, upon so great a People; whose uniform, concurrence in the Experience and Practice thereof, through all Times and Sufferings, since a Peo­ple, challenge the Notice and Regard of every serious [Page] Reader. Thirdly, I have written briefly, that so it might be every ones Mony and Reading: And, much in a little is best, when we see daily that the Richer People grow, the less Mo­ny or Time they have for God, and Religion: And perhaps, those that would not buy a large Book, may find in their Hearts to give a­way some of these, for their Neighbours Good, being little and Cheap. Be seri­ous, Reader, be Impartial [Page] and then be as Inquisitive as thou canst; and that for thine own Soul, as well as the Credit of this most misunderstood and a­bused People: And the God and Father of Lights and Spirits, so bless thine, in the Perusal of this short Treatise, that thou mayst receive real Benefit by it, to his Glory and thine own Comfort: Which is the Desire and End of him that wrote it; who is, [Page] in the Bonds of Chri­stian Charity, very much and very ardently

Thy Real Friend. William Penn.

Sect. 1. Their Fundamen­tal Principle. Sect. 2. The Nature of it. Sect. 3. Called by several Names. Sect. 4. They refer all to this, as to Faith, and Practice, Ministry and Worship.

§. 1. THat which the Peo­ple called Quakers lay down, as a main Fundamental in Re­ligion is this, That God, through Christ, hath placed a Principle in every [Page 2] Man, to inform him of his Duty and to enable him to do it; and that those that live up to this Principle, are the People of God, and those that live in Disobedience to it, are not God's Peo­ple, what ever Name they may bear, or Profession they may make of Religion. This is their Ancient, First and Stand­ing Testimony: With this they be­gan, and this they bore, and do bare to the World.

§. 2. By this Principle they un­derstand something that is Divine, and though in Man, yet not of Man, but of God; that came from him, and leads to him all those that will be lead by it.

§. 3. There are divers ways of speaking, they have been led to use, by which they declare and express what this Principle is, about which I think fit to Precau­tion the Reader. viz. They call it the Light of Christ within Man, [Page 3] or Light within, which is their An­cient and most General and Fami­liar Phrase; also the Joh. 1. 9. Manifestation Rom. 1. 19. Tit. 3. 4. or Appearance of Christ Act. 17. 28. 2 Pet. 4. the Rom. 8. 16. 1 John 5. 10, 12. Witness of God, the 1 Pet. 1. 23. 1. Jo. 3. 9. Seed of God, the Mat. 13. 19, 23. Seed of the Kingdom, Prov. 1. 20, 21, 22, 23. Ch. 8. 1, 2, 3, 4. Wisdom, the Deut. 30. 12. Rom. 10. 6, 7, 8. Psal. 119. 10. Word in the Heart, the Grace Tit. 2. 11, 12. that appears to all men, the 1 Cor. 1. 7. Spirit given to e­very Man to profit with, the Psalm 51. 6. Isa. 26. 2. John 14. 6. Truth in the in­ward Parts. The Mat. 13. 33. spi­ritual Leaven that Leavens the whole Lump of Man: Which are many of them Figurative Expressions, but all of them such as the Holy Ghost hath used, and which will be used in this Treatise, as they are most frequently in the Writings and Ministry of this People. But that this Variety and Manner of Expression, may not oc­casion any Misapprehension or Con­fusion [Page 4] in the Understanding of the Reader, I would have him know, that they always mean by those Terms or Denominations, not an o­ther, but the same Principle, before mentioned: Which, as I said, though it be in Man, is not of Man, but of God, and therefore Divine: And one in it self, though diversly ex­pressed by the Holy Men, according to the various Manifestations and O­perations thereof.

§. 4. It is to This Principle of Light, Life and Grace, that this People refer all: For they say it is the great A­gent in Religion; That, without which, there is no Conviction, so no Conversion, John 3. 5. or Rege­neration; and conse­quently no entring into the King­dom of God. That is to say, there can be no true sight of Sin, nor sor­row for it, and therefore no forsaking or overcoming of it, or Remission or Justification from it. A necessa­ry [Page 5] and powerful Principle indeed, when neither Sanctification, nor Ju­stification can be had without it. In short, there is no becoming Virtu­ous, Holy and Good without this Principle; no acceptance with God, nor Peace of Soul, but through it. But on the contrary, that the Rea­son of so much Irreligion among Christians, so much Superstition, in­stead of Devotion, and so much Pro­fession without Injoyment, and so little Heart-Reformation, is because People, in Religion, Over-look this Principle, and leave it behind them.

They will be Religious without it, and Christians without it; though this be the only means of making them so indeed: So natural it is to Man, in his degenerate Estate, to prefer Sacrifice before Obedience, and to make Prayers go for Pra­ctice, and so flatter himself to Hope, by Ceremonial and Bodily Services, to excuse himself with God, from [Page 6] the stricter Discipline of this Princi­ple in the Soul; which leads Man to take up the Cross, deny self, and do that which God requires of him: And that is every Mans true Religi­on, and every such Man is truly Re­ligious: That is, he is Holy, Humble, Patient, Meek, Merciful, Just, Kind and Charitable; which, they say, no Man can make himself; but that this Principle will make all them so, that will embrace the Convictions, and Teachings of it; being the Root of all true Religion in Man, and the Good-Seed, from whence all Good Fruits proceed. To summ up, what they say upon the Nature and Virtue of it, as Contents of that which fol­lows, they declare that this Princi­ple, is, First, Divine. Secondly, V­niversal. Thirdly, Efficacious: In that it gives Man.

First, The Knowledge of God and of himself, and therein a sight of his Duty, and Disobedience to it.

Secondly, It begets a true Sence and [Page 7] Sorrow for Sin, in those that seri­ously regard the Convictions of it.

Thirdly, It enables them to forsake Sin and Sanctifies from it.

Fourthly, It applies Gods Mercies in Christ for the forgiveness of Sins that are past, unto Justification, upon such Sincere Repentance and Obedience.

Fifthly, It gives the Faithful Perse­verance unto a Perfect Man, and the Assurance of Blessedness World with­out End. To the Truth of all which, they call in a Threefold Evidence: First, The Scriptures, which give an ample Witness, especially those of the New and better Testament. Secondly, The Reasonableness of it in it self. And Lastly, A General Experience, in great Measure: But particularly their Own, made credi­ble by the good Fruits they have brought forth, and the Answer God has given to their Ministry: Which, to impartial Observers, have com­mended the Principle, and gives me Occasion to abstract their History, [Page 8] in divers Particulars, for a Conclu­sion to this little Treatise.

Sect. 1. The Evidence of Scripture for that Prin­ciple, John 1. 4, 9. Sect. 2. Its Divinity. Sect. 3. All things cre­ated by it. Sect. 4. What it is to Man, as to Salvation.

§. 1. I Shall begin with the Evi­dence of the blessed Scrip­tures of Truth for this Divine Prin­ciple, and that under the Name of [Page 9] Light, the first and most common Word, used by them, to express and denominate this Principle by; as well as most apt and proper in this dark State of the World.

John 1. 1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Ver. 3. All things were made by him;

Ver. 4. In him was Life, and that Life was the Light of Men.

Ver. 9. That was the true Light, which Lighteth every Man that cometh into the World.

§. 2. I have begun with him, that begun his History with the be­ginning of the Creation of God; the most beloved Disciple, and longest Liver of all the Apostles, and he, that for his excelling Knowledge and Wisdom in heavenly Things, is justly entituled, John the Divine. He tells us, first, what he was in [Page 10] the Beginning, viz. The Word. In the beginning was the Word.

And though that shews what the Word must be, yet he adds and ex­plains, that the Word was with God, and was God; lest any should doubt of the Divinity of the Word, or have lower Thoughts of him than he deserved. The Word, then, is Di­vine; and an apt Term it is that the Evangelist stiles him by, since it is so great an Expression of the Wis­dom and Power of God to Men.

§. 3. All things were made by him. If so, he wants no Power. And if we were made by him, we must be new made by him too, or we can never enjoy God. His Power shews his Dignity, and that nothing can be too hard for such a sufficiency as made all things, and without which no­thing was made that was made. As Man's Maker must be his Husband, so his Creator must be his Redeem­er also.

§. 4. In him was Life, and the Life was the Light of Men. This is ou [...] Point. The Evangelist first begins with the Nature and Being of the Word: From thence he descends to the Works of the Word: And lastly, then he tells us what the Word is with respect to Man, above the rest of the Creation, viz. The Word was Life, and the Life was the Light of Men. The Relation must be very near and intimate, when the very Life of the Word (that was with God, and was God) is the Light of Men: As if Man were next to the Word, and above all the rest of his Works; for it is not said so of any other Creature.

Man cannot want Light then; no not a Divine Light: For if this be not Divine, that is the Life of the Divine Word, there can be no such thing at all as Divine or Supernatural Light and Life. And the Text does not only prove the Divinity of the Light, but the Vniversality of it al­so, [Page 12] because the Man mentioned in it, is Mankind: Which is yet more distinctly express'd in the 9th verse, That was the True Light, which lighteth every Man that cometh into the World. Implying, that he that lighteth not Mankind is not that True Light; and therefore John was not that Light, but bore witness of him that was, who lighted every Man; to wit, the Word that took Flesh: So that both the Divine Nature, and Vniversality of the Light of Christ within, are confirmed to­gether.

Sect. 1. How this Scrip­ture is wrested. Sect. 2. That 'tis a Natural Light. Sect. 3. That it Light­eth not all. Sect. 4. That 'tis only the Do­ctrine and Life of Christ when in Flesh all an­swer'd, and its Divini­ty and Universality pro­ved.

§. 1. BUt though there be no Passage or Proposition [Page 14] to be found in Holy Scripture, in which Mankind is more Interested, or that is more clearly laid down by the Holy Ghost, than this I have produced, yet hardly hath any place been more industriously wrested from its true and plain Sence: E­specially since this People have laid any Stress upon it, in Defence of their Testimony of the Light with­in. Some will have it to be but a Natural Light, or a Part of Man's Nature, though it be the very Life of the Word by which the World was made; and wrapt within those Verses which only concern his Eter­nal Power and Godhead. But, because I would be understood, and treat of things with all plainness, I will o­pen the Terms of the Objection as well as I can, and then give my An­swer to it.

§. 2. If by Natural be meant a Created thing, as Man is, or any thing that is requisite to the Com­position [Page 15] of Man, I deny it: The Text is expresly against it; and says, the Light with which Man is light­ed, is the Life of the World, which was with God and was God. But if by Natural is only intended, that the Light comes along with us in­to the World; or that we have it as sure as we are Born, or have Na­ture; and is the Light of our Na­ture, of our Minds, and Under­standings, and is not the result of any Revelation from without, as by Angels or Men; then we mean and intend the same thing. For it is Na­tural to Man to have a Supernatural Light, and for the Creature, to be lighted by an uncreated Light, as is the Life of the Creating Word. And did People but consider the Constitu­tion of Man, it would conduce much to preserve or deliver them from any Dilemma upon this account. For Man can no more be a light to his Mind then he is to his Body: He has the Capacity of seeing Objects [Page 16] when he has the help of Light, but cannot be a Light to himself by which to See them. Wherefore as the Sun in the Firmament is the Light of the Body, and gives us dis­cerning in our Temporal Affairs; so the Life of the Word is the glorious Light and Sun of the Soul: Our In­tellectual Luminary, that informs our Mind and give us true Judgment and Distinction about those things that more immediately concern our Bet­ter, Inward, and Eternal Man.

§. 3. But others will have this Text read thus, Not that the Word enlightens all Mankind, but that all who are Enlightned, are Enlightned by him, thereby not only narrowing and abusing the Text, but rendring God Partial, and so severe to his Creatures, as to leave the greatest part of the World in Darkness, with­out the means or opportunity of Salvation; though we are assured from the Scripture, That all have [Page 17] Light Joh. 1. 4, 9., that Ch: 8. 12. Christ is the Light of the World, and that Rom. 5. 6. he dyed for all; yea, the 2 Cor. 5. 15. Vngodly, and that God desires not the 1 Tim. 2. 4. Death of any, but rather that all should repent and come to the Knowledge of Truth and be saved; and Tit. 2. 11, 12. that the Grace of God has appeared to all Men, &c.

§. 4. There is a Third Sort that will needs have it understood, not of any Illumination by a Divine Light or Spirit in Man, but by the Doctrine Christ Preached and the Life and Example he Lived, and led in the World; and which yet neither reach'd the thousandth Part of Man­kind, nor can consist with what the Apostle John intends in the begin­ning of his History, which wholly relates to what Christ was before he took Flesh, or at least, what he is to the Soul, by his immediate Inshi­nings and Influences: 'Tis most true, [Page 18] Christ was, in a Sence, the Light of the World in that very Appearance, and shined forth by his heavenly Do­ctrine, many admirable Miracles, and his Self-denying Life, and Death: But still that hinders not, but that he was and is That Spiritual Light, which shineth, more or less, in the Hearts, of the Sons and Daughters of Men. For as he was a Light in his Life and Conversation, he was only a Light in a more excellent Sence, then he spoke of to his Disciples, when he said, Ye are the Lights of the World. But Christ the Word en­lightned them, and enlightens us, and enlightens all Men that come into the World; which he could not be said to do, if we only regard his Personal and Outward Appear­ance: For in that Sence it is long, since he was that Light, but in this, he is continually so. In that respect he is Remote, but in this Sence he is Present and Immediate, else we should render the Text, That was [Page 19] the True Light which did lighten, instead of which Lighteth every Man that cometh into the World. And that the Evan­gelist might be so understood as we speak, he refers to this as an Evi­dence of His being the Messiah, and not John; for whom many People had much Reverence; for, verse 8. he saith of John, He was not That Light, but was sent to bear Witness of That Light: Now comes his Proof and our Testimony, That was the True Light, which lighteth Every Man that cometh into the World; which was not John, nor any else, but the Word that was with God, and was God. The Evangelist did not de­scribe him by his Fasting Forty Days, Preaching so many Sermons, Work­ing so many Miracles, and Living so Holy a Life; and, after all, so pati­ently Suffering Death (which yet Christ did) thereby to prove him the Light of the World; but, says the Evangelist, That was the True Light, the Word in Flesh the Messi­ah, [Page 20] and not John, or any else, which lighteth Every Man that cometh into the World. So that Christ is mani­fested and distinguished by giving Light: And indeed so are all his Fol­lowers from other People, by recei­ving and obeying it. There are many other Scriptures, of both Testaments, that refer to the Light within; ei­ther expresly, or implicitely; which, for Brevity's sake, I shall wave re­citing, but the Reader will find some Directions in the Margent,Job. 18. 5, 6. Ch. 21. 17. Ch. 25. 3. Ch. 38. 5. Psalm 18. 28. Psalm 27. 1. Psalm 34. 5. Psalm 36. 9. Psal. 118. 27. Psalm 119. 105. Prov. 13. 9. Ch. 20. 20, 27. Ch. 24. 20. and Isa. 2. 5. Ch. 8. 20. Ch. 42. 6. Ch. 49. 6. 1 Pet 2. 9. 1 John 2. 8. which will guide him to them.

Sect. 1. The Virtue of the Light within; It gives discerning. Sect. 2. It manifests God. Sect. 3. It give Life to the Soul. Sect. 4. It is the Apo­stolical Message. Sect. 5. Objection Answered about two Lights. Sect. 6. About Natural and Spiritual Light: Not two Darknesses within, there­fore not two Lights with­in, Sect. 7. The Apo­stle John answers the Ob­jection fully: The Light the same, 1 John 2. 8, 9.

§. 1. THe Third thing, is the Virtue and Efficacy of this Light for the end for which God hath given it, viz. To lead and guide the Soul of Man to Blessedness. In or­der to which, the first thing it does in and for Man, is to give him a True Sight or Discerning of himself: What he is, and what he does; that he may see and know his own Conditi­on, and what Judgment to make of himself, with respect to Religion and a future Estate: Of which, let us hear what the Word himself saith, that cannot Err, as John relates it, Chap. 3. 20, 21. For every one that do­eth Evil, hateth the Light, neither [Page 23] cometh to the Light, least his deeds should be Reproved. But he that doeth Truth cometh to the Light, that his deeds may be made Manifest, that they are wrought in God. A most preg­nant Instance of the Virtue and Au­thority of the Light. First, It is that which Men ought to examine them­selves by. Secondly, It gives a true Discerning betwixt Good and Bad, what is of God, from what is not of God. And Lastly, It is a Judge, and condemneth or acquitteth, reproveth or comforteth the Soul of Man, as he rejects or obeys it. That must needs be Divine and Efficacious, which is able to discover to Man, what is of God, from what is not of God; and which gives him a Distinct Know­ledge, in himself, of what is wrought in God, from what is not wrought in God. By which it appears, that this Place does not only regard the dis­covery of Man and his Works; but, in some Measure, it manifesteth God, and his Works also, which is yet some­thing [Page 24] higher; for as much as it gives the obedient Man a discovery of what is wrought or performed by God's Power, and after his Will, from what is the meer Workings of the Crea­ture of himself. If it could not ma­nifest God, it could not tell Man what was God's Mind, nor give him such a grounded Sense and Discern­ing of the Rise, Nature, and Tenden­cy of the Workings of his mind or Inward Man, as is both expressed and abundantly implied in this Passage of our Saviour. And if it reveals God, to be sure it manifests Christ, that flows and comes from God. Who then would oppose or slight this blessed Light?

§. 2. But that this Light doth manifest God, is yet Evident from Rom. 1. 19. Because that which may be known of (God) is manifest in Men, for God hath shewed it unto them. An universal Proposition; and we have the Apostles Word for it, who was One of a Thousand, and inspired on [Page 25] purpose to tell us the Truth: Let it then have its due weight with us. If that which may be known of God is manifest in Men, the People cal­led Quakers cannot, certainly, be out of the Way in Preaching up the Light within, without which, no­thing can be manifested to the mind of Man; as saith the same Apostle to the Ephesians, Eph. 5. 13. Whatsoe­ver doth make manifest is Light. Well then may they call this Light with­in a Manifestation or Appearance of God, that sheweth in and to Man all that may be known of God. A pas­sage much like unto this, is that of the Prophet Micah, Chap. 6. 8. God hath shewed thee, O Man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love Mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God? God hath shewed Thee, O Man! It is very Em­phatical. But how hath He shewed him? Why by his Light in the Con­science, which the wicked Rebel a­gainst, Job 24. 13. Who, for that [Page 26] Cause, know not the ways, nor abide in the Paths thereof: For its way are ways of Pleasantness, and all its Paths are Peace, to them that obey it.

§. 3. But the Light giveth the Light of Life, which is Eternal Life to them that receive and obey it. Thus says the blessed Saviour of the World.John 8. 12. I am the Light of the VVorld, he that follweth me shall not abide in Darkness, but shall have the Light of Life. Now he is the Light of the VVorld, because he lighteth every Man that cometh into the VVorld; and they that obey that Light obey him, and therefore have the Light of Life. That is, the Light becomes Eternal Life to the Soul: That as it is the Life of the VVord, which is the Light in Man, so it be­comes the Life in Man through his Obedience to it, as his Heavenly Light.

§. 4. Furthermore, this Light was the very Ground of the Aposto­lical [Page 27] Message, as the Beloved Disciple assures us. This then is the Message, 1 John 1. 5, 6, 7. which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is Light, and in him is no Darkness at all: If we say we have Fellowship with him, and walk in Darkness, we Lye and do not the Truth: But if we walk in the Light, as he is in the Light, we have Fellowship one with another, and the Blood of Je­sus Christ cleanseth us from all Sin. VVhich is so comprehensive of the Virtue and Excellency of the Light, in reference to Man, that there is little need that more should be said upon it; for as much as, First, It re­veals God, and that God himself is Light. Secondly, It discovers Dark­ness from Light, and that there is no fellowship between them. Third­ly, That Man ought to walk in the Light. Fourthly, That it is the VVay to obtain forgiveness of Sin, and Sanctification from it. Fifthly, That it is the Means to have Peace [Page 28] and Fellowship with God and his People; his true Church, redeemed from the Pollutions of the VVorld.

§. 5. Some perhaps may Object, as indeed it hath been, more than once, objected upon us, That this is another Light, not that Light where­with every Man is enlightned. But the same Apostle, in his Evangelical Hi­story, tells us, that in the VVord was Life, and the Life was the Light of Men, and that that very Light, that was the Life of the VVord, was the True Light which lighteth every Man that cometh into the VVorld, John 1. 4, 9. VVhere is there as plain a Text to be found against the suffici­ency, as well as Universality of the Light within; or a plainer for any Article of Faith in the whole Book of God. Had the Beloved Disciple in­tended Two Lights, in his Evangelical History, and his Epistles, to be sure he would have noted to us his Distin­ction: But we read of none, and by the Properties ascribed in each Wri­ting, [Page 29] we have [...]eason to conclude he meant the same.

§. 6. But if any shall yet Object, That this is to be understood of a Spiri­tual Light, and that ours is but a Natu­ral one. I shall desire them to do two things. 1st To prove that a Natural Light, as they phrase it, doth ma­nifest God, other then as I have be­fore explained and allowed; Since whatever is part of Man, in his Con­stitution, but especially in his Dege­neracy from God, is so far from Yielding him the knowledge of God, that it cannot rightly Reprove or Dis­cover that which offends him, with­out the Light we speak of: And it is Granted, that what we call Divine, and some, Mistakenly, call Natural Light, can do both. 2dly If this Light be Natural, Notwithstanding it doth manifest our Duty, and Re­prove our Disobedience to God, they would do well to assign us some Certain Medium, or Way, whereby we may truly discern, and distinguish [Page 30] between the Manifestations and Re­proofs of the Natural Light within, from those of the Divine Light with­in, since they Allow the Manifesta­tion of God, and Reproof of Evil, as well to the one, as to the other. Let them give us but one Scripture that distinguishes between a Natural and a Spiritual Light within. They may, with as much Reason, talk of a Natural and Spiritual Darkness with­in. 'Tis true, there is a natural proper darkness, to wit, the Night of the outward World; and there is a Spiritual darkness, viz. The clouded and benighted Vnderstandings of Men, through disobedience to the Light and Spirit of God: But let them Assign us a Third, if they can. People Use, indeed, to say, impro­perly, of Blind men, they are dark, we may Call a Natural or Idiot so, if we will: But where is there ano­ther darkness of the Understand­ing, in the things of God? If they can, I say, find that, In and about [Page 31] the things of God, they do some­thing.

Christ distinguished not between Darkness and Darkness, or Light and Light, in any such sence; nor did any of his Disciples: Yet both have frequently spoken of Darkness and Light. VVhat difference, pray, doth the Scripture put between Spi­ritual Darkness and Darkness, menti­oned in these Places, Luke 1. 7, 9. Mat. 4. 16. John 1. 5. John 3. 19. John 8. 12, 31, 46. 1 Thess. 5. 4. 1 John 1. 6. Acts. 26. 18. Rom. 13. 12. 2 Cor. 6. 14, 22. Eph. 5. 8. Col. 1. 13. Upon the strictest Compari­son of them I find none. It is all one Spiritual Darkness. Neither is there so much as one Scripture that affords us a Distinction between Light with­in, and Light within; or that there are really Two Lights from God, in Man, that regard Religion. Peruse Mat. 4. 16. Luke 2. 32. Chap. 15. 8. John 1. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9. Chap. 3. 19, 20, 21. Chap. 8. 12. Acts 26. 18. Rom. [Page 32] 13. 12. 2 Cor. 4. 6. Chap. 6. 14. Eph. 5. 8, 13. Col. 1. 12. 1 Thess. 5. 5. 1 Tim. 6. 16. 1 Pet. 2. 9. 1 John 1. 5, 7. Chap. 2. 8. Rev. 21. 23, 24. Chap. 22. 5. And we believe the greatest Opposer, to our Assertion, will not be able to sever Light from Light, or find out two Lights within, in the Passages here mentioned, or any other, to direct Man in his Duty to God and his Neighbour: And if he cannot, pray let him forbear his mean Thoughts and VVords of the Light of Christ within Man, as Man's Guide in Duty to God and Man. For as he must yield to us, that the Light Manifesteth Evil, and Reproveth for it, so doth Christ himself teach us of the Light, John 3. 20. For every one that doth Evil hateth the Light, neither cometh unto the Light, lest his Deeds should be reproved. And the Apostle Paul plainly saith, Eph. 5. 13. But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the Light; there­fore there are not two distinct Lights [Page 33] within, but one and the same Ma­nifesting, Reproving, and Teaching Light within. And this the Apostle John in his first Epistle makes plain, beyond all Exception, to all Consi­derate People: First, In that he calls God, Light, Chap. 1. 5. Secondly, In that he puts no Medium, or Third thing between that Light, and Dark­ness, Verse 6. If we say, we have Fel­lowship with him, and walk in Dark­ness, we Lye, &c. Intimating, that Men must walk either in Light or Darkness, and not in a Third, or o­ther State or Region. I am sure, that which manifests and reproves Darkness cannot be Darkness. This all Men must confess.

§. 7. And, as if the Apostle John would have anticipated their Obje­ction, viz. 'Tis true, your Light with­in reproves for Evil, but it is not there­fore the Divine Light, which leads in­to higher things, and which comes by the Gospel; he thus expresseth him­self, 1 John Ch. 2. 8, 9. The Darkness is [Page 34] and the true Light now shineth. He that saith he is in the Light, and hateth his Brother, is in Darkness even until now; which is not another Light then that mentioned before, Chap. 1. For as Light is put there, in Opposition to Darkness, so Light here, is put in Opposition to Darkness. And as the Darkness is the same, so must the Light be the same. Wherefore we may plainly see, that it is not another Light, then that which reproves a Man for hating his Brother, which brings a Man into Fellowship with God, and to the Blood of cleansing, as the next Verse speaks: Therefore that Light which reproveth a Man for ha­ting his Brother, is of a Divine and Efficacious Nature. In short, That Light which is opposite to, and re­proves Spiritual Darkness, in Man and Woman, is a Spiritual Light; but such a Light is that which we Confess, Testifie to, and Maintain: Therefore it is a Spiritual Light. It is also worth our Notice, that the A­postle [Page 35] useth the same Manner of Ex­pression here, Chap. 2. 8. The True Light shineth, that he doth in his E­vangelical History, Chap. 1. 9. That was the True Light; intimating the same Divine Word, or True Light now shineth; and that it is the same True Light in his account, that repro­veth such as hate their Brethren: Con­sequently, that Light that so repro­veth them, is the True Light. And strange it is, that Christ and his Dis­ciples, but especially his beloved One, should so often make that very Light, which stoops to the lowest step of Im­morality, and to the reproof of the grossest Evil, to be no other than the same Divine Light, in a farther degree of Manifestation, which brings such as follow it to the Light of Life, to the Blood of Cleansing, and to have fellowship with God and one with ano­ther. Nay, not only so, but the A­postle makes a Mans being a Child of God, to depend upon his Answering of this Light in a palpable and common [Page 36] Case, viz. not hating of his Brother: And that yet any should shut their Eyes so fast against beholding the Virtue of it, as to conclude it a Na­tural and Insufficient Light, is both Vnscriptural and Vnreasonable. Shall we slight it because we come so ea­sily by it, and it is so Familiar and Domestick to us? Or make its being so common an Argument to under­value so Inestimable a Mercy? What is more common than Light and Air, and Water? And should we therefore contemn them, or prize them? Prize them certainly, as what we cannot live, nor live comfortably, without. The more general the Mercy is, the greater, and therefore the greater Obligation upon Man to live humbly and thankfully for it. And to those alone that do so, are its Divine Se­crets revealed.

Sect. 1. The Light, the same with the Spirit. It is of God; proved by its Properties. Sect. 2. The Properties of the Spirit compared with those of the Light. Sect. 3. The Light and Grace flow from the same Principle, proved by their agreeing Proper­ties. Sect. 4. An Ob­jection Answer'd. Sect. [Page 38] 5. Difference in Mani­festation, or Operation, especially in Gospel-Times, but not in Prin­ciple; Illustrated.

Obj. BUt some may say, we could willingly allow to the Spirit and Grace of God, which seemed to be the peculiar Blessing of the New and Se­cond Covenant, and the Fruit of the coming of Christ, all that which you a­scribe to the Light within; but except it appeared to us that this Light were the same in Nature with the Spirit and Grace of God, we cannot easily bring our selves to believe what you say in fa­vour of the Light within.

Answ. This Objection, at first look, seems to carry weight with it: But, upon a just and serious Review, it will appear to have more Words than Matter, Show than Substance: Yet [Page 39] because it gives occasion to solve scru­ples, that may be flung in the way of the Simple, I shall attend it throughout. I say then, if it appear that the Property's ascribed to the Light within, are the same with those that are given to the Holy Spirit and Grace of God; and that those several Terms or Epithytes, are only to ex­press the divers Manifestations or O­perations of one and the same Princi­ple, then it will not, it cannot be denied, but this Light within, is Di­vine and Efficacious, as we have As­serted it. Now that it is of the same Nature with the Spirit and Grace of God, and tends to the same End, which is to bring People to God; let the Properties of the Light be com­par'd with those of the Spirit and Grace of God. I say, they are the same, in that, First, The Light pro­ceeds from the one Word, and one Life of that one Word, John 1. 4. which was with God and was God. John 1. 9. Secondly, It is [Page 40] Vniversal, it lighteth every Man. Thirdly, It giveth the Knowledge of God and Fellowship with him, Rom. 1. 19. John 3. 21. 1 John 1. 5, 6. Fourthly, It manifesteth and reproveth Evil, John 3. 20. Eph. 5. 13. Fifth­ly, It is made the Rule and Guide of Christian Walking, Psalm 43. 3. John 8. 12. Eph. 5. 13, 15. Sixthly, It is the Path for Gods People to go in, Psalm 119. 105. Prov. 4. 18. Isa. 2. 5. 1 John 1. 7. Rev. 24. 23. and the Nations of them that are saved shall walk in the Light of the (Lamb.) Lastly, It is the Armour of the Chil­dren of God against Satan, Psalm 27. 1. The Lord is my Light, whom shall I fear, Rom. 13. 12. Let us put on the Armour of Light.

§. 2. Now let all this be compar'd with the Properties of the Holy Spi­rit, and their Agreement will be ve­ry manifest. First, It proceedeth from God, because it is the Spirit of God, Rom. 6. 11. Secondly, It is Vniver­sal. [Page 41] It strove with the Old World, Gen. 6. 3. Then to be sure with the new One: Every one hath a measure of it given to profit withal, 1 Cor. 12. 7. Thirdly, It revealeth God, Job 32. 8. 1 Cor. 2. 10, 11. Fourthly, It reproveth Sin, John 16. 8. Fifth­ly, It is a Rule and Guide for the Chil­dten of God to walk by, Rom. 8. 14. Sixthly, It is also the Path they are to walk in, Rom. 8. 1. Gal. 5. 15. Walk in the Spirit. Lastly, This is not all, it is likewise the Spiritual Weapon of a true Christian, Eph. 6. 17. Take the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. After this, I hope none will deny that this Light and this Spirit must be of one and the same Nature, that work one and the same Effect, and tend evidently to one and the same Holy End.

§. 3. And what is said of the Light and Spirit, may also, very well be said of the Light and Grace of God; [Page 42] in that, First, The Grace floweth from Christ the Word that took Flesh as well as the Light; John 1. 4, 9, 14, 16. for as in him was Life, and that Life the Light of Men, so he was full of Grace and Truth, and of his fulness have all we re­ceived, and Grace for Grace. Second­ly, It is Vniversal; both from this Text, and what the Apostle to Titus teach­eth;Tit. 2. 11, 12. For the Grace of God that bringeth Salvation, hath ap­peared to all Men. Thirdly, It mani­festeth Evil, for if it teaches to deny Ungodliness and worldly Lusts, it must needs detect them, and so says the Text. Fourthly, It revealeth Godliness, and consequently it must ma­nifest God. Fifthly, It is an Instru­ctor and Guide; for, says the Apostle, It teaches to deny Vngodliness and world­ly Lusts, and to live Soberly, Righteous­ly and Godly in this present World, and herein is a Rule of Life, Tit. 2. 11, 12. [Page 43] Sixthly, It is to all that receive it, all that they can need or desire, 2 Cor. 12. 9. My Grace is sufficient for thee. An high Testimony, from Heaven, to the Power of this Teaching and Saving Grace, under the strongest Tempta­tions.

§. 4. Obj. But there is little men­tion made of the Spirit, and none of the Grace, before Christs coming, and therefore the Spirit, as spoken of in the Writings of the New Testament, and especially the Grace, must be another, and a nobler thing than the Light with­in.

Ans. By no means another Thing, but another Name, from another Ma­nifestation or Operation, of the same Principle. It is called Light from the Distinction and Discerning it gives. Let there be Light, and there was Light, said God in the beginning of the Old World; so there is first Light in the [Page 44] beginning of the New Creation of God in Man. It is called Spirit, be­cause it giveth Life, Sense, Motion, and Vigour: And it is as often menti­oned in the Writings of the Old as New Testament; which every Rea­der may see, if he will but please to look into his Scripture-Concordance. Thus Gods Spirit strove, with the Old World, Gen. 6. 3. and with Isra­el, in the VVilderness, Neh. 9. 30. and David ask'd, in the Agony of his Soul, Whither shall I go from thy Spi­rit? Psalm 139. 7. and the Prophets often felt it. It is stiled Grace, not from its being another Principle, but because it was a fuller Dispensation of the Virtue and Power of the Same Divine Principle: And that being purely God's Favour and Mercy, and not Mans Merit, is aptly and deser­vedly called the Grace, Favour or Goodwill of God to undeserving Man. The Wind does not always blow fresh, nor Heaven send down its Rain free­ly, [Page 45] nor the Sun shine forth clearly; shall we therefore say, it is not of the same kind of Wind, Rain or Light, when it Blows, Rains or Shines but a little, as when it Blows, Rains or Shines much? It is certainly the same in Nature and Kind; and so is this blessed Principle, under all its seve­ral Dispensations, Manifestations and Operations, for the Benefit of Mans Soul, ever since th [...] World began.

§. 5. But this is most freely, hum­bly and thankfully acknowledged by us, that the Dispensation of the Go­spel, was the clearest, fullest, and no­blest of all other; both with regard to the coming of Christ in the Flesh, and being our one Holy Offering to God for Sin, through the Eternal Spirit; and the breaking forth of his Light, the Effusion of his Spirit, and Ap­pearance of his Grace, in and to Man, in a more excellent manner, after his [Page 46] Ascention. For though it was not another Light, or Spirit, then that which he had given to Man in for­mer Ages, yet it was another and greater Measure; and that is the Pri­viledge of the Gospel above former Dispensations. What before shined but dimly, shines since with great Glory. Then it appear­ed but darkly, 2 Cor. 3. 18. now with open Face. Types, Fi­gures and Shadows Vailed, and made its appearances look low and faint; but in the Gospel Time, the Vail is Rent, John 1. 5, 17. and the Hidden Glory mani­fest. It was under the Law but as a Dew, or small Rain, but under the Gospel, it may be said to be poured out upon Men. According to that Gracious and Notable Promise of God, by the Prophet Joel, Joel 2. 28. In the latter Days, I will pour out of my Spi­rit upon all Flesh. Thus we say, when [Page 47] it Rains plentifully, look how it pours. So God Augments his Light, Grace and Spirit to these latter Days. They shall not have it sparingly, and by small Drops, but fully and freely, and overflowingly too. And thus Peter, that deep and excellent Apostle, ap­plies that Promise in Joel, on the Day of Pentecost, as the beginning of the accomplishment of it. This is Grace, and Favour, and Goodness indeed. And therefore well may this Brighter Illumination, and Greater Effusion of the Spirit, be called Grace; for as the coming of the Son excelled that of the Servant, so did the Manifesta­tion of the Light and Spirit of God, since the coming of Christ, excell that of the foregoing Dispensations; yet ever sufficient to Salvation to all those that walked in it. This is our Sence of the Light, Spirit, and Grace of God: And by what is said, it is evi­dent they are one and the same Princi­ple, and that he that has Light, need [Page 48] not want the Spirit or Grace of God, if he will but receive it, in the Love of it: For the very Principle that is Light to show him, is also Spirit, to quicken him, and Grace, to Teach, Help, and Comfort him. It is suffici­ent in all Circumstances of Life to them that diligently Mind and obey it.

Sect. 1. An Objection An­swer'd. All are not good, though all are Lighted. Sect. 2. Another Ob­jection Answer'd, that Gospel Truths were known before Christ's coming. Sect. 3. A­nother. The Gentiles had the same Light, tho' not with those Advanta­ges: [Page 50] Prov'd from Scrip­ture.

§. 1. Obj. BVt some may yet say, if it be as you declare, how comes it, that all who are enlight­ned are not so good as they should be; or, as you say, this would make them?

Answ. Because People don't re­ceive and obey it. All Men have Reason, but all Men are not Reasona­ble. Is it the fault of the Grain, in the Garnary that it yields no increase, or of the Talent in the Napkin, that it is not improved? It is plain a Ta­lent was given; and as plain that it was improveable; both because the like Talents were actually improved by others, and that the Just Judge ex­pected his Talent with Advantage, which else, to be sure, he would ne­ver have done. Now when our Ob­jecters will tell us, whose fault it was the Talent was not improved, we shall be ready to tell them, why the [Page 51] unprofitable Servant was not so good, as he should have been. The Blind must not blame the Sun, nor Sinners tax the Grace of Insufficiency. 'Tis Sin that darkens the Eye, and hardens the Heart, and that hinders good things from the Sons of Men. If we do his Will, we shall know of his Divine Doctrine, so Christ tells us. Men, not living to what they know, cannot blame God, that they know no more. The unfruitfulness is in us, not in the Talent. 'Twere well indeed, that this were laid to Heart. But, alas! Men are too apt to follow their sensu­al Appetites, rather then their reason­able Mind, which renders them Bru­tal instead of Rational. For the Rea­sonable part of a Man, is his spiritual part, and that guided by the Divine [...], or Word, which Tertullian in­terprets Reason in the most excellent Sence, makes Man truly Reasonable, and then it is that Man comes to offer up himself to God a reasonable Sacri­fice. Then a Man indeed; a compleat [Page 52] Man: Such a Man as God made, when he made Man in his own Image, and gave him Paradice for his Habitati­on.

§. 2. Obj. But some yet Object, If Mankind had always this Principle, how comes it that Gospel Truths were not so fully known before the coming of Christ to those that were obedient to it.

Answ. Because a Child is not a grown Man, nor the Beginning the End; and yet He that is the Begin­ning, is also the End: The Principle is the same, though not the Manife­station. As the VVorld has many Steps and Periods of Time towards its End, so hath Man to his Perfecti­on. They that are faithful to what they know of the Dispensation of their own Day, shall hear the Hap­py welcome of well done good and faith­ful Servant. And yet many of God's People in those Days had a Prospect of the Glory of the latter Times, the Improvement of Religion, the Happi­ness of the Church of God.

[Page 53] This we see in the Prophesie of Jacob and Moses, Gen. 49. 10. concerning the Restoration of Israel, Deut. 18. 15, 18. by Christ. So David in many of his excellent Psalms, expressing most sensible and extraor­dinary Injoyments, as well as Pro­phesies. Particularly his 2, 15, 18, 22, 23, 25, 27, 32, 36, 37, 42, 43, 45, 51, 84, &c. The Prophets are full of it, and for that Reason have their Name; particularly Isaiah, Chap. 2. 9, 11, 25, 28, 32, 35, 42, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 66. Je­remiah, also Chap. 23, 30, 31, 33. Ezekiel, Chap. 20, 34, 36, 37. Daniel Chap. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Hosea, Chap. 1, 3. Joel, Chap. 2, 3. Amos, Chap. 9. Micah, Chap. 4, 5. Zachariah, Chap. 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14. Malachy, Chap. 3, 4. This was not another Princi­ple, though another Manifestation of the same Principle, nor what is com­mon, but particular and extraordi­nary in the Reason of it.

It was the same Spirit that came [Page 54] upon Moses, which came upon John the Baptist, and it was also the same Spirit that came, upon Gideon, and Sampson, that fell upon Peter and Paul; but it was not the same Dispensation of that Spirit. It hath been the Way of God, to visit and appear to Men according to their States and Condi­tions, and as they have been prepa­red to receive him, be it more out­wardly or inwardly, sensibly or spi­ritually. There is no Capacity too low or too high for this Divine Prin­ciple: For as it made and knows all, so it reaches to all People. It ex­tends to the meanest, and the highest cannot subsist without it. Which made David break forth in his Ex­postulations with God, Whither shall I go from thy Spirit, or whither shall I flee from thy Presence? Psalm 139. 7, 8, 9, 10. Implying it was every where, though not every where, nor at eve­ry time alike. If I go to Heaven, to Hell, or beyond the Seas, even there shall thy Hand lead me, and thy Right [Page 55] Hand shall hold me. That is, there will this Divine Word, this Light of Men, this Spirit of God, find me, lead me, help me and comfort me. For it is with me where ever I am, and where ever I go, in one respect or other; Prov. 6. 22. When thou goest, it shall lead thee; when thou sleep­est, it shall keep thee; and when thou awakest, it shall talk with thee: And I can no more get rid of it, if I would then of my self or my own Nature; so present it is with me, and so close it sticks unto me. Isa. 43. 2. When thou passest through the Waters, I will be with thee; and through the Rivers, they shall not overflow thee; when thou walkest through the Fire, thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the Flame kindle upon thee. David knew it, and therefore had a great value for it. In thy Light shall we see Light, or we shall be enlightned by thy Light. Thou wilt Light my Can­dle, Psalm 34. 9. the Lord my God, Psalm 18. 28. will lighten my Darkness.

[Page 56] Again, The Lord is my Light, Psalm 27. 1. whom shall I fear. It was his Armour against all Dan­ger. It took Fear away from him, and he was undaunted, because he was safe in the way of it. Of the same blessed Word he says elsewhere, It is a Lamp unto my Feet, and a Lanthorn to my Paths. In short, a Light to him in his way to Blessedness.

§. 3. Obj. But if the Jews had this Light it does not follow that the Gen­tiles had it also; but by your Doctrine all have it.

Answ. Yes, and it is the Glory of this Doctrine which we profess, that Gods Love is therein held forth to All. And besides the Texts cited in general, and that are as Full and Po­sitive as can be exprest, the Apostle is very Particular in the second Chap­ter of his Epistle to the Romans, That the Gentiles ha­ving not the Law did by Nature the things con­tained in the Law, Rom. 2. 7. unto the 17. and were a Law un­to [Page 57] themselves. That is, they had not an outward Law, circumstanced as the Jews had; but they had the Works of the Law written in their Hearts and therefore might well be a Law to themselves, that had the Law in themselves. And so had the Jews too, but then they had greater out­ward helps to quicken their Obedi­ence to it; such as God afforded not unto any other Nation: And there­fore the Obedience of the Gentiles or Vncircumcision is said to be by Na­ture, or Naturally, because it was without those Additional, External, and extraordinary Ministries and Helps which the Jews had to provoke them to their Duty. Which is so far from lessening the obedient Gen­tiles, that it exalts them in the Apo­stles Judgment; because though they had less Advantages then the Jews, yet the Work of the Law written in their Hearts was made so much the more evident by the good Life they lived in the World. He adds, their [Page 58] Consciences bearing Witness (or as it may be rendred, witnessing with them) and their Thoughts, mean while, accusing or else excusing one another, in the Day when God shall judge the secrets of all Hearts by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel. Which presents us with four things to our Point, and worth our serious Reflection. First, That the Gentiles had the Law writ­ten in their Hearts. Secondly, That their Conscience was an allowed Wit­ness or Evidence about Duty. Third­ly, That the Judgment made there­by shall be confirmed by the Apostles Gospel at the great Day, and there­fore Valid and Irreversible. Fourth­ly, That this could not be, if the Light of this Conscience were not a Divine and Sufficient Light: For Con­science, truly speaking, is no other then the Sence a Man hath, or Judge­ment he maketh of his Duty to God, ac­cording to the Vnderstanding God gives him of his Will. And that no ill, but a true and scriptural Use may be [Page 59] made of this Word Conscience, I li­mit it to Duty, and that, to a Virtu­ous and Holy Life as the Apostle evi­dently doth, about which we cannot miss, or dispute, read verse 7, 8, and 9. It was to that therefore the Apo­stles of our Lord Jesus Christ desired to be made manifest, for they dared to stand the Judgment of Conscience in reference to the Doctrine they preach'd and prest upon Men. The Beloved Disciple also makes it a Judge of Man's present and future State, un­der the Term Heart, For if our Heart condemn us, God is greater then our Heart, 1 John 3.21, 22 and knoweth all things. Beloved, if our Heart condemn us not, then have we Confidence towards God. Plain and strong Words: And what were they about, but whether we Love, God, in Deed and in Truth: And how must that appear? VVhy in keeping his Commandments, which is living up to what we know. And if any desire to satisfie themselves farther of the [Page 60] Divinity of the Gentiles, let them read Plato, Seneca, Plutarch, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and the like Gentile VVriters. They will al­so find many of their sayings, colle­cted in the first Part of a Book called the Christian Quaker, and compared with the Testimonies of Scripture, not for their Authority, but agreea­bleness. In them they may discern many Excellent Truths, and taste great Love and Devotion to Virtue: A fruit that grows upon no Tree, but that of Life in no Age or Nation. Some of the most Eminent VVriters of the first Ages, such as Justin Mar­tyr, Origen, Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. bore them great Respect, and thought it no lessening to the Repu­tation of Christianity, that it was defended in many Gentile Authors, as well as that they used and urged them, to engage their Followers to the Faith, as Paul did the Athenians with their own Poets.

Sect. 1. An Objection An­swer'd about the various Dispensations of God: The Principle the same. Sect. 2. God's Work of a Piece, and Truth the same under divers Shapes. Sect. 3. The Reason of the prevalency of Idola­try. Sect. 4. The Qua­kers Testimony the best Antidote against it, viz. walking by a Divine [Page 62] Principle in Man. Sect. 5. It was God's End in all his Manifestations that Man might be God's Image and Delight.

§. 1. Obj. BUt it may be said, If it were one Princi­ple, why so many Modes and Shapes of Religion, since the World began? For the Patriarchal, Mosaical and Chri­stian, have their great differences; to say nothing of what has befallen the Chri­stian, since the Publication of it to the World.

Answ. I know not properly they may be called divers Religions, that assert the true God for the Ob­ject of Worship; the Lord Jesus Christ, for the only Saviour; and the Light, or Spirit of Christ, for the great Agent and Means of Man's Conversion and Eternal Felicity, any more than [Page 63] Infancy, Youth, and Manhood make three Men, instead of three growths or periods of Time, of one and the same Man. But passing that, the many Modes or Ways of Gods appearing to Men, arise, as hath been said, from the divers States of Men, in all which, it seems to have been his main design to prevent Idolatry and Vice, by directing their Minds to the true Object of Worship, and pressing Virtue and Holiness. So that though mediately he spoke to the Patriarchs, mostly by Angels in the fashion of Men, and by them to their Families, over and above the Illumination in themselves; so the Prophets, for the most Part, by the Revelation of the Holy Ghost in them, and by them to the Jews: And since the Gospel Dis­pensation, by his Son, both Exter­nally, by his coming in the Flesh, and Internally, by his spiritual Appearance in the Soul, as he is the great Light of the World: Yet all its flowings medi­ately through others, has still been [Page 64] from the same Principle, co-opera­ting with the Manifestation of it im­mediately in Man's own Particular.

§. 2. This is of great weight, for our Information and Incouragement, that God's Work, in reference to Man, is all of a Piece, and, in it self, lies in a narrow Compass, and that his Eye has ever been upon the same thing in all his Dispensations, viz. to make Men truly Good, by planting his Holy Awe and Fear in their Hearts: Though he has condescended, for the hardness and darkness of Men's Hearts, to approach and spell out his Holy Mind to them, by low and car­nal ways, as they may appear to our more Enlightned Understandings: Suffering Truth to put on divers sorts of Garments, the better to reach to the low State of Men, to engage them from false Gods and ill Lives; seeing them sunk so much below their nobler Part, and what he made them, that, like brute Beasts, they knew not their own Strength and Excellency.

§. 3. And if we do but well consi­der the Reason of the Prevalency of Idolatry, Gen. 31. Ch. 35. upon the Earlier and Darker Times of the World,Exod. 20.— of which the Scripture is very par­ticular,Levit. 21.— we shall find that it ariseth from this;Deut. 29. Ch. 30. 31. 32. Chap. that it is more Sensual,Josh. 22. 23, 24. Chap. and therefore calcula­ted to please the Sences of Men; be­ing more Outward or Visible, or more in their own Power to perform then one more spiritual in its Object. For as their gods were the Workman­ship of Mens Hands, they could not prefer them, that being the Argu­ment which did most of all gaul their Worshippers, and what of all things, for that reason, they were most wil­ling to forget. But their Incidency to Idolatry, and the Advantages it had upon the true Religion with them, plainly came from this, that it was more outward and sensual: They could see the Object of their [Page 66] Devotion, and had it in their Power to Address it when they would. It was more fashionable too, as well as better accommodated to their Dark and too Brutal State. And therefore it was that God, by many Afflictions, and greater Deliveran­ces, brought forth a People, to en­dear himself to them, that they might remember the Hand that sa­ved them, and Worship him, and him only; in order to root up Ido­latry, and plant the Knowledge, and fear of him in their Minds, for an Ex­ample to other Nations. VVhoever reads Deuteronomy, which is a sum­mary of the other four Books of Mo­ses, will find the frequent and earnest Care and concern of that good Man for Israel, about this very Point; and how often that People slipt and laps'd, notwithstanding God's Love, Care and Patience over them, into the Ido­latrous Customs of the Nations about them. Divers other Scriptures in­form us also, especially those of the [Page 67] Prophets, Isaiah 44. and 45. Psalms 37. and 115. and Jer. 10. where the Holy Ghost Confutes and Re­bukes the People, and mocks their Idols with a sort of Holy Disdain.

§. 4. Now that which is farthest from Idolatry, and the best Antidote against it, is the Principle we have laid down, and the more Peoples Minds are turned and brought to it, and that they resolve their Faith, VVorship and Obedience into the Holy Illuminations and Power of it, the nearer they grow to the end of their Creation, and consequently to their Creator. They are more spi­ritually qualified, and become better fitted to VVorship God as he is: VVho, as we are told, by our Lord Jesus Christ, Is a Spirit and will be Worshipped in Spirit and in Truth, and that they are such sort of Worshippers which God seeketh to worship him, in this Gospel Day. The hour cometh, saith he, and now is. That is, some now do so, but more shall. A plain [Page 68] Assertion in present, and a Promise and Prophesie of the encrease of such VVorshippers in future. VVhich shows a Change intended from a Ce­remonial VVorship, and State of the Church of God, to a Spiritual One. Thus the Text; But the time cometh, and now is, when the true Worshippers shall Worship the Father in the Spirit and in the Truth. VVhich is as much as to say, when the VVorship of God shall be more Inward than Outward, and so more suitable to the Nature of God, and the nobler Part of Man, his Inside, or his inward and better Man: For so those blessed VVords import, in Spirit and in Truth. In the Spirit, that is, through the Power of the Spi­rit. In the Truth, that is, in Reali­ties, not in Shadows, Ceremonies, or Formalities, but in Sincerity with and in Life, being divinely prepared and animated; which brings Man not only to offer up Right VVorship, but also into Intimate Communion and Fellowship with God, who is a Spirit.

§. 5. And if it be duly weighed it will appear, that God, in all his Manifestations of himself, hath still come nearer and nearer to the Insides of Men, that he might reach to their Understandings, and open their Hearts, and give them a plainer and nearer Acquaintance with himself in Spirit: And then it is that Man must seek and find the Knowledge of God for his Eternal Happiness. Indeed, all things that are made show forth the Power and Wisdom of God, and his Goodness too to Mankind; and therefore many Men urge the Crea­tion to silence Atheistical Objections: But though all those things show a God, yet Man does it, above all the Rest. He is the precious Stone of the Ring, and the most glorious Jew­el of the Globe; to whose reasonable Use, Service, and Satisfaction, the whole seems to be made and dedi­cated. But God's Delight (by whom Man was made, we are told by the Holy Ghost) is in the habitable Parts [Page 70] of the Earth, with the Sons of Men, Prov. 8. 31. And with those that are contrite in Spirit, Isa. 66. 1. And why is Man his Delight, but be­cause Man only, of all his Works, was his Likeness. This is the inti­mate Relation of Man to God: Some­what nearer than ordinary; for of all other Beings Man only had the Honour of being his Image; and by his Resemblance to God, as I may say, came his Kindred with God and Knowledge of him. So that the near­est and best way for Man to know God, and be acquainted with him, is to seek him in himself, in his Image; and as he finds that, he comes to find and know God. Now Man may be said to be God's I­mage in a double Respect. First, As he is of an Immortal Nature; and next, as that Nature is Endued with those Excellencies in small, and proportionable to a Creatures Capa­city, that are by Nature Infinitely and Incomparably in his Creator. [Page 71] For Instance, Wisdom, Justice, Mer­cy, Holiness, Patience, and the like. As Man becomes Holy, Just, Mer­ciful, Patient, &c. By the Copy He will know the Original, and by the Workmanship in himself, he will be acquainted with the Holy Work­man. Gal. 6. 15, 16. This Reader is the Regeneration and New Creature we press, and according to this Rule, we say, Men ought to be Religious, and Walk in this World. Man, as I said just now, is a Com­position of both Worlds; his Body is of this, his Soul of the other World. The Body is as the Tem­ple of the Soul, the Soul the Tem­ple of the Word, and the Word, the Great Temple and Manifestation of God. By the Body the Soul looks into and beholds this World, and by the Word it beholds God the World that is without End. Much might be said of this Order of things, and their respective Excellencies, but I must be Brief.

Sect. 1. Doctrine of Satis­faction and Justification Owned and Worded ac­cording to Scripture. Sect▪ 2. What Constru­ctions we can't believe of them, and which is an abuse of them. Sect. 3. Christ Owned a Sacri­fice and a Mediator. Sect. 4. Justification Two­fold, from the Guilt of [Page 73] Sin, and from the Power and Pollution of it. Sect. 5. Exhortation to the Reader upon the whole.

Obj. 1. THough there be many good things said, how Christ appears and works in a Soul, to Awaken, Convince and Convert it; yet you seem not particular enough about the Death and Sufferings of Christ: And it is generally Rumour'd and Charged upon you by your Adversaries, that you have little reverence to the Doctrine of Christ's Satisfaction to God for our Sins, and that you do not Believe, That the Active and Passive Obedience of Christ, when he was in the World, is the alone ground of a Sinners Justification before God.

Answ. §. 1. The Doctrine of Sa­tisfaction and Justification, truly under­stood, are placed in so strict an Uni­on, that the one is a necessary Con­sequence [Page 74] of the other, and what we say of them, is what agrees with the suffrage of Scripture, and for the most part in the terms of it; always be­lieving, that in Points where there arises any difficulty, be it from the Obscurity of Expression, Mis-transla­tion, or the Dust raised by the Heats of Partial Writers, or Nice Criticks, it is ever best to keep close to the Text, and maintain Charity in the rest. I shall first speak Negatively, what we do not own, which perhaps hath given occasion to those who have been more Hasty than Wise, to judge us defective in our Belief of the Effi­cacy of the Death and Sufferings of Christ to Justification: As,

§. 2. First, We cannot Believe that Christ is the Cause, but the Ef­fect of God's Love, according to the Testimony of the Beloved Disci­ple John, Chap. 3. God hath so lo­ved the World, that he hath given his only Begotten Son into the World, that whosoever believeth on him [Page 75] should not perish, but have Everlast­ing Life.

Secondly, We cannot say, God could not have taken another way to have saved Sinners, than by the Death and Sufferings of his Son, to satisfie his Justice, or that Christ's Death and Sufferings were a strict and rigid Satisfaction for that Eternal Death and Misery due to Man for Sin and Transgression: For such a Notion were to make God's Mercy little con­cerned in Man's Salvation; and in­deed we are at too great a distance from his Infinite Wisdom and Pow­er, to judge of the Liberty or Necessity of his Actings.

Thirdly, We cannot say Jesus Christ was the greatest Sinner in the World, (because he bore our Sins on his Cross, or because he was made Sin for us, who knew no Sin) an Expression of great levity and unsound­ness, yet often said by great Preach­ers and Professors of Religion.

[Page 76] Fourthly, We cannot Believe that Christ's Death and Sufferings so satis­fies God, or justifies Men, as that they are thereby Accepted of God: They are indeed thereby put into a state capable of being accepted of God, and through the Obedience of Faith and Sanctification of the Spirit, are in a state of Acceptance: For we can never think a Man justified before God, while Self-condemned; or that any Man can be in Christ, who is not a New Creature, or that God looks upon Men otherwise than they are. We think it a state of Presump­tion, and not of Salvation, to call Je­sus, Lord! and not by the Work of the Holy Ghost. Master! And he not yet Master of our Affections: Savi­our! And they not saved by him from their Sins: Redeemer! And yet they not redeemed by him from their Passion, Pride, Covetousness, Wanton­ness, Vanity, Honours, vain Friend­ships, and Glory of this World: Which were to deceive themselves; for God [Page 77] will not be mocked, such as Men sow, such they must reap. And though Christ did Die for us, yet we must, by the Assistance of his Grace, work out our Salvation with fear and trembling: As he Died for Sin, so we must Die to Sin, or we cannot be said to be saved by the Death and Suffer­ings of Christ, or throughly justified and accepted with God. Thus far Ne­gatively. Now, Possitively, what we own as to Justification.

§. 3. We do Believe, That Jesus Christ was our Holy Sacrifice, and Attonement, and Propitiation; that he bore our Iniquities, and that by his Stripes we were healed of the Wounds Adam gave us in his Fall; and that God is just in forgiving true Penitents upon the Credit of that Holy Offering, Christ made of him­self to God for us; and that what he did and suffer'd, satisfied and pleased God, and was for the sake of fallen Man that had displeased God: And that through the Offering up of him­self [Page 78] once for all, through the E­ternal Spirit, he hath for Ever per­fected those (in all times) that are sanctified, who walk not after the Flesh, but after the Spirit. Rom. 8. 1. Mark that.

§. 4. In short, Justification consists of two parts, or hath a twofold Con­sideration, viz. Justification from the Guilt of Sin, and Justification from the Power and Pollution of Sin, and in this Sense Justification gives Man a full and clear Acceptance be­fore God. For want of this latter part, it is that so many Souls Religi­ously inclin'd, are often under Doubts, Scruples and Dependencies, notwith­standing all that their Teachers tell them of the Extent and Efficacy of the first part of Justification. And it is too general an Unhappiness among the Professors of Christianity, that they are apt to cloak their own Active and Passive Disobedience with the Active and Passive Obedience of Christ. The first part of Justification we do reve­rently and humbly acknowledge is [Page 79] only for the sake of the Death and Sufferings of Christ; nothing we can do, though by the Operation of the Holy Spirit, being able to cancel Old Debts, or wipe out Old Scores: It is the Power and Efficacy of that Propitia­tory Offering, upon Faith and Repen­tance, that justifies us from the Sins that are past; and it is the Power of Christ's Spirit in our Hearts that purifies and makes us acceptable be­fore God. For till the Heart of Man is purged from Sin, God will never accept of it. He Reproves, Rebukes and Condemns those that entertain Sin there, and therefore such cannot be said to be in a Justified State; Con­demnation and Justification being Contraries: So that they that hold themselves in a Justified State by the Active and Passive Obedience of Christ, while they are not Actively and Passively Obedient to the Spirit of Christ Jesus, are under a strong and dangerous Delusion; and for crying out against this Sin-pleasing Imagination, [Page 80] not to say Doctrine, we are Staged and Reproached as Deniers and De­spisers of the Death and Sufferings of our Lord Jesus Christ. But be it known to such, they add to Christ's Sufferings, and Crucifie to themselves afresh the Son of God, and trample the Blood of the Covenant under their Feet, that walk unholily under a Profession of Justification; for God will not acquit the Guilty, nor justi­fie the Disobedient and Unfaith­ful. Such deceive themselves, and at the Great and Final Judgment their Sentence will not be, Come ye Bles­sed, because it cannot be said to them, Well done Good and Faithful, for they cannot be so esteemed that live and die in a Reproveable and Con­demnable State; but, Go ye Cur­sed, &c.

§. 5. Wherefore, O my Reader! Rest not thy self wholly satisfied with what Christ has done for thee in his Blessed Person without Thee, but press to know his Power and King­dom [Page 81] within thee, that the strong Man, that has too long kept thy House, may be bound, and his Goods spoiled; his Works destroyed, and Sin ended; according to the 1 John 3. 7. For which end, says that Beloved Disciple, Christ was manifested, that all things may become New; New Heavens, and New Earth, in which Righteousness dwells. Thus thou wilt come to glo­rifie God in thy Body, and in thy Spirit, which are his; and live to him, and not to thy self. Thy Love, Joy, Worship, and Obedi­ence; thy Life, Conversation, and Practice; thy Study, Meditation, and Devotion, will be Spiritual: For the Father and the Son will make their abode with thee, and Christ will manifest himself to thee; for the Secrets of the Lord are with them that fear him. And an holy Vnction or Anointing have all those, which leads them into all truth, and they need not the Teachings of Men: They are better Taught, being Instructed [Page 82] by the Divine Oracle; no bare Hear­say, or Traditional Christians, but fresh and living Witnesses: Those that have seen with their own Eyes, and heard with their own Ears, and have handled with their own Hands, the Word of Life, in the divers Ope­rations of it, to their Souls Salvation. In this they Meet, in this they Preach, and in this they Pray and Praise: Behold the New Covenant fulfilled, the Church and Worship of Christ, the Great Anointed of God, and the Great Anointing of God, in his Holy, High Priesthood and Of­fices in his Church!

Sect. 1. A Confession to Christ and his Work, both in Doing and Suf­fering. Sect. 2. That ought not to make void our Belief and Testimony of his Inward and Spiri­tual Appearance in the Soul. Sect. 3. What our Testimony is in the latter respect: That 'tis im­possible to be Saved by [Page 84] Christ Without us, while we reject his Work and Power Within us. Sect. 4. The Dispensation of Grace, in its Nature and Extent. Sect. 5. A further Acknowledgment to the Death and Suffer­ings of Christ. Sect. 6. The Conclusion, shewing our Adversaries Vn­reasonableness.

§. 1. AND lest any should say we are Equivocal in our Expressions, and Allegorize away Christ's Appearance in the Flesh; meaning only thereby, our own Flesh, and that as often as we mention him, [Page 85] we mean only a Mystery, or a Mystical Sense of him, be it as to his Coming, Birth, Miracles, Sufferings, Death, Resurrection, Ascention, Mediation and Judgment; I would yet add, to preserve the well-disposed from being stagger'd by such Suggestions, and to inform and reclaim such as are un­der the Power and Prejudice of them, That, we do, we Bless God, Religi­ously Believe and Confess, to the Glory of God the Father, and the Honour of his Dear and Beloved Son, that, Jesus Christ, took our Nature upon him, and was like unto us in all things, Sin excepted; That he was Born of the Virgin Mary, and Suffered under Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governour, Crucified, Dead, and Buried in the Se­pulchre of Joseph of Arimathea; Rose again the Third Day, and Ascended into Heaven, and sits on the Right Hand of God, in the Power and Majesty of his Father, who will one Day Judge the World by him, even that Blessed Man, Christ Jesus, according to their Works.

[Page 86] §. 2. But because we so Believe, must we not Believe what Christ said, He that is with you shall be in you, John 14. I in them, and they in me, &c. Chap. 17. When it pleased God to re­veal his Son in me, &c. Gal. 1. The Mystery hid from Ages, is Christ in the Gentiles the hope of Glory, Col. 1. Vn­less Christ be in you, ye are Reprobates? 2 Cor. 13. Or must we be industri­ously represented Deniers of Christ's Coming in the Flesh, and the Holy Ends of it, in all the Parts and Branches of his Doing and Suffering, because we Believe, and press the Necessity of Believing, Receiving and Obeying his Inward and Spiritual Ap­pearance and Manifestation of him­self, through his Light, Grace and Spirit in the Hears and Consciences of Men and Women, to Reprove, Convict, Convert and Change them? This we esteem hard and unrighteous Measure; nor would our warm and sharp Adversaries be so dealt with by others: But to do as they would be [Page 87] done to, is too often no part of their Practice, whatever it be of their Pro­fession.

§. 3. Yet we are very ready to de­clare to the whole World, that we cannot think Men and Women can be saved by their Belief of the one with­out the Sense and Experience of the other; and that is what we oppose, and not his Blessed Manifestation in the Flesh. We say that he then overcame our Common Enemy, foil'd him in the open Field, and in our Nature, tri­umphed over him that had overcome and triumphed over it in our Fore­father Adam, and his Posterity; and that as truly as Christ overcame him in our Nature, in his own Person, so, by his Divine Grace being received and obeyed by us, he overcomes him in us: That is, he detects the Enemy by his Light in the Conscience, and ena­bles the Creature to resist him, and all his Fiery Darts, and finally, so to Fight the Good Fight of Faith, as to overcome him, and lay hold on Eternal Life.

§. 4. And this is the Dispensation of Grace, which we declare, has ap­peared to all, more or less, teaching those that will receive it, to deny un­godliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present World; looking for (which none else can justly do) the blessed Hope, and glorious Appearing of the Great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, &c. Tit. 2. 11, 12, 13. And as from the Teachings, and Experi­ence, and Motion of this Grace, we minister to others, so the very drift of our Ministry is to turn Peoples Minds to this Grace in themselves, that they may all, up and be doing, even the good and acceptable Will of God, and work out their Salvation with fear and trembling, and make their High and Heavenly Calling and Election sure; which none else can do, whatever be their Profession, Church and Character: For such as Men sow they must reap; and his Servants we are whom we obey. Regeneration we must know, or we [Page 89] cannot be Children of God, and Heirs of Eternal Glory: And to be Born again, an other Spirit and Prin­ciple must prevail, leaven, season, and govern us, then either the Spirit of the World, or our own depraved Spi­rits; and this can be no other Spi­rit than that which dwelt in Christ, for unless that dwell in us, we can be none of his, Rom. 8. 9. And this Spirit begins in Conviction, and ends in Conversion and Perseverance: And the one follows the other; Conver­sion being the Consequence of Con­victions obey'd, and Perseverance a na­tural Fruit of Conversion, and being Born of God; for such Sin not, be­cause the Seed of God abides in them, John 3. 7, 8. but through Faithful­ness, continue to the end, and obtain the Promise, even Everlasting Life.

§. 5. But let my Reader take this along with him, that we do acknow­ledge that Christ, through his Holy Doing and Suffering (for being a Son he learned Obedience) has obtained [Page 90] Mercy of God his Father for Man­kind; and that his Obedience has an Influence to our Salvation, in all the Parts and Branches of it; since there­by he became a Conqueror, and led Captivity Captive, and obtained Gifts for Men, with divers Great and Pre­cious Promises, that thereby we might be partakers of the Divine Nature, ha­ving (first) escaped the Corruption that is in the World, through Lust. I say we do Believe and Confess that the Active and Passive Obedience of Christ Jesus affects our Salvation throughout, as well from the Power and Pollution of Sin, as from the Guilt, He being a Conqueror as well as a Sacrifice, and both through Suf­fering: Yet, they that reject his Di­vine Gift, so obtained, and which he has given to them, by which to see their Sin, and the sinfulness of it, and to repent and turn away from it, and do so no more; and to wait upon God for daily strength to resist the Fiery Darts of the Enemy, and to be [Page 91] Comforted through the Obedience of Faith in and to this Divine Grace of the Son of God, such do not please God, believe truly in God; nor are they in a state of true Christianity and Salvation. Woman, said Christ, to the Samaritan, at the Well, hadst thou known the Gift of God, and who it is that speaketh to thee, &c. People know not Christ, and God, whom to know is Life Eternal, John 17. because they are Ignorant of the Gift of God, viz. a measure of the Spirit of God that is given to every one to profit with, 1 Cor. 12. 7. which re­veals Christ and God to the Soul. Flesh and Blood cannot do it, Oxford and Cambridge cannot do it, Tongues and Philosophy cannot do it; for they that by Wisdom knew not God, had these things for their Wisdom: They were strong, deep and accurate in them; but alas, they were clouded, puft up, and set farther off from the Inward and Saving Knowledge of God, because they sought for it in [Page 92] them, and thought to find God there. But the Key of David is an other thing, which shuts and no Man opens, and opens and no Man shuts; and this Key have all they that receive the Gift of God into their Hearts; and it opens to them, the Knowledge of God and themselves, and gives them a quite other Sight, Taste and Judg­ment of things, than their Educational or Traditional Knowledge afforded them. This is the beginning of the New Creation of God, and thus it is we come to be New Creatures: And we are bold to declare there is no o­ther way, besides this, by which Peo­ple can come into Christ, or to be true Christians, or receive the Advan­tage that comes by the Death and Sufferings of the Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore we say, and upon good Authority, even that of our own Ex­perience, as well as that of the Scrip­tures of Truth, Christ will prove no Saving Sacrifice for them, that refuse him for their Example. They that [Page 93] reject the Gift, do deny the Giver, in­stead of themselves daily, for the Gi­vers sake. O that People were wise! that they would consider their latter End, and the things that make for the Peace thereof! Why should they perish in a vain hope of Life, while Death Reigns? Of living with God, who live not to him, nor walk with him? Awake, thou that sleepest in thy Sin, or at best, in thy Self-righteous­ness; Awake, I say, and Christ shall give thee Life! For he is the Lord from Heaven, the quickening Spirit, that quickens us, by his Spirit, if we do not, resist it and quench it, by our Disobedience; but receive, love and obey it, in all the Holy Leadings and Teachings of it, Rom. 8. 14, 15. To which Holy Spirit I commend my Reader, that he may the better see where he is, and also come to the true Belief and Advantage of the Do­ings and Sufferings of our Dear and Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who saves from the Power [Page 94] and Pollution, as well as Guilt of Sin, all those that hear his knocks, and open the Door of their Hearts to him, that he may come in and work a real and through Reformation in and for them: And so the Benefit, Virtue and Efficacy of his Doings and Sufferings without us, will come to be livingly applied and felt, and Fellowship with Christ in his Death and Sufferings known, according to the Doctrine of the Apo­stle; which, those that live in that which made him suffer, know not, tho' they profess to be saved by his Death and Sufferings. Much more might be said as to this matter, but I must be brief.

§. 6. To conclude this Chapter, we wonder not that we should be mistaken, mis-construed and mis-re­presented, in what we believe and do to Salvation, since our Betters have been so treated in the Primitive Times; nor indeed is it only about Doctrines of Religion, for our Pra­ctice in Worship and Discipline have [Page 95] had the same Success: But this is what I earnestly desire, that however bold People are pleased to make with us, they would not deceive themselves in the great things of their own Sal­vation: That while they would seem to own all to Christ, they are not found disowned of Christ in the last Day. Read the 7th of Matthew; it is he that hears Christ, the great Word of God, and does what he en­joins, what he commands, and by his Blessed Example, recommends, that is a Wise Builder, that has founded his House well, and built with good Materials, and whose House will stand the last shake and Judgment. For which cause we are often plain, close and earnest with People, to consider, that Christ came not to save them in, but from their Sins; and that they that think to discharge and release themselves of his Yoke and Burden, his Cross and Example, and secure themselves, and Complement Christ with his having done all for [Page 96] them, while he has wrought little or nothing in them, nor they parted with any thing for the love of him, will finally awake in a dreadful surprize, at the sound of the last Trumpet, and at this sad and irrevokeable Sentence, Depart from me, ye Workers of Iniqui­ty, I know you not: Which terrible End, may all timely avoid, by hear­kening to Wisdom's Voice, and turn­ing at her Reproof, that she may lead them in the Ways of Righteousness, and in the midst of the Paths of Judg­ment, that their Souls may come to inherit Substance; even durable Riches and Righteousness in the Kingdom of the Father, World without end.

Sect. 1. Of the true Wor­ship of God in what it stands. Sect. 2. Of the true Ministry, that it is by Inspiration. Sect. 3. The Scripture plain in that Case. Sect. 4. Christ's Ministers, True Wit­nesses, they speak what they know, not by Re­port. Sect. 5. Christ's Ministers they affirm, [Page 98] Preach freely, 'tis one of their Marks.

§. 1. AS the Lord wrought ef­fectually, by his Divine Grace, in the Hearts of this People, so he thereby brought them to a Di­vine Worship and Ministry; Christ's words they came to Experience, viz. That God was a Spirit, and that he would therefore be worshipped in the Spi­rit, and in the Truth, and that such Worshippers the Father would seek to worship him. For, bowing to the Convictions of the Spirit in them­selves, in their daily course of living, by which they were taught to es­chew that which was made manifest to them to be evil, and to do that which was good, they, in their As­sembling together, sate down, and waited for the Preparation of this Holy Spirit, both to let them see their States and Conditions before the Lord, and to worship him acceptably; and [Page 99] as they were sensible of Wants, or Shortness, or Infirmities, so in the secret of their own Hearts, Prayer would spring to God, through Jesus Christ, to help, assist and supply them: But they did not dare to wake their Beloved before his time; or ap­proach the Throne of the King of Glory, till he held out his Scepter; or take thought what they should say, or after their own or other Mens studied Words and Forms, for this were to Offer strange Fire; to pray, but not by the Spirit; to ask, but not in the Name, that is, in the Power of our Lord Jesus Christ, who pray'd as well as that he spoke like one having Au­thority, that is, Power, a Divine E­nergy and Force to reach and pierce the Heavens, which he gives to all that obey his Light, Grace and Spirit, in their solemn Waitings upon him. So that 'tis this Peoples Principle, that Fire must come from Heaven; Life and Power from God to enable the Soul to pour out it self acceptably [Page 100] before him. And when a Coal from his holy Altar, touches our Lips, then can we Pray and Praise him as we ought to do. And as this is our Prin­ciple, and that according to Scripture, so is it, Blessed be God, our Experi­ence and Practice: And therefore it is we are separated from the Worships of Men, under their several Forms, because they do not found it in the Operation, Motion and Assistance of the Spirit of Christ, but the Appoint­ment, Invention and Framing of Man, both as to Matter, Words and Time. We do not dissent in our own Wills, and we dare not comply a­gainst His that has called us, and brought us to his own Spiritual Wor­ship; in Obedience to whom we are what we are, in our Separation from the divers Ways of Worship in the World.

§. 2. And as our Worship stands in the Operation of the Spirit and Truth in our inward Parts, as before expressed, so does our Ministry. For [Page 101] as the Holy Testimonies of the Ser­vants of God of Old, were from the Operation of his Blessed Spirit, so must those of his Servants be in every Age, and that which has not the Spi­rit of Christ for its Spring and Source, is of Man, and not Christ. Christian Ministers are to minister what they re­ceive: This is Scripture; now that which we receive, is not our own, less another Mans, but the Lord's: So that we are not only not to Steal from our Neighbours, but we are not to Study and speak our own words. If we are not to study what we are to say before Magistrates for our selves, less are we to study what we are to say for and from God to the People. We are to minister, as the Oracles of God; if so, then must we receive from Christ, God's Great Oracle, what we are to minister. And if we are to minister what we receive, then not what we Study, Collect, and beat out of our own Brains, for that is not the Mind of Christ, but our Imagi­nations, [Page 102] and this will not Profit the People.

§. 3. This was recommended to the Corinthians by the Apostle Paul, 1 Cor. 14. that they should speak as they were moved or as any thing was revealed to them, by the Spirit, for the Edification of the Church; for says he, Ye may all Prophecy; that is, ye may all Preach to Edification, as any thing is revealed to you, for the Good of others, and as the Spirit giveth Vt­terance. And if the Spirit must give Christ's Ministers their Utterance, then those that are his, are careful not to utter any thing in his Name to the People, without his Spirit; and by good Consequence, they that go be­fore the true Guide, and utter words without the Knowledge of the Mind of the Spirit, are none of Christ's Mi­nisters: Such certainly run and God has not sent them, and they cannot Profit the People. And indeed, how should they, when it is impossible that meer Man, with all his Parts, Arts and [Page 103] Acquirements, can turn People from Darkness to Light, and from the Power of Satan to God, which is the very End and Work of the Gospel-Ministry. It must be Inspired Men, Men Gifted by God, taught and influenced by his Heavenly Spirit, that can be qualified for so great, so inward, and so Spiri­tual a Work.

§. 4. Ministers of Christ are his Witnesses, and the Credit of a Wit­ness is, that he has heard, seen or han­dled: And thus the Beloved Disciple states the Truth and Authority of their Mission and Ministry; 1 John 1. 1, 3. That which we have heard, which we have seen with our Eyes, which we have looked upon and our hands have handled, that declare we unto you, that your Fellow­ship may be with us, and truly our Fel­lowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. I say, If Christ's Ministers are his Witnesses, they must know what they speak; that is, they must have experienced, and past through those States and Conditions, [Page 104] they Preach of, and practically know those Truths they declare of to the People, or they come not in by the Door, but over the Wall, and are Thieves and Robbers. He that has the Key of David comes in at the Door, Christ Jesus, and has his Ad­mission and Approbation from him, anointed by him, the alone High Priest of the Gospel-Dispensation. He it is that breaths, and lays his hands upon his own Ministers, he anoints them, and recruits their Cruice, and renews their Horn with Oyl, that they may have it fresh and fresh, for every Oc­casion and Service he calls them to, and engages them in.

§. 5. Nor is this all, but as they Re­ceive freely, freely they Give: They do not Teach for Hire, Divine for Mony, nor Preach for Gifts or Rewards. It was Christ's Holy Command to his Ministers to give freely, and it is our Practice. And truly we cannot but admire that this should be made a Fault, and that Preaching for Hire [Page 105] should not be seen to be one; yea a Mark of False Prophets, when it has been so frequently and severely cried out upon, by the True Prophets of God in former times. I would not be Uncharitable, but the Guilty are desired to call to mind, who it was that offered Mony to be made a Mi­nister, and what it was for; if not to get Mony and make a Trade or Live­lihood by it; and what answer he met with from the Apostle Peter, Acts 8. 18, 19, 20. The Lord Touch the Hearts of those that are giving Mony to be made Ministers, in order to live by their Preaching, that they may see what ground it is they build upon, and repent, and turn to the Lord, that they may find Mercy, and become living Witnesses of his Power and Goodness in their own Souls; so may they be enabled to tell others What God has done for them, which is the Root and Ground of the true Mi­nistry; and this Ministry it is that God does Bless. I could say much [Page 106] on this Subject, but let what has been said suffice at this time, only I can­not but observe, that where any Re­ligion has a strong Temptation of Gain to induce Men to be Ministers, there is great Danger of their run­ning faster to that Calling, than be­comes a true Gospel-Minister.

§. 1. Object. But does not this sort of Ministry, and Worship, tend to make People careless, and Spiritual Pride in others, may it not give an occasion to great Mischief and Irreligion?

Answ. By no means; For when People are of Age, They, of right, expect their Inheritances; and the End of all Words is to bring Peo­ple to the Great VVord, and then the Promise of God is Accomplished, They shall be all taught of me, Isa. 54. 13, 14. from the least to the greatest, and in Righteousness (pray mark that) they shall be Established, and great shall be their Peace. To this, of the Evangelical Prophet, the [Page 107] beloved Disciple agrees, and which is a full Answer to the Objection; These things have I written unto you, concerning them that Seduce you: 1 John 2. 26, 27. But the Anointing, which ye have received of him, abideth in you, and ye need not that any Man teach you, but as the same Anointing teacheth you, of all things, and is Truth, and is no Lye: And even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. In which Three things are observable. 1st, That he writ his Epistle upon an extraordina­ry Occasion, viz. to prevent their Delusion. 2dly. That he asserts a nearer and superior Minister than himself, viz. The Anointing or Grace they had received; and that not only in that particular Exigency, but in all Cases that might attend them. Thirdly, That if they did but take heed to the Teachings of it, they would have no need of Man's Directions, or fear of his Seducings. At least of no Mi­nistry [Page 108] that comes not from the Power of the Anointing: Though I rather take the Apostle in the highest Sence of the Words, 2 Thess. 4. 9. Thus also the Apostle Paul to the Thessalonians. But as touching Brotherly Love, ye need not that I write unto you: For ye your selves are Taught of God to Love one another. But Helps are useful, and a great Blessing, if from God, such was John the Baptists; but re­member he pointed all to Christ, John 1. 26. Lo the Lamb of God! I Baptize you with VVater, but he shall Baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with Fire, Mat. 3. 11. And so the true Ministry does. And while Peo­ple are Sensual, and under such an Eclipse, by the Interposition of Sin and Satan, God is pleased to send forth his Inlightning Servants to awa­ken and turn them from the Dark­ness to the Light in themselves, that, through Obedience to it, they may come to be Children of the Light, John 12. 36, and have their fellow­ship [Page 109] one with another in it, and an Inheritance, at last, with the Saints in Light for ever.

And as it is the Way God has taken to Call and Gather People, so a Living and Holy Ministry is of great advantage, to VVatch over, and Build up the Young, and Comfort and Esta­blish the feeble and simple Ones. But still I say, the more Inward, the less Outward: The more People come to be taught Immediately of God, by the Light of his Word and Spirit in their Hearts, the less need of out­ward means, read Isa. 16. 19, 20. which is held by all to be a Gospel Promise, and the Sun and Moon there, as general understood to mean the external Means in the Church. Compare them with John 1. 13. Rom. 1. 19. 1 Cor. 2. 11, 15. 1 Thes. 4. 9. 1 John 2. 20, 27. Rev. 21. 22, 23, 24. All which points at what we assert of the sufficiency and glorious Priviledge of Inward and Spiritual Teachings. And most certainly, as [Page 110] Men Grow in Grace, and know the A­nointing of the Word in themselves, the Dispensation will be less in Words (though in Words) and more in Life; and Preaching will, in great Measure, be turned into Praising, and the Worship of God, more into Walk­ing with, than Talking of God: For that is VVorship indeed, that Bows to his Will at all Times, and in all Pla­ces: The truest, the highest Worship Man is capable of in this World. And it is that Conformity that gives Communion, and there is no fellow­ship with God, no Light of his Coun­tenance to be enjoyed, no Peace and Assurance to be had, further than there is Obedience to his Will, and a Faithfulness to his Word, according to the Manifestation of the Light thereof in the Heart.

I say, this is the truest and highest State of Worship; for Set Days and Places, with all the Solemnity of them, were most in Request in the weakest Dispensation. Altars, Ark, [Page 111] and Temples, Sabbaths and Festivals, &c. are not to be found in the Wri­tings of the New Testament. There, every Day's alike, and every Place is alike; Rom. 14. 5, 6, 7, 8, 17. 1 Cor. 8. 6. Col. 2. 16. 17. Phil. 1. 21. Gal. 2. 20. but if there were a Dedicati­on, let it be to the Lord. Thus the Apostle, but he plainly shews a State beyond it, for to Live (with him) was Christ, and to Dye was Gain; for the Life he Lived, was by the Faith of the Son of God, and therefore it was not he that Lived, but Christ that Lived in him; that is, that Ruled, Conducted, and bore Sway in him; which is the true Christian Life; the Supersensual Life; the Life of Conversion and Re­generation; to which all the Dispen­sations of God, and Ministry of his Servants have ever tended, as the Con­summation of God's Work for Man's Happiness. Here every Man's a Temple, and every Family a Church, and every Place, is a Meeting-Place, and every Visit a Meeting. And yet [Page 112] a little while and it shall be so yet more and more; and a People the Lord is now Preparing to enter into this Sabbath or Degree of Rest.

Not that we would be thought to undervalue Publick and Solemn Meetings: We have them all over the Nations where the Lord has cal­led us. Yea, tho' but Two or Three of us be in a Corner of a County; we meet, as the Apostle Exhorted the Saints of his time, and Reproved such as Neglected to Assemble themselves. But yet shew we unto thee, O Rea­der, a more excellent Way of Wor­ship: For many may come to those Meetings, and go away Carnal, Dead, and Dry; but the Worshippers in Spirit and in Truth, whose Hearts Bow, whose Minds Adore the Eter­nal God, that is a Spirit, in and by his Spirit, such as conform to his Will, and walk with him in a Spiritual Life, they are the True, Constant, Living, and Acceptable Worshippers; whether it be in Meetings or out of Meetings; [Page 113] And as with such, all outward Assem­blies are greatly Comfortable, so al­so do we meet for a Publick Testi­mony of Religion and Worship, and for the Edification and Encouragement of those that are yet Young in the Truth, and to Call and Gather others to the knowledge of it, who are yet going astray; and Blessed be God, it is not in vain, since many are there­by added to the Church, that we hope and believe shall be Saved.

Sect. 1. Against Tythes. Sect. 2. Against all Swearing. Sect. 3. A­gainst War among Chri­stians. Sect. 4. Against Salutation of the Times. Sect. 5. And for Plain­ness of Speech. Sect. 6. Against mixt Marria­ges. Sect. 7. And for plain­ness in Apparel, &c. no Sports and Pastimes [Page 115] after the manner of this World. Sect. 8. Of Ob­serving Days. Sect. 9. Of Care of Poor, Peace and Conversation.

§. 1. AND as God has been pleased to call us from an Human Ministry, so we cannot for Consci­ence-sake Support and Maintain it, and upon that Score, and not out of Hu­mour or Covetousness, we refuse to pay Tithes, or such-like pretended Dues, concerning which, many Books have been writ in our Defence: We can­not Support what we cannot Ap­prove, but have a Testimony against; for thereby we should be found In­consistent with our selves.

§. 2. We dare not Swear, because Christ forbids it, Mat. 5. 34, 37. and James, his true follower. It is Need­less as well as Evil, for the reason of [Page 116] Swearing, being Vntruth, that Men's Yea was not Yea, Swearing was used to awe Men to Truth Speaking, and to give others Satisfaction, that what was Sworn, was true. But the true Christians, Yea, being Yea, the end of an Oath is answered, and there­fore the use of it is Needless, Super­fluous, and cometh of Evil. The Apo­stle James Taught the same Doctrine, and the Primitive Christians Practis­ed it, as may be seen in the Book of Martyrs; as also the earliest and best of the Reformers.

§. 3. We also believe, that War ought to cease, among the followers of the Lamb Christ Jesus, who taught his Disciples to forgive and love their Enemies, and not to War against them, and kill them; and that there­fore the Weapons of his true Follow­ers are not Carnal but Spiritual; yet mighty, through God, to cut down Sin and Wickedness, and Dethrone him that is the Author thereof. And as this is the most Christian, so the most [Page 117] Rational Way; Love and Perswasion having more Force than Weapons of War. Nor would the worst of Men easily be brought to hurt those that they really think love them. 'Tis that Love and Patience must in the end have the Victory.

§. 4. We dare not give worldly Honour, or use the Frequent and Modish Salutations of the Times, see­ing plainly, that Vanity, Pride and Ostentation belong to them. Christ also forbid them in his Day, and made the Love of them a Mark of Declension from the Simplicity of purer times; and his Disciples, and their Followers, were observed to have obeyed their Masters Precept. It is not to Distinguish our selves a Party, or out of Pride, Ill-breeding or Humour, but in Obedience to the Sight and Sence we have received from the Spirit of Christ, of the evil Rise and Tendency thereof.

§. 5. For the same Reason we have returned to the first Plainness of [Page 118] Speech, viz. Thou and Thee, to a single Person; which tho' Men give no other to God, they will hardly en­dure it from us. It has been a great Test upon Pride, and shewn the Blind and weak Insides of many. This also is out of pure Conscience, whatever People may think or say of us for it. We may be Despised, and have been so often, yea, very evilly Entreated, but we are now better known, and People better Informed. In short, 'tis also both Scripture and Grammar, and we have Propriety of Speech for it, as well as Peace in it,

§. 6. We cannot allow of mix'd Marriages, that is, to joyn with such as are not of our Society; but Oppose and Disown them, if at any time any of our Profession so grosly err from the Rule of their Communion; yet Restore them upon sincere Re­pentance, but not disjoyn them. The Book I writ of the Rise and Pro­gress of the People called Quakers, is more full and express herein.

[Page 119] §. 7. Plainness in Apparel and Fur­niture, is another Testimony peculiar to us, in the degree we have bore it to the World: As also, few Words, and being at a Word. Likewise Tem­perance in Food, and Abstinence from the Recreations and Pastimes of the World: All which we have been taught, by the Spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ, to be according to Godliness; and therefore we have long exhorted all that their Moderation may be known unto all Men, for that the Lord was at hand, to enter into Judgment with us for every Intemperance or Excess; and herein we hope we have been no ill Examples, or Scandal unto any that have a due Consideration of things.

§. 8. We cannot in Conscience to God, observe Holy days (so called) the Publick Fasts and Feasts, because of their Human Institution and Ordina­tion, and that they have not a Divine [Page 120] Warrant, but are appointed in the Will of Man.

§. 9. Lastly, We have been lead, by this Good Spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ, of which I have treated in this Discourse, according to Pri­mitive Practice, to have a due Care over one another, for the Preserva­tion of the whole Society, in a Con­versation suitable to their Holy Pro­fession.

First, In respect to a strict Walk­ing both towards those that are With­out, and those that are Within; that their Conversation in the World, and Walking in and towards the Church, may be blameless. That as they may be Strict in the one, so they may be Faithful in the other.

Secondly, That Collections be made to supply the Wants of the Poor, and that care be taken of Widows and Or­phans, and such as are helpless, as well in Council as about Subsistance.

[Page 121] Thirdly, That all such as are in­tended to Marry, if they have Pa­rents, or are under the Direction of Guardians or Trustees, are obliged, First, to declare to them their Inten­tion, and have their Consent before they propose it to one another, and the Meeting they relate to, who are also careful to examine their Clear­ness, and being satisfied with it, They are by them allowed to Solem­nize their Marriage in a Publick Se­lect Meeting, for that Purpose Appoin­ted, and not otherwise: Whereby all Clandestine and Indirect Marriages are prevented among us.

Fourthly, And to the end that this Good Order may be observed, for the Comfort and Edification of the whole Society, in the Ways of Truth and Soberness; Select Meetings, of Care and Business, are fix'd in all Parts, where we Inhabit, which are held Monthly, and which Resolve into Quarterly Meetings, and those into one Yearly Meeting, for our better [Page 122] Communication one with another, in those things that maintain Piety and Charity; that God, who by his Grace, has called us to be a People to his Praise, may have it from us, through his Beloved Son, and our Ever-blessed and Only Redeemer, Jesus Christ, for He is Worthy, Worthy, Now, and Ever; Amen.

Thus, Reader, thou hast the Cha­racter of the People called Quakers, in their Doctrine, Worship, Ministry, Practice and Discipline: Compare it with Scripture, and Primitive Exam­ple, and we hope thou wilt find, that this short Discourse, hath, in good measure, Answered the Title of it, viz. Primitive Christianity Revi­ved, in the Principles and Pra­ctice of the People called Quakers.


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A Treatise of Charity; and as directed, Universal, un­der the Law, and under the Gospel; (shewing the Nullity of all Religion without it) as also of Goodness, Providence, Riches, Poverty, Prosperity, and Adversity. And of Sa­crificing and Feasting, their continuance under the Gospel. With a Paraphrase upon the Parable of Dives and Lazarus. Price Bound 1s.

Antichrist Unvailed, by the Finger of God's Power; and his Visage Discovered by the Light of Christ Jesus, &c. Written in the Love of God by a Prisoner (at Lancaster Castle) for the Testimony of Truth, and one of the Peo­ple called (in Scorn) Quakers. Price Bound 2 s.

An Account of the Life and Death of our Faithful Friend and Fellow-labourer in the Gospel, Thomas Markham; with several Testimonies concerning him, given forth by several Friends, whose Names are thereto Subscribed. Also a Testimony written by himself, for the Necessity of Wait­ing on the Lord, and the Benefits thereof to Men: Where being Dead, he yet Speaketh. Price Stitch'd 4 d.

Proposal for raising a Colledge of Industry of all useful Trades and Husbandry, with Profit for the Rich. A Plen­tiful Living for the Poor, and a good Education for Youth. Which will be Advantage to the Government, by the In­crease of the People, and their Riches. Price 4 d.

An Epistle to Friends; shewing, the Great Difference between a Convinced Estate and a Converted Estate; and between the Profession of the Truth, and the Possession thereof; with the Comfort and Sweetness to the Soul it af­fordeth. With a few Words of good Counsel and whole­some Advice to both Parents and their Children. Price▪ 2 d.

The Connterfeit Convert, a Scandal to Christianity, and his unjustly opposing Quakerism to Christianity justly re­prehended. [Page] And the True Christ, and Scriptures confessed by the Quakers. In Opposition to Two Scandalous Books falsly stiled. I. Quakerism Withered, and Christianity Revi­ving. II. Animadversions on G. Whitehead's Book, Inno­cency Triumphant. Price Stich'd 6 p.

An Invitation, from the Spirit of Christ, to all that are a Thirst, to come and Drink of the Waters of Life freely, which proceed from the Fountain of Eternal Life: shewing how all may come, that are willing, to Drink thereof to their full Satisfaction; whereby they may attain unto per­fect Health and Salvation of their Souls for ever in the Lord Jesus Christ. And also, shewing what it is that hindereth People from being truly a Thirst after the Waters of Life; and from coming to Drink thereof; with the destructive Quality of that which hindreth; and how it may be avoid­ed. Concluded, with a Word to all Singers, upon a Religi­ous or Spiritual Account. Written by one, who hath for a long time been deeply Distressed with Thirst after the Water of Life; but, through Mercy, hath Obtained Sa­tisfaction thereby: Known by the Name of, Henry Mol­lineux. Price Bound 1 s.

The Spiritual Guide, which dis-intangles the Soul, and brings it by the inward Way, to the getting of perfect Contemplation, and the Rich Treasure of Internal Peace. Written by Dr. Michael de Molinos, Priest. Translated from the Italian Copy. Price Bound 9 d.

An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Eu­rope, by the Establishment of an European Dyet, Parlia­ment, or Estates. Price Stich'd 2 d.

Spira Respirans; or the Way to the Kingdom of Heaven by the Gates of Hell; in an Extraordinary Example. By Person brought to the depths of Despair and Anguish, re­covered by the mighty Grace and Power of God, and rais' [...] to the heights of Assurance and Joy. Wherein are som [...] uncommon Considerations concerning the manner of Salva­tion and Damnation, Life and Death, Happiness an Miser [...] With some Fundamental Arguments for the Immortality the Soul. Price Stitch'd 6 d.

[Page] AN Epistle to Friends; briefly Commemorating the Gra­cious Dealings of the Lord with them; and warning them to beware of that Spirit of Contention and Division which hath appeared of late in George Keith, and some few others that join with him, who have made a Breach and Separation from Friends in some Parts of America. By Thomas Ellwood. Price Stitch'd 6 d.

The State of the Case, briefly but impartially given, be­twixt the People called Quakers in Pennsylvania, &c. in A­merica, who remain in Unity; and George Keith, with some few Seduced by him into a Separation from them. As also a just Vindication of my Self from the Reproaches and Abuses of those Backsliders. By Samuel Jennings. Price Stitch'd 6 d.

A Further Discovery of that Spirit of Contention and Division which hath of late appeared in George Keith, &c. Being a Reply to two late Printed Pieces of his, the one [...]ntituled, A Loving Epistle, &c. The other, A Seasona­ [...]le. Information, &c. Wherein his Cavils are answered, is Falshood is laid open, and the Guilt and Blame of the [...]each and Separation in America; and of the Reproach he [...]ath brought upon Truth and Friends, by his late Printed [...]ooke are fixed faster on him. Written by way of Epistle, [...] Recommended as a further Warning to all Friends. [...] Thomas Ellwood. Price Stitch'd 1 s.

Truth Defended, and the Friends thereof Cleared, from [...] false Charges, soul Reproaches, and envious Cavils, [...] upon. It and Them, by George Keith (an Apostate [...] them) in two Books by him lately Published; the [...] being called, A True Copy of a Paper given into the Year-Meeting of the People called Quakers, &c. The other, The [...]etended Yearly Meeting of the Quakers, their Nameless [...] of Excommunication, &c. Both which Books are here­ [...] [...]nswered, and his Malice, Injustice, and Folly, Exposed, [...] Thomas Ellwood. Price Stitch'd 1 s.

An Apostate Exposed: Or, George Keith contradicting [...]self and his Brother Bradford; wherein their Testi­ [...]ny to the Christian Faith of the People called Quakers, [...]pposed to G. K's late Pamphlet, Stiled, Gross, Error [...]ypocrisie Detected. By John Penington, Price Stitch'd 3 d.

[Page] A Modest Account from Pennsylvania of the Principa [...] Differences in Point of Doctrine, between George Keith, and those of the People called Quakers, from whom he se­parated; shewing his great Declension, and Inconsisten­cy with himself therein, Recommended to the Serious Consideration of those who are turned aside, and joined in his Schism. Price Stitch'd 4 d.

The People called Quakers cleared by George Keith, from the false Doctrines charged upon them by G. Keith; and his Self-Contradictions laid open in the ensuing Citations out of his Books. By John Penington. Price Stitch'd 4 d.

More Work for George Keith: Being George Keith's Vindication of the People called Quakers, as well in his Part of the Dispute held at Wheelers-Street, the Sixteenth Day of the Eighth Month, 1674. As in his Treatise against Thomas Hicks, and other Baptists, with the rest of their Confederate Brethren, at the Barbican Dispute, held at Lon­don the twenty eighth of the Sixth Month, 1674. Price Stitch'd 4 d.

The Quakers cleared from being Apostates: Or, the Hammerer Defeated, and proved an Impostor. Being an Answer to a Scurrilous Pamphlet, falsly Intituled, William Penn and the Quakers either Apostates or Impostors, subscri­bed Trepidantium Malleus. With a Postscript, containing some Reflections on a Pamphlet, Intituled, The Spirit of Quakerism, and the Danger of their Divine Revelation laid open. By B. C. Price Stitch'd 6 d.

An Answer to George, Keith's Narrative of his Proceed­ings at Turners-Hall, on the eleventh of the Month called June, 1696. Wherein his Charges against divers of the People called Quakers (both in that, and in another Book of his, called, Gross Error and Hypocrisie Detected) are fairly Considered, Examined, and Refuted. By Thomas Ellwood. Price 1 s. 6 d.

Keith against Keith: Or some more of George Keith's Contradictions and Absurdities, collected out of his own Books (not yet Retracted) upon a Review. Together with a Reply to George Keith's Late Book, Entituled, The Antichrists and Sadduces detected among a sort of Quakers, &c. By John Penington. Price Stitch'd 9 d.

[Page] Some Brief Observations upon George Keith's Earnest Expostulation, contained in a Postscript to a late Book of his, Entituled, The Antichrists and Sadduces Detected, &c. Offered to the Perusal of such as the said Expostulation was Recommended to. By E. P. Price Stitch'd 2 d.

A Modest Detection of George Keith's (miscalled) Just Vindication of his Earnest Expostulation: Published by him as a pretended Answer to a Late Book of Mine, Entituled, Some Brief Observations, &c. By E. P. Price Stitch'd 4 d.

A Few Queries relating to the Practice of Physick, with Remarks upon some of them. Modestly proposed to the serious Consideration of Mankind, in order to their Infor­mation how their Lives and Healths, (which are so necessa­ry, and therefore ought to be dear to them) may be [...]ter preserved. By H. Chamberlen, Physician in Or­ [...]ary to the Late King Charles the Second. Price [...]und 1 s.

The Writing Scholar's Companion: Or, Infallible [...]ules for Writing True English with Ease and Certainty: Drawn from the Grounds and Reasons of the English Tongue. Comprehending in a Full, Plain, and Exact Method, whatever is necessary to be observed in Writing True English. In Three Parts. Composed for the Benefit of all such as are Industriously Ambitious of so Commen­dable an Ornament, as Writing true English is generally esteemed. Recommended especially to the Youth of both sexes, and to be Taught in Schools. Price Bound 1 [...]

The Good House-wife made a Doctor: Or, Health's choice and Sure Friend. Being a plain way of Nature's [...] prescribing, to prevent and Cure most Diseases in­ [...]ent to Men, Women, and Children, by Diet and Kitchin-Physick only. With some Remarks on the Practice of Physick and Chymistry. By Thomas Tryon, Student in Physick. The Second Edition. To which is added some Observations on the Tedious Methods of Unskilful [...]hi­ [...]gio [...]s; with Cheap and Easie Remedies. By the same Author. Price Bound 1 s. 6S.

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