A Further Account Of the Province of PENNSYLVANIA AND ITS IMPROVEMENTS.
For the Satisfaction of those that are Adventurers, and enclined to be so.

IT has, I know, been much expected from me, that I should give some farther Narrative of those parts of America, where I am chiefly interested, and have lately been; having continued there above a Year after my former Relation, and receiving since my return, the freshest and fullest Advices of its Progress and Improvement. But as the reason of my coming back, was a Difference between the Lord Baltamore and my self, about the Lands of Delaware, in consequence, reputed of mighty mo­ment to us, so I wav'd publishing any thing that might look in favour of the Country or inviting to it, whilst it lay un­der the Discouragement and Disreputation of that Lord's claim and pretences.

But since they are, after many fair and full hearings before the Lords of the Committee for Plantations justly and happily Dismist, and the things agreed; and that the Letters which daily press me from all Pa [...]s, on the subject of Ame­rica, [Page 2] are so many and voluminous, that to answer them se­verally, were a Task too heavy, and repeated to perform, I have thought it most easie to the Enquirer, as well as my self, to make this Account Publick, lest my silence, or a more pri­vate intimation of things, should disoblige the just inclinations of any to America, and at a time too, when an extraordina­ry Providence seems to favour its Plantation, and open a Door to Europeans to pass thither. That then which is my part to do in this Advertisement is,

First, To Relate our Progress, especially since my last of the Month called August 83.

Secondly, The Capacity of the Place for farther Improvement, in order to Trade and Commerce.

Lastly, Which Way those that are Adventurers; or incline to be so, may imploy their Money to a fair and secure Profit; such as shall equally encourage Poor and Rich, which cannot fail of Advancing the Country in consequence.

I. We have had about NINETY SAYL of Ships with PASSENGERS since the beginning of 82. and not one Vessel, designed to the Province, through Gods mercy, hi­therto miscarried.

The Estimate of the People may be thus made; Eighty to each Ship, which comes to SEVEN THOUSAND TWO-HUNDRED PERSONS: At least a Thousand there before, with such as from other Places in our neigh­bourhood are since come to reside among us: And I presume the Births at least equal to the Burials: For having made our first Settlement high in the Freshes of the Rivers, we do not finde our selves subject to those Seasonings that affect some other Countries upon the same Coast.

The People are a Collection of divers Nations in Europe: As, French, Dutch, Germans, Sweeds, Danes, Finns, Scotch' Irish, and [Page 3] English; and of the last equal to all the rest: And which is admirable, not a Reflection on that Account: But as they are of one kind, and in one Place, and under One Allegiance, so they live like People of One County; which Civil Union has had a considerable influence towards the prosperity of that Place.

II. Philadelphia, and our intended Metropolis, as I for­merly Writ, is two Miles long, and a Mile broad, and at each end it lies thot mile, upon a Navigable River. The scituation high and dry, yet replenished with running streams. Besides the High-Street, that runs in the midle from River to River, and is an hundred foot broad, it has Eight Streets more that run the same course, the least of which is fifty foot in breath. And besides Broad-Street, which crosseth the Town in the middle, and is also an hundred foot wide, there are twenty streets more, that run the same course, and are also fifty foot broad. The names of those Streets are mostly taken from the things that Spontaneously grow in the Country, As Vine-Street, Mulbery-Street, Chesnut-Srteet, Wallnut-Street, Strawbery-Street, Cranbery-Street, Plumb-Street, Hickery-Street, Pine-Street, Oake-Street, Beach-Street, Ash-Street, Popler-Street, Sassafrax-Street, and the like.

III. I mentioned in my last Account, that from my Arival in Eighty two, to the Date thereof, being ten Moneths, we had got up Four-score Houses at our Town, and that some Villages were setled about it. From that time to my coming away, which was a Year within a few Weeks, the Town advanced to Three hundred and fifty seven Houses; divers of them, large, well built, with good Cellars, three stories, and some with Belconies.

IV. There is also a fair Key of about three hundred foot square, Built by Samuel Carpenter, to which a Ship of five hundred Tuns may lay her broade side: and others intend to [Page 4] follow his example. We have also a Rope-walk made by B. Wilcox, and cordage for shipping already spun at it.

V. There inhabits most sorts of useful Trades-men, As Carpenters, Joyners, Bricklayers, Masons, Plasterers, Plumers, Smiths, Glasiers, Taylers, Shoemakers, Butchers, Bakers, Brewers, Glovers, Tanners, Felmongers, Wheelrights, Millrights, Shiprights, Boatrights, Ropemakers, Saylmakers Blockmakers, Turners &c.

VI. There are Two Markets every Week and Two Fairs every Year. In other places Markets also, as at Chester and New-Castle.

VII. Seven Ordinaries for the Intertainment of Strangers and Work-Men, that are not House-keepers, and a good Meal to be had for sixpence, sterl.

VIII. The hours for Work and Meals to Labourers, are fixt, and known by Ring of Bell.

IX. After nine at Night, the Officers go the Rounds and no Person, without very good cause, suffered to be at any Publick-House that is not a Lodger.

X. Tho this Town seemed at first, contrived for the Purchasers of the first hundred shares, each share consisting of 5000 Acres, yet few going, and that their absence might not Check the Improvement of the Place, and Strangers, that flockt to us, be thereby Excluded, I added that half of the Town, which lies on the Skulkill, that we might have Room for pre­sent and after Commers, that were not of that number, and it hath already had great success to the Improvement of the Place.

XI. Some Vessels have been here Built, and many Boats; and by that means, a ready Conveniency for Passage of People and Goods.

XII. Divers Brickerys going on, many Cellars already Ston'd or Brick'd, and some Brick Houses going up.

XIII. The Town is well furnish'd with convenient Mills; [Page 5] and what with their Garden Plats, (the least half an Acre) the Fish of the River, and their labour, to the Country-man, who be­gins to pay with the provisions of his own growth, they live Comfortably.

XIV. The Improvement of the place is best measur'd, by the advance of Value upon every mans Lot. I will venture to say, that the worst Lot in the Town, without any Improve­ment upon it, is worth four times more then it was when it was lay'd out, and the best forty. And though it seems un­equal that the Absent should be thus benefited by the Improv­ments of those that are upon the place, especially, when they have serv'd no Office, run no hazard, nor as yet defray'd any Publick charge, yet this advantage does certainly redound to them, and whoever they are, they are great Debtors to the Country; of which I shall now speak more at large.

Of Country Settlements.

1. WE do settle in the way of Townships or Villages, each of which contains 5000 Acres in square and at least Ten Families: The regulation of the Country, being a Family to each five hundred Acres: Some Townships have more, where the Interest of the People is less then that quan­tity; which often falls out.

2. Many that had right to more Land, were at first cove­tous to have their whole quantity, without regard to this way of settlement, tho by such Wilderness vacancies they had ruin'd the Country, and their own interest of course. I had in my view, Society, Assistance, Easy Commerce, Instruction of Youth, Goverment of Peoples manners, Conveniency of Religious Assem­bling, Encouragement of Mechanicks, distinct and beaten Roads, and it has answer'd in all those respects, I think, to an Universall Content.

3. Our Townships lie square: generally the Village in the Center; the Houses either opposit, or else opposit to the mid­dle, betwixt two houses over the way, for nearer neighborhood. We have another Method, that tho the Village be in the Cen­ter, yet after a different manner: Five hundred Acres are allotted for the Village, which among ten families comes to fifty Acres each: This lies square, and on the outside of the square stand the Houses, with their fifty Acres running back, whose ends meeting, make the Center of the 500. Acres, as they are to the whole. Before the Doors of those Houses, lies the high way, and cross it, every mans 450 Acres of Land, that makes up his Complement of 500 so that the Conveniency of Neigh­bourhood is made agreeable with that of the Land.

4. I said nothing in my last of any number of Townships, but there were at least FIFTY settled before my leaving those parts, which was in the moneth call'd August 1684.

5. I visitted many of them, and found them much advanc'd in their Improvements. Houses over their heads, and Garden-Plots, Coverts for their Cattle, an encrease of stock, and se­veral Enclosures in Corn, especially, the first Commers; and I may say of some Poor men, even to the beginings of an Estate: The difference of labouring for themselves and for others; of an Inheritance, and a Rack Lease, being never better understood.

Of The Produce of the Earth.

1. THe EARTH, by Gods blessing, has more then answer'd our expectation; the poorest places in our Judgment, producing large Crops of Garden Stuff, and Grain. And though our Ground has not generally the sym­ptoms of the fat Necks, that lie upon salt Waters in Provinces southern of us, our Grain is thought to excell and our Crops to be as large. We have had the mark of the good Ground [Page 7] amongst us; from Thirty to Sixty fold of English Corn.

2. The Land requires less seed: Three Pecks of Wheat sow an Acre; a Bushel at most, and some have had the in­crease I have mention'd.

3. Upon Tryal, we find that the Corn and Roots that grow in England, thrive very well there, as Wheat, Barly, Rye, Oats, Buck-Wheat, Pease, Beans, Cabbages, Turnips, Carrets, Parsnups, Colleflowers, Asparagus, Onions, Charlots, Garlick, and Irish Potatos; we have also the Spanish, and very good RICE which do not grow here.

4. Our Low Lands are excellent for Rape and Hemp and Flax. A Tryal has been made, and of the two last, there is a Considerable quantity Dress'd Yearly.

5. The Weeds of our Woods feed our Cattle to the Mar­ket as well as Dary: I have seen fat Bullocks brought thence to Market before Mid-Summer. Our Swamps or Marshes yeeld us course Hay for the Winter,

6. English GRASS-SEED takes well; which will give us fatting Hay in time. Of this I made an Experiment in my own Court Yard, upon sand, that was dug out of my Cellar, with seed that had layn in a Cask, open to the weather two Winters and a Summer: I caus'd it to be sown in the beginning of the month called April, and a fortnight before Midsummer it was fit to Mow: It grew very thick: But I ordered it to be fed, being in the nature of a Grass Plott, on purpose to see if the Roots lay firm: And though it had been meer sand, cast out of the Cellar, but a Year before, the seed took such Root, and held the earth so fast, and fastened it self so well in the Earth, that it held and fed like old English Ground. I mention this, to confute the Objections that lie against those Parts, as if that, first, English Grass would not grow; next, not enough to mow; and lastly, not firm enough to feed, from the Levity of the Mould.

7. All sorts of English fruits that have been tryed, take mighty well for the time: The Peach Excellent, on standers, and in great quantities: They sun-dry them, and lay them up in lofts, as we do roots here, and stew them with Meat in Winter time. Musmellons and Water Mellons are raised there, with as little care as Pumpkins in England. The VINE espe­cially, prevails, which grows every where; and upon expe­rience, of some French People from Rochel, and the Isle of Rhee, GOOD WINE may be made there, especially, when the Earth and Stem are fin'd and civiliz'd by culture. We hope that good skill in our most Southern Parts will yeild us seve­ral of the Straights Commodities, efpecially, Oyle, Dates, Figgs, Almonds, Raisins and Currans.

Of the Produce of our Waters.

1. MIghty WHALES roll upon the Coast, near the Mouth of the Bay of Delaware. Eleven caught, and workt into Oyl one Season: We justly hope a considerable profit by a Whalery. They being so numerous and the Shore so suitable.

2. STURGEON play continually in our Rivers in Summer: And though the way of cureing them be not gene­rally known, yet by a Receipt I had of one Collins, that related to the Company of the Royal Fishery, I did so well preserve some, that I had of them good there three months of the Sum­mer, and brought some of the same so for England.

3. ALLOES, as they call them in France, the Jews Allice, and our Ignorants, Shads, are excellent Fish, and of the Bigness of our largest Carp: They are so Plentiful, that Captain Smyth's Overseer, at the Skulkil, drew 600 and odd at one Draught, 300 is no wonder, 100 familierly. They are excellent Pickled or Smokt'd, as well as boyld fresh: They are caught by nets only.

4. ROCKS are somewhat rounder and larger, also a whiter fish, little inferior in rellish to our Mallet: We have them almost in the like plenty. These are often Barrell'd like Cod, and not much inferior for their spending. Of both these the Inhabitants increase their Winter store: These are caught by Nets, Hooks and Speers.

5. The SHEEPSHEAD, so called, from the resem­blance of its Mouth and Nose to a Sheep, is a fish much pre­ferr'd by some, but they keep in salt Water; they are like a Roach in fashion, but as thick as a Salmon, not so long. We have also the Drum, a large and noble fish, commended equal to the Sheepshead, not unlike to a Newfoundland Cod, but larger of the two: Tis so call'd from a noise it makes in its Belly, when it is taken, resembling a Drum. There are three sorts of them, the Black, Red and Gold colour; the Black is fat in the Spring, the Red in the Fall, and the Gold colour believed to be the Black, grown old, because it is observ'd that young ones of that colour have not been taken. They generally ketch them by Hook and Line, as Cod are, and they save like it, where the People are skilful. There are abundance of lesser fish to be caught of pleasure, but they quit not cost, as those I have mentioned, neither in Magnitude nor Number, except the Herring, which swarm in such shoales, that it is hardly Cre­dible; in little Creeks, they almost shovel them up in their tubs. There is the Catfish, or Flathead, Lampry, Eale, Trout, Perch black and white, Smelt, Sunfish, &c. Also Oysters, Cockles, Cunks, Crabs, Mussles, Mannanoses.

Of Provision in General

1. IT has been often said, we were starv'd for want of food; some were apt to suggest their fears, others to insinuate their prejudices, and when this was contradicted, and they [Page 10] assur'd we had plenty, both of Bread, Fish and Flesh; then 'twas objected, we were forc't to fetch it from other places at great Charges: but neither is all this true, tho all the World will think we must either carry Provision with us, or get it of the Neighbourhood till we had gotten Houses over our heads, and a little Land in tillage. We fetcht none, nor were we wholly helpt by Neighbours; the Old Inhabitants supplied us with most of the Corn we wanted, and a good share of Pork and Beef: tis true, New-York, New-England and Road-Ifland, did with their provisions fetch our Goods and Money, but at such Rates, that some sold for almost what they gave, and others carried their provisions back, expecting a better Mar­ket neerer, which showed no scarcity, and that we were not totally destitute in our own River. But if my advice be of any Value, I would have them buy still, and not weaken their Herds, by killing up their Young Stock too soon.

2. But the right measure of information must be the pro­portion of Value of Provisions there; to what they are in more planted and mature Colonies. Beef is commonly sold at the rate of two pence per Pound; and Pork for two pence half-penny; Veal and Mutton at three pence, or three pence half penny, that Country mony; an English Shilling going for fifteen pence. Grain fells by the Bushel; Wheat at four shillings; Rye, and excellent good, at three shillings; Barly two shillings six pence; Indian Corn two shillings six pence, Oats two shillings, in that money still, which in a new Country, where Grain is so much wanted for seed, as well as food, cannot be called dear, and especially if we consider the Consumption of the many new Commers.

3. There is so great an encrease of Grain, by the dilligent application of People to Husbandry, that within three Years, some Plantations have got Twenty Acres in Corn, some Forty, some Fifty.

4. They are very careful to encrease their stock, and get into Daries, as fast as they can. They already make good Butter and Cheese. A good Cow and Calf by her side may be worth three pounds sterling, in goods at first Cost. A pare of Working Oxen, eight pounds: A pare of fat ones, Little more, and a plain Breeding Mare about five pounds sterl.

5. For Fish, it is brought to the Door, both fresh and salt. Six Alloes or Rocks for twelve pence, and salt fish, at three fardings per pound, Oysters at 2 s. per bushel.

6. Our DRINK has been Beer and Punch, made of Rum and Water: Our Beer was mostly made of Molosses, which well boyld, with Sassafras or Pine infused into it, makes very tollerable drink; but now they make Mault, and Mault Drink begins to be common, especially at Ordinaries, and the Houses of the more substantial People. In our great Town there is an able Man, that has set up a large Brew-House, in order to furnish the People with good Drink, both there, and up and down the River. Having faid this of the Country, for the time I was there, I shall add one of the many Letters that have come to my hand, because brief and full, and that he is known to be a Person of an extraordinary Caution as well as Truth, in what he is wont to Write or Speak.


HAving an opportunity by a Ship from this River, (out of which several have gone this Year) I thought fit to give a short account of proceedings, as to settlements here, and the Improvements both in Town and Country. As to the Country the Improvements are large, and settlements very throng, by way of TOWNSHIPS and VIL­LAGES. Great inclinations to Planting Orchards, which are easily raised, and soon brought to perfection. Much Hay-Seed sown, and much [Page 12] Planting of Corn this Year, and great produce said to be, both of Wheat, Rye and Rise; Barly and Oates prove very well, besides [...]ian Corn and Pease of several sorts; also Kidny-Beans, and English Pease of seve­ral kinds, I have had in my own Ground, with English Roots, Turnaps, Parsnaps, Carrets, Onions, Leeks, Radishes and Cabbidges, with a­bundance of sorts of Herbs and Flowers: I know but of few seeds that have mist, except Rosemary seed, and being English might be old. Also, I have such plenty of Pumpkins, Musmellons, Watermellons, Squashes, Coshaws, Bucks-hens, Cowcumbers and Simnells of Divers kinds; admired at by new Commers, that the Earth should so plentifully cast forth, especially the first Years breaking up; and on that which is counted the WORST SORT OF SANDY LAND. I am satisfied, and many more, that the Earth is very fertil, and the Lord hath done his part, if Man use but a moderate Diligence. Grapes, Mulberies, and many wilde Fruits, and natural Plums, in abundance, this Year have I seen and eat of. A brave Orchard and Nursery have I planted, and thrive mightily, and Fruit the first Year. I endeavor choice of Fruits, and Seeds from many parts; also Hay-Seed; and have sowed a field this spring for tryal. First, I burn'd the leaves, then had it Grub'd, not the field, but the small Roots up, then sowed great and small Clover, with a little old Grass-seed, and had it only raked over, not Plowed nor Harrowed, and it grows exceedingly: also for experience I sowed some patches of the same sort in my Garden and Dunged some, and that grows worst. I have planted the Irish Potatoes, and hope to have a brave increase to Transplant next Year. Cap­tain Rapel (the French man) saith, he made good WINE of the Grapes (of the Country) last Year, and Transported some, but intends to make more this Year. Also a French man in this Town intends the same, for Grapes are very Plentiful.

Now as to the Town of PHILADELPHIA it goeth on in Plant­ing and Building to admiration, both in the front & backward, and there are about 600 Houses in 3 years time. And since I built my Brick House, the foundation of which was laid at thy going, which I did design after a good manner, to incourage others, and that from building with Wood; it being the first, many take example, and some that built Wooden Houses, are sorry for it: Brick building is said to be as cheap: Bricks are exceeding good, and better then when I built: More Makers fallen in, and Bricks cheaper, they were before at 16 s. English per 1000, and now many brave Brick Houses are going up, with good Cellars. Arthur Cook is building him [Page 13] a brave Brick House near William Frampton's, on the front: For William Frampton hath since built a good Brick house, by his Brew-house and Bake-house, and let the other for an Ordinary. John Whee­ler, from New-England, is building a good Brick house, by the Blew Anchor; and the two Brickmakers a Double Brick House and Cellars; besides several others going on: Samuel Carpenter has built another house by his. I am Building another Brick house by mine, which is three large Stories high, besides a good large Brick Cellar under it, of two Bricks and a half thickness in the wall, and the next story half under Ground, the Cel­ler hath an Arched Door for a Vault to go (under the Street) to the River, and so to bring in goods, or deliver out. Humphery Murry, from New-York, has built a large Timber house, with Brick Chimnies. John Test has almost finished a good Brick House, and a Bake-house of Timber; and N. Allen a good house, next to Thomas Wynns front Lot. John Day a good house, after the London fashion, most Brick, with a large frame of Wood, in the front, for shop Windows; all these have Belconies. Thomas Smith and Daniel Pege are Partners, and set to making of Brick this Year, and they are very good; also, Pastorus, the German Friend, Agent for the Company at Frankford, with his Dutch People, are preparing to make Brick next year. Samuel Carpenter, is our Lime burner on his Wharf. Brave LIME STONE found here, as the Workmen say, being proved. We build most Houses with Belconies. Lots are much desir'd in the Town, great buying one of another. We are now laying the foundation of a large plain Brick house, for a Meeting House, in the Center, (sixty foot long, and about forty foot broad) and hope to have it soon up, many hearts and hands at work that will do it. A large Meeting House, 50 foot long, and 38 foot broad, also going up, on the front of the River, for an evening Meeting, the work going on a pace. Many Towns People setling their liberty Lands. I hope the Society will rub off the Reproaches some have cast upon them. We now begin to gather in some thing of our many great Debts.

I do understand three COMPANIES FOR WHALE CATCHING are designed to fish in the Rivers Mouth this season, and find through the great Plenty of fish, they may begin early. A Fisherman this Year found the way to catch Whiteins in this River, and it's expected many sorts of fish more then hath been yet caught, may be taken by the skilful. Fish are in such plenty, that many sorts on tryal, have been taken with Nets, in the Winter time: The Sweeds laughing at the English for going to try, have since tried themselves. The River so big, and full of several sorts of [Page 14] brave fish, that its believed, except frozen over, we may catch any time in the Winter. It's great pity, but two or three experienced Fishermen were here to Ply this River, to salt and serve fresh to the Town. A good way to Pickle Sturgion is wanting; such abundance in this River, even before the Town: many are Catcht, Boyld and Eaten. Last Winter great plenty of Dear brought in by the Indians and English from the Country. We are generally very Well and Healthy here, but abundance Dead in Maryland this Summer.

The Manufacture of Linnen by the Germans goes on finely, and they make fine Linnen: Samuel Carpenter having been lately there, declares, they had gathered one Crop of Flax, and had sowed for the Second, and saw it come up well: And they say, might have had forwarder and better, had they had old seed, and not stayed so long for the Growth of the new seed to sow again. I may believe it, for large hath my experience been this Years, though in a small peece of Ground, to the admiration of many.

I thought fit to signify thus much, knowing thou wouldst be glad to hear of the People and Provinces welfare; the Lord preserve us all, and make way for thy return, which is much desired, not only by our Friends, but all sorts.

I am, &c. thy truly Loving Friend. ROBERT TVRNER.

Of Further Improvements for Trade and Commerce.

THose things that we have in prospect for Staples of Trade, are Wine, Linnen, Hemp, Potashes, and Whale Oyle; to say nothing of our Provisions for the Islands, our Saw-Mills, Sturgeon, some Tobacco, and our Furs and Skins, which of themselves are not contemptible; I might add Iron (perhaps Copper too) for there is much Mine; and it will be granted us, that we want no Wood, though I must confess, I cannot tell how to help preferring a domestick or self sub­sistance, to a life of much profit, by the extream Toyl of for­raign Traffick.

Advice to Adventurers how to imploy their Estates, with fair profit.

IT is fit now, that I give some Advertisement to Adven­turers, which way they may lay out their Money to best advantage, so as it may yeild them fair returns, and with content to all concerned, which is the last part of my present task; and I must needs say so much wanting, that it has perhaps given some occasion to ignorance and prejudice to run without mercy, measure or distinction against America, of which Pennsylvania to be sure has had its share.

1. It is agreed on all hands, that the Poor are the Hands and Feet of the Rich. It is their labour that improves Countries; and to encourage them, is to promote the real benefit of the publick. Now as there are abundance of these people in many parts of Europe, extreamly desirous of going to America; so the way of helping them thither, or when there, and the return thereof to the Disbursers, will prove what I say to be true.

2. There are two sorts, such as are able to transport them­selves and Families, but have nothing to begin with there; and those that want so much as to transport themselves and Families thither.

3. The first of these may be entertained in this manner. Say I have 5000 Acres, I will settle Ten Families upon them, in way of Village, and build each an house, an out-house for Cattle, furnish every Family with Stock; as four Cows, two Sows, a couple of Mares, and a yoke of Oxen, with a Town Horse, Bull and Boar; I find them with Tools, and give each their first Ground-seed. They shall continue Seven Year, or more, as we agree, at half encrease, being bound to leave the Houses in repair, and a Garden and Orchard, I pay­ing for the Trees & at least twenty Acres of Land within Fence, [Page 16] and improved to corn and grass; the charge will come to about sixty pounds English for each Family: At the seven years end, the Improvement will be worth, as things go now, 120 l. be­sides the value of the encrease of the Stock, which may be neer as much more, allowing for casualties; especially, if the People are honest and careful, or a man be upon the spot him­self, or have an Overseer sometimes to inspect them. The charge in the whole is 832 l. And the value of stock and improve­ments 2400 l. I think I have been modest in my computation. These Farms are afterwards fit for Leases at full rent, or how else the Owner shall please to dispose of them. Also the People will by this time be skilled in the Country, and well pro­vided to settle themselves with stock upon their own Land.

4. The other sort of poor people may be very beneficially transported upon these terms: Say I have 5000 Acres I should settle as before, I will give to each Family 100 Acres, which in the whole makes 1000; and to each Family thirty pounds English, half in hand, and half there, which in the whole comes to 300 l. After four years are expired, in which time they may be easie, and in a good condition, they shall each of them pay five pounds, and so yearly for ever, as a Fee-farm rent; which in the whole comes to 50 l. a Year. Thus a man that buys 5000. Acres may secure and settle his 4000 by the gift of one, and in a way that hazard and interest allowed for, amounts to at least ten per cent. upon Land security, besides the value it puts upon the rest of the 5000 Acres. I propose that there be at least two working hands besides the wife, whether son or servant; and that they oblige what they carry; and for further security bind themselves as servants for some time, that they will settle the said land accordingly, and when they are once seated, their inprovements security enough for the Rent.

5. There is yet another expedient, and that is, give to ten Families 1000 Acres forever, at a small acknowledgement, and [Page 17] settle them in way of Village, as afore; by their seating thus, the Land taken up is secured from others, because the method of the Country is answered, and the value such a settlement gives to the rest reserved, is not inconsiderable; I mean, the 40 [...] Acres; especially that which is Contiguous: For their Children when grown up, and Handicrafts will soon cover to fix next them, and such after settlements to begin at an Improved Rent in Fee, or for long Leases or small Acknowledgements, and good Improvements, must advance the whole considerably. I conceive any of these methods to issue in a sufficient advan­tage to Adventurers, and they all give good encouragement to feeble and poor Families.

6. That which is most adviseable for People, intended thi­ther, to carry with them, is in short, all things relating to Apparel, Building, Housholdstuf, Husbandry, Fowling, and Fishing. Some Spice, Spirits and double [...]ear, at first, were not amiss: But I advise all to proportion their Estates thus; one third in Money, and two thirds in Goods. Upon peices of eight, there will be almost a third gotten, for they go at 6 s. and by goods well bought, at least fifty pounds sterl. for every hundred pounds; so that a man worth 400 l. here, is worth 600 l. there, without sweating.

Of the Natives.

1. BEcause many Stories have been prejudicially propa­gated, as if we were upon ill terms with the Natives, and sometimes, like Jobs Kindred, all cut off but the Messenger that brought the Tidings; I think it requisit to say thus much, that as there never was any such Messenger, so the dead Peo­ple were alive, at our last advices; so far are we from ill terms with the Natives, that we have liv'd in great friendship. I have made seven Purchasses, and in Pay and Presents they have [Page 18] received at least twelve hundred pounds of me. Our humanity has obliged them so far, that they generally leave their guns at home, when they come to our settlements; they offer us no affront, not so much as to one of our Dogs; and if an [...] of them break our Laws, they submit to be punisht by them: and to this they have tyed themselves by an obligation under their hands. We leave not the least indignity to them unrebukt, nor wrong unsatisfied. Justice gains and aws them. They have some Great Men amongst them, I mean, for Wisdom, Truth and Justice. I refer, to my former Account about their Laws, Manners and Religious Rites.

Of the Goverment.

THE Goverment is according to the words of the Grant, as near to the English as conveniently may be: In the whole, we aim at Duty to the King, the Preservation of Right to all, the suppression of Vice, and encouragement of Vertue, and Arts; with Libert to all People to worship Almighty God, according to their Faith and Perswasion.

Of the Seasons of Going, and usual time of Passage.

1. THO Ships go hence at all times of the Year, it must be acknowledged, that to go so as to arrive at Spring or Fall, is best. For the Summer may be of the hottest, for fresh Commers; and in the Winter, the wind that prevails, is the North West, and that blows off the Coast, so that sometimes it is difficult to enter the Capes.

2. I propose therefore, that Ships go hence about the middle of the moneths call'd February and August, which, allowing two moneths for passage, reaches time enough to plant in the Spring such things as are carried hence to plant, and in the [Page 19] Fall to get a small Cottage, and clear some Land against the next Spring. I have made a discovery of about a hundred Miles West, and find those back Lands richer in Soyl, Woods and Fountains, then that by Delaware; especially upon the SASQVEHANAH River.

3. I must confess I prefer the Fall to come thither, as belie­ving it is more healthy to be followed with Winter then Sum­mer; tho, through the great goodness and mercy of God, we have had an extrordinary portion of health, for so new and numerous a Colony, notwithstanding we have not been so regular in time.

4. The Passage is not to be set by any man; for Ships will be quicker and slower. Some have been four moneths, and some but one, and as often. Generally between six and nine weeks. One year, of four and twenty Sayl, I think, there was not three above nine, and there was one or two under six weeks in passage.

5. To render it more healthy, it is good to keep as much upon Deck as may be; for the Air helps against the offensive smells of a Crowd, and a close place. Also to scrape often the Cabbins, under the Beds; and either carry store of Rue and Wormwood, some Rosemary, or often sprinkle Vineger about the Cabbin. Pitch burnt, is not amiss sometimes against faint­ness and infectious scents. I speak my experience for their benefit and direction that may need it.

And because some has urged my coming back, as an argu­ment against the place, and the probability of its improve­ment; Adding, that I would for that reason never return: I think fit to say, That Next Summer, God willing, I intend to go back, and carry my Family, and the best part of my Perso­nal Estate with me. And this I do, not only of Duty, but Inclination and Choice. God will Bless and Prosper poor America.

I shall conclude with this further Notice, that to the end such as are willing to embrace any of the foregoing propositi­ons for the Improvement of Adventurers Estates, may not be discouraged, from an inability to find such Land-Lords, Ten­nants, Masters and Servants, if they intimate their desires to my Friend and Agent Philip Ford, living in Bow-Lane in London, they may in all probability be well accommodated; few of any quality or capacity, designed to the Province, that do not inform him of their inclinations and condition.

Now for you that think of going thither, I have this to say, by way of caution; if an hair of our heads falls not to the ground, without the providence of God, Remember, your removal is of greater moment. Wherefore have a due reve­rence and regard to his good Providence, as becomes a Peo­ple that profess a belief in Providence. Go clear in your selves, and of all others. Be moderate in Expectation, count on La­bour before a Crop, and Cost before Gain, for such persons will best endure difficulties, if they come, and bear the Success, as well as find the Comfort that usually follow such considerate undertakings.

William Penn.

PAge 1. Line 24. Read thing. p. 3. l. [...]. r. that. p. 11. l. last r. soon brought. p. 12. l. 9. r. [...]uckshorns. p. 14. l. 21. r. Those things. p. 17. l. 2. for Bond, read Land. l. 8. r. on small l. 17. f. there r. their. p. 20. l. 3. r. Improvement.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.