Man wholly Mortal; OR, A TREATISE WHEREIN 'Tis proved, both Theologically and Phi­losophically, That as whole Man sinned, so whole Man died; contrary to that common distincti­on of Soul and Body: And that the present go­ing of the Soul into Heaven or Hell is a meer Fiction: And that at the Resurrection is the be­ginning of our Immortality; and then actual Condemnation and Salvation, and not before.

With Doubts and Objections answered and resol­ved, both by Scripture and Reason, discovering the multitude of Blasphemies and Absurdities that arise from the fancy of the Soul.

Also, divers other Mysteries; as of Heaven, Hell, the extent of the Resurrection, the New-Creation, &c. opened, and presented to the Trial of better Judgment.

By R. O.

The second Edition, by the Author corrected & enlarged.

That which befalleth the Sons of Men, befalleth Beasts; even one thing befalleth them all: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath: so that Man hath no pre-eminence above a Beast: for all is vanity.

Eccl. 3.19.

Printed at London, Anno 1675.

To the READER.

Judicious Reader,

THy serious perusal, but the scorne and devision of the mul­titude hereof, is my expectation: Star­tle not thou, be patient, reade, ponder, and Berean, like-try whether these things be so or no: If any thing in it be worth thy owning, take it, it is thine as well as mine, and I have my end, thy benefit: I wish it well to all, but I feare it will be a Parable so most; however, I have unbo­som'd my duty; freely as I have re­ceived, I give it freely to the World; it is my faith, as I believe, so have [Page] I spoken. I expect an Answer; if it it be such as will not hold tryal, it is likely I shall vindicate my self; but if by force of Argument it shall convince, I shall be ready and free thankefully to embrace it, and re­nounce my errour, whether it be in part or in whole, though in the maine I am nothing jealous; had I therein doubted, my weakeness had not been thus visible to the World. Whereas in several places scattered thorow the Book the use of the word Soul may seem to some, to imply that which I deny; let such know, it is for Argument sake, not intending in the least any self-distinct being by it. Thus desiring my endeavours may have a faire and equal tryal by Scri­pture and solid Reason, I commit thee to the blessing of God in the per­usal thereof, and rest

Thine in the love of the Truth, R. O.

Man's Mortality: OR, A Treatise proving MAN (as he is a Rational creature) a Compound wholly mortal.

CHAP. I. Considerations from Natural Reason, disproving the common opinions of the soul, and proving man wholly mortal.

IF we will rationally argue con­cerning the Soul, it is necessary to define what that is, to which this immortality is ascribed: But since it is defined by some one way, by some another way, I shall produce some Opinions about it; and then [Page 2] bring the most rationall to tryall, o­mitting the more frivolous: viz.

The Stiocks held it, a certain blast hot and fierie; or the vitall spirit of the blood: The Creatins, Blood: Gal­len, a certain exhalation of the purest blood: Zeno, Cleanthes, Antipater, and Possiodonius, a hot complection, or corpo­reall quality diffused through the whole body: Democritus, Firc; and his opinion was, the round atomes being incorporated by aire and fire, do make up the Soul: Py­thagoras opinionated it a Number moving of it self: Plato, a substance to be conceived in the mind, that received motion from it-self, according to Num­ber and Harmonie: Aristotle, the first continual motion of a body natural, hav­ing in it those instrumental parts, where­in was possibility of life: Dinarchus, an Harmonie of the four elements: Neme­sius, divides it into Phantasie, Judg­ment, Memorie; Aristotle in his Phy­sicks, into vegetative, sensitive, motive, appetetive, intellective: And Ambrose Parey, p. 895. saith, the soul is the inward Entelechia, or the primative cause of all motions and functions both natural and [Page 3] animal, and the true Form of a man: It seeth, heareth, smelleth, toucheth, tasteth, imagineth, judgeth, &c. And more exactly pag. 83. Lib. 3. Cap. 1. he saith the soule is commonly distinguished into three Faculties: Animal, Vital, Natural: The Animal, into Princi­al, Sensitive, motive: The Principal, into Imaginative, (seated in the upper part of the braine;) Reasonable (the middle part of the brain;) Memora­tive, (Cerebellum, or after-braine. The Sensitive, into Seeing, (the eyes;) Hearing, (the eares;) Smelling, (the nose;) Tasting, (the tongue, pallet;) Touching, (the body.) The Motive, into Progressive (legges) Apprehensive, (hands.)

The Vital, into Dilative, or parts for Respiration, (weazon, lungs:) Con­coctive, or parts for vital motion, (heart and arteries) understood by the Pulsificke Facultie.

The Natural, into Nutrative, Active, Generative: which three are performed by the helpe of the Attra­ctive, (the gullet;) Retentive, (lower passage, or the stomack;) Concoctive, [Page 4] (body of the ventricle;) Assimula­tive, (three small guts; Expulsive, (three great guts.)

Augustine and Athanasius say it is a substance created, a spirit intelligent, invi­sible, immortal, incorporeal, like the angels.

And there be several Opinions of it's Body: Lucippus and Hipparchus say, it hath a fierie Body: Critias and Anaxemines, Woolnor and others, an aeriall body: Hesiod, an earthly: Epi­curius, fierie and airie: Zenophon, watry and earthly: Drone, a midle betwixt the spirit and the body: Didimus and Origen, a third substance.

Divers other conceptions and fan­cies there be, to uphold this ridi­culous invention of the Soule, tradu­cted from the Heathens, who by the Booke of Nature understood an im­mortality after Death; but through their ignorance how, or which way, this invention (reported to be Pla­to's) was occasioned, and begot a general beliefe: and so they, and af­ter them the Christians, have thus strained their wi [...]s to such miserable shifts, to define what it is; but neither [Page 5] conclude any certainty, or give satis­faction therein. Yet since it is gene­rally concluded to be in man, and of man; but what, where, or how, no man knowes; though such several o­pinions of it be, if but examined: Ile pitch upon those which afford most conceptory definition: that is, that of Aristotle, Nemesius, or Am­brose Parey, which make the Soule to be all the internal and external. Fa­culties of man joyntly considered, or Man Anatomized: and thereto Re­ply thus.

All the Faculties of Man (severally or together) are all, and each of them mortal▪ as well those that are pecu­liar to man, as those that are common to Beasts: and if all those, with his corpulent matter compleating Man, be proved mortal; then the inven­tion of the Soule upon that ground vanisheth: which I thus prove.

All elementary compositions or Temperatures are mortal, and transi­tory:

But mans Faculties from the least to the greatest are Temperatures:

Ergo, mortal.

[Page 6]The Minor is thus proved.

That which is subject to increase and diminish, is a Temperature.

But all mans Faculties, yea those of Reason, Consideration, Science, &c. all that distinguish Man from a Beast, are augmented by Learning, Educa­tion, &c. lessened by negligence, idle­ness, &c. and quite nullified by mad­ness:


That those Faculties are Tem­peratures, I further prove, thus.

A Temperature is a Qualitie; and a Quality may be in the Subject, or absent from it, without the destructi­on of the same subject.

But reason, understanding, &c. may be absent from the Body their Sub­ject, and yet the Body living: as, in mad-men, and persons in the Fal­ling-sickness; and none will deny they are men at that same time:


Object. Qualities of the Body are subject to sense.

But understanding, &c. subject to none:


[Page 7]Answ. A hot and drie braine is quick-witted, which by moysture and coldness is altered: and so we are disposed according to the present constitution of our Bodyes.

If this suffice not, I adde, that an effect is by passion from the cause, as motion cannot be without passion from that which moveth: for take a­way the cause, and the motion ceas­eth: tolle causam, tollitur effectus: Therefore quickness of wit cannot be without passion from heat & driness: for over-power that hot and dry braine with moysture and coldness, as may be with Opium, and the hot­ness and driness thereof ceaseth, and dulness followeth.

Further, even from my Opposites Assertions, I prove this Soule they so talke on, to be elemental, as Woolnor & others, who ascribe unto it an Aeriall Body: For whatsoever is Aeriall is ele­mental, else could it not be Aeriall:

Ergo, this Soule is elemental, and so finite.

If this immortal spirit have an Aeri­all Body, I wonder what would be­come [Page 8] of it, if a living man were clo­sed up in a Vessel, which were so so­lid every where, that the Aire could not possibly evacuate, and there the man die; either it must perish with the man, or else▪ remaine there, through which there is no passage for its Aeriall Body: So that he so mar­tyred hath an ilfavored Paradice for his Soul.

And further, experience tells us; If the former Brain-pan be hurt, the Senses are hindered, but the Cogitation remaineth sound.

If onely the Middle-pan be harmed, the Cogitation is maimed; but the Seat of Sense keepes all the five Senses whole: If any hurt befall both to the Former and Middle-pan, both Sense and Cogitation decay

If the Hinder-pan be disordered onely, the Memorie alone, and neither Sense nor Cogitation receive harme.

So that in veritie, Man is but a Creature whose several parts and members are endowed with proper natures or Faculties, each subservient to other, to make him a living Ra­tional [Page 9] Creature; whose degrees or excellences of natural Faculties make him in his kind more excellent then the Beasts: So that though Parey and others do so excellently set forth his several endowments, or properties of his several members, it doth not fol­low, that those Faculties together are a Being of themselves immortal: For as the members cannot be perfect members without them, so they can­not be faculties without their mem­bers: and separation cannot be with­out destruction of both: As attracti­on or heat is the propertie of fire, which cannot be, if fire cease; nor fire be, if it cease: and as well may we say the heat of the fire continueth, after the fire is dead out, as those Fa­culties when their Body is dead: for spoile one, spoile both; kill one, kill both; this is in that, and that is in this: The Form is so in the Matter, and the Matter so in the Form, as thereby, and not else, is an Existence, or Hu­mane Entitie: And their Being is in this Union, and their Union is in this Being: So that, take away Form, and [Page 10] Matter ceaseth; take away Matter, and Form ceaseth: destructio vnius est interitum alterius. The Form is the Form of the Matter, and the Matter the Matter of the Form; neither of themselves, but each by other, and both together make one Being: there­fore if one Be by the other, and there­by Both together; then one cannot consist without the other, but must Both perish together: For nothing can consist without that, by which it is.

But suppose on the contrary, one could consist without the other, as they say the Soul can without the Body; then one may be generated without the other, Soul without Body, and so ac­cording to their preposterous pre­cepts, it is not unnatural for a Woman to bring forth a spirit, that hath neither flesh, blood nor bones, instead of a Child.

Or if one Be without the other, as Form without Matter; Masse concep­ted, without the Facultie conceptive: then should all corpulent Substances be as infinite as God, without begin­ning, [Page 11] and Be of themselves, and them­selves Gods: But I hope all grant both impossible: Therefore they must as well end together, as begin together; and begin together as end to­gether. Moreover, experience further tels us, that they neither can Be, nor consist without other: For if Nature be deprived more or less in her work of conception, of her due, (her Forms or conceptions being by her power For­mative or conceptive, or her Formed Faculties by her Facultive Formes) her Effect is accordingly: If membrally impedited, a membral impediment; if totally impedited, a total frustra­tion of Matter and Form, in Both: For he that is borne without any member, hath neither Form nor Fa­culty thereof at all; or with any membral imperfection, that part hath not its perfection either of Form or Facultie: so cometh it that some are borne Fooles, and never can be wise: Therefore their original Being must be together. And that their ulti­mate end is together, we see, that the Eye is no Eye without the Sight; and [Page 12] Sight no Sight without the Eye: and so of all the other Senses and Faculies e minore ad majus. Wherefore, mem­bral perfection is not so much in shape as in virtue; and virtual perfection not so much in Masse as in due propor­tion, and both joyntly make natural perfection, which is the gift of God, or Natures general instinct: So, as one can by no means be without the other, so one cannot subsist without the o­ther: For could there be a Facultive subsistence (as that of the Soul is made) without its body; then a man might live when his head were cut off.

Further, this Facultive Gift, or Na­tures endowment, can no more be said to be a subsistent living Spirit, without its Receptacle, then the Sun­beames without the Sun, which are the gift or propertie of the Sun. But the Being of this communication must be in the Subject, as levitie in the Fire, ponderositie in the Earth: And though the natures of things, be im­mediate communications of Gods Power to Nature, yet disjunctively those communications are no Entities, [Page 13] without God be so many several Be­ings; for in that sence they are not communications, but absolute Beings of themselves; for betwixt Facultie and Subject is a Relation to communi­cation, as betwixt Father and Son to Fatherhood; neither without other, nor it without both: and to say not­withstanding, as this fancy of the Soul importeth, that there may be a Facul­tive Subsistance without its Subject; then Natures several Faculties must not be the several communications of One Being, but so many absolute irre­lative Beings of themselves: So that this Doctrine of the Soul implyeth, no God; if a God, so many several Gods as Faculties: and if but ONE, then it chops that ONE smaller then herbs to the pot: Therefore Facultie ceaseth with its Subject, or with the Subject God gathereth to himself the power, and yet his power no more by retraction, then less before by communication; and so but One Being, in whom all things are, or one Ens Entium.

Moreover, those several Faculties cannot be united or comprehended [Page 14] in one body, but by the several mem­bers of the same body; for we see, if the member decay, the Facultie de­cayes: Therefore their unite subsist­ance must be terminated membrally in the body: And if it were possible they could subsist, separated from their members; then in that separation their Being could not be conjunct or unite, for want of that which tyed them together, the several members: And so, if any Being, so many several Beings as several Faculties: if any Soul, so many several Souls: a Phan­tasticke Soul, a Rational Soul, a Me­morative Soul, a Seeing Soul, a Hear­ing Soul, a Smelling Soul, a Tasting Soul, a Touching Soul; with divers other Souls of all sorts and sizes.

And further, that those Faculties are thus in their Subjects, and are not without them, (as accidens non est ni­si in subjecto,) we see, that they in­crease and grow with their Subjects, and perfect together: For a Child is totally proportionated (as Adam when God formed him of the Earth) before the vitall Facultie be actual, [Page 15] (as Parey saith) and the Rational requi­reth a due process of time after birth, before it be ripe to bring forth the fruit of Rationality; and as its Subject groweth and ripeneth, so it increaseth and perfecteth: for it is impossible, that the thing which is not actual in it self, should have a second thing actual in it; and Rationality in an Infant, is no more in it then a Chicken in the egge, onely in posse: therefore a Child can­not possibly ratiocinate, before it be a­ctually Rational; which cannot be be­fore Organical perfection: For Reason cannot Be, and not shew it self; shew it self, and not Be, for its Being is its Rationality, and its Rationality its Be­ing: therefore as its Organs are poten­tial ▪ it is potential; and as its Organs are weake and imperfect, it is weake and imperfect; and as they are perfect, it is perfect: Therefore Faculties in­crease with their Subjects; and if in­crease, they must decrease.

Anatomize Man, take a vew of all his lineaments & Dimensions, of all his mem­bers & faculties, and consider their state severally, & all are transitory, even all [Page 16] that goeth to the Subject Man is corruptible, and himself but a Bundle of corruption, or curious Mass of vi­cussitudes. If all of Man that goeth to his Manhood be mortal, where then, or what is this immortal thing the Soul they talke of? we have ex­amined all his parts and Faculties, and find even all mortal: It is not sure his prima materia, though ingenerable, incorruptible, insensible, indefinite, &c, Nor his Forma prima, that principle which first gives Essence to a natural Body; the first Active principle, in­forming and figurating the First Mat­ter, sui appetentem; for both are ge­neral to the whole Creation, whose Efficient Cause is onely immediately God himself, by whose power all things that are made, shall be return­ed to that of which they were made, their Materia prima, or created matter: So that, (as Solomon saith,) Man hath no pre-eminence above a Beast, even one thing befalleth them.

What Reason is there now, that Mans Faculties in a higher Degree, should be an immortal Spirit, more [Page 17] then a Beasts in a lower Degree? but both elementary and finite.

Further▪ if it be not unnatural that Seeing, Hearing, &c. should be pro­ducted by an Elementary operation, as none deny in the propagation of Beasts: why is not the Rational Fa­cultie in Man as natural in Man, and may as well be producted elementari­ly by Man, as the other by Beasts, & be as actually mortal? If this suffice not, observe; Substantia non recipit majus aut minus, a Giant is no more a man then a Dwarfe; there may be a gra­dual distinction, and yet no Essential difference; Degrees of Faculties in several persons, and yet the Faculties the same, and of one nature, though not equally excellent: and the De­gree doth not make a Facultie more a Facultie, or less a Facultie: There­fore, if the said Faculties in an inferi­our Degree be elementary, so must they in a superior: But in Brutes, whom none deny to be wholly mortal, and all their Faculties elementary, have our most noble parts & faculties scat­tered amongst them, though in an in­feriour [Page 18] degree, as Ambr. Parey said, (Lib. 2. chap. 1.) If we will diligently seach into their nature, we shall observe the impressions of many virtues: as of Magnanimitie, Prudence, Fortitude, Clemency, Docilitie, Love, Carefulness, Providence; yea, Knowledge, Under­standing, Memorie, &c. is common to all Brutes, the Affections and Passi­ons of the Mind, all his Qualities good and bad, and every Facultie he hath is to be found more or less amongst them: And Parey further saith: They are of quick Sense, observant of the Rights of Friendship and Chastitie, they submit themselves to the discipline of man, they have taught man many things, &c.

The Hare is eminent for Memorie, the Dog for Apprehension and Fidelitie, the Serpent for Wisedome, the Fox for Subtiltie, the Dove for Chastitie and Innocency, the Elephant for Docilitie, Modestie, and Gratitude: Plinie saith, he cometh neare the understanding of a man, that they worship the Moon and Stars; Plutarch, that they worship the Sun rising: the Ape is eminent for I­mitation and Understanding, the Turtle [Page 19] for Love, the Crocodile for Deceit, the Lambe for Patience, the Waspe for An­ger, &c. and for his Five Senses, he is by them exce'd.

Aper auditu nos vincit, Aranea tactu,
Vul [...]ur odoratu, Lynx visu, Simia gustu.

Thus Man in sensu diviso is to be found amongst the other Creatures, and in him alone those several Facul­ties are eminent sensu conjuncto, and so onely capable of God: Therefore those Faculties being elementary in an inferiour Degree, in an inferiour Creature; why may they not be▪ e­lementary in a superiour, Degree in a superiour Creature?

Now from all, this followeth, that if in man be an immortal Spirit, then divers other Creatures have the like, though not in the same Degree; for if Degree therein should make or marre the thing it self, then some would have no more Soul then Beasts, and some less▪ as, Mad-men and Fooles no more; and Infants less. If it be the Rational Facultie, then all men are born without Souls, and some before they had Souls, as Infants; [Page 20] and some after their Soul is gone, as Mad-men that live and perish in their Madness; and some would be born, live, and die without Souls, as Fools; and some would have Souls but by fits and jumps, as Drunkards, persons with the Falling-sickness, &c. nay all of us spend a great part of our dayes with­out our Souls; for while we are in sound sleep, our Rationality ceaseth pro tempore: Thus this immortal Spirit goes and comes as occasion serves.

That which is finite and mortal, ceaseth from the time of the grave, till the time of the resurrection; But whole man is finite and mortal.


Minor proved.

That which is The Argu­ment lies in fallen nature, for the dispute is not of creatures which kept their first station, but of man that is fal­len from it. elemental, is finite and mortal: But whole man is ele­mental.


Minor proved.

All that is created, is elemental. But whole man is created:


[Page 21] Major proved.

That which is material, is elemen­tal. But all that is created is materi­al: for that which is not material, is nothing.

Major proved two ways.


If that which is matter, be not compounded of the four elements, then that which is no matter must be compounded of them, else no com­position at all; and besides the four elements, there is nothing else to compound with, or to make this or that matter or thing of.

But no matter is uncapable of com­position; for of nothing comes no­thing:

Therefore, that which is matter, is compounded of the four ele­ments.


If matter created be not Elemen­tary, then the Heavens and the Earth, with the things therein contained, which are infallibly Matter Created, are void of the elemental properties, to wit, heaviness, lightness, thick­ness, [Page 22] thinness; heat, coldness; moy­sture, dryness.

But experience teacheth, that the Heaven and the earth, with the things therein contained, are not void of those properties, but are essentially consistent thereof.

Ergo, Matter created must needs be elementary.

And so whole man being matter created, is elemental, finite, and mortal: and so ceaseth from the time of the grave, till the time of the Re­surrection.

Another Argument disproving any actual immortality to be in fallen Man.

If there be an immortal Soul (as is imagined) in man, then it must be neither hot nor dry, nor cold nor moyst; neither thick nor thin, nor heavy nor light▪ for all such composi­tions in fallen nature, are mortal and finite, (as before proved,) for they are elemental.

But every thing in nature must be one or some of those, or all those to­gether: for in nature nothing can be, but it must be hot or dry, cold or [Page 23] moyst, thick or thin, heavy or light; for of those radical Qualities the whole creation consisteth: that is not a crea­ture that is not composed thereof. If there can be any thing in Nature void of those qualities, let it be named, where it is, how it can be, what and whereof it is, and that shall be called the immortal Soul; but such a thing to be in nature, is past Imagination, yea, absolutely impossible.

Therefore, no immortality in fallen man: as he is wholly elemental, so is he wholly dissoluble: Every e­lement returnes to its Centre; his earthly part unto the earth, his moy­sture or watery part unto the water; his warmth or firy part, to the seat of fire, his airy part unto the air: and thus the composition Man returneth to his simples, and so ceaseth from his Being; and is become as before that compo­sition, or elemental conception: Ima­gine how it was before he was for­med, conceived, or born; and even so is it with him when he is dead: for as before his conception, he was in his elements; even so after his [Page 24] death he returneth to the same, and hath no more being, nor otherwise, after death, then before life: and so there is no more time to him after his death to the Resurrection, or re­composition of his elements, then there was to him from the creation to his birth, which is none at all.

Another Argument.

That which is not partly immortal as well as mortal, doth cease from life or Being from the time of the grave till the Resurrection.

But man is not partly immortal as well as mortal.


Minor proved.

That which is partly immortal, part­ly mortal, hath two lifes or Beings.

But man hath not two beings or lifes.

Therefore, man is not partly im­mortal, partly mortal.

Major and Minor proved, and first the Major.

If that which is partly mortal, part­ly immortal, have not two lifes or Beings, then that being must be all a [Page 25] mortal being [and then whole man dies] or else all an immortal being, [& then whole man lives for ever] or else his flesh is no more part of him, then a tree is part of an house; and so when the Heads-man chopt off the Bishop of Caterburies head, he cut off no part of the man:

Therefore, man must either be all mortal, or all immortall; or that which is partly mortal, partly immor­tal, must have two beings or lifes.

Minor proved, to wit, that man hath not two lifes or beings.

If there be two distinct lifes or be­ings in man, then one creature is two creatures; for the distinction of Be­ings, is the distinction of creatures.

But for one creature to be two creatures, is impossible.

Ergo, there cannot be two beings in man.

That the distinction of beings is the distinction of creatures, I prove thus.

If the distinction of beings be not the distinction of creatures, then a man is a Bull, a Beare, a Lion, a [Page 26] Dragon, &c. yea, all things is one thing, and one thing is all things.

But man is not a Bull, a Bear, a Li­on, &c. Therefore, the distinction of Beings is the distinction of Crea­tures.

The consequence proved.

If my being did not distinguish me from an owl and a woodcock, and thy being the same; then an owl and a woodcock were both writer and reader.

But an owl and a woodcock is nei­ther writer nor reader:

Therefore the distinction of be­ings must needs be the distinction of creatures.

And so it is impossible for one man to have two Beings, except one man be two men. Therefore, if he have not two beings, he hath either none, or but one; and if but one, that must be all mortall, or all immortal: For contraryes cannot possibly be in one object. Now if he be all mortal, then he must all die; if all immortal, then he must all live for e­ver; but our dying natures witness [Page 27] against that: therefore this must be the sum of all, That whole man is mortal.

Therefore well saies Tertullian, in his Book de Anima, that the Soul and Body of man are both one; which, saith Saint Jerome, in his Epistle to Marcellina and Anapsychia, was the opinion of the greatest part of the Westerne Churches. And Saint Au­stine in his four Books of the original of Souls, leaves the question undecid­ed; neither dares he rashly determine any thing. And his second Book of Retractions, Chap. 56. doth witness that he continued in that opinion to his death.

As testifieth Moulin in his Anatom. pag. 67.

Chap. II. Considerations from the Creation, Fall, and Resurrection of man, disproving the Opinion of the Soul, imagining the better part of man immortal; and proving him, as a reasonable creature, wholly mortal.

HAving had some consideration concerning the state of the Que­stion in hand, from the Dictates of Nature and Reason; let us repair to the unerring rule of the Scriptures, to see how this mortality is either pro­ved or disproved thereby.

And first, we may consider that the Scripture saith, that when God had molded, formed, and compleatly proportionated Adam of the dust of the ground, he breathed in his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul, Gen. 2.7. Here, first, we are to consider that we are not to speak of Man, as the title or word man may [Page 29] be ascribed to the humane shape or carcasse, as in this place it seemeth it is, by way of distinction from other forms; but of such an humane shape or carcasse as is a living soul: and so alwayes when we speak or treat of man in this point of difference, we are not to mean his carcase in humane form or shape onely, but as he is a rational living soul in that form, and so call'd man: for the text ascribeth the title of Man to him, both before and after the breathing in his face the breath of life; and man became a living Soul: therefore that living Soul was Man. That which was formed or made of the earth, became a liv­ing soul, or creature, by the breathing [or communicating] the breath of life [a communicative rational, Faculty, or property of life in his kinde.] That liveless Lumpe became a living soul; and not such a living soul, another creature, a distinct being of it self, was infused into that formed matter, that had its Being before that Infusion, and can be when the body ceaseth, as is vulgarly supposed. That which [Page 30] was breathed before it was breathed, was not a living soul; but that which was breathed upon, became the liv­ing soul; no living soul was ascribed to man, before that: so that man was formed, and man became a living soul, as Paul saith, 1 Cor. 15.45. The first man Adam was made a living Soul, which was his natural body, as vers. 44. of whom was the woman, both innocent, free from sin, and so from Death and mortality: For the wages of Sin is Death, Romans 6.23. therefore before sin there could be no death; but as by one man sin entered in­to the world, even so death by sin, Rom. 5.12. and by the offence of one man, Judgement came upon all men unto death, vers. 18. and 1 Cor. 15.21. by man came death: therefore man was created free from the power of death, so to continue; but in the day he did eat the forbidden fruit, he became mortal: and as he was made a living soul, 1 Cor. 15.45. so by transgression a dying soul, Gen. 2.17 that is, in dying to die; or by be­comming mortal, be dissolved, or re­turn [Page 31] to what he was, the dust, Gen. 3.19. namely, his Elements. Thus Man was gloriously immortal, yet no longer a Creature incorrup­tible, then during innocent: For (Gen. 2.17.) God said, Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it, for in the day thou eatest there­of, thou shalt surely dye; or, dying thou shalt die: that is, thy immortality shall be changed for mortality: Im­mortal Adam shall be made mortal; not apart of thee, but Thou shalt sure­ly dye, even whole man, without the least exception of any, the worst or noblest part of him, unless God had a mental reservation: but even the same Thou that livest, Thou shalt surely die: that must die wherein was life: then surely if he had an immor­tal Soul, which is the life of the body, that must be made mortal. The re­sult of all which, is this:

That what of Adam was immortal through Innocency, was to be mortaliz­ed by Transgression.

But whole Adam (quatenus Animal rationale) was in Innocency immortal.

[Page 32] Ergo, all, and every part, even whole Man, was lyable to Death by Sin: And so consequently, if Adam had then such an indefinable thing in him, & of him, without which he was not Man, (as is vulgarly supposed, and zealously mein­tained by the Church of Rome, England, &c.) as an Angelical Spirit, that nei­ther could, nor can be subject to mor­tality: Then he had that he had not; which made him be what he was not: he sinned with that, with which he could not; which made him fall when he did not: for if Adam sinned, and that not, it was no part of him; so that Adam was a living Soul, when he was not. And if Adam sinned with that which he had not, he sinned with that with which he could not; which made him fall when he did not: which Bo­peepe in impossible: For if Adam was mortalized, and That not, It was no part of him; this they must confess or else the otheer follows.

Now whereas many from the ex­pression of God's breathing into man the breath of life, and he became a liv­ing soul, conceive an Angelical En­titie; [Page 33] a supernatural, spiritual, in­finite Existence to be couched in the flesh, or mens corpulency; whose be­ing doth not depend on it, but is proper and peculiar to it self: let such know, that so weake is the ground from whence it is concepted, that by the same reason the like may be said of fish, birds, and beasts; for the breath of life, and a living soul, is as­cribed to them, as well as to man, Gen. 7.21. to which read the margent in R. Jatran, compared with vers. 28. and vers. 30. And to every beast of the earth, and to every Foul of the Aire, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth; wherein there is a living soul: see the margent.

This being thus cleared and proved from Adams Creation and Innocency; let us proceed to his Fall, Restitution, and Resurrection; who eating of the for­bidden fruit, God fulfilled his threat­ned Curse upon him, saying, (Gen. 3.19.) In the sweate of thy face shalt thou eate bread, till thou return unto the Ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for Dust thou art, and unto Dust thou [Page 34] shalt return. Here he is plainly dis­robed of all his immortality; he must to Dust, without the least men­tion of any being thereafter, either of part or whole, till the Resurrection: for then, and not before, Mans im­mortality is in Actual Being, whose beatitude and infelicity comes through Faith and infidelity. So that Death reduceth this productio Entis ex Non-ente ad Non-entem, returnes Man to what he was before he was; that is, not to Be: Psal. 115.47. the Dead praise not the Lord, neither they that goe downe into silence: And Psal. 116.4. His breath goeth forth, he returneth to the Earth, in that very Day his thoughts perish. (see more, pag. 5, 6, 7, 8.) But Christ the second man Adam, who is made a quicking Spirit, 1 Cor. 15.45. at the Resurrection restoreth this non-ented Entitie to an everlasting Being, 1 Cor. 5.42. It is sowne in corruption, it is raised in incorrupti­on.

Thus Mortality is derivated to all Adams posteritie: The first man (qua­tenus homo) is of the Earth earthly: [Page 35] as is the earthly, such are they that are earthly: (1 Cor. 15.47, 48.) But the Earth of which Man is, is corrup­table, and shall be burnt up with fire, 2 Pet. 3.10. Therefore whole Man is corruptable: for as in Adam all dye, (1 Cor. 15.22.) even so in Christ shall all be made alive; what fell in Adam, shall be raised by Christ; what was mortalized by the earthly Man, shall be immortalized by the Heavenly man: wherefore All, not a part of Man was mortalized by Adam; or else onely the fallen part must be re­deemed; and not the whole man: for no more of man then fell, was re­deemed; and if the body onely fell, and his formal part (his soul) conti­nued immortal, then that part of man (his body onely) was purchased, not his constitutive or better part, his Soul: So that the bodies onely of the Reprobate, according to this fan­cy, shall be damned; for nothing of Adam, but what fell of Adam, can be made lyable to condemnation; and what of him stood, shall stand, as well as the Angels that never fell: [Page 36] But in Christ we are compleat, Col. 2.10. Therefore in Adam totally fallen.

Further: If Adams fall was not a compleat change of his whole man­hood, from immortality to absolute mortality of the whole; then in the day that he did eate (the forbidden Fruit,) he did not surely die; for He implyes his Man-hood, (and my very Opposites confess the Soul the very Es­sence and Being of Man-hood:) and [in the day] and [surely dye] imply Ex­ecution as well as Transgression to be then; for both have equally relation to the Day: In the Day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely dye: so as well may we say, he did not eate, as did not die That Day.

And if nothing dyed, that is, be­came mortal, but his Body; then that dyed, & his Soul lived, that is, must be as it was at first, before God breath­ed life into it, that is, a dead corps, and indeed was never other, if the Soul were a distinct Being of self, and all life in it self▪ and the Body but an In­strument to it, whereby it performeth [Page 37] all motion and action (as Nemesius on Mans Nature, p. 266. with others, maintain:) And thus it must needs follow, that this death threatned was a meer Scar-crow, even nothing at all; for He, that is, his constitutive part (his Soul) continued immortal, and unchanged, and used his body in­strumentally, as it did before the Transgression. And if it be answered; It became sinful and subject to sin, and so of final Condemnation in Hell at the length: I Reply; That before he sinned, he was subject to sin, or else he could not have sinned, for quicquid est in actu, prius fuit in poten­tia; and if the wages of sin be death, then he must be of necessity subject to death the effect, as well as sin the cause, at the same time: And so con­sequently, the Souls possibilty of sin­ning being producted into Actual sin, the Soul must have its wages, Actual mortality. Further, if the Souls Death be onely that of Hell; so then prin­cipal or efficient cause deepest in the Transgression was less punished, then the instrument, the Body being but [Page 38] the Souls instrument whereby it acts and moves: as if a Magistrate should hang the Hatchet, and spare the Man that beat a mans brains out with it: and so the Soul suffer the last death, and scape the first: which is as preposterous, as, if this Death should be received before this Life. Moreover: Condemnation in Hell is not properly, but remotely the re­ward of Adams Fall; For properly Condemnation is the wages of In­fidelity, or unbeliefe in Christ, as Salva­tion is of Beliefe: So that none can be condemned into Hell, but such as are actually guilty of refusing Christ; because immortality or the Resur­rection cannot be by Propagation or Succession, as mortality from Adam to his Issue; and so the Child, though temporally, yet shall it not eternally be punished for his Fathers sin, but his Condemnation shall be of him­self.

If the Soul (as they say) be the very life, or have all life in it self, and the body but its instrument; then the body now hath no more life in it, [Page 39] then when it is reduced to the earth; but is as dead as a dore-naile: And so at the Resurrection cannot be rais­ed from death; for that which never had life, cannot be raised from death; and the union of it to the Soul at the Resurrection they Fabulate on, is but an addition of corpulency or gross matter to the Soul; which in truth is no Resurrection at all from the dead, no more then the restoration of flesh lost by Famine, sickness, &c. For Resurrection from the death, is not the addition of gross matter to life; but the Restoration of life from death: So that the restitution of lost flesh now to the soul, is in quality as much a Resurrection from the dead, as the addition of the whole body to the soul at the Last day; which is to say with the Sadduces, there is no Re­surrection from the dead. But the Soularies, I know, are loth to be branded for Sadduces; which how they will avoid, I cannot see: for if the soul live separated from the body, the body cannot be raised from the dead, except the body had a life of its [Page 40] own, differing from that of the soul; and so a man must have two lives (as they say a Cat hath nine:) the one mortal, the other immortal; and at the Resurrection have two immor­talities. If the soul be of a distinct being from the body, and sinned as the body, and thereby incurred the condemnation of Hell; then must the soul have a particular redemption from thence, as the body from the grave; or else it must perish there for ever: And if Christ redeemed us from thence, then he must suffer the same eternal Torments; that is, the worme of conscience, despaire, everlasting chains of darkness, &c. But those he never suffered, as wit­nesseth Doctor Ames to Bellarmine.


If you urge, that in his agony and sweating of blood, he suffered equal­ly with the Torments, and there­fore might be said to suffer eternal toments, though he was never person­ally in hell; then may we as well say, that by his agony, &c. he suffer­ed paine equivalent to death, and [Page 41] therefore might be said to have suffer­ed the death of the grave, though personally he had never been in the grave: for there is a greater equiva­lency betwixt those sufferings and the grave, then betwixt his sweating of blood and the torments of the damned Spirits in hell.

CHAP. III. Scriptures to prove this Mortality.

JOb 3.12, 13, 16. Why did the knees prevent me? or why the breasts that I should sucke? for now I should have lien still, and been quiet; I should have s [...]ept; then had I been at rest: Or as a hidden untimely birth (marke) I had not been, as an Infant that never saw light.

Job 4.19, 21. How much less on them that dwell in Houses of clay, whose Foundation is in the Dust, which are crushed before the moth. Doth not their [Page 42] excellency which is in them goe away? they die even without Wisedome.

Job 14.1, 2. Man that is borne of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble; he cometh up like a flower, and is cut down: he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not: (and vers. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.) For there is hope of a Tree, if it be cut downe, that it will sprout againe, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease: though the roote thereof wax old in the ground, and the stock thereof die in the earth, yet through the sent of water it will bud, and bring forth bran­ches like a plant: But Man dyeth and wasteth away; yea, Man giveth up the ghost, and where is He? As the waters fail from the Sea, and the flood decay­eth, and dryeth up, so Man lyeth down, and riseth not, till the Heavens be no more, they shall not awake out of their sleepe.

Psal. 103.15, 16. As for man, his dayes are as grass, as a flower of the field, so he florisheth, for the wind passeth over it, and it is gone, and the place there­of shall know it no more.

From these places compared, we [Page 43] may see, that man (not his flesh one­ly, for that makes not man; but flesh and Spirit sensu conjuncto make Man) is not as a Tree, when He is cut down, whose Spirit liveth, and sprout­eth forth, and continueth: but as the flower of the field, (not the stalke, but the bare flower,) which totally fadeth and perisheth: Therefore Man is wholly mortal: he shall die, and the Son of Man shall be made as grass, Isa. 51.12.

Ezekiel 13.19. To slay the souls that should not die, and to save the souls that should not live.

Psal. 7.1, 2. Save me, &c. Lest he teare my soul like a Lion, renting it in pieces, &c.

Psal. 89.48. Who can deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?

Psal. 19.10. Lev. 21.1, 11, and 19.28. Numb. 5.2. and 19.11, 13. Hag. 2.13. in all which places, the words dead body in the Original is soul. See Jun. Annot. Lev. 21.1.

2 Cor. 5.1, 2, 3, 4. there out Being after death is called, a building of an house not made with hands, eternal in the [Page 44] heavens: with this the Apostle de­sires to be clothed; and what it is, he defines, viz. mortality swallowed up of life: whence it is most evident, that all his hope of future life was grounded upon the Resurrection; and that his hope was altogether groun­ded thereon, he confirms, 1 Cor. 15, arguing, if Christ be not risen, the dead should not rise: and (vers. 18.) They which are fallen asleep in Christ are pe­rished: and (vers. 14.) Then is our faith also in vaine; whose end (1 Pet. 1.9.) is the Salvation of our Souls. How should then all be in vaine, if our souls as soon as breath is out of the body enter into glory and salvation? For by that, though there were no Resurrection of the flesh, we should receive the end of our Faith, the Sal­vation of our Souls. Nay further, he maketh all our hope to be in this life, if there be no Resurrection; for vers. 19. having showne the evils that follow the denyall of the Resurrection, faith; If in this life onely we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miser­able: vers. 32. Saint Paul said, If [Page 45] after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advanta­geth it me, if the dead rise not? whence plainly appeares, that the denyal of the Resurrection confines all our hopes and advantages within this life; and so all our sufferings, perse­cutions, prayers, faith, &c. were to no purpose: which could not be, by this Soulary fancy of present reward of beatitude after this life.

1 King. 2.2. David saith to Solo­mon, I goe the way of all the earth: that is, as the earth must see corruption, so must he; and if his Soul were part of him, yea, himself, so must it; else should he not go the way of all the earth.

And the expression in Joshua 2.13. Deliver our lives from death, impor­teth absolute mortality: for if Death be not dissolution of life, or its de­privation, how can it be said to suffer death? not by a bodily separation, for that is but as the laying down of a burthen, wherewith it was clogged and tyred, whereby it is made more lively ten thousand times, (as, my Opposites confess) and so, can no more [Page 46] be said to be dead, then a Porter when he is disburthened of his Load.

Job 34.15. All flesh shall perish toge­ther, and man shall turn again unto dust.

That which is born of the flesh, is flesh, John 3.6 and, flesh and blood cannot inherite the Kingdome of God, 1 Cor. 15.50.

But this Spirit, the soul so Idoliz'd, (if such a thing be) is borne of the flesh; for in the wombe a Child is a living soul, and is so borne of the mo­ther that is flesh.

Therefore this soul is fleshly, and cannot enter into the Kingdome of glory, till corruption have put on in­corruption; which cannot be, but by death: Thou foole, that which thou sowest is not quickened except it die, 1 Cor. 15.36.

Eccl. 3.12. That which befalleth the Sons of Men, befalleth Beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as one dyeth, so dy­eth the other: they have all one breath, so that they have no preheminence above a Beast: for all is vanitie.

Wherefore if their Breath be all one, then God breathed no other [Page 47] Breath, (that is, life or soul,) into Man, then he gave to Beasts: So that if Man be Fallen, and the Beasts be cursed for his sake, Man must be equal­ly mortal with them.

1 Tim. 4.8. I have fought a good fight, I have funished my course, I have kept the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me a Crowne of Righteousness, which the Lord the righteous Judge shall give me at THAT DAY; and not to me one­ly, but to all them that love his appeare­ing. Here from the finishing of his course a Crowne being laid up, (which is even the same which Peter, Epist. 1 cap. 1.9. maketh the end of our faith, the Salvation of our souls) to be given at THAT DAY, concludes an intermission to him and us till then.

1 Tim. 6.14, 16. Keepe this Com­mandment until the appeareing of our Lord Jesus Christ, who onely hath im­mortality, dwelling in light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seene, nor can see.

Whence appeareth, that none ever entered into Heaven since the Crea­tion. [Page 48] And it is in vaine for my Op­posites to say it is meant of the cor­pulent matter onely; for they make the Soul the very manhood: and none that enter therein, enter by halfes and peecemeal: and this is confirm­ed by Joh. 3.13. And no man hath as­cended into Heaven, but he that came down from Heaven, even the Son of man, which is in Heaven.

Psal. 6.5. For in death there is no remembrance of thee; in the grave who shall give thee thanks?

Psal. 89.11, 12. Shall thy loving kindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction? shall thy wonders be known in the darke? and thy righteousness in the Land of forgetful­ness?

Isa. 38.18, 19. For the grave can­not praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee: they that goe down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth. The living, the living, he shall praise thee, as I do this day: the Father to the Children shall make known thy truth.

Hence it is plain, that during this Death Man is void of actual Being: [Page 49] for had he then an incorruptible or present actual Being in glory, he should be more capable of the praise and remembrance of the Lord, then he was before he dyed.

Job 3. from the 11. to 20. Why dyed I not from the womb? &c. for now should I have lien still, and been quiet, I should have slept, and then I should have been at rest; as a hidden untimely birth, I had not been; as Infants that never saw light: there the Prisoners rest together, they heare not the voyce of the Oppressour.

Hence followeth, that during this Death there is no more present Be­ing to man, then to an hidden abor­tive Embryo in this life; and no more capability, then light to unborn In­fants; nor more oppression or tor­ment, then where there is none to oppress: which is to say, He absolute­ly IS NOT: Answerable to that of Jacob, Me have ye bereaved of my chil­dren: Joseph is not, and Sime [...]n is not, Gen. 42.36. to this adde Psal. 146.2. Job 7.21. For now shall I sleepe in the dust, and thou shalt seeke me in the Morning, but I shall not be. 2 Pet. 1.25. [Page 50] Isa. 26.14. Psal. 39.13. O spare me, that I may recover strength, before I goe hence and be no more.

Job 4.17, 19, 2O, 21. Whose foun­dation is in the dust, they perish for ever: that is, cease to Be, till the resurrecti­on.

Luke 20.37, 38. Now that the dead are raised, &c. relating to Exod. 3.6. I am the God of Abraham, &c. From whence Christ proveth the resur­rection: But if Abraham, Isaac, &c. had then lived in their souls, it had been no Argument to prove the Re­surrection; for he had been the God of living souls, Abraham, Isaac and Ja­cob, though there had been no resur­rection. Besides, he saith all live un­to him: and this saying is ascribed unto the dead: therefore, as well may we argue from thence, that they lived in their bodies, as say, they were dead in body, but alive in soul unto God: for it is impossible to be potentially and actually living at the same time.

Joh. 12.24. Except a corne of wheat fall into the ground, and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth [Page 51] much fruit: compared to 1 Cor. 15. Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die. Therefore the soul not dying (as the Soularies fabulate) nor falling into the ground, must abide alone, and cannot bring forth fruit at the Resurrection, but must abide a bare soul without a bo­dy: and the body having no life in it, falling into the ground, cannot die, (for both vegetative, sensitive, and ra­tional life is ascribed to the soul) but must likewise abide alone, and cannot be quickned; which is a flat denyal of the Resurrection: yet though fun­damentally the Soularies thus deny the Resurrection, yet verbally they say there is a resurrection; which must needs be a strange one, and as ridiculous as strange, stated after their Imagination: For the soul not fall­ing into the ground, nor dying, must needs abide alone: therefore if the body be raised after their conception, man would be divided into two im­mortalities, and both alone; one might be in the North, the other in the South; the soul in one place, and [Page 52] the body in another; yea, the soul in Hell, and the body in Heaven: for the body by their grounds is as innocent from sin, as the knife wherewith a man is stabed is free from murther; and the soul as guilty of all sin, as the murthe­rer is of the murther: & the Scripture condemneth the guilty, & saveth the innocent; adjudgeth one for heaven, and the other for hell. O monstrous Resurrection! I hope the Soulary Champions, the Priests of the Church of England, may be ashamed longer to assert the soul to have all life in it, and the body to be but the souls instrument whereby it acts and moves; and henceforth cease to de­lude and stop the mouthes of the people with a bare verbal Resurrecti­on; that the end of their faith may be sutable to Christ Jesus the founda­tion, on which it is to be built, both real and infallible.

John 11.43, 44. And Jesus cryed with a lovd voyce, Lazarus, come forth: and he that was dead [four days, vers. 39.] came forth bound hand and foot with grave-clothes, &c.

[Page 53]If Lazarus soul were in heaven them four dayes, he received dam­mage and not vantage by that Resur­rection: but it is idle to thinke that he which purchased heaven by his blood, should fetch any out after they were in: and once there, it is im­possible to come from thence; for should they, it were point-blank a­gainst the nature of his death; who could not worke against himself, no more then God can lye.

1 Pet. 1.5, 7, 9, 13. compared; as, Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto Salvation, ready to be re­vealed in the Last time; that the trial of your faith, &c. might be found unto Praise, and honour, and glory, at the ap­pearing of Jesus Christ: receiving the end of your faith, the salvation of your souls: and hope to the end, for the grace that is brought to you at the Revelation of Jesus Christ: whence it is plain, that the end of our faith, the salvation of our souls, is referred to the day of judgment: And Luk. 21.28. then is our Redemption; & Rom. 8.23. our Adoption, to wit, the Redemption of our body; one [Page 54] with that, which Peter calls the salvati­on of our souls: & Act. 23.6. & 24.21. &. 26.6, 7. Paul maketh the end of all his hopes and, faith to be onely in the Resurrection: and 1 Cor. 15.18. saith, If the dead rise not, believers, of all men, are most miserable; which could not be, if they had souls which went presently into glory, and the wicked had souls went into Torment, though there were no Resurrection: yea, the day of Judgement throughout the whole World, is made both the day of Salva­tion to the Righteous, Rom. 2.16. 1 Thes. 1.5, 7. 1 Pet. 1.5, 9, 13. 2 Pet. 3.7. Joh. 5.29. Mat. 25.34. Then shall he say, Come ye blessed; therefore not before then: And the day of Condemnation to the wicked, Rom. 25, 9. 2 Thes. 1.6, 8▪ 9. Job 21.30. Pro. 16.4. Acts 3.19, 1 Pet. 1.10 Luk. 21.28. Joh. 5.29. Mat. 25.41. Then shall he say, Depart, &c. therefore not before then, Mat. 7.23.

John 3.5. Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter in­to the kingdome of heaven: compared to Rom. 6.3, 4, 5. Know ye not, that so ma­ny of us as were baptized into Jesus [Page 55] Christ, were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised from the dead by the Glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life, &c. and to these, adde 1 Cor. 15.29. Else what shall they do that are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? Why are they bap­tized for the dead? These places joyntly holding forth the external Ordinance of Baptism, or signe of the new Covenant, which carieth the full representation of the whole worke of Redemption, or perfect figuration of the new Covenant; do manifestly set forth this Mortality: for the death, bu­rial, & resurrection of Jesus Christ can­not in the external ordinance of bap­ [...]isme be represented, as those places [...]old forth it doth; but by baptizing, that is, dipping or submerging the whole man into the water, the evi­dence that whole man shall die, and whole man be raised again, by the total death and total Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

1 Cor. 11.26, For as often as ye [Page 56] eat this bread, and drinke this Cup, ye do shew the Lords death till he come: The bread and wine signifying his Body and blood, as a sign of his death, shew plainly that his death was total; which could not be, if his life shrunk into his soul, and still lived. But from hence is plain, that not onely body, but life it self was offered and dyed: for Lev. 17.24. The life of all flesh is the blood thereof: compare Gen. 2.4, 5. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat, and surely your blood of your lives will I re­quire, at the hand of every beast will I require, and at the hand of man, &c. will I require the life of man: whoso shed­deth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed. To these, adde 2 Sam., 28. and 16.8. Mat. 23.30, 35. with various such-like places; all which plainly shew the life of all flesh, as well of man as of beast, is in the blood; else Christs death, by the representation of his blood, could not be set forth, nor could any by the ef­fusion thereof die: but his Soul, blood, or life, was poured out unto [Page 57] death: therefore his death was not in part, but of the whole man.

Psal. 89.48. What man is he that liveth and shall not see death? shall he de­liver his soul from the hand of the grave?

Acts 1.13. He seeing this before, spake of the Resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither did his flesh see corruption.

Eccl. 4.1, 2, 3. doth shew, that the living do suffer oppression, but to the dead is none: and chap. 9.4, 5. they know not any thing; For a living dog is better then a dead Lion: Therefore Psal. 146.2. David saith, I will sing praises unto my God while I have any Being; implying, that in death there is no humane being.

James 4.14. Our life is even a va­pour that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away.

Rev. 16.3. Every living soul in the sea died, chap, 20.4, 5. dead souls lived again.

CHAP. IV. Objections extorted from Scripture Answered.

OBject. 1. Therefore we are al­way confident, knowing that whilst we are at home in the body, we are ab­sent from the Lord: we are confident, I say, and willing rather, to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord, 2 Cor. 5.6, 8.

Whence is inferred a present in­joyment of Glory immediately after death.

I Answer, that both the foregoing and subsequent matter deny such an Interpretation, or consequence: for before, wishing to be clothed with our House from Heaven, on which is this expression of being present with the Lord, he expounds, that his meaning is thereby, that mortality might be swal­lowed up of life; or as he saith, 1 Cor. 15.53. that this corruptable (man) [Page 59] might put on incorruption, and this mor­tal put on immortalty: And the fol­lowing matter of the said words, be­ing laid down as the reason or ground why he so spake, prove, that by his [presence with the Lord] he meant no­thing else, but his state after the Re­surrection: for saith he, We must all appear before the iudgment-seat of Christ, that every one, &c, vers. 1.

Object. 2. For I am in a strait be­twixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ, which is far better: nevertheless, to abide in the flesh is much needful for you, Phil. 1.23, 14.

I answer, This is of the same nature, therefore must have the same Inter­pretation: for Paul did not preach one thing to the Philippians, and the contrary to the Corinthians. Besides, such manner of expressions are not contradictory to this mortalitie: for though there be long time to the Liv­ing till the Resurrection, there is none to the Dead: for from Adams death to his Resurrection at the end of the World, will be to him, as the twink­ling of an eye to the Living: yea, [Page 60] the twinkling of an eye to the living, is more time, then a thousand, yea ten thousand yeares is to the dead: For Being onely commensurates with Time, or length of days: not to Be, cannot possibly be capable thereof: So that the Livings tedious anniver­sary expectation of the Resurrection, and end of their faith, is not a twink­ling to the grave: the livings Future is the deads Present: Therefore, it is well figurated in Scripture by sleepe, as, slept with his Fathers, 1 Kings 11.43. fallen asleepe in Christ, Acts 7.60. and 13.36. 1 Thes. 4.13. and Psal. 76.6. it is a Dead sleepe. 1 Cor. 15.18. &c. not that it is so long a time to the dead, but that in nature there is nothing so represents death, or non-being, as sleepe: So that this may take a­way all carnal security: for who would not watch and pray over­night, that knows he must dye in the morning; live well, and be wary to day, that must rise and answer to mor­row; believe to day, that would not be damned but saved to morrow? This administers comfort to the righteous, but terrour to the wicked. Therefore Christ speakeing of his [Page 61] coming to Judgment, saith, I come quickly, & my reward is with me; to let all men know, that in death there is no delay, their reward is present, he will not stay an instant: And further to confirm it, saith again, Surely I come quickely, Amen: even so come Lord Jesus.

Object. 3. Thou fool, this night shall thy soul be required of thee. Luke. 12.20.

Answ. The life of the whole per­son, and not such as is fancied of the soul, except it had a mouth to eate, drinke, &c. as vers. 9.

Object. 4. And it came to pass as her soul was in departing, Gen. 35.18. Ergo, there is such a thing as the Soul, which continueth it's Being after death.

Answ. No such matter; for the sence of words is, as she was dying, or life a departing, for the following words say she dyed; which could not be, if her soul (her constitutive part) lived still, no more then a man can be said to lose his hand, when he loses a finger.

[Page 62]Object. 5. And he stretched himself upon the Child three times, and cried unto the Lord, and said, O Lord my God, pray thee, let this Childs soul come into him again: And the Lord heard his voyce, and the soul of the Child came into him again, and he revived. 1 King. 17.21, 22. And Job 14.22. It is said, his flesh upon him shall have paine, and his soul within him shall mourne.

Ergo, there is such a thing as the soul.

Answ. If it be meant life or breath, whose Being is consistent and termi­nated in a corpulent union: For, by that of the Child, is meant his breath or life, the thing that his corpulent matter wanted; as vers. the 17. im­plyeth, which saith, his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him: Therefore, that which was gone, was prayed for, his breath or life, as his Answer further proveth, which was, and it revived.

And by Soul in that of Job is meant, his conscience; whose seate is in the reasonable and memorative Fa­culties. Therefore, the use of the word Soul in those places, doth not [Page 63] prove such a thing in man as is suppo­sed: For in Scripture it is variously used upon various occasions. It is put for the Stomack. Pro. 27.7. for the eyes▪ Jer. 13.17. for the heart, 1 Sam. 18. for God, Pro. 9.16. Heb. 10.38. Jer. 14.17. for the dead body, Psal. 16.10. for the whole man, Lev. 7.19. and 4.1. Acts 7.14. Num. 15.39. Rom. 13.1. Gen. 12.5. and 46. Acts 2.41. 1 Pet. 3.20. for breath, Act. 20.10. for life, Isa. 53.17.

Therefore, from those places those parts may as well be proved so many Souls, or Spirits of immortalitie, as from those where it is put for breath or life, it's Being be proved, or such an immortal existence to be in the body.

But to this Objection might be added Christs raising of Lazarus and others from the dead: and it would make a very good plea for Purgatory, Because from hell there is no return­ing, and from heaven none could be thankful to be called again: and it cannot be supposed that Christ would work miracles for any, for which they should not have cause to be thankful to him: and therefore these persons [Page 64] raised from the dead, if they shall be supposed to have immortal Souls, their return must needs be from some one of the Popes supposed Lymbocs or other.

Object. 6. For which cause we faint not; for though our outward man pe­rish, yet the inward is renewed day by day.

Ergo, there is soul and body in man.

Answ. It is not said, though our flesh perish, yet our souls are renewed; then 'twere something to little purpose: but it is said, our outward man, which compared with what is meant by in­ward man, must needs be whole man; for by inward man is meant faith or worke of grace, (2 Cor. 5.17.) which is no part of natural man: so that without it or it's renewing we are men perfect, as well as with it.

Object. 7. Who knoweth the spirit of man, that goeth upward; and the spirit of a beast that goeth downward to the earth? Wherefore man hath a soul that goeth presently to Heaven, but the beasts to the earth.

Answ. It cannot bear the sence; [Page 65] for immediately before, he saith, their breath is all one, there is no difference: as the one dyeth, so dyeth the other, and goeth to one place, the dust: There­fore, if the beasts be reversed into the elements, so must mans. The mean­ing I take to be thus, that such a won­derful thing is the breath of a man, that breatheth upward, and the breath of a beast that breatheth downward, (for spirit signifieth breath;) according to that of Ovid:

Prona (que) cum spectent animalia caetera terram,
Os Homini sublime dedit, coelum (que) videre
Jussit, & erectos ad sidera tollere vul­tus.

that it's Faculty how it is, is past fin­ding out: for Art in all her imita­tions could never touch that secret with her pensill.

Object. 8. Feare not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather feare him, who is able to de­stroy both soul and body in Hell.

[Page 66] Answ. This carries the face indeed of the souls immortality: but if the interpretation must be confined to that sence, it overthrowes the current of the whole Scripture: Wherefore, my opinion of it is, that by [not able to kill the soul] is meant, (as Luke hath it, chap. 12.4.) have no more that they can do: that is, though they have power over this life, or the natural Body, that is sowne in corruption; they have none over the Spiritual, that is raised in incorruption: which spiritual Bodies of men raised from the dead, are by Saint John in Rev. 20 4, 5. termed Souls: I saw the Souls (saith he) of those that were beheaded for Christ, and they lived and reigned with him a thousand years: But the rest of the dead lived not again, untill the thousand years were ended: the Souls then that lived and reigned with him, are none other then the persons that were first raised by him from the dead at his coming, over whom none hath power but God alone, who therefore is most chiefly to be feared. This doth not set forth any immortality before the [Page 67] Resurrection, but shews, that onely that is in Gods hand, and he onely a­ble to touch it, that is, cast it into Hell. That this must be so expounded, I further prove, from the non-entitie of Hell; for there can be no casting in­to Hell, before Hell be;No Hell till the Re­surrection. which though it be ordained of old, Isa. 30.33. it is but in posse, not in esse till the Resurrecti­on: for satisfaction, it is convenient to declare what we mean by Hell: for Hell is diversly used in Scripture: It is put for the grave, Psal. 16.10. and 55.15. Isa. 14.15. for the Whale in which Jonah was, Jon. 2.2. for Sa­thans Kingdome leading to Hell, Mat. 16.18. for Satan, or his ma­lignant Spirits, Jam. 3.6. for the place of the damned, Mat. 5.29. and 10.28. Luke 12.5. and 16.23. 2 Pet. 2.4. & this last [the place of the dam­ned] is that which we mean by Hell: and it is likewise variously called: as, outer darkness, Mat. 22.13. and 23.33. wrath to come, 1 Thes. 1.10. and 5.9. Chaines of darkness, 2 Pet. 2.4. Jude 6. eternal fire, Jude 23. second death▪ Rev. 20.6. bottomless pit, Rev. 9.2. [Page 68] place of torment, Rev. 14.10. and 20.10. Lake of fire, Rev. 29.20. and 21.8. everlasting punishment, Mat. 25.41, 46 blackness of darkness for ever, Jude 13. Those several expressions are generally taken to set forth the end of the Reprobate, or the execution of Gods wrath upon them: There­fore if none of the forementioned places that Hell is put for, save that of the place of the damned, be taken for Hell, then most of those several expressions suite with it, yea, de­clare it: but the expressions in general grant no immediate execution after this death, but imply the contrary: as we may see, if we examine them.

First, in Mat. 22.13. when it is called outer darkness, and 23. vers. 33. damnation of Hell, compared with cap. 25.41. where it is said, Then shall he say unto them on the left hand, Depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels: to this adde 2 Cor. 5.10. For we must all appeare before the Judgement-Seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in the flesh, whether good or [Page 69] evil: and to these adde 1 Thes. 1.10. and 5.9. where it is called, wrath to come: which thus compared, shew plainly, it is to come: else execution must goe before Judgement; which in a Commonwealth would be ridicu­lous injustice, as first to hang men, and then judge them. At the day of Judgement we all must receive our reward according to our deeds good or bad, THEN shall he say unto them on his left hand, &c. and not before THEN: for it cannot be twice re­ceived: therefore, it is fitly called wrath to come, and the very Devils confirme this themselves, Mat. 8.25. art thou come to torment us before the time? which proveth plainly, that the time of their torment was not come: and if the Devil cannot be believed, God further cleares it, 2 Pet. 2.4. For if he spared not the Angels that sinned, but cast them downe to Hell, and de­livered them into Chaines of darkeness, to be reserved unto Judgment. And Jude 6. The Angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habi­tation, he hath reserved in everlasting [Page 70] Chaines, unto the Judgment of the great day: In both which places it is said, they are reserved unto Judgment: and Jude vers. 7. to the Reprobate is re­served the blackness of darkeness for e­ver: and to this adde Rev. 20.10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. which clearly shew, that at the day of Judgment both Devils and Reprobate together shall be cast into the Lake of fire: There­fore, if reserved for both till then, Ile be bold to say, it shall not be till, nor before then.

Moreover, Rev. 19.20. it is said, the beast and the false Prophet, and them that worshipped his Image, were cast alive into the lake of fire and brimstone: and chap. 20.10. And the Devil that de­ceived them, was cast into the Lake: and this, vers. 6. and 14. is called the second death: therefore, this casting into the Lake must be after the Fall of Antichrist; and after he hath done deceiving, and not before: for if he be there now, he hath done deceiving: for once there, it is impossible he should deceive: but that he hath not, there is more witnesses, then starres [Page 71] in the Skie, or sand in the Sea; our innumerable sins, whose just reward is the second death.

If it be Questioned, where then the Devils are?

Observe, they are but Creatures, and such as are fallen from their Hea­venly mansions, therefore, within the Sublunarie compass; so that as the Earth is the proper place for ponder­ous and gross bodies; and the Devils being more subtile and aiereal, may be referred to the aire; and not without ground from Scripture: for Ephes. 2.2. the Devil is called the Prince of the power of the aire: so that their casting into Hell, must be the aire: and Hell may as well be put for the aire in those places, as in o­ther for the grave, &c. their prison, or place of custody, as the grave to the dead. And Rev. 12.9. 'tis said, he was cast into the earth, and his An­gels, &c.

This premised, Hell and Damna­tion not yet; well might Ignorance straine it self into such incertain con­ceits about the place of it's Being, [Page 72] and it not as yet: Some have feigned it in Mount Aetna, some in the Ele­ment of Fire, which is betwixt the upper Region of the Aire and the Globe of the Moon; some to be in the Caves of the Earth, and Conduits of the Sea; some onely in the Sea, as Archer in his Personal reign of Christ mentions, because the Devils were cast into the Swine, which ran violently down a steep place into the Sea, Mar. 5.3. surely, they might as well say, they have Milstones about their neckes, because it is also said, Better a milstone were tyed about his necke, and he cast into the bottom of the sea: for the one followeth no more then the o­ther: Some say, it is in the Earth, equally so far distant from the surface, as Heaven is above it: as Phillips, &c. and this he labours to confirme with Scripture: as Pro. 15.4. The way of life is above to the wise, that he may depart from Hell beneath: and Phil. 2.10. That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in Heaven, and things in Earth, and things under the Earth: i. e. in Hell, saith he. And [Page 73] Luke 16. The rich man saw Abra­ham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom: And Ezek. 31.18. Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden un­to the nether parts of the Earth.

But those and such like places which literally seem to import Hell, conclude the thing no more, then o­ther literal expressions prove God to have corpulent eyes, eares, hands, &c. but are expressions after the manner of men, to shew the grada­tion of condition betwixt the wicked and the righteous, the one the ex­treamest debasement, the other the extreamest exaltation; which could not be better figurated to sence, then by Heaven and Earth.

And in particular thus: The first, as Prov. 15.24. is literal or figura­tive, which interpretation can nei­ther be canonicall nor rational; for thereby wise men must not tread up­on the ground, but must walke upon the Aire, or upon the water, as Christ and Peter upon the Sea, (Mat. 14.25, 29.) and there onely the way of life: for it saith, their way is above. For [Page 74] the second; as, Phil. 2.10. that is both prophetical and figurative, to shew how in process of time all Degrees shall subject to Christ: Angels, Men, Beasts, Devils, and Death, whose De­grees are thus literally expressed to sence, by Heaven, Earth, under the Earth; or Angels that are highest in dignitie, and so caelestial; Men and sublunars the middle, and so terrestri­al; Devils and Death the lowest, and so subterrestrial.

The third, as Luke 16. is paraboli­cal: (of which more anon) and it seems by this, if Hell be so deep in the Earth, the Damned have wonderful good eyes, to see through the earths gross body, and the Heavens 12. Spheares into the Coelum Empyreum, to spy Lazarus in Abrahams bosome; or else Heaven must be there too, even in the centre of the Earth: this is the consequence of such para­bolical Arguments. And the 4. or last, as Ezek. 31.18. is akin to those: for, it is but to shew, how that Pha­roah in the hight of his pride and fu­rie was brought to confusion, which in [Page 75] the 15. vers. is expressed by, In the day when he went down into the grave; and vers. 14. unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, to the pit; and vers. 17. into Hell: all which shew but the sudden death and utter confusion of Pharoah and his Army: and at the utmost, Hell here can be but put for death, or the grave; and not for any such place of torment.

Object. 9. Such a one caught up in­to the third Heavens: how that he was caught up into Paradise, 2 Cor. 12.2, 4. there Paradise is put for the third Hea­ven: And to this compare Christs An­swer to the thiefe upon the Cross: This day thou shalt be with me in Paradise: Therefore, Paradise is the third Hea­ven, the place for the souls of the righte­ous, whither the Thiefes soul went that day.

Answ. Christ was not there that day himself; for he was three days and three nights in the grave after his death: during which time, all the soul he had, was there detayned by death, as is evident by Psal. 16.10. compared with Acts 2.31. for if it [Page 76] were not so, then Christs humane na­ture tasted of death (not wholly) but partially onely, and thereby wrought not a whole, but a partial re­demption to humane nature; be­cause the soul, the most considerable part thereof, dyed not, being im­mortal (as is fancied:) which if true, Then believers will not be compleat in or by Christ, as Saint Paul affirms them to be, Col. 2.10. having immor­tality onely to their bodies by Christ, but not to their souls, these being immortal before. And then Christ by the Gospel brought life and immor­tality to light, onely for the bodyes of men, and not for their souls, 2 Tim. 1.10. and then believers at the Re­surrection will have two several and distinct lives and immortalities; the one of their souls, by nature; and the other of their bodyes, by Christ: which is absurd to imagine.

Besides, if the Thiefe's souls was that day with Christs Soul in Para­dise, a place of glory and exaltation; Then humane nature had reward and exaltation before Christs Resurrecti­on, [Page 77] or his conquest over death, even whil'st the Salvation of all man-kind was in suspence, yea, and before its justification; for Christ dying for our sins, rose again for our justification, Rom. 4.25. And further, if Christs soul was that day in Paradise, then the Apostles Creed may be question­ed as untrue, which together with Scripture affirms, that Christ that day was both dead and buried; neither of which can be true, if his soul (the principalest part of his humanity) re­mained alive, and ascended that day into Paradise. Besides, if that fancy had been true, then it ought, and without doubt should have been put as an Article of the Creed, to have been believed by all Christians; and had been as necessary a point to have been known and believed by them, as any other Article there put con­cerning Christ.

Object. 10. But the meaning of the words may be, that the thiefes Soul was that day in Paradise with the God-head, and not with Christs Soul.

Answ. If so, then this will follow, [Page 78] namely, that the theifs humane nature was exalted before Christs humane nature; which will contradict St. Paul, Col. 1.18. where he saith, that Christ was the first born from the dead, that in all things he might have the preheminence: and Christs own reward & exaltation went not before, but followed after (as an effect of) his sufferings and con­quest over death, as many Scriptures do witness: For when he had by himself purged our sins, he sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, Heb. 1.3. we see Jesus was made a little lower then the Angels, for the suffering of death, Crowned with glory and Honour, Heb. 2.9. Christ being found in the fashion of a man, humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross: wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given Him a name above every name, &c. Psal. 2.8, 9. And no man in his wits can be so sensless, as not to understand his Resurrection to intervene his suffer­ing, and this his exaltation.

Besides, since the God-head is e­verywhere, how could the Thiefe be absent from it anywhere?

[Page 79]Wherefore by no means may it be granted that the thiefe was in Para­dice that day, or can be there before his restoration or Resurrection; un­less he were or can be there with his broken leggs: for Christ said not Thy Soul, but Thou, i. e. Thou Theife, or Thou man shalt be with me: And he that can make a Thiefe of him in the sence for which he suffered, or a man either, without his body, is a better work-man then I know any.

And if the soul (as they say) have all life in it self, and it not subject to death, and be the humanity and con­stitution of Man; and the corpulent matter, the bulke of the body, be but an instrument whereby the soul acts and moves, and all the action and motion of the body be meerly instru­mental; then neither Christ nor the Malefactor died that day, nor can a­ny man (as man) die: for thereby his Man-hood, that which makes him man, his Soul, is made immortal, un­subject to death: But the Scripture speaking of the resurrection of Christ, (Acts 2.31.) saith, His soul was not [Page 80] left in Hell, neither his flesh did see cor­ruption: and Acts 8.33. For his life is taken from the earth: and Isa. 53.8. He was cut off out of the Land of the living. All which could not be, by the fabulous conceit of the soul: for the first place (as Act. 2.31.) doth shew, that not onely his flesh, but life and being was subject or conquer­ed by death: and the second, it was taken from the earth, shews it returned thither, else could it not be raised from thence: the third, he was cut off out of the land of the living, shews no life remained in the soul; for if his soul retained his life, and entered Paradise, which the Soularies make to be the Land it self of the living; he never dyed: But his soul (even all the soul he had) was made an offer­ing for sin, yea, he poured it out unto death, Isa. 53.10, 12. Therefore, this opinion of the soul cannot stand in competition with the suffer­ings of Christ, but flatly denyeth his death: So that from the expression of This day shalt thow be with me in Paradise, a present Soulary enterance [Page 81] into glory cannot be wrested under or without the denyal of his death.

Object. 11. It is said, Heb. 9.24. That Christ entered into heaven it self; what's that, but the third heaven or Pa­radice, into which Saint Paul was caught up, before mentioned, and where­into the Thiefes soul entered the day of his death?

Answ. This place of the Hebrews hath reference to Christs ascention after his Resurrection, and to his en­terance into the highest heaven, and Tabernacle of God, not made with hands, whereof the Holy of holies, into which the high-Priest entered once a yeere, was a figure, made with hands, according to the patern of this heavenly house or Tabernacle which was shewed to Moses in the Mount; as by comparing Heb. 6.20. Heb. 8.1, 5. Heb. 9.1, 23, 24. and Act. 7.44. with Exo. 25.9, 40. may be seen: and is the same wherein Christ tells his Disciples are many mansions, and that he will goe and prepare a place there for them, and that he will come again, and receive them to himself, John [Page 82] 14.1, 2, 3. And in the interim, he there appeares in the presence of God for them; as Heb. 9.24.

Object. 12. In 1 Pet. 1.3, 4. Peter saith that it is an Inheritance incor­ruptible, and undefiled, and that fa­deth not away, reserved in heaven for the Saints: and S. Paul, 2 Cor. 5. says, it is eternal in the heavens: where­fore it being for the Saints enjoyment, the souls of the Saints presently after death, must ascend to enjoy it; else can they not enjoy it at all: we nowhere read that their bodyes shall at any time ascend thi­ther.

Answ. Saint Paul there saith, It is eternal in the heavens, but saith not that it is eternally there: for Saint Peter in the 13 vers. of the same chap. saith, that it is to be brought thence to the Saints, at the Revelation of Jesus Christ, (and not that the Saints shall be taken up to it:) and this will not be so brought down to them for their enjoyment, till after the Resur­rection, and when the new Heavens, and the new Earth, are created; as is evident in Rev. 21.1, 2, 3. and When [Page 83] mortality is swallowed up of life, then, and not till then, shall the Saints be clothed with this their house from Heaven, as Paul in the same place, vers. 2, 4. declares.

Object. 13. By faith, Enoch was translated, Heb. 11.5. And Elijah went to heaven in a whirlewind, 2 King. 2.11, 12.

Answ. This no way contributes any thing to the fancy of the soul in a Paradice, but rather altogether con­founds the conceit: for Elijah left his mantle, not his body behind him, when he ascended; and Enoch was al­so wholly taken up.

And therefore, Christ in the speech of the Theifs being with him in Para­dice, did not intend that present day, but at the time of his coming into his Kingdome, he should be there with him (according to the theifes peti­tion:) which Kingdome was not then shortly to be expected, but is yet to come; nor will it be, until af­ter Christs coming again in the clouds, with power and great Glory, as is evident, Luke 19.11, 12, 15. Luke 21.27, 31.

[Page 84]Besides, if Christ himself was that day in Paradice, a place of glory, he was there unglorified, or else being there glorified, he afterward became unglorified again: for so he told Mary he was after his Resurrection, Joh. 20.17. neither of which can rea­sonably be imagined. And it is pal­pable, that many errors are grounded upon mis-translations of the Scrip­ture; & this place, though the genuine signification of the words thereof be rendred, yet may it be reputed within the nature of mis-translation: for we have manifestly cleared, that the sense of [this day thou shalt be with me in Pa­radise] cannot, as it is vulgarly taken, stand with the foundation of Religi­on, or with solid reason: Therefore there must be some fault in the Eng­lish Text; which if narrowly examined may appear: for if the words in the Original be thus rendered, [...] that is, And Je­sus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee to day, Thou shalt be with me in Paradise; which differeth from the common [Page 85] copies onely in the transposition of a comma, incident to transcribing and printing, and then the objection from hence vanisheth; i. e. To day I tell thee; not, This day thou shalt be with me in Paradise: And well might he use that expression, [I tell thee this day] as a trial of the sincerity of his faith; for if he could believe in him that day, or pre­sent time of his sufferings, he should be with him in paradise; or when he should appeare in his Kingdome, he should appeare with him in glory: or thus, [I tell thee to day, Thou shalt be with me in Paradise] is as if he should say, I tell thee this day, which is the day of my suffering and of thy conversion, that as sure as this is the Day, so sure thou shalt be saved, or be with me at my coming into my Kingdome: where the attestation of [This Day,] is as an assurance, pledge, or witness of Christs mercy towards him, and as a tryal of his faith therein. The like expression Paul useth, Acts 20.26. Wherefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure from the blood of all men.

Obj. 14. Then shall the dust return [Page 86] to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it. Eccl. 7.12.

Answ. By spirit cannot be meant such a thing as the soul, except all souls go to God, and none to the De­vil: for it is indifferently spoken of all: but by spirit is meant life, which hath various expressions in Scripture: it is the will of God, that dust shall be made man, and live, and it is done, and he liveth; and his will that it shall die, and it dyeth, or returneth to what it was: he withdraweth his communicated power, and man ceas­eth. [The Spirit shall return] the com­munication, power, or faculty of life shall cease: [to God that gave it] to him that communicated, or gave it, in whom we live, move, and have our being: no otherwise mans spirit (or life) re­turneth to God that gave it: he taketh away the breath, and the creatures dye, and return to their dust, Psal. 104.29. for the life of man is even a vapour that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. Jam. 4.14.

Object. 15. And they stoned Steven, calling upon God, and saying Lord Jesus receive my spirit. Act. [...]7.59.

[Page 87] Answ. This is a commendation of his life or being into the hands of God, in whom with Christ our lives are hid, Col. 3.3. as a full assurance of hope and faith in the Resurrection, that when Christ who is our life, should appeare, we also might appear with him in glory: For God is not the God of the dead, but of the living: for all live un­to him, Luke 20.38. And thus, and no otherwise, was his spirit commend­ed, or returned to him that gave it, whose spirit goeth forth, & we are renew­ed, Psal. 104.30. answerable to that of the two witnesses, in whom the spirit of life from God, after they had lien dead three dayes and an halfe, entered into them, and they stood upon their feet.

Object. 16. God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, Gen. 2.7. Er­go, man hath an immortal soul.

Answ. Then so is the soul of a Beast; for Solomon saith, their breath is all one, Eccl. 3.19. and David rec­koning up the creatures, and man a­mongst them, saith indifferently of them all, God hideth his face, and they are troubled; he taketh away their breath, [Page 88] they die, and retrun to their dust, Psal. 104.29. and this is further amply­fied in Gen. 1.33. to every thing in the Earth wherein there is a living soul, &c. and cap. 7.21, 22. all flesh dyed, in whose nostrils was the breath of life: and Num. 31.28. all which make no difference betwixt them, but as the one dyeth, so dyeth the other, and man hath no preheminence above a beast: For what man is he that liveth, and shall not see death, or deliver his soul from the hand of the grave? Selah. Psal. 89.48.

Object. 17. And it came to pass the Beggar dyed, and was carried by An­gels into Abrahams bosome, &c. Luke 16. from the 22. to the end.

Answ. There was never such a man as Dives or Lazarus, or ever such a thing happened, no more then Jo­thams Trees did walk and talke, Judg. 9.8. but it was a Parable, to prove, that nothing is more effectual for conversion, then the ordinary preach­ing of the Word by the true Ministers or Ambassadors of God; such as Moses, and true Prophets of old; and as Christ, his Apostles, and Prophets, [Page 89] and true ministers since. Further, the consequence concerning the soul is but drawn from the literal sence, in which sence I shall deny it canonical Scripture; for it makes in that sence more for bodys then the souls present being in Heaven or Hell, v. 23, 24. & maketh Abraham the Father of the Damned, vers. 24, 25, 27, 30. and vers. 22. Dives dyed and was buried; and yet vers. 23. he lift up his eyes be­ing in torment, and seeth Abraham, &c. and vers. 25. he cryed for Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger to coole his tongue; which in the literal sence thus appli­cated, must needs be contradictory, unless his eyes, tongue, and Lazarus fin­ger was not buried, or their souls had corporeal corpulent members; which to conceit is ridiculous: Therefore, from this place the Resurrection of the body before the day of Judgment (even as soon as a man is buried) may better be proved, then such a present Soulary enterance into Heaven or Hell.

Object. 18. By which also he went, and preached to them in prison.

[Page 90] Answ. [By which] that is, by that whereby he was quickened, or raised from the dead, his divine Spirit, as the foregoing words (whereon the sence of those depend) doth evi­dence, vers. 18. Christ once suffered, &c. dead in flesh, but quickened by the spirit, (vers. 19.) by which also he went, &c. So that he went and preached by that, whereby he was quickened or raised: Therefore, the preaching here meant, was not by that which was raised, but by that which did raise; which was ministerially, as the follow­ing words further evidence, shewing to whom he preached, even those which were disobedient in the days of Noah, on whom the long-suffering of God waited while the Arke was a preparing: those were the spirits here meant, the wick­ed of those days, which are now in prison, that is, dead, or imprisoned in the Elements. Here the grave or death is called a prison, as indeed it is, for therein all that dye are reserv­ed in the chaines of death (the Ele­ments) not to be delivered till Judg­ment, Rev. 20.13. according to [Page 91] Job 3.18. there the prisoners rest toge­ther.

Object. 19. Joh. 11.26. Whosoever liveth and believeth on me, shall never die.

Answ. [Whosoever liveth] doth not in this place import the state of this life; for should it, believers should not die this death: but relateth to the state or life at the Resurrection; as the foregoing words, on which the sense of these depend, evidence, viz. I am the Resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live, (to which these words are annexed) And whosoe­ver liveth, & believeth in me, &c. which is to say, Every believer, though dead, shall live, or be raised again; and living or raised again, shall never dye any more; that is, shall scape the se­cond death, Joh. 5.24.

Secondly, This life may be reckoned from the action of belief: for God calleth things that are not, as if they were, Rom. 4.17. yea all, even the dead, live unto him, Luke 20.38. And so the believer never dyeth in Gods account. Rom. 14.7, 8, 9. None of us [Page 92] liveth to himself, and none of us dyeth to himself: for whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live, there­fore, or die, we are the Lords: for this end Christ both dyed, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and the living.

Object. 20. Therefore glorifie God in your body, and in your spirits, 1 Cor. 6.20.

Answ. Before, he called the body the Temple of the holy Ghost, vers. 29. and vers. 15. the members of Christ; which needs must be the whole man, and not his bare carcass: for in death who can praise the Lord? in it can be no habitation for the holy Ghost, and therein were they to glorifie God: to make Christ the head of such members, were to make God, the God of the dead and not of the living: therefore, by body and spirit, is meant whole man, aiming at a thorough and perfect san­ctification, as well in that which re­specteth thought, [the spirit] as in that which respecteth action, [the body:] inwardly to gloryfie God, as well as outwardly to flee fornication, &c.

[Page 93]Object. 16. I saw under the Altar the souls of them that were slaine for the word of God, &c. and they cryed with a loud voyce, &c. Rev. 6.10, 11.

Answ. They were such souls as lay under the Altar slaine, or sacrificed, or as vers. 11. hath it, were killed; these therefore being dead souls, or martyred Saints, their crie must be as the crie of the blood of Abel: And the like vision of dead Saints confirms it, as, cap. 20. vers. 4, 5. And I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand yeares: but the rest of the dead lived not again till, &c. whence it is plaine, that he beheld the Resurrection, or restora­tion of life unto dead souls, even of them that were beheaded, but the rest lay dead, or lived not again till, &c.

Thus much of illegitimate Objecti­ons from Scripture: Now to the probation hereof from Procreation or Generation, and as neer as I can to resolve all occurrent Objections there­on, that shall confront.

CHAP. V. Of procreation, how from thence this Mortality is proved.

IT is supposed (as I conceive) by none, that what naturally proceed­eth from Man simply by the course of nature, can be immortal, but must first taste of mortality: And there­fore there are two sorts of Opinions to maintaine this Heathenish Inven­tion about the soul, whereon it's im­mortalitie is grounded, which I shall chiefly encounter: the one, that it is created, and infused at the concepti­on, and so onely Gods worke. The other, that it is concepted by the woman through the concurrence of the seed of both sexes, but not sim­ply by the course of nature, but by the supernatural and extraordinarie assistance or efficacie of God in con­ception more then in other crea­tures: and so partly mans, and partly [Page 95] Gods worke. But that I may utterly demolish the structure of this Inven­tion, I shall turn up the foundation of each kinde in it's place: But first I shall speak a word or two in gene­ral of Procreation it self.

That whole man is generated by man, Observe: That as the whole Tree is potentially in the seed, and actually in time springeth from it; or as many graines of wheat are in one graine virtually, and perfectly actu­al in time: so in the seed of man­kind, is whole man potentially, and wholly actual in time; or all Adams succession, which in time are propa­gated, were wholly in him, life and limbes, or as 'tis more common, soul and body. So that whatsoever in time is actual by procreation, it was at first potentially wholly in it's o­riginal.

Further, Generatum sequitur natu­ram generantis (he begat a son in his own image, Gen. 5.3.) is not not onely philosophically, but Theologically true, Mat. 7.16. Job 4.14 There­fore mortal Adam must beget mor­tal [Page 96] children in his own likeness, soul and body, except the soul was no part of his likeness: For that which is immortal cannot generatively pro­ceed from that which is mortal, as Christ saith, that which is born of the flesh is (as it self is, corruptable mu­table) flesh, John 3.6. so then by this mortal flesh cannot be generated an immortal spirit, or soul that can sub­sist by it self dissolved from the flesh; for if it should, in that act it should go beyond it self, which is impossible; and thereby more should be done by man and woman in generation, then God did or could do in the creation; for he neither did, or could create any thing greater, purer, or more excellent of nature then himself, and such as could subsist without him. But if this doctrine be true, (as Woolner in his Original of the soul averreth) fleshly man by a fleshly generation, or mixture of the seed of both Sexes doth beget or conceive something greater, purer, and more excellent then himself; an immortal substance, an Angelical entitie, the Soul, that [Page 79] can subsist without the flesh by which it is: which is as fire without light, earth without heaviness, grosseness, &c. should be, by which they are: and further, the Effect to be prior dig­nitate, precedent to the Cause, as if a man because a creature, should be before his Creator. But if it be Re­plyed, that the soul is generated by the soul, as the body by the body; I answer, then there must be He-souls and She-souls: for without Sexes is no generation.

But now to the first sort, who say it is by infusion, or as the saying is, Creando infunditur, & infundendo crea­tur.

To which I Answer, that in con­ception there is corruption or mar­ring, according the proverb, Corruptio unius est generatio alterius: so that if it be by conceiving or creating infused, and by infusion concepted or created, that is as much to say, it is made in the marring, and mar'd in the mak­ing; or, infus'd in the marring, and mar'd in the infusion: whence fol­loweth, that it is neither conceived, [Page 98] created, nor infused; neither made, nor mar'd: but must be, if it be, no man knows what, or how; whether an Angel, a Beast, or a Monster, any thing, or nothing: Riddle me, riddle me what's this? a Soul! a Soul! creando infunditur, & infundendo crea­tur!

Secondly, if the soul be a creature infused, then Christ did not take the whole man-hood from the seed of the woman, but worse then a bare brutish body, a dead carcass: But Christ was made of the seed of the woman according to the flesh, Ram. 1.3. Acts 2.30. and was as we are, sin excepted, Heb. 14.15. and this our Image he received wholly from the woman: Therefore receiv­ing his whole humanity from her, the soul can be no infused creature.

Thirdly, That which brake the Serpents head was Christs humanity: But the seed of the woman brake the Serpents head.


Fourthly, If we consist of soul and body, and are not men without both, [Page 99] and receive not our souls from him, but are dayly created: Then Adam is the father of no man, 2. Christ cannot be the Son of man, and so no Saviour, because thereby his man­hood, constitutive part, even that which should make him man, could not be by the seed of the woman. 3. So a man is as much a father of fleas and lice, which receive their matter from him, as of his children. 4. Whereas God blessed man, and bid him, as the rest of the creatures in their kinde, fill the Earth in his kinde with men: then he commanded him to do more then he had given him power for: and so to content nature, and supply her imbecility to obey, is forced to a daily creation. 5. Then God finished not the Creation in sixe dayes, but rested before he had done creating.

Fifthly, If the soul be infused, it must be at the conception, or after the conception: If at the conception, then every abortive conception hath an immortal spirit in it, and must rise again: If after, then there is growth [Page 100] before there is life, which is impos­sible; for the soul is made the vege­tive as well as the motive, sensitive or rational part: and if this immortal spirit be something else, then we are not conceived perfect men; and as we are conceived, so are we born, trees, brutes, or I know not what, and after­wards are made men, if we be men at all: and so Infants that die in the wombe, or in the birth, are little bet­ter then trees, and worse then beasts.

Sixthly, If the soul be not generated with the body, but a creature infused into a dead body, for they say, the soul is forma formans, that giveth life and motion to the body: Then it is lawful to be a Nigromancer; for Ni­gromancie is nothing but putting a spi­rit into a dead body, and so it is but an imitation of God, and God the onely Nigromancer, and all the men in the word but Nigromatnick Appari­tions, whose spirits when they have done the worke for which they were put into the bodies, desert them, as other conjured Ghosts do.

Seventhy, It is granted that the bo­dy [Page 101] considered meerly sensitive cannot sin, and that the body is but an in­strument, or as the pen in the hand of a Writer, to the Soul, whereby it acts and moves: Therefore, if the Soul come immediately from God, or there be an immediate worke of his in it's production, then of necessity, that immortal thing, and not our mor­tal flesh, is Author of all sin, and it onely prone to all sin, and not the flesh, no more then a conduit, though a meet instrument to convey water, is the author, or fount of water, or prone to spring: And so Gods im­mediate hand is the cause of all sin, that man had better been without this soul; for it must needs be some damnable wicked spirit, or some De­vil that God puts in him; for such as the fruit is, such must the tree be: but the fruit is damnably wicked: Therefore, the Soul must be some damnable wicked thing: No marvel then if Reprobates must needs sin and be damned, since God infuses such a malignant Soul, that counsels them with Jobs wife to curse God, and die, [Page 102] yea such a one as wholly workes out their condemnation: This is as if a man should break his horses legs, and then knock out his brains for halt­ing. If it be said the soul comes pure from God, and it is the body that corrupteth it; I answer, that this to excuse God one way, makes him like the tyrant Mezentius, that bound liv­ing men to dead bodyes, till the pu­trefaction and corruption of the stinking corps had killed them. Be­sides, the mind may sin without the Action of the body, but not the bo­dy without the mind, for a man may covet in his mind, and not act with his body, and yet sin; but if he do with his body, and not consent with his mind, he sinneth not: as for ex­ample, a man may accidentally and ignorantly kill a man by a blow, which was never intended or aimed at him, and yet he not guilty of mur­ther: but if he intend it in his mind, though he never do it, he is guilty: Therefore the body may be made sin­ful by the soul, but not the soul by the body.

[Page 103]Now to the other kinde, who say, that this supernatural worke by na­ture, is effected by Gods special super­natural assistance, operating or appli­cated to this natural aptitude, in whose mutual concurrence this immortal substance is concepted, and in concep­tion united to the flesh, the whole in the whole, and the whole in every part.

To which I Answer, that there is no more special supernatural efficien­cy from God in mans procreation then in other creatures, but that speci­al gift or natural instinct to every kinde of creature given in the Crea­tion to produce it's kinde, whether vegetative, sensitive, or rational, Gen. 1.25. 1 Cor. 15.38. for the gift or blessing is all one and the same, and alike unto all according to their kindes, as appeares, Gen. 1.22. God blessed the Fowls and Fish, saying, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the Seas, and let the Fowles multiply in the Earth: And vers. 28. the self-same he speaks of man and woman, And God blessed them, and said unto [Page 104] them, be fruitful, and replenish the earth; and by this blessing, or Natures gene­ral instinct equally unto all, men and all other creatures continue their multiplications and procreations: So that the Fowles, Fish, &c. have as great and special assistance as man in their conceptions and procreations, equally mediate and natural: There­fore, if by mans conception an An­gelical immortal Soul is producted, so likewise is there the like in other creatures. The result of all which is this, that as Fish, Birds, and Beasts each in their kinde procreate their kinde without any transcendency of nature: So man in his kinde begets man, corruptable man begets no­thing but what is corruptable, not halfe mortal, halfe immortal; halfe Angel, halfe man, but compleat man totally mortal: for through mortal organs immortality cannot be con­veyed, or therein possibly reside.

If it be scrupled, that this destroy­eth the hope of our faith; I Answer, It doth but remove it from a false principle to a true, from a deceitful [Page 105] fancy to an infallible object, the Re­surrection: For though I ascribe no­thing actually to nature, but corrup­tion, yet potentially I ascribe incor­ruption: as to the kernel of an Ap­ple a Tree may not actually, yet po­tentially be ascribed: So I grant, that nature produceth the Seed, to which when she hath done her ele­mentary worke, even all that she can do, and in all things transient finish­ed her course, even from that corrup­ted seed Christ supernaturally raiseth an incorruptable body, 1 Cor. 15.36. Thou foole, that which thou sowest is not quickned except it die: it is sowen in cor­ruption, it is raised in incorruption; it is sowen a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body: Therefore nothing of man can be immortal, but what first hath seen corruption. So that, if that which is made the better and most excellent part of Man, without which he is NO MAN (as is held) titled the Soul, shall not see corruption, it shall not participate of the immorta­lity purchased by Christ, but must needs perish, except there be Ens [Page 106] extra Deum, as that strange invented Entitie must needs be: And so con­sequently, NO MAN shall be saved: And as before it incur'd this Absur­ditie, that the Souls of the Damned shall not perish, but stand as well as the Stative Angels: So by this, the Souls both of the righteous and wicked shall for ever cease, and never be im­mortalized at the Resurrection: And thence the denyal both of Resurrecti­on, Condemnation, and Salvation, Hea­ven, and Hell, God and Christ, is in­avoydable: After rusheth in the Epicurean Blasphemy, Let us eate, and drinke, for to morrow we dy: And so, so many bellyes, so many Gods, and no other.

It is Objected, That the rareness of conception argues a supernatural imme­diate assistance essential, without which the soul cannot be.

Answ. That commeth by a natu­ral defect, and not by with-holding of Gods immediate hand, else he should have a special and immediate hand in Adultery: And so Whoremongers and Adulterers set God a worke to [Page 107] create Souls for their Bastards, which is to make God a slave to their lusts.

Further, it is Objected, That God hath from eternitie decreed concerning man above all creatures, both who should come into the world, and at what time: Therefore, accordingly he must have a worke in mans conception above other creatures.

Answ. No such thing followeth: for time and number may be appointed, and yet the due course of nature pro­ceed, as well without as with an im­mediate assistance, towards man in his kinde, as in Beasts in their kinde.

Moreover, Woolner in his Treatise on the Soul, pag. 115. saith, That the more spiritual parts, and chiefly the Soul is (but partly mediately, partly im­mediately) conceived at the first instant, or union of the seed of both Sexes: For by it (pag. 127. he saith,) the corporeal parts are prepared and perfected: There­fore, it must of necessity be at the first instant, or else no conception: And pag. 129. That all Souls, as well of Beasts, as of men, are essentially as perfect at the [Page 108] first instant of conception as ever after­wards. And pag. 97. he saith, The Soul can live without the body, and cannot be corrupted by it.

Answ. That then it followeth, If a woman miscarry, immediately af­ter that very instant, that the Soul of that Effluction or unshapen deformed peece of congealed blood being immor­tal, must needs continue its immor­tality; and that Effluction as well as perfect bodyes, shall be raised again: for if degrees of corporal perfection hinder, then those that are born im­perfect, as without legges, armes, or hands, or any other member, as di­vers are, they shall never be raised a­gain, and so out of the compass of Christs death: and though it should be granted, that Christs death is de­nyed an Embryo, yet that souls im­mortality cannot be nullified; for im­mortality once begun, must never have an end: and he saith, it cannot suffer with the flesh: therefore, if not with the whole mass of mans corpu­lency grown to it's full perfection, much less with an Embryo, that is ten [Page 109] times less imperfect and invalid: for he saith, it is as perfect at the first in­stant as ever afterwards: therefore, it must be saved or damned (if there be any for others) but no man knows how or which way, except it can be proved, Christ dyed for bare souls, souls without bodies; which will puzzle the cunningest soul that ever was made in the marring, and mar'd in the making.

Further it is objected, Creatures propagated out of kinde, as by buggery; as, Apes, Satyres, &c. are supposed, are not endowed with reasonable souls: Er­go, souls are created immediately, or how­ever of necessity, Gods superficient power is joyned to the propagation thereof:

Answ. As I will not altogether con­fidently affirm they have rational souls, so will I not altogether deny it: For in man it is some organical deficiency more or less, that is the cause, that some men are less rational then others; for some have abund­ance of wisedome, and some are meer fools: and in children, whose Organs are not come to perfection, [Page 110] there is not so much as there is in an Ape: This premised, why in some measure, as far as by those improper Organs can be expressed, may they not be rational, though not in the same degree as is capable of God, as well as Infants who are as unca­pable pro tempore as Apes? But per­chance, it will be replyed, that then Christ dyed for Apes, as well as for In­fants. I answer, Christ dyed not for the rational part separated from the ma­terial, nor the material from the rati­onal, if there should be such Buggery-births, or if by that unnatural course they should meet in one, (which is impossible, for the blessing of pro­creating any thing in its kinde, is to the kinde) for that neither, but for the natural production by the con­junction of both Sexes legitimate from Adam, and not such unnatural by-blowes: As for births out of kinde, they come within the com­pass of the Curse, and cannot any wayes claime priviledge in the Resto­ration, but must expect with Thornes, Briers, and all manner of Vermine, and [Page 111] Filth which breedeth on corruption, to be done away, when mortality is swallowed up of life. For all other Creatures as well as man shall be rais­ed and delivered from Death at the Resurrection: my Reasons and grounds for it be these. First, that o­therwise, the curse in Adam would extend further then the blessing in Christ, contrary to the Scriptures: For as in Adam all dye, even so in Christ shall all be made alive, 1 Cor. 15.22. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord, Rom. 6.23. Therefore, Death coming upon all the Creatures by the sin of Adam, no death being before sin, life shall come upon all by Christ. Secondly, the Beasts were not given man to eat in the Innocency, but to all flesh wherein was the Living Soul. breath of life was given the green herbe for meat: Therefore, the death of the Beasts, &c. was part of the Curse, and so to be done away by Christ. Thirdly, If the other Creatures do not rise again, then Christ shall not conquer death, but when it is said, O [Page 112] Death where is thy sting, O grave where is thy victory? it will be answered, In Beasts, because they are still captiva­ted under its bondage: But as by one man death entered into the world, Rom. 5.12. and by man came Death, by man shall come resurrection from Death; and the last Enemy that shall be destroyed is Death, and Death shall be swallowed up in victory, 1 Cor. 15.21, 54. There­fore Death shall not retain them, but they must be delivered out of its Jawes. Fourthly, these ensuing Scrip­tures do clearly prove it: Col. 1.15, to the 23. All things were created by him and for him, whether they be things in Earth, or things in Heaven: and be not removed away from the hope of the Gos­pel, which yee have heard, and which was preached to every Creature under Heaven: And Mar. 16.15. Go yee into all the World, and preach the Gospel to every Creature: that is, Glad Ty­dings, life and Resurrection from the bondage of corruption to every Crea­ture by Christ: therefore, is he said to be the First-born of every Creature, the First that's born, or raised from [Page 113] the Dead: so that those whereof he is the First, must follow, that is, every creature, else could he not be the First-born from the Dead of them all. And Rev. 21.5. after the dissolution of all things, he saith, Behold, I make all things New: And Psal. 104. Da­vid reckoning up Men, Cattel, &c. saith, Thou takest away their breath, and they die; thou sendest forth thy spirit, and renewest the face of the Earth: and Psal. 102. speaking of the Heavens, saith, as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: and Isaiah saith, in the New Earth the Wolfe and the Lambe shall feed together, and the Lion shall eate straw like a Bullocke: and Paul saith, Rom. 8.19, 20, 21. The earnest expectation of the Creature wait­eth for the manifectation of the sons of God: For the Creature was made sub­ject to vanitie, not willingly, but by rea­son of him who hath subjected the same in hope: because the Creature it self al­so shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God: for we know that the whole Creation groaneth, and travel­eth [Page 114] in pain till now. Therefore the Go­spel or Glad Tydings is unto all; all are under hope, and all things, men, beasts, &c. shall be made new, or restored at the Resurrection; and so Death shall be swallowed up in victory, and mor­tality of life: or Death having given up her dead, shall be cast into the Lake, Rev. 20.13, 15. Thus much by the by: Now to our matter in hand.

But be it granted, that those births are not endowed with reasonable souls, yet doth it not follow, that God createth immediately the soul, or imme­diately assisteth nature in it's production more then the body: for this is an in­stance out of kind [...], therefore cannot expect the blessing of the kinde, but be as it self is, unnatural and cursed: for to the kinde is required Sexes of the kinde, & thereto God hath given the blessing to beget its kinde, as well for man to beget perfect man, as for the beasts to beget perfect beasts; so that whatsoever is born of man natu­rally, is man, though one be ennobled with more excellencys then another. A born Fool would have been a better [Page 115] instance; for if to them rational Souls were denyed, it might be thought, Nature naturally begetteth meer irra­tional, brutish inhumane bodies, and rationality, or humanity, is a meer supernatural worke. To pre­vent such a cavil, I answer, that by the Soularies grounds there can be no born fooles: Infants new born, yea an Embryo should be as actually rational as men of ripeness of years; for they say, the soul is rationality it self, and that rationality is no more of the body, then inke is of the pen; and the soul is absolutely perfect at the first instant, yea 'tis forma formans: therefore, naturam expellas, furca licet usque recurres, it is made action, which cannot but appeare, for all action is apparent: and they say it is an im­mortal spirit, therefore cannot cease▪ and if not cease, it must shew it self: Now why are not Infants then as ra­tional as others? nay, let me ask one Question, If this endless soul be forma formans, the maker of our bodyes, why have we not endless bodies? for omne tale generat tale, every like [Page 116] brings forth its like; so then, if one be immortal, the other must be im­mortal; if one mortal, the other mor­tal. Secondly, I answer, that though some are fooles from their birth, yet it doth not follow, that Gods imme­diate hand is required to mans pro­creation, but rather the contrary: for imperfections in a thing argue the mediate generation thereof; because no imperfection of any kinde can come immediately from the hand of God: imperfections are accidental, or from the curse: therefore not of creation, but of procreation.

Now seeing all this while we have had to do with this immortal Soul, we cannot find, or the Soularies tell what it is: such likewise is its resi­dence; for if we ask where it is? they slap us i'th'mouth with a Riddle; tota in toto, & tota in qualibet parte, the whole in the whole, and the whole in every part: that is, the whole immortal Soul in the whole body, and the whole Soul wholly in every part of the body. To which I answer, that this extends immortality or impossi­bility [Page 117] of death to the body; for if im­mortality be in every part, then no part of man, from the crown of the head to the soal of the foot can be excepted; so we are all Soul all over, and every part a whole Soul immortal: So that it must either be held to be ubiquitarie, which is an Attribute peculiar to God; or else multiplicable by a corpu­lent division: and so, were a man min­ced into Atomes, cut into innumerable bits, there would be so many innumer­able whole Souls, else could it not be wholly in every part.

Monstrum horrendum, ingens; cui quot sunt corpore crines,
Tot vigiles Animae subter, mirabile dictu!

And thus the Riddle is unfolded.

CHAP. VI. Testimonies of Scripture to prove that whole man is generated, and propa­gated by Nature.

THat this is true secundum actum naturae, observe the sence of these ensuing Scriptures: viz.

[Page 118] Gen. 1.17, 18. comparted with the 22 vers. where man and beast have an equal blessing and charge to propa­gate their like.

Eccl. 3.19. there is no distinction betwixt them, &c.

Gen. 17.7. I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed after thee: here, by seed must be meant persons and not bare carcasses: else he had been the God of dead clots, and not of living souls.

Gen. 46.26. All the souls that came with Jacob into Aegypt, which came out of his loynes, &c.

Job 31.15. Did not he that made me in the womb make him? and did not one fashion us in the womb? Ergo, if his soul were immediately created, so was his body; for he, that is, his Entity, person, even all that went to make him man, was formed and shapen in the wombe, both Epithites for procreation and not for creation.

Job 10.10, 11.22. Hast thou not poured me out as milke, and curd­led me like cheese? thou hast cloth­ed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews, thou [Page 119] hast granted me life and favour, and thy visitation hath preserved my spi­rit. Here Job sets forth exactly the man­ner of mans procreation, from the act of generation even to his breathing: First, poured out as milke, that is, the seminarie evacuation of both Sexes in conjunction: then curdled me like cheese; that is, the changing of that to a grosser matter, congealed blood: then clothed me with flesh and skin; that is, the incarnation of that condensed blood: then fenced me with bones and sinews, that is, that carnated matter was form­ed into humane shape, and grew into members: then grantedst me life: that is, began to breath: whence observe, that in ascribing the whole worke to God, he doth ascribe it to one kinde onely, and not partly mediate, partly immediate; for he ascribeth even the evacuation of seed in carnal copulation, and the conception of flesh and bones in as high a measure, (yea, to take away all cavil, rather a greater,) as he doth his life: poured, clothed, and fenced, imply a more absolute act then granting, which is but a sufferance, permission, or assent­ing: [Page 120] therefore, his conception was meerly and wholly natural: according to that of David, Psa. 51.5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. And to this adde that of Zach. 12.1. The Lord form­eth the spirit of man within him. Whence it is clear, that whole man flesh and spirit is a second act▪ formed in the wombe; otherwise flesh as well as spirit must be created, which all deny.

Children are the blessing of the breast and wombe, Gen. 49.5. That came out of the Loynes, Exod. 1.5. Heb. 7.5. the fruit of the body, Deut. 18.4. came out of the bowels, 2 Sam. 10.11. see Gen. 16.11. & 38.25. Mat. 1.18.

Gen. 5.3. Adam begat a son in his owne likeness.

Psal. 139.15, 16. My Substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in a secret place, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the Earth: thine eyes did see my masse, yet being imperfect; and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet was none of them: whence is [Page 121] evident, that his whole Person was an act of nature in his mothers wombe or secret place: what of him was in the Book of Gods providence, he declareth, was made (not created) in a secret place, to wit, his substance or masse, all that went to the subject man; and I hope the Soularies will not blot his Soul out of the Book of Gods pro­vidence, or say it was no part of him.

Luke 1.31. Thou shalt conceive in thy wombe and bring forth a son: whence observe, that what she was to bring forth, she was to conceive, to wit, a son; and none will deny, Christ was born compleat man, in all things as we are, sin excepted: And if any scruple arise from Rom. 1.3. He was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; I Answer, That it is a distinction from other men, in respect of that anointing he received from the Father a­bove his brethren and fellowes.

Gen. 4.1. She conceived and bare Cain: see the like, cap. 38.3, 4, 5. Judg. 13.3, 5, 7. And Job 3.3. There is a man-child conceived. And Gen. 17.6. And Kings shall [Page 122] come out of thee. vers. 17. twelve Princes, shall he beget. And Judg. 8.30. Gideon had 70 Sons out of his body begotten: And Num. 5. Then she shall be free, and shall conceive seed, and Heb. 11.11. compared with Gen. 17.8. and such like, plainly shew mans procreation wholly natural.

Joh. 3.6. That which is born of the flesh, is flesh; and that which is born of the spirit, is spirit: Here is the natural birth by nature, and the spiritual birth by grace declared each in his kinde, the one a meer natural, the other a super­natural worke: It is therefore inavoyd­ablely true, otherwise the Soul cannot be saved; for what is not born again can­not be saved, as the immediate words testifie, except a man be born again, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God: So then, the Soul as well as the body is born, that is, proceeds from the flesh, except we be born without it: Wherefore, they are no more twaine, but one flesh.

I might declare, how Purgatorie, Limbo Patrum, Infantum, Prayers unto dead Saints, to the Virgin Mary, [Page 123] and a World of such-like fancies are grounded upon the Invention of the Soul; but that I shall leave it to the conception of the ingenious.

Thus having found Mans Foundation to be wholly in the Dust, from thence taken, and thither to return: Let this then be the use of all: That man hath not wherewith at all to boast, no more then of the dirt under his feet, but is provoked wholly out of himself, to cast himself wholly on Jesus Christ, with whom in God our lives are hid, that when he who is our life shall appeare, we might also with him appeare in glory, to whom be the honour of our immortality for ever, and for ever. A­men.

THere are many places of Scripture omitted, in this Treatise, which import man to be wholly mortal; whereof I will here commend these few, to the serious consideration of all such as desire to finde out truth.

[Page 124]The Prophet Isaiah Prophesying of Christ, in chap. 53. vers. 10. saith, Yet the Lord would break him, and make him Subject to infirmities: When he shall make his soul an offer­ing for sin, vers. the 11. he shall see of the travel of his soul, and be satisfied: vers. 12. Therefore will I give him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, be­cause he hath poured out his soul un­to death, &c.

By Saint Matthew it is also recorded, chap. 26. vers. 38. Then said Jesus to them, My soul is very heavy unto the death: Tarry ye here and watch with me; speaking to Peter and the two sons of Zebedeus, ver. 37.

Rev. 16.3. (where it is Recorded) And the second Angel poured out his Vial upon the sea, and it became as the blood of a dead man, and every living soul died in the sea. Psal. 66.9. He holdeth our soul in life.

[Here note,] That Soul and Life are distinct; the Soul of all are held in Life by Christ, else would they die.

Psal. 22.29. For all that go down [Page 125] into the dust shall bow before him, and none can keep alive his own soul.

Ezek. 18.4. The soul that sinneth, it shall die.

Vers. 20. The same soul that sin­neth shall die.

Job 33.18. He keepeth back his soul from the pit, and his life from perishing by the sword.

20. So that his life abhorreth bread, and his soul dainty meat.

22. His soul draweth neer unto the grave, and his life to the destroyers.

28. He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light.

30. To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightned with the light of the living.

The diligent Reader is desired to correct the mis-quotations escaped in this lit­tle book, as followeth.

Page 33. line 13. adde Gen. 1. p. 34. l. 23. read 1 Cor. 15. p. 46. l. 21. r. Eccl. 3.19, 20. p. 47. l. 6. r. 2 Tim. p. 48. l. 14. r. Psal. 88. p. 49. l. 5. adde 4. p. 56. l. 10. r. Lev. 17.14. l. 11. r. Gen. 9. p. 57. l. 7. r. Acts 2.31. p. 59. l. 15. r. Phil. 1.23, 24. p. 63. l. 6. r. Jer. 53.12. p. 68. l. 2. r. Rev. 19. p. 69. l. 16. r. Mat. 8.29. p. 72. l. 22. r. Prov. 15.24. p. 93. l. 1. r. Object. 21. p. 98. l. 17. r. Heb. 4.15. p. 118. l. 24. r. 11, 12.

The Postscript.

IN some ancient Chronicles of Eng­land, we read of King Druis, so addicted to learning, that a Sect of Philosophers succeeded him, named, Druides; and that this King, the better to encourage his Subjects without dread of death to fight his battles, taught them that their Souls were immortal, not sub­ject to death. Hence as some think, came the opinion, that the Souls of men are immortal: but others conceive it to have another rise, namely, The general Doctrine of the Philosophers, being, That Vertue was to be rewarded, and Vice punished; and these usually seeing [Page] Men to die without either punishment or reward, and being ignorant of any Re­surrection, taught thence, that mens Souls (after death) remained alive, to receive the same: yet this was contrary to the judgement of many of the Anci­ents, who nevertheless deemed men to be wholly mortal, as is cleerly proved by Pliny, in the 55 chap. of the 7th Book of his Natural History; where treating of Ghosts, or Spirits of Men departed, he saith thus: viz. After men are buri­ed, great diversitie there is in opini­on what is become of their Souls and Ghosts, wandering some this way, and others that; but this is generally held, that in what estate they were before men were born, in the same they re­main when they are dead: for neither Body nor Soul hath any more sence af­ter our dying day, then they had be­fore the day of their nativity: but such is the folly and vanity of men, that it extendeth still even to the fu­ture time; yea, and in the very time of death flattereth it self, with fond imaginations, and dreaming of I know not what life after this: for some at­tribute [Page] immortality to the Soul; o­thers devise a certain transfiguration thereof: and there be again, who suppose that the Ghosts sequestred from the Body have sence; whereupon they do them honour and worship, making a God of him that is not so much as a man: as if the manner of mens breathing differed from that in other living Creatures; or as if there were not to be found many other things in the world, that live much longer then men; and yet no man judgeth in them the like immortality. But shew me what is the substance and body, as it were of the Soul by it self? what kinde of matter is it apart from the body? where lieth her cogi­tation that she hath? how is her see­ing, how is her hearing performed? what toucheth she? nay, what doth she at all? how is she imployed? or if there be in her none of all this, what goodness can there be without the same? but I would know, where she setleth, and hath her abiding place after her departure from the body? And what an infinite multitude of [Page] Souls like shadows, would there be in so many ages as well past as to come? Now surely those be fantastical foolish and childish toyes; devised by men that would fain live alwayes, and never make an end.

Qualis in novissimo vitae die quisque moritur, Talis in novis­simo mundi die judicabitur.

The Contens.

  • CHAP. I. Considerations from natural reason disproving the common opinions of the Soul, and proving Man wholly mortal. p. 1.
  • CHAP. II. Considerations from the creation, fall and resurrection, disproving the opinion of the Soul, imagining the better part of Man immortal; and proving him, as a reasonable crea­ture, wholly mortal. p. 28.
  • [Page] CHAP. III. Scriptures to prove this morta­lity. p. 41.
  • CHAP. IV. 21 Objections extorted from Scri­pture answered. p. 58.
  • CHAP. V. Of procreation, how from thence this mortality is proved. p. 94.
  • CHAP. VI. Testimonies of Scripture to prove that whole man is generated and pro­pagated by nature. p. 117.

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