A Geographicall DESCRIPTION Of the Kingdom of IRELAND. According to the 5 Provinces, and 32 Counties; together with the Stations, Creeks, and Harbours belonging there­to: fit for Gentlemen, Souldiers, and Sea-men to acquaint them­selves withall. As also Declaring the Right and Titles of the Kings of England unto that Kingdom.

Likewise Setting down a brief Relation of the former Rebellions, and of their sup­pression; especially that in Q. Elizabeths time by Tyrone: whence many matters worth observing may be collected, use­full for this present Service.

By a Well-willer to the peace of both Kingdoms.

London, Printed by I. R. for Godfrey Emerson, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the sign of the Swan in Little-Britain, 1642.

To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

MAny have lately cast their Treasure, do thou cast thine Eye, upon distressed Ireland; 'twill be a way to shew thy Charity, without any great ven­ture: Or if thou be in the number of Adventurers, when thou shalt have read this, thou wilt count thy [Page] part ensur'd. The Advantage, Knowledge; and Delight thou mayst reap by it, I referre to thine own apprehension and judgement; Assuring th [...]e, thou need'st not fear to engage thy purse, in the survey of that Countrey, where so good a King was willing to engage His Person. Such is the engage­ment of

Thy Friend and
Well-wisher,
G. N.

A Geographicall DESCRIPTION Of the Kingdom of IRELAND.

BEing in the North of England, and de­sirous to passe into the Kingdom of Ireland, and not willing to go more Northward, although from Galloway in Scotland, (which Bede terms Candida casa, the Vulgar White-herne) there be but a short cut, yet more willing to go the nearest way to Westchester; but not finding the winde fair at my coming, I travell'd along to Saint Davis in Pembroke-shire, whence I had a speedy passage into Ireland, but somewhat dangerous, by reason of the sands and shelves which lye off into the sea, but our putting into harbour worse, because of the continuall mists that hang over the low flat land, so that our Pilot could hardly discern his marks.

[Page 2]There are many fair Ports and Harbours for Ships, on the East and South sides of what I shall speak, in the Description of the particular Counties.

Concerning the names of severall Nations and Men, they have their severall conceits, it is known by the name Ireland to us.

It is an ancient Iland, and not of little esteem, in re­gard of the greatnesse of it, being accounted the third Iland anciently known in the habitable world, by good Geographers; who say, That of all Ilands, for greatnesse the Indian Taprobane is chief; the next after it, is Bri­tain; and in a third degree, another British Iland, cal­led Hibernia, that is, Ireland; so that Ptolomie called it Little-Britain: The situation is under the 10 and 12 Climats, in Longitude extending 4 Degrees from the Meridian of 11 Degrees and half: And the Lati­tude reacheth 4 Degrees from the paralel of 54, to that of 58 Degrees.

The Inhabitants are divided by the name of Wilde-Irish, and the English Irish, living in the English Pale, where the English at their first going over did inclose themselves.

Formerly it was divided into 5 Kingdoms, now Pro­vinces; namely Mounster, lying Southward, Lemster Eastward, Connagh in the West, Ulster in the North, and Meth in the midst almost.

From North to South, in length 400 miles, in bredth 200 miles.

MOunster, in Latine Mamonia, the Irish Mown, con­taineth 6 Counties, besides the County of Holy crosse in Typperary; the first is,

Kirry, which lyeth near the mouth of the River [Page 3] Shannon, and runneth out narrow at the entrance, but towards the Sea, with a broader promontory im­braced by the Sea on both sides.

A Countrey mountanous, woody and wild, loftily looking into the Ocean; in which are many fruitfull fields, and pleasant vallyes, beset thick with woods.

A County Palatine granted to the Earle of Des­mond by the speciall favour of Edward the third; but being often ingratefull in their rebellious treasons, and rebellions lost it.

Towards the Sea there is a territory called Clan­morris; not farre off standeth Ardart a See of a poor Bishop called Ardfert.

Towards the South of this runneth a faire River na­med Dingle, a commondious Port on the other side na­med Smirwick-sound, or St. Marywick, where the Spa­nyards to ayde the rebellious Earle of Desmond, 1583. set footing.

Desmond, Desmonia, in Irish Deswown; lyeth large­ly stretched out towards the South, in which are three high promontories over-topping the Sea, and con­temning his proud waves, running out into the South­west, called west-Mounster.

The first promontory lyeth between Dingle-bay and the River Maire, and is called Clan-car, and hath a Castle built at Dunkeran by the Carews of England, in it dwelt Donel mac Carty more, a L▪ of the Irish bloud.

The second lyeth inclosed within two bayes, Maire and Bantre, named Bear-haven.

This for the most part is a leane, barren, hungry soyle, in which lived O Swillivant Beare, and O Swilli­vant Bantre, both of the same stock and high bloud in their Countrey.

[Page 4]The third called Eraugh situate between Bantre and Balatamore or Baltamore, a bay or creeke famous for the multitude of Herrings that are taken there, in this the O Mahouns by the gift of the Carews have large possessions; the Calverts Lord Baltimort the South promontory called of the ancients Notium, is at this day called Missen-head, the Feildings are Earls of Des­mond and Vicounts Callon.

The County of Corke, anciently reputed a King­dome, contayning the whole space a long the Sea from Lismore unto St. Brend, where it headeth Desmond westward, in the bowells whereof lyeth Muskery, a wild Forrest, where Cormac mac xeg, it is a great name, and towards the Sea coast lyeth Carkray, in which the mac Curties have the greatest power.

There lyeth towards the South Sea a Port and road anciently of good safegard for Shipps, but by reason of a barre in the mouth of it, it falls dry at the ebb, and is now of little use, it lyeth four leagues westward from the out-point of Kinsale.

Betweene Rosse and Kinsale there lyeth a small Iland in the Sea called Roem, which may be fayled about, having ten fathome water between that and the mayne▪ three leagues from hence lieth cape de velho or Old-head, from whence to England end is 46 leagues, it is a high point reaching forth into the Sea, from whence about a quarter of a league South-west lieth the mouth of the Haven of Kinsale: a very commodious Port, 10, and 15. fathome going in and 4 or 5 to the very towne which lieth up in the mouth of the river Bany in a fruit­full Soyle, furnished with wood, and other commodi­ties: Lord Cour [...]y is Baron of Kinsale.

On the other side of Kinsale lyeth Kerry wherry a [Page 5] small territory once belonging to the E. of Desmond: right before which lyeth the river Sauranus or Severa­nus which fetcheth its first originall from the moun­taine of Muskerry: and going along by the head city of the county Corke by the Irish Corcach honoured with a Bishops See; together with the See of Clumi annexed to it.

The river both roundeth and runneth through the middest of the towne not passible, but by bridges lying in length in one broad street having a bridge over it.

It is a towne of great resort and populous▪ but for­merly subject to the injury of the Rebells; which made them keep a carefull watch against them. That re­ligious and devout man Brioc who flourished among the Sauls was borne and bred here.

Below Corke the parting of the river maketh a sweet and pleasant Iland over against the chiefe dwelling house of the Barries, called Barry Court, derived from Robert de Barry an Englishman; who behaved himselfe valiantly in the Irish warres, and was the first that man­ned and brought the Hauke to hand in Ireland: he had the title of Baron Barry; but after of Vicount Beuti­phant.

The former river empties into the Sea below Barry Court neare Imokelly a faire possession long since of the Earles of Desmond; and containes a safe road in the mouth of it.

As this supplyes the lower part of the country, so Black-water, called anciently Even-more, the great river moystneth the upper part, upon which dwelleth the Noble familie of Roeh, who went out of England, and flourished there and enjoyed the title of Vicount Fer­moy: and were Parliament Barons in Edward the 2. time.

[Page 6] Yoghall standeth on this rivers mouth, a Major town, nor great, but walled about, builded in length, and di­vided into two parts, the upper reacheth Norwest, and hath a Church in it, and the lower part Southwest; the commodiousnesse of the Key makes it much frequent­ed by Merchants.

The County of Waterford lyeth in the East side of Ireland, stretching out it self between the rivers, Broad­water West, and Shour East; the Main on the South, and Tipperary Norwest; both delightsome, and very profitable.

When Broadwater hath out-run the County of Cork, behinde it Lismore presently sheweth it self, an Episco­pall See where Christian once sate, that was of the same Cloyster with Saint Bernard, and Pope Eugenius; but now annexed unto Waterford: The Lumly's are Vicounts of Waterford.

At the mouth of which river standeth Aidmore, a small town, so called because it standeth near the Sea.

Not far from hence standeth Dungarvan, having a strong hold of good force: It is a Tide-haven 8 leagues from Waterford, full of rocks, and deep within the harbour.

Vicount Dessee, together with the Barony of Dun­garvan, King Henry the sixth granted to Iohn Talbut Earl of Shrewsbury; but afterward, seeing it lay con­veniently to that part of Mounster that was to bee brought under, and reduced into order, it was by a Par­liament annexed to the Crown of England.

On the side of the river Shour, Waterford the princi­pall City of this County maketh a fair shew; the Irish and Britains call it Porthlargie, the English Waterford, 37 leagues from Englands end.

[Page 7]It was built by certain Pirats of Norway; the ayr is grosse and unhealthy, the soil not fertile, the streets pent and narrow; yet by reason of the commodiousnesse of the harbour, which is fair and wide, 10 or 11 fathom deep going in, it is much frequented, and of great re­sort, driving a quick trade, so that it is esteemed the se­cond City in the Kingdom, and hath continued alwaies true and loyall to the Crown of England, ever since Richard Earl of Pembroke wan it first, and hath recei­ved many favours and priviledges from the Kings of England for their good services.

And Henry the seventh augmented them much, for their discreet carriage of themselves against the mock-Prince Perkin Warbeck, who counterfeited Richard the third, under which colour he couzened a great Peer of Scotland of his fair daughter.

This County of Waterford, together with the City, King Henry the sixth gave unto Iohn Talbut Earl of Shrewsbury.

But by reason of wars in France, and the civil dissen­tions between the houses of York and Lancaster, the Kings of England were busied, and the Nobles so in­tangled in those broils, that they could not intend the affairs of Ireland, so that the Irish grew very insolent and powerfull: So that in the 28 year of H. 8. though the fault were committed long before his dayes; yet for punishment, by Act of Parliament it was or­dered, That the heirs of many Noblemen, as the Earl of Shrewsbury, Ormond, the Duke of Norfolk, and Ba­ron Barkley, and all the Abbots and Priors (for they were all found liable to this punishment) with the rest, should forfeit all their lands and demeans in Ireland, in­to the Kings hands for such neglect and absence.

[Page 8]The County of Limrick is an inland County, lying behinde that of Cork Northward, between Kerry, the river Shanon, and the County of Tipperary a very fruit­full and populous place, but not eminent for any thing of note.

The Western part of it is called Conilagh, wherein there is Knoc Patrick, a very high hill, from whence there is a pleasant prospect into the Sea; where you may see how Shanon fals in to the Virginian.

The head City is Limrick, which Shanon by parting begirteth round, the Irish call it Loumeagh, and the English Limrick; it is a chief Market-town of Moun­ster, and the See of a Bishop, and at this day called two Towns; the upper, wherein stands the Cathedrall Church, and a Castle, and hath two gates, and each of them a stone Bridge with bulwarks, the one leading in­to the West, the other into the East, unto which the lower Town joyneth, fenced with a wall, and a Castle thereto, and a fore-gate at the entrance into it: Lord Esmond is Baron of Limrick.

In the South of this County is Kilmallo, the next Town to Limrick both in substance and inhabitants, incompassed likewise with a wall: Vicount Sarsfield of Kilmallo.

Not far off standeth Adare, a little Town, hard unto which lyeth Elan Gibbon, where dwelt the White-Knight, so called for his gray hairs.

The other inhabitants of note are the Lacyes, Browns, H [...]rlyes, Chacyes, Sapells, and Pourcells, all of English race; also the Mac Shees, Mac Brian, O Brien, of Irish blood.

The County of Tipperary is bounded Westward, with Limrick and the river Shanon Eastward, with the [Page 9] County of Kilkenny, with the County of Corke and Water­ford southward, and North with the territories of the O Ca­rolls. The south-part hath much corne, and many beauti­full buildings, and the river Glason runneth with a large course thorow the West-part of it; not farre from whose bankes stands Emly or Awn, a Bishops See: thorow the middest of it glideth that goodly river Shour, or Swire, which issuing out of Bladin hills, hasteth thorow the lower Ossery: of which Hen. 8. dignified the Butlers with the title of Earles, and thorow Thurles, which honoureth the same Family with the dignity of Vicounts; and so goeth into Holy-crosse, termed the County of the Holy-crosse of Tipp:

Then Shour goeth besides Cassile, honoured with the dig­nity of an Arch-bishop, by Eugenius, third Pope of Rome; from thence runneth the River down Shreading Ilands here and there, and fetcheth a round about Cahir Castle, then holding his course by Clomel, a frequented Market-towne, as also by Carick-mac-Griffin situate upon a rock; it then leaveth Tipperary behind it, and is instead of a banke to con­fine the countries of Waterford and Kilkenny.

The Botelers or Butlers are great Families in this Coun­tie, and were neere of alliance unto Thomas A Becket, for whose sake Henry the second did honour and enrich them.

For the government of which Province, that it might be kept from rebellion and seditious tumults, queene Eliza­beth out of her Princely care and wisdome, first ordained Sir Warham Sellenger or Saint Leger, a man well seene in Irish affaires, to be Lord President, with one Assistant, two Lawyers, and a Secretary.

THe second part or Province is Leinster, which hath se­ven Counties, it is called by the Irish Leighnigh, by the Britaines Lein, lying all towards the Sea Eastward, a fer­tile, [Page 10] healthfull, and beautifull place. The first County is Kilkenny, bounded West with Tipperary: East with the Counties of Weisford and Caterlogh: South with the Coun­ty of Waterford: North with queenes County; and Nor­west with upper Ossery, a County surpassing the rest in faire buildings, strong Forts, and exceeding plentifull in all manner of provision.

Neere unto Ossery there standeth a very great mountain, called Sleiew Bloemy, towring very high, out of whose wombe issue these Rivers, Shour, Neor and Barrow▪ running in several streames againe joyne before they enter the Oce­an, and called of old the three Sisters.

This River Neor, commonly called Neure, runneth, as it were, thorow Kilkenny County, and when it is passed the upper Ossery, and hath watered many fortresses on both sides, it floweth besides Kilkenny, which is a rich and beau­tifull Towne, farre exceeding any inland Burrough in Ire­land: Parted into the English towne and Irish towne, the Irish towne being, as it were, the Suburbs, and hath in it S. Canicks Church, where the Bishop of Ossery hath his See.

But the English towne is nothing so ancient, builded by Ranulph third Earle of Chester; walled on the West-side by Robert Talbot, and fortified with a castle by the Butlers.

Below Neore somewhat standeth a little walled towne, called Thomas towne, in Irish Bala mac Anda, that is, the towne of Antonies sonne.

Below this, the River Callan emptieth it self into Neore, on whose bankes standeth the towne Callan, the third in­corporate towne of this County, as likewise Inise Yeog which is the fourth.

Many Families of the Butlers in this County of good account, and some other Gentry, as the Graces, Walshes, Lo­vels, Forresters, Shortels, Blanch-feilds, or Blanch-velstors, Drilands, Come [...]fords, &c.

[Page 11]The County of Caterlogh, called by contraction Car­logh, Eastward joyneth to Kilkenny, lying almost betweene the Rivers Barrow and Slane, fruitfull and well furnished with woods; the two principall townes stand on the west­banke of Barrow: Carlogh walled and fortified with a Ca­stle: Also Leighlin, once a Bishops See, now joyned to that of Fernes▪ Both of them of good force, and Constables o­ver them: From hence Barrow runneth thorow the Lord­ship of Ydron. Upon the River Slane is seated Tullo, a But­ler being honoured by King Iames with the title of Vi­count Tullo.

The Cavanaghs are a name much spread, valiant and ex­cellent horsemen: From Carterlogh, Neore and Barrow run hand in hand some few miles, and after fall into the lap of their eldest sister the Shour, who all are swallowed up pre­sently of the devouring Ocean.

The County of Leaz, or queenes County, so called from queene Mary, who first made it a County, lying above Ca­terlogh towards the Norwest, a small County full of woods and bogs; the chiefe towne is Mary-burgh, there was used watch and ward to defend themselves from the insolencies of the Irish O Moores, against Mac Gilpatrick, the O Dem­psies, who were very turbulent and seditious.

Many Castles and Forts in this County, one at Tahmelio, another at Obowy, a third on the River Barrow, and a fourth at Norrach; little else of moment in this County.

Amulenux is Vicount of Mary-burgh, the principall towne in this County.

Kings County; called formerly Offaly, but for the ho­nour of King Philip made a County; the chiefe towne is Philips town: the Dempsies, Vicount Glenmare, and Baron of Philips town.

Many English Families seated here, as the Warrens, Her­berts, [Page 12] Colbeis, Moris, Leicesters. Some Families of the Irish, which suppose they have had hard measure in being dispos­sessed of their ancient inheritances, seeke all occasion to do the English a displeasure, and wil omit no opportunity to revenge: so that it ever did, and now more especially it behoveth the English to be circumspect and wary.

The County of Kildare, lying eastward from the for­mer Counties, a pleasant, healthfull and fertile countrey, full of springs and pastures: the chiefe town an Episcopall See beares the name of the County Kildare; the noble Fa­milies of the Fitz-Geralds hold the Earldome, granted by Edward the second.

This County was first inhabited by the Earle of Pem­broke and his heires, untill Edward the first.

The Geraldines continued loyall untill Henry the 8. and then one of them unadvisedly rebelled, but was punished, and his confederates: howbeit queene Mary restored bloud and lands.

The places of note above the rest is Naas a Market town, Athie placed on the River Barrow; Mainoth a Castle be­longing to the Earle of Kildare, and a Market-town.

Castle-martin, the chiefe seat of the Family of Fitz-Eu­stace, which descended from the Poers, who had the title of Vicount Baltinglas added by Henry the eighth.

But having lost that title by attainder, the Ropers beare the honour of Vicount Baltinglas.

The chiefe Families derive from the English▪ there are the Ougans, de la Hides, Ailmers, Walshes, Boisels, Whites, Suttons, &c. Now we have done with the midland Coun­tries of Lymster, we goe now to the Sea-side.

The County of Weisford, or Wexford, being a small cir­cuit of land, lying on the Sea side against Beneath, the mouth of the three former sister Rivers eastward, in a pro­montory [Page 13] where the shore fetcheth a compasse round, is placed the County of Wexford, in Irish Reogh; here on the river Barrow there was a faire citie, called Rosse, well traded and peopled, but by discord and dissention, onely a great wall left as the ruines of a huge pile: but the Hervys are dignified with the title of Barons of Rosse.

Eastward Duncannon Castle standeth over the River, and can hinder any ships from passing either to Waterford or Rosse: from thence there runs out a little neck of land, which is a helpe unto sea-men to saile into the River; not farre off standeth Tinterne upon the shore, with many windings & creeks, where once there was a famous Abbey.

This Promontory is called Holy-head, lying over against Saint Davids in Wales; at which place the English first set footing into Ireland, where there is a towne by the natives called Banna, which signifies Holy.

Along the shore eastward lye many flats, which the ma­riners call the grounds, and endanger their ships.

The River Slane cuts quite thorow this County, and in the mouth thereof, where it maketh a poole, there lyeth Weisford the chiefe towne; it is not of any great bignesse, but yet memorable, in that being assaulted by Fitz Stephen, a valiant Captaine, it yeelded it selfe unto his protection, and became a Colony of the English, so that still it useth the ancient apparrell of the English, and their speech, but somewhat mingled with Irish.

Eniscort is seated on the River Slane, and Fernes is seated more inward, an Episcopal See; beyond which River dwelt the Cavenaghs, Donels, Montaghs, and O Moores, of Irish race, stirring tumultuous-spirits and amongst them the Sinottes, Roches and Peppers English.

Vicount Mount-garretto, the Butlers are the men of note on this side Slane: many more English of note, [Page 14] as most of the common sort English.

The County of Divelin or Dublin, on the East lyeth broad upon the Sea, on the west bounded with the County of Kildare, on the south, on two small territories of Wicklo and Arcklo, once the habitation of the O Tools and O Birns, and now termed the Glimes▪ and norwest limited with the County of Meth, and Nanny a small River.

It is a very plentifull County both in corne and cattell, abounding also with game for pleasure; their greatest want is fuell, which is a heavie turfe or English sea-coale, but in the south side a barren soile, hils and woods plenty, many hollow valleyes over-run with trees, which they call Gli­nus, among which was the Bishoprick of Glandelaw, but now annexed to the Archbishop of Dublin.

All the rest of the County is rich and plentious, the peo­ple of a stately port and garbe, in gentile neatnesse and car­riage surpassing all the rest of Ireland; and it is divided in­to five severall Baronies, Rath-downe, New-castle, Castle­knoc, Cowloc and Balrodry.

This whole County is Neptunes neighbor, no part there­of being twenty miles distant from the Sea.

To the south of Dublin Haven standeth Wicklo, a narrow Haven, over which bends a rocke immured strongly with fortification in stead of a Castle, whose command none ought to have but English borne: Lord Maynard hath the title of Baron.

Then from the top of a hill, New-castle looketh into the Sea in the sight of the three shelves, which they call the south, middle, and north grounds, lying in length, yet shall you find betweene them and the shore seven or eight fa­thome of water.

A little higher where the River Bray disburdens into the Sea, is seene Oldcourt, the possessions of the Walshes of Ca­rickmain, [Page 15] who are a large and ancient stocke.

Next are Powers or Poerscourt, belonging formerly to a Family of that name, since the Wingfeilds have the title of Vicount Powerscourt.

A little Iland Saint Bennets, belonging to the Archbi­shop of Dublin, lyeth in an elbow of land which the River Bray maketh.

The creeke or bay is called Dublin Haven, which is five leagues from Wexford, into which Haven the greatest River of this County powreth it selfe, called Liffy, whose origi­nall being but fifteene miles distance from that place, yet through his many windings and turnings he watereth many countries.

First south, by Saint Patricks land, then westward, after north, watering the County of Kildare▪ at length into the east by Castle-knoc, and so by Kilmainam.

Dublin is seated seven miles from the mouth of Liffy, it is the most famous towne of all Ireland, the Irish call it Bala Cleigh, that is, the town set upon hurdles, for the first foundation thereof was laid upon hurdles, by reason of the soft unsetled ground, like as Sivil in Spaine is said to bee built on piles, Venice on woolsack, or such like matter of foundation, it is an ancient towne, yet was much rent and defaced in the Danish warres; after it became subject to Edgar, King of England, who in his Charter cals it, The most noble City of Ireland.

Then the Norwegians got it in possession, and at last it fell to the English, who defended it against the Irish, and was planted with a Colony of Bristow men, on whom King Henry the second bestowed this City, and all the liberties and franchises which the men of Bristow have; of which City many write in praise and commendation, one thus:

A City, in regard of the people, noble, of the site most [Page 16] pleasant, by reason of the Sea and River meeting together, rich and plentifull in fish, for traffick famous, for the green plaines delightfull and lovely, beset with woods of mast­bearing-trees, incompassed about with Parkes of Deere▪ So another:

Develin, a maritine towne, is the mother City of all Ireland, having to it an Haven passing well frequented, for traffick and enter course of Merchants matchable with our London.

There are many Keyes and Wharfs along the River, jet­ting out to stop the violence of the water.

A very strong wall of rough building stone, reacheth a­long by the sides of it, which openeth at six gates, from whence there runne forth suburbs of great length.

Towards the east is Dammes gate, and neere it the Kings Castle, very strong both by art and nature; and an Armo­ry or storehouse built by Henry Lounders Archb. 1220.

Saint Andrews Church stands in the east suburbs, not farre from which is Trinity Colledge, which queene Eli­zabeth honoured with the title and priviledges of an Uni­versity.

The north gate openeth at the Bridge built by King John of Arch-worke, and this uniteth Oustmans towne to the City: for here the Easterlings, that came out of Norway, placed themselves about 1050.

In the south quarter of the City stand two gates, Or­monds, and Newgate the common prison.

These lead into Saint Thomas street, being large and long, where there stands a great Abbey of that name founded by Henry the second, for the expiation of the murder of Tho­mas A Becket, as some say.

Into the south openeth Pauls gate, and Saint Nicholas, which maketh a way into Saint Patricks suburbs, wherein [Page 17] standeth the Archbishops Palace, called Saint Sepulchers, and a stately Church dedicated unto Saint Patrick, having an arched roofe of stone, and a tall steeple.

It maintaines a Deane, a Chaunter, a Chauncellor, a Treasurer, two Archdeacons, and 22 Prebendaries; the only light and lampe (as the Parliament of that Kingdome said of it) of all godly and Ecclesiasticall discipline and order in Ireland.

There is another Cathedrall Church standing in the very heart of the city, called Christ-church; neere the south side of which standeth the towne Hall, built of square stone, and called the Tolestall, where the Sessions of the city are kept.

The chiefe Officer was a Provost, but Henry the fourth gave them liberty to choose a Major, and two Bayliefes, after King Edward the sixth, changed the two Bayliefes in­to two Sheriffes.

No inconvenience save only that the ebbing and flowing of the Sea doth much choake the mouth of Liffy, that hin­der great vessels from going up, and makes them to observe the high water for transporting of goods.

Where Liffy dyeth in the Ocean, Houth standeth com­passed in a manner round with the Sea: of which those no­bles Saint Lawrence hold the Barony.

Not farre off is Malehide or Molachid, belonging to the Talbots.

More within the countrey is Fingall, a little place, but very well husbanded, even the garner and store-house of this Kingdome, so great store of corne it yeeldeth every yeare.

This place discovers the idlenesse of the other Counties, which would equally answer the industry of the labourer, if it were imployed.

[Page 18]Divers worshipfull Families are placed here and there of English in this County, as namely the Plunkets, who are still Earle of Fingall, and Lord of Kellene, Barnwels, Rus­sels, Talbots, Dillons, Net [...]orvils, Lutterels, Burnels, Fitz­williams, Gouldings, Ushers, Cadlyes, Finglasses, Sarfeilds, Blackneys, Crucyes, Baths, &c.

NOw we come to the Province of Meth, because it lyethPart. 3. in the middle; for strength and safety called the Cham­ber of Ireland: peaceable likewise in the 38. yeare of Hen­ry the eight, divided into east Meth and west Meth.

The County of east Meth is compassed with Kildare, on the south with the County of Dublin, and the Sea east; on the north with the territory of Louth, and with the County of west-Meth on the west.

The whole is divided into eighteene Baronies, viz. Due­leke, Scrine, Slane, Margallen, Navan, Kenlis, halfe the Ba­rony of Fower neere Kenlis, Killalou, Clove, Moylagh, Log­herne, Old-castle, Luyn, Moyfeuraragh, Deese, Rath-touth, and Dunboyne.

Boyne, a faire River, springs out of the north side of the Kings County, runneth thorow this country.

In the remotest places on this side Boyne, are these me­morable places, Galtrim, Killin Castle, and Dunsany: On the further side of Boyne are Trimletstown, Gormanston and Slane: the Fleming Lord of it: of the next before Vicount Preston, Barnwell Baron of the other, Plunket Lord of Dun­sany.

Among these last stands a Market-towne, called Aboy, upon the River Boyn, which passing Glan Jores, that is, the Land of George runneth under Trim, a fine towne of trade, having a Castle erected by William Pepard.

So it flowes besides Navan, the Barony of the Lamberts, [Page 19] where the Bishops house is, who having no Cathedrall Church, doth all with the assent of the Clergie of Meth.

Boyn then running higher and swifter neere unto Dro­dagh, the Moores being intitled Vicount of it, loseth him­selfe in the Ocean.

Many chief Families of English blood are in this coun­tie: the Brabazens being Earles of east Meth.

The county of west Meth, so called in regard of the si­tuation, in relation to the former, and reacheth to the Ri­ver Shanon, and lyeth betweene the Kings county south, and Longford county north, to which it is not much inferiour in any thing, if answerable in civility.

Molingar is the chiefe towne, as lying in the midst, com­passed with many bogges.

It is parted into twelve Baronies, viz. Fertulogh, Ferbile, Delvin, of which the Nugents were Barons, and now Earls of west Meth: Fourry, as also Corkery, Moyassell, where the Tuts inhabited, Moygoisy, Rathcomire, Magirquirke, all pro­pagated from English blood; Clonlalon, Moycassell, meere Irish beare sway. And others of more harsh and unpleasant names, yet better liked of the Irish than our English names: so that one of them said he would not learne Eng­lish, lest it should make him have a wry mouth.

Hugh Lacy subdued this county, and had it given unto him by Henry the second, who intending to build a Castle, and bowing downe his head to shew the carpenter how hee would have a peece of timber squared, had his head cut off by the same carpenter with an axe which hee held in his hand.

The county of Longford lyeth on the north side of west Meth, made a county not long since, called Anale, before inhabited most by Irish, and those potent and turbulent.

Shannon runneth along this county on the side of it, and [Page 20] ariseth out of Therne hils in the county of le Trim, and flowing along makes many open pools, and after contracts himselfe againe, and then runneth into a large broad mere called Lough Regith, but after findes his bankes againe, on which stands the towne Athlon: from thence Shannon ha­ving passed the water-fall at Killoloe, being very large and deepe, six or seven fathome water: disjoynes, running with open armes to the imbracement of the city Limrick; from whence speeding about sixty miles in length, making here and there an Iland, and where he grew shallow and passible, there formerly stood forts and bulwarkes to hinder the in­rode of the pilfering Irish; and at last running with open mouth beyond knoc Patrick, is devoured by the westerne Ocean: two Irish Septs most powerfull and eminent in this county O-Pharoll Boy, and O-Pharoll Ban; the Lord Aungiers are dignified with the title of Baron of Long­ford.

Another Province is Conaght, wherein are six Counties.

1 Twomond, or the county Clare, which the Irish call Twowoun, that is, north-Mounster, for so formerly was the name, untill Sir Henry Syd [...]y laid it unto Con­naught, shooting out with a narrow promontory into the Sea westward, and on the east and south side, inclosed with the large streame of the River Shannon, and to the west with the maine, on the north barred with the county Gal­loway, so that there is no entring of it by land.

The territories of Clan Richard are very fruitfull and commodious both for sea and land, onely vexed with bad and idle creatures, lazie inhabitants.

O fortunati si sua norint:

Did they but truly consider the benefit that would acrew [Page 21] by industry, how would they indeavour? As hath appeared by the care and paines of some English of note and esteem, as the Muscegros and Clares, who have built many forts and townes, from whom Clare the chiefe towne takes name.

Other places of note Kilfennerag, and Killalloe Orlaon the Bishops seat, where there stands a Rock in the middest of the channell of Shannon, from which the water maketh a great noyse in the fall thereof, and which is a great barre and hinderance, that no vessels can passe any further.

Not farre from this banke stands Bunraty, made a Mar­ket towne by Henry 3. and is fortified with a Castle.

Seven miles off appeareth Clare, the principall towne, at a creek (flowing from Shannon) full of Ilands, the chiefe Families are Irish, (the English being degenerated whol­ly) mac Nemors, mac Mahon, O-Loughton, the O Brians, the chiefe of all, and of ancient descent, and now Earls of Tho­mond, and who did good service against the Irish in Queen Elizabeth's time.

The County of Galloway boundeth South on Clare, West on the Sea: North on County Maio, and East on Shannon, abounding both in corne and cattle.

The West-shore is very craggy and rugged, with a long border of greene Ilands; foure of which called Aran, make a Barony: also Inis Ceath, where the Monastery of Colman is a devout Saint founded for Scots and English; but their continuall discord made the English quite forsake it.

More within lyeth a lake called logh Corbes, spreading twenty miles in length, and three or foure in breadth, being navigable, furnished with three hundred small Ilands full of grasse and Pine-trees; but towards the Sea this lake is more streightned, and runnes under Gallway, Irish Gallive, called so from the people Gallaeci in Spaine; a chiefe town, and little inferiour to any in Ireland, built round like a [Page 22] Tower, a Bishops See much frequented by Merchants, in­vited by a commodious haven and safe roade.

Foure miles from hence stands Knoc-toe, that is, the hill of Axes; and not farre off Aterith, having a large wall, but poorely inhabited: the Birminghams are Barons of English race, but of Irish disposition.

The better sort of Irish are O Kelleis, O Maiden, O Flairles, mac Dervis &c.,

The country of clan Richard lyeth at the entrance of this County, and is annexed to it; it tooke the name from Richard de Burgh, out of which stock Henry the eight made an Earle of Clan Rich, whose eldest sonne hath the title of Baron of Dun Kellis: In this territory is the Archbishops See of Toam, unto which many Bishopricks were former­ly subject, but now only three.

The County of Maio limited on the West by the Oce­an, South by Gollway, East by the County of Roscoman, and North by the county of Slige, very rich and fruitfull, abounding with cattle, Deere, Hawks, and honey; taking its name from a little city which had a Bishops See, but now laid to Toam (as I said) but the inhabitants are under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Killaly▪ Lord Bourgh is Vicount Maio.

There is a remarkable lake at the West side of this cal­led Loghmesk, full of fish, and two small Ilands: this Coun­ty is inhabited with a valiant kind of people stout and har­die, most of which were invited by the rebels out of the Scottish Ilands the Hebrides to aid mac William, and mac Conell, who were defeated by Captain Bingham, Governor of Conagh.

The County of Slego lying along the Westerne Sea: betweene it and Ulster Northward runneth the River T [...]o­bis issuing from the lake Erne, it is parted from the borde­ring [Page 23] Counties: Le Trim and Roscoman by the vast Curlew hills; and cut in twaine by the River Suc, it is very fit and convenient for the breeding and rearing of cattle.

Sligo is the principall place of this county, where there stands a castle, under which is the Bay of Slego, a road full of good harbours for shipping; the chiefe names, besides the O Conors, are O Don, O Harris, O Ghar, and mac Do­nagh.

There is an honourable Family in Herefordshire, now dignified with the title of Baron Scudamore of Dromore, and Vicount of Sligo.

The County of le Trim, formerly called Breany, which incloseth the county of Sligo on the East, and was the pos­sessions of that ancient Family of the Rorck, untill Brion O Rorck rebelled in queen Elizabeths dayes, who was cha­sed into Scotland, and sent thence into England, and there hanged, so that his lands fell unto the Crown: the Sherards are Barons of le Trim; after it was made a county by the Lord Deputy, and called le Trim from the chiefe towne.

This county is full of rising hills, and very fat ranke pa­stures; so that one saith of it (but how true I know not) that it is so full of forrage, that unlesse cattle were kept sometimes from grazing, their fulnesse would endanger them: but so fruitfull and fertile it is, that in a small cir­cuit of ground, it was able at once to shew one hundred and twenty thousand head of beasts; here is the See of the Bi­shop of Achonry, united to the See of Elphin.

The head of the long and large river Shannon first shew­eth it selfe here.

The Families of note, O Rorck, O Murreis, mac Loch­leims, mac Glancheis, and mac Granelles, all meere Irish.

The County of Roscoman lieth Southwest from le Trim, made a county likewise by Henry Sidney Lord Deputy, be­ing [Page 24] long, but narrow, and bound with the Rivers Suc East­ward, and Shannon Westward, and on the North with Cur­lew mountaines, which are high and impassible untill a cut was made thorow them.

It is a plain fertile countrey, much abounding with cat­tle, because tillage is too painfull for the inhabitants.

There are foure Baronies in this county, lying under Curlew hils, by the River Shannon.

1 That of Boyle, where mac Dermot is chiefe.

2 That of Balin Tober, by the River Suc, where O Co­ner Dun, is of greatest power, and upon it joyneth Elphen the Bishops See.

Somewhat lower lyeth Roscomon, the Barony of O Co­ner Roo; but the Dillons since have been Earls of Roscommon, in which place is feated the chiefe town, but now poore and meane.

More Southward lyeth Athlone, the Barony of the O Kellies, so named of the head town, which hath a castle in it, and a most beautifull bridge of hewen stone, built by queen Elizabeth, and thought it the most convenient place for the Lord Deputies to reside, the better to suppresse se­ditions.

The fifth part or Province is Ulster, the North part of Ireland hath ten Counties.

THe County of Louth, in Irish Iriel or Uriel situated beyond Meth, and the River Boyn runneth out with a shore bending towards the North.

A fruitfull and pleasant soyle if well imployed neere Boyns mouth is seated Drogheda, or in English Tredagh, a fine town well peopled and frequented, so called of the Bridge; Boyne cutting it thorow; it hath both a Market [Page 25] and Faire granted by King Edward the second, as also a Mint once there; The Moores now beare the honour of Vi­count Drogheda.

Not farre off stands Mellifont Abbey, much praised by Saint Bernard, given by queene Elizabeth to Sir Edward Moore of Kent.

Seven miles off standeth Ardeth, an inland town, and a­bove it Dundakle, having a commodious haven, and for­merly a wall, which Edward Br [...], the King of Scots bro­ther did burne, but after both himselfe and forces slain and defeated by Sir John Birmingham: the Lord Gorges are Barons of it.

Eight miles from hence stands Carlingford, a port of good use and frequencie: the Swifts are honoured with the title of Vicounts of this place, the names of note are Ver­dons, Tates, Clintons, Bellewes, Donedalls, Wottons, and some others. Sir John Birmingham, before named, was formerly Earle of Louth. But Henry the eight honoured Sir Oliver plunket with the Barony of Louth.

The County of Cavan lying to the West of Louth, and formerly called East Brieny, the habitation of O Kellies, who have been powerfull in horsemen, for the suppressing of whom, Sir Henry Sidney divided it into seven severall Baronies, to hold in fee from the Crown of England; they have no townes, but dwell scattered here and there in forts and piles: they have a poore Bishop of their owne, whose See is at Kilmore; yet somewhat better than those Irish Bishops who had no other rents and revenues than three milch kine; which being dry, the Parishioners did change for a new milch one: the L. Lambert or Barons of Cavan.

The County of Fermanagh lyeth to the West and nore of Cavan, full of woods and many boggs, in the middest whereof is the greatest lake in Ireland, called logh Erne, reaching out forty miles, very full of inhabited Hands, [Page 26] some containing three hundred, others foure hundred a­cres of land, and the banks of the lake are set all with shady woods. Such plenty of fish, Pikes, Trouts and Salmons, that rhe nets are broken a peeces often with the great draughts.

At Bal Tarbet a little towne, first it stretcheth six miles in length from South to North; then for the space of six miles it narroweth, in which space standeth Inis Kil­lin a faire Castle, from which Brian mac Guir takes his Barony. Then it greatly inlargeth it selfe towards the Sea, as far as to Belek, neere unto which is a great down-fall of water, that most renowned Salmons leape.

Mac Guir was chiefe untill his rebellion; many of that Family dwel on both sides: and those beyond the Lake are counted of Ulster, and they on this side of Conagh.

The County Monaghan lyeth on the West side of the former great Lake, having many hills and much wood, not having any towne but Monaghan, which imparts its name to the County: which is divided into five Baronies, Iriel, Dartre, Ferey, Loughty, with the little territory Do­nemain. The mac Mahons, that is, the sons of Ursus, or the Bear, were powerfull, but through dissention among them­selves, and their rebellious practises, are rooted out: the Blanys are Barons of this place.

The County of Armagh lieth towards the east in length, compassed with the River Neury by East, with the County of Louth by South, and with the Blackwater by North. So fruitfull and fat a soyle, that if any compos or dung be laid on it in scorne of it, it becomes barren.

The first place is Fewes, a small territory belonging to Turlogh mac Henry, one of the Family of Oneal, thick set with wood, and by reason of the lakes and bogs impassible.

Next is Orry, in want of wood, where dwelt O Hanlon, and where stands Mont Norris, built by the Lord Mont­joy: and Ansley are Barons of Mont-norris; eight miles off [Page 27] neere the River Kalin lyeth Armagh, a poore town, yet an Archbishops See, and Metropolitan, the first Archbishop was Saint Malachie, much commended by Saint Bernard, yet nevermore happy than in the enjoying of that learned and right reverend Prelate Doct. Usher, now Archbishop, whose learning and piety is well known, and shews that an Archbishop and religious, though not always convertible, yet sometimes compatible. This towne in the last Rebel­lion was ruinated by Tyrone. The chiefe men are mac Genis O Hanlan, and many of the Sept of O Neal, which assume unto themselves severall by-names. The Blackwater East­ward runneth betweene this Shire and Tiroen: the Cha­worths have the dignity of Vicount from this place.

The County of Down lyeth Eastward on the Irish Sea, long and broad, on the North to the Lake Eaugh, and on the South to the County of Louth, from which it is seve­red by the river Newry, upon which standeth a town called Bagnall, in remembrance of that noble Marshall of Ire­land, Sir Richard Bagnall. Neere which town the River Banthelesse ariseth out of the mountains of Mourne, passing thorow the country of Eaugh, which pertains to mac Genis, it hath a Bishops See at Dromore; above which are the tracts of Kilwalto & Kilwarny much incumbred with woods and bogs, and lye inwardly: But by the shore the Sea doth winde in, and incroach upon the land, and makes many creeks, and the Lake spreadeth it selfe neere Dyffrin, a val­ley full of woods: anciently the Mandavils, afterward the Whits, so that it makes two Bilands, Lecall Southward, and Ardes Northward. Lecall very rich and battle ground, run­neth farthest into the East of any part of Ireland, and is the out-most Promontory, called S. Johns Foreland: the Crom­wels are intitled Vicount Lecall. In the very streight hereof lyeth Down, a very famous town, and a Bishops See, where Saint Patricks Tombe is said to be.

[Page 28]By the Sea side stands Argl [...]s, where S. Patrick founded a Church, and Strangford formerly called Strandford, where there is a safe harbour, at which the River Coyn with a violent course breaketh into the Sea from an honourable Family of the Smiths in Kent have the dignity of Vicount Strangford. A [...]des the other Biland called Audes, lyeth o­ver against Lecall to the North, parted with a small chan­nell out of the Lake Coyn, which on the West side inclo­seth it, as the sea doth on the East, and the Bay of Knocfergus on the North; the soyle is good and fruitfull, save only in the middest where it is moist and waterish plain; the shore is replenished with many small Villages; Vicount Mount­gomery hath his title from Ardes. At the Bay of Knocfergus there was an ancient Monastery of the same Order and name with that neere Chester, to wit, Banchor. More in­ward neer the Lake is the Bishops See of Conereth or Co­ner, whose Pastor was devout, but his flock wicked, as Saint Bernard describes them. Ardes was large in the possession of the Savages, one of whom was perswaded to build a Fort for his safeguard, made answer that he would not trust to a Castle of stones, but of bones, meaning himselfe and men. Above Ardes to the South-west lyeth Clanbay, that i [...], the yellow nation, a County full of woods, reaching to Knocfergus, the farthest part of Down, inhabited by the Fa­mily of the Oneals: the Popes are Earles of Down, and Ba­rons Bealter [...]erts.

The County of Antrim lyeth next in order unto Louth Northward, taking its name from a poore despicable town so called, and is seated in an out-corner of Ireland towards Scotland within three hours saile, and is limited with Knoc­fergu [...], Logh, Eaugh, and the river Ban: the mac Donels are Earls of Antrim. Knocfergus, in Irish Cangfergus, that is, the rock of Fergus, where a famous man of that name was drowned▪ that place is well inhabited, and more frequen­ted [Page 29] than the rest of that country, by reason of a good and commodious harbour, well fortified and strong: Vicount Chichester hath his title from it. Hard by lyeth the nether Clanboy possessed by the O Neals, untill their rebellion in the queens time: now the Hamiltons are stiled Vic: Clanb [...]y from this or the like place: neer Knocfergus there is a little Biland which runs out into the sea, is called the Ile Magie, four miles in length, and one in bredth, where was a Mona­stery of that name, highly praised by venerable Bede. Then begins the Glins, that is, the Vallies at Olderfleet, which is a bad road, and run out far into the sea: this place was for­merly much annoyed with the Ilander Scots, under the lea­ding of James mac Conel, Lord of Cantire in Scotland; but Shan O Neale slew him, and chased away his army. About this place, as far as the river Ban, is called the Rowt, the seat of the mac Guillies, a well esteemed Family. Dunluse castle, a strong one, seated on a rock that hangeth over the sea, the possessions of Surley Boy, that is, Charles the Yellow, who re­belled and was so chased by captain Meriman, his son slain, his cattell taken away, of which he had a great stock of 50000 Cows. So that he made his submission, and was re­ceived into the queens favour, and had a fair estate given unto him again upon some articles of agreement.

The county of Colran is beyond the Glinns westward, and lyeth between the river Ban and Lough Foyle, and confineth South, on the county of Tir-Oen. This Ban is a passing fair river, & riseth out of the Mountains of Mourn in the coun­ty Down, carrying himself, and his name into Lough Eaugh, or Lough Sidney, a great lake; and for the space of 30 miles, name and river are both drowned in the Lake; but after at Tome Castle he resumeth it again, then by Glaucolkein, a great receptacle of robbers and rebels; carrying a proud stream, he tumbleth into the Sea: More abounding in Sal­mons this, than any river in Europe, it being exceeding water [Page 30] in which such fish much delight. The principall Family is O Cahan a subject of O Neal, who in that vain ceremony of O Neals election, flings an old shoe over O Neals head. It is much molested by the Iland Scots, being poor, so that in Summer they seek for booty here. Towards the west of this lies Derry, a waste uncivil place, but through the great care, charge and industry of the City of London, so well planted, civilized and built, that it is scarce inferior to any place of Ireland; and have rightly named it London Derry: the Ridg­ways being Earles thereof, as Hu [...]h Hare was Lord Colrane of Colrane. There is likewise a Bishop of Derry.

The County of Tir-Oen lyeth Southwest from the for­mer country; it is upland from the sea, divided westward from Tir Conell by the river Liffer, from Antrim Eastward by Lough Eaugh, & bounded with the Blackwater, at South from the county Armagh a rough rugged uneven country 60 miles in length, and at some places 30 in bredth, severed by the Mountains called Sliew Gallen into the upper Tir-Oen Northward, and the nether Southward: there is first a poor Bishops See, called Cloghar, then Dungannon the chief ha­bitation of the Earls, also Uhlogahel, where O Neal the Ty­rant of Ulstor, was usually installed with his vain ceremo­nies: there was a Fort at Blackwater which hath been much assaulted by the Rebels which resort thither to a refuge; but having found another passage over below that is of such use; therfore the Lord Montjoy built Sconces on both sides of that passage; and at the Lake Eaugh raised another Gar­rison Fort, and called it by his own name, Mountjoy. This Lake incloseth the west-side of Tir-Oea, and is much sup­plyed by the River Ban; a large lake 30 miles in length, and very plentifull in fish. And Nature hath shewed her skill in bestowing variety upon the banks of it, as the shady grove [...], the medows alwayes green, the fertile corn-fields, if tilled, the bending and hanging hills; the warbling Brook [Page 31] gliding along it, nothing wanting for delight or profit, and by that condemns the lazy lithernesse of the inhabitants, who suffer much of it to lye waste. In the upper Tir-Oen lyes Strahan, a Castle well known, as being the seat of the O Neals there are many more fortresses and towers with narrow loop-hooles, unto which are adjoyned houses of turf and thetch, with hedges and ditches round about, to keep their Cows from robbers.

The County of Donegall, or Tir-Conell, it lyeth in the norwest corner of Ireland, a champion country full of Ha­vens, bounded with the sea North and West, and parted on the East from Tir-Oen with the river Liffer; and from Co­nagh with the Lake Erne. Liffer at his very rising maketh a large stream, and spreadeth into a Lake, wherin is an Iland, in which neer to a Monastery is a narrow vault made by U­lisses (as some fabulously report) when he descended to hel; the inhabitants call it Ellan a frugadory, that is, the Ile of Purgatory, and Saint Patricks Purgatory: So in that place there is Saint Brendans Purgatory, of which much super­stition is invented: this river Liffer neerer the sea, it maketh another Lake, called Logh-foile, or Logh Der; and Derry, of which I spake before, bounds on it. From this river the fitz-Williams take their Barony. Here is the fair foreland a pro­montory Robogh, with a small town having a B [...] See. From hence Westward runs a cragged shore unto the mouth of Swilly lake; & so to the utmost promontory, which they cal the Rams-head, to another promontory cald▪ S. Helens-head.

More Southward on the shore is that good and com­modious Haven Calebig, whence you may see the ruines of Sligah castle.

A little lower, not far from the mouth of Logh Erne is Donegall, that is, the town of the Gallirians in Spain, the Earldoms have been to the O Donels, who held it untill their rebellious hearts cast off all true obedience.

[Page 32]Thus hast thou seene, courteous Reader, the limbs and parts of the Kingdom of Ireland, laid open unto thee rich and plentious, as appears by those large revenews it hath yeelded unto the English Crown, when as in King Edward the third his dayes some say forty thousand pounds yearly, the Custome-house at this time duly payd into the Exche­quer, is thirty thousand pound per annum. And great was that improvidence (if I may say it) both in civill govern­ment and Church discipline, that have suffered those fire­brands of the Christian world, the Jesuites, to raise there so sudden and great flame of Rebellion, which wee hope (by Gods providence, working with the wisdom and pru­dence of this present State now assembled) to see extinct; to the utter ruine and overthrow of that bloudy religion of Popery; and by this means so to root out, and disperse those unconstant and various dispositions, that all hope of ayde and assistance from others, and opposition in them­selves shall be quite taken away.

And further, by this description mayest thou observe how to entertaine the present profer, made by the honoura­ble Houses of Parliament to thy best contentment and ad­vantage; how to get sure footing in an Iland so great, so neere a neighbour to England, so fruitfull in soil, so rich in pasture more than credible; beset with shady; plea­sant, profitable woods, inriched with many minerals (if sought after) watered with so many Rivers, invironed with so many commodious Havens, lying so fit and open for sailing into the most wealthy Countreys, so that he will seeme short witted (whose wealth will bear it) that em­braces not the present opportunity to inrich himselfe in a plantation of his posterity, in the middest of such worldly felicity.

The end of the first part.

The second Part treating of the naturall Disposition, Apparell, and Dyet of the Irish, and of their severall Rebellions.

THe Irish for the most part are proud & haugh­ty, cruell and barbarous, variable and in­constant in disposition, apt and forward to Tumults, rebellious to Government, false and hollow-hearted, more ready in promise then performance, the meaner lazie, idle, and sluggish especially the wild Irish, and the English Irish much degenerated.

Saint Bernard in the life of Malla Ehy Bishop of Coner, who reports that when he undertook his charge there, perceived that he was not come unto men but unto beasts, no where had he until then experience of such, in the most barbarous parts that ever hee came unto: no where had hee found for Manners so froward, for Rites so devillish, for Faith so impious, for Laws so barbarous, for Discipline so stiffe­necked, & for Life so filthy. Christians they were in name, but Pagans in deed, lawfull Marriages they contracted none, or such as are shamefull even with children of ten yeeres old.

So Langfrank complains to a King of Ireland, Therdel [...]c [...], that the Irishmen forsake and leave their Wives at their [Page 26] pleasure without any just cause, and marry any others, even such as be neer of kin to themselves, or to the said forsaken wives: and if an other man with like wickednesse hath cast off his wife, her likewise with like rashnesse they joyn with­all.

With which Rites if this Nation of the Irish had not bin corrupted almost to our days, both the right of lineall suc­cession among them had been more certain, and as well the Gentry as the vulgar had not embrued themselves so wic­kedly with the effusion of so much bloud of their own kin­red about their inheritance and legitimation, nor had they become so infamous in these respects among other for­reigne Nations.

And further concerning their natures and disposition, you may take the relation from the Earle of Essex his Let­ter to Q▪ Elisabet gathered by his experience.

The people in generall have able bodies by nature, and have gotten by custome ready use of armes, and by their late successe, boldnesse to fight with your Majestis forces.

In their pride they value no man but themselves, in their affections, they love nothing but idlenesse and licentious­nes, in their Rebellion, they have no other end but to shake off the yoke of obedience, to root out all remembrance of the English Nation in that Kingdome. This is the generall quarrell of the Irish, and they who doe not professe it, are either so few, or so false, that there is no account to be made of them.

The Irish Nobility and Lords of Countries do not only in their hearts affect this quarrell, and are divided from us in Religion, but have an especiall grudge against the Eng­lish Government, because it limiteth and tyeth them, who have and still would be supream Lords, if not Tyrants. The Towns being inhabited by men of the same Religion and [Page 27] birth with the rest, are so carried away with the love of gaine, and for that cause supply the Rebels with what they want: therefore they must be strictly looked unto.

The Laws of the Irish was that of fish and birds, the great devoure the lesse, the strong the weak, having but one Free-holder in a County, and he Lord both of estate and lives of the rest.

For their succession to inheritances, it was by the law or custome called Tanistry, mentioned by that excellent Hi­storian Sir Walter Rawleigh: which is this, that a man is pre­ferred to a boy: the Uncle before the Nephew, and com­monly the most active, not the next heire is chosen, to hin­der the inroad and oppression of the next adjoyning Lord, between whom there was alwayes contention, which did so wast and consume them, or else being idle, the Land would not have sustained them.

Concerning the apparell of the Irish it is after a slovenly manner, and the very English, there are much infected with this nasty filthinesse, especially lowzie beds, and foule lin­nen, except where the chiefe English live, as in Dublin, Wa­teford, and Kinsale, which in some measure retaine the English neatnesse; but for the meere wilde Irish it may be said of them as of the Germans, that they wander slovenly and naked, and lodge in the same room with their cattle.

Among them the better sort used to weare close bree­ches and stockings of the same, of red or some light co­lour, so straight that the unseemly parts of the body were exposed unto view.

They used likewise a loose Coat and a three covered Mantle of coarse cloth, with a cap of Thrums.

Their linnen is coarse and slovenly, they seldome cast off a shirt untill it be rotten, and are coloured with Saffron to avoid Lice which are incident to those people, and they are [Page 28] very nimble in taking Lice in a Sunny day, or a green bank.

But in the more Northern parts before the strict civili­zing of them in King James his time, both men and women went naked in the very Winter, having only their secret parts covered with a rag and a loose Mantle cast over them.

Thus naked they walke with their sword tyed unto them with a wyth instead of a belt.

And at night men and women lye in a Ring together, round about the fire, in the middle of the roome with their feet towards it, folding their head and upper parts in their woollen Mantle first steeped in water to keep them warm, for they say, woollen wetted, and warmed by the heat of their bodies, doth preserve heat.

The Church Discipline hath beene formerly and now is after the same manner with that in England, by Arch­bishops, whereof there are foure, Bishops 29, many more formerly.

It has beene anciently a great Nursery of Religion and Pietie: even from (if not before) Saint Patricks time, and Saint Bridget his Disciple, who did advance Religion and Piety much in that Kingdome, as also in sundry other pla­ces of Christendome.

The Bishops were formerly consecrated by the Arch­bishop of Canterbury, untill the yeere 1142: at what time Pope Eugenius the fourth, sent Cardinall Paperio, who to­gether with Christian Bishop of Lismore, Legat of all Ire­land, held a Councell at Mell, and with the consent of the Bishops, Abbots, Kings, and Dukes of Ireland, established foure Archbishops, videlicet Armagh, Dublin, Cassile, and Toam. But the estate of the Clergy has been very meane there, so that by reason of devouring impropriations in the whole County of Connought. The Incumbents stipend is not above forty shillings, and at some places but fifteene [Page 29] shillings per annum, that the people must needs be better fed then taught.

Their allowance being answerable to the Irish Bishops in former time, who had but three milch Kine allowed them, and when one was dry, the Parish did change her for another.

Which makes the Gospell to languish where it finds so poore entertainment; that the Messengers thereof through▪ want and necessity should live so mean and contemptibly: and it gives great advantage to the Priests and Jesuits both to abound and seduces who have mayntenance from else­where.

The right and title of the English Crown to Ireland was by Conquest, by Surrender, and Submission.

THe Danes first invaded it with forreigne forces, then the Norwegians got possession of it; but they were rooted out by the policie of that King of Meth, who had a beautifull Virgin to his daughter, with whom Turgesius was much inflamed, requiring her to satisfie his lust, to whose will the poore Prince could not assent, yet durst not deny. So that he told him he had at home a Bevy of faire Ladies▪ out of which hee should choose for his pleasure. Turgesius hearing that, wished these Damsels Cupids wings for their more speedy arrivall.

But the other attired certaine young men of courage in womens apparell, and had them conducted into the Kings Chamber, from whence all his attendance were comman­ded, but when hee expected more kinde embraces, hee was suddenly slaine in the place; so the Norwegians were de­stroyed, and the Irish enjoyed their estate untill the yeere 1172.

[Page 30]When Dermet Ma [...] Morck King of Lemster, having for­ced the wife of Ma [...]rice O Rork King of Meth (a light wo­man, and with consent) by whose husband the other was pursued so eagerly with the revenging sword; that hee was driven to quite his Kingdome of Lemster, and fly to Eng­land for succour to Henry the Second, who very willingly entertained this occasion; who had long sought occasion of getting Ireland.

Yet not willing to entertain it at the first in person (being not a matter of that consequence for himself to undertake)

He gave Dermot licence to draw-what power of Vo­luntiers he could into that action.

Who applyed himself to Wales, where he found a va­liant Gentleman of Norman Race, one Robert Fitz Stephen, who willingly undertook the service with some Voluntiers whose happy and good successe, caused Richard Earle of Pembroke, called Strong-bow, being the principall man in­vited by Dermot, and that with the promise of his daugh­ter and Kingdome in marriage, the Earle himselfe with two hundred men at arms, and a thousand other Souldiers who arrived in the Bay of Waterford 1171, and presently mar­ched towards the town of Waterford and took it by force the next day, to the exceeding terrour of that Nation.

Dermot then accomplishes the match, giving the Earle his daughter Eva; with which Ring of Mariage he affian­ced that Island unto this Kingdome: for hee went on with such resolutions, that hee in little space subdued much of Ireland.

Which news being carried unto Henry the Second, hee made hast over thither, that hee might have the glory of the Conquest, and seemed to be displeased with the Earle for his forwardnesse, and his rigorous using of that people, recalling all from thence, under pain of confiscation of [Page 31] their goods in England; but the King seemed somewhat ap­peased before his going over, which was 1172, at which time landing at Waterford, hee imprisoned Robert Fitz Ste­phen, as having gone over without his leave, but not long after released him, but took Weiford and other Territo­ries from him.

Thus did hee receive the homage of divers Irish petty Kings, willing to obtain them by gentle means.

And keeping his Christmasse there in great state, and set­ling the Government of the Church, hee is unexpectedly called into England, leaving Hugh Lacy at Dublin.

Who in ensuing time rebelled, and were brought under by King John, who was the first that planted English Laws and Officers in Ireland, and both annexed that Kingdome and fastned Wales to the Crown of England: and was the first who enlarged the Royall style with Lord of Ireland.

In the yeere 1339, there was a generall warre betweene the English and Irish, wherein many of the Irish perished, after which time matters were quiet untill the eighteenth yeere of Richard the Second, being 1400.

Who went over then with a great Army, but having ac­cepted of the Rebels submission he returned into England: during whose time and till the civill warres in England all matters were setled and composed without any charge or assistance out of this Kingdome.

But in the time of the wars between York and Lancaster, wherein many Noble Families were quite extinguished in England, many English came out of Ireland either to take part of possession of some inheritances, which fell unto them by the death of their friends.

So they have but small regard of what they leave behind in Ireland. The meere Irish rushed on the forsaken lands, so that growing rich and proud they began to kick against au­thority; [Page 32] willing to cast off the English yoke, and the Eng­lish Pale had its limits sometime more and sometimes lesse, according as they were able to mayntaine.

But when those civill discords were blown over, and all things became calme by the good successe of Henry the Se­venth, and leasure afforded to look towards Ireland, which then harboured a Rebell against him, one Perkin Warbeck who connterfeited himself Richard the Third, but was sup­pressed by the sending over of 1000 men.

Again, Henry the eighth sent over 500 souldiers to sup­presse the Geraldines of English Race.

Afterward, all peaceable, untill Queene Elizabeths time, when they saw themselves out of hope to plant Popish Superstition in any of her Dominions.

Then Religion (never untill that age) became the cloake for Rebellion, and the Roman Locusts, the incendiaries of Christendome, to mayntaine the Popes usurped authority, breathed every where fire and sword, and worse against her sacred person and Dominions. And taking advantage of the blinde zeale of the ignorant Irish unto Popery: working on their variable condition. Boulstering up their hopes and hearts with that old saying,

He that will England win, must at Ireland first begin.

By which means they raised two dangerous Rebellions in that Country.

By the Earle of Desmond one 1578, the other of Tyrone, about 1590, plotting and intending, although it brake not out till afterward.

This Gerald Earle of Desmond of English Race, whose Progenitours had done good service against the Irish, and borderers of Wales, in the behalfe of the English King, had [Page 33] the Earldome of Kildare given them, and Earles of Des­mond, by Edward the Third.

But in Henry the Eighth's days, one of them being Lord Deputy, and questioned for his ill government, on which occasion Thomas Fitz Gerald his sonne took armes, but was soon suppressed himselfe, and five of his Uncles being ta­ken and executed.

Queen Mary restored the Family to honour and estate.

But after Gerald Earle of Desmond, 1578, rebelled a­gainst Queene Elizabeth unto whose aide came certaine bands of Italians and Spaniards, sent by Pope Gregory the twelfth, and Philip King of Spaine, who landed at Swir­ [...]ic, and built a Fort called Del ore, wherein they were be­sieged by Arthur Grey Lord Deputy of Ireland, soone taken and put to the sword: And the Earle of Desmond flying in­to the Woods, being betrayed by his own followers, and his head cut off. So this fire soon vanished into smoake, and the Earldome by Parliament annexed to the Crowne, and made a County: with Sheriffs appointed yeerly to be cho­sen by the Lord Deputy.

Upon the Attainder of this Earle and his Confederates, much land fell unto the Crown, viz. 574628 acres English mesure, wherof great part was restored to the offenders, the rest divided into Signories, was granted by Letters Patents unto certaine Knights and Esquires English, who were cal­led Undertakers.

In Kerry and Desmond, by Patent to Knights 30560 A­cres with yeerly rents 524 pounds, six shillings and eight peace sterling.

In Limrick by Patent to Knights and Esquites, and to their heirs were granted 96165 Acres, with rents nine hun­dred thirty three pounds, foure shillings half peny sterling.

In Corke, by Patent to Knights and Esquires, and to their [Page 34] heires were granted 88037 Acres, with Rents, five hundred and twelve pounds, seven shillings and six peace half p [...]ny sterling.

In Waterford and Tipperary 22910 Acres, with Rents three hundred and three pounds, three pence sterling.

But these Undertakers having got so large a proportion of Lands, and so little care to plant them with English Co­lonies; and build and fortifie them with Castles as by Pa­tent they were tied, but for private ends without any regard to the publick good or her Majesties bounty sold them ei­ther to Papists or to Irish ill affected unto the English, which was a great prejudice to the State of that Kingdom, and the seeds of the ensuing Rebellion raised by Tyrone.

Concerning which I will briefly shew unto the Reader such collections as I have gathered from divers Authors.

COncerning the name and title of O Neale; it is in so much esteeme, that even those honourable titles of Earles, Marquesses, Dukes and Princes are despised in re­gard of that: and in such reverent regard among the Irish, that it is thought hee deserves the greatest curse in the world to fall upon him that shall dare to lay violent hands upon him: nor have any loyall subjects a more dreadfull awe to violate the person of their sacred Prince, then these people have to touch their great O Neale.

So that two thousand pound being offered by Proclama­tion to any that should betray him in his vast Campe, pre­vailed nothing at all, although hee were proclaymed Trai­tour, and held guilty of that crime by Act of Parliament to take that name upon him.

Neere T [...]llogh Oge, there was a stone Chaire placed in the open field, wherein he sate down that was created; then [Page 35] we whose office it was, took an old shooe and cast it over his head, proclayming him O Neale.

Henry O Neale and C [...]nm [...]re matching into the Family of the Earles of Kildare, by this their good fortune grew so insolent and proud, that by their cruell tyranny they grew intolerable.

C [...]n Batto, because lame, succeeded his father in the dig­nity of O Neale, and cursed his posterity if any of them should learne English, sow corne, or build houses to enter­tain the English.

This mans greatnesse grew in suspition with Henry the eighth, having been a party in the former Rebellion of the Earle of Kildare: which hee perceiving went into England, renounced the title of O Neale, and surrendred his Lands unto the King.

Which not long after was regranted unto him by Henry the eighth to hold in fee, together with the title of the Earl of Tyrone to him, and to Matthew his reputed sonne, and to the heires of their bodies lawfully begotten.

At which time also Matthew was created Baron of Dun­gannon: This Matthew till hee was fifteene yeeres of age, was reputed the sonne of a blacksmith of Dundalke, whose Wife Con had formerly kept; and she at her death gave him unto the said Con, as being his sonne which hee did accept, and appointed him to be Lord of Dungannon, but hee was murthered in his fathers life time by Shant, that is, John O Neale the lawfull heire of Con, but Matthew the base sonne left Brian who was murthered by O Donell at the instance of Shan.

And Hugh and Cormack▪ who by the means and help of the English were preserved, yet both proved Rebels, Shan being barbarous and bloudy, did [...]ave and rage in a cruell manner over the Lords and people of Vlster.

[Page 36]Began to dispute that his father had no power to surren­der to Henry the Eighth, being but a termer: that Matthe [...] was base borne, that himselfe was O Neale, and had Sovereigne power and authority over the Lords of Vlster.

Who taking armes overthrew O Really, and took Callogh O Donnell, Lord of Tir Conell, cast him and his children into prison, took his wife from him, and bore himselfe as abso­lute King of Vlster.

But hee was soone quelled by the forces of the Earle of Sussex, the then Lord Deputy: and by perswasion of the Earle of Kildare, went into England, and made great sub­mission to Queen Elizabeth, and promising allegiance, was received courteously.

And so returning conformed himselfe awhile in civill manner, and did some good service against the Scots, killed their Leader, and drove them out of Vlster; howbeit hee suddenly fell to his old byas, and played the Tyrant over the Lords of Vlster; who craved aid of the Lord Deputy to suppresse him; but he grew the more outragious, and with fire and sword drave Mac Guir, Lord of Fermanagh, out of his Country: set fire on the Metropolitan Church of Ar­magh, and laid siege to Dundalke, but had the repulse by the Garrison and assistance of the Major.

But Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy, taking the field with some forces: sent Edw. Raldalph a brave Souldier to the North side of Ireland, where at Derry at Coghfoyle in a pitchfield (though hee lost his life) yet gave the rebell such an overthrow, that he was never able to appeare any more abroad; so that hee was minded to have submitted with a halter about his neck to the Deputy, but by the perswa­sion of his Secretary hee tried, the friendship of the Scots, who received him kindly, but not long after slue him.

[Page 37]So that presently after Shan by a Parliament at Dublin, was attainted of high Treason; and all that hee had fell to the Queen. Then Turlogh, Linnogh, took the title off O Neal, for feare of the children of Shan, and Matthew the bastard, but being aged was quiet, and lived peaceably.

Now Hugh son of the base son Matthew lived somtime in Ireland, but much in the Court of England, commonly cal­led Baron of Dungannon, who had served with a troop of horse under the Queen against the Lord of Desmond, and behaved himselfe so valiantly, that hee had given him a yeerly pension off a hundred marks.

He was a man of mean stature, but of a strange body, able to endure labours, watching, hunger and cold, being indu­strious and active, valiant, affable, and apt to manage great affaires, and of a hgh dissembling, subtile, and profound wit.

He put up a Petition to the Parliament in Ireland, that he might enjoy the inheritance of his Grandfather Con, and his father, granted to be Earles of Tirone, which by the help of Sir John Perrot, Lord Deputy, was procured of the Queen.

And so hee handled the matter (as well knowing the hu­mour of the Court of England) that through the Queenes mediation he got Turlogh, Linnogh, to surrender his govern­ment upon some conditions.

After whose death he usurped the title of O Neale, which was capitall, yet coloured it over with a pretence, that it was only to hinder others.

In the yeer 1588, when that great Armado of Spaine was scattered by the English, and many of the ships cast away on the Irish coast: it is thought that this Hugh lodging and en­tertaining many of them, was by them seduced and per­swaded to Rebellion.

And going into England, he was there detained prisoner, [Page 38] for that he came without the licence of the Lord Deputie, Sir William Fitz Williams: but on submission, and certaine Articles proposed to him by the Lords, and he willingly accepting promising to confirme them before the Lord De­puty in Ireland.

In the yeere 1590, it hapned that Con the sonne of Shan O Neale, accused Hugh of treasonable practices before the Lords in England.

All which Hugh vehemently denied; but after getting his accuser in his power, he hanged him.

In August, the same yeere Hugh Earle of Tyrone, (for so hereafter we must call him, did promise under his hand be­fore the Lord Deputy: and counsell of Ireland to performe those Articles agreed upon in England, but used many ex­cuses to put off the execution of them.

And about this time Hugh Ror Mac Mahone was put to death by the Lord Deputy Williams very unjustly (as some say) to the great scandall of the Lord Deputy; and it cau­sed great complaints and out-cryes among the Irish, who presently preferred their grievances against that Deputy▪ and he driven to answer them.

And upon this fact the government of the English in the North became odious, and they did strive what they could to shake it oft, by expelling the Sheriffs from among them, fearing the like usage as M [...]c Mahone. And 1593, Mao Guir chiefe of Fermanagh stood upon his guard, accusing the De­puty of injustice in the businesse off Mahone, and set upon Captain Willis, and drove him and his guard being Sheriffe into a Church, and would have put them all to the sword, had not Tyrone, interceded for them.

Whereupon the Deputy got into his hands Eniskillen Mac Guirs castle, and proclaimed him a Traytor▪ and like­wise gave out some hard speeches concerning Tyrone, which [Page 39] did much exasperate him, and caused him to combine with the Lords of the North, to defend their Honours, Laws, and Liberties: and used two notable plots to assist him to­wards this Rebellion.

1 To make his men skilfull, hee profered to serve the Queen with 500 men of his own.

And for that end procured expert Captains to exercise them; and so often changing these his men, got most of his followers to be able Souldiers.

Secondly, hee pretended to build a faire house at Dun­gannon, and so got much lead to make Battlements, which after he cast into bullets.

In the meane time Sir Henry Bagnal Marshall of Ireland, whose Sister Tyrone had married, did preferre many Arti­cles against him, unto which hee answered so cunningly, saying, that the Marshall did it out of spleen of purpose to detain his sisters portion, and seemingly quitted himselfe; but afterward he grew jealous of his owne safety.

At this time Gauranus a Priest whom the Pope had made Primate of all Ireland, seduced certaine Irish Lords, among which Mac Guir was chief, and was overthrowne by Sir Richard Bingham, and the Priest slaine: in which service Ty­rone was against Mac Guir with the Queens forces▪ but se­cretly prepared for his Rebellion.

Then the sonnes of Shan O Neale, were prisoners in Du­blin Castle, which had they been kept, had been a bridle in Tyrones mouth; but by connivance of Sir William Fitz Wil­liams the Deputy, were suffered to escape, and so Tyrone got them into his custody, nor would he release them although thereunto required.

But covering his Rebellion, with feeming feares of his conceived enemies, made daily complaints of the Mar­shals envy; and what wrong he had done him.

In the yeere 1594, the Rebellion burst out; Sir William [Page 40] Russel came in the place of Fitz Williams, at which time Vl­ster men openly distressed her Majesties forces; and Tyrone was supposed to countenance them.

Yet he appeared in person at Dublin, before the new Lord Deputy, desiring her Majesties favour, out of which hee had falne, rather by the calumny of them, then any cause of his own.

But the Marshall charged him with great matters, ready to prove them; so that the Deputy thought fit to stay him, but the Councell of Ireland were of the contrary opinion, so he was let goe, but the Queene was much displeased for it, and sharply reproved the Deputy, but he laid the fault on the Councell of Ireland.

And presently tooke the field with his Army to relieve Eniskillen in Ferminaght, and in the Winter following, there was little done because there was some Treaties of peace, but the Rebels grew so peremptory in their demands, that it was not liked by the Lords in England.

And therefore sent over two thousand old souldiers that had served in Britany, and a thousand more taken up in Eng­land, which news Tyrone hearing, and that the Castle of Balishannan, and Relike, were to be planted with English Ga­risons. Drew his forces together, and tooke the Fort of Blackwater, razed it: and broke down the bridge there, and now the Northerne Rebels appeare, but Tyrone shewed a seeming desire of pardon.

This Lord Deputy fearing this storme might fall upon him, desired the Counsel of England to send him an assistant of some experienced Souldiers; which hee meant should be under his command; but the Lords mistaking his mean­ing, sent over Sir John Norris, a great Commander and well experienced, that would scarce give way to any; who was styled Lord Generall, and to command in chief, in the ab­sence of the Lord Deputy.

[Page 41]But the emulation that grew between these two hinde­red the businesse; yet both of them went into the field, with the Army towards Armagh.

Tyrone makes suit again by Letters for pardon, but being intercepted, came not unto the Deputies hands, untill hee had proclaymed him Traytor.

But upon Tyrones instance, Commissioners were appoin­ted by the Queen to treat with the Rebels.

At which time Tyrone complained of the Marshall of ma­ny injuries.

And his demands were, that hee might have his Wives portion of the Marshall, and the free exercise of his Reli­gion, and many other.

But when Articles were propounded on the Queenes part, they set so light of them, and made such scorne, that the Conference brake off: though the Queen for sparing of bloud, had resolved to give them any reasonable Condi­tions.

This parley ended, the Lord Deputy, and the Lord Ge­nerall comming to Armagh, did so much terrifie the Rebels that Tyrone left the Fort of Blackwater, burnt the Town of Dungannon, and pull'd down his house there, and betooke himselfe to the Woods.

Sept. the third, Hugh Earle of Tyrone, Hugh O Donel; Brian O Rourk, Hugh Mack Guir, Brian Mac Mahone, Sir Arthur O Neale, Cormac Mach Baron Tyrones brother, Con O Neale Tyrones base sonne, Henry Oge O Neale, Turlogh Mac Henry O Neale, Brian Art Mac Bryan, and one Francis Mountford were (though absent) indicted, and condemned of high Treason.

Now the Lemster Rebels being revolted grew strong, and forraged even to the gates of Dublin, to the County of Wexford.

[Page 42]This Winter passed without any matter of moment, be­cause indeed, Generall Norris not yet acquainted with Ty­rones subtilties, seemed to harken to peace, thereby to re­clayme him by faire means.

In the yeere 1596, the Queen granted another Commis­sion for the Treaty of Peace, and offered very largely, and at Dundalke Tyrone upon his knees made an humble submis­sion to the Queen before these Commissioners, and made many requests, promising reformation, and many circum­stances and Ceremonies then passed. But these inconve­niences followed, these delayes being no better then delu­sions, that the Vlster Rebels had rest this Summer, and O Neale in the midst of this Negotiation, required aid from Spain.

Sir Richard Bingham a valiant wise man, on some com­plaint of the Irish, was sent for over into England, and Sir Coniers Clifford sent in his place: but afterwards Sir Richard was againe employed in great command in that service.

Again, an other Treaty of Peace with Tyrone, who layd the cause of his disloyalty, on the wrongs that were offe­red him; and so with many dissembling words, oaths, and protestations, making answer to some questions concerning Spaine, he departed.

This Lord Deputy being recalled into England, and the Lord Bourgh or Borough was sent over in his place, with ab­solute authority: so that Sir John Norris was much disheart­ned thereby: and was thought of purpose for that end sent over by the Earle of Essex, whom Generall Norris had di­pleased by undertaking an action with lesse force then the said Earle required.

At this Dep▪ arriving Generall Norris was commanded to his charge, which was Lord President of Munster, and not to stirre thence without leave, which thing did present­ly [Page 43] break his heart, so that he died there in the armes of his brother Sir Thomas Norris.

Now Tyrone submitted or sweld as he saw occasion.

So that the Lord Deputy perceiving it presently, made his way towards Tyrone, thinking it best to strike at the head; who encountred the Irish in a narrow path, and made them give way: hee tooke the Fort at Blackwater, and left Souldiers in it, which being not long, after assailed by the Rebels, was againe relieved by the Lord Deputy, who im­mediatly fell sick, as hee was passing to Tyrones house at Dungannon; and not long after departed this world, to the great joy of the Rebels, who found his severity disadvan­tagious to them.

Then Sir Thomas Norris, Lord President of Munster, under the great Seale of England, was made Lord Justice of Ireland, who repaired to Dublin; but being very ill through the great grief he conceived for the losse of his brother in a moneths space, he made suit to be released.

So that Adam Loftus Lord Chancelour, the Lord Arch­bishop of Ireland, and Robert Gardiner chiefe Justice of Ire­land, by Patent from England, were made Lord Justices for the Civill Government.

And the Earle of Ormond, was made Lord Lievtenant and chief Generall of all Martiall affaires.

Tyrone again sues for pardon, and proffers submission, saying, that it was offered injuries that compelled him thus to revolt: So there was another meeting appointed at Dundalke Decemb. 22. where on his knees hee shewed great sorrow; and made humble submission, desiring a cessation from Armes eight weeks, now this submission being sent into England, the Lord Lievtenant received authority from the Queen to make a finall conclusion; so that another mee­ting was appointed, March 15 at Dundalke; where many ar­ticles [Page 44] were propounded to the Rebels, which they slightly regarded; but for better deliberation, Tyrone desired the tenth of April, for another meeting.

But Tyrone with pretences did frustrate all these parleys, and though hee had his generall pardon granted, yet conti­nued he in his disloyall courses; so that on the former In­dictment 1595, he is after out-lawed in 1600.

But he being prepared and his men expert, by trayning and often skirmishing, whereas at the first two or three of them were employed in the discharge of a Musket, hee left off to dissemble and submitted no more, but gives incou­ragement, and that with good successe unto his Confede­rates.

First, he sends ayde to the Lemster Rebels to annoy the English, and assaulted the Fort of Blackwater; as being a hinderance in his passing too and fro.

But Captaine Williams valiantly defended it with great losse to Tyrone, who went and lay further off, but this Cap­taine and his Company continued their defence bravely untill August, though much pinched with want of victuals: when Sir Henry Bagnal Marshall of Ireland with foot and horse of the English endeavoured to relieve it, and passing along the narrow passages through the thicke Woods be­yond Armagh.

Where the Rebell with all his force assayled him, and bearing a deadly hatred and malice against the Marshall, against whom he bent his whole strength, and commanded his Souldiers so to doe, that he had the fortune to kill him; yet like a valiant Gentleman he sold his life at a deare rate, to many of the Rebels. But his fall caused our mens hearts to fayle; whereupon the Rebell had the greatest advantage against the English: the like never hapning againe, called The Defeat at Blackwater. [Page 45] wherein we lost thirteen valiant Captains, and fifteen hun­dred old Souldiers: whereupon likewise the surrender of the Fort ensued.

It was thought this misfortune to happen from an over­sight of the Marshall, who made the Van of the army too suddenly to retreat; and too sudden faces about, puts feare in the Reare; and makes them suppose it may be a running away.

For as Sir Walter Raleigh, in his fifth book & first part of the History of the World, that as well in the Wars of these la­ter ages as in former times it hath been found ever extreame dangerous to make a Retreat in the head of an enemies army: as he renders the reason, but I cannot digresse any further.

This overthrow much increased the insolencie of the Re­bels, the Rebells having gotten courage and armes thereby, and Tyrone termed the Deliverer of his Countrey, and the authour of their liberty.

All Vlster in Rebellion, Connagh revolted, and the Rebels in Lemster a continuall terrour and vexation to the English.

And now Tyrone sent forces into Munster, where after the departure of Sir John Norris, most of the County revolted, and now brake out like Lightning, making havock, and de­stroying in a barbarous manner. And for the better counte­nancing of the matter, a new pretended Earle of Desmond is set up, on condition to be Vassall to O Neale.

At this time a supply came out of England, of a thousand and fifty old Souldiers from out the Low Countreys, and nine hundred and fifty joyned to them of new, raised in Eng­land, sent under the command of Sir Samuel Bagnal Colonel, and nine other Captains to strengthen the Queenes forces i [...] Lemster, and a hundred under Colonel Bagnals command.

In the midst of these broyls, the impudent Rebell is no [...] [Page 46] ashamed to intreat for pardon, and sue for peace.

Although, as appeared in his Letters sent to the King of Spaine, he magnified his victories, and vowed perseverance: but his conditions were insolent and so not regarded.

And now the wound is growne so great, and the case so desperate that it admits of no cure, but by the hand of a va­liant expert souldier.

And none found like Robert Earle of Essex, whom favour with the Queen, and fortune of warre had made popular.

And his own active inclination, and the policie of his powerfull enemies in Court, wrought it for his underta­king; and by his absence they plotted his ensuing over­throw.

But before his going two Regiments of old Souldiers out of the Low Countries were sent into Ireland, and dispersed at his comming through the whole army, for the exercise of the rest.

1050 Foot.
  • The first Regiment Sir Charles Percy Co­lonell.
  • Richard Morison Lievtenant Colonel, and five other Captains.
950 Foot.
  • The second Regiment, Sir Henry Bockwra, Colonell.
  • Captaine John Chamberlaine Lievtenant Colonell, and four other Captains.

This Earls Commission was large, without limitation al­most even the power of a Prince, and an army as great as hee desired, the like unto which in all points Ireland ne­ver saw.

[Page 47]

The establishment was sealed by the Qu. March 24, 1598. It contained the pay of the chief officers of the Army.
The Lord Lievtenant Generall, per diem,10 l.  
The Lievtenant of the Army, per diem,3  
The Generall of the Horse2  
The Judge Marshall1  
The Auditor Generall013▪ s. 
The Controuller generall of the victuals010 
The Lievtenant of the Ordnance010 
The Surveigher068 d.
Two Clerks of Munition, each05 
Foure Corporals of the Field068 d.
One Commissary of Victuals08 
And three others each06 
The carriage Master06 
And twenty Colonels each 10 
Sum. total. per annum,13127 l.16 s.8 d.
More it contained, the pay of thirteen hundred horse divided into twenty six Bands
A Captain at per diem,04 s. 
A Lievtenant026 d.
A Cornet02 
And fifty horsmen, each at013 d.
Sum. total. per annum,31408. l.5 s. 
It contained furrher sixteen hundred foot, distributed into a hundred and sixty Companies, each Band having
A Captain at per diem,04 s. 
A Lievtenant02 
An Ensigne01 s.6 d.
[Page 48]Two Sergeants, a Drum, and a Surgeon each at per diem 1 s. 
And 94 Souldiers and six dead payes allowed to the Cap­tain, each at per diem  8d.
Sum. total.228246l.13s.4d.

It further contained an extraordinary supply of six thou­sand pounds per annum, to be allowed by concordation, for Spies, Guides, Messengers, Barks hyring, keeping of Pri­soners, Buildings, Reparations, and like charges.

The totall of the establishment per annum, amounts to two hundred seventy seven thousand, seven hundred eighty two pounds.

Besides, her Majesty was at great charge not contained in the establishment: as first for Officers generall.

  • The Lord Lievtenant for his ordinary entertainment yeer­ly, 1300l.
  • His Lordships troop of horse yeerly 1513l. 2s. 2d.
  • His Lordships fifty footmen, as being allowed him for his followers, 608l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Treasurer at wars per annum, 638l. 15s.
  • The Marshall of the army per annum, 104l. 18s. 9d.
  • The Mr. of the Ordnance for himselfe per an. 450l. 3. s. 4d.
  • For Clerks, Gunners, and Ministers for the Ordnance, per annum, 459l. 5s. 10d.
  • The Muster Master Generall per annum, 209l. 17s. 6d.
Secondly, for chief Officers newly erected.
  • The Governour of Loghfoyle, per annum, 365l.
  • The Governour of Cariofergus, 182l. 10s.
  • The Governour of Dundalke, 182l. 10s.
  • The Commander of the forces at Rathdrum and Wickelow, 182l. 18s.
  • [Page 49]The Commander of the Forces in Ophaly, 182l. 10s.
  • The Commander of the Forces at Cavan, 182l. 10s.
  • Sum. total. 6590l. 19s. 7. d.

Most of these Officers last named, besides this last allow­ance, have either a horse or foot company in the Army, or both:

Thirdly, a further charge the Queen was at for Officers in the foure Courts, and certain Patentees.

  • In the Exchequer, the Earle of Ormond, Lord Treasurer of Ireland, for his fee per annum, 40l.
  • The Treasurour at Wars, 66l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Chiefe Baron, 71l. 10s.
  • And in augmentation to him, 88l. 17s. 9d.
  • The Chancellour, 14l.
  • The second Baron, 34l.
  • The Auditor Generall, 200l.
  • The Surveigher Generall, 80l.
  • The Remembrancer, 40l.
  • The Serjeant at Law, 17l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Attourney Generall, 149l. 6. s. 8d.
  • The Sollicitour, 149l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Escheatour, 8l. 13s. 4d.
  • The second Remembrancer, 10l. 10s.
  • The chiefe Ingrosser, 14l.
  • The second Ingrosser, 9l. 6s. 8d.
  • The second Chamberlain, 13l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Clerke of the first-fruits, 10l.
  • The Keeper of the Records, 13l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Usher of the Court, 3l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Clerk of the Common Pleas, 3l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Transcriptor, 2l. 13s. 4d.
  • [Page 50]The Deputy Auditour, 11l.
  • The vice Treasurours Deputy, 11l.
  • The Somonitor, 5l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Marshall of the Court, 5l. 6s. 8d.
  • A Messenger, 1l. 4s. 5d.
  • Two Pursuivants each for 18l. 5s.
In the Kings Bench.
  • The chiefe Justice, 400l.
  • The second Justice, 133l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Clerk of the Crown, 10l.
In the Chancery.
  • The Lord Chancellour per annum, 415l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Master of the Rolls, 50l.
  • And in augmentation to him per an. 88l. 17s. 9d.
  • Two Ministers each, 27l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Clerk of the Crown, 6l. 13s. 4d.
  • And in augmentation, 26l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Clerk of the Hamper, 14l.
  • Divers Officers in the Star-chamber, 56l. 13s. 4d.
  • Severall Ministers of the Ordnance holding by Patents, 135l. 13s. 5d.
  • The Constable of Dublin Castle, and others belonging to him, 335l. 13s. 4d.
To Officers of State.
  • The Secretary per annum, 106l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Clerk of the Counsell, 62l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Surveigher of the victuals, 143l. 6s. 8d.
  • The King at Arms, 35l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Serjeant at Arms, 18l. 2s. 6d.
  • The Pursuivant at Arms, 13l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Irish Interpreter, 27l. 7s. 6d.

[Page 51]Officers about the Custome.

For creation money to Noblemen.
  • The Earle of Ormond, 30l.
  • The Earle of Kildare, 20l.
  • The Earle of Clanrichard, 40l.
  • The Earle of Thomound, 20l.
  • The Baron of Cacher, 15l.
  • Divers Annates and Procurations, 299l. 19s. 3d.
  • For Parchment, Ink, & bags in several Courts, 282l. 10s. 8d.
  • For other payments by Warrant, 226l. 2s. 4d.
In the County of VVexford.
  • The Justice of the Liberties, per annum, 20l.
  • The Seneschall, 25l.
  • The Receiver, 20l.
  • The Marshall, 2l.
  • The totall of these is, 3461l. 13s. 9d.
In the Province of Lemster.
  • The Lievtenant of the queens County, 121l. 13s. 4d.
  • The Provost Marshall of the army, 77l. 11s. 3d.
  • The Provost Marshall of Lemster, 102l. 13s. 1d.
Officers in Munster.
  • The Lord President, 138l. 6s. 8d.
  • For his diet and the Counsels allowed at his Table, 520l.
  • The Retinue of 20 foot, and 30 horse per annum, 803l.
  • The chief Justice, 100l.
  • The second Justice, 66l. 13s. 4d.
  • The queens Attourney, 13l. 6s. 8d.
  • The Clerk of the Counsell, 20l.
  • The Clerk of the Crown, 20l.
  • The Serjeant at Arms, 20l.
  • The Provost Marshall, 255l. 16s.
  • Sum. tot. 1951l. 16s. 8d.
For Officers in Connagh.
  • [Page 52]The chiefe Commissioner per annum, 100l.
  • His Diet with the Counsels at his Table, 882l. 10s.
  • An allowance to himselfe, 40l.
  • The Justice, 100l.
  • The Queens Attourney, 20l.
  • The Clerke of the Crowne, 20l.
  • The Clerke of the Counsell, 20l.
  • The Serjeant at Armes, 20l.
  • The Provost Marshall, 264l. 12s. 6. d.
  • The increase of pay to the present Cōmissioners, 282. l. 10s.
  • Sum. total. 949l. 12s. 6d.
  • Certaine Bands of Irish Kerne 1579l. 8s. 9d.
  • For Warders in severall Provinces, 3577l. 2d.
  • For Commissaries of Musters, 577l. 18s. 4d.
  • For Pensioners of all sorts, 3249l. 9. d.
  • Lastly, Almes men, 88l. 19. s. 4. d.
  • The totall of the above-named charge not contained in the establishment, 21328l. 8s. 7d.
  • To which adde the establishment, 277782l. 15s.
  • The totall of the yeerly charge was 299111l. 3s. 7d.
  • To which if you adde the great charge of all Forts, of Mu­nitions, with the like extraordinary expences, and consider that the 1300 horse, and the 1600 foot by new supplyes were to be made up 20000.

What a masse of expence is here in one yeere, able to drain this Kingdome, seeing nothing comes from Ireland but complaints.

It will require the wisdome and providence of those that undertake it, and the patience of the people that beare it.

All this in a readinesse, the Earle of Essex departs from London in March 1 [...]99, in the beginning of the yeere, not [Page 53] providently foreseeing what a step hee then made to his ruine.

The Nobility and gallant Gentry accompanied him on his way.

And the Earle of Kildare made such haste in an ill Ves­sell, that himselfe and many a brave man with him were all drowned in the passage.

The Earle being arrived in Ireland, took the place of go­vernment, and laboured to acquaint himself with the estate of that Kingdome, what parts were quiet, what in rebel­lion,

Who had certaine intelligence, that the Rebels in the County of Dublin were in number of the chiefe Families, 48 foot, 20 horse.

In Kildare 220 foot, three horse.

In the County of Carlogh, being wholly wasted, only six or seven Castles held for the Queen.

In the County of VVexford, all wasted but the Castles held for the queen, and some English Families, but all the rest in rebellion.

In these two Counties 750 foot, 50 horse.

In the Connty of Leaz, most of the chiefe in rebellion, 570 foot, 30 horse. Only a few Castles held for the queen.

In the County of Ophaly, some Castles held for the queen, others by the Rebels, 468 foot, 12 horse.

In the County of Kilkenny, many great Families of the Irish, the Butlers in Rebellion, 130 foot, 20 horse.

The Rebels held the Castle of Bellirage and Colekill. The rest the Earle of Ormond held for the queene.

In the County of Meth, the son and heire of Sir William Nugent in rebellion, and the Rebels of Vlster had much wasted the heart of the Pale.

In the County of West Meth, lying most waste, and [...] [Page 52] [...] [Page 53] [Page 54] possessed by the Rebels, 140 foot, twenty horse.

Besides, Captain Tirril a bold man of English Race, who had of Vlster men and other Rebels 200 foot.

In the County of Lowth, all wasted by the Rebels, only an English, Irish Baron, the Townes and Castles stood for the queene.

In the County of Langford, 120 foot.

The whole in this Province of Lemster, and Meth joyned with it: 3048 foot, 182 horse.

In the Province of Vlster.

Consisting most of Irish, except somewhat which the Scots, held, were all forced to give way to Tyrone.

Dundalke the Frontier Towne between the Pale and Ul­ster, and Knocfergus a Frontier Towne towards Scotland, were kept by the English, and some few other Castles, all the rest possessed by the Rebels.

In the upper and lower Clandebays the Rebels, 160 foot, 70 horse.

The Duffery had 20 foot.

Two more Rebels had 100 foot, 20 horse.

The Captain of Kilwarben had 60 foot, 10 horse.

Mac, 60 foot, 10 horse.

Beyond the Min Water, 40 foot.

Sir Francis Mac Surlebay, 400 foot, 100 horse.

The Island of Magie, belonging to the Earle of Essex was wasted.

Mac Guir in Fermannagh had 600 foot, 100 horse.

Other Rebels thereabout had 500 foot, [...]0 horse.

The O Reylies in the Brenny or County of Cavan had 800 foot, 100 horse.

O Cane in his Countrey, 500 foot, 2 [...]0 horse.

Seven other chief Rebels had, 1180 foot, 281 horse. [Page 53] Tyrone the Arch traytour, Tyrone his country, 700. foot, 200 horse.

And divers other Rebels with him: So the whole forces of the Rebels in Vlster, 1702 horse, 7220 foot.

In the County of Tipperary, the Baron of Caher, a Butler with his Brother and followers, 30 foot, 12 horse.

And divers other great Families had in severall companies, some not having above three or foure horse, 1660 F. 79 Horse.

In the County of Corke, James fitz Thomas, the new created Earle of Desmond, 250 foot, 30 horse.

And divers other Families, 820 foot, 8 horse.

In the County of Luirick, Fisz Lacy with others had, 300 foot, 15 horse.

In the County of Kerry, the Lord Fitz-Morice and others, 500 foot, 30 horse.

In the County of Desmond, Osuillinan Beare, and others had, 500 foot, 6 horse.

In the County of Waterford, 200 foot, 10 horse.

The whole number of the Rebels in Munster, 5030 foot, 242 Horse.

The Rebels of Connagh were, 3070 foot, 220 horse.

In all the foure Provinces, Meth being reckoned for a County in Lemster, the strength of the Rebels were, 18246 foot, 2346 horse.

Concerning which in April, the Earle of Essex sent intel­ligence into England by a Letter.

And in a second Letter of the resolutions of Tyrone; first, that he intended to hearten his Confederates, and then to make head in Vlster with his own forces, and O Donnel in Con­nagh, that the Rebels had taken oath at a publick Crosse to be constant, and none [...]ought pardon but in such insolent manner, that it was rather a contempt.

[Page 58]That the very subjects grew cold in the service, that al­though on private revenge they could appeare with an 100. Horse, and 300▪ Foot, yet now pleaded their inability to ayd the Queen with sixe of each; the Earle gathered some Eng­lish forces together, and against his owne advice in England, and the Q. command (deceived by some false counsell) hee set not on the head, but on a few weake Rebels in Munster, a matter of no consequence, being beaten as they were.

June 15. the Lord Lievtenant received Letters from a Captain out of the North of Vlster, that Tyrone had received Amunition out of Spaine, but no treasure (as was reported) that he did sollicite the Redshanks into his pay, and had pro­vision of armes, and other assistance daily from the Scots.

And also advised the Earle of their strength, and of their intention to protract the warre, and weary the English; in prevention whereof he wished his Lordship to procure foure thousand Redshanks which in their Boats might break in up­on Tyrone, which thing the Lord Bourgh had formerly under­taken to procure, but was prevented by death.

Iu. 25. the Lord Lievtenant wrote unto the Queen of the state and condition of the Rebels, shewing the cause of their rebellion, with the meanes to reduce and keepe them in sub­jection, and that as well by Sea as Land provision must bee made to reduce them: and afterward gives such direction to her Majestie, as was followed in the ensuing warre, though himselfe had not the good hap to put it in practice.

And in the conclusion bewayles his owne misfortune, that his enemies (whom he names) had gotten so neere her Ma­jesties elbow.

In the end of July his Lordship brought backe his forces into Lemster, himselfe going to Dublin, having done little, but admitted some few to protection, which afterward re­volted againe.

[Page 57]In his absence 600. souldiers which were left in the Glinne had been beaten by the Irish, for which his Lordship used great severity in punishing of them, putting to death the tenth common souldier, calling the Captaines to a Court Marshall, caused an Irish Lievtenant to be shot for parlying with the Rebels.

By this time the Qu. advertised his Lordship of his errour in not setting on the chiefe Rebell Tyrone, but he excused him­selfe, and layd the fault on the Counsell of Ireland, and that his intention now was that way beat, but yet that first hee must suppresse some neere Dublin: which being done, he took a view of his Army, and found it so much impaired, that hee sent to England for supply of 1000. new men to inable him presently to undertake the Vlster journey. And now resolved to march Northwest, he willed Sir Conyers Clifford Governour of Connagh, to compell Tyrone to give resistance at Belike, while himselfe set on him on the other side.

So that Sir Con. Clifford with one Troop of horse, and 1400. foot came to the Curlew Mountaines, where he left his car­riages under the guard of his Horse, untill he had tryed the passage forward,

Who was presently assaulted by the Rebels, taking the advantage of the woods, boggs, and a stony Causey, and al­though the English stoutly received the charge, yet they be­ing weary with a long march, and their powder fayling them which they had about them, they began to faint & so to flye; so that many were slain in the place, and many hurt, besides two worthy Commanders, Sir Con. Clifford, Alexand. Rat­cliffe, killed: And had not Sir John Jepson valliantly succou­red them with his Horse, most of the rest had perished: this happened by a great oversight (as was thought.)

By this time the 1000. men out of England were arrived in Ireland, yet his Lordship wrote over that he could doe little [Page 58] this yeere, but only goe to the borders of Vlster, whether going in September, Tyrone shewed himselfe two dayes to­gether on severall hills some distance off, whence hee sent to desire a parley with his Lordship.

Who rejected that offer, & also sent him word, that on the morrow he should find him armed in the head of his Army.

The next day after a light skirmish, one of Tyrones horsmen cryed that Tyrone would not fight, but would speake with the Lord Lievtenant apart from the Army unarmed.

The next day also he was told, that Tyrone desired the Qu. mercy, and would faine speake with his Lordship at the foard Balla. El [...]nch, neere the chiefe towne of the County of Louth.

Where they two only met, and Tyrone saluted his Lord­ship very courtly, many speeches passing betweene them.

Whether (as being left not farre off) his Lordship cal­led sixe or seven of his chiefe Commanders, and Tyrone as many of his friends: and there was a Conference about a Treaty of peace, and a truce made from sixe weekes to sixe weekes, untill May, with proviso that on 14. dayes warning given on either side, it should be lawfull to resume armes againe.

Now, the Queen having received his Lordships Letters what he had done, which was nothing with such an Army in so long space.

She wrote him a tart Letter, much blaming his proceed­ings, and questioning his discretion.

Which did so gaule and wring his Lordship, that pre­sently he left Adam Loftus, the Archbishop of Dublin, and Sir George Carew Treasurer of the wars to governe Ireland, so went into England.

And unexpected presented himselfe before the Qu. in her [Page 59] privy Chamber, but had not that welcome that hee expe­cted, and after a few words was commanded to his Cham­ber, and afterwards to the Lord Keepers house in the nature of a Prisoner.

And now a list of the Commanders, and whole Army is taken and set downe both horse and foot, how disposed of throughout the whole Kingdome, and were 14422. Foote 1231. horse.

The truce continuing the helme was easily held by those hands in which it was put, but Dec. 6. Tyrone began to pra­ctize acts of hostilitie upon that he had given (as hee said) 14. dayes warning, and because the Earle of Essex was im­prisoned in England, on whom he did relye for safety, and would not now trust the Counsell of Ireland, that had so often deceived him before, this intelligence posted into England, that the Rebels were ready to assaile the Pale.

And a false rumour raysed by Essex enemies, that Eng­land would suddenly be in a combustion, which was no lit­tle prejudice to the said Earle.

The Queen hearing this and more, that the Rebels daily increased, and the English Irish discontented that the go­vernment was wholly out of their hands, by sending Eng­lish Deputies over.

That Tyrone grew proud, bearing trust on the King of Spaine, who had sent him somewhat, but promised more; and the Pope not wanting in his fatherly cate towards him, sent him a crowne of Phenix feathers, in imitation no doubt of Vrban the third, who sent King John Lord of Ire­land a crowne of Peacocks feathers.

Upon this Sir Charles Blunt, Lord Montjoy, is thought fit to be sent, and was thought on by the Qu. before Essex came over, who was forward to take the charge upon him, and so turned the Queenes intentions▪

[Page 60]This Lord was a tall comely man, wise, valiant, and lear­ned, close in his counsels, resolute in his determinations.

His courses were much contrary to other Deputies, and so effected what they could not doe.

1. He led our men warily on any service, not willing to dis-hearten our men, or incourage the enemie; and himselfe ever at hand, either to hearten or helpe, hee ventured his own person often, although it be a great question in Mili­tary discipline, whether it be wisedome or no.

2. His planting of Garrison in the Rebels countreys compassing Tyrone on every side, so that they could not ea­sily assist on the other.

Other Deputies made two or three journeys in the yeare, and that with the whole Army; which was discovered by the Rebels, that they fled into the woods and bogges, nor could the Army abide the field long for want of victuals, being so many at one place; where as the Lord Montjoy planting good Garrisons in many places, taking the field with 1000▪ foot, and 200. horse onely, was able openly to affront Tyrone, seeing he was compelled to leave many of his forces behind to guard his Countrey from those Gar­risons, which else would have forraged his Countrey.

Thus he did not only in Summer as others had done, but in Winter also, himselfe being five or sixe dayes in a weeke, on horse-backe, which course did so vexe the Rebels, who were driven to lye in the woods without shelter for them­selves or cowes, which allowing them not milk, they wan­ted present provision, nor could they save their corne for the future.

4. Againe, he had a speciall care to cut the passages open and plaine, that our forces might the more secure meet to­gether.

5. Further, he was not easie to grant Pardons and Pro­tections, [Page 61] but to such who had drawne blood on their fel­lowes, and so lost the hope of reconciliation to the Rebels, and forbad all parlyes with them.

But as the Rebels were many at the Earle of Essex com­ming, so now much more increased. In the County of Du­blin increased one hundred.

And in many other Countreys, besides five Castles late­ly taken by the Irish.

In the Province of Lemster increased 1280. Rebels. In the Province of Connagh increased 300. Rebels, besides the doubt of Tibot ne Longe.

Who had one hundred Irish men in the Queenes pay.

So that now the Enemie strongest, the English weakest, and many other disasters made the businesse very difficult.

In this case the Lord Montjoy undertooke the businesse about Ian. 1599.

A little before whose comming Tyrone marcheth out of the North in a vaunting manner unto Munster, to incou­rage and countenance the Rebels, but under a religious pretence to visite a peece of the Crosse at a Monastery in Tipperary County, and so accompanied with the Lemster re­bels went on his devotion.

Now the army of English reduced to 12000. foot, & 1200. horse, for whose payment order is given to the Treasurer and Chamberlaine of the Exchequer of England, to pay the Treasurer of the Warres of Ireland, after the rate of the former establishment, and other extraordinaries.

So there was signed an establishment by the Queene, Ian. 1. 1599. for the pay of Commanders, and Souldiers.

And the Lord Deputy hasting away for Ireland, Ian. 10. 1599. in his way wrote backe to master Secretary, that he might have more Forces in regard the Rebels were so strong.

[Page 62]A second establishment signed by the Lords, 11. Feb. 1599. wherein every Officers and Souldiers pay, and other charges, the whole yearely charge 14055 pounds, 4 shillings 8 pence, farre short of that allowance which the Earle of Essex had.

February 26. the Lord Deputy landed in Ireland, when Sir George Carew was made Lord President of Munster, Ty­rone did not expect such a sudden arrivall, so that hee was still in West Munster, where he might be surprised as the Earle of Ormond thought, if things hapned well.

And that he could not thence escape without engaging himselfe, if the passages were watched.

So that daily newes came that Tyrone now, or never was to be ruinated: and how many Lords and others of the Irish which were for the Queene had layed waite for him, and would stop his passage back, but all this vanished into Irish ostentation of service, which seldome use to take effect, and many times are not truly intended as this businesse did shew.

And that his Lordship should not expect any helpe from divers of the Nobilitie, and Gentry of the Pale, they pre­ferred a Petition to him, that they were not able by reason of the spoyles the souldiers had made upon them, but a meere excuse (as Essex shewed before.)

Then his Lordship wrote to Secretary Cecill, to excuse himselfe, for not reducing the 14000 which hee found in the Army unto 12000, and the cause thereof as he had done before.

And upon that receives an answer from the Queen, that she doth accept of his reasons for the present, but would have him effect it by degrees.

And not to entertain many Irish Commanders, who are of small fidelity, and being employed to use them far from [Page 39] their own countrey, and useth some other advertisements; and so concludeth.

And now for all the great hopes Tyrone escaped into the North, passing over the Enny in great hast, and marcheth 27 miles in one day: more then he had gone in five before, so that he could not be over-taken.

And at his being there, he sent out a Mandate, by which hee summoned the Subjects of Munster to appeare before him in this forme.

O Neal commendeth himself unto you Moris Fitz Thomas, O Neal requesteth you in Gods name, to take part with him, and fight for your conscience, and right, and in so doing O Neale, will spend his life to see you righted in all your af­faires, and will help you, And if you come not to O Neale between this and 12 of the clocke tomorrow, and take his part, O Neale is not beholding to you, and will doe to the uttermost of his power to overthrow you, if you come not to him by Saturday noon at the furthest from Knoc Dumain, in Calrye the fourth of Feb. 1599.

O Neale requesteth you to come and speak with him, and doth give you his word, that you shall receive no harme, neither in comming or going from him, whether you be friend or not, and bring with you to O Neale Gerald Fitz Gerald; subscribed O Neale.

March the 7, the Lord Deputy had intelligence, that Ty­rone was come to his house at Dungannon, and that the Earle of Clanrichard had sworn, that when his sonne came out off England, in May, he would enter into action (for so they call Rebellion: and that the Plantation at Logh foyle, was endeavoured to be hindered by the Rebell.

The 20 of March, the Secretary informed his Lordship of the relaxation of the Earle of Essex; who sued earnest­ly [...] [Page 62] [...] [Page 39] [Page 64] in his behalfe to the Secretary, even so far as to make his excuse for the matter in Ireland.

The Lord Deputy makes a List of his army, about the beginning of the yeare 1600, and casts up the allowances.

Generall Officers for the army as in the former establish­ment.

Collonels 12 apiece per diem, 10 s.

Twenty six troops of horse, in some more, in some lesse at severall rates of pay in number, 1200.

In Loghfoyle Garrison 4000 foot.

In Carickfergus Garrison, 700 foot.

In the Province of Connagh, 1400 foot.

In the Province of Munster, 2950 foot.

In the Province of Lemster, 4500 foot.

Totall of Foot, 1400.

Likewise a List which the Deputy drew out of the Companies formerly mentioned; which lay in Lemster, Newry, and Carbugford, for to prosecute Tyrone in his Coun­try, horse 325, foot 3200.

Out of these taken to guard places and passages while the Army did return, foot 810, horse 20.

Besides deduct the six dead pays allowed to each Com­pany of foot, which is 288, and foure out of fifty horse, which is 26, and other deductions of sicke and unsufficient men for service.

There remayns for his army in field, 2102 foot, horse 279 which is but a small handfull for so great a service.

Divers others there were which had pay; as his Lord­ships chief Chaplain five l. a week, and ten other Preachers at forty shillings a week, his Doctor of Physick five pound a week.

In Aprill it was consulted about entertayning of 2000 Scots, and that each man should have a Cow for a moneths pay or six pence, per diem.

[Page 65]Which businesse was to be furthered by the Queens A­gent in Scotland, but it came to nothing being disliked in England.

Now the Deputy resolved to pursue the Rebels in many places at once, both by the North Garrisons, and the rest of the Army.

Aprill the third, the Lord Deputy sent Master Secre­tary notice of the falsheartednesse of those that seemed most sure, and that the Irish Commanders were dangerous to keep, yet knew not how to remove them without certain losse of them.

And how he intended to send a thousand old Souldiers out of Dublin, to Loghfoyle, and others to lye in Garrison at Balishannan, both places of great consequence, and proved very advantageous to the English afterwards.

And informed likewise that Tyrone by his so suddain and hasty flight out of Munster, had much disheartned many of his Confederates, so that daily the heads of some Rebels or others were brought unto the Deputy.

And the Rebels of Lemster made suit to be received to mercy: only the Towns where the Rebels had to do were very insolent.

And Tyrone, by the arrivall of two ships, (wherein were many Priests) did incourage his friends. Lastly, the Deputy complained to the Secretary, that all places were bestowed in England, so that he could gratifie no deserving man.

Further hee sent word that hee doubted of the Earle of Ormonds constancy to the Queenes cause: and shewed his reasonsa name greatly followed in that Countrey.

In that Province of Munster, the Rebels were very strong, by reason Tyrone had been there, and by the aide of Mac Carty more.

There hapned an ill chance about the time that Sir George [Page 66] Carew went to his charge of Munster, whereof he was Pre­sident.

Who comming to Kilkenney in his way from Dublin, with the Earle of Thomond in his company, and a hundred horse to attend him; where the Earle of Ormond, told them that he was to parley with some Rebels of those parts, whereof Ow [...]y M [...]c Rory was chiefe, and requested them to accom­pany him.

To which they consented and rode eight miles to the place of meeting, with some twenty horse of the Earle of Ormonds, and a few followers refusing the guard of the Lord Presidents 100 horse, and the Earl of Ormond, left his two hundred foot two miles short, and with his other com­pany met with Owny, who came out of the Woods, leaving five hundred men well appointed not farre off; came up to him with some pikes, but after an houre spent, and nothing agreed on, the Lord President wisht the Earle of Ormond to returne, but he said hee would first speak with the Jesuit Archer; and did much revile him, calling him Traytor.

In the mean time the Rebels foot had incompassed, the Earle and his company, and presently tooke the Earle of Ormond prisoner; and Mac Rory laid hands on the Lord Pre­sident: but the Earle of Thomound rushed on him with his horse, and they both hardly escaped, the Earle of Thom. be­ing hurt in the thigh.

The Countesse of Ormond having one only daughter, was much perplexed and distressed, but the Lord Deputy sent her a Guard for her House.

There were severall conceits upon his surprisall, some supposing it was not against his owne will, but howsoever the Lord Deputy thought it a matter of no great conse­quence.

The Fort of Phillipstown in Ophaly was to be victualled, [Page 67] and the Rebels gave cut that they would hinder it.

And through the emulation of a great Commander that had another preferred before him, and strengthened by the Court faction in England.

It might have miscarried, for the said Commander chose out some weake companies for this service to be led by the other; but the Deputy being advertised thereof, profered them to him that had made the choise of them, but hee re­fused to goe with them.

And Sir Oliver Lambert with 14 companyes did with much valour and courage effect the businesse, though strongly opposed.

May the fifth, the Lord Deputy makes toward Tyrone in the North: who had intelligence that he was lodged in the strong Fortresse of Coughlurkin where the Rebels had for­tified three miles in length. His Lordship drew towards Armagh with 1500 hundred foot and two hundred horse, and sent Captain Edward Blany with five hundred foot, and fifty horse to make good the passage through the Moyry for the Earle of Southampton, and Sir Oliver Lambert, who were to come that way to the Army: and comming to the Faghard, not far from Dundalke, whether hee went to the Earle, and told him of the convoy, assuring him that the Lord Deputy would meet him by two of the clocke in the afternoon; hereupon the Earle having with him besides the conuoy, two foot companyes, and fifty horse of Gentle­men Volunteers: and so marched backe to the dangerous passage of the Moyry; where the Rebels taking advantage of the Woods and Bogs, assailed our men, lying lurking on both sides, our men being to passe over a Ford.

But by this time the Lord Deputy himselfe was come neere the place, who sent two Regiments, who beat backe the Rebels; who left a few to skirmish with those two Re­giments, [Page 68] and the rest fell back into the Wood, and issued out upon the Reare, brought up by the Earle of Southamp­ton, with great fury both with horse and foot: But Sir Henry Foliot made very good stand, and Sir Oliver Lambert taking his colours in his own hand, with some thirty of the Earle of Southamptons best men, hastened towards the assaylants to second the Earle, who behaved himselfe with great cou­rage, and made the Rebels give ground.

Tyrone was seene not farre off with great forces, yet fell not on, so that they marched to the Camp: little hurt be­ing done to the English, but much to the Rebels.

May the 26, the Deputy had Letters from the Lords in England, and it was only to answer the demands of some Irish Lords upon submission.

June the 19, the Lord Deputy sent to Master Secretary how that certain aide was come from Spaine to the Rebels; and makes a request for a fleet to lie on the Coast of Ireland, and some small Barks to hinder the Scots from relieving the Irish, Now Sir Samuel Bagnal drew out of the Newry into Monaghan, where he took some booty, and slue six Com­manders, and many of the Rebels men with little damage to himselfe.

Many Rebels of Lemster now seek for mercy, but are not admitted, except some service done for the Queene against their companions.

Two chiefe Rebels offer to submit, but neither could be received without the others head.

His Lordship now out of England required to doe some thing against the Lemster rebels; in his way thither, tooke two hundred Cowes, seven hundred Garrais, and five hun­dred sheep, burning and wasting the corne all the way, as he went to a most dangerous passage, where Sir Oliver Lam­bert was appointed to meet him, both being constrained to [Page 69] fight all the way with the rebels untill they met, having done much harme unto the rebels.

May the seventeenth, they both marched towards a For­tresse, where the Rebels had stored much provision of all sorts, at whose entry there was a Foard compassed with Bogs, over which our horses passed quietly: but his Lord­ding in the head of the foot was assayled with fury.

The Traitour Terrill having appointed a hundred shot to ply the Deputies person, and given them marks to know him.

But the English defeated and slue 35 rebels, among which was Owmy Mac Rory, a vile rebell, who before had taken the Earle of Ormond prisoner, a bloudy bold young man; by whose death that party never was able to appear in field.

And now the Captaine, and by their example the soul­diers cut down the corn with their swords, that the rebels were driven to want for the future.

His Lordship returned one day with the foot alone, and sent about the Horse, and yet the rebels which lay there about durst not fight with him.

Eight heads of chief rebels were brought unto his Lord­ship that night, and one arch-rebell alive, who was present­ly hanged.

Sir Oliver Lambert foraging abroad, tooke a thousand Cowes, five hundred Garrais, and a multitude of sheep and killed twenty rebels; and much spoile daily was done then by the English.

At his Lordships going out of Leaz, some were received protection.

At this time his Lordship had letters of approbation from her Majesty, with a promise of supply both of horse and foot, and with advice to make the company lesse, there­by [Page 70] to gratifie more Gentlemen with places of command.

August the twentieth, his Lordship returned to Dublin▪ where hee heard of the complaints that were made against him by those of the Pale to the Lords in England.

In answer whereunto he writes to Master Secretary, onely desiring his good wil in candid interpretation of his actions

September the fourteenth, his Lordship takes his journey towards the North, and encampeth three miles beyond Dundalke, and lay there untill the eighth of October, it being most tempestuous foule weather, his Lordships Tent ha­ving been often blown over.

Tyrone, in the mean time, before his Lordship came, had possessed the Newry, a strong Fortresse as any the Rebels had, but his Lordship was resolved to cut his way through them if they made resistance.

Many skirmishes fell out well on our part, and in small time he came to Armagh, where not farre off his Lordship built a Fort in a very convenient place; having a River by it all environed with Bogs, & a hill like a Promontory which his Lordship called Mount Norris.

So hee sent some companies of ours to fetch corne and timber over the Bogs, where Tyrone met with them; and skirmishing with them was put to the worst, and next day Neale O Quin, was taken prisoner, Tyrones great Favourite.

And the rebels intending to hinder the building of the Fort were soundly beaten, and that finished and left in it foure hundred men under Captain Blany.

His Lordship returning by Carlingford found the passage very difficult for his horse, that they were sent a little a­bout; and now they had certaine intelligence that Tyrone was come downe unto a place, by which we were to passe.

Which was a very great Wood at the foot of a Moun­tain, reaching so neer the Sea, that it had no more space, then [Page 71] that six or seven might walke abreast, with some lesse, and at full Sea none in some places.

His Lordship disposing his forces for the fight, sending out a forlorne hope to march afore, and a forlorne Reare.

The enemy sought to make good a small piece of ground like a semicircle, where the Sea made a Diameter, and a thick Wood the Circumference; and at the corner next to our Army, there ran a River out off the Wood at the side of which they made strong trenches, and at the further cor­ner a Barricado which reached far into the wood, and down to the Sea.

The enemy appeared horse and foot on this plain, but at our mens going over the River, their horse drew into the Woods, and their foot into the Trenches, whence they poured out Vollies of shot.

But the stout courage of the English was such that in little space they beat them out of their Trenches and from their works, and made them retire into the woods, but sallied out againe upon our Reare; to their further losse.

And in all this not much hurt to us, only two Gentlemen of quality killed; not twenty lost, about sixty hurt, of the enemy eighty killed, and the losse was (as wee had intelli­gence two hundred.

Our Marshall and Serjeant Major were always ready to assist the weak, and bring succour to the distressed, and the Army went on cheerfully.

And by this Tyrones reputation got a crack.

His Lordship returned to Dundalke, and from thence to Dublin, with his followers and Voluntiers, having disposed the horse and foot into Garrisons, Forts▪ and Provinces under their Commanders.

The horse were 1198. The foot 14150.

About November his Lordship sends into England, in the [Page 72] behalfe of two chiefe Rebels submitted Conner Roe M [...] Guire and his sonne, both which had done good service in the last North journey: and had taken Tyrones brothers el­dest sonne, a yongman of the greatest hope in the North, and though three thousand l. were offered for his ransom, yet they brought him to the Lord Deputy. There were cer­tain rebels neere Dublin, in the Glinne which in his Lord­ships absence had done much spoile, so that his intent was to chastize them, but seeming and shewing to goe another way, that they should not suspect him, on Christmas day early in the morning, and after a tedious march he arrived at the chiefe rebels house, so suddenly that he took his wife and eldest sonne, and made him fly starke naked into the Woods, while his Lordship kept a good Christmas, in his house till the twentieth of January, his souldiers wasting and spoyling the Country, in the mean time. And leaving Garrisons in some places, he passed into Trim in Eastmeth, and so to Danoar, in Westmeth a strong Castle, having visi­ted many chiefe Gentlemen in the way.

February the two and twentieth, his Lordship had letters out of England, in which hee heard that the Earle of Essex was in the Towre for treason; which news wrought much alteration in the Deputy; now hee begins to insinuate and comply with Secretary Cecill.

And Essex irreparably fell, more perchance by the sharp­nesse of his enemies wit, then by the burthen of his owne crime.

Howsoever the Deputy being privy to so much as hee was, he said he would not put his necke under the Queenes Attourneys tongue; and resolved with himselfe that had he been sent for into England, not to have undergone the ha­zard of a triall: but his Lordships former service, and future employment blew over this storm without any shatter fal­ling on him.

[Page 73]But with countenance and good successe hee goeth for­ward, and with courage to set on Tyrrils Island very strong, standing in the midst of a Bog, in the midst of a Plain neere an Abbey, where his Lordship proclaimed Tirrils head at two thousand Crowns, and so assayled the Island. But the next day, the foure and twentieth of February, so much snow fell that nothing could be done, and in the night the Rebels stole away quitting the Island, and left some store of corne, and a few cattell, so his Lordship passed beyond the Island into a Plain, destroying the corn and burning the houses as he went into Meth, and then to Trim, and so mar­ched into the Ferney, from whence to Ardes, so seven miles to Mellifont, then to Drogedagh two miles, where he stayed untill the tenth of Aprill, and then went to Dublin, in all which passage nothing of moment was done, but visiting some chiefe Subjects, and striking terrour to the Rebels.

About this time his Lordship had order for the proclay­ming of a base coine, and cry down the currant.

To hinder the Rebels traffick, as was pretended, but it proved the undoing of the poore souldier, each shilling having but two pence half-peny silver in it: so that commo­dities were raised to an excessive rate; and the exchange which was formerly provided for their helpe, was growne difficult, or altogether put down.

At Drogedah, his Lordship altered the list of the foot, but not the horse: and disposed them into Garrisons.

Her Majesties charge in the yeere 1600 to 1601, by esta­blishment, and orders for increase was 276914l. 9s. 4d.

Out of which by his Lordships providence was saved, 15262l. 6s. 5d.

Also by Checks imposed on the Army 1729l.

So the charges that yeere, besides munition and other ex­traordinaries 234622.

[Page 74]Certaine businesses that hapned in Munster, that yeere, under the command of the Lord President, Sir George Ca­rew.

In generall some submitted, and some revolted.

His Lordship comming to Dungarun, had notice that Florence Mac Ca [...]ie: though hee had received favours from the State, was entred into action (for so they call Rebellion) and raised in Carby and Desmond, of the Provincialls and Bonnaghs (for so are hired souldiers called) two thousand foot, never assailed the English untill they came betweene Kinsale and Cork, where they set on Captain Flowre Serjeant Major of Munster, who had 1200 foot, and 100 horse; who did valiantly resist and beat back the Rebels, though he had two horse killed under him; yet were 100 of the Rebels slain, upon which Florence Mac Carty submits, and yielded his son for pledge.

Now plots are laid for the killing of the titular Earle of Desmond, by one Dermod Oconner, who had married the Daughter of the old Earle of Desmond, and had the leading of 14000 Bonnaghs, who after surprised him by a tricke, and presently sent his wife to the Lord President for the mony promised in reward, and wished him to come to Kilm [...]h, and there hee would bring him, but the Rebels in the way rescued him, and set him free again.

May the twentieth, his Lordship took the field, and mar­ched towards Li [...]eck, and from place to place prosecuted the rebels so close that many submitted and others fled out of the Country: and the titular Earle of Desmond by Sir Charles Wil [...], was quite driven out of the Countrey, in whose passage Sir George Thornton sent out the Garrison, and killed 120 of the Rebels, and got 320 Garrans laden with baggage, fifteen Pikes and Peeces, 40 horse; but lost sixteen horse of his owne in the fight, the titular Earle was quite [Page 75] broken and stole backe into Munster, and lived as a Wood Kerne, with three or foure in his company, and once againe being like to be surprized, he ran away in such hast, that he left his shooes behind him.

The Lord Deputy wasted and gathered in all the corne, so that the yeere following the Rebels were pinched, and in Munster all subdued or submitted, so that 400 of that Province received their pardons under the great Seal.

And all being quiet, hee did question the Corporate Towns that were so ready to assist the Rebels, as being ai­ders and abetters of the rebellion for their owne private gaine.

And so he sent 1000 of the Munster List to the Lord De­puty to be disposed at his pleasure.

The Lord Deputy and the Counsell wrote into England from Tredagh, where he had layne from March, 21, untill Aprill the sixteenth following, to signifie that many chiefe rebels had submitted.

Chiefe of the Ferny and of the Fewes, and the chiefe like­wife of the Bienny.

And further sollicited for supplyes of mony, victuals and munition, to be sent some to Dublin, but most to Galloway, for the forces to plant Ballishannon.

An establishment signed by the Queen, March 31, 1601, which was according to the former, the charge 255773l. besides the charge of munition, of levying horse and foot, for re-inforcing the Army, with many like charges.

About April divers Rebels in the North submit, and dis­cover many secrets to our Captaine concerning the Spanish Invasion this yeare.

Oghy Ohanlon submitted at Tredagh, and subscribed to di­vers Articles.

The Garrison at Liffer did spoyle the rebels, and tooke 300 Cows.

[Page 76]The Lord Deputy kept Saint Georges Feast at Dublin, April the twentieth, inviting many of the submitted Rebels, where he carryed himselfe with such wisdome and gravity; that they did both admire him and feare him.

In May, Munster Rebels had their pardons granted them upon the intercession of the Lord President.

A list out of five English Shires, and Irish Submitties, 207 horse, 374 Archers, as likewise arising out of the Irish Lords and their Captains horse 128, Kerne 361.

And now preparation is made for the Summer service, whence to take forces for the field.!

To be drawne out of Munster to Connagh, a thousand foot, fifty horse.

And in Connagh already 1150 foot, horse 74.

Thus to be disposed in Connagh, at Galloway, and Athlone; 350 foot.

At the Abbey of Boyle in Connagh, under the command of the Earle of Clanrichard, a thousand foot, 62 horse.

To leave in Lemster side of the Shannon, at the Annaly, to further the plantation of Balishannan, eight hundred foot, horse twelve.

These all lying to infest the Rebels, or to hinder their joyn­ing together, or to hinder Northerne forces from comming into Lemster.

And to hinder Tyrones gathering in the corn.

May the two and twentieth, his Lordship parts from Du­blin, and wrote into England for six thousand souldiers ready, if so be any forreigne aide should come, and to have a Ma­gazine at Limrick, many pardoned in the County of Corke.

And about the eight of June, his Lordship came neere the Pace of Moyry, where hee purposed to build a Fort to secure that Pace.

[Page 77]Now againe, hee sollicits his former demands by Letters into England.

And so he marched by Dundalke to Lecagh, comming sud­denly on them he took much booty, and many submitted to his Lordship in this passage, from thence he went to Mount Norris, and so hee intended to plant a Garrison at Armagh, and so forth hee went to Blackwater, to see that way to that Fort, where the Marshall Bagnal had his defeat.

The foure and twentieth, hee marched two miles short of the Newry, with a thousand two hundred and fifty foot, and an hundred and fifty horse.

The nine and twentieth day, his Lordship had notice that Sir Henry Davers had done much damage to Brisan mac Art, in killing his men, and taking his cattell.

Many received Pardons and were accepted of, because that certaine newes came, that the Spanish forces which lay at Lisbone, were to come for Ireland.

So his Lordship disposed of the Companies into Garri­sons and Forts neere the enemies Countrey, and went with his followers to Dundalke, having with him onely three com­panies of foot, and a troop of horse; but going towards the North, he gathered some forces out of the Garrisons, so he went to a Hill neere Blackwater on the Southside, making a stand where Tyrone and his horse and foot shewed themselves in a Medow beyond the River with Trumpets, and Drums, and Colours which they used not to doe before, but now only in a bravado.

Making some shot at us, which being at too fat distance fell short without doing, any hurt, but we having a Rabenet and a Falcon planted on a little Hill, made some shot at the Rebels which made them seulke into the Woods like Pup­pits.

[Page 78]So that his Lordship sent 300 foot to a Hill close by the waterside; and at the evening came and encamped upon it, whence he saw Tyrone draw some horse over the water to our side; but Sir William G [...]d [...]lphin went with a troope of horse to meet him, but he presently retyred back.

So we placing the two small pieces, charging them with Musket shot, drove the Rebels out of the Trenches, which they had made beyond the River, so that the 300 men pas­sed over the River and possessed them, and an adjoyning old Fort, with a plain, not altogether Musket shot from the Wood, where the Rebell was fled, and his Lordship seeing the Trenches did admire that they wold take so much pains to make that which they had so little care to keepe, so his Lordship went to view a Place in Tyrones Wood, who stood looking on us; who only made a few shot at our men in their retreat.

So the sixteenth his Lordship passing over the Blackwater, with a Regiment of Irish, marched to a place at the left hand of our Campe, at the entrance of a great Wood, where our men made a stand in a fair green Medow, having our Campe not farre behinde them, and the Wood at each side and before them; in which great multitudes of the Re­bels were assembled; so that there hapned a great and large skirmish; with various accidents; sometimes they; some­times wee giving ground; for the Lord Deputy drew our forces out of the Campe, as he saw the Rebels increase.

Doctor Latwar his Lordships Chaplaine, not content to see this in the Campe, went into the Medow to our Co­lours, and was shot so that he died the next day.

Not one more slain of the English only a Captaines legg broken, but 26 of the Irish on our side, and 72 hurt, such as were kept in pay only, that they should not side with the Rebell.

[Page 79]Among the Rebels Tyrones Secretary, and above two hundred Kernes were killed, which did much abate their courage, and animate our men.

His Lordship wrote into England, complayning of the scarcity of the victuals, and that which was, being salt fish, which as hee said was most unfit for marching, was not good nor wholsome.

His Lordship rising from about Blackwater, made ano­ther Proclamation for Tyrones head at 1000l. and 2000l. to bring him alive.

So hee marched too and fro spoyling and cutting downe all the Corn thereabouts, and burning houses in the woods neere where the Rebels lay, but would not fight.

So he returned to the Blackwater, and with some choice foot and horse went to view the way to Dungannon, Tyron's chief house, ten miles distant, and setting some to cut down the wood the Rebels sought to hinder them, but were bea­ten back, so after we marched six miles to Armagh, and three to Rawlaghtany.

From whence Sir Hen. Davers with 300 foot and 40 horse, went to burn some houses that stood in a Fortresse which he performed, but the Rebels followed them back even to our Campe into which they poured a Volley of shot, and retyred into an adjoyning Fortresse.

Here the Commissary viewed the Army, and found in the List 2950, but by Pole 1728.

The fourth day at night the Rebels came with cryes, Drums and Bag-pipes, as if they would have attempted our Campe.

And poured into it two or three thousand shot, but do­ing little hurt.

For his Lordship commanded that none of our men should stirre, having lodged in a Trench some 400 shot, [Page 80] with command that they should not give fire untill the re­bels were neere; which doing they put up paid with the shot, and sent out lamentable cryes. So then his Lordship sent for more forces because hee had intelligence, that Ty­ron's Army was much increased.

Now there came more certaine newes of the Spaniards comming, and of their intention to land at Waterford, in re­spect of the commodious harbour, and the peoples good affection unto the Spaniards.

A speedy supply of a thousand shot was required out of England, because Tyrone was growne very strong, as appea­red by a list given by one that had been lately Tyrones Mar­shall, and now received into favour: as followeth.

  • Tyrone for his guard 100 horse.
  • His sonne Hugh O Neale, 100 horse, in all 400.
  • His brother Carmack, 100 horse in all 400.
  • Art mac Baron, 20 horse,
  • Phelim O hanlors sonne, 10 horse.
  • Turlogh Brasils sonne 50 horse.
  • Con Tyron's base sonne, 20 horse.
  • His guard of foot, led by James O sheale a Lemster man, 200. 400
  • Led by Jenken Fitz Simon of Lecale, 200. 400
  • Other chiefe Commanders of foot, 3260 foot.
  • Tot. Horse and Foot, 4060.

All these (except 300) had meanes to keepe themselves and companies in Tyrone: and divers of them besides have great forces to keep their owne forces.

About this time some discourtesies hapned between the Lord Deputy and the Lord President of Munster, for that he had made some complaints of the Deputy in England, but by perswasion of Secretary Cecil, the Lord Presidents great friend, they were united as fast as greatnes will permit.

His Lordship for want of victuall lay about Armagh, and the Blackwater Fort.

[Page 81] Aug. 29. his Lordship came to Trim, where the counsell of Dublin met him, and from whence, September the third, they wrote into England, in excuse that they had passed the limited summe of 6000 for extraordinaries: it being farre too little to compasse so much businesse, and provide so many things as was needfull; and had not been able out of it to repaire Athlone Castle, the Key of Connagh; nor divers other Forts and Castles of great consequence.

Now intelligence came from Secretary Cecill, that the Spaniards were discovered about Sylly 45 sayle, (whereof 17 men of warre) and supposed that they would l [...]nd [...]t Lim­rick: most of them 100 tun apiece, and had six thousand souldiers in them.

As also other letters from the Councell in England, that his Lordship would aske what supplyes were needfull, and that in convenient time.

September the nineteenth, two thousand men out of Eng­land arrived, some in Corke, and some in Waterford.

And his Lordship writes for store of munition and vi­ctuals, to be with all speed sent to Dublin, telling Ma­ster Secretary that Tyrones very friends would faile with his fortune, and many others when they could rid themselves of the feare of him.

And that the Irish submitted Lords desired to continue subjects, if they might see appearance of defence, though perchance not so much out of their honest disposition, as for the smart they yet feele of a bitter persecution.

In June, the Queene wrote to the Lord Deputy with her own hand, a most gracious acceptance, and a free commen­dations of his good service.

September the three and twentieth, the Spanish Fleet came into Kinsale, lying between Rosse and Corke Bay out into the South Sea: the Lord Deputy and Lord President of Mun­ster, [Page 82] being both together with the Councell at Kilkenny, whence they road both to Corke.

Where they understood the number of the Spaniards to be about six thousand, under the command of Don Jean de Aquila, who was one of the chiefest Commanders of the King of Spaine, and had been Generall in Britany: And that a thousand of them scattered by foul weather, were landed at Baltamore to the Westward of Kinsale.

And that they expected (according to promise) great aid and assistance from the pretended Earle of Desmond and Florence, Mac Carty, who were both taken prisoners, and al­ready sent into England.

And that they had brought sixteene hundred great Sad­dles, for which Tyrone had promised to furnish them with horse, and then they would keepe the field, for they had likewise many armes in hope the Irish Rebels would sup­ply them with men, which would revolt at their first ap­pearance.

About October, many letters are sent into England, to the Counsell and to Master Secretary.

And he tels them, that seeing the occasions are so great, good supplies are to be sent with all speed, because defence must be made for the subject that hath means.

And money also, because the Swordmen which have no means, will goe to the enemy if wee entertain them not.

Thus his Lordship streightned for want of men, to sup­presse the rebels in the North, and oppose the forreigne enemy in the South; but that God who accounts rebellion as the sin of Witchcraft, and an evill thought against law­full Soveraignty impiety, did so counsell and incourage him, that collecting a small force together to Corke, hee shews himselfe in field, and presently marched within five miles of Kinsale, and on the 17 of October, within halfe a mile [Page 83] of the walls, and sate down under a hill called Kn [...]c Robin, whither the Spaniard out of the Towne, made some shot to hinder his encamping but could not.

And the next night made a great salley, but were beaten back again.

Many skirmishes hapned between the English & Spaniard, who always went backe by weeping crosse; by Gods pro­vidence and the valour of our stout Commanders. So that Don Jean himselfe said hee never saw men come more wil­lingly to the sword then ours.

There was little done by reason our artillery were not come to the Campe.

But the 26, our Campe rose and intrenched themselves very strongly on Spittle Hill, on the North side of Kinsale, a little above Musket shot of the Town.

Sir John Barkley with three other Captains, the night be­fore falling into the Spaniards Trenches, made them forsake them; and fell into the gate of the Towne with them, and killed and hurt above 20 of them, having but three of our men hurt.

The disposall of the whole army in Forts & Garrisons.

Left at Loughfoyle horse 100, foot 3000 under severall Captains.

  • Left at Caricfergus horse 150, foot 850.
  • In Lecale, foot 150.
  • Left in the North Garrisons, horse 100.
  • Foot in No: Garrisons 800.
  • Left in the Pale and places adjoyning 175.
  • Foot in the Pale under severall Captains 3150.
  • Left in Connagh 62 horse.
  • Foot left there, 1150.
  • Tot. 587 horse.
  • foot 9100.
A list of the Army with his Lordship at Kinsale.
  • [Page 84]The old Munster list, Horse 175. Foote 1950.
  • New Companies 2000 Foot.
  • Brought from the North and the Pale to Kinsale, 436 horse, more foote 950. more foot 2080. tot. at Kinsale horse 611. Foot 6900.

The whole Army in Ireland 1198 horse, 1600 foot.

But many of these Companies were very deficient: the the 27. our Artilery were landed at Oyster haven, and brought into the Campe: and two Culverings were planted to batter the Castle of Rincovaur which the Spaniards pos­sessed from their first comming, which Castle commanded the harbour of Kinsale, but one of the Peeces presently brake, so we planted two more, which grew so hot, that the enemy, seeing they could not bee releeved, neither by water nor land (for both had beene tryed, but in vaine) sent out a parly for Conditions that would not bee accep­ted, but presently after for life only, which was granted, being 86 in number, and some 30 had beene slaine in the defence of it.

The Spaniards drew a demi Cannon out of the Towne, and did play into our Campe: the first shot killed two men, and indangered many, piercing his Lordships tent, the shot altogether falling about his quarter, some supplies of men, munition, and [...]ctuals, came out of England at this time, brought by the Earle of Thomond, and being noysed that Ty­rone was comming downe with a great Army to joyne with the Spanyard; the campe was strongely fortified on the north side from the Towne; and the next day the Lord President with 2100. Foot, and 325 horse drew out into the borders of the Province to stop him, at least hinder his passage.

But the Spaniards getting intelligence of the Lord Presi­dents [Page 85] going out of the Campe, and supposing us thereby to be much weakned, about noone they drew out most of their forces, and sent 60. shot and pikes to the foot of the hill neere our Campe, leaving their [...]enches very well lined.

Some entertained skirmish with those that did approach so neere; Others of our men went about and set upon the trenches, and beat the Spaniards out of them, so that when the formost retyred, supposing to have reliefe of their seconds which they left in the Trenches they were deceived, and faine to make haste into the Towne: many of them hurt and killed, a Serjant taken, so that Don Jean committed the Serjant ma­jor: commended the valour of our men, and that his owne had lost their reputation.

And commanded that no man should after come off from his service, except he were fetched off by an Officer.

The 13. day ten great ships came into Kinsale under the command of Sir Ri [...]h. Leveson, who brought 2000. Foot with Munition and Artillery: and Officers of all kinds to attend the same.

A list of the Army at Kinsale Foot 11800.

Out of which was chosen a flying Regiment (as they cal­led it) to answer all alarmes, and were exempted from other duties.

The Horse 857.

The Castle Niparke upon a breach made by our cannon, yeelded only on condition of saving their lives, sixteen being only left in it; It stood in an Island beyond the water.

The Lord President returned with foure Regiments, two he carryed out, and two met him, and comming to the Campe, they quartered by themselves on the West side of Kinsale, and were commanded by the Earle of Thomand, for the Lord Pre­sident went to the Lord Deputy.

The Towne with a Demi-Cannon played upon our Admi­rall, [Page 86] and Vice-Admirall in the the harbour of Kinsale.

And shot them throughout.

But our Shippe peeces presently dismounted the Demi­cannon, and hurt their chiefe Gunner.

Our battery lay so continually upon the Towne on all sides, that did it much offend the enemy within, who impa­tient that we built a fort close to the towne West gate.

Made a brave sally with 2000 men on our Ordinance on the East side, and made most furious assault, having brought with them tooles to cloy the Peeces, and to dismount them if possible.

And indevoured to pull downe the Gabions in our tren­ches and baskets filled with earth, for the safegard of our Gunners and Cannoneeres.

But they found such resistance by the great courage of our men, that they were driven to retreate into the Towne, leaving above 120 dead in the place, and many slaine neere the towne, some others taken prisoners.

But on our side not many hurt, two Captaines and one Lievtenant killed.

Among the Spaniards at their shipping many of them were found to have Spells, Characters, and hallowed Me­dalls, as preservatives against death.

A Drumme was sent to offer Don Jean to bury his slaine, who returned thankes, but withall prayed the Lord Deputie to see them buried, promising to doe the like for ours, when they fell in his power.

At this time newes came that sixe Spanish ships were put into Castle-haven, neere Baltamore, and sixe more were scat­tered from them by foule weather, these six brought two thousand men, and many Ordnance and Munition, and news that 20000 more were comming.

Sir Richard Levison getting five or sixe ships out of the [Page 87] harbour of Kinsale, got in little time into Castle-haven, and and sunke one Spanish ship.

The Admirall of the Spaniard having 9 Foot water in her hould drave on a rocke, and the Vice-Admirall and two others run aground, most of the Spaniards quitting them.

And so our Fleet returned to Kinsale.

Into which harbour came a Scottish Barke laden with 80 Spaniards, who were by the Master put all into the hands of the English, so were landed and carryed into the Campe, upon whose examination divers discoveries were made, that great preparations were made for Ireland, and that in Spain they doubted not but that it was taken already.

Now intelligence came to the Campe that O Donnell was joyned with the Spaniards that landed at Castle-haven, & that he together with all the forces that Tyrone could make, would releeve Kinsale.

Upon which our Campes did more strongly fortifie and intrench themselves for their owne defence.

And so had not leasure to follow the batteryes as they had done before, because the new supplies were much wa­sted with hard service, and great sicknesse.

Two small Sconces were built at the West side of the Towne, betweene the Earle of Thomands quarter and the water, and so cast up trenches from place to place, to invest the town to the land, and hinder the driving in of the cattell into the town. O Donnels forces, are said to be 4000. and Ty­rones 8000. which are all to joyne with the Spaniards, and lye not above sixe miles from our Campe.

A Letter was intercepted, sent to Oneale by the Spanish Generall.

To the Prince Oneale, and Lord O Donnell.

J Thought your Excellencies would have come at Don Ri­cardos going, since he had order from you, to say that up­on [Page 88] the Spaniards comming to you (from Castle-haven) you would doe me that favour; And so I beseech you now, you will do it, and come as speedily and as well appointed as may be: for I assure you that the enemy, are tyred and very few, and they cannot guard the third part of their trenches, which shall not availe them, for resisting their first fury, all is ended.

The manner of your comming, your Excellencies know better there then I to give here: for I will give them enough to doe this way, being alwayes watching to give the blow all that I can, and with some resolution that your Excellency fighting as ye doe alwayes, I hope in God the victory shall be ours without doubt, because the cause is his.

And I more desire the victory for the interest of your Ex­cellencie, then mine owne.

And so there is nothing to be done, but to bring your squa­drons; come well appointed and close withall, that being mingled with the enemies; their forts will doe as much harme to themselves as unto us.

The Lord keepe your Excell. Kinsale Decemb. 18. after the old stile.

Though you be not well fitted, I beseech your Excellen. to dislodge and come towards the enemy, for expedition im­ports, it is needfull that we all be on horseback at once, and the greater hast the better,

Signed by Don Iean de Aquila.

This newes made us ply our batteryes the more, and the like importunitie made Tyrone advance within a mile of us in the way to Corke.

But some of our Foot drawing out of the Campe towards him; for that time he drew himselfe into the woo [...]s.

Our Army was but weake at this time, many sick, and some run away in number 6595.

[Page 89] Tyrone often shewed his Horse and Foot on a hill not [...]a [...]e off; and we had intelligence from one of Tyrones Comman­ders that both he and the Spaniards resolved to a [...]t our Campe together on all sides in the night.

But Tyrones guides missing the way, happened to be with [...] an houre of day, when they were discried, in a plain not far from our Campe: where Tirrill led the vantgard wherin the Spaniards from Castle haven were, Tyrone leading their battell, and O Donnell their reare intending to force the great Campe.

But the Lord Deputy, with the Lord President having sate in Counsell all that night drew out some regiments. The Marshall Sir Richard Wingfield with 400 horse, and Sir Henry Fowers regiment advanced within 20 score of the e­nemy, resolving to give them battell, two more regiments being come up; which the enemy perceiving retyred over a foard somewhat disorderly, and the Marshall seeing it de­sired leave of the Lord Deputy to fight; which being gran­ted to take occasion according to his discretion, hee pre­sently marched forward over the foard.

The enemy still retyring further over the bogge into a plaine, hoping to find the bogge some safegard from us.

But the Marshall with some horse and foot went to the bogge side, and gave them occasion of skirmish; there their Battalians standing firme on the one side of the bogge, and our foot on the other.

In the meane time the Marshall found a way through the Foord to the ground where the Rebels stood, hee possessed the same with some foot, and presently got over three troope of Horse, with which he charged the enemies bat­tailes of 1800 men, but finding them stand firme, wheeled about.

But now three troope of Horse more, and two Regiments [Page 90] of foot which were with the Lord Deputy, who stood not farre off with a vigilant eye, came all up.

So that the Marshall with the Horse charged home upon the reare of the Battell, which being Irish, and not used to fight in the plaine, especially seeing their horse dye, which were the chief Gentlemen (in number five or six hundred) were suddenly routed, and our men followed the execution. The other two Battels seeing the other routed, advanced to their succour, but the Lord Deputy sending another Re­giment to charge on the flanke of the Vangard, which pre­sently retyred disorderly, being followed by our horse and foot. But the Spaniards that were not so light footed, drew out by themselves, yet were soon broken (by a troope of horse led by Sir William God [...]lphin) and most of them kil­led their Commander Don Alinza del Campo taken priso­ner, together, with two Captaines, 7 Alfieroes, Ensignes or Colours (as we call them) and 40 souldiers.

In the mean time many of the light-footed Irish escaped away, by advantage of this execution done on the Spaniard. and all the mayn battaile except 60 were killed.

On our side little hurt, Sir Richard Greames Coronet kil­led, some Commanders of quality hurt, and six souldiers hurt, many of our horses killed, and others hurt. Of the Irish 1200 left dead in the place, besides those that were killed in two miles chase. Wee took nine of their Ensignes, all their Drums, Powder, and two thousand armes.

And their destruction had been greater, had not the gree­dinesse of our men in pillaging and rifling the Spaniards hin­dred it.

And had not our foot been tired out with continuall ser­vice, and our horse spent for want of provision to keepe them in good case, we had cut the throat of all the Rebels, for they never made resistance▪ nor looked behind them, but ran and shifted for their lives.

[Page 91]His Lordship presently in the midst of the dead bodies, gave thanks to God for this great victorie.

So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord, but let them that love him be as the Sun when he goeth forth in his might.

The Rebels were upon report about six thousand foot, & 500 horse, whereof 14 Captains slain, souldiers slain 1995.

His Lordship had not above 1200 foot, and lesse then 400 horse, so that it was Gods great goodnesse to give him the day.

And about noon he returned giving volleys of shot in manner of Triumph.

Which the Spaniards in the town hearing, who had layn still all this while expecting Tyrone, and now supposed that it had been he, made a sally out upon our Campe, but soone perceiving their errour, they did retire into the town again.

But made divers sallies out to hinder our making of tren­ches, and other works which now we did most earnestly.

About the last of December, Don Jean sent to the Deputy about a parley, tearming him Vice-roy, and much complai­ned of the treachery and falshood of the Irish.

And that if honorable conditions were offered, he would accept; and so after many parlyes and propositions, Arti­cles were accorded on both sides.

That the Spaniard with all he had, and while they tarry be well intreated, and have things necessary for their mo­ney: and sent safe away into Spain in English ships, assoone as conveniently they may: paying for their passage, and leaving a pledge for the safe returne of them backe againe.

So our army went to refresh it self at Corke, and the Span. abroad in Kinsale; only Don Jean▪ rode with the Deputy, and made means to his Lordship, that his Excellencie would shew some commiseration on the Spanish prisoners that were in Corke, that were in great extremity for want of pro­vision in number 160.

[Page 92] Ian 25▪ certaine Captaines are dispatched West ward to receive from the Spaniards, at Castle-haven, Baltamore, and B [...]r-haven, those Castles which they possessed, but they not knowing of this their Generals Composition, they a [...] B [...]r-haven being 60, did build a Fort of trees and earth and planted three pieces in it.

About the eight of March (for so long it was by reason of foule weather and crosse winds, before all the Spaniards▪ could be sent home; his Lordship with the Army attending▪ thereabout, not willing to trust them over-much, or give them occasion of doing ill.

About the end of the yeere 1601, his Lordship wrote unto the Counsell in England, shewing them the hope that they had of the peace and quiet of Munster, upon the death and execution of three arch-rebels.

Likewise shewing them there was great discontentment in the army, upon an occasion of an abatement of halfe a pound of beefe to each m [...] a day, and two herring o [...]sh­days; and that the horsmen did murmure, for that [...]; were raised 5 s. in a quarter more then usual, being but [...] before▪ now 15 s. which his Lordship did alter againe for feare of a mutiny.

And presently after his Lordship fell sicke, and so con­tinued repayring to Dublin to take physi [...]k.

Now here Majesties charge is cast up for the former yeer ending 1602, and it was 246087 l▪ 7 s. 8. d.

Besides the Concord [...]u [...] Bils impressed upon account here, the levies and transporting of forces, (paid in Eng­land▪ the payment of works, and the charge of the office of the Ordnance, Powder, Bullets, &c.

Now a List is taken of the army in the beginning of the [...] yeere▪ 1602▪ Collonels 14.

Totall [...] of the horse by the list 1487. foot 16950.

[Page 93]But of these only 500 horse▪ and 3650 foot went into the field with his Lordship, the rest were placed in severall Forts, Castles, and Countries▪ for the better preventing of the Rebels joyning together, and were so placed, that upon little warning many o [...] them might meet with his Lord­ship, now intending to bend all his forces on Tyrons country.

So being recovered, took the field in Iune, and marching up to Blackwater, to the fittest passage into the heart, of Ty­rone five miles Eastward from the Fort of Blackwater.

There was but a small space or skirt of a Wood between our Camp and the River, which wood he had cut through the yeere before, and there building a bridge over the Ri­ver, and a Fort to safegard it (calling it Charlemount, he pas­sed to Dungannon, six miles distant, a plaine open way: whence Tyrone making hast away left the Towne and his own house there seated all a fire, so his Lordship sending a [...] company before to view it, presently marched thither with his army, and Tyrone fled as high as the Castle R [...], upon [...] be▪ Ban, his Lordship sent out. Companys to spoyle and for­rage, as farre as En [...]killin or Lough Erne, and taking two of Tyrones chiefe Islands, hee marched to Lough-Sidney where he met Sir Arthur Chicester▪ with his forces; who came from Carickfergus; at their meeting place his Lordship raised a For [...] capable of a 1000 foot, and 100 horse, and called in Mountjoy, after his own Barony. And his Lordships resolu­tions were to follow Tyrone from place to place, but that a scarcity of victuals hindred him, so that he was fa [...] ▪ for 20 days to go [...] elswhere to provide, but leaving those Garri­sons in the mean time, so strong about Tyrone, that he should not dare to venture on the plain [...], and they stirring about to seek after him in his fortress, he should not feed his C [...]is abroad.

Now fresh news came of new supplyes from Spaina, and [Page 94] confirmed, for that a ship of Spaine arrived at Ardea, and brought O Swillivan Beare, and other Captaines of the Re­bels munition and store of money: which made them grow somewhat resolute, whereas before they were ready to sue for mercy: this caused some obstructions in their proceed­ing.

But the Lord Deputy intending to take the field and have the Newry but hearing that Tyrone would send and di­sturbe the parts about Killultagh, to hinder that himselfe should not be prosecuted,

His Lordship sent some Commanders to invest a strong Fort wherein lay all the goods of such Rebels as were fled into Tyrone: called Enishlanghen, which was seated in the midst of a great Bog, and no way accessable, but through thick Woods very hardly passable, and the Fort had about it two deep ditches both compassed with strong Pallisado's a very high and thick Rampire of earth, and timber, and well flanked with Bulwarks, and sixty souldiers for its de­fence; who by the industry and valour of our men were made to yield, and men brought to his Lordship at the Newly.

This done his Lordship took the field, Aug. 20, marched towards Armagh, and so spoyled Tyron's Country, who was fled into Fermanagh; from whence he went to a Fortresse at the bottome of Lough Earne, so that hee could not be ap­proched, so that making wast thereabouts & leaving Garri­sons, at the end of Sūmer his Lordship returned to Dublin.

About October 20, many Rebels offered submission, espe­cially many of Tyrones Captains, and Tyron himself writes an humble letter to the Lord Deputy.

Who begins a journey into Connagh to take the submis­sion of other Rebels, and to view the Towne of Galloway, where he continued all Christmas, and caused a fort to be built there.

[Page 95]The Lord President of Munster, went to surprize the ca­stle of Dunbay which Oswillivan Bear got from the Spaniard, at Bearhaven, where in were sixty Warders, and three peeces of Ordnance, neere unto which his Lordship pitched his camp having a rising hil between it & the castle; there were within it some Spaniards & Italians: But our battery making a breach was entred by the English, and possessed part of it, but the Rebels defended the rest all the day and night, and part of the next day: untill our men wonne it by force, and slue and executed 134 men, sparing 12 of good account, which were kept to worke upon Tirrill. Spanish Ordnance taken in this Fort, one Demyculvering, two Sacres, and one Falcon all of brasse, and two Sacres, five Minions, and one Falcon of iron; the Castle was blown up, and his Lord­ship returned to Corke, Sir Samuel Bagual with a Regiment, fell by night into Tirrils Campe, lying in Muskerry, killed 80 of his men, made him flie away in his shirt, took a thou­sand cattell, 60 horses and hackneys, and much rich spoyle.

And Sir Charles Wilmot brake by night into the quarters. of the Knight of Kerry, killed 40 of his men, tooke 500 Cows, 200 Garrais, and two moneths provision of meale, and meeting with other Rebels, he took in all 2000 Cows, 4000 sheep, and 1000 Garrais, so that the Rebels as b [...]oken men flew towards Pale: About this time Captain Taffe com­manding our Irish in Carbery, assaulted a band of Rebels, led by a Priest the Popes Nuntio, who killed the Priest with most of his men, and got his cattell.

Upon whose death Mac Carties, & all Cerbery submitted.

So the Lord President from Connagh returned to Munster, and leaving two Commissioners to governe Munster in the beginning of March, sailed into England.

And now Tyrone himself sues for the Queenes favour, which she is very unwilling to grant, supposing him not worthy to live, who had cost so many lives, and caused he [Page 96] so much charge and trouble: yet the Deputy earnestly me­diates, but it doth not appeare that ever shee did yield unto it; yet willing he should come in.

But Tyrone had little left but the grudging of the com­mon people, which alwayes followes disasters, and exclay­med that he had ingaged the ruine of his whole Nation, for his owne private disco [...]tents, and that these warres how­soever beneficiall to him, yet were they most pe [...]nicious to them. Thus Tyrone having almost, if not altogether worne out and wasted his friends and fortune, found it high time to seek [...]avour and accept it upon any terms.

Which the Deputy having secret intelligence of (the Queens death not yet publikely knowne) made some haste to accept of his submission, lest another should have taken the beast out, that he had taken in his toyle.

And so March 30, 1603, at Me [...]ifont hee made his humble submission to the Deputy (sitting in a Chaire of State) on his knees, and in the company of the Deputy rode to Dublin, April 4.

At which time open tydings came of the death of that victorious Queen, and the happy comming in of K. James: do the Earle of Tyrone, made a new submission to the De­puty, as to King James King of England.

And now upon this change divers of the Towns and Ci­ties, as Cork, Waterford, and Wexford, through the [...]educing of the Priests and Jesuits) had set up the Idolatrous Masse▪ and brought in Popish superstition, by force and violence, on a [...]a [...]e suggestion, that K. James was a favourer of the same.

So the Deputy was [...]ike to have a new businesse in hand by those that had not shewed themselves all this time; who seeing their hope of gaine gone, the rebellion growing to an end, themselves will venture to continue it rather then let it [...]ke.

[Page 97]As Limrick and Galloway, but especially Corke grew ex­ceeding insolent, and by force to advance to the height, the Romish Religion.

And for prevention hereof his Lordship first writes to the Maior, and then drawes towards them with the Kings forces.

Hanged some of the Ring-leaders at Corke, sware the o­ther Cities to obedience, leaving strong Garrisons in them. Left Sir George Carem the Kings Deputy, sent for Tyrone, and carried him into England; where he was joyfully welcomed, and graciously entertained at the Court, created Earle of Devonshire, and made a privy Counsellour, Tyrone having procured his pardon of the King, and a Proclamation for his safegard in his return to Ireland, being grown exceeding odious to our Nation, there he stayed awhile, but after be­ing disloyall, fled into Spain, and there died.

The War ended the army List, horse 1000, foot 11150, and after to be reduced to 8000 foot.

The charge from 1602 to 1603, beside concordatum, muni­tion, and other extraordinaries 290733 l. 8 s. 9 d. Which War continued from October 1, 1598: to the last of March, 1603, which was foure yeeres and a halfe, and cost besides great concordatums, great charge of munition, and other great charge of Extraordinaries 1198717 l. 19 s.

Thus was Ireland by that noble Lord cured of its despe­rate state, and brought into the most absolutest subjection, in which it had ever been since the first conquest. And had the resolution held of disarming the Papists, which after­ward could not be effected when our army was reduced to so small a number.

Or the eye of Policy or Church Discipline been so vi­gilant or observable, as it might have been.

[Page 98]We need not now have [...] what we may justly, though [...] enough lament.

But whether slides my eager pen, it was my promise to set a period to that sad Seene; and how meanly performed, no man knows better then my selfe.

But since that Tragick part is now againe (after so many haleyon happy dayes) come on the Stage; it calls to minde still some sad events which then hapned, and follow [...] Rebellion, whose indentive is imaged [...]ancour, and end [...] and destruction.

For besides that inhumane disposition of the Native Irish▪ as appeared by a barbarous fact committed about [...] in [...]ent by three Irish people in their house, killing them and burning that running away by the light; but were apprehended, executed, and hung on Gibbets. There is an imbred hatred in them towards the English, and a generall dislike of our Civill government, but much more of our Religion, the love of the Irish to Spain, (whence some of them are descended.

The least successe of the Rebels, and the hope of pardon upon the worst event; which last by the great wisdome of the [...] is prevented by [...]etting their [...] [...]ale assoone as they are en [...]ed into Rebellion, the better to awe them; for those continuall parleys and overtures of peace proved most dangerous to the State, and most advan­tageous to the Rebels▪ and caused them to revolt upon the least [...] and where as the [...]i [...]es have layen so loo [...]e on them these many years▪ it makes them proue [...]adish, who by nature goe best with a hard hand.

Being best preserved by the same means by which they were first gained.

These things lying [...] in their hearts (has now [...]oake out in a filthy running soare) especially pressed by [Page 99] the hands of Priests and Iesuits, who for their owne [...] and end [...], care not what exigence and extrea [...]ity they [...] those mis [...]ed people into, who were they so wi [...]e as to con­sider those miseries they formerly indured, when the pro­vision of the Countrey was destroyed, and they lay scat­tered in the wayes dead by 1000 with hunger, and nothing more common then to see multitudes of those miserable people dead in the ditches of Towne, with their mouthes all coloured greene with eating of nettles and docks, and whaelse they could reare out of the ground.

Beside this, two most horrid [...] spectacles were then s [...]ne three children (the eldest not above 10 yeares old all eat­ing and grawing the intrals of their dead Mother, upon whose flesh they had fed 20 dayes past having devoured all the flesh to the bare bones; now fell a roasting the in [...]r [...]lles on a slow fire to sustaine themselves from starving.

Another more cruell discovered by Captaine Traver ly­ing at the Newry, of certaine old women in those parts which used to make a fire in the fields, whether divers lit­tle children drove out cattell in the cold mornings, and comming to warme themselves, were by these surprised, killed, and eaten, which at the last was discovered by a great girle which brake from them by strength.

For the certaine information the Captaine sent our fo [...] Souldiers to try the truth of it, who found the [...]o [...]ls and bones of children scattered in the fields; and so did appre­hend those cursed cairiffs, and put them to death. Those and many as bad are the accidents that happened in that Rebellion.

And who can expect better in this, or [...] who [...] not worse, if no [...] suddenly prevented, this fire of rebellion now kindle [...]; will be found to increase into a devouring [...] by slow and slender oppositions to the first cruption, if the [...] [Page 98] [...] [Page 99] [Page 100] Rebels have liberty to combine and know their owne strength, for by delay the foe is incouraged, and his num­ber animated by such as submit for feare of them, when they cannot be secured by us.

And if we have not such forces as may keepe and com­mand the field, thereby to compell the Rebell to make re­sistance [...]t one place with most of his forces, then will hee forrage and spoyle all abroid in the Country; but if hee be made unite in one head, then will he soone be driven to want of victuals, which will be apt to breed murmurings and mutinies among themselves.

And a warre of force will be great, costly, and large (as the Earle of Essex said) and that will make the burden more deservedly to be complained of, then that of Queene Elizabeth, who did grieve and groane (as shee sayd) with her subjects, under so great a weight as the maintaining of 1400. foot, and 1500 horse, in a climate full of contagion, in a Kingdome utterly wasted.

Which forces ours must farre exceed, for although the Rebels have not such woods and fortresses as then, yet now are they equall in number, and farre more ready then for­merly, and better exercised in feats of armes, and no doubt will make the best advantage of the hils and boggs, for the Earle of Essex was wont to say that the warre in Ereland, was as aswell to be made with woods and bogges as men; It's not like the coursing of a Hare, but as the digging after an earthed Foxe from one angle to another.

It was then thought the savingst way to breake them by factions raysed among themselves, they being coveteous and mercenary; and will be hired to any thing, especially if the Iesuites and preaching Priests be but rooted out, which doe solder them so fast and close together, that were they quite banished; they would moulder asunder in short time of themselves.

[Page 101]Some obstructions were then like to happen, as ready to hinder the good progresse arising from the discountenan­cing of the Generall by the supreame authority that im­ployed him; his want of trusty friends to mediate and speed his proceedings; this feare raysed many jealousies in the Earle of Essex head, and run him on the rash attempt to have (unw [...]rranted) the Service.

This made Lord Mountjoy, so labour to ingratiate him­selfe with Secretary Cecil, a man powerful with the Queen, by which meanes all necessaries are timely sent unto him, himselfe incouraged to diligence, and had in honour and reputation in the eyes of his Souldiers. It was the only o­verthrow of victorious Haniball, to bee secretly maligned, by the crafty wiles of Hanno working upon some thrifty humours of the Senators of Carthage, and ready to urge all his proceeding to his disadvantage.

And when some shall labour by false evidence to sway the opinion of his Supreame judge in the title of their fa­vour and his deserts; this dealing may prove injurious to the service by whomsoever to be undertaken.

It was then thought fit for the further countenancing of the Generall, for to leave the disposing of many places, e­specially the Companies of the supplies sent unto him, for so Gentlemen were kept in Ireland from being troublesome in importuning authority for Companies in England, & men did more indeavour to deserve well being in the eye of him of whom they have, or else expect advancement, and by that meanes will he bee able to curbe the insolencies and misdemeanours, of many bad Captaines, who sue and presse hard for command to make a living, rather then out of any love to the cause or Countrey, or any affection to their Companies, as may appeare by keeping of them imperfect, and so lay the greater burden of service on the rest, or else [Page 102] by changing away some for such such as are not seruicea­ble, as was attempted in the first Scottish imployment and knowing that their time is short, and at the end of the war begins (through their wast and improuidence, their misery) Captaines make harvest wages by reaping other men corne.

These crimes in the Queenes wisdome were thought so heynous, as that the offenders were made examples by ca­sheering, degrading, and other notes of infamy.

And Captaines refusing to shew their Companies, when they were required by the Commissaries of the Mustors should be checked two moneths pay, which will prove no ill president to be now obserued.

Another inconvenience then happened in that there were not large Magazins of provision layd in the safe Townes lying on the Sea or great Rivers, for an Army has a large body, and much of it (like a frogs belly) and without that satisfaction the hands and knees are feeble.

And through the default of the Victualers there happe­ned as great a mischiefe, that seeing the state of England ex­ceeds all other Princes in their large allowance both by Sea and Land. So for the kind more nourishable, as hoofe and porke, where as the Spaniard and French feed-on hard pease and beanes, dry ruske, and insiped rice, easie to bee kept indeed.

But through the coozenage and deceit of the victualers, it is both cut short in quantity, and unsavoury, and un­wholsome in the quality breeding diseases and infection a­mong the poor souldiers. This is no news to any that have been in the late actions of the English, and will never be o­therwise untill some severe course be taken with these cruell Harpies that ruine both King and people by uttering any musty provision.

[Page 103]An excellent and commendable provision was then made for the sick; a Quest-house in the Towne, and carefully looked into, and to have their lendings in ready money, and surplussage allowed.

And for those that were sick or sickly in the Camp; their own means allowed them very duly.

Then a generall contribution from the Officers and Cap­taines of the Army: amounting to fifty pound a week, be­stowed in providing warm b [...]o [...]h, meat and lodging; as was a great succour both to the sick and [...]aymed, not permit­ting them to lye in the field scattered or neglected, as though by their losse of limbes or health, they had lost their Christianity, what is it that takes away the edge of their valour, that they dare not venture so boldly as they would, but this neglect and scorne that is offered them, or least the losse of a member prove more miserable then the losse of their lives.

But let us now goe on with better hopes, and resolutions becomming the English Nation, assuring [...]selves there is now wealth and honour to be gotten as wel a [...] then, when di [...]rs archieved the dignity of Earles, many Vis [...]o [...]ts, 13 at the least.

Barons which were Colonels and Captaines in that ser­vice, besides many well affected Irish; who wonne honour and not b [...]ing can be w [...]ing C [...]s [...]r, a [...]d the [...] will take care of us.

Besides, know of what condition your adversaries are Rebels in the highest degree against God, so having woun­ded their own conscience, and God their hearts; they will prove no other then a hea [...] of Deere, shewing a faire head; but make their heele the safe Gardian off them; and those light-footed Kerne have alwayes made better use of their heels then hands; and proof hath shewed when [Page 104] ever they were called to the aid of the Scots or English.

Whose best commendations was, that the Irish at the first went on well, but according to their custome suddenly fell off; and leave their party ingaged, if they looke not to it.

So they did in a good cause, and with good company, but now all stained, and stand guilty of Rebellion, which is as the sin of witchcraft.

They became crest-falne, faint-hearted, that if follow­ed with speed, actum est.

The Tragedy is ended, they must all uncase.

But why am I so bold, when wisdome almost divine is busie about it?

As if I meant to light a candle to the Sun; why that has been at noon day, to pry a corner that glorious light stoops not too.

Besides, Abundans cautela non nocet.

Many boayes in the Sea, many beacons on the shoare, makes all the more safe and secure. And it may be used as an old wifes medicine, if it doe no good it will do no hurt: for it is not meant as an advice, but as an opinion of a wel­wisher, which may be allowed or cancelled at any mans pleasure.

‘But when thou goest out with thy Host against thine enemies, keep thee then from all wickednesse, Deut. 23. 9.
FINIS.

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