Infelix nimis cujus domicilio ignavia adhaeret.

LUKE 8. 16.No man when he hath lighted a Candle covereth it with a Vessel, &c.

LONDON, Printed by T. R. for John Martyn Printer to the Royal Society, at the sign of the Bell without Temple-Bar. 1669.

The Preface.

A Short Work needs little Pre­face, and this Work is both short and slender, so as it may be easie to make a Gate large enough for the City it self to run out at. A Iourney cannot be too little, nor the Way too plain, for a person of Body tyred, and Spirits spent by past tra­vell; and I may well professe my [Page] self such, having in my dayes galop­ped so many Post-stages. In the prime of my youth I past (or rather lost) some few years at the Vniversity of Cambridge. Then I came to have a tast of the Court, but my Father soon called me from thence, knowing by dear experience the Air of that place to be such, as few elder Bro­thers can long breath there without falling into a Consumption. After­wards I lived with my Parents at their London habitation, and ha­ving no employment I surfeited of Idlenesse, taking my pastime with some of the most corrupt young men [Page] of those dayes. By Gods grace I quickly found this unfit for continu­ance, and therefore I prevailed with my Father to send me beyond Sea to travel, where in lesse then two years I had a view of the best part of Italy, France, and Spain, being present at Madrid and Paris, when the several Marriages for our then Prince of Wales were treated on in those Courts, and so I became a partial witnesse of the artifices, and uncertainty of such Negotiations. From thence I was employed as a Soldier in Holland, about three years, Commanding a Foot Company [Page] in our Sovereigns Pay. And there I ran hazard again of being lost in debauchery, and especially in the Vice-rampant of that People. But by Gods grace I came home scot-free, though I served under a Scotch Colonel. Then I became a Married man, and was speedily called to Publick affairs, being elected to four successive Parliaments, where the Service and approaches were ex­cessive chargeable, and of no profit as to my particular. One of these was that fatal Parliament which set the whole Kingdom on fire, seeking to enervate or unsinue all Govern­ment, [Page] and that it might the better be effected, divers of us their Mem­bers were by Club-law forced from our station. Yet it pleased God (e­ven by that Parliament) when we were re-admitted) to put all again in such a way, as the old Government was perfectly restored in a succeed­ing Assembly. Then I made my full retreat into the Countrey, which re­newed my experience in businesses re­lating to that course of life; and now at last I am come to reside at the chief Mansion-house of our Family, where I have no other ambition then to end my dayes with a peaceable [Page] and pious dissolution; So much of my self tyred and retired, which I may well be, since the World can scarcely shew me any thing new. Now a word or two about my approaches to this little Inventary: Being o­vertaken with old Age, and by divers infirmities rendred unfit for action, I entertain my self frequently by turn­ing over old Books (whereof I have good store in several Languages) without any fixed Study, and among them I lately perused one, consisting of certain politick and prudential Considerations, written by three di­stinct Italian Authors in an articu­lar [Page] way, and as I was reading, it fell into my thoughts, that the same might profitably be done in Oeco­nomicks, which is a path not much travelled in. Thence I took occa­sion, to turn my meditations that way, and having spent same little time therein, I put my materials together, and so this small Work received being, without any further trouble by way of Method. As for the Subject, though not of any sublime consideration, I conceived it fitter for me to embrace, then N [...]tes in Po­litick Government, as not having coversed sufficiently with Sovereign [Page] Princes, and taking it to be a high presumption for private persons to give them instructions. Yet the go­vernment of private Families may be considerable even with Princes, because their Principalities are com­posed of Families, and they who are known to have well governed their private fortunes, are the rather judg­ed fit for Publick Offices. Oeco­nomy is a subject, that entertain­ed the Pen of Learned Aristotle himself, but it yieldeth little occasi­on for pleasant conceits or curious terms, wherefore I must advise all persons of nimble fancy, to forbear [Page] reading, least it become a kind of tor­ture to them; happy it is for this Dis­course, that it came into the World so seasonably; for never was there more need of good menagery then now, at a time when Revenues of the Gentry are fallen beyond what could have been imagined of late years, and they are most likely to continue so, if not to incur a farther diminution. I meddle not with small Families, which are concerned in the mysteries of Agriculture and petty Huswifery, matters no way suitable to my mind or experience; and there was no need, for divers persons of peculiar know­ledge [Page] in those matters have written of them. But it may be demanded, why I, having been so great a strag­gler, do undertake to give Rules in Oeconomy? To which I answer, That at times I have been a House­keeper a great part of my dayes, and more especially in these my latter years, at which time Men are accu­stomed to take matters into conside­ration more maturely, then when distracted with pleasures of youth. Indeed my nature is not so perverse, but I receive great contentment in being beneficial to others, for In mi­nimis prodesse juvat, better do [Page] a little good, then none at all. Nei­ther am I so ill opinioned of this my Brains production, as to think it al­together uselesse, and therefore such as it is, like a Knight errant, it shall travel about to seek adventures.

Perhaps it may yield assistance somewhere; and so I leave it to its fortune. I expect to be Censured in all, and not to escape in this Intro­duction, as having said too much of my Self, and too little of Oecono­my our Subject: But my Face being masked, the blushes cannot appear, and therefore I may content my self to be a patient hearer.



OUr first Observation shal be touching the importance of Oe­conomy; wherefore let us bring it to the Balance for tryal. Though a Family (which is its general object) be very small in comparison of the State whereof it is a member, yet is it not like an Epicurean atome, [Page 2] unexposed to sense, but an ag­gregation capable of Govern­ment, and the good govern­ment is of such Concernment as a State cannot subsist without it; for Agriculture & Manufa­ctures are dependant upon fa­milies, and a Nation can neither be fed nor defended without these, since publick contributi­ons receive their life from them. There were very evident marks of Domestical thrift among the Roman Senators in their begin­ning: and the Noble Venetians now subsist in their greatness by it. True it is, that States having obtained much riches, become subject to extravagant Expense and Luxury; but these excesses grow not to their height, till the State come to its declinati­on, [Page 3] as it was with the Romans and Persians. And now having made our approaches, let us give a Definition of Oeconomy.


Oeconomy is the Art of well governing a mans private house and fortunes, by which appears, that there is no necessa­ry Object of Oeconomy, save an Owner with his house and possessions, but it is seldom ex­ercised without Wife and Ser­vants. And Children will be desired for Succession sake, and as the bond or tye of affection between man and wife; where­fore we shall treat of all these, and in the first place of a Wife, whose care within dores is of greatest importance.


It is an antient English Proverb, That if a man will thrive, he must ask leave of his Wife; and thrift is a matter of no small consideration in Oecono­my. If therefore choyce be made of a Wife, let him use as well his Ear as his Eye, that is, let him rather trust to his discretion according to what he hears, than to his affection kindled by sight, that she may be no lesse useful in the day than agreeable at night.


A Jove principium. Let her be of the same profession in Religion with her Husband; for between them that agree not to go to Church together, there can hardly be consent in other things. Neither should she otherwise be of too diffe­rent inclination and affecti­ons from her Husband; for if one delight in Company, and the other in Privacy, they must live together with as lit­tle convenience, as in the Fa­ble the Swallow and the Lark would have done, whereof one loved Summer and the o­ther Winter. Let her not be [Page 6] too Young, for unripe fruit yields no increase. Not too Old, for fruit past its matu­rity tendeth to putrefaction, and is noysom. Not too rich in Revenue (especially by a reserve of a great part in her power) lest she become too imperious and upbraiding, as giving subsistence to her Hus­band. Not too Fair, least like hony she draw Wasps to his House. And not too Foul, for that is not onely unplea­sing, but brings shame with it. To conclude, he cannot use too much circumspection, being to give her an irrevoca­ble Estate for life in his Per­son. And for advancement by Marriage, let him consult Mar­tials Epigram:

[Page 7]
Vxorem quare locupletem du­cere nolim
Quaeritis? Vxori nubere no­lo meae
Inferior matrona suo sit quae­que marito,
Non fuerint aliter foemina virque pares.

Or thus

Ask you why Wealth in Mar­riage I not crave?
'Tis that my Wife the Breeches should not have.
The Wife brings less in Birth, and Wealth then he,
Or else the Man shall not her equal be.


A Master of a Family being already Married must mature­ly consider the disposition of his Wife. If she be defective in brain, or naturally given to Idlenesse, unfit she is to be much used in governing the Fa­mily. The like may be said of one Laciviously dispos'd; for how improper to be trust­ed in businesse is one, who de­serveth not to be trusted with her self? And yet these will hardly suffer themselves to be excluded; for what is more usual, than a desire of power in those who are uncapable of managing it? But if the Wife [Page 9] be industrious, prudent, and affectionate to her Husband (as some such there are) no confidence can be too, much for her; for she is such a bles­sing as may sway the balance against very many (not onely good Servants but) Children.


Our first Mother Eve was in­flamed with a desire of Know­ledge, which caused her fall, and begot our mischief; but her Daughters in these dayes affect nothing so much as the enjoy­ing of their Will. For the at­taining of this they apply themselves to several wayes, ac­cording to their different con­stitutions [Page 10] and dispositions. The best of them are so happy in temper and abilities, as they are able in a modest way to propose to their Husbands strength of Reason for their chief desires, and these ought to receive full satisfaction, un­lesse the Husband can convince them with stronger reason.


Some others of milder tem­per seek to have their Will by discontent upon refusal, ex­pressing it by Tears, and pre­tended indisposition of Body; and these find many times an indulgence, perhaps too often. Some are of so fiery constituti­on, [Page 11] as upon denyal they are ready to fly in their Husbands face; and these deserve little encouragement. In this case the Husbands Patience must be a Narcotick to keep him from being too quick of sense, and so the fit may passe over with­out Battail, and good use may be made of her passion, which being troublesom but in few cases, may be generally usefull in obliging Servants strongly to their duty. To prevent Contests between Man and Wife, a great Lord of the late times had a pretty way. He would often professe, that he never in his whole life deny­ed any thing to his Lady; and his meaning was this, that when the matter proposed by [Page 12] her could not be convenient­ly yielded to, she could not by any importunity wrest any answer from him.


But those are of the worst Condition, who free enough from the passion of Anger, are fully bent to have their Will in all things. And as Ti­berius the Emperour said to Agrippina Widdow to Germa­nicus, Si non imperes filiola cre­dis tibi injuriam fieri. They think themselves wronged if they be not permitted to have a complete Empire. These are harsh and perverse enough by nature, but they strein [Page 13] theirs to the height, to be­come not onely crosse, but insupportably so, till they ob­tain their end. They do not apply themselves to storm the fort, but by siege to make the holding of it incommodi­ous, and so to cause a rendry to them for want of conveni­ency, as the French say our Englishmen surrendred Calais for lack of Mustard. The Husband who yields all upon these terms, deserves to wear the Petticoat, having renoun­ced the prerogative of his Sex, and therfore deserves not the least pitty. Some Husband would use the Poet's harsh Complement, and say, [Page 14]Vade uxor foras, aut mori­bus utere nostris.’ Or thus

Abroad good Wife, and there new dwelling find,
Or act at home, as I declare my mind.


Progeny gives a futurity of being, and the word Posterity may be fitly understood in that sense; for the Body (if not the Soul extraduce) of Parents hath a partial continu­ance [Page 15] by the Seed, though not perpetuity. Affection there­fore to Children is most natu­ral, and the care of them is most strictly required of Pa­rents, even in Religion it self, according to the uniform con­sent of all Divines. In their In­fancy the government of them doth belong to the Mother, and so properly, as the Father is as then uncapable of it. The Mothers care of them is as du­ly theirs, as is naturally the Milk of her Breasts. Unhap­py therefore are those Children whose Mother is ravished from them by Death during that time, she being so obliged to a careful preservation, as their being lost by negligence is a kind of Murder in her. And [Page 16] whereas many times after such losse of a true Mother, a se­cond marriage brings the Name and not the Nature of the Mo­ther; and sometimes there groweth a disaffection to the Children upon a second brood: it then concerns the Father to double his care, putting on as much of a Mother as is pos­sible for those of his Sex to do.


Male Children when they become disciplinable fall under government of the Father, whose duty in the first place, is to infuse into them the gene­ral Principles of Religion, and [Page 17] then as he shall be able, to pre­serve them from the rust of Idle­ness, a certain Bane of Youth. In this he cannot be too sedulous, for as well the defects, as faults of Young persons, which are generated by want of good e­ducation do justly become im­putable, rather to their Pa­rents than to themselves. The Father must therefore take in­to Consideration his own Con­dition, which if it be Mecha­nical may find them employ­ment at home. But if he be of the chief Gentry, as we treat little of others, his Chil­dren may be directed unto wayes of a more refined na­ture, and in my opinion, Pa­rents of such condition are praise-worthy who cause all their Male Children to under­take [Page 18] some Profession of the more Noble way, whereof this Kingdom affordeth good plenty, as that of Divinity, of the Laws Common and Civil, of Soldiery, and of Physick. Neither is Merchandise to be contemned, whereunto in for­rain Lands persons of the most Honourable condition do ap­ply themselves. And though the care of Daughters do chief­ly belong to the Mother, yet Parents of Eminency shall do well to place them fitly and seasonably in Marriage, which the wise Siracides calls the per­formance of a weighty matter;Eccl [...]s. 7. 25. yet that endeavour is better spared, if the Daughter shall be found so much better dis­posed, as to embrace S. Paul's counsel of perpetual Virginity.


Howsoever Daughters are designed, either to a Single, or Married life, there must be a due preparation called Breeding, of which a word or two. Virginity is a precious thing, but most precious when preserved in a Religious consi­deration. It is a perfection that was unknown in the Church of God till Christs In­carnation, for the Jews did neither enjoyn, nor exercise it, but were so averse, as (if the Learned Selden deliver truth)Vxor Ebr. lib. 1. cap. 9. those men who did not apply themselves to the getting of Children (except some few men who dedicated themselves [Page 20] to study of the Jewish Law) were esteemed as bad as homi­cides, being very great offen­ders against the first general Commandment, Encrease and multiply. But with us Christi­ans, perpetual Chastity is most commendable; but to oblige themselves to it is onely pro­per for those who have the gift of Continence, which is not every person, for otherwise our blessed Saviour, having said that some have made them­selves Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heavens sake, Mat. 19. 12. would not have added, Qui capere potest, ca­piat. Let him receive it who can. Therefore it may be mischie­vous to enjoyn it, which de­serves the Consideration of Roman Catholicks, who are said sometimes to oblige their [Page 21] Children to such a Vow, though indisposed to it. For these dif­ferent Courses of life there are different wayes of breed­ing, but in each there must be a training up to Vertue and Piety. A Single life is the bet­ter part, giving a capability of beginning the heavenly joyes here on Earth, by an uninter­rupted Contemplation of the Divine Excellencies. These young Women cannot be too little inur'd to vanity, since the true businesse of their life is a pursuance of their dedica­tion, and worldly businesses are but accidental. But the other sort, which in this faece Romuli or corrupted race of People are thousands for one, may be permitted (as S. Paul saith)1 Cor. 7. 34. to care for the things▪ of [Page 22] this World, that they may please their Husbands, and therefore it seems, that in their breeding such strictnesse is not required, as in educating the others, neither is vanity so much to be declined. From this it follow­eth, that these may assume some liberty to dresse and adorn their persons, as also to exer­cise themselves in Musick and other Courtly entertainments. If excesse be avoided, and if their only end of such their em­ployment be to give content­ment to a Husband. Yet such trifles must not be used to de­stroy the learning of more ne­cessary things, as the wayes of Domestical thrift, with the well governing of a Family; much lesse may they take up so much time, as not to leave suffici­ent [Page 23] for the performance of Re­ligious duties.


Enough hath been said to shew that Children are a bles­sing to the Parents, yet they may be unprofitable; for the same Siracides gives it as a Pre­cept,Ecclus. 16. 1. not to desire a multitude of unprofitable Children; nay sometimes they prove dange­rous, as it was with our second Henry, who had many Sons, and most of them Rebellious, so as before his death he bit­terly Cursed two of them who survived him, and never would be perswaded by his Bishops to revoke the Curse. And David was no lesse unhappy in [Page 24] his Sons (I except Solomon, though he made but ill use of his Wisdom) and this seemeth to have befallen him, by his own default, of too much in­dulgence to them, for in Scri­pture there is such a Note set upon him in the case of Ado­nijah; 1 Kings 1. 6. and the same may be observed in Eli, whose negli­gence of reproof deprived his Family of that great Dignity of the Priesthood.Prov. 13. 24. Solomon therefore had good reason to say, He who spareth the Rod hateth his Son.


Having spoken of Children, I shall take the freedom to say something by way of Compa­rison [Page 25] between our English Law, and the Civil or Imperial; as they relate to Succession for Inheritance. By the Civil Law every man is capable of having legal issue, as well as natural, and may adopt whom he will, though he have posterity o­therwise. These adopted Chil­dren are as Capable of Inhe­ritance as the natural, so as not onely the Childlesse per­son may provide himself of an Heir, but any other man use his judgment in choosing one educated, and of inclination according to his mind. Why this is wholly rejected in our Law, is left to conjecture. Our Lawyers have this saying, that God onely makes Heirs, and we know that he can make bet­ter choyce then we our selves. [Page 26] Sure I am, it may well become us to submit to his determina­tion. To this it may be ad­ded, that there is not so much need of Adoption with Nor­thern people, as with Southern, for we are more fruitful and generative than they. And by Adoption there is a total change of Blood, and a change more certain, then if the Suc­cession were Spurious, or of Bastards by the Fathers side. This is very injurious to Pro­genitors, from whom Families often receive their Honour and Inheritance, for in the choyce of a new Heir the Father hath an election, but not they, who perhaps may be then deceased; and for the most part there remains some of the Kindred lineally descended from those [Page 27] Ancestors, who yet become rejected, though numerous, and sufficiently deserving. But enough of this.


Now we have digressed, touching upon other Laws con­cerning Children. It may be pardonable to consider them about Marriage in some parti­culars. The most essential dif­ference lyeth in two poynts, a multiplicity of Wives, and power of Divorce; for both these we must acquiesce in our Saviours decision, which con­cludes against multiplicity of Wives, and limits the power of Divorce. The Jews (sa­ving their King and High Priest) [Page 28] before the Captivity, might have as many Wives as they could maintain; and at this day the Mahomitans permit Poligamy. The Jewish King's Dignity caused a limitation to him in Marriage; but the Turks prerogative exempts him from Nuptials altogether. Oh the vast distance between several results of Humane reason in the same matter. I say of humane Reason, taking the Jewish Matrimonial Customes to be grounded not upon Di­vine Institution, but upon re­solutions of Rabins like to judg­ed cases in our Law. Let us compare Monogamy or single Marriage, with Polygamy, and somewhat weigh the conveni­ences on either side. Polygamy is said to be little lesse than ne­cessary, [Page 29] to Nations desirous of Empire, as were the Jews, and now the Turks are, since abun­dance of People is chiefly in­strumental in Conquest; but to this may be answered, that no People was ever more ambiti­ous of ampliating their limits, then the Romans, nor more desirous to abound in People then they, as appears by the Priviledge of Jus trium libero­rum, and yet they never ad­mitted Polygamy. It may be added, for Pol [...]gamy, that a single Wife wants the spur to Vertue, which emulation gives where there is more. But Re­ligion is a sufficient spur to Ver­tue, and the benefit of Emu­lation may arise from the con­sideration of other mens ver­tuous Wives, as well as from [Page 30] Rivalls in relation to the Hus­band. But certainly in the Oeconomical way, a multipli­city of Wives must be very inconvenient, as causing many distractions and altercations within a Family, to the great disturbance of the Master; for if one Contentious Woman be scarcely supportable, how must it be where there is many, and with power almost equal? As to the power of Divorce, Christianity doth not allow it, but in the case of Fornication, for impotence produceth a nul­lity and not a Divorce. But the Jews (and Romans also be­fore they were Christian) had a full liberty to Divorce. This was a great power to the Mas­culine Sex, which Women will readily tax as unjust, as [Page 31] was thought by Salome Sister to Herod, who to give a pre­sident for equality between the Sexes, sent a Bill of Divorce to her Husband, a thing oppo­site to the Jewish Custome. For liberty of Divorce, it is said, that otherwise a man is for life (and without remedy) con­fined to the inconvenience of a humorous, unquiet, and dis­obedient Wife; but the fault is our own, for Marriage should never be without full consent on both sides. To conclude, our Levity and in­constancy is such, as the ge­neral unhappinesse would be much greater, if every man might be Divorced at pleasure.


The next part of a Family that offers it self is the Servants, and of a great Family (for those that are little deserve small consideration) the whole may be termed an epitome of hereditary Monarchy. The Master of such a Family si par­vis componere magna licet, if we may compare great things with small, doth somewhat re­semble the Soveraign Prince, his Children the Nobility or second estate, and the Body of Servants beareth some simi­litude to the Commons. And this comparison may the better be admitted, because Writers [Page 33] very considerable fetch their chief argument for Monarchy (as being the most natural and ancient Government) from its Conformity with the Paternal, which alwayes supposeth a Fa­mily. Let us see how this comparison is proper. All Power and Office is derived from the Sovereign in a State, and so is all from the Master in a Family. The Protection and Defence of a Kingdom belongs onely to the King, and so of a Family to the Master. All the People pay tribute to the Sovereign, and all work of Servants in a Family, whence profit may arise, is to the Ma­sters use. Thus far there is an agreement, but in other things a difference. In Monarchy e­very Subject hath a natural In­terest [Page 34] in his Prince, and the relation is indissoluble. But in a Family Servants have no natural interest in their Master, and the relation is onely indis­soluble between the Father and his Children. Again, Mo­narchy is one of the Formes of political Government, and a principal end of all such Go­vernment is the whole Peoples welfare, whereof the Com­mons make the greatest part, whereas in a Family there is no other design or intention then profit and convenience of the Master, and his Servants have no concernment of their own in such things as peculiar­ly belong to the Family. Many other instances of difference might be given, but they ful­ly concur in one particular [Page 35] more, which is this, that nei­ther of them can well subsist withont due subordinations, and good order.


The first Consideration be­longing to Servants is their number, wherein no certain rule can be given, for respect must be had to several things, as to the Dignity and Revenue of the Master, his number of Children, &c. But it is abso­lutely against the Rules of wisdome to erre in the excesse. Better it is to have too few, then too many, as well in re­spect of their idlenesse, which is to be shunned as a Rock, [Page 36] and cannot so be in case a fit number be exceeded, as also in regard of encreasing charge beyond the Masters income, a most necessary thing to be prevented; for what is, or can be more uncomfortable, then for a Master to find his Estate in a continual ebb or diminu­tion.


The next thing to be weigh­ed concerning Servants in ge­neral is their condition, which as I conceive, may better be exprest by the negative then the affirmative. As first, that they differ not in Religion from their Master, for whatsoever [Page 37] their zeal may be otherwise, it cannot be excessive in rela­tion to a Master, whom they think not capable of Heaven and eternal happinesse.


That they be not much ad­dicted to any notorious Vice, and especially unto excesse of Drinking, which for the most part (like the Crocadile) grows as long as it lives with the person, and is every day more incurable, bringing with it many inconveniences into a Family, as well by ill example as otherwise, whereas other Vices in the habit of them, are [Page 38] not so frequent, and not ap­pearing so often in publique, minister lesse scandal.


That they be not affected with any Chronical disease, which must of necessity ren­der them unfit for active busi­nesse, since they are obliged to a continual observation of their health, and in that re­spect are much fitter to be ser­ved then to serve.


That they be not noted for extravagancy in the matter of [Page 39] their own expence, or much given to Gaming, for both these will need a continual sup­ply, which cannot in any pro­bability be wrought out but at the Masters charges, and the latter of these is deprived of all limits.


That they be not dispo­sed to wander much abroad out of dores, much lesse night­walkers, or lodgers out of the House; which last considera­tion renders Married persons altogether unfit for Service, since they never want just oc­casion to lodge abroad, and it may be added, that a relati­on [Page 40] to two families (whereof their own is one) must be almost as inconvenient, as the serving of two Masters.


The Proverb saith, So many Servants, so many Enemies; and properly enough, for there is scarcely any waste in house­keeping but Servants or their favourites do fare the better for it, and even the best of them do sometimes build upon their Masters ruines, as it is seen in these dayes by Purcha­sers of their Masters Lands. It is also no lesse wittily said, that he who is served by one, hath a Servant; he who by two [Page 41] hath half a Servant, and he who is served by three hath none at all. This is most ap­plicable to Masters of small Families, but in great Fami­lies it may poynt out to this Rule. That the care of one businesse be not committed to above one person, for other­wise when accompt is taken, every ones answer is likely to be, that he thought others had done it.


I have thought it strange, that Servants are now worse then in former ages, and I have been apt to impute it to the iniquity of the times, and [Page 42] to degeneration of people from their wonted Integrity, but upon better consideration I find, that the way of retain­ing is much altered; for not a full Century of years past, Masters gave small wages, and their Servants expected reward by a good pennyworth in some Farm when they were aged. This kept them in diligence, and in a strict observance of their Master, they having an eye to the reward, which still remained in his power. But now by Contract Servants have Wages equivalent to the Service they are obliged to, and being sure of that which is agreed upon, they may stand at defiance with their Master, and not care how perfunctori­ly they apply themselves to their duty.


In the choyce of particular Servants much care should be used, for respect must be had to the Employment whereto they are designed.

Oeconomy is an Art, and e­very Artist ought to be curious in the choyce of his Instru­ments, and not onely so, but to trust chiefly to his own eye, cast either upon the whole work it self, or upon those who act in it. He must not choose a Young Steward, or an Old Husband-man, for the one needs experience to direct, and the other must have strength to labour. Every [Page 44] Servant should also have some knowledge and particular apt­nesse to the businesse referred to his care. I knew a Person of eminence, who having ob­served a diligence and natural promptnesse in a young man trained up in his Stable, thought him capable of any kind of Service, and a considerable Farm being cast into his hands, he found it best to employ this young man as a Bayliff, who answered his expectation fully in point of diligence and promptnesse; but for want of experience in Tillage the Ma­ster lost his Seed for divers years; and then finding his er­rour, he was enforced from that time forwards to use a per­son who had been exercised in that way.


In this Nation heretofore there were Villains, Servants by Inheritance, whose persons and Estates in Land, were ly­able to be disposed of at the will of their Lord, and this continued with us a very long time, but at last it was found (and perhaps upon ground of right reason) that such a con­dition did not well consist with Christianity, unto which a na­tural Servitude is too opposite. But in processe of time that precious thing called Liberty of the People, gained so much ground in our Laws, as now a Master cannot sufficiently cha­stise [Page 46] his Servant, or put any restraint upon him within li­mits of his House, without in­curring a Complaint to the Magistrate for breach of the Peace, or false Imprisonment, which giveth much presumpti­on to Servants.


I cannot but mervail, that the French should term England, Pugatoire des serviteurs, the Servants Purgatory; since all Europe affordeth no Countrey where they have more free­dom; and I no lesse wonder, that Francis Guichiardin, that excellent Authour in his Aver­timenti [Page 47] Civili, taking notice how little Masters respect their Servants, and cast them off up­on every small disgust, should more then once advise Servants to follow their Masters exam­ple, and to make more ac­compt of their own interests, then of their Masters, since all men are now so naturally dis­posed to self-love as nothing can with-hold them from ad­vantaging themselves upon all occasions.


A Steward of the houshold (stiled Oeconomus, to shew his usefulnesse in a Family) is his Masters right hand in presence, [Page 48] and his Deputy in time of ab­sence. He hath a general Command over his fellow Ser­vants, and therefore ought to be a man of understanding, and somewhat of an Austere nature, that they may not too far press upon him in way of familiari­ty, but rather stand in awe of him. He must be of a higher condition then the rest, which will draw respect. And be­cause he is highly trusted with receipt of moneys, he should be possest of some consider­able Estate of his own, that he may be sufficiently provi­ded to answer upon accompt. He should excell in quicknesse of apprehension, that he may readily see faults, and as rea­dily give order for the refor­mation of them. He must be [Page 49] full of observance towards his Master, and careful that his Commands be put in executi­on, as on the other part his Master is imprudent, if he dis­countenance his Steward in presence of other Servants, though he do find him faulty, for such disgrace will much pre­judice his businesse in relation to others of the Family, who may thence be encouraged, to dispute with him upon every occasion, and so retard the busi­nesse to be done. Lastly, he must be a good accomptant, and not defective in memory, least he injure his Master or himself in setting down Re­ceipts and disbursements.


In great Families (for we treat little of others) there are many offices, and a Series of subordinations; as a Gentle­man of the Horse, and under his jurisdiction several offices belonging to the Stable. A Clark of the Kitchin, and un­der him the Cook with his un­derlings, and so the Butler, &c. and all these are to be counte­nanced in what they shall justly command to be done by their subordinates. Here the Master saith Go, but in small Families especially in the Countrey, the Master may say Gow (as we phrase it in East England) or go [Page 51] we, implying that he will ac­company them. When Go is said, the Command is execu­ted, but with some uncertain­ty, because the businesse pas­seth through divers hands, but Gow doth the businesse imme­diately, and with surer effect.


Though the Wages of Ser­vants (together with their Diet) is supposed to set the balance even against their ser­vice to be done, yet they do so overween their own merit, as when they have long resided in one Family they are apt to become remisse in their Ser­vice, and make no difficulty [Page 52] to say, that being old Servants they ought to have an indul­gence. Upon this ground di­vers persons have taken a re­solution, not to keep any Ser­vant for long continuance, ex­cept a Steward, and such as are necessary about their per­son, and this hath succeeded well with some of them, but others have been unhappy, fal­ling into great losses by un­faithfulnesse. And the danger in this kind seemeth great, for how can it be, but in frequent changes some must offer Ser­vice coming with foul intenti­ons.


Some Masters there are, who never seem more displeased, then when they find much a­greement and quietness among their Servants, fearing least there may be a consent in them to cheat their Master; and thinking also, that when they quarrell they will be apt to ac­cuse one another, if any thing be amisse. But certainly when there is continual disagreement and strife, it must be a great remora to them in the perform­ance of what is to be done, and few there are, who hold it not the highest basenesse to accuse a fellow-Servant.


The industry of a Servant is not more useful in any office then that of a Gardner, who besides his care in Gardens of pleasure, by his improvement of the Orchard and Kitchin Garden may bring great plenty with little charge to the Kitchin, and so by consequence to the Table, from which ariseth the chief honour of House-keep­ing.


The Porters care is also of great use in a Family, who [Page 55] should be a man somewhat a­ged, that he may be endued with patience, to give atten­dance at the Gate, and take accompt of all strange faces who shall desire entrance, and especially of such as by Habit or Countenance give any the least suspicion, for it is most u­sual to suffer by such admittan­ces, but most of all in City dwellings. And this Officer ought constantly to see the Gate made fast in due time at night.


And since the well ordering of a Table gives so much ho­nour to a house-keeper, the offices of Clark of the Kitchin [Page 56] and of Cook, cannot but be of great concernment. That of the Clark to provide and appoint what is to be used, and of the Cook to dresse it, and especially the Cooks office, which makes me call to mind how in the Family to which I have relation, there was a time, when notice being given of very extraordinary Persons to come to Dinner, and the warning being so short, as there was no time to fetch in Achates fit for such an Entertainment; the Cook who had been train­ed up at Court, was such a Master in his Culinary way, as by well ordering of our ordi­nary Provision in making and well seasoning several Dishes of one sort of meat, he fur­nished the Table, so as it gave [Page 57] great satisfaction to the Guests, and caused little less then a wonder in us.


The second person in a Fa­mily is the Wife, who if she be industrious, and prudent, flies at all within dores, and pitty it is that any obstacle should be met withal, which is well illu­strated by the Queen at the game of Chesse, where the King, or Master, keeps his gra­vity by going but one draught at once, but the Queen as his Lievtenant, is not limited for way, since she hath power to march every way, nor for di­stance, so as she keep within compasse of the Chesse-board, [Page 58] which you may understand to be the House or Family.


Common use hath made the governing of Diet and Hous­holstuff so proper to the Wife, as a name of reproach is fra­med for such Husbands, as shall interpose in those matters. But that which is hers most par­ticularly is government of Fe­males within the Family, and good ordering of them is so necessary, as all that is neat depends upon it. They have one good quality wherein Men-Servants are defective, which is, the keeping themselves con­stantly within dores. And so many things besides are done [Page 59] by them with more perfection then by men, as it should be in that of Women-Servants, if I would exceed my number in any kind.


Having in the last Article in­timated the Oeconomical ver­tues of Women, it would be injurious to them not to menti­on one of them in particular. It is their attaining of a mode­rate skill in Physick and Chy­rurgery, attended with their providing of Simples and o­ther materials, as also their due preparation of them at the Still and Fire-hearth, and the exercise of that knowledge where need requires. This is [Page 60] a good fruit of Charity and of good advantage, as well with­in dores as without. And though it be much exclaimed against by Professors in those Arts, yet can it not be impro­per for the Sex, since the Pro­phet Samuel, reckoning up the several Tyranical oppressions that should fall upon the Isra­elites under their so much de­sired Kings, doth particularly expresse the taking of their Daughters to be Apothecaries, for so our old English Translation renders it;1 Sam. [...]. 13. and the word Vn­guentarias (used both by the vulgar Latine and Tremelius) is not much dissonant. Much good ariseth to poor people by the application of such ordina­ry remedies, and it is of more certain benefit, then the deal­ing [Page 61] about Cures of extraordi­nary consideration, whereof observing the uncertain (and sometimes dangerous) event, some have taken occasion to doubt, whether there come more good, or harm, by those Arts in such difficult Cures.


The Children, though of full growth and understanding, are not to meddle with busi­nesse further then they are cal­led to it by their Parents. In my own thoughts I blame such Pa­rents, as make their Son and Heir an absolute Stranger to their Estate, though perhaps it may be reasonable enough towards an Heir remote in [Page 62] Blood. I was told by a Noble man of great Fortunes, that his Father, even to his Death, did so effect to keep him in darknesse, as he would take offence, if his Son upon any e­mergency made enquiry con­cerning the least part of his E­state. It cannot be, but by that means the Young man was ex­pos'd to much abuse, when he came to be owner. The incli­nation of my Father was clear other; for as soon as my years gave me Capability, he not onely acquainted me with mat­ters of his Estate, but would sometimes take my advice, and frequently make use of my en­deavours, which was the way to give me not onely experi­ence in those matters, but abi­lity for businesse in general.


The Master hath a kind of Pastoral charge within his own Family, and shall do well to take order for the external and publick Service of God there twice a day, and in case any of the Servants (especially those whose businesse lyeth within doors) be negligent to give attendance at the Chappel or other place assigned for that duty, he must either by him­self, or his Chaplain, who is his substitute, in spiritualibus, if he have one, reprove them for it, and so for scandalous courses that any of his Family shall give themselves over unto.


There was a piece of mana­gery heretofore which is now wholly out of use, and yet might be beneficial. It is the having of a Wardrobe in con­siderable Families, wherein was kept such Houshold-stuff as sel­dom came into use, and there was also preserved all the old Vestments of the Master and Mistris, which had been any thing costly. This was a Store­house, out of which might be taken at any time materials, to­wards the making of new house Furniture, and Saddles, or such like things, but now it is grown a shame with us, to preserve any such frippery, as they call it.


Having in the last Observa­tion mentioned Vestments or Apparrel, I cannot think it im­proper in this place to take that matter further into considera­tion. The most natural uses of Apparrel are these, to defend against the injuries of Wea­ther, and to be a Covering for the obscene parts of the Body; which last was the occasion of our Father Adams first piece of Clothing by Fig-leaves. But certainly it may also be used for ornament, or else our Savi­our would not have said, that such as wear soft Cloathing are in Kings Houses; Mat. 11. 8. 1 Cor. 12. 23. nor S. Paul have spoken of bestowing more [Page 66] abundant honour on those mem­bers of the Body which we esteem least honourable. Excesse in bravery of Apparrel causeth much waste, and therefore some Rules should be given to pre­vent it.

There can be little said in ge­neral, the condition of per­sons being so different in re­spect of Age, Quality, &c. As for those who are aged, espe­cially in a retired way, they cannot be too moderate, for much vanity and great age should be incompatible. Most indulgence is to be afforded to people in the flower of their age, who may find advantage many wayes by adorning their persons. I knew a Noble-man whose course was this, to ap­parrel his Daughters in very [Page 67] plain Habit till they became Marriagable, and then he trim­ed them one by one in Gar­ments of more cost, which suc­ceeded very well, all of them being seasonably and fitly dis­posed of. The same course may be proper for Male Children, and the way is not irrational, for persons so trained up will return with lesse reluctation to plain attire, if need be. In the general, it is a good Rule, to defer the making of new Ap­parrel as much as may be, which at the long run becomes a great saving of charge. And on the contrary, those who must have many Suits of Clothes at the same time, find themselves at great losse, since the Fashion cannot but alter, before some of them have had their full [Page 68] wearing. That wise and fru­gal People, the Venetians, have a way to distinguish the quali­ty and degree of persons by the form and not the bravery of their Habit, which of ne­cessity must become a great ad­vantage to their State in gene­ral. But the wiser part of e­very Nation must submit it self to the common usages of the whole; yet prudence ought to be shewed in affecting rather moderation then affectation; for men are not sooner conclu­ded to be defective in judge­ment by any thing, then by their Apparrel; and modera­tion is incomparably the best governour of expence, and no lesse so in this, then in other particulars.


The Master (and not onely he, but his steward) ought to govern as much by Example, as by Command; for how inde­cent must it be, for a man to re­prove another for excesse of Drinking, or any other habit of Vice, whereunto he himself is given over, Longum iter per precepta, breve per exempla, the way by Precept is long, and that by Example short. And if the Example of Superiours be attractive, up the cragged rock of Vertue, it cannot be ima­gined, but our course after them will be speedy and some­what tending to precipitation, on the smooth down-hill of [Page 70] Vice, when we are spurred for­wards by our own depraved inclinations. Such persons as are Leaders had need be very cautious in the choyce of their way, since they have no small share in others faults


It is a common precept, that the Master of a Family must be last in Bed at night, and soon­est out of it in the morning; for so he may see good order kept, and that the Servants not onely attend their businesse, but ob­serve fit times for it. Yet in great Families the Masters dig­nity is such for the most part, as that, and other personal acti­vities, are fitly transferred to the Stew [...]rd.


The Master shall do well to take his Stewards Accompt once in a Year at the least, and to be very punctual and curi­ous in it, or seem to be so. This is good also for the Steward, for by that means he may the more easily satisfie his Master, as to particular disbursements, and the Masters seeming care, will make the Steward fear to be discovered, if he use any un­derboard play.


Masters of Families are much favoured in our Law, for their [Page 72] houses are termed their Castles, and have the priviledge not to be forced by publike Officers, but in prosecution of high trea­son, felony, present breach of the peace within dores, and some other extraordinary cases.


The good government of Families is very profitable to the Prince or State; for Ser­vants well trained up in obedi­ence, and free from Idlenesse, become good members of the Common-wealth, and none more fit for Soldiers then they, but especially those of the bet­ter sort, who by their breed­ing attain to a kind of genero­s [...]ty of spirit, which renders [Page 73] them most fit for the Martial profession; and I am fully per­swaded, that the great actions performed by our Kings in for­rain Countreys heretofore, were chiefly acted by the Nobility and Gentry, who being obli­ged by tenure of their Lands to attend their Prince in person, carryed with them their Ser­vants, and these had not their heart so much at a home of their own, as members of the Traind-Bands in our dayes.


It is necessary for Fortresses and Families to have a years provision before hand, the first to be in readinesse for Siege, and the latter to prevent losse by a year of Dear [...]h but as well [Page 74] in Corne, as in most other pro­visions of store within dores, the damage will be very great, if sufficient care be not taken in custody of them.


Money is said to be the Si­new of War, and it is little less in the way of Oeconomy, for if the Housholder have not mo­ney in hand he must bear much losse. Provisions will almost double their price, if they be not bought in due time, and in fitting place, for being ta­ken up upon trust, they must be had of such persons as make a trade of buying and selling, whose manner is to work upon the necessity of others, and [Page 75] they will be sure to have great advantage by laying out their Money. Besides this, if the Family be resident in the Countrey, our Master will find that such Lands as he keeps in hand will frequently want stock, which must be accom­panied with great prejudice.


Some persons are so Rich, as they have many places of re­sidence, & Romae Tibur amant ventosi Tibure Romam, these are delighted in variety of ha­bitation, swimming in plenty, and may do well to change of­ten▪ having no need to be fru­gal; but our thrifty Master of a Family shall do better, to [Page 76] keep constant to his chief ha­bitation, unlesse the change afford him some certain and constant opportunity of gain, for no place can afford him o­therwise so much advantage, as that where much time hath yielded means to settle things with convenience for habitati­on.


I have alwayes thought it a most uncomfortable thing to keep House in so sparing a man­ner, as to pinch the belly of Servants; and some I have known, who doing so have yet wasted the greatest part of their Patrimony. Hospitality hath ever been a great honour to this Nation; and certainly [Page 77] it is accompanied very far with Gods Blessing. And so thought King Charles the first, who be­ing told of a Noble mans E­state much wasted by House­keeping, could not give cre­dit to it, but attributed the de­cay to some other extravagan­cy. I have been informed of a Gentleman of the times little foregoing mine, who had been a great Traveller in Italy, and was very expenceful, as well in Apparrel, as in other matters of parade; but for House-keeping so great a Lesi­nante or Miser, as it was his use to keep but one Meal a day, and to hold it about three in the afternoon, pretending that he did it for health. By this means he kept off all Company from eating with him, and made it [Page 78] so usefull as to bear out his o­ther excesses without impair­ing his Estate.


Having in the last Observa­tion taken notice of a Blessing upon Hospitality, I think it fit to consider, how that happi­nesse may be procured. I con­ceive the readiest way to ob­tain the Blessing may be, to take care sufficient for relief of the poor neighbourhood, and best it is to appoint set dayes and times for it, with a method in the doing, yet so, as the set time and method do not any whit diminish the proportion fit for them.


It is a good Rule in House­keeping to observe fasting days according to the Law; for much good ariseth thence. It becomes a great encourage­ment to the Trade of Fishing, by which Shipping is much en­creased, and many Mariners are bred and maintained, whereof no Countrey hath so great need in the way of de­fence as ours; Abstinence con­duceth much to the confirmati­on of health, and the breed of Cattel being a great part of the Kingdoms stock is spared by that means. But the ob­servation of this constitution may the better be thought rea­sonable, [Page 80] because there is no o­ther particular (to my know­ledge) either commanded or restrained within a Family by the publike Magistrate.


Alike to that of Fast dayes is the consideration of observ­ing Feasts (for between these the opposition is so far relative as they should answer one ano­ther) and the latter is no lesse sitting in a Family then in a State, for chearfulness and plen­ty in Diet cause labour to be undergone the more willingly another time, which may ap­pear the better, since the wis­dom of Legislators have made Lent but an attendant upon [Page 81] Easter, and each Vigil Fast up­on his relative Feast. I speak not of occasional Feasts, for to have these too frequent con­sisteth not well with the Rules of frugality. Yet sometimes e­ven the Miser will have his feast famous for excesse.


As good it is, to observe set hours for publike Meals, and for going to rest; for by that means Servants know their pro­per times allotted to their bu­sinesse; meat is the better drest and served in, and night dis­orders are much prevented, whereby there comes not only great wast for the most part, but danger by fire.


Some have a way of diversi­fying their Dishes according to several dayes of the week in a constant course, and this not on­ly affords variety, which is plea­sing to Nature, but gives much ease to the Mistris of the Family, who hath so much lesse trouble in appointing what shall be drest


In houshold expences care would be taken not to have the excesse in such things, as require money to be immedi­ately disbursed, and espe­cially in those that drain the [Page 83] Kingdom it self of bullyon, as Wine, dried Fruits, Sugar, Spi­ces &c. but rather in Commo­dities which arise originally up­on the Masters own land, as of Cattel there bred, Corn of growth upon the same, &c. or at least of such, as are impro­ved there, as Cattel bought and fatted.


Nothing (as I conceive) can be fitter to close up the Advi­ces to a Housholder for that which is to be done within his House, then to put him in mind of filling his petty Magazines in due season with those provi­sions of store which are neces­sary. These branch them­selves [Page 84] into so many particulars, as here can be no room to spe­cifie them, but so it is, as the very life of domestical frugali­ty consisteth therein, and as to these, if occasion be not taken by the foretop, it will be little lesse then impossible to make these provisions at all, especi­ally in a Countrey Family. And wheresoever the Family is, the Supply must otherwise be wrought out with infinite losse. Our Master therefore must not slumber in such matters, least his experience be too dearly bought.


Most of these Observations do chiefly concern House-keep­ing in the Countrey; and it is [Page 85] not unreasonable to have it so; for the most considerable hos­pitality is held there. Fami­lies in the City are generally lesse, and being so, the care of them must be lesse also. Yet the principal consideration tak­eth place there, which is the disposing of money, all being there bought with the penny, so as he deserveth greatest com­mendation who hath the best faculty in spreading his shilling, as William late Earl of Bedford was wont to stile it, by which is meant a making of the best appearance with least ex­pence.


We have already mention­ed [Page 86] Villains Servants by discent or [...] [...]nd have approved of their among us Christians; But there is ano­ther kind, termed by Writers in politicks Servi natura, who are endued with extraordinary strength of body, but altoge­ther defective in point of un­derstanding. These receive advantage by being Servants, and may be of good use in a Family, if labouring in body be necessary there; but I alto­gether disapprove of that use, which is made of them by great Persons turning their defect of Nature into sport. These do not much increase charge, as serving onely for Victuals and Rayment, and excel Beasts lit­tle in point of Reason, or in any thing else, save their out­ward [Page 87] figure, and in that they have an immortal Soul▪ happy in being innocent, and possest of lesse malice, then appears to be in some Beasts.


That famous Lawyer Sir Ed­ward Cook, would often boast of it, as a matter of prudence, That he had never cast his Penny into the Water, nor dipt his finger in the Mortar; meaning that he had never been an ad­venturer at Sea, not yet a Buil­der. I confesse that Building magnificently is a great honour to the Kingdom, and in that respect deserveth all encou­ragement; but it is fit either for persons of very eminent [Page 88] Estate, or for great getters as Cook was; but our Oeconomist takes it for a Rule, not to dis­burse any considerable summe, but where he may either find great profit in a return, or a prevention of a future expence, and therefore he useth expedi­tion in necessary repairs of his Housing already built, for de­lay in that matter doth encrease charges beyond expectation.


It hath been observed as a great unhappinesse to our No­bility and Gentry, that gene­rally they are over-housed. This must be meant of Capital Houses in the Countrey, for Buildings in the City are clear­ly [Page 89] matter of advantage and profit, because they may be rented out; as for the other, the observation is true in both parts, for the Builders of such great Houses were persons ei­ther of wast, or rising fortunes, and they contrived their Man­sions to be fit for their present or approaching condition, and no man will doubt, but Estates are much diminished, and like­ly to be so more and more.

This puts me in mind of him who when his Kitchin was found fault with, as being too little for his House, answered, that the littlenesse of the Kitch­in had made the House so great; and contrariwise, where there is a very great House and a small Estate, we may for the most part say, that the great [Page 90] House hath made the Estate so little; for it is like to great Personal titles, causing the owner to hoise up more Sail, then the bottom can bear, which draweth on his Ruin. All men know (and some of us by experience) the great charge of fitting a large House, and keeping it in sufficient repair, together with the uncomfort­ablenesse (and seeming shame) of living there attended by a small Family, so as it is hard to give advice to persons in such condition, especially if they be fettered so as they can­not transplant themselves, yet they may be wished, rather to affect (and dispose themselves to) the Italian humour of liv­ing in a Pallace with small re­tinue, then to our English incli­nation [Page 91] of abounding in num­ber of Servants, with the in­conveniencies appendent to it, and the observation may [...]lso give a Caveat to rich persons, that they use not too much ex­cesse in Building at their chief Habitation for their posterities sake.


Though it be out of the cir­cumference of our Circle to consider the niceties of Archi­tecture, yet we may give some touches upon the difference, in point of convenience, between Building modern and ancient. The old way of building was, to seek out places sheltred from Wind (unlesse it were for a Ca­stle) and to make thick Walls [Page 92] with small Windows, covering much ground with housing of moderate height. About the be­ginning of Q. Elizabeths Raign they began to enlarge their Lights, and of late the Build­ings are made high with great Windows, and much unifor­mity is affected, after the Itali­an manner. I conceive this fitter for Cities, where ground is scarce and Houses strengthen one another being joyned, then for the Countrey, since to be expos'd to Tempest is so great an inconvenience, especially where the scituation is chosen high for prospects sake, as is now usual. Besides this, the Hall (or basis of Hospitality) is either wholly left out, or so contrived as to be without Chimny of Fire-hearth, which [Page 93] in Winter time should draw Company together, and give chearfulnesse to a Family. Great Staire-cases are also affected, which fill a house with noyse, and uniformity doth often de­prive us of inward Rooms, and of Closets, with other little reti­ring places. These considera­tions and some others make me lesse forward, then the gene­rality, in crying down the pre­tended rusticity of our Ance­stors; yet I must confesse, that not only Beauty both inward and outward, but even the fashionablenesse of Building is to be desired, where it may be attained with convenience, but certainly convenience ought to give the rule. And so I leave the matter to be taken into fur­ther consideration by others of [Page 94] better judgment who have more space for it.


It is a rule in Menagery, not to entertain many Workmen by the day, nor Women to as­sist those of the Family within doors; but in great Houses it is impossible to avoid day-men, since there is so much use of them about repairs, felling and making up of Wood, and such like matters. All therefore that can be done, is to decline them as much as may be, by removing the occasion. And when such are set to work, the Steward shall do well, morning and evening, to take accompt of what is done, by which [Page 95] means they must either be active in their businesse or run hazard of loosing employment afterwards. When any of the Servants are to work abroad, the same diligence is to be used in appointing what is to be done, and in taking accompt of it.


It is certain that Families of Noblemen are clean other, then they were antiently; for with­in memory of some yet alive, it was usual for persons of the inferior Gentry, to put their Sons into such service for breed­ing, and it succeeded well, saving unto them many a pen­ny, which would have been [Page 96] spent by sending them to Lon­don out of remote Countries, and in maintaining them there; to this purpose may be related that which happned in the Fa­mily of Robert Dudley the great Earl of Leicester, and this it is. As he was sitting at his Table with many other Noblemen, a Letter was delivered to him, whereby appeared that an Earl was dead whose Heir ser­ved him in his House, being somewhat remote in blood from the deceased, whereupon he called the Gentleman to him, and acquainting his Guests with the Letters substance, made him presently to sit at the Table above himself and many other of the Lords.


A new Married couple, if they be young, shall do well not to engage themselves in House-keeping too suddenly, but to Sojourn with their Pa­rent, or some other Friend, for some years, that they may have time to observe what or­der is to be held, and to pro­vide themselves of Houshold-stuff, and of other utensils, in some measure, for otherwise they will be like fresh-water Soldiers going to a Military Command, before they are fit­ted with Arms, and understand the use of them, or what be­longs to the exercising of their Soldiers.


When the Heir becomes a Married man and Master of a Family of his own, yet some­times the Parent thinks his Sons presence so necessary to him, as he will summon him again to Sojourn, which must be incon­venient, unlesse the Son hath brought himself by improvi­dence to an impossibility to live by himself. This I know by experience; for having ma­ny Children I was called home by my Father several times, who finding the inconvenience of two considerable Families in a house, returned me as often to my own home, which was not onely a doubling of charge▪ [Page 99] but a very great hinderance to me in my whole course.


A considerable Family ought to be furnished with Houshold-stuff accordingly; but it is far from necessary to have it wholly modern (or a la mode, as they call it) as it was with an Earl whom a friend of mine found giving directi­on for taking down his hang­ings and some other stuff, which were decent enough, my friend asked why it was done, and his answer was, that they were out of fashion, and he would put new in their place. Upon this ground a Person of quality must change his furni­ture [Page 100] every ten years, for in or near that time the fashion chang­eth, and the same may be a mo­tive for a House to be pulled down, and a new one to be set up in its place, as many have done, who were well housed be­fore.


Now we are come to look a­broad, I wish our Pater fami­lias would take into considera­tion the situation of his Man­sion-house, together with the Conveniencies and Incon­veniences of it, that by his industry he may remove what is offensive, and add what may yield advantage; for it argu­eth want of prudence, either to sit under an inconvenience, [Page 101] where it may be removed, or to bear a defect where it may be supplied. But by no means would I have him to fall out utterly with his Habitation, for it is an old note, That few per­sons thrive in the world, who quarrel with the antient Seat of their Progenitors.


If there be any receptacle of impure water near the House, which may render it un­healthful, I should wish him cause it to be drayned; for no­thing is so precious as health, yet the provision of Fish is so necessary towards house-keep­ing, as he shall do well to make Fish-ponds at convenient [Page 102] distance if the situation will bear it, and how necessary it is to be furnished with Fish may appear by the placing of Reli­gious Houses antiently, which were for the most part set near to running waters, so as they seemed more studious, to en­joy plenty, then to preserve health.


Our Law makes it wast, to cut down high Trees (though they be not properly Timber) standing for safeguard and de­fence of a Mansion-house, though it be done for necessary Reparation, yet many hold it unhealthful, to suffer a House to be choaked up with Trees, [Page 103] in regard that the Air wanteth free passage; the choyce of a fit distance may reconcile this difference: But in these daies people are so disposed to quar­rel with Timber, as there shall need no advice to fell Trees about a House.


A Cony Warren yields so constant Dishes to a Table, as it is very fit to be had, where the Soyl will bear it. A Dove-house is as requisite, and though to have a Park about a House be not generally esteemed a point of good husbandry, yet to a person of the higher con­dition there can be no great losse in it, lying so convenient­ly, [Page 104] and the pleasure is very great, not onely in sight of the Deer, but in having so much Pasture-ground at hand lying open for riding, walking, or any other pastime.


To govern the Plow was an Entertainment used by the Ro­man Senators; for Quintius Cincinnatus was called from the Plow to be Dictator, which Office was endued with the So­veraign Power for a time; but it was in the Infancy of that State, when their Territory was small, and their No­bility not great; but as for our Master of a Family, I should not advise him to use Tillage [Page 105] farther then his houshold ne­cessities require, for Gentle­men, who cannot attend those employments in person, must be great loosers by it, Servants for the most part being perfun­ctory in those Services, which lie out of their Masters view.


I should not advise a Gentle­man to keep any of his Farms in hand at great distance, to prevent diminution of Reve­nues; for if there be losse in Tillage at home, the damage of necessity must be very great far off. He shall therefore do much better, to abate Rent in a moderate proportion, which course is confirmed to me by [Page 106] my own experience, for I have alwayes found most comfort, where I have let good penny­worths, otherwise our Farmes are now and then thrown up into our hands (as the Country­man calls it) by which means more losse is contracted in one year, then abatement of Rent would arise to in many. And Divines will also have it, that Gods Blessing doth not accom­pany such persons as are too hard to their Tenants.


A great unhappinesse it is to the Nobility and Gentry, that they do not measure their ex­pences, so as to keep them somewhat under their annual [Page 107] Revenue, by which being done they may continue a fair subsi­stence, and not otherwise. They consider high living as a great happinesse, and the least diminution of pomp, as a great dishonour, which causeth them to continue their wastful way, presuming of a supply to come to them out of the Clouds. This is no lesse then folly, yet those may deserve some pitty, who have not put themselves into that height, but were left in it by their Parents. For this the remedy is easie, for com­mon prudence forbids all men, to continue in a consumptive condition, without absolute necessity, and therefore much better it is (though it give oc­casion of discourse to the peo­ple) to slack sail betimes by a [Page 108] reduction of the grounds of their expence, then to be dis­honoured at last totally, by a ruine which might have been prevented in a resolution ma­turely taken. And let them not think themselves dishonour­ed, for there is no justification so sure, as that which is built upon necessity.


There is one great danger which hath not yet been touch­ed, and it is this; That house-keepers upon their first setting up, either are already in debt, or by providing of necessaries contract a debt, which in the beginning is small, but too easie to be encreased for want of ex­perience, [Page 109] so as at last they be­come enrowled in the Usurers Books. This groweth una­wares to a masse, which like a Cancer so eats into the Estate, as ere long the very heart of it is in danger; this with other ill managery becomes the ruine of much Gentry, for men are generally so unapt to think of a lessening, as they can hardly find any particular, that may be spared for sale. But I must ad­vise our owner, above all to remedy this in good time, though it be by a fell of Tim­ber, or by selling of that which may seem precious; for as the French men say, Pays gasté vault mieux que pays perdu. It is better to be Master of a wast­ed Countrey, then of none at all.


Another danger there is, which though not to the gene­rality, yet is very destructive to some, and it is a being en­gaged to Law Suits.

An itch of being observed to prevail in matters of diffe­rence between Neighbour and Neighbour is too frequent, e­ven with such as are not ob­served to be much bent to the having of their will, but with wilful people it surpasseth any other pleasure. This is a very chargeable entertainment, and bringeth bitternesse in the end, for such businesses are for the most part concluded with little advantage to any, but the Law­yers; [Page 111] it is therefore much more convenient (or rather Christi­an) to make an end speedily by Reference, or mediation of Friends, which is the course whereunto I would advise our House-keeper.


The point of non-residence at the prime Mansion house is of so great importance, as the chief (or at least the most pro­bable) cause of it, may deserve consideration. I take it to be the abhorrence of Solitude, unto which the Countrey life is alwayes subject, and in a very high measure but especi­ally in the conceit of those of the best condition, who have [Page 112] been constantly used to much converse, and who cannot with the least contentment apply themselves to Rural businesses. I confesse that Melancholly must be prevented; for nothing can be more mischievous, and therefore they must entertain themselves with such delights, as may best quadrate with this course of life, so new and un­accustomed.


It was an Observation of my Fathers (and perhaps printed in his Forest) whereof I may borrow the substance, and this it is; That the English Gentle­man can hardly be prosperous in government of his Estate; [Page 113] for whereas the Genius of some other Nations prompteth them to particular excesses; as the Italian to curiosity of House and Furniture; the French man to bravery in Habit of Clothes and other matters of Parade, as abundance of Pages and Laquays, &c. And the German to variety and excess in Drink­ing; but they are all frugal o­therwise. Our English man af­fects all these together, as also that of our own, which is, a number of Menial Servants, and great plenty in Diet. Of this I shall make no application, but say concerning the Obser­vation, Valeat quantum valere potest.


I have conversed much here­tofore in the Family of a No­bleman of great fortunes, who having many Children, would never send any of them to tra­vel beyond Sea, giving for a reason, that the seeing of so great variety and splendour, made young men dislike their own native Countrey and place of Habitation. The truth is, it proveth to be so too often, but as I conceive, the incon­venience ariseth from the per­sons disposition and not from travel, for it is not so with all Travellers; neither is there rea­son for it, England being sup­plyed with all necessaries of its [Page 115] own growth; nor is it destitute of matters of Ornament and Splendor. In many things we fall short for curiosity and beauty, but in other things we exceed our Neighbours; as particularly in our Universities, which have no parallel, and London falleth not much short of the greatest forrain Cities. Besides this, our situation is such, in respect of the Sea, as we are not in want of curious Wines, and such delightful commodities. But to shew ful­ly how prevalent the persons disposition may be, the said Nobleman gave breeding to his eldest Son, with charge extra­ordinary, at our Court and chief City, where vanity so far pre­vailed with him, as afterwards he bcame the wonder of those [Page 116] dayes, contracting a Debt greater then ever was known, by a person having little or no Estate of his own, for a foun­dation of security.


Of Countrey delights, Study may deserve the first place, whereby our Gentry may in some sort converse with persons of the greatest rank and wis­dom. It were needlesse here, to discourse upon the excellen­cy of that Entertainment, which is so much treated of every where. In all wayes whereby delight is sought there must be variety, and therefore those Fa­milies enjoy a great advantage in the way of satisfaction, which [Page 117] are furnished, and inriched with plenty of good Books. There can be no direction given, for choyce of Authours, to those who seek pleasure in Reading, for different persons have dif­ferent inclinations; but if rea­son might be our guid, I should advise our Gentleman to the study of History; and in first place to that concerning our own Nation, and his time will be the better spent, if by Reading he acquaint himself with the Laws of this King­dom, as far as may be obtained without much labour, for pains: taking and delight can hardly consist together. But some men are altogether averse to Study; and for such there must be found some divertisement of more activity.


Of active Rural recreations, Hunting offers it self in the first place, which Horace calls, ‘Romanis solenne viris opus uti­le famae Vitaeque & membris.’ Or thus,

A serious work to all of Ro­man name,
Useful to life, and limbs, and of good fame.

This is a Pastime Royal fit for Princes, inuring their bo­dies to motion and exercise, and as Machiavel observes, acquaint­ing them with variety of places and situations, as Hills, Dales, Woods, Plain grounds and un­even, Moorish, and Dry, En­closed, and Champain; a [Page 119] knowledge very useful for Commanders Military, which Profession is fit to be under­stood, not only by Princes, but by the Gentry universally, it being their proper vocation, as appears in some measure by the ensigns of Nobility, their Coats of Arms impressed upon a Shield. This affords enter­tainment, not onely abroad, but at home in the discoursing of it; and to this may be ad­ded Hawking, Bouling, Fish­ing, &c.


Of Pastimes within dores Musick may challenge the next place to Study, and is more so­ciable, for it entertains many [Page 120] at the same time. This is more innocent then that of Hunting, for no living Creature receives vexation or damage by it, and no man can complain that his fences are destroyed. Horace his advice concerning verses, is, ‘Quocunque volunt aninum auditoris agunto.’ Or thus,

Let Verses gently charm the mind,
And as they will th'affections wind.

Which qualitie I have found more constant in Musick, from which I my self have re­ceived a great subsistence in this my retirement. When I found my self subject to be pensive, then by Musical Ayres, Coran­toes, and Sarabands, I was ren­dred [Page 121] more chearful; and when I desired to become Serious, the work was done for me by hear­ing Almayns, Fancies, and Pa­vans; variety is most pleasing, and much of this is afforded even in the diversity of Musi­cal Instruments, as the Lute, Harp, &c. but certainly no Mu­sick can bear up with the Vocal, to which some suppose a con­tinuance in Heaven it self; but howsoever that be, Musick is found useful in the Service of God here below (even with the most rigid who must have singing Psalms) and so it was anciently in the Jewish Church. I professe not to know any pleasure exceeding Musick, sa­ving that of Contemplation in matters Divine. Musick indeed may be said to be sensual, for [Page 122] it is altogether conveyed by the Senses, but certainly it hath a great approach towards Spi­rituality, or else the Prophet Elisha would never have called for a Minstrel, when an Inspira­tion was required. I may fear I have been too tedious con­cerning this Recreation, to which I confesse my self a little partial; and I cannot but won­der at some persons, who are so much more then brutish, as they have a total aversion to it, whom I must leave in their mi­sery.


Some are so austere and rigid in the way of Religion, as they will admit nothing of [Page 123] pleasure farther then refection, which includes eating, drink­ing and sleeping, only suppos­ed to be necessary. Recreati­on or Pastime they hold alto­gether unlawful, as injurious to better employment; These mens Religion is very conform­able to Mahometisme, wherein all Professors must have a Me­chanical profession, even the great Turk himself, and they consider not the necessity of health, which cannot be pre­served with a continual inten­tion of mind. A Bow that stands alwayes bent looseth its strength in the end, and so it is with the mental faculties, if they be continually at the stretch. Immediately after meals all serious thoughts are prejudicial to health; and cer­tainly [Page 124] at such times entertain­ments of some levity are to be tolerated, and not onely then, but in the long winter evenings, a season unfit for stirring busi­nesse, so as for the Master, and better sort of Servants, there may be then some use made of Gaming in a moderate sort. For can it be better to sit by the fire and sleep (or for a man to rack himself by his own thoughts) then to entertain himself by innocent pastime? But in this I leave our Master to his own thoughts.


A Gentleman of quality, whom I consider chiefly in these Oeconomical Notes, living in [Page 125] the Countrey can hardly keep himself out of employment, under the Lievtenancy or Com­mission of the Peace; and this may contribute something a­gainst the inconveniencies of Solitude. Though this gives trouble, yet it generates an Ac­quaintance and correspondence between those of the Gentry, and may also yield some inward satisfaction to a well disposed person, who ever desires to be useful to others; and here, as I conceive, notice may be taken that our Soveraign is happy be­yond other Princes; for he is very much served gratis, in matters of Common Govern­ment, whereas others are en­forced to use Mercinaries to their cost.


In these Observations and e­very of them, I would not be understood, to intend persons of vast fortunes, Noblemen or others, for it is fit that such should have their freedom, since they need not be obliged to any Rules of Frugality; and I may say, it is for the honour of this Kingdom, that the Court and chief City should be fre­quented, and expence in bra­very there, is not onely honour­able, but brings advantage to the People, since many Trades and Manufactures subsist meer­ly by excesse, of that nature. E­very man therefore must use his prudence, and do that which is most proper for himself, as well [Page 127] in relation to the publike as to his own private Condition.


I think we cannot better Conclude these Observations, then with some notes concern­ing the Royal Family or House­hold, which as I conceive, hath not its Peer in Christendom; exceeding all others, as well for Hospitality, as for Order. As touching the first, it hath no parallel; for consider it as it was in the time of former Princes (and as I hope now is) and we may justly say, That more Flesh and Fish, Bread and Drink is spent yearly there, then is consumed in some Itali­an Cities, whose Bishops are ca­pable [Page 128] of sitting in general Councels. And for Order, it resembleth rather a State, then a Family, having within it or thereto belonging, establish­ments for Government Ecclesi­astical, Military, Civil and Cri­minal. First, there is a kind of Cathedral Church, with an E­piscopal Dean, &c. adorned with a Quire, and Vestments for the Clergy, as also with ma­terials for Musick very extra­ordinary: Then there is a Judicatory called the Green-Cloth, which determineth in matters belonging to the Hous­hold Provisions and Govern­ment, where the Lord Steward, the Treasurer, and Comptrol­ler of the Houshold, are Judges, with several under Officers. Thirdly, there is two Military [Page 129] Companies, one of Horse-men called Pensioners, all Gentle­men; and the other that of the old Guard, consisting of Yeomen, and these are under Command of two eminent per­sons their Captains. Lastly, it hath a Jurisdiction as well Ci­vil as Criminal appertaining to it called the Verge, extending it self twelve miles about the Court, where the Lord Steward of the Kings House, and Mar­shal and a peculiar Coroner do respectively exercise a Jurisdi­ction, and none of the publike Judges may interpose in cases proper to that Court uncalled; which limit of the Verge bear­eth some similitude to the Ru­ral Territory of a City or State. Besides this, the Lord Chamber­laine of his Majesties Houshold [Page 130] hath governance of all the Gentry, and Officers above­stairs, who are very numerous. Lawyers tell us, that original­ly all Justice was administred within the Royal Family, and that the Kings Bench was stiled Aula Regia. Of these there still remains some shadow, in the stiles of Teste meipso, and of Coram Rege, and at this day the Privy Councel, an Assem­bly supposed to consist of the most eminent persons for Wis­dom in the whole Nation, hath its residence within the Kings House, with a Jurisdiction ex­tending it self over the whole Kingdom in matters of State. To this Royal Family relate two others, whereof one is that of the Queen Consort, who by the Law is a person distinct [Page 131] from the King, and may plead, or be impleaded apart. The other is, that of the Prince of Wales, when there is one, and both these have especial Offi­cers of State belonging to them. It is a Prerogative of the Roy­al Family that the Servants are obliged to a faithful and dili­gent performance of service domestical, which as I conceive, is not by the Law permitted in the case of any person, who is a meer Subject. And all this under a Race of Princes of un­known Antiquity, linked in Blood with most of the Royal Families of Christendom, and that in all ages hath given to the world Illustrious Persons yielding to none for eminence in Wisdom, and vertue, and sometime such, as by forreign [Page 132] Conquests were famous for their Martial Power, and in great part Arbiters of the most important affairs of Europe, un­to which Royal Race all true-hearted English men desire (and pray for) a continuance in Regality, even until the uni­versal Day of Judgment.

Morning Prayer for a Family.

O Lord our most gracious God: We of this Fami­ly do acknowledge with all thank­fullnesse thy many great Mercies unto us; but more especially thy freeing us from danger and temp­tation during this night past, and thy giving of healthful and plea­sing rest unto us therein, whereby we are enabled to perform the du­ties [Page] of this day, and chiefly that of prayer unto thee. For we justly confesse, that the glorify­ing of thee is the principal end of our life; which glorifying is most advanced, according to our weak power, by invocation of thy Name, and by professing a full dependance upon thee in all our actions. We confess, that of our selves without thy especial grace we cannot step one step towards thee, by our actings in any Reli­gious duty; yet by means of that grace we are enabled so far to act, as to obtain acceptance at thy hands in Iesus Christ, which is sufficient for us. We above all expresse our thankfulnesse to thee, for thy mercies in thy beloved Son; and more particularly for his undergoing the shameful death of the Crosse for us. Grant [Page] O Lord, that by his Blood and Sufferings, we may be purged from the old leaven of unrighte­ousnesse, and that by Faith in him our hearts may be purifi­ed and disposed to the perform­ance of whatsoever duties are required by thee towards the at­tainment of everlasting Life. Grant that we may do all things with a holy mind and sincere in­tention in obedience unto thy ho­ly will, and not with any self-love, which may be offensive un­to thee a God of pure eyes, who canst not behold the least iniqui­ty with approbation; Grant O Lord, that we may this day apply our selves to the doing of our duty, according to our several relations and subordinations within this Family, looking still up unto thee as the foundation of [Page] all power, and under whose pro­tection we can onely be happy. We know O Lord, that dutys per­functorily done, satisfie the world but not thee, who art a God ha­ving an All-seeing Eye, from which nothing can be hid, and who hatest eye-service, being only well pleased in a pure heart free from all hypocrisie. We beseech thee therefore so to guid all our actions as we may do nothing but what is acceptable in thy sight, and that our demeanour this day, and all the other dayes of our life may be such, as not to fill up our measure of iniquity and sinfulnesse, against the Day of Iudgement, but that we may then be accepted of, as pure and holy by and through the Merits of the same Iesus Christ, by whom we ex­pect our eternal happinesse.

Evening Prayer for a Family.

O Lord God Creator of Hea­ven and Earth, the preser­ver and Governour of all things that have a being. We thy poor Servants of this family laden with iniquity implore thy mercy unto us in the forgivenesse of our sins. We confesse, that there is nothing in us but the Seeds of im­piety [Page] which daily spring up and generate actual sins, to the great provocation of thee our most gra­cious God. We confesse, O Lord that by the sin and disobedience of the day past we have added ve­ry much to the masse of our trans­gressions, in so much as the very weight of them may presse us down, even to the pit of Hell, to our everlasting ruin, unlesse it shall please thee to shew mercy un­to us. O Lord, thy mercies in Iesus Christ are abundant, and sufficient to blot out, not onely ours, but all the sin in the whole World; Yet thou wilt not do it to those that are impenitent. We therefore in his Name beseech thee to give us humble and penitent hearts, together with a resolution to forbear all manner of sin here­after, as a thing that is total­ly [Page] opposite to thy nature, and therefore must become the de­struction of all such persons as wallow in it without reluctati­on. We are fully bent, O Lord, to delight in our own wayes, and to be linked in Affection with the things of this World, which is enmity against thee. Cure us, we beseech thee, of this destructive malady, and enflame our hearts with the love of thee, which is so precious, as it cannot be enjoyed without a renunciation of our wicked selves, and all our impious wayes. Create in us, O Lord, a lively Faith, whereby we may lay fast hold on the Merits of our Blessed Saviour, and so become fully justified in thy sight O Lord, kindle in us by thy Holy Spirit a brotherly [Page] affection one unto another, so as we may be wholly disposed to do good, and not to delight in mischief through evil will and envy. Lastly, we beseech thee, more especially, to remit our sins of the day past, and so to blesse us this Night, as we may not therein fall into any tempta­tion, by evil thoughts and imma­ginations, or otherwise, but en­joy quiet and seasonable rest, to the refreshment of our Bodies and Spirits, whereby we may be fitted for such Services as the day following shall require, and alwayes retain in our mind the fear of thee, restraining us from all manner of wicked­nesse. These mercies, and what­soever else thou knowest to be ne­cessary for us, we beg of thee, for thy own Mercies sake in [Page] Iesus Christ thy dearly beloved Son, in whose most absolute form and words, least our pray­ers should be otherwise de­fective, we conclude them, say­ing,

Our Father which art in Heaven, &c.


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