THE REHEARSAL TRANSPROS'D: Or, Animadversions upon a Late BOOK, Intituled, A PREFACE SHEWING What Grounds there are of Fears and Jealousies of Popery.

The Second Edition, Corrected.

LONDON, Printed by A. B. for the Assings of John Calvin and Theodore Beza, at the Sign of the Kings Indul­gence, on the South side of the Lake Lemans, 1672.

Animadversions upon the Preface to Bishop Bram­hall's Vindication, &c.

THe Author of this Presace had first writ a Discourse of Ecclesiastical Policy; after that, A Defence and Continuation of the Ecclesiastical Policy; and there he concludes his Epistle to the Reader in these words: But if this be the Tenance I must un­dergo for the wantonness of my Pen, to answer the impertinent and sl [...]nder Exceptions of every peevish and disingenuo [...]s Caviller; Reader I am reformed from my [...] of scribling, and do here beartily bid thee an Eternal Farewel. Now this Expression lies open to his own Dilemma against the Noncon­formists confessing in their prayers to God such heinons Enormities. For if he will not accept his own Charge, his Modesty is all impudent and counterfeit: Or, if he will acknowledge it, why then he had been before, and did still remain up­on Record, the same lewd, wanton, and inconti­nent Scribler.

But however, I hoped he had been a Clergy-man of Honour, and that when herein the World and he himself were now so [...]ully agreed in the [...] of his Writings, he would have kept his Word; or at least that his Pen would not, so soon [Page 2] have created us a disturbance of the fame nature, and so far manifested how indifferent he is as to the business either of Truth or Eternity. But the Author, alas, instead of his own, was faln now in­to Amaryllis's Dilemma: I perceive the Gentle­man hath travelled by his remembring Chi lava la testa al asino perde il sapone, and therefore hope I may without Pedantry quote the words in her own whining Italian)

S'il peccar è si dolce e'l non peccar si necessario,
O troppo imperfetta Natura che ripugnia la Legge.
O troppo dura Legge che Natura offendi.
If to scrible be so sweet, and not to scrible be so ne­cessary;
O too frail inclination, that contradicteth Obliga­gation:
O too severe Obligation, that offendest Inclination.

For all his Promise to waite no more, I durst al­ways have laid Ten pound to a Crown on Natures side. And occordingly he hath now blessed us with, as he calls it, A Preface, shewing what Grounds there are of Fears and Jealousies of Popery.

It will not be unpleasant to hear him begin his Story. The ensuing Treatise of Bishop Bramhall's being somewhat superannuated, the Bookseller was very sollicitous to have it set off with some Preface that might recommend it to the Genius os the Age, and reconcile it to the present juncture of Affairs. A pretty task indeed: That is as much as to say, to trick up the good old Bishop in a yellow Coif and a Bulls-head, that he may be fit for the pub­lick, and appear in fashion. In the mean time 'tis [Page 3] what I always presgaed: From a Writer of Book [...], our Author is already dwinled to a Preface-monger, and from Prefaces I am confident he may in a short time be improved to endite Tickets for the Bear-Garden. But the Bookseller I see was a cun­ning Fellow, and knew his Man. For who so pro­per as a young Priest to sacrifice to the Genius of the Age; yea, though his Conscience were the Of­fering? And none more ready to nick a juncture of Affairs than a malapart Chaplain; though not one indeed of a hundred but dislocates them in the handling. And yet our Author is very maiden­ly, and condescends to his Bookseller not without some reluctance, as being, forsooth, first of all none of the most zealous Patrons of the Press.

Though he hath so lately forfeited his Credit, yet herein I dare believe him: For the Press hath ought him a shame a long time, and is but now beginning to pay of the Debt. The Press (that villanous En­gine) invented much about the same time with the Reformation, that hath done more mischief to the Discipline of our Church, than all the Doctrine can make amends for, 'Twas an happy time when all Learning was in Manuscript, and some little Offi­cer, like out Author, did keep the Keys of the Library. When the Clergy needed no more know­ledge than to read the Liturgy, and the Laity no more Clerkship than to save them from Hanging. But now since Printing came into the World, such is the mischief that a Man cannot write a Book but presently he is answered. Could the Press but once be conjured to obey only an Imprimatur, our Author might not disdain perhaps to be one of its most zealous Patrons. There have been wayes found out to banish Ministers, to fine not only the People, but even the Grounds and Fields where they assembled in Conventicles, But no [Page 4] Art yet could prevent these seditious meetings of Letters. Two or three brawny Fellows in a Corner, with meer Ink and Elbow-grease, do more harm than an hundred Systematical Di­vines with their [...]weaty Preaching. And, which is a strange thing, the very Spunges, which one would think should rather deface and blot out the whole Book, and were anciently used to that purpose, are become now the Instru­ments to make things legible. Their ugly Print­ing-Letters, that look but like so many rotten­Teeth, How oft have they been pull'd out by B. and L. the P [...]blick-Tooth-drawers! and yet these rascally Operators of the Press have got a trick to fasten them again in a few minutes, that they grow as firm a Set, and as biting and talkative as ever. O Printing! how hast thou disturb'd the Peace of Mankind! that Lead, when moulded into Bullets, is not so mortal as when sounded into Letters! There was a mistake sure in the Story of Cadmus; and the Serpe [...]ts Teeth which he sowed, were nothing else bu [...] the Let­ters which he invented. The first Essay that was made towards this Art, was in single Cha­racters upon Iron, wherewit [...] of old they stig­matiz'd Slaves and remarkable Offenders; and it was of good use sometimes to brand a Schis­matick, But a bulky Dutchman diverted it quite fro [...] its first Institution, and contriving those innumerable Syntagmes of Alpha [...]ets, hath pestred the World ever since with the gross Bodies of their German Divinity. One would have thought in Reason that a Dutchman at least might have con­tented himself only with the Wine-press.

But, next of all, our Author, beside his aversion from the Press, alledges, th [...]t he is as much concerned as De-Wit - or any of the High [Page 5] and Mighty Burgomasters, in matters of a closer and more comfortable importance to himself and his own Affairs. And yet whoever shall take the pains to read over his Preface, will find that it intermeddles with the King, the Succession, the Privy-Council, Popery, Atheism, Bishops, Ec­clesiastical Government, and above all with Nonconformity, and J. O. A man would won­der what this thing should be of a closer im­portance, But being more comfortable too, I con­clude it must be one of these three things; either his Salvation, or a Benefice, or a Female. Now as to Salvation he could not be so much concern'd for that care was over; there hath been a course taken to insure all thar are on his bottom, And he is yet surer of a Benefice; or else his Patrons must be very ungrateful. He cannot have deserved less than a Prebend for his first Book, a Sine-cure for his second, and for this third a Rectorship, al­though it were that of Malmsbury. Why, then­of necessity it must be a Female. For that I con­fess might have been a sufficient excuse from wri­ting of Prefaces, and against the importunity of the Book-seller. 'Twas fit that all business should have given place to the work of Propagation. Nor was there any thing that could more closely import him, than that the Race & Family of the Railers should be perpetuared among Mankind. Who could in Reason expect that a Man should in the same moments undertake the labour of an Author and a Father? Nevertheless, he saith, he could not but yeild so far as to improve every fragment of time that he could get into his own disposal, to gratifie the Importunity of the Bookseller. Was ever Civility graduated up and inhanc'd to such a value! His Mistris her self could not have endeared a Favour so nicely, nor grant­ed it with more sweetness.

[Page 6] Was the Bookseller more Impotunate, or the Author more Courteous?

The Author was the Pink of Courtesie, the Booksel­ler the Bur of Importunity.

And so, not being able to shake him off, this, he saith, hath brought forth this Preface, such an one as it is; for how it will prove, he himself neither is, nor (till 'tis too late) ever shall be a competent Judge, in that it must be ravish'd out of his hands before his thoughts can possibly be cool enough to revive or correct the Indecencies either of its stile or contri­vance. He is now growing a very Enthusiast himself. No Nonconformist-Minister, as it seems, could have spoke more extempore. I see he is not so civil to his Readers as he was to his Booksel­ler: and so A. C. and James Collins be gratified, he cares not how much the rest of the World be disobliged. Some Man that had Iess right to be fastidious and confident, would, before he expo­sed himself in publick, both have cool'd his Thoughts, and corrected his Indecencies: or should have considered whether it were necessary or wholsome that he should write at all. For­asmuch as one of the Ancient Sophists (they were a kind of Orators of his Form) kill'd him­self with declaiming while he had a Bone in his Throat, and J. O. was still in being. Put up your Trumpery good noble Marquess. But there was no holding him. Thus it must be, and no better, when a man's Fancy is up, and his Breeches are down; when the Mind and the Body make con­trary Assignations, and he hath both a Booksel­ler at once and a Mistriss to satisfie; Like Archi­medes, into the Street he runs out naked with his Invention. And truly, if at any time, we might now pardon this Extravagance and Rapture of our Author, when he was pearch'd upon the highest [Page 7] Pinacle of Ecclesiastical Felicity, being ready at once to asswage his Concupisence, and wreek his Malice.

But yet he knows not which way his Mind will work it self and its thoughts. This is Bayes the Second. — 'Tis no matter for the Plot — The Intrigo was out of his dead — But you'l apprehend it bet­ter when you see't. Or rather, he is like Bayes his Actors, that could not guess what humour they were to be in: whether angry, melancholly, merry, or in Love. Nay insomuch that he saith, he is neither Prophet nor Astrologer enough to for etel. Ne­ver Man certainly was so unaquainted with him­self. And, indeed, 'tis part of his discretion to avoid his acquaintance and tell him as little of his mind as may be: for he is a dangerous felllow. But I must ask his pardon if I treat him too homely. It is his own fault that misled me at first, by concealing his quality under such vulgar­comparisons as De-Wit and the Burgomasters. I now see it all along; This can be noless a man than Prince Vol [...]cicius himself, in dispute betwixt his Boots which way his mind will work it self; whether Love shall detain him with his closer Importance, Parthenope, whose Mother, Sir, sells Ale by the Town Wall: or Honour shall carry him to head the Army that lies concealed for him at Knightsbridge, and to incounter J. O.

Go on cryes Honour: tender Love saith Nay.
Honour aloud commands, Pluck both Boots on.
But safer Love doth whisper, put on none.

And so now when it comes that he is not Pro­phet nor Astrologer enough to foretel what he will do, 'tis just,

[Page 8]
For as bright Day, with black approach of Night,
Contending, makes a doubtful puzzling Light;
So does my Honour and my Love together,
Puzzle me so, I am resolv'd on neither.

Yet no Astrologer could possibly have more ad­vantage and oportunity to make a Judgment. For he knew the very minute of the Conception of his Preface, which was immediately upon his Maje­sties issuing his Declaration of Indulgence to Ten­der Consciences. Nor could he be ignorant of the moment when it was brought forth. And I can so far refresh his memory, that it came out in the Dog-dayes,

the Season hot, and She too near: [...] mighty Love! J. O. will be undone, According to the Rule in Davenant's Ephemerides; But the [...]eads which at this moment, and under the present. Schemes and Aspects of the Heavens he intends to treat of (pure Sidropdel) are these two: First, Something of the Treatise it self. Secondly, of the seasonableness of its publication! and this, unless his Humour jade him ('tis come to a Dog-trot alrea­dy) will lead him further into the Argument as it re­lates to the present state of things, and from thence 'tis odds but he shall take occasion to bestow some Ani­madversions upon one J. O. There's no trusting him. He doubtless knew from the beginning what he in­tended. And so too all his story of the Bookseller, and all the Volo Nola's, and shall-I shall-I's be­betwixt them, was nothing but fooling: And he now all along owns himself to be the Publisher, and alledges the slighter and the main reasons that induced him. Would he had told us so at first; for then he had saved me thus much of my labour. Though as it chances, it lights not amiss on our Author, whose delicate stomach could not brook [Page 9] that J. O. should say, he had prevailed with himself much against his inclination, to bestow a few (and those idle) hours upon examining his Book: and yet he himself stumbles so notoriosly upon the very same Fault at his own threshold,

But now from this Preamble he falls into his Peface to Bishop Bramhal, though indeed like Bays his Prologue, that would have serv'd as well for an Epilogue, I do not see but the Preface might have past as well for a Postscript, or the headstal for a Crooper. And our Authors Divinity might have gone to Push-Pin with the Bishop, which of their two Treatises was the Procatarctical Cause os both their Edition. For, as they are coupled together, to say the Truth, 'tis not discernable, as in some Animals, whether their motion begin at the head or the tail: whether the Author made his Preface sor Bishop Bramhal's dear sake, or whether he pub­lished the Bishop's Treatise for sake of his own dear Preface. For my own part I think it reaso­nable that the Bishop and our Author, should (like fair Gamsters at Leap-frog) stand and skip in their turns; and however our Author got it for once, yet if the Bookseller should ever be sollicitous for a Second Edition, that then the Bishops Book should have the Precedence.

But besore I commit my self to the dangerous dep [...]hs of his Discourse, which I am now upon the brink of, I would with his leave make a mo­tion; that instead of Author, I may henceforth in­differently call him Mr. Bays as oft as I shall see oc­casion. And that first, because he hath no Name or at least will not own it, though he himself writes under the greatest security, and gives us the first Letters of other Mens Names before he be asked them. Secondly, because he is I perceive a lover of Elegancy, of Stile [Page 10] and can endure no mans Tautologies but his own, and therefore I would not distast him with too frequent repetition of one word. But chiefly, because Mr. Bayes and he do very much Symbo­lize; in their understandingt, in their ex­pressions, in their humour, in their contempt and quarrelling of all others, though of their own Profession. Because, our Divine, the Au­thor, manages his contest with the same prudence and civility, which the Players and Poets have practised of late in their several Divisions. And lastly, because both their Talents do peculiarly ly in exposing and personating the Nonconfor­mists. I would therefore give our Author a Name, the memory of which may perpetually excite him to the exercise and highest improve­ment of that Virtue. For, our Cicero doth not yet equal our Roscius, and one turn of Lacy's face hath more Ecclesiastical Policy in it, than all the Books of our Author put together. Besides, to say Mr. Bayes is more civil than to say Villain and Caitiff, though these indeed are more tuant. And, to conclude; The Irrefragable Doctor of School-Divinity, pag. 460. of his Defence; de­termining concerning Symbollical Ceremonies, ha [...]h warranted me that not only Governours, but any thing else, may have power to appropri­ate new names to things, without having abso­lute authority over the things themselves. And therefore henceforward, seeing I am on such sure Ground, Author, or Mr. Bayes, whether I please. Now, having had our Dance, let us advance to our more serious Counsels.

And first, Our Author begins with a Panegy­rick upon Bishop Bramhal; a Person whom my age had not given me leave to be acquainted with, nor my good fortune led me to converse with [Page 11] his Writings: but for whom I had collected a deep Reverence from the general Reputation he carried, beside the Veneration due to the Place he filled in the Church of England. So that our Author having a mind to shew us some proof of his Good Nature, and that his Eloquence lay'd not all in Satyr and Invectives, could not, in ny opinion, have fixed upon a fitter subject of commendation. And therefore, I could have wished for my own sake, that I had missed this occasion of being more fully informed of some Bishop's Principles, whereby I have lost part of that pleasure which I had so long enjoyed in think­ing well of so considerable a Person. But howe­ver, I recreate my self with believing that my simple judgment cannot, beyond my intention, abate any thing of his just value with others. And seeing he is long since dead, which I knew but lately, and now learn it with regret, I am the more obliged to repair in my self whatsoever breaches of his Credit, by that additional Civility which consecrates the Ashes of the Deceased. But by this means I am come to discern how it was possible for our Author to speak a good word for any man. The Bishop was expired, and his Writings jump much with our Author. So that if you have a mind to dy, or to be of his Party, (there are but these two Conditi­ons) you may perhaps be rendred capable of his Charity. And then write what you will, he will make you a Preface that shall recommend you and it to the Genius of the Age, and re­concile it to the Juncture of Affairs. But tru­ly he hath acquitted himself herein so ill-favour'd­ly to the Bistop, that I do not think it so much worth to gain his approbation; and I had rather live and enjoy mine own Opinion, than be so treated [Page 12] For, beside his reflection on the Bishop, and the whole Age he lived in; that he was, as far as the prejudice of the, Age would permit him, an acute Philosopher (which is a sufficient taste of Mr. Bays his Arrogance, that no Man, no Age can be so per­fect but must abide his Censure, and of the offi­cious virulence of his Humour, which infuses it self, by a malignant remark, that (but for this acuter Philosopher) no man else would have thought of, into the Praises of him whom he most. intended to celebrate) if, I say, beside this, you consider the most elaborate and studious Pe­riods of his Commendation, you find it at best very rediculous, By the Language he seems to transcribe out of the Grand Cyrus and Cassandra, but the Exploits to have borrowed out of the Knight of the Sun, and King Arthur. For in a lu­scious and effeminate Stile he gives him such a Termagant Character, as must either sright or turn the stomach of any Reader; Being of a brave and enterprising temper, of an active and sprightly mind, he was always busied either in contriving or performing great D [...]signs. Well, Mr. Bayes, I sup­pose by this, that he might have been an over­match to the Bishop of Cullen and the Bishop of Strasburg In another place, He finished all the glo­rious Designs that he undertook. This might have be­come the Bishop of Munster before he had rais'd the Siege from Groningen. As he was able to accom­plish the most gallant attempts, so he was always rea­dy not only to justisie their Innocence, but to make good their Bravery. I was too prodigal of my Bishops at first, and now have never another lest in the Gazette, which is to our Authors Magazine. His Reputation and Innocence were both Arm or of Proof against Tories and Presbyterians. But me­thinks Mr. Bayes having to do with such dangerous [Page 13] Enemies, you should have furnished him too with some weapon of Offence, a good old Fox, like that of another Heroe, his Contemporary in Acti­on upon the Scene of Ireland, of whom it was sung.

Down by his side be wore a sword of price,
Keen as a Frost, glaz'd like a new made Ice:
That cracks men shell'd in Steel in a less trice,
Than Squirrels Nuts, or the Highlanders Lice.

Then he saith; 'tis true the Church of Ireland was the largest Scene of his Actions; but yet there in a little time, he wrought out such wondrous Alterations and so exceeding all belief, as may convince us that he had a mind large and active enough to have managed the Roman Empire at its greatest extent. This in­deed of our Author's is Great: and yet it reach­eth not a strain of his fellow-Pendets in the Histo­ry of the Mogol: where he tells Dancehment Kan, When you put your foot in the Stirrop, and when you march upon Horseback in the front of the Cavalry, the Earth trembles under your feet, the eight Ele­phants that hold it on their heads not being able to support it. But enough of this Trafh.

Beside that it is the, highest indecorum for a Divine to write in such a stile as this [part­Play-Book and part Romance] concerning a Reve­rend Bishop; these improbable Elogies too are of the greatest disservice to their own design, and do in effect diminish alwayes the Person whom they pretend to magnifie. Any worthy Man may pass through the World unquestion'd and safe with a moderate Recommendati­on; but when he is thus set off, and bedawb'd with Rhetorick, and embroder'd so thick that you cannot discern the Ground, it awakens natural­ly [Page 14] (and not altogether unjustly) Interest, Curiosity and Envy. For all men pretend a share in Reputation, and love not to see it in­gross'd and [...], and are subject to en­quire, (as of great Estates suddenly got) whe­ther he came by all this honestly, or of what credit the Person is that tells the Story? And the same hath happened as to this Bishop, while our Author attributes to him such Atchievments, which to one that could believe the Legend of Captain Jones, might not be incredble. I have heard that there was indeed such a Captain, an honest brave fellow: but a Wag that had a mind to be merry with him, hath quite spoil'd his History. Had our Author epitomiz'd the Legend of sixty six Books de Virtutibus Sancti Patricii (I mean not the Ingenious Writer of the Friendly Debates, but St, Patrick the Irish Bishop) he could not have promis'd us greater Miracles. And 'tis well for him that he hath escaped the fate of Secundinus, who (as Josselin relates it) acquainting Patrick that he was inspired to compose something in his Commendation, the Bshiop foretold the Author should dy as soon as 'twas perfected. Which so done, so happened. I am sure our Author had dyed no other death but of this his own Preface, and a surfeit upon Bishop Bramhall, if the swel­ling of Truth could have choak'd him. He tells us, I remember somewhere, that this same Bishop of Derry said, the Scots had a civil expression for these Improvers of Verity, that they are good Com­pany; and I shall say nothing severer, than that our Author speaks the language of a Lover, and so may claim some pardon, if the habit and excess of his Courtship do as yet give a tin­cture to his discourse upon more ordinary Sub­jects. For I would not by any means be mistaken, [Page 15] as if I thought our Author so sharp set, or so ne­cessitated that he should make a dead Bishop his [...]; so far from that, that he hath taken such a course, that if the Bishop were alive, he would be out of love with himself. He hath, like those frightfull Looking-glasses, made for sport, represented him in such bloated linea­ments, as, I am confident, if he could see his face in it, he would break the Glass. For, hence it falls out too, that men seeing the Bishop furbish'd up in so martial accoutrements, like a­nother Odo Bishop of Baieux, and having never before heard of his prowess, begin to reflect what Giants he defeated and what Damsels he rescued. Serious Men consider whether he were ingaged in the conduct of the Irish Army, and to have brought it over upon England, for the Im­putation of which the Earl of Strafford his Patron so undeservedly suffered. But none knowes any thing ofit. Others think it is not to be taken literally, but the wonderful and unheard-of Alterations that he wrought out in Ireland, are meant of some Reformation that he made there in things of his own Function. But then men ask again, how he comes to have all the honour of it, and whether all the while that great Bishop usher, his Metro­politane, were unconcerned? For even in Eccle­siastical Combates, how instrumental soever the Captain hath been, the General usually carries a­way the honour of the Action. But the good Primate was engaged in Designs of lesser moment, and was writing his de Primordiis Ecclesiae Britani­cae, and the Story of Pelagius our Countryman. He, honest man, was deep gone in Grubstreet and Polemmical [...], and troubled with Fits of Mo­dern Orthodoxy. He satisfyed himself with being admired by the blue and white Aprons, and pointed at [Page 16] by the more [...] Tankard Bearers. Nay, which is worst of all, he undertook to abate of our Episcopal Grandeur, and condescended [...] to reduce the Ceremonious Discipline in these Na­tions to the [...] Simplicity. What then was this that Bishop Brambal did! Did he like a Protestant Apostle, in one day convert thousands of the Irish Papists? The contrary is evident, by the Irish Rebellion and Massacre, which, not­withstanding his Publick Employment and great A­bilities, happened in his time So that after all our Authors bombast, when we have search'd all over, we find our selves bilk'd in our [...] ­on: and he hath erected him, like a St Christo­pher in the Popish Churches, as big as ten Porters and yet only imploy'd to sweat under the burden of an Infant.

All that appears of him is, first, that he busi­ed himself about a Catholick [...] among the Churches of Christendom. But as to this, our Au­thor himself saith, that he was not so vain, or so presuming as to hope to see it [...] in his day [...]s. And yet but two pages before he told us that the Bishop finished all the glorious designes which he un­dertook But this Design of his he draws our in such a circuit of words, that 'tis better taking it from the Bishop himself, who speaks more plainly always and much more to the purpose. And he saith, pag. [...]. of his Vindication, My design is rather to re­concile the Popish Party to the Church of England, than the [...] of England to the Pope. And how he manages it, I had rather any man would learn by reading over his own Book, than that I should be thought to misrepresent him, which I might, unless I tarnscribed the whole. But in summe it seems to me that he is upon his own single judg­ment too liberal of the Publick, and that he retren­ches [Page 17] both on our part more than he hath Autho­rity for, and grants more to the Popish than they can of right pretend to. It is however indeed a most glorious Design, to reconcile all the Chur­ches to one Doctrine and Communion (though some that meddle in it do it chiefly in order to fet­ter men straighter under the formal bondage of fictitious Discipline;) but it is a thing rather to be wished and prayed for, than to be expected from these kind of endeavours. It is so large a Field, that no man can see to the end of it: and all that have adventured to travel it, have been bewildred. That Man must have a vast opinion of his own sufficiency, that can think he may by his Oratory or Reason, either in his own time, or at any of our Author's more happy juncture of Af­fairs, so far perswade and fascinate the Roman­Church, having by a regular contexture of conti­nued Policy for so many Ages interwoven it self with the Secular Interest, and made it self necessary to most Princes, and having at last erected a Throne of infallibility over their Consciences, as to prevail with her to submit a Power and Empire so acquired and established in Compromise to the Arbitration of an humble Proposer. God only in his own time, and by the inscrutable methods of his Providence is able to effect that Alteration: though I think too he hath signified in part by what means he intends to accomplish it, and to range so considerable a Church and once so exemplary, into Primitive Unity and Christian Order. In the mean time such [...] are sit [...] pregnant Scholars that have nothing else to do, to go big with for forty years, and may qualifie them to discourse with Princes & Statesmen at their leisure; but I never saw that they came to use or pos­sibility, No more than that of Alexanders Architect, [Page 18] who proposed to make him a Statue of the Moun­tain Achos (and that was no Molehil) and among other things, that Statue to carry in its hand a great habitable City. But the Surveyor was gra­vell'd, being asked whence that City should be supplyed with Water. I would only have ask'd the Bishop, when he had carv'd and hammer'd the Romists and Protestants into one Colossian-Church, how we should have done as to matter of Bibles. For the Bishop, p. 117. complains that unquali­fied people should have a promiscuous Licence to read the Scriptures: and you may guess thence, if he had moreover the Pope to friend, how the Laity should have been used. There have been attempts in former Ages to dig through the Se­parating Istmos of Peloponnesus; and another to make communication between the Red-Sea and the Mediterranean: both more easie than to cut this Ecclesiastick Canal, and yet both laid by, partly upon the difficulty of doing it, and partly upon the inconveniences if it had been effected. I must confess freely, yet I ask pardon for the presumption, that I cannot look upon these un­dertaking Church-men, however otherwise of ex­cellent Prudence and Learning, but as men struck with a Notio, and craz'd on that side of their head. And so I think even the Bishop had much better have busied himself in Peach­ing in his own Diocess, and disarming the Pa­pists of their Arguments, instead of rebating our weapons? than in taking an Oecumenical care upon him, which none called him to, and, as appears by the sequel, none conn'd him thanks for. But if he were so great a Po­liticion as I have heard, and indeed believe him to have been, me-thinks he should in the first place have contrived how we might live well [Page 19] with our Protestant Neighbours, and to have uni­ted us in one body under the King of England, as Head of the Protestant Interest, which might have rendred us more considerable, and put us into a more likely posture to have reduced the Church of Rome to Reason. For the most lead­ing Party of the English Clergy in his time re­tained such a Pontifical stiffness towards the Fo­reign Divines, that it puts me in mind of Austine the Monk, when he came into Kent, not deign­ing to rise up to the Brittish or give them the hand, and could scarce afford their Churches either Com­munion or Charity, or common Civility. So that it is not to be wondred if they also on their parts look'd upon our Models of Accomodation with the same jealousie that the British Christians had as Austin's Design, to unite them first to (that is under) the Savons, and then deliver them both over bound to the Papal Government and Ceremo­nies. But seeing hereby our hands were weak­ned, and there was no probability of arriving so near the end of the work, as to a consent among Protestants abroad; had the Bishop but gone that step, to have reconciled the Ecclesia­stical Differences in our own Nations, and that we might have stood firm at home before we had taken such a Jump beyond-Sea, it would have been a Performance worthy of his Wisdom. For at that time the Ecclesiastical Rigours here were in the highest ferment, and the Church in being arrayed it self against the peaceable Dissen­ters only in some points of Worship. And what great Undertaking could we be ripe for abroad, while so divided at home? or what fruit expected from the labour of those Mediating Divines in weighty matters, who were not yet past Sucking­bottle; but seem'd to place all the business of Chri [Page 20] stianity in persecuting men for their Consciences, differing from them in smaller metters? How ri­diculous must we be to the Church of Rome to in­terpose in her Affairs, and force our Mediation upon her; when besides our ill correspondence with Foreign Protestants, she must observe our weakness within our selves, that we could not, or would not step over a straw, though for the perpe­tual settlement and security of our Church and Nation? She might well look upon us as those that probably might be forced at some time by our folly to call her into our assistance (for with no Weapons or Arguments but what are fetch'd out of [...] Arse­nals, can the Ceremonial Controversie be rightly defended) but never could she consider us as of such Authority or Wisdom, as to give Bal­lance to her Counsels. But this was far from Bishop Bramhall's thoughts; who, so he might (like Caesar) manage the Roman Empire at its utmost extent, had quite forgot what would conduce to [...] Peace of his own Province and Country. For, p. 57. he settles this Maxime as a Truth, That se­cond Reformations are commonly like Metal upon Me­tal, which is false Heraldry. Where, by the way, it is a wonder that our Author in enumerating the Bioshp's perfections in Divinity, Law, History, and Philosophy, neglected this peculiar gift he had in Heraldry; and omitted to tell us that his [...] was large enough to have animated the Kingdoms of Garter and [...] at their greatest dimen­sions. But, beside what I have said alrea­dy in relation to this Project upon Rome, there is this more, [...] I confess was below Bishop Brumhall's reflection, and was indeed fit only sor some vulgar Politician, or the Commissioners of Scotland about the [...] Union: Whether it would not have succeeded, as in the consolidation of King­doms, [Page 21] where the Greatest swallows down the Less; so also in Church-Coalition, that though the Pope had condescended (which the Bishop owns to be his Right) to be only a Patriarch, [...] he would have [...] up the Patriarchate os Lambeth to his Mornings-draught, like an Egg in Muscadine. And then there is another Danger always when things come once to a Treaty, that beside the debates of Reason, there is a better way of tampering to bring Men over that have a Pow­er to [...]. And so who knows in such a Trea­ty with Rome, if the Alps (as it is probable) would not have come over to England, as the Bishop de­sign'd it, England might not have been obliged, lying so commodious for Navigation, to undertake a Voyage to Civita Vechia; But what though we should have made all the Advances imaginable, it would have been to no purpose: and nothing less than an entire and total resignation of the Prote­stant Cause would have contented her. For the Church of Rome is so well satisfied of her own suf­siciency, and hath so much more wit than we had in Bishop [...] days, or seem to have yet learn'd; that it would have succeeded just as at the Council of Trent. For there, though many Divines of the greatest Sincerity and Learning, endeavoured a Reformation, yet no more could be obtained of her than the Nonconformists got of those of the Church of of England at the Confe­rence of Worcester-House. But on the contrary, all her Excesses and Errors were further rivited and confirmed, and that great Machine of her Eccle­siastical Policy there perfected.

So that this Enterprise of Bishop Bramhall's, be­ing so ill laid and so unseasonable, deserves rather an Excuse than a Commendation. And all that can be gathered besides out of our Au­thor [Page 22] concerning him is of little better value for he saith indeed, that he was a zealous and resolute Assertor of the Publick Rites and Solemni­ties of the Church. But those things, being on­ly matters of external neatness, could never merit the Trophies that our Author erects him. For neither can a Justice of Peace for his severi­ty about Dirt-baskets deserve a Statue. And as for his expunging some dear and darling Articles from the Ptotestant Cause, it is, as far as I can perceive, only his substituting some Arminian Tenets (which I name so, not for reproach, but for difference) instead of the Calvinian Doctrines. But this too could not challenge all these Trium­phal Ornaments in which he installs him: For, [...] suppose these were but meer mistakes on either side, for want of being (as the Bishop saith pag. 134.) scholastically stated; and that he, with a distincti­on of School-Theologie, could have smoothed over and plained away these knots though they have been much harder.

For the rest, which he leaves to seek for, and I meet casually with in the Bishop's own Book; I find him to have been doubtless a very good-na­tur'd Gentleman. Pag. 160. He hath much respect for poor Readers; and pag 161. He judges that i [...] they come short of Preachers in point of Effu [...]acy, yet they have the advantage of Preachers as to point of Security. And pag. 163. He commends the care taken by the Canons that the meanest C [...]re of Souls should have formal Sermons at least four times every year. pag. 155. He maintains the publick Sports on the Lords-day by the Proclamation to that pur­pose, and the Example of the Reformed Churches be­yond-Sea: aud for the publick Dances of our Youth upon Country-Greens on Sundays, after the duties of the day, he sees nothing in then but innocent, and a­greeable [Page 23] to that under-foot of people. And pag. 117. (which I quoted before) he takes the promiscuous Licence to unqualified persons to read the Scriptures, far more prejudicial, nay, more pernitious, than the over-rigorous, restraint of the Romanists. And in­deed, all along he complies much for peace­sake, and judiciously shews us wherein our seperation from the Church of Rome is not warran­table. But although I cannot warrant any man who hence took occasion to traduce him of Pope­ry, the contrary of which is evident, yet nei­ther is it to be wondred, if he did hereby lye un­der sometimpuration, which he might otherwise have avoided. Neither can I be so hard-hearted as our Author in the Nonconformists case of Disci­pline to think it were better that he, or a hundred more Divines of his temper should suffer, though inno­cent, in their Reputation, than that we should come under a possibility of losing our Relgion. For as they (the Bishop and I hope most of his Party) did not intend it so, neither could they have effected it. But he could not expect to enjoy his Imagination without the annoyances incident to such as dwell in the middle story: the Pots from above, and the smoak from below. And those Churches which are seated nearer upon the Frontire of Popery, did na­turally and well if they took Alarm at the March. For, in fact, that incomparable Person Grotius did yet make a Bridge for the Enemy to come over; or at least laid some of our most considerable Passes open to them and unregarded: a crime some­thing like what his Son De Groot (here's Gazotte again for you) and his Son-in-law Mombas have been charged with. And, as to the Bishop him­self, his Friend; an Accusatory Spirit would de­sire no better play than he gives in his, own Vindi­cation, But that's neither my business nor huMour: [Page 24] and whatsoever may have glanced upon him was directed only to our Author; for publish­ing that Book, which the Bishop himself had thought fit to conceal, and for his impertinent efflorescence of Rhetorick upon so mean Topicks, in so choice and copious a Subject as Bishop Bramhal.

Yet though the Bishop prudently undertook a Design, which he hoped not to accomplish in his own dayes, our Author, however, was some­thing wiser, and hath made sure to obtain his end. For the Bishop's Honour was the furthest thing from his thoughts, and he hath managed that part so, that I have accounted it a work of some Pie­ty to vindicate his Memory from so scurvy a com­mendation. But the Author's end was only railing; He could never have induc'd himself to praise one man but in order to [...]ail on another. He never oyls his Hone but that he may whet his Razor; and that not to shave, but to cut mens throats. And whoever will take the pains to compare, will find, that as it is his only end; so his best, nay his only talent is railing. So that he hath, while he pretends so much for the good Bishop, used him but for a Stalking-horse till he might come within shot of the Forreign Divines and the Non­conformists. The other was only a copy of his countenance: But look to your selves, my Masters; forin so venomous a malice, courtesie is always fatal. Under colour of some mens having taxed the Bi­shop, he flyes out into a furious Debauch, and breaks the Windows, if he could, would raze the foundations of all the Protestant Churches be­yond Sea: but for all men at home of their per­swasion, if he meet them in the dark he runs them thorow. He usurps to himself the Authority of the Church of England, who is so well bred, that [Page 25] if he would have allowed her to speak, she would doubtless have treated more civilly those over whom she pretends no Jurisdiction: and under the names of Germany and Geneva, he rallies and rails at the whole Protestancy of Europe. For you are mistaken in our Author (but I have worn him thread-bare) if you think he designs to enter the Lists where he hath but one man to combate. Mr. Bayes ye know, prefers that one quality of fighting single with whole Armies, before all the moral Virtuesput together. And yet I assure you, he hath several times obliged mo­ral Virtue so highly, that she ows him a good turn whensoever she can meet him. But it is a brave thing to be the Ecclesiastical Draw-Can-Sir; He kills whole Nations, he kills Friend and Foe; Hun­gary, Transv [...]lvania, Bohemia, Poland, Savoy, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and a great part of the Church of England, and all Scotland (for these, beside many more, he mocks under the title of Germany and Geneva) may perhaps rouse our Mastiff, and make up a Danger worthy of his Courage. A man would guess that this Gyant had promised h [...]s Comfortable Importance, a Simarre of the beards of all the Orthodox Theologues in Christendom. But I wonder how he comes to be Prolocutor of the Church of England! For he talks at that rate, as if he were a Synodical Individu­um; Nay, if he had a fifth Council in his belly he could not dictate more dogmatically. There had been indeed, as I have heard, about the dayes of Bishoy [...], a sort of Divines here of that Leaven, who being dead, I cover their names, if not for healths sake, yet for decedcy, who never cou'd speak of the first Reformers with a­ny patience; who pruned themselves in the pecu­liar Virulency of their Pens, and so they might say a tart thing concerning the Foreign Churches, [Page 26] cared not what obloquy they cast upon the histo ry, or the profession of Religion. And those me [...] undertook likewise to vent their Wit and [...] Choler under the stile of the Church of England and were indeed so far owned by her, that wha [...] preferments were in her own disposal, she ra [...] ther conferred upon them. And now when the [...] were gone off the Stage, there is risen up [...] Spiritual Mr. Bayes; who having assumed to him [...] self an incongruous Plurality of Ecclesiastical Of [...] fices, one the most severe, of Penitentiary U [...] niversal to the Reformed Churches; the othe [...] most ridiculous, of Buffoon-General to the Churc [...] of England, may be henceforth capable of an [...] other Promotion. And not being content to en [...] joy his own folly, he has taken two others int [...] Partnership; as fit for his design, as those tw [...] that clubb'd with Mahomet in making the [...] an: who by perverse Wit and Representatio [...] might travesteere the Scripture, and render [...] the careful and serious part of Religion odio [...] and contemptible. But, lest I might be mistake as to the Persons I mention, I will assure th [...] Reader that I intend not Huddibras: For he is man of the other Robe, and his excelleut tha [...] hath taken a [...]ight far above these Whiflers: tha [...] whoever dislikes the choice of his Subject, ca [...] not but commend his Performance, and calculat [...] if on so b [...]rren a Theme he were so copious, wha [...] admirable sport he would have made with an Ec [...] clesiastical Politician. But for a Daw-Divine not onely to foul his own Nest in England, bu [...] to pull in pieces the Nests of those beyond [...] 'tis that which I think uncedent and of very ill ex [...] ample. There is not indeed much danger, [...] Book, his Letter, and his Preface being writ in En [...] glish, that they should pass abroad: but, if they [...] [Page 27] printed upon incombustible Paper, or by reason of the many Avocations of our Church they may escape a Censure, yet 'tis likely they may dye at home, the common fate of such Treatises amongst the more judicious Oyl-men and Grocers. Unless Mr. Bayes be so far in love with his own Whelp, that, as a Modern Lady, he will be at the charge of translating his Works into Latin, transmitting them to the Universities, and dedicating them in the Va­ticane. But, should they unhappily get vent a­broad (as I hear some are already sent over for cu­riosity) what scandal, what heart-burning and a­nimosity must it raise against our Church: unless they chance to take it right at first, and limit the Provocation within the Author. And then, what can he expect in return of his Civility, but that the Complement which passed betwixt. Arminius and Baudius should concenter upon him, that he is both Opprobrium Academiae, and Pestis Ecclesiae. For they will see at the first that his Books come not out un­der publick Authority, or recommendation: but only as things of Buffoonery do commonly, they carry with them their own Imprimatur; But I hope he hath considered Mr. L. in private, and payed his Fees.) Neither will the Gravity therefore of their Judgements take the measures, I hope, either of the Education at our Universities, or of the Spirit of our Divines, or of the Prudence, Piety, and Do­ctrine of the Church of England, from such an In­terlooper. Those Gardens of ours use to bear much better fruit. There may happen sometimes an ill Year, or there may be such a Crab-stock as cannot by all ingrafting be corrected. But generally it proves otherwise. Once perhaps in a hundred years there may arise such a Prodigy in the University (where all Men else learn better Arts and better Manners) and from thence may creep into the [Page 28] Church (where the Teachers at least ought to [...] well instructed in the knowledge and practice [...] Christianity) so prodigious a Person I say may [...] there be hatch'd, as snall neither know or [...] how to behave himself to God or Man; and [...] having never seen the receptacle of Grace or [...] science at an Anatomical Disfection, may [...] therefore that there is no such matter, or no [...] obligation among Christians; who shall [...] the Scripture it self, unless it will conform to [...] Interpretation; who shall strive to put the [...] into Blood, and animate Princes to be the [...] tioners of their own Subjects for well-doing. A [...] this is possible; but comes to pass as rarely and [...] as long periods in our Climate, as the birth of false Prophet. But unluckily, in this fatal Year Seventy two, among all the Calamities that [...] logers foretel, this also hath befaln us. I woul [...] not hereby confirm his vanity, as if I also belie [...] ed that any Scheme of Heaven did influence [...] actions, or that he were so considerable as [...] the Comet under which they say we yet labou [...] had sore-boded the appearance of his Preface. [...] no: though he be a creature most noxious, [...] he is more despicable. A Comet is of far [...] quality, and hath other kind of imployment. [...] though we call it an Hairy-Star, it affords [...] prognostick of what breeds there: but the [...] strologer that would discern our Author and [...] business, must lay by his Telescope, and use a [...] croscope. You may find him still in Mr. Calvin head. Poor Mr. Calvin and Bishop Bramhal, [...] crime did you dye guilty of, that you cannot [...] quiet in your Graves, but must be conjured up [...] the Stage as oft as Mr. Bayes will ferret you? [...] which of you two are most unfortunate I [...] determine; whether the Bishop in being alway [...] [Page 29] [...]ourted, or the Presbyter in being alwayes rail'd [...]. But in good earnest I think Mr. Calvin hath the better of it. For, though an ill man cannot by [...]rasing confer honour, nor by reproaching fix [...] ignominy, and so they may seem on equal terms; yet there is more in it: for at the same time that we may imagine what is said by such an Au­thor to be false, we conceive the contrary to be [...]rue. What he saith of him indeed in this place did not come very well in; for Calvin writ nothing against Bishop Bramhal, and therefore here it a­mounts to no more than that his Spirit forsooth had propagated an original Waspishness and salse Orthodoxy amongst all his Followers. But if you look in other pages of his Book, and particularly Pag. 663. of his Defence, you never saw such a Scar­crow as he makes him. There sprang up a mighty Bramble on the South-side the Lake Lemane, that (such is the rankness of the soil) spread and flou­rished with such a sudden growth, that partly by the industry of his Agents abroad, and partly by its own indefatigable pains and pragmaticalness it quite over-ran the whole Reformation — You must con­ceive that Mr. Bayes was all this while in an Extasy in Dodona's Grove; or else here is strange work, worse than explicating a Post, or examining a Pil­lar. A Bramble that had Agents abroad, and it self an indefatigable Bramble. But straight our Bramble is transformed to a Man, and he makes a Chair of Infallibility for himself, out of his own Bramble Tim­ber. Yet all this while we know not his Name. One would suspect it might be a Bishop Bramble. But then he made himself both Pope and Emperor too of the greatest part of the Reformed World. How near does this come to his commendation of Bishop Bramhal be­fore? For our Author seems copious, but is indeed very poor of expression: and, as smiling and frowning [Page 30] are performed in the face with the same muscles very little altered; so the changing of a line or two in Mr. Bayes at any time, will make the same thing serve for a Panegyrick or a Philippick. But what do you think of this Man? Could Mistriss Mopsa her self have furnished you with a more pleasant and worshipful Tale? It wants nothing of perfection, but that it doth not begin with Once upon a time? Which Master Bayes, accord­ing to his Accuracy, if he had thought on't, would never have omitted. Yet some Critical People, who will exact Truth in Falshood, and tax up an old-wife's Fable to the punctuality of History, where blaming him t'other day for pla­cing this Bramble on the South-side of the Lake Leman [...]. I said, it was well and wisely done that he chose a South Sun for the better and more sudden growth of such a Fruit-Tree. Ay, said they, but he means Calvin by the Bram ble; and the rank Soyl on the South-side the Lake Lemane is the City of Geneva, situate (as he would have it) on the South-side of that Lake. Now it is strange that he, having travel­led so well should not have observed that the Lake lies East and West, and that Geneva is built at the West end of it. Pis [...], said I, that's no such great matter, and, as Master Bayes hath it upon another occasion, Whether it be so or no, the for­tunes of Caesar and the Roman Empire are not con­cerned in't. One of the Company would not let that pass, but told us if we look'd in Caesar's Com­mentaries, we should find their fortunes were concern'd, for it was the Helvetian Passage, and many mistakes might have risen in the marching of the Army. Why then, replied I again, Whe­ther it be East, West, North, or South, there is neither Vice nor Idolatry in it, and the Ecclesiasti­cal [Page 31] Politician may command you to believe it, and you are bound to acquiesce in his Judgment, what­soever may be your private Opinion. Another, to continue the mirth, answered, That yet there might [...]e some Religious Consideration in building a Town East and West, or North and South, and 'twas not [...] thing so indifferent as men thought it: but be­cause in the Church of England, where the Table is set Altar wise, the Minister is nevertheless obliged to stand at the North­end (though it be the North­end of the Table) it was fit to place the Geneva Presbyter in diametrical opposition to him upon the South-side of the Lake. But this we all took for a cold conceir, and not enough matured. I, that was still upon the doubtful and excusing part, said, That to give the right situation of a Town, it was neces­sary first to know in what position the Gentle­man's head then was when he made his Obseavati­on, and that might cause a great diversity, as much as this came to. Yes, replyed my next neigh­bour: or, perhaps some roguing Boy that managed the Puppets, turned the City wrong, and so disoc­cidented our Geographer. It was grown almost as good as a Play among us: and at last they all con­cluded that Geneva had sold Mr. Bayes a Bargain, as the Moon serv'd the Earth in the Rehearsal, and in good sooth had turn'd her breech on him. But this, I doubt not, Mr. Bayes will bring himself off with Honour: but that which sticks with me is, that our Author having undertaken to make Calvin and Ge­neva ridicule, hath not pursued it to so high a point as the Subject would have afforded. First, he might have taken the name of the beast Calvinus, and of that have given the Anagram, Lucianus. Next, I would have turn'd him inside outward, and have made him Usinulca. That was a good [...] name to have frighted Children with. [Page 32] Then he should have been a Bram [...] [...]till, av, an indefatigable Bramble too: but after [...] have continued (for in such a Book a passage in a Play is clear gain, and a [...] loss if omit­ted) and upon that Bramble Reasons grew [...]s plen­tiful as Black-berries, but both [...], and they stain'd all the white Aprons so, that there was no getting of it out. And then, to make a fuller description of the place, he should have added; That near to the City of roaring Lions there was a Lake, and that Lake was all of Brimstone, but stored with over-grown Trouts, which Trouts spawned Presbyterians, and those spawned the Mil­lecantons of all other Fanaticks. That this Shoal of Presbyterians Landed at Geneva, and devoured all the Bishops of Geneva's Capons, which are of the greatest size of any in the Reformed World. And ever since their mouths have been so in relish that the Presbyterians are in all parts the very Canibals of Capons: in so much, that if Princes do not take care, the race of Capons is in dan­ger to be totally extinquished. But that the Ri­ver Rhosne was so sober and intelligent, that its Wa­ters would not mix with this Lake perillous, but ran sheere thorow, without ever touching it: Nay, such is its apprehension lest the Lake should overtake it, that the River dives it self under ground, till the Lake hath lost the scent: and yet when it rises again, imagining that the Lake is still at its heels, it runs on so impetuously that it chu­seth rather to pass through the roaring Lions, and never thinks it self safe till it hath taken sanctuary at the Popes Town of vinion. He might too have proved that Calvin made himself Pope and Empe­rour, because the City of Geneva stamps upon its Coyn the two-headed Imperial Eagle. And, to [Page 33] have given us the u [...]most Terror, he might have considered the Alliance and Vicinity of Geneva to the Canton of Bern, the Arms of which City is the Bear, (and an Argument in Heraldry, even Bishop Bramhal himself being Judge, might have also held in Divinity) and therefore they keep un­der the Town-hoose constantly a whole Den of Bears. So that there was never a more dangerous situation, nor any thing so carefully to be avoided by all Travellers in their wits, as Geneva: the Li­ons on one side, and the Bears on the other. This Story would have been Nuts to Mother Midnight, and was fit to have been imbellished with Mr. Bayes his Allegorical Eloquence. And all that he saith either by sits and girds of Calvin, or in his justest Narratives, hath less foundation in Nature: and is indeed twice incredible, first in the mattet related, and then because Mr. Bayes it comes from: or, to express it shorter, because of the Tale and the Tales man. He is not yet come to that Authority, but that his Dogmatical Ipse Dixits may rather be a reason why we should not believe him. If Master Bayes will speak os Controversy; let him enter in­to a regular Disputation concerning these Calvini­an Tenets, and not write an History. Or, if he will give us the History of Calvin, let him at the same time produee his Authors. And whether History or Controversy, let him be pleased so long to abate of the exuberancy of his Fancy and Wit; to dis­pense with his Ornaments and superfluencies of Invention and Satyre, and then a man may con­sider whether he may belie [...]e his Story, and sub­mit to his Argument. But in the mean time (for all he pleads in pag. 97. of his Defence) it looks all so like subterfuge and inveagling; it is so nauseat­ing and teadious a task, [...]hat no man thinks [Page 34] he ows the Author so much service as to find out the reason of his own Categoricalness for him. One may beat the Bush a whole day; but ast [...]r so much labour shall, for all game, only spring a Butterfly, or start an Hedghog. Insomuch that I am ever and anon disputing with my self whether Mr. Bayes be indeed so ill-natured a person as some would have him, and do not rather innocently write these things (as he professes pag. 4. of his Presact (so exceeding all belief, that he may make himself and the company merry. I sometimes could think that he intends no harm either to Publick or Private, but only rails contentedly to himself and his Muses; That he seeks only his own diversion, and chargeth his Gun with Wind but to shoot at the Air. Or that, like Boyes, so he may make a great Paper-Kite of his own Letter of 850. pages, and his Preface of an h [...]ndred, he hath no further design upon the Poul­try of the Village. But he takes care that I shall never be long deceiv'd with that pleasing imagina­tion: and though his Hyperboles and Impossibi­lities can have only a ridiculous effect, he will be sure to manisest that he had a selonious intention. He would take it ill if we should not value him as an Enemy of Mankind: and like a raging Indian (for in Europe it was never before practised) he runs a Mucke (as they call it there) stabbing eve­ry man he meets, till himself be knockt on the head. This here is the least pernicious of all his mischiess: though it be no less in this and all his other Books, than to make the German Pro­testancy a reproachful Proverb, and to turn Geneva and Calvin into a Common Place of Railing. I had alwayes heard that Calvin was a good Scholar, and an honest Divine. I have indeed read that he spoke something contemptuosly of our Liturgy: [Page 35] Sunt in illo Libro quaedam tolerabiles ineptiae. But that was a Sin which we may charitably suppose he repented of on his death-bed. And if Mr. Bayes had some just quarrel to him on that or other account, yet for Divinities [...] he needed not thus have made a constant [...] place of his Grave. And as for Geneva I never perceived before but that it was a very laudable City, that there grew an excellent Grape on the South side of the Lake Leman, that a man might make good chear there, and there was a Pallmal, and one might shoot with the Athalet, or play at Courtboule on Sundayes. What was here to inrage our Au­thor so that he must raze the Fort of St. Kathe­rine, and attempt with the same success a second Escalade? But the difficulty of the Enterprize doubtless provoked his courage, and the honour he might win made the justice of his Quarrel. He knew that not only the Common-Wealth of Switzerland, but the King of France, the King of Spain, and the Duke of Savoy would enter the lists for the common preservation of the place: and therefore though it be otherwise but a petty Town, he disdain'd not where the Race was to be run by Monarchs, to exercise his footmanship. But is it not a great pity to see a man in the flower of his age, and the vigour of his studies, to fall into such a distraction, That his head runs upon nothing but Roman Empire and Ecclesiastical Po­licy? This happens by his growing too early ac­quainted with Don Q [...]ixot, and reading the Bible too late, so that the first impressions being most strong, and mixing with the last, as more novel, have made such a medly [...] his brain pan that he is become a mad Priest, which of all the sorts is the most [...]. Hence it is that you shall [Page 36] hear him anon instructing Princes, like Sancho, how to govern his [...]: as he is busied at present in [...] the [...] of Germany and Geneva. Had he no Friends to have given him good Counsel before his Understanding were quite unsettled? or if there were none near, why did not men call in the neighbours and send for the Parson of the Parish to perswade with him in time, but let it run on thus till he is fit for nothing but Bedlam or Hogsdon? However thought it be a particular damage, it may tend to a general advantage,. and young students will I hope by his example learn to beware hence-forward of over­weening Presumption and preposterous Ambition. For this Gentleman, as I have heard, after he had read Don Quixot and the Bible, besides such School-Books as were necessary for his age, was sent early to the University: and there studied hard, and in a short time became a competent Rhetori­cian, and no ill Disputant. He had learnt how to erect a Thesis. and to defend it Pro or Con with a serviceable distinction: while the Truth (as his Camarade Mr. Bayes hath it on another occasion.

Before a full Pot of Ale you can swallow,
Was here with a whoop and gone with a hallow,

And so thinking himself now ripe and qualified for the greatest Undertakings, and highest For­tune, he therefore exchanged the narrowness of the Uuiversity for the Town; But coming out of the confinement of the Square-cap and the Qur­drangle into the open Air, the World began to turn round with him: which he imagined, though it were his own giddiness, to be nothing less than the Quadrature of the Circler. This acci­dent concurring so happily to increase the good [Page 37] opinion which he naturally had of himself, he thenceforward apply'd to gain a like reputation with others. He follow'd the Town life, haunted the best companies; and, to polish himself from any Pedantick roughness; he read and saw the Playes, with much care and more proficiency than most of the Auditory. But all this while he for­got not [...]he main-chance, but hearing of a vacan­cy with a Noble man, he clapp'd in, and easily obtained to be his, Chaplain. From that day you may take the date of his Preserments and his Ru­ine. For having soon wrought himself dexteriously into his Patrons favour, by short Graces & Sermons, and a mimical way of drolling upon the Puritans, which he knew would take both at Chappel and Table; he gained a great Authority likewise a­mong all the domesticks. They all listened to him as an Oracle: and they allow'd him by com­mon consent, to have not only all the Divinity, but more wit too than all the rest of the family put together. This thing alone elevated him ex­ceedingly in his own conceit, and raised his Hypo­condria into the Region of the brain: that his head swell'd like any bladder with wind and va­pour. But after he was stretch'd to such a height in his own fancy, that he could not look down from top to toe but his Eyes dazled at the Preci­pice of his Stature; there feil out, or in, ano­ther natural chance which push'd him headlong. For being of an amorous Complexion, and finding himself (as I told you) the Cock-Divine and the Cock-wit of the Family, he took the [...] to walk among the Hens and thought it was not impolitick to establish his new acquired Reputation upon the Gentlewomens side. And they that perceived he was a Rising Man, and of pleasant Conversation, dividing his Day among them [Page 39] into Canonical hours, of reading now the Com­mon-prayer, and now the Romances; were very much taken with him. The Sympathy of Silk be­gan to stir and attract the Tippet to the Petticoat & the Petticoat toward the Tipper. The innocent Ladies found a strange unquietness in their minds, and could not distinguish whether it were Love or Devotion. Neither was he wanting on his part to carry on the Work; but shisted himself every day with a clean Surplice, and, as oft as he had occasion to bow, he directed his Reverence towards the Gentlewomens Pew. Till having before had enough of the Libertine, and underta­ken his Calling only for pref [...]rment; he was trans­ported now with the Sanctity of his office, even to extasy: and like the Bishop over Maud [...]in Col­ledge Altar, or like Maudlin de la Croix, he was seen in his Prayers to be lifted up sometimes in the Air, and once particularly so high that he crack'd his scul against the Chappel Ceiling. I do not hear for all this that he had ever practised up­on the Honour of the Ladies, but that he preser­ved always the Civility of a Platonick Knight-Er­rant. For all this Courtship had no other ope­ration than to make him still more in love with himself: and if he frequented their company, it was only to speculate his own Baby in their Eyes. But being thus, without Competitor or Rival, the Darling of both Sexes in the Family and his own Minion; he grew beyond all measure elated, and that crack of his Scull, as in broken Looking­Glasses, multipli'd him in self-conceit and imagi­nation.

Having fixed his Genter in this Nobleman's House, he thought he could now move and go­vern the whole Earth with the same facility. No­thing [Page 38] now would serve him but he must be a madman in print, and write a Book of Ecclesia­stical Pollicy. There he distribu [...]es all the Ter­ritories of Conscience into the Princes Province, and makes the Hierarchy to be but Bishops of the Air: and talks at such an extravagant rate in things of higher concernment, that the Rea­der will avow that in the whole discourse he had not one lucid interval. This Book he was so bent upon, that he sate up late at nights, and wanting sleep, and drinking sometimes Wine to animate his Fancy, it increas'd his Distemper. Beside that too he had the misfortune to have two Friends, who being both also out of their wits, and of the same though something a calmer phrensy, spurr'd him on perpetually with com­mendation. But when his Book was once come out, and he saw himself an Author; that some of the Gallants of the Town layd by the new Tune and the Tay, tay, tarry, to quote some of his impertinencies; that his Title page was post­ed and pasted up at every avenue next under the Play for that afternoon at the Kings or the Dukes House: the Vain-Glory of this totally con­founded him. He lost all the little remains of his understanding,, and his Cerebellum was so dryed up that there was more brrins in a Walnut and both their Shels were alike thin and brittle. The King of France that lost his wits, had not near so many unlucky circumstances to occasion it: and in the last of all there is some Similitude. For, as a negligent Page that rode behind and car­ried the Kings Lance, let it fall on his head, the King being in Armour, and the day hot, which so disordered him that he never recovered it: so this Gentleman, in the Dog-days, stragling by [Page 40] Temple-bar, in a massy Cassock and Surcingle, and taking the opportunity at once to piss and ad­mire the Title-page of his Book; a tall Servant of his, one J. O. that was not so carefull as he should be, or whether he did it of purpose, lets another book of four hundred leaves fall upon his head; which meeting with the former fracture in his Cranium, aud all the concurrent Accidentk already mentioned, has utterly undone him. And so in conclusion his Madness hath formed it self in­to a perfect Lycanthropy. He doth so severely be­lieve himself to be a Wolf, that his speech is all turn'd into howling, yelling, and barking: and if there were any Sheep here, you should see him pull out their throats and suck the blood. Alas, that a sweet Gentleman, and so hopeful, should miscarry! for want of Cattle here, you find him raving now against all the Calvinists of England, and worrying the whole Flock of them. For how can they hope to escape his chaps and his paws better than those of Germany and Geneva; of which he is so hungry, that he hath scratch'd up even their dead bodies out of their Graves to prey upon? And yet this is nothing if you saw him in the height of his fits: but he hath so bea­ten and spent himself before, that he is out of breath at present; and though you may discover the same fury, yet it wants of the same vigor. But however you see enough of him, my Ma­sters, to make you beware, I hope, of valu­ing too high, and trusting too far to your own Abilities.

It were a wild thing for me to Squire it as­ter this Knight, and accomprny him here through all his Extravagancies against our Cal­vinists. You find nothing but Orthodoxy, Sy­stems, [Page 41] and Syntagms, [...] Theology, Subtil­ties and [...]. Demosthenes; Tankard­bearers; [...]; Controversial: General terms without foundation or reason assigned. That they seem lik words of Cabal, and have no significance till they be decipe.'d. Or, you would think he were playing at Substantives and Adj [...]ctives. And all that rationally can be gathered from what he saith, is, that the Man is mad. But if you would supply his mean­ing with [...]our imagination, as if he spoke sense and to some determinate purpose; it is very strange that, conceiving himself to be the Cham­pion of the Church of England, he should bid such a general defiance to the Calvinists. For, he knows, or perhaps I may better say he did know before this Phrensy had subverted both his Understanding and Memory, that most of our ancient, and many of the later Bishops nea­rer our times, did both hold and maintain those Doctrines which he traduces under that by-word. And the contrary Opinions were even in Bishop Prideaux's time accounted so novel, that, being then publick Professor of Divinity, he thought fit to tax Doctor Heylin at the Com­mencement for his new fangled Divinity: Cujus, saith he, in the very words of promotion, te Doctorem Creo. He knew likewise that of our pre­sent Bishops, though one had leisure formerly to write a Rationale of the Ceremonies and Lituy­gie, and another a Treatise of the Holiness of Lent; yet that most of them, and 'tis to be supposed all, have studied other Contoversies, and at a­nother rate than Mr. Bayes his Lead can fathom. And as I know none of them that hath published [Page 42] any Treatise against the Calvinian tenets, so I have the Honour to be acquainted with some of them who are in tirely of that judgment, and differ nothing but, as of good reason, in the point of [...]. And as for that, Bishop. Bramhal page 61. hath proved that Calvin him­self was of the Episcopal perswasion. So that I see no reason why Mr. Bayes should here and e­very where be such an enemy to Controversial skill, or the Calvinists. But I perceive 'tis for Bishop, Bramhall's sake here that all the Tribe must suffer. This Bayes is not a good Dog: for he runs at a whole flock of Sheep, when Mr. B. was the Deer whom he had in view from the beginning. Howe­ver having foil'd himself so long with every thing he meets, after him now he goes, and will never leave till he hath run him down Poor Mr. B. I find that when he was a Boy, he pluck'd Bishop Bram­hall's Sloes, and eat his [...]; and now, when he is as superannuated as the Bishop's book, he must be whipp'd [...], there is no remedy. And yet I have heard, and Mr. Bayes himself seems to intimate as much, that how-ever he might in his younger years have mistaken, yet that even as early as Bishop Bramhall's Discourse, he began to retract: and that as for all his sins against the Church of England, he hath in fome la [...]We Treati­ses cryed Peccavy with a Witness. But Mr. Bayes doth not this now look like Sorcery and Extorti­on, which of all crimes you purge your self from so often without an Accuser? For first; where [...] the old Bishop was at rest, and had under his last Pillow laid by all cares and contests of this lower World; you by your Necromancy have disturb'd him, and rais'd his Ghost to perse­cute and haunt Mr. B. whom doubtless at his death [Page 43] he had pardoned. But if you called him upto [...]sk some Questions too concerning your Eccle­siastical Policy, as I am apt to suppose, I doubt you had no better Answer than in the Song:

Art thou forlorn of God, and com'st to me?
What can I tell thee then but miserie?

And then as for Extortion; who but such an He­brew Jew as you, would, after an honest man had made so full and voluntary Restitution, not yet have been satisfied without so many Pounds of his flesh over into the bargain? Though J. O. be in a desperate condition, yet methinks Mr. B. not being past Grace, should not neither have been past Mercy. Are there no terms of Pradon, Mr. Bayes? is there no time for [...]; but, after so ample a confeffion as he hath made, must he now be hang'd too to make good the Proverb? It puts me in mind of a Story in the time of the Guelphs and Ghibilines, whom I perceive Mr. Bays hath heard of of: They were two Factions in Italy, of which the G [...]elphs were for the Pope, and the Ghibilines [...] the Emperour; and these were for many years carried on and somented with much animosity, [...]o the great disturbance of Christendome. Which of these two were the Nonconformists in those days I can no more deter­mine, than which of our Parties here at home is now Schismatical. But so [...] they were to one another, that the Historian said they took care to differ in the least circumstances of any hu­mane action: and as those that have the Masons Word, secretly discern one another; so in the peeling or cutting but of an Onion, a Gu [...]lp and vice versa would at first sight have distinguished a Ghibiline. Now one of this latter sort coming [Page 44] at Rome to Confession upon Ashwednesday, the Pope or the Penitentiary sprinkling Ashes on the Man's head with the usual ceremony, instead of pronouncing Memento homo quod Cinis es & in Ci­nerem revertêris, changed it to Memento homo quod Ghibilinus es, &c And even thus it fares with Mr. B. who though he should creep on his knees up the whole Stairs of Scholastick [...], I am confi­dent neither he, nor any of his Party, shall by Mr. Bayes his good will ever be absolved. And therefore truly if I were in Mr. B's case if I could not have my Confession back again, yet it should be a warning unto me not without better grounds to be so coming and so good natured for the future. But whatever he do, I hope others will consider what ufage they are like to find at Mr. Bayes hand, and not suffer themselves by the touch of his Pe­nitential Rod to be transformed into Beasts, even into [...], as here he hath done with Mr. B. I have in deed wondered often at this Bayes his inso­lence, who summons in all the World, and prea­cheth up only this Repentance: and so frequently in his Books he calls for Testimonies, Signal Marks, Pub­lick Acknowledgment, Satisfaction, Recantation, and I know not what. He that hath made the passage to Heaven so easie that one may fly ehither without Grace (as Gonzales to the Moon only by help of his Gansas) he that hath [...] its narrow paths from those Labyrinths which J. O. and Mr. B. have planted; this Overseer of God's High-wayes (if I may with reverence speak it) who hath paved a broad Ca [...]sway with Moral Vir­tue thorow his Kingdom; he methinks should not have made the process of Loyalty more difficult than that of Salvation. What Signal Marks, what Testimonies would he have of this Conversion? E­very man cannot, as he hath done write an Eccle­siastical [Page 45] Policy, a Defence: a Preface: and some, if they could, would not do it after his manner; least instead of obliging thereby the King and the Church, it should be a Testimony to the contra­ry. Neither, unless men have better Principles of Allegiance at home, are they likely to be re­duced by Mr. Bayes his way of perswasion. He is the first Minister of the Gospel that ever had it in his Commission to rail at all Nations. And, though it hath been long practised, I never observed any great success by reviling men into Conformity. I have heard that Charms may even envite the Moon out of Heaven, but I never could see her moved by the R [...]etorick of barking. I think it ought to be high­ly penal for any man ro impose other conditions upon his Majesties good Subjects than the King ex­pects, or the Law requires. When you have done all, you must yet appear before Mr. Bayes his Tribunal, and he hath a new Test yet to put you to. I must confess at this rate the Nonconformists de­serve some Compassion: that after they have done or suffered legally and to the utmost, they must still be subjected to the w [...]nd of a Verger, or to the wanton lash of every Pedant; that they must run the [...], or down with their breeches as [...] as he wants the prospect of a more pleasing Nudidity. But I think they may chuse whether they will submit or no to his Jurisdiction. Let them but (as I hope they do) fear God, honour the King, preserve their Consciences, follow their Trades, and look to their Chimnies; and they need not fear Mr, Bayes and all his Malice. But after he hath sufficiently insulted over Mr. B's ignorance and vanity, with other Complements of the like nature, in recompence of that candor and civility which he acknowledges him ta have now learnt to­wards [Page 46] Church of England, Mr. Bayes forgeting what had past long since betwixt him and the Bookseller) saith in excuse of his severity, that this Treatise was not published to impair Mr. B's esteem in the least but for a correction of his scribling humour, and to warn their Rat-Divines that are perpetually nibling and gnauing other mens Writings. Now I must con­fess Mr. Bayes this is a very handsome Welcome to Mr. B. that was come so far to see you, and dout­less upon this encouragement he will visit you of­ten. This is an admirable dexterity our Author hath (I wish I could learn it) to correct a man's scribling humour without impairing in the least his re­putation. He is as courteous as Lightning, and can melt the Sword without ever hurting the Scabbard. But as for their Rat-Divines, I won­der they are not all poysoned with nibling at his Writings, he hath strewed so much Arsenick in e­very leaf. But however, methinks he should not not have grudged them so slender a sustenance. For though there was a Sow in Arcadia so fat and insensible that she suffered a Rats nest in her but­tock, and they had both Dyet and Lodging in the same Gammon; yet it is not every Rats good for­tune to be so well provided. And for Push-pin­Divinity, I confess it is a new term of Art, I shall henceforward take notice of it, but I am afraid in general it doth not tend much to the reputation of the Faculty.

And now, though he told us at the beginning, that the Bookseller was the main reason of publish­ing this Book of the Bishop and his own Preface, he tels us that the main reason of its publication was to give some check to their present disingenu­ity, that is to say to that of J. O, And J. O. be it at present. He is come so much nearer however to the Truth, though we shall find ere we have done that there is still a mainer reason. [Page 47] Wnen I first took notice of this misunderstan­ding betwixt Mr. Bayes and J. O I considered whether it were not Execution day with the La­tine Alphabet: whether all the Letters were not to suffer in the same manner, except C. only, which (having been the mark of Condemnation) might have a pardon to serve for the Executioner. I began to repent of my Undertaking, being a­fraid that the Quarrel was with the wole Cris-Cros­Row, and that we must fight it out through all the Squadrons of the Vowels, the Mutes, the Se­mi-vowels, and the Liquids. I foresaw a sore and endless labour, and a battle the longest that ever was read of; being probable to continue as long as one Letter was left alive, or there were any use of Reading. Therefore, to spare mine own pains, and prevent Ink-shed, I was advising the Letters to go before Mr. Bales, or any other his Majesties Justices of the Peace, to swear that they were in danger of their. Lives, and desire that Mr Bayes might be bound to the Good-behaviour. But after this I had another Phancy, and that not altogether unreasonable; that Mr. Bayes had, only for health and exercise-sake, drawn J. O. by chance out of the number of the rest, to try how he could rail at a Letter, and that he might be well in breath upon any occasion of greater conse­quence For, how perfect soever a man may have been in any Science, yet without continual practice he will find a sensible decay of his faculty. Hence al­so, and upon the same natural ground, it is the wis­dom of Cats to whet their Claws against the Chairs and Hangings, in mediation of the next R [...]t they are to encounter. And I am confident that Mr. Bayes by this way hath brought himself into so good railing case, that pick what Letter you will out of the Alphabet, he is able to write an Epistle upon [Page 48] it of 723 pages (I have now told them right) to the Author of the Friendly Debates.

Now though this had very much of probability, I had yet a further Conjecture: that this J. O. was a Talisman, signed under some peculiar influence of the Heavenly bodies, and that the Fate of Mr. Bays was bound up within it. Whether it be so or no I know not: but this I am assured of, without the help either of Syderal Magick or Judicial Astrologie, that when J and O are in Conjunction, they do more certainly than any of the Planets forbode that a great Ecclesiastical Politician shall that Year run mad. I confess after all this, when I was come to the dregs of my phansie (for we all have our infir­mities, and Mr. Bayes his Defence was but the blew­John of his Ecclesiastical Policy, and this Preface the Tap-droppings of his Defence) I reflected whether Mr. Bayes having no particular cause of indignation against the Let [...]ers, there might not have been a mistake of the Printer, and that they were to be read in one word Io that use to go before Paean: that is in English a Triumph before the Victory Or whe­ther it alluded to [...] that we read of at School, the Daughter of Inachus; and that as Juno p [...]rsecuted the Heifer, so this was an He-Cow, that is to say a Bull to be baited by Mr. Bayes the Thunderer. But these being Conceits too trivial, though a Ragoust fit enough sor Mr. Bayes his palate, I was sorced moreover to quit them, remarking that it was an J Consonant. And I plainly at last perceived that this J. O. was a very Man as any of us are, and had a Head, and a Mouth with Tongue and Teeth in it, and Hands with singers and Nails upon the [...]: Nay, that he could read and write, and speak as well as I, or Master Bayes, either of us. When I once found this, the business appear'd more serious, and I was willing to see what was the matter that [Page 49] so much exasperated Mr. Bayes, who is a Person, as he saith himself, of such a tame and softly hu­mour, and so cold a complexion, that be thinks him­self scarce capable of hot and passionate impressi [...]ns. I concluded that necessarily there must be some extraordinary Accident and Occa­on that could alter so good a Nature. For I saw that he pursued J. O. if not from, Post to Pillar, yet from Pillar to Post, and I diserned all along the Footsteps of a most inveterate and implaca­ble Malice. As oft as he does but name those two first Letters, he is, like the Island of Fayal on fire in three [...]ore and ten places.

You see, Mr. Bayes, that I too have improved my wit with reading the Gazettes. Were you of that Fellows diet here abour Town, that epi­curizes upon burning Coals, drinks healths in scal­ding Brimstone, scraunches the Glasses for his Desert, and draws his breath through glowing Tobacco-pipes. Nay to say a thing yet greater; had you never tasted other sustenance than the Fo­cus of burning Glasses, you could not shew more flame than you do alwayes upon that subject. And yet one would think that even from the little sports, with your comfortable importance after Sup­der, you should have learnt when J. O. came in­to play, to love your Love with an J. because he is Judicious, though you hate your Love with an J, because he is jealous: and then to love your Love with an O. because he is Oraculous, though you hate your Love with an O. because he is Obscure: Is it not strange, that in those most benign mi­nutes of a Man's life, when the Stars smile, the Birds sing, the Winds whisper, the Fountains warble, the Trees blossom, and uuiversal Nature seems to invite it self to the Bridal; when the Lion puls in his Claws & the Aspick layes by its Poyson, [Page 50] and all the most noxious Creatures grow amo­rusly innocent: that even then, Mr. Bayes alone should not be able to refrain his Malignity? As you love your self, Madam, let him not come neer you. He hath been fed all his life with Vipers insteed of Lampres, and Scorpions for Crayfish: and if at any time he eat Chickens they had been cramb'd with Spiders, till he [...] so invenomed his whole substance that tis much safer to bed with a Mountebank befoe he hath taken his Antidote. But it cannot be any vul­gar furnace that hath chafed so cool a Salaman­der. 'Tis not the strewing of Cowitch in his Genial-Bed that could thus disquiet him, the first night. And therefore let's take the Candle and see whether there be not some body under­neath that hath cut the Bed-Cords, There was a worthy Divine, not many years dead, who in his younger time being of a facetious and un­lucky humour, was commonly known by the name of Tom Triplet. He was brought up at Pauls-School, under a [...] Master, Dr. Gill, and from thence he went to the Uuiversity­There he took liberty (as 'tis usual with those that are emancipated from School) to tel Tales, and make the Discipline ridiculous under which he was bred. But, not suspecting the Doctor's intelligence, comming once to Town, he went in full School to give him a Visite, and expected no Iess than to get a Play-day for his former acquain­tance. But, instead of that, he found himself hors'd up in a trice; though he appeal'd in vain to the Priviledges of the [...], pleaded Adultus, and invoked the mercy of the Spectators. Nor was he let down till the Master had planted a Grove of Birch in his back side, fot the Terrour and puplick Example of all Wags that divulg the [Page 51] Secrets of Priscian and make merry with their Teachers. This stuck so with Triplet, that all his life-time he never forgave the Doctor, but sent him every Newyears-tide an Anniversary Ballad to a new Tune, and so in his turn avenged himself of his jerking Pedagogue.

Now when I observed that of late years Mr. Bays had regularly spawned his Books; in 1670. the Ecclesiastical Policy; in 1671. the Defence of the Ecclesiastical Policy; and now in 1672 this Preface to Biwop Bramhal, and that they were writ in a stile so vindictive and poynant, that they wanted nothing but rime to be right Tom Triplet; and that their edge bore always upon J. O. either in broad meanings or in plain terms; I begun to suspect that where there was so great resemblance in the Effects, there might be some parallel in Ef­fects, there might be some parallel in their Cau­ses. For though the Peeks of Players among them­selves, or of Poet against Poet, or of a Conformist­Divine against a Nonconformist, are dangerous, and of late times have caused great disturbance; yet I never remarked so irreconcileable a spirit as that of Boyes against their Schoolmasters or Tutors. The quarrels of their Education have an influence upon their Memories and Understan­dings for ever after. They cannot speak of their Teachers with any patience or civility; and their discourse is never so flippant, nor their Wirs so flu­ent as when you put them upon that Theme. Nay, I have heard old Men, otherwise, sober, peaceable and good-natured, who never could forgive Os­bolstone, as the younger are still inveighing a­gainst Dr. Busby. It were well that both old and young would reform this vice, and consider how easy a thing it is upon particular grudges, and as they conceived out of a just [...], to slip either [Page 52] into [...] petulancy of inveterate uncharitable­ness. And had there not been something of this in his own case, I am confident Mr. Bayes in his Ecclesiastical Policy, in order to the publick peace and security of the Government, could not have failed to admonish Princes to beware of this grow­ing evil, and to brandish the Publick Rods if not the Axes against the Boyes, to teach them better manners. And he would have assured them that they might have done it with all safety, notwith­standing that there were in proportion an hundred Boyes against one Preceptor. But therefore is it not possible that J. O. and Mr Bayes have known one another formerly in the University; and that (as in Seniority there is a kind of Magistracy) Bayes being yet young J. O. conceiv'd himself in those dayes to be his Superiour, and exercised an Academical Jurisdiction or Dominion over him. Now whether J. O. might not be too severe upon him there for all men are prone to be cogent and supercilious when they are in Office) or whether Mr. Bayes might not make some little escapes and excursions there (as young men are apt to do when they are got together) that I know not, and rather believe the contrary. But that is certain that the young Wits in the Universities have al­ways an animosity against the Doctors, and take a reculiar felicity in having a lucky hit at any of them. I rather suppose that after Mr Bayes had changed the place, and his condition, to be the Noblemans Chaplain, that he might commit some exorbitance in J. O's opinion, or preach or write something to J. O's reproach, and published the Se­crets of the Holy Brotherhood: and that J. O. ha­ving got him within his reach, did therefore (figu­ratively speaking)

— Instead of Maid Jilian
Take up his Malepillian,
And whipt him like a baggage —

[Page 53]as Tom Triplet expresses it. This might well [...] Mr. Bayes his Choler, who, considering himself to be now in Holy Orders, and conceiving that he had been as safe as in a Sanctuary under his Pa­trons protection, must needs take it ill io be hand­led so irreverently. If it were thus in Fact, and that J. O. might presume too much upon his former Authority to give him Correction; yet it is the more excusable, if Mr. Bayes had on his part been guil­ty of so much [...]. For though a man may be allowed once in his life to change his Party, and the whole Scene of his Affairs, either for his safety or preferment; [...], though every man be obliged to change an hundred times back­ward and forward, if his Judgment be so weak and variable; ye there are some drudgeries that no man of Honour would put himself upon, and but few submit to if they were imposed. As sup­pose one had thought fit to pass over from one perswasion of the Christian Religion unto another; he would not chuse to spit thrice at every Article that he relinquish'd to curse solemnly his Father and Mother for having educated him in those Opi­nions, to animate his pnew abquaintances to the massacring of his former Camarades. These are businesses that can only be expected from a Rene­gade of Argier or Tunis; to over-doe in expiation, and gain better credence of being a sincere Mu­sulman. And truly, though I can scarcely [...] that Mr. Bayes hath so mean and desperate inten­tions, which yet his words seem too often to manifest the Offices however which he under­takes are almost as dishonourable. For he hathso stu­died and improved their J [...] as he calls it, heard their Sermons and prayers so attentively, searched the Scriptures so narrowly, that a man may justly [Page 54] suspect he had formerly set up J. O's Profession, and having the language so perfectly, hath upon this juncture of affears betaken himself to turn Spy and Inteligencer; and 'tis evident that he hath tra­vell'd the Country for that purpose. So that I can­not resemble him better than to that Politick En­gine who about two years ago was employed by some of Oxford as a Missionary among the Non­conformists of the adjacent Counties? and, up­on designe, either gathered a Congregation of his own, or preach'd amongst others, till ha­ving got all their Names, he threw off the Vizard, and appear'd in his Colours, an honest Infromer. But I would not have any man take Mr. Bayes his Fanatical Geography for authentick, lest he should be as far misled, as in the situation of Geneva. It suffices that Mr. Bayes hath done therein as much as served to his purpose, and mixed pro­bability enough for such as know not better, and whose ears are of a just bore for his fable.

But I. O. being of age and parts sufficient either to manage or to neglect this Quarrel, I shall as far as possible decline the mentioning of him, see­ing I have too upon (further intelligence and consideration) found that he was not the person whom Mr. Bayes principally intended. For, the truth of it is, the King was the Person concer­ned from the beginn [...]ng.

His Majesty before his most happy and mira­culous Restauration, had sent over a Declaration of his Indelgence to tender Consciencee in Eccle­siastical Matters. Which, as it was doubtless the real Result of the last Advice left Him by his glorious Father, and of his own consummate Pru­dence and natural Benignity; so at his Return he religiously observed and promoted it as far as the Passions and Influences of the contrary Par­ty [Page 55] would give leave. For, whereas among all the decent Circumstances of his welcom Re­turn, the Providence of God had so coopera­ted with the duty of his Subjects, that so glori­ous an Action should neither be soiled with the blood of Victory, nor lessened by any capitula­tions of Treaty, so not to be wanting on his part in courtesy, as I may say, to so happy a conjucture, He imposed upon himself an Oblivion of former offences, and his Indulgence in Ecclesiastical affairs. And to royal and generous minds do sti­pulations are so binding as their own voluntary promises: nor is it to be wondred if they hold those Conditions that they put upon themselves the most inviolable. He therefote carried the Act of Oblivion and Indempnity thorow: that Party who had suffered vastly in the late Cumbustions not refusing to imitate his Generosity, but throw­ing all their particular Losses and Resentments in­to the Publick Reckoning. But when it came to the Ecclesiastical Part, the accomplishment of which only remain'd behind to have perfected his Majesty's felicity, the business I warrant you should not go so, (as I shall have occa­sion to say more par [...]icularly.) For, though I am sorry to speak it, yet it is a sad truth, that the Animosities and Obstinacy of some of the Clergy have in all Ages been the greatest Obstacle to the Clemency, Prudence and good Intentions of Princes, and the Establishment of their Affairs. His Majesty therefore expected a better season, and having at last rid himself of a great Minister of state who had headed this Interest, he now proceeded plainly to recom­mend to his Parliment effectually and with re­peated instances, the Consideration of tender Con­sciences, After the Kings last representing of this [Page 56] matter to the Parliament, Mr. Bayes took so much time as was necessary for the maturing of so accurate a Book which was to be the standard of Government for all future Ages, and he was hap­pily delivered in 1670 of his Ecclesiastical Polli­cy. And though he thought fit in this first Book to treat his Majesty more tenderly than in those that followed, yet even in this he doth all along use grea [...] liber [...]y and pr [...]sumption. Nor can what he objects, [...] [...]2, [...] weak Consciences, take place so [...] them as upon himself: who, while his Prince might expect his Compliance, doth give him Counsel, advises him how to govern the Kingdom, blames and corrects the Laws, and tells him how this and the other might be mended. But that I may not involve the thing in generals, but represent undeniably Mr. Bayes his performance in this undertaking, I shall without Art write down his own words and his own quod Scripsi Scripsi, as they ly naked to the view of every Reader.

The grand Thesis upon which he stakes not on­ly all his own Divinity and Policy, his Reputation, Preferment, and Conscience, of most of which he hath no reason to be prodigal; but even the Crowns and Fate of Princes, and the Liber­ties, Lives and Estates, and, which is more, the Consciences of their Subjects, which are too va­luable to be trusted in his disposal, is this, pag-10. That it is absolutely necessary to the peace and govern­ment of the World, that the supream Magistrate of e­very Commonwealth should be vested with a power to govern and conduct the Consciences of Subjects in af­fairs of Religion. And p 12 he explains himself more fully that Unless Princes have Power to hind their Sub­jects to that Religion that they apprehend most ad­vantagious to publick peace & tranquility & restrain [Page 57] those religious mistakes that tend to its subversion, they are no better than Statues and Images of Authority. Pag. 13. A Prince is indued with a Power to conduct Religion, and that must be subject to his Dominion as well as all other Affairs of State. P. 20. If Princes should forgo their Soveraignty over mens Censciences in mat­ter of Religion, they leave themselves less power than is absolutely necessary, And in brief: The suprea [...] Government of every Commonwealth, where-ever it is lodged, must of necessity be universal, absolute, and uncontroulable in all affairs whatsoever that concern the Interests of Mankind and the ends of Government. P, 32. He in whom the Supream Power resides, having Authority to assign to every Subject his proper function, and among others these of the Priesthood; the exercise thereof as he has po­wer to transfer upon others, so he may if he please re­serve it to himself. P. 33. Our Saviour came not to uns [...]ttle the Foundations of Government, but left the Government of the World in the same condition he found it, P. 34. The Government of Religion was vested in Princes by an antecedent right to christ. — This being the Magisterial and main Point that he main­tains, the rest of his Assertions may be reckon­ed as Corollaries to this Thesis, and without which indeed such an unlimeted Maxime can never be justified. Therefore, to make a Conscience fit for the no [...]se, he says, P. 89. Men may think of things according to their own perswasions, and assert the freedom of their judgments against all the Powers of the Earth. This is the Prerogative of the Mind of Man within its own Dominions, its King­dom is intellectual, &c. Whilst Conscience acts with­in its proper sphere, the Civil Power is so far from doing it violence, that it never can. P. 92. Mankind have the same natural right to Liberty of Conscience in matters of Religious Worship as in Affairs of Justice & [Page 58] Honesty; that is to say, a Liberty of Judgment, but not of Practice. And in the same pagehe deter­mins Christian Liberty to be founded upon the Rea­sonableness of this Principle. P 308. In cases and disputes of Publick concernment, Private men are not properly sui Juris, They have no power Over their own actions: they are not to be directed by their own judgments, or determined by their own wills, but by the commands and determinations of the publick Consci­ence; and if there be any sin in the Command, he that imposed it shall answer for it, and not I whose whole duty it is to obey. The Commands of Authority will warrant my Obedience, my Oobedience will hollow, or at least excuse my action, and so secure me [...]rom sin, if not from error; and in all doubtful and dis­put able cases, 'tis better to err with Authority than to be in the right against it: not only because the dan­ger of a little error (and so it is if it be dispu­table) is outweighed by the importance of the great duty of Obedience, &c.

Another of his Corollaries is, That God hath ap­pointed (p. 80.) the Magistrates to be his Trustees [...]pon Earth, and his Officials to act and determin in Moral Vertues and Pious Devotions according to all accidents and emergencies of affairs: to assign new par­ticulars of the Divine Law; to declare new bounds of right and: wrong, which the Law of God neither do [...]h nor can limit. P. 69. Moral Virtue being the most material and useful part of all Religion, is also the ut [...]ost end of all its other duties. P. 76. All Religion must of necessity [...]e resolved into Entbusiasm or Mora­lity. The former is meer Imposture; and therefore all that is true must be reduced to the latter. Having thus enabled the Prince, dispenced with Conscience, & sitted up a Moral Rel [...]gion for that Conscience; to shew how much those. Moral Virtues are to be va­lued, P. 53. of the Preface to his Ecclesi [...]stical Po­licy he affi [...]ms that tis absolutely nec [...]ssary to the [Page 59] peace and happiness of Kingdoms, that there be set up a more severe Government over Mens Consciences and Religious Perswasions, than over their Vices and Immortallities. And Pag. 55. of the same, that Princes may with less hazard give liberty to mens Vi­ces and Debaucheries than their Consciences. But for what belongs particularly to the use of their Power in Religion; he first (p. 56. of his Book) saith, that the Protestant Reformation hath not been able to resettle Princes in their full and natural rights in re­ference to its concerns: p. 58. most Protestant Princes have been frighted, not to say hector'd out of the ex­ercise of their Ecclesiastical jurisdiction. p. 271. if Princes will he resolute (and if they will govern [...]o they must be) they may easily make the most stuborn Conscience bend to their resolutions. p. 221. Princes must be sure to bind on at first their Ecclesiastical Laws with the straightest knot, and afterwards keep them in force by the soverity of their execution, 223. speaking of honest and well meaning men: So easy is it for men to deserve to be punishment for their Consciences, that there is no Nation in the World, in which were Government rightly understood and duly managed, mistakes and abuses of Religion would not supply the Galles with vastly greater numbers than Vil­lany. P. 54. of the Preface to Ecclesiast. Policy. Of all Villains the well-meaning Zealot is the most dangerous. p. 49. The Fanatick-Party in Country Towns and Villages ariseth not (to speak within com­pass) above the proportion of one to twenty. Whilst the Publick Peace and settlement is so unluckily defe [...] ­ted by quarrels and mutinies of Religion, to erect and create new Trading Combinations, is only to build so many Nests of Faction and Sedit [...], &c. For it is No­torious that there is not any sort of People so inclina­ble to Seditious practices as the Trading part of a Na­tion. And now through many as material Passages [Page 60] might be heaped up out of his Book on all those and other as tender Subjects, I shall conclude this imperfect enumeration with one Corallary more, to which indeed his grand Thesis and all the superstructures are subordinate and accommo­dated. P. 166. Princes cannot pluck a pin out of the Church, but the State immediately shakes and totters. This is the Syntagm of Mr. Bayes his Di­vinity, and System of his Policy: The Principles of which confine upon the Territories of Malmsbury, and the stile, as far as his Wit would give him leave, imitates that Language: But the Arrogance and Dictature with which he imposes it on the World, surpasses by far the presumption either of Gondibert or Leviathan. For he had indeed a very Politick fetch or two that might have made a much wiser man then he, more confident. For he imagined first of all, that he had perfectly secured himself from any mans answering him: not so much upon the true reason, that is, be­cause indeed so paltry a Book did not deserve an Answer; as because he had so confounded the Question with differing terms and contradicto­ry expressions, that he might upon occasion affirm whatsoever he denyed, or deny whatso­ever he affirmed. And then besides, because he had so intangled the matter of Conscience with the Magistrates Power, that he supposed no man could handle it thorowly without bringing himself within the Statute of treasonable words, and at least a Premunire. But last of all, because he thought that whosoever answered him must for certain be of a contrary Judgment, and he that was of a contrary Judgment should be a Fanatick; and if one of them presumed to be medling, then Mr. Bayes (as all Divines have a Non- [...]bstance to the [...] Ceciltanum, and [...]o the Act of Oblivion and Indempnity) would either burn that, or tear [Page 61] it in peices. Being so well fortified on this side upon the other he took himself to be impregnable. His Majesty must needs take it kindly that he gave him so great an accession of Territory, and, lest he should not be thought rightly to under­stand Government, nay lest Mr. Bayes by virtue of p. 171. should not think him fit to govern, he could not in prudence and safety but submit to his Admonition and instructions. But if he would not, Mr. Bayes knew ay that he did, how to be even with him and would write another Book that should do his business. For, the same Power that had given the Prince that Authority could also re­voke it.

But let us see theresore what success the whole Contrivance met with, or what it deserved. For, after things have been aid with all the depth of humhne Policy there happens lightly some ugly little contrary accident from some quarter or o­ther of Heaven, that frustrates and renders all ri­diculous.

And here, for brevity and distinction sake, I must make use of the same priviledge by which I call him Mr. Bayes, to denominate also his several A­phorisms or Hypotheses: and let him take car [...] whether or no they be significant.

1. The Unlimited Magistrate. 2. The Publick Con­science. 3. Moral Grace. 4. Debauchery Tolerated. 5. Persecution recommended. And lastly, Pushpin Di­vinity.

And now, though I intend not to be longer than the nature of Avimadversions requires, (this also be­ing but collateral to my work of exam ning the Pre­face, and having been so abundantly performed already) yet neither can I proceed well with­out some Preface. For as I am oblged to ask pardon if I speak of serious things ridi­culously; so I must now heg excuse if I [Page 62] should hap to discourse of ridiculous things seri­ously. But I shall, so far as possible, observe decorum, and, w [...]atever I talk of, not com­mit such an Absurdity, as to be grave with a Bus­foon. But the principal cause of my Apology is, because I see I am drawn in to mention Kings and Princes, and even our own; whom, as I think with all duty and reverence, so I avoid [...]peaking of either in jest or earnest, lest by rea­son of my private condition and breeding, I should, though most unwillingly, trip in a word, or fail in the mannerliness os an expression. But Mr. Bayes, because Princes sometimes hear men of his quality play their part, or preach a Sermon, grows so insolent that he thinks himsels fit to be their Governour. So dangerous it is to let such creatures be too familiar. They know not their distance, and like the Ass in the Fable, because they see the Spa­niel play with their Masters Leggs, they think them­selves priviledged to paw and ramp upon his Shoul­ders. Yet though I must follow his track now I am in, I hope I shall not write after his Copy.

As sor his first Hypothesis of the Unlimited Magistrate, I must for this once do him right, that after I had read in his 12th. page, that Prin­ces have power to bind their Subjects to that Religion they apprehend most advantageous to publick Peace and Tra [...]quility; a long time after, not as I remem­ber till pag. 82. when he bethought himself bet­ter, he saith, No Rites nor Ceremonies can be esteem­ed unlawful in the Worship of God, unless they tend to deba [...]ch men either in their practices or their con­ceptions of the Deity. But no man is in Ingenuity obliged to do him that service for the suture; nei­ther yet doth that limitation bind up or interpret what he before so loosly affirmed- However take all along the Power of the Magistrate [Page 63] as he hath stated it; I am confident if Bishop Bramhall were alive (who could no more for­bear Grotius, than Mr. Bayes could the Bishop, notwithstanding their sriendship) he would be­stow the same Censure upon him that he doth up­on [...], p. 18. When I read his Book of the Right of th [...] [...] Ma [...]estrate in Sacred things, he seem'd to me to come too near an Erastian, and to lessen the power of the Keys too much, which Christ left as a legacy to his Church. It may be he did write that before he was come to full maturity of judgement: and some other things, I do not say af­ter he was superannuated. but without that due de­liberation which he useth at other times; (wherein a man may desire Mr. Bayes in Mr. Ba yes) Or it it may be some things may be changed in his Book, as I have been told by one os his nearest friends, and that we shall shortly see a more Authentick Edition of all his Works, This is certain, that some of those things which I dislike, were not his own judgment after he was come to maturity in Theological matter. And had Mr. Bayes (as he ought to have done) carryed his Book to any os the present Bishops or their Chaplains, for a Licence to print it, I can­not conceive that he could have obtained it in bet­ter terms than what I have collected out of the 108. page of his Answerer: Notwithstanding the old Pleas of the Jus Divinum of Episcopacy, of Ex­ample and Direction Apostolical of a Parity of Reason between the condition of the Church whilst under Ex­traordinary Officers, and whilst under Ordinary, of the power of the Church to appoint Ceremonies for De­cency and Order, of the patern of the Churches of old; (all which under Protestation are reserved till the first oportunity.) I have upon reading of this Book, found that it may be of use [...] the present [...] of Affairs, and therefore let it be print­ed. [Page 64] And as I think, he hath disobliged the Cler­gy of England in this matter; so I believe the fa­vour that he doth his Majesty is not eqvivalent to that damage. For that I may, with Mr. Bayes his leave, prophane Ben John son, though the gra­vest Divines should be his Flat [...]erers; he hath a very quick sense, (shall I prophane Horace too in the same period?)

Hunc male si palpere [...] undi (que) tutus.

If one stroke him ilfavouredly, he hath a terri­ble way of kicking, and will fling you to the Sta­ble-door; but is himself safe on every side. He knows it's all but that you may get into the Sad­dle again; and that the Priest may ride him, though it be to a Precipiece. He therefore contents himself with the Power that he hath inherited from his Royal Progenitors Kings and Queens of England, and as it is declared by Parliament, and is not to be trepann'd into another kind of Tenure of Do­minion to be held at Mr. Bayes his pleasure, and depend upon the strength only of his Argument. But (that I may not offend in Latin too fre­quently? he considers that by not assumining a Deity to himself, he becomes secure and worthy of his Government. There are lightly about the Courts of Princes a sort of Projectors for Con­cealed Lands, to which they entitle the King to begg them for themselves: and yet generally they get not much by it, but are exceeding vexatious to the Subject. And even such an one is this Bayes with his Project of a Concealed Power, that most Princes as ee saith have not yet rightly understood; but whereof the King is so little enamour'd, that I am confident, were it not for prolling and mo­molesting the People, his Maj [...]sty would give Mr. Bayes the Patent sor it, and let him make his best on't, after he hath paid the Fees to my Lord Keeper

[Page 65]But one thing I must confess is very pleasant, and he hath past an high Complement upon his Maje­sty in it: that he may, if he please, reserve the Priest-hood and the Exercise of it to himself. Now this iudeed is surpr [...]sing; but this only troubles me, how his Majesty would look in all the Sacer­dotal habiliments, and the Pontifical Wardrobe. I am asraid the King would find himself incom­moded with all that furniture upon his back, and would scarce reconcile himself to wear even the Lawn-sleeves and the Surplice. But what: even Charles the fifth, as I have rerd, was at his Inau­guration by the Pope, content to be vested, ac­cording to the Roman Ceremonial, in the habit of a Deacon: and a man would not scruple too much the formality of the dress in order to Empire.

But one thing I dou [...]t Mr, Bayes did not well consider; that, if the King may discharge the Function of the Prest-hood, he may too (and 'tis all the reason in the world assume the Revenue. It would be the best Subsidy that ever was volunta­rily given by the Clergy. But truly otherwise, I do not see but that the King does lead a more unbla­mable Conuersation, and takes more care of Souls than many of them, and understands their office much better, and deserves something already sor the pains he hath taken.

The next is Publick Conscience. For as to mens private Consciences he hath made them very in­considerable, and reading what he saith of them with some attention, I only found this new and important Discovery and great Priviledge of Chri­stian Liberty, thar Thought is free. We are howe­xer obliged to him for that, seeing by consequence we think of him what we pleaser And thii he saith a man may assert against all the powers of the Earth: and indeed with much reason and to great purpose; [Page 66] seeing, as he also alledges, the Civil Power is so far srom doing violence to that liberty, that it never can, But yet if the freedom of thoughts be in not lying open to discovery, there have been wayes of compelling men to discover them; or, if the freedom consist in retaining their judgments when so manifested, that also hath been made penal. And I doubt not but beside Oaths and Renunciations, and Assents and Consents, Mr. Bayes if he were searched, hath twenty other tests and picklocks in his pocket. Would Mr. Bayes then perswade men to assert this against all the Powers of the Earth? I would ask in what manner? To say the truth I do not like him, and would wish the Nonconformists to be upon their guard, lest he trapan them first by this means into a Plot, and then preach, and so hang them: If Mr. Bayes meant otherwise in this matter, I con­fess my stupidity, and the fault is most his own, who should have writ to the capacity of vulgar Read [...]rs. He cuts indeed and saulters in this dis­course, which is no good sign, perswading men that they may, and ought to practise against their Consciences, where the Commands of the Ma­gistrate intervenes. None of them denies that it is their duty, where their Judgments or Con­sciences cannot comply with what is injoyned, that they ought in obedience patiently to suffer; but further they have not learned. I dare say that the Casual Divinity of the Jesuites is all thorow as Orthodox as this Maxime of our Authors: and as the Opinion is brutish, so the Consequences are Develish. To make it therefore go down more glibly, he saith, that 'tis better to err with Authority, than to he in the right against it in all doubt­ful disputable cases: because the great duty of Obedi­ence outweighs the danger of a little error, (and [Page 67] tittle it is if it be disputable.) I cannot under­stand the truth of this reasoning; that whatsoe­ver is disputable is little; for even the most important matters are subject to controversie: And besides, things are little or great accor­ding to the Eyes or Understandings of several men; and however, a man would suffer some­thing rather than commit that little error a­gainst his Conscience, which must render him an Hypocrite to God, and a Knave amogst Men. The Commands (he saith) and Determina­tions of the publick Conscience ought to carry it; and if there be any fin in the Command, be that imposed it shall answer for it, and not I whose duty it is to obey; (And mark) the com­mands of Authority will warrant my Obedience, my Obedience will hallow, or at least excuse my action, and so secure me from sin if not frfm er­ror; and so you are welcome Gentlemen. Truly a very fair and conscionable Reckoning! So far is this from hallowing the Action, that I dare say it will, if followed home, lead only to all that sanctified Villany, for the in­vention of which we are beholden to the Au­thor. But let him have the honour of it; for he is the first Divine that ever taught Christi­ans how another man's sin cou [...]d confer an Imputative Righteousness upon all Mankind that shall follow and comply with it Though the Sub­ject made me ferious, yet I could not read the expression without laughter: My Obedience will hallow, or at least excuse my Action. So inconsiderable a difference he seems to make betwixt those terms, That if ever our Author come for his merits to be a Bishop, a man might almost adventure instead of Consecrated o say that he was Excused.

[Page 68]The third is Moral Grace. And whoever is not satisfied with those passages of his concerning it, before quoted, may find enough where he discour­seth it at large, even to surfeit. I cannot make ei­ther less or more of it than that. he overturns the whole fabrick of Christianity, and Power of Religion. For my part, if Grace be resolv'd into Mortality, I think a man may almost as well make God too to be only a Notional and Moral Existence.

And white-apron'd Amaryllis was of that opi­nion:

Ma tu Sanctissima Honest à che sola sei D' alma ben nata inviolabil Nume.
But thou most holy Honesty, that only art the invio­lable Deity of the well-born Soul.

And so too was the Mortal Poet: (for why may not I too bring out my Latin shreds as well as he is,

Quaesitum ad fontem solos deducere vorpos)
Nullum Numen abest fi sit Prudentis —

There is no need of a Deity where there is Pru­dence; or, if you will, wheae there is Ecclesi­astical Policy.

But so far I must do Mr. Bayes right, that to my best observation, if Prudence had been God, Bayes had been a most damnable Atheist. Or, perhaps only an Idolater of their number, con­cerning whom he adds in the next line

— sed te
[Page 69]Nos facimus Fortuna Deam Caeloque loca­mus.
But we make thee Fortune a Goddess, and place thee in Heaven.

However I cannot but be sorry that he hath un­dertaken this desperate vocation, when, there are twenty other honest and painful wayes where­in he might have got a Living, and made Fortune propitious. But he cares not upon what Argu­ment or how dangerous he runs to shew his ambi­tious Activity: whereas those that will dance up­on Ropes, do lightly some time or other break their neks. And I have heard that even the Turk, every day he was to mount the Hig [...]-Rope, took leave of h [...]s Comfortable Importance as if he should never see her more. But this is a matter forreign to my Judicature, and therefore I leave him to be trayed by any Jury of Divines: and, that he may have all right done him, let half of them be School-Divines and the other moity Systema­tical, and let him except against as many as the Law allows, and so, God send him a good delive­rance. But I am afraid he will never come off.

The fourth is Debauchery tolerated. For sup­posing as he does, that 'tis better and safer to give a Toleration to mens Debaucheries than to their Religious Per [...]wasions, it amounts to the same reckoning. This is a very ill way of dis­coursing; and that a greater seve [...]ity ought to be ex­ercised over mens Consciences than over their Vices and Immoralities. For it argues too much indiscretion by avoiding one evil to run up into the contrary extream. And Debauch'd Persons will be readyhence [Page 70] conclude, although it be a perverse way of rea­soning, That where the Severity ought to be less. [...] Crime is less also: [...]ay, even-that the more the [...] are deba [...]ch'd, it is [...] that the Punishment should stil [...] [...] in [...]; but however, tha [...] it were [...] and unad­visable to [...] a [...]d [...] on the R [...]ligious hand, lest they should [...] greater penal­ties. Mr. Bayes would have done much better had he sing led out the Theme of Religion, He might have loaded it with all the truth whieh that sub­ject would bear; I would allow him that Rebellion is as the sin of witch-craft, though that text of Scrip­ture will scarce admit his interpretation. He could not have declaimed more sharply than I, or any ho­nest men else, would upon occasion against all those who under pretence of Conscience raise War, or create publick Disturbances. But Comparisons of Vice are dangerous, and though he should do this without design, yet, while he aggravates upon Religion, and puts it in ballance, he doth so far al­leviate and encourage Debauchery. And moreover (which to be sure is against his design) he doth hereby more confirm the austerer sort of Sinners, and furnishes them with a more [...]pecious Colour and stronger Argument. It had been better Policy to instruct the Magistrate that there is no readier way to shame these out of their Religious Niceties than by improving Mens Morals. But, as he han­dles it never was there any point more unseaso­nably exposed; at such a time, when there is so general a depravation of Manners, that even those who contribute towards it do yet complain of it; and though they cannot reform their practice, yet feel the effects, and tremble under the apprehen­sion of the Consequences. It were easie here to shew a man's r [...]ading, and to discourse out of Hi­story [Page 71] che causes of the decay and ruine of Mr. Bayes his Roman Empire, when as the Moralist has it,

saevior armis

Luxuria incubuit, Victumque [...] Orbem.

And descending to those Times since Christianity was in the Throne, 'tis demonstrable that sor one War upon a Fanatical or Religious account, there have been an 100. occasioned by the thirst of Glo­ry & Empirethat hath inflamed some great Prince to invade his Neighbours. And more have sprung from the Contentiousness and Ambition of some of the Clergy; But the most of all from the Cor­ruption of Manners, and alwayes fatal Debauche­ry. It exhausts the Estates of private persons, and makes them fit for nothing but the High-way or an Army. It debases the spirits and weakens the vi­gor of any Nation; at once indisposing them for war, and rendring them uncapable of Peace. For, if they escape intestine troubles, which would certainly follow when they had left themselves by their prodigality or intemperance, no other means of subsistence but by preying upon one another; then must they either to get a maintenance, pick a quarrel with some other Nation, wherein they are sure to be worsted; or else (which more fre­quently happens) some neighbouring Prince that understands Government takes them at the advan­tage, and, if they do not like ripe Fruit fall into his lap, 'tis but shaking the Tree once or twice, and he is sure of them. Where the Horses are, like those of the Sybarites, taught to dance, the Enemy need only learn the Tune and bring the Fiddles. But therefore (as far as I understand) his Majesty to obviate and prevent these inconve­niencies in his Kingdoms, hath on the one hand never refused a just War; that so he might take [Page 72] down our Grease and Luxury, and keep the English Courage in breath and exercise: and on the other, (though himself most constantly addicted to the Church of England) hath thought fit to grant some liberty to all other Sober People, (and lon­ger than the are soy God forbid they should have it) thereby to give more temper ond allay to the commhn end notorious Debauchery.

But Mr. Bayes nevertheless is for his fifth: Per­secution recommended: and he does it to the pur­pose. Julian himself, who I think was first a Rea­der, and held forth in the Christian Churches be­fore he turnd Apostate and then Persecutor, could not have outdone him either in Irony or Cruelty. Only it is God's mercy that Mr. Bayes is not Emperor. You have seen how he inveighs against Trade: That whilst mens Consciences are act­ed by such peevish and ungovernable Principles, to erect Trading Combinations is but to build so many Nests of Faction and Sedition. Lay up your Ships, my Ma­ers, set Bills on your Shop-doors, shut up the Cu­stom-House; and why not ajourn the Term, mure up Westminster-hall, leave Plowing and Sowing, and keep a dismal Holy-day through the Nation; for Mr. Bayes is out of humour. But I assure you it is no jesting matter. For he hath in one place ta­ken a List of the Fanatick Ministers, whom he re­cons to be but a hundr [...]d Systematical Divines: though I believe the Bartlemew-Register or the March-Licenses would make them about an hun­dred and three or an hundred and four, or so: But this is but for rounder number and breaks no square. And then for their People, either they live in greater Societies of men (he means the City of London and the other Cities and Towns-Corporate, but expresses it so to prevent some in­convenience that might betide him [Page 71] but there their noise is greater than their number. Or else in Country Towns and Villages, where they arise not above the proportion of one to twenty. It were not unwisely done indeed if he could perswade the the Magistrate that all the Fanaticks have but one neck, so that he might cut off Nonconformity at one blow. I suppose the Nonconformists value them­selves, though upon their Conscience, and not their Numbers: but they would do well to be watchful, lest he have taken a List of their Names as well as their Number, and have set Crosses upon all their Doors against there should be occasion. But till that happy juncture, when Mr. Bays shall be avenged of his new Enemies, the wealthy Fanaticks, (which is soon done too, for he saith, there are but few of them men of Estates or Interest) he is-con­tented that they should only be exposed (they are his own expressions) to the Pillories, Whipping-posts, Galleys, Rods and Axes,; and moreover and above, to all other Punishments whatsoever, provided they be of a severer nature than those that are inflicted on men for their immoralities. O more than human Clemency! I suppose the Division betwixt Immo­ralities and Conscience is universal; and whatso­ever is wicked or penal is comprehended within their Territories. So that although a man should be guilty of all th [...]se heinous enormities which are not to be named among Christians, beside all lesser Peccadillo's expresly against the ten Com­mandments, or such other part of the Divine Law as shall be of the Magistrates making, he shall be in a better condition, and more gently handled, tha [...] a well-meaning Zelot; For this is the man that Mr. Bayes saith is of all villains the most dangerous: (even more dangerous it se [...]ms than a malicious and [...] ­meaning Zelot) this is he whom in all Kingdoms where Government is rightly understood, he would have [...] ­demned [Page 72] to the Galleys for his mistastakes and abuses of Religion. Although the other punishments are more severe, yet this being more new and unacquainted, I cannot pass it by without some reflection. For I considered what Princes make use of Galleys. The first that occurred to me was the Turk, who accord­ing to Bayes his maxim, hath established Mahome­tism among his Subjects, as the Religion that he apprehends most advantagious to publick peace and set­tlement. Now in his Empire the Christians only are guilty of those Religious mistak [...]s that tend to the sub­version of Mahometism: So that he understands Go­vernment rightly in chaining the Christians to the Car. But then in Christendom, all that I could think of were the King of France, the King of Spain, the Knights of [...], the [...], and the rest of the Ita­lian [...]. And these all have bound their Subjects to the Romish Religion as most advantagious. But these people, their Gallies with Immoral Fellows and De­bauchees: whereas the Protestants, being their Fa­naticks and mistakers in Religion, should have been their Ciurma. But 'tis to be hoped these Prin­ces will take advice and understand it better for the future. And then at last I remembred that his Ma­jesty too [...] one Gally lately built, but I dare say it is not with that intention: and our Panaticks, though few, are so many, that one will not serve. But therefore if Mr. Bayes and his Partners would be at the charge to build the King a whole Squa­dron for this use, I know not but it might [...] very well (for we delight in Novelties) and [...] would be a singular obligation to Sir John [...] Dutel, who might have some pretence to be [...] neral of his Majesties [...]. But so much [...] that. Yet in the mean time I cannot but [...] Mr. Bayes his courage; who knowing how [...] a Villain a well-meaning Zelot is, and [...] [Page 73] ing calculated to a man how many of them there [...] in the whole Nation, yet dares thus openly stimu­late the Magistrate against them, and talk of nothing less, but much more than Pillories, whipping-posts, Galleys and Axes in this manner. It is sure some sign (and if he knew not so much he would scarce adventure) of the peaceableness of their Principles, and of that restraint under which their tender Con­sciences hold them, when nevertheless he may walk night and and day in safety; though it were so easie a thing to deifie the Divine after the antient manner, and no man be the [...]. But that which I confess would vex me most, were I either an ill or a well-meaning Zealot, would be, after all to hear him (as he fre­quertly does) sneering at me in an ironical harangùe, to persuade me, forsooth, to take all patiertly for Conscience-sake, and the [...] example of Man­kind: Nay, to wheedle one almost to make himself away to save the Hangman a labour. It was indeed rear that [...] in the Primitive times, and the tyred Magistrates ask'd them, whether they had not Ha'­ters and Rivers and Precipices, if they were so greedy of Suffering? But, by the good leave of your [...] ­lence, we are not come to that yet. Non tibi sed Pe­tro: or rather, sed Regi. The Nonconformists have suffered as well as any men in the World, and could do so still if it were his Majesty's pleasure. [...] Duty to God hath hallowed, and their Duty to the Ma­gistrate hath excused both their Pain and Ignominy. To dye by a noble hand is some satisfaction: But when His Majesty, for Reasons best known to Himself, hath been graciously pleased to [...] of your Rigors, I hope Mr. Bayes that we shall [...] see when you have a mind to [...] with your Comfortable Importance that the Entrem ses shall be of a Fanaticks Giblets: nor that a Nonconformists head must be whip'd off s [...] as your nose drivles. 'Tis sufficient, Sir, we know [Page 74] your Inclination, we know your Abilities, and we know your Lodging: And when there is any further occasion you will doubtless be sent for. For, to say the truth, this Bayes is an excellent Tool, and more useful than ten other men. I will undertake that he shall, rather than fail, be the Trepanner, the Infor­mer, the Witness, the Atturney, the Judge; and, if the Nonconformist need the benefit of his Book, he shall be Ordinary too, and say he is an ignorant fel­losh, non legit: and then, to do him the last Chri­stian office, he would be his Hangman. In the mean time, let him enjoy it in speculation, secure of all the Imployments when they shall fall. For I know no Gentleman that will take any of them out of his hands, although it be an age wherein men cannot well support their quality, without some accession from the publick: and for the ordinary sort of Peo­ple, they are, I know not by what disaster, besotted and abandon'd to Fanaticism. So that Mr. Bayes must either do it himself in person, or constitute the chief Magistrate to be his Deputy. But Princes do indeed understand themselves better most of'em, and do neither think it so safe to intrust a Clergy-man with their Authority, nor decent for themselves to do the drudgery of the Clergy, That would have past in the days [...] Saint Dominick: but when even the Inquisition hath lost its edge in the Popish Coun­tries, there is little appearance it should be set up in England: It were a worthy Spectacle, were it not? to see his Majesty like the Governor in Synesius, bu­sied in his Cabinet among those Engines whose ve­ry names are so hard that it is some torture to name them; the Podostrabae, the Dactylethrae, the [...], the Rhinolabides, the Cheilostrophia, devising as [...] say there are particular Diseases, so a peculiar Ra [...] for every Limb and Member of a Christians Body. Or, would he (with all [...] be it spoken) [...] [Page 75] his Kingdom of England for that of Macassar? where the great Alcanum of Government is the culti­vating of a Garden of Poyionous Plants, and preparing thence a [...], in which the Prince [...] a Dart that where it does but draw blood, rots the person im­mediately to pieces; and his Office is with that to be the Executioner of his Subjects. God be prais'd his Majesty is far of another temper: and he is wise, though some men be malicious.

But Mr. Bayes his sixth, is that which I call his Push­ [...] Divinity. For he would perswade Princes that there cannot a Pin be pull'd out of the Church, but the State immediatly totters. That is strange. And yet I have seen many a Pin pulled out upon occasion, and yet not so much as the Church it self hach wagg'd. It is true indeed, and we have had sad experiments of it, that some Clergy-men have been so [...] that they have rather exposed the State [...] ruine, than they would part with a Pin, I will not say out of their Church, but out of their Sleeve. There is nothing, more natural then for the Ivy to be of opinion that the Oak cannot stand without its support: or, seeing we are got into Ivy, that the Church cannot hold up longer than It underprops the Walls: whereas it is a sneaking insinuating Imp, scarce better than Bind­weed, that sucks the Tree dry, and moulders the build­ing where it catches. But what, pray Mr. Bayes, is this Pin in Pallas's Buckler? Why 'tis fome Cere­mony or other, that is indifferent in its own nature, that hath no antecedent necessity but onely as commanded, that signifies [...] in it self, but what the [...] pleases, that even by the Church which commands it, is declared to have nothing of Religion in it, and that is in it self of [...] great moment or consequence, only it is absolutely neces­sary that Governours should enjoyn it to avoid the evils that would follow if it were not determined. Very well, Mr. Bayes. This I see will keep cold: anon perhaps I [Page 76] may have a stomach. But I must take care lest I swallow your Pin.

Here we have had the Titles, and some short Re­hearsal of Mr. Bayes his six P [...]ays. Not but that, should we disvalise him, he hath to my knowledge a hundred more as good in his budget: but really I consult mine own repose. But now among friends, was there ever any thing so monstrous? You see what a man may come to with Divinity and High-feeding. There is a scurvy disease, which though some derive from Ame­rica, others tell a story that the Genoues [...]s in their Wars with Venice took some of their Noblemen, whom they cut to pieces and barrel'd up like Tunny, and so maliciously vented it to the Venetians, who eating it ignorantly, broke out in those nasty botches and ugly symptoms, that are not curable but by Mercury What I relate it for is out of no further intention, nor is there any more similitude than that the mind too hath its Nodes sometimes, and the Stile its Baboes, and that I doubt before Mr. Bayes can be rid of'm, he must pass through the Grand Cure and a dry Diet.

And now it is high time that I resume the thread of my for [...]er History concerning Mr. Bayes his Books in relation to his Majesty. I do not find that the Eccle­siastical Policy found more acceptance than could be [...]ected f [...]om so judicious a Prince: nor do I perceive that he was ever considered of at a Promotion of Bi­shops, nor that he hath the reversion of the Arch-Bi­shoprick of Canterbury. But if he have not by mar­ri [...]ge barr'd his way; and it should ever fall to his lot, I am resolved instead of his Grace to call him always his Morality. But as he got no Preferment that I know of at Court (though his Patron doubtless having many things in his gift, did abundantly recompence him) so he mist no less of his aim as to the Reformation of Ecclesiastical-Government upon his principles. But still, what he complains of pag. 20. the Ecclesiastical [Page 77] Laws Were either weak [...]ned through want of Execution, or in a manner cancell'd by the opposition of Civil Consti­tutions. For, beside what in England, where all things went on at the same rate, in the neighbouring King­dom of Scotland there were I know not how many Mas Johns restored in one day to the work of their Ministry, and a door opened whereby all the rest might come in for the future, and all this by his Majesty's Commission. Nay, I think there was (a thing of ve­ry ill example) an Arch-Bishop turn'd out of his Sea for some Misdemeanor or other. I have not been curious after his name nor his crime, because as much as possible I would not expose the nakedness of any person so eminent formerly in the Church. But hence­forward the King fell into disgrace with Mr. Bayes, and any one that had eyes might discern that our Author did not afford his Majesty that Countenance and Fa­vour which he hath formerly enjoy'd. So that a Book too of J. O's happening mischievously to come out at the same season, Upon pretence of answering that, he resolved to make his Majesty feel the effects of his dis­pleasure. So that he set Pen to Paper again, and hav­ing kept his Midwife of the Friendly Debate by him all the time of his pregnancy for fear of miscarrying, he was at last happily delivered of his second Child, the Defence of the Ecclesiastical Policy, in the year 1671. It was a very lusty Baby, and twice as big as the former, and (which some observed as an ill sign, and that if it lived it would prove a great Tyrant) it had, when born, all the Teeth, as perfect as ever you saw in any mans Head. But I do not reckon much upon those ominous criticismes. For there was partly a natural cause in it, Mr. Bayes having gone so many months, more than the Civil Laws allowes for the utmost term of legitimation, that it was no wonder if the Brat were at its birth more forward than others usually are. And indeed Mr. Bayes was so provident against abortion, and [Page 78] careful for some reasons that the Child sho [...]ld cry, that the onely question in Town (though without much cause, for truly 'twas very like him) was, whether it was not spurious or suppositious. But Allegories and Raillery and hard words appear in this his second Book, and what I quoted before out of Bishop Bram­hal, p. 18. with allusion to our Author, is here faln out as exactly true as if it had been expresly calculated for Bayes his Meridian. He finds himself to have come too near, nay to have far outgone an Erastian, That he had writ his Ecclesiastical Policy before he was come to maturity of Judgement, that one might desire Mr. Bays in Mr. Bays, that something had been changed in his Book. That a more authentick Edition was ne­cessary, that some things which he had said before, were not his Judgment after he was come to maturity in Theological matters.

I will not herein too much insist upon his Reply where his Answerer asks him pertinently enough to his grand Thesis, what was then become of their old [...]lea of Jus Divinum? Why, saith he, must you pre­scribe me what I shall write? Perhaps my next Book shall be of that Subject. For, perhaps he said so only for evasion, being old excellent at parrying and fen­cing. Though I have good reason to believe that we may shortly see some Piece of his upon that Theme, and in defence of an Aphorism of a great Prelate in the [...] King's time, That the Ki [...]g had no more to do in Ecclesiastical Matters, than Jack that rubb'd his Horses h [...]els. For Mr. Bayes is so enterprising you know, Lo [...]k too't, ile doo't. He has face enough to say or unsay any thing, and 'tis his priviledge, what the School-Divines deny to be even within the power of the Almighty, to make Contradictions true. An evi­dence of which (though I reserve the further instances to another occasion that draws near) does plainly ap­pear in what I now principal [...]y urge, to show how [Page 79] dangerous a thing it is for his Majesty and all other Princes to lofe Mr. B [...]s his favour. For whereas he had all along in his first Book treated them like a company of Ignorants, and that did not understand Government, (but that is pardonable in Mr. Bayes) in this his second, now that they will not do as he would have them, when he had given them Power and Instru­ctions how to be wiser for the future, He casts them quite off like men that were desperate. He had, you know, p. 35. of his first Book and in other places, vested them with an universal and unlimited Power, and uncontroulable in the Government of Religion (that is, over mens Consciences) but now in his second, to make them an example to all incorrigible and un­grateful persons, he strips and disrobes them again of all those Regal Ornaments that he had superinduced upon them, and leaves them good Princes in qu [...]po [...] he found 'm, [...]o shift for themselves in the wide World as well as they can. Do but read his own words, p. 237. of his Defence, parag. 5. and sure you will be of my mind. ‘To vest the Supreme Magi­strate in an unlimited and uncontroulable Power, is clearly to defeat the Efficacy and Ob [...]igatory force of all his Laws, that cannot possibly have any binding virtue upon the minds of men, when they have no other inducement to obedience but only to avoid the penalty. But if the Supreme Power be abs [...]ute and unlimi [...], it doth for that very reason remove and evacuate: all other Obligations, for otherwise it is restrained and conditional; and if men lye under no other impulsion than of the Law it self, they lye un­der no other obligation than that of prudence and self-in [...]est, and it remains intirely in the choi [...]e of their own discretion whether they shall or shall not obey, and then there is neither Government nor Obligation to Obedience; and the Principle o mens Complyance with the mind of t [...]ir Superif [Page 80] ours, is not the declaration of their will and plea­sure, but purely the determination of their own judgments; and therefore 'tis necessary for the se­curity of Government, though for nothing else, to set bounds to its jurisdiction; Otherwise, like the Roman Empire, &c. I know it would be diffi­cult to quote twenty lines in Mr. Bayes, but we should encounter with the Roman Empire. But observe how laboriously here he hath asserted and proved that all he had said in his first Book was a mee [...] mistake before he were come to years of discretion. For as in Law a Man is not accounted so till he hath compleated 21, and 'tis but the la [...] minute of that [...]ime that makes him his own Man, (as to all things but Conscience I mean, for as to that many are never sui Juris) so though the distance of Bayes his Books was but betwixt 1670 and 1671, yet a year, nay an instant at any time of a man's life may make him wiser, and he hath, like all other fruits, his annual maturity. It was so long since as 1670. p. 33. that this Universal Unlimited and Uncontroulable Power was the natural right of Princes [...] to Christ, firmly established by the unalterabls Dictates of Natural Reason, Universal Practice, and consent of Nations, that the Scripture ra­ther [...] than asserts the Ecclesiastical (and so the Civil) Jurisdiction of Princes. 'Twas in 1670. p. 10. That it was absolutely necessary; and p. 12. that Princes [...] that power to bind th [...]ir Su [...]cts to that Relegion that they apprehend most advantagious to Public [...] Peace, &c. So that they derive their title from Eternal Necessity, which the Moralists say the Gods them­selves can not impeach. His Majesty may lay by his Dieu and make use only of his Mon Droit: He hath a Patent for his Kingdom under the Broad-Seal of Na­ture, and next under that, and immediately [...] Christ, is over all Persons and in all Causes aswel Ec­clesiastical as Civil (and over all mens Consciences) [Page 81] within his Majesty's Realms and Dominions Supream Head and Governour. 'Tis true, the Author some­times for fashion-sake speaks in that Book of Religion and of a Deity, but his Principles do necessarily, if not in terms, make the Princes Power Paramount to both those, and if he may by his uncontroulable and unli­mited universal Authority introduce what Religion, he may of consequence what Deity also he pleases. Or, if there were no Deity, yet there must be some Rel­gion, that being an Engine most advantagious for Pu­blick Peace and Tranquillity. This was in 1670. But by 1671. you see the case is altered. Even one night hath made some men gray. And now p. 238. of his second Book, he hath made Princes accountable, ay and to so severe an Auditor as God himself. The Thrones of Princes are established upon the Dominion of God And p 241. 'Tis no part of the Princes concern­ment to institute rules of Moral Good and Evil, that is the care and the Pre [...]ogative of a Superiour Law-giver. And p. 260. he owns that if the Subjects can plead a clear and undoubted preingagement to that higher Authori­ty, they have a liberty to remonstrate to the equity of their Laws. I do not like this Remonstrating nor these Remonstrants. I wish again that Mr. Bayes would tell us what [...]e means by [...]he term, and where it will end, whether he would have the Fanaticks remonstrate: but they are wary, and asham'd of what they have done in former times of that nature: or whether he himself hath a mind to remonstrate, because the Fa­naticks are tolerated. That is the thing, that is the business of this whole Book: and knowing that there is a clear and undoubted preingagement to the higher Authority of Nature and Necessity, if the King will persist in tolerating these people, who knows after re­monstrating, what Mr. Bayes will do next? But now in summe what shall we say of this man, and how had the King been served if he had followed Bayes's advice; [Page 82] and assumed the power of his first Book? He had run himself into a fine Premunire, when now after all he comes to be made accountable to God, nay even to his Subjects. And by this means it happens, though it were beyond Mr. Bayes his forcast, and I dare [...]ay he, would rather have given the Prince again a power antecedent to Christ, and to bring in what Religion he please; he hath obliged him to as tender a Con­science as any of his Christian subjects, and then good night to Ecclesiastical Policy. I have herein in­deavoured the utmost ingenuity toward Mr. Bayes, for he hath laid himself open but to too many disadvan­tages already, so that I need not, I would not press him beyond measure, but to my best understanding, and if I fail I even ask him pardon, I do him right. 'Tis true, that being distracted betwixt his desire that the Consciences of men should be persecuted, and his anger at Princes that will not be advised, he confounds himself every where in his reasonings, that you can hardly distinguish which is the Whoop and which is the Holla, and he makes Indentures on each fide of the way wheresoever he goes. But no man that is so [...]er will follow him, lest some Justice of Peace should make him pay his five shillings, beside the sc [...]ndal; and it is apparent to every one what he drives at. But were this otherwise, I can spare it, and 'tis s [...]fficient [...]o my purpose that I do thus historically deduce the reason of his setting forth his Books, and shew that it was plainly to remonstrate against the power of his Prince, and the [...] that he hath taken of govern­ing; to set his Majesty at variance not onely with his Subjects, but with himself, and to raise a Civil-Wa [...] in his Intellectual Kingdom, betwixt his controulable and his uncontroulable Jurisdiction. And because, having to do with a wise man, as Mr. Bayes is, one may of [...]en gather more of his mind out of a word that [...]rops casually, than out of his whole watchful and se­rious [Page 83] discourse, when he is talking of matters of Policy [...] that require caution; I cannot slight one passage of Mr. Bayes, page 656. Where raging bitterly against all the Presbyterians and other Sects, and as much a­gainst the allowing them any Tenderness, Liberty, To­leration or Indulgence, he concludes thus, Tenderness and Indulgence to such men, were to nourish Vipers in our own Bowels, and the most sottish neglect of our own quiet and security, and we should deserve to perish with the dishonour of Sardanapalus. Now this of Sardanapalus I remember some little thing ever [...]ince I read, I think it was my Justine; and I would not willingly be such a Fool as to make a dangerous [...] that h [...]s no foundation. For if Mr. Bayes in the Preface of his Defence, to excuse his long [...] be­fore it were brought forth, places it partly upon his re­creations: I know not why much more a Prince should not be willing to enjoy the [...] of this life, as well, as to do the common [...]. But I am thinking what Mr. [...] meant by it; for every simi­litude must have, though not all, yet some likeness: Now I am sure there were no Nonconformists and [...]byterians in Sardan [...]lus his days, I am [...]re also that Sardanapalus was no Clergy man, that he was no [...]ject; but he was one of the [...] Crea­ [...]ures, that instead of [...]cising his Ecclesiastical power delighted in spinning; till some body come in on the sudden, and ca [...]ching him at it, cut his th [...]d. Come 'tis better we left this Argument and the Company too, for you see the [...], you see the Sentence: and who [...]er [...] be, there is some Prince or other whom Mr. [...] will have to perish. That p. 641. i [...] indeed not so severe, but 'tis pretty well; where, on the same [...]ind of Subject, [...] the Prince against those people, he saith, That Prince that h [...]th f [...]lt the [...] these [...], if aft [...] that [...] shall be per­ [...] to regard their fair [...] at such [...] they [Page 84] [...] power, without other evident and unquestionable tokens of their conversion, deserves to be King of the Night. Now for this matter, I believe Mr. Bayes knows that his Majesty hath received such eviden [...] and unquestionable tokens of Loyalty from the Non-con­formists; otherwise his own Loyalty wo [...]ld have hin­dred him from daring to use that expression.

And now I should continue my History to his third Book in hand, the Preface to Bishop Bramhal. But having his second Book still before me, I could not but look a li [...]tle further into it, to see how he hath left matters standing betwixt himself and his Answerer. And first I lighted on that place where he strives to disintangle himself from what he had said about Trade in his former Book. Here therefore he defies the whole Fanatick world to discover one Syllable that tends to its discouragement. Let us put it upon that issue, and by this one example take the patern of his ingenuity in all his other contests. ‘Whoop, Mr. Bayes, pag. 49. with what conscience does the An­swerer tell the people that I have reprelented all Tradesmen as seditious, when 'tis so notorious [...] on [...]y suppose that some of them may be tainted with Seditious Principles? If I should affirm that when the Nobility or Clergy are possest with Principles that incline to Rebellion and disloyal practices, they are of all Rebels the most dangerous, should I be thought to impeach them of Treason and Rebellion?’ Holla, Mr. Bayes! But in the 49th. page of your first Book you say expresly, ‘For 'tis notorious that there is not any sort of people so inclinable to Seditious Practices as the Trading part of a Nation.’ Is this the same thing now? and how does this Defence take off the Object [...]on? And yet he tears and insults and declaims as if he had the Truth on his side. At last he strives to bring himself off and salve the matter in the same page 49. With, In brief it is not the rich Citizen, [Page 85] but the Wealthy Fanati [...]k that I have branded for an [...] Beast, and that not as Wealthy but as Fana­tick. Subtle Distinguisher! I see if we give him but Rope enough what he will come to. Mr. Bayes; ma­ny as proper a man as your self hath march'd up Hol­born for distinguishing betwixt the Wealth and the Fanatick: and moreover let me tell you, Fanatick Money hath no Ear-mark.

So concerning the Magistrates power in Religion, wherein his Answerer had remark'd some unsafe pas­sages: Whoop Mr. Bayes! P. 12: of his first Book before quoted: ‘Unless Princes have power to bind their Subjects to what Religion they appre­hend most advantagious, &c. they are no better than Statues of Authority.’ Holla Bayes. Pag. 467. of the second Book: ‘This bold Calumny I have already I hope compe [...]ently enough discovered and detested. Yet he repeats this fundamental For­gery in all places, so that his whole Book is but one huge Lye 400 pages long.’ Judge now who is the Forger; And yet he roars too here as if he would mix Heaven and Earth together. But you may spare your raving, you will never claw it off as long as your name is Bayes.

So his Answerer it seems having p. 85. said, that Bayes confines the whole Duty of Conscience to the inward thoughts and perswasions of the mind, over which the Magistrate hath no power at all: Whoop Bayes, page 89. of his first Book, ‘Let all matters of mere Conscience, whether purely moral or reli­gious, be subject to Conscience only, i. e. Let men think of things according to their own perswasions, and assert the Freedom of their Judgments against all the Powers of the Earth. This is the Preroga­tive of the mind of man within its own Dominions its Kingdom is intellectual, &c. P. 91. Liberty of Conscience is internal and invisible, and confined [Page 86] to the minds and judgments of men; and while Conscience acts within its proper sphere, the Civil power is so far from doing it Violence, that it never can. Holla Bayes p. 229 of his Second Book, This in down right English is a shameless Lye. Sir, you must pardon my rudeness, for I will assure you, after Long Meditation, I could not devise a more pertinent answer to so bold an one as this.’ I be­lieve you Mr. Bayes: You meditated long, some twelve moneths at least; and you could not devise any other answer, and in good earnest he hath not at­tempted to give any other answer. I confess 'tis no ex­traordinory Conceit, but tis the best Repartee, my bar­ren Fancy was able to suggest to me upon so rude an occa­sion. Well Mr. Bayes! I see it must come to a quarrel; for thus the Hectors use to do, and to give the Lye at adventure, when they have a mind to try a mans Courage. But I have often known them dye on the spot.

So his Answerer p. 134 having taxed him for his speaking against an expression in the Act of Parlia­ment of 5 to Eliz. concerning the Wednesday Fast. Whoop Bayes pag. [...]. of his first Book. The Act for the Wednesday Fast the Jujunium Cecilianum (our Eccle­siastical Poli [...]ician is the better States man of the two by far, and may make sport with Cecill when he pleases) was injoynd with this clause of Exception, That if any person should affirm it to be imposed with an intention to bind the Conscience, he should be punished as spreader of false News. So careful was the supreme Magistrate in those dayes not to impose upon the Conscience; and the Wisdom of it is confirmed by the experience of our time: When so eminent a Di­vine, as I mentioned before, thought fit to write [...] whole Volumne concerning the Holiness of LENT; though, if I be not deceived, this Doctrine too i [...] prohibited by Act of Parliament, under the same [Page 87] Penalty. But, saith Bayes there, The matter i [...]deed of this Law was not of any great moment, but this De­claration annexed to it proved of a satal and [...] Consequence. 'Tis very well worth reading at large: but in short the Consequence (or the occasion 'tis no matter when I have to do with Bayes) was, that ‘Princes how peremptory soever they have been in as­serting the Rights of their Supreme Power, in Civil Affairs, they have been forced to seem modest and diffident in the exercise of their Ec­clesiastical Supremacy.’ Now, Holla, Bayes. p. 298. of his Second Book. ‘To what purpose does he so briskly taunt me for thwarting mine own principles, because I have censured the impertinency of a reed­less Provision in an Act of Parliament.’ Observe, these are not the Answerers but Bayes his own words; whereby you may see with what Reverence and Duty he uses to speak of his Superiors and their Actions, when they are not so happy as to please him. ‘I may obey the Law, though I may be of a different per­swasion from the Law-givers in an Opinion remote and impertinent to the matter of the Law it self: nay, I may condemne the wisdom of enacting it, and yet at the same time think my self to lie under an indispensable Obligation to obey it: for the formal reason of its obligatory power (as any Casuist will inform him) is not the Judgment and Opinion of the Law-giver, but the Declaration of his Will and Pleasure.’ Very good and sound Mr. Bayes: but here you have opened a passage; and this is as imper [...]t in you and more dangerous than what you blamed in that Act, that the Non-Conformists may speak against your Ecclesiastical Laws; for their Casuists then tell them that, they lying under an in­disp [...]sable obligation not to conform to some of them, do fulfil and satisfie their Obedience in sub­mitting to the penalty.

[Page 88]I looked further into what he s [...]ith in defence of the [...]gistrates assuming the Priesthood; what for his Scheme of moral Grace; what to palliate his irreve­rent expressions concerning our Blessed Savio [...]r and the Holy Spirit; what of all other mat [...]ers obj [...]cted by his Answerer: and if you will believe me; but I had much rather the Reader would take the pains to examine all himse [...]f, there is scarce any thing but slen­der trifling unworthy of a Logician, and beastly rail­ing unbecoming any man, much more a Divine. At last, having readit all through with some attention, I resolved, having failed so of any thing material, to try my fortune whether it might be more lucky, and to open the Book in several places as it chanced. But, whereas they say that in the Sortes Virgilianae, where­soever you light you will find something that will hit and is proper to your intention; on the contrary here, th [...]re was not any leaf that I met with but had some­thing impertinent, so that I resolved to give it over. This onely I observed upon the whole, that he does treat his Answerer the most b [...]sely and ingratefully that ever man did. For, whereas in his whole first Book there was not one sound principle, and scarce any thing in the second, but what the Answerer had given him occasion to amend and rectifie if he had understand­ing; after so great an obligation he handles him with more rudeness than is imaginable. I know it may be said in Mr. Bayes his defence, that in this his second Book he hath made his matters in many places much worse then they were before. But I say that was Bayes his want of understanding, and that he knew not how to take hold of so charitable an opportunity as was of­fered him, and 'twas none of the Answerers fault. There are amongst men some that do not study always the true rules of Wisdom a [...]d Honesty, but delight in a perverse kind of Cunning, which sometimes may take for a while and attain their design, but most usu­ally [Page 89] it fails in the end and hath a foul farewell. And such are all Mr. Bayes his Plots. In all his Writ­ings he do [...]h so confound terms, he leaps cross, he hath more doubles (nay triples and quadruples) than any Hare, so that he thinks himself secure of the Hun [...]ers. And in this second Book, even the length of it was s [...]me Policy. For you must know it is all but an Epi­stle to the Author of the Friendly Debate; and thought he with himself, who hath so much leisure from his own affairs, that he will read a Letter of another mans b [...]siness of eight hundred pages? But yet, thought he again, (and I could be content they did read it) in all matters of Argument I will so muddle my self in Ink, that there shall be no ca [...]ching no finding me; and be­sides I will speak always with so Magisterial a confi­dence, that no modest man (and most ingenious per­sons are so) shall so much as quet [...]h at me, but be beat out of Countenance: and plain men shall think that I durst not talk at such a rate but that I have a Com­mission. I will first, said he in his heart, like a stout Vagrant, beg, and if that will not do, I will command the Question, and as soon as I have got it, I will so al­ter the property and put on another Periwig, that I defie them all for discovering me or ever finding it again. This, beside all the lock and advantage that I have the Non-conf [...]rmists upon since the late times; and though t [...]ey were born since, and have taken more sober Principles, it shall be all one for that matter. And then for Oratory and Railing, let Bayes alone. This contrivance is indeed all the strength of Mr. Bayes his Argument, and as he said, (how properly let the Reader judge) pag. 69. before quoted, that Mo [...]al Virtue is not only the most material and usefulpart of all Religion, but the ultimate end of all its other Duties: So, Railing is not onely the most material and useful part of his Religion, his Reason, his Oratory, and his Practise; but the ultimate end of this and all his other­Books. [Page 90] Otherwise he i [...] neither so strongly fortified nor so well guarded, but that without any Ceremony of Trenches or Approaches, you may at the very fir [...] march up to his Counters-scarp without danger. He puts me in mind of the incorrigible Scold, that though she was duck'd over head and ears under water, yet stretched up her hands with her two thumb-nails in the Nit-cracking posture, or with two fingers divari­cated, to call the man still in that Language Lousy Rascal and Cuckold. But indeed, when I consider how miserable a wratch his Answerer has rendred him, and yet how he persists still, and more to rail and revile him; I can liken it to nothing better betwixt them, than to what I have seen with some pleasure the hawking at the Magpy. The poor bird understand [...] very well the terrible pounces of that Vulture: b [...] therefore she chatters amain most [...], and spread [...] and cocks her tail, so that one that first saw and heard the sport, would think that she insulted over the Hawk in that chatter, and she [...] her train in token of courage and victory: when, alas, ' [...] her fear all, and another way of crying the Hawk m [...]cy, and to the end that the Hawk finding nothing but tail and feather to strike at, she may so perhaps shelter her body.

Therefore I think there is noth [...]g in my way that hinders me, but that I may now go on to the History of this M. B [...]yes his third Book, the Preface to Bishop Bramhall, and to what Juncture of Affairs it was re­conciled. His Majesty (perhaps upon Mr. Bayes his frequent Admonitions, both in his first and s [...]cond Book, that Princes should be more attentive and con­fident in exercising their Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, though, I rather believe, he never design'd to read a line in him, but what he did herein, was only the re­sult of his own good understanding) resol [...]ed to make some clear tryal how the Non-conformists could bear [Page 91] themselves under some Liberty of Conscience. And accordingly he issued on March the 15th 1671. His Gracious Declaration of Indulgence, of which I wish His Majesty and the Kingdom much joy, and as far as my slender judgment can divine, dare augurate and presage mutual Felici [...]y, and that what ever humane Accident may happen (I fear not [...] Bayes foresees) they will, they can never have cause [...]ent this Acti­on or its Consequences. But here [...] Bayes finding [...]at the King had so vigorously exerted his Ecclesiasti­cal Power, but to a purpose quite contrary to what Mr. Bayes had always intended, he grew terrible an­gry at the King and his Privy Council: so that here­upon he started, as himself says, into many warm and glowing Meditations: his heart burnt and the fire kind­led, and that heated him into all this wild and rambling talk (as some will be forward enough to call it) though he hopes it is not altogether idle, and whether it be or be not, he hath now neither leisure nor patience to examine. This he confesses upon his best recollection, in the last page of this Preface: Whereupon I cannot but ani­madvert, as in my first page, that this too lies open to his Dilemma against the Non-conformists Prayers: for if he will not accept his own Charge, his modesty is all impudent and c [...]unterfeit: If he does acknowledge it, he is an hot-headed Incendiary; and a wild ramb­ling talker, and in part, if not altogether, an idle fel­low. Really I cannot but pitty him, and look upon him as under some great disturbance and dispondency of mind. that this with some other scattering pas­ [...]ages here and there, argues him to be in as ill a ca [...]e as Ti [...]erius was in his distracted Le [...]ter to the Senate: There wants nothing of it but the Dii Deaeque me per­dant wishing, Let the Gods and the Goddesses con­found him worse than he finds hi [...]self to be every day confounded. But that I may not l [...]se my thred. Upon occasion of this his Majesties Gracious Decla [...] ­tion, [Page 92] and against it, he writes this his third Bo [...] the Preface to Bis [...]op Bramhad, and accordingly w [...] unhappily delivered of it in June (I had forgot,) or July, in 16 [...]2. For he did not go his [...] time of it, but miscarried; partly by a fright from J. O. and partly by a fal he had upon a Closer [...] ­portance. But of [...] his three Bolts this was the soone [...] shot, and [...] 'tis uo wonder if he mis [...] his mark, [...] no care where his ar [...]ow glan­ced. But what he saith of his Majesty and his Cou [...]cil, being toward the latter end of his Discourse, [...] forced to defer that a little, because, there be­ing no method at all in his wild rambling talk; must either tread just on in his footsteps, or else I sha [...] be in a perpetual maze, and never know when I co [...] to my journeys end.

And here I cannot altogether escape the mention­ing of J. O. again, whom (though I have shown th [...] he was not the main cause of publishing Bayes [...] Books) yet he singles out, and on his pretence [...] down all the Nonconformists; this being, as he ima­gined, the safest way by which he might proce [...] first to undermine and then blow up his Majesti [...] gracious Declaration. And this indeed is the le [...] immethodical part in the whole Discourse. For [...] he undertakes to defend, that Railing is not only law­ful, but expedient. Secondly, that though he ha [...] Railed, the person he spoke of ought [...] to have [...] ­ken notice of it. And Thirdly, that he did not Rai [...] As to these things I do not much trouble my my [...] nor interest my self in the least in J. O.'s [...] no otherwise than if he were John a Nokes, and heard him ra [...]l'd at by John a Stiles: Nor yet wou [...] I concern my self unnecessarily in any ma [...] behalf Knowing that 'tis better being at the beginning of Feast, than to come in at the latter end of a Fray. Fo [...] [...] so [...] should, as o [...]ten it happens in such Rencoun [...] [Page 93] [...] only draw Mr. Bayes, but J. O. too upon my back, I should have made a sweet business on't for my self.

Now as to the Lawfulness and Expedience of Rai­ling; were it not that I do really make Conscience of using Scripture with such a drolling Companion as Mr. Bayes, I could overload him thence both with Authority and Example. Nor is it worth ones while to teach him out of other Authors and the best pre­cedents of the kind, how he, being a Christian and [...] Divine, ouht to have carried himself. But I can­not but remark his Insolence, and how bold he makes upon this Argument, p. 88. of his Second Book, with the Memories of those great Persons there enumera­ted, several of whom, and particularly my Lord Verulam, I could quote to his confusion, upon a con­trary and much better account. So far am I from re­penting my severity towards them, that I am tempted ra­ther to applaud it by the Glorious examples of the greatest Wits of our Nation, King James, Arch-Bishop Whitgift, Arch-Bishop Bancroft, Bishop Andrews, Bishop Bilson, Bishop Montegue, Bishop Bramhal, Sir Walter Rawleigh, Lord Bacon, &c. and he might have added Mr. Tarlton with as good pretence to this honour as himself. The Niches are yet empty in the Old Exchange; pray let us speak to the Statuary, that, next to King James's we may have B [...]yes his Effigies. For such great Wits are Prin­ces fellows, at least when dead. At this rate there is not a Scold at Bi [...]gsgate but may defend her self by the p [...]ttern of King James and Arch-Bishop Whitgift, &c. Yet this is passable, if you consider our man. But that is most intolerable p. 17. of the Preface to hi [...] first Book, where he justifies his debauched way of writing by parallel to our Blessed Saviour. And I can­not but with some aw reflect how near the punishmen [...] was to the offence; when having undertaken so prof [...] an Argument, he was in the very instant so infatuate [...] as to say that Christ was not only in an hot fit of Ze [...] [Page 94] but in a seeming Fury too and transport of Passion. But however, seeing he hath brought us so good Vouch­ers, let us suppose what is not to be supposed, that Railing is lawful. Whether it be expedient or no will yet be a new question. And I think Mr. Bayes, when he hath had time to cool his thoughts, may be trusted yet with that consideration, and to compute whether the good that he hath done by Railling do countervail the damage which both he in particular and the Cause he labours, have suffered by it. For in my observation, if we meet with an Argument in the Streets, both Men, Women, and Boys, that are the Auditory, do usually give it on the modester side, and conclude, that he that rails most has the least rea­son.

For the second, Where he would prove that though he had railed, yet his Answerer J. O. ought not to have taken notice of it, nor those of the party who are under the same condemnation, but that he should have abstracted and kept close to the Argument, I must confess it is a very secure and wholesome way of rail­ing. And allowing this, he hath good reason to find fault with his Answerer, [...] he does, for turring [...] his Book, though without turning it over I know [...] how he could have answered him, but with his Hat, [...] with Mum. But for ought I can see in that only an­swer which is to his first Book, he hath been obe­dient and abstracted the Argument sufficien [...]; and [...] he hath been any where severe upon him, he hath done it more cleanly, and much more like a Gentleman, and it hath been only in showing the necessary infe­ferences that must follow upon the Authors Maxim [...] and unsound principles. But as to any answer to Bay [...] his second Book or this third, for ought I can see J. O. sleeps upon both Ears.

To this third undertaking, to show that he hath [...] rail'd; [...] shail not say any thing more, but let it [...] [Page 95] judg'd by the Company, and to them let it be refer'd. But in my poor opinion I rever saw a man thorow all his three Books in so high a Salivation.

And therefore, till I meet with something more serious, I will take a walk in the Garden and gather some of Mr. Bayes his Flowers. Or I might more properly have said I will go see Bedlam and p [...]k straws with our Mad-man. First he saith, that some that pretend a great interest in the holy Brother-hood, upon eve [...]y slight accident are beating up the Drums against the Pope and Po [...]ish Plots; they discry Po­ [...]ery in every common and usual chance, and a C [...]imny cannot take fire in the City or Suburbs but they are immediately crying Jesuites and Firebals. I understand you, Sir. This, Mr. Bayes is your Pro­logue, that is to be spoke by Thunder and Lightning. I am loud Thunder, brisk Ligh ning I. I strike men down. [...] fire the Town — Lo [...]k too't Wee'l doot Mr, Bayes, it is something darg rous medling with th [...]se matters. As innocent persons as your self, have [...] the fury of the wild multitude, when such a Calamity hath dis­ordered them. And after your late Severity against Tradesmen, it had been better you had not touched the fire. Take heed lest the Reasons which sparkle, forsooth, in your Discourse have not set their Chim­nyes on fire. None accuses you, what you make s [...]ort with, of burring the Ships at Chatham, much less of blowing up the Thames. But you ought to be careful, lest having so newly distinguished bet [...]t the Fana­tick and his Wealth, they should say, That you are distinguishing now betwixt the Fa [...]icks and their Houses These things are too edged to be jested with: if you did but consider that not onely the Holy Brotherhood, but the So [...]er and intelligent Citizens are equally involved in these sad Accidents. And in that [...]mentable Conflagration (which was so terrible, that [Page 96] though so many years agoe, it is yet fresh in mens memories, and besides, is yearly by Act of Parlia­ment observed with due Humiliation and Solemnity.) It was not Trade onely and Merchandise suffered, which you call their Diana; and was not so much to be considered; But St. Pauls too was burnt, which [...]he Historians tell us was Diana's Temple.

The next thing is more directly levell'd at J. O. for having in some latter Book used those words, We can­not conform to Arminianism or Socinianism on the one hand, or Popery on the other. What the Answerer meant by those words, I concern not my self. Onely I cannot but say, That there is a very great neglect somewhere; wheresoever the Inspection of Books is Iodged, that at least the Socinian Books are tolerated and sell as openly as the Bible. But Bayes turns all in­to Mirth, He might as well have added all the -isms [...] the Old Testament, Perizzitism, Hittitism, Jebusitism, Hivitism, &c.

No, Mr. Bayes, that need not; and though this indeed is a very pretty Conceit, and 'twere pity it should have been lost; yet I can tell you a better way. For, if rhiming be the business, and you are so good at tagging of points in a Garret, there is another word that will do it better, and for which, I know not how truly, you tax your Answerer too here, as if he said, The Church of England were desperately Schismatical, be­cause the Independents are resolved one and all, to conti­nue separate from her Communion. Therefore let Schism, [...] you please rhime to - [...]. And though no man is obliged to produce the Authority of the greatest Wits of the Nation to justifie a Rhime, yet for your [...]ear sake, Mr. Bayes, I will this once supererogate. The first shall be your good friend Bishop [...], [...]ho among many other memorable Pa [...]ages, whi [...] [...]elieve were [...] [...]on that he never thought fit [...] [Page 97] print his own Book; p. 101. teacheth us, not absurd­ly, that It was not the [...] Opinions of the Church of Rome, but the obtruding them by Laws upon other Churches, which warranted a Separation. But if this will not doe, Vous ave [...] Doctor Th [...]rndikes Deposition in print, for he, I hear, is lately dead. The Church of England in separating from the Church of Rome, [...] guilty of Schism before God. I have not the Book by me, but I am sure 'tis candidly recited as I have [...] it. Then (to show too that there is a King on this side) his present Majesty's Father in his Declaration [...] 1628. affirms that a Book, entituled, ‘Appello Caesarem or an Appeal to Caesar, and pub­lished in the year 1625. by Richard Montague then Batcheler of Divinity, and now Bishop of Chi­chester had op [...]ned the way to these Schisms and Di­visions which have since ensued in the Church, and that therefore for the redress and remedy thereof, and for the satisfaction of the Consciences of his good People, he had not only by publick Procla­mation called in that Book, which ministred mat­ter of offence, but to prevent the like danger for the future, reprinted the Articles of Religion, esta­blished in the time of Queen Elizabeth of Famous Memory: and by a Declaration, before those Arti­cles, did restrain all Opinions to the Sense of those Articles, that nothing might be left for private Fan­cies and Innovations, &c.’ And if this will not amount fully, I shall conclude with a Villanous Pam­ [...]let that I met with t'other day; but of which a great [...] indeed was the Author. And, whereas Mr. Bayes [...] alwayes desying the Nonconformists with Mr, [...] Ecclesiastical [...], and the Friendly Debate, I [...] of [...], 'though I have a great Reverence for Mr. Hooker, who in some things did answer himself, That this little Book, of not full eight leaves, hath [Page 98] shut that Ecclesiastical Polity, and Mr. Bayes's too, out of doors: But for the Friendly D [...]bate, I must confess, that is una [...]swerable. 'Tis one Mr. Hales of Eaton; a most learned Divire, and one of the [...] of E [...]and, and most remarkable for his Suf­f [...]r [...]gs in the late time [...], and his Christian Patience under them. And I re [...]kon it not one of the least [...] of that Age, that so eminent a Person should have been by the Iniquity of the [...]es reduced to tho [...]e necessities under which he lived; as I account it no small honour to have grown up into some part of his Acquaintance, and convers'd a while with the li­ving remains of one of the clearest heads and best pre­pared breasts in Christendom. That which I speak of is his lit [...]le Treatise of Schism, which though I had read many years ago, was quite out of n y mind, till Loccasionally light upon't at a [...] stall. I hope it will not be tedious, though I write [...] few (and yet whatsoever I [...]mit, I shall have left be­hind more) material Passages. ‘Schissm is one of those Theological Scarcrows with which they who use to uphold a party in Religion, use to fright away such, as making inquiry into it are ready to relinquish and op [...]ose it, if it appear either erro­neous or suspicious. Schism is, if we would de­fine it, an unnecessary separation of: Christians from that part of the Visible Church of which they were once members. Some reverencing Anti­qu [...]y more than needs, have suffered themselves to be scared with imputation of Schism more than needs. Nothing absolves men from the guilt of S [...]sm, [...] true and unpretended Conscience. But the Judgments of the A [...]cients many times (to speak most gent [...]y) are justly to be [...]. [...] the cause of [...] is [...]essary, [...]ere not he [...] separates, but he th [...]t is the cause of [...] [Page 99] the Schismatick. Where the occasion of Separation is unnecessary, neither side can be excused from guilt of Schism. But who shall be the Judg? That is a point of great difficulty, because it carries fire in the Ta [...]l of it: for it brings with it a piece of Doctrine which is seldom pleasing to Superiours. You shall find that all Schisms have crept into the Church by one of these three waies, ei [...]her upon matter of Fact, or upon matter of Opinion, or point of Ambition. For the first, I call that mat­ter of Fact, when something [...] required to be done by us, which either we know or strongly [...]ct to be unlawful.’ Where he instances in the old great Controversie about EASTER. ‘For it being upon error taken for necessary that an Easter must be kept, and upon worse than error (for it was no less than a point of Judaism forc'd upon the Church) thought further necesseary that the ground of the time for the Feast, must be the Rule left by [...] to the Jews: there [...] a stout Question, Whether 'twas to be celebrated with the Jews on the four­teenth Moon, or the Sunday following. This cau­sed as great a Combustion as ever was; the West separating and refusing Communion with the East for many years together. Here I cannot see bus all the world were Schismaticks, excepting only that we charitably suppose to excuse them from it, that all parties did what they did out of Conscience. A thing which befell them by the ignorance, for I will not say the malice of their guides; and th [...]t through the just judgment of God, because, through floth and blind obedience, men exa [...]ed not the things they were taught, but like beasts of burthen patiently couched down, and indifferently under­went all whatsoever their Superiours laid upon them. If the discretion of the chiefest guides of [Page 100] the Church did, in a point so trivial, so inconsi­derable, so mainly fail them, Can we without the imputation of great grossness and folly, think so poor-spirited persons competent Judges of the Questions now on foot betwixt the Churches? Where, or among whom, or how many the Church shall be, it is a thing indifferent: What if those to whom the Execution of the publick Service i [...] com­mitted, do something, either unseemingly or suspicious, or peradventure unlawful; what if the Garments they wear be censured, nay, indeed be suspicious. What if the gesture or adoration to be used to the Altars, as now we have learned to speak? What if the Homilist have preached or de­livered any Doctrine, of the truth of which we are not well perswaded, (a thing which very often falls out) yet, for all this, we may not separate, except we be constrained personally to bear a part in it our selves. Nothing can be a just cause of refusing Communion in Schism, that concerns Fact, but only to require the execution of some unlawful or s [...]spected Act. For, not only in Reason, but in Religion too, that Maxim admits of no release, Cautissimi cujusque praeceptum, qued duobitas ne feceris: That whatsoever you doubt of, that you in no case do.’ He instances then in the Second Council of Nice, where, saith he, ‘the Sy [...]od it self was the Schismatical party in the point of using the Images, which, seith he, all acknowledge unnecessary, most do suspect, and many hold utterly unlawful: Can then the injoining of such a thing be ought else but an abuse? Can the refusal of Communion here be thought any other thing than Duty? Here, or upon the like occasion to separate, may perad venture bring personal troub [...]e or danger, against which it concerns any honest man to have Pect [...] [...]. [Page 101] Then of Schism from Opini [...]n; Prayer, Confessi­on, Thanksgiving, Reading of Scripture, Admi­nistration of Sacraments in the plainest and the sim­plest manner, were matter enough to furnish out a sufficient Liturgy, though nothing either of pri­vate Opinion or of Church Pomp, of Garments, of prescribed Gestures, of Imagery, of Musick, of matter concerning the Dead, of many Super­flu ities which creep into the Church, under the name of Order and Decency did interpose it self. To charge Churches and Liturgies with things un­necessary was the first beginning of Superstition. If the Fathers and special Guides of the Church would be a little sparing in incumbring Churches with S [...]perfluities, or not over-rigid either in reviving obsolete customs, or imposing new: there would be far less cause of Schism or Supersti [...]ion; and all the inconvenience likely to ensue, would be but this, They should in so doing yield a little to the imbecility of their inferiours; a thing which Saint Paul would never have refused to do. It is alike, unlawful to make profession of known or suspected fal [...]hood, as to put in practise unlawful or s [...]spe­cted Actions. The third thing I named for matter of Schism was Ambition, I mean Episcopal Ambi­tion; One head of which, is one Bishops claiming Supremacy over another, which, as it hath been from time to time a great Trespass against the Churches Peace, so it is now the final ruine of it. For they do but abuse themselves and others, who would perswade us that Bishops by Christs Institu­tion have any Superiority over other men further than positive Order agreed upon among Christians hath pre [...]cribed. Time hath taken leave, some­times, to fix this name of CONVENTICLES upon good and honest Meetings. Though open Assem­blies [Page 102] are required, yet, at all times while men are [...] pious, all Meetings of men for mutual help of [...] and Devotion, wheresoever, and by whom­soever celebrated, where permitted without excepti­on. In times of manifest Corruption and Perseru-tion, wherein Religious Assembling is dangerous, Private Meetings, howsoever besides Public [...] Or­der, are not onely lawful, but they are of necessity and duty. All pi [...]us Assemblies, in times of Perse­cution and Corruption, howsoever practised, are indeed, or rather alone, the Lawful Congregations: and Publick Ass [...]mblies, though according to form of Law, are, indeed, nothing else but RIOTS and CONVENTICLES, if they be stained with Cor­ruption and Superstition.’ Do you not see now, Mr. Bays, that you needed not have gone so for a word, when you might have had it in the Neighbourhood? If there be any Coherence le [...]t in y [...]ur Scull, you can­ [...] but perceive that I have brought you Authority e­ [...] to pr [...]ve that Schism (for the reason we may discourse another time) do's at least rhime to Ism. But you have a peculiar delight and selicity, (which no man [...] you) in Scripture-Drollery, [...]othing less [...] taste to your Palat wherea [...] otherwise you [...] so far in Italy, that you could not escape the Ti [...]les of some Books which would have served your turn as well, Ca [...]dinalism, N [...]potism, Putanism, if you were in a Parox [...] of the Ism's.

When I had [...]rit this, and undergone so grateful a P. [...] for no less than that I had transcribed be [...]ore cut of [...]ur Author; I could not upon compariug them both together, but reflect most seriously upon the dif­ference of their two ways of Discoursing. I could not but admire that Majesty and Beauty which sits upon the forehead- of masculine Truth and generous Honesty: but no less detest the Deformity of falshood disguised [Page 103] in all its Ornaments. How much another thing it is to hear him speak, that hath cleared himself from forth and growns, and who suffers neither Sloth nor Fear, nor Ambition, nor any other tempting Spirit of that nature to abuse him, from one, who as Mr. Hales ex­presseth it, makes Christianity lackque to Ambition; How wretchedly, the one to uphold his Fiction, must incite Princes to Persecution and Tyranny, degrade Grace to Morality, debauch Conscience against its own Principles, distort and mis-interpret the Scripture, fill the world with Blood, Execution, a [...]d Massacre; while the other needs and requires no more but a peaceable and unprejudicate Soul, and the native simplicity of a Christian-spirit! And me thinks, if our Author had any spark of Vertue unextinguished, he should, upon considering these together, retire into his Closet, and there lament and pine away for his desperate follie; for the disgrace he hath, as far as in him is, brought upon the Church of England by such an undertaking, and for the eternal shame to which he has hereby cou­demn'd his own memory.

I ask you heartily pardon, Mr. Bayes, for treating you against Decorum here, with so much gravity. 'Tis possible I may not trouble you above once or twice more in the like nature; but so often at least, I hope, one may in the writing of a whole Book, have leave to be serious. Your next Flower, and that indeed is a sweet one, Dear Heart, how could I hug and kiss thee for all this Love and Sweetness? Fy, [...]y, Mr. Bayes, Is this the Language of a Divine, and to be used, as you ometimes express it, in the fa [...] of the Sun? Who can escape from thinking that you are adream'd of your Comfortable Importance? These are (as the Moral Sa­ [...] calls them in the claenl est manner the thing would bare) Words left betwixt the Sheets: Some body might take it ill that you should misapply your Court­ship [Page 104] to an Enemy. But in the Roman Empire it was the priviledge of the Hangman to deflour a Virgin before Execution. But, sweet Mr. Bayes, (for I know you do nothing without a precedent of some of the greatest wits of the Nation,) whose example had you for this seeming Transport of a gentler Passion.

Then comes, Wellfare poor Macedo for a modest Fool. This I know is matter of Gazette, which is as Cano­nical as Ecclisiastical Policy. Therefore I have the less to say to't. Onely, I could wish that there were some severer Laws against such Villains who raise so false and scandalous reports of worthy Gentlemen; And that men might not be suffered to walk the streets in so con­fident a garb, who commit those Assassinates upon the reputation of deserving persons.

Here follows a sore Charge: that the Answerer had without any provocation, in a publick and solemn way, undertak [...]n the D [...]fence of the Fanatick Cause. Here, indeed Mr. Bayes, You have reason, and you might have had as just a quarrel against whosoever had un­dertaken it. For, your design and hope was from the beginning, that no man would have a [...]swered you in a publick and solemn way; and nothing would vex a. wise man, as you are, more than to have his intention and Counsel frustrated. When you have rang'd all your forces in battel, when you have plac'd your Ca­non, when you have sounded a charge, and given the word to fall on upon the whole Party; if you could then perswade every particular person of'm, that you gave him no Provocation, I confess, Mr. Bayes, this were an excellent and a new way of your inventing to conquer single, ('tis your Moral Vertue) whole Ar­mies. And so the admiring Dr [...]ve might stand gaping till one by one, you had cut a [...]l their throats. But, [...]. Bayes, I cannot discern but that you gave him as much Provocation in your first Book, as he has you in his [Page 105] Evangelical Love, Church Peace and Unity, which is the pretence of your issuing this Preface.

For, having for your Dear sake (beside many other troubles that I have undertaken, without your giving me any Provoration) sought out and perused that Book too, I do not find you any where personally concern'd, but as you have, it seems upon some conviction, assum­ed to your self some vices or errours against which he speaks in general, and with some modesty. But for the rest, you say upon full perusal, you find not one Syllable to the purpose, beside a perpetual Repetition of the old out-worn story of Unscriptural Ceremonies, and some frequent whinings, and sometimes [...]avings, &c. Now to see the dulness of some mens Capacities above others. I upon this occasion, begun, I know not how it came, at p. 127. And thence read on to the end of his Book. And from thence I turn'd to the beginning and conti­nued to p. 127. and could not all along, observe any thing but what was very pertinent to the matter in hand. But this is your way of excusing your self from replying to things that yet you will be medling with, and nibling at: and 'tis besides a pretty knack (the Non-conformists have it not alone) of frighting or discouraging sober people from reading those danger­ous Trea [...]ises, which might contribute to their bet­ter i [...]formation. I cannot but observe, Mr. Bayes, this admirable way (like fat Sir John Falstasse's singu­lar dexterity in sinking) that you have of answer­ing whole Books or Discourses, how [...]ithy and knotty soever, in a line or two, nay sometimes with a word. So it fares with this B [...]ok of the Answerers. So with a Book or Discourse of his, I know not, of the Mora­lity of the Lords Day; which is answered by a Septonary Portion in the Hebdomadal Revolution. So, whether Book or Discourse [...] also know not of the Self-evid [...]n­cing light of the Scripture, where Bayes [...]ffers (and i [...] [Page 106] [...] strange) to produce as good proofs for it out of [...] Alcoran. So I show'd you where he answers De­ [...] with [...]. And one thing more comes into my [...]mind; where, after he has blunder'd a great while to bring himself off the Magistrates exercis [...]ng the Pristh [...]od in his [...]wn person, he concludes wi [...]h an irresistible defence against his Answerer, This is suit­able to the Genius of his i [...]genuity, and betraies him as [...]uch as the word INTANGLEMENT, [...]hich it the Shiboleth of all his Writings. So he defeats all the gross bodies of Orthodoxy with calling them Sys [...]emes and Syntagmes. So you know he answers all the Contro­versial Books of the Calvinists that ever have been written, with the Tale of Robin Hood, and the migh [...]y Bramble on the South-side of the Lake L [...]man. Mr. Bay [...]s, You cannot enough esteem and esteem this Faculty. For, next to your single beating whole A [...]mies, I do [...]ot know any Virtue that you have need of so often, or that will upon trial be found more useful.

And to this succeeds another Flower, I am sure, though I can scarce smell [...]ut the sense of it. But it is Printed in a distinct Character, and that is always a cer [...]ain sign of a Flower. For our Book-sellers have many Arts to make us yield to their importunity: and among the rest, they promise us, [...] at it s [...]all be Print­ed in fine Paper, a [...]d in a very large and fair Let [...]er; that it shall be very well examined that there be no Er­rata; that wheresoever there is a pretty Conceit, it shall be marked out in another Character. But my greatest care was that when I quoted a [...]y Serten [...]e or word of our Author's, it might be so discernable, [...]lest I should go for a Plagiary. And I am much offended to see that in several places he hath not kept [...]ouch with me. The Word of Mr. Payes's that he has here made notorious, is Categoricalness: and I obs [...]rve that wheresoever there comes a word of that termir [...] [Page 107] shows it the [...]ame honour; as if he had a mind to make Bayes a Collar of N [...]sses. What the mystery is, I can­not so easily imagine; no more than of Shiboleth and Intangl [...]ment. But I doubt Mr. Bayes is sick of mary complicated Diseases; or to keep to our [...]hime, Sick­nesses. He is troubled [...]ot o [...]ly with the Ismes but the Nesses. He might, if he had pleased, here t [...]o to have show'd his wit, as he did in the others, and have told us of Sheern [...]ss, Dorgioness, Innerness, a [...]d Cathness. But he might very well have [...]mitted it in this place, know­ing how well he had acquitteed himself in another, and out of the Scripture too, which gives his wit the high­est relish. 'Tis p. 72. of his first Book, where, to prove that the fruit [...] of the Spirit are [...]o more than Morality, he quotes Saint Paul, Gal. 5. [...]2. Where the Apostle enumerates them; Love, Joy, Peace, Pa­tience, Gentleness, Goodness, Faith, Me [...]kness, and T [...]m­perance, but our Author tra [...]slates Joy to Chearfulness, Peace to Peaceablen [...]ss: faith to faithfulness. What Igno­rance, or rat [...]er, what Forgery is this of Scripture & Reli­gio [...]? Who is there of the Systematical, German Geneva, Orthodox Divines, but could have taught him better? who is there of the Sober, Intelligent, Episcepal Divines of the Church of England, but would ab [...]or this Interpreta­tion? Yet, when his Answerer, I see, [...]bjects this to him, p. 200. Bayes, like a dexterous Sch [...]lastical Di­sputant, it being told him, That Joy is not [...] ­ress, but that Spiritual Joy which is unspeakable; that Peace is not Peaceable [...]ess in his Sense, but that Peace of God which through Jesus Christ is wrought in the bearts of Believers by the Holy Ghost; and that F [...]ith in God is there intended, [...]ot faithfulness in our Duties, Trusts or, [...]ffices: W [...]at does he doe? p. 337. He very ingenu [...]usly and wisely, when he is to answer, quite forgets that Faith was [...]: and, having sup­prest that, as to the rest he wipes his M [...]uth, and rubs [Page 108] his Forehead, and saith the Cavil is but a little one, and the Fortune of Cae [...]ar and the Roman Empire depend [...]ot upon it, and ther [...]fore be will not trouble the Reader with a Critical Account of the reason of his Translation. No, don't Mr. Bayes, 'Tis very we [...]l; let it alone. But, though not the Fortunes of Caesar and the Roman Empire, I doubt there is something more depends up­on it, if it be matter of Salvation. And I am afraid besides, that there may a curse too belong to him who shall knowingly add or diminish in the Scripture. Do you think B [...]shop Bramhall himself, if he had seen this, could have abstained (p. 117. before quoted,) from telling our Author, That the promis [...]uous Licence given to people qualified or unqualifi [...]d, not only to read but to interpret the Scriptures according to their private spirits or [...]articular fancies, without regard either to the Ana­l [...]gy of Faith, which they understand not, or to the In­t [...]rpretation of the Doctors of former Ages, is more pre­ju [...]icial (I might bett [...]r say) pernicious both to whole So­ [...], than the over-rigorous restraint of the Roma­nists.

The next is a piece of Mirth, on occasion of some discourse of the An [...]werers, about the Morality of the the Lords-day: Where it seems he useth some hard words, which I am naturally an enemy to; but might be done of purpose to keep the Co [...]roversy from the white-Apro [...]s, within the white Surplices, to be more learnedly debated. But this fares no better than all the rest. There is no kind of Morality, I see but Ray [...]s will try to debauch it: Oh what [...]difying Doctrine, saith be, is this to the Whit [...]- [...] [...] a [...]d doubtl [...]ss th [...]y would with the Jews, so [...]r roast themselves, than a small joint of [...] upon the Sacred Day of Rest. Now, I do not, neither, I believe, does Bayes himself know any of them that are thus superstitious. So that Mr. Bayes might, if he had pleased, have spared his jibing [Page 109] [...]t that day, which hath m [...]re sacredness in it by far than many, nay than any of those things he pleads for. But when men are once Adepti and have attain'd Bayes his height, and Divinity at least is rightly understood, they have a Priviledge it seems, not only to play and make merry on the Sabbath day, but with it.

After this I walked a great way through bushes and brambles before I could find another Flower: but then I met with two upon one stalk; on occasion of hi [...] Answers having said someting of the day of Judg­ment when men should be accountable. Ob, saith he, We shall be sure to be accounted with at the day of Judg­ment; and again, Ah sweet day, when these people of God shall once for all, to their unspeakable Comfort and support, wreak their eternal Revenge upon their reprobate Enemies. This puts me in mind of another expressi­on of our Authors [...]luding too this way. ‘'Tis an easie matter by this dancing and capering humour to perpetuate all the Controversies in the world, how plainly soever determinable, to the coming of Elias: and after this rate shall the Barbers bason re­main Mambrino's helmet; and the Asses Pannel a furniture for the Great Horse, till the day of Judgment.’ Now, good Mr. Bayes, I am one that desire to be very well resolved in these things; and though not much indeed, yet I attribute something to your judgment. Pray tell us in good earnest, what you think of these things, that we may know how to take our measure of living accordingly. For, [...]f in­deed there be no Judgment, no account for what is done here below, I have lost a gre [...]t deal of preci­ous time, that I might have injoyed in one of the fruits of you [...] spirit, that is Chearfu [...]ss. How ma­ny good [...]ests have I balk'd, even in writing this book, lest I should be brought to answer for every profane and idle word! How frequent opportunities have I [Page 110] mist in my life of ge [...]iality and pleasure, and fulfil­ling Nature in all its ends! How have you frighted the Magistrate in vain, from exercising hi [...] uncontro­lable Ecclesiastical Power, with the fear of an after­reckoning to God Almighty! And how have you, p. 238. defeated the obligatory force of all his Laws, and set his Subjects at liberty from all obligations to the duty of Obedience: for they lye under no Obli­gation, you say then, but of Prudence and Self-in­terest. But unless there hath been some errour in our education, and we have been seasoned with ill Books at first, so that we can never lose the impression, there is some such matter, and the Governour had reason, when he trembled to hear Saint Paul dis­coursing of that Subject. The Fanatical Book of Mar­tyrs (for we will not with some call the Bible so) tell [...] us some old Stories of persons that have been cired by some of them to appear at such a day, and that by dying at the same prefixed, they have saved their Reconnoissances. And in the Scot [...]h History we read of a great Cardinal that was so summoned by poor Mr. G [...]ichard, and yet could not help it, but he must take that long and sad journey of Death to an­swer at the Grand Assizes. If therefore there be such a thing. I would not for fear, and if there be not, yet I would not fear good luck sake, set that terrible day at defiance, or make too me [...]y with it. 'Tis possible that the Nonconformists many of them may be too censorious of others, and too confident of their own Integrity. Others of them are more temperate, and perhaps destitute of all humane redress against their sufferings: Some of those make rash Chanlen­ges, and the other just Appeals to appear at that dread­ful Tribunal. In the mean time, 'tis not for you to be both the Enemy [...]nd their Judg. Much less do's it [...]fit you, because perhaps they speak too sillily or de­murely [Page 111] of it, or too breaving and confidently, there­fore to make a meer mockery of the whole [...]usiness of that supre [...]e Judge and Judicature. And one thing I will say more, though slighter; that, though I am not so far gone as Campanella was in the efficacy of words, and the magi [...]k of the face, and pronur cia­tion, Yet I marked how your Answerer look'd when he spoke of the day of Judgment. Very gravely, I assure you, and yet without any depressing or eral­ [...]ing his Supercil [...]um's: And I have most often obser­ved that ferious words have produced serious Ef­fects.

I have, by this time me-thinks, gather'd enough: nor are there many more left, unless I should go for a Flower to the Du [...]ghil, which, he saith, is his only Magazin. And this being an expression which he has several times used (for no Nonconformist repeats so often) I cannot but remark, that besides his natural Talent, Mr. Bayes hath been very industrious, and neg [...]ected no opportunity of acquiring a perfecti­on of railing. For this is a phrase borrowed from a modern Author lately dead, and I suppose Bayes had given him a Bond for repayment at the day that he spoke of so lately.

There are indeed several others at which I am forc'd to stop my nose. For by the smell, any man may dis­cern they grew upon a ranker soil, than that on the South-side of the Lake Lemane, even upon the bank of the Thames in the Meadow of Billingsgate: as that of the Lye, which, he saith, no Gentleman, much less a Div [...]ve, ought to put up. Now if this were to be tryed by a Court-Martial of the Brothers of the Blade, 'Tis to be considered whether it were the down-right Lye, or whether it were onely the Lye by Interpretation. For in the disputes of the Schools there is nothing more usual, than Hoc est [...]rum. Hoc [Page 112] est salsum. But this passes without any blemish of ho­nour on either side, and so far it is from any obliga­tion to a Challenge or a Duel, that it never comes to be decided, so much as by the Study-door key. But quod restat probandum do's the business without de­manding other satisfaction. Then, if it were the down-right Lye; it is to be examined who gave the Lve first: for that alters the case. And last of all (but which is indeed upon a quarrel the least mate­rial point, yet, it too comes under some consideration.) which of the two was in the right, and which of them spoke truth, and which lyed. These are all things to be discussed in their proper places. For I do not ob­serve that the Answerer gave Bayes the down-right Lye. But I find that Bayes gave him the Lye first in terms. And as to the Truth of the things controvert­ed and alledged, there needs no more than the depo­sitions that I formerly transcribed concerning Bayes his own words. But all this is only a Scene out of Bays his Rebearsal.

Villain, thou liest, —
— Arm, arm, Valerio arm,
The Lie no flesh can bear I trow.

And then as to the Success of the Combate

— They fly, they fly
Who first did give the Lye.

For that of Caitife, and other Provocations that are proper for the same Court, I will not meddle fur­ther. And for the being past Grace and so past Mercy; I shall only observe that the Church of England is much obliged to Mr. Bays, for having proved that Non-con­formity is the Sin against the Holy Ghost.

There remains but one Flower more that I have a mind to. But that indeed is a Rapper. 'Tis a Flower of the Sun, and might alone serve both for a Staff and a Nose-gay for any Noble-man's Porter. ‘Symboli­calness [Page 113] is the very Essence of Paganism, Superstitio [...] and Idolatry. They will and ought sooner to broyl in Smithfield, than submit to such Abominations of the Strumpet and the Beast. 'Tis the very Potion wherewith the Scarlet-Where made drunk the Kings of the Earth. Heliogabalus and Bishop Bon­ner lov'd it like Clary and Eggs, and always made it their mornings-draught upon burning days; and it is not to be doubted but the seven Vials of Wrath that were to be poured out upon the Nations of the Earth under the Reign of Anti-christ were filled with Symbolical Extracts and Spirits:’ With more such stuff which I omit. This is I confess a pretty Posy for the Nose of such a Divine. Doctor Baily's Romance of the Wall-Flower had nothing comparable to't. And I question, whether, as well as Mr. Bayes loves preferment, yet though he had lived in the Pri­mitive Church, he would not as Heliodorus Bishop of Trissa, I take it, that renounced his Bishoprick rather than his Title to the History of Theagenes and Chari­clia, have done in like manner: nay, and have deli­vered up his Bible too into the bargain, before he would quit the honour of so excellent a piece of Drollery. This is surely the Bill of Fare, not at the Ordination-Dinner at the Nags-head, but of the Excu­sation-Dinner at the Cock; and never did Divine make so good Chear of Owens Peas-porridge and Scrin­ture. Good Mr. Bayes, or Mr. T [...]der, or Mr. Cart­wright (not the Non-conformist Cartwright, that was you say (as some others too of your acquaintance) con­verted: but the Player in the Rehearsal) this Divinity I doubt was the Bacchus of your Thigh, and not the Pallas of your Brain.

Here it is that after so great an excess of Wit, he thinks fit to take a Julep and resettle his Brain, and the Government. He grows as serious as 'tis possible [Page 114] f [...]r a madman [...], and pretends to sum up the whole state of the Controversie with the Nonconformists, And to be sure he will make the story as plausible for himself as he may: But therefore it was that I have before so particulurly quoted and bound him up with his own Words as fast as such a [...] could be pi­nion'd. For he is as waxen as the first matter, and no Form comes amiss to him. Every change of Posture does either alter his opinion or vary the expression by which we should judg of it: and sitting he is of one mind, and standing of another. Therefore I take my self the less concerned, to fight with a Wind­mill like Quixote: or to whip a Gig as boys do, or with the Lacqueys at Charing-cross or Lincolns-Inn ­fields to play at the Wheel of Fortune, lest I should fall into the hands of my Lord Chief Justice, or Sir Edmond Godfroy. The truth is in short, and let Bayes make more or less of it if he can; Bayes had at first built up such a stupendious Magistrate, as never was of God's making. He had put all Princes upon the Rack to stretch them to his dimension. And, as a streight line continued grows a Circle, he had given them so infinite a Power that it was extended unto Impotency. For though he found it not, till it was too late in the Cause; yet he felt it all along (which is the understanding of Brutes) in the Effect. For, hence it is that he so often complains, that Princes knew not aright that Supremacy over Consciences, to which they were so lately, since their deserting the Church of Rome, restored. That in most Nations. Government was not rightly understood, and many expressions of that Nature: Whereas indeed the mat­ter is that Princes have always found that uncon­troulable Government over CONSCIENCE to be both unsafe and unpracticable. He had run himself here to a stand, and, and perceived that there [Page 115] was a God, there was Scripture; the Magistrate himself had a Conscierce, and must take care that he did not ixjoin thirgs apparently evil. Being at a stop here, he would therefore try how he could play the Broker on the Subject side [...] and no Pimp did ever enter into seriouser disputation to vitia [...] an in­nocent Virgin, than he to debauch their Consciences. And to harden their unpractis'd modesty, he imbol­dens them by his own example, shewing them the ex­periment upon his own Corscience first. But a [...]er all, he finds himself again at the same stand here and and is run up to the Wall by an Angel: God, and Scrip [...]ure, and Consc [...]ence will not let him go further: [...] he owns, that if the Magistrate injoins things apparert'y evil, the Subject may have liberty to re­ [...]. What shall he do then? for it is too glorious an enterprize to b [...] abandon'd at the first re­buffe. Why he gives us a new Translation of the Bible, and a new Commentary. He saith that Tenderness of Conicience might be allowed in a Church to be constitu [...], not in a Church constituted already. That Tenderness of Conscience and Scandal are Igno­rance, Pride and Obstmacy. He saith, the Noncon­formists should communicate with him till they have clear evidence that it is evil. This is a civil way in­deed of gaining the question, to perswade men that are unsatisfied, to be satisfied till they be dissatisfied. He threat [...]s, he rails, he jeers them, if it were possi­ble, out of all their Consciences and Honesty; and finding that will not do, he cails out the Magistrate, tells him, these men are not fit-to live, there can be no security of Government while they are in being: bring out the Pillories, Whipping-po [...]s, Gallies, Rods and A [...]es [...] (which are [...] ultima [...], a Clergy-mans [...]last Argument, ay, and [...]is first teo:) [...] pull in pieces all the Tradi [...]g Corporati­ons, [Page 116] those Nests of Faction and Sedition. This is a faithful account of the sum and intention of all hi [...] undertaking, for which I confefs, he was as pick'd a man as could have been employ'd or found out in a whole Kingdom: but it is so much too hard a Task for any man to archieve, that no Goose but would grow giddy with it.

Fo whereas he reduces the whole Controversie to a matter of two or three Symbolical Ceremonies (and if there be nothing else, more the shame of those that keep such a pudder) it is very well worth obser­ving how he ha [...]h behaved himself, and how come off in this Dispute. It seems that the Conformists d [...] ­fine a Sacrament to be an Outward visib [...]e Sign of an Inward Spiritual Grace. It seems that the Sacraments are usually called in the Greek Symbola. It seems fur­ther that some of the Nonconformists, under the name therefore of Symbolical Ceremonies, dispute the lawsulness of those that are by our Church in­j [...]yned, whereby the Nonconformists can only in­tend that these Ceremonies are so applyed, as if they were of a Sacramental nature and institution, and that [...]erefore they are unlawful. Our Authors Answe­er handling this Argument, does among other things [...]ake use of a pertinent Passage in Saint Austin, Signa [...]uum ad res divinas perti [...]t Sacramenta appellantur. What does Mr. Bayes in this case? for it went hard [...]ith him. Why, as good luck would have it, not be­ing willing that so great a Politician, to the irrepa­ [...]able damage of the Church, shonld yet be destroy­ [...]d, J. O. had forgot to quote the Book and Page. Now though you send a man the length of your Weapon, and nam [...] your Second; Ye [...] Mr. Bayes be­ing, as you see [...], admirably read in the Laws of [...], knew that unless the Time and Place be appointed, there is no danger. He saith therefore, [Page 117] p, 452. of his second Book, that he should have ad­vantage on his side, if he should lay odds with him, that there is no such passage in all the Volumns of Saint Austin. — But however, that it is neither civil nor in­genuous to trouble him with such Objections, as he cannot answer without reading over eight or ten large Volumns in Folio. It was too much to expect from one of so much business, good Augustulus:

Quum tot sustineas & tanta negotia solus;
Res Sacras Armis tuteris, Moribus ornes,
Legibus emendes —

Which may be thus translated: When you alone have the Ceremonies to defend with Whipping-posts, Rods and Axes; when you have Grace to turn into Morality; when you have the Act of Oblivion and Indemnity and the Ecclesiastical Declaration of March to tear in pieces; it were unreasonable and too much to the dammage of the publick to put you on such an Imployment. I ask your pardon, Mr. Bayes, for this Paraphrase and Digression: for I per­ceive I am even hardned in my Latine, and am prone to use it without fear or reverence. But, Mr. Bayes, there might have been a remedy for this, had you pleased. Where then were all your Leaf-Turners? a sort of poor Readers you as well as Bishop Bramhal ought to have some Reverence for, having made so much use of them to gather materials for your Stru­ctures and Superstructures. I cannot be perswaded, for all this, but that he know [...] it well enough, the passage being so remarkable in it self, and so dirtyed with the Nonconformists thumbs, that he could not possibly miss it: and I doubt he does but laugh at me now when, to save him a labour, I tell him in the simplicity of my heart, that even I my self met [Page 118] with it in Ep. [...] ad Marcellinum, and the words these, N [...]mis autem longum est convenienter disputare de [...] fignorum quae cum ad res divinas pertinent Sacra­m [...]nta appellantur. But whether there be such a place or no, he hath no mind that his Answerer sho [...]d make use of it: nor of the Schoolmen, whom before he had owned for the Authors of the Church of England's [...]; but would bind up the Answe­rer to the Law only and the Gospel. And now Mr. Bayes saith he will be of the School-mens opinion as long as th [...]y sp [...]ak Sense and no longer, (and so I be­lieve of Saint Aus [...]'s) that is to say, so long as they will serve his [...]urn: for all Politicians shake men [...]ff when they have no more use of'm, or find them to [...] the design. But, Mr. Bayes why may not your Answerer or any man else quote St. Austin, as well as you may the Scri [...]re? I am su [...]e there is less danger of perverting the place, or of mis-interpretation. And though perhaps a Nonconsormist may value the Au­thority of the Bib [...]e above that of the Fat [...]ers; yet the Welch have a Proverb, that the Bible and a Stone do well together: meaning perhaps, that if one miss the other will hit. You, that are a Duellist, know how great a bravery it is to gain your. Ee [...]emys Sword, and that there is no more home-thrust in dispu [...]ation, th [...]n the Argumentum ad hominem. So that if your Adversary fell upon you with one of your own Fathers, it was gallant [...]y done on his part; and no less wi [...]ely on yours to fence in this m [...]nner, and us [...] all your shifts [...] put it by. For you too, Mr. Bayes, do know, no man better, that it is not at all times safe nor honourable to be of a Fathers opi­nion.

Having escaped this danger; he grows, nor can I blame him, exceeding merry: and insults heavily over Symbolical wheresoever he meets with it, for in his [Page 119] Answerer I find it not. But wheresoever 'twas it serves to good purpose. For no man would imagine that he could have received so universal a Defeat, and appear in so good humour. A terrible Disputant he is, when he has set up an hard word to be his Oppo­nent; 'Tis a very wholesome thing he knows, and prolongs life: for all the while he can keep up this ball, he may decline the Question. But the poor Word is sure to be mumbled and mowsled to purpose, and to be made an example. But let us, with Mr. Bayes his leave, examine the thing for once a little clo­ser. The Non-conformists, as I took notice before, do object to some of the Rites of the Church of England, under the name of Symbolical or significant Ceremo­nies. They observe the Church of England does in the discourse of Ceremonies printed before the Common Prayer Book, declare that the retaining of those Cere­monies, is not onely as they serve for decent Order and Godly Discipline; but as they are apt to stir up the dull mind of man to the remembrance of his duty to God, by some special and notable significancy, whereby he may be edified. They further observe the Church of Eng­land's definition of a Sacrament: That it is an out­ward visible sign of an inward spiritual Grace. They find these Ceremonies, so constituted, impos'd upon them by Authority; and more-over, according to our Authors principle, made a new part of the Divine Law. They therefore quarrel and except against these under the notion of Sacraments, and insist that the Church is not impowred to institute such Ceremonies under such obligations and penalties as they are impo­sed. Or, if you will, in stead of Church you may say rather the Magistrats: for as much as our Author hath pro hac vice delivered the Keys and the whole power of the House into his hands.

[Page 120]Now the Author having got them at this lock, crys Victory. Nothing less will serve him than a three days triumph, as if he had conquered Europe, Asia, and Africa, and let him have a fourth day added, if he please, over the Terra Incognita of Geneva. There is no end of his Ostentation and Pageantry: and the de­jected Non-conformists follow the wheels of his Cha­riot, to be led afterwards to the Prison and there exe­cuted. He had said p. 446. of his Second Book, Here Cartwright begun his Objection, and here he was imme­diately check'd in his Carrear by Whitgift (you might Mr. Author, for respect sake have called him at leaft Mr. if not Archbishop Whitgift) who told him plainly, he could not be ignorant that to the making of a Sacrament, besides the external Element, there is required a Command­ment of God in his Word that it should be done, and a promise annexed to it, whereof the Sacrament is a Seal. And in pursuance hereof, p 447. our Author saith, Here then I fix my foot, and dare him to his teeth, to prove that any thing can be capable of the nature or office of Sacraments that is not established by Divine Institution and upon Promise of Divine Acceptance. Upon the con­fidence of this Argument 'tis that he Hectors and A­chillezes all the Non-conformists out of the pit in this Preface. This is the Sword that was consecrated first upon the Altar, and thence presented to the Champi­ons of the Church in all Ages. This is that with which Archbishop Whitgift gave Cartwright his death's wound: and laid the Puritan Reformation a gasping. This is the weapon wherewith Master Hooker gained those lasting and eternal Trophies over that baffled Cause. This is that with which Bishop Bramhal wrought those wonder­ful things that exceeded all belief. This hath been trans­mitted successively to the Writer of the Friendly Debate, and to this our Author. It is in conclusion the Curta [...] of our Church. 'Tis Sir Salomon's sword, Cock of as [Page 121] many men as it hath been drawn against. Wo wo [...] the man that comes in the way of so dead-doing a tooll, and when weilded with the arm of such a Scan­derbag as our Author. The Non-conformists had need desire a Truce to bury their dead. Nay there are none left alive to desire it: but they are slain every mo­ther's Son of them. Yet perhaps they are but stound­ed and may revive again. For I do not see all this while, that any of them have written, as a great Prelate of ours, a Book of Seven Sacraments: or attempted to prove that those Symbolical Ceremonies are indeed Sacraments. Nothing less. 'Tis that which they most labour against, and they complain that these things should be imposed on them with so high Penalty, as want nothing of a Sacramental nature but Divine Insti­tution. And because an Humane Institution is herein made an equal force to a Divine Institution, therefore it is that they are agrieved. All that they mean, or could mean, as far as I or any man can perceive, is on­ly that these Ceremonies are a kind of Anti-Sacra­ments, and so obtruded upon the Church, that with­out condescending to these additional Inventions, no man is to be admitted to partake of the true Sacra­ments which were of Christ's appointing. For, with­out the Sign of the Cross, our Church will not receive any one to Baptism, as also without kneeling no man is suffered to come to the Communion. So that me­thinks, our Author and his partners have wounded themselves only with this Argument: and have had as little occasion here to sing their Te Deum's, as the R [...] ­man Emperour had to triumph over the Ocean, be­cause he had gathered Periwinkles and Scallop shells on the Beach. For the Author may transform their reasonings as oft as he pleases (even as oft as he doth his own, or the Sctiptures): but this is indeed their Fort out of which [...] do not see they are likely to be [Page 122] beat with all our Authors Canon: that no such new Conditions ought to be imposed upon Christians by a less than Divine Authority, and unto which if they do not submit, though against their Consciences, they shall therefore be dep [...]ived of Communion with the Church. And I wonder that our Author could not observe any thing in the Discourse of I vargel cal [...], that was to the purpose, beside a perpetual repetition, of the outworn story of unscriptural Ceremonies, and a peculiar uncouthness and obscurity of stile; when as this Plea is there for so many pages distinctly and vi­gorously i [...]sisted on. For it is a childish thing (how high soever our Author magnifies himself in this way of reasoning) either to demand from the Non-confor­mists a patern of their Worship from the Scripture, who affect therein a Simplicity, free from all exterio [...] circumstances, but such as are natural or customary: or else to require of them some particular command a­gainst the Cross, or kneeling, and such like Ceremo­nies, which in the time of the Apostles and many Ages after were never thought of. But therefore general and applicable Rules of Scripture they urge as directi­ons to the Conscience; unto which our Author gives no satisfactory Solution, but by superseding and ex­tinguishing the Conscience, or exposing it to the se­verest penalties. But here I say then is their main ex­ception, that things indifferent, and that have no pro­per signature, or significancy to that purpose, should by command be made necessary conditions of Church­Communion. I have many times wished for peace­ableness-sake that they had a greater latitude; but if unless they should stretch their Consciences till they tear again, they cannot conform, what remedy? For I must confess that Christians have a better Right and Title to the Church, and to the Ordinances of God there, than the Author hath to his Surplice. And [Page 123] that Right is so undoubted and ancient, that it is not to be innovated [...]pon by humane restrictions and ca­pitulations.

Bishop Bramhall p. 141. saith, I do profess to all the World, that the transforming of indifferent Opinions into [...]ssary Articles of Faith, hath been that Insana Laurus, or cursed Bay-tree, the cause of all our brawling and con­tention. That which he saw in matter of Doctrine he would not discern in Discipline, whereas this a­mong us, the transform [...]ng of things, at best indiffe­rent, into necessary points of practice, hath been of as ill consequence. And (to reform a little my serious­ness) [...] shall not let this pass without taking notice that you Mr. Bayes, being the most extravagant person in this matter that ever I heard of, as I have shown, you are mad, and so the Insana Laurus; so I wish you may not prove that cursed Bay-tree too, as the Bishop translates it. If you had thought of this, perhaps we might have mi [...]ed both the Bishops Book and your Preface; for you see that sometimes no Man hath a worse friend than he brings from home.

It is [...]ue, and very piously done, that our Church does declare that the kneeling at the Lords Supper is not injoyned for adoration of those Elements, and con­cerning the other Ceremoni [...]s as before. But the Ro­manists (from whom we have them, and who said of old, we would come to feed on their Meat, as well as eat of their Porridge) do offer us here many a fair declaration, and distinction in very weighty matters, to which nevertheless the Conscience of our Church hath not complyed. But in this particular matter of kneeling, which came in first with the Doctrine of Transubstantiation, the Romish Church do reproach us sence in the Bread and Wine, do yet pay [...] [Page 124] or other the same adoration. Suppose the Anti [...]t [...]agans had declared to the Primitive Christians, that [...]he offering of some grains of Incense was only to per­ [...]ume the room, or that the delivering up of their Bi­bles, was but for preserving the Book more carefully. Do you think the Christians would have palliated so [...], and colluded with their Consciences? Men are 100 prone [...]o err on that hand. In the last King's [...]ime, some eminent Persons of our Clergy made an open defection to the Church of Rome. One, and he yet certainly a Protestant, and that hath deserved well of that cause, writ the Book of Seven Sacraments. One in the Church at present, though certainly no less a Protestant, could not abstain from arguing the Holi­ness of Lent: Doctor Thorndike lately dead, left for his Epitaph, Hic jacet c [...]pus Herberti Thoradike Prae­bendarij hujus Eccle [...] qui vivus veram Reformatae Ec­ [...]lesia rationem & modum precibus studiisque prosequeba­tur, and nevertheless he adds, Tu Lector requi [...]m ei & beatam in Christo resurrectionem precare. Which thing I do thus sparingly set down, only to shew the danger of inventive piety; and if Men come once to add new devices to the Scripture, how easily they slide on into Super [...]tition. Therefore, although the Church do consider her self so much as not to alter her Mode [...] the fancy of others, yet I cannot see why she ought to exclude those from Communion, whose weaker con­sciences cannot for fear of scandal step further. For the Non-conformists, as to these Declarations of our Church against the Reverence to the Creatures of Bread and Wine, and concerning the other Ceremo­nies as before, will be ready to think they have as [...] against the clause, ‘That whosoever should at­firm the Wednesday Fast to be imposed with an in­tention to bind the Conscience, should be punished [Page 125] like the spreaders of falso news; which is, saith a learned Prelate plainly to them that understand it, to evacuate the whole Law. For all human Power being derived from God, and bound upon our Conscinces by his Power, not by Ma [...], he that faith it shall not bind the Conscience, saith it shall be no Law, it shall have no Authority from God, and then it hath none at all; and if it be not tyed upon the Conseience, then to break it is no sin, and then to keep it is no duty. So that a Law with­out such an intention is a contradiction. It is a Law only which binds if we please, and we may o­bey when we have a mind to it, and to so much we are tyed before the Constitution. But then if by such a Declaration it was meant, that to keep such Fa­sting-days was no part of a direct Commandment from God, that is, God had not required them by himself immediately, and so it was abstracting from that Law no duty Evangelical, it had been below the wisdom of the Contrivers of it, no man petends it, [...] man saith it, no man thinks it, and they might as well have declared that that laiw was none of the ten Commandments, p. 59 of his first Book.’

So much pains does that learned Prelate of his take (who ever he was) to prove a whole Par­liament of England. Coxcombs. Now I say that th [...]se Ecclesia [...]ical Laws, with such Declarations concern­ing the Ceremonies by them [...], might, muta­ [...]is mutandis, be taxed upon the same Top [...]k. But I love not that task, and [...]hall rather leave it to Mr. Bayes to paraphrase his learnd Prelate. For he is very good at correcting the [...] of Laws and Lawgivers, and though this work indeed be not for [...] turn at present, yet it may be for the future. And I have heard a good Engineer say, That he never [...] any place so, but that he reserved a feeble [Page 126] point, by which he knew how to take it, if there were occasion.

I know a medicine for Mr. Bayes his Hiccough (it is but naming J. O.) but I cannot tell certainly, though I have a shrew'd guess what is the cause of it. For indeed all his Arguments here are so abrupt and short, that I cannot liken them better, considering too that [...]requent and perpetual repetition. Such as this, Why may not the Soveraign Power bestow this Priviledge up­on Ceremony, and Custom, by virtue of its prerogative? What greater Immorality is there in them when determi­ned by the Command and Institution of the Prince, than when by the consent and institution of the people? This the Tap-lash of what he said, p. 100. ‘When the Civil Magistrate takes upon him to determine any particular Forms of outward Worship, 'tis of no worse Consequence than if he should go about to define the signification of all words used in the Worship of God. And p. 108. of his first Book. So that all the Magistrates power of instituting sig­nificant Cerem-onies, &c. can be no more [...]rpati­on upon the CONSCIENCES of Men, than if the Soveraign Authority should take upon it self, as some Princes have done, to define the signification of words. And afterwards: The same gesture, and actions are indifferently capable of signifying either honour or contumely: and so words; and therefore 'tis necessary their signification should be determined &c.’ 'Tis all very well worth reading. p. 441. of his Second Book. ‘'Tis no other usurpation upon their Subjects Consciences than if he should take upon him to refine their Language, and determine the proper signification of all phrases imployed in Di­vine Worship, as well as in Trades, Ar [...]s and Sciences.’ p. 461. of the same; ‘Once we will so far gratifie the tenderness of their Consci­ences [Page 127] and curiosity of their Fancies, as to promise never to ascribe any other significancy to things than what himself is here content to bestow upon words. And 462. of the same. So that you see, my Com­parison between the signification of Words and Ceremonies stands firm as the Pillars of the Earth, and the Foundations of our Faith.’ Mr. Bayes might I see, have spared Sir Salomon's Sword of the Divine Institution of the Sacraments. Here is the terriblest weapon in all his Armory; and therefore I perceive, reserved by our Duellist for the last onset. And, I who am a great well-wisher to the Pillars of the Earth, or the eight Elephants, lest we should have an Earth-quake; and much more a Servant to the Kiag's Prerogative, lest we should all fall into consu­sion; and perfectly devoted to the Foundations of our Faith, lest we should run out into Popery or Paga­nism; have no heart to [...]his incounter: lest if I should prove that the Magistrates absolute unlimited and uncontrolable Power doth not extend to define the signification of all words, I should thereby not only be the occasion of all those mischiefs mentioned, but, which is of far more dismal Importance, the loss of two or three so significant Ceremonies. But though I therefore will not dispute against that Flow­er of the Princes Crown, yet I hope that without do­ing much harm, I may observe that for the most part they left it to the people, and seldome themselves ex­ercised it. And even Augustus Casar, though he was so great an Emperour, and so valiant a man in his own person, was used to fly from a new word though it were single, as studiously as a Mariner would avoid a Rock for fear of splitting. The differences of one Syllable in the same word hath madeas considerable a Controversy as most have been in the Church, betwi [...]t the Homousians [Page 128] and the Hamoiousions. One letter in the na [...]e of Beans in Languedoc, one party calling them Faves; and the other Haves; as the transposition only of a letter another time in the name of a Goat, by some called Crabe, and by o [...]hers Cabre, was the loss of more mens lives than the distinguishing but by an As­piration in Shiboleth upon the like occasion. So that if a man would be learnedly impertinent, he might en­large here to shew that ' [...]is as dangerous to take a man by the tongue, as a bear by the tooth. And had I a mind to play the Politician, like Mr. Bayes, upon so pleasant and copious a Subject, I would demonstrate that though the imposition of Ceremonies hath bred much mischief in the world, yet (shall I not venture too upon one word once for a tryal) such a Penetra­tion or Transubstantiation of Language would throw all into Rebellion and Anarchy, would shake the Crowns of all Princes, and reduce the World into a second Babel. Therefore, Mr. Bayes, I doubt you were not well advised to make so close an Analogy betwi [...] imposing of significant words and significant Ceremo­nies: for I fear the Argument may be improved against you, and that Princes finding that of words so impracti­cable, and of ill consequence, will conclude that of Ceremonies to be no less pernicious. And the Non­conformists (who are great Traders you know, in Scri­pture, and therefore thrown out of the Temple) will be certainly on your back. For they will appropriate your pregnant Text of Let all things be done decently and in order, to preaching or praying in an unknown Tongue, which such an imposition of words would be: and then, to keep you to your Similitude, they will say too that yours are all Latine Ceremonies, and the Congregation does not understand them. But were not [...] Dominion of words so dangerous (for [Page 129] how many millions of men did it cost your Roman Empire to attain it!) Yet it was very unmannerly in you to assign to Princes, who have enough beside, so mean a trouble. When you gave them leave to ex­ercise the Priesthood in person, that was something to the purpose; That was both Honourable, and some­thing belongs to it that would have help'd to bear the charge. But this Mint of words will never quit cost, nor pay for the coynage. This is such a drudge­ry; that rather than undergo it, I dare say, there is no Prince but would resign to you so Pedantical a So­veraignty. I cannot but think how full that Princes head must be of Proclamations. For, if he published but once a Proclamation to that purpose, he must forth­with set our another to stamp and declare the signifi­cation of all the words contained in it, and then ano­ther to appoint the meaning of all the words in this, and so on: that here is work cut out in one Paper of State for the whole Privy Council, both Secretaries of State, and all the Clerks of the Council, for one Kings Reign, and in infinitum. But, I cannot but won­der, knowing how ambitious Mr. Bayes is of the pow­er over words, and jealous of his own Prerogative of refining Language, how he came to be so liberal of it to the Prince: Why, the same thing that induced him to give the Prince a power an [...]ecedent and indepen­dent to Christ, [...]nd to establish what Religion he plea­sed, &c. Nothing but his spight against the Noncon­formists. I know not that thing in the world, except a Jest, that he would not part with to be satisfied in that particular. He hoped doub [...]less by holding up this Maxim; to obtain that the words of the declaration of Mar [...] 15. should be understood by contraries You may well think he expected no less an equivalent, he would never [...] have permitted the Prince even to [Page 130] define the signification of all words used in the Wor­ship of God, and to determine the proper significa­tion of all Phrases imploy'd in Divine Worship [...] Nay, Mr. Bayes, if it be come to that, and you will sur­render your Liturgy to the Prince, I know not what you mean; for 'tis bound up with your Bible. Was it ever heard that that Book so sacred, and in which there could not one error be found by all the Pres­byterians at the Worcester-House-Conference, should, upon so uncertain a prospect, be now abandon'd so far as that every word and Phrase in it may receive a new and [...]ontrary signification! But the King for ought I see likes it well as it is (and therefore I do so too). Yet in case His Majesty should ever think fit to reform it, and because such kind of work is usually referred back to some of the Clergy; I would glad­ly put in a Caveat, that our Author may in no ca e be one of them. For 'tis known that Mr, Bayes is sub­ject to a distemper; and who knows but when he is in a fit, as he made such mad alterations of the f [...]uit of the Spirit in the Epistle for the day, he may as w [...]ll in [...]ert in some other part of the Service, Wellfare poor Macedo for a modest Fool; and then, Oh how I hug th [...], Dear heart, for this l and pretend that the Supreme Magistrate should stamp upon it a signification sacred and serious. I would not have spoken so severely of him, but that his more laboured periods, as he calls them, are so often fill'd with much bolder and more unwhole­some translations. But however that he may not at his better intervals be wholly unemployed in the work of [...]lniformity, I should recommend to him rather to turn the Liturgy and the Rationale into the Universal Language, and so in time the whole world might come to be of his par [...]sh.

When he was drawn t [...]us low, did not [...] [Page 131] you, stand need of tilting? He had done much more service to the Cause, had he laid by all those cheat­ing Argumentations, and dealt candidly, like the good Arch Deacon not long since dead; who went about both Court and Countrey, preaching upon the Clok [...] left at Troas, and the Books, but especially [...]he Parchments. The honest Man had found out there the whole Liturgy, the Canonical habits, and all the E­quipage of a Conformist. This was something to the matter in hand, to produce Apostolical Example and Authority: And much more to the purpose than that beaten Text of doing all things decently and in order.

One Argument I con [...]ess remains still behind, and that will justifie any thing. 'Tis that which I call'd lately Rationem Ultimam Cleri; Force, Law, Execution, or what you will have it. I would not be mistaken, as though I hereby meant the body of the English Cler­gy, who have been ever since the Reformation (I say it without disparagement to the Foraign Church­es) of- the Eminentest for Divinity and Piety in all Christendom. And as far am I from censuring, un­der this title, the Bishops of England, sor whose Fun­ction, their Learning, their Persons I have too deep a veneration to speak any thing of them irreverently. But those that I intend only, are a particular bran of persons, who will in spight of Fate be accounted the Church of England, and to shew they are Pluralists, never write in a modester Stile than We, We; nay, even these, several of them, are Men of parts sufficient to deserve a Rank among the Teachers and Governots of the Church. Only what Bishop Bram [...]al f [...]ith of Gro­tius his defect in School Divinity;

[Page 132]
Unam hoc maceror & doleo tibi deesse.

I may apply to their excess and rigo [...]r in matter of Discipline. They want all consideration, all mode­ration in those things; and I never heard of any of them at any time, who, if they got into Power or Of­fice, did ever make the least experiment or overture to­wards the peace of the Church and Nation they lived in. They are the Politick Would be's of the Cler­gy. Not Bishops, but Men that have a mind to be Bishops, and that will do any thing in the World to compass it. And, though Princes have always a parti­cular mark upon these Men, and value them no more than they deserve, yet I know not very well, or perhaps I do know, how it oftentimes happens that they come to be advanced. They are Men of a fi [...]ry nature, that must always be uppermost, and so they may increase their own Slendor, care nor though they [...] all on flame about them. You would think the same day that they took up Divinity they divested themselves of Huma­nity, and so they may procure and execute a Law a­gainst the Non-conformists, that they had forgot the Gospel. They cannot endure that Humility, that Meekness, that strictness of Manners and Conversati­on, which is the true way of gaining Reputation and Authority to the Clergy; much less can they content themselves with the ordinary and comfortable provis sion that is made for the Ministry: But, having who­ly calculated themselves for Preferment, and Gran­deur, know or practise no other means to make them­selves venerable but by Ceremony and Severity. Where­as the highest advantage of promotion is the opportu­nity of condescention, and the greatest dignity in our Church can but raise them to the Title of Your Grace, [Page 133] which is in the Latine Vestra Clementia. But of all these, none are so eager and virulent, as some, who having had relation to the late times, have got access to Ecclesiasti­cal Fortune, and are resolved to make their best of her. For so, of all Beasts, none are so fierce and cruel as those that have been taught once by hunger to prey upon their own kind; as of all Men, none are so in­humane as the Canibals. But whether this be the true way of ingra [...]iating themselves with a generous and dis­cerning Prince, I meddle not; nor whether it be an ingenuous practice towards thosewhom they have been formerly acquainted with: but whatsoever they think themselves obliged to for the approving of their new Loyalty; I rather commend. That which astonishes me, and only raises my indignation is, that of all sorts of Men this kind of Clergy should always be, and have been for the most precipitate, brutish, and fanguina­ry Counsels. The former Civil War cannot make them wise, nor his Majesties happy Return, good na­tured; but they are still for running things up unto the same extreams. The softness of the Universities where they have been bred, the gentleness of Christia­nity, in which they have been nurtured, hath but ex­asperated their nature; and they seem to have con­tracted no Idea of wisdom, but what they learnt at School, the Pedantry of Whipping. They take them­selves qualified to Preach the Gospel, and no less to intermeddle in affairs of State: Though the reach of their Divinity is but to persecution, and an Inquis [...]on is the heig [...]t of their Policy.

And you Mr. Bayes, had you lived in the dayes of Augustus Caesar (be not [...]andalized, for why may you not bring sixteen hundred years, as well as five [...] into one of your Plays) would not you have made, think you, an excellent Privy Coun [...]ellour? His Father [Page 134] too was murdered. Or, (to come nearer both to our times, and your resemblance of the late War, which you trumpet always in the Ear of his Majesty) had you happen'd in the time of Henry the fourth of France, should not you have done well in the Cabinet? His Predecessor too was assassinated. No, Mr. Bayes, you would not have been for their purpose: They took other measures of Government, and accordingly it succeeded with them. And His Majesty, whose Genius hath much of both those Princes, and who de­rives half of the Blood in his Veins from the latter, will in all probability not be so forward to hear­ken to your advice as to follow their example. For these Kings, Mr. Bayes, how negligent soever or ig­norant you take'm to be, have, I doubt, a shrewd un­derstanding with them. 'Tis a Trade, that God be than­ked, neither you nor I are of, and therefore we are not so competent Judges of their Actions. I my se [...] have oftentimes seen them, some of them, do strange things, and unreasonable in my opinion, and yet a lit­tle while, or sometimes many years after, I have sound that all the men in the world could not have contrived any thing better. 'Tis not with them as with you. You have but one Cure of Souls, or perhaps two, as being a Noblemans Chaplain, to look after: And if you make Conscience of discharging them as you ought, you would find you had work sufficient, without wri­ [...]ing your Ecc [...]esiastical Policies. But they are the In­cumbents of whole Kingdoms, and the Rectorship of the Common people, the Nobility, and even of the Clergy, whom you are prone to affirm when possest with principles that incline to rebe [...]ion and disloy­al parctices, to be of all R [...]bels the most dangerous, p. 49. the care I say of all these, rests upon them. So that they are fain to condescend to many things for peace­sake, [Page 135] and the quiet of Mankind, that your proud heart would break before it would bend to. They do not think fit to require any thing that is impossi­ble, unnecessary, or wanton, of their people; but are fain to consider the very temper of the Climate in which they live, the Constitution and Laws under which they have been formerly bred, and upon all occasions to give them good words, and humour them like Children. They reflect upon the Histories of former times, and the present Transactions to regu­late themselves by in every circumstance. They have heard that one of your Roman Emperours, when his Captain of the Life-Guard came for the Word, by giving it unhandsomly, received a Dagger. They observe how the Parliament of Poland will be their Kings Taylor, and among other reasons, becau [...]e he would not wear their Mode, have suffered the Turk enter, as coming nearer their Fashion. Nay, that even Al [...]xander the Great had almost lo [...]t all he had con­quered by forcing his Subjects to conform to the Persian habit. That the King of Spain, when upon a Progress he enters B [...]scai, is pleased to ride with one Leg naked, and above all to take care that there be not a Bishop in his Retinue. So their people will pay their Taxes in good Gold and Silver, they demand no Subsidy of so many bushel of Fleas, lest they should [...] same answer with the Tyrant, that the Sub­ject could not furnish that quantity, and besides they would be leaping out still before they could be measured, and should th [...]y fine the people for non­payment, they reckon there would be little got by di­straining. They have [...] a certain Queen being desired to give a Town-Seal to one of [...], lighting from Horse, sate down naked on the Snow, and left them that Impression, and though it caused no [Page 136] disturbance, but all the Towv-Leases are Letters-Pat­tents; Kings do not approve the Example. That the late Queen of Sweden did her self no good with say­ing, Io [...] voglio [...] Bestie but afterwards resigned. That the occasion of the revolt of Swit­zerland from the Emperor and its turning Comm [...] wealth, was only the imposing of a Civil Ceremo­ny by Capricious Governour, who set up a Pole in the high-way, with a Cap upon the top of it, to which he would have all Passengers be uncover'd, a [...]d doobeysance. One sturdy Swi [...], that would not conform; thereupon overturn'd the Government, is 'tis at large in History. That the King of [...] lost Flanders chiefly upon introducing the Inquisi [...]on. And you now Mr. Bayes will think these, and [...] h [...]ndred more that I could tell you, but idle stor [...]s, and yet Kings can tell how to make use of 'm. And hence 'tis that instead of assuming your unhopable jurisdiction, they are so satisfied with the abundance of their power, that they rather think meet to a­bate os its exercise by their diseretion. The gre [...]er fortune is, they are content to to use the less extra [...] ­gancy. But because I see, Mr. Bayes, you are a little deaf on this ear I will talk somewhat closer to you. In this v [...]ry matter of Ceremonies, which you are so bent upon, [...], your mi [...]d is always running [...], w [...]en you should be [...], [...] not you think that the King [...] every word you said, although he never gave your Book [...] reading? That you sey, that the Clause 50 [...]. of the Wed [...] ­day-Fast has been the original of all the Puritan-Dis­order [...] [...] is now reduced only to two or three Symbolical Ceremonies. That these Ceremonies are things indifferent-in their own nature, and have no antecedent necessity, but onely bind as [Page 137] they are commanded. That they fignifie nothing in themselves but what the Commander pleases. That the Church it self declares that there is nothing of Reli­gion or adoration in them. That they are no parts of Religious Worship. That they are onely Circumstan­ces. That the imposing of a significant Ceremony, is no more than to impose fignificancy upon a word. That there is not a word of any of these Ce­remonies in the Scriptures. That they are in them­selves of no great moment and consequence, but 'tis absolutely necessary that Government should in [...]oyn them, to avoid the evil that would follow if they were not determined: and that there cannot be a Pin pull'd out of the Church, but the State imme­diately totters. Do not you think that the King has considered all these things? I believe he has; and perhaps, as you have minced the matter, he may well think the Nonconformists have very nice Sto­macks, that they cannot digest such chopp'd [...]ay: But on the other side, he must needs take you to be very strange men, to [...] these in fpite down the throats of any Christian. If a man have an Antipathy against any thing, the Company is generally so civil, as to re [...]rain the use of it, however not to press it upon the person. If a man be fick or weak the Pope grants a Dispensation from Lent, or Fasting dayes: ay, and from many a thing that strikes deeper in his Religion. If one have got a cold, their betters will force them to be covered. There is no end of Similitudes: but I am led into them by your calling these Ceremonies, Pins of the curious, and that is se [...]led (God be prai [...]ed) [Page 138] pretty fast in his Throne, to try for experiment, whe­ther the pulling out of one of these Pins would make the State totter. But, Mr. Bayes, there is more in it. 'Tis matter of Conscience: and if Kings do, out of dis­cretion, connive at the other infirmities of their People; If great perfons do out of civility condescend to their inferiours; and if all men out of common hu­manity do yield to the weaker; Will your Clergy on­ly be the men, who, in an affair of Conscience, and where perhaps 'tis you are in the wrong, be the onely hard-hearted and inflexible Tyrants; and not only so, but instigate and provoke Princes to be the Ministers of your cruelty? But, I say, Princes, as far as I can take the height of things so far above me, must needs have other thoughts, and are past such boys-play to stake their Crowns against your Pins. They do not think fit to command things unnecesfary, and where the profit cannot countervail the hazard. But above all they consider, that God has instated them in the Go­vernment of Mankind, with that incumbrance (if it may so be called) of reason, and that incumbrance up­on Reason of [...]. That he might have given them as large an extent of ground and other kind of cattle for their Subjects: but it had been a melancholy Empire to have been only supreme Grasiers and Sove­raign Shepherds. And therefore, though the laziness of that brutal magistracy might have been more secure, yet the difficulty of this does make it more honourable That men therefore are to be dealt with reasonably: and conscientious men by Conscience. That even Law is force, and the execution of that Law a greater Violence; and therefore with a rational creature not to be used but upon the utmost extremity. That [...] [Page 139] ral punishments do never reach the offender, but the innocent suffers for the gui [...]ty. That the mind is in the hand of God, and cannot correct those pe [...]swasi­ons which upon the best of it natural capacity it hath collected: So that it too, though erroneous, is so far innocent. That the Prince therefore, by how much God hath indued him with a clearer reason, and by consequence with a more enlightned judgement, ought the rather to take heed lest by punishing Conscience, he violate not onely his own, but the Divine Majesty. But as to that Mr. Bayes, which you still inculcate of the late War, and its horrid Catastrophe, which you will needs have to be upon a religious account: 'Tis four and twenty years ago, and after an Act of Oblivion; and for ought I can see, it had been as seasonable to have shown Casars bloody Coat, or Thomas a Beckets bloody Rochet. The chief of the offenders have long since made satisfaction to Ju­stice; and the whole Nation hath been swept suffici­ently of late years by those terrible scourges of Heaven: So that methinks you might in all this while have satiated your mischievous appetite. What­soever you suffered in those times, his Majesty who had much the greater loss, knowing that the me­mory of his Glorious Father will alwayes be pre­served, is the best Judge how long the revenge o [...]ght to be pursued. But if indeed out of your superlative care of his Majesty and your Living, you are afraid of some new disturbance of the same na­ture, let me so far satisfie you as I am satisfied. The Non-conformists say that they are bound in conscience to act as far as they can, and for the rest to suffer to the utmost. But because though they do mean honestly, 'tis so hard a Chapter for one that thinks himself in the [Page 140] right to suffer extremities patiently, that some think it impossible; I say next, that it's very sel­dom seen that in the same age, a Civil War, af­ter such an interval, has been raised again upon the same pretences: But Men are also weary, that he would be knock'd on the head that should raise the first disturbance of the same nature. A new War must have, like a Book that would sell, a new Title.

I am asham'd Mr. Bayes that you put me on talk­ing thus impertinently, (for Policy in us is so). There­fore to be short, the King hath so indulged and obliged the Non-conformists by his late mercy, that if there were any such Knave, there can be no such Fool among them, that would ever lift up an ill thought against him. And for you Mr. Bayes he is assured of your Loyalty, so that I think you may enjoy your Living very peaceably, which I know is all your business. 'Twas well replyed of the English man in Edward the Fourths time, to the French man that ask'd him insulting, When they should see us there again? When your sins are greater than ours. There are as many occasions of War, as there are Vices i [...] a Nation: And therefore it concerns a Prince to be watchful on all hands. But should Kings remember an injury as long as you implacable Divines do, or should we take up Arms upon your Becks, because your E [...]clesiastical Policy is answer­ed, to revenge your quarrel, the World would ne­ver be at quiet. Therefore Mr. Bayes, let all those things of former times alone, and mind your own business; for Kings, believe me, as they have Royal understandings, so have G [...]ntlemens memories. [Page 141] And now, Master Bayes, I think it is time to [...]ake my leave, having troubled you with so long a [...]. Onely before I quit this matter, because I [...]lo not love to be accounted singular in my opinion, [...] will add the judgement of one Author, and that [...] pertinent as I could pick out to our purpose. I have observed that not onely other Princes, but Queen Elizabeth too hath the misfortune to be much but of your favour. But for what reason I cannot pos­ [...]ibly imagine; for none ever deserved better as to [...]he thing of Uniformity, unless it be the ill luck she had to pass that impertinent Clause in the Act of the fifth of Elizabeth, of the Jejunium Cecilianun. You can­not, for her sake, indure the Wit or Learning of her [...]imes, but say, pag. 94. of your second Book, ‘Though this trifling Artifice of sprinkling little fragments of Wit, and Poetry might have passed for Wit and Learning in the days of Queen Eliza­beth, yet to men of Learning, Reading and In­genuity, their vulgar use has sullied their lustre, and abated their value.’ This is indeed, Mr. Bayes, a very labour'd period, and prepared by you, I be­lieve, on purpose as a model of the wit and Elo­quence of your days. But not onely so; but page 483. of the same Book, I think you call her in de­rision, and most spightfully and unmannerly, plain Old Elsibeth. And those that knew her humour, think yon could not have disobliged her more than in [...]iling her so; both as a Woman, which Sex never love to be thought old, and as a Queen who was jealous, lest Men should therefore talk of the succession. Besides the irreverent nick-name you give [...]er, that you might as well have presumed to call her Queen Bess, or Bold Bettrice. Now to the [Page 142] end that that Queen of famous Memory may have a little Female revenge upon you, and to give you a rast of the Wit and Learning even of her times; I will sprinkle here one Fragment, which not being a Scholar-like saying of antient Poet or Philosopher, but of a Reverend Divine, I hope, Master Bayes, may be less displeasing to you. The Man is Par­k [...]r, not Robert Parker, who writ another Trea­t [...]se of Ecclesiastical Policy, and the Book de Cruce [...], for which if they had [...]atch'd him, he had possibly gone to the Gallows, or at least the Gallyes. For he was one of those well-mean­ing Zealots, that are of all Villains the most dangerous. But it is the Arch-Bishop of Canter­bury, Parker, (For if I named him before with­out addition, 'twas what I learnt of you speaking of [...]hitgift) He in his Book de Antiquitatibus Ec- [...]clesiae Britannicae, page 47. speaking of the slaugh­ter of the Monks of Bangor, and so many Chri­stians more, upon the instigation of Austin the the Monk, who stirred up Ethilbert King of Kent against them, because they would not receive the Romish Ceremonies; useth these words, Et sane illa prima de Romanis Ritibus indu [...]ndis per Au­g [...]stinum tunc excitata contentio, quae non nisi clade & sanguine innocentium Brittannorum poterat extin­gui; ad nostra recentiora tempora, cum simili per­nicie cadeque Christiano [...]um pervenit. Cum [...]nim illis gloriosis ceremoniis à purâ Primitivae Ecclesiae sim­plicitate recesserunt, non de vit [...] sanctitate, de E­vangelij praedicatione, de spiritus sancti vi & consolatio [...]e multum laborabant; sed novas indies altercationes de novis ritibus per Papas singulos ad­ditis, qui neminem tam excelso gradu dignum qui [Page 143] aliquid. ceremoniosi non dicam, monstrosi inauditi & inusitati non adjecisset; instituebant. Suggestaque & scholas fabulis rixisque suis implebant. Nam prima Ecclesiae species simplicior & integro & interno Dei cul­tu, ab ipso Verbo praescripto, nec vestibus splendidis nec magnificis structuris decorata, nec auro, argento gemmisque fulgens fuit: Et si liceat his exterioribus ut modo animum ab illo interiori & integro Dei cultu non abducant; Curiosis & morosis ritibus ab illâ prim [...]va & rectâ simplicitate Evangelicâ degeneravit. Illa autem in Romanâ Ecclesiâ rituum multitudo ad immen­sum illius magni Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi tempo­ribus creverat: ut questus sit Christianorum in Ceremo­niis & ritibus duriorem quàm Judaeorum, qui [...] tempus Libertatis non agnoverint, Legalibus tamen sar­cinis non humanis praesumptionibus subjiciebanter; nam paucioribus in divino cultu quàm Christiani Ceremonii [...] [...]tebantur. Qui si sensisset quantus deinde per singulos Papas coacervatus cumulus accessit, modam Christia­ [...]um credo ipse statuisset; qui hoc malum tunc in Eccle­ [...] viderat. Videmus enim ab illâ ceremoniarum con­ [...]entione nedum Ecclesiam esse vacuam; quin [...]omines [...]lioquin docti atque pii de vestibus & hujusmodi nu­gis ad huc, rixoso magis & militari, quàm aut [...] aut Christiano more inter se digladiantur. These words do run direct against the Genius of some men that contributed not a little to the late Rebel­lion, and, though so long since writ, do so exact­ly describe that evill spirit with which some men [...] even in these times postest, who seem desirous [...]pon the same grounds to put all things in com­ [...]ustion, that I think them very well worth the la­ [...]our of translating. [And indeed, that first con­ [...]ention then raised by Augustine about the intro­ducing of the Romish Ceremonies, which could not be quenched but by the blood and slaughter of [...]he innocent Britains; hath been continued e'n to [Page 144] our later times, with the like mischief and murder of Christians. For when once by those gloriou [...] Ceremonies they forsook the pure simplicity of th [...] Primitive Church, they did nor much troubl [...] themselves about Holiness of Life, the preachin [...] of the Gospel, the efficacy and comfort of the Holy Spirit: but they fell every day into ne [...] squab les about new- [...]angled Ceremonies added [...] every Pope, who reckoned no man worthy of [...] high a degree but such as invented somewhat, [...] will not say Ceremonious, but monstrous, unhea [...] of, and before unpractised; and they fill'd th [...] Schools and the Pulpits with their Fables [...] brawling of such matters, For the first beau [...]y [...] the Church had more of simplicity and plainnes [...], and was neither adorned with splendid vestmen [...] nor magnificent structures, nor shin'd with gol [...] silver, and precious stones; bt with the int [...] and inward worship of God, as it was by Chri [...] himself prescribed, Although it may be lawfull [...] [...]se these external things, so they do not lead th [...] mind astray from that more inward and inti [...] Worship of God; by those curious and crab [...] Rites it degenerated from that antient and right [...] vangelical simplicity. But that multitude of [...] in the Romish Church, had unmeasurably in­creased in the times of that great Augustine the Bishop of Hippo, in so much that he complain [...] that the condition of Christians, as to Rites an [...] Ceremonies, was then harder than that of th [...] Jews; who although they did not discern the ti [...] of their Liberty, yet were only subjected to Leg [...] burthens, instituted first by God himself, nor [...] humane Presumptions, For they used fewer [...] [...]emonies in the Worship of God, than Christi [...] Who, if he could have foreseen how great a [...] of them was afterwards piled up, and added by [...] [Page 145] several Popes, he himself doubtless would have restrained it within Christian measure, having al­ready perceived this growing evil in the Church. For we see, that even yet the Church is not free from that contention: but men, otherwise learn­ed and pious, do still cut and flash about Vest­ments and such kind of tri [...]les, rather in a swash­buck-ler and Hectoring way, than either like Phi­losophers or like Christians.]

Now Mr. Bayes, I doubt you must be put to the trouble of writing another Preface against this Arch-bishop. For nothing in your Answerer's Treatise of Evangelical Love does so gird or aim at you, for ought I can see, or at those whom you call the Church of England, as this Passage. But the last period does so plainly delineate you to the life, that what St. Austine did not presage, the Bishop seems to have foreseen most distinctly. 'Tis [...]ust your way of writing all along in this matter. You bring nothing sound or solid. Only you think you have got the Great Secret, or the Philosophers [...]tone of Railing, and I believe it, you have so [...]ultiplied it in Projection: and as they into Gold, so you turn every thing you meet with into Rail­ing. And yet the Secret is not great, nor the Pro­ [...] long or dificult, if a man would study it, and make a trade on't. Every Scold hath it natural­ly. It is but crying Whore first, and having the [...] word, and whatsoever t'other sayes, cry, Oh [...]hese are your Nonconfor mist's tricks, Oh you [...]ave learnt this of the Puritans in Grubstreet. O [...] [...]ou white-aprond Gossip. For indeed, I never [...]aw provident a fetch: you have taken in before [...]and of all the Posts of railing, and so beset all [...] Topicks of just crimination, foreseeing where [...] are feeble, that if this trick would pass, it were [...]possible to open ones mouth to find the least [Page 146] sault with you. For in your first Chapter of your Second Book, beside what you do alwaies in an hundred places when you are at a loss, you have spent almost an hundred Pages upon a Character of the Fanatick deportment toward all Adversaries. And then on the other side, you have so ingrossed and bought up all the Ammunition of Railing, search'd every corner in the Bible, and Don Quixot for Powder, that you thought, not unreasonably, that that there was not one shot left for a Fanatick, But truth, you see, cannot want words: and she laugh too sometimes when she speaks, and rather than all fail too, be serious. But what will you say to that of the Arch-bishops, than either like Phi­losophers or like Christians? For the excellency of your Logick, Philosophy and Christianity in all your Books, is either, as in Conscience, to take away the subject of the question: or, as in the Ma­gistrate, having gotten one absurdity, to raise [...] thousand more from it. So that, except the ma­nufacture and labour of your periods, you have done no more than any School boy could have done on the same terms. And so, Mr. Bayes, Goodnight.

And now Good-morrow Mr. Bayes; For though it seems so little a time and that you are now gen [...] to bed, it hath been a whole live-long night, and you have toss'd up and down in many a trouble­some dream, and are but just now awaked at the Title page of your book: A Preface shewing wh [...] grounds there are of fears and jealousies of Poper [...] It is something artificially couch'd, but looks, [...] if it did allow, that there are some grounds [...] fears and jealousies of that nature. But here [...] words it, a Consideration what likelihood, or how [...] danger there is of the return of Popery into this Nati [...] [...]ad he not come to this at last, I should hav [...] [Page 147] thought I had been all this while reading a Chapter in Mountagu [...]'s Essayes; where you find sometimes scarce one word in the discourse of the matter held forth in the Title. But now in­deed he takes up this Argument and debates it to purpose. For I had before begun to shew that he had writ not only his two former Books but espe­cially too this Preface, with an evil eye and aim at his Maj [...]sty, and the measures he had taken of Government. And whoever will take the pains to read here, will soon be of my mind. His Ma­jesty had I said, the 15th of March 1671. issued his Declaration of Indulgence to tender Consci­ences. He, on the contrary, issues out thereupon, all in hast and as fast as he could write, this his Remonstrance or Manifesto against Indulgence to tender Consciences: and to make his Majesties proceedings more odious, stirs up this seditious matter, of what probability there is of Popery.

And this he discourses, to be sure, in his own imagination very cunningly. For he knows that there was an Act of Parliament in this Kings Reign with a greater penalty than that of 50 Eliz. of spreading false News, against reports of this na­ture. And therefore, he resolves to handle it so [...] warily, that he himself might escape, but might draw others that should answer him, within the danger of that Act, and that he may lay the crime at their doors. But, notwithstanding all his slights and L'gerdemain, it doth eno [...]gh detect his malice & ill intention to his Majestios Government, that he should take this occasion, altogether foreign and unseasonable, to raise a publick and solemn discourse through the whole Nation, concerning a matter the most odious and dangerous that could be exposed. So that now, no man can look at the wall, no man can pass by a Booksellers stall, but [...] [Page 148] he must see A Preface shewing what GROUNDS ther [...] are for FEARS and JEALOUSIES of POPERY.

It had been something a safer and more dutiful way of writing, A Preface shewing the CAUSE­LESNESS of the Fears and Jealousies of PO­PERY. For I do not think it will excuse a Witch, to say, That she conjur'd up a Spirit only that she m [...]ght lay it, nor can there be a more dexterou [...] and malicious way of calumny, than by making a needless Apology for another, in a criminal sub­ject. As, suppose I should write a Preface showing what Grounds there are of Fears and Jealousies of Bayes his being and Atheist. But this is exactly our Authors method and way of contrivance; whereby more effectually by far than by any flying Coffee­house tattle, he traduces the State, and by Prin­ting so pernicious a question, fills all mens mouths, and beats out all mens eyes with the probability of the return of POPERY. Had he heard any that malignly and officiously talk'd to such a purpose, it had been the part of one so prudent as he is, not to have continued the Discourse. Had he (as he hath a great gift that way) pick'd up out of any mans talk or writing, matter whereof to make an ill story; there was a better and more r [...]gular way o [...] proceeding, had he meant honestly to his Ma­jesties Government, to have prevented the evil, and to have brought the offender to punishment. He should have gone to one of the Secretaries of State, or to some other of his Majesties Privy Council, and have given them Information. But, in stead of that, I am afraid that in the survey of this business, we shall find, that even some of them are either accused, or shrewdly mark'd out with a Character of our Authors displeasure. Therefore, I will now come nearer to his ma [...]ter in hand, although it concernes me to be careful of [Page 149] coming too near, nor shall I dwell too long upon so jealous and impertinent a subject.

To consider what likelihood or how much danger there is of the return of Popery into this Nation. The [...]he very first word is; For my par [...] I know none. Ve­ry well considered. Why then, M [...]. B [...]yes, I must tell you, that if I had Printed a Book or Preface upon that Argument, I should have thought my self, at least a Fool for my labour. The next con­siderer is mine Enemy; I mean he is an Enemy to the State, whoever shall foment such discourses without any likelihood or danger. Yet Mr. Bayes you know, I have for a good while had no great opinion of your Integrity; neither here. I doubt you prevaricate a little with some body. For I sup­pose you cannot be ignorant that some of your su­periors of your Robe did, upon the publishing that Declaration, give the word, and deliver Orders through their ecclesiastical Camp, to beat up the Pulpit-drums against Popery. Nay, even so much that there was care taken too for arming the poor Readers, that though they came short of Preachers in point of efficacy, yet they might be enabled to do some­thing in point of common Security. So that, though for so many years, those your superiors had for­got there was any such thing in the Nation as a Popish Recusant, though Polemical and Controver­sial Divinity had for so long been hung up in the Halls, like the rusty obsolete Armour of our An­cestors, for monuments of Antiquity; and for de­sision rather than service; all on a sudden (as if the 15th of March had been the 5th of November) happy was he that cold climb up first to get down one of the old Cuirasses, or an Habergeon that had been wor [...] in the dayes of Queen Elizabeth. Great variety there was and heavy doo. Some clapp'd it on all rusty as it was, others fell of oyl­ing [Page 150] and furbishing their armour: Some piss'd in their Barrels, others spit in their Pans, to scowr them. Here you might see one put on his Helmet the wrong way: there one Buckle on a back in place of a breast. Some by mistake catched up a Socinian Arminian Argument, and some a Popish to figh [...] a Popish. Here a Dwarf lost in the accoutre­ments of a Giant: there a Don-Quixot in an equi­page of differing pieces, and of several Parishes. Never was there such Incongruity and Nonconfor­mity in their furniture. One ran to borrow a Sword of Calvin. This man for a Musket from Beza: that for a Bandeleers even from Keckerman. But when they came to seek Match, and Bullet, and Power, there was none to be had. The Fana­ticks had bought it all up, and made them pay for it most unconscionably, and through the nose. And no less sport was it to see their Leaders. Few could tell how to give the word of Command, nor un­derstood to dr [...]ll a Company: They were as unex­pert as their Soldiers aukward: and the whole was as pleasant a spectacle, as the exercising of the Train'd-bands in — shire. But Mr. Bayes (for I believe you do nothing but upon common advice) either this was all intended but for a false alarum, and was only for a pretence to take arms against the Fanaticks (which you might have done with­out raising all this din and obloquy against the State and disquieting his Majesties good Subjects:) or else you did really think (and who can help misappreliensions?) that you did know some like­lihood or danger of the return of Popery I crave you mercy Mr Bayes, I took you a little short. For my part I know none, you say, but the Nonconsormists boysterous and unreasonable opposition to the Church of England.

This I confess hath some weight in it. For truly [Page 151] before I knew none too, I was of your Opinion Mr. Bayes, & believed that Popery could never return into England again, but by some very sinister acci­dent This expression of mine is something un­cou [...]h, and therefore because I love to give you satisfaction in all things Mr. Bayes, I will acquaint you with my reason of using it. Henry the fourth of France, his Majesties Grandfather, lived (you know) in the dayes of Queen Elizabeth. Now the wit of France and England, as you may have ob­served, is much of the same mode, und hath at all times gone much after the same current Rate and Standard; only there hath been some little diffe­rence in the alloy, and advantage or disadvantage in the exchange according to mens occasions. Now Henry the fourth, was (you know too) a Prince like Bishop Bramhall, of a brave and enterprising temper, and had a mind large and active enough to have managed the Roman Empire at its utmost extent; and particularly (as far as the prejudice of the age (Old Elsibeths Age) would permit him) he was ve­ry wittie and facetious, and the Courtiers strove to humour him alwaies in it, and increase th [...] mirth. So one night after supper he gave a Sub­ject (which recreation did well enough in those times, but were now insipid) upon which, like [...]oyes at Westminster, they should make French Verse extempore. The Subject was, Un Accident sinistre. Straight answers, I know not whether 'twas Bassampierre or Obignè:

Un sinistre Accident & un Accident sinistre;
De veoir un P [...]ere Capuchin chevaucher un Ministre.

For when I said, to see Popery return here, [Page 152] would be a very sinister accident; I was just think­ing upon that story; the Verses, to humour them in translation, being only this,

O what a trick unlucky, and how un­lucky a trick,
To see friend Doctor Patrick, bestrid by Father Patrick!

Which seem'd to me, would be the most impro­bable and preposterous spectacle that ever was seen; and more rediculous for a sight, than the Friendly Debate is for a Book. And yet if Popery come in, this must be, and worse.

But now I see there is some danger by the Non­consormists opposition to the Church of England, And now your business is all fixed. The Fanaticks are ready at hand to bear the blame of all things. Many a good job have I seen done in my time up­on pretence of the Fanaticks. I do not think Mr. Bayes ever breaks his shins, but it is by stumbling upon a Fanatick. And how shall they bring in Popery? why th [...]s, three wayes. First, By crea­ting disorders and disturbances in the State, Secondly, By the assistance of Atheism and Irreligion. Thirdly, By joyning with crafty and sacrilegious Statesmen in confederacy. Now here I remark two things. One, that however you do not find that the Fanaticks are inclinable to Popery, only they may accom­modate it by creating disturbances in the State. Another is, that I see these Gentlemen, the Fa­naticks, the Atheists, and the Sacrilegious Statesmen are not yet acquainted; but you have appointed them a meeting (I believe it must be at your Lodging, or no where;) and I hope you will treat them handsomly. But I think it was not so wisely done, nor very honestly, Mr. Bayes, to lay [Page 134] so dangerous a Plot as this; and instruct men that are strangers yet to one another, how to contrive [...]ogether such a Conspiracy. But first to your first.

The Fanaticks you say may probably raise distur­bance in the State. For they are so little friends to the present Government, that their enmity to that is one of the main Grounds of their quarrel to the Church. But now, though I must confess it is very much to your purpose, if you could perswade men so, I think you are clear out, and misrepresent here the whole matter. For I know of no enmity they have to the Church it self, but what it was in her power alwayes to have remedied, and so it is still. But such as you it is that have alwayes strove by your leasings to keep up a strangeness and misun­derstanding betwixt the King and his people; and all the mischief that hath come on't does lye much at your door.

Whereas they, as all the rest of mankind, are men for their own ends too: And no sooner hath the King shown them this late favour, but you Mr. Bayes, and your partners reproach them for being too much friends to the P [...]erogative. And no less would they be to the Church, had they ever at any age in any time found her in a treata­ble temper. I know nothing they demand, but what is so far from doing you any harm, that it would only make you better. But that indeed is the harm, that is the thing you are afraid of Here our Author divides the discourse into a great Elo­gy of the Church of England; that if he were ma­king her Funeral Sermon, he could not say more in her commendation; and a contrary invective against the Nonconformists, upon whom (as if all he had said before had been nothing) he unloads his whole Leystal, and dresseth them up all in Sambenitas, painted with all the flames and De­vil [...] [Page 154] in Hell, to be led to the place of Execution, and there burnt to ashes. Nevertheless, I find on either side only the natural effect of such Hyper­boles and Oratory, that is, not to be beleived. The Church of England (I mean as it is by Law E­stablished, lest you should think I equivocate) hath such a stock of solid and deserved Reputation that it is more than you (Mr. Bayes) can spoyl or deface by all the Pedantry of your commendation. Only there is that party of the Clergy, that I not long ago described, and who will alwaies presume to be the only Church of England, who have been a perpetual Eye-sore, that I may not say a Can­ker and Gangreen in so perfect a beauty. And, as it joyes my heart to hear any thing well said of her; so I must confess, it stirs my choler, when I hear those men pride and boast themselves under the Mask of her Authority. Neither did I there­fore approve of an expression you here use: The Power of Princes would be a very precarious thing without the assistance of Ecclesiasticks, and all Govern­ment do's & must ow its quiet and continuance to the Churches Patronage That is as much as to say, That but for the assistance of your Ecclesiastical Po­licy, Princes might go a begging: and that the Church, that is you, have the Juspatronatus of the Kingdome, and may present whom you think fit­ting to the Crown of England. This is indeed some­thing like the return of Popery; and right

Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema Rudolpho.

The Crown were surely well help'd up, if it were to be held at your convenience, and the Emperour must lead the Patriarchs Ass all his life-time. And little better do I like your We may rest satisfied in the present security of the Church of England, under the [Page 155] Pro [...]ection of a wise and gracious Prince: especially when besides the impregnable confidence that we have from his own Inclination, it is so manifest, that he never can forsake it either in Honour or Interest. This is a prety way of cokesing indeed, while you are all this while cutting the grass under his feet, and animating the people against the exercise of his Ecclesiastical Supremacy. Men are not so plain­hearted; but they can see through this oblique Rhetorication and Sophistry. If there be no dan­ger in his time of taking a Pin out of the Church (for that it is you intended) why do you then speak of it in his time, but that you mean mischief? but here you do not only mow the grass under his feet, but you take the pillow from under his head. But should it ever happen that any King of England should be prevail'd with to deliver up the Church, he bad as good at the same time resign up his Crown. This is pret­ty plain dealing, and you have doubtless secur'd hereby that Princes favour: I should have thought it better Courtship in a Divine, to have said, O King, Live for ever. But I see Mr. Bayes, that you and your Partners are very necessary men, and it were dangerous disobliging you. But in this im­prudent and nauseous discourse, you have all along appropriated or impropriated all the Loyalty from the Nobility, the Gentry, and the Common­alty, and dedicated it to the Church; So, I doubt­you are a little too immoderate against the body, of the Nonconformists. You represent them, to a man, to be all of them of Republican Principles, most pestilent and, eo nomine, enemies to Monar­chy; Traytors and Rebells; such miscreants as never was in the world before, and fit to be pack'd out of it with the first convenience. And, I ob­serve, that all the Argument of your Books is but very frivolous and trivial: only the memory of [Page 156] the late War serves for demonstration, and the detestable sentence and execution, of his lute Ma­jesty, is represented again upon the Scaffold; and you having been, I suspect, better acquainted with Parliament Declarations formerly upon ano­ther account, do now apply and turn them all over to prove that the late War was wholly upon a Fa­natical Cause, and the dissenting party do still go big with the same Monster. I grew hereupon much displeased with my own ignorance of the oc­casion of those Troubles so near our own times, and betook my self to get the best Information concerning them, to the end that I might, If it appear'd so, decline the dangerous acquaintance of the Nonconformists, some of whom I had tak­en for honest men, nor therefore avoided their Company. But I took care nevertheless, not to receive Impressions from any of their party; but to gather my lights from the most impartial Au­thorities that I could meet with. And I think I am now partly prepared to give you, Mr. Bayes, some better satisfaction in this matter. And be­cause you are a dangerous person, I shall as little as possible, say any thing of my own, but speak too before good Witnesses. First of all therefore, I will without farther Ceremony, fall upon you with the but-end of another Arch-bishop. 'Tis the Arch-bishop of Canterbury, Abbot, in the Nar­rative under his own hand concerning his disgrace at Court in the time of his late Majesty. I shall only in the way demand excuse, if, contrary to my fashion, the names of some eminent persons in our Church long since dead, be reviv'd here under no very good character; and most particularly that of Archbishop Laud, who, if for nothing else, yet for his learned Book against Fisher, deserved for another Fate than he met with, and ought not [Page 157] now to be mentioned without due honour [...] But those names having so many years since escap­ed the Press, it is not in my power to conceal them; and I believe Archbishop Abbot did not write but upon good Consideration.

This I have premised for my own Satisfaction, and I will add one thing more, Mr. Bayes, for yours. That whereas the things now to be alledg­ed relate much to some Impositions of Money in the late King's time, that were carryed on by the Clergy; I know you will be ready to carp at that, as if the Nonconformists had, and would be al­wayes enemies to the Kings supply. Whereas, Mr. [...]ayes, if I can do the Nonconformists no good, I am resolv'd I will do them no harm, nor desire that they should lye under any imputation on my account. For I write by my own advice, and what I shall alledge concerning the Clergies intermed­ling with supplies, is upon a particular aversion, that I have upon good Reason, against their dis­posing of our Money. And Mr. Bayes I will ac­quaint you with the Reason, which is this. 'Tis not very many years ago that I used to play at Picket; and there was a Gentleman of your Robe, a Dignitary of Lincoln, very well known and re­membred in the Ordinaries, but being not long [...]ince dead, I will save his name. Now I used to play Pieces, and this Gentleman would alwayes go half a Crown with me, and so all the while he sate on my hand he very honestly gave the Sign, so that I was alwaies sure to lose. I afterwards dis­covered it, but of all the money that ever I was cheated of in my life, none ever vexed me so, as what I lost by his occasion. And ever since, I have born a great grudge against their fingring of any thing that belongs to me. And I have been told, and show'd the place where the man dwelt in the [Page 158] late King's time near Hampton Court, that there was one that used to rob on the high-way, in the habit of a Bishop, and all his fellows rid too in Canonical Coats. And I can but fancy how it madded those, that would have perhaps been con­tent to releive an honest Gentleman in distress, or however would have been less griev'd to be robb'd by such an [...]ne, to see themselves so Episco­pally pillaged. Neither must it be less displeasing alwaies to the G [...]ntry and [...]ommonalty of En­gland, that the Clergy (as you do M [...]. Bayes) should tell them that they are never sui Juris, not only as to their Consciences, bu [...] even as to their Purses; and you should pretend to have this Pow­er of the Keys too, where they lock their Money. Nay, I dare almost aver upon my best observation, that there never was, nor ever will be a Parlia­ment in England, that could or can refuse the King supplies propo [...]ionable to his occasions, wi [...]hout any need of recou [...]se to extraordinary wayes; but for the pick [...]hankness of the Clergy, who will alwaies p [...]sume to have the thanks and honour of it, nay, and are ready alwayes to obstruct the Parliamentary Aids, unless they may have their own little project pass too into the ba [...]gain, and they may be g [...]atified with some new Ecclesiastical Power, or some new Law against the Fanaticks. This is the naked truth of the matter. Whereas English men alwayes love to see how their money goes, and if the [...]e be any interest or profit to be got by it, to receive it themselves. Therefore Mr. Bayes I will go on with my business not fearing all the mischief that you can make of it.

‘There was, saith he, one Sibthorp, who not be­ing so much as Batchelor of Arts, by the means of Doctor Pierce Vice-Chancelor of Oxford, got to beconfer'd upon him the title of Doctor. This [Page 159] Man was Vicar of Brackley in Northamptonshire, and hath another Benefice. This Man preach­ing at Northampton, had taught, that Princes had power to put Poll-money upon their Subjects heads. He being a man of a low fortune, con­ceiv'd the putting his Sermon in Print might gain favour at Cou [...]t, and raise his fortune high­er.’ It was at the same time that the business of the Loan was on foot. In the same Sermon ‘he called that Loan a Tribute, Taught that the Kings duty is first to direct and make Laws. That noting may excuse the subject from active obedi­ence, but what is against the Law of God or Na­ture, or impossible; that all Antiquity was abso­lutely for absolute obedience in all civil and temporal things.’ And the imposing of Poll­monie by Princes, he justifi'd out of St. Matthew: And in the matter of the Loan, What a Speech is this, saith the Bishop, he observes the forwardness of the Papists to offer double. For this Sermon was sent to the Bishop from Court, and he required to Li­cence it, not under his Chaplin, but his own hand. But he, not being satisfi'd of the Doctrine deliver­ed, sent back his reasons why he thought not fit to give his app [...]obation, and unto these Bishop Laud, who was in this whole business, and a rising Man at Court, undertook an answer. ‘His life in Ox­ford, faith Archbishop Abbot, was to pick quar­rels, in the Lectures of publick Readers, and to advertise them to the Bifhop of Durham that he might fill the Ears of King James, with discontent against the honest men that took pains in their places, and setled the Truth (which he call'd Puritanism) in their Auditors. He made it his work to see what Books were in the Press, and and to look over Epistles Dedicatory, and Pre­faces to the Reader, to see what faults might be [Page 164] found. 'Twas an observation what a sweet man this was like to be, that the first observable act he did, was the marrying of the Earl of D. to the Lady R. when she had another Husband a Noble­man, and divers Children by him. Here he tells how, for this very cause, King James would not a great while endure him, 'till he yeilded at last to Bishop Williams his importunity, whom not­withstanding he straight strove to undermine, and did it at last to purpose: for saith the Ar [...]hbishop Verily, such is his undermining nature, that he will under-work any man in the World, so he may gain by it. He call'd in the Bishop of Durham, Rochester, and Oxford, tryed men for such a pur­pose, to the answering of my Reasons, and the whole stile of the Speech, runs We, We. In my memory, Doctor Harsnet then Bishop of Chichester, and now of Norwich (as he came afterward to be Arch-bishop of York) preached at White-Hall up­on, Give unto Caes [...]r the things that are Caesars; a Sermon that was afterwards burned, teaching that Goods and Money were Caesars, and so the Kings: Whereupon King James told the Lords and Commons that he had failed in not adding accor­ding to the Laws and Customs of the Countrey wherein they did live. But Sibthorp was for absolute­ly absolute. [...]o that if the King had sent to me for all my Money & Good [...], & so to the Clergy I must by Sibthorps proportion send him all. If the King should send to the City of London to command all their wealth, they were bound to do it. I know the King is so gracious he will attempt no such mat­ter; but if he do it not, the defect is not in these flattering Divines.’ Then he saith, reflecting again upon the Loan which Sibthorp called a Tri­bute. ‘I am sorry at heart, the King's Gracious Majesty should rest so great a Building on so weak [Page 161] a Foundation, the Treatise being so [...]lender, and without substance, but that proceeded from an hungry Man.’ Then he speaks of his own case as to the Licensing this Book, in parallel to the Earl of Essex his divorce; which to give it more authority, was to be ratified judicially by the Arch­bishop. He concludes how finally he refused his approbation to this Sermon, and saith, ‘it was thereupon carried to the Bishop of London, who gave a great and stately allowance of it, the good man not being willing that any thing should stick with him that came from Court, as appears by a Book commonly called the seven Sacraments, which was allowed by his Lordship with all the errours, which have been since ex­punged.’ And he adds a pretty story of one Doctor Woral, the Bishop of London's Chaplain, [...]olar good enough, but a free fellow-like man, and of no very tender Conscience, who before it was Li­c [...]nsed by the Bishop, Sibthorps Sermon being brought to him, hand over head approved it, and subscribed his nam [...]. But afterwards he [...]ring more of it, went to a Counsel at the Temple, who told him, that by that Book there was no Meum nor Tuum left in England, and if ever the Tide turn'd, be might come to be hang'd for it, and thereupon Woral Woral scr [...]ped out his name again, and left it to his Lord to License. Then the Arch-bishop takes notice of the instructions for that Loan. ‘Those that refused, to be sent for Souldiers to the King of Denmark. Oaths to be administred with whom they had conference; and who disswaded them, such persons to be sent to prison, &c. He saith that he had complain'd thrice of Mountagues Arminian Book, to no purpose: Cosins put out his Book of seven Sacraments (strange things) but I knew nothing of it, but as it pleased my Ld of Durham and the Bp of Bath, so it went. In con­clusion, [Page 162] the good Arch-bishop for refusing th [...] Licence of Sibthorps Sermons, was, by the under­working of his adversaries, first commanded from Lambeth, and confined to his house in Kent, and afterwards sequestred, and a Commission passe [...] to exercise the Archie piscopall Jurisdiction to the Bishops of London, Durham, Rochester, Oxford, and Bishop Laud (who from thence arose in time to be the Arch-bishop.) If I had leisure how easy a thing it were for to extract out of the Narrative a just parallel of our Author, even almost upon all points? but I am now upon a more serious subject; and therefore sh [...]ll leave the Application to his own ingenuity, and the good intelligence of the Reader.

About the same time (for I am speaking within the circle of 20 30, and 40. Caroli) that this Book of Sibthorps, called Apostolical Obedience, was Printed, there came out another of the same stamp, Inti­tled Religion and Allegiance, by one Doctor Man­waring. It was the substance of two Sermons preached by him at Whitehall, beside what of the same nature at his own parish of Saint Giles, Therein he delivered for truth, That the King is not bound to observe the Laws of the Realm concerning the Subjects Rights and Liberties, but that his Royal word and command in imposing Loans and Taxes without common consent in Parliament, does oblige the Sub­jects Conscience upon pain of eternal Damnation, That those who refused to pay this Loan, offended against the Law of God, and the Kings supream Authority, and became guilty of Impiety, Disloyalty and Rebellion. That the Authority of Parliament was not necessary for raising of Aids and Subsidies, and the slow proceedings of such great Assemblies were not fitted for the supply of the states urgent necessities, but would rather pro­du [...]e sundry impediments to the just designs of Princes. [Page 163] And after he had been questioned for this doctrine, nevertheless he preached again, That the King had right to order all as to him should seem good, without any mans consent. That the King might, in time of necessity demand Aid, and if the Subject did not supply him, the King might justly avenge it. That the Propri­ [...]ty of Estate and Goods was ordinarily in the subject, but extraordinarily in the King: that in case of the King's need, he hath right to dispose them. He had besides, entring into comparison, called the refu­sers of the Loan, temporal Recusants, and said, the same disobedience that they, (the Papists as they then called them) practise in spirituals, that or worse, some of our side, if ours they be, dare to practise in tempo­rals. And he aggravated further upon them un­der the resemblance of Turks, Jews, Corah, Dat [...]an and Abiram which last, said he, might as well liken themselves to the three Children; or Theudas and Ju­das, the two Incendiaries in the daies of Caesar's tri­bute, might as well pretend their Cause to be like that of the Maccabees, as what the Refusers alledged in their own defence.

I should not have been so large in these particu­lars, had they been only single and volatile Ser­mons, but because this was then the Doctrine of those persons that pretended to be the Church of England. The whole Quire sung that Tuno, and instead of the Common Law of England, and the Statutes of Parliament, that part of the Clergy had invented these Ecclesiastical Lawes, which accor­ding to their predominancy, were sure to be put in Execution. So that between their own Revenue, which must be held Jure Divin [...], as every thing else that belong'd to them, and the P [...]ince's that was Jure Regio, they had not left an inch o [...] pro­priety for [...]he Subject, It seem'd that they had granted themselves Letters of Reprisal against the [Page 160] Laity, for the losses of the Church under Henry the Eight, and that they would make a greater ha­vock upon their Temporalities in retaliation. And indeed, having many times since ponder'd with my greatest and earnest impartiality, what could be the true reason of the spleen that they mani­fested in those daies, on the one hand against the Puritans, and on the other against the Gentry, (far it was come, they tell me, to Jack Gentleman) I could not devise any cause, but that the Puritans had ever since the Reformation, obstructed that laziness and splendor which they enjoyed under the Popes Supremacy, and the gentry had (sacri­legiously) divided the Abby-Lands, and other [...] morsels of the Church at the Dissolu [...]ion, and now was the time to be revenged on them.

While therefore the Kingdome was turned in­to a Prison, upon occasion of this Ecclesiastical Lo [...] and many of the eminentest of the Gentry of En­gland were under [...], they thought it seaso­nable to recover once again their antient Glory, and to Magnificate the Church with triumphant Pomp and Ceremony. The three Ceremonies that have the Countenance of Law, would not sussice, but they were all upon new [...], and happy was he that was endued with that ca­pacity, for he was sure before all others to be pre­ [...]'d. I here was a second Service, the Table se [...] Altar wise, and to be called the Altar, Candles, Crucisixes, Paintings, Imagery, Copes, bowing to the East, bowing to the Altar, and so many several Cringes and Genuflexions, that a man unpractised stood in need to entertain both a Dancing Ma [...]er and a Remem brancer. And though these things were very un­couth to English Proteslants who naturally affects a plainness of fashion, especially in sacred things; yet, if those Gentlemen [...] have contented [Page 153] themselves with their own Formalitie, the Inno­vation had been more excusable. But many of these Additions, and to be sure, all that had any colour of Law, were so imposed and prest upon others, that a great part of the Nation was [...]'n put as it were to Fine and Ransom upon this account. What Censures, what Excommunications, what Deprivations, what Imprisonments? I cannot re­present the misery and desolation, as it hath been represented to me. But wearied out at home, many thousands of his Majesties Subjects, to his and the Nations great loss, thought themselves constrained to seek another habitation, and every Country, even [...]hough it were among Savages and Caniballs, appear'd more hospitable to them than their own.

And, although I have been told by those that have seen both, that our Chu [...]ch did even then exceed the Romish in Ceremonies and Decorations; and indeed, several of our Church did therby fre­quently mistake their way, and from a [...] kind of Worship, fell into the Roman Religion; yet I cannot upon my best judgement believe, that that party had generally a design to alter the Religion so far, but rather to set up a new kind of Papa [...]y of their own, here in England. And it seemed they had, to that purpose, provided themselves of a new Religion in Holland. It was Arminianism, which though it were the Republican Opinion there, and lo odious to King James, that it helped on the death of Barnevelt, yet now they undertook to accomodate it to Monarchy and Episcopacy. And the choice seemed not imprudent. For on the one hand, it was removed at so moderate a distance from Popery, that they should not diso­blige the Papists more than formerly, neither yet could the Puritans, with justice reproach these [Page 166] men, as Romish Catholicks; and yet, on the other hand, they knew it was so contrary to the antient reformed Doctrine of the Church of England, that the Puritans would never imbrace it, and so they should gain this pretence further to keep up that convenient and necessary Quarrel against Non-conformity. And accordingly it happened, so that here again was a new Shiboleth. And the Calvinists were all studiously discountenanced, and none but an Arminian was judg'd capable and qualified for imployment in the Church. And though the King did declare, as I have before men­tioned, that Mountague's (Arminian) Book had been the occasion of the Schisms in the Church; yet care was immediately taken, by those of the same Robe and Pa [...]ty, that he should be the more rewarded and advanced. As also it was in Manwa­rings Case: who though by Censure in Parlia­ment made incapable of any Ecclesiastical Prefer­ment, was straight made Rector of Stamford-River [...] in Essex, with a Dispensation to hold too his Li­ving in St. Giles's. And all dexterity was practised to propagate the same Opinions, and to suppress all Writings or Discourses to the con­trary.

So that those who were of understanding in those dayes tell me, that a man would wonder to have heard their kind of preachings. How in stead of the practical Doctrine which tends to the reforming of mens Lives and Manners, all their Sermons were a very Mash of Arminian Subtilties, of Ceremonies and Decency, and of Manwaring, and Sibthorpianism brew'd together, besides that in their conversation they thought fit to take some more license the better to dis- [...] themselves from the Puritans. And though there needed nothing more to make them unacceptable to the [Page 167] sober part of the Nation, yet moreover they were [...] exceeding p [...]agmaticall, so intolerably ambitious, and so desperately proud, that scarce any Gentle­man might come near the Tayle of their Mules­And many th [...]ngs I perceive of that nature, do even yet stick upon the stomacks of the Old Gen­tlemen [...]f those tim [...]s. For the English have been alwaies very tender of their Religion, their Liber­ty, th [...]ir Propriety, and (I was going to say) no less of th [...]ir Reputation. Neither yet do I speak of these things with passion, considering at more [...] how natural it is for men to desire to be in Office; and no less natural to grow proud and in­tractable in Office; and the less a Clergy man is so, the more he deserves to be commended. Bu [...] these things before mentioned, grew yet higher, after that Bishop Laud wa [...] once not only exal­ted to the See of Canterbury, but to be chief Mi­nister. Happy had it been for the King, happy for the Nation, and happy for himself, had he never climbed that Pinacle. For whether it be or no, that the Clergy are not so well fitted by Education, as others for Political affairs, I know not; [...]hough I should rather think they have ad­vantage above others, and even if they would but keep to their Bibles, might make the best Ministers of State in the world; yet it is generally observed that things miscarry under their Go­vernment. If their be any Counsel more preci­pitate, more violent, more rigorous, more ex­treme than other, that is theirs. Truly I think the reason that God does not bless them in Aff [...]s of State, is, because he never intended them for that imployment. Or if Government, and the preaching of the Gospel, may well concur in the same person, God therefore frustra [...]s him, be cause though knowing better, he seeks and ma [Page 168] nages his greatness by the losser and meaner Max­ims. I am confident the Bishop studied to do both God and his Majesty good service, but alas how utterly was he mistaken. Though so learned, so pious, so wise a Man, he seem'd to know no­thing beyond Ceremonies, Arminianism, and Man­waring. With that he begun, and with that en­ded, and thereby deform'd the whole reign of the best Prince that ever weilded the English Scepter.

For his late Majesty being a Prince truly pious and Religious, was thereby the more inc [...]ined to esteem and favour the Clergy. And thence though himself of a most exquisite understanding, yet he could not trust it better than in their keeping. Whereas every man is best in his own Post, and so the Preacher in the Pulpit. But he that will do the Clergyes druggery, must look for his reward in another world. For they having gained this As­cendent upon him, resolv'd what ever became on't to make their best of him; and having made the whole business of State their Arminian Ja gles, and the Persecution for Ceremonies, did for recom­pence assign him that imaginary absolute Govern­ment, upon which Rock we all [...]uined.

For now was come the last part of the Archbi­shops indiscretion; who having strained those strings so hig here, and all at the same time, which no wise man ever did; he moreover had a mind to try the same dangerous Experiment in Scotland, and sent thither the Book of the English Liturgy, to be imposed upon them. What followed thereupon, is yet within the compass of most Mens memories. And how the War broke out, and then to be sure H [...]ll's brook loose. Whether it were a War of Re­lig [...]on, or of Liberty, is not worth the labour [...]o enquire. Which soever was at the [...]op, the other was at the bottome; but upon con [...]dering all, I [Page 169] think the Cause was too good to have been fought for. Men ought to have trusted God; they ought and might have trusted the King with that whole matter. The Arms of the Church are Pray [...]rs and Tears, the Arms of the Subjects are Patience and Petitions. The King himself being of so accurate and piercing a judgement, would soon have felt where it stuck, For men may spare their pains where Nature is at work, and the world will not go the faster for our driving. Even as his present Majesties happy Rest [...]uration did it self, so all things el [...]e happen in their best and proper time, without any need of our officiousness.

But after all the fatal consequences of that Re­be [...]lion, which can only serve as Sea-marks unto wise Princes to avoid the Causes, shall this sort of Men still vindicate themselves as the most zealous Assertors of the Rights of Princes? They are but at the best well-meaning Zealots. Shall, to decline so pernicious Counsels, and to provide bet [...]er for the quiet of Government be traduced as th [...] Author does here, under these odious terms of forsaking the Church, and delivering up the Church? Shall these Men alwayes presume to usur [...] to themselves that venerable stile of the Church of England? God for­ [...]id. The Ind [...]pendents at that rate would have so many distinct Congregations as they. There would be Sibthorps Church, and Manwarings Church, and Montagues Church, and a whole Bed-roll more, whom for decencies-sake I abstain from naming. And every man that could invent a new Opinion, or a new Ceremony, or a new Tax, should be a new Church of England.

Neither, as far as I can discern, have this sort of the Clergy since his [...] return, given him better incouragements to steer by their Com­pass. I am told, that preparatory to that, they [Page 170] had frequent meetings in the City, I know not whether in Grubstreet, with the Divin [...]s of the other party, and that there in their Feasts of Love, they promis [...]d to forget all former Offences, to lay by all Animosities, that there should be a new Heaven, and a new Earth, all Meekness, Chari­ [...]y, and Condescention. His Majesty I am sure sent over his Gracious Declaration of Liberty to ten­der Consciences and upon his coming over, second­ed it with his Commission under the broad Seal, for a Conference betwixt the two parties, to pre­pare things for an Accommodation, that he might confirm, it by his Royal Authority. Hereupon what do they? Notwithstanding this happy Con­jucture of his Majesties Restauration, which had put all men into so good a humour, that upon a little moderation temper of things, the Noncon­formists could not have stuck out; some of these men so contriv'd it, that there should not be the least abatement to bring them off with Consci­ence, and (which infinuates into all men) some little Reputation. But to the contrary; several unnecessary additions were made, only because they knew they would be more ingrate [...]ull and [...] to the Noncon [...]ormists. I remember one in the Let any, where to False Doctrine and Her [...], they added Schism, though it were to spoil the Mu­sick and cadence of the period; but these things were the best. To show that they were men like others, even cunning men, revengeful men, they drill'd things on, till they might procure a Law, wherein besides all the Conformity that had been of former times enacted, there might be some new Conditions imposed on those that should have or hold any Church Livings, such as they assur'd themselves, that rather than swallow, the Non­conformists would disgorge all their Benefic [...]. [Page 171] And accordingly it succeeded; several thousands of those Ministers being upon one memorable day outed of their subsistence. His Majesty in the meantime, although they had thus far prevail [...]d to frustrate his Royal Intentions, had reinstated the Church in all its former Revenues, Dignities, Advantages, so far f [...]om the Authors mischievous aspe [...]sion of ever thingking of converting them to his own use, that he restored them free from what was due to him by Law upon their first admission. So careful was he, because all Government must owe its quiet and continuance to the Churches Patronage, to pay them, even what they ought. But I have ob­served, that if a man be in the Churches debt once, 'tis very hard to get an acquaintance: And these men never think they have their full Rights, un­less they Reign. What would they have had more? They roul'd on a flood of [...], and yet in matter of a Lease, would make no difference be­twixt a Nonconfo [...]mist, and one of their own fel­low sufferers, who had ventu [...]'d his life, and spent his [...]state for the King's service. They were [...] to Pa [...]liament, and to take their places with the King and the Nobility. They had a new Li­turgy [...]o their own hearts desire; And to cumulate all this happ [...]ness, they had this new Law against the Fanaticks. All they had that could be devised in the World to make a Clergy-man good na­tur'd.

Nevertheless after all their former suffering [...] and after all these new enjoyments and acqu [...]siti­ons, they have proceeded still in the same tra [...]k. The matrer of Ceremonies, to be sure, hath not only exercised their antient rigor and severity but hath been a main ingredient of their publick Dis­courses, of their Sermons, of their Writings. I could not (though I do not make it my work after [Page 172] [...] great example, to look over Epis [...]les De [...]icators) but observe by chance the Title page of a Book 'to­ [...]herday, as an E [...]bleme how much some of the [...] do neglect the Scripture in respect to their darling Ceremonies. A Rationale upon the Book of Common­Prayer of the Church of England, by A Sparrow D. D. Bishop of Exon. With the Form of Conse [...]ration of a Church or Chappel, and of the place of Christian Buri­ [...]t. By Lancelot Andrews late Lord Bishop of Win­chester. Sold by Robert Pawlet at the Sign of the Bible in Chancery Lane. These surely are worthy cares for the Fathers of the Church.

But to let these things alone; How have they of late years demean'd themselves to his Majesty, although our Author urges their immediate de­pendance on the King to be a great obligation he hath upon their Loyalty and Fidelity? I have heard that some of them, when a great Minister of State grew burdensome to his Majesty and the Nation, stood almost in defiance of his Majesties good pleasure, and fought it out to the uttermost in his defence. I have been told that some of them in a matter of Divorce, wherein his Majesty desi­red that justice might be done to the party a­griev'd opposed him vigorously, though they made bold too with a point of Conscience in the Case, and went against the judgement of the best Divines of all parties. It hath been observed, that whensoever his Majesty hath had the most urgent occasions for supply, others of them have made it their business to trinkle with the Members of Parli­ament, for obstructing it, unless the King would buy it with a new Law against the Fanaticks. And hence it is that the wisdome of his Majesty and the Parliament must be exposed to after Ages for such a Supoeer [...]eation of Acts in his Reign about the same business. And no sooner ean his Maje [...]ty up­on [Page 173] his own best Reasons try to obviate this incon­venience, but our Author, who had before our­shot Sibthorp and Manwaring in their own Bows, is now for retrenching his Authority, and moreo­ver calumniates the State with a likelihood, and the Re [...]sons thereof of the return of Popery into this Nation. And this hath been his first Method by the Fanaticks raising disturbance: whereupon if I have raked farther into things than I would have done, the Author's indiseretion will, I hope, excuse me, and gather all the blame for reviving those things which were to be buried in Oblivion. But, by what appears, I cannot see that there is any pro­bability of disturbance in the State, but by men of his spirit and principles.

The second way whereby the Fanatick party, he saith, may at last work the ruine of the Church, is by combining with the Atheists, for their Union is like the mixture of Nitre and Charcoal, it carries all before it without mercy or resistance. So it seems, when you have made Gun-power of the Atheists and Fana­ticks, we are like to be blown up with Popery. And so will the Larks too. But his zeal spends it self most against the Atheists, because they use to jear the Parsons. That they may do, and no Atheists neither. For really, while Clergy men will, hav­ing so serious an office, play the Drols and the Boon-companions, and make merry with the Scrip­tures, not only among themselves, but in Gen­tlemen's company, 'tis impossible but that they should meet with, at least, an unlucky Repartee sometimes, and grow by degrees to be a tayle, and contempt to the people. Nay, even that which our Athour alwayes magnifies, the Reputation, the Interest, the seculiar grandure of the Church, is indeed the very thing which renders them redi­culous to many, and looks as improper and buf­foonish, [Page 174] as to have seen the Porter lately in the good Doctors Cassock and Girdle. For, so they tell me, that there are no where more Atheists than at Rome, because men seeing that Princely garb and pomp of the Clergy, and observing the life and manners, think therefore the meaner of Religion. For certainly, the Reputation and Interest of the Clergy, was first gained by abstracting themselves from the world, attending their Callings, Humi­lity, strictness of Doctrine, and the same strictness in Conversation; and things are best preserved by the same means they were at fi [...]st attained. But if our Author had been as concern'd against Athe­isme, as he is against their [...]isrespect of his fun­ction, he should have been content that the Fana­tick Preachers might have spent some of their Pul­pit sweat upon the Atheists, and made a noise in their [...]ars, about Faith, Communion with God, at­tendance upon Ordinances, which he himself jea [...] at so pleasantly. Neither do I like upon th [...] same reasons his manner of Discourse with the Atheists, where he complains that ours are not like those good Atheists of formertimes, who never did thrust themselves into publick car [...]s and concerns, ‘mind­ing nothing but Love, Wine, and Poetry.’ Nor in another place, ‘Put the case the Clergy were Cheats & Juglers, yet it must be allowed they are necessary Instru­ments of State to aw the common People into fear and obedience, because nothing else can so effectually inslave them’ ('tis this it seems our Author would be at) ‘as the fear of invisible powers, and the dismal apprehensions of the world to come: and for this very reason, though there were no other, it is fit they should be allowed the same honour and respect, as would be acknowledged their due, if they were sincere and honest men.’ No Atheist could have said better. How mendicant a cause has he here made of it; they [Page 175] will say, they see where the shoo wrings him, and that though this be some ingenuity in him, yet it is but little Policy. Nay. perhaps they will say, that they are no Atheists neither, but only, I know not by what Fate, eve [...]y day, one or othe [...] of the Clergy does, or saith, some so redi [...]ulous and foolish thing, or some so pretty accident befals tha [...] that in our Authors words, a man must be very spl [...]tick that can refrain from laughter. I would have quoted the page here, but that the Author has, I think for evasion sake, omitted to number them in this whole Preface. But whether there be any [...] or no, which I question nore than Witches, I do not for all this, take our Author to be one, though some would conclude it ou [...] of his Principles, others out of his Expressions. Yet really, I think [...]e hath done that sort of men so much service in his Books, by his ill handling, and while he personates one party, making all Religion re [...]iculous, that they will never be able to requi [...]e him but in the same manner. He hath ope [...]ed them a whole Treasure of words and sentences, universally ap­plicable; where they may ri [...]e or [...]huse things, which their pitti [...]ul wit, as [...]e call [...] it, would never have been able to invent and flourish. But truly, as the simple Parliment 5 [...] Eliz. never imagined what cons [...]quence that clause in t [...]e Wednesday [...] would have to Puri [...]anism, neither did he what his Per [...]ds would have to Atheism; and yet though he is so more excusable, I hope, I may have the same leave on him, as he on that Parlia [...]nt, [...]o censure his Impertinence. To cl [...]se this; I know a Lady that chid her Master of the Horse for cor­recting the Page that had sworn a great Oath. For, saith she, The [...]oy did therein show only the [...] of his Courage, and his acknowledgment of a [...]. And indeed, he [...]ath approv'd his Religion, and [Page 176] justified himself from Atheism much after the same manner.

The third way and last (which I being tired, am very gl [...]d of) by which the Fanaticks may raise Disturbances, and so intraduce Popery, is by joyn­ing crafty and sacrilegious States-men into the Confederacy. But really here he doth speak con­cerning King, and Counsellors, at such a rate, and describe and characterize some men so, whomsoe­ver he intends, that though I know there are no such, I dare not touch, it is too h [...]zardous. 'Tis true he passes his Complement ill-favouredly en­ough. ‘The Church has at present an impregnable affiance in the wisdom, &c. of so gracious a Prince, that is not capable of such Counsels, should they be sug­gested to him:’ though certainly no man that is worthy to be admitted to his Majestrus Favour or Privacy; can be supposed so fool-hardy or presumptuous as to offer ‘such weak and dishonourable Advice to so wise and able a Prince; Yet Princes are mortal, and if ever hereafter, (and some time or other it must happen) the Crown should chance to settle upon a young and un­experienced head, this is usually the first thing in which such Princes are abused by their Keepers and Guardians, &c’. But this Complement is no bet­ter at best, than if discoursing with a man of ano­ther, I should take him by the Beard. Upon such occasions in company, we use to ask, Sir, Whom d [...] you mean? I am sure our Author takes it alwayes for granted, that his Answerer intends him upon more indefinite and less direct provocations. But our Author does even personate some men as speaking at present against the Church, They will intagle your affairs, indanger your safety; hazard your Crown. All the reward you shall have to com­pensate your misfortunes, by following Church Coun­sels, shall be that a few Church men, or such like [Page 177] people, shall cry you up for a Saint or a Martyr. Still your, your, as if it were a close discourse unto his Majesty himself. Though if these were the wor [...] that they said, or that the Author fathers upon them, I wish the King might never have better Councellors about him. But if the Author be secure, for the present, in his Majesties Reign, fear [...] not Popery, not forsaking [...]he Church not assuming the Church Revenues, why is he so pro­vident? why put things in men's heads they never thought of? why stirr such an odious, seditious, impertinent, unseasonable discourse? why take this very minute of t [...]me, but that he hath mis­chief, to say no worse, in his heart? He had no such remote conceit (for all his talk) of an Infant coming to the Crown. He is not so weak but knows too much, and is too well instructed, to speak to so little purpose. That would have been like a set of Elsibeth Players, that in the Country having worn out and over acted all the Playes they brought with them from London, laid their wits together to make a new one of their own. No less man than Julius Caesar was the Argument; and one of the chief parts was Moses, perswading Julius Caesar not to make War against his own Countrey, nor pass Rubico [...]. If our Author did not speak of our present times (to do which nevertheless had been suffici­ently false and absurd) but writ all this meerly out of his Providence for after ages, I shall no more call him Bayes, for he is just such a second Moses. I ask pardon, if I have said too much, but I shall deserve none, if I meddle any further with so im­probable and dangerous a business,

To conclude, the Author gives us one ground more, and perhaps more Seditiously insinuated than any of the former; that is, if it should so prove, that is, if the Fanaticks by their wanton and unreaso­nable [Page 178] opposition to the ingenious and moderate Discipline of the Church of England, shall give their Governours too much reason to suspect that they are never to be [...] in order by a milder, and more gentle Government than that of the Chu [...]ch of Rome, and force them at last to scourge them into better manners, with the Briars and Thorns of th [...]ir Discipline. It seems then that the Discipline contended about, is worth such an al­teration. It seems that he knowes something more than I did believe of the Design in the late times before the War Whom doth he mean by our Go­vernours? the King; No, for he is a single person. The Parliament, or the Bishops.

I have now done, after I have (which is I think due) given the Reader, and the Author a short ac­count how I came to write this Book, and in this manner. First of all, I was offended at the pre­sumption and arrogance of his stile; whereas there is nothing either of Wit, or Eloquence in all his Books, worthy of a Readers, and more unfit for his own, taking notice of, Then his infinite Tautology was bur [...]ensome, which seem'd like marching a Company round a Hill upon a pay-day so often, till if the Muster master were not attentive, they might r [...]ceive the pay of a Regim [...]nt. All the vari­ety of his Treat is Pork (he knows the story) but so little disguised by good Cookery, that it discovers the miserableness; or rather the penury of the Host. When I observed how he inveighs against the Trading part of the Nation, I thought he deser­ved to be within the five mile Act, and not to come within that distance of any Corporation. I could not patiently see how irrevorently he treated Kings and P [...]inces, as if they had been no better then King Phys and King Ush of B [...]anford I thought his profanation of the Scripture intolerable; For though he alledges that 'tis only in order to shew [Page 179] how it was misapplyed by the [...], he might have done that too, and yet preserved the Digni­ty and Beverence of those S [...]cred Writings, which he hath not done; but on the contrary, he hat [...] in what is properly his own, taken the most of all his Ornaments, and [...] thence in [...] s [...]urrilous and sacrilegious s [...]ile; insomuch that were it honest, I will undertake out of him to make a better, than is a more ridicul [...]s and [...] book, than all the Friendly Debates bound up together. Me thought I never saw a more bold and wicked attempt, than that of reducing Grace, and making it a meer Fable, of which he gives us the Moral. I was sorry to see that even Prayer coul [...] not be admitted to be a Virtue, having though hi­therto it had been a Grace, and a peculiar gift of the Spirit; But I considered, that that Prayer ought to be discouraged, in order to prefer the Licargy. He seem'd to speak so little like a Divine in all those matters, that the Poet might as well have pre [...]en­ded to be the Bishop Davenant, and that description of the Poets of Prayer and Praise was better than out Au [...]hors on the same Subject [...] Canto the 6th, where he likens Prayes to the Ocean;

For Prayer the [...]an is where diver [...] Men steer their course each to a several coast,
Where all our interests so discordant lye, That half beg winds, by which the rest are lost.

And Praise he compares to the Union of Fanaticks and Atheists, &c. that is Gunpowd [...]r; Praise [...] Devotion fit for mighty minds, &c.

Its utmost force, like Powder, is unknown. And though weak Kings excess of praise may fear,
[...] when 'tis here, like Powder, dangerous grown, [Page 180]Heavens vault receives, what would the Palcae tear,

Indeed all Astragen appear'd to me the better Scheme of Religion. But it is unnecessary here to recapitulate all, one by one, what I have in the former Discourse taken notice cf. I shall only add, what gave, if not the greattest, yea the last im­pulse to my writing. I had observed in his first Book, P- 57- that he had said ‘Some pert and pragmatical Divines, had filled the world with a Buzze and Noise of the Divine Spirit; which seemed to me so horribly irreverent,’ as if he had taken similitude from the Hum and Buz of the Hum­ble Bee in the Rehearsal.

In the same Book, I have before mentioned, that most unsafe passage of our Saviour, being not only in an hot fit of zeal, but in a seeming fury and tran­sport [...] Passion. And striving to unhook [...] hence. P. 152. of his Second Book, Swallows it deep­er, saying, Our blessed Saviour did in that action take upon him the Person and Priviledge of a Jewish Zea­lot. Take upon him the Person, that is Personam in­ [...]. And what part did he play? Of a Jewish Zealot.

The Second Person of the Trinity (may I re­peat these things without offence) to take upon him the Person of a Jewish Zealot, that is, of a notorious Rogue and Cut Throat.

This seemed to proceed from too slight an Ap­prehension and Knowledge of the Duty we owe to our Saviour. And last of all, in this Preface, as before quoted, he saith, the Nonconformist Preach­ers do spend most of their Pulpit-sweat in making a noise about Communion with God. So that there is not one Person of the Trinity that he hath not done [Page 181] despight to: and lest he should have distinct Com­munion with the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, for which he mocks his Answerer; he hath spoken evil distinctly of the Father, distinct­ly of the Son, and distinctly of the Holy Ghost. That only remain'd behind, wherein our Author might surpass the Character given to Aretine, a fa­mous man of his Faculty.

Qui giace ill Aretino
Chi de tutti mal disse [...] d' Adido
Ma di questo si sensa perche no'l co­nobbe.
Here lies Aretine,
Who spoke evil of all, except God only,
But of this he begs excuse, because he did not know him.

And now I have done. And I shall think my self largely recompensed for this trouble, if any one that hath been formerly of another mind, shall learn by this Example, that it is not impossi­ble to be merry and angry as long time as I have been Writing, without profaning and violating those things [...] are and ought to be most sa­cred.


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