The Perfect HORSEMAN Or the Experienc'd SECRETS of Mr. MARKHAMS 50. Years PRACTICE

THE PERFECT HORSEMAN▪ OR THE Experienced SECRETS OF Mr. MARKHAM'S Fifty Years Practice. Shewing how a man may come to be a General Horseman, By the knowledge of these Seven Offices; VIZ. The BREEDER, FEEDER, AMBLER, RIDER, KEEPER, BUYER, FARRIER. And now Published by Lancelot Thetford, Practitioner in the same Art for the space of Forty Years.

The Second Edition.

LONDON. Printed for Humphrey Moseley, at the Prince's Arms in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1656.

TO THE READER.

WEre not this the Of spring of a long Conception, and (after above fifty years Experience) fitted for the birth, I would not now produce it into the World, since so many of the same kind have already crept in before it, that this can scarce expect the least portion of your Accep­tation: Yet when I tell you, that (not­withstanding all Mr MARKHAMS Pro­mises in his former Bookes to lay open his Cabinet Councels) you shall here find many most Rare Secrets of his, and yet not so much his own, as his most in­timate Friends, The Publisher her [...]of, to whom as a Legacy, he bequeathed them, and by whom since, for his pri­vate [Page] use and experience, and with most approved success, they have been pra­ctised for above Forty years: For there is no part of HORSEMANSHIP, either for the Theorick or Practick, but is here exactly discovered: For Breeding, here is the manner how, the season when, the place where, together with the Co­lours, Marks and Shapes, as well of Stallions as Mares. The Feeder, Rider, Keeper, Ambler and Buyer, have here their most particular Instructions; but above all, the Farrier (be he never so skilful) may hereby perfect his knowledg, and inrich himself. But whoever thou bee'st that buyest it, whether for thy plea­sure or profit, if thou art pleased, I have my ends.

Farewel.

A TABLE Of the things handled in the OFFICE OF THE BREEDER.
  • OBservations in the breeding of horses. page 1
  • Choice of grounds, 2
  • Change of grounds, 3
  • Choice of Stallions and Mares, ibid:
  • The Age of Stallions, &c. 5
  • When to put Horse and Mares together, 6
  • When Mares are fit for Horse, 7
  • How to put them together, ibid.
  • How many Mares for one Horse, 8
  • Ordering after covering, 9
  • [Page]To help Mares in foaling, ibid.
  • How long Foals to run, &c. 10
  • To know true shape, height and spirit, 11
  • To know goodness, &c. 12
  • Of weaning, ibid.
  • Separating, 13
  • Guelding, ibid.
  • Taming, 14
  • Breaking, ibid.
  • Colting. 15
A Table of the Rider.
  • OBservations in Riding, page 17
  • Times to handle Colts, ibid.
  • When to Sadle, 19
  • Mounting, ibid.
  • Backing; 21
  • Helps at the first Backing, 22
  • What lessons for what horse, 23
  • Helps and Corrections, 24
  • Rod, ibid.
  • Bit, ibid.
  • Calves of the legs, 25
  • Stirrop, ibid.
  • Spur, ibid.
  • Ground, 26
  • Large Rings, ibid.
  • [Page]Stopping, 28
  • Advancing, ibid,
  • Retiring, 29
  • Biting, ibid:
  • Strait turns and turnings, 30
  • The first strait turn, 30
  • Another strait turn, 33
  • To help an ill rain, or a run-away Jade, &c. 34
  • The help, ibid.
  • Another help for inconstant carriage, 35
  • How any Lady may spur her horse as well as any man, yet unperceived, 36
A Table of the Feeder.
  • AN Introduction to the work, touching the limitation of time for preparing the running Horse, page 39
  • The first ordering of the running Horse accor­ding to the several estates of Bodies, 46
  • The first fortnights feeding, 49
  • Four considerations in Heats, 57
  • The second fortnights feeding, 58
  • The first Bread, 59
  • The first scouring, 65
  • Ordering after the scouring, ibid.
  • The third fortnights feeding, 69
  • [Page]The second Breed, ibid
  • The fourth fortnights feeding, 70
  • The last Breed. ibid.
  • Certain observations and advantages, &c. 35
  • Observe meat and drink, 76
  • For Lameness, 77
  • From the estate of the body, ibid.
  • From the prime parts, 78
  • For Limbes, 79
  • For Water, ibid:
  • For ground to run on, 80
  • From Sweat, 81
  • From the Hayre, ibid.
A Table of the Keeper.
  • To keep an Horse for pleasure, hunting or travelling, &c. 83
  • Dressing and watering, ibid.
  • Ordinary keeping, 85
  • Keeping in travel or sport, 86
  • Of Heats, 87
  • Ordering after labour, 88
  • Some especial precepts, ibid.
  • Of washing and walkings, 89
A Table of the Ambler.
  • [Page]OBservations in Ambling, 91
  • Mens Opinions and Errors, ibid.
  • Ambling by the ploughed Field, 92
  • By Gallop, 93
  • Weights, ibid.
  • Not Ridden, 94
  • By Shooes, 95
  • By Lists, ibid.
  • By the Hund, 96
  • By Tramell, 97
  • Errors in the Tramel, 98
  • The best way, 1 [...]0
  • The form of the Tramel, ibid.
  • The true use of the true Tramel, 103
  • When to alter the Tramel, 104
  • When to mount, &c. 105
  • When to journey, &c. 106
A Table of the Buyer.
  • OF all the Perfections and Imperfections in an Horse, 109
  • Observations in Buying, ib.
  • The end, 110
  • [Page]Election divided, 111
  • The first rule, ibid
  • Breed, ibid
  • Colour, 112
  • Paces, ibid
  • Stature, 115
  • Second rule, ibid
  • How to view, 116
  • Ears, Face, ibid
  • Eyes Cheeks, 117. 118.
  • Nostrils, Teeth, 119
  • Brest, Forethighs, knees 120
  • Legs, Pasterns, 121
  • Hoofs, 122
  • Crest, Main, 123
  • Back, Ribs, &c. ibid,
  • Buttocks, 124
  • Hind-thighs, 125
  • Hind-legs, ibid
  • Tail, 126
  • To know age, ibid
A Table of the Farrier.
  • SIgns of sickness, page 132
  • Of Dung, ibid
  • Of Urin; 134
  • Of Sickness, 135
  • [Page]Of Diahexaple, 137
  • The Vertues, ibid
  • A drink to open, 136
  • Cordiall Balls; ibid
  • For Bottes, 141
  • Another, ibid
  • A Purgation, 142
  • Laxativeness, ibid
  • The stone, 143
  • Staling blood, ibd
  • Cold and Coughs, 144
  • Another, ibid.
  • Another, ibid.
  • Another, ibid.
  • Another, 146
  • A Cordial Powder, ibid.
  • For colds and Canker in the nose, 147
  • For Glanders, ibid
  • Another, 148
  • Another, ib.
  • A scouring, 149
  • Outward Sorrances.
    • Signs, 150
    • For the eyes, 153
    • Another, ib.
    • Another, ib.
    • Another, 154
    • The Mastar Medicine for all strains, 155
    • [Page]Another, ibid.
    • Another, 156
    • Another, 157
    • Another, 158
    • Another, ib.
    • Marks, 159
    • Sinews extended, ibid.
    • Another, 160
    • A charge, ibid.
    • For A [...]hes, 161
    • Gourded Leggs, ib.
    • Another, 163
    • Another, ib.
    • For Scratches, 164
    • Another, ibid.
    • Another, ibid.
    • For Splent, Spaven, 165
    • Another, 166
    • Wyngals, ibid.
    • Pains, Mules, 167
    • Swiftcut, ibid.
    • Maunge, 168
    • Another, ibid.
    • Canker and Leprosie, 169
    • Affistula, &c▪ ibid.
    • A Fare, ibid.
    • Another, 170
    • For a founder, &c. ibid.
    • For Hoofs, 171
    • Another, 172
    • [Page]For Surbait, ibid.
    • Quitterbone, ib.
    • Another, 170
    • For a prick, ib.
    • For Chaffing, 174
    • A General salv [...], ibid.
    • Sadle-Bruises, 172
    • Another, 173
    • To make hair to grow in bald places, 174
    • To stanch blood, ib.
    • For enterfering, 175
    • To tame an unruly Horse, ib.
FINIS.

[Page] [Page 1] THE PERFECT HORSE-MAN.

The office of the BREEDER.
Observations in Breeding of HORSES.

MEN may imagine I harp upon one string, or tread the old paths in which I walked in my first years. But let them not deceive them­selves: the meanders and windings in which I now labour, are of a new discovery; and howsoever I may now and then come under the same height, yet shall he that follows me find it so removed, that it shall bring him [...] much neerer way to his journies end. For i [...] these short Essays I have striven only to a­mend [Page 2] mend errors overslipt before, and to acquaint my friends with all those uncontrollable ex­periments which I have found out since in forty years and more: And believe it, he is an ill Proficient that in such a time cannot find (in the Art he professeth) something worthy his friends acceptation. Therfore thus to my Breeder.

Chóice of Grounds.

The Grounds to breed on would be spati­ous, and not strait, for Horses joy not in Cages. There accommodate according to your Stock; and though the more the merri­er, yet the fewer the better fare. They would not be extreme fertile, nor extreme barren; the golden mean is the best temper: yet to incline a little to hardness, is better then much rankness; the one breeds health, the other disease.

Let the Situation be ascending, the Air pure, the Laire dry, and the Foot-tread firm, no matter how rough or incertain▪

As much Ground as will keep a Milch-Cow, will keep a Milch-Mare, and a great dealless when she is barren or unwrought.

Change of Grounds.

Again, as Change of Pasture makes fat Calves, so Alteration of Grounds raises gal­lant Colts. Therefore strive to have one Ground to foal in, another to summer in, and a third to winter in. The first to be with­out danger, the second not without shelter, and the third defended from storms and tem­pests by Trees, Hovel, Shed, Barn or Back­stable, wherein may be stored winter-pro­vision.

Thus far for those which have ability. But for them which must breed for necessity, let his Yard, Back-side, or Stable serve to foal in, the white Corn-fields to summer in, and the Cratch or Stand-heck to winter at.

Choice of Stallions and Mares

Next the Change of Grounds, I place the Choice of Stallions and Mares, which is a Theme I have so oft written of, that I must needs refer the Curious to those larger Vo­lumes, and only in this place say, That for as much as all men covet to be governed by their own passions, therefore I leave them to their own choice, and the end for which they breed; yet advising them, that of those Races [Page 4] of which they make election, they choose the best and a blest, the highest spirited, the fairest coloured, and the finest shaped; whether it be Neapolitan, Turk, Spaniard, Barbary, English, Dutch, Polander, French or Ger­man. And because it is impossible to finde out absolute perfection, I would have our Breed­er to inform himself well of all the natural defects that can be found in the Stallion, and to amend them in the Mare that shall be joined with him; and what is amiss in the Mare, to see it repaired in the Horse.

For any singular election of Mares, the Breeder need not be too curious; only ob­serve, that if you can get true breed, you then pass by the bastard; if you may have the the gentleman, never make use of the clown. But when you are tyed by necessity or com­pulsion, then see the mare have a good fore­hand, a large womb, sound limbs, fair co­lour, and good metal. For the rest, let nature alone, she is a brave Mistress.

Now for those Breeders which look not so much into the breed and generation of the Horse, as into his actions and good dayes works; accounting because he hath won such a wager, or beaten such a horse, therefore he must necessarily be an excellent Stallion: let them know they are deceived; for this is no good consequence; no more then if a [Page 5] robustrous strong skillfull Clown should give a weak unskilfull Gentlemen a fall, therefore all the Clown-breed should be excellent wra­stlers. This can hold for no Maxim; for I am perswaded, that let a Gentleman have either skill to encounter strength, or strength to encounter skill, there is no clown that can foil him. In like manner a Clown-horse by training, feeding, and riding, may beat a true bred horse; but when they encounter upon equal terms, Truth will shew herself for a mistress. Therefore in this case of Breeding, get as neer as you can true Breed, and it will seldom or never bring forth Repentance.

The Age of Stallions and Mares:

A Horse may beget good Colts from four years old to fourteen; after, he declineth: and a Mare may bring forth from three years old to thirteen, and then she decayeth: yet are neither utterly lost, but both may be made to serve for the same use a much longer sea­son.

Moderate labour is good for Breed of Mares, when they go over; for it maketh them apt to take the horse, and soon to con­ceive.

When to put Horse and Mare together.

The absolute best time to put the horse and Mares together, is the beginning of March, provided there be strength and lust in both. For, the earlier the Foal falleth, finding no want or scarceness, the better Horse is ever produced: And so consequently from the beginning of May; the Foals that fall after such a time cannot chuse but have imperfect­ion in some condition. For they have two great enemies to encounter withal (not before known) which daily fall upon them, that is, Hunger and Cold, with which the early Foal hath been before familiar.

There be some Horsemen which hold that the Lammas Foal proves ever an excellent Horse; and I dissent not from it, where there is plenty and fulness of keeping; for he knows the worst of Winter before Summer appear, and so may be good and hard; but if he chance to be pinched with either, the smalnes of his statute will lessen his goodness, and his weakness make useless his hardness.

The Lammas Foals are commonly known by many obscure feathers out of their own sights, as under their eyes, upon their necks, crests, and under their chaps. To conclude, it is not good to put the Horse to the Mares [Page 7] at all, till you find some ready, (speaking of a general putting together) for so the Horse loseth his strength unfruitfully, and she gets nothing but chasing and mischiefs.

When Mares are fit for the Horse.

To know when your Mares are ready (if it be in a wild Stud) observe their chasing and galloping up and down morning & evening, and their inconstancie of abiding in any one place, especially throwing their noses to the North and South, the lifting up of their tails, riding one anothers backs, wooding one an­other, oft pissing, or opening of their shares and closing them again, all are signs of lust: if you will make a more particular trial, then prove them with some stoned Tit or Jade.

How to put them together.

When your Mares are ready, the question is how they shall be put together, whether abroad at random for sundry weeks, or at home in private for a night or two?

If abroad, let your fence be good, your food sweet, and your shelter sufficient. If in the house, then in some empty Barn or spa­cious place, which may be free from danger of posts or other occasion of rushes: And [Page 8] let them remain from sunset till sunrise, and two nights are sufficient.

Now there is a third manner of covering, and I preferr it for the best, because it keeps the Stallion longer in ability, and serves the Mare with a great deal more certainty: And that is, first to be sure to have them both at one dyet, as the Mare at grass and the horse at soil; then finding the Mare (by tryal) ready, put them together into some close­walled Paddock, where there is store of sweet grass and sweet water, just upon the going down of the sun, and as neer as you can observe, either three days after the change, or three days before the full of the Moon, and let them remain close together two whole nights and one day, and take the horse from her at sunrise.

How many Mares for one Horse.

If you cover abroad (as I spake before, at random) an Horse may well serve twelve Mares, if you expect no other service of him. If you cover in the house, where he hath ex­traordinary keeping and little chasing, he will satisfie fifteen: But if you cover in the Pad­dock, then I have known an high spirited Horse for own year serve to keep you Mares [...]n an indifferent estate of body; for too much [Page 9] fatness hinders conception, and too much leanness abates lust.

Ordering after Covering.

After your Mares are covered, keep them as much as you can from disturbance, especi­ally for a moneth after covering, and a moneth before quickning: yet if necessity compell, you may give them moderate exer­cise either in journeying or otherwise: yet remember, if you keep the Mare in the house at had meat, she will spring early and much, and sudden cold after is dangerous for im­borsement. Also remember that a Mare at her first quickning is like a Fruit-tree, whose Blossoms at the first appearance are tender and easily destroyed with every shake of wind, or nip of Frost; but after they are knit and fixt, they are hardly beaten down with cudgels.

To help Mares in Foaling.

If any of your Mares be hard of foaling, or in danger in foaling, then either hold her nostrils so that she cannot draw wind: or if that prevail not, then take the quantity of a Walnut or better of Madder, and dissolve it in a pint of old Ale, and being warm give it [Page 10] the Mare. If both fail, then take the help of some understanding Midwife.

Now if after her foaling she do not cleans [...] or avoid her Secundine, then boil two or three handfull of Fennel in running water, and take half a pint thereof, and as much Malmsie, with a fourth part of Sallet-oil, and mixing them together give it the Mare luke­warm into her nostrils, then hold them close a little space after it: otherwise for want of this give her green forrage, that is, either green Wheat or Rye, (but Rye is best) and they are as effectual.

By no means let the Mare eat her cleans­ing (which many will cove [...]) for it is un­who [...]som, and an hinderance to her milk.

How long Foals to run with their Dams.

Let Foals run with their Dams (if you have go [...]d accommodation for them) a full year at the least; or if they be choice and principal bred Foals, then two years, if pos­sibly you can: For the going over the Mare will be no loss, in comparison of the excel­lenc [...] to which the Foal will attain by such suff [...]nce But if you want good accommo­dation▪ th [...]n wean at seven moneths, but be sure [...] keep them lustily; for what they lose in the first year, they will hardly gain in [Page 11] three following. And at the weaning give them saven and butt [...]r for divers mornings, or the Worm or Gargel will hazard to de­stroy them: Besides▪ have an eye to the Strangle, for it is apt to assay them, and not taken in time will prove mortal.

The first winter, spare neither Hay nor Corn, that is, Oats in the chaff or in the sheaf; the cha [...]fing of Wheat, Barley, or Rye, and indeed any Offal that comes from any Grain whatsoever.

To know a true Shape, Spirit, and Height.

The same shape which a Foal carries at a full month old, he will carry at six years old, if he be not abused in after-keeping; and as the good shape, so the defects also.

A large shin-bone that is long from the knee to the pastern in a Foal, shews a tall Horse. Look what space there is in a Foal new foaled, between his knee and withers, double that will be his height when he is a compleat Horse.

Foals that are of stirring spirits, free from affrights, wanton of disposition, active in leaping, running and chasing, ever leading the way and striving for mastery, these al­ways prove excellent metal'd horse [...], the con­trary Jades.

To know Goodness.

There is a Rule, and it is a good one, that an Horses ability, and continuance in good­ness is known by his Hoofs: For if they be strong, smooth, hard, deep, tough, upright­standing, and hollow, that Horse cannot be evil. For they are the foundation of his buil­ding, and lend fortitude to all the rest. If they be otherwise, he cannot be good or lasting: Whence it comes to pass, that no Horse na­turally hath so good hoofs as the Barbary; and it is indeed the only character by which to know him from all other horses.

Weaning of Foals.

Wean your ordinary Foals from their Dams at the end of seven months at the ut­most; the better, at a year, two, or more. And observing so to divide them, that nei­ther the Foals nor the Dams may be within the hearing of one anothers call. For which cause it is thought fit to house the Foals for two or three nights, (on the mornings where­of you shall give the Saven and Butter before spoken of) that they may forget the Dams; and send the Mares to their Pasture. Also observe to keep them as high as is possible the [Page 13] second year; but the third and fourth year you may put them to harder grasing.

Separating of Colts:

As you separate Foals from the Dams, so you must divide the Mare-Colts: for it is certain, that amongst these high-bred spirits▪ and with this lofty and full feeding, the Hors-Colts will cove [...] to cover the Mare-Colts at a year, as I have seen by experience, and it is the destruction of both. Again, if you have such store of grounds, you may separate one years Breed from another. This is the safest course, because of continual familiarity for change of quality.

Gelding of Colts.

If you intend to geld any of your Colts▪ the only best time, and which maketh the finest Geldings, is at nine days old, or as soon as you perceive the stones to fall; for then is the least danger, and it maketh f [...]est Crests. The time of the Moon to geld in, is in the Wane, the sign in Aries or Virgo; the time of the year in generall is the Spring or Fall▪ and although the earlier you geld, the better and safer, yet notwithstanding you may safely geld at any time or any age, even from Foal [Page 14] old age; and although the elder, the greater swelling, yet more exercise and more chasing will asswage it.

Taming of Colts.

Touching the taming of Colts, or making them domestick or familiar, you shall begin even from the first weaning, and so winter after winter (in the house) use them to fa­miliar actions, as rubbing, clawing, haltering, leading to water, taking up of his feet, knock­ing his hoofs, and the like.

To Break Colts.

The best time to break Colts to the saddle, according to the antient opinion and general custom of men, (and which brings them soon­est to the use and service of the Owner, and therein supposed to be most profitable) is at three years old, and the advantage or four at the utmost. But say I, he that will stay and see his horse fully five, shall be sure to have an horse of longer continuance, less subject to disease and infirmity, and one that (but by death) will hardly come to the knowledge of Tyring.

All the actions about a Colt in his nonage, or an Horse to break at elder age, must b [...] [Page 15] done first with warning, next constantly and valiantly, not fearfully or doubtfully: The first begetteth obedience, the other rebel­lion.

Coiling of the Stud.

Touching the coiling of the Stud, or make­ing of special elections, I need not spend much ink, because the Owner best knowes which are best bred, and his eyes can tell him where is the best shape and soundness. I only advise him by no means to make too early coiling: for some borses will shew their best shape at two and three years old, and lose it at four, others not till five, nay six, but then keep it ever: Some will do their best dayes work at six and seven years old, others not till eight or nine. But be the time when it will, let him preserve for his own use the best, the most comely, and most sound. Those which are defective, I mean such as bring in­curable deformities, gross sorrances, as Spa­vens, Ringbones, imperfect Eyes, or the like, or that shew palpable barstardie, send them away to the market.

When you find any of your Mares grow into barrenness, unnaturalness, or disease, a­way with them, and change them.

[Page 16]For all, though I could prescribe you re­medies, yet they are not worthy your use, nor will I [...]ue your loss: Therefore let such Mares go, for their profit is past, and they are useless.

Thus much touching Breeding:

THE OFFICE OF THE RIDER.
Observations in Riding.

IT is not intended that in these few Ob­servations or short Touches I should dis­cover the whole Art of Riding; it nei­ther fits the brevity of the work, norsuits with my first promise in the title.

He that looks for such largeness of dis­course, I refer him to my greater Volumes; in this onely to be found things new, things certain, set down in way of principles or in­fallible Rules, to conduct a man the easiest way to some perfection.

Times to handle Colts.

To begin then with the first taming or making gentle of a Colt (as I shewed you in the Observations for Breeding) you must begin the first winter after his foaling, and so continue every winter till he come to the [Page 18] sa [...]dle, which time I have also set down in the same place; and then there is no fear of evil qualities. But if a Colt of contrary edu­cation come to your hands and must be han­dled, [...]hen apply him with all gentleness, and do nothing about him suddenly, roughly, o [...] fearfully; yet with that awe of your voice, your rod, and other terror, make him know you are his Master when he rebelleth. And when you begin to do nay thing about him (of what nature soever) never leave it; only take leisure, and rather win it by gentleness▪ then cruelty, Forget not to give the hor [...] reward, when he gives content; and by no mean [...] punish, till you are sure he knows his error; for before you give him understand­ing, it is im [...]ossible he should obey.

Neither doth this taming of a Colt consist in the house only, but in the field also, where with a Cavezan or Chain, and a long Rei [...] with an iron Turnel under his chaps, you shall make him trot large Rings about you readily on both hands, and change at your pleasure as you shall turn him. And then to your cherishings, corrections, and all manner of handlings which before you had used i [...] the house.

When to Saddle.

When your Horse is thus made gentle you may then offer him the Saddle: but with that deliberate carefulness, that he may not take affright or dislike thereat; suffering him to smell at it, to be rubbed with it, and as it were to feel it and not to feel it; then in the end to fix it on, and girt it fast; and at what part and motion soever he seems most coy, with that make him most familiar.

When he will endure the Saddle, then trot him abroad with it, and make him (as before) trot his Rings on both hands about you, clap the Saddle as it stands on his back▪ shake it, hang and sway upon it, dangle the stirrops by his sides, rub them on his sides, and make much of him, and familiar with all things about him, as the straining of the Crooper, fastning and loosning the Gyrths, and taking up or letting out of the Stirrops.

Of Mo [...]thing

When he will trot with the Saddle obedi­ently, then you shall wash a Trench of a ful mouth, and somwhat worn, and put it into his mouth, and throw the Reins over the fore part of the saddle▪ Bolsters and all, and [Page 20] make them of the length, that the Horse may have a full feeling of the Trench, and a sense to play on the same: Then put on a Martin­gal, and fix it from the Gyrths to the Chaul­band of the Cavezan; but at that length, that the Horse may not find fault, unless he dis­orderly throw up his head.

Then take a broad peece of Leather, and put it about the Horses neck, and make the two ends fast by platting or otherwise at the Withers and mid-part before his Weisand▪ about two handfull below his Throple: be twixt his neck and the leather let the Martin­gal pass; so that when at any time he shal offer to duck or throw down his head, th [...] Cavesan being placed upon the tender griss [...] of his nose, may correct and punish him. By which means he shall not only lose that fo [...] quality of winning the head and thrusting i [...] between his legs, but also gain the way o [...] raising up his neck, bringing down his head▪ and fashioning himself to an absolute Rein.

The Horse thus accoutred, trot him abroad as before shewed, and chase him about you on both hands. And if you find either the Reins of the Trench or Martingal to grow slack, then straiten them; for where there i [...] no feeling there is no vertue.

Of Backing.

When you have exercised your horse thus divers mornings, noons or evenings, and find him both tractable, ready and obedient, you may then take him into some new ploughed ground (the lighter, the better) and hav [...]g chased him a little on both hands, and seeing all your tackle firm, strong and good, and every thing in his true and due place, you may then (having one to stay his head, and govern the Chasing rein) take his back; yet not suddenly, but by degrees, and with divers heavings and half-raisings. Which if he en­dure patiently, then you may take the reins of the trench into your hands and settle your self. But if he shrink or dislike, then forbear to mount, and chase him about him again; then offer to mount; and thus do till he re­ceive you willingly. Then when you are set­led, have received your stirrups, and cherisht him, putting your toes forward, let him that stays his head lead him forward half a dozen paces, then both cherish him, then lead him forward a dozen paces, then rest and cherish, and shake and move your self in the saddle: then let him that stays his head, remove his hand a little from the Cavezan; and as you thrust forward your toes, so let him also [Page 22] move him forward with his Rein, till you have made the Horse apprehend your own motions of body and foot (which must go equally together, and with spirit also) so that he will go forward without the other assist­ance, and stay upon the restraint of your own hand, and not the stay of the Cavezan: then you shall cherish him, and give him grass or bread to eat, alight from his back, then mount and unmount twice or thrice together ever mixing them with cherishings. Thus exercise him till you have made him perfect in going forward, and standing still, at your pleasure.

Helps at first Backing.

When this is effected, you may lay by the long Rein, and the Band about the neck, and only use the Trenches, the Cavezan, and the Martingal; and instead of leading in hand, let a Groom on another Horse lead the way before you into the field: where you shall not strive to teach him any other lesson, then to go strait forthright forward, and to stand still when you please: which will be effected in a few mornings, by trotting him forward a mile or two after another horse, and so bring him home sometimes after the horse, some­times equally with, and sometimes before, [Page 23] so that he may fix upon no certainty but your own pleasure. And in all this labour you must have a special regard to the well­carriage of his head and neck; and as the Martingal slacketh, so to straiten it.

What Lessons for what Horse.

When this work is finished, you may then proceed to teach your horse those lesson [...] which are fit for his practice and the purpose for which you intend him. As if it be for Hunting, Running, Travel, Hackney, or the like, then the chiefest things you are to apply your self unto, are to preserve a good mouth, to trot freely and comely, to amble surely and easily, to gallop strongly and swiftly, to obey the hand in stopping gently and retiring willingly, and to turn on either hand readily and nimbly. To all which I will give you lights in their severall places. But if you in­tend him for the great saddle, or the use of the wars, then although the lessons be the same, yet they are to be taught and done in a more punctual manner, and ask more nice and artificial demonstrations. So that if an horse can be brought to the best, the easier must needs follow with little industry. And it is a Rule in Horsmanship, that no lesson which belongs to the wars can be hurtfull or [Page 24] do injury to any horse whatsoever that is kept for any other purpose. Whence it cometh, that every horse for the wars may be train'd for a Runner or Hunter at pleasure; but every Runner or Hunter will not serve the wars: And every Horsman that can make an horse for the wars, may be a Jocky when he pleases; but no Jocky (that I know) can make an horse for the wars. Therefore I will run a middle way, and suit my lessons for both purposes.

Helps and Corrections.

Before you teach your Horse any lesson, you must know there are seven helps to ad­vantage him in his lessons, to punish him for faults gotten in his lessons; and they be the Voice, the Rod, the Bit or Snafflle, the Calves of the legs, the Stirrop, the Spur, and the Ground.

Voice.

The Voice is an help, when it is sweet and accompanied with cherishings and it is a cor­rection, when it is rough or terrible, and accompanied with strokes or threatnings:

Rod.

The Rod is an help in the shaking, and a correction in the striking.

Bit or Snaffle.

The Bit is an help in its sweetness, the Snaffle in its smoothness; and they are cor­rections, the one in its hardness, the other in its roughness, and both in flatness and square­ness.

Calves of the Legs.

The Calves of the legs are helps when you lay them gently to the horses sides; and cor­rections when you strike them hard, because they give warning that the Spur follows.

The Stirrop and Stirrop leathers are helps when you thrust them forward in a quick motion, and stir up in the horse spirit and agility. But when you strike it against the hinder part of the shoulder, it is a correction and awakens memory.

Spur.

The Spur is an help when it is gently deli­vered in any motion that asks quickness and agility, whether on the ground or above the ground; and a correction, when is stricken hard into the sides, upon any sloth or other fault committed.

The Ground.

Lastly, the Ground is an help, when it is plain and smooth, and not painfull to tread on; and it is a correction, when it is rough, deep, and uneven, for the amendment of any vice conceived.

Of large Rings.

When your horse will receive you to and, from his back g [...]ntly, trot forward willingly, and stand still obediently: Then, intending him f [...] the wars, or any other purpose, (for these lessons serve all occasions) you shall in some gravel [...]y or sandy place where his footsteps m [...]y [...]e discerned, labor him within the large Ring, that is at least fifty paces in compass; and having trod it about three or four times on the right hand, rest and cherish, then taking compass, change your hand and do as much on the left hand, then rest and cherish; then change the hand again, and do as much on the right hand, ever observing upon every stop to make him retire and go back a step or two.

▪Thus labour the horse till you have him so perfect, that he will trot his ring on which hand you please; changing within the ring [Page 27] in the manner of a Roman S. with such wil­lingness, nimbleness, and constant rein, that you can desire no better obedience. Then you may teach him to gallop them as he did trot them, and that also with true footing, lofty carriage, and brave rein: Ever observing when he gallops to the right hand, to lead with his left fore-foot; and when he gallops to the left hand, to lead with his right fore­feet.

Now here is to be cleered a Parodox held by many of our Horsmen, which is, that the exercise of Rings is not good for Running horses, because it raises up his fore-feet, and makes him gallop painfully, and so an hin­drance unto speed. But if they consider that this habit (if it be taken) is soon broken ei­ther by the horsmans hand or discretion, who hath power to make him move as he pleaseth Or if they will truly look into the benefit of the Ring it self, they shall fine it is the only means to bring an horse to the true use of his feet, and the nimble carriage of them in all advantages. For every Runner of horses will allow, that for an horse (in his course) to lead with his right foot, is most proper; and when at any time he breakes or alter [...] it, it must be disadvantage, because (not well acquainted to lead with the other) he cannot handle it so nimbly. Now at his first back­ing, [Page 28] by the use of his Ring and change of hands, he will become so expert and coming with both, that howsoever mischance shall alter his stroke, yet shall his speed and nim­bleness keep one and the same goodness.

Of Stopping.

When you come to the place of stop, or would stop; by a sudden drawing in of our Bridle-hand somwhat hard and sharp, make him stop close, firm and strait in an eaven line: and if he erre in any thing, put him to it a­gain, and leave not till you have made him understand his error, and amend it.

Advancing.

Now if you do accompany this Stop with an Advancement a little from the ground, it will be more gallant, and may be done by laying the Calves of your legs to his sides, and shaking your rod over him as he stops. If it chance at first he understand you not, yet by continuance and labouring him there­in he will soon attain unto it, especially if you forget not to cherish him when he gives the least shew to apprehend you.

Retiring.

After stopping and advancing, make him retire, as before shewed. And this motion of Retiring you must both cherish and in­crease, making it so familiar with him, that no lesson may be more perfect: Neither must he retire in a confused or disorderly manner, but with a brave rein, a constant head, and a direct line: Neither must he draw or sweep his legs one after another, but take them clean, nimbly, and lostily, as when he troted forward.

Of Bitting.

When your horse is come to perfection in these lessons, and hath his head firmly setled, his rein constant, and his mouth sweetned, you may then (if you intend him for the wars) take away his Trench and Martingal, and only use the Cavezan of four or three pieces, that is, a Joint or no Joint in the midst, and to that Joint a strong Ring, and a Joint of each side with Rings before the Joints, to which you shall put several Reins to use ei­ther at the post or otherwise Into his mouth you shall put a smooth sweet Canon-Bit with a French Cheek suitable to the proportion [Page 30] of the Horses neck; knowing that the long Cheek raises up the head, and the short pulls it down. And with these you shall exercise the Horse in all the Lessons before taught, till he be perfect in them without either disorder or amazement.

Of strait Turns and Turnings.

When he is thus setled upon his Bit, then you shall teach him to turn roundly and rea­dily in the straiter Rings: and of these there are divers kinds, and divers methods and manners how to teach them. All which I will omit, and only fix upon two manner of strait Turns, as the persection from whence all Turnings are derived.

The one is, when the Horse keepeth his hinder parts inward and close to the post or center, and so cometh about and makes his circumference with his fore-parts, following an enemy that a little avoids him.

And the other is, when he keeps his fact fixt on the post or center, and comes about and makes his circumference with his hinder parts, opposing face to face with his enemy.

The first strait Turn.

For the first of these strait Turns, it is thus to be taught.

[Page 31]You shall to the Ring in the mid-part of the Cavezan fix a long Rein of two fathom or more, and to the other Rings two other shorter Reins: then having sadled the horse and put on his Bit, bring him to the post, and put the Reins of the Bit over the forepart of the Saddle, Bolsters and all, and fix them at a constant straitness on the top of the Pomel, so that the horse may have a feeling both of the Bit and Curb. Then, if you will have him turn to the right hand, take the short Rein on the left side of the Cavezan, and bringing it under the Fore-bolster of the Saddle up to the Pomel, and there fix it at such a straitness that the horse may rather look from, then to the post on the right side: Then let some Groom or skilfull Attendant hold the right side Rein of the Cavezan at the post, govern­ing the fore parts of his body to come about at large: Then your self taking the long Rein into your hand, and keeping his hinder parts inward, with your rod on his outward shoul­der, and sometimes on his outward thigh, make him move about the post, keeping his hinder parts as a cen [...]e [...], and making his fore­parts move in a larger circumference. Thus you shall exercise him a pretty space on one hand till he grow to some perfectness and understanding of your will. Then changing the Reins of the Cavezan, make him do the [Page 32] like to the other hand. And thus apply hi [...] divers mornings, mingling cherishing with his exercise, according to his deservings, ti [...] you have brought him to that readiness, th [...] he will upon the moving of your rod couc [...] his hinder parts in towards the post, and lap­ping the outward fore leg over the inward trot about the post swiftly, distinctly, and i [...] as strait compass as you can desire, or is con­venient for the motion of the horse. And from trotting you may bring him to flying or wheeling about with that swiftness, th [...] both the fore legs rising and moving toge­ther, the hinder parts may follow in one an [...] the same instant.

When you have made your horse th [...] perfect in your hand, you shall then mou [...] his back; and making some other skilfu [...] Groom or Attendant govern the long Rei [...] and another the short, by the motion of yo [...] hand upon the Bit and left Rein of the Ca­vezan, keeping the horses head from the po [...] and by the help of the Calve of your le [...] laid to his side, and your rod turned to h [...] outward thigh to keep his hinder parts into the post labour and exercise him till you have brought him to that perfection which your self desire. Then take away the long rein [...] and only exercise him with the help of th [...] short rein of the Cavezan, and no other.

[Page 33]After take both the reins of the Cavezan into your hands, and exercise him from the Post; making him as ready in any place where you please to ride him, as he was at the Post.

The other strait Turn.

Now for the other strait flying Turn, which is to keep his face fixt▪ on the post as on his enemy, and to move about only with his hinder parts, you shall take the same helps of the long rein and the short reins of the Cavezan, and govern them as before shewed▪ only you shall not give the short rein to the postward so much liberty as before, but keep his head closer to the post, and following his hinder parts with the long rein, by the help of your rod make him bring his hinder parts round about the post: And observe that as before he did lap one foreleg over another, so now he must lap the hinder legs one over another.

In this lesson exercise him as in the former Then (after a perfectness) mount his back, and labour him as before shewed. Then last­ly, leaving the Post and all other helps, only apply him in such open and free places as you shall think convenient: For upon the finish­ing of this work, your horse is made com­pleat, and can perform all things that can be [Page 32] [...] [Page 33] [...] [Page 34] required either for service in the wars, for the high-way, or any other galloping pleasure: which is the end of mine aim, and the utmost journy I will take in these observations. Only for a conclusion I will bequeath you one or two pretty secrets.

How to help an ill Rein, and cure a Runaway Jade.

There be many horses so evil beholden to Nature for giving them short untoward Necks, and worse, set on Heads; and so little beholden to Art to endeavor to amend them, that many good horses are left cureless of these two gross unsufferable faules; which are either a deformed carriage of the head like a Pig on a broach▪ or else a furious run­ing away, got by a spoil'd mouth, or an evil habit.

The Help.

To help any, or both of these: If it be a young horse, at the first riding, then to his Trench; if of old standing, then to his Snaffle, (for I speak not of the Bit.) Put a pair of Reins, half as long again as any ordi­nary Reins, and Loops to fasten and unfasten at the eye of the Snaffle, as other Reins have▪ Now when you see that the horse will not [Page 35] yield to your hand, but the more you draw, the more he thrusts out his nose, or the more violently he runs away; then undo the but­tons of the Reins from the eys of the Snaffle, and drawing them through the eys, bring them to the buckles of the foremost girth, and there button them fast: Then riding the horse in that manner, labour him with the gentle motions of your hand, coming and going by degrees; and some times accom­panied with your spur, to gather up his body, and to feel your command, and assuredly in a small expence of time he will yield and bring his head where you would place it. And for running away, if you draw one Rein, you turn him about in despight of all fury; and if you draw both, you break his chaps, or bring them to his bosom: In the end finding himself not able to resist, he will be willing to obey.

Another help for inconstant Carriage.

There is another foul error in many horses which these Reins also cure, as this. When your horse is either so wythie cragg'd (as the Northern man calls it) or so loose and unsteady-necked, that which way soever you draw your hand, his head and neck will fol­low it, sometimes beating against your knees, [Page 36] sometimes dashing against your bosom, nay sometimes knocking you in the face; and in­deed generally so loose and incertain, that a man cannot say at any time he hath certain or steady hold of him. A vice wonderfull in­cident to Running-Horses, especially the hot furious ones. In this case you shall take these long Reins; and as before you drew them to the buckles of the gyrths, so now Marting [...]l­wise draw them from the eyes of the Snaffle, betwixt his fore-legs to the gyrths, and there fasten them. Thus ride him with a constant hand, firm and somwhat hard; correcting him both with the spurs and rod, and some­times with sharp twitches in his mouth when he errs; and with a few weeks labor, his head will come to a constant carriage, provided that you labor him as well upon his Gallop as his trot, and leave him not till you find him fully reclaimed.

How any Lady or Gentlewoman shall spur her Horse as well as any man, yet unperceived

Take a strong Whale bone, that is at one end of one side round, of the other flat, and of a pretty thickness; then rush grown and small to the other end. All round to the flat end glue a peece of Cord, about an inch [Page 37] and an half longer, being to the upper end of the bone as thin as may be, but from the end made wedg-like▪ thicker and thicker, to half an inch thickness or more, as you shall find occasion, being a thing only to bear the bone from the Horses sides. Then you shall cause to be made of Iron a Neck of a spur, an handfull or more long, having at the one end set a sharp Rowel as big as a great French Rowel, but not set as a mans Rowel, but cross-wise, the pricks looking to the Horses sides; the other end of this Neck shall bee rough, and with a Shoomakers thread made fast to the small round end of the whalebone. Then make fast the great end of the whale­bone with leather, glue and nails to the fore­part of the Sidesaddle-tree, and look that the Spur stand opposite to the spurring-place of the Horses sides. Now as you do this side, so do the other side also.

Then take a strong Ribbon, and fasten it with a loop to the Spurneck on the near side, and draw it under the horses belly upon the far side: Then fasten another to the Spur on the far side▪ and fasten both ends at an eaven length under the Pomel of the Saddle, yet so as she may command it with her bridle rein.

Now when she will spur on the left side (which we call the near side) let her draw [Page 38] the Ribbon on the far side (which is the right side) and when she will spur on the right side, let her draw her Ribbon on the near side; when she will spur both sides at once, let her draw both the Ribbons equally:

Thus much for the Office of the Rider.

THE OFFICE OF THE FEEDER.
An Introduction to the Work, touching the limitation of time for preparing the Running-Horse.

I Will not dispute the severall opinions of men in this Kingdom touching the keep­ing of the Running horse, because I know many are idle and frivolous, some incer­tain, and a few in the right way. Only in this work I would cleer one paradox, which is strongly maintained and infinitely pursued by many of our best professors; and that is the limitation or length of time for the preparing or making ready of an Horse for a Match or great wager.

There be divers, nay some which I know carry the Goddesses on their backs, that af­firm an Horse which is exceeding fat, foul▪ newly taken from grass, soil, or lofty, liberal [Page 40] and unbounded feeding, cannot be brought to the performance of his best labour under six moneths, five is too little, and four an act of impossibility. By which they rob their Noble master of half a years pleasure, thrust upon him a tyring charge▪ to make the sport loathsom, and get nothing but a cloak for ignorance, and a few false got Crowns that melt as they are possessed.

Yet as Heretiques cite Scriptures, so these find Reasons to defend want of knowledge.

As, the danger of too early exercise; the offence of grease suddenly broken; the moving of evill humors too haistily, which leads to mortal sickness.

And the moderation or helping of all these by a slow proceeding, or bringing of the horse into order by degrees and time, o [...] (as I may say) by an ignorant sufferance.

These Reasons I know have the shew of a good Ground; for too early exercise is dan­gerous, but not if free from violence.

To break grease too suddenly is an offence unsufferable, for it puts both limbs and life in hazard, but not if purged away by whol­some scourings.

The hasty stirring up of humours in a body where they superabound, and are generally dispersed, and not setled, cannot chuse but breed sickness; but not where discretion and [Page 41] judgment evacuateth them in wholsom sweats and moderate airings.

And for t [...]e moderation of all these, by the tediousness of Time, as two months for the first; two moneths for the second, and as much for the last: It is like the curing of the Gangrene in an old man; better to dye then be dismembred, better lose the prize then bear the charge: For I dare appeal to any noble judgment, whose purse hath experience in these actions, if six moneths preparation and the dependances belonging to it and his person do not devour up an hundred pounds wager.

But you will demand of me what limitati­on of time I will allow for this purpose of preparation? And I answer, that two moneths is sufficient at any time of the year whatso­ever, for an old horse, or an horse formerly trained, for I speak not of Colts; and he that cannot do it in two moneths, shall never do it in sifteen.

But reply they, No scouring is to be al­lowed, for they are physical; they force na­ture, and so hurt nature; they make sickness, and so impair health: And that indeed no­thing is comparable to the length of time, because Nature worketh every thing her self; and though she be longer, yet she hath less danger.

[Page 42]I confess that Sybbesauce scourings which are stuft with poisonous ingredients, cannot chuse but bring forth infirmity; but whole­som Scourings, that are composed of bene­ficiall and nourishing Simples, neither occasi­on sickness nor any manner of infirmity, but bring away grease and all foulness in that kindly and abundant sort, that one week shall effect more then two moneths of dilatory and doubtfull for bearance.

I call it dilatory and doubtfull, because no man (in this lingring course) can certainly tel which way the gre [...]se and other foulnesses will avoid, as whether into his ordure (which is the safest) into sweat (which is hazardou [...]) into his limbs (which is mischievous) or re­main and putrifie in his body (which is mor­tally dangerous?) Since the issue of any o [...] all these fall out according to the strength and estate of the Horses body, and the diligence of the Feeder: And if either the one fail in power; or the other in care, farewell Horse for that year.

All this Envy cannot chuse but confess; only they have one broken crutch to support them, which is, They know no Scouring, therefore they will allow of no Scouring.

Against Barbarism I will not dispute, only I appeal to Art or Discretion, whether Pur­gation or Sufferance; when Nature is offend­ed, be the better doers.

[Page 43]But they reply, by a figure called Absur­dity, That whatsoever is given to any Horse more then his natural food, and which he will naturally and of his own accord with all willingness receive, is both unproper and un­wholsom; and therefore he ought not to be forced with any thing against his appetite. This I have heard them say, and to this I thus answer.

The natural food of Man is bread only, all other things (according to the Philoso­pher) are superfluous, and so to be avoided. At this argument both Humanity and Divi­nity laughs: For, other helps, as Physick, divers meats, and divers means ordained for both even by the power of the Almighty himself, tells the contemners hereof how grossly they erre in this foolish opinion.

Nay, allow them a little shadow of truth, That things most natural, are most beneficial: then it must follow, that Grass, or Hay (which is but withered Grass) is most natural, and so most beneficial. Now Grass is physical, for in it is contained all manner of Simples of all manner of mixtures, as hot, cold, moist, dry; of all qualities, all quantities. So that what­soever I give (which is good) is but that which he hath formerly gathered out of his own nature, only with this difference; That what he gathereth is in a confused manner, [Page 44] clapping contraries together so abundantly, that we are not able to judge where the pre­dominant quality lyeth; and that which we compound is so governed by art and reason, that we know how it should work, and we expect the event, if it be not crost by some greater disaster.

But will they bind themselves to keep the Running-horse only with Grass or Hay? They know then the end of their labour will be loss. Nay, they will allow Corn, nay di­vers Corns; some nourishing and loosing, as Oats and Rye; some astringent and bind­ing, as Beans; and some fatting and breeding both blood and spirit, as Wheat: nay, they will allow Bread, nay Bread of divers com­positions, and divers mixtures, some before heat, and some after, some quick of discresion and some slow. And if this be not as physical as any Scouring a good Horsman gives, [...] report me to him that shall read the Bills.

Nay, these Contemners of Scourings will allow an Egg, nay an Egg mixt with other ingredients: And for Butter and Garlick, they will use it, though it be never so fulsom. The reason is, because their knowledge can arise to no higher a stair in physick; and authorised Ignorance will ever wage battel with the best Understanding: like foolish Gallants on St. Georges day, who neither [Page 45] having ability to buy, nor credit to borrow a Gold-chain, scorn at them that wear them; or Martin Marprelate, that not having Learning worthy of a Deacon, found no fe­licity but in railing at divine Fathers.

There are another sort of Feeders, which in a contrary extream run beyond these into mischiefs; and those are they which over­scour their horses, and are never at peace but when they are giving Potions (which they call Scourings) somtimes without cause, always without order, bringing upon an horse such intolerable weakness, that he is not able to perform any violent labour.

From this too little, and too much, I would have our Feeder to gather a mean; that is, First to look that his Simples be wholsom: then to the occasion, that he is sure there is foulness: and lastly to the estate of body, that he may rather augment then decrease vigor. So shall his work be prosperous, and his actions without controllment.

To conclude, Two months I allow for preparation, and according to that time have laid my Directions. Mine humble suit is, out of a sincere opinion to Truth and Justice, so to allow or disallow, to refrain or imitate.

The first ordering of the Running-horse, ac­cording to the several estates of their Bodies.

This office of the Feeder, albeit in general it belong to all Horsmen, yet it particular it is most appropriate to the Feeder of the Running-horse; because other general horses have a general way of feeding, these an arti­ficial and prescript form, full of curiosity and circumspection; from which whosoever errs, he shall sooner bring his horse to de­struction then perfection.

Therefore when an Horse is matcht, or to be matcht for a Running course, you art principally to regard the estate of body it which the horse is at the time of his match­ing. And this estate of body I divide into three several kinds.

The first is, if he be very fat, foul, and ei­ther taken from grass or soil.

The second, if he be extream lean and poor, either through over-riding, disorder, or other infirmity.

And the third, if he be in good and well­liking estate, having had good usage and mo­derate exercise.

If he be in the first estate of body, you shall take longer time for his feed, as two [Page 47] moneths at the least: for he will ask much labour in airing, great carefulness in heating, art and discretion in scouring, and rather a strict then liberall hand in feeding.

If he be in the second estate of body (which is poor) then you shall also take a longer time as you may, yet you need not so much as in the former; both because Grass cannot much hurt, and exercise may go hand in hand with feeding.

This horse would have moderate and cheer­full airing, as not before or after sun, rather [...]o increase appetite then harden flesh; gentle heats, more to preserve wind then melt glut; and a bountifull hand (but far from cloying) in feeding.

If he be in the third estate of body, which is a mean betwixt the other extreams, then a moneth or six weeks, or a fortnight or less, may be time sufficient to diet him for his Match▪ Now as this estate participates with both the former, so it wou'd borrow from them a share in all their orderings, that is, to be neither too early, nor too late in airings; [...]aborious, but not painfull in heatings, nou­rishing in scouring, and constant in a mode­rate way of feeding.

Now as you regard these general estates of bodies, so you must have an eye to certain particular estates of bodies: As if an horse be [Page 48] fa [...] and foul, yet of a free and spending na­ture, apt quickly to consume and lose his flesh, this horse must not have so strict a [...] hand, neither can he endure so violent exer­cise as he that is of an hard and kettty dispo­sition, and will feed and be fat upon all mea [...] and all exercises.

Again, if your horse be in extreme pover­ty through disorder or misusage, yet is by na­ture very hard and apt both soon to recover his flesh, and long to hold it; then over thi [...] horse you shall by no means [...]old so l [...]bera [...] an hand, nor forbear that exercise which o­therwise you would do to the horse which i [...] of a tender nature, a weak stomack, and a fre [...] spirit provided always you have reg [...]rd to his limbs and the imperfection of lameness.

Thus you see how to look into the estate [...] of Horses bodies, and what time to take fo [...] your matchings, I will now descend to thei [...] several orderings and dyeting. And because in the fat Horse is contained both the lea [...] Horse, and Horse in reasonable estate o [...] bo [...]y. I will in him shew all the secrets a [...] observations which are to be imployed in th [...] feeding of all three, without any omission o [...] reservation whatsoever: For truth, Sir, [...] have vowed unto you, and truth I will prese [...] you.

The first Fortnights feeding of an Horse for Match that is fat, foul, and▪ either new­ly taken from Grass or Soil.

If you match an Horse that is fat and foul, either by running at grass, or standing at soil, or by any other means of rest, or too high feeding; you shall (after his body is emptied, and the grass avoided, which will be three or four days) for the first fortnight at the least, rise early in the morning before day, or at the spring of day according to the time of the year; and having put on his Bridle washt in beer, and tyed him up to the rack, take away his dmng and other foulness of the stable; then dress him well, as in the Office of the Keeper,

When that work is finished, take a fair large Body-cloth of thick Houswifes Kersie (if it be in winter) or of Cotton or other light Stuffe (if it be in summer) and fold it round about the horses body, then clap on the [...]addle and girt the foremost girth pretty strait, but the other somwhat slack, and wisp it on each side his heart, that both the girths may be of equal straitness.

Then put before his breast a Breast-cloath sutable to the Body-cloth, and let it cover both his shoulders; Then take a little Beer [Page 50] into your mouth, and spirt it into the horses mouth, and so draw him out of the stable, and take his back, leaving a Groom behind you to trim up your stable, to carry out dung and to toss up the litter: For you are to un­derstand that the horse must stand upon good store of fresh dry litter continually both night and day, and it should be ever Wheat-straw (if possible) or Oat-straw (if forced by ne­cessity) As for Barley▪straw and Rye-straw, they are unwholsom and dangerous; the one doth heart-burn, the other causeth scouring▪

When you are mounted, rack the horse foot-pace (for you must neither amble no [...] trot, for they hurt speed) at least a mile or two, or more upon smooth and sound ground▪ and (as neer as you can) to the steepest hill [...] you can find; there gallop him gently up those hills, ond rack or walk him softly down▪ that he may cool as much one way as he warmeth another. And when you have th [...] exercised him a pretty space, and seeing the sun beginning to rise, or else risen, rack down either to some fresh river, or clear pond that is fed by a sweet Spring, and there let him drink at his pleasure: After he hath drunk: bring him calmly out of the water, and so ride him a little space with all gentleness, and not according to the use of ignoran [...] [Page 51] Grooms, rush him instantly into a Gallop, for that brings with it two mischiefs, either it teaches the horse to run away with you as soon as he is watered, or else refuse to drink, fearing the violence of his exercise which fol­lows upon it.

When you have used him a little calmly, then put him into a gentle Gallop, and exer­cise him moderately, as you did before; then walk him a little space, after offer him more water: If he drink, then gallop him again (after calm usage;) if he refuse, then gallop him to occasion thirst. And thus always give him exercise both before and after water.

When he hath drank sufficient, then bring him home gently, without a wet hair or any sweat about him.

When you come to the stable-door before which your Groom shall ever throw all his fo [...]l litter continually; there alight, and by whistling and stretching the horse upon the straw, and raising up the straw under him, see if you can make him piss, which if at first he do not, yet with a little custom he will soon be brought unto it, and it is an wholsom action both for the horses health, and the sweet keeping of the Stable.

This done, bring him into his stall, and tie him up to the Rack, then with wisps rub his [...]egs well, then unloose his breast-cloth▪ and [Page 52] rub his head, neck and breast with a dry clot [...] then take off the saddle and hang it by, the [...] his Body-cloth, and rub over all his body and limbs, especially his back where the saddl [...] stood. Then cloath him up, first with a linne [...] sheet, then over it a good strong Housing cloth, and above it his woollen Body-cloth which in the winter it is not amiss to hav [...] lin'd with some thin Cotton or Plad, or othe [...] woollen stuffe, but in the summer the Kersi [...] it self is sufficient.

When these are girt about him, stop hi [...] Circingle round with reasonable big soft wisp [...] and thick, for with them he will lie at be [...] ease, because the small hard wisps are eve [...] hurtfull.

After he is cloathed, pick his feet and stop them up with cow-dung; and then throw int [...] his Rack a little Bundle of hay, so much as a [...] halfpeny bottel in a dear Inne, well chosen▪ dusted, and hard bound together. And th [...] he shall tear out, as he standeth on the bridl [...]

When he hath stood on his bridle an ho [...] and better, you shall then come to him, an [...] first draw his bridle, rub his head, face an [...] nape of the neck with a clean rubber made [...] new rough hempen cloth, for this is excelle [...] for the head, and dissolveth all gross a [...] filthy humours: Then with a clean clot [...] make the Manger as clean as may be; and i [...] [Page 53] he have scattered any hay, take it up and throw it back into the Rack. Then you shall take a quart of sweet, dry, old and clean drest Oats, of which the heaviest are the best, as those which we call Poland-oats or Cut-oats: For those which are unsweet, breed infirmity; those which are moist, cause swelling in the body, those which are new, breed worms; and they which are half drest, deceive the stomack and bring the horse to ruine.

As for the black Oats, though they are to­lerable in the time of necessity, yet they make foul dung, and hinder a mans knowledg in the state of the horses body.

This quart of Oats you shall ree and dress wondrous clean in a Sive that is much less then a Riddle, and though bigger then a Reeing-sive, such an one as will let a light Oat go through, but keep a full one from scattering, and so give them to the horse; and if he eat them with a good stomack, you may give him another, and so let him rest till it be eleven a clock:

Then come to the Stable, and having rub­bed his head, neck and face, dress him another quart of Oats (as before) and give it the horse; then closing up the windows and lights leave him till one a clock.

And here you are to understand, that the darker you keep your horse in your absence, [Page 54] the better it is, and it will occasion him to lye down and take his rest, when otherwise he would not; and therefore we commonly use to arm the Stables wherein these horses stand round about a lost, and over the Rack with Canvas, both for darkness, warmth, and that no filth may come near the horse.

At one a clock come to him, and dress him another quart of oats, and give them as before, after you have rubbed his head and nape of the neck: then putting away his dung, and making the stable clean, give him a knob of Hay, and so leave him till eve­ning.

At evening come to the Stable, and having made all things clean, bridle as in the morn­ing take off his cloaths, and dresse him a [...] before.

Then cloath, saddle, bring him forth, urge him to empty, mount, rack him abroad, but not to the hills, if you can finde any other plain ground, as meadow, pasture, or the like, especially if it lye along by a River, but in this case you can be no chuser, but must take the most convenient, making a vertue of necessity. Here air him in all points in the evening, as you did in the morning, Gallop­ing both before and after water: Then Rack him up and down, and in your racking observe even from the Stable-dore, in all your [Page 45] passages, especially when you would have him to empty, to let him smel upon every old and new dung you meet withall, for this will clear his body and repair his stomack.

When you have watred, and spent the evening in airing till within night, (for no­thing is more wholsom, or sooner consumeth foulness, then early and late airings:) You shall then rack him home to the stable-door; there alight and do as you did in the morn­ing, both within doors and without, and so leave him on his bridle for an hour and more. Then come again, and as you did in the fore­noon, so do now; Rub well, draw his bridle, cleanse the Manger, put up his scattered hay, sift him a quart of Oats, and so let him rest til nine a clock at night.

At nine a clock come to him, and first rub down his legs with wisps, or with a clean cloth, or with your bare hands (which is best of all) then with a clean cloth rub his face, head, chaps, nape of the neck and foreparts, then turn up his cloathes and rub over all his hinder parts; then put down his clothes, and sift him a quart of Oats and give them him; then put into his Rack a little bundle of hay, toss up his litter and make his bed soft, and so leave him till the next morning.

The next morning (as the morning be­fore (come to the horse early, and do every [Page 56] thing without the omission of any one parti­cle, as hath been formerly declared; and thus you shall keep your horse constantly for the first fornight, in which by this double daily exercise you shall so harden his flesh and consume his foulness, that the next fort­night (if you be a temperate man) you may adventure to give him some heats,

But here give me leave to digress a little for satisfaction sake, and to answer objecti­ons that may be urged touching the quantity of Provender which I prescribe, being but a quart at a meal, seeing there be many horses that will eat a much larger proportion, and to scant them to this little were to starve, o [...] at the best to breed weakness.

But if I be understood rightly, I set not this down as an infallible Rule, but a Presi­dent that may be imitated, yet altered at pleasure: For I have left you this Caveat, That if your horse eat this with a good sto­mack, you may give him another, leaving the proportion to the Feeders discretion; because it is impossible in writing, to make one measure for all stomacks. And for min [...] own part, I chose the quart as the most in­different proportion; for albeit many horses will eat more, yet I have known some that would hardly eat this: And believe it, what horse soever shall but eat this, and in this [Page 57] manner, he shall neither starve, lose strength, nor be much hungry.

So now again to the giving of Heats.

Four considerations in giving of Heats.

Now touching Heats, you are to take to your self these four Considerations.

  • 1. That two Heats in the week is a suffi­cient proportion for any horse of what con­dition or state of body soever.
  • 2. That one heat should ever be given on that day in the week, on which he is to run his Match; as thus: Your Match-day is a Monday, your Heating-days are then Mondays and Fridays; and the Monday to be ever the sharper heat, both because it is the day of his Match▪ and there is three days rest betwixt it and the other heat. If the day [...]e Tuesday, then the heating days are Tues­days and Saturdays; if Wednesday, then Wednesdays and Saturdays, by reason of the Lords day; if on Thursdays, then Thursdays and Mondays, and so of the rest.
  • 2. You shall give no heat (except in case of extremity) in rain or foul weather, but rather to defer hours and change times: for it is unwholsom and dangerous. And there­fore in case of showers and incertain weather you shall have for the horse a lined hood, [Page 58] with lined ears, and the nape of the nec [...] lined to keep out rain; for nothing [...] more dangerous then cold wet falling into the ears, and upon the nape of the neck and Fillets.
  • 4 Lastly, observe to give the heats (the weather being seasonable) as early in the morning as you can, that is, by the spring of day; but by no means in the dark; for [...] is to the horse both unwholsom and un­pleasant; to the man a great testimony o [...] folly, and to both an act of danger and pre­cipitation.

The second fortnights feeding.

Now to come to the second fortnight feeding: touching your first approaching to the Stable, and all other by respects, a [...] cleansing, and the like, you shall do all things as in the first fortnight, onely before yo [...] put on his Bridle, give him a quart of oats, which as soon as he hath eaten, bridle him up, and dress him, as before shewed; then cloath, saddle, air, water, exercise, and bring him home as before shewed; onely you shall not put hay into his rack to tear out, but let him eat it out of your hands, handfull after handfull, and so leave him on his bridle for an hour more; then come to him, and after [Page 56] rubbing, and other ceremonies, sist him a quart of oats and set them by: then take a loaf of bread, that is three days old, or there­about, and made in this manner.

The first Bread:

Take three pecks of clean Beans, and one peck of Wheat, mix them together and grind them, then boult it through a reasonable fine Raunge, and knead it up with great [...]ore of Barm and lightning, but with as little water as may be, labour it in the Trough painfully, knead it, break it, and after cover it warm, and let it lye and swell; then knead it over again, and mould it up into big loaves, like twelve­peny houshold loaves, and so bake it well, and let it soak soundly; after they are drawn turn the bottoms upward, and let them cool.

At three daies old, or thereabout, you may give this bread, but hardly sooner: for no­thing is worse then new bread; yet if necessi­ty compell you that you must sooner give it, or that the bread be clammy or dank, so as the Horse taketh distast thereat, then cut the loaf into thin shivers, and lay it abroad in the Sive to dry; then crumbling it smal with his oats, you may give it safely.

But to return to my purpose, when you [Page 60] have taken a loaf of this bread, chip it very well, then cut it into thin slyves, and put three or four thereof (small broken) into his oats you had before sifted, and so give them to him▪

About eleven a clock come to him, and by ceremonies give him the same quantity of bread and oats, and so leave him till after­noon.

At one a clock in the afternoon (if you in­tend not to give him a heat the next day) feed him with bread and oats as you did in the fore-noon, and so consequently every meal following for that day, observing every acti­on and motion as before shewed.

But if you intend the next day to give him an heat (to which I now bend mine aym) you shall then only give him a quart of oats clear sifted, but no hay, and so let him rest till evening.

At four a clock before you put on his bridle, give him a quart of clean sifted oats, and when they are eaten; bridle him up, dress, cloath, saddle, air, water, exercise, bring home and order, as before shewed, onely give no hay at all.

After he hath stood an hour on his bridle, give him a quart of oats, and when they are caten, put on his head a sweet muzzel, and so let him rest till nine a clock at night▪

[Page 61]Now as touching the use of this Muzzell, and which is the best, you shall understand, that as they are most usefull being good and rightly made, so they are dangerous and hurtfull, being abused and falsly made. The true use of them is to keep the horse from eating up his litter, from gnawing upon boards and mud-walls, and indeed to keep him from eating any thing but what he re­ceiveth from your own hands.

These Muzzels are somtimes made of lea­ther, and stampt full of holes, or else close, but they are unsavoury and unwholsom: for if it be allomed leather, the allom is offen­sive; if it be tann'd or liquored leather, the Tanners ouze and grease are fully as unplea­sant. Besides, they are too close, and too hot, and both make an horse sick, and cause him to retain his dung longer in his body, then otherwise he would do.

The best Summer Muzzell, (and indeed the best generally at all times, is the Ner­muzzell, made of Strong pack-threed, and knit exceeding thick and close in the bottom, and so inlarged wider and wider upward, to the middle of the horses head; then bound about the top with Tape, and on the near­side a loop, and on the farre-side a long string to fasten it to the horses head.

The best Winter-muzzell (and indeed [Page 62] tolerable at any time) is that which is made of double Canvas, with a round bottom and a square lattice window of small tape before both his nostrils, down to the very bottom of the muzzell, and upward more then a hand­full: this must also have a loop and a string to fasten it about the horses head.

At nine a clock at night come to the Sta­ble, and after by ceremonies done, give him a quart of oats clean sifted, and when they are eaten, put on his Muzzell, toss up his litter▪ and so leave him.

The next day early in the morning, come to the horse (if he be standing, but if he be laid▪ do not disturb him) and whilst he is lying take a quart of oats clean sifted and rubbed between your hands, and wash them i [...] strong Ale, and give them to the horse; when they are eaten bridle him up, and dress him then saddle as before shewed; being ready to depart, give him a new laid Egg or two then wash his mouth after it with a little Beer or Ale, and so lead away: at the doo [...] urge him to empty, then mount and ra [...] him gently to the course, ever and anon making him smell another horses dung.

When you are come within a mile o [...] thereabout of the starting-post, alight and take off his body-cloath, and Breast-cloath and girt on the saddle again: then sending [Page 63] away your Groom both with those Cloaths, and other dry Cloaths to rub with, let him stay at the la [...]t end of the course till you come: then your self rack your horse gently up to the [...]tarting post, and beyond, making him smell to that post, as you should also do to the first post, (which we call the weigh­ing post) that he may take notice of the be­ginning and ending of the course. There start your horse roundly and sharply, at neer a three quarters speed, and according to his strength of body, ability of wind, and cheer­fulness of spirit, run him the whole course through: But by no means do any thing in extremity, or above his wind; but when you find him a little yeild, then give him a little ease, so that all he doth may be done with pleasure and not with anguish; For this manner of training will make him take de­light in his labour, and so increase it; The contrary will breed discomfort, and make ex­ercise irksome.

Also during the time you thus course him, you shall note upon what ground he runneth best, and whether up the hill or down the hill; whether on the smooth or on the rough, on the wet or on the dry, or on the levill or the earth somewhat rising; and according as you find his nature, so main­tain him for your own advantage.

[Page 64]When you have finished the heats, and a little slightly gallopt him up and down to rate his wind and cheer his spirits, you shall then (the Groom being ready) ride into some warm place, as under the covert of some hedge, wall, bushes or trees, into some hollow dry ditch, pit, or other defence from the air, and there light, and first with a glassing-knife or (as some call it) a scraping knife, made either of some broken sword blade, some old broken Sythe, or for war▪ of them, of a thin piece of old, hard o [...]ke [...] wood, and fashioned like a long broad knife, with a sharp edge, and using this with both your hands, scrape off all the sweat from your horse in every part (buttocks excepted) till you find there will no more arise; eve [...] and anon moving him up and down: The [...] with dry cloathes rub him all over pain­fully (buttocks excepted) then take of the saddle, and having glassed his back and rub'd it neer dry, put on his Body-cloth and Breast-cloath, and set on the saddle a­gain, and girt it, then mount and gallop him gently forth again a little pace, eve [...] and anon rubbing his head, neck, and body as you sit, then walk him about the field to cool him; and when you find he driet [...] apace, then rack him homeward, sometime [Page 65] racking and sometimes galloping; but by no means bring him to the Stable, till you find him throughly dry.

When you are come to the Stable dore, [...]intice him to empty, then set him up and tie him to the Rack, and (as having prepared it before) give him this scouring, made in this manner.

The first Scouring:

Take a pint of the Syrope of Roses, or a pint of strong honyed water and dissolve into it of Cassia, Agarick and Myrrhe, of each half an ounce, and symbolize and jumble them together in a Vyall glass.

Then being muld, and made warm at the fire, and the horse newly come from his heat (as before shewed) give him this scouring, for it is a strong one, and avoydeth all manner of molten grease and foulness.

Ordering of the Horse after his scouring.

As soon as you have given him this scour­ing, presently let your Groom fal to rubbing his legs, and do your self take off his saddle and cloathes; and finding his body dry, run slightly over it with your Curry comb, after [Page 66] with the French Brush, and lastly, rub him all over with dry cloathes, especially his head, nape of the neck, and about his heart; then cloath him up warm as at other times, and wisp him round with great warm wisps, and if you throw over him a loose blanket, it will not be amiss in these extraor­dinary times, especially if the season be cold.

The horse must fast full two hours afte [...] the receit of the scouring; but yet depart no [...] out of the Stable, but keep the horse waking▪ for rest hinder; the medicine, and mot o [...] makes it work.

After he hath fastned on the bridle two hours, then you shall take a handfull of wheat ears, being your Polland wheat, that is without Awnes, and coming to the Horse, first handle the roots of his ears, then put your hands under his cloathes against his heart upon his flanks, and on the neather part of his thighs; and if you find any new sweat arise, or any coldness of sweat, or if you see his body beat, or his breath move fast then forbear to give him any thing, for it shews there is much soulness stirred up, on which the medicine working with a conque­ring quality, the horse is brought to a little sickness; therefore in this case you shall one­ly take off his bridle, put on his Coller, toss [Page 67] up his litter, and absent your self (having made the stable dark and still) for other two hours, which is the utmost end of that sick­ness. But if you find no such offence, then give him the ears of wheat, by three or four to­gether, and if he eat this handfull give him another.

After he hath eaten the wheat ears, give him a little knob of hay clean dusted, and draw his bridle rubbing his head well.

An hour after his hay, sist him a quart of oats, and to them put two or three handfull of spelted beans, which you shall cause to be reed and drest so clean as is possible from all manner of hulls, dust and filth whatsoever, so as there may be nothing but the clean Beans: to these oats and beans you shall break two or three shives of bread clean chipt, and give all to the horse, and so leave him for two or three hours.

At evening (before you dress him) give him the like quantity of oates, beans, and bread, and when he hath eaten them, bridle him, dress and cloathe him; for you shall neither saddle or air him forth, because this evening after his heat, the horse being foul, and the scouring yet working in his body, he may not receive any cold water at all.

After he is drest, and hath stood two hours on his bridle, then take three pints of [Page 68] clean sifted oats, and wash them in strong Ale, and give them to the horse; for this will inwardly cool him as if he had drunk water.

After he hath eaten his washt meat, and rested upon it a little space, you shall at his feeding times, (which hath been spoken of before) with oats and spelt Beans, or Oats and bread, or all together, or each severall and simple of it self, according to the appe­tite and liking of the horse, feed him that night in plentifull manner, and leave a knob of hay in his rack when ye go to bed.

The next day very early, first feed, then dress, cloath, saddle, air, water, and bring home as at other times; onely have a more carefull eye to his emptying, and see how his grease and foulness wasteth.

At his feeding times, feed as was last shew­ed you, onely but little hay, and keep your heating days, and the preparation the day be­fore, as was before shewed without omission or addition.

Thus you shall spend the second fortnight, in which your horse having received 4 heats, horsman like given him, and four scourings, there is no doubt but his body will be drawn inwardly clean; you shall then the third fort­night order him according to the Rules fol­lowing.

The third fortnights feeding.

This third fortnight you shall make his bread finer then it was formerly, as thus.

The second Bread.

You shall take two pecks of clean Beans▪ and two pecks of fine Wheat, grind them on the black stones, searce them through a fine Raunge, and knead it up with Barm, and great store of lightning, working it in all points, and baking it in the same sort as was shewed you in the former bread.

With this bread, having the crust cut clean away, and being old, as before shewed, with spelt Beans and clean sifted Oats, feed your horse this fortnight as you did the former, observe his dressings, airings, feedings, heat­ings, and preparation, as in the former fort­night; onely with these differences.

First, you shall not give your Heats so violently as before, but with a little more pleasure; as thus,

If the first heat have violence, the second shall have ease, and indeed none to overstrain him, or to make his body sore.

Next, you shall not after his heats, give him any more of the former scouring; but [Page 70] instead thereof instantly upon the end of the heat after the horse is a little cooled and cloathed up; and in the same place where you rub him, give him a Ball as big as an hens egg of that Confection which is mentioned in the office of the Farrier, and goeth by this title,

The true manner of making those Cordial Balls which cure any violent cold or glanders, which, &c▪

The Fourth and last fortnights feeding.

The fourth and last fortnight you shall make your bread much finer then either of the former.

The last and best Bread.

Take three pecks of fine Wheat, and one peck of Beans, grind them on the black stones, and boult them through the finest boulter you can get: then knead it up with sweet Ale, Barm and new strong Ale, and the Barm beaten together, and the whites of twenty or thirty eggs; but in any wise no water at all, but in stead thereof some small quantity of new milk, then work it up, bake it, and order it as the former.

With this bread, having the crust cut clean away, and with Oats well [...]unned, beaten, and rubbed between your hands, then new win­nowed, [Page 71] sifted and drest, with the purest spelt Beans, and some fine Chiltern Wheat, with any simple or any compound: feed your horse at his feeding times, as in the fortnight last mentioned.

You shall keep your heating days the first week or fortnight, as you did the former fortnight, but the last week you shall forbear one heat, and not give any five days before the match day, onely you shall give him strong and long airings.

You shall not need this fortnight, to give him any scouring at all.

If this fortnight morning and evening you burn the best Frankinsence in your stable, you shall find it exceeding wholsom for the Horse, and he will take wonderfull delight therein.

In this fortnight, when you give the Horse any washt meat, wash it in the whites of eggs, or Muskadine, for that is more wholsom and less pursie.

This fortnight give the horse no hay, but what he taketh out of your hand after his heats, and that in little quantity, and clear dusted.

The last week of this fortnight, if the horse be a foule feeder, you must use the Muzzell continually; but if he be a clean Feeder, then three days before the match is suffi­cient.

[Page 72]The morning the day before your match, feed well both before and after airing, and water as at other times; before noon, and af­ter noon scant his portion of meat a little; be­fore and after evening airing, feed as at noon, and water as at other times, but be sure to come home before sun-set.

Late at night feed as you did in the eve­ning. Now I do not set you down what meat to feed withall, because you must be ru­led according to the Horses stomack, and what best he liketh, of that give him a pretty pittance, whether simple or compounded; onely as neer as you can, forbear bread and beans.

This day you shall coule your horse, shoo him, and do all extraordinary things of or­nament about him, provided there be no­thing to give offence or hinder him in feed­ing, resting, emptying, or any other naturall or beneficiall action; For I have heard some Horsmen say; That when they had shod their Horses with light shooes, and none other actions of ornament about them the night before the course; that their horses have taken such speciall notice thereof, that they have refused both to eat, lie down, or empty: But you must under­stand that those horses must be old, and long experienced in this exercise, or otherwise [Page 73] find distast at these actions; as uneasiness in shooes, heat and closness in the muzzell, dis­orderly platting or folding tails, and the like, or they cannot reach these subtile apprehen­sions:

For mine own part, touching the nice and strait plaiting up of horses tails in the manner of Sakers, or Docks, with tape or ribban, which is now in generall use, howsoever the ornament may appear great to the eye, yet I do not much affect it; because I know, if an ignorant hand have the workmanship thereof he may many ways give offence to the Horse, and in avoiding cumbersomness, breed a great deale more comber: therefore I wish every one, rather to pass by curiosity (which they call necessary ornament) then by these false Graces to do injury to the Horse. Now for the necessary and indifferent things which are to be done. I had rather have them finished the day before, then on the morning of the course, because I would have the horse that morning to find neither trouble nor vexation.

The next morning (which is the match day) come to the Horse very early, take off his Muzzell, rub his head well, right his cloathes, and give them ease by unwisping, and using the plain Circingle; then give him a pretty quaintity of oats washed in Muska­dine, [Page 74] or the whites of eggs; or if he refuse them, try him with fine drest oats mixt with wheat, or oats simple: when he hath eaten them, if he be an evil or slow emptier, walk him abroad, & in the places where he used to empty, there intice him to empty, which as soon as he hath done, bring him home, and let him rest till you have warning to make ready.

But if he be a good and free emptier, then stir him not, but let him lie quiet.

When you have warning to make ready, come to the Horse, and having washt his snaffle with Muskadine, take off the Muzzle and bridle him up; but before you bridle, if you think him too empty, give him three or four mouthsfull of the washed meat last spoken of, then bridle up and dress him; after pitch the Saddle and Girths with Cord­wainers wax, set it on and girt it gently, so as he may have a feeling, but no straitness: then lay a clean sheet over the saddle, over it his ordinary cloathes, then his body-cloth and breast-cloath, and wisp him round with soft wisps; then if you have a counterpane, or cloath of State for bravery sake, let it be fastned above all. Being now ready to draw out, give him half a pint of Muskadine, and so lead away.

In all your leadings upon the course, use [Page 75] gentle and calm motions, suffering the horse [...]o smell on every dung. And in especiall pla­ [...]es of advantage, as where you find rushes, [...]ong grass lying, heath, or the like, walk him [...]n, and intice him to piss. But if you find no such help, then in especial places on the course and chiefly towards the later end, (and having [...]sed the same means before) break some of [...]he wisps under him, and intice him to piss.

Also in your leading, if any white or thick foam or froth rise about the horses mouth, with a clean handkerchiefe wipe it away, and carrying a bottle of clean water about you, wash his mouth now and then there­with.

When you come to the place of start, be­fore you uncloath, rub or chase his leggs with hard wisps; then pick his feet, uncloath, wash his mouth with water, mount his Rider, start fair, and leave the rest to Gods good will and pleasure.

Certain necessary Observations and Ad­vantages for every Feeder to observe in sundry Accidents.

There is no unreasonable creature of plea­sure subject to so many disastrous chances of Fortune, as the Horse, and especially the [Page 76] running horse, both by reason of the mul­tiplicity of diseases belonging unto them, as also the violence of their exercise, and the nice tenderness of their keeping: and there­fore it behoveth every Feeder to be armed with such observations as may discern mis­chiefs, and those helps which may amend them when they happen.

Of meat and Drink

The first observation therefore that I would arm our Feeder withall, is the true di­stribution of meat and drink.

Let him then observe if there be any meat or drink, or other nourishment which he knoweth to be good for the horse, yet he re­fuseth to eat it: in this case he shall not vio­lently thrust it upon him, or by force cram him therewith, but by gentle degrees and cunning inticements, and by process of time, win him thereunto, tempting him when he is most hungry or most dry; and if he get but a bit at a time, it will soon increase to a greater quantity, and ever let him have less then he desireth; and that he may the soo­ner be brought unto it, mix the meat he lo­veth best with that he loveth worst, till both be made alike familiar, and so shall the horse be stranger to nothing that is good or whol­some.

Observation for Lameness.

Our Feeder must observe if his horse be subject to lameness or stifness, to surbait or tenderness of feet, then to give him his heats upon smooth Carpet earth, and to forbear strong ground, hard high-ways, cross ruts and [...]urrows till extremity compell him.

Observation from the estate of the body.

Our Feeder must observe, that the strong­est estate of body (which I account the high­est and fullest of flesh, so it be good, hard, and without inward foulness) to be the best and ablest for the performance of these wa­gers; yet he must herein take two considera­tions: the one the shape of the horses bo­dy, the other his inclination and manner of feeding.

For the shape of body, There be some horses that are round, plump, and close knit together, so that they will appear fat and wel shaped, when they are lean and in poverty. Others are raw-boned, slender, and loose knit together, and will appear lean and defor­med when they are fat, foul, and full of gross humors.

[Page 78]So likewise for their Inclinations, som [...] horses as the first) will feed outwardly, and carry a thick rib, when they are inwardly clean as may be. There be others (as the later) that will appear lean to the eye, and she [...] nothing but skin and bone, when they are in­wardly onely greasie. In this case the Feede [...] hath two helps to advantage his knowledge the one outward, the other inward.

The outward help is the outward handling and feeling of the horses body generally ove [...] all his ribs, but particularly upon his sho [...] and hindmost ribs.

If his flesh generally handle soft and loos [...], and the fingers sink into it as into Down▪ then is the horse foul without all question but if generally it be hard and firm, only up­on the hind most rib is softness, then he h [...]t [...] grease and foul matter within him, whic [...] must be avoided, how lean or poor soever h [...] appear in outward speculation.

The inward help is onely sharp exercis [...] and strong scourings: the first will dissol [...] the foulness, the later will bring it away.

Observation from the privy parts.

Our Feeder must observe his horses stones for if they hang down side, or low from h [...] body, then is the horse out of lust and hear [...] [Page 79] and is either sick of grease, or other foul hu­mors; but if they he close couched up, and hid in a small room, then is he healthfull and in good plight.

Observation for the Limbs.

Our Feeder must observe ever the nig [...]t before he runs any match, or sore heat, to bath his Horse leggs well from the knees and cambrels downwards, either with clarified Doggs grease (which is the best) or Trotters oyl (which is the next) or else the best Ho [...]s grease, which is sufficient, and to work i [...] in with the labour of his hands, and not with fire: for what he gets not in the first night, will be got in the next morning; and what is not got in the next morning, will bee got in when he comes to uncloath at the end of the course: so that you shall need to use the oynt­ment but once; but the Friscase or Rubbing as oft as you find opportunity.

Observation for water.

Our Feeder shall observe, that albeit I give no direction for watering the horse after the heats, yet he may in any of the later fort­nights (finding his horse clean and his grease consumed) somwhat late at night, as about [Page 80] six a clock give him water in reasonable quantity being made luke warm, and fasting an hour after it. Also if through the un­seasonableness of the weather, you cannot water abroad, then you shall at your water­ing hours water in the house with warm wa­ter as aforesaid. Nor need you in this case heat all your water, but making a little very hot, put it into a greater, and so make all luke-warm. If you throw an handfull of Wheat-meal, Bran, or Oat-meal finely pow­dred (but Oat-meal is the best) into the wa­ter, it is very wholsome.

Observation for the ground to run on.

Our Feeder shall observe. That if the ground whereon he is to run his match, be dangerous, and apt for mischievous accidents, as strains, over-reaches, sinew bruises, and the like, that then he is not bound to give all his heats thereon; but having made the Horse acquainted, with the nature thereof, then either to take part of the Course, as a mile, two or three, according to the goodness of the ground, and so to run his horse forth and again (which we call turning heats) provided always that he end his heat at the weighing-post, and that he make not his course less but rather more in quantity then [Page 81] that he must run. But if for some especiall causes he like no part of the course; then he may many times (but not ever) give his heat upon any other good ground, about any spatious and large field, where the horse may lay down his body, and run at pleasure.

Observation from Sweat.

Our feeder shall take especiall regard in al his airings, heatings, and all manner of exer­cises whatsoever to the sweating of his horse, and the occasions of his sweating; as if an horse sweat upon little or no occasion; as walking a foot pace, standing stil in the stable, and the like, it is then apparent that the horse i [...] faint, foul fed, and wanteth exercise.

If upon good occasion, as strong heats, great labour and the like, he sweat, yet his sweat is white froth and like sope-suds, then is the horse inwardly soul, and wanteth also exercise But if the sweat be black, and as it were only water thrown upon him, without any frothi­ness, then is the horse clean fed, in good lust and good case, and you may adventure riding without danger.

Observation from the Hair.

Our Feeder shall observe his horses Hair [Page 82] in generall, but especially his neck, and those parts which are uncovered, and if they lie slick, smooth and close, and hold the beauty of their naturall colour, then is the Horse in good case; but if they be rough, or staring, or if they be discoloured, then is the horse in­wardly cold at the heart, and wanteth both cloathes and warm keeping.

Many other Observations there be, but these are most materiall, and I hope sufficient for any reasonable understanding▪

THE OFFICE OF THE KEEPER.

How to keep any Horse for plea­sure, Hunting or Travel, &c.

I Would have our Keeper of these orde­red Horses, to rise early in the morning of day, or before (according to the season of the year) and to sift the Horse the quantity of three pints of good, old and dry Oats, and put to them an hand full or two of spelt Beans, hulls and all, and so give them to the Horse.

Of Dressing and Watering.

After he hath eaten them, let him dres him, that is to say, he shall first curry him all over with the Iron comb, from the head to the tail, from the top of the shoulder to the knee, and from the top of his buttock to the hinder cambrell; then dust him all over with a clean dusting cloath, or with an horse [Page 84] tail made fast to an handle: then curry him all over with the french brush, beginning with his forehead, temples and cheeks, so down his neck, shoulders and fore leggs, even to the setting on of his Hooves, so alongst his sides and under his belly; and lastly, all about his buttocks and hinder leggs, even to the ground; then you shall go over again with your duster, then over all parts with your wet hands, and not leave (as neer as you can one loose hair about him, nor one wet hair; for what your hands did wet, your hands must rub dry again: you shall also with your wet hands cleanse his sheath, his yard, his cods and his tuell, and indeed not leave any secret place uncleansed, as ears, no­strils, fore-bowels, and between his hinder thighs, Then you shall take an hair-cloath and with it rub him all over, but especially his head, face, eyes, cheeks, between his chaps, on the top of his fore-head, in the nape of the neck, down his leggs, feetlocks and about his pasterns. Lastly, you shall take a clean woolen cloath, and with it rub him all over, beginning with his head and face, and so passing through all parts of his body and limbs before spoken of. Then take a wet mane-cloath, and comb down his mane and tail.

Then saddle him and ride him out to wa­ter, [Page 85] warm him both before and after water very moderately, and so bring him home dry without sweat; then cloath him up, after you have rubbed his head, body and leggs, and let him stand on his bridle more then an hour.

Ordinary-Keeping

After he hath stood an hour, give him the former quantity of provender, and the same in kind.

After he hath eaten his provender, give him into his rack a pretty bundle of hay, and so let him rest till noon.

At noon give him the former quantity of provender, and the same in kind, and so let him rest till evening, onely renewing his hay if there be occasion.

At evening dress him as in the morning, then ride him forth to water, and do as you did in the morning.

When you come home and have cloathed him up, let him stand on his bridle as before, then give him the former quantity of pro­vender, so let him rest till nine a clock at night; at which time give him the former quantity of provender, and a pretty bun­dle of hay, and so let him rest till the next morning.

[Page 86]Also observing ordinary keeping ever af­ter your dressing, and at such times as you find best convenience, to bathe all his fore­leggs from the knees and Cambrels down­ward with cold water, for it is wholsome, and both comforteth the sinews, and prevents scabbs and swellings.

Keeping in Travell and Sport.

Thus you shall do concerning his ordinary keeping at home where the Horse hath rest and that you may dispose of hours as you please▪ but if you be either in travel, in sport, or other occasion, so that you cannot ob­serve these particular times, then you must divide the main and whole quantity of mea [...] into fewer parts and greater quantities, and so give them at the best convenience, ever ob­serving to give the least quantity before travel as a third part before mounture, and the two other when you come to rest.

Nor would I have you to distract your mind with any doubt or amazement, because I prescribe you five severall times of feeding in one day, as if it should either over-charge you, or over-feed your horse: questionless there is no such matter when you look into the true proportion: for it cannot be denied that whosoever is worthy of a good horse, [Page 87] or good means to keep a good horse, cannot allow him less then one peck a day; nay, the Carrier. Carter, Poulter and Packhorse, will allow half a peck at waterings, and this allowance which I set down comes to no more: for fifteen p nts of oats, and one pint of spelt beans upheaped, makes two gallons, and that is one peck Winchester measure.

Now to give it at twice it fills the stomack more, makes the digestion wors [...], and the ap­petite weak: whereas to give less, but more oft, the stomack is ever craving, the digesti­on always ready, and the appetite never wanting, so that health (without disorder) can never be a stranger, therefore once again thus for ordinary keeping.

Of giving Heats, Hunting and Travell.

But if you intend to give an heat, as to hunt, gallop, travell, or the like, (which I would wish you to do once, twice, or thrice a week according to the ability of your horse) then observe all your former observa­tions, onely the night before give him little or no hay at all:

In the morning before his heat very early and before his dressing, give him three or four handfull of clean sifted oats, washt ei­ther in strong Beer or Ale. Then dress him, [Page 88] saddle him, and give him his hear, he having first emptied himself well.

Ordering after Labour:

After his heat▪, or end of labour, rub him carefully, and bring him▪dry into the stable; then after he is cloathed up, let him stand on his bridle at least two hours, then give him a little bundle of hay to teare out upon his bridle, and an hour after feed him as hath been before shewed, onely with his first oats give him an handfull or better of hemp-seed well dusted and mixt.

At night warm him a little water and give it him luke-warm, with a little fine pounded Oatmeal thrown upon it, then an hour after give him his provender, and a pretty bundle of hay, and so let him rest till the next mor­ning.

The next morning do all things as in his ordinary keeping.

Some especiall Precepts.

If he be a choice horse let him stand on lit­ter both night and day, yet change oft and keep the planchers clean. If he be otherwise, then use your own discretion.

If you intend to travell or journey in [Page 89] the morning, then give no hay, or but little the night before; if you journey in the after­noon, then give no hay, or but little in the morning.

If your horse sweat by exercise, take off the sweat (before you rub him) with the Glassing-knife, which is either a piece of a broken sword-blade, or a piece of a broken Syth, for this will make a clean, a smooth, and a shining coat.

In journeying ride moderately the first hour or two, but after according to your oc­cassions:

Water before you come to your Inne, if you can possibly; but if you cannot, then give warm water in the Inne, after the Horse hath fed, and is fully cooled within, and out­wardly dried.

Trotters oyl is an excellent oyntment, be­ing applied very warm, and well chafed into your horses limbs and sinews, to nimble and help stifness and lameness. And Dogs grease is better, therefore never want one of them in your stable.

Of washing and Walking.

Neither wash your horse nor walk your horse; for the first indangereth foundring in the body or feet, and breedeth all surfaits; [Page 90] the latter is the ground of all strong colds, which turn to glanders and rottenness; but if necessity compell you to either, as foul waies; or long stays, then rather wash your Horses leggs with pailes of water at the stable door, then to indanger him in either pond or river. And for walking, rather sit on his back to keep his Spirits stirring, then to lead him in his hand, and with dull spirits to receive all manner of mischiefs.

This I think sufficient for the office of the Keeper.

THE OFFICE OF THE AMBLER.

Observations in Ambling.

THere is not any motion in an horse more desired, more usefull, nor indeed more hard to be attained unto by a right way, then the motion of Ambling; and yet (is we will beleeve the protestations of the Professors) not any thing in all the Art of Horsmanship more easie, or more severall ways to be effe­cted, every man conceiving to himself a se­verall method, and all those methods held as infallible maxims that can never fail in the accomplishment of the work.

Mens opinions and Errors.

But they which know truths, know the er­rors in these opinions, for albeit every man that hath hardly a smell of Horsmanship, can discourse of a way how to make an horse amble, yet when they come to the perfor­mance [Page 92] of the motion, their failings are so great, and their errors so gross, that for mine own part, I never yet saw an exact Ambler. I confess some one man may make some one horse amble well and perfectly; nay, more then one, peradventure many, and thereby assume to himself a name of perfection, yet such a man have I seen erre grosly, and spoyl more then his labour was able to recom­pence.

But leaving mens errors, because they are past my reformation, I will onely touch at some principall observations which in mine opinion I hold to be the easiest▪ the certainest and readiest for the effecting of this work; and withall glance at those absurdities which I have seen followed, though to little pur­pose, and less benefit.

Ambling by the plowed field.

There is one commends the new plowed lands, and affirms, that by toyling the horse thereon in his foot pace, there is no way so excellent for the making of him to amble; but he forgets what weakness, nay what lameness, such disorderly toyle brings to a young horse nay to any horse; because the work cannot be done without weariness, and no weariness is wholsome▪

Ambling by the Gallop▪

Another will teach his horse to amble from the Gallop, by sudden stopping, a more sudden chocking him in the cheeks of the mouth, thrusting the horse into such an am [...] ­ [...]edness betwixt his gallop and his trot, that losing both he cannot chuse but find out am­bling.

But this man forgets not alone the error before spoken, (which is too great toyle) but also spoyls a good mouth (if the horse had one) loses a good Rain (if there were any) and by over-reaching and clapping one foot against another, indangers upon every step an [...]oof-breach, or sinew-strain

Ambling by Weights.

Another says there is nothing of such use for ambling, as weights, and thereupon one [...]oads his horse with unmercifull shooes of in­ [...]ollerable weight, and forgets how they make him enterfere, strike short with his hind-feet, and though his motion be true, yet is so slow that it is not worth his labour.

Another foulds great weights of lead a­bout his feetlock pasterns, and forgets that [Page 94] they have all the mischiefs of the former, be­sides the indangering of incurable strains, the crushing of the crownet, and the breeding of ring-bones, crown-scabs and quitter bones.

Another loads his horse upon the fillets with earth, lead, or some other massie sub­stance, and forgets the swaying of the back, the over-straining of the fillets, and a generall disabling of all the hinder parts.

Ambling in hand, or not ridden▪

Another struggles to make his horse amble in his hand before he mount his back, by the help of some wall, smooth pale or rail, and by chocking the horse in the mouth with the bridle-hand, and correcting him with his rod on the hinder houghs, and under the belly when he treadeth false, and never re­members into what desperate frantickness it drives an horse before he can make him un­derstand his meaning, as plunging, rearing, sprauling out his leggs, and using a world of other antick postures, which once setled, are hardly ever after reclaimed: besides, when he hath spent all his labour, and done his ut­most, as soon as he mounts his horses back, the horse is as far to seek of his pace as if he had never known such a motion.

Ambling by the help of Shooes.

Another finds out a new stratagem, and in despite of all opposition in the Horse, will make him amble perfectly, and thereupon he makes him a pair of hinder shooes with long spurns or plates before the toes, and of such length, that if the horse offer to trot, the hin­der foot beats the forefoot before it.

But he forgets that the shooes are made of Iron, and the Horses Leggs of Flesh and blood, neither doth he remember with what violence the hinder foot follows the fore-foot, nor that every stroke it gives, can light upon any place, but the back si­news, then which there is no part more ten­der, nor any wound that brings such incura­ble lameness.

Ambling by the help of fine Lists.

Another (out of quaintness more then strong reason) strives to make his horse amble by taking of fine soft lists, and fould­ing them strait about the Cambrell in that place where you garter an horse for a stifle­strain, and then turn him to grass for a fort­night or more, in which time (saith he) he will fall to a perfect amble, (for it is true he [Page 96] cannot trot but with pain) then taking away the lists, the work is finished.

But (under the correction of the profes­sors of this foreign trick, for it is a Spanish practice) I must assure them, that if they gain their purpose, they must offend the members. If they hurt not the limbs, they lose their labour; but however this is most assured, that the amble thus gained, must be disgracefull, crambling and cringing in the hinder parts, without comliness, speed, or clear deliverance.

Ambling by the Hand only.

Another (and he calls himself the Master Ambler of all Amblers) affirms there is no true way of making an horse to amble but by the hand only, and I am of his opinion, could the secret be found out, or could a man make a horse do all that he imagined, and as he imagined; but horses are rebellious, and men are furious, and the least of either of these spoyls the whole work; and it is im­possible for any man to fadge an horse to a new motion utterly unknown, against which he will not resist with his uttermost powers. Besides, to do this action with the hand one­ly, it must onely be done from the Horses mouth, and that mouth must of necessity be [Page 97] altered from his first manner of riding; for to use all one hand must preserve all one mo­tion, and then where is ambling which was not known at the first backing? Again, we strive at the first backing of an horse, to bring his mouth to all sweetness, his rein to all stateliness, and the generall carriage of his body to all comeliness. Now in this course of ambling by the hand onely, the mouth must be changed from the chaps to the [...]eeks of the mouth, which is from sweetness to harshness, his rein must be brought from constancy to inconstancy: for the eyes that did look upward, the nose and muzzell which was couched inward, must be turned outward, and the generall comliness of the Bodies carriage must be brought to disorder and false treading, or else he shall never ac­complish the true art of ambling by the hand onely.

Ambling by the Tramell.

There is another, (I will not call him the [...]ast, because his error may be as great as any) and he will make his horse amble by the help of the tramell only, which I confess is neerest the best and most assured way, yet he hath many errors, as followeth.

Errors in the Tramell.

First, he loseth himself in the want of knowledge, for the length of the Tramell, and either he makes it too long, (which gives no stroke) or too short (which gives a false stroke) the first makes an horse hackell and shuffle his feet confusedly, the latter makes him roule and twitch up his hinder feet so suddenly, that by custome it brings him to a string-halt, from which he will hardly be re­covered ever after.

Another loses himself and his labour by misplacing the Trammell, and out of a nice­ness to seem more expert then he is, or out of fearfulness to prevent falling (to which the Tramell is subject) places them above the knee, and above the hinder hough. But the Rule is neither good nor handsome; for if the Tramell be too long or loose, that it gives no offence to the sinews, and other li­gaments about which they must necessarily be bound, when they are raised so high, then they can give no true stroke, neither can the fore-leg compell the hinder to follow it. And if they be so short or strait, that the fore-leg cannot step forward, but the hinder must go equall with it, then will it so press the main sinew of the hinder leg, and the veins and [Page 99] fleshy part of the fore-thighs, that the horse will not be able to go without halting before, and cringing and crambling his hinder parts so ill-favouredly, that it will be irksome to behold it: besides, it will occasion swellings, and draw down tumors, which will be more noysom then the pace will be beneficiall.

Another makes his Tramell of such course or hard stuff, or else girts it so strait, or leaves it fretting up and down so loose, that he galls his horses leggs, and leaves neither hair nor skin upon them, at the best it leaves such a foul print and mark upon the leggs, that eve­ry one will accuse both the horse and his Teacher of disgrace and indiscretion.

As these, so I must conclude with the last error of the Tramell, which is, mens opini­ons, and though it be the most insufficient, yet it hath the greatest power to oversway truth, and that is, the Tramell is utterly un­necessary, and unprofitable, and the defender worthy of no imployment, alledging the Land onely to be excellent.

The errors I have already confuted; it now remaines (after all these faults finding) that I shew the truest, the easiest, and that way which is most uncontrollable for the making of an horse to amble, with all the gracefulness and perfection that can be required.

The best way to amble an Horse.

When you are about undoubtedly to make an horse amble truely, and without control­ment: First, try with your hand by a gentle or deliberate racking and thrusting of the horse forward, by helping him in the weeks of his mouth with your snaffell, (which must be smooth, big and full) and correcting him first on one side, then on another with the calves of your leggs, and somtimes with the spurre; if you can make him of himselfe strike into an amble; but by no means disorder or dis­place either his mouth, head, or neck; if you find you can make him strike into an amble, though shuffling disorderly, there will be much labor saved: for that proclivity or aptness to amble, will make him with more easiness and less danger, endure the use of the Tramell, and make him find the motion with­out stumbling or amazement: but if you find he will by no means either apprehend the motions or intentions, then struggle not with him, but fall to the use of the Tramell in this manne [...] following.

The form of the Tramell.

But before I come to the use and vertue [Page 101] thereof, I will shew you the form and sub­stance whereof it ought to be made; because nothing hath ever done this Instrument more injury, then false substances and false shapes.

Therefore some make these tramels all of Leather, and that will either reach or break, the first marrs the work by uncertainty, the other loseth the labor.

Another makes it of Canvass, and that galls.

A third makes it of strong Lists, and that hath all the faults of both the former; for the softness will not let it lye close, and the gen­tleness makes it stretch out of all compass or break upon every stumble.

And as these, so there are a world of other us [...]ess Tramels; for you must understand that touching the true Tramel, the side-ropes must be firm, without yeelding an hair: The hose must be soft, lye close and not move from his first place, and the Backband must be flat, no matter how light, and so defended from the Fillets that it may not gall. And this Tramell must be thus made, and of these substances.

First, for the side-Ropes, They must be made of the best, finest, and strongest pack­thread, such as your Turky-thred, and twined [Page 102] By the Roper into a delicate strong cord, yet at the utmost, not above the bigness of a smal Jackline, with a nooze at each end, so strong as is possible to be made; neither must these side-Ropes be twined too hard, but gentle, and with a yeelding condition, for that will bring on the motion more easie, and keep the Tramell from breaking, now these siderop [...]s must be just 36 inches in length, and so equall one with another, that no difference may be espied.

For the Hose which must be placed in the small of the fore-leg, and the small of the hinder l [...]g above the feetlock, they must be made of fine Girth web, which is soft and pliant, and lined with double Cotton: over the girth web must be fastned strong Tabbs of white Neats leather well tallowed, [...]d suited to an even length, and stamped with holes of equall distance, which shall passe through the noozes of the side-Ropes and be made longer or shorter at pleasure, with very strong Buckles. These hose; the G [...]rth would be 4 inches in length, and the Tabbs ten.

The back-band being of no other use but to bear up the side-ropes, would (if you Tra­mell all the forelegs) be made of fine Girth­web, and lined with Cotton; but if you tra­mell but one side, then any ordinary tape will serve, being sure that it carry the side­ropes [Page 103] in an even line without either rising or falling; for if it rise, it shortens the side-rope, if it fall it indangers tangling.

Thus you see what the true Tramell is, and how to be made: touching the use, it thus fol­loweth.

The true use of the true Tramell.

When you have brought your horse into an even smooth path, without rub [...] or rough­nesse, you shall there hose the neer fore­leg, and the reer hinder leg; then put to them the side rope, and see that he stand at that just proportion which nature her self hath formed him, without either straining or inlarging his members, and in that even and just length stay the side-rope by a small tape fastned up to the saddle. Then with your hand on the bridle, straining his head, put him gently forward, and if need be, have the help of a by-stander to put him forward al­so, and so force him to amble up and down the road with all the gentleness you can, suf­fering him to take his own leasure, that there­by he may come to an understanding of his restraint, and your will for the performance of the motion, and though he snappe [...] or stumble, or peradventure fall now and then, yet it matters not, do you only stay his head, [Page 104] give him leave to rise, and with all gentle­ness put him forward again, till finding his own fault, and understanding the motion▪ he become perfect, and amble in your hand to your contentment. And that this may be done with more ease and less amazement to the horse, it is not amiss (at his first Tramel­ing) that you give your side-ropes more length then ordinary, both that the twitches may be less sudden, and the motion coming more gently, the horse may sooner appre­hend it.

But as soon as he comes to any perfectness▪ then instantly put the side-ropes to their true length. For an inch too long, is a foo [...] [...]oo slow in the pace; and an inch to short causeth ralling, a twitching up of the leggs, and indeed a kind of plain halting.

When to alter the Tramell.

When the horse will thus amble in your hand perfectly, being trameled on one side, you shall then change them to the other side, and make him amble in your hand as you did before. And thus you shall do, changing from one side to another, till with this halfe tramell he will run and amble in your hand without snappering or stumbling, both readily [Page 105] and swiftly. When this is attained unto, which cannot be above two or three hours labour (if there be any tractableness) you [...]ay then put on the whole Tramell, and the broad flat back-band, Trameling both sides equally, and so run him in your hand (at the utmost length of the bridle) up and down the road divers times, then pause, cherish, and to it a gain; and thus apply him till you have brought him to that perfection, that he will amble, swiftly, truly and readily, when, where and how you please: then put him upon un­even and uncertain ways, as up-hill and down­hill, where there are clots and roughness, and where there is hollowness and false tread­ing.

When to mount his back.

Now when he is perfect in your hand up­on all these, you may then adventure to mount his back, which (if you please) you may first do by a Boy, or Groom, making the horse amble under him, whilst you stay his head to prevent danger, or to see how hee striketh. Then after mount your self, and with all gentleness and le [...]ty increasing his pace more and more, till you come to the height of perfection. And thus as you did [Page 106] before in your hand, so do now on his back, first with the whole Tramell, then with the halfe, and changing the Tramell oft, first from one side, then to another, then altering grounds till you find that exquisiteness which you desire. And this must be done by daily exercise and labour, as twice, thrice, sometimes▪ oftner in the day.

When to journey.

When you have attained your wish in the perfection of his stroke, the nimblenesse of [...]s Limbs, and the good carriage of his head and Body, you may then take away the Tramell altogether, and exercise him without it. But this exercise I would have upon the high-way, and not (Horse-courser like) in a private smooth Road, for that affords but a co [...]sening pace, which is left upon every small wearinesse; therefore take the high-way forward for three, four, or five miles in a morning more or lesse, as you find the horses aptness and ability.

Now if in this Journeying, either through weariness, ignorance, or peevish­ness, you find in him a willingnesse to [Page 107] forsake his pace, then (ever carrying in your pocket the halfe tramell) alight and put them on, and so exercise him in them, and now and then giving him ease, bring him home in his true pace.

This exercise you shall follow day by day, and every day increasing it more and more▪ till you have brought him from one mile to many: which done, you may then give him ease, as letting him rest a day or two, or more, and then apply him again; and if you find in him neither error nor alteration then you may resolve your work is finished: For in all mine experience, I never found this way to fail.

But if any alteration do happen, (as many phantastick horses are subject unto) if it be in the motion of his pace▪ then with your hand reform it. But if that fail, then the use of the halfe Tramell will never fail you.

Now if the error proceed from any other occasion, look seriously into the cause there­of, and taking that away, the effect will soon cease, for you are to understand, that in this manner of teaching an horse to amble, you are forbidden no help or benefit what­soever which belongs unto horsmanship, as Chain, Cavezin, Musroule, Headstrain, [Page 108] Martingale, Bit, or any other necessary In­strument, because this motion is not drawn from the mouth, but from the limbs.

Many things else might be spoken on this subject, but it would but load paper, and wea­ry memory, and I aim only at short essays, and true new experiments, therefore this al­ready writ I hold sufficient.

THE OFFICE OF THE BUYER: Wherein is shewed all the perfections and imperfections that are or can be in a Horse.

Observations and Advertise­ments for any man when he goeth about to buy an Horse.

THere is nothing more difficult in all the Art of Horsmanship, then to set down constant and uncontrollable Resolutions by which to bind every mans mind to an unity of consent in the buying of an Horse: for [...]ccording to the old Adage, What is one mans meat, is another mans poyson; what one [...]ffects another dislikes. But to proceed ac­cording to the Rule of Reason, the Precepts of the Ancients, and the modern practice of our present conceived opinions, I will, as briefly as I can (and the rather because it is [Page 110] a labour I never undertook in this wise be­fore) shew you those observations and adver­tisements which may fortifie you in any hard election.

The end for which to buy:

First therefore you are to observe, that i [...] you will elect an Horse for your hearts con­tentment, you must consider the end and pur­pose for which you buy him, as whether for the Warres, running, hunting, travelling, draught or burthen.

Every one having their severall Characters, and their severall faces both of beauty and uncomliness.

But because there is but one truth, and one perfection, I will under the description of the perfect and untainted horse, shew all the imperfections and attaind [...]res which either nature or mischance can put upon the Hors [...] of greatest deformity.

Let me then advise you that intend to buy an horse, to acquaint your self with all the true shapes and excellencies which belong to an horse whether it be in h [...]s naturall and true proportion, or in any accidental or out­ward increase or decrease of any limb o [...] member, and from their contraries to gather all things whatsoever that may give dislike or offence.

Election how divided.

To begin therefore with the first principle of Election, you shall understand they are divided into two especiall heads, the one Ge­nerall the other Particular.

The generall Rule.

The Generall Rule of election is, first the end for which you buy, then his Breed or Generation; his Colour, his Pace, and his Stature. These are said to be generall, because they have a generall dependance upon every mans several opinions: as the first, which is the end for which you buy, it is a thing shut up only in your own bosome.

Of Breed.

The other, which is Breed, you must either take it from faithful report, your own know­ledge, or from some known and certain Cha­racters by which one strain or one Country is distinguished from another; as the Neapoli­tan is known by his Hauk-nose, the Spani­ard by his small Limbs, the Barbary by his fine head, and deep hoof, The Dutch by his rough legges, the English, by his Gene­rall [Page 112] strong knitting together, and so forth of divers others.

Of Colour.

As for his colour, although there is no colour utterly exempt from goodness, for I have seen good of all, yet there are some better reputed then others, as the daple, gray for beauty, the brown-bay for service, the black with silver hairs for courage, and the Lyard or true mixt Roan for continuance. As for the [...]orrell, the black without white, and the unchangeable Iron-gray, are reputed cholerick, the bright Bay, the flea-bitten, and the black with white marks, ate sanguinists; the black, white, the yellow, dun, and kiteglewed, and the pye▪ balld, are flegmatick; and the chesnut, the mouse-dun, the red bay, and the blew-gray, are melancholy.

Pace, as Trotting.

Now for his pace, which is either Trot, Amble, Rack or Gallop, you must refer it to the end also for which you buy; as if it be for the warrs, running, hunting, or your own pleasure, then the trot i [...] most tollerable, and this motion you shall know by a cross moving of the horses limbs, as when the far [Page 113] fore-leg and the near hinder-leg; or the near fore-leg and the far hinder-leg move and go forward in one instant. And in this motion, the nearer the horse taketh his limbs from the ground, the opener, the eve­ner, and the shorter is his pace: for to take up his feet slovenly, shewes stumbling and lamenesse: To tread narrow or cross, shews enterfeiring or failling; to step uneven, shews toyl and weariness; and to tread long, shews over-reaching.

Ambling.

Now if you elect for ease, great persons feats, or long travell, then Ambling is re­quired. And this motion is contrary to trot­ting: for now both the feet on one side must move equally together, that is, the far fore­legs and the far hinder-legs, and the near fore-leg and the near hinder-leg And this motion must go just, large, smoth, and nimble▪ for to treade false, takes away all [...]ase; to tread short, rids no ground; to tread rough, shewes, rolling; and to tread un-nimbly, shewes a false pace that never con­tinueth, as also lameness.

Racking

If yo elect for Buck-hunting; galloping on the high-way, post, hackney, or the like, [Page 114] then a racking pace is required: and this mo­tion is the same that ambling i [...], onely it is in a swifter time and a shorter tread; and though it rid not so much ground, yet it is a little more easie▪

Galloping▪

Now to all these paces must be joyned a good gallop, which naturally every trotting and racking horse hath; the ambler is a little unapt thereunto, because the motions are both one, so that being put to a greater swiftness of pace then formerly he hath been acquainted withall, he handles his leggs con­fusedly and out of order, but being trained gently, and made to understand the motion he will as well undertake it as any trotting horse whatsoever,

Now in a good gallop you are to observe these vertues. First, that the horse which taketh his feet nimbly from the ground, but doth not raise them high, that neither rol­eth nor beateth himselfe, that fl [...]etcheth out his fore legs, follows nimbly with his hinder▪ and neither cutteth under his knee (which is called the Swift cut) nor crosseth, nor clap [...] one foot on another, and ever leadeth with his far fore foot, and not with the near this hors [...] is said ever to gallop most comely and most true, and it is the fittest for speed, o [...] [Page 115] any swift imployment. If he gallop round, and raise his fore-feet, he is then said to gal­lop strongly, but not swiftly, and is fittest for the great Saddle, the wars and strong encounters. If he gallop slow, yet sure, he will serve for the high way: but i [...] he labour his feet confusedly, and gallop painfully, then is he good for no galloping service: beside, it shews some hidden lameness.

Stature:

Lastly, touching his Stature, it must be referred to the end for which you buy, ever observing that the biggest and strongest are fittest for strong occasions and great bur­thens, strong draughts, and double carriage; the middle size for pleasure and generall im­ployments; and the least for ease, streetwalks, and Summer Hackney.

The particular Rule.

Now touching the particular Rule of election, it is contained in the discovery of naturall deformities, accidentall outward sor­rances, or inward hidden mischiefs which are so many and so infinite that it is a world of work to explain them yet; for satisfa­ction sake I will in as methodicall man­ner [Page 116] as I can, shew what you are to observe in this accession.

How to stand to view.

When a Horse is brought unto you to buy (being satisfied for his breed, his pace, colour and stature, then see him stand naked before you, and placing your self before his face, take a strict view of his countenance, and the cheerfulness threof: for it is an excellent glass wherein to behold his goodness and best per­ections.—As thus—

His Eares.

If his ears be small, thin, sharp, short, pricked and moving; or if they be long, yet well set on, and wel carried, it is a mark of beauty, goodness, and metall: but if they be thick, laved or lolling, wide set, and unmoving, then are they signes of dulness, doggedness: and evil nature.

His Face.

If his Face be lean: his forehead swelling outward: the mark or feather in his face set high, as above his eys, or at the top of his eyes; if he have white starre: or white ratch [Page 117] of an indifferent size, and even placed, or a white snip on his nose, or lip; all are marks of beauty and goodness. But if his face be fat, cloudy or skouling, his forehead flat as a trencher, (which we call Mare-faced,) or the mark in his forehead stand low, as under his eyes: If his star or ratch stand awry, or in an evill posture, or in stead of a snip, his nose be raw and unhairy, or his face gene­rally bald; all are signes of deformity.

His Eyes.

If his eyes be round, big, black, shining, starting or staring from his head, if the black of the eye fill the pit or outward circumfe­rence, so that in the moving, none (or very little) of the white appeareth, all are signs of beauty, goodness, and metall: but if his eyes be uneven, and of a wrinkled proportion, if they be little (which we call pig-eyed) both are uncomely signes of weakness: if they be red and fiery, take heed of Moon-eys, which is next door to blindness. If white and wal­led, it shews a weak sight, and unnecessary starting or finding of Boggards: if with white specks, take heed of the pearl, pin and web: if they water or shew bloody, it shews bruises; and if they matter, they shew old over-riding, festred rhumes▪ or violent strains [Page 118] If they look dead or dull, or are hollow, or much sunk, take heed of blindness at the best; the best is of an old decrepid generation: if the black fill not the pit, but the white is al­ways appearing, or if in moving the white and black be seen in equall quantity, it is a signe of weakness, and a dogged disposition.

His Cheeks and Chaps.

If handling his Cheeks or Chaps, you find the bones lean and thin, the space wide be­tween them, the thropple or wind-pipe big as you can gripe, and the void place without knots or kirnels; and generally the jawes so great, that the neck seemeth to couch with­in them, they are all excellent signes of great wind, courage, and soundness of head and body. But if the chaps be fat and thick, the space between them closed up with gross substance, and the throple little, all are signs of short wind and much inward foulness: If the void place be full of knots and kirnels, take heed of the Strangle or Glanders, at the best, the horse is not without a foul cold. If his jaws be so strait, that his neck swelleth above them, if it be no more but naturall, it is onely an uncomely sign of short wind and pursickness, or grosness; but if the swel­ling be long, and elose by his Chaps, like a [Page 119] whetstone, then take heed of the Vives, or some other unnaturall impostume.

His Nostrils and muzzell.

If his nostrils be open, dry, wide and large, so as upon any straining, the inward redness is discovered, and if his muzzell be small, his mouth deep, and his lips equally meeting; then all are good signes of wind, health and courage. But if his nostrils be strait, his wind is little; if is muzzell be gross, his spirit [...]is dull; if his mouth be shal­low, he will never carry a bit well; and if his upper lip will not reach his nether, old age or infirmity hath marked him for carrion. If his nose be moist and dropping, if it be clear water, it is a cold; if foul matter, then be­ware of Glanders: if both nostrills run, it is hurtfull; but if one, then, most dangerous.

Teeth.

Touching his Teeth and their vertues, they are set down in a particular chapter; onely remember, you never buy an horse that wanteth any, for as good lose all as one.

His Breast.

From his Head look down to his Breast, and see that it be broad, out-swelling, and a­dorned with many features: for that shews strength and indurance. The little breast is uncomely, and shewes weakness, the narrow breast is apt to stumble, fall, and enterfeire before: the breast that is hidden inward, and wanteth the beauty and division of many feathers, shewes a weak armed heart, and a breast that is unwilling and unfit for any violent toyl or strong labour.

His Fore-thighes.

Next, look down from his elbow to his knee, and see that those fore-thighs be rush­grown, well horned within, sinewed, fleshy and out-swelling, for they are good signes of strength, the contrary shews weakness, and are unnaturall.

His Knees

Then look on his knees that they carry pro­portion, be lean, sinewy, & close knit, for they are good and comely; but if one be bigger or rounder then another, the horse hath [Page 121] received mischief: if they be gross, the horse is gouty: if they have scarres, or hair broken, it is a true mark of a stumbling jade and a perpetuall faller.

His Legs.

From his knees look down to his leggs, to his pasterns, and if you find them clean, [...]an, flat, and sinewy, and the inward bought of his knee without seames, or hair-broken, then he shewes good shape and soundness: But if on the in-side the leg you find hard [...]nots, they are splinters; if on the out-side they are serews or excressions; if under his knees be scabs on the in-side, it is the Swift-cut, and he will ill endure galloping; if a­bove his pasternes on the in-side you find scabs, it shews interfeiring: but if the scabs be generally over his leggs, it is either ex­treame foul keeping, or else a spice of the Maunge; if his flesh be fat, round and fleshy, he will never indure labour: and if on the inward bought of his knees you find seams, scabs, or hair-broken, it shews a Malean­der, which is a cankerous ulcer.

His Pasterns.

Look then on his pastern-joynt and his pastern; the first must be clear and well kni [...] [Page 122] together, the other must be short, strong and upright standing: for if the first be big­or sweld, take heed of sinew-strains and gourdings; if the other be long, weak or bending, the limbs will be hardly able to car­ry the body without tiring

His Hooves.

For the Hooves in generall, they should be black, smooth, tough, rather a little long then round, deep, hollow and full sounding: for white Hooves are tender, and carry [...] shooe ill; a rough, grosse seamed Hoof, shewes an age or over-heating. A brittle hoof will carry no shooe at all; an extraor­dinary round hoof is ill for foul ways and deep hunting. A flat hoof that is pumissed, shews soundering; and a hoof that is empty, and hollow-sounding, shews a decayed in­ward part by reason of some wound or d [...]y founder. As for the crown of the hoof, if the hair lye smooth and close, and the flesh flat and even, then all is perfect; but if the haire be staring, the skin scab­bed, and the flesh rising, then look for a Ring-bone, or a crown scab, or a quitter­bone.

The setting on of his Head, his Crest and Mane.

After this, stand by his side, and first look [...]o the setting on of his head, and see that i [...] stand neither too high nor too low, but in [...] direct line, and that his neck be small at the setting on of the head, and long, grow­ing deeper to the shoulders, with an high [...]rong and thin mane, long, soft and some­what curling; for these are beautifulll cha­racters: whereas to have the head ill set on, is the greatest deformity, to have any big­ness or swelling in the nape of the neck, shews the Poul-evill, or beginning of a Fi­stula; to have a short thick neck like a Bull, to have it falling at the withers, to have a low, weak, a thick, or falling crest, shews want both of strength and metall: to have much hair on the mane, sheweth intolera­ble dulness; to have it too thin, shews fury; and to have none, or shed, shews the worm in the mane, the itch, or else plain Mangi­ness.

His Back, Ribs, Fillets; Belly, and Stones.

Look on the chine of his back, that it be broad, even and straight, his ribs well com­ [...]assed [Page 124] and bending outward, his Fillets up­right, strong and short, & not above an hand­full between his last rib and his hucklebone, let his belly be well let down, yet hidden within his ribs, and let his stones be close trust up to his body: for all these are marks of health and good perfection, whereas to have his chine narrow, he will never carry a saddle without wounding: and to have it bending, or Saddle-backed, shews weakness.

To have his Ribs flat, there is no Liberty for wind.

To have his Fillets hanging, long or weak, he will never climb an hill, nor carry a burden.

And to have his belly clung up or gaunt, or his stones hanging down, loose, or a side, they are both signs of sickness, tenderness, foundring in the body, and unaptness for labor:

His Buttocks.

Then look upon his Buttocks, and see that they be round, plump, full, and in an even levell with his body▪ or of long, that it be well raised behind, and spread forth at the setting on of the tail, for these are comely and beautifull. The narrow pin-buttock, the hog or swine rump, and the falling and down-let buttock are full of deformity, and [Page 125] shew both an injury in nature, and that they are neither fit or becomming, for pad, foot­ [...]loth, or pyllion.

His Hinder-thighs.

Then look to his hinder-thighs, or Ga­ [...]ains, if they be well let down even to the middle-joynt, thick, brawny, full, and swel­ling: for that is a great argument of strength and goodness, whereas the [...]ank, slender thighs [...]hew disability and weakness.

His Cambrels.

Then look upon the middle joynt behind, and if it be nothing but skin and bone, veins and sinews, and rather a little bending then to [...]ait, then it is perfect as it should be. But if [...] have chaps or sores on the inward bought [...] bending, then that is a Selander. If the [...]ynt be sweld generally all over, then he hath got a blow or bruise: if the swelling be particular, as in the pot, or hollow part, or [...]n the inside, and the vein full and proud: [...] the swelling be sofe, it is a blood-spaven: [...] hard, a bone-spaven, but if the swelling be [...]st behind, before the knuckle, then it is a [...]urb.

Hinder-Leggs.

Then look to his hinder-legs, if they be lea [...] clean, flat and sinowy, then all is well; but i [...] they be fat, they will not indure labour. If they be sweld, the grease is molten into them. If he be scabbed above the pasterns, he hath the Scratches: if he have chaps under his pasterns, he hath rains, and none of these but are noysome.

His Tayle▪

Lastly, for the setting on of his Tayl, where there is a good Buttock, the tail can never stand ill▪ and where there is an evill buttock there the tail can never stand well: for i [...] ought to stand broad, high, flat and couche [...] a little inward.

Thus I have shewed you the true shapes and true deformities, you may in your choice please your own fancies.

An uncontrollable way to know the age of an Horse.

There are seven outward Characters by which to know the age of every Horse, a namely, his Teeth, his Hooves his Tail [Page 127] his Eyes, his Skin, his Hair, and the Bars in his mouth.

His Teeth.

If you will know his Age by his Teeth, you must understand, that an Horse hath in his head just forty teeth, that is to say, six great Wong teeth above, and six below on one side, and as many on the other, which maketh twenty four, and are called his Grinders: Then six above and six below in the fore-part of his mouth, which are cal­led Gatherers, and make 36. Then four Tushes, one above, and one below on one side, and are called the Bit Teeth, which maketh just fourty.

Now the first year he hath his Foals teeth, which are onely Grinders and Gathe­rers, but no Tushes, and they be small, white and bright to look on.

The secound year he changeth the four formost teeth in his head, that is, two above and two below in the midst of the rows of the Gatherers, and they are browner and bigger then the other.

The third year he changeth his teeth next unto them, and leaveth no apparent Foals teeth before, but two above, and two below of each side, which are also bright and small.

[Page 128]The fourth year he changeth the teeth next unto them, and leaveth no more Foale [...] teeth but one of each side, both above and below.

The fifth year his formost teeth will be all changed; but then he hath his tushes on each side compleat, and the last Foals teeth which he cast, those which come up in their place, will be hollow, and have a little black speck in the midst, which is called the mark in the horses mouth, and continueth till he be past eight years old

The sixth year he putteth up his new tushes, near about which you shall see grow­ing a little of new and young flesh, at the bottome of the tush: besides, the tush will be white, small, short and sharp.

The seventh year all his teeth will have their perfect growth; and the mark in the horses mouth (before spoken of) will be plainly seen.

The eighth year all his teeth will be full, smooth and plain, the black speck or mark being no more but discerned, and his tushes will be more yellow then ordinary.

The ninth year his formost teeth will be longer, broader, yellower and fouler then at younger years, the mark gone, and his tushes will be bluntish.

The tenth year in the inside of his upper [Page 129] [...]ushes will be no holes at all to be felt with [...]our finger [...] end, which tel that age you shall [...]r feel: besides the temples of his head will begin to be crooked and hollow.

The eleventh year his teeth will be excee­ding long, very yellow, black and foul, one­ly he may then cut even, and his teeth will stand directaly opposite one to another.

The twelfth year his teeth will be long, yellow, black and foul; but then his upper teeth will hang over his nether.

The thirteenth year his tushes will be worn somwhat close to his chaps (if he be a much ridden horse) otherwise they will be black, foul and long, like the tushes of a Boar.

His Hooves.

If a horses hooves be rugged, and as it were seamed one seam over another, and ma­ny seames; if they be dry, full and crusty, o [...] crumbling, it is a sign of very old age: and on the contrary part, a smouth, moist, hollow, and wel sounding hoof is a signe of young years.

His Tail.

If you take an horse with your finger and your thumb by the stern of the tail, close at the setting on by the buttock, feeling there [Page 304] hard, if you feel of each side the tail a joyn stick out more then any other by the big▪nesse of an hazell nut, then you may pr­sume the horse is under ten years old: but i [...] his joynts be all plain, and no such thing t [...] be felt, then he [...]s above ten, and may b [...] thirteen.

His Eyes.

If an horses eyes be round, full, staring, o [...] starting from his head, if the pits over them be filled, smooth & even with his temples, & no wrinckles either about his brow, or under his eyes, then he is young; if otherwise yo [...] see the contrary characters, it is a sign o [...] old age,

His Skin.

If you take an horses skin in any part o [...] his body, betwixt your finger and you [...] thumb, and pull it from his flesh, then letting it go again, if it suddenly returne to the plac [...] from whence it came, and be smooth and plain without wrinkle, then he is young, and full of strength: but if it stand and not re­turn instantly to its former place, then he i [...] very old and wasted.

His Hayr▪

If an Horse that is of any dark colour, shall grow grissell onely about his Eyebrows, or underneath his Mane; or any horse of a whitish colour shall grow meannelled with either black or red meannels universally over his body, then both are signes of old age.

His Barrs.

Lastly, if the Barrs in his mouth be great, deep, and handle rough and hard, then is the horse old: but if they be soft, shallow, and handle gently and tenderly, then is the horse young, and in good ability of body.

And thus much be spoken touching the Office of the Buyer.

THE OFFICE OF THE FARRIER.

The Signes of all Sicknesses, and how to discern them.

IF you find in your horse heaviness of countenance, extream loosness, or ex­tream costiveness, shortness of breath, [...]othing of meat, dull and imperfect eys, rotten or dry cough, staring hair, or hair unnaturally discoloured, a staggering pace, frantick behaviour, yellowness of the eyes or skin, faint or cold sweat, extraordinary lying down, or beating or looking back at his body alteration of qualities or gestures, not casting of the coat, leanness, hide-bound and the like. All these are apparant signs of distempe­rature and sickness.

Signes from the Dung.

It is necessary to observe the horses dung, [Page 133] for it is the best Tel-troth of his inward parts; yet you must not judge it by a generall opini­on, but by a private discourse with your self how he hath been [...]ed, because food is the onely thing that breeds alterations,—as thus—

If he feed altogether upon grass, his dung hath one complexion, as green; if upon hay, then another, as a little more dark. If upon little provender, then inclining to yelow. But to avoid both curiosity and doubt, observe well the complexion of his dung, when he is in the best health, and the best feeding; and as you find it alter, so judge either of his health or sickness, as thus——

If his dung be clear, crisp, and of a pale yellowish complexion, hanging together without separation, more then as the weight breakes it in falling, being neither so thin nor so thick, but it wil a little [...]a [...] on the ground. And indeed both in savour and substance, resembling a sound mans ordure, then is the horse clean, well fed, and without imperfe­ction:

If it be well coloured, yet fall from him in round knots, or pellets, so it be but the first or second dung, the rest good, as aforesaid, it matters not: for it only shews he did eat hay lately, and that will ever come away first. But if all his dung be alike, then it is a [Page 134] sign of foul feeding, and he hath either too much hay, or eates too much litter, and too little corn.

If his dung be in round pellets, and black­ish, or brows, it shews inward heat in the body.

If it be greasie, it shews foulness, and that grease is molten, but cannot come away. If he void grease in gross substance with his dung, if the grease [...]e white and clear, then it comes away kindly, and there is no dan­ger: but if it be yellow or putrified, then the grease hath lain long in his body, and sickness will follow if not prevented.

If his dung be red and hard, then the horse hath had too strong heats, and costiveness will follow: if it be pale and loose, it shews inward coldness of body, or too much moist and corrupt feeding:

Signes from the Urine.

THough the Urine be not altogether so materiall as the dung, yet it hath some true faces, as thus—

That Urine which is of a pale yellowish colour, rather thick then thin, of a strong smell and a piercing condition, is an health, full, sound and good urine: but if it be of an high, red complexion, either like blood, or [Page 513] inclining to blood, then hath the horse had either too sore heats, been over-ridden, or ridden to early after winter grass.

If the Urine be of an high complexion, clear and transparent, like old March Beer, then he is inflamed in his body, and hath ta­ken some surfit.

If the urine carry a white cream on the top, it shews a weak back, or consumption of seed.

A green urine shews consumption of the body.

A Urine with bloody streaks shews an ul­cer in the kidnies: and a black, thick, cloudy urine shews death and mortality.

Of sickness in generall.

Whensoever, upon any occasion, you shall find the horse droop in countenance, to for­sake his meat, or to shew any other appa­rent sign of sickness; if they be not great, you may forbear to let blood, because where the blood is spent, the spirits are spent also, and they are not easily recovered. But if the signes be great and dangerous, then by all means let blood instantly, and for three mor­nings together (the horse being fastning) give him half an ounce of the powder (called by me) Diahexaple, and by the Italians, Re­gin [...] [Page 136] medicina, the Queen of medicines, brew­ed either in a pint of Muskadine or Malmsey, or a pint of the syrop of Sugar, being two de­grees above the ordinary Molosses, or for want thereof Molosses wil serve the turn; and where all are wanting, you may take a pint either of dragon water, or a quart of the sweetest and strongest Ale-wort, or in ex­tre mity take a quart of strong Ale or Beer, but then warm it a little before the fire.

This must be given with an horn, and if the Horse have ability of body, ride him in some warm place after it, and let him fast near two hours after the riding.

At noon give him a sweet mash, cloath very warm, and let him touch no cold water.

Now touching the exact and true making of this rare powder, which I call Diahexa­ple, because no man (that I know) Apothe­cary or other, doth at this day make it true­ly, partly because it is an experiment but lately come to my knowledge by conference with learned Physicians, and partly because our medicine makers are in Horse physick less curious then they should be; through which errors there is produced to the world an abundance of false mixtures, which both deceiveth the honest Hors-master, kills the harmless horse, and disgraceth the well­meaning Farrier, To repair all which, I [Page 137] will here set down the true manner of ma­king this admirable powder, together with the vertues and operations thereof.

The true manner of making the true Diahexaple,

Take the roots of round Aristologia, wash them, scrape them, and purifie them as clear as may be, then take Juniper Berries unex­corticated, and Bay-berries excorticated; take the purest and best drops as Myrrh, and the finest shavings of Ivory, of each an equall quantity; beat all but the Myrrh together, and search them fine: Lastly, beat the Myrrh and search it also; then mix and incorporate all together, press it hard into a gally-pot, and keep it, and use it as you have occasion.

The vertues of true Diahexaple.

This powder, or indeed Methridate, called Diahexaple, or the Queen of Medicines, is most excellent & soveraign against all manner of poyson, either inward or outward, it cureth the biting of venemous beasts, and helpeth short wind and pursickness. Dodoneus.

It mundifieth, cleanseth, suppleth, and maketh thin all gross humours, it healeth all diseases of the Liver and Stomack, helps [Page 138] digestion, and being given in a pint of Sack, it cureth all colds: it is good against con­sumptions, breaks flegm, helps staggers, and all diseases of the head. Gerrard.

It recovers tyring and weariness, and takes away cramps and convulcions, dries up the Skurvy, breaks the stone, opens all inward obstructions, and helps the yellows, the gargil and the dropsie. Diascorides.

It cures all diseases of the lungs, as glan­ders and rottenness, gives ease to all gripings and windiness of the belly, provoketh urine, takes away infection, and kils worms. Gale. [...].

A Drink to open an Horses body, and cleanse it.

Take a quart of new milk, Sallet-oyl, ho­ny, each half a pint, an ounce of London treacle, and the yolks of six, eggs beat all to­gether: and then put to it licoras, sugar-candy, anise-seeds (all in powder) of each an ounce, and infuse all together, so give it the horse, ride him after it, set up warm, and let him fast above an an hour.

The true manner of making those cordial Bal [...], which cure any violent cold or Glanders which prevent heart-sickness. which purge away all molten grease, which recover a lost [Page 139] stomack, which keep the heart from faint­ing with exercise, and make a lean horse fat suddenly.

Take Aniseeds, Cominseeds, Fenegreek­seeds, Carthumus seeds: Elicampane roots and Colts foot, each two ounces beaten, and searced to a fine dust, two ounces of the flower of Brimston: then take an ounce of the juice of Licoras, and dissolve it on the fire in half a pint of white wine; which done, take an ounce of Chymicall oyl of Aniseeds, then of sallet oyl, hony, and the Syrop of Sugar, or for want of it Molosses, of each half a pint, then mix all this with the former powders, and with as much fine wheat flower as will bind and knit them all together, work them into stiff paste, and make thereof Balls som­what bigger then French Walnuts [...]ull and all, and so keep them in a close Gallipot, (for they will last all the year:) Yet I do not mean that you shall keep them in the pot in balls: for so because they cannot lye close, the air may get in and do hurt; as also the strength of the oyls will sweat outward and weaken the substance, therefore knead the whole lump of paste into the Gallipot, and make the Balls as you have occasion to use them.

Now for the use of these Balls, because [Page 140] they are cordiall, and have divers excellent vertues, you shall understand, that if you use them to prevent sickness, then you shall take a Ball, and aniont it all over with sweet Butter, and give it the horse in the morning▪ in the manner of a Pill, then ride him a little after it (if you please, otherwise you may chuse) and feed and water him abroad or at home according to your usual custome. And thus do 3 or 4 mornings together.

If you use them to cure either cold or glan­ders, then use them in the same manner for a week together. If you use them to fatten an horse, then give them for a fortnight toge­ther. But if you use them in the nature of a scouring to take away molten grease & foul­ness, then instantly after his heat, and in his heat. Again, if you find your horse at any time hath taken a little cold, as you shall per­ceive by his inward ratling, if then you take one of these Balls, and dissolve it in a pint of sack, and so give it the horse, it is a present re­medy. Also to dissolve the Ball in his ordi­nary water, being made luke warm, it wor­keth the life effect, and fatneth exceedingly:

To give one of these Balls before travell, it prevents tyring; to give it in the height of travel, it refresheth the weariness: and to give it after travel, it saves an horse from all sur­feit and inward sickness.

For the Bots or any Worms.

Take a quart of new milk, and as much hony [...] will make it extraordinary sweet, then [...]eing luke-warm, give it the horse early, he [...]aving fasted all the night before, then bridle [...]im up, and let him stand tied to the empty [...]ack for two hours: then take halfe a pint [...]white wine, and dissolve into it a good [...]poonfull or more of black soap, and being [...]ll mixt together, give it him to drink, [...]en ride and chafe him a little, and let him [...]t another hour, and the Worms will a­ [...]oid.

Another for Worms more ready, more easie.

Take the soft Down-hairs that grow in the [...]rs of an horse, and which you clip away [...]hen you coule him, and the little short tuft [...]hich grows on the top of the Fore-head, [...]derneath his fore-top: and having a pretty [...]antity, mix them with a pottle of oats, and [...]e them to the horse, and it helpeth.

A Purgation when an horse is sick of grease, or costiveness.

Take a pint of old white Wine, and o [...] the fire dissolve into it a lump as much a [...] an Henns Egge of Castle-sope, and sti [...] them together, then take it off, and put in to it two good spoonfulls of Hempseed beaten, an ounce of sugar-candy in powder and brew all together, then having wa [...] med the horse, to stirre up his grease another foul humors, give him this to drink and walk him up and down a little after [...] to make the potion work; then set u [...] warm, and after a little stirring him in h [...] stall, if he grow sickish, give him liberty t [...] lye down; then after two hours fasting giv [...] him a sweet Mash, then feed as at othe [...] times.

For Laxativeness, or extream Loosness.

Take a quart of red Wine, and on th [...] fire put into it an ounce and an halfe [...] Bolarmonie in powder, and two ounces a [...] an half of the conserve of Sloes, mix th [...] together, after take it from the fire, a [...] put to it a spoonfull or two of the powd [...] [Page 134] of Cynamon, brew all together, and give it the horse: but let him fast two hours after it, and let him eat no washed meat: Hay is wholsome, so is Bread and Oats, if they be well mixt with Beans or Wheat, but not otherwise.

For the stone, or pain of urine by winde causing sickness

Make a strong decoction, (that is to say) boyle your first quantity of water to an halfe part three times over, of keen onions clean peeled, and parsley, then take a quart there­of, and put to it a good spoonefull of Lon­don Treacle, and as much of the powder of Egge-shels, and give it the horse.

And thus do divers mornings, if the infir­mity be great, otherwise, when you see the horse offended.

For an Horse that staleth blood.

Take knot-grasse, Shephards purse, Blood­wort of the hedge, Polypodium of the wall, Comphrey, Garden Blood-wort, of each an handfull, shread them fine, and put them into a quart of Beer, Ale or milk, and put to them a little salt, a little soot and leaven▪ mix all to gether, and give it the horse to drink.

For a growing cold.

Take the juyce of Licoras, London Trea­cle, Aniseeds, Turmereack, Fenegreek and long pepper, of each an ounce, the hard Simples in powder: then of Suger-candy two ounces, and with as much English ho­ny as will suffice, incorporate all together, and make thereof Balls as bigge as a good pullets egge, and give the horse two or three in the morning fasting

After he hath taken the Balls, give him two new laid eggs, then rid ehim, and at noon give him a Mash, keep warm, and do this twice or thrice.

For a more violent cold causing rotting in the head.

Take the bigge Elecampane root, slice it, and boyl it in water from a pottle to a quart, then strain it, and to that water put a pint of Urine, and a pint of Muska­dine, of Aniseeds, Licoras, Cominseeds, Long Pepper (in pouder) of each an ounce, twenty Raisins of the Sun stoned and brused, and of Sugercandy two ounces▪ let all these symmer on the fire, and not boyl, till they be incorporate, then take i [...] [Page 145] off, and to one halfe therof (which is a suf­fiacient drench) put a quarter of a pound of sweet butter, and four spoonfuls of sallet­oyle; then being luke-warm, give the horse a third part of the drench, and after it a new laid egge: then another third part, and after it another egge: then lastly, all the rest of the drink. Then ride him pretty round­ly after it for near an houre, and let him fast another houre; keep warme, and feed as at o­ther timer. At noon give him a mash, and the next day give him the other half.

For a desperate dry cough.

Take a pint of burnt Sack, Sallet oyle and red wine vinegar, of both a quarter of a pint, of Fenegrick, Turmerick, [...]ong peper, and Licoras, of each a spoonfull in powder, and give it the horse half at the one nostril; and half at another, and doe this twice▪ week, and ride him after it, and let him fast two houres, and keep his head and breast warm.

For the ordinary water you may give him for a fortnight, let it have good store of sli­ced English Licoras steept into it.

For a cold long setled.

Take three heads of Garlick, and rost them in the embers, then mix them with three spoonfulls of Tarre, as much powder [Page 146] sugar, and halfe a pound of hogges grease, then with Aniseeds, Licoras, Elicampane, Fe­negreek, and Cominseeds, make it into paste, and give as much at once as a Ducks egge▪

For a dry Cough, or wasted Lungs.

Take Elicampace, the flower of Brim­stone, Licoras, Fenell seed, Linseed of each an ounce, searc't, syrop of Elicampane an ounce, and of clarified hony a pound, work the powders and these together, and to a pint of sweet wine put two ounces of these, and give it the horse morning and evening, ride him after it, and let him fast an hour af­ter riding, give no cold water but with ex­ercise.

A Cordiall powder for any ordinary cold, and to prepare a horse before travell, to re­fresh him in travell, and to preserve him from mischief after travel.

Take of English Licoras, Elicampane roots, of each an ounce, of Sugercandy an ounce and a halfe; beat them to fine pow­der and searce them.

Keep the powder in a box, and when you have occasion to use it, if it be for a cold, then give half an ounce in a pint of Sack: if [Page 147] it be in travell, then give it in sweet wine, or strong Ale; but if in Ale, then take a quart; and give it both before travell and in your Inne, or at home immediately after travell.

To break a festred cold to dry up glanders, and to heal the ulcer, or canker in the nose.

Take a pint of verdjuice, and put to it so much strong mustard made with wine Vine­gar, as will make it strong and keen thereof; then take an ounce of roche Allom in pow­der, and when you give this to the horse, as you fil the horn, so with a knife or spoon put some of the Allom into the horn, and so give it the horse part at both nostrils, but especialy that nostrill which runneth most; then ride him a little after it▪ and set up warm, and give no cold water without exercise. Thus do divers mornings.

For the Glanders.

Take Cominseeds, Grains and Fenegreek in powder, of each halfe an ounce; of Dia­hexaple a quarter of an ounce, beat this in a mortar with a quarter of a pint of verdjuice, three spoonfuls of Sallet oyl, and two [Page 148] spoon [...]tl of Aquavitae: then put al together to a quart of old Ale, with a good slice of sweet butter, and set it on the fire till it be ready to boyl; then being luke warm, give it the horse, part at the mouth, and part at both nostrils: then ride him pretty roundly for an hour, and set up warm; let him fast an hour, and if you perceive sickness to grow, give him a pint of new milk.

To stay the glanders for a time, being incurable.

Take the green bark of Elder, and beat it in a mortar, and strain it till you have a pint thereof, then put that juice to a pint of old Ale, and warm it on the fire with a good lump of sweet butter, and a nounce of sugarcandy, and so give the horse, ride him after it, let him fast an hour, and keep warm. Do thus divers mornings.

For decayed or stopped Lungs, which we call Broken wind.

Take halfe a pint of Coltsfoot water, or the syrop of Coltsfoot; but in the syrop it will best dissolve, and put into it a dram of Balsamum Sulphuris, and give it the Horse in the morning fasting, then ride him a [Page 149] little after it, be sure to keep warm, and give no cold water without exercise. Do thus e­very other morning, giving it one morning at the mouth, and another at the nostrils till you find amendment.

A scouring when others will not work.

Take of sweet Butter a quarter of a pound, half so much Castle Sope, and halfe an ounce of Aloes, beat them together: then add of Hempseed two spoonfulls, of rosin half a spoonfull, of sugarcandy an ounce, all bruised [...]ine, work it into a paste, and give it the horse in balls immediatly after his heat, or when you have warmed him, and stirred up the grease and foulness within him.

OUTWARD SORRANCES.

The Signes of outward Sorrances.

OUtward Sorrances are discerned when any member or part in an horse is dis­figured or evill affected by the loss of true shape, disability in motion, the increase or decrease of number and quantity, the dispro­portion of place, or the separating of things knit and united. And these accidents have divers names, as Imposthumes, Ulcers or wounds when they are in fleshy parts; Excre­tions or Fractures on and in the bones; Rup­tures in the veins; convulsions in the sinews, and Excoriations upon the skin.

The first is known by outward swellings, rotten or bloody sores; the next by utter dis­ability in the member, or else plain halting. The next by Wens and Knots both soft and hard; the next by gordgings and haltings, and the last by scurf and leprosie:

Now forasmuch as the greatest part of [Page 151] Sotrances, and especially those which are most hid and obscure, are found our by hal­ting, I will shew you the severall manner of haltings, and what they signifie.

If the horse halt before, and lift not up his leg, but in a manner traileth it after the o­ther, it sheweth a new hurt on the top of the shoulder.

If he cast his leg outward, or go Baker­like, and not bend the knee, it is either an old hurt on the top of the shoulder, or if new, then it is a shoulder-plat, or rending betwixt the shoulder and the body: if in turning short he favour his foot, if griping his withers he complain, if he halt more when he is ridden then led, the offence is on the top of the shoulder: If standing in the stable, thrust forth his foot and favour it: then search his foot, and if in that be found no prick, no dry founder, no surbat, then it is in the mid part of the shoulder, or the coffin joynt.

If halting he bow down his head to the ground, and step short and thick, then it is in the forepart of the shoulder, at the breast. If in handling his elbow hard, he twitch up his foot suddenly from the ground, the of­fence is there.

If on his shank bones (in their severall places be splents, excressions, windgalls or [Page 152] Maleanders, and they sore, they will occasion halting, as any other outward Sorrance upon any other member.

Heat on the Crownet shews pain in the Coffin joynt.

In halting before, to trip on the Toe, shews pain in the heel; to favour the Toe, shews payn in the Toe; to halt more on un­even ground then one [...]he even, shews pain in the feet, and in going from you and com­ming to you, may be discerned, whether the outward or inward quarter: but to clear all doubts, the Pincers will shew any pain in the foot whatsoever.

If your horse halt behind, and in halting go sidelong, and not in an even line, the grief is in the hip, and yet but new, or in the Fillets, and may be new or old. If it be old in the hip, the hip will fall, and then no cure

If in halting he tread onely on his hinder Toe, and no offence in the foot▪ then the pain is in the stiffell. If in halting he bend not his hough or ham, and no outward Sor­rance, yet the pain is there.

If he halt through any offence in his leg from the ham to the pastern, outward Sor­rance or swelling will shew it; and so like­wise for the other parts below it.

For soar Eyes, dim Eyes, and Moon eyes

Take Lapis Calaminaris halfe an ounce, and heat it red hot, and quenchin it a quar­ter of a pint of Plantane water, or white wine: do this eight or nine times, then beat it to powder and put it to the water; then add half a dram of Aloes, and a scruple of Camphire in powder, and let them dissolve; drop this into the eye.

Another for eyes of like nature.

Take a pint of snow water, and dissolve into it three or four drams of white Vitrioll, and with it wash the horses eyes three or four times a day, and it helpeth.

For a white Film or Skin over the Eye.

Take the root of the black Sallow, and burn it to ashes: then put to it a like quan­tity of Sugar and grated Ginger finely searc'd, blow this into the eye morning and evening.

For any sorenses in the eyes, as Pearl, Pin or Web, or Bruise.

Take a new laid egge, and rost it very hard, then cleave it in sunder longwise, and take out the yelk, then fill the empty holes with white vitriole finely beaten, and close the egge again; then rost it the second time, till the vitriole be molten. Lastly, beat the egge shell and all in a mortar, and strain it, and with that moisture dress the eye.

If in stead of the vitriole you fill the holes with Myrrh finely searc'd, and hang the egge up that it may drop, and with that moisture dress the eye: it is every way as good, onely it is a little stronger.

For foul eyes, sore eyes or sight almost lost.

There be some that for this great offence in the eye put in two fine small rowels long­wise in the temples of the head, just behind the eyes: But for mine own part, I not much fancy it, because I fear it breeds more evil humor then it brings away, besides sore­ness and disgrace; therefore in this cure my practise is thus—

Take Tacchamahaca, Mastick, Rosin and [Page 155] Pitch, of each like quantity, and being molten with flax of the colour of the horse, lay it as a defensive on each side his temples, as big as a twenty shillings piece: then underneath his eyes upon the cheek bone (with a round Iron▪) burn three or four holes, and anoint them with sweet butter; then take a handfull of Seladine, and wash it clean in white wine, but let it touch no water, then bruise it, and strain it, and to the quantity of juyce, put the third part of womans milk, and a pretty quantity of white Sugarcandy, searc'd tho­row a piece of Lawn, and with a feather, quill, or otherwise, drop it into the sore ey morning and evening.

Thus do for the worst of sore eys: but if the offence be not extream, then you may for­bear both the defensitive, the burning and the rowels, and onely use the medicine.

The Master Medicine for a back sinew­strain, or any strain, shrinking, or numbness of sinews.

Take a fat sucking Mastive whelp, fley it and howell it, then stop the body as full as it can hold with gray snails and black snails, then rost it at a reasonable fire; when it be­gins to warm, bast it with six ounces of the [Page 156] oyl of Spike made yellow with Saffron, and six ounces of the oyle of Wax: then save the droppings, and what moysture soever falls from it whilst any drop will fall, and keep it in a Gallipot.

With this anoint the strain, and work it in­very hot, holding a bar of Iron before it; and thus do both morning and evening till a mendment:

Another in nature of a charge, for a back sinnew-strain.

Take five quarts of Ale, and a quarter of a peck of Glovers specks and boyl them till it come to a quart: then apply it hot to the grief and remove it not for five or six days.

For a strain in any yart, new or old.

Take of sheeps suet a pound, of sheeps dung two handfull, chopt hay an handfull, Wheat bran a pint, sweet Sope a quarter of a pound; boyl all these in a quart of strong Beer, and a quart of the grounds of strong Ale, till it come to a thick pultiss, then take it from the fire and col it with halfe a pint of wine vine­gar, and a quarter of a pint of Aquavitae, then apply this very hot to the grief, and give him moderate exercise.

For a strain or sinew-bruise.

Take Comin-seeds and bruise it gross, then boyl it with the oyle of Camomile, and put to it so much yellow Wax'as will bring it to Cerrot, and spread it on either Cloth or Lea­ther, and hot apply it to the grief.

For old strains, or cold cramps.

Take Aquavitae, Oyl de Bay, Oyl of Swal­low [...], Bolearmonie, Boars grease, black Sope, of each half a pound, boyl them till the A­quavitae be incorporate; then take of Camom­ile, Rue, red Sage, and Misseldine, of each an handful, dry them and bring them to powder, then mix it with the oyntment, and bring all to a gentle salve:

With this anoynt the grief, and hold an hot barre of Iron before it, chafing it in well; and thus do once a day, and in nine days the cure hath been effected.

A sudden cure for a knock or brnise on the sinews:

Take a live cat, wild or tame, and cut off her head and tail, then cleave her down the chine, and clap her hot b [...]wels and all to the bruise, and remove it not for two days.

For a strain newly done to help it in 24 hours.

Take the grounds of Ale or Beer, a quart, as much parsley chopt gross, as you can gripe, boyl them till the herb be soft, then put to it a quarter of a pound of sweet butter, and when it is molten, take it from the fire, and put into it a pint of Wine vinegar, and if it be too thin, thicken it with Wheat bran, then lay it upon hurds, and poultess-wise, as hot as the horse can suffer it, and remove it once in twelve hours, and give the horse moderate exercise.

Markhams own Balme which hath never failed him for any strain in the shoulder or other parts, hid or apparent, or for any wind-gall or, swelling,

Take ten ounces of Peice-grease, and melt it on the fire, then take it off and put into it four ounces of the oyle of Spike, one ounce of the oyle of Origanum, an ounce and a halfe of the oyle of Exceter, and three ounces of the oyle of St. Johns wort; stirre them well together, then put it up into a Gallipot

With this Oyntment (or indeed pretious Balm) hot, anoint the grieved part and rub and chafe it in very much, holding an hot Bar of Iron before it: and thus anoint it once in two days, but rub and chafe it in twice or rhrice a day, and give the horse moderate exercise.

For Sinews that are extended, overstrai­ned, and so weakned, that the mem­ber is useless.

Take of Cantharides, Euforbium and Mer­cury, of each like quantity, and of oyle de Bay double as much as of all the rest; bring [Page 160] the hard Simples to powder, and beat all to a salve, apply this to the griefe (being despe­rate) and though it make a sore, it willgive strength and straightness to the sinews. For the sore you may cure it either with Popu­leon, fresh Butter, or Deers grease warm.

Another of the same nature but, more gentle.

Take Turpentine two ounces, Verdigrease three ounces, Hoggs grease six ounces, boyl them till the Verdigrease be desolved, then take Rosin, Bees wax, of each two ounces, mix all together, then apply it to the place grieved, hot.

A charge for a new strain or grief, pro­ceeding from heat.

Take the whites of six Eggs, and beat them with a pint of vinegar, the oyle of Ro­ses and Myrtles, of each an ounce, Bolearmony four ounces, as much Sanguis Dracones, and with as much Bean flower or Wheat flower, but Bean is the best, as will thicken it, bring it to a salve, and spreading it one hurds, lap it about the grieved part, and renew it not till it be dry.

For Aches, Cramps, and hid paines.

Take Deers Suet, or for want of it, sweet Butter half a pound, of Aquavitae a Gill, of Saffron half a dram, Pepper beaten and searc'd three drams, Garlick bruised three heads; mix all together, and let them stew on the fire, and not boyl till it come to a salve.

With this very warme chafe the grief, then anoint a brown paper therewith, and very hot apply to the place also, and roll it up. Do this morning and evening

For swelled or garded leggs, whether by Grease or other accident.

If your horses leggs be swelled, onely be­cause the grease is fallen into them & there is no other outward ulcer, neither will the ba­thing with cold fountain water and other ordinary helps asswage them: then take a pottle of wine lees, or else the grownds of strong Ale or Beer, and boile it with a pound of hogs grease; then with as much wheat bran as will thicken it, make thereof a Pul­tiss: then having made the horse an hose of wollen cloath, fill it with this pultiss as hot as the horse can suffer it, then close up the hose [Page 162] and let it abide two days; the third day open the hose at the top, but stir not the pultiss, onely take molten Hoggs grease very hot, and put it to the pultiss whilst it will receive any, for that wil renew the strength thereof: then close the hose, and let him stand either two days or three. Then you may open the legg and rub it down, and if you find strong occa­sion, you may apply another; if not, the cure is wrought.

Now, if besides the swelling, your horse have ulcers, chaps and soars, then apply the pultiss as before shewed: and after a weeks application take a quart of old urine, and put to it half an handful of salt, as much Allume, and half an ounce of white Copperas, boyl them together, and with it wash the sore once or twice a day: Then after a little drying an­oint them with the oyntment called Aegipti­acum, and is made of vinegar eight ounces, of hony twelv ounces, of verdigreas two ounces, of Allum an ounce and an halfe, and boyled to the height, till it come to a red salve, and it will both kill the malignant humors, and heal and dry up the soars.

For sweld leggs, whether by grease, goutiness, wind, or travell.

First, bathe them well with the Pickle, or Brine which comes from Olives being made hot: then take a pint of Train oyl, as much nerve oyl, and as much oyl de Bay, a quarter of a pound of Allum, half a pint of Sallet oyl, half a pound of Hogs grease; put all these to a pottle of old urine, and with an handfull or two of Mallows, Oatmeal bruised, and Bran, boyl them to a pultiss, and very hot apply it to the grief: Do thus once in two days.

For gardings in joynts.

Make a very strong Brine of Water and Salt, and to a pottie thereof put two or three handfull of Rew, and boyl it till the herb be soft: then with this water very hot bathe the grieved part.

Then take a flat bagg, fild with Salt, and heated hot at the fire, and lap it about the grief also. And thus do once or twice a day.

For Scratches at the first appearance.

Take Hogs grease and black sope of each eight ounces, Brimstone, Lime, Gunpowder, each three ounces, and soot as much as will suffice to bring the rest to a salve; boyl the Hogs grease and [...]pe together; and bring the other to a sine powder, and mix all together and make a black oyntment: with this anoint the soars once a day, after they are cleansed and made raw.

For Scratches of long continuance.

Take hony, Verdigrease, Brimstone bruised small, green Copperas, and Bay salt, of each like quantity, boyl these with a double quan­tity of Hogs grease, and put to it a big root of Elicampan bruised in red wine vinegar, apply this to the sores very hot, after you have cut a way the hair, and made the sores raw, as also suppled them by bathing them with new milk from the Cow.

For Scratches held incurable.

First let him blood in the shackle veins, the spur veins, and the [...]ore toe veins, onely let­ting it be three days between the bleeding of [Page 165] the one Toe and the other: then with an hair­cloth rub the sores til they be raw and bleed; then take a quart of old urine, and a quart of strong brine, and put to them halfe a pound of Allum, and boyl it to a quart.

With this hot, wash the sores wel, then take the sperm of Froggs (in March) and put it in­to an earthen pot, and in a week it will look like oyl: then take both the oyl and the round things which you shal see in the sperm and spreading it on a cloath, bind it to the soars, and do this divers times.

For any Splent, Spaven, Curb, Ringbone or Excression.

First clip away the hair as far as the ex­cression goeth, and a little more, then take a piece of Allumd Leather made as big as the place you have bared, and fitted to the [...]ame proportion: then take a little Shooe­makers Wax, and spread it round about the very edge or verge of the same, leaving all the inward part empty and not touched with the Wax: Then take the herb Spear­grass, or Spearwort, which hath the vertue to raise blisters, and bruising it, lay some thereof upon the Leather in the empty place, and bind it fast thereon, suffering it so to lye [...] if it be in the Spring) or Summer time, [Page 166] when the herb hath its full strength) near half a day; but if it be in winter, then it is not a miss (to renew the strength of the herb) if you add to it a drop or two of the oyl of Origa­num, and let it lie half a day fully, and be sure to tie up the horses head, for fear of biting it away.

When you take away the herb, rub the place well and anoynt it with Train-oyl warm, or else lay on a Diminium plaister.

Another for a foul Splint.

Take Nerve oyl one ounce, Cantharides the weight of sixpence, and as much of the oyle of Vipers, boyl them lightly; then with this anoint the Splint cross the hair, and heat it in with a hot Iron, then tie up the horses head to the Rack for 24 hours: then squeeze out the corruption, and do this twice o [...] thrice.

For a Splint, and to dry up windgalls.

First, heat the Sorrance with an hot pres­sing Iron, then vent it in severall places with your Fleam; then take a spoonfull of salt, half a spoonfull of nerve oyl, a peny weight of verdigrease, and the white of an egg: beat all to a salve: and dipping flax hurds therein: apply it to the grief.

For Pains, M [...]les and Rats-tails.

First take away all the scabs and make the sore raw, then with strong mustard made with wine vinegar, anoint them all over, and do this every night. The next morning take half a pound of green Copperas, and boyl it in a pottle of running water with an handfull of sage, and so much hyssop, a quarter of a pound of Allume, and as much strong mu­stard, and with this bath the sore twice or thrice a day.

For Malander or Selander.

Take the oyl of bay an ounce, half so much sugar, and a good quantity of the oyl o [...] froth which cometh from green broom stalks being laid in the fire, mix it wel, and with this anoynt the soars, and it kills and dryes them up.

For the Swift-cut and to heal all wounds.

Take a pint of white Wine and put to it two or three spoonfulls of honey, and stirr them and boyl them to a salve, then take it from the fire, and put to it halfe so much Turpentine as there was honey, and stirre all together.

[Page 168]With this salve somwhat hot, anoint the soars twice or thrice a day, and it is a most speedy healer.

For any Maunge or Scab in a clean fed Horse

First let blood, then take a quart of old U­rine or Vinegar, and break into it a quarter of a pound of good Tobacco, then set it on a fire of embers and not boyl, and so let it stew all night: with this water wash the in­fected places, whether it be in the Mane or otherwise, and it helpeth.

For any Maungie or universall Leprosie in a foul surfeited Horse.

First, let blood in the neck-vein, and take, a way good store, then curry off all the scurf, and take verdjuce and vinegar a pint, cow-piss a pint, train oyle a pint, old urine a pint, & put to them an handful of wild Tansie, an hand­ful of Bay salt, a quarter of a pound of brim­stone, as much Alome, two ounces of verdi­grease and four ounces of Bolarmonie, boyl all well together.

With this (very hot) wash the horse well, and if you put to it the quantity of a pint of blood you take away, it is not amiss: do this twice or thrice.

For a Canker, foul Ulcer, Leprosie, and to make hair grow.

Take a quart of Tar, and on the fire put to it half a pound of Bores grease, an ounce of Copperat, a quarter of a pound of Saltpeter, two ounces of wax, a quart of honey, a quar­ter of a pound of Rozme, two ounces of ver­digrease, a quart of Lynseed oyl, and seeth them till half be consumed; then strain it, & keep it in a close pot. Then, when you will use it, take of it warm, and apply it to the soar, it doth both heal, draw, and make hair grow.

For a Fistula, or Pol-evill.

Take Euforbium with Mastick, mix them together, then seeth them well with French Sope, and make a tent, and put it into the Fi­stula, and it will consume the evill moisture.

For a foul Farcy.

Take Tar and fresh Hogs grease, of each half a pound, Hemlock an handfull, Arse­smart three handfull, and as many Nettles, boyl these in a pottle of old Urine, and apply it very hot to the swelling, but touch it not with your hand, for it is too sharp.

Lastly, take a pint of white wine vinegar, a quarter of an ounce of verdigrease, and a little bundle of Hyssop, beat them in a mor­tar, [Page 170] and boyl it to an half pint: then with Balls of flax put it luke-warm into both his ears, and stich the tips together, then tye his head up to the Rack for two hours: Do thus twice.

For a most desperate Farcy.

Take the herb called Clay-clayes, which is a weed growing by the water side, having a great broad round leaf, and is green on the upper side and white on the neather; & Rew of each a like quantity, beat them and strain them: then to a pint of that juice, put of Housleek a handful, half a pint of Aquavitae, and two good spoonfull of pepper beaten and fearc'd.

Of this liquor take a pint and give it the horse to drink, then with round balls of flax dipt in the same, stop up both his ears, then with the strained bruisings of all the herbs, rub the soars, and stop the holes if there be any hollowness: do thus twice at the least.

For any Founder or Frettize wet or dry.

First, pare thin, open the heels wide, and take good store of blood from the Toes or shackle veins (which some hold good) then rack on a shoo somwhat hollow, broad at [Page 171] the heels, and the inside of the web, from the first nail to the heel turned inward, towards the Frog, yet not touch any part thereof, or the hoof: so that the horse may tread on the out verge of the shooe, and not on the inward, then take Burgundy pitch, and rol­ling it in a little fine Cotton-wooll or Bom­bast, with an hot Iron melt it into the foot betwixt the shoo and the toe, till the orifice where the blood was taken be filled up; then take a pound of Hogs grease, and melt it, and mix it with Wheat bran, till it be as thick as a pultiss: then boyling hot stop up the hor­ses feet therewith, then cover it with a piece of an old shoo, and splent it up, and so let him stand for three or four daies: then if occa­sion serve you may renew it, or otherwise the cure is wrought.

To make Hooves to grow quickly, and to be tough and strong.

Take Allum, the juice of Garlick, of each seven ounces, Rew three handfull, old hogs grease two pound, of Asses dung, or for want of it, Cow dung an handfull, mix them and boyl them together.

With this both stop the horses feet, and anoint the crownets of the hooves, the me­dicine being hot.

For brittle Hooves.

Take Turpentine, Sheeps sue?, unwrought Wax and Hogs grease of each half a pound, Pitch, Rozin, half a pound, Sallet oyl half a pint, and of Dogs grease a pound; boyl all together, and keep it in a Gallipot: with this oyntment anoint the Hooves outwardly, and if you please tie some of the ointment with a cloth to the crownets, then stop them within with Cow dung, and Dogs grease mixt toge­ther.

For Surbat or soarness in the Feet, whether by travell, too near paring, or other accident.

Take a lump of course sugar, and with an hot Iron melt it between the shooe and the Foot, and when it is hardned, take Nettles and bay salt, and stamp them, stop up the Frog of the foot also.

For a Quitterbone.

First, tent it a day or two with hogs grease and Verdigrease ground together: then take scalding hot Hogs grease and poure it into the hole, and lay a plaster of pitch and Tar mixt over it for 24 hours; then if the Bone rise not, do the same again and it will rise.

For Saddle-bruises, hard swellings, and Impostumations.

First, ripen it with wet hay, or rotten lit­ter; then when it is soft, open it and let out the corruption, then fill the hollowness with the powder of Rozin, and lay a plaster of Shoomakers wax over it: and thus do once a day till it be whole. If it be slow in skinning or drying up, throw on the powder of un­slackt lime, and Bolarmony mixt together. But if any proud flesh arise, take it down either with burnt Allam or Verdigrease in powder.

Another for a soar back.

Take the juice of Seladine and life Hony, of each two spoonfull, beat them with the yelk of an egg, and with as much Allum and wheat flower as will serve to bring it to a salve, dress the soar with this once a day; it draweth and healeth.

For a prick with a pitchfork on the Crownet or other part.

Take a pottle of Urine, two handfull of Mallows, and half a pound of Boars grease, boyl them together, and being reasonable hot, bathe the leggs therewith; then apply the Mallows to the wound: but if the swel­ling [Page 174] ascend upward and be great, then rope the legg up, and moist the ropes with his u­rine. This is good for any swelling, whether of grease or otherwise.

For any chafing or galling.

Make the sore dry, and then rub it with a raw egg shell and all.

A generall salve for any sore, swelling, prick, cloying, or tread.

Take Turpentine, black sope, hogs grease, green Treat and pitch like quaintity, mix and boyl them together, and apply it warm either plasterwise or tentwise.

To make hair grow in bald places.

Take sope a quarter of a pound, as much Bears grease, and a quarter of a pint of Aqua­vitae: boyl these together and apply it to the bald places; in a fortnight it will bring hair.

To stanch blood.

Take wild Tansie, and bruise it in your hand, and apply it. Also primrose leaves used in the like manner have the same effect. Otherwise take a piece of an old Felt hat, [Page 175] and burn it to powder, and apply it to the wound, or put it up, or snuff it up into the nose if it bleed.

For Enterfering.

Take a sharp and knotted Cord, and draw it from his dock, betweene his leggs to the Girths, and so ride him, or else rub starch be­tween his thighs. This I allow rather for an Horsecoursers Help, them a present cure.

To tame an unruly Horse that he may be drencht or drest of anygrief.

Put into one of his ears a little round sharp flint stone, and gripe it hard therein; if you do so to both, he will be more quiet.

FINIS.

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