Mahmut The. Turkish spy. Aetatis suoe 72.

THE Third Volume OF LETTERS Writ by a Turkish Spy, Who lived Five and Forty Years, Undiscover'd, at PARIS: Giving an Impartial Account to the Divan at Constantinople, of the most Re­markable Transactions of Europe; And dis­covering several Intrigues and Secrets of the Christian Courts (especially of that of France) continued from the Year 1645, to the Year 1682.

Written Originally in Arabick, Translated into Italian, and from thence into English, by the Translator of the First Volume.

LONDON, Printed by J. Leake, for Henry Rhodes, near Bride lane, in Fleet street, 1691.


OUR Arabian having met with so kind Entertainment in this Na­tion, since he put on the English Dress, is resolv'd to continue his Garb, and visit you as often as Convenience will permit.

He brings along with him many Fo­reign Commodities, to gratify the Various Expectations of People: His Cargo con­sisting of Jewels and other Rarities, which are the Genuine Product of the East; and some Kinds of Merchandise, which he has purchased here in the West, during his Residence at Paris.

It will be Pity to affront this Honest Stranger, by raising Scandals on him, as if he were a Counterfeit, and I know not what. This will appear Inhospitable, and Unworthy of the English Candor and Generosity.

To speak without an Allegory, in this Third Volume of Letters, as in the former [Page] Two, you'll find an Exact Continuation of Modern History, acquainting you with all the Memorable Sieges, Battels and Cam­pagnes, that were in Europe, from the Year 1645, to 1649. As also, with all the Remarkable Negotiations and Transactions of State, Embassies, Leagues and Overtures of Princes; the Policies and Intrigues of Publick Ministers, especially those of Cardinal Mazarini; the Great and Stupendous Revolutions and Civil Wars, in England, China, Naples, Turky and Paris; the Pro­digious Rise of a Poor Young Beardless Fisherman, to the Height of Sovereign Power; the Dismal Tragedies of an English King, and a Chinese Imperor; with the Murder of a Turkish Sultan. And, all these, intermix'd with Proper and Useful Remarks, Pleasant and Agreeable Sto­ries; couch'd in a Style, which being peculiar to the Arabians, cannot be match'd in any other Writings that are Extant.

If his Philosophy will not abide the Test of our Learned Virtuosi, yet it may pass Muster in a Mahometan; since it is taken for granted, That the Men of that Faith, rarely apply themselves to such Studies; or, at least, not in the Method us'd in Christian Schools. They may have the [Page]same Idea's of Natural Things as We; but they express themselves in a different Manner.

As for his Morals, they are Solid and Grave, and such as could not be repre­hended even in a Christian Writer, if we reduce what he says to Ʋniversals. For, abstracting from the Particular Obliga­tions he had to his Native Religion, and to the Grand Signior, whose Slave he was; there will be found little Difference, be­tween his Ethicks and ours. He every where recommends Loyalty, Justice, For­titude, Temperance, Prudence; and all those other Virtues, which are requisite to fill up the Character of a Hero, or a Saint.

And, who will not bear with him, for Patronizing the Religion and Interest in which he was bred; it being Natural for all Men, to adhere to the Notions, they have suck'd in with their Mothers Milk? In this also, he shews great Moderati­on; and a more unbyass'd Temper, than one would expect from a Turk: Which may, in Part, be ascrib'd to his Studying in the Christian Academies, his Conversa­tion with the Learned'st Men in Paris, and some of the most Accomplish'd Persons in the World. Hence it was, that he was [Page]accus'd by his Superiors at the Ottoman Port, of Inclining to Christianity or A­theism; as he takes Notice, in his Apo­logy to a Religious Dignitary, in the First Letter, of the Third Book of this Volume, Pag. 255. to which the Reader is referr'd for farther Satisfaction.

In his most Familiar Letters, such as this last mention'd, and others to his In­timate Friends, you will find some Ex­pressions, discovering a certain Fineness and Strength of Thought, which is not very Common in Christian Writers. Which is an Argument, That the Mahometans are not all such Block-Heads, as we take 'em for.

And, though his Picture, which we have affix'd to Our Translation, since we had the Italian Tomes, represents no Extraordinary Person, yet you know Juvenal's Remark, Fronti mulla Fides. And, it has been a Common Observation of one of the Great­est Philosophers in this Age, That by his Out­ward Aspect, no Man would guess, what an Illustrious Soul lodg'd within.

If you would know, how the Italian came by this Picture (for, in his Preface, he asserts it to be the True Effigies of this Arabian) he says, That being acquainted with the Secretary of Cardinal Mazarini, [Page]and frequenting his House, he saw a Picture hang in his Closet, with this In­scription at the Bottom, TITUS DE MOLDAVIA, CLERICUS. Aetatis suae LXXII. He ask'd the Gen­tleman, who this Titus was, who in­form'd him, That he was a great Travel­ler, and understood many Languages, e­specially the Sclavonian, Greek and Ara­bick; on which Account, Cardinal Rich­lieu, and his Successor Mazarini, had made great Use of him; and, That the Latter had caus'd that Picture of the Moldavian to be drawn, and hung up in his Closet, from whence he had it. Our Italian being satisfy'd, after some Dis­course about him, That this Stranger was the very Arabian, whose Writings he had so happily found, got leave of the Gentle­man, to have a Draught of the Picture taken, by a Skilful Limner, which he af­terward plac'd in the Front of his Tran­slation.

There is one of these Letters, Pag. 306. wants a Beginning in the Italian Copy. Which the Author of that Translation takes Notice of in his Preface, saying, That by some Accident or other, the Arabick Paper had been torn asunder, and one, Part was missing.

[Page]There needs no more be said, but to acquaint the Reader, That we are going forward with the English Translation of these Letters, as fast as we can. So that in all Probability, you may expect a Fourth Volume before Christmas. Wherein you will find, more Particular Remarks on our English Affairs, with Political Dis­courses, on the Original and Dissolution of Governments. As also, many Curious Passages during the Wars of Paris, which have not hitherto come to Publick View. In fine, you will there be inform'd, of all the Remarkable Events, that happen'd at that Time, either in Peace or War on the whole Globe.


A TABLE OF THE LETTERS and Matters-contain­ed in this Volume.

  • LETTER I. MAhmut, an Arabian at Paris, to Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at Vi­enna. p. 1.

    He exhorts him to be prepar'd for the Worst Events: To stand upon his Guard against the Christians; but, above all, to beware of himself. He tells him a Story of Carcoa, Nathan's Predecessor.

  • II. To the Kaimacham. 7

    Of the Transylvanian Agent's Business at the French Court: Of Monsieur Croissy's [Page]Negotiation with Prince Ragotski. The Speech of Prince Ragotski's Son.

  • III. To the Instructed in all Knowledge, the Venerable Mufti. 13

    He makes a Comparison between the Christi­ans and Mahometans; prefers the Devo­tion and Charity of the Latter: And re­lates a pleasant Passage of a Christian that Whipt himself.

  • IV. To Mustapha, Berber Aga. 16

    Of the Battle of Mergentheim, between the Germans and French. The Ʋnfortunate Adventure of a French Officer.

  • V. To Shashim Istham, a Black Eunuch. 19

    He pardons the Scandals cast upon him by the Eunuch; commends his Apology; advises him to set a Watch on his Tongue; and relates the Adventure of a Busy-Body.

  • VI. To Zelim of Rhodes, Captain of a Gal­ley. 23

    He acquaints him with the Execution of Three Witches at Naples, who were hired to destroy him by Enchantments.

  • VII. To the Invincible Vizir Azem. 29

    He compares France to the Four Great Mo­narchies: Relates the Battle of Allersheim, and the Progress of the French Arms.

  • VIII. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Constan­tinople. 34

    Of a Blind Man who distinguish'd Colours by his Touch: Of another who Carv'd to the Life. Of the Mute Saqueda; and of a Deaf Man, who apprehended ones Words by the Motion of the Lips.

  • [Page]IX. To Ʋseph Bassa. 39

    He congratulates his New Dignity; Informs him of the Dissolution of the Diet of Franc­fort, and of the King of Poland's desiring the Queen of Suedeland in Marriage.

  • X. To Ichingi Cap' Oglani, Praeceptor to the Royal Pages of the Seraglio. 44

    He expostulates with him concerning his Ca­lumnies.

  • XI. To the Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary of State. 46

    Of the taking of Canea, and the Policy of Sul­tan Ibrahim.

  • XII. To the Magnificent and Redoubtable Vizir Azem. 49

    Of the Duke of Enguien's Return to Paris. Mahmut extols the Hardiness of the Ot­toman Generals. He relates a Private Amour of Cardinal Mazarini.

  • XIII. To Egri Boinou, a White Eunuch. 57

    He thanks him for his Intelligence of what is practis'd against him in the Seraglio.

  • XIV. To Mustapha, Berber Aga. 59

    Of the Elector of Saxony's falling in Love with a Suedish Lady in Armour: And of the odd kind of Articles, agreed on between him and General Koningsmark by that Means.

  • XV. To Mahummed, Hogia, Dervise, Ere­mit, Inhabitant of the Sacred Cave, at the Foot of Mount Ʋriel, in Arabia the Happy. 66

    He extolls his Abstinence, and the Happi­ness of a Retir'd-Life; Rehearses the Bles­sing which the Angel pronounc'd on that Cave.

  • [Page]XVI. To Ʋseph Bassa. 70

    He acquaints him with the Marriage of Uladislaus, King of Poland, with Louise Marie de Gonzague, Princess of Mantua.

  • XVII. To the Kaimacham. 73

    He relates the success of the French Arms in Flanders, Catalonia and Italy, that Year; with an Adventure, that happen'd to the Duke of Orleans, in his Camp be­fore Bourburgh.

  • XVIII. To Dgnet Oglou. 77

    He entertains him with a Familiar Discourse of his Sickness, and of the Mind's Tran­quility: Telling him a Story of a Man, whose Brains were turn'd to a Nest of Serpents.

  • XIX. To the Selictar Aga, or Sword-Bearer to his Highness. 83

    He reproaches the Europeans, with their Rebellions and other Inhumanities. Of the Assemblies at Munster and Osnaburg. Of a Private Treaty between Spain and Hol­land.

  • XX. To the Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary of the Ottoman Empire. 87

    Of the Mighty Fleet the French were fitting out to Sea. Of the Predictions and Ad­venture of an Old Prophet, who went to Cardinal Mazarini. Of Monsieur Chanut, the French Embassador in Suedeland.

  • XXI. To William Vospel, a Recluse, in Au­stria. 93

    He advises him to turn Eremite, for the sake of Silence and Contemplation.

  • [Page]XXII. To the Captain Bassa. 96

    Of the Preparations the Europeans were making, to assist the State of Venice. He tells him, what the Christians say of him.

  • XXIV. To Adonai, a Jew at Venice. 98

    He desires him, to send some Remarks on the People he has seen in his Travels. A short Character of Italy, with some Re­flections on the Goths and Vandals.

  • XXV. To Mustapha, Berber Aga. 100

    Of the Present War of Candy. A Memo­rable Saying of the Duke of Orleans, at the Surrender of Graveling, with a Generous Action of that Prince.

  • XXVI. To Nassuf, Bassa of Natolia. 104

    He congratulates his New Honour, puts him in Mind of his Name-sakes Fate, in the Reign of Achmet III. and gives him ma­ny good Counsels.

  • XXVII. To the Kaimacham. 107

    Touching Morosini's quitting the Port of Ca­nea to the Turks.

  • XXVIII. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Con­stantinople. 110

    Some Remarks on the Spring, and on the Dif­ference between living at Constantinople and Paris. The Quest of the French Phi­losophers.

  • XXIX. To the Tefterdar, or Lord-Trea­surer. 113

    Of the French Designs by Sea, and other Matters.

  • XXX. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at Vi­enna. 116 [Page]

    He applauds his Resolution, not to take Reli­gion on Trust, but to enquire into its Grounds. And sends him an Abstract, of the Mussulman History.

  • XXXI. To the same. 120

    He exhorts him, not to let Interest byass him in the Choice of his Religion. Of the Duke of Brandenburgh's demanding the Queen of Sueden in Marriage.

  • XXXII. To the Kaimacham. 122

    Of a Private League between the Venetians and the Bassa of Aleppo, discover'd by A­donai the Jew. Several Instances of that Bassa's Justice.

  • LETTER I. TO the most Magnificent and Illustrious Vizir Azem, at the Port. 127

    Mahmut's Project, to divert Cardinal Ma­zarini, from attempting against the Otto­man Empire.

  • II. To Ismael Mouta Faraca, a White Eu­nuch. 143

    He condoles the Misfortune of Egri Boinou, whose Eyes were put out by the Grand Sig­nior's Command.

  • III. To Dgnet Oglou. 145

    He discourses more frankly to him, on the same Subject.

  • IV. To Dicheu Hussein Bassa. 148 [Page]

    Of the Early Campagnes the French made that Year. The Hardiness of a French Officer.

  • V. To Kerker Hassan Bassa. 150

    He thanks him for his Present of Coffee; com­pares Part of Arabia, with the Fields of Tempe. Concerning his Fathers hunting of Lyons, Tygers, &c.

  • VI. To Hussein Bassa. 153

    Remarks on the taking of Retimo in Candy. A Character of Monsieur Varennes, the French Embassador at the Port.

  • VII. To the same. 156

    Remarks on the Nature of the French, and their Method of obtaining Victories.

  • VIII. To the Venerable Mufti, Sovereign Guide of the True Believers. 158

    Touching the Books of the Ancient Pagans. Certain Memorable Passages of Alexan­der the Great.

  • IX. To Murat Bassa. 167

    Of the taking of Courtray by the French. Of the Want of Rain, and Scarcity of Pro­visions at Paris.

  • X. To the Aga of the Janizaries. 169

    Of the Benefit of Reading Histories; and the Ill Consequences of Printing in Europe.

  • XI. To the same. 173

    Of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sueden, and of Queen Christina, his Daughter. Remarks on Queen Elizabeth.

  • XII. To the Selictar Aga, or Sword-Bearer to the Grand Signior. 180

    Of the Duke of Orleans his Return to Paris, [Page]after he had taken Mardyke. Of the Diet of the French.

  • XIII. To Abubechir Hali, Merchant at A­leppo. 182

    He exhorts him, not to grieve for the Loss of one of his Wives, who ran away with his Slave: Relates a Story of an Italian Lord.

  • XIV. To Solyman his Cousin. 185

    He reproves him, for deserting the Publick Assemblies of the Faithful, and following of Schismaticks.

  • XV. To Hasnadar-Bassy, Chief Treasurer to the Grand Signior. 187

    Of the Duke of Enguien's Triumphant En­tring into Paris, after the taking of Dun­kirk.

  • XVI. To Ibrahim Hali Cheik, a Man of the Law. 189

    Touching the Suppressing of Brothel-Hou­ses in Paris.

  • XVII. To Mustapha, Bassa of Silistria. 192

    He attributes the Loss of Asac, to the Va­lour of the Moscovites. A Character of that People, with the Manner of the Czars Succession in Former Times.

  • XVIII. To Solyman Kyzlar Aga, Chief of the Black Eunuchs. 196

    He acquaints him with the Death of the Prince, of Conde. The Character of that Prince, with a Brief Account of his Life.

  • XIX. To the Kaimacham. 199

    Of the Count d' Harcourt's Disgrace, in Decamping from before Lerida. The Success of the French Arms in Italy. Of [Page]a strange Fountain in the Isle of Elbe.

  • XX. To Bajazet, Bassa of Greece. 201

    He acquaints him, with his Suspicion of some deep Designs in the French Court. Of a Fellow, who rais'd a Sedition in Paris.

  • XXI. To Pestelihali, his Brother. 206

    He thanks him for the Journal of his Travels; Congratulates his Escape from Male and Female Thieves; tells him a Story of the Mogul's Father; and another of a Mer­chant's Widow in the Indies: With other Discourses of that Nature.

  • XXII. To Afis Bassa. 218

    Of a Quarrel between Monsieur Chanut, the French Ambassador at Stockholme, and the Suedish Secretary of State. The Repartee of a French Embassador to the King of Spain.

  • XXIII. To the Mufti, most Venerable, and worthy of all Honour. 222

    A Comparison of the Three Ministers of State, Ximenes, Richlieu and Mazarini.

  • XXIV. To Danecmar Kesrou, Cadilesquer of Romania. 228

    Of the Perfidy of the Scots, in selling King Charles I. to the English Parliament. A Story of Bishop Hatto.

  • XXV. To Ragel Hamet, Antiquary to the Sultan. 234

    Remarks on Old Magical Statues and Images: Of the Palladium and Ancilia: Of the true Name of the City of Rome.

  • XXVI. To the Vizir Azem. 238

    Mahmut acquaints him, with his Return [Page]from Orleans. The Reason of the great Conflux of Strangers to that City.

  • XXVII. To the Aga of the Janizaries. 240

    Of Joan d' Arc, the Maid of Orleans.

  • XXVIII. To Dgnet Oglou. 244

    Of Eliachim's falling in Love with a French Lady on the Road, as he accompanied Mahmut to Orleans.

  • XXIX. To the Captain Bassa. 251

    Of the Bold Proposal, which a Sea-Captain made to Cardinal Mazarini: And of a Magnificent Ship, which Queen Christina presented to this Minister.

  • LETTER I. TO Bedredin, Superiour of the Convent of Dervises, at Cogni in Natolia. 255

    He makes an Apology for his Faith, against such as slander'd him. Of a Hermit then living near Paris, who had almost doubled the Years of Bedredin.

  • II. To Murat Bassa. 262

    Of the Christians Joy, for their Victory by Sea and Land. A Comparison between Sultan Ibrahim, and Sultan Amurat.

  • III. To Mahomet Techli, Bassa of Bosna, at his Camp in Dalmatia. 266

    He reproaches him with Cowardise, in De­camping from before Sebenico.

  • IV. To Achmet Bassa. 268 [Page]

    He tells him of an Attempt, to Murder Queen Christina in her Chappel.

  • V. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Constanti­nople. 272

    He Discourses of the Manna in Calabria, some of which he sends him.

  • VI. To Kerker Hassan, Bassa. 277

    Of the Revolution in China.

  • VII. To Darnish Mehemet Bassa. 286

    Of Masanello, and the Revolution in Na­ples.

  • VIII. To Solyman his Cousin. 291

    He again reprehends his Manner of Life, and perswades him, by the Example of his Grandfather, to observe the Laws of Pu­rity.

  • IX. To the Kaimacham. 296

    Of the Cruelty executed by the Turkish Ge­neral, on a Christian Priest. Of the Ve­neration the Ancient Mahometans paid, to Scanderbeg's Bones. Of Porsenna's Ge­nerosity.

  • X. To the Mufti. 301

    Remarks on the Spanish Misfortunes, the Insurrection in Sicily, and particularly, on the Revolution in Naples. He prays him to furnish Nathan Bed Saddi, with Religious Books.

  • XI. This Letter wants the Title and Begin­ning. 306

    Of the Christians Revenge on the Son of Ali, Sangiac-Bey of Lippa, for the Sufferings of the Christian Priest. The Extrava­gant Revenge of an Italian Captain.

  • [Page]XII. To the Venerable Mufti. 308

    Of Cardinal Mazarini's supporting the Tu­mults in Naples. Remarks on the Duke of Guise his Attempt to succour the Re­volted. A Description of the Extent and Riches of that Kingdom.

  • XIII. To Abdel Melec Muli Omar, Superin­tendent of the College of Sciences at Fez. 315

    He Discourses about the Duration of the World: The Vision of Omar, Successor of Mahomet. Of Adam's First Wife A­lileth. That the Earth was Inhabited for Many Ages before Adam.

  • XIV. To the Mufti. 323

    He relates to him the Tragedy, of the Sicilian Vespers. Of a Woman and her Daughter, that were Immur'd Seventeen Years by a Scribe in Naples.

  • XV. To the Kaimacham. 327

    He informs him, what Reason he has to be jealous of Cardinal Mazarini's Designs a­gainst the Ottoman Empire. Osmin the Dwarf's Dexterity, in prying into the Car­dinal's Secrets, and those of the Grandees.

  • XV. To Pestelihali, his Brother. 332

    He farther commends his Journal. A Rare Example of Indian Charity. Of the Inge­nuity of the Chinese. Of the Conquest of that Kingdom by the Tartars. He dis­courses of the Original of Nations, and the Unmix'd Blood of the Arabians and Tartars. Of a Gu [...] [...]in, Two Thou­sand Years Old.

  • [Page]XVII. To the Aga of the Janizaries. 339

    Of the Famous Victory the French obtain'd at the Battel of Lens. Of the Tumults at Paris, and the King of France's Speech to the Senators. Mahmut informs him, how he imploys certain Agents, to foment the Publick Sedition.

  • XVIII. To Achmet Beig. 344

    He acquaints him, with the Death of Ula­dislaus, King of Poland, for which the Court of France was in Mourning; as also, with the Duke of Bavaria's Death. Of the French Campagnes in Flanders. Of a Sea-Fight between the French and Spa­niards. Of a Formidable Conspiracy, a­gainst the Czar of Moscovy.

  • XIX. To the Mufti. 347

    He seems to approve of Sultan Ibrahim's be­ing Depos'd, &c. Censures his Attempt on Sultan Amurat's Widow, and his Rape of the Mufti's Daughter. The Continence of the African Scipio. The Stratagem of Athenodorus the Philosopher. He incites the Mufti, to encourage the Translation of Greek and Latin Historians.

  • XX. To Chiurgi Muhammel, Bassa. 351

    Of the Conclusion of the Peace of Munster. Of the Troubles of Paris, and the Duke of Beaufort's Escape, out of the Castle of the Wood of Vinciennes.

  • XXI. To Dgnet Oglou. 353

    He complains of the Ʋnjust Proceedings of the Conspirators against Sultan Ibrahim: Re­fuses to Defame him after his Death: [Page]Owns that he did but Dissemble in his last Letter to the Mufti. Of the Statue of a Famous Wrastler, which fell down, and crush'd to Death, a Man that through Envy went to Demolish it. Of the Motto, on Plato's Ring.

  • XXII. To Danecmar Kesrou, Kadilesquer of Romania. 357

    Remarks on the Murder of the English King, Charles I. and what Cardinal Mazarini said, when he first heard the News of that Horrid Tragedy. Of Matchiavel's Corrupt Principles.


LETTER I. Mahmut, an Arabian at Paris, to Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at Vienna.

I Believe, the News of my Imprisonment, might fill thee with Doubts of thy own Liberty; and, make thee careful to avoid at Vienna, such a Misfortune as befel me at Paris. Yet, if thou wert much surprized at this Accident, it is an Ar­gument, that thou art but a Novice in the [Page 2]World, and art yet to learn the first Rudi­ments of Useful Wisdom, which teach us, That there is no Stedfastness in Humane Af­fairs.

There has Nothing happned to me in this, which I was not before provided for; neither did the suddenness of the Event, make me change Countenance. I smil'd at the fulfilling my own Presages; and, went to Prison as un­concern'd, as I would have gone home to my Lodging. Not, that I would have thee think, I was insensible of a Loss so afflicting as that of Liberty: but, my Chains did not appear so very formidable, having made them fami­liar to my Thoughts long before.

When I first came to Paris, I look'd on my self, but as a Prisoner at large; owing the freedom I had to walk about, only to the Carelessness of the State, and the favour of Destiny. So that when that Indulgence was retrench'd, no new thing happen'd to me. What I had expected for Seven Years to­gether, could not seem strange when it came to pass.

By what I have said, thou may'st learn to prepare thy self for the Worst Events, which commonly steal upon the secure and unthinking; being wrapt up in greater Dark­ness and Silence, than the Moments which bring them to Light. These slide away with­out our Advertisement; unseen, unheard: Neither can our Watches or Dials, inform us any thing of them, till they are pass'd. So, there is no Index to point out to us, the [Page 3] Hidden Decrees of Fate, till they are ac­complish'd; no Ephemeris of Destiny, but our own Experience.

Thou, and all thy Nation, are suspected by the Christians: They esteem you Ene­mies of their Interest, as well as of their Law. They despise and vilifie you, calling you, The accursed of God. Yet, they admit you, as Members of their Common-Wealth. They receive you to the Protection of their Laws, and entrust you with their Secrets, that they may serve themselves of your Money. Thus are you become Banquiers for your sworn Enemies: And, while you profess an Eter­nal Obedience to the Injunctions of Moses, you make underhand Leagues with the Di­sciples of Jesus. I do not accuse your Com­merce with these Infidels; but, I say, you have Reason to be upon your Guards, when you are environ'd with so many Millions of Enemies. They are not ignorant of the Intimacies between the Ministers of the Sublime Port, and those of Thy Nation: It is common in the Mouths of the French, That the Jews are the Turks Intelligencers. Thou oughtest therefore, to have a special Regard to thy Conduct, that no imprudent Action may expose thee to the Jealousy of the State where thou residest. That Court is full of Eyes; and, thou hast need of a stricter Veil, than what thou wearest in the Synagogue. The very Walls of thy House, will betray thee; and, thy Domesticks, may prove thy greatest Enemies: Yet, suspect none more [Page 4]than thy self. This will not seem harsh Counsel, if thou reflectest Twice on it; there being nothing more certain, than, That it is not so easy to defend ones self from him in whom we confide, as from one we are jea­lous of: and, every Man is apt to put too much Trust in himself. I believe, thou art faithful, and abhorrest Treachery; yet, at the same Time, thou mayest be remiss and weak: What could not be extorted from thee by an Open Enemy, may be discovered by the Insinuations of a Pretended Friend. Thy own good Nature may cajole thee; and therefore, 'twill be no small Point of Wisdom, to beware of thy self. As for Con­tingencies, I advise thee not to be perplex'd about them, or be uneasy. Thou canst not avoid the Inevitable Appointments of Hea­ven: Only, be ready for the Worst that may happen; since, thou canst never be certain of any Thing.

Thy Predecessor Carcoa, was a Man of ex­quisite Fore-cast; always on his Watch, pry­ing into the dark Orb of Futurities; yet, an Accident surprized him once, of which his strictest Caution never gave him Warn­ing. I read it in one of his Letters to the Kaimachan, which thou sentest me from Vienna. The Story is this. As he was one Day writing Dispatches to the Port, a cer­tain tame Bird, which he kept for his Diver­tisement, snatches from the Table, the Paper on which he was writing to the Tefterdar; and, the Window being open, flies with it out [Page 5]into the Streets. The Paper was dropt in the Garden of the Augustin Friars, at the very Moment when the Spanish Ambassador, was walking there with the General of that Order. 'Tis true, the Letter was unfinish'd, no Name subscribed, and so Carcoa escap'd an imminent Hazard of his Life. But, the Secrets therein contain'd, gave a vast suspici­on to the Imperial Court; it being soon carry'd to the Principal Secretary of State, and by him communicated to the Emperor and Divan. Strict Inquisition was made throughout the City for the Author of that Letter. A Reward of a Thousand Rix-Dol­lars, promis'd to any that would discover him. The Bird was seen by many, to fly along with a Paper in her Bill; but, from whence she came, none knew. Nor had any curious Eye, attended her uncertain Motions back: No Man divining, That that Paper was de­signed to transmit to the Ever Happy Port, the most important Counsels of the German Empire. Neither was Carcoa's Hand taken Notice of, having lived very privately, and used another Character in his common Deal­ings. But, how near was he to a Discovery when he says himself in his Letter, That he wanted but Five Words to the Conclusion, where he would have subscribed his Name! From hence thou mayest learn, That a Ma­riner in a Tempest, amongst Rocks and Sands, runs not greater Hazards, than he who acts in thy Station.

[Page 6]However, thou may'st now continue thy Advices to Paris, but observe the Directions of Eliachim, who brings thee this Letter. He will inform thee, of whatsoever is necessary for thee to know; taking this Journey on Purpose, to prevent the wakeful jealousy, and active Inquisition of Cardinal Mazarini, from whom Nothing can be hid, that's tru­sted to the Posts. Receive him with singular Honour; he is an incorruptible Friend of the Ottoman Port. From him thou shalt learn the safest Methods of our future Correspon­dence. He is the Apollo of thy Nation; and, his Wisdom and Fidelity, will be recorded in the Register of that Empire, which shall know no earlier Period, than the Moon, whose Crescent is her Arms, and the Happy Omen of her Encreasing Lustre.

When thou beholdest that Noble Ensign of Mahomet, on the Top of the Chief Temple of Jesus in Vienna, let it augment thy Vene­ration of our Law, and convince thee, That all Nations must submit to the Messenger of God and Seal of the Prophets. Be Faithful and Wise, and thou canst not miss of Hap­piness.

LETTER II. To the Kaimachan.

SInce my Release, I have inform'd my self of some Passages, to which I was a Stranger during my Restraint. The Tran­sylvanian Agent, continues still at this Court; and, his Negotiation is not now a Secret. Monsieur Croissy is gone Ambassador Extra­ordinary to Prince Ragotski, on the same Er­rand, from this Crown. The Subject Matter of both their Embassies, is a League. Car­dinal Mazarini suspected Tergiversation in that Prince, and that he would privately treat with the Emperor, if the Grand Signior should withdraw his Assistance and Protection from him; or, if he himself should grow weary of the War. Where­fore Monsieur Croissy, according to the Car­dinal's Instructions, would not sign the League, till Ragotski had call'd Home his Ambassadors, who were treating with the Imperialists at Tyrne, and sent away the Ger­man Envoy from his Camp.

The League being concluded, he insisted on the Necessity the Prince lay under, of marching his Army nearer to Torstenson, the Suedish General, that so they might sup­port one another against the German Forces.

This was the Pretence; but, in Reality, [Page 8]it was design'd to engage the Transylvani­ans, beyond the Power of a Retreat; and, to post them under the Eye of the Suedish General; who soon after possessed himself of Tyrne, the Place appointed for Treaty be­tween the Imperialists and Prince Ragot­ski.

It is a Town in the Lower Hungary, not far from Presburgh. The Suedes entred this Place the 17th of the 5th Moon, but left a Garrison in it of Seven Hundred Hungarian Horse, and Three Hundred Foot, according to their Articles with the besieg'd.

These were soon forc'd to quit the Town by Count Forgatsch, an Imperialist, the Suedes and Transylvanians being march'd a great Distance off: And, 'tis said, this Hungarian Garrison, yielded not unwillingly to the Im­perial Arms.

'Tis certain, General Torstenson puts but small Confidence in the Hungarian Soldiers: For, above Six Hundred of the Common Sort deserted him, the 29th of the 5th Moon, and the rest raised such frequent Tu­mults and Mutinies, that their Comman­ders stood in more Fear of them, than of their Enemies. It's reported likewise, That there has been lately no good Understanding between Ragotski and Torstenson, about the designed Siege of Presburgh: The former seeming too much to favour the Hungarians, and being rather inclined to carry his Arms into the Emperor's Hereditary Countries. Yet he would not consent, that Presburgh [Page 9]should be in the Hands of the Suedes.

The French say, that this Prince is humo­rous and wavering, yet of a fair Intention; but, that the greatest Part of his Officers, are corrupted by the Emperor: And, that therefore, both they and the Common Sol­diery, were for Peace; only his Wife, his Son, and some few of his Counsellors, per­swaded him to adhere to the Suedes.

They add, that the Young Prince, being in­structed by his Mother, one Day in a full Assembly of the Chief Commanders, made the following Oration, Ragotski himself be­ing also present:

PErmit me, most Serene and Illu­strious Prince, my Royal Father, to perform the Part of a Dutiful Son, a Faithful Counsellor, and a Loyal Subject. The Law of Nature and of Nations, entitles you to my Obedience; and, the particular Honour you have done me, in admitting me to your Cabinet, obliges me to exemplifie it, in an humble Remonstrance of my Senti­ments, at a Time when the Interest of Transylvania calls for freedom of Advice.

It is with no small Complacency, that I now behold you encompassed with a Circle of Heroes, whose Valour and Fidelity may give such a Lustre to [Page 10]your Victorious Arms, as shall eclipse the Glory of the Roman and Grecian Conquerors. The Alexanders, Cae­sars, Scipio's, and Hannibals, shall no longer draw the World into an Ad­miration of their obsolete Atchieve­ments. The Register of your Deeds, shall foil their antiquated Histories; whilst Plutarch, Tacitus, and Livy, must veil to Modern Pens, the Recorders of your Matchless Actions.

Let not the crafty Insinuations of the German Court, warp your Resoluti­ons, and cajole you with the deceitful Umbrages of Peace, only to gain Time, that they may more successfully carry on the War. Neither suffer your selves, already in Part Victorious, to be a­mus'd with feigned Treaties, and O­vertures which you cannot but suspect. We are now in a Condition to give the Law; and, should Fortune turn the Scale, it will still be in our Power to make our own Terms of Composition. The Alliances of Sueden and France, have rais'd us to a Capacity of bra­ving all Europe: Whilst the One with a Potent Army on the Rhine, the O­ther on the Danube, keep the Imperi­alists in such perpetual Action, that it [Page 11]will be impossible for them to Barrier Germany from our Conquering Arms. Now is the Time to raise Transylvania above the Title of a Tributary Province, and restore this Kingdom to her An­cient Renown. If we miss this Op­portunity, we must for ever be Slaves to the Turks or Germans. Let us not seek any longer Protection, but from the justice of our Cause and the Dint of our Swords. Let not France and Sueden, boast of their Turenne, their Torstenson, as if no other Nati­on could furnish the World with fa­mous Generals! Whilst Prince Ragotski lives, and lives at the Head of such an Army, your Fidelity and Courage, shall render his Name more terrible than that of Tamerlain, and his At­tempts more prosperous than those of Scanderbeg. And our Posterity shall be oblig'd, to raise Pyramids to your Ho­nour; and, from your present At­chievements, to date a New Epocha, the Eternal Memoir of Transylvania's Redemption.

'Tis said, that Ragotski was not very well pleas'd with his Son's Speech, suspecting that he held some private Correspondence with Torstenson, for whom he had no great Af­fection. [Page 12]Last Moon he insisted earnestly on the Money and Men promised him by Reben­stock. But, General Torstenson thought it sufficient, that he himself was so near him with his Forces. Yet, lest he should take an Occasion of Discontent, he sent him a Supply of Money; though he was not without some Apprehensions, that the Prince having receiv'd it, would underhand treat with the Emperor.

'Tis said here, that a Chiaus was arriv'd in the Transylvanian Camp, expresly for­bidding Ragotski to enter into the Hereditary Provinces of the Emperor. But, that he, tru­sting to the Strength of his Army (which con­sists of Five and Twenty Thousand Germans, Transylvanians, Hungarians and Walachians) was resolved to pursue his first Resolution.

Thou knowest what Reasons the Port had, to send him this Prohibition. The French say, 'twas out of Fear, that he would joyn with the Emperor's Forces.

By this thou may'st know, what Opinion the Infidels entertain of the Measures taken by the Sovereign Divan. They descant at Liber­ty, whilst I send up Vows to Heaven, for the Exaltation of the Ottoman Empire.

LETTER III. To the Instructed in all Knowledge, the Venerable Mufti.

HAil, Holy Interpreter of the Sacred Law; may the Divine Light guide thee be­yond the Errors of Humane Frailty. I am amongst Infidels, Enemies to Truth; who yet seem as certain of being in the Right, as thou art sure they are in the Wrong. They hate us with an Inveterate Hatred. I must dissemble my Resentments; whilst, with the lowest Prostrations to the Ʋnity, I cele­brate his Glorious Mercy, who has sent us such a Star, to guide our Feet into the Way of Peace.

The Christians scoff at the Faithful People, as divided into several Sects. Would my Death could wipe out these Reproaches, and vindicate the Honour of the Holy Profession. I could retort, that Error shews it self infi­nite in them: but, I must hold my Peace, and restrain my self, lest my Zeal transport me beyond Discretion: Remembring, I am not sent here to dispute, but to act secretly for my Great Master, whose Empire be ex­tended over all the Habitable World.

These poor Wretches, boast much of their Traditions, their Sacred Synods and Fathers; as if we ever wanted Holy Men, working Wonders, and penetrating into the profoundest. [Page 14]Mysteries, by only wiping their Eyes with the Dust of their Feet.

They talk much of Faith and Reason; at which I smile, as knowing it to be only Education. Yet, as the Worst of People have something that is Good; so, these are not wholly destitute of Devotion. They pray often, but not so often as the True Believers; it being, as thou knowest, a just Exception against a Witness amongst us, That he prays not Six Times a-day. They pray to Men and Women deceased; whereas, thou knowest, there is no Deity but One. They fast often, but not so strictly, as the assisted with the Vertue of the Supream Dispenser of Graces. They are Charitable; but, this hinders 'em not from excluding all from the blest Abodes, who are not of their Belief: Whereas, thou affirmest (who art the Resolver of all the Problems of Faith) That it will go well at the Last Day with all Honest People; seeing these have all the same Object of Worship; and, their Different Religions, are but as so many Different Ways, which lead a Man to the same Place of Rest, like various Roads to the same City.

These Christians whip themselves often with small Cords; which Humour, they say, was set on Foot by an Hermit's Preach­ing and Example. Not many Countries distant from that where I am, there happ'ned such an odd Instance of this Extravagant Zeal (which was to be heightned, it seems, with the Fumes of Wine) as plainly justifies our Pro­phet's [Page 15]Wisdom, in charging the Faithful to avoid it. It was particularly the Cu­stom of several People in this Place, in their Processions to whip themselves, till the Blood streamed down their Frocks; which were so made, as to cover their Faces, and leave only their Backs bare. One of these Zealots, distrusting the Firmness of his Constitution, had taken such large Draughts of this intoxicating Liquor, that reeling up and down with his Whip in his Hand, and his Head against the Walls, he was followed by all the Boys of the Town hooting after him; which so lessen'd the Repute of this sottish Religion, as made 'em abstain for the future, from this pompous Usage of it. What low Thoughts have these People, of the Almighty Lord of All; when, allowing him to be Omnipotent, yet represent him to themselves and others, as delighting in Cruelty? Whereas, thou know­est, this Passion is only to be found amongst the Weak and Miserable.

That the Divine Preserver of Men, may continue thee long for the Edification of his Elect, are the passionate Wishes of the mean­est of thy Servants, Mahmut.

LETTER IV. To Mustapha Berber Aga.

WOuld to God, I could converse with thee Face to Face in the Seraglio, as in for­mer Times. I vent many passionate Wishes to Constantinople, that happy Residence of my best Friends, the Nursery of my Child­hood, the School of my Youth; and, I hope, the future Repository of my Old Age. When I think of that City, 'tis with a Passion hardly second to that, which I cherish for the Place of my Nativity. In Arabia, 'tis true, I first saw the Light of the Sun; but, 'twas in Greece I receiv'd the more friendly Illuminations of the Moon, the Splendors of the True Faith; which, though they disclose not to us, so clear a Prospect of the Earth and all its Gay­eties; yet, they present us with an unveil'd Discovery of the Heavens and Stars; shew­ing us Paradise, with its glittering Inhabi­tants, the purpl'd Colonies of True Belie­vers, Champions and Martyrs of the Eternal Ʋnity. In the Desert I left my Father; or rather, he left me before I found my self, be­ing but an Infant when he dyed: but, in the City I found Friends, which is not a less endearing Title. He gave me but my Birth, whereby I enter'd on the Stage of Miseries, with which he soon after left me to struggle, [Page 17]before I could distinguish Misery from Hap­piness. But, they gave me Education, which taught me how to shun those Evils, which are the Natural Consequences of our Birth. So that in the Main, I am more indebted to them than to him. Let it be how it will, I cannot cease to love them, and often wish my self with them. This is Second Nature. And, because I cannot have my Desires fulfill'd in that, I gratify my self by often writing to them. Should I make Comparisons, thou wilt say, I am a Flatterer. Suffice it to tell thee, That thou art one of the Number, whose Remembrance affects me with sensible Complacency. Yet, I cannot write to thee, nor any of my Friends, so often as I would, without entrenching on the Obligations I have to the other Ministers of the Sublime Port. I send Dispatches to all by Turns, sacrificing my Private Regards, to the Expectations of the State, and the Pleasure of my Superi­ors.

Had I been at Liberty, I could have sent thee the earliest News, of the Slaughter which the Germans made Three Moons ago, in the French Army at Mergentheim. 'Tis not too late now to say something of it. The Im­perialists owe that Triumph, to the Candor of Turenne, and the degenerate Craft of the Duke of Bavaria; who, to lull the French in a Fatal Security, sent an Agent into France, to negotiate a Peace, with deceitful Over­tures, and Umbrages; commanding also, that none of his Soldiers, should dare to call the [Page 18] French their Enemies. Yet, some lay the Blame of this Overthrow, on the Suedes; whose unseasonable Suspicion of a Private Treaty between the French and Germans, hindred Torstenson from joining the former; and, expos'd Turenne, with his raw and un­experienced Forces, to the numerous Army of veterane Imperialists.

'Twas a Fatal Engagement, and the French lost many brave Men; besides an Hundred and Fifty Commanders taken Prisoners, Fif­teen Hundred of the Common Soldiers, Fifty Ensigns, with many Waggons, and Four Mules laden with Money.

It is reported, that whilst Turenne, in the general Retreat and Flight of his Army, be­took himself to Mergentheim, as he lay on his Bed the first Night, one of his Officers was coming to alarm him with the News of the Germans Approach to that Town, but unfortunately stumbled at his Chamber-Door: With the Noise of which, Turenne awaked; and, fearing some Attempt on his Life, leap'd off his Bed with his drawn Sword; and, making toward the Door, just as the Officer open'd it, he run him into the Heart. By which Mistake, he himself, and the Troops that were in the Town with him, had like to have fallen into the Hands of the Bavarians. But, receiving Notice of their Approach accidentally by some other means, he withdrew his Troops out of the Town by a contrary Road, and escaped the Pursuit of his Enemies.

[Page 19]This Victory has given new Courage to the Imperialists; and has not much dispirit­ed the French, who are by this Loss, en­flamed with greater Ardors, meditating a speedy Revenge. The Genius of this Court, seems to be undaunted, breathing Nothing but War.

I shall not fail to send thee such Intelli­gence, as will demonstrate, That Mahmut passes not away his Time in vain.

I pray the Sovereign of as many Empires, as there be Worlds, to distinguish thee, by some particular Mark of his Favour, from the Crowd of those he makes Happy.

LETTER V. To Shashim Istham, a Black Eunuch.

AT length thou hast condescended to beg my Pardon, for the Calumnies thy Tongue has loaded me with. I am not ill pleased with thy Letter. It abounds with elegant Expressions of thy Sorrow, for an Offence to which thou hadst no Provocation. Thy Submission, tho' late, abates my Re­sentment; and, if thou performest thy Pro­mise, 'tis banish'd. The first Crime so inge­nously [Page 20]acknowledg'd, claims a Title to Forgiveness: Let Eternal Oblivion seal it. I am not by Nature revengeful. I rather blush for Shame, than grow pale with An­ger, at him that injures me. Yet, Self-Preser­vation will rouze our Choler; which is the most active Humour, and precipitates ma­ny to violent Courses. The Effect it has on me, is, to put me on my Guard, lest he who has wrong'd me, without any Signs of Re­pentance, should continue his Malice to my Destruction. But, thou hast dispers'd all my Suspicions, by thy seasonable Address; and, if I cannot pronounce thee Innocent, I will believe thou art not Incorrigible. The best Advice I can give thee, is, henceforwards to at­tend to thy own Affairs, and refrain from those of others; remembring the Arabian Proverb, He that peeps in at his Neighbour's Window, may chance to lose his Eyes. There is a great deal of Wisdom, couch'd in these short Sen­tences. They are not the Product of one Man's Experience, nor of a few; but, they are the Result of Ʋniversal Observation. And, our Country has been happy above o­thers in the choice of her Proverbs. This that I mention'd is peculiar to the East: Yet, I can produce an Instance, whereby 'twas lately verified in the West.

There is hardly a Night passes in this Po­pulous City, wherein some Murder is not committed in the Streets. Two Nights ago, a Man was found dead on the Ground, where­upon a Tumult was gathered about his [Page 21]Bleeding Carkase. Among the rest, a Fellow came crowding in, inquisitive what should be the Matter. Those who stood by, be­holding his Cloaths bloody, which he was not sensible of himself, seized on him as the Murderer. His wild Looks encreased their Jealousie; and, the incoherent Words with which he endeavour'd to excuse himself, ren­dred him Guilty in the Judgment of the Rab­ble. They carried him before a Cadi, by whom he was strictly examin'd: He stoutly deny'd the Fact; and, no Proof could be brought against him, but his stained Cloaths. 'Tis the Custom here, to put to the Torture, Persons suspected of Capital Crimes, in Order to draw a Confession of the Truth. This they did to this poor Wretch; and, in the Extremity of his Pains, he ac­knowledg'd, he had kill'd his Wife that Evening, but was altogether Innocent of this poor Man's Death, who was Murder'd in the Streets. All the Torments they inflicted, could force no other Confession from him, save that which his real Guilt prompted him to make. For which, he was condemned to Death, according to the Laws. Thou seest by this, that had he gone about his Business, without prying into other Mens Matters, he might have escap'd a Discovery. But, that mediing Itch of the Imprudent, betray'd him (not without the particular Direction of Fate) to a Death, which indeed he merited, but not on the Score of the murder'd Man, whom he went out of his Way to see.

[Page 22]Thou wilt say, this Story is not applicable to thy Case; since, thou hast never yet em­bru'd thy Hands in any Man's Blood. I tell thee, what I have said, was not design'd as a Reflection on thy past Offence (let it be for­gotten); but, as a Caution for the future, not to engage thy self, in Matters out of thy Sphere. For, a busie Body, is never without Trouble.

Above all, I counsel thee, to practise the Government of the Tongue, which is a great Virtue, especially in the Courts of Princes. The Arabians say, That a Wise Man's Soul, reposes at the Root of his Tongue; but, a Fool's is ever dancing on the Tip.

Thou hast no Reason to take in ill Part, the Freedom with which I advise thee for thy Good; unless, thou thinkest thy self too Old to learn. But, I have a better Opinion of thee, than to rank thee among Pythagoras's Asses.

I have said enough for a Friend; too much for an Enemy. It is in thy own Choice to make me which thou pleasest. Adieu.

LETTER VI. To Zelim of Rhodes, Captain of a Gally.

THOU hast never vouchsafed to acknow­ledge the Advice I sent thee some Years ago, of a Christian's Design against thy Life. Perhaps he wanted an Opportunity, to put. his Revenge in Execution that Way; and therefore, the Caution I gave thee, look'd like a false Alarm. Thou trustest in thy Courage, the Strength of thy Vessel, the Multitude and Fidelity of thy Slaves, and thinkest thy self invulnerable. But, let me tell thee, That neither thy Courage, nor thy Vessel, can defend thee from the Stroke of Destiny; and thou hast no greater Enemies than those who eat thy Bread. Whether it be, the Continuance of thy Cruelty; or, the Natural Regret of Servitude has rend'red them so, I know not; but, if what I am in­form'd of be true, thou art the misera­blest Man in the World. Wert thou only in danger to lose thy Life by a Stab, a Bullet, or the swift Effects of Poison, it would be a Happiness, in Comparison of the Method that is now taken to destroy thee: And, the Invisible Death which thou wert formerly to receive from a Prayer-Book, would have been soft as the Stroke of Cupid's Arrow, in Re­spect [Page 24]of the Tragical and Ʋnheard-of Fate, which is now preparing for thee. Think not I go about to amuse, or, affright thee with Chimaera's and Tales, such as Nurses use to awe their Children into Compliance and good Manners. What I tell thee, is Matter of Fact; and, confirm'd by many Letters from Italy, to several eminent Merchants in Paris. I have seen some of them, and hear that the rest agree in the same Relation.

They give an Account, That at Naples, on the Second of the last Moon, Three Witches were seized, and accused of practising Dia­bolical Arts; of enchanting several Persons; of doing great Mischief; and, in fine, of ha­ving private Commerce with the Devil. They stoutly denied all at first, and made very subtle and plausible Apologies. Inso­much, as the Inquisitors were almost per­suaded of their Innocence; till it was sug­gested, That their Houses should be search'd. Officers were sent accordingly: who, after a narrow Scrutiny, found some Magical Books, several Vials of strange Liquors, Pots of Ointment, with an Image of Wax, resembling a Man, but partly melted. There were im­printed on the Breast of the Image, several unknown Characters, Figures and Magical Symbols: And, on the Forehead was to be read, ZELIM EBEN SAGRAN. All these were brought, and exposed before the Inquisitors (of whose Office thou art not ignorant.) Great Deliberation was had, a­bout this unusual Emergency. The Imaums [Page 25]and Cheiks, were sent for and consulted. The Witches were examined apart; and put to the Torture, as is the Custom in Capital Crimes. Admirable was their Constancy for a considerable Time; but, at length, over­come by the Continuance and Sharpness of their Pains, they confess'd, They had for some Years practis'd Magick Arts, convers'd with Familiar Spirits, rais'd Tempests, Earth­quakes, and done other wicked Feats. Be­ing examin'd about the Image of Wax, they declar'd, That it was the Image of a Turkish Captain of a Gally, whose Name was written on the Forehead: And, that they were hi­red, by certain Italians, who had been Slaves in the Gally of the said Captain, to be­witch him to Death, in the most lingring Method they could invent: That, in Or­der to this, they had made this Image; That every Night they met together, with a Fourth of their Gang, (who was not to be found) and made a Fire of the Bones of Dead Men, which they stole from the Graves and Charnel-Houses: That they laid this Image down at a convenient Di­stance, before this Fire, repeating certain Magical Words and Charms; and, as this Image gradually melted, so the Body of the said Turkish Captain, did insensibly waste and decay. And, to add to his lingring Death an intolerable Torment, they basted the melting Image, with the Oyls and other Liquors, which were contain'd in the Vials and Pots: That, by this Means, he was [Page 26]perpetually rack'd with most pungent and acute Pains in his Bowels, Head, and all Parts of his Body; raging under most violent Fe­vers, insatiable Thirst, and Want of Sleep. Finally, That this lingring Kind of Death would continue, as long as they pleas'd to protract the Dissolution of the Waxen Image.

This Confession, though extorted from the Witches in the Midst of insufferable Torments, yet was delivered without any Inconsi­stencies, and with all the Demonstrations of a real Penitence. And, being seconded with the Testimonies of many Credible Wit­nesses, who had overseen them in some of their Nocturnal Ceremonies; the Inquisitors, moved with a just Horror of so nefandous Abominations, sentenc'd them, To be burnt, and their Ashes to be scatter'd into the Sea. Which was accordingly executed, on the Sixth of the last Moon, in the Presence of infinite Spectators.

The News of this Extraordinary Event, is fresh in the Mouths of almost all the Inha­bitants of this City; Yet, no Man, I dare say, hears it with that Concern for the Turkish Captain, as I do. Even those among the Christians who abhorr Witchcraft, would nevertheless rejoice, if not only thou, but all the Mussulmans were destroyed with En­chantments; since, they can never hope, it will come to pass by the Success of their Arms.

[Page 27]I am not credulous of every Story that is related of Witches, being satisfy'd, That Su­perstition and Ignorance, has listed many in that Infernal Number, who were Innocent and never deserv'd it: Some having been forc'd, by Racks and Tortures, to confess themselves Guilty of practising Enchantments, when, after their Execution, there have appear'd evident Proofs to the contrary. Yet, I cannot be sure, but that there have been some in all Ages and Nations, who have entred into Leagues and Associations with Devils, and have been enabled thereby, to perform Things above the Power of Nature. However, I have a Particular Desire to hear from thee, and to be inform'd, Whether thou hast expe­rienc'd the Effect of their Enchantments. If thou hast not, bless thy Stars, that thou wert born and bred a Mussulman, against whom the Magick of the Infidels cannot prevail; and, that thou hast swallow'd the Impression of Mahomet's Seal, which is of Force to dis­solve and make invalid, all the Charms of Men and Devils. But, if thou hast felt the Force of their Enchantments, and pinest a­way with unaccountable Pains and Languors; then, think with thy self, That thou art de­fective in keeping some Point of our Holy Law; That Mahomet is angry with thee, withdraws his Protection, and exposes thee to the Malice of Evil Spirits. Neither per­suade thy self, That because the Three Witches are put to Death, thou shalt presently re­cover thy former Health and Ease again: [Page 28]For, so long as there is a Fourth living; and out of the Reach of Justice, thou art not safe. Nay, if she were taken and executed too; so long as thy Enemies are yet alive, who first employ'd these Hags, thou art still at their Mercy. They will search every Cor­ner of Italy, and of all Europe, but they will find Instruments of their Revenge. They will rummage Hell it self, to gratifie their Fury. The best Counsel I can give thee in this Case, is, To pacifie thine Enemies, by extraordinary Acts of Civility to the Chri­stians, where-ever thou meetest them; by using thy Slaves mildly, and giving them their Freedom, after a limited Time of Ser­vice; without exacting a Ransom, which neither they, nor their Relations and Friends can ever be able to pay. This will abate the Rancour of the Infidels, and turn their Re­venge into Kindness and Love. Thou wilt every where be free from Dangers; and, those very Persons, who now study all Means to take away thy Life, will then hazard their own to preserve thee from Death.

Think not, that I go about to persuade thee to change Temper with thy Slaves, and, from the Resolution and Bravery of a True Mussulman, to sink into the abject Timo­rousness of a Christian. Be fearful only of thy self, and stand in Awe of none more than of thy own Conscience. There is a Cato in every Man, a severe Censor of his Manners; and, he that reverences this Judge, will sel­dom do any Thing he need to repent of. [Page 29]Let not the Authority of thy Station, tempt thee to be Cruel or Unjust; but, in all Things, Do as thou wouldst be done unto. This is a Precept engraven on every Man's Heart; and, he whose Actions write after this Copy, will always be at ease here, and transcendently happy hereafter. Follow this Rule, and thou wilt experience the Effect. Adieu.

LETTER VII. To the Invincible Vizir Azem.

IF One may judge of future Events, by ap­plying to them the Symptoms of Things past; and, if a Man may compare one King­dom with another; I should think, that France will in Time extend the Limits of her Empire, as far as any of the Four Great Monarchies, that have been recorded in Hi­stories for their Ʋniversal Sway. I will not say, as far as the wide-stretch'd Empire of the ever-victorious Osmans: Yet, the Genius of this Nation, seems in some Manner to inspire the French with as ardent a Thirst of Glory and Conquest, as that which has in all Ages, appear'd to be the Inseparable Vertue of the Mussulmans. They press forward to the [Page 30]Mark, for which they take up Arms; that is, to subdue All before them, and lay King­doms, Provinces and Cities at the Feet of their Sovereign. They are not discourag'd at Difficulties and Losses. The Checks and Oppositions they meet with, do but animate them with new and fresh Vigors. So that it is become a sure Prognostick of some great Success to that Nation, when at any Time they receive ill News from their Armies. In this, their Courage seems to be of the Quality of Naptha; which, by pouring on of Wa­ter, takes Fire; although, thou knowest, these Two Elements be Contrary to each o­ther. So, this Warlike People, instead of being dejected, or made timorous by any De­feat given to their Armies, are rather inflam'd with more active and valiant Resolutions; as will appear, by the Repulse given them by the Duke of Bavaria, not many Moons ago.

As soon as that News arrived in this City, one would have expected to have seen some Tokens of Fear in the People; but, it wrought a contrary Effect. No Tears of Women and Children, no compassionate Sighs for their slain Husbands, Fathers or other Relations; no down-cast Looks, or ominous shaking of Heads; no melancholly Whispers or porten­tous Stories, were murmur'd in the Ears of the Multitude: But, all Things appear'd lively and prosperous; the very Women ex­citing the Young Men to list themselves Sol­diers, and the Boys in the Streets making [Page 31]all their Pastime consist, in imitating the Men of Arms, and learning the Discipline of War. There was no need, to force Men to the Field. No sooner was the King's Inten­tion to raise New Forces divulg'd in the Pro­vinces, but Thousands came voluntarily and took up Arms; chusing rather to seek Ho­nourable Deaths in the Toils and Hazards of War, than to lead Inglorious Lives at Home, in the soft Enjoyments of Peace.

These Things appear'd to me, as certain Presages of the Rising Greatness of this Mo­narchy, and an Evident Sign, That the French Nation in this Age, shall out-do their Ancestors in Warlike Deeds.

The Stage of that Bloody Combat, be­tween the Forces of the Duke of Bavaria, and those under the Command of Mareschal Turenne, was Mergentheim. Since which, there has been a more fierce Encounter, be­tween the French and Imperialists at Aller­sheim. Wherein the former, have recover'd the Honour they seem'd to have lost in the Spring, owing much to the Bravery of the Landgrave of Hess-Cassel; who, with his Regiments, had a considerable Share in the Actions of this Day; and therefore, has been presented with Magnificent Gifts by the Queen-Regent. The Bavarians lost in this Battle, above Two Thousand Common Sol­diers, besides many Officers of Note. On the French Side, the Duke of Enguien (who had newly join'd his Forces to those of Tu­renne) was wounded in the Arm, with Two [Page 32]other Commanders. Monsieur Grammond was taken Prisoner; but, honourably treated and sent away with Presents by the Duke of Bavaria, together with Instructions about a Neutrality; who is exchang'd for a German of equal Quality. The French have also lost in this Battle, above a Thousand of the Common Soldiers; so that their Victory cost them dear.

The Duke of Enguien, notwithstanding his Wounds, marches on the next Day with his Army to Norlinghen, offering to that Town a Neutrality, and Liberty for the Gar­rison to march out, which consisted of Three Hundred Bavarians. But, receiving a fierce Answer from the Governor, he caus'd the Ap­proaches to be made in Order to an Assault, which was begun that very Night, and a Breach made in the Walls; upon which, the Inhabitants were forc'd to intercede with the Duke, that there might be a Cessation of Vio­lence till the next Morning, promising, that then the Soldiers should surrender at Discre­tion; which was done accordingly.

There he tarried Eight Days, to refresh his Army. Then he marched to Dunkenspule, which was defended by a Garrison of Five Hundred Bavarians. He took this Place by Storm, yet gave Quarter to the Soldiers, who laid down their Arms, and yielded themselves Prisoners. Leaving a Garrison of Three Hundred French in the Town, he re­mov'd his Forces toward Heilbrun. But, in regard this Place was defended by Fifteen [Page 33]Hundred Men, he forbore to assault it, and only Quarter'd his Army in the Neighbour­ing Villages.

Since that Time, which was about the Middle of the last Moon, there has been no considerable Action between the French and the Germans. Yet, those who pretend to be vers'd in Military Affairs, laugh at the ill Conduct of the Arch-Duke Leopold; who, when he had the French shut up in a Narrow Streight, through which it was impossible for them to pass, but by single Files, neglected that Opportunity to cut them off; deferring the Victory (whereof he was too secure) till the next Day, by Reason of the present Weariness of his Soldiers. In the mean Time Turenne, with his whole Army, pass'd the Streight in the Dead of the Night, and came to Philipsburgh.

This Oversight of the General, is much talk'd of; because, had he pursu'd his Ad­vantage, he had not only entirely defeated the French, but, in all Probability, falling with the whole Force of the Empire on the Suedes, he had likewise vanquish'd them, and so put an End to the War. But, it seems, as if the Inscrutable Providence had determin'd to infatuate the Minds of the Germans, and reserve those Two Potent Na­tions, their Enemies, to be a farther Scourge to the Empire.

Adieu, Great Guardian of the Eternal Mo­narchy, and believe Mahmut, when he so­lemnly swears by Mount Sinai, and by the [Page 34] Tenth Night of the Moon, that he adores thy consummate Virtue and Wisdom, which never fail thee in Extremities.

LETTER VIII. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Con­stantinople.

I Am weary of writing News of Battles and Sieges to the Grandees; and, I know, thou seldom troublest thy self with the Care of Foreign Transactions. Besides, I have no certain Intelligence of Moment to commu­nicate. But, I can acquaint thee with some­thing more agreeable to thy Studies and Genius.

Here is a Man in this City, who was not born Blind, but by some ill Hap lost the Use of his Eyes. Yet, Nature seems to have recompens'd that Misfortune, in the Exqui­siteness of his Feeling. Thou wouldst say, he carried Eyes in his Fingers Ends; since he distinguishes those Things by his Touch, which are the only proper Objects of Sight. Believe me, I think there can be no Deceit or Confederacy, whereby he might blind o­thers, [Page 35]instead of being so himself. I saw him muffled up with a Napkin which cover'd all his Face, when divers Pieces of Eastern Silks of various Colours, were laid on a Table be­fore him. He felt them attentively, and told us the Colour of each Piece exactly. I, who was never over-credulous of extraordinary Pretences, suspecting that either the Fineness of the Linen which veil'd his Face, might give him some Glimpse of the different Co­lours; or, that some By-stander, with ap­pointed Signs, might inform him; caus'd all the Company to withdraw, except a Learned Dervise, who was intimate with me. We threw a thick Velvet-Mantle over his Face, which reached down to his Navel, girding it about his Waste, so as to leave his Arms at Liberty. Then I procur'd small Shreds of Silks, such as I could conceal in the Palm of my Hand: These I caus'd him to touch with his Fingers, brought up as high as his Chin, so that 'twas impossible for him to see them, had he had the Use of his Eyes: Yet, he made not the least Mistake in Five several Colours. We chang'd the Order of the Silks, and sometimes gave him the same Piece Four or Five Times together; yet, as soon as he had felt it, he readily told us, 'Twas the same Colour.

I tell thee, O learned Hali, such an un­common Experiment, afforded me Matter both of Delight and Wonder. I concluded from hence, That Nature is no Niggard in her Gifts, but supplies the Defects of one [Page 36]Sence, by the superabundant Accuracy of a­nother. We ask'd this blind Person, by what Distinction he thus knew one Colour from another, without the Help of his Eyes. He was not able to express the particular Manner of this discriminating Sensation; but, only told us in General, That he felt as much Difference between the Red Silk and Black, as he had formerly done during the Enjoyment of his Eye-Sight, between the Silks of Persia, and the fine Linen of Europe: Which, thou knowest, are as different to the Touch, as fine Paper and Vellum.

Thou that daily pryest into the Faculties of Humane Bodies, art best able to judge, Whether this Man's Excellency, lay in the Tenuity and Fineness of his Skin, the Subtle­ty of his Spirits, or some unusual powerful, yet delicate Energy of his Soul; or, whether it consisted in all these together.

The Dervise who was with me, seemed not much to admire at this rare Quality of the Blind Man: Telling me moreover, That about Ten Years ago, in his Travels, he had seen a Blind Statuary at Florence, who under­took to make the Resemblance of an Image, in the Chief Temple of that City; which he finish'd so much to the Life, that his Work could no otherwise be distinguish'd from the Original, than by the difference of the Mate­rials, that being Alabaster, his white Clay; which he so temper'd and molded with his Fingers, as he continually felt of the other, that no Lineament was left unexpress'd.

[Page 37]Indeed, when I reflected on our Mutes in the Seraglio, and the unaccountable Sagacity with which they apprehend those Words which they never heard, I ceas'd to be sur­priz'd at what I had seen the Blind Man per­form, or what the Dervise had said of the Statuary. I remember in Sultan Amurath's Time, there was a Mute, in whom the Grand Signior took infinite Delight. For, Besides a Thousand pretty Gestures and Tricks, with which she us'd to divert that Prince, he often made her his Secretary, em­ploying her in Writing Letters to his Bassa's and others, whilst he dictated to her by Signs. Although she could never receive the Sound of Words, nor utter any that were articulate; Yet, I have seen her transcribe a whole Chapter in the Alcoran, containing a Hundred and Seventy Versicles, in as fine a Character, as the most celebrated Scribes of the Empire; and, when she had done, would explain what she had thus written, by Signs, which made it evident, that she perfectly understood the Alcoran.

These are rare Gifts, my Friend; yet, were all the Mutes educated, with as much Diligence and Care as was Saqueda (so was she call'd) 'tis possible, they would attain to greater Perfection. I have been told, That her Tutor, one of the Learned'st Men in A­rabia, bestowed Twenty Years in teaching her this Method of Reading, Understanding and Writing.

[Page 38]This puts me in Mind of a Man, who was bred a Mahometan, but being taken Captive by the French, embrac'd their Religion, not in his Heart, but only in outward Profession. When I first came to Paris, I fell into his Company by Accident, and understanding that he was an African, I desired to ask him some Questions; but, he was Deaf, so that I had almost laid aside my Hopes of conver­sing with him; till perceiving that he mov'd his Lips, and open'd his Mouth as one that was Talking, I offer'd him Pen, Ink and Paper; making Signs to him, that I would gladly know his Mind in Writing. He ac­cordingly writ in Moresco, That he was struck Deaf and Dumb about Eighteen Years since; telling me also, the Place of his Nativity, and how he came hither. I took the Pen; and, in the same Language, ex­press'd my Compassion of his Misfortunes. When he saw, that I understood Meresco, he writ again, signifying to me, That if I open'd my Mouth wide at the Pronouncing of every Syllable, he could understand my Meaning by the Posture of my Lips and Tongue. I found his Words true, to my no small Admiration; for, he would write down what I had said. We convers'd to­gether often; and, at Length I procur'd his Escape, in the Retinue of a Chiaus, that was returning from hence to Constanti­nople.

I beseech the Wise Architect of Nature, and Repairer of Humane Defects, either to [Page 39]continue to us the Use of our Sences, or to supply that Want, by some Superlative En­dowments of the Mind.

LETTER IX. To Useph Bassa.

THOU wilt say, I am unmindful of my Duty, in not Congratulating thy New Honour before this; and, that I forget the good Offices which formerly pass'd between us in the Seraglio. I tell thee, my Obliga­tions are infinite, not only to thee, but to many others of my Friends at the Port: It is impossible for me, to acquit my self of so many Engagements. As for the Dignity to which the Sultan has rais'd thee, I receiv'd the first News of it within these Fourteen Days. And, I dare affirm, That none of thy Friends, or of those whose Dependance is on thee, could with greater Complacency, behold thee Vested by our Most August Em­perour, than I read the Letter which con­veyed to me this welcom Intelligence.

Long mayst thou Live, to enjoy the Bles­sings which thy Good Fortune has heap'd on thee. Yet, I counsel thee to enjoy [Page 40]them so, as not to forget thou must die. Let not the Grandeur of thy Station, render thee proud and wilful: But remember, when thou art surrounded with a Crowd of adoring Suppliants, That Death shall level thee with the Meanest of thy Slaves. Thus, the An­cient Philosophers, spar'd not to perform the Office of Monitors, to their Kings and Princes: and, I hope, thou wilt not take in ill Part, the wholesom Advice of Mahmut, who dis­covers a Temper void of Hypocrisie, in the Freedom he assumes. If thou givest Ear to Flatterers, they will compliment thee to thy Ruine; and, when thou art on the Brink of a Precipice, they will persuade thee there is no Danger; though, if thou goest on, they know thy Fall is inevitable. They will pride themselves in the Dexterity of their Malice, and insult over thee with scornful Sarcasms, whom not long ago they ido­liz'd.

The Eminent Command thou hast, re­quires thy frequent Presence in the Sovereign Divan: And, that thou mayst not sit there, only as an Auditor of other Mens Counsels, and incapable of making one in the Number of those, who become Remarkable by their Ora­tions, or Reports of Foreign Events; I will now entertain thee with some Passages, which have happen'd in Europe since the Beginning of this Year, whereof the other Bassa's may possibly be ignorant.

The Diet of Francfort, which had conti­nued for Three Years, was dissolv'd on the [Page 41]12th. of the 4th. Moon. This may be known at the Port, while they remain Strangers to the Reason of it. There are a Sort of Chri­stians in Germany, whom they call Evange­licks. These are opposite to the Roman Church, both in Religion and Interest; and, their Cause is chiefly espous'd, by the Dukes of Saxony and Brandenburgh. It was to com­ply with these, that an Assembly was appoint­ed at Osnaburgh; but the Emperour and the Catholicks, were either for continuing that at Francfort, or translating it to Munster. While the contending Parties, were bicker­ing and striving to gain their several Ends, the Deputy of the Duke of Bavaria, tired out with such intolerable Delays, depart­ed from Francfort; whom, the Rest of the Deputies follow'd. And, this thou mayst report, for the true Occasion of the Dissolution of that Diet.

Thus, at the Beginning of the Year, the Disputes which these Infidels rais'd about Safe Conduct, Exactness of Titles, Priority of Address, and many other vain Punctilio's, hinder'd them from coming to any Conclu­sion about a Peace, which was the Principal Cause of their Assembling. And, this is a Folly peculiar to the Nazarens, That in all Publick Assemblies, the very Strength and Vitals of their Counsels, are spent in a vain adjusting of empty Ceremonies.

It is credibly reported here, That the King of Poland, earnestly sollicits a Match with Queen Christina of Suedeland. It seems, he [Page 42]had formerly sent an Embassador on that Sub­ject, to the Suedish Court; but, he return'd without any positive Answer, or effecting any Thing in it. In the Second Moon of this Year, that Queen sent an Embassador, to give the King of Poland an Account, that she had taken the Government upon Her. While he tarried in the Polish-Court, there were not wanting such, as by the King's Order, sifted his Inclination, in Reference to this Affair. It was propos'd to him, That this Match would be a happy Occasion, to Unite the Two Kingdoms in a firm and durable League; That the Evangelicks in Poland, would be much eas'd thereby; That Ʋladislaus, was not much decay'd in his Na­tural Vigour; That Suedeland might in the mean while, be govern'd by the Council. With many other Proposals and Encourage­ments to this Purpose: Among which, I must not omit, that it was suggested, How easie 'twould be for Two such Potent Crowns in Conjunction, not only to humble the Ger­mans, but also to put a stop to the Victori­ous Arms of the Ottoman Empire. But, all this came to Nothing; that wary Queen suspecting, that there was a deeper Design in the Courtship of this Old Fox: And, that by such a Match, the Kingdom of Suedeland, in Default of the Issue-Royal, might be sub­jected to a Foreign Crown.

However, it is easie to apprehend from this, That if the Poles maintain at Present their Accord with the Sublime Port, 'tis for [Page 43]want of Strength to break it; and, that they only wait an Opportunity, to make some Potent and Firm Alliance, which may se­cond the Designs formed by that Court, against the First Throne on Earth, where­of thou art One of the Principal Pillars.

Remain firm in thy Station; and, let neither the Tempests of War, nor the Con­vulsions of State, which are the too fre­quent Products of Peace, shake thy Con­stancy. But, above all, suffer not thy In­tegrity, which is the Basis of all Virtues, to be undermin'd by Bribes.

If thou followest this Counsel, God and his Prophet shall Establish thee, all Men will Honour thee, thy Sovereign shall Ex­alt thee; and, Mahmut will rejoice, to see thee in Time become the Atlas of the Eternal Empire.

LETTER X. To Ikingi Cap' Oglani, Praeceptor to the Royal Pages of the Se­raglio.

THere is a vast Difference between thy Letter, and that of Shashim Istham. He, is Eloquent in the Acknowledgment of his Crime; thou, Rhetorical in thy own Justification. Thou hast plunder'd Demo­sthenes and Cicero, and robb'd 'em of all the Flowers and Tropes of Oratory, to dress up a faint, liveless Excuse. Such an artificial A­pology, instead of cancelling, heightens thy Offence. It might have procur'd thee the Applause of the Academy; but, it comes short of giving me Satisfaction, for the In­juries I have receiv'd at thy Hands. I have Reason to esteem them such, because so de­sign'd, although they took no Effect. For, Wrongs of this Kind, ought to be measur'd by the Intention of the Author, not by their Success. The Ministers of the Divan, will hardly be prevail'd on to suspect Mahmut, who has given Substantial Proofs of his Fi­delity.

Tell me, in the Name of God and Ma­homet, what was the Motive that induced thee to slander me? Wherein have I merited this Persecution at thy Hands? It could not [Page 45]be Revenge, because I never gave thee Oc­casion: unless thou still retainest a Grudge, on the Score of my studying in the Aca­demies; and, that at my Return from Pa­lermo, thou wert not able to expose me, in the Presence of the Mufti, in any Point of Language or Learning. But, I had rather charitably believe, 'twas thy Ambition not thy Malice, which gave Birth to those Ca­lumnies thou hast vented against me. Thou enviest me the Honour of serving the Grand Signior in this Station, thinking thy self ca­pable of discharging this Office more success­fully than Mahmut. I censure not thy Abi­lities; but, I think 'tis best for every Man to be content with his own Condition, since Destiny distributes the Employments of the World among Men, by Rules into which we cannot penetrate.

Thou art Master of the French Tongue; but, dost thou think that a complete Qua­lification for a Man in my Post? Art thou fit to converse in the Court of a Foreign Prince, who canst not govern thy Tongue in that of thy Native Sovereign? Thou art yet to learn a Courtier's Master-piece, which is, To dissemble even the necessary Art of Dissi­mulation. That is, as the Arabians say, To have a Veil upon a Veil; or, as the Italians, To have a Mask with a Natural Face on the Outside. Thou art so far from this, that thou canst not yet draw perfectly the first rough Strokes of a Counterfeit.

[Page 46]To speak plain, hadst thou by an Artifi­cial feigning of Friendship to me, made Way to insinuate thy Story into the Belief of the Grandees, thou might'st have prais'd me to my Ruine. But, to go bluntly to Work, without preventive Encomiums, discover'd at once the Weakness of thy Judgment, and the Strength of thy Passion; giving the Ministers Occasion to think, There was less of Truth, than of Design in thy Accu­sations.

For the Future I advise thee, to mind thy Books and Scholars, and meddle not with Mahmut, whose Business is, to study Men. Adieu.

LETTER XI. To the Reis Effendi, Principal Se­cretary of State.

WITH extream Joy, I have received the certain News of the taking of Canea, by the Invincible Ottoman Arms.

I must confess, when I first apprehended the Intentions of Sultan Ibrahim, to make War with the Republick of Venice, I was apt [Page 47]to hearken to some thinking Men in this Court; who, making their Observations, of the Sultan's indulging himself in Female Pleasures, conjectured from thence (as by a Common Rule) that he would not have dis­covered such a Martial and Active Spirit, in asserting the Honour of the Ottoman Empire. His dext'rous concealing his Designs, even to the very Execution of them, has struck a Damp into all the Courts in Europe; inso­much as Cardinal Mazarini, this Day told the Queen-Regent, That he doubted, lest Sultan Ibrahim would prove another Junius Brutus, who, being the Nephew of Tarquin, One of the Primitive Kings of Rome, for some Years, counterfeited an extraordinary Simplicity and Weakness of Spirit: but, ha­ving privately secured a Faction to his own Interests, by Popular Arts; he, to gain the Sovereignty, chang'd the Form of Govern­ment; procur'd himself to be made Consul, and discovered a Genius, surpassing in Po­licy and mature Judgment, all his Prede­cessors.

Though the Cardinal's Comparison, be disproportionate to the Grandeur of the So­vereign Emperor of the World; who cannot, without a vast Injury, be post-pon'd in Vir­tue, Wisdom or Power, as a Second or Imi­tator of any Prince upon Earth: Yet, the Character holds good in the Main, That he has timely and maturely dissembled, the most Sublime Abilities and Endowments a Sovereign Prince is capable of, rend'ring there­by [Page 48]by his Enemies secure and careless; till at length, all those Illustrious Attributes exert themselves on a suddain, breaking forth like the Sun from an Eclipse; at once dazling the astonish'd World, and surprizing the Ene­mies of the Ottoman Empire, in the Slumbers which proceeded from the Contempt of his Sacred Majesty.

I thought indeed once, that the Venetians would have been in a Condition to have fac'd the Ottoman Navy, and disputed their farther Progress on the Seas. I expected no less, than that they would have made some huf­fing Attempts on the Isles of the Archipelago; that they would have enter'd the Hellespont, brav'd the Dardanels, and sailing forward, would have block'd up the Ottoman Navy in the Propontis, or driven them into the Euxine Sea for Shelter. And, who could have thought otherwise, had they been provided for a War? But, our Sage Emperor, by Secrecy, which is the very Soul of all great Under­takings, has anticipated their very Fears, and leap'd upon the Prey, while the Keepers were asleep.

Had the Christian Princes and States, laid aside their Private Punctilio's and Animosi­ties, when the Venetians first made their Application to them for Assistance, it might have prov'd a doubtful War. But, in­stead of generously uniting their Forces in the Common Defence of Christendom, they began to divide their Interests and Hearts one from another; and that, upon the vainest [Page 49]Motives in the World; One State disputing with Another, about Precedency of Posts in the Army; which proceeded to that Height, as to frustrate the Main Design: For, the Pope himself at last, is forc'd to raise the greatest Aids the State of Venice are like to have; joining his Galleys with theirs, and sending a Thousand Foot on Board, at his own Cost.

Thus does Divine Providence, out of the Discords of Christian Princes, draw Occa­sions to enlarge the Sacred Empire of the Mussulmans; and to spread the Ottoman Con­quests o'er the Western World.

LETTER XII. To the Magnificent and Redoubtable Vizir Azem.

IT appears, that the Queen of France is very Indulgent to her Generals, having call'd Home the Duke of Enguien from the Toils of War. This Prinee neglecting the Wounds he receiv'd in the Battle of Aller­sheim, not many Days after, fell into a vio­lent Fever: So that he was carried in a Horse-Litter to Philipsburgh, with no small [Page 50]Danger of his Life. As soon as he recover'd his Health, he was commanded to return to France, and the Charge of the whole Army committed to Mareschal Turenne.

Such Tenderness is never shew'd to the In­vincible Ottoman Generals, neither would they esteem it a Favour, but a Disgrace. When they go to the Wars, they make no underhand Leagues with the Elements to spare their Bodies; but, are resolv'd to com­bat with Cold, Heat, Hunger, Thirst, and all the Hardships to which Soldiers are liable, as well as with the Swords of their Enemies. They take no other Armour against the Ri­gorous Frosts of a Russian Winter, or the Scorching Sands of a Persian Summer, but an Unshaken Resolution, an Invincible Patience, and a Mind incapable of bowing under the Worst Misfortunes. They are not angry with the Weapons of their Adversaries, when they carve in their Limbs the Marks of an Honour, which will far outlast the Pain of their Wounds; and, in their Flesh hew deep Characters, of an Immortal Fame, and a Renown which shall know no Period. They are not parsimonious of their Blood, but court their Enemies to spill it on the Ground, from whence it will spring up in Lawrels and Wreaths, to crown 'em with Triumphs and Glory whilst they live, and to sweeten their Memory with the Praise of Fu­ture Generations.

Thus, Magnanimous Vizir, do the Mus­sulman Heroes, the Props of the First Empire, [Page 51]manifest their Courage, in defying of Dangers and Wounds, and scorning to capitulate with Fortune, for Ease and Exemption from Death. They know, that when they march against the Infidels, 'tis in Vindication of the Eternal Ʋnity: And therefore, instead of endeavouring to shun, they court a Death so glorious, as that which will immediately transport them to the Bosom of our Holy Pro­phet, and to the Inexpressible Delights of the Gardens of Eden. Where this Truth is firm­ly rooted, there is no Room for Fear to plant it self. But, the Case is otherwise with Infi­dels, who blaspheme that purest Ʋndivided Essence. They assert and believe a Plurality of Gods, and therefore in Time of Danger, amongst so many Deities, they know not whom to address, or whom to confide in. The Apprehension of Death, is terrible to them, whose Hope is only in this Life; whose Consciences are stained with a Thou­sand Pollutions, and yet renounce the very Method of being Clean. Who not only err themselves, but by their Evil Example and Influence, (for I speak of the Princes and Great Ones) draw Innumerable after them, to taste of the Tree Zacon, which grows in the Middle of Hell.

People speak variously of the Duke of Enguien's Conduct in the Battel of Allersheim. His Creatures, extoll his Valour and Expe­rience with Hyperboles: Whilst his Enemies, endeavour to lessen his Reputation. Some say, he owes his Revocation to the Queen's [Page 52]Dislike; Others attribute it, to the extraordi­nary Concern she has for his Health. But, such as would be esteem'd the Wiser Sort, say, his Return is voluntary and sought by himself, scorning to hold his Commission any longer at the Pleasure of Cardinal Mazarini; who, 'tis thought, first procured him this Employment, only to have him out of the Way, and take off his Application from the Domestick Affairs of France. These are the Discourses of the People at present, who yet perhaps may change their Opinions before the Sun goes down. They will always be cen­suring and descanting on the Actions of their Superiors; few being willing to think their Tongues were given 'em to lie Idle. It is but a Little Member, but often does Great Mischief by its Activity. One of the Ancients gave no good Character of it, when he call'd it a Daemon. Yet, we are not bound to be­lieve all that the Philosophers said. Aesop gave the most impartial Account of this Member, when he said, 'Twas the Best and the Worst. Sometimes I sit silent many Hours together; not for Want of Company; (for, here's a Glut of that in this Populous City) nor, because I know not what to say, (for, I could speak a great Deal more, than 'tis sit for others to hear) but, that I may study with less Interruption, how to serve my Great Master. For, much talking enervates the Judgment, and evaporates the Mind into Air. Besides, by thus practising Silence in Private, I learn the Art of restraining my [Page 53]Words in Publick, when it is requisite to promote the Ends at which I aim. 'Tis not for a Man in my Station, to be open and talkative; but, to distinguish Persons and Seasons; to understand the due Stops and Advances of my Tongue; sometimes to say Much in a Little, at other Times to say Little or Nothing at all; but, ever so to speak, as not to lay my self naked to the Hearers; yet, to seem a very frank, open-hearted Man, in what I discourse of.

I would not have thee conclude from what I have said, That Mahmut uses any Reserve to the Ministers of the Divan, who are Mines of Science and Wisdom, and can easily discern the Heart through the most artifi­cial Veil of Words. But, it is absolutely necessary for me, to use Dissimulation in this Court; seeming many Times Ignorant of what I really know, that I may not be thought to know more than they would have me. I was never yet so indiscreet, as to publish any Secret that was committed to my Charge; whereby I have gained great Confidence, with Men who delight to un­bosom their Intelligence. They esteem me a Man of Integrity, and fit to be trusted. Thus am I made privy to many Intrigues of the Grandees, and a Repository of the Court-News: Whilst they whisper in Mahmut's Ear, what is transacted in the Royal Bed-Chambers, and private Apartments.

By this means, I came acquainted with an Amour of Cardinal Mazarini, which is [Page 54]known but to a few. This Minister has none of the Worst Faces, and a proportionate Elegance in his Shape: Much addicted also to the Love of Women; yet, he manages his Intrigues with that Caution and Privacy, as not to expose the Honour of his Function. Among the Rest, he had frequent Access to the Chamber of a certain Countess-Dowager, her Husband being lately deceas'd. This was not carried so privately, but 'twas whisper'd about, That a Man was seen often to come out of this Ladies Chamber a little before Day; but, no Body knew who it was (for, the Cardinal went disguiz'd.) At last, it came to the Queen's Ear, who was resolv'd to unravel this Intrigue. She caused Spies to be placed at a convenient Distance from the Lady's Chamber-Door, which opened in a Gallery of the Royal Palace, with Orders to trace him Home. That Night the designed Watch was first set, it fortun'd, that the Car­dinal being in the Countess's Chamber, her Maid (who was privy to this Amour) overheard these Spies, talking to each other concerning her Lady; which made her more attentive (being in a Place were she could not be seen) till at length she plainly dis­covered, That they lay in wait to find out who it was, that had been seen coming out of the Chamber. She quickly acquaints the Countess with this News. She consults the Cardinal what was best to be done to avoid Discovery. In fine, it was agreed between 'em, That the Countess should put on the [Page 55] Cardinal's Disguize, and he a Suit of her Clothes; That she should go out at the usual Hour of his Retreat, and walk in the Gar­dens; That, if examin'd, she should pretend, This Disguize was to guard her from the rude Attempts of Men, who if they found a Lady alone in the Night-Time, would not fail to offer some Incivilities; That soon after her Departure, the Cardinal should go forth in her Dress, and shift for himself. This was perform'd accordingly. The Countess walk'd into the Gardens in the Cardinal's Disguize, followed by the Spies, whilst he goes to an Intimate Friend's House, (an Italian, whose Fortune depended on this Minister) and changes his Female Accoutrements, for the proper Apparel of his Sex. The Countess having walk'd about half an Hour in the Garden, was seized on by some of the Guards, under Suspicion of some ill Design. She was carried before the Queen, and examin'd. She then discover'd her self, begging the Queen's Pardon, and telling her, That a par­ticular Devotion, had oblig'd her to take that Course for several Mornings; but, if it offend­ed Her Majesty, she would hold her self di­spensed with, and would forbear. The Queen seeming satisfied with this Answer, dismissed her. Thus, the Amours of the Cardinal and the Countess, remain'd a Secret; and, there are but Three Persons (besides themselves) that know any thing of it; among which, Mahmut is one.

[Page 56]Thou seest, Illustrious Minister, that the Reputation of my Secrecy, has gain'd me the Confidence of One of the Cardinal's Pri­vados; for, I had this Relation from the Italian whom I mentioned, at whose House the Cardinal chang'd his Disguize. I am not without Hopes, by the prudent Manage­ment of this Discovery, to penetrate farther into the Court Intrigues. For, he that told me this Story, consider'd not, that he made me thereby, Master of his Fortune; and, that it is no longer safe for him, to deny me any Intelligence I require of him. He has put a Key into my Hand, which will open his Breast at my Pleasure.

Yet, I need not magisterially claim Disco­veries from him, as the only Conditions, on which he is to expect my Concealing what he has already disclos'd. There is a more dex­trous and serviceable Way to become his Confessor, without such an ungrateful Insult; whilst with a well acted Candour, I feign a Relation of such Things, as I suspect, yet cannot be certain are true, till attested by himself; professing at the same Time, not to believe those pretended Reports I heard. If I shall be so happy, as to do any effectual Service to the Grand Signior by this Engage­ment, it will answer my Ends, and I shall not repent of my Craft.

Mahmut Salutes thee, Sovereign Bassa, in the humblest Posture of Adoration, lying prostrate on the Ground, in Contemplation of thy Grandeur. Beseeching God, That he [Page 57]would grant this Favour to thee, To live hap­pily, and to die in thy Bed.

LETTER XIII. To Egri Boinou, a White Eunuch.

THOU givest me abundant Proofs of thy Affection and Friendship, in frankly telling me, what they say of Mahmut in the Seraglio. I do not expect to be free from Censure; and, am so far from being discou­raged at the Obloquies some Men fasten on me, that it adds to my Comfort; it being an assured Mark of Innocence, To be traduc'd. I am not desirous, that the Arabian Proverb should be verified in me, which says, That he deserves no Man's Good Word, of whom all Men speak Well. I dread to be Popular at such a Price, and will rather court the Slan­ders of the Envious, by a stedfast Perseve­rance in my Duty, than lay a Train for the Compliments of Flatterers, by favouring Se­dition. Thou knowest what Reason I have to say this. There needs no Interpreter be­tween us. Though the Black Eunuch has recanted his Aspersions, yet there are others who persist in their Malice; and, it will be [Page 58]difficult for the Master of the Pages, with his best Rhetorick, to exempt himself from the Number.

I have received both their Apologies, and have answered them. I wish they would re­form this Vice; not so much for my Sake, who am Proof against their Accusations, as for their own: For, the Injury they intend­ed to do me, will redound most to them­selves. Misery is on him, that persecuteth his Neighbour.

He that is Merciful and Gracious, who hath separated the Brightness of the Day from the Obscurity of the Night, defend both thee and me from the Malice of Whisperers, from the Enchantments of Wi­zards, and such as breathe Thrice upon the Knot of the Triple Cord.

LETTER XIV. To Mustapha, Berber Aga.

THOU wilt laugh at the Hypocrisy and Folly of the Nazarenes, when thou shalt know the Articles agreed upon between the Elector of Saxony, and Knoningsmark, one of the Suedish Generals, on the 27th. of the 8th. Moon.

The Suedes had prevail'd on the Son of the Elector, to intercede with his Father for a Truce; but, the Old Duke would not heark­en to any Thing of that Nature, till Torsten­son gave Orders to the Suedish Army in those Parts, That they should oppress the Elector's Subjects, by exacting from them unreason­able Taxes and Contributions; and, that they should lay desolate all the Countries about Dresden, if they refused to pay what was demanded of them. Accordingly they took a Castle, which commanded a large Valley of Meadows and Corn-fields. The Suedes burnt the Corn on the Ground, led away the Peasants Captives, and demolish'd many Towns and Villages; yet, not without some Loss on their Side: For, the Saxons one Night stole upon them while they were securely sleeping, and slew an Hundred and Twenty, taking above Three Hundred Prisoners. Those who were left in Possession of the Castle, met with no better Fortune; [Page 60]being compell'd in a few Days, to surrender this their new Conquest, with Five Ensigns, and a Hundred and Fifty Prisoners, which were all carried in Triumph to Dresden.

One would have thought, That these Suc­cesses should have confirm'd the Elector in the Aversion he had already conceiv'd for a Treaty, that he would rather have pursu'd his good Fortune with Arms: Especially, when by entering into a private separate Trea­ty with the Suedes, he must needs give a great Suspicion to the Assembly of the Depu­ties. But, the Old Duke doated; and, what neither the repeated Solicitations of his Son, nor the continual Ravages which General Koningsmark made in his Territories, could procure from him, that he granted to the charming Addresses of a Beautiful Lady.

The Elector's Son adhering much to the Suedish Interest, and finding all other Means ineffectual to oblige his new Friends; It was agreed upon between him and Koningsmark, That he should at least perswade his Father to a Truce of a few Days: That during this Ces­sation of Arms, the Son should invite his Father to a Banquet, where Koningsmark should be present, with some of the Principal Suedes in his Army. All this succeeded accord­ing to their Wishes. The good Old Man consented to a Cessation of Arms, and to give Koningsmark a Meeting at his Son's Banquet. The German Gallantry, and indeed that of all North-Europe, consists much in their Ex­cessive Drinking: He is esteem'd the most [Page 61]polite Man, who can bear most Wine, with least Alteration of his Temper. This they call Carousing. The Son had provided Plenty of those Wines, which grow on the Banks of the Rhine, esteem'd the wholsomest and most delicious of all these Parts. It is not neces­sary to repeat particularly, their first Salutes and Addresses: Both Parties seem'd emulous to exceed in Civilities. They fell to their Wine with Freedom and Mirth, after the Manner of the Country. When in the Midst of their Glasses, whilst the Heart of the Old Duke was elevated with the Juice of the Grape, came into the Room a tall Personage all in Armour, and making his Obeisance to the Company, deliver'd a Letter to General Ko­ningsmark. The General having receiv'd it, the Stranger was invited by the Elector's Son to sit down with them. He was Master of the Feast, and onely Koningsmark and the Stranger, besides himself, were privy to the Intrigue.

The Stranger unbuckling his Helmet, and pulling it off (for, all the Rest of the Com­pany were uncover'd, it being the Hottest Day in all the Summer) discover'd a Face and Hair, much like one of those Nymphs, de­scrib'd by Poets and Painters.

The Duke could not withdraw his Eyes from this surprizing Beauty, nor fix his ro­ving Thoughts: Sometimes it put him in Mind of Ganymede, the discarded Minion of Jupiter; but, Ganymede was never seen in Armour. Then he thought of Adonis, then [Page 62]of the Babylonian Pyramus, the Indian Atis. In fine, he run over all the Celebrated Youths of the East, to match the Beauty of this Il­lustrious Stranger. He drank and gaz'd, whilst his Son and Koningsmark, were pleas [...]d to see the Bait take. From ruminating on our Sex, he pass'd to that of Women: And, remembring that in some former Battels be­tween the Suedes and Germans, several La­dies had disguised themselves in Armour, and followed General Torstenson to the Field, he concluded presently, That this was some beautiful Female of Suedeland.

This Thought, put the Old Duke into a pleasant Fit of Raillery, yet not without some Mixture of Passion for this lovely Heroine. There was something so peculiarly graceful in all her Carriage and Address, as charm'd the Elector's Heart. The Women in those Parts of Europe, are not so precise in their Conversation with Men, as in the East. And, 'tis a great Point of Education, so to adjust the Punctilio's of their Deportment, as neither to appear too open, nor too reserv'd. This was her Masterpiece; for, she so equally divi­ded the Parts she was to act, both of a Maid and a Soldier, that neither entrenched on the other, but she acquitted her self with exqui­site Honour and Gallantry.

The next Day after the Banquet, the Son renewed his Mediation for a Treaty; but the Elector seemed cold. All his Thoughts were busied in ruminating on his fair Enemy.

Not to detain thee longer, in Expectation [Page 63]of the Issue; The Love of this young Ama­zon had taken so deep Root in his Heart, that he would grant Nothing but for her Sake, neither could he deny any Thing which she desired. Thus by this Stratagem, they accomplish'd their Aims, and he condescen­ded to a Treaty, after Fourteen Days Debate on the Articles: Of which I here send thee a True and Particular Copy, that thou maist find some Divertisement in the Folly of the Infidels. The Articles are as follows:

THAT it should be lawful for the Duke to keep due Faith to the Emperor; nor should he be obliged, to admit any Thing contrary to the Interest of the Em­pire.

That the Elector should not lend the Emperor above Three Regiments of Horse, nor should permit him to raise Soldiers in his Principality.

That the Suedes should have free and safe Passage through Saxony, provided they came not within Three Miles of Dresden.

That there should be free Traffick, be­tween the Elector's Subjects and the Suedes, by Land and Water.

That at the End of Three Months, each Party should be obliged to declare, Whe­ther they would prolong the Truce, or break it off.

That the Elector should again enjoy his Revenues, except those which were drawn from Leipsick. That he should pay the [Page 64] Suedes Eleven Thousand Rix-Dollars a-Month, and a certain Quantity of Corn.

That the Elector should do Nothing, which might hinder the Siege of Magde­burgh.

These Articles, at first Sight appeared to be equally favourable to the Saxons, as to the Suedes. But, in Reality, they served onely as an Umbrage to deeper Designs, which the Suedes had in Agitation. For, this was the First Step to draw the Saxon off from the Em­peror's Party; and Torstenson was now se­cure, that whilst the Suedes rushed farther into Germany, the Saxons would not molest them behind.

For my Part, I neither understand the Po­licy nor the Integrity of the Elector, in sign­ing these Articles; nor, how he can recon­cile the First of them, with any of the Rest: To give Safe Conduct, and kind Entertain­ment to the Enemies of his Sovereign: To be obliged not to lend him any more Assistance, than his Enemies shall allow, nor suffer him to raise Forces at his own Charges: To be chea­ted of his own Revenues, and tamely yield to pay a Monthly Tribute besides: To be tyed up from succouring one of the Principal Towns in his Principality, at that Time besieged by the Suedes; this is a new Method of keeping due Faith to Sovereigns, or of observing common Prudence for ones self. But, Wo­men and Wine cause a Wise Man to stumble, as the Arabians say. And this Old Prince, [Page 65]is blessed in a hopeful Son, who is not asha­med to turn Pimp, that so he may betray his Father to his Mortal Enemies. But, let the Christians proceed in their Falshood and Treachery, one against another, while every good Mussulman, prostrates himself Five Times a-Day; and prays in his Integrity, for the Consummation of that Time, wherein God has determin'd to put a Period to the Monarchies of these Infidels, and to reduce them to the Faith and Obedience of his Holy Law.

I wish some of my Friends, would send me some Relation of what passes in the East: I have heard Nothing of Moment out of Asia, these many Moons. I could almost think my self banish'd from the Eternal Providence, while I reside among these Ʋncircumcised.

Think sometimes on Mahmut; and, if thou canst not relieve his Melancholy, at least pity him, whom all the Honours and Pleasures of these Western Parts, would not be able to ex­hilarate, so long as he apprehends himself forgotten by his Friends at Constantinople.

LETTER XV. To Mahummed Hogia, Dervise, E­remit, Inhabitant of the Sacred Cave, at the Foot of Mount Uriel in Arabia the Happy.

THY Remembrance is as the Dew of the Evening, or the Midnight Breezes in Africk, after the scorching Fervors of a Sum­mers Day, when neither Trees nor Houses, nor highest Mountains afford any Shadow. Such are the Employments of State, keeping the Mind in as restless an Activity, as that which the Philosophers say, is the Occasion of Heat. Such also the Refreshment I find in thinking on thee, whose Soul is a Mansion of Tranquillity, an Ʋmbrella of Temperance and all Vertue. Thither I retreat for Respi­ration, from the Fatigues of Worldly Busi­ness. Pardon the bold Access of an humble Slave, who cannot be so happy, as to visit thee any otherwise than by Letters, yet would be miserable in the Want of this Privilege.

Ever since I had the Honour to kiss the Dust of thy Feet in that Sacred Retirement, I was fill'd with Love and Admiration of thy Sanctity. Thrice happy are the Neighbour­ing Shepherds, whose Flocks feed under thy auspicious Protection. No fierce Lions, nor ravenous Tygers, dare violate that Sanctuary; [Page 67]or, hunt for Prey within those Meadows, consecrated by thy Presence. That Rich and Flow'ry Vale, was first secured, with an E­ternal Immunity from Spoil and Rapine, by the Blessing of our Holy Prophet. Now that Blessing seems to be redoubled by thy Prayers and Abstinences, who inheritest his Spirit as well as his Abode. 'Twas in that Holy Cave, the Messenger of God fasted for the Space of Three Moons: Thy whole Life there, is one continued Abstinence. When thou liftest up thy Venerable Hands to Heaven in Pray­er, the Enemies of our Holy Law are seiz'd with Fear and Trembling: Thou art the Guardian Angel of the Ottoman Empire. Thy Body attenuated with Twenty Years Fasting, is purified almost to Immortality: Thou art become a Denizon among the Spirits. Nei­ther the Beasts of the Earth, nor the Fowls of the Air, nor the Fish of the Sea, will charge thee with their Blood: Thy Table never smoak'd with slaughter'd Dainties. Every Tree affords thee a Feast, and the Meadows regale thee with a Thousand harmless Deli­cacies. Thy Thirst is allay'd with the Crystal Streams; and, when thou art disposed to Banquet, the Arabian Sheep supply thee with Nectar. Thus, like a prudent Traveller, thou accustomest thy self before-hand, to the Diet of the Country whither thou art going: Thou livest the Life of Paradise, here on Earth.

Thou art not privy to the Wickedness of the Age: That Cell guards thee from other [Page 68]Mens Vices; while thy incomparable Humi­lity, defends thee from thy own Vertues. Thou art not puffed up with thy sublime Perfections. Pride is a Serpent, which com­monly poisons the Root of the fairest En­dowments. But thou hast crush'd this Ser­pent in the Egg.

In that Solitude, the Angel open'd the Heart of the Sent of God, and took out from thence the Devil's Seed-Plot. When Ma­homet awaked (for, this was done while he lay in a Trance) he said, I am a Worm. When Gabriel saw his Humility, he pronounced a Blessing on the Place; That whosoever should dwell in that Cave, should be Meek as A­braham, Chast as Joseph, and Temperate as Ismael. Thou hast experienc'd the Effect of his Benediction.

There is another Happiness also attends thy Retirement: Thou livest free from Cares and Anxieties: Thou committest the Pub­lick Good to the Conduct of thy Sovereign, and thy Private Welfare, to the Protecti­on of Providence; neither disquieted for the one, nor sollicitous for the other. Who rises, and who falls, in the Favour of the Sul­tan; who purchase the Governments of the Empire by their Merits, or who by their Money; whether it be better to remain in the Seraglio, or to be made Bassa of Aegypt, are Cares that never molest thee. Thou canst sit in that Sanctuary of Peace, and pity those whose Ambition, and the Love of Glory, has driven into the Toils of War. Thou canst [Page 69]behold with Compassion, the burdensom At­tendants of the Great; their Labours by Day, and their Watchings by Night; their restless Thoughts, and busy Actions; macerated Bo­dies, and uneasie Souls: While with inde­fatigable Pains they pursue meer Shadows, endeavour to grasp the Wind, or secure to themselves a Bubble, which is no sooner touched, than it vanishes. Thou in the mean time, art filling thy Mind with solid Know­ledge, and laying up Possessions which shall never be taken from thee: For, the Soul carries her Goods along with her, to that Other World.

I often wish my self with thee; and, the Remembrance of what I once enjoy'd in thy Conversation, cannot be effaced by Distance of Time and Place. The farther I am from thee, the more ardently do I long to see thee. But, even in these Innocent Desires, there is necessary a Mortification; since, we are not born for our selves, but to comply with the Mysterious Ends of Fate. I am appointed to serve the Grand Signior in this Place: Where I endeavour to acquit my self a Faithful Slave, and a Good Mussulman. If I fail in the First, my Great Master will punish me; if in the Last, God and his Prophet will re­venge it. Yet I hope every Frailty, will not be esteem'd a Transgression; since the Heart and the Hands, go not always together. I often strive to imitate thy Abstinence, but my Appetites are too Strong for me; I return to my Old Course again, like a Bow that is for­cibly [Page 70]bent. Yet I sin not in this, since it is not required at my Hands.

Pray for me, Holy Man of God, that while I aim at the Best Things, I may not fall into the Worst; and, by striving to arrive at Per­fection, I may not crack those Powers which are requisit to keep me stedfast in the High­way of Moral Vertue. I leave thee to thy Contemplations, and the Society of thy Cour­teous Angels, who ever wait at the Door of thy Cell.

LETTER XVI. To Useph Bassa.

I Formerly acquainted thee, That Ʋladislaus King of Poland, sought Christina Queen of Sueden in Marriage; but, that his Propo­sal was rejected. Now thou maist know, that this Monarch has made a more successful Amour, being married to Louise Marie de Gonzague, Princess of Mantua. The Nup­tial Solemnities were performed in this City, by the Ambassador of Poland, who was his Master's Proxy. The greatest Part of the last Moon, was spent in Masks, Banquets, and Court-Revels, to Honour the Espousals of [Page 71]this New Queen; who is since gone towards Poland, being attended to the Frontiers by a numerous Train of the Nobility, with all the Ceremonies and Regard due to a Person of her Rank.

The French, who are never sparing in Words, are too liberal in the Praises they be­stow on this Princess. For, if all were true they say of her, she might be listed in the Number of Angels: Whereas, some more im­partial Eyes, have discover'd such Imper­fections, as speak her yet on this Side a Saint. But, ordinary Vertues in Princes, dazzle the Multitude; borrowing a greater Lustre from the Nobility of their Blood, and the Eminence of their Quality: Whilst, their Vices are either shrowded from the Vulgar, or made to pass for Vertues, in the Artificial Dress, which Flatterers put on them. 'Tis under this Ad­vantage, the New Queen of Poland is cry'd up for a Diana; though a late Satyrist, vin­dicates her from being half so Cruel as that Goddess: It being no Secret, That a Young Italian Marquis, had something kinder U­sage, than had Acteon, when he accidentally encounter'd this Princess, as she was walk­ing alone one Evening in a Grove belonging to her Palace.

I am no Patron of Libels; nor would I speak irreverently of those, whose Royal Birth claims Respect from all Mortals. But, the Stupidity of the Nazarenes provokes my Pen, who allow their Women all the un­controulable Freedom and Opportunities, [Page 72]that commonly give Birth to the most irre­gular Amours, and yet believe 'em Innocent. They are perfect Idolaters of that Sex; not having learned, with the illuminated Mussul­mans, That Women are of a Creation Infe­rior to that of Men, have Souls of a lower Stamp, and consequently more prone to Vice; and, that they shall never have the Honour to be admitted into Our Para­dise.

But thou, who believest the Doctrines Clear and Intelligible, and hast kiss'd the Garment of the Sent of God, wilt not suffer thy Reason to be blinded by the Enchant­ments of these deluding Fair Ones; but so love Women, as still to remember thou art a Man, which is something more Sublime.

LETTER XVII. To the Kaimacham.

IT is hard to guess, where the French Victo­ries will terminate. Either Fear, or the Desire of Novelties, opens the Gates of most Cities to them; and, when that will not do, the Force of their Cannon makes a Passage into the strongest Holds of their Enemies, and puts whole Provinces under their Sub­jection.

Their Enemies say, That the French never besiege a Town, but their first Assaults are made with Bullets of Gold; and, when that will neither prevail on the Governour, nor win a Party, then they only try the Force of the courser Metal. Yet, this will appear but a Slander, if thou considerest a late Action of the Duke of Orleans, when he lay down be­fore Bourburgh.

He had scarce finish'd his Trenches, when the next Morning an Arrow was found with a Letter fastned to it, not far from his Tent. The Letter was directed to the Duke, and subscribed by the Governour of the Town. The Contents of it were, to signifie to him, That if he would give him Fifty Thousand Pieces of Gold, and continue him in his Office, he would the next Night open the Gates, and let in his Army; and, that before Mid-day, he would send a Messenger to know his Pleasure. [Page 74]The Duke waited the Arrival of the Messen­ger, who seconded what his Master had said. But, the Magnanimous Prince, in stead of accepting his Offer, sent him back to his Ma­ster with this Message, That he came not be­fore the Town as a Merchant, to purchase it at the Price of a needless Treason; but as a Soldier, at the Head of an Army flush'd with continual Victories: Summoning him forthwith to surrender at Discretion, That being the only Way to experience his Generosity.

This Year has been signaliz'd with much Action in Flanders, Catalonia and Italy. The Field was shared among many brave Generals.

The Duke of Orleans had the Command of the Army in Flanders, where he took the Forts of Vandreval, Bourburgh, Link, Drin­ghen, Bethune, St. Venant, Guisca, Lens, Mardike, Lillers, Mening and Armentiers.

These Places were won by several Parties, under the Commands of the Mareschals de Gastion, de Rantzan, and the Duke of Guize; who all acted in separate Bodies, under the Duke of Orleans.

Nor was the Count d' Harcourt idle in Ca­talonia, where he succeeded in the Charge of the Mareschal de la Mothe. The first Effort of his Arms, was the retaking of Agramont, which the Spaniards had seiz'd; a strong City, and which kept a large Part of Catalonia in Subjection.

From hence he marched toward Roses, one of the most Important Places for Strength, under the Spanish King's Dominions, and go­vern'd [Page 75]by an experienced Soldier, who fail'd not to defend the Place to the last Extremes; but, after a Siege of Two Moons, was com­pell'd to yield for Want of Provisions.

After this, the French General cut off Seven Hundred Spaniards, who were posted to hinder his Passage over a River. The next Day, the whole Armies meeting in the Plains of Liorens, there was a furious Encounter; in which, the Spaniards lost Ten Regiments of Horse on the Spot; the Rest threw down their Arms and yielded. The Marquess of Mortare, one of the Spanish Generals, was taken Cap­tive; with other Persons of Note; among which, was the Standard-Bearer of Spain.

Yet, this was but the Engagement of One Wing: For, when the Other enter'd the Combat, the Slaughter was dreadful. Of the Spaniards were slain, Six Thousand Horse, and Sixteen Hundred Foot. And Three and Twen­ty Hundred of them were made Prisoners. The French lost not above Three Hundred in all, and had but a few wounded.

This Battel has brought infinite Glory to the Count d' Harcourt. After which, there happen'd Nothing remarkable in Catalonia, save the taking of Balaguier, which is like to end this Years Campagne on that Side.

Prince Thomas of Savoy commanded in Italy, but had no great Number of French in his Army, the Main Body being drawn off to serve in Catalonia. Yet, vexed to see the Success of the Spaniards, who had pos­sess'd themselves of a Strong Castle, and [Page 76]kept the Field in a Bravado, as if he were not able to face them; he raised some Recruits, and enter'd the Milanez, where he took the City and Castle of Vigevano. After this, de­signing to return into Piemont, he found all the Passages block'd up by the Spaniards, who had a far greater Army than his. Yet, as­suming Courage, he attempted to pass the River Moura; and, the Enemy presenting themselves to oppose his Design, he gave them Battel, and killed Five Hundred and Threescore of them; among which were Nine Officers of Principal Command and Quality: On his Side, were lost Two Hun­dred Common Soldiers, and Twelve Officers; among which, was his Brother, Prince Mau­rice of Savoy. These are the Chief Actions on that Side. As for Portugal, there has happened Nothing in that Kingdom, worthy of Remark.

I have in this Letter, Sage Governour of the Imperial City, observ'd the Method thou enjoined'st me. I have acquainted thee, with whatsoever has Occurred in the present Wars of France and Spain during this Year.

'Tis discoursed here, That the Venetians will lay Siege to Canea next Spring, in Hopes to recover that Important Place, from the Arms of the Victorious Ottomans.

The Duke of Orleans will be on his March to Flanders, toward the latter End of the next Moon, resolving to make an early Campagne; being alarm'd with the late Loss of Mar­dyke, which the Spaniards took by Surprize, [Page 77]without much Bloodshed; having not the fourth Part of a hundred men kill'd on their Side. Whereas, when the French took it from them, it cost five Thousand Lives of the best Soul­diers the King of France had in his Army.

The Hour of the Post will not permit me to say more, than that I am the humblest of thy Slaves.

LETTER XVIII. To Dgnet Oglou.

I Will not make Tryal of the Virtue of Friend­ship at this Time, in the Way that Philoso­phers propose to be used between such as own that Title. I will not complain of the Do­lors I undergo, that so by making thy Com­passion share them with me, I may ease my self of a Part. It appears to me a pusillani­mous, if not an unjust Action, for a Man to transfer his Sufferings, by discovering 'em to his Friend, and designedly throw that upon another, which is scarce tolerable to himself.

I am sick; and, Custom has rendred this, almost as Natural to me as Health. My Con­stitution, is not Proof against the envenom'd Arrows, that are shot from the Stars. Nor am I Constellated, to resist the Secret Conta­gions [Page 78]that lurk in the Elements. The Her­bage of the Field languishes, when poyson'd with Invisible Atomes from above; and, all the Leaves of the Forest wither, when touch'd with the baneful Emissions of certain Meteors, or scorch'd with the winged Exhalations of the Night. So our Bodies receive a Thousand Impressions from Things without us, and not a few Maladies from our selves. The very Channel of Life, proves many Times the Vehicle of Death; while our Lungs suck in unwholsome Airs, and our very Breath be­comes our Bane. We have Radical Poysons in our Complexions, which though they do us no hurt, while we let them lie dormant; yet, once excited by our Passions and Vices, they become noxious and Fatal, hurrying us into the Chambers of Death, by unaccoun­table Diseases, and Pains which are under no Predicament.

This makes me bear my present Distemper with an equal Mind, because I know its Ori­ginal, and 'tis not in the List of those Mala­dies which have no Name: Whereby I can easily calculate its Duration, and almost point to a Day, when I shall be well again. For, 'tis in the Number of those, Physicians call Acute; and, the Anguish it inflicts, con­firms that Title.

Take not this for a Complaint; nor, what I am about to say, for a Paradox, when I tell thee, That I know not which is greater, my Pleasure or Pain during this excruciating Fe­ver. These Affections border so near one up­on [Page 79]another, that I find it difficult to distin­guish 'em. They seem to be Inmates to each other, and blended together in their Roots. Sure I am, they are so twisted and interwoven in my Constitution, That I never felt One without the Other. Every Man may experi­ence, That his strongest Desires, are com­pounded of these Two Passions; and, the very Moment of Fruition it self, cannot se­parate 'em. The Minute of Enjoyment, is but consecrated to his Loss, while the Height of his Joy is the Rise of his Grief, since the smallest Particle of Time, cannot distin­guish the Life and Death of his Pleasure.

Do but reverse this Contemplation, and apply it to my Sickness, and thou wilt find no Riddle in my Words, when I assure thee, That as the Torment of my Fever advances, so does my Ease. Pleasure and Pain, sit and shake Hands in my Heart, embrace and e­qually divide its Systole and Diastole between 'em.

Yet I must needs own, I am indebted, for this Allay of my Dolors, to the Presence of my Mind; which I suffer not to be torn from it self, or carried away by the violent Motion of my agitated Spirits. Were it not for this, a Fever would prove a Hell upon Earth, and every Pulse a Tormenting Fury. My very Drink (which is all my Subsistence now) would appear but the loathsome Distillation of that Tree, whose Ʋnpalatable and Scal­ding Gum, is appointed for a Beverage to the Damned. The softest Entertainment of my [Page 80]Bed while awake, would but be a Translation of the Tortures of Ixion and Sysiphus; and, the flattering Intervals of Sleep, would but renew the Sufferings of Tantalus. Whereas now, whether asleep or awake, my Mind keeping aloft in her proper Sphere, busied in the Contemplation and Enjoyment of her self and Superior Objects, partakes not in the Fever of my Body; but, as if on the cool Top of some high Mountain, surveys all the Val­leys beneath, without being sensible of their raging Heats.

I owe this Tranquility, in the Midst of Bo­dily Perturbations, to the Examples of An­cient Philosophers, which, thou knowest, have far more Influence than Precepts. Ever since I read, That Plotinus could chase away the racking Tortures of the Gout and Stone, by the sole Force of his Thought, I daily try'd the Experiment, spurr'd on by Emulation of his Vertue; as judging it ignoble in a Mus­sulman, to give the Palm to a Pagan in any Point of Masculine Bravery.

'Tis recorded of the same Philosopher, That by the mere Strength and Majesty of his Mind, he dissipated the Enchantments of Apollonius Tyaneus; and, the Infernal Spirits confess'd, They were baffled by that Thinking Man. As if his Soul were of the Nature of Medusa's Head, which turned all into Unactive Statues, who did but look on it.

Surely, great is the Efficacy of Contem­plation, hinted at in the Arabian Proverb, which says, He that can see his own Eyes with­out [Page 81]a Glass, shall be able to move the Bulls Horns. Which Mysterious Expression, is thus interpreted by the Learned Avicen. A Prophet or Spiritual Man, who always con­verses within, shall have power to shake the Foundations of the Earth. Which, thou know­est, rests on the Horns of a Bull, according to the Doctrine of our Holy Lawgiver.

I need say no more to convince thee, That I am in a Fever. My thus expatiating and running from one Thing to another (when I thought to have said all in a few Words) will satisfie thee what Temper I am in. Yet, recol­lecting my self with Comfort, That I know my Distemper, I will crave Leave to tell thee a short Story, of a Man who was sick for many Years, and yet the ablest Physicians in Paris, could not discern his Malady.

This Person, was an Officer of the City; whose Business 'twas, to arrest Men that were in Debt. He was observ'd, to be the subtlest of all his Brethren, and the most dextrous at plotting another Man's Ruine. This aug­mented his Estate, and he grew extremely rich. But, in the One and Fortieth Year of his Age, he was seiz'd with an unknown Ma­lady, a Distemper to which the most skilful were Strangers. He languish'd Five Years in a Condition, which mov'd all Men to Pity. 'Twill be tedious to recount the Symptoms of his Illness. At length, he died; and, accor­ding to his own Will, was dissected. The Physi­cians found all Parts of his Body decay'd and wasted; but, when they came to his Head, [Page 82]they were above Measure astonish'd, to see a Nest of Serpents instead of Brains. This was concluded by, all to be the Source of his Distemper; and, People descant variously on it. Some say, 'twas a Judgment of God infli­cted on him, for his cruel Subtlety, in tre­panning Men out of their Liberties by a Thou­sand Wiles. Others are of Opinion, That it is a Natural Product; it being usual in some Constitutions, for this Sort of Creature to be bred out of their Vitals. A Merchant that had been in Peru told me, That in a Province of that Empire, there were People, who by drinking the Water of a certain River, had Serpents often engender'd in their Bowels; That he had seen one presented to the King of Spain, which was taken out of a Dead Man's Heart, a Cubit in Length. He said 'twas of a Crimson Colour, without Scales or Eyes; neither was it Venemous. This he asserted very solemnly, and with Imprecations.

I tell thee, Dear Friend, if these Things be true, who can be sure he harbors not some such loathsome Inmate in his Body? Yet, I would not have thee grow Melancholy upon it, and disturb thy Repose. The Day will come, when we shall all be meta­morphosed into Worms and Serpents in the Grave.

In the mean while, live thou happily, in the Favour of thy Sovereign, in the Enjoy­ment of thy Health, the Vigor of thy Senses; and, have sometimes in thy Thoughts, a Man full of Infirmities, without murmuring, [Page 83] Mahmut, that loves his Friend in all Condi­tions.

LETTER XIX. To the Selictar Aga, or Sword-Bear­er to his Highness.

I Wish I cou'd time my Letters so, as to gratify all the Ministers of the Blessed Port, by making each alternately, the first Relator of some acceptable News, in the Mysterious Divan, where all humane Events are scan'd with Impartial Judgment. But, every Moon does not present us with Sieges or Battels; neither can I receive Intelligence of all remark­able Events, so soon as they come to pass. What I shall now transmit to thee, is an Account of what has been omitted in my Dispatches to the other Ministers.

Europe is a Field, fertile in Rebellions, Tumults Disorders and Unnatural Wars. No Part of Christendom, which is not polluted with Trea­sons, Perfidies, and Massacres; no Corner un­defiled with Human Blood. The Son con­spires the Death of him who first gave him his Life. The Brother lays Trains to ensnare the Partner of his Blood, the Offspring of [Page 84]her that bare himself. No Bond of Affection or Tye of Consanguinity, is of Force to re­strain these Infidels, from pursuing each other with Malice. Neither has their Religion any more Influence on their Passions, than the Fables of the Ancient Poets. In Publick and Private, all Things are govern'd by Interest. Thus, while every Man and every State, are onely byass'd by the narrow Principles of Self-preservation; they abandon the General Good of Christendom, and expose it as a Prey to the next daring Invader.

There is no Reason, that we shou'd grieve at this Folly of the Nazarenes. 'Tis from their Impiety and Vices, the Vertue and Wis­dom of the Victorious Mussulmans receives the greater Lustre; who are created to dis­plant these Ʋncircumcised, and instruct the Nations which they possess'd, in the Faith free from Blemish.

Yet, Since the Depredations which the Suedes have made in Germany and Denmark, the neighbouring Crowns and States, not­withstanding their Insincerity, have seemingly interposed their Endeavours, to prevent the worst Effects of a War, so destructive to the Common Interest of Christendom. Deputies were sent from all Parts, to Munster and Os­naburgh, with Instructions from their respe­ctive Sovereigns. They have squander'd a­way much Time in vain Overtures of Peace; whilst the Suedes daily get Ground on one Side of the Empire, and the French are not Unsuccessful on the other.

[Page 85]The Enemies of France, sensible that they cannot reduce this Crown by open Force, have Recourse to Artifice. They endeavour to corrupt her Allies, and insinuate into the Minds of the Ʋnited States of the Low Coun­tries, all those Apprehensions, which may serve to improve the Jealousie they had alrea­dy conceived of the French Neighbourhood. Suggesting, That the Spanish Netherlands are the onely Bar, which stops the Armies of France from overrunning Holland, and the rest of the Ʋnited Provinces. In fine, they have prevail'd on them to enter into a Sepa­rate Alliance, and not to treat in Conjunction with the other Ministers at Munster.

On the other Side, The French by their Agents in Holland, endeavour to unmask the Artifice of the Spaniards; representing, That that they have no other Design in these Insi­nuations, but to breed an Ill Understanding between this Crown and the Ʋnited Provinces; that so, by their ill Offices, in Time Things may come to a Rupture, and the States be depriv'd of the Friendship and Protection of France, which alone is able to support that Commonwealth, against the Pretensions of their old Enemies, the Spaniards. All Europe is astonish'd to see, that notwithstanding the utmost Condescensions of the French Court to conserve Peace, yet the States led by their Ill Destiny, shou'd embrace the Proposals of Spain. This makes a great Impression on all the Ministers assembl [...]d at Munster and Osna­burgh, who now conclude, That the Spani­ards [Page 86]onely seek Occasions to perpetuate the War in Europe; that whilst the Princes of the Empire are engag'd in a Defence of their Territories, and the Suedes and French are busi'd in pursuing their Conquests, they may pick a Quarrel with their New Friends, whom they have depriv'd of a more powerful Pro­tection, and reestablish themselves in the Re­volted Provinces.

The Deputies have had several Conferences about this Important Affair; and, the Result of their Counsels is, to sollicit the French Court, to use its utmost Power, to prevent the ill Consequences which this Separate Treaty will bring along with it.

'Tis discours'd here, That Monsieur de la Tuillerie, will be recall'd from the Court of Suedeland; being esteem'd the fittest Man, to disswade the Hollanders from this New Alliance; He having been already em­ploy'd in several Negotiations with the States, and is well vers'd in the Methods of treating with that Nation.

This some judge to be the Reason, of the Sieur Chanut's being sent to Suedeland, that he may reside at Stockholm, and continue to act there in the Absence of la Tuil­lerie.

So nice and delicate is this Affair, that all France cannot afford another Man duely qualify'd, to manage it with any Probability of Success. If he shew not more Candour in this Negotiation, than he did when he was sent to mediate a Peace between Suede­land [Page 87]and Denmark, he will receive but slender Thanks at his Return. But, if he succeeds, 'tis said, That Cardinal Mazarini has de­clared, he will merit to be install'd in the Order of the Holy Spirit. I have formerly spoken of this in one of my Letters, as the most Eminent Order of Knighthood in France.

I wish the Christians may ever find Dif­ficulties, to obstruct the Measures they take to establish an Ʋniversal Peace; and may continue to amuse and vex one another, till the Day of the Scourge.

LETTER XX. To the Reis Effendi, Principal Secre­tary of the Ottoman Empire.

IT is not yet publickly known, what De­signs have mov'd this Court, to order a mighty Fleet to be fitted out to Sea. But, it is privately whisper'd, That they will sail to the Levant, to assist the Venetians against the Turks.

People discourse variously, according to the Strength or Weakness of their Reason; and, Five Days ago, an Old Man went to Cardi­nal [Page 88]Mazarini, pretending to speak by In­spiration: He told him, That 'twas in vain to trust to their Winged Castles, (so he call'd the Ships) the Multitude of their Armies, or in the Treasures of their Money; for, a De­cree was sign'd in Heaven, against all the Na­tions in Europe; That the War was begun Above, between the Potentates who have the Custody of Kingdoms and Empires; That they should soon see the Banner of the Eternal, display'd in the Firmament; That the Stars should fight in their Courses, against the Wicked Professors of Christianity; That the Ismaelites should come out of their Holes, and should flow down like a Torrent from the Mountains of the East, over-running all Christendom. In fine, That Germany, France, Italy and Spain, should be laid Desolate, their beautiful Cities sack'd, and the Inhabitants led into Captivity; That the Pope, with all his Priests, should be exterminated; and, that all Nations should embrace One Law.

They put him in Prison, but he was found walking next Day in the Streets. The Keeper chain'd him in Irons; but, in the Morning he was standing at the Gate of the Prison, preaching to the People. Some say, he is a Chymist, and has found out the Master Se­cret: Others say, he is a Prophet: But, most judge him to be a Magician. He seems now to have lost his Vigor, not being able to re­lease himself from the Chains, which fasten him to the Ground where he lies. Yet he continues to foretel the Ruine of Christendom. [Page 89]'Tis said, he will be sent to Rome, there to receive Sentence of the Holy Father, accor­ding to his Demerits. I am no Admirer of Visionaries; yet, there appears something ex­traordinary, in the Constancy of this Man. Time will demonstrate, whether he be a True or a False Prophet.

A Courier came to this City last Night from Suedeland, who brings Letters from Monsieur Chanut, which say, That he has received great Encouragement to hope for the Ships which he was to buy in Suedeland. Thou hast already heard, that Monsieur la Tuillerie, Ambassador from this Crown to Queen Christina, was thought the only pro­per Instrument, to disswade the Ʋnited States of the Low Countries, from entring into a Separate Treaty with Spain; and that there­fore Monsieur Chanut, was sent to reside in his Absence at Stockholm, to observe what passes, and to continue the Alliance between the Two Crowns.

This Minister arrived in Suedeland, the 15th. Day of the Moon of December in the last Year; where Monsieur la Tuillerie, had prepared all Things ready for a speedy Dis­patch of his Negotiation; having the Day before his Arrival, made known to that Court, the Pleasure of the King of France and the Queen-Regent; whose Letters were receiv'd by Queen Christina, with all the Marks of Royal Affection; she telling the Ambassador, That she infinitely honoured the Persons of the King and the Queen-Regent; and, that [Page 90]she would give them such Proofs of the Inte­grity of her Friendship, as would demonstrate, That she was sensible of her Obligations to them, for what they had contributed to the good Success of her Affairs: And, that there was nothing more dear to her, nor more fixed in her Resolution, than to conserve inviola­bly, the League that was between them. She farther told the Ambassadors, That it was with no ordinary Complacency she now beheld Two Ministers of France in her Court, after she had been without any for a long time. In fine, she assured them, That whatsoever could be spar'd from the necessary Defence and Service of the Kingdom, whe­ther Ships, Arms or Men, should not be wanting to the Aid of the King of France.

By this thou maist perceive, that though the King of France has powerful Armies by Land, yet he is defective in Naval Forces: Or, if he has Ships enough to defend his own Realms by Sea, and to serve as Convoys to his Merchants, it must be concluded, that some Foreign Expedition is design'd, which has put him upon this extraordinary Method to encrease his Fleet.

I thought it highly necessary to acquaint thee with this Passage, that the Ministers of the Port, August and every Happy, may con­sult what Measures to take with this Prince, if it be true, that he designs to break the League, which he made with Sultan Ibrahim Four Years ago. There is but little Confi­dence to be reposed, in the most Solemn Oaths [Page 91]of Christian Monarchs, who hold not them­selves obliged, to keep Faith with those whom they esteem Insidels; and, thou knowest, that is the best Title they can afford the Ob­servers, of the most perfect Law in the World. Yet, the French, among all the Nations of the Messias, seem to bear the greatest Re­spect to the Ottoman Empire. But they are inconstant, and changeable, which is an Argu­ment of Insincerity. They are very prompt and warm in contracting Friendships, and as ready to infringe those Sacred Bonds, on the least Occasion, especially where Interest and Ambition have the Ascendant.

The Venetian Resident at this Court, makes daily Visits to the Queen-Regent, and has frequent Conferences with Cardinal Maza­rini. Many Couriers pass between Munster, Stockholm, and this City. Yesterday one ar­rived from the Venetian Ambassador at Mun­ster, giving an Account, That the Secretary of that Embassy, whom he had sent to Queen Christina, was return'd with the Promise of Eight Ships of War, lent by that Queen to the Republick, to assist them against the All­conquering Mussulmans.

It seems, as if Sueden were become the Common Arsenal of Europe, from which the other Kingdoms are supply'd with all the Instruments of War. But, what is most ob­servable, is, That the Venetians obtain'd not this Favour, without the Mediation of the French Minister at Stockholm. By which it seems evident, That this Court has newly entered [Page 92]into a Private League with the Republick; And, that they Design to surprize the Otto­mans, with some sudden Enterprize by Sea.

I shall not let a Moment escape, which may present me with the least Opportunity, to discover what is in the Hearts of these Infidels.

If thou wilt favour me with thy Instructi­ons, I shall make the safer Steps. God, whose Eye penetrates into all Obscurities, enlighten us with a Ray of that Wisdom, which once revealed to his Messenger, the secret Conspi­racy of the Corei's, when they plotted to de­stroy the Temple built without Hands.

LETTER XXI. To William Vospel, a Recluse, at Halmerstadt in Austria.

I Received thy Letter with Abundance of Complacency, in that it argues the Con­tinuance of thy Friendship; and, that I trace therein no Footsteps of an Angry Pen, not­withstanding the Liberty I took to descant on thy Manner of Life. On the Contrary, thou sendest me an Apology full of Meekness. Thy Reasons have a marvellous Force in them; they seem to spring from a Soul ve­gete and living, yet dead to Passion. Thou almost perswadest me to affect a Monastick Life, which may not unfitly be term'd, a Sociable Solitude.

I much admire, what thou say'st concern­ing Silence; and wish I could practise that Passive Vertue. It is the first Step to Wisdom, the Nurse of Peace, and the Guardian of Ver­tue. Words do but ruffle and discompose the Mind, betraying the Soul to a Thousand Vanities. Therefore, Pythagoras enjoyn'd his Disciples Five Years Silence, before he ad­mitted them to his Mysterious Philosophy.

But tell me, why thou didst not rather chuse to live in a Desart, remote from Men, where thou wouldst have no Temptation to speak, unless thou wert disposed to hold a [Page 94]Conference with the Trees, or Beasts, or hadst a Mind to sport thy self, and have thy Words retorted by mocking Eccho's? If a Recluse Life be thy Choice, for the sake of Contemplation, I would advise thee to turn Hermit. But perhaps, thou darest not ven­ture thy self among the Satyrs of the Wilder­ness; or, thou art afraid of the Wild Beasts. As for the First, there are either the Dreams of Poets; or, if they be any such Beings in Reality, they will not hurt thee, since thou voluntarily forsakest the Company of Men, to become a Sylvan, as they are. As for the Latter, I must confess, I cannot discommend thy Fear, there being no Friendship or In­telligence common between us and the Lions, Tygers, Bears, &c. of the Forest. Yet, I can tell thee for thy Comfort, That by long and assiduous Practice, the fiercest of these Creatures have been taught to converse with Men, to obey their Commands, and to per­form the Parts of Diligent Servants, and faith­ful Friends.

The Wilderness will afford thee a fair Op­portunity, of studying the Natures of Plants and Animals, the various Alterations in the Elements, the Influence of the Winds and Rains, Meteors and Exhalations; with ma­ny other Secrets, which are hid from the greatest Part of Men, who are buried alive in populous Towns and Cities, banish'd from the Familiarity of their Mother-Earth, and most of her genuine Products.

[Page 95]In the Desert, the unforc'd Harmony of Birds, shall lull thy Soul in innocent and grateful Slumbers; the gentle Winds shall waft Immortal Whispers to thy Ravish'd Ears, breathing unutterable Sounds from Pa­radise. The murmuring Streams, shall war­ble forth their soft and sweet, Eternal Stories. All shall conspire to serve thy Con­templation, and to transport thy Mind with Sacred Ecstasies.

If after all this, thou shalt preferr the Me­nastick Enclosure; Follow thy Resolution, and be happy. Only remember, That tho' thy Body be shut up within those Walls; yet, if thy Mind straggle in Vain and Worldly Thoughts, thou art no longer a Recluse. A­dieu.

LETTER XXII. To the Captain Bassa.

IF all be true, that I have Reason to suspect, thou wilt find a warm Divertisement at Sea this Spring. Though the Europeans have seem'd slow in their Preparations to assist the State of Venice, suffering their separate Interests to supersede the Care of that Republick, yet now they turn their Eyes thither. Their Back­wardness hitherto, is owing to the Secrecy, with which our Sage Emperour meditated the present War. His Counsels were never whis­per'd out of the Seraglio, till the same Winds transported the News, which wafted our In­vincible Fleet to the Shore of Candy. Now they behold the Ocean, cover'd with the Ships of the Eastern Empire, Fear surprizes them; the Princes of the Nazarenes tremble. They look no longer on the Republick of Ve­nice with the Eyes of Envy, because of her Preheminence in Traffique, but with another Regard: They consider her, as the Bulwark of Christendom; the Tide of the Ottoman Puis­sance, and stopp'd our Victorious Armies from overflowing all Europe.

I have informed the Reis Effendi, of what I knew concerning the Naval Forces which are fitting out, in several Parts of the North [Page 97]and West, to aid the Venetians; but I have not told him what the Christians say of thee; neither am I willing to believe it. They speak of thee, as of a Man not more difficult to be corrupted, than was thy Predecessor, who was strangled by the Order of the Sul­taness-Mother. this Censure, I hope, is an Effect of their Impotence; while they flatter themselves with the Imagination of bribing him, from whose Courage and Fortune they can expect Nothing but Defeats.

They trust much in the Force of thy Birth and Education, and discourse of a certain agi­cal Character, imprinted in thy Soul, when thou wast baptiz'd, which, they say, is indelible; And, they promise themselves, That thy Na­tive Christianity, has more Influence on thy Heart, than Forced Circumcision; and, that thou wilt not Fight with any Zeal, against Men of the same Principles, as those who gave thee thy Breath. But, they confide more in the Charms of their Gold, with which they de­sign to bribe thee. In fine, they drink Healths to the Honest Renegado. So they term him who commands the whole Fleet of the Ottoman Empire.

I do not give Credit to these Calumnies, having good Grounds to boast of thy Inte­grity. However, I counsel thee, by some extraordinary Service to thy Master, to give the Lye to these Infidels: And, suffer not that, which at present may be but a bare Suspicion, to be improved by thy Neglect or Cowardise, into a palpable Evidence, That [Page 98]thou art false and perfidious to the Supreme Lord of the Globe.

LETTER XXIV. To Adonai, a Jew at Venice.

NOW thou art fixed, 'tis Time to write to thee: Thou hast been a Rambler these Three or Four Years, and no Body knew where to find thee. I have received Eleven Dispatches from thee, since thy first Departure from Genoua: Wherein thou hast informed me, of many Passages of State. Now I desire thee, to send me some Remarks, of the different Nature of the People thou hast seen, their various Customs and Laws, with whatsoever was worthy Observation in thy Travels.

Italy is a fair Field, yet produces Darnel as well as wholesom Corn. It is a Beautiful Garden, yet bears Aconites intermix'd with her Roses: Great Vertues, and no Less Vices. This Region is famous for the Wisdom of its. Inhabitants, and for their Proverbs: It is the Arabia of Europe, in many Sences. Yet, much lessened in its Renown, since the. De­cline of the Roman Empire. The Goths and [Page 99] Vandals, turned all into Desarts, where they came; and, have left such Impressions of their Northern Barbarism behind them, as made the People they conquer'd, half-Sa­vages. Hence came the General Decay of Learning and Knowledge in these Western Parts: Hence the Corruption of Ancient Manners. The Great, the Noble, and the Wise, bowed under the Yoke of their New Masters, learned their Fashions, and gloried in their Shame. Their Examples influenc'd the Vulgar; Debauchery became Modish and Authentick: Thus, a General Depravation of pristine Integrity took Place, and Men be­came Vicious by a Law.

Neither has Wickedness planted it self one­ly in Europe: The Sea could not stop this Boundless Evil. Asia is infected also, and the Vice of Italy is transported to the Em­pire of the True Believers. Thou hast seen all the Chief Cities between the Alps and Rhegium, which is the utmost Angle of Italy, to the South: tell me whether Sodom could exceed any of them, in Licentiousness: We will not except, even Rome, the Seat of the Christians Mufti. These Ʋncircumcised, have learned of thy Nation, to call the An­cient Philosophers, Infidels; but, had any of those Sages liv'd to see the Abominations of the Modern Nazarenes, they would have de­spised the Faith which produced no better Works.

Adonai, put in Practice the Import of thy Name; be Lord of thy self; and, if thou [Page 100]stumblest at the Light of the Mussulmans, walk in that of Moses, but shun the Paths of the Christians; for, they are enveloped in Darkness, and grope at Mid-day. Live ac­cording to Reason, and thou shalt be Happy. Adieu.

LETTER XXV. To Mustapha, Berber Aga.

THE present War of Candy, is like to render that Island as much the Subject of the Worlds Discourse, as it was formerly famous, for being the Cradle of Jupiter. In those Days, it was called Crete; much celebrated in the Writings of the Greek Poets. Afterwards, it became a Province of the Ro­man Empire; then of the Grecians; next, it submitted to the Saracens. But, in the Time of the Christian Expeditions in Palestine. when Baldwin, Farl of Flanders, was Crown'd Emperour of Constantinople, this Island came into his Possession: Which he gave to a cer­tain valiant Commander in his Army, a Man of a Noble Descent; of whom, the Venetians purchased it; and, in their Hands, it has continued ever since. But now, in all Pro­bability, [Page 101]bability, it will be the Prize of those Arms, which Nothing Sublunary can resist.

The Posts from Italy and the Sea-Coasts of this Kingdom, confirm each other's News; all agreeing, That notwithstanding the Utmost Efforts of the Venetians and Candiots, to hin­der the Relief of Canea; yet, our General is got into that Haven, with vast Quantities of Provisions, and a sufficient Reinforcement of Men. They add, That Forty Thousand of our Soldiers have made a Descent in a­nother Part of the Island, have gain'd the Forts of Cisternes, Colmi, and Bicorno, and were on their March toward Suda, with a Design to besiege that Place. They accuse our General of barbarous Cruelty, in that he caused Five of the Principal Noblemen of that Kingdom, to be put to Death; be­cause they refused to betray their Country, or enter into the Interests of the Grand Si­gnior.

I must confess, Magnificent Aga, That whatever may be said in Commendation of this General's Policy, and Fidelity to his Master; It is no Argument of the Goodness of his Disposition. I rather admire the Temper of the Duke of Orleans, when who Graveling was surrender'd to him, just as he enter'd the Town, was heard to say these Words: Let us endeavour by Generous Actions, to win the Hearts of all Men; so may we hope for a daily Victory. Let the French learn from me, this new Way of Conquest, to subdue Men by Mercy and Clemency.

[Page 102]These are Heroick Sentiments, and agree well with the Character of this Prince, who is said, Never to have been the Author of any Man's Death, nor to have revenged himself of any injury: Yet, a valiant Soldier, an ex­pert Commander, and no bad Politician.

It is not hid from the Court, with what a matchless Vertue he dismiss'd a Gentleman, that was hired to murder him. This As­sassin, was suffered to pass into the Duke's Bed-chamber one Morning early, precending Business of great Moment from the Queen. As scon as the Duke cast his Eyes on him, he spoke thus; I know thy Bus'ness, Friend; thou art sent to take away my Life: What Hurt have I done thee? It is now in my Power with a Word, to have thee cut in Pieces before my Face: But, I pardon thee; go thy Way, and see my Face no more.

The Gentleman stung with his own Guilt, and astonish'd at the excellent Nature of this Prince, fell on his Knees, confess'd his Design, and who employ'd him: And, ha­ving promis'd eternal Gratitude for this Roy­al Favour, departed without any other No­tice taken of him; and, fearing to tarry in France, entred himself into the Service of the Spanish King. It was his Fortune after­wards, to encounter the Duke of Orleans, in a Battle in Flanders. The Duke, at that In­stant, was oppressed with a Crowd of Ger­mans who surrounded him; and, in the Con­flict, he lost his Sword. Which this Gen­tleman perceiving, nimbly stepp'd to him, [Page 103]and deliver'd one into the Duke's Hands, saying withal, Now reap the Fruit of thy for­mer Clemency. Thou gavest me my Life, now I put thee into a Capacity to defend thy own. The Prince, by this Means, at length escaped the Danger he was in; and, that Day, the Fortune of War was on his Side. The French had a considerable Victory.

Thou seest by this, That Heroick Actions have something Divine in them, and attract the Favours of Heaven. No Man ever was a Loser by good Works: For, though he be not presently rewarded; yet, in Tract of Time, some happy Emergency or other arises, to convince him, That Vertuous Men are the Darlings of Providence.

Thou that art near the Person of the Grand Signior, maist find an Opportunity to relate this Story to him, which may make no un­profitable Impression on his Mind. Princes ever stand in Need of faithful Monitors.

Adieu, Great Minister, and favour Mah­mut, with the Continuance of thy Protection and Friendship.

LETTER XXVI. To Nassuf, Bassa of Natolia.

I Received thy Letter, as an Argument of the Continuance of that Friendship which was between us, when we lived together in the Seraglio. Since that Time, thou and I have been employed Abroad, in different Services of our August Emperor, who has now re­warded thy Fidelity with a Command; which, if it be not adequate to thy Merit, is nevertheless agreeable to thy Wishes.

I congratulate thy Honour, and wish thee a gradual Encrease of it; for, sudden and violent Leaps are dangerous. But, our Glo­rious Sultan, discovers his Abilities in No­thing more eminently, than in adapting Pla­ces of Trust to the Deserts and Capacities of his Faithful Slaves. So that, if he should in Time think fit, to exalt thee to the Highest Dignity in the State, we might from the Choice [...] of so wise a Prince, presage thee a better Fortune, than befell one of thy Name, in the Reign of Sultan Achmet III. who, from a Slave sold in the Market for Three Sequins, was advanced to an Honour too weighty for his Vertue; being made Vizir Azem, and Lord of the most delicious Pro­vinces in Asia. But, being Ambitious of ab­solute Sovereignty, he plotted Treason against [Page 105]his Master; which being discovered, the Fatal Firm was sign'd, and all his Designs were stifled with a Bow-string.

By this thou maist comprehend, how neces­sary it is for Princes, not to overload any Man with Dignities, beyond the Proportion of his Humility and Faithfulness. Yet, Re­wards well placed, give new Vigor to the Endeavours of a Slave; whereas, when good Services are slighted, it does but quench the Ardour, with which they were perform'd. Few Men are so Spiritual, as to do Great and Heroick Things, purely for the Sake of in­ternal Complacency. And, I doubt not, but the Decii themselves, in so freely sacrificing their Lives for their Country, had Regard to Humane Glory. Even Seneca, whom one would take for the most mortify'd Stoick of that Age, by his Writings; yet, is conceived to have found more Encouragement, in the Treasures of Gold, with which Nero's Boun­ty had fill'd his Coffers, than in all his Morals, of which he had such refin'd Sentiments, and elegant Expressions.

What I have said, thou hast Wisdom e­nough to apply to thy Self, without being vain-glorious: Let those whom thou employ­est in any meritorious Services, and who dis­charge their Trust well, be encourag'd with the same Proportions of Bounty. Munificence will not only add to thy Glory, but also advance thy Interest. Since, thou wilt ever have Occasion for thy Slaves: And, he who has once tasted thy Liberality, as a Reward for any Eminent [Page 106]Performance; had he no other Motive, than the Pleasure of renewing so profitable an Ex­periment, will freely hazard his Life, to serve thee in an Extremity.

This Method thou wilt find of no small Use to thee, in the Wars to which thou art going; where it will be necessary for thee, to recompence the least singular Bravery of the meanest Soldier, not only with Applause, but with some Preferment in the Army. This will not only prove a Spur to others, but even to the Person so rewarded; and put him up­on new Efforts of Courage, to attract the Eyes of his Munificent General. This will be the Way for thee, in Time, to have an Army composed all of Captains, or Men qua­lified for such.

Yet let not this diminish the Severity of that Discipline, which is requisite to retain a prosperous Army in their Obedience. I coun­sel thee, to be strict in requiring the least Military Duty; and, Industrious in perform­ing thy own Part, which will be an Exam­ple to the Rest: Yet, rather be forward to lead in Labours, than in Dangers; in Regard thou wilt be more serviceable in a Battel, by thy Counsels and Orders, than by personally entring the Combat. In all Things, prefer the Welfare of the Ottoman Empire, to whatsoever else is most dear to thee; even to thy own Honour, which yet ought to be dearer to thee than thy Life.

If thou thinkest I have taken too much Liberty to advise thee, accuse thy Self for [Page 107]having honour'd me with thy Friendship, which admits of no Reserves in Conversation.

LETTER XXVII. To the Kaimacham.

IT is a vast Disappointment to the Venetians, that our General in Candy has so oppor­tunely revictuall'd Canea, and encreas'd the Garrison there. Morosini is blam [...] for this, by those that wish him no Good. What will not Envy suggest, when it beholds a Man on the Top of Honour? This General, to give an Enemy his Due, is a Man of Spirit and true Fortitude: neither courting, nor shunning Dangers in the Service of his Country; but when once engag'd in Perils for that Cause, he is fearless as a Lyon. If he has not hitherto had Occasion to give the State so desperate a Proof of his Loyalty, as once did the Roman Curtius (who bravely gallop'd in­to the Bottomless Chasm, to pacify their An­gry Gods) yet he has often demonstrated, That his Courage and Fidelity, come not short of the Ancient Heroes. In a Word, he has done too much for the Republick of Venice, to escape the Spleen of other Grandees. All must be [Page 108] Generals, or the War will not prosper. Each Man's Ambition dictates this to the State, That a Man of Conduct, wou [...]d soon expell the Turks out of that Island: Thus, in his Conceipt, laying a Train for his own Pro­motion.

Wouldst thou know Morosini's Crime, that excites all this Passion? To speak the Truth, it was an Oversight advantageous to the Ottomans. He put out with his whole Fleet to sea, and left the Port of Canea open. By which means. Three of our Ships got in with Plenty of Provisions. So that the Town is now in a Condition to sustain a long Siege, and the Venetians despair of ever reco­vering it. Yet Morosini has made so plausible an Apology, that the Senate have acquitted him; not judging it consistent either with Justice or their Interest, to suffer one Miscarriage, the Effect of a fair Intention, to out-weigh his numerous Merits and Services. For, the Oc­casion of his thus suddenly abandoning the Avenue of that Haven, was, to chase some of our Vessels, then under Sail not many Leagues off; and the Taking of those Vessels, on Board of which were Abun­dance of Slaves justifi'd to the Senate, the Truth of his Pretensions. However, there are not wanting such as say, he held a private Correspondence with our General: Others, That the present Governour of Canea, had for­merly taken Captive at Sea a Son of Morosini's, whom he now offer'd to restore, in case he wou'd withdraw his Ships from before the Haven, [Page 109]for a few Days. I know not how far this may be credited. But, 'is a certain Truth, That Morosini has his Son again, and he de­fended himself by pleading, That he redeem'd him by exchanging a Mahometan Captive of Equal Quality, whom he had aboard his Ship.

And, thou knowest, That this Manner of Barter, is lawful in War. Adonai the Jew, sends me this Intelligence; and, I dare be­lieve him: For, since the Instructions I sent him to Genoua, he has taken Care to ascertain his Reports. I wish it were as true, That Morosini cou'd be prevail'd on, to accept the Friendships of the Sublime Port. But, the Character of that General, gives me no En­couragement to hope, for so fortunate a Treachery, from his severe Vertue.

However, I will hope and believe, That the Eternal Patron of True Believers, will give such a happy Issue to the Ottoman Arms in Candy, and all other Parts, as shall dispose the Naza­renes, that remain unconquer'd, to honour Him whom they have hitherto despised and blasphem'd; even the Prophet, who cou'd nei­ther Write nor Read.

LETTER XXVIII. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Constantinople.

THE Time of Year is now come, where­in the Earth turns her Inside out; and, Nature calls forth the hidden Vertues of that Element, to grace the World with an Infinite Variety of pleasant Forms and Colours. The Eye is lost in such a Crowd of different Beauties; and, every Sence is ra­vish [...]d with delightful Objects. The Young Men and Virgins throng the Fields, to be­hold the Resurrection of Flowers and Herbs; and, the Old, feel new Vigours springing in their Bodies, as though they had been in Me­dea's Cauldron. Even Mahmut himself, who has droop'd all the Winter, now begins to lift up his Head, and partake in the Com­mon Restauration of all Things.

If I am capable of guessing at the Occa­sion of my frequent Sickness, I believe it may, in Part, be attributed to the Want of fresh Air, in the Place where I lodge. There is a vast Difference between the Streets of Paris, and those of Constantinople. I seem to my self to be buried alive in this close City, where my Chamber-Window, affords me no far­ther Prospect than I can spit: Whereas, in Constantinople, the Gardens are so intermix'd [Page 111]with Houses, That it looks like a City in the Midst of a Forest; and, by the Advan­tage of its Situation, is always refreshed with Breezes from the Sea.

Besides the Impurity of these Infidels, who empty all their Filth in the Streets, so that the Dirt of Paris may be smelt some Miles off; the Uncleanness of their Diet, con­tributes in no small Measure to my Distem­per; being forced either to feed on Flesh with the Blood in it, or live on Herbs. They laugh at the Niceness of the Mussulmans, who will eat no Meat, that was knock'd down or strangled. They seem to be greedy of Blood, saving it in Vessels; and, mixing it with Flow­er of Wheat, make a certain Bread thereof, which they devour without the least Squeam­ishness. A True Believer, would tremble at the Sight of such Impiety. I tell thee, it is im­possible to live among them, and not be pol­luted: They have no Methods of Purification. They wallow, and hug themselves in their Uncleanness: they are worse than the Beasts.

Now the Spring has provided a new Ban­quet wherein there is no Impurity, I am re­solved to live like a Mussulman, and conform to the Precepes of our Holy Lawgiver; Who, when he beholds my Zeal and Absti­nence, will send the Angel of Health from his Paradise, to repair my decay'd Consti­tution.

The French Philosophers, are busied in an Inquisition after certain Kinds of Birds, which from the Second Day of this Moon, they say [Page 112]are not be found in the whole Kingdom, though the Woods and Fields were full of them during the Winter. Some are of Opi­nion, That they fly to the Moon; asserting, That if their Wings will but carry 'em beyond the Magnetick Force of the Earth, it will be no Pain to glide through the Upper Aiery Re­gion, till they arrive within the Attractive Energy of that Planet, where they will Na­turally seek Rest. Others, with more Pro­bability, say, That these Birds take their Flight to some other Region on Earth, whose Climate is more agreeable to their Natures, at this Time of Year.

I wish I could as easily once a Year take my Flight to Constantinople, where my Heart is Winter and Summer. Adieu, Dear Hali, and pity Mahmut, who counts himself un­happy in Nothing so much, as in being absent from his Friends.

LETTER XXIX. To the Testerdar, or Lord-Treasurer.

IT appears, That France has some extra­ordinary Design by Sea: When and where 'twill be put in Execution, is not yet known; but the vast Preparations that are making, seem to threaten some Foreign Invasion, ra­ther than a Naval Combat: It looks, as if they had an Expedition in Hand greater than that of Xerxes; to make a Bridge over the Ocean, and join the Separated Parts of the World together. New Arsenals are built, in several Maritime Towns; and, all the Fo­rests are cut down, to fill them with Timber for Ships of War: The Mountains are left na­ked of Trees, and the stately Woods are trans­planted into the Havens. An Infinite Num­ber of Men, are employ'd in making Cordage, Chains, Bullets, Anchors, Ordnance, and all other Necessaries belonging to a Navy.

This is Cardinal Mazarini's Project, under Pretence of setting the Poor of the Kingdom at Work, and disburthening the Common­wealth of Vagabonds and Idle Persons. But, Mahmut is not placed here, to be amus'd with State-Umbrages. It is evident, that this Minister designs to render his Master for­midable on both Elements. Agents are sent [Page 114]to buy Ships in all Parts; and, the very Pea­sants are forced from the Vineyards and Fields, to Man the greatest Fleet that ever this Kingdom fitted out to Sea.

Last Moon the Sieur de Quesne, was sent to assist Monsieur Chanut, in purchasing Ves­sels in Suedeland. It seems, there had been some Demurrs in his Negotiation; to remove which, this latter was sent with fresh Instru­ctions. But, Monsieur Chanut rejected him; And, Ten Day agoe, came an Express from that Minister, desiring, That a more Intelli­gent Colleague might be sent him; in Re­gard, he found it difficult to treat successfully, with a People too much elated with continual Victories.

Upon this, the Court have sent a Courier to Stockholm, with new Orders; whereby he is forbid to make any farther Overtures in Order to the Continuance of the League be­tween these Two Crowns: That France may not always appear in a Suppliant Posture, whilst the Suedes seem careless to conserve a Friendship, which they themselves first co­veted.

These Misunderstandings, may in a short Time proceed to a greater Alienation; and, in the End, to an open Rupture. Which has the more Probability, in that, General Konings­mark lately stopp'd some French Troops in their march, under Pretence of seeing their Passports; but really, as 'tis thought, to cor­rupt the Soldiers, and withdraw them from the Fidelity they owe their Sovereign.

[Page 115]This is highly resented here; and, they begin to discourse, of making Peace with Germany.

What the Issue of these Things will be, is yet in the Dark; but God, from whose Throne hangs the Chain of Destiny, which reaches to the Center of the Earth, will, I hope, so dispose of all Humane Events, That the Quarrels of the Nazarenes, shall minister Occasion to the Osmans, to encrease the Territories of our Puissant Emperor.

LETTER XXX. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at Vienna.

I Cannot but highly Applaud the Resolution thou hast taken, as thy Letter intimates, to enquire into the Grounds of the Religion thou art of. This shews, that thou settest a Value on thy Reason, and thinkest thy self beyond the Pupillage of a Child; that thou esteemest thy self of Years, to make a Choice of thy Religion, and not to take it up on the bare Credit of thy Forefathers. 'Tis certain, that Error may be Traditional as well as Truth: And, the Pagan Idolaters, pleaded a Greater Antiquity, for the Altars of their Gods, than could the Followers of Moses, for the Temple of Jerusalem, the Tabernacle in the Desart, or for the Promulgation of the Law it self on Mount Sinai: Since, there was scarce a Region on the Continent, which had not Establish'd Rites and Ceremonies of Worship, long before Moses, or even Jacob, the Great Father of the Israelites were born.

Among the Rest of the Nations, Arabia, my Native Country, was peculiarly bless'd with the Footsteps of the Illustrious Ibrahim, Grandfather to Israel, from whom the Jews descend. In this Happy Country, that Re­nowned Prophet sojourned, conversed with [Page 117] Angels: And, with the Majesty which can­not be Uttered: he preached the Ʋnity of the Divine Essence, Converted the People from their Idolatry, built an Oratory at Meccha, and was taken up into Paradise.

Ismael his Eldest Son, and Heir of his Fa­ther's Spirit, as of his Territories, trod in the Footsteps of the Assumpt of God. He brake down the Idols, asserted One God, the Resurrection, the Day of Judgment, the Joys of Paradise, and the Torments of Hell. His Off-Spring Multiplied, and Peopled all the East: The Princes of this Holy Line, sub­dued the Infidel Nations, and rooted them­selves in the most fertile Regions of Asia, professing themselves Mussulmans or True Believers. Thus passed the Light of God, from the Face of Ibrahim, to his Posterity by Successive Generations; till at Length, it rested on the Face of Mahomet, Our Holy Lawgiver, and was encreas'd with admirable Splendors, by the frequent Visits of the An­gel Gebrail. He took the Root of Evil, out of the Prophet's Heart; brought him down the Alcoran from Heaven, and gave him Victory and Honour; call'd him by a New Name, THE SEAL OF THE PRO­PHETS; carried him to the Throne of God, through Legions of Devils, that waited below the Moon to destroy him. And finally, made his Sepulcher Glorious and resorted to, by the Believers of all Nations on the Earth.

I send thee this Abstract of the Mussulman History, to the End, thou maist see what Pre­tensions [Page 118]the Children of Ismael have to the True Law; which you, of the Posterity of Isaac would monopolize to your selves: As if, God had not sent Prophets to all Nations, to lead them into the Right Way, and not into the Way of Infidels. Nevertheless, take not these Things on my Credit, but examine the Records of thy own Nation, and the Hi­story of past Times. Weigh all Things in the Balance: Consult thy Reason, which is an indeficient Light, to those who follow it. Your Law, was once Pure and Uncorrupted; but, in Time, the Devil inserted many Er­rors: He seduced your Fathers; they re­turn'd upon their Steps, and fell back into Idolatry. Then God raised up the Messias, to reform all Things; but, Him ye rejected. And when he was taken up into Paradise, ye reported, That He was hang'd on a Tree. In this, the Nazarenes are your Fools, and fight against themselves; Whilst they assert, as you do, That he who is Immortal and Trium­phant, among the Hundred and Twenty Four Thousand Prophets, Was Crucified be­twixt Two Thieves; Thus bringing a Re­proach on the Apostle of God, and on their Own Faith; in believing Things, inconsi­stent with the Goodness and Power of the Divine Majesty. Without Doubt, Jesus, the Son of Mary, is▪ Ascended Body and Soul into Paradise; Who, whilst he was on Earth, said, Worship One God, Your Lord and Mine.

[Page 119]Let me not seem importunate, or trou­blesome. I seek not to circumvent thy Rea­son, but to direct it. Think Seven Times, before thou Change Once. I will procure thee Books of our Law; Peruse them with Judgment; and tell me then, Whether thou hast ever seen any Writing comparable to the Alcoran? The Majesty of the Style, speaks it above Humane Original: It is exempt from Contradiction, from the Beginning to the End: It confirms the Old Testament, which thou believest: It is all over cloath'd with Light. Doubtless, it is no other, than a Transcript of the Book written in Hea­ven.

If after all thy Search, thou shalt deter­mine otherwise, follow thou Thy Law, and I will follow Mine. We both Worship One God, Lord of the Ʋniverse.

LETTER XXXI. To the same.

LET not the Fear of displeasing those of thy Nation, hinder thee from embra­cing the Truth. God shall protect thee from the Malice of Ʋnbelievers. Thy Interest is already great among the Mussulmans; our August Emperour will augment both that, and thy Honour. Take hold of the strongest Knot, and adhere not to Tagot. The Cleanliness and Delicacy of the Mussulmans may invite thee, which far exceeds that of the Jews, and yet is void of Superstition: We only obey the sin­cere Dictates of Nature, which teach us, That so long as the Soul dwells in this Mansion of Flesh, it partakes of Bodily Pollutions. 'Tis to avoid these, we abstain from certain Meats and Drinks, which cannot be touch'd without Contamination. To this End, do we observe that superlative Niceness, in our Washings and Purifications, which discriminates us from all the World beside. Doubtless, Our Law is but the Law of Moses, refin'd and sublima­ted from the Dregs of adventitious Error.

Write often to me, and whatever Reasons may prevail on thee not to change thy Reli­gion, let no Arguments tempt thee to swerve from thy Fidelity to the Sovereign of Sovereigns on Earth, the Grand Signior, in whose Veins runs the most Exalted Blood of Humane Race.

[Page 121]Here is a Report in this City, That the Elector of Brandenburgh, will demand the Queen of Sueden in Marriage: let me know if it be true, That I may inform the Mini­sters of the Lofty Port, from whom Nothing ought to be concealed, that occurs of Moment betwixt the Two Poles.

Inform me also, what passes of remarkable in the Assembly of the Deputies at Mun­ster, and whether it be true, That the Da­nube has lately overflow'd its Banks, and car­ried away Four Hundred Houses in its rapid Course.

Such Stories are told here, by those who know not how to pass away their Time, but in hearking after Foreign News, to furnish themselves with Matter to amuse the Credu­lous, and beget Admiration of their Intelli­gence.

I have sent thee a Watch of my making; If thou acceptest it with good Will, 'tis a sufficient Acknowledgment.

May God, whose Presence fills the Ʋni­verse, disclose himself to thee, in the Way of Salvation, and continue to breathe good Mo­tions into thy Soul.

LETTER XXXII. To the Kaimacham.

A Donai the Jew, has much improv'd him­self, in his late Progress through Italy: He is grown a perfect Statesman; having found out the Way to penetrate into Secrets, and to dispatch Business without any Noise. He may prove very serviceable at Venice, during the present War of Candy. His Acquaintance in that City, gives him Access to the Cabals of the Senators; who spare not, over their Wine, to whisper the Counsels of the State, and to descant on the Measures that are taken to defend that Republick, against the Invin­cible Prowess of the Ottoman Armies.

It is publickly known, That they have sent Embassadors to the Crown of Moscovy, that of Poland, and to the Cossacks; inviting them to enter into a League, against the Grand Sig­nior. But, few are acquainted with the Pri­vate Treaty they are making, with the Bassa of Aleppo. We owe this Discovery, to the Diligence and Wit of this Son of Israel. He has drawn the Secret, from the Mouths of se­veral Eminent Counsellors of State; and as­sures me, That the Senate have made such Proposals to that Governour, as cannot fail of inducing him to Revolt.

This may prove of ill Consequence, if not timely preyented: The pernicious Example of this Bassae, may incite others to tread in his [Page 123]Steps, especially his Neighbours of Sidon and Damascus, who have for a long Time medi­tated a Sovereignty, Independent of the Throne which first establish'd 'em in those Charges. Besides, the single Forces of this Bassa, will be able to give a powerful Diversion to the Arms of the Empire, already engag'd in Candy, Dal­matia, and other Parts, by Sea and Land. He says, the Venetians speak much in Praise of this Bassa's Justice, whereof they relate many Ex­amples: Among the Rest, A certain Cook a­mong the Franks of that City, was accus'd of dressing and selling putrify'd Flesh, whereby many that eat thereof, were infected with the Plague. Complaint being made of this to the Bassa, he sends for the Cook, and exa­mines him about it: He reply'd, That he sold none but good and wholsome Meat; for, if it happen'd, That at any Time he was forc'd to keep any Flesh in his House above Three Days, he so season'd it with Spices and Herbs, as made it very savoury, and without any ill Scent.

The Bassa, not having Patience to hear any more of this foetid Apology, commanded his Arms and Legs to be cut off, and the Veins to be seared up: Ordering, that during the short Time he had to live, he shou'd have no other Food, but what was made of his own Limbs.

They relate one more Passage, of a Com­plaint that was made by a Peasant, whose Daughter this Bassa's onely Son had ravish'd: The Bassa compell'd him to marry her with [Page 124]this Charge, Let me hear no more Complaints of thee, unless thou art resolved to leave me without a Son.

It is reported here, That the King of Per­sia, has made a Peace with the Great Mogul; and that they will both turn their Forces, against our August Emperour.

Here is also a Courier arriv'd from Mar­seilles, who brings News of the Revolt of Cavarra; the Inhabitants of that Place, ha­ving shaken off the Obedience they owe to the Sultan, and put themselves under the Protection of the Venetians: and, that Gene­ral Grimani, has taken Four Ships of Ragusa, laden with Ammunition for our Army. He adds also, That Morosini has Thirty small Vessels, besides Galleys, under the very Walls of the Dardanells. I long ago suggested to the Vizir Azem, That the Weakness of those Castles, would one Time or other encourage the Christians, to perform some notable Ex­ploit in the Hellespont. But, Mahmut's Coun­sel was not regarded: Now the Event justifies my Advice, the Port will consult the Security of [...] Avenue. I wish they do not practise the T [...] Wisdom. The Venetians have a powerful Fleet; If they block up the Helle­spont, and hinder our Ships from sailing into the Archipelago; and the Cossacks, in the mean while, cover the Black Sea with their Barks, committing a Thousand Piracies and Ravages, What will become of the Imperial City? Whence will they provide Sustenance for so many Millions of People, as inhabit that City and the Parts adjacent?

[Page 125]These Things are Worthy of Consideration: And thou, who hast the Care of that Capital Seat of the Ottoman Empire, wilt not blame Mahmut, for putting thee in Mind of the Danger which threatens even the Seraglio it self at this Juncture. However, I have done my Duty, Sage Minister, and refer the Rest to thy Wisdom. My Letters are all register'd; and if Affairs shou'd succeed ill, it will be ma­nifested, That Mahmut, who watches Night and Day, to serve the Great Master of the World, has not been wanting to give timely Notice of what might be advantageous to the Monarchy of the True Faithful.

Thou, who art celebrated for thy Justice and Probity, pardon the Liberty which my Zeal for Thy Master and Mine, renders wor­thy of Excuse.

The End of the First Book.


LETTER I. To the Most Magnificent and Illustrious Vizir Azem, at the Port.

OSmin the Dwarf, whom I formerly mentioned, remains still in the Court; and continues his good Of­fices, in communicating to me such Passages as come to his Knowledge. He has a subtle Wit, and bears no hearty Love to the Christians, though he be One himself in Pro­fession. [Page 128]He frequently visits me, and trusts me with his Secrets. One Day he convinc'd me by evident Circumstances, That Cardinal Ma­zarini, was projecting to give some secret and sudden Blow to the Ottoman Empire, for which Osmin seems to be concern'd by a Na­tural Inclination; being, as I told thee, born of Mahometan Parents. He was un­easie, till he had acquainted me with his Ap­prehensions; and, I gave him such Instructi­ons, as I thought most proper on this Oc­casion. I set my Thoughts on the Rack, to prevent so dire a Mischief. And, having premeditated well on this Affair, I pitch'd on a Course, which would at once clear me from the Cardinal's Suspicion; and, by seeming to favour his Designs, would absolutely over­throw them. I went to him boldly one Day; and being admitted to his Closet, I thus ad­dress'd that Politician:

THERE are now Nine Years e­laps'd, Great Minister, since I first breath'd the Air of France; during all which Time, I have not only shar'd in Common with the Natives, the Be­nefits which have accru'd to this Noble Kingdom, under the Auspicious Mini­stry of Cardinal Richlieu, and his no less Eminent Successor; but have also re­ceiv'd many particular Honours from that Illustrious Prince of the Church, to [Page 129]which Your Eminence, has been plea­sed to make some undeserv'd Additions. 'Tis to you both, I owe the Character which has introduc'd me into the Ac­quaintance and Favour of the Nobility; who, on that Score, have thought me Worthy to Instruct their Children, in the Greek and Arabick Tongues; have vouchsafed to admit me to their Salt; and to encourage me with the Hopes, of finding a Comfortable Repose in the Bosom of the Gallican Church, after a tedious Peregrination from my own Country.

When I reflect on all the accumula­ted Blessings I enjoy, under the Pro­tection of Your Eminence; Blessings equally transcending my Ambition, as they do my Merits; I apply all my Studies, to find out some acceptable Way of Acknowledgment, to my Gra­cious Benefactor. And, because nothing can be more Welcom to the Guardian of France, than the Means of advan­cing the Publick Good of the Kingdom committed to his Care; I now presume, as a Testimony of my Gratitude, to propose to Your Eminence, some Spe­culations, which if put in Execution, will in my Judgment, not only render [Page 130] France the most Formidable and Abso­lute Monarchy on Earth, but also tie the whole Catholick World in Eternal Obligations to her; and give just Rea­son to change the Style of his Most Christian Majesty, from Eldest Son of the Church, to that of Father of all Chri­stendom.

Your Eminence will not wonder at the Zeal of a Stranger, or the Care that Titus of Moldavia takes for France: In being Sollicitous for this Kingdom, I consult the Welfare of my own Coun­try, and of all the Nations which pro­fess the Faith of Jesus; since it is ealie to see, That in the Fate of France, that of all Europe is involv'd.

It is a long Time since the Dismem­ber'd Reliques of the Roman Empire, bor­dering on Asia, found themselves too weak to resist the Puissance of the Ot­toman Arms. All Greece was soon o'er­run, by the Warlike Turks. Transyl­vania, Walachia, Moldavia, with the greatest Part of the Ʋpper Hungary, quickly became Tributaries to the inve­terate Enemies of the Christian Name. And, Germany it self is so enfeebl'd by their repeated incursions, that all the Emperour can do, is, to make dishonou­rable [Page 131]and costly Compositions, buying a Precarious Peace with little less Charges, than would serve some more Fortunate Prince, to carry on a Glorious and Suc­cessful War. Neither is the State of Venice in any better Condition of De­fence, the Turks having par'd away whole Provinces, from that once flou­rishing Common-wealth; and, by their continual Invasions and Hostilities, re­duc'd her to a Necessity of Merchan­dizing with the Ottoman Port for Peace. Which is no sooner concluded, but, on the least Pretence, is broke again, by those, who hold themselves not oblig'd, to keep Faith with Christians. Behold, at this Time, without Provocation on the Part of Venice, or a Declaration of War by the Grand Signior, the late League broken on a sudden, and in a most Clandestine Manner. Behold Can­dy environ'd with their Fleet by Sea, and her fertil Plains, cover'd with Armies of Mahometans by Land. Behold her Cities in the Hands of her Enemies, and her Villages laid Desolate; her Nobles put to the Sword, and her Merchants led into Captivity. In fine, behold this afflicted Common-wealth yet struggling with her Fate, and sending her Ambas­sadors [Page] [Page 127] [...] [Page 128] [...] [Page 129] [...] [Page 130] [...] [Page 131] [...] [Page 132]to all the Princes and States of Christendom, Demanding, or rather, in a suppliant Manner, Imploring their Assistance. Yet, she finds little or no Help from any but the Pope, and the Knights of Malia. And, his Holiness has enough to do, to preserve the Patrimony of the Church from Violence. The State of Genoua, is too intent upon her Traf­fick, to regard the Calamities of her Neighbours. And, all the Princes of Italy have such Diversions at Home, as ren­der their Application to Things Abroad, very Cold and Indifferent. In the mean while, the Turks gain Ground, double their Strength, and encrease their Vi­ctories! Oh Deplorable State of Chri­stendom! Is there no Redress for these Miseries? Yes surely, there is! and such a Redress, as only lies in Your Power, Great Minister, to apply; which, in the Experiment, I dare assure will prove Effectual.

I do not pretend to the Visions and Inspirations of Peter the Hermit, who garbl'd Secular and Divine Offices; and arming himself in Habiliments of Steel, went Dragooning up and down Chri­stendom, at the Head of a Confused Rabble, to render himself Popular, and [Page 133]acquire the Triple Character, of Pil­grim, Priest and Captain. The ill Suc­cess of his rash Expeditions, shew'd, That he was only stung with a Religious Ca­price, and that God approv'd not his Folly. I do not go about to propose another Crusade, or contrive a Way to shed whole Deluges of Humane Blood, with no other Consequence, than to stain History, with the Sanguine Memoirs of Christendom's Vanity and Misfortune. Besides, that would be found Impra­cticable in this Age, which was easie to put in Execution, Five or Six Hundred Years ago: The World is not so De­vout now, as it was in those Days; nei­ther are Men so prompt to run the Risque of their Lives, on Religious Er­rands, for the Honour of being esteem'd Martyrs. 'Twill be difficult to find out a New List of Godfrey's, Baldwin's, Guy's, and other Hero's, to lead the Cham­pions of the Cross, through all the Hard­ships of Sea and Land, so many Hun­dred Miles, into Remote and Desolate Regions; to combate not only with Flesh and Blood, but with Famine, Pe­stilence, And all the Miseries of Human Life; And, as if this were not enough, to sheath their Swords also in each [Page 134]others Bowels, for Punctilio's, meer Trifles of mistaken Honour, and ill­tim'd Emulation. And, all this only, to purchase the Empty Title, of King of Jerusalem; or the Precarious Autho­rity of a Grecian Emperor: Both short liv'd Honours; the One to be lost in a little Time, with all Palestine, to the Saracens; the Other, depending only on the Pleasure of the Multitude! Such were the Glorious Fruits of the Chri­stian Arms in those Days! Such the Triumphs, attending Our Victories! These the Trophies, which our Fa­thers erected to their own Disgrace; when, after a War of so many Years, they left the Holy Land in a worse Con­dition than they found it; and, of so many Hundred Thousand Men as marched thither, threatning the utter Subversion of the Saracen Empire, there scarce return'd enough, to disperse the News of their own Overthrow.

Waving therefore these Visionary rash Expeditions, I now propose to Your E­minence, an Undertaking, which tho' it may make less Noise in the World, yet carri [...] more Probability of Success; and, will not only promote the Interest of France, but redound to the Advantage of all Europe,

[Page 135]No Man who is acquainted with Hi­story, can be ignorant, what Claims the Kings of France have made to the Em­pire of the West, since the Days of Char­lemaine, the Royal Predecessor of his Present Majesty, who was dignified with the Imperial Title, by the Sovereign Bishop. Neither is it unknown by what Artifices the House of Austria have pro­cured the Translation of this Sacred Au­thority to their Own Family.

Your Eminence is sensible, by what Tyrannous and Unjust Methods, they have maintain'd themselves in this high­est Pitch of Humane Glory; and, not content with this, how they have aspir'd after the Monarchy of the Whole World! All the North have groan'd un­der the Burden of their Insupportable Tyranny. And, their Encroachments on the South, have render'd that Line, little less Infamous. They spare nei­ther Civil nor Ecclesiastical Rights, in the Pursuit of their Ambition; not even the Patrimony of St. Peter, which has ever been esteemed Sacred and Inviolable, by Christian Princes: they have sack'd Rome it self, and led the Supreme Pastor of the Church into Captivity. What should I speak of the Hollanders, Suitzers, [Page 136]Grisons and other Nations, which, im­patient of the Austrian Yoke, revolted from their Cruel Masters; and, have ever since asserted their Liberty, by the Force of their Arms? What should I mention, the frequent Troubles in Bo­hemia, Transylvania and Hungary, when the Inhabitants of those Countries, grown desperate with their daily Op­pressions, have bravely endeavour'd to redeem themselves and their Posterity, from perpetual Servitude; but, for Want of a Powerful Protector, have been forc'd to yield to their Old Ma­sters? That Incestuous Race, are grown Odious to the Whole World: Even the Princes of the Empire, are forced to smother their Resentments, when they Elect One to possess the Imperial Dia­dem, whom they cannot but hate!

That therefore which I aim at in this Address, is, to represent to Your Emi­nence, how easie it will be in this Juncture, for his most Christian Majesty, to recover the Imperial Crown, which of Right be­longs to None but the Successors of the renown'd Charleinaine; and, which even the greatest Part of the Germans them­selves, wish to see plac'd on the Head of Lewis XIV. Most of the Electors, [Page 137]are already inclining to the Interests of France: It will not be difficult to win the Rest. The Hungarians, &c. long for a Deliverer; And, the other Pro­vinces beyond the Danube, will freely open the Gates of their Cities, to let in his Armies, whom they look on as the Hope of all Christendom. The Hel­vetians, who are Allies of this Crown, will not fail to perform their Part. The Suedes have already pluck'd many Feathers, from that Ravenous Eagle. And, the Forces of this Crown, have blunted her Talons. Another Cam­pagne will quite deplume her, ener­vate her last Vigour, and end the tedi­ous Controversie.

Let not therefore an Untimely Peace with the Emperour, so much talk'd of, stop the Current of the French Tri­umphs! Let not the Sinister Practices of German Pensioners in the Suedish Court, occasion a Rupture between Two the most Potent and Victorious Crowns in Europe! Or rather, let not Queen Chri­stina, reap the sole Glory of so for­tunate and profitable a War! His Ma­jesty has a Formidable Army by Land; and, in a short Time, will have an In­vincible Fleet by Sea. Continual Victo­ries, [Page 138]court the Perseverance of the French Valour; whilst the Justice of your Cause, invites to the Battel.

All Things conspire, to put a Period to the Austrian Grandeur. Only snatch the present Opportunity; which once lost, may never be recover'd again. 'Twas only the sudden and unexpected Fate of Henry IV. this King's Grand-father, of Eternal Memory, that hin­der'd him from putting in Execution the same Design I now propose. And, if Lewis XIII. did not prosecute it, 'twas because he wanted a favourable Juncture. Now, behold, it offers it self: 'Tis in your Power, Supreme Di­rector of the State, under his Majesty, to build the Fortune of France so high, that all the Nations of Christendom, may repose under its Shadow. Pursue the Success which Heaven has already gran­ted. And, when all Europe is thus settled in a Durable Peace, either making Ho­nourable Friendships with, or entirely submitting to, this new Gallick Empire; then will be the Time to call the Otto­mans to an Account, for the Ravages and Spoils they have committed in Christian Countries, and to carry Our Arms to the Walls of Constantinople, and [Page 139]drive these Barbarians, back to their Primitive Rocks and Desarts; from whence they have thus long straggled, to ruine the most desirable Provinces of Asia and Europe; nay, and of the Whole World.

There is no other Way but this, in my Judgment, to stop the Progress of the Turkish Victories. Since it is im­possible, to make a Durable Peace a­mong Christian Princes, but by Con­quest; I mean, such a Peace, as will in­spire them with the Resolution, and put them into a Capacity, to unite all their Forces, in a War against the Mahometans. As for the present Con­dition of the Republick, if their Losses were greater, than they are like to be, yet they will be inconsiderable, in Com­parison of the mighty Gain which will afterwards accrue, not only to them, but to all the Christian Nations, by advancing the French Crown to that Height of Grandeur, design'd for it by Fate. Hitherto the Christian Princes, have only endeavour'd to ap­ply a Remedy to the Part particular­ly affected; from whence, if by For­tune they chas'd the Distemper, it soon brake out in some other Mem­ber; [Page 140]Whence it came to pass, that we lost Province after Province, and the Turks are almost gotten into the Heart of Europe. If therefore, We de­sign to drive them thence, it is necessa­ry to follow this Method, which will be found the only Way, to pluck this Evil up by the Roots.

Go on then, Most Prudent and Il­lustrious Guardian of the Crown, de­stin'd to Command the Earth; Go on, and lift up our Great Master, to the Wreath with which the Tutelar Angel of Europe, is ready to environ his Sacred Temples. Let not the Ger­man Deputies at Munster, any longer amuse You with feigned Overtures of Peace. But, pursue the Propitious Fate of France, which waits to lead Our Armies to Victories, Triumphs and Glories; and to establish a New Empire in the World, to which all Na­tions shall pay Homage, and fly for Protection.

Thou seest, Illustrious and Serene Vizir, That I have us'd much Flattery in this Ad­dress. It is a necessary Vice in the Court of France, where no Diogenes can have Audi­ence. It cannot be expected, That I should discover by the Cardinal's Answer, What his [Page 141]Sentiments were of my Project. He is of a debonair Humour, and will rather feign Ver­tues to commend in another Man, than put him to the Blush by mentioning his Real Vices. This is an Effect of his Natural Di­sposition, which he is wise enough to im­prove to the End of Policy. There being no subtiler Artifice to gain a Popular E­steem, than by the Reputation of a Generous Temper.

However, I think I said Nothing that could justly offend Him, unless he were en­dued with the Incommunicable Gift of dis­cerning Hearts. For otherwise, at the Worst, he could but tax me with a Loyal Presump­tion and Mistake, in proposing Things alto­gether Impracticable.

These were such, thou wilt easily discern, when thou considerest, That though they appear fair and easie in the Attempt, as the Circumstances of Europe are at pre­sent; yet, the Revolution of a few Moons, may quite change the Face of Affairs; new and unthought of Difficulties may a­rise; the Emperor may make a Peace with Suedeland; the Pope might interpose his Mediation and Authority; the Assembly at Munster might have a Conclusion accor­ding to their Wishes; the Electoral Princes, might be more firmly fastned to the Interest of the Empire. Besides, ano­ther Campagne may prove as fatal to the French, as the former have been propitious. After all, if they should find Encourage­ment [Page 142]to begin this Enterprize, and should meet with answerable Success in the Prose­cution of it; yet, a Thousand Occurrences would emerge, to hinder them from enjoy­ing their new-gotten Empire long; or, from being able to maintain a War against the Empire, whose Subjects are Infinite, and Treasures Inexhaustible.

If thou, who art the Light of the Osman Monarchy, shalt approve of what I have done, my Happiness will be great; never­theless, thy Reproofs will not make me Mi­serable, since they are Arguments of thy Con­descension and Favour.

LETTER II. To Ismael Mouta Faraca, a White Eunuch.

THY Letter is come safe to my Hands, accompany'd with a Munificent Present from Egry Boinou, who, thou tellest me, is depriv'd of his Eyes by the Grand Signior's Or­der. I condole the Calamity of my Friend, yet accuse not the Justice of Him who is Ma­ster of us All. We are Mussulmans, and must not dispute the Pleasure of Heaven, or the Commands of our Sovereigns. It is an Argu­ment of their Clemency, when they retrench their Anger, and spare the Lives of their Slaves. The Sultan is merciful in a higher Degree, in not extending his Hands to the Wealth of our Friend; but, has left that, and his Liber­ty untouch'd: Whereby he is still in a Capa­city, of enjoying many Pleasures, which are denied to Thousands who have their Sight.

I do not write this, as if I were void of Compassion toward my Friend. I owe him still the same Affection, as when he was able to read the Sincerity of it in my Face. But, I would not have the Loss of his Eyes, abate the Sight of his Soul, which is his Reason. Let him remember, That a Famous Philoso­pher has done that voluntarily to himself, for the Sake of a less interrupted Contemplation, [Page 144]which is imposed on our Friend as a Punish­ment. There is no outward Disaster, can hurt the Opticks of a Mind guarded with Pa­tience, and shut up within the Circle of its own Light. Such a Soul, is impregnable a­gainst all the Assaults of Fortune, and triumphs over Destiny it self.

Besides, our beloved Eunuch, can still con­verse with his Friends; which is a Privilege, the Deaf would almost give their Eyes to enjoy. It is hard to determine, which of those Two Sences would be miss'd with least Regret; especially, to a Man, who by his excellent Voice, and Skill in Singing, seems to be the very Soul of Musick.

What is it in all this infinite Variety of Vi­sible Objects, that affects the Eye with so refin'd a Pleasure, but the harmonious Dis­position and Symmetry of the Parts, which compose the whole Scene of the Universe? And, may not that Pleasure be translated to the Ear, when it receives the proportionate Measures, and exquisite Cadencies of Sounds? Certainly, Musick is no other, than Beauty to the Ear, as Beauty is Musick to the Eye.

But our Friend Egry, needs not these En­couragements: He understands the Way to make himself Happy, and has Wisdom e­nough to put it in Practice.

The Grand Signior's Fury is pacified. Egry Lives. He has Houses and Gardens; Gardens replenished with all Manner of Fruits and Flowers to gratify his Taste and Smell. He is Ma­ster of much Treasure in Silver and Gold, and [Page 145]of many Slaves. If all these cannot contri­bute to his Felicity, he is Master of Him­self, which is Essential Happiness.

Thou who succeedest him in that honou­rable Post, and guardest the Avenue of the Majestick Chamber, where the Addresses and Supplications of all the Princes of the Earth are made at the Feet of our August Emperor; watch thy Sences, and obey thy Reason. Re­member thy Predecessor's Fate, and forget not Mahmut; but, above all Things, forget not thy Self. Adieu.

LETTER III. To Dgnet Oglou.

I AM extremely surprized, and equally troubl'd, at the severe Punishment which Sultan Ibrahim has inflicted on Egry Beinou. His Successor, Ismael Mouta Faraca, sent me the first News of it, but said nothing of the Eunuch's Crime. Neither wou'd I request that satisfaction of a Man, who derives a new Lustre, from the Tragical Eclipse of my Friend; lest roy Love shou'd have betray'd my Discretion, and tempted me to utter that, which is not proper for a Slave of the Sult [...] [Page 146]to express. Our Thoughts are our own, whilst we keep them chain'd up in our Breasts; but, if once we suffer 'em to take Air in words, they become another Man's, who may make use of them to our Ruine. I never had Fami­liarity enough with Ismael, to trust him with Reflections of this Nature. Besides, his own Letter to me, discover'd too much Freedom to be void of Design, it being the first that ever pass'd between us; which, for that Rea­son, ought to have been dictated in a Style more reserv'd. I set him a Pattern in my An­swer; not letting a Word escape my Pen, which might speak less Resignation to the Will of our Master, than Tenderness for my Friends Suffering.

But, with thee I dare use greater Free­dom: My long Experience of thy Integrity, will justifie this Boldness. Tell me, my Dgnet, was it not the Blindness of Sultan Ibrahim's Passion, which has robb'd Egry of his Sight? Answer me without Disguize; Was it not some Caprice of Jealousie? Was it not because the Master thought he saw too much, that the Slave sees not now at all? If that Sence was not judg'd Criminal in Egry, why was [...]in particular punished? But, 'tis in vain to measure the Cruel Frolicks of a Sove­reign Monarch by a Rule, who makes his Will a Law.

The Christians say, the Ottoman Princes are Butchers, and the whole Empire a Shambles; where Persons of all Degrees, are sacrific'd to the Lust or Passion of a Tyrant. I tell thee, [Page 147]though I approve not the licentious Tongues of these Infidels; yet, it appears too true, That so uncontroulable a Power as the Ea­stern Monarchs are invested with, prompts them to commit many Violences, for which, Justice can make no Plea. It were to be wish'd, That the Practices of the Sublime Seraglio, did not too often verifie it. Suffer me to be exasperated a little, for the Cruel Sentence executed on my Friend, the most accom­plish'd Person within the Walls of that Ma­gnificent Palace. Doubtless, he owes the Loss of his Eyes, to the Grudge of some En­vious Minion, who could not brook so dan­gerous a Rival in the Sultan's Favour. For, this Unfortunate Eunuch, who charm'd all Hearts, had made some Impression also on the Cruel Ibrahim's. He often lov'd to hear him sing the lively Dorick Strains, to chase away his Melancholy: For, Egry is a Se­cond Orpheus, whose Voice, thou knowest, inspir'd the Trees and Rocks with Passion. Besides, he has many other Gifts, which ren­der'd his Person and Conversation delectable to all; and taught the whole Seraglio, new Lessons of Platonick Love.

When thou hast receiv'd this, I desire thee, to give him a Visit: Thou knowest his House at Galata. Embrace him in my Name, and give him a Kiss of Faithful Friendship. For­get not also to return him my Acknowlege­ments, for the Diamonds he sent me. And, chear him with this Thought, That one Day, his Eyes shall be renew'd in Paradise, far [Page 148]brighter than those Glittering Jewels. A­dieu.

LETTER IV. To Dicheu Hussein Bassa.

'TIS not easie to guess at the Motive, which induc'd the Duke of Orleans, to begin this Years Campagne in so Rigorous a Season. It was the First Moon, and the Ground was covered with deep Snows (An ill Time, to march in an Enemies Country.) And, when these Snows were dissolv'd, Floods follow'd. It seems as if he were thirsty of Fame, and would acquire the Character of a Hardy Warriour: Resolving to shun no Fatigue, which might advance the Reputation of his Arms.

The Duke of Enguien, spurr'd on with a glorious Emulation, soon followed with an­other Army, but by a different Road. There are Four Mareschals of France, gone with them. These Early Marches, make a great Noise. But, little of Action could be expect­ed, while the wary Flemmings, knowing the Passes of the Country, and the Force of the Floods, have kept their Winter-Quarters; [Page 149]spending that Time at Ease, in preparing all Things Necessary for a more seasonable Cam­pagne, which they have now begun.

In this, the Spanish Policy deserves Com­mendation; who would not expose the Health and Lives of their Soldiers to unne­cessary Rigors, but waited till the Sun had well dry'd up the unwholsome Damps of the Earth, and shedding his benigner Influence through the Air, invited them forth into the Field. But, when I thus approve the Wis­dom of the Spaniard, think not, that I con­demn the sprightly Genius of the French, who seem to approach nearest the Bravery of the Mussulman Armies.

The Action of a French Officer, was wor­thy of Remark; who being sent from the Camp, with Letters to the King and Queen, arrived at the Court the 24th. Day of the Se­cond Moon, whilst the Ground was yet fro­zen hard. After he had deliver'd his Message, the Chamberlain of the Royal Houshold, ap­pointed him a Lodging for that Night in the King's Palace, he being to return to Flanders the next Day. But, he generously refused it, saying, It became not him to lie in a Bed of Down, when his General, with the whole Army, were forc'd to sleep on the frozen Earth. Therefore, causing some Straw to be brought out of the Stables, he took his Repose there­on in the open Air. The Young King, ex­treamly pleas'd with his Gallantry, order'd him a Hundred Pieces of Gold; and recom­mended him to the Duke of Orleans, as one [Page 150]of the bravest Men in his Army.

I swear by the Whistling of the Winds, and the Ruffling of the Leaves, that I honour such Vertue even in an Infidel.

LETTER V. To Kerker Hassan Bassa.

THY Letter is come to my Hands, with the Present of Kopha; which is so much the more acceptable, because thou brought­est it thy self from the Valley of Admoim, the Place of my Nativity. It is an evident Sign, that thou hast not forgot thy Countryman, in that thou condescendest to oblige him in so peculiar a Manner. The Place where we drew our first Breath, is always dear to Mor­tals; and, the Remembrance of that delicious Vale, affects Mahmut with singular Delight. 'Tis true indeed, I was brought from thence, before I could distinguish one Place from another; but, I have visited that Region since, and have Reason to pronounce it, the most Delectable Part of Arabia. Had the Grecian Poets seen that Paradise, they would not have so extoll'd the celebrated Fields of [Page 151] Tempe in Thessaly. This Happy Vale, is the Elyzium of the World, bless'd with an Eter­nal Spring.

Thou art highly oblig'd to the Sultan, for the Liberty he has given thee to visit the Place of thy Cradle, and to sojourn so long among thy Kindred. Thy Father was famous in that Country, for hunting of Lions, and other Beasts of Prey. I have heard some of our Tribe, praise his Valour and Dexterity, in the Chase of those Fierce Animals. They told me, That in the Space of Two Years, he had presented the Beglerbeg with Twenty Lions Heads, kill'd by his own Hand: That he had Three Tame ones in his House, which he had taken when Whelps from a Lioness of prodigious Bulk: That the Walls of his House were hung with the Skins of Tygers, Panthers and Lions, the Trophies of his Inde­fatigable Diligence, Skill and Courage, in Pursuit of Wild Beasts. In a Word, they said, he was the most successful Hunter in all Arabia. If thou inheritest his Inclinations as well as his Blood, (for, they commonly go together) thou hast had a fair Time, to range the Forests, and purge the Desart of those Ravenous Creatures. Were it not for the Enmity of the Gnats, the East would be over-run with these Savages. They say, this little despicable Insect, destroys more Lions, than all the Huntsmen in Asia. For, swarm­ing about them in the Heat of Summer, they chiefly fasten on their Eye-Lids; which they sting so vehemently, that the Lions think­ing [Page 152]to ease themselves by scratching, often tear their own Eyes out, and so are fa­mish'd.

To understand well the different Natures of Beasts, is a Study fit for Kings. 'Twas the Glory of Solomon, to be accurate in this Know­ledge: And, Alexander the Great, had such an Esteem for it, that he bestowed on Aristo­tle the Philosopher, Eight Hundred Talents, only for writing a Treatise of Animals. Our Holy Prophet was eminent above all other Mortals, for his Familiarity with the Brutal Generations; understanding their Qualities and Language, and often discoursing with them. When he lived in the Desart, a Lib­bard continually waited at the Door of his Cave, and did all the Offices of a kind and faithful Servant. Such Grace is given but to a few.

But, I forget my own Opportunity, of venting my Affection to my Country and my Friends. I forget, that I am writing to one, who is newly come from Arabia. Would to God I could see thee, were it but for an Hour: I have a Thousand Questions to ask about my Relations; and what Changes have happened, since I was there.

But, I must sacrifice these Natural Fond­nesses, to the Will of Destiny. I am a double Exile: And, since it is for the Service of the Grand Signior, I am resign'd.

Adieu, Happy Minister; and, if Mah­mut may be admitted sometimes to mingle with the Train of thy better Thoughts, he [Page 153]shall count himself happy, where-ever he is.

LETTER VI. To Hussein Bassa.

THE taking of Retimo in Candy, has fill'd the Nazarenes, with Apprehensions of greater Calamities.

The First fortunate Strokes in a War, make deep Impressions on the Enemy; the Vulgar looking on them, as the Index of their fu­ture Destiny: But, repeated Successes, chill their Vitals, bereave 'em of Courage and Hope, leaving 'em Nothing but Ominous Portents, and Superstitious Presages of their approaching Ruine. So hard a Thing it is, to judge of Human Events, without being carried into Extreams. They already give over the whole Island for lost. I wish and believe it may prove true. Yet, at the same Time, I know the Fortune of War is uncer­tain; and, another Campagne, may repair or revenge the Damage, they have sustained in this and the former.

The Venetians lost Five Thousand Men be­fore the Walls of that Town; among whom, was General Cornaro, the Viceroy of the Island, [Page 154]slain in the first Onset; besides what were killed by our Soldiers, when they entred with the retreating Candiots, and sacrific'd all to the Heat of Martial Passion.

But, that which appear'd most Ominous to their Cause, though the present Damage were less, was the falling out of the Soprave­ditor and the Proveditor of the Isle: Who not agreeing about the Extent of their different Commissions, formed Two Parties; between whom there happened a furious Encounter, in which Four Hundred were slain on both Sides.

These sinister Events, occasion'd the Re­publick to make fresh Applications to the Court of France; and, an Ambassador is sent from this Crown to Constantinople, in Order to mediate a Peace. They call him Mon­sieur de Varennes; a Man of a presumptuous Disposition, and who delights to attempt diffi­cult Things. When there could not be found a Person, willing to undertake a Negotiation, which carries so little Probability of Succeed­ing; this Gentleman, in a Bravado offered himself; telling the Queen, That he made no Doubt, of so representing Matters to the Grand Signior, as would infallibly produce a Peace.

It had been easie for Cardinal Mazarini (whose Counsel the Queen follows in all Things) to have hindred this Mans Voyage. But, those who are acquainted with the Picque that is between them, conclude, That the Car­dinal consented to his Commission, on purpose to [Page 155]lay a Train for his future Disgrace; as know­ing, the Boldness of his Temper, was far from being seconded with equal Wisdom and Con­duct; and, that though he was prone to undertake Great and Hazardous Actions, yet he never had the good Fortune to accomplish any Thing of Moment.

They that know this Gentleman's Chara­cter, say, That any Example will encourage him to rush into Labyrinths and Perils. And, where Examples are wanting, he is Ambitious to be made one himself. He fears not to tread in the Footsteps of such, as have mis­carried in the most Desperate Enterprizes; but, promises himself Success, where a Thou­sand have fail'd. In fine, he is esteemed the rashest Man living.

I send thee this Description of the French Ambassador, that thou maist communicate it to the Sovereign Divan. It will be no small Advantage, to know the Temper and Quali­fications of Foreign Ministers, residing at the August Port: Especially at this Juncture, whereon the Fate of Christendom depends. Besides, there cannot be too great Caution us'd, to obviate the subtile Trains of Cardinal Mazarini, who, I fear, is contriving no kind Offices to the Ottoman Empire.

I kiss the Hem of thy Vest, Illustrious Bassa, and bid thee Adieu.

LETTER VII. To the same.

THE Captain Bassa, has the Reputati­on of a Good Seaman among the French. They highly applaud his expeditious Relief of Canea, and no less commend the Se­crecy, with which he landed his Army and took the Town of Retimo. The French are generally great Criticks in Military Affairs; and are not so partial to the Honour of the Christians, as to deny the Praises that are due, to an expert Leader among the Mussulmans. Yet they are inconstant, and seldom retain the same Sentiments long. Every Circulation of their Blood, begets new Friendships, new Opinions, new Censures. In this, they seem to inherit the Vices of the Ancient Gauls, as well as their Country.

A Roman Emperour, who made War in this Nation, has left excellent Memoirs behind him; wherein among other Things, he describes the Nature of the Gauls, their Dispositions, and Genial Inclinations. He that shall read his Writings, which were penn'd above Sixteen Hundred Years ago, and shall converse with the present French, will easily conclude, That the Latter are a Living Transcript of the For­mer; and, that their Humours and Actions, are exactly copied from his Words. Yet, in Nothing does the Character of the Primitive [Page 157] Gauls, suit more truly to the present Inhabi­tants, than in their furious Onsets in a Battel, and their equal Readiness to Flight. Their First Assault seems to speak 'em More than Men; their Second, Less than Women; and, they seldom venture on a Third.

Wilt thou know then, how they obtain so many Signal Victories? It is by Stratagems and Money. Where they cannot circumvent their Enemies, they corrupt a Party of 'em with Bribes and Pensions. Thus they purchase their Conquests, with a more powerful Metal than Steel. The Force of Gold, to which all Things yield, lays Cities and Provinces, at the Feet of this Invincible Monarch.

But, I pray Heaven, so to prosper the Ar­mies of the Empire founded on Vertue, that this Infidel Prince, and all the Nazarenes, may experience their Gold to be as Ineffectual as their Swords, against the Valour and Just Revenge of the True Believers.

LETTER VIII. To the Venerable Mufti, Sovereign Guide of the True Believers.

THou, who art all Goodness, the Arch-Type of Clemency and Vertue, wilt not number me among the Importunate, for so often troubling thee with Disputes of our Holy Law. I ask thee no Common Questions; neither am I captious, seeking Occasions to darken what is Apparent, or invalidate the Testimony of Him who touch'd the Hand of God. I re­vere the Holy Oracles, and the Book not dicta­ted on Earth. Every Chapter I read in the Alcoran, makes me bless the Angel, who took so many Flights, to bring down the Sa­cred Pages from Heaven. And, my Reve­rence is encreas'd towards that Volume of Glo­ry, when I consider, it was not hastily compos'd; every Versicle, being the Product of Divine Pre­meditation. Doubtless, it excells all the Wri­tings in the World. No Scripture, before or since, has approach'd to the Mysterious Ele­gance of those Celestial Lines. Yet methinks, I find a great Profundity of Wisdom in the Treatises of the Ancients.

Thou wilt say, My Station requires me to read Men more than Books, being not sent hither to Contemplate, but to act for the In­terest of my Master, and the Ottoman Em­pire. [Page 159]'Tis true, my Business is now to un­ravel the Designs of the Infidels; but, bear with me, if I tell thee, That in Order to this, I took no wrong Course, when in my Young­er Years, I apply'd my self to Books, which are but Men turn'd Inside out, or Metamor­phos'd into Letters; against who, thus sur­viving themselves, the Stroke of Death cannot prevail.

Those who have erected Statues of Gold, Sil­ver, Brass or Marble, to the Memory of depar­ted Heroes, can but transmit the Effigies of their Bodies to Posterity; which, thou know­est, is the Ignobler Part of Man: And here­in, they come short of the Aegyptians, who have the Art of preserving the Bodies them­selves Incorruptible, for a Thousand Genera­tions. But they who left their Writings to Posterity, have oblig'd the World with an Immortal and Lively Image of their Mind: This is properly the Man, and lives for ever; when the Body is consum'd in the Grave, and the Statue perhaps is eat up by Time, or demolish'd by Envy.

Pardon this Digression, Oraculous and Ʋn­erring Mouth of God, I have a great Deal to say, and cannot comprehend it in a few Words. It has been enjoyn'd by our Holy Doctors, That a Mussulman should not read the Books of Prophane Infidels. But tell me, thou who art the Resolver of Doubts, Whether this Precept is extended to all, without Excep­tion; or, Whether a Dispensation may not be allow'd, to such as read those Books with One [Page 160]Eye, whilst the Other is fix'd on the Law, which balances the Mind with Truth? The Alcoran tells us, That the Devil has inserted some Falsities in the Best Writings: But, is it not possible for a Man, to separate the Good from the Bad? I read in the Book of Glory, many remarkable Things concerning Alexan­der the Great: But, is it unlawful also to per­use what has been writ by others, of the Life of that Famous Warriour, and Holy Prophet? Both Grecian and Roman Historians, have re­lated his Adventures in Asia, his Battels with Darius the Persian Monarch, and Porus the Indian. They praise his Continence and mo­dest Regard to Sysigambis and her Daughters, when they were his Captives; his Inviolable Friendship to Ephestion, whilst living, and the affectionate Tears he shed for him, after his Death. Yet, they condemn him of cruel Ingrati­tude, for sacrificing Clitus to his Choler, and the Fumes of Wine, who was a Faithful Friend, a Valiant Soldier, and once had saved his Life in a Battel. They cannot pass over the Burning of Persepolis, without some Reflecti­ons on the unmanly Softness of this Warriour; who, to please his Concubine, gave Orders, that the Fairest and most Magnificent City in Asia, shou'd be set on Fire. The Persians boast, That that City was built all of Cedar; That Cyrus had wholly displanted not only Mount Libanus, but the choicest Nurseries of that fragrant Wood, through all Asia, to build this glorious City, in Emulation of Solomon, King of the Jews, who was by o­ther [Page 161]Princes thought to value himself too high, for building the Temple at Jerusalem of the same Materials. They add, That Alexander found in this City, Ninety Millions of Caracl [...] in Gold; That after the Debauch was over, and the Flames had consum'd to Ashes this Phoenix of Asia, the Conquerour wept, and commanded the Mony he had found there, should be expended in raising Another in its Room, more glorious than the Former; but, That Thais, who had perswaded him to ruine it, was the onely Obstacle to its Re-edification. For, such was her Empire over this Monarch, That he could deny her Nothing.

What I have said of Persepolis, is recorded by Persian Historians; Other Writers make some Mention of it, but not so particularly. There are some also, who mention his demo­lishing of Tyrus; a City so Ancient, That 'tis said to be first built by one of the Grand-children of Noah; of whom, thou knowest, the Alcoran speaks often. They tax him al­so with Cruelty, in causing Two Thousand of the Chief Tyrians, to be crucified, as a Sa­crifice to Hercules. Thou art best able to Judge, Whether this be agreeable to Truth; for, what Mussulman will believe, That the Victorious Prophet, was guilty of so Barba­rous an Idolatry.

The Method he took to subdue this Im­pregnable City, is an Argument of his Invin­cible Courage; and, that there is Nothing Impracticable, to a Mind arm'd with Reso­lution and Perserverance.

[Page 162] Tyrus was situated above Half a Mile in the Sea, when the Macedonian demanded a Surrender. The Citizens trusting to the Strength and Heighth of the Rock whereon they liv'd (for, 'twas a perfect Island) and to their Distance from the Shore of the Con­tinent; bid Defiance to him, whom God had ordained to subdue all Nations, between the Extremities of India and the Pillars of Her­cules. The Conquerour, enflam'd at their Refusal of offer'd Peace, prepares for an As­sault. He attempted, without the Miracle of Moses, to make a Path for his Army through the Sea. He follow'd the Steps of the Babylonian Monarch, who, not Three A­ges before, had joyned this Proud Nest of Merchants to the Firm Land. Twice his In­dustrious Soldiers rais'd a Caussey, above the Waves, to the very Walls of Tyrus; and as often was their Labour defeated, by the Watchful Tyrians. When, the Third Time he prov'd successful; and, in Spight of all their Resistance by Fire and Sword, after a Siege of Six Moons, he scal'd the Walls of that Queen of Maritime Cities; and convinc'd the World, That no Humane Force could put a Stop to his Conquests, whom Destiny had ap­pointed, to chastise the Nations of the Earth.

That Chapter in the Alcoran, which speaks of this Renowned Worthy, tells us, That he marched so far Eastward, till he came to a Country where the Sun rises. This Passage the Christians ridicule, saying, That the Sun rises and sets in all Countries; and, that there [Page 163]is no Stated Point of East and West, in the Fabrick of the World; since the same Place which is East of one Country, is West of a­nother. Thus, the Despisers of our Holy Law, cavil at the Alcoran, and say, 'Tis com­pos'd of Old Wives Tales; a Rude Indigested Collection of Eastern Romances, and Super­stitious Fables, calculated for the Meridian of Ignorance; first promulg'd in the Savage and Unpolish'd Desarts of Arabia, and after­wards propagated by the Sword through those Countries, whose Vices had banish'd their Learning, and render'd them flexible to a Re­ligion, whose highest Pretensions consisted, in Gratifying the Senses.

These Criticks, consider not at the same Time, That they argue against the Old and New Testament, (which is esteem'd the Al­coran of the Christians) wherein there is of­ten Mention made, of the Rising and Going down of the Sun; of East and West, as proper Points or Marks, from which to take the Si­tuation of Countries. Assuredly, in this they are captious: For, though there be no stated Point of East or West in the Globe; yet India being the nearest Region of this Continent, to that Part of the Horizon where the Sun daily first appears, it has not without Reason, gain'd the Additional Epithet of East. And 'twas here the Macedonian Hero sweat, be­cause he could conquer no farther, unless he would have begun a War with the Fish of the Sea.

There are many other Passages related of [Page 164] Alexander's Temperance, Moderation, Justice, Fortitude and such like Vertues; and, some­thing of his Vices. But, I will not tire thee with all that is said of this Invincible Monarch, nor trace him in all his Marches through Asia. I will not trouble thee with what they say of his Journey into Aegypt, and aspiring to be call'd, the Son of Jupiter Ammon; his being poyson'd at Babylon, in the Height of all his Triumphs; and the Cantonizing his Empire, among his Chief Captains. Whatsoever in these Histories is agreeable to the Holy Alcoran, I acquiesce to; what is repugnant to that Summary of Truth, I reject as a Fable.

Tell me, thou Sovereign Resolver of Doubts, Whether on these Terms, I may not read the Writings of Infidels? Books are a Relief to the Mind oppress'd with Melancholy, and especi­ally Histories, which also bring Profit, by rightly informing us of the Transactions of Past Ages: So that Things, which were done Thousands of Years ago, are made present to us. Where then is the Crime, in reading these Memoirs of the Ancients? Is it not con­sistent with the Faith of a Mussulman to read these Histories, because they were penn'd by Heathens? Must we reject all that the Pagans did or said? Why then are the Works of Plutarch, had in such Veneration by the Princes of Our Law? I tell thee, I not onely read Plutarch, Livy, Tacitus, Xenophon, Polybius, with ma­ny other Historians that were Pagans, but I improve by their Writings. Such rare Ex­amples of Vertue, such Illustrious Patterns of [Page 165]Justice, such Solid Precepts of Morality, as these Authors abound with; cannot, in my Opinion, hurt any Man, who desires to square his Life by the best Rules.

I read also the Poets, whose Fables and Pa­rables, seem to me, but to veil many excellent and profitable Maxims of Human Life.

The Story of the Birth of Typhon, his War­ring with Jupiter, and his final Overthrow; denotes the monstrous Rise of Factions in a State, and their Ruine.

The Cyclops being employ'd by Jupiter in making Thunderbolts, and killing Aescula­pius, for which they themselves were after­wards slain by Apollo; intimates the Use, which Sovereign Princes make of Cruel, Co­vetous and Unjust Officers: Who when they have fulfill'd the Pleasure of their Masters, are abandon'd by them, to the Revenge of the Oppress'd Subjects. This is commonly experienc'd in all Monarchies, and especially in the Mighty Empire of the Osmans; where the Bassa's, though the Grand Signior, for the Ends of State, connives a while at their unjust Oppression of the Mussulmans under their Government, yet in due Time, to shew his Abhorrence of their Villanies, consigns 'em over to the Executioner. Thou knowest, to whom the Bow-string was sent last; I wish his Successour may not equally merit it.

Actaeon's being devoured by his Dogs, onely for seeing Diana in a Bath; might have serv'd as a Warning to Ʋseph, the Black Eunuch, who could not restrain his Tongue, from bab­ling [Page 166]out the private Amours of Sultan Ibra­him. It was Danger enough to know the Secret; but, to divulge it, was a sure way to incurr the Revenge of the Prince.

Not much unlike was his Error, who tho' he did not report to others, yet had the Pre­sumption to check his Sovereign to his Face, and reproach Him with Luxury. Had he been acquainted with the Fable of Endymion and the Moon, it would perhaps have taught him, That it is not the Part of a Favourite, to take Notice of his Master's stol'n Pleasures, but rather to invite him sometimes from the Toils of State, and unbend his Mind with Recreations.

There are many other profitable Remarks, hidden under the Fictions of the Poets: which, though they may seem Mysterious at first View, yet being examined with a little At­tention, prove as easie to be understood, as the Hieroglyphicks were of old to the Ae­gyptians, who knew no other Letters.

God, the First Intellect, who imprinted his Mind on Tablets of Marble, in Letters of Arabick, and Writ the Decalogue with a Beam of his Glory; having also inspir'd all Nations with the Knowledge of Letters, grant, That whilst I read the Records of the Gentiles, I may not forget the Precepts of the Alcoran.

LETTER IX. To Murat Bassa.

A Courier came to this City last Night, bringing News of the Taking of Cour­tray by the French Army. This is a conside­rable Town in Flanders, and commands a great part of the Country. The Duke of Orleans, invested it on the Ninth of the last Moon; and on the Eighteenth, lay down before it with the whole Army. The Spanish Generals, hasten'd to its Relief, and brought Thirty Thousand Men of Six Nations, to combat with the French. But they quarrel'd about Precedency of Post. High Words pass'd be­tween the Duke of Lorrain and General Lam­boy. Thus, while they spent their Time in Needless Contests, the French took the Town: And, having left a strong Garrison there, Part of the Army, commanded by the Mareschal de Grammont, is marched to joyn the Hollan­ders, with Design to attack Antwerp; and the Rest follow the Duke of Orleans, who, they say, intends to besiege Mardyke. This is a Sea-Town, that has Nothing in it consi­derable enough to tempt a Conquerour, save the Haven, which is of great Importance in those Seas.

We have had no Rains here these Three Moons, which makes the People fear a Fa­mine. Provision of all Sorts, is very Dear; [Page 186]and those who have great Quantities of Corn, will not bring it to the Markets. The Fruits are all blasted, and a Distemper rages in the City, which fills all Places with Death and Mourning. The Cattel drop down dead in the Fields, and the Rivers are almost dried up: Men languish and wither, as if parch'd up by some inward Fire. Fearful Apparitions are seen in the Air; each Night brings forth New Prodigies. The People lament the pre­sent, and presage greater Calamities to come. While Mahmut perseveres unmov'd; and neither molests himself nor others, about the Inevitable Decrees of Destiny. I keep in the Path of my Duty, without turning to the Right Hand or to the Left. I serve the Grand Signior faithfully: I pray for his Health, and for the Welfare of the Empire. I neither give Alms to the Infidels, nor do them any Injuries. In fine, if I cannot reap any Profit from other Mens Vertues, I take Care their Vices shall do me no Harm.

'Tis said, there will be a Procession here shortly, whereat the King, the Queen-Regent, and the whole Court will assist barefoot, for an Example to others. The Body of a certain Female Saint, whom they esteem the Patroness of this City, will be taken out of the Church where it lies, and will be carried with other Reliques of Saints, through the Streets of Paris, to atone the Wrath of Heaven, which seems to be kindled against them.

In the mean Time, I [...] Heaven to send down its Blessings on the [...]oman [...]pire; [Page 169]and preserve the True Faithful, from the Three Scourges of God.

LETTER X. To the Aga of the Janizaries.

I Perceive thou hast follow'd the Advice I formerly gave thee, to read Histories; where­in thy Letter speaks thee very Conversant. Thou wilt have no Reason to repent of a Labour, that affords so agreeable a Diversion, especially to a Soldier and a Statesman. They open the Graves, and call forth the Dead, without disturbing their Repose; and present to us those Heroes living, talking and acting Great Things, whose Bodies have lain buried in Silence and Obscurity many Ages. They introduce us into the Closets of Princes, revealing their most Secret Coun­sels. They make us familiar with the In­trigues of Politicians, and the Stratagems. of Warriours. In fine, there is Nothing Pub­lick or Private, in the Courts or Camps of the Greatest Monarchs, to which an Historian is a Stranger.

I applaud the Choice thou hast made of Grecian Histories, and others of the East; [Page 170]yet, I counsel thee, not to neglect those of the West. The Ancient Roman Writers, are full of rare Examples; and Modern France, which emulates all Great and Glorious Under­takings, takes equal Care to commit to Poste­rity, the Lives of Illustrious Persons. I say not this, in Contempt of other Countries in Europe. The Christians of these Parts in Ge­neral, are accurate Historians. They are u­niversally Learned; in Regard, there is no Kingdom in Europe, where they have not Schools and Academies, where all Languages and Sciences are taught. The Ploughmen in the Field, speak Latin and Greek; which, thou knowest, are now grown obsolete, and no where to be learn'd but in Books. The Mechanicks are Philosophers; and, every Man sets up for an Historian, or an Anti­quary. It was not so in former Times, when the Ecclesiasticks had engross'd all Manner of Learning to themselves, except some few of the Nobility and Gentry, who had the Ad­vantage of Patrimonial Libraries, and Lei­sure to apply themselves to Study. For, then it was difficult to purchase Books, there be­ing but few; and, for those they were obli­ged, to the Labour of the Scribe. Hence it came to pass, That onely such as had Plen­ty of Mony, and a strong Inclination to Know­ledge, monopoliz'd the choicest Manuscripts into their Hands, and bequeath'd them as a Legacy to their Off-spring. But, since the Invention of Printing, Books are infinitely multiply'd, grown Cheap and Common. And, [Page 171]those Histories and Sciences, which before were shut up in the Latin, Greek, or some of the Oriental Languages, are now transla­ted into the Vulgar Speech of every Nation; whereby the lowest Sort of People who can but read, have the Privilege to become as Knowing as their Superiors, and the Slave may vye for Learning with his Sovereign. This makes the Nazarenes, upbraid the True Faithful with Ignorance and Barbarism, because Printing is not suffered throughout the Mussulman Empire. They consider not, the bad Consequences of this Art, as well as the good: And, that the Liberty of the Press, has fill'd the World with Errors and Lyes. Besides, they are Strangers to the Education of the Mussulmans, who are generally taught the Arabick and Persian Tongues from their Childhood: In which Two Languages, how many famous Histories have been writ? There is no Point of useful Wisdom, which is not compriz'd in the Writings of the Eastern Sa­ges. And, as for unprofitable Treatises and Pamphlets, with which the Europeans a­bound, they are superfluous and burdensome, bringing a double Loss, both to Writer and Reader; while they rob them of their Time and Mony, and commit a Rape on their Understandings. Add to this, the Fatal Ef­fects which this deprav'd Indulgence of Print­ing, has produc'd in Christendom. What Sa­crileges, Massacres, Rebellions and Impieties, have overflow'd most Parts of the West in this licentious Age? What Hatred among [Page 172] Christians, What Seditions among Subjects, Diversities in Religion, Contempts of all Law both Divine, Natural, and those of Nations? The Vices, at which former Times would have blush'd; nay, at the very naming of which, our Fathers would have started, as at a Prodigy, are in these Day committed openly, without Shame, without Contradi­ction; whilst there are Authors, who dare publickly assert the Cause of Impiety, and patronize all Manner of Prophanations.

But thou, who hast the Honour to guard the Incorruptible Seat of Justice and Vertue, the Bright Throne of the Osman Emperours, who are the Shadows of God on Earth; hast made such a Choice of Books, as commends thy Wisdom, and the Sincerity of thy Mo­rals. Thou wilt not suffer thy Imagination to be tainted, with those enchanting Idea's of Evil, which are drawn by the Pens of some Elegant Writers. All that thou seek­est in Books, is to inform thy Understanding, rectify thy Judgment, and enflame thy Affe­ctions with the Love of Vertue. To this End, serve the Divine Precepts of our Holy Doctors, and other Learned Sages; the Wri­tings of Philosophers, and the Examples of Renowned Heroes. From these thou gather­est Strength, to practise the Four Maternal Vertues, and all the Good Qualities, that spring from those Roots.

Go on, and encrease in the Graces and Ac­complishments, which shall render thee Worthy to be made the Subject of a Particu­lar [Page 173]History; while the Old shall recommend, and the Young shall covet, nothing more passionately, than to read the Life of Cassim Hali, Janizar-Aga.

Mahmut salutes thee with a Kiss of Affe­ction. Reverence thy self, and all Men will Honour thee: So taught Pythagoras.

LETTER XI. To the same.

I Had forgot to perform in my other Let­ter, what thou commandedst me. Yet, knowing the Esteem thou hast for Women of Vertue and rare Endowments, and with what Pleasure thou readest their Stories; I should never send any Dispatch to thee, wherein there is not a Relation of some He­roine. I will be more diligent hereafter, to observe the Disposition of my Superiours; and will endeavour, to procure a Collection of the Lives and Characters of all the Fa­mous Women, that have been Recorded in History. In the mean while, hear what the French say, of Christina Queen of Suedeland, of whom thou requirest a Description.

She is the onely Daughter of Gustavus A­dolphus, [Page 174]the most Victorious Prince, that ever govern'd that Nation; and, one of the most Successful Warriours in the World. As his whole Life was led in the Field, so there he received an Honourable Death, being slain in the Battel of Lutzen: Some say, by the Trea­chery of Duke Albert; who had in Appear­ance, deserted the Emperour, and offer'd him­self a Voluntier to Gustavus Adolphus. I for­merly mention'd this Duke, and that he was kill'd by a Suedish Lady. If the Suspicion of the Suedes be well grounded, and that Duke Albert was really Guilty of the Murder of Gustavus, it may be, This was the Motive which brought those Amazons into the Field, to revenge the Death of their Prince. But, it is impossible to be assur'd of the Truth, a­mong so many different Opinions.

When the French speak of Gustavus Adol­phus, they cannot restrain their Words on this Side a Panegyrick. They say, he was a Prince above all Praise. 'Tis certain, his very Enemies admir'd his unimitable Courage, and matchless Fortune. I have sent thee the true Effigies of his Face, wherein thou wilt see, a most agreeable Mixture of Majesty and Be­nignity, creating Respect and Love at the same Time in the Beholders. He was so fa­miliar with every one, as if he had forgot himself, as well as he was a Stranger to Pride. He was a great Student in his Youth, and made himself Master of Latin, French, and Ita­lian; being also perfectly skill'd, in Ancient and Modern Histories. He had a wonderful Fa­culty, [Page 175]in discovering Impostures; a dextrous Wit in Time of Danger and Difficulty, being Ready at Counsel, and swift in Execution; and, as cunning at a Stratagem, as he was bold at an Onset. He was Liberal to his Offi­cers, and to all Men of Merit; but, a severe Punisher of Disorders in his Army. And, that which Crown'd all the rest of his Ver­tues, his Piety to God was singular and wor­thy of Remark. The French relate a Memo­rable Saying of this King, when he was once in his Camp before Werben. He had been solitary in the Cabinet of his Pavilion some Hours together, and none of his Attendants durst interrupt Him; Till at Length, a Fa­vourite of his having some important Matter to tell him, came softly to the Door, and looking in, beheld the King very devoutly on his Knees at Prayers. Fearing to molest him in that Sacred Exercise, he was about to withdraw his Head, when the King spied him, and bid Him come in, saying unto him, Thou wonderest to see me in this Posture, since I have so many Thousands of Subjects to pray for me. But, I tell thee, That no Man has more Need to pray for Himself, than He, who being to render an Account of his Actions to None but God, is for that Reason, more closely assaulted by the Devil, than all other Men beside.

Gustavus was born in the Year 1594. At which Time, they say, a Comet was seen in the Form of a Sword, with its Point dire­cted toward Germany; which the Astrologers [Page 176]of those Times, interpreted as a Presage of that King's Warlike Genius, and of his fu­ture Conquests in the Empire. He came to the Government, before he had seen full Se­venteen Winters, and was cut off in the Eighth and Thirtieth Year of his Age.

It is said, That a few Days before his Death, when his Soldiers received Him with Infinite Acclamations, and all the Marks of an unusual and intemperate Joy, he seemed to be troubled at it, saying, That he took that Excessive Demonstration of his Soldiers Love, for an Omen, of some approaching Disaster; And, that he was assured, God would, by ta­king him away, teach them, That there is no Confidence to be repos'd in any Mortal.

After the Death of Gustavus, the States of the Kingdom assembling, proclaimed Chri­stina Queen; And, during her Minority, committed her to the Tutelage of Five Prin­cipal Officers of the Kingdom, who also took on them, the whole Care of the Common­wealth,

She is perfect in Seven Languages. Well vers'd in Ancient and Modern Philosophy; And, a complete Historian. In fine, she has acquired the Title, of the Most Learned Prin­cess of her Time.

She is of a Graceful and Majestick Aspect: Has a piercing Eye: Wears Part of her Hair loose about her Temples, and flowing down in Curls to her Shoulders; the Rest braided up behind, in Form of a Wreath. Thus is she represented by her Picture, which I have [Page 177]seen in a Gallery of Cardinal Mazarim's Palace, who professes a great Veneration for this Queen. Could I have purchas'd her Por­traicture, as I did her Father's, I would have sent it thee: But, all the Pencils in Paris are hardly sufficient, to supply the Closets and Galleries of the Nobles, with this Ad­mired Figure. She is become the Idol of the French.

Many great Matches have been offered her; but, she refuses all, either for Reasons of State, or Dislike of the Persons, or an Aversi­on she has for a Married Life; or through Opposition of her Nobles, who seem to covet to be governed by a Maiden Queen. Soon after her Father's Death, the King of Den­mark attempted to make her his Wife; but his Redress was abruptly rejected.

No better Encouragement did the King of Poland lately meet with, who Twice sollici­ted the same Thing for Himself, and was as often repulsed. But this, 'tis thought, pro­ceeded from some Politick Reasons; he be­ing descended of Sigismund, a former Abdi­cated King of Sueden; all whose Posterity, are for ever excluded from enjoying the Suedish Crown, by a Law.

The English also gloried in a Virgin Queen, the last Age: Her Name was Elizabeth; whom thou can'st not but have heard of. She was the Daughter of Henry VIII. King of that Na­tion. She was a Princess of an extraordinary Genius, remarkable for her Wit and Lear­ning. 'Twas one of her Subjects, who, the [Page 178]first of all Mortals, sail'd round the Globe: And, by his fortunate Service, she vanquish'd the reputed Invincible Armada of Spain. She governed her Kingdom with such exquisite Conduct, as made the Greatest Potentates revere her Wisdom. 'Tis to her Bounty, the Ʋnited Provinces owe the Rise of their present Grandeur and Riches; when they address'd this Potent Queen in Form of Humble Suppliants, entitling themselves, The poor distressed States. But now, they're High and Mighty; pushing for an Equality with Sovereign Princes,

I cannot comprize in a Letter, all that may be said of this Great Queen. Besides, Historians vary in her Character. Those that speak most Impartially, say, That she had Extraordinary Vertues, yet was not free from Great Vices. We must not expect in any Mortal, a Temper exempt from the Common Malediction; much less in that Sex, whose Natural Weakness, claims our Indulgence and Excuse. It is admirable to see, or hear of a Female, whose Active Soul can disingage it self from the Common Frail­ties of Women, and perform Things scarce be­low the Power of Masculine Vertue.

If thou thinkest my Letter too tedious, accuse thy self, for commanding me to write of Persons, whose Uncommon Gifts and Transcendent Vertues, the most Accurate Historians can but render in Epitome; and, the most durable Records of Fame will in­jure, in not being capable to transmit them to Eternity.

[Page 179]We ought not to contemn the Excellencies of the Nazarenes; who, though they are Unhappy in not knowing the Alcoran, yet they have a Law engraven on their Hearts; which if they observe, they shall be in the Number of the Blessed.

I am no Stranger to thy Moderation and Justice; being fully satisfied, that thou ho­nourest Vertue, even in the most prejudic'd Enemy of our Holy Profession. Let the Furi­oso's among the Mussulmans or Christians say their Pleasure; thou and I, shall be con­formable to our Holy Lawgiver, in believing, That the Innocent and Good of all Religions, shall have no Reason to tremble, at the Second Sound of the Trumpet.

LETTER XII. To the Selictar Aga, or Sword-Bear­er to the Grand Signior.

THE Duke of Orleans, is newly return'd from the Campagne in Flanders. He seems to be either tired with the Fatigues of War, or at least, to be satisfy'd with his Ex­ploits this Summer.

After the Conquest of Courtray, of which thou hast heard in the Divan; this Prince march'd directly to Bergues, which he took after a Siege of Six Days. Then being join'd by the Duke of Enguien's Forces, he lay down before Mardyke. This Town had been in the Spaniards Possession, ever since last Winter. Now it held out to a Miracle: but, after a Stout Resistance, was at last forc'd to sur­render. There were slain before it, many of the Chief Nobility of France. The French entred it, on the Four and Twentieth of the last Moon.

The Churches here are hung with Mourn­ing, and the Escutcheons of the Heroes, who lost their Lives in the Bed of Honour. The Bullets, which know no Difference between the Noble and Vulgar, seem in this Battel, to have been directed by Art or Envy: As if the Flower of the Army, had been cull'd out for Marks.

[Page 181]In a Letter to Murat Bassa, I gave an Ac­count of a grievous Drought and Mortality in these Parts. Now Heaven seems to be paci­fy'd; and, the Angel of Death, has put up his Sword. Yet, the Scarcity of Corn and other Necessaries, continues still; only, there is Plenty of Wine: Which the Poor, who have most Need of it, abstain from, lest it should enrage their Appetites, already shar­pen'd with Hunger, whilst they have Little or Nothing to eat.

Thou wilt wonder at the Dyet of these Miserable Wretches, whom Oppression and Poverty has forc'd to feed on Frogs and other Vermin. Yet, they extoll it for a dainty Dish. Both Poor and Rich reckon it a Feast, when they can make an Addition of a few Mush­romes, which they commonly gather them­selves. This is a Vegetable, of which the Ita­lian Proverb says, Mushromes well pickl'd with Spices, may do no Harm, but can do no Good.

God, who has commanded us to separate the Clean from the Impure, and has taught us what we may eat without Pollution, grant, That we may not either through Ne­cessity, or to indulge our Appetites, taste of any Thing, which has in it the least of the Seven Maledictions.

LETTER XIII. To Abubechir Hali, Merchant in Aleppo.

THOU tellest me a Tragical Story of One of thy Wives, That she is become a Fu­gitive, and gone away with thy Slave Lo­renzo; whom I remember to have seen at thy House at Constantinople. Either thou wert too Unkind to them both, or gavest 'em both too much Liberty: Whichsoever of these Ways thou hast exceeded, thou art in the Fault. Too great an Indulgence, either to a Wife or a Servant, makes them pre­sumptuous: And, too great Severity, hardens them to Despair. However, since it is so, I advise thee to comfort thy self with this Thought, That thou art rid of Two Evils. Had they prov'd Faithful, they would not have merited that Title; but now, they are neither worthy of thy Grief, nor of thy Re­venge.

But, if thou art resolv'd to pursue them, ask not my Counsel, or Assistance in this Place; where I should have as much Reason to apprehend Danger, as they. 'Tis true, I know thy Slave; but, were I to meet him in the Streets of this City, I should be very unwilling, by discovering him, to be made known my self. Besides, thy Passion has [Page 183]made thee forget, That the Nazarenes would commend his Wit, and rejoice in his For­tune; who being a Slave to one, whom they esteem an Infidel, has now by his Wise Con­duct, purchas'd both his Liberty and a Beau­tiful Mate, with no small Treasure.

I rather advise thee, to apply thy self to Jasmir Sgire Rugial, the Little Astrologer in Aleppo, who perhaps may tell thee some News of 'em. There is not a Star in the Eighth Sphere, can stir without his being privy to it. And, he pretends to behold in their Motions, whatever is done on Earth.

But, to be serious, thy Slave was an un­grateful Fellow, thus to abuse all thy Favours. Thou hadst made him in a Manner, Master of all thy Riches, only reserving thy Wives to thy self. And, if the Desire of Liberty tem­pted him to escape, he ought in Justice to have sacrific'd his Lust, to the Regards he ow'd thee. But, every Slave is not a Joseph. Lorenzo's Villainy, puts me in Mind of the Continence of an Italian Marquis.

This Young Lord, fell in Love with a Dutchess of singular Beauty, but knew not how to make her sensible of it. At length, Fortune favour'd him with an Opportunity, beyond his Expectation. One Evening, as he return'd from Hawking, he pass'd through the Fields of that Dutchess, bordering on the Palace. The Duke her Husband and she, were walking together, as the Young Lord came by. The Duke seeing his Train, and what Game they had been at, ask'd him [Page 184]some Questions concerning their Sport; and being of an Hospitable Disposition, invited him into his Palace to take a Collation. No­thing could be more agreeable to the Young Lover. He accepted the Offer; and here com­menc'd an Acquaintance, which made Way in Time for an Assignation between the Dutchess and Him. He was let into the Gar­dens one Night, and so conducted privately to her Chamber, where she lay ready in Bed to receive Him. After some Compliments, the Dutchess said, My Lord, You are obliged to my Husband for this Favour; who, as soon as you were gone from our House, the first Time we saw you, gave you such Commendations, as made me conceive an immediate Passion for you. Is it true, Madam? (replied the Young Lover already half undress'd) Then far be it from me, to be so ungrateful to my Friend. With that he put on his Garments again, and took his Leave.

But, it cannot be expected, that so much Vertue should be found in a Slave. I would not have thee vex thy self, for what cannot be recover'd. Adieu.

LETTER XIV. To Solyman, his Cousin.

I Cannot approve thy Singularity, in pre­scribing to thy self a Rule of Life, different from that wherein thou wert Educated, and from the Laudable Manners of all True Be­lievers. Thou hast not done well, in desert­ing the Publick Congregations of the Faithful, to follow the Superstitions of New Upstart Sects: Who, whilst they profess greater Pu­rity than others, do secretly undermine the Credit of our Holy Law-giver, reproach all the Mussulmans throughout the World, and introduce Libertinism, and a Contempt of the Majesty, which cannot behold Ʋncleanness.

Are they Wiser than their Fathers, who for so many Ages have obey'd the Sacred Tra­ditions? Or, will they pretend to correct the Messenger of God? He commanded us, to observe the Purifications taught by the Angel: Whence do these Innovators derive their new­founded Authority, of Dispensing with the Positive Injunctions of Heaven? Will they enter into the Blasphemy of [...] Infidels, and say, the Prophet was a Seducer, and that the Alcoran is but a Collection of Fables? If they believe the Pages replenish'd with Truth and Reason, why do they seek to retrench the Divine Commandments, and traverse the Law transported from Heaven? Is it an Argument [Page 186]of their Piety, that they carve out to them­selves such a Religion, as suits with their Li­centious Spirits? And, that they pick and chuse such Precepts, as indulge them most in a Careless Life? Is this to be Mussulmans, that is, Resign'd, when they will not obey the Sovereign Lawgiver of Heaven and Earth, but upon their own Conditions? Cousin, I counsel thee, to beware of these Schismaticks; who, by breaking the Ʋnion of the True Be­lievers, secretly oppose the Eternal Ʋnity it self, on which our Mighty Empire is founded, and rests.

I am obliged to the Post, who waits at my Door, till I have finish'd my Dispatches. Therefore, I cannot now answer thy Letter at Large: Another Time expect a more am­ple Expostulation. Mean while I advise thee, to return to the Practice from which thou art fall'n: Go to the Assemblies of those, who pour out Devout Oraisons: Keep a Clean Skin, and a Pure Heart: And, make not thy self a Companion of Swine.

LETTER XV. To Hasnadar-Bassy, Chief Treasurer to the Grand Signior.

THIS Day Paris makes a Figure like An­cient Rome, when that Mistress of the World honour'd her Generals with Publick Triumphs, at their Return from the Con­quer'd Nations. The Streets are hung with Ta­pestry, and strew'd with Lawrels: The Shops are shut up. The Young Men and Virgins, are cloathed in their best Array. They walk up and down in Consorts, singing the Duke of Enguien's Praise: Whilst the Old and Decrepid, sit at their Doors, to see the Hero make his Entry, and rehearse the Memoirs of their former Years. With Tears of Joy, they heap Blessings on the Victorious Youth, as he rides along: And, throwing their Age and Crutches by for a while, they consecrate the Rest of the Day to the Publick Jubilee.

Wouldst thou know the Occasion of all this Joy? 'Tis to welcom this Prince Home from the Successful Toils of War. For, let his Courage and Conduct be what it will, if he had made a fruitless Campagne, his Enter­tainment had been different. But, Fortune has been propitious to him; and, the happy Event of his Arms, crowns him with Glo­ry.

[Page 188]After the Departure of the Duke of Or­leans from the Camp, the Command of the whole Army devolv'd on this General. Whose fiery Genius would not let him Rest, till he had done something worthy of the Character he aim'd at.

His first Attempt was, on a Place of no great Strength, called Furnes, which he took with Ease. Then he marched to Dunkirk, one of the Strongest Towns in Europe. There was in it at that Time, a Garrison of Five and Twenty Hundred Foot, and Three Hun­dred Horse, commanded by a Nobleman of great Valour. I think they call him the Mar­quis de Leide. This Governour did so many brave Things, in Defence of this Place, as even surpass'd his own Fame, and the Expectations of others; though, both were very Great. Yet at Length, he was forced to yield to the Courage and Fortune of the Young Duke; and that, at a Time, when the other Spanish Generals were coming to his Relief. The Town was surrendred, on the 7th. of this Moon. And, the Duke having left the Necessary Commands to the Mareschals his Lieute­nants, is come Home to receive the Accla­mations of the People, the Honour of a Publick Triumph, and the particular Ca­resses of the King, and the whole Court. A­midst all this Applause and Glory, he must be content to stand the Shock of Envy, which always endeavours to lessen the Reputation of the Brave and Heroick.

[Page 189]As for Mahmut, he neither Envies nor ad­mires the fading Honours of Mortality: Knowing, that when a Man is on the Highest Pinnacle of Humane Glory, he stands un­easie; nor can he descend from thence, but by a Precipice.

LETTER XVI. To Ibrahim Hali Cheik, A Man of the Law.

IF it be a Sign of a Flourishing State, when Vices are suppress'd; one would presage, That Paris is in a thriving Condition. The Governour of this City, has newly publish'd an Edict, forbidding all Stews and Brothel-Houses under severe Penalties; banishing all Harlots, and such as by the Toleration of the Government, have hitherto made a Profession of Whoredom, getting a Livelihood by De­bauching the Youth of the City. This ap­pears a great Novelty to the French; who, in this Matter, have been permitted all along, to live in an unbridled Licentiousness. The lewder Sort, exclaim with open Mouth against this unseasonable Rigor (as they call it;) and those who are asham'd to appear publick [Page 190]Advocates for Harlots, yet privately murmur against their Superiours, for retrenching a Liberty, without which, they say, their Lives would be uncomfortable.

They give a very favourable Character of a Whore; calling her, A certain kind Creature, born to mitigate the Labours, and soften the Cares of Human Life. They plead, That such Women are Necessary Members of a Common­wealth; whilst, with their Caresses, they re­strain libidinous Youth from falling into grea­ter Enormities: That the State receives no small Profit from the Tribute, which is levied on these Houses of Pleasure; and, that there­fore they have been, and are permitted in all Countries: That the Holy Father himself, tolerates an Infinite Number of them in Rome; which nevertheless has acquired the Title, of the Holy City: That all the Princes in Italy, have followed his Example; there being no other way to prevent Adulteries, Incests, and the Vice which ought not to be named: That the State regarded not the Morality or Im­morality of Mens Actions, any farther than they tended to the Publick Welfare: And, in fine, that so vast a Number of Priests, and Religious, serv'd for no other End, but to a­tone by their Sacrifices, Prayers, Alms and Fastings, for the Sins of the People.

These are the Discourses of such as patro­nize the Corruption of Government; and are unwilling to be wean'd from a Wickedness, establish'd by Immemorable Custom in the City. But, those who cherish an Esteem for [Page 191]Vertue, and an incorrupt Life, applaud the Wisdom and Resolution of the Magistrate, saying, That he deserves a Statue to be ere­cted to his Memory, who first had the Cou­rage to check this Popular Evil, and intro­duce an Integrity of Manners.

I, who was bred in the Profession of Purity, and the Law which admits no Pollution, can­not but acquiesce to the Sentiments of the Latter; our Holy Lawgiver, having express­ly forbidden, the Practice of Uncleanness and Fornication with Strangers, and Wo­men that prostitute themselves to all Lovers. It being sufficient, that to gratify Human Passion, and to sweeten the Toils of Life, he has indulg'd us the Use of Four Wives, and as many Other Females, as we can purchase either by the Sword or Money.

Adieu, Sage Cheik; and, if I have inter­rupted thy more Important Studies with so Trivial a Subject, believe, that it is for want of a proper Occasion to signifie to thee, how much thou art in my Thoughts; and, that I would not have our Friendship die, through too long Silence.

LETTER XVII. To Mustapha, Bassa of Silistria.

THE Fortune of War, has ravish'd Asac from the Grand Signior, but has not robb'd thee of the Glory thou acquiredst Three Years ago in the Conquest of that City; nor sullied thy present Arms, with any Marks of Disgrace, that were of late so vigorously em­ploy'd to relieve it. Had the Moscovites per­formed the same Part, when thou didst en­circle that Nest of Pyrates, with the Otto­man Forces, as they have now done; the Cossacks would not then so tamely have a­bandon'd their Native Seat, and left the Characters of their Despair, imprinted in the Ruines of their Habitations. The Protecti­on of that Potent Crown, has given them new Vigor; and, 'tis to the Valour of those Northern Salvages, they owe the Liberty they now enjoy, to sit by their own Fires.

The Moscovites are a fierce and warlike Nation, inur'd to Hardships from the Womb. The Midwives plunge the new-born Infants in Cold Water; and, if they out-live not that Tryal, the Mother thinks her Child not worth a Tear. The Women have no par­tial Tendernesses for their Babes, but cherish all for the Service of their Country. They teach 'em when Young, to rowl in Snow, and Bathe themselves in Ice dissolv'd to [Page 193]Water. They make 'em familiar with the Extremities of Heat and Cold, Hunger, Thirst and Labour, that when they come of Age, and can bear Arms, they may go boldly to the Wars, and bravely throw their Lives away to serve the Publick Good. In this, they seem to revive the Wisdom of the An­cient Spartans, who gloried in Nothing so much, as in educating their Youth hardily, and free from the Effeminate Softnesses of other Nations. They esteem'd Infancy and Youth, the Spring time of good Manners, when Vertue is in the Blossom: If that be nip'd or blasted, the Fruit must prove abor­tive and unprofitable. Therefore they took Care, to season their Early Years, with wholesom Instructions, and Masculine Ex­ercises.

Who, among the warlike Osmans, does not laugh at the unmanly Education of the Per­sian Sophi's; who being for so many Years confin'd to the Company and Discipline of Females, seem fitter to be made Overseers of a Nursery, than to ascend a Throne?

But, thou wilt say, I take large Leaps, from the North of Europe, to one of the most Sou­thern Tracts in Asia. I was discoursing of the Moscovites, and the Assistance they afforded the Cossacks in recovering Asac. I passed from thence to the Manner of their Education. Permit me now, to divert thee with Some­thing peculiar and uncommon, in the Cha­racter of the Russian Women. I am ac­quainted with a Gentleman in this City, who [Page 194]has travelled through all that Part of Europe, and resided some Years at Mosco. He says, The Russian Wives think themselves not be­loved by their Husbands, unless they beat them every Day. They take his Correction, as a Mark of his Favour and Esteem. If these silly Females are angry or peevish, he has no other way to court 'em into a better Humour, but by Stripes. This is the only convincing Argument of his Sovereignty over them, the Demonstration of his Manhood, the Charm which fastens both their Love and Obe­dience.

He highly applauds the absolute Resigna­tion, which this People shew to their Great Duke; in that they pretend not to Possess their Estates and Lives, but through his Favour, and during his Pleasure. He says, the Succession of the Czars, or Great Dukes of Russia, was in former Times determin'd after this Manner. A great Stone was plac'd in a large Field be­longing to the City of Mosco. When any Czar died, His Sons or the next of Kin, were conducted into this Field, and placed all at an equal Distance from the Stone: Then, at a certain Signal given, they all ran together toward it; and, he that first reach'd it, so as to stand on the Top of it, was establish'd in the Throne.

The Reverence which these People pay to their Prince, may in Part be ascribed to his seldom appearing in Person to them, and then surrounded with his Boyars or Nobles, in the most Magnificent Equipage, that can [Page 195]be supposed proper, to strike a Terror and Awe into his Subjects, and cause them to Honour him, as little less than a God. The Eyes of the Vulgar, are dazl'd with so many Splendors, of Silver, Gold, and Jewels; And, when the Great Duke makes his solemn Ap­pearance or Cavalcade, they are almost ready to think, That Heaven has descended to Earth, to do them the Honour of a Visit. These are the Arts of Russian Policy, by which such an Infinite Number of People are charm­ed, into an Obedience to the Sovereign. Doubtless, the Majesty of a King, receives no small Lustre from External Ornaments; the Multitude being captivated, with whatsoever is Gay and Glittering. Yet, our Glorious Sultans, scorn to borrow Advantage from, or owe their Grandeur to any Thing, but their Exalted Blood, and sublime, innate Ver­tues.

But, every Nation have their peculiar Cu­stoms, and distinct Reasons of State. The Constitution of all Governments is not alike: The Model of Lacedaemonian Policy, would suit ill with Athens.

Thou, whose Education was in the Royal Seraglio of the Osman Emperours; that hast been instructed to imitate the Bee, which sucks Honey, from every Flower: Thou that knowest how to make a Choice of Good Examples, and to reject the Ill; practise the Valour of One Nation, the Prudence of Another, the Frugality of a Third; so shalt thou be consummate in [Page 196]Vertue, and acquit thy self a good Ge­neral.

LETTER XVIII. To Solyman, Kyzlar Aga, Chief of the Black Eunuchs.

I Am just now return'd to my Chamber, from the Palace of the King. As I pass'd along the Streets, I saw in every Face the Si­gnatures of a profound Sorrow, which seems to have diffused it self over their whole Bo­dies; for, both the Court and City have put on Mourning, for the Death of Henry Bour­bon, late Prince of Conde.

He was not full Sixty Years of Age, when he left this Visible World, to be new-born in a Region utterly unknown to Mortals. The French, not without Reason, lament the Loss of a Man, who, to speak the Least of him, buoy'd up the Domestick Interest of this Kingdom, which seemed otherwise in­clining to totter. He was the Balance, which pois'd the different Passions of the Court and City; by his Prudence and Justice, calming both into a peaceable Mediocrity.

[Page 197]He was born some Moons after his Fa­thers Death, whom the most execrable Me­thod of Murdering, would not suffer to Spin out those Years, which Nature would have indulg'd him; being snatch'd away by Poison.

Henry IV. so long as he remain'd without Issue, fix'd his Eyes on this Posthumous Young Prince, and gave him an Education suitable to one, whom Fate had designed to be the Heir of the Crown. Yet afterwards, Jealousie cool'd his Affection, when the Prince had married Charleotte, the Duke of Montmoren­cy's Daughter, whom Henry IV. loved to a De­gree of Passion.

It is dangerous to have a Sovereign Prince, ones Rival in Love. That Match had well-nigh ruined the Young Prince of Conde. He was forced to fly into Holland with his Prin­cess, and make that Province the Sanctuary of her Honour. From thence he travelled through Germany, and return'd not to France, till after the Murder of Henry IV.

During the Minority of Lewis XIII. he Headed the Factions, affecting to become Popular. Were it not for this Ambition, his Life had been without Blemish, and he might have blown out Diogenes his Mid-day-Candle. But, no Man is free from Fault. All the Difference between the Vertuous and Vicious, consists in this, That one commits fewer Crimes than the other, and those not by In­tention or Habit, but through the Insupe­rable Proclivity of Nature. Every Man has [Page 198]his Genial Vices, his Constitutional Errors; and, though he may appear a Saint in all Things else, yet in these he will still be a Sinner.

He suffered Five Years Imprisonment in the Bastile, which is a Place put to the same Use, as the Castle of the Seven Towers in Constan­tinople. The Princess his Wise, was his Com­panion all the Time, and shared in his Mis­fortunes, as well as his Prosperity.

During that tedious Confinement, he be­came Father of a Daughter, who was after­wards Married to the Duke of Longueville. And, when he was set at Liberty, he begot the Duke of Enguien, now Prince of Conde, and the Prince of Conti.

The French speak well of the Departed Prince. He was of a lively Spirit, chearful and affable in Conversation, mixing daily Re­creations with his severer Business, regularly observing Order in all his Affairs. Yet, they say, he was Covetous, having heaped up great Treasures, by a Parsimony which none of that Blood had ever before practised.

On his Death-bed, he recommended Two Things to the Practice of his Son, the Duke of Enguien; Never to revenge a Private In­jury; And, freely to hazard his Life, for the Publick Good.

I chose to transinit to thee the News of this Prince's Death, with this brief Account of his Life, and Character of his Disposition, in Regard thou hast seen him in Germany, and I remember to have heard thee speak in his Praise.

[Page 199]Continue to love Mahmut, who is never forgetful to oblige his Friends. Adieu.

LETTER XIX. To the Kaimacham.

THE Posts from Catalonia came in last Night, laden with ill News from the Army, which has been forced to decamp from before Lerida, leaving the greatest Part of their Artillery to the Spaniards. That Place, was always fatal to the French. Yet, the Passion of the Court, vents it self on the Count d' Harcourt, because he could not reverse the Decrees of Destiny. All his Former Merito­rious Actions, seem now to be cancell'd, by this one Disgrace, though it was unavoid­able: So peevish are Princes, when their Expectations are cross'd. Some suspect him guilty of private Correspondence; Others tax him with Cowardise. All this is, during the Heat of their Resentments: The same Persons, it may be, will change their Cen­sure, when they consider, that he had lain before it Seven Moons, even till the Trenches of his Camp were filled with Snow, and that his Soldiers died of Famine or Cold: For, the [Page 200] Winter began to be insupportable, and the Country was barren of all Things necessary to sustain such an Army. I cannot see, where­in this General deserves Reproach; unless it be a Crime to be a Man, and to have the Com­mand of such as are made of Flesh and Blood, as well as he.

In Italy, the French have taken Piombino and Portolongone. This Latter, is the most important Town in the Isle of Elbe; Yet, was not able to sustain above Nineteen Days Siege.

They say, there is a Fountain in this Island, whose Waters flow at the Sun-rising; but, in the Evening, are dryed up. The Supersti­tious have odd Conceits of this Fountain, re­lishing of the Ancient Pagan Vanities; but, the Learned attribute it, to Natural Cau­ses. So, the Jews tell of a River in the East, that stands still on the Seventh Day of the Week. This they adduce, as a Confirma­tion of their. Law, which commands them to rest from Labours on the Seventh Day; because, on that Day, God rested from form­ing the Creatures of the World. They say also, That the Satyrs and other Monsters of the Desart, shun the Light of the Sun that Day; hiding themselves in Caverns of the Earth, and Cursing the Sabbath, because it surpriz'd God, before he had quite finish'd their Forms; for which Reason, they are Imperfect and Monstrous to this Day.

The Divine Ʋnity, who is the Root of all Numbers, and has consecrated the Number Seven, [Page 201]to many Mysterious Ends, grant, that neither thou nor I may forget the Answers we must give, to the Seven Questions of the Porter of Paradise.

LETTER XX. To Bajazet, Bassa of Greece.

IT appears to me, by evident Symptoms, that there is some deep Design afoot in this Court. The Grandees assemble often, and sit late. Extraordinary Couriers are sent out, and come in, at all Hours of the Night. Strange Reports are industriously spread a­bout the City. Trading is at a Stand, the Banquiers reserv'd, and little Money stirring; which makes the Populace murmur. They complain of the Times, as is usual in Pub­lick Discontents: The Old discourage and incense the Young, by making Comparisons of this Age and Reign, with the Happy Days of Henry the Great. They fill their Ears, with Golden Stories of former Times; and, inspiring into them a Love of the Past, they equally introduce a Hatred of the Present Government. These are the Common Ar­tifices of Faction. And, though none appears [Page 202]yet under any distinct Name or Title, yet 'tis easie to Prognosticare, from these Pre­ludes, That are long the Masque will be taken off, and Sedition will shew her self bare­fac'd.

Tother Day, a Follow run Crying through the Streets, God save the King, but the Devil take the Italian. He was followed by a few, and those of the most Contemptible. Yet, no Officer or Magistrate in this City, would cause him to be apprehended, or attempt to suppress the Mutiny he was raising. The Citizens smil'd at his Boldness, and Money was brought him from unknown Hands: The Women bless'd Him as a Prophet, and the Virgins fell down before the Altars on his Behalf: The Temples were crowded with Votaries, or rather with the Fautors of this new Sedition; as if they strove to draw their Gods into the Cabal, and would make Heaven it self abert their Tumults. His Train encreas'd, as he measured the Streets; till at length he was seiz'd by the Royal Guards, the Rabble dispersed, and all Things restored to Quiet. That Night, a Double Watch was kept throughout the City; the Fellow was strictly examin'd, and put to the Rack; yet no Confession could be extorted from him, save, That the Publick Good in­duc'd him to take this Course; That the Ty­ranny and Oppression which Cardinal Maza­rini exercised, were Insupportable; and, That he was ready to sacrifice his Life for the Wel­fare of his Country. He is condemn'd to the [Page 203]Gallies during his Life. And, great Endea­vours are used, to find out the Authors of this Novelty. For, he is look'd on but as an Instrument, set at Work by some Male­contents of higher Quality, and the Fore­runner of some more formidable Insurrecti­on.

Proclamations are issued out, to forbid all Discourse of State-Matters; but, the Peo­ple spare not, to whisper their Sentiments.

The Young King is taken ill, which aug­ments the Publick Jealousie: Men shake their Heads, and look dejected, as they walk along the Streets. Some menace Revenge with their furrowed Brows; others speak openly, That the Kingdom is sold to Stran­gers. A General Consternation and Disorder has seiz'd all, while their Fears prompt 'em daily to expect a Change. To obviate the Mischiefs which these Popular Passions threaten, Soldiers are drawn from divers Parts of the Country by Mazarini's Order, and by insensible Companies quarter'd up and down Paris. Between these and the Citizens, there happen divers Quarrels, fre­quent Murders are committed; while the Night, which covers all Things with Dark­ness, serves to shroud their mutual Outrages, and private Revenges. Thus, the Publick Calamities are cherish'd: What will be the Issue, Time will evince.

In the mean while, the Affairs of Ger­many and Suedeland, seem to be in a fair Way of Composure. Divers Treaties are on Foot, [Page 204]in Order to a General Peace in Christen­dom. The Embassadors and Deputies of the several Contesting Crowns, have frequent Conferences. But, each Party insists so ve­hemently on Circumstantials, that Nothing but fruitless Demurs conclude their Meet­ings. France has a great Stroke in all these Affairs: And, 'tis grown to a Proverb, That Cardinal Mazarini carries all the Courts of Eu­rope in his Bosom.

The Suedes treat like Victors; and the Germans, though much enfeebl'd, yet can­not forget the Majesty of the Imperial Sce­ptre. The Danes have an Interest to prose­cute; and, the Poles are not without their Pretensions. National Pride and Honour, have a great Influence on these Crowns. But, the Hollanders, like Merchants, act ac­cording to the Rules of Profit. They stand on no Punctilio's, but such as advance their Traffick; knowing, that Money is the Nerves of War. In this they are to be esteemed Wise, their Commonwealth being as yet but in her Nonage; her Strength not knit, nor she in a Capacity, to wrastle with her Potent Neighbours.

England finds Business enough at Home, to employ both her Money, Wit and Arms. Nor can she be at Leisure, to attend to Fo­reign Transactions.

Spain ever follows the Interest of the Ger­man Court; it being the Unalterable Maxim of the House of Austria, To remain Ʋnited, and aggrandize it self.

[Page 205] Italy has various Interests; and, Venice in particular, is in strict Friendship with this Court.

Portugal is still upon her Guard, against the restless Spaniards: and, Don Juan de Braganza, makes Foreign Alliances.

The Supreme Monarch of the Visible and Invisible Worlds, who sits on the Throne of Adamant, under the Covert of the Eternal Tree, grant, That the Distractions of these Infidel-Princes and States, may continue, till the Time appointed by Fate shall come, wherein the Faithful Osmans shall possess the Red Apple.

LETTER XXI. To Pestelihali, his Brother.

I Thought my self forgotten by the Son of my Mother, who has suffer'd so many Decads of Moons to measure out the Term of his un­kind Silence, and of my Melancholy. 'Tis now Three Years, since I heard from thee: But, I will not complain, of a Fault so inge­nuously expiated, though late. Thou hast made me ample Amends, in sending me such an Elaborate and Succinct History of thy Travels: In reading of which, I know not whether my Pleasure or Prosit is greater. Thou hast so interwoven Delightful Adven­tures of thy own, and pleasant Passages of others, with Curious and Solid Observations, that a Man improves himself Insensibly; whilst the Charming Language and Miscella­ny, serve as a Spur, at once to rowze and fa­sten his Attention, to Points of most useful Knowledge.

The Christians are apt to despise the True Believers, as a Company of Ignorant Peo­ple, Unacquainted with the World, Unpo­lish'd both in their Understandings and Man­ners, not vers'd in the Liberal Sciences, nor addicted to the Study of any Thing, but Riches and Honour, and how to augment the Mussulman Empire. They consider not at the same Time, that God has made us Rational [Page 207]Creatures, as well as them; has endued us with the same Natural Faculties; and, that in all Nations, he has Inspir'd some with a Thirst of Knowledge, furnishing them also with the Abilities and Means to attain it. They consider not, that if Printing be pro­hibited among us, 'tis to suppress the Multi­tude of Unprofitable Books, with which Eu­rope too much abounds: And, that in their Stead, we have many Thousands of In­dustrious Scribes, whose whole Employment is, to translate the most Excellent and Lear­ned Treatises of the Ancients. And, that consequently, a studious Mahometan cannot be destitute of such Books, as may instruct him in True Philosophy, sound Morals, and the History of the Most Memorable Trans­actions in the World. Assuredly, our Ara­bia may boast of her Avicen's, Mesue's, A­verroe's, Hali's and Albumazar's; and, that she has brought forth many others, who need not in any Point of Human or Divine Lear­ning, yield the Palm to the most Eminent Doctors, Philosophers, Orators and Poets a­mong the Christians.

Add to this, the equal Benefit some of our Belief reap, by Travelling into Foreign Coun­tries, which crowns all their Studies with Ex­perimental Knowledge and Wisdom: Rend­ring them as familiar, with the different Na­tures of Men, and the various Constitutions of Government, as before they were with Books.

This appears evident in thy Letter, which [Page 208]is replenished with so many solid Remarks and sage Comments, on the Laws and Cu­stoms of the Regions through which thou hast pass'd, their Religions, Strength and Riches, and whatsoever else was worthy a Traveller's No­tice; That, were this Narrative publish'd in Christendom, the Nazarenes would forbear to speak so contemptibly of the True Believers.

But, they flatter themselves with a false Notion, That the Ottomans never travel beyond the Limits of their own Empire, ex­cept the Publick Chiauses, who are sent by the Grand Signior. They are ignorant, that the August Port maintains Private Agents in all Nations; and, that there is hardly any Prince's Court in Christendom, without a Mus­sulman in it one Time or other. 'Tis true, we appear not in the Garb peculiar to the East. Our Mission, requires a Conformity to the Fa­shions of the People where we Reside. But, we still retain the Interiour Vestment of Maho­metan Purity; being in a double Sense Cir­cumcised. Thus we become Masters of the Chri­stians Secrets, whilst they account us Stupid, Ignorant, and Men void of Common Sence.

Besides, had we not this Advantage, in these Western Parts; yet, the Universal Pri­viledge of Travelling and maintaining free Commerce over all the East, must needs afford great Opportunities of Accomplish­ment, to some among the Caravans of so many Thousands, as visit Persia, India, China, Tartary, and all Places where the Faith of the Missioner of God is professed.

[Page 209]I am extreamly pleased with thy fortunate Escapes from Robbers on the Road, whose Malice rarely extends farther, than to deprive a Man of those Outward Goods, which, if he be wise, he will not call his Own. Much more am I delighted, with thy Deliverance from those Female Thieves, who steal from Men their Hearts and Reason; which last, is our Noblest, and onely proper Inheritance. All Persia and the Indies, abound with Cour­tezans; and, he had need of Osman's Cha­stity, who would withstand so many and strong Temptations.

Thou needest not wonder at the Effemi­nacy of the Present Mogul, who suffers himself and his State, to be governed by Women. That Subtle and Aspiring Sex, have always sought to undermine or over-reach our Race. They keep behind the Scenes, yet act their Parts, in all the Tragedies and Revolutions of the World. The Father of the present In­dian King, made an Absolute Resignation of his Sovereignty to his Queen, for Four and Twenty Hours. This Prince, by a strange Affectation, called himself, King of the World. His Wife was the Daughter of an Arabian Captain, who had served him in the Wars: But, having forfeited his Head by some Notorious Treason, his Daughter went and threw her self at the Mogul's Feet to beg his Life. He fell passionately in Love with her, (for, she had not her Equal for Beauty in all the East) granted her Petition, and married her. Afterwards, she got such an Empire over [Page 210]him, that he would do Nothing without her Advice and Consent. At her Instigation, he made War or Peace: And, to please her Cruel Humour, he put out the Eyes of his Eldest Son. But, not satisfied with these Discove­ries of his Love, and resolving to make her­self Famous by some extraordinary Action, she never ceas'd solliciting the King, with all the Arts of Female Policy, till she had pre­vailed on him, to surrender up his Authority to her for the Space of a Day. In which Time (having prepared all Things before­hand ready for her Purpose) she caused Two Millions of Roupies in Silver and Gold to be coin'd, and stamp'd with the Twelve Signs of the Zodiack; contrary to the Fundamental Laws of the Empire, the Express Prohibition of our Holy Prophet, and the Ʋniversal Practice of the Mussulman's throughout the World, who admit not the Representations of any Creatures that have Life. This Relation I had from my Ʋncle Ʋseph, who resided in the Indian Court Eleven Years. He added moreover, That during this short Female Reign, she cut off the Heads of Seven Gran­dees, the most zealous for the Mussulman Faith among all the Indian Princes, and esta­blished as many Idolaters in their Places: And, that if her Orders had been fully exe­cuted, she had quite changed the Government, Consecrated the most beautiful Mosquees to the Service of Idols, Exterminated the True Faithful, and Restored the Ancient Abomi­nations of the Infidels. Which thou wilt not [Page 211]think Impracticable, when thou considerest, That the Number of the Ʋncircumcised in the Indies, far exceeds that of the Mussulman's; there being Ten Thousand of those, to a Hun­dred of such as profess the Ʋnity of the Di­vine Nature. But however, there was Loy­alty found even among those Pagans; and, they would not fuffer a Blind Zeal for the Worship of their Gods, to supplant the Duty they ow'd their King.

The Description thou hast made of Canda­har, and the Method thou hast projected to take that Impregnable City, discover at once thy Conduct and Diligence, in procuring Li­berty to survey so narrowly, the most Impor­tant Place of the Indies; and thy Skill in For­tifications, with the Quickness of thy Inven­tion, which has suggested to thee, that which all the Engineers of Asia have never so much as dreamt of. This is the right Use of Travelling, when a Man returns from Foreign Nations, cultivated with Experimental Knowledge, and stock'd with Improvements, that may render him serviceable to his Country.

Thou condemnest the Injustice and Ava­rice of the Indian Mogul's; who, as soon as any of the Omrahs, or Great Men die, cause all his Estate and Goods to be seiz'd, to their own proper Use. Whereby it comes to pass, that the Widow and Children of the Deceased, are reduced to the lowest Condition of Poverty, being many Times forced to beg for a Subsi­stence. 'Tis true, this is an Oppression not to be justified, especially in those who profess [Page 212]to Believe in One God, Creator of All Things, the Incorrupt Judge of the Ʋniverse. But, what thinkest thou then of our Sultans, who not having Patience to wait, till a Natural Death shall make them Heirs to the Wealth of a Bassa, generally secure their Title, and hasten their Possession by a Bow-string? These are Royal Violences: Though the Resigna­tion of Subjects, must not tax them with any Crime, who are Accountable to none but God.

It was, however, a notable Piece of Rail­lery, with which the Widow of a Rich Mer­chant, reproved this Unreasonable Custom in the present Mogul. Her Husband was an Idolater, who had heaped together an Infinite Treasure by Trading and Usury; and, when he died, left her Worth Two Hundred Thou­sand Roupies. Her Son, some Years after coming of Age, demanded of her a Stock to set up with as a Merchant. Which she, ei­ther out of Avarice, or for other Ends, refused him; furnishing him onely with such small Sums, as served to nourish his Discon­tent, and tempt him to a lewd careless Life. But at length, not being able to prevail on his Mother, to part with so much as would answer his Expectations, he complained to the Mogul, disclosing also what Estate his Father had left. The Mogul being inform'd of so much Riches, sent for the Young Man's Mother, and commanded her, to send him Half her Mony; ordering, that the other Half, should be divided between her Self and her Son. The Widow not being at all surprized, [Page 213]or cast down at this unjust Proposal, made the Mogul this short Reply: O King, may the Gods make thee Happy. My Son has some Reason to require his Share of his Fa­ther's Estate, having his Blood running in his Veins; but, I desire to know, what Relation Thou art to my Husband or Me, that Thou claimest a Share in his Inheritance. The Prince abash'd at so smart and bold an Ad­dress, commanded her to give Half her Estate to her Son, and so dismissed her.

I have heard some of our Chiauses praise the Magnisicence of the Mogul's Court, the Infinite Number of his Attendants: But, a­bove all, they extol the Inimitable Grandeur of his Throne, which is adorn'd with so many Topazes, Rubies, Emeraulds, Pearls and Diamonds, as amount to Thirty Millions of Roupies. But, were it not much better, if in stead of all this Needless Glory, he could boast, That his Empire is founded in the Hearts of his Subjects? He does not con­sider, That such prodigious Heaps of envied Treasure, are but so many Glittering Snares, Golden Manacles, which serve for no o­ther Use, but to chain him up from that Freedom, and those more Innocent De­lights, that the Meanest of his Subjects en­joy.

Thou hast, I perceive, discoursed with the Indian Bramins: Dost not thou discover, even in these Idolaters, a Contempt of Riches? What mean Thoughts have they, of the Splen­dor and Gayeties of the Court? What a low [Page 214]Esteem, of the Long and Proud Series of Titles, with which the Moguls endeavour to exalt themselves? Whilst they are call'd, the Lights of the World, and Companions of the Sun; these poor Philosophers know, That in a Little Time, they shall be laid in Dark­ness, and have no better Society than that of Worms. What signifies their Pedigree; or, that the present Mogul, is but the Tenth Descendent from the Mighty Temurlen, who made all Asia tremble, if he has lost the Vertue of his Glorious Ancestor? 'Tis that alone, makes all Men truly Noble.

Thou tellest me, That the Empire of the Mogul, affords him more Revenues, than the Dominions of any Two the most Potent Mo­narchs on Earth. I have heard as much from Others; which convinces me, That thou hast inform'd thy self rightly of the Present State of the Indies. But dost thou therefore esteem this Monarch the Richer? Consider the vast Extent of his Dominions, which are said to contain more than Six Hundred Leagues in Length, and thou wilt find, that to maintain so great a Tract of Ground, both against his Foreign and Dome­stick Enemies, he is oblig'd to keep in Con­stant Pay, some Millions of his Subjects and Strangers: For, he is in the Midst of Ene­mies, even amongst his own Subjects. There are above an Hundred Sovereigns in his Em­pire, who perpetually by Turns molest his Government, refusing to pay Tribute, and raising Armies against him: Whereby it [Page 215]comes to pass, That he is at an Infinite Expence to defend himself, and carry on those End­less Wars. Thou thy self having observ'd, That once in Two Moons, there is an Indis­pensible Necessity of paying these prodigious Armies: Not a Soldier throughout his Em­pire, having any Thing to live on, save the Wages he receives of the King.

Consider also, that this Monarch, always keeps some Thousands of the finest Horses in the World, near his Person, such as cost him Thousands of Roupies apiece: Besides a Thousand Elephants, with an Incredible Number of Mules, Camels, and other Beasts of Burden, to carry his Wives, his Goods and Provisions when he takes the Field: That whole Cities, even as Large as Con­stantinople, are obliged to follow the Kings Camp for Subsistence, their Livelihood alto­gether depending on the Army. Add to this, the Immense Charges of his Seraglio, his Ca­stles and Sea-Port Towns, with all the other Necessary Expences of the State; and thou wilt conclude, That when this Potentate comes to cast up his Accompts, he will find himself a Poor Man.

But, I shall cloy thee with a Rehearsal of such Things, as thou canst not be a Stran­ger to.

Only tell me, Whether one of the Raias, or Princes subject to the Mogul, be the real Descendent of Porus, the Ancient King of India, in the time of Alexander the Great? I have been told by several Travellers, that [Page 216]there is such an One, that his Name is Rana, and that an Hundred of the Idolatrous Princes, pay Homage to him, as to their Natural So­vereign.

Thou confirmest the Truth, of what has been so often reported in these Parts, That the Prince of Java has Six Fingers on each Hand, and as many Toes on his Feet.

But, that seems very strange, which thou relatest, of a certain Language among the In­dians, which is not Vulgarly spoken; but, that all their Books of Theology, the Pandects of their Laws, the Records of their Nation, and the Treatises of Humane Arts and Sciences are written in it. And, that this Language, is taught in their Schools, Colleges and Aca­demies, even as Latin is among the Christians. I cannot enough admire at this: For, where and when was this Language spoken? How came it to be disus'd? There seems to be a Mystery in it, that none of their Brachmans can give any other Account of this, save, That it is the Language, wherein God gave to the First Creature he made, the Four Books of the Law; which, according to their Chronology, was above Thirty Millions of Years ago. I tell thee, my Dear Brother, this News has started some odd Notions in my Mind: For, when I consider, that this Lan­guage, as thou sayest, has nothing in it Com­mon with the Indian that is now spoken, nor with any other Language of Asia, or of the World; and yet, that it is a Copious and Regular Language, learn'd by Grammar, [Page 217]like the other Maternal Languages; and, that in this Obsolete Language, Books are written, wherein it is asserted, That the World is so many Millions of Years old; I could almost turn Pythagorean, and believe the World to be within a Minute of Eternal. And, where would be the Absurdity? Since God had equally the same Infinite Power, Wisdom and Goodness from all Eternity, as he had Five or Six Thousand Years ago. What should hinder him then from exerting these Divine Attributes sooner? What should retard him, from drawing forth this Glorious Fabrick earlier, from the Womb of Nothing? Suffer thy Imagination to start backwards as far thou canst, even to Millions of Ages, and yet thou canst not conceive a Time, wherein this Fair Unmeasurable Expanse, was not stretch'd out. As if Nature her self had en­graven on our Intellects, this Record of the World's Untraceable Antiquity; in that our strongest, swiftest Thoughts, are far too weak and slow, to follow Time back to its Endless Origine.

The Revolution in China, surpasses the Com­mon Changes in Kingdoms and Empires. There is Something excessively Tragical, in the Catastrophe of that Royal House.

Brother, in beholding that, thou hast seen Humane Nature in a Trance: And, thou art so thy self, if, after this, thou canst be fond of any Thing on Earth. Traveller, adieu.

LETTER XXII. To Afis Bassa.

SEveral Dispatches have been lately sent be­tween this Court and that of Sucdeland; containing rather Matter of Compliment, than any Thing of Great Importance. Queen Christina has been very Ill, which has occa­sion'd Letters of Condoleance from the Queen-Regent of France.

Those which come from that Part say, That General Torstenson is made a Count, and the Dignity entail'd to his Posterity, in Re­compense of his Eminent Services to the Suedish Crown.

These Letters add, That there have pass'd some high Words, between Monsieur Chanut, and the Sucdish Secretary of State. And, that the latter, in going out of the Chamber where they discoursed, laid his Hand upon his Sword, with these Words; Monsieur Chanut, Were is not for the Fence which the Law of Nations has raised about your Person, I would answer you in another Language. To which Monsieur Chanut replied, That he wore a Sword to defend himself and his Private Honour, as well as any Suede in the King­dom.

The Occasion of this Quarrel was, the great Resort of Roman Catholick Strangers to Monsieur Chanut's Chappel, which gave dis­gust [Page 219]to the Suedes, who allow not the Ex­ercise of the Roman Religion within their Territories. They castrate all the Priests of that Communion, whom they find; and pro­secute the Laity with rigorous Penalties. But, Monsieur Chanut pleaded the Law of Nations: And, when the Secretary told him, That the Queen permitted him and his Fa­mily the Liberty of their Religion, but desired him not to admit any other Persons of what Nations soever; This Minister replied, That he could not receive as a Favour or Permission from her Majesty, the Liberty of Exercising his Religion; since, he held it only of his Master, the King of France, who had sent him thither, and, that he would not shut the Door of his Chappel, against any that would come in: That their Law, which according to their own Calcule, was made above Two Thousand Years after the Foundation of their Estate, could not abrogate the Law of Nations, which is Eter­nal: That this Perpetual Law, gave particu­lar Privileges to certain Persons, and especi­ally to the Ministers of Foreign Princes: That their New Law, such as it was, being only made to maintain the Publick Worship, re­spected not what was done in the House of a Foreign Minister, by a Special Privilege; it being of no Consequence to the State, whether such Foreigners served God or not, or whether they worshipped Him in a Right or Wrong Way: That no Suede came to his Chappel, but only some French who were Sojourners in the Land: That they did not use the Suedish [Page 220]Ambassadors so in France, who admitted whom they pleased into their Chappels. That the House where he now dwelt, was the House of the King of France, and that therefore, he could not by Consequence refuse any Catholicks an Entrance into it, especially such as were born Subjects of his Master: And, in Fine, That it was very Rude, to oblige him to be the Exe­cutioner of this severe Law, in requiring him to shut his Doors upon his Countrymen, a­gainst the Common Laws of Hospitality, the Honour of a Publick Minister, and the Plea­sure of the King his Sovereign.

To this the Secretary made something too tart a Reply. Whereupon, Words increa­sing between them, and the French Ambas­sador being resolute to assert his Privilege, the Secretary broke out into a Passion, as I have before mention'd; laying his Hand upon his Sword, as he was leaving the Room.

The Suedes, are Naturally a rugged, surly People, as are all the Northern Europeans. They are Strangers to Civility, and the Gen­tile Address of the French. Yet, the Queen, when she heard of this Passage, was angry with her Minister, and excused his Rudeness to Monsieur Chanut; telling him, That the Secretary was a Faithful Servant, but had been educated among the Bears of the Forest.

This puts me in Mind of a Story, which the French tell of another Ambassador, whom Lewis XIII. sent to the Court of Spain. The Spaniards are of a haughty Temper, expect­ing [Page 221]more than ordinary Submissions, from those who approach the King's Presence. This Ambassador, on the same Ground, was requi­red to do some Homage, which would not consist with the Instructions of his Master; and therefore, he refused to comply. The King of Spain, thinking to put him out of Countenance, said aloud, What! has the King of France, no other Men in his Court, that he sends to me such a Fool as this? To which the Ambassador replied, My Master has many Wiser Men than my self about him; but, to such a King, such an Ambassador.

Thou wilt not perhaps approve such Rail­lery as this to Crown'd Heads, who ought to be treated with Reverence and Gravity. Yet, I believe, thou wilt condemn the Cruelty of a Duke of Moscovy, who cause the Hat of a French Ambassador to be nailed to his Head, for sitting covered before him. This is con­trary to the Genius of the East, who abhor to see a Man bareheaded.

But, every Nation has its Mode: And I, according to the Fashion of my Country, kiss the Border of thy Vest, in Token of my Sub­mission and Respect.

LETTER XXIII. To the Mufti, most Venerable, and Worthy of all Honour.

THE Criticks, who spend their Time, and manifest their Wit, in descanting on the Court and the Grandees, find perpetual Matter of Discourse concerning Cardinal Ma­zarini. His daily Actions, furnish them with New Themes; and sometimes, they re­hearse the Old. They compare him with his Predecessor Richlieu, and with Cardinal Xi­menes, a Spanish Minister. They term these Three, the Trinity of Christian Statesmen; Thus distinguishing their Personal Chara­cters: Richlieu, they say, was Crafty, Co­vetous, and Revengeful; Ximenes was Po­litick, Severe, and Valiant; Mazarini is Wise, Merciful and Liberal.

The First made good his Character, they say, in heaping up such Prodigious Treasures; in raising all those of his Family or Depen­dance, to the Highest Honours; in occasion­ing the Voluntary Banishment of the Queen-Mother; in ruining whomsoever he supected; and finally, in making himself so much the Master of all Secrets, That the King, how­ever disgusted and averse from him, yet cou'd neither sit safe on his Throne without him when Living, nor venture the Management [Page 223]of the Publick to any but his Creatures when Dead. Thus speak they of that Great Mini­ster.

As to Cardinal Ximenes, they say he disco­ver'd the Qualities which they ascribe to him, in the Method he took to raise himself to that envied Greatness; which was, by seeming to shun the Honours at which he secretly aim'd. For, being a Devoted Dervise, or Religious Frier, he appeared to be the most Mortify'd Man of the whole Order: Which being taken Notice of, he was made Provincial; from which Dignity, he made but one Step more to the Purple: And, growing Eminent for his Abilities, he was made the First Mini­ster in the Court of Spain.

He levy'd Sixteen Thousand Men at his own Cost, invaded Barbary, storm'd their strongest Cities, and reduc'd the whole King­dom of Tripoli and Algiers to his Master's Obedience.

Whilst he was at the Head of his Army, one Day there happen'd a Mutiny among his Soldiers. A certain Fellow, running up and down between the Ranks, and exciting them to chuse a New General, saying, It was a Shame to serve a poor-spirited Friar: The Cardinal perceiving this, stepp'd to the Fellow, and, with one Blow, sever'd his Head from his Body. This struck such a Terror into all, that from that Time, there was not the least Tumult or Disorder in his Army.

They say, he was in the End poyson'd by eat­ing of a Fish, of which a Friend of his receiv'd [Page 224]Intimation on the Road, as he was riding to the Place where the Cardinal was at Dinner. But, he came too late, to prevent the Effects of the Poyson: For, though the Cardinal was but just risen from the Table, yet he began to void Blood by his Ears, and the Extremi­ties of his Fingers; and, in a few Days, drew his last Breath. He was Tall, and well Limb'd; His Two Foreteeth of the Upper Jaw, grew so far out of his Mouth, that he was called, The Ecclesiastick Elephant. The Sutures of his Skull, were so closely indented, that there was no more Room for Transpi­ration of the Grosser Vapours, than through the most Solid Part of the Bone. On this Ac­count, he was ever troubled with the Head­ach; contrary to Cardinal Richlieu, who ne­ver felt any Pain in that Part, because he had two little Holes in his Crown, through which the Fumes exhal'd.

These are the Remarks, which are made on Cardinal Ximenes. As to Mazarini, they say he surpasses both these Ministers, in the exquisite Moderation of his Temper: And, comes short of neither, in the Contrivance or Success of his Affairs; being solid in his Coun­sels, secret and swift in their Execution. He had this also peculiar in his Conduct, That none are more sure of his Favour, than those who have done him Injuries. He is Magni­fick in his Expences; building Palaces, that may vye with the most Celebrated Structures of the Ancient Romans: A curious Collector of Choice Paintings, and Sculptures; furnishing [Page 225]his Houses, with Utensils of Cedar, Ebony' Silver, Gold and other Ornaments befitting the Palace of a King: Liberal beyond the Expectation of his Friends and Servants; yet, not to Profuseness. He has a wonder­ful Sagacity in discovering Cheats and Im­postors; and, no less Dexterity, in discerning Men of Merit, though never so much obscur'd by Misfortune.

Not long ago, he catch'd a Gentleman in a Crime, which expos'd him to the Laughter and Contempt of the whole Court, but not to the Cardinal's Hatred. He had been recommen­ded to this Minister, by a Lady of the Court, for whom he had a great Esteem. On which Account, he had free Access to the Cardi­nal's Presence, and would always mix with his Retinue.

But, his Curious Patron, had observ'd something in his Carriage, which gave him Ground of Mistrust. For, he would always place himself, as near as he could, to a cer­tain Table in the Chamber, where the Car­dinal gives Audience. There is a Drawer un­der this Table, which commonly stands half open, it being the Place where all Petitioners throw in their Bribes or Presents; It not be­ing seemly for a Prince of the Church, to take Mony himself. The Cardinal observ'd, that this Spark always had his Eye glancing on that Drawer, as if he coveted what was there con­tained. However, he took no Notice, but gave him all the Opportunities imaginable to do his Pleasure; yet, still one Accident or other, [Page 227]hinder'd the Gentleman from executing his Design; which was, to borrow some of the Gold that lay in that Drawer. At length it happ'ned, that the Cardinal having appoint­ed some Curious Pageants to be made in Ho­nour of the King's Birth-Day, he with seve­ral of the Courtiers, stood looking out of the Windows, to see these Triuphant Shows pass by. The Gentleman taking this Op­portunity, whilst he thought all Eyes were intent on the Gayeties without, slips to the Table, and takes out of the Drawer a Bag of Gold, putting it up in his Pocket, and retiring to the Window again. He imagined, that no Body had seen him, and therefore hugged himself in the Thoughts of his Booty. When the Show was over, and the Company withdrew from the Windows; after a while, they all took their Leave, and departed: And, among the Rest, this Gentleman Thief was going out. But the Cardinal desired him to tarry, in that he had something to say to him. The Gentleman, stung with the guilt of what he had done, fell a trembling, and was ready to drop down at the Cardinal's Feet. But, he bid him be of good Comfort, saying thus to him; My Friend, what thou hast done, is not hid from me. If thou hast not Gold enough, I will double thy Sum. Therewith, he gave him another Bag of equal Value; saying withall, Go thy Way, and see my Face no more. I par­don, but canont trust thee.

[Page 226]Wouldst thou know, by what Means the Cardinal discovered this Theft? He always wears on his Finger a Ring, in which is set a Jewel of Inestimable Value; it being a Na­tural Mirror, and discovering all Things that are done in the Room, though behind a Man's Back. 'Twas on this Stone the Car­dinal cast his Eye, when the Gentleman thought he was looking out of the Window. Therein he beheld him go to the Table, take out the Money, and put it in his Pocket. Thou seest how curious this Minister is, to stock himself with useful Rarities.

May that Great Chancellour of Heaven, the Angel who beholds in the Divine Essence, as in a Mirror, whatsoever is done on Earth, and records all Human Actions in the Book of Judgment, never discern any Thing in Mahmut, which may render him worthy to be excluded the Presence of God.

LETTER XXIV. To Danecmar Kesrou, Cadilesquer of Romania.

THOU that art Principal among the Judges of High Dignity, the Illustrious Ornament of Three Empires, the strong Sup­port of Equity, who preservest Reason, and correctest Vice; I congratulate thy deserved Honour: And, in doing so, I wish Encrease of Joy to all the Faithful Osmans.

The Knowledge which thou hast acquir'd in the Law of Nations, and in the most per­fect Sanctions of our August Monarchy, has made thee famous through the Seven Pre­cincts of the Earth; and has vested thee, with the Robe of Sublime Honour, the Gift of the Lieutenant of God.

I made Choice of this Occasion, at once to perform my Duty, and to acquaint thee with a National Villainy; such a Violation of the Publick Faith of a Kingdom, as it will be dif­ficult to Parallel.

The Civil Wars of England, are known throughout the World: And, thou art no Stranger to the Particular Intelligences I have sent to the Sublime Port, concerning that Na­tion.

Since that Time, the Rebels have by De­grees gain'd Ground of their Ʋnhappy King, [Page 229]chasing him from One Place to Another: Till at Length, finding, that neither by Arms nor Treaties, he could reduce them to any Terms of Reconciliation; and, be­ing Besieged in one of his Cities, which was not in a Condition to hold out long, this Ʋnfortunate Monarch, was forc'd to disguise himself, and escape by Night; wan­dring through Unfrequented Ways, and en­during much Hardship. He at length threw himself upon the Faith of the Scots; who had solemnly engaged themselves upon Oath, to defend him against all his Enemies what­soever.

The Scottish Army was then in England, being hired to assist the Rebels. Whence some take Occasion, to accuse this Prince of Rash­ness, and too much Credulity, in seeking Protection from those, who first began the Rebellion; and who had stain'd the Records of Scotland, with the Blood of many of their Kings. But, Innocency is void of Suspicion; and therefore, because his own Intentions were sincere, he knew not how to be Jealous of others.

However, the Scots at First, seem'd to act the Parts of Loyal Men. And, when they were threatned by the English Rebels, and their Pay was stopp'd, with Declarations also issued out against their Proceedings; they continued to assert the Justice of their De­portment, in receiving and defending their Injur'd King, who had fled to them for Suc­cour.

[Page 230]They detained him thus, from the 4th. of the 5th. Moon, of the Year 1646. to the 30th. Day of the 1st. Moon, of this present Year. At which time, having agreed with the En­glish Parliament, for the Sum of 400000 Sequins, as the Price of their Sovereign, they delivered him up to the English Commissioners, deputed by the Rebels for that Purpose.

The French Ambassador, was at that time in the Scotch Army: Who having been a a Witness of their Detestable Perjury, took his leave: And being attended with a Guard of Light-Horse to the Sea-Port, at parting he pull'd out a Piece of English Money, valued at Half a Crown; And asking the Captain of the Guards, into how many Pieces of Coined Silver, that Half Crown might be divided, he answer'd, Into Thirty. For so much, re­plied the Ambassador, did Judas betray his Master.

Thou wilt better comprehend the Force of this Repartee, when thou considerest, that according to the Christians Belief, this Judas was a Slave of Jesus, the Son of Mary; and, that for Thirty Pieces of Silver, he betray'd that Prophet to the Jews.

But, these Infidels have found out Ways, to elude all Engagements and Promises. They couch their Oaths, in Words more Am­biguous, than the Oracles of Delphos. As if they thought, not only to circumvent Men by their Equivocations; but also, to deceive Him who formed the Tongue and the Ear; even God, who is Perfect in Knowledge.

[Page 231]Such a Story I have read of one Hatto, a German Bishop, whose Perjury is recorded. This Prelate, had a Cousin who was accused of Treason against the Emperor. On which Account, he was closely besieged by the Im­perial Forces, in a Castle seated on the Top of an Impregnable Rock. So that the Em­peror, despairing to take him by Force, had withdrawn his Army; when this Bishop came to him, and for a Sum of Money, promised to betray his Kinsman into the Emperor's Hands.

The Bargain being concluded, the Bishop went to visit his Cousin at the Castle, per­swading him to go and Humble himself to the Emperor, and he would engage to pro­cure his Pardon: Binding himself with a Solemn Oath, That if he would rely on him, as he carried him safe out of the Castle, so he would bring him back alive and safe a­gain.

His Kinsman deluded with these fair Pre­tences, and secured by the Sanction of an Oath, trusts himself to the Conduct and Fidelity of the Prelate.

When they had rode about Half a League from the Castle, the Bishop pretending he had forgot some Papers of Moment, which he had left behind him in his Chamber, they return'd back to the Castle: And, when they had found the Papers, they set forward again toward the Emperor's Camp. Being arrived there, the Impious Wretch deliver'd his Kins­man to the Emperor, who Condemn'd him [Page 232]to Die. He, sending for the Bishop, re­proaches him with the Violation of his Oath. But, the Perfidious Bishop, sought to acquit himself, by saying, He had perform'd his Pro­mise, in carrying him back safe to the Castle, when he returned to seek his Papers. Thus, was his Kinsman betray'd by a Quibble, and lost his Head. The Bishop acquiring, for that Impious Deed, the Odious Title, of Hatto the Traytor. And, the Germans report, That he was afterwards carried away by Devils, and thrown alive into the Hollow of Mount Aetna: A Voice being heard at the same Instant in the Air, saying, This is the Re­ward of Perjury.

The Nazarenes believe this Flaming Moun­tain, to be One of the Mouths of Hell: The same Opinion they have, of Strombolo and Vesuvius. I am not curious, to pry into the Truth of so Costly a Secret; but leave the Experiment to the Forsworn, Treacherous Scots, who by this Barbarous Action, deserve to follow the Fate of Hatto.

Much greater was the Integrity and Ver­tue of the Ancient Romans, whom these In­fidels Number among the Damn'd. They esteem'd Nothing more Sacred, than the Pu­blick Faith; building Temples to its Honour, and stamping their Money, with the Figure of Two Hands joined together; having this Motto, THE FAITH OF THE RO­MANS. But, the Scots shew themselves to be of Lysander's Mind, who us'd to say, Chil­dren must be circumvented with Good Words, and Men with Oaths.

[Page 233]This Monarch is now led in Triumph like a Captive by his Rebellious Subjects, who have confin'd him to one of his Country Pa­laces: Suffering none of his Friends, or Faith­ful Servants, to come near him; but in all Things endeavouring, to render his Restraint Insupportable.

Thou who art accurate in Interpreting the Laws of Justice, wilt condemn these Infidels of Horrid Treason; yet canst not acquit the Mussulmans, who have often Deposed our most August Emperors.

I divide my Intelligence, among the Mi­nisters of the Sublime Port, and the other Grandees of the State; praying God, to guard the Sultan from Secret Machinations, and open Enemies; and to grant, That an Excess of Good Nature, may not betray him to such Misfortunes, as have befallen this Imprison'd Monarch.

LETTER XXV. To Ragel Hamet, Antiquary to the Sultan.

THIS City is pestered, with an Innume­rable Multitude of Bats, and a Kind of Serpents, which they call Lizards or Newts. They breed in the Walls of their Houses, and molest the Inhabitants Night and Day, swarming more than ordinary every Ninth Year.

The Parisians give an odd Reason for this Plague. They say, That in former Ages, a certain Magician had undertaken to free this City, from all Venemous Creatures; and, that accordingly, he had made several Images of those Animals, annexing to them Enchant­ments, and hiding them in obscure Places under the Earth; promising also, that so long as those Images remain'd untouch'd, Paris should not be molested with any Hurtful Thing. This succeeded according to his Words; till, at a certain time, as they were digging up the Foundations of an Old Temple, the Work-Men found several Brazen Images; some re­presenting a Bat, some a Lizard. They making small Account of these Magical Re­liques, sold them to the next Brazier for a piece of Money: Who, being ignorant also of the hidden Force of these Images, melt­ed [Page 235]them down for his own Use. And, ever since that time, the City has been over-run with Bats and Lizards.

I relate this to thee, in regard I have often heard thee speak of the Ancient Statues, that were in the Atmidan at Constantinople, and in other Parts of the City; particularly of that Pillar, which had Three Brazen Ser­pents winding about it; which, when Ma­homet the Great beheld, the Conqueror struck One of them with a Battle-Axe, and smote off the Lower Jaw. Upon which, a Multi­tude of Serpents infested the City; but, were soon exterminated, in Regard the Sultan, being warned by the Citizens, for­bore to do any farther Injury to those Images, which were the Guardians of the City.

The Annals of the Mussulman Empire, make Mention of these Statues, as also of a Horse of Brass, and a Bull of the same Me­tal: The One erected as a Charm against the Pestilence; the Other, as an Oraculous Sign, that the Enemies of the Grecian Monarchy, should in that Place be repulsed, and driven out of the City. Yet, it proved otherwise: For, the Victorious Mussulmans, against whom the Enchantments of the Infidels could not prevail, entred the Market-Place, where this Image stood, and drove from thence the timorous Grecians; cutting in Pieces all that made Resistance, and rendring themselves Lords of Constantinople, at that Time the Richest City in the World.

[Page 236]The Romans were extremely addicted to these Superstitious Vanities: Believing, the Safety of their City and Empire, consisted in the Preservation of the Palladium, and Image which they thought fell down from Jupiter, and was transported from Troy to Italy by Ae­neas; being afterwards reposited in the Temple of Vesta, but burnt in that dreadful Conflagra­tion, which happen'd in the Reign of Nero.

They had in no less Veneration, the Buck­ler, which they were taught, drop'd down from Heaven, into the Hands of Numa Pom­pilius; whereon, the Fate of Rome was en­graven, in Characters which none could read. Fearing lest this Sacred Shield might be stoln, they caus'd Eleven others of the same Figure to be made, and all to be hung up together in the Temple of Mars.

And, to the End the Guardian Genius of the City, should not be entic'd from them by the Enchantments of their Enemies, the True Name of the City of Rome was kept Secret, even from its own Inhabitants: Inso­much, that Valerius Soranus was put to Death, for publishing it to one of his Friends. Many have guess'd at this hidden Name; Some say­ing, it was Valencia; Others, that it was Velia; a Third Sort, call it Anthusa. But, there is no Certainty in their Conjectures. For, the Pagans were above all Things care­ful, to conceal the Names of their Cities and Patron-Gods: knowing, that those Spirits would not forsake them, till they were call'd forth by their Proper Names.

[Page 237]They us'd also, to chain the Images of their Gods to the Altars, lest they should depart from them by Stealth. Thus the Tyrians, when Alexander besieged their City, and they understood from the Priests, that Apollo, the Guardian of Tyre, was displeas'd with 'em, they fastned his Image with strong Fetters of Iron. So dealt the Spartans, with the Image of Mars. And, this was the Common Pra­ctice, among those Idolatrous Nations.

As for Us, who have receiv'd the Law Clear and Intelligible, and believe in the Ʋnity of the Divine Essence; We use no Charms our Selves, neither do we fear the Magick of the Ʋncircumcised. All our Confidence is in God, and the Protection of his Prophet: We go boldly to the Wars, whilst we fight in Defence, neither of Statues nor Fictitious Re­liques, but of the Volume replenish'd with Truth and Light, the Book brought down from Heaven by an Angel.

LETTER XXVI. To the Vizir Azem.

I Am now returned from Orleans, whither I went in Obedience to thy Appoint­ments: And, not without Abundance of Pleasure to my self; it being the Time of Year, when all Things conspire to make a Traveller pass his Time away with Delight.

Yet, my Return was Melancholy, in Re­gard I could not accomplish what I aim'd at, nor be in a Capacity to render thee that Sa­tisfaction thou requirest, either in buying the Jewels, or in establishing any Correspon­dence. Those who informed thee of the Ger­mans inhabiting that City, were mistaken in their Character, they being onely a Society or Corporation of Students, and no ways con­cerned in Traffick or Merchandize.

They told thee right in saying, There are a great Number of Strangers in Orleans: I think the Imperial City which commands the World, cannot boast a greater Diversity of Langua­ges, than are spoken daily in the Streets and Houses of Orleans. There are some, almost of all Nations, residing in that City.

Wouldst thou know the real Occasion of this mighty Conflux of Foreigners. It is, that they may study that which the Nazarenes call the Civil Law, which is there professed as in an Academy, erected for that Purpose [Page 239]by Philip the Fair, one of the Kings of France.

If thou knowest not the Meaning of the Civil Law, It is a Collection of the Ancient Roman Laws, drawn from above Two Thou­sand Books of their Scribes, by the Command of the Emperour Justinian, for a Standard of Equity in those Corrupt Times, in that Uni­versal Relaxation and Decline of Good Go­vernment.

This is the Attractive, which draws so ma­ny Strangers, from all Parts of Europe, to that pleasant City: Where, besides the Op­portunity of improving themselves in the most Honourable Profession among the Na­zarenes, next to that of the Priesthood; they enjoy a pure and serene Heaven, a fruitful and delicious Part of the Earth, and the Company of the most obliging and courteous People in all France.

'Tis for this Reason, the Germans, among other Nations, flock to Orleans; and, through the Favour of the French Kings, have obtain­ed a Privilege beyond other Nations; that is, to Incorporate themselves into a Society of Stu­dents. Neither is there any such Thing as Mer­chandize, known among them.

If I have not answer'd thy Expectation, Su­preme Prince of the Bassa's, blame not Mah­mut, but accuse the Germans of Orleans, for not exchanging their Studies for Traffick; or rather, blame those who presumed to tell thee this far-fetch'd Fable. In finishing this Letter, I bow my Head to the Floor of my Chamber; and kiss the Paper, which shall [Page 240]have the Honour to be touch'd by thy Illu­strious Hands.

LETTER XXVII. To the Aga of the Janizaries.

THOU hast heard of the Assyrian, Scy­thian, and Roman Heroines. These were all Valiant Leaders of Armies, Women of Honour and Renown. Now I will inform thee of a Female, which France has brought upon the Stage of War.

According to the Orders which I receiv'd from the Vizir Azem, I took a Journey to Or­leans last Moon: Where, on the Third Day af­ter my Arrival, beholding a Solemn Procession in the Streets of that Populous City, attended with some uncommon Ceremonies and Re­joycings, my Curiosity prompted me to en­quire the Occasion of it. Thou maist ima­gine, I did not apply my self for Informa­tion to the Multitude, who take up Things on the Common Credit of Fame, which does not always deliver the Truth. I ad­dress'd my self to those, that were acquainted with the Records of the Town; who told me, That this Solemnity was yearly observ'd, on the [Page 241]Eighth Day of the Fifth Moon, in Memory of their Deliverance from the English, who besieged this City, and were beaten from be­fore it by Joan d' Arc, a Maid of Lorrain, in the Reign of Charles I. This Virago, seem'd to be the Tutelar Angel of France: For, to her Valour and Conduct, that Monarch ow'd the Recovery of his Kingdom, almost lost to the King of England; this being the last Place of Importance, which had not received En­glish Garrisons. After she had rais'd the Siege, she pursu'd the Enemy, gave them several Battels, defeated them, took their Generals Captive, reduc [...]d all the Cities to their for­mer Obedience, and never sheath'd her Sword, till she saw her Master solemnly crown'd at Rhemes. Yet, at length, she herself was made a Prisoner by the English, and was publickly burnt for a Witch at Rouen.

The Inhabitants of Orleans, have erected Brazen Statues in her Honour: They cele­brate her Praises, and esteem her, a Woman Divinely Inspir'd, to save her Country. Yet, the more Intelligent Sort say, That she was neither Witch nor Prophetess, but only a Maid of good Wit and Courage, whom some of the Princes of the Blood-Royal, had instructed to act the Part of a Missionary from Heaven; That so by pretending Visions and Revelations, she might raise the Courage of the French, now almost dispirited by their many Losses; and, whom Nothing less than a Miracle could perswade to abide the Field against the Victorious English. This is cer­tain, [Page 242]that she distinguish'd the King, though disguised like a Peasant, and in a Crowd of People: She went boldly up to him, and saluted him by his Title, to the Astonish­ment of those that stood by. She sent a Messenger to bring her a Sword of Antique Workmanship, that lay hid in a Tomb in one their famous Mosques (for, the Nazarenes of the West, bury their Dead in their Tem­ples.) This Action extreamly enhanced her Reputation; in Regard, none knew of this Sword but the King himself. She was there­fore look'd upon, as an Extraordinary Person; and, the People could hardly be restrain'd, from paying her Divine Honours.

When they were Encamped on a certain Plain of a vast Extent, where there was no Water to be found, so that the Army was ready to perish through Thirst; the King came to the Tent of this Prophetess, to con­sult her as an Oracle in the General Distress. She bid Him be of good Courage, and follow her. They went out together to the Door of her Tent, where at a little Distance there grew a Knot of Flowers. The Admirable Maid, struck her Spear into the Ground a­midst the Flowers, and incontinently there sprung forth a Fountain of Water, to which the whole Army repaired to allay their Thirst. They say, the Place is shown to this Day, with an Image of this Maid standing in an Oratory close by it; a Place of Re­freshment and Devotion for Travellers, that pass over those barren Plains.

[Page 243]However, whether it were Artifice, or that she was endued with some Supernatural Gift; it had a marvellous Influence on the Soldiers, who began to reassume Courage, and feared nothing under the Conduct of such a General.

'Twas Revenge, without Doubt, rather than Justice, that extorted that Cruel Sentence from the English, which put a Period to the Heroick Actions of this Illustrious Maid, whose Fame will live for ever.

It is recorded, That whilst she was bound fast to the Stake with strong Cords, they would have kindled the Fire upon her before she had spoke to the Spectators; but, that she suddenly became loosned, and snatching a Lance from one of the Soldiers, she drove the Guards before her: Then returning of her own Accord to the Stake, she made her last Dying Speech, foretelling many Things to come, which afterwards prov'd true. And having made an End of speaking, she bid the Executioner set Fire to the Wood. Which he did accordingly, and she was burnt to Ashes.

Certainly, every Nation may boast of some Female Warriour, that at one Time or other, has done remarkable Service to her Country. And, thou art not a Stranger to the History of the Amazons, who excluded Men from their Society, yet became formidable to all the Regions round about them.

[Page 244]Adieu, Brave Commander of the Mussul­man Forces; and, let the Memory of these Valiant Females, inspire thee with fresh Ar­dours, when the Ottoman Empire is in Dan­ger.

LETTER XXVIII. To Dgnet Oglou.

THou art the Man that must participate in all my Adventures. And, I should be a Churle, in not letting thee share with me, the Pleasure I found in a late Journey to Orleans, one of the Presidiary Towns of France. It was by the Order of the Vizir Azem, I undertook that Journey. Some bo­dy had informed Him, That this Town was full of Merchant-Travellers of several Nations, but especially of Germany, who brought the choicest Jewels of the East, to vend in this Place at ordinary Rates. That Minister gave me Commands, to buy certain Stones; with Instructions to treat of another Affair, which it is not necessary for thee to know. I accordingly set out from Paris, the Third Day of the 5th. Moon; and, Fliachim the Jew (of whom thou hast heard) bore me Company.

[Page 245]I need not describe to thee, the Country through which we pass'd: It exactly resemb­leth the Plains of St. Isidore, not far from Palermo in Sicily. Thou and I, have Reason to remember that Place of our Captivity, car­rying the Marks of our Master's Cruel Anger yet in our Bodies. Those Plains, thou know­est, afford a very agreeable Prospect; especi­ally at this Time of the Year, when the Ver­dure of the Trees, mixed with the Bright­ness of the Corn-fields, and the parti coloured Meadows, tempt the Eye into a Controversy of Pleasure; a Man neither knowing well how to take it off, nor yet where to fix it, in such an Orderly Confusion and Medley of Charming Objects.

Such is the Province between Paris and Or­leans; which has this Advantage of those Si­cilian Plains, That here all the Way one rides, Innumerable Magnificent and Beautiful Pa­laces appear, shooting up their glittering Turrets above the lofty Groves, which envi­ron those Seats of Pleasure. Indeed, this is one of the purest Airs, and the most fer­tile Soil in all the Kingdom; which invites the Nobles and Gentry, to reside here during the Summer, and occasions much Travelling on his Road.

About Mid-day, we came to a Town called Chastres, where we alighted to refresh our selves. Travellers in these Western Parts, are better accommodated with Provisions, than they can be in Asia, where they must carry their own Beds with them, and dress their [Page 246]own Victuals, or lie on the naked Floor fast­ing. This makes the Nazarenes, call the East Inhospitable. They consider not at the same Time, that 'tis the Niceness and Delicacy of the Mahometans, which occasions this Cu­stom. For, the Eastern People, are fearful of defiling themselves, by eating Meat pre­pared by other Hands than their own, or those of their Servants: As also, to lie on a Bed, common to all Passengers.

But, these Infidels are like the Swine, to whom all Meat is Welcom, and every Ditch an Acceptable Bed. Here are Inns all along the Roads, whereinto when you enter, the Host provides you both Bed and all other Ne­cessaries. A Man must venture to sleep on the same Pillow, where perhaps a Leper has lain the Night before, or some Person Infe­cted with a worse Disease. The Host exa­mines none, but harbours all alike, provided they have Mony to pay him. And as for Victuals, 'tis the Custom for all Travellers, to eat together at one Common Table, where several Dishes of Meat are served up, and every Man is free to eat what and how much he pleases, paying a stated Price for his Din­ner.

Thus, no sooner were we come into our Inn at Chastres, but the Host saluting us af­ter the Manner of the Country, invited us to sit down at the Ordinary, (for so they call their Publick Dinner in an Inn.) We were not so scrupulous as to refuse his Offer, but followed him into the Chamber, where the [Page 247]Dinner was prepared. There were many Guests at the Table, and all busie in feeding themselves. We took such Seats as we found vacant, and without much Ceremony fell to eating. The Jew trusted to the Indulgence of Moses, and I to that of Mahomet, for eating with the Ʋncircumcised, whose Meat is sel­dom free from the Pollutions of Blood. We knew, that neither God nor his Prophets, re­quired us to starve.

There was Plenty of Wine, and that so de­licious, as would have tempted an Hogia to taste it, without the Mufti's Dispensation. To avoid Singularity, I made a Shew of eat­ing, as the Rest; but, the greatest Part of my Repast, consisted in Bread and some Fruits, with that exhilarating Juice of the Grape.

The honest Jew swore, 'twas a Banquet prepared by Cupid, to render him the most Miserable of all Men. For, just in the Midst of our Mirth, came in a French Gentleman with a Lady in his Hand, who placed them­selves at the Table exactly opposite to us. I perceived evident Symptoms of some Disor­der in Eliachim, who seem'd to read his Fate, in that fair Creatures Face; yet had not Pow­er to check his Wandering Eyes, or guard 'em from Inevitable Wounds. He'd almost acted o'er the Story of the Aegyptian Wives, whom Joseph's Mistress had invited to behold his Beauty: they cut their Fingers for their Meat, whilst gazing on the Charming Youth: So, poor Eliachim was all Confusion, turn'd to a [Page 248]Statue, whilst he looked on this enchanting Gorgon. He had forgot to eat or drink, till I began to rowze him from his Dream. I told him softly in the Ear, This Lady was but the Younger Sister of Ixion's Mistriss. This brought him to his Sence again, but could not restore his Peace. Prudence taught him, to dissemble the violent Emotion of his Soul, and not to expose himself in such a Com­pany; but, Nothing could expell the Fatal Poyson from his Breast.

When we had sufficiently reposed our selves, we bid adieu to the Inn; all joyning Company, and setting forward to Orleans. On the Road, both Eliachim and I, had many Opportuni­ties of conversing with this Young Lady; such Familiarity with Women, being allowed in France. We found her Wit surprizing as her Beauty; and, her Mien and Conduct, such as gave Advantage to them both. In a Word, Eliachim was lost amidst so many Perfections.

When we came to our Inn at Night, and were in our Chamber together, he vented his Passion in these Words. Mahmut, I've pass'd these Years hitherto, without any other Senti­ments of Love, save those which in General I owe to all our Race, and some more particu­lar Regards of Friendship and Duty. But, since I saw this lovely Creature, methinks my Friends, and all that ought to be beloved on Earth, is now contracted into her. 'Tis not her Snowy Skin or Matchless Features, are of Force to move me; though they are such, [Page 249]thy self being Judge, as would have soiled A­pelles Art to imitate: but, 'tis a Lustre which I can't express! Surely, 'twas Lightning darted from her Eyes, those fair Avenues of her brighter Soul! The subtle Flame, glanced through my Breast, and in a Moment scorch'd my Reason up! The lovely Basilisk, shot Deaths at every Look: Thou sawest how I sate as one transformed; so lifeless and without motion was I, whilst gazing on my Ruine! And, to this Hour, a Fatal Numbness spreads though all my Veins, as if I [...]d touch'd some dire Tor­pedo.

Thus went he raving on, till I interrupted him with Laughter and Raillery, endeavour­ing to cure him of this Love-sick Humour, by ridiculing it. I told him my own Experi­ence of this Foolish Passion, rehearsed my former Adventures with Daria, and how at length I got the Victory of this vain Fond­ness, by Absence, and the Exercise of my Reason. But, all that I could say, made no Impression on the stupid Lover. He grew but worse, and so I left him to seek Repose from Sleep.

We came not to Orleans till the next Day, where we tarried not long, having no other Business, as it happen'd, but to see the Ra­rities of the Town, and inform our selves of those Things, it is convenient for Travellers to know. After which, we returned to Paris; I, with the same Sentiments I had at my first set­ting out from thence; but, it seems, the World was Metamorphosed in poor Eliachim's [Page 250]Opinion: To him the Trees had now lost all their Greenness; the Flowers, and Grass, and Corn look'd wither'd; the Birds sung mournful Notes; the Winds blew hoarse unwelcome Sounds; and, every Thing in Nature, seemed to him to droop, because Falante was not there (so was the Fair one called,) as Eliachim had learned of her, when we parted from Orleans.

In this melancholy Condition, the poor Brain-sick Jew has continued ever since. When his Cure will commence, I know not.

If thou yet retainest thy Native Liberty, and hast not sacrificed it to Unhappy Love, learn by his Misfortune to watch thy Sen­ces, which are the First Traytors to the Soul. Adieu.

LETTER XXIX. To the Captain Bassa.

THou that hast had thy Education in Ar­senals, and hast led the Rest of thy Life in Ships of War, wilt be best able to Judge of the Proposal, which a certain bold Sea-Captain made to Cardinal Mazarini not long ago.

It being the General Discourse of this City, with what Insult and Defiance Admiral Moro­sini, with about Thirty Men of War, en­tred the Hellespont, and brav'd the Darda­nels; This Officer told the Cardinal, That if he would furnish him with half that Number of Ships, he would engage to drive the Sul­tan out of his Seraglio, lay that Palace in the Dust, and beat down the Towers of all the Mosquees in Constantinople, or lose his Life in the Attempt. To which the Cardi­nal replyed. Monsieur, I believe 'tis possi­ble, if you could finish your Work, before they would board your Men of War, with a Hun­dred Gallies and Saicks full of Armed Men.

It is said, that Cardinal Richlieu, had such a Project once; which made him propose the building of Prodigious High Ships, whose Outsides should be stuck all over with sharp Spikes, that should render it Impossible for Gallies to board them.

[Page 252]By this thou mayst know, that such an Attempt is not thought Impracticable by the Christians. I wish it be not put in Effectual Execution by them, when the Port may least dream of it.

Christina, Queen of Suedeland, has caused a most Magnificent Vessel to be built, with Design to present it to Cardinal Mazarini. The Inner Work of the Cabin, is of Cedar, curiously overlaid with Flowers and other Imagery of Gold. The Extremity of the Stern, adorned with Windows, Statues and Galleries; the Wooden Work, all overlaid with the same Mettal. The Roof of the Ca­bin, presents the Story of Jason's Expedition to get the Golden Fleece, painted by the best Masters in Suedeland. All the Furniture, speaks the Royal Bounty of her that gives it. The Cannon, are of the purest Brass. The Rest of the Tackle, such as are fittest to wea­ther the Winds and Waves; from which, nei­ther this Queen's Sovereignty in Suedeland, nor the Cardinal's Grandeur in France, could exempt either of them, were they exposed to Sea.

There are those who whisper on this Occa­sion, That the Queen of Suedeland, has some Inclinations to the Roman Catholick Religion; That she has had several Conferences with Monsieur Chanut, on that Subject, as also with his Priests; That her Resident in Portu­gal, has openly embraced that Faith, not without the Queen's private Consent and Ap­probacion. It is not Material to us, what Re­ligion [Page 253]the Infidels profess, whilst they assert Doctrines repugnant to the Divine Ʋnity, and the Truth of the Sent of God. I be­hold, at this Time, an evident Sign of his Ʋnity in the Heavens; it is the New Moon, just rising from the Lower Hemisphere. At the Sight of this Planet, the Messenger of God has commanded me to fall on my Face, and adore the Eternal.

Wherefore praying, that her Influences may prove propitious to thee, whilst thou art on the Ocean, I bid thee adieu.

The End of the Second Book.


LETTER I. To Bedredin, Superior of the Con­vent of Dervises, at Cogni in Natolia.

NOT more welcom are the Rich Perfumes of Arabia, to a Soul al­most expiring through Grief and Melancholy, than is thy Letter to Mahmut, wherein is contain'd, the Certificate of thy being yet on this Side the State of In­visibles. [Page 256]Methinks, all Nature flourishes, while thou art alive. And, I feel a Spirit within me, prompts me to presage, That thy Death, like the Fall of Leaves in Autumn, will prove the Harbinger of the World's Last Winter. Whilst thou livest, thy Prayers and Merits, support the drooping Elements: Which are now almost ready to fall, into their Primitive Chaos and Inactivity. The Angel of the Trumpet, in Contemplation of thy Virtue, delays to found the Grand Tremen­dous Blast; which, at an Instant, shall puff out the Light of Sun, Moon and Stars, and blow the Breath out of the Nostrils of all the Living Generations. That Day, shall be a Day of Darkness, Horror and Silence, till the Hour of Transmigration comes: When, at the Second Blast, the Firmament shall rent asunder, like the Opening of Curtains; this Old World shall fly away, like a Shadow, to the Right Hand and to the Left. Then shall Naked Souls hang hovering in the Empty Space, 'twixt Paradise and Hell. The Throne shall be plac'd, Judgment shall be given: And, to wind up the Mysteries of Fate, A New and Immortal World, shall at a Mo­ment spring forth from the Womb of Eternity, and possess the Place of the Former.

I write not this to Instruct thee, Venera­ble Bedredin, who art a Mine of Knowledge; but, to satisfy thee, That tho' I live amongst Infidels, yet I conserve Inviolate the Faith of my Fathers, believing the Book brought down from the Eternal Archives. Thou fearest, [Page 257]that I shall turn Christian, being accused by Some, of Levity in my Opinions; by Others, of Prophaneness and Atheism; by All, of discovering too favourable an Inclination to the Nazarenes.

Suffer me, O Holy President of the Servants of God, to purge my self from these false Im­putations, the Product of Envy and Malice. Permit me to lay at thy Sacred Feet, a Mo­dest Apology for my Faith.

Let not that Description of the Christians Messias, which I sent thee in my last Letter, create in thee an Opinion to my Disadvan­tage; nor prevail on thee to think, I can ever swerve from the profound Attach I owe to the Sent of God. I Honour Jesus, the Son of Mary; and so I do all his Brethren, the Prophets in Paradise: This I am taught in the Alcoran. Where is then my Crime? If I give Virtue its due Praise, even in the Infidels, am I therefore a Nazarene? If I speak with Reverence and Modesty of Chri­stian Princes, am not I therefore a Mussul­man? Or, does the Book of Glory teach us Arrogance? Surely, my Traducers will blush, when they shall consider, That Our August Emperors themselves (who are Sovereigns of All the Kings on Earth) when they vouchsafe to write to Christian Princes, they dictate their Letters in a Style, full of Affection and Regard. They give them Magnificent Titles at the Beginning; and, at the Conclu­sion, they wish them Encrease of Felicity, both Here and in Paradise. And, would it [Page 258]become a Slave, to treat Crown'd Heads with less Respect, than does the Master of the Ʋniverse? If I have contracted Friendship with some of the Christian Dervises, it was to serve the Ends of the Sublime Port, and perform the Rites of Gratitude. I thought it no Crime, to receive a Kindness from any Man, or to return it, without examining his Religion. But, perhaps they suspect the In­timacies I had with Cardinal Richlieu, and still have with his Successor Mazarini. Rest assured, O Holy Dervise, That my Access to these Princes of the Roman Church, is so far from being Criminal, that without it I never had been capable of penetrating into the Counsels of the Infidels, nor of doing any effe­ctual Service to the Grand Signior. The Coun­tenance which my Familiarity with these Two Great Ministers affords me, has all along faci­litated my Designs. And, whilst, under their Umbrage, I am taken for a Zealous Christian, I secretly lay a Foundation, whereon, in due Time, shall be built, even in the Heart of Christendom, Triumphal Arches, for the Victorious Mussulmans. 'Tis strange, me­thinks, that after all this, I should be su­spected! That notwithstanding, I have pa­tiently endur'd Nine Years Confinement, to an Obscure and Private Life; a Melancholy Banishment, to a Strange Country; yea, to a City, for which I have a Natural Aversion; a City the most Unclean, Noisy and Vain in the whole Earth; to be shut up, for the Sake of avoiding Discovery, in a Chamber so Nar­row, [Page 259]that Suspicion it self, nay, even Thought, the Mother of that Little Passion, would sweat and be stifled, when once Circumscrib'd within these Walls; and after all this, to be made a Prisoner of State, on Jealousy of be­ing a Mahometan: To abide that Punish­ment so many Moons, unmov'd, uncorrup­ted, and at length to be released, to the Ad­vantage of the Ottoman Interest; and yet, to be traduc'd at Home, for a Traytor to God, his Prophet, and my Sovereign, has surely something in it of Inconsistent.

What is then my Crime? Or, why am I thus aspers'd? Let my Slanderers hereafter be silent. Unless they will lay it to my Charge, That in some of my Letters, I have discover'd a Mind free from Superstition; That I put a high Value on Reason, and have no low Esteem, for some of the Ancient Philosophers; That I endeavour to guard my Sence, and will not suffer it to be muzzled with the Impositions of Ignorance and Pre­judice; That I do not think it a Necessary Qualification of a Mussulman, to pursue with Inexorable Hatred, all Men that differ from me in Opinion. In fine, That in all my Conversation, I strive to comport my self, as One who asserts the Ʋnity of the Divine Essence, the Plurality of his Prophets, the Determinate Number of the Elect; and, who is resolv'd and prepar'd, rather to die a Thousand Deaths, than voluntarily to com­mit any Impiety against these Principles, or the Interest of the Grand Signior, who has a [Page 260] Right to command all Mankind. If these be Crimes, I must own my self Culpable: If not, let my Accusers lay their Hand upon their Mouth. And continue thou, Sage Do­ctor of our Holy Law, to instruct me with thy Counsels, to assist me with thy Prayers, and to protect me with thy Friendship. Then shall Mahmut persevere a True Believer, a Faithful Slave to the Osman Emperor, and a Devout Admirer of thy Longevity and Vir­tue.

I should fear, this might be the last Letter I should have the Honour to send thee, were I not convinced by some near Examples, That Old Age was not restrained to the Times before the Flood. Though thou hast far out­pass'd the ordinary Years of Men, yet there is at this Time, not far from Paris, a Man who has near doubled thy Age. He is an Hermit, living on a Hill, where all Things necessary for Human Sustenance seem to be wanting. The Walls of his House are built of Mud, with his own Hands (a weak Defence against Wind and Rains.) His Bed is composed of Leaves of Trees. A Stone serves him for his Pillow. His Diet consists of such Herbs and Fruits, as that Mountain affords him. A neighbouring Well, allays his Thirst. He has dwelt in this Place, and in this Manner, Eighty Three Years, after he had Travelled most Parts of Europe and Asia. Ask him by what Means he preserv'd his Life so long, he answers, By living free from Care, and by be­ing Indifferent to all Things. He foretells [Page 261]Things to come with marvellous Success, as has been often observ'd. Which makes the People esteem him a Prophet.

The French tell me of another, who lived longer than he, being Three Hundred Sixty and One Years Old when he died. He was call'd, John of the Times, in Regard he liv'd from the Reign of Charles the Great, to that of the Emperor Conrade. And, being ask'd, What Diet he used, his Answer was, Honey within, and Oil without.

This comforts me with the Hopes of seeing thee on Earth, tho' many Years hence: Since, no Man can exceed thee in Abstinence, So­briety, and the Calmness of thy Mind.

The Great Author of Life so grant, That if I may not enjoy this Felicity Here, yet I may not, by any enormous Crimes, merit to be excluded thy Society in Paradise.

LETTER II. To Murat Bassa.

THE French are puffed up, with the late Defeat they gave the Spanish Fleet in Sight of Naples. Their Joy would know no Bounds, were it not curb'd by the Loss of the Duke of Breze, who was slain by a Can­non Bullet in this Naval Combat.

The Young Prince of Conde, has been also forced to withdraw his Army from before Lerida; that Place, being ever Fatal to the French. This has lessened the▪ Disgrace, which the Count of Harcourt received last Campagne, in not being able to carry that Town, after Six Moons Siege.

But, the News from the Levant, has ela­ted all the Franks beyond Measure: Yet, I hope the Relations that are scatter'd abroad on that Subject, are rather an Effect of their Wishes, than of any real Success against the Invincible Osmans.

It is reported, That there have been Two Sea-Fights, between our Fleets and the Ve­netians; that in the Former, we lost Two Thousand Men, Seven Galleys and a Bassa; that in the Latter, the Venetians took Fourty Galleys, Six Caramusals, and Fifty Saiques, laden with Men and Ammunition for the Re­lief of our Army in Candy.

[Page 263]The Honour of this last Victory, is ascri­bed to the Valour and Conduct of Bernard Morosini, and General Grimani; Bernard succeeding his Brother Thomas Morosini, who was killed, as they say, it the First Battel.

The Christians every where express great Joy for these Victories. The open Streets are filled with Tables, covered with all Manner of Dainties, at the Publick Cost: They feast and revel Night and Day. The Bells ring continually, and Bonefires are made, to ce­lebrate the Triumph of the Nazarenes. They presage to themseves, the Conquest of the Ottoman Empire, and Eternal Vi­ctories.

From Dalmatia, the Posts bring daily News of our Losses and Disgraces. It is known here, That the Castles of Xemonido, Novigrade, Nadin, Carin, and all the Places of Strength which we had in our Possession, except Clissa, are taken by the Venetians.

They laugh at our Siege of Sebenigo, where we lost Two Thousand Men, and at Length were forced to leave our Camp to the Chri­stians; our General being frighted away by a few Women.

It seems Strange and Ominous to me, that those Arms, which have formerly crush'd the Greatest Monarchies to Pieces, and have chang'd the Face of the whole Earth, should now be foil'd by a few Desperado's! I dare be thus far a Prophet, That either the Sol­diers are disgusted, which will produce a Revolution; or, the Mighty Empire of the [Page 264] Osmans, is in its Decline; which God a­vert.

The Christians (who are not ignorant of our Affairs, nor of the very Secrets of the Seraglio) by an Odd Kind of Charity, pray for the Long Life of Sultan Ibrahim. For, they say, our Armies must needs mis­carry during his Reign; most of the Offi­cers, being offended at his Licentious Life, and Cruel Actions. Besides, they tax him with Profuseness, in that he has not spared the Private Treasury of Gold, which, by the Frugality of his Predecessors, had been heap­ed together; and, which it was not count­ed lawful for them to touch, unless in the utmost Peril of the Empire. They say, that by the Additions which Sultan Amurat had made, this Treasure was augmented to above Thirty Millions of Sequins: But, that our present Emperor, has squandred most of it away, on his Pleasure. They compare him to Heliogabalus, the most Effeminate Prince that ever Reign'd: Praising at the same Time, the Magnanimity and Valour of Sultan Amurat; who, they say, was the Stoutest Man on Earth. They highly ap­plaud his Bravery at the Siege of Babylon, when he accepted the Challenge of the Per­sian Soldier; and entering into a single Combat with the Unhappy Redhead, at one Blow, with his Sabre, cleft him (though in Armour) to the Middle. In Memorial whereof, thou knowest, that Armour hangs to this Day in the Hazoda. In fine, they [Page 265]extoll his Justice: Whereof he gave a re­markable Instance, in punishing a certain Hogia, who had cheated a Pilgrim of his Jewels. Thou remembrest that Passage. And, the Stone-Mortar, wherein that Mise­rable Wretch was pounded alive by his Own Sentence, is yet to be seen at the Gate of the Divan, a Monument of his Villainy, and the Sultan's Justice.

These Things are not unknown in the West: For, the Nazarenes have their In­telligencers, in the Imperial City. Hence they derive Occasions, to Censure or Praise the Actions of our August Emperours, who are Companions of the Sun, and Brothers of the Stars.

What I have said, I trust to thy Integri­ty, whereof I have had Experience. Those who degenerate from that Vertue, may their Souls find no more Rest in the Other World, than a Frenchman's Hat has in This, which is always in Motion. Adieu.

LETTER III. To Mahomet Techli, Bassa of Bosna, at his Camp in Dalmatia.

THOU art a fit Man to lead the Mussul­man Armies, who durst not hold up thy Head against a few Women? Perhaps thy Mother's Milk hangs yet on thy Chin; thou art not wean'd from the Discipline of the Nursery. Was the Strong Fortress of Sebe­nico, of so small a Price, that thou shouldst basely decamp from before it, because a few Females appear'd on the Walls? Is this the Way to aggrandize thy Master? What will the Christians say to this Cowardise? Nay, what do they not say already? The News of that Siege, had reach'd all Parts of Europe; the Nazarenes were big with Expectation of the Event. Now they know it, they laugh both at thee, and at all the Mussulmans. Thou hast brought a Disgrace on the most Exalted Empire in the World.

What, if thou didst lose Two Thousand Men before the Walls of that Fort? Is that a sufficient Justification of thy raising the Siege? Our Glorious Sultans do not use to win Cities and Castles without Blood; neither do they spare to sacrifice the best Part of their Army, to the Honour of their Arms; whilst our In­defatigable Soldiers, have mounted on Heaps [Page 267]of Slaughter'd Spahi's, and scal'd the Battle­ments of their Enemies. Whereas thou, wert afraid of a few Stones, that the Women hurl'd on thy Men from the Walls! Thou art more effeminate than Sardanapalus! It were fitter for thee, to handle the Distaff, and Spin for thy Bread, than to draw a Sword in the Field of Honour. It is a wonder thy own Soldiers do not abandon thee, being asham'd to serve under so Weak a Commander.

I counsel thee, speedily to recover thy lost Reputation, by some notable Service. Let not Perils affright thee; but remember, that true Fortitude surmounts all Difficulties; and, that thou canst not pass into the Temple of Honour, but through that of Vertue. It is not my Part to project for thee: The whole Country is before thee: Thou knowest, or at least oughtest to know, the Motions and Strength of thy Enemies. Do something speedily, that shall speak thee Wise and Va­liant. Thou hadst better lose thy Life so, than by a Bow-string.

Take this Advice, as a Mark of my Friend­ship; for, Mahmut uses not so frankly to re­prove those, whom he esteems his Enemies. Adieu.

LETTER IV. To Achmet Bassa.

NOT long ago, arrived here a Courier from Suedeland, bringing Letters from Queen Christina, and Monsieur Chanut, the French Resident at Stockholme.

Among other Matters, they give an Ac­count, That on the Twenty Seventh Day of the Seventh Moon, that Great Princess had like to have been stabb'd, in the Midst of her Guards, surrounded with her Courtiers, before the Altar of her God; at an Hour, when all the Subjects of that Kingdom, were on their Knees, to render Heaven Propitious to Her and the Publick.

That Day, there was a Fast proclaim'd through all Suedeland; and, he was esteem­ed no Good Subject, who did not repair to the Publick Solemnities. The Queen, to give an Example, went at the Third Hour of the Day to the Mosque of her Pa­lace, attended by the Great Officers of State, and a Numerous Train of the Nobility. When the Preacher (as is the Custom) had made an End of speaking, all that were present fell on their Knees, to perform the appointed Devotions. But, it being the Fashion of the Nazarenes, to utter some secret preparative Oraisons; the Men covered their Faces with their Hats, to be more recollected.

[Page 269]While all Eyes were thus veil'd, a certain Fellow snatching the Opportunity, steps from his Place; and, without making any great Noise, by large Strides, advances un­seen to the Rails which enclose the Pavement, next to the Altar, where the Queen was on her Knees. But, in leaping over, he was per­ceived by a certain Nobleman; who, imme­diately cryed out to the Guards, to stop the Assassin. They cross'd their Partisans; but the Villain, hurl'd them one against another with so great Violence, that while they were striving to recover their entangled Weapons, he got quite through them. At which time, the Queen also raising her self up at the Noise, push'd the Captain of her Guards, who kneeled beside her. He starting from his Place, leap'd between the Queen and the Murderer, who was now within Two Paces of her. He seizes the Wretch; and, upon immediate Search, they found Two long sharp-pointed Knives about him, without Sheaths; One in his Bosom, the Other in his Pocket. The Prison being in the Castle or Palace of the Queen, under her very Apartment, she was not willing he should be carried thither; but ordered him, to be reconducted to his own Chamber, which was in the College of Stock­holme; he being an Ecclesiastick of the said College: Commanding also, a good Guard to be set over him; which was performed accordingly.

As soon as the Wretch saw himself in his Chamber, he said aloud, That when he went [Page 270]out in the Morning, he little thought of ever-returning again; having undertaken an Acti­on, in doing of which, he expected to lose his Life.

They used all Diligence imaginable, in discovering the Authors of this intended Murder; but, could learn Nothing more, than that this Fellow was a Lunatick, whom at Certain Seasons, an Unaccountable Fury spur­red on to many Extravagancies.

Yet some suspect, that he was hired by the Lutheran Clergy to give this Execrable Blow; who were apprehensive, that the Queen hearkning too much to the Insinuations of her Tutor, who was a Calvinist, would Inno­vate the Establish'd Religion of the Coun­try.

If this be a well grounded Suspicion, it follows at the best, that Religion, which ought to correct the Morals of Men, and have an Influence in restraining their Exorbitant Pas­sions, is become the Corrupter of their Man­ners, and the Fomenter of the most Enor­mous Crimes. But, this is common among the Christians, who being divided into Innu­merable Parties, distinguished by as many Several Names; yet each Sect is so sure that their Way is the only Right Path to Salva­tion, that they spare for neither Murders, Sa­crileges, nor Treasons, to proselyte the Rest to their Opinion; being unwilling, that any should live, who are not of the same Mind with them.

[Page 271]The King of France and the Queen-Re­gent, received the News of Queen Christina's Delivery from this Designed Blow, with much Joy; the Interests of both Crowns, being at this Time closely intermingled.

I can inform thee of Nothing more Re­markable at present, save, That certain Letters are intercepted, which the Duke of Bavaria had written to the Duke of Wirtem­berg, and the Elector of Cologne: The Con­tents of which discover, that the Duke of Bavaria, is not far from a Reconciliation with the Emperor; and, that in the mean time, he only waits the Event of Things, to direct him in the Choice of his Party.

God confirm thee in thy Integrity, that thou mayst never waver or swerve, from the Service and Duty thou owest the Grand Signior.

LETTER V. To Cara Hali, a Physician at Constantinople.

THOU hast heap'd many Favours on me; yet I have never had an Opportunity, of making the least Acknowledgment. Ac­cept now a Small Present from Mahmut's Hands, who being not Master of Wealth, can make no Great Ones. I send thee neither Silver, Gold, nor Jewels, which the Insatiable Avarice of Mortals, has violently torn from the Bowels of their Common Mother. Neither shalt thou receive from me, any of the more familiar Products of the Earth, such as grow on her Surface. Expect no choice Fruits, or Wine, or Oil; nor any thing framed by the Art of Man, whether for Delight, or Use. What I send thee, is the Dew of Hea­ven, a certain Quintessence of the Elements, an Aetherial Spirit, first condens'd into a Va­pour, then into a more liquid Substance, and afterwards congealed into a Gum. It is the celebrated Manna of Calabria.

Adonai the Jew, sent it to me out of Italy, as a Rarity. I knew not whom so properly to oblige with this Present, as the Studious of Natural Things, Haly the Sage Physician, and my Friend.

[Page 273]The Philosopher Averroes, our Country­man, has written much of this excellent Sub­stance. He calls it, the Food of the Airy An­gels. And says, the Young Ravens crying in their Nests, are nourish'd by this Heaven­ly Diet, when the Old Ones forsake them: And, that the Chamelions, seek no other Repast during their Lives, but the Invisible Manna that every where floats in the Morn­ing Air. He holds it possible, That a Man, after he has pass'd his Great Climacter, may live without any other Sustenance, save what he receives from this Heavenly Distillation; that he may thus prolong his Life, for the Space of Seven Years, which will complete the appointed Age of Mortals. Many of the sublimely instructed among the Arabians, are of the same Opinion; so are not a few of the Hebrew Rabbi's: But, the Christians, who are Gluttons, laugh at this Doctrine, as Ridiculous and Impracticable: Forgetting at the same time, what they read in their Bible (which they pretend is the Rule of their Faith) that the Israelites had Nothing else to feed on, for a considerable time, in the Desart, when they were almost Eight Hun­dred Thousand Souls, and the Greatest Part of them in their full Strength, Men of Arms, and inur'd to the Toils of War.

Certainly, it were a desirable Thing, that this Divine Largess, were distributed to all the Regions on Earth. But, God sends his Blessings to whom, and when he pleases. 'Tis he that directeth the Clouds, when they [Page 274]move through the Air, and rest not till they arrive at barren and dry Places, where they pour forth their Water to refesh the Earth, and render it fruitful. God! There is but One God, Lord of the Worlds! These are Signs of his Ʋnity to True Believers, but the In­credulous have hardned their Hearts.

It is recorded, That in former Times, the Ground whereon this Manna descend­ed, belong'd to a certain Nobleman of the Country; who, covetous of the Unusual Blessing, undertook to enclose all that Land with a high Wall, to the End that so rare a Gift, might not be made Common to every one. But, as soon as the Workmen had be­gun to lay the Foundations of this Enclosure, the Manna ceas'd to fall, and so continued, as long as they proceeded in that Envious work. Which, when the Lord of the Ground was made sensible of, he commanded the Work­men to desist: Saying withal, The Almighty gives, and the Almighty takes away. Hence­forward, I will not seek to restrain the Free Gift of Heaven. Upon which, the Manna descended daily as before, and so has continued to do ever since. Doubtless, this is a Sign of God's Omnipotence.

If thou wilt permit me to play the Philoso­pher, I will tell thee my Opinion, why this Manna is seen rather in the Kingdom of Naples, than in any other Region of the Earth.

It is well known, that the Earth of this Country, abounds with Veins of Sulphur, which are diffused up and down through all [Page 275]Parts, and heat the Soil to an Extraordinary Degree. Hence it follows, that the Lower Region of the Air in this Country, must needs acquire a greater Degree of Heat and Dryness also, being perpetually rarified by the Fiery Atomes, which every where tran­spire through the Pores of the Earth, as from a Furnace.

This being so, it is not hard to conceive, that the Vapours which are exhal'd by the Sun into the Ʋpper Region, in the Heat of a Summers Day, and there become Impregna­ted by the Aetherial Spirit, (which remains pure and uncloath'd in those serener Tracts, and consequently, is apt to Incorporate with any proper Vehicle) Naturally descend again in the Cool of the Night; but, not meeting with a Congenious Body of Vapours, in the Lower Region, that Air being over-purify'd, and grown defecate, through the too near Neighbourhood of the Burning Soil, so that they cannot diffuse themselves through the Air for want of a fit Medium, they consisting of Homogeneous Parts, and following the Natural Position of the Element, and the Laws of Gravity; contract themselves into little Globular Forms the lower they de­scend, thus setling on the Leaves of Trees, on the Grass and Herbs, on Stones and any Part of the Earth, appearing like Grains of Transparent Gum.

Hence also I conceive, That the same Manna (which is Nothing else, but an Ae­therial Spirit, embodied in light and dulcid [Page 276]Vapours) abounds in the Air of most Coun­tries, but remains invisible, rarely so far condens'd, as to settle in a gross Body on the Ground, because the Air of those Regions, is not so rarify'd as is that of Calabria, having no such Subterranean Fires to drink the Va­pours up; but being moist and thick, the de­scending Manna, instead of contracting it self into Globular Bodies, and through its Weight sinking to the Earth, dilates it self, and in­corporates with the floating Vapours: Just as if you pour drops of Water, into a Vessel full of the same Element, those Drops do not sink to the Bottom, but finding an Homoge­neous Body, they mix with it, and are dis­persed every way; whereas, if there be no­thing in the way to stop them, they imme­diately fall to the Ground.

But, I shall tire thee with my Philosophy, forgetting that I speak to a Man consum­mate in all Sciences. Adonai relates many remarkable Passages of this Country, too tedious for a Letter. I will only tell thee in short, That the Kingdom of Naples, is esteemed one of the most Delectable Regions on Earth, the Trees flourishing Twice a Year, and the Soil abounding to Prodigality with Corn, Wine, Oil and Fruits, and all Things necessary for the Life of Man. Yet, the In­habitants, have this Proverb common among them; The Kingdom of Naples is a Paradise of Delights, but it is inhabited with De­vils. So corrupted are the Manners of the People.

[Page 277]Adieu, Dear Haly, and think not Mah­mut tedious in his Letters, who has no other Way at this Distance, to converse with his Friends.

LETTER VI. To Kerker Hassan, Bassa.

WHEN this Dispatch shall come to thy Hands, be assured, that Mah­mut thy Countryman, and Slave to the Slaves of the Grand Signior, wishes thee mul­tiplicity of Happiness. I have many Reasons to honour thee, besides the Natural Affection, which is or ought to be, between those who were born in the same Region. The many Favours thou hast done me, have far exceed­ed the Obligation, which arises from the Vi­cinity of our Birth: Though, that was so near, that a strong Man, would have mea­sur'd the Distance, with one Flight of an Ar­row.

The Present of Kopha, for which I returned thee Thanks in my last, has wrought won­derful Effects on me, being a perfect Cure of the Melancholy, to which I was before sub­ject. It has freed me from many Distempers; [Page 278]and, I owe the present Ease and Cheerfulness I enjoy, to this Generous Gift.

Methinks, while I am drinking this excel­lent Liquor, I am at Constantinople, conver­sing with my Friends. It revives in me the Genius of Asia; and so advantageously trans­forms the Idea's of things which I see, that the Crosses on the Tops of the Christian Tem­ples, appear to me as Half-Moons; And, my Imagination presents to me, Turbants instead of Hats, as Men walk along the Streets of Paris.

Doubtless, great is the Force of what we eat or drink, which has occasioned all Wise Law­givers, among other Sanctions, to prescribe certain Rules of Diet: And, the Care of our Holy Prophet, has been exquisite in this Point, his Prohibitions, extending to all Unclean Meats and Drinks; since, they deprave the Constitutions of Men, and encline them to Vice. But, by his own Example, he recom­mended to us the Use of this Admirable Ber­ry; Imposing a new Name on the Tree that bears it, when he called it, the Tree of Puri­fication. Hence it is, that all the Mussul­mans affect to partake of the Sanctifi'd Be­nefit; it being the Universal Beverage, of the Osman Empire. Were the Virtues of it known in these Western Parts, it would match, if not supplant the Credit of their Wines: since it equally refreshes the Spirits, without Intoxicating the Brain.

I know not whether thou hast seen Peste­lihali my Brother, since thy Return from [Page 279] Arabia: Or, whether thou hast heard the News he brought with him out of the East. He has survey'd the Indies, Tartary, China, Tun­quin, Persia, and other Regions, whose Names are hardly known in some Parts of the Otto­man Empire. Indeed, we have formerly had but an odd Idea of those Remote Countries: But, especially China, has been hid from the greatest Part of the Earth.

In my earlier Years, I have heard Men of Gravity, who would be taken for Knowing Persons, say, That China was but a Tribu­tary Province of the Tartars, a Contemptible Corner of Asia, and so barren, as it could hardly afford Sustenance for its Inhabitants; which is a Sign, it is well Peopled. Assuredly, our Fathers were Ignorant of this Country; which, after the Perpetual Monarchy of the Osmans, may be esteemed the Second Empire on Earth.

My Brother says, it contains Sixteen Pro­vinces, each as large as a Kingdom: And, that all together, they fill up a Tract of Ground as big as Europe; which, thou knowest, is one of the Four Quarters of the World: And, that this vast Dominion, contains above a Hun­dred Millions of Inhabitants.

The Emperour who Reigned, when Pesteli­hali was there, was called Zunchin: A young Prince, not above Thirty Years of Age; in whose Veins, ran the Blood of Sixteen Em­perours, his Progenitors.

In the Year 1640. Two great Officers in his Army, having drawn to their Party an In­numerable [Page 280]Company of the Soldiers, and be­ing encouraged by some Grandees at the Court, made a Revolt. The Names of these Rebels, were Lycungz and Changien. They soon be­came Masters of Five Provinces: But, quar­relling about their Shares, Lycungz caused his Associate to be poisoned; and taking on himself the sole Command of the Rebels, was proclaimed by them, Emperour of China. After which, he marched directly with his whole Forces against Pequin, a City where the Emperour kept his Court: Knowing, that the Conquest of this Place, would secure to him, all the remaining Provinces of the Em­pire.

The Chinese are reputed a most Ingenious People, excelling in all Manner of Mecha­nick Inventions; and the boldest Architects in the World. They build Bridges from one Mountain to another, to shorten the Tra­vellers Journey o'er the Plain between them; and, raise Towers almost up to the Clouds. Some of their Cities, are said to be near Thir­ty Leagues in Compass, having Double Walls and Ditches. And, my Brother says, the City Pequin, wants not much of this Extent: And, that the Palace of the Emperor, is near a League in Circuit, environ'd by Three Walls, and as many Moats; besides Bulwarks, and other Fortifications. He adds, That this Mighty City and Palace, is guarded by an Hundred Thousand Soldiers.

This Impregnable Place, the Rebels took by Stratagem, which was able to have resi­sted [Page 281]all the Force of Asia. Lycungz held a private Correspondence, with several Gran­dees within the Town and Palace. By whose Connivence, he sent great Numbers of the Stoutest Men in his Army, disguized in the Habit of Merchants; who lodging themselves in divers Quarters of the City, on a Day ap­pointed, suddenly appear'd in Arms; and surprising the Guards who defended the Gates, slew them all, and opened the Gates to the Rebels.

Who can express the Confusion and Slaugh­ter, that filled all Parts of the City with Mourning and Blood? The Barbarous Con­querour, sacrificed all the Loyal and the Brave, to his Unpardonable Ambition; disarmed those who escaped the first Massacre; and having made himself Absolute Master of the City, lays a close Siege to the Imperial Pa­lace.

The Emperour now finding that he was be­trayed, and that it was too late to defend himself from the Cruel Persecution and In­sult of the Traytors; takes Advantage of the short Resistance, which some of his Faithful Servants made, to consult his own Honour, with that of the Empress and his Daughter. He had above Three Thousand Wives, for whom he could not provide in that Flood of Calamities. All his Care being employed, to prevent the last Triumph of his Enemies, in not suffering the Royal Blood, to be shed by the prophane Hands of those Villains. He entred into the Gardens of the Palace, accom­panied [Page 282]onely by his Empress and Daughter, with Three Faithful Eunuchs. The Young Princess, (who was a Lady Educated in all the Chinese Learning) seeing the great Afflicti­on of her Royal Parents, the Inevitable Ruine of their Family, and the Universal Desolation; fell on her Knees, and spoke to her Father, as follows:

My Lord,

SInce it is the Will of the Immortal Gods, thus to extinguish the Lustre and Majesty of our Sublime Race, let their Decrees be fulfilled. But, let not me be a Spectator of my Parents Fall, or survive a Tragedy, at which the Earth it self must tremble. Have this Compassion on my tender Years, and let these Eyes be closed, before Death seal up Yours, from which Mine bor­rowed all their Light. Think not, be­cause I am Young, I fear to die: I long to see our Kindred Gods, and represent the Fate of China, so as to provoke their speedy Vengeance. Surely, our Deifi'd Ancestors, at my Complaint, would gather all the Thunder in the Heavens, and shower it down upon these Perjur'd and Ʋngrateful Traytors. Or else, they'd play the Chymists, and extract the most Envenom'd Influence of the Stars, [Page 283]and dart the Heavenly Poyson on the Rebels, as they lye before these Sacred Walls, and thus would put a Period to their Cursed Treason. Make no Delay, My Royal Father, but, try the Experi­ment; release me from these Chains, which hinder my Escape to Paradise: And, let me be the Herauld of such News, as ne'er before surpriz'd the Bless'd Above.

The Emperor mov'd with this Passionate Address of his Daughter, drew a Dagger from his Girdle, and therewith stabb'd her to the Heart. And then, struck with Remorse at so Unnatural a Deed, covered his Face with a Veil of Silk. Thus acting Agamemnon's Part, when, to fulfil the Oracle, he Sacrific'd his Daughter Iphigenia.

After this, the Empress overwhelm'd with so many Sorrows, retired into a Grove, and Hang'd her self with a Silken Cord on a Tree. The Emperor seeing this Mournful Spectacle, was resolved no longer to delay his own Death. Wherefore, following her Example, he dispatch'd himself likewise by a String. But, he first bit a Vein; and, with his Blood, writ the following Words:

What is there now desirable on Earth, after I am thus betray'd by my own Sub­jects? I accuse not the Inferior People: They are Innocent? 'Tis to the Man­darins, [Page 284]I owe my sudden Fall, with the Ruine of this Mighty Empire. Behold in me, the Royal Line extinct. I am the Last of Sixteen Emperors. I, that was Lord of so many Spacious Regions, Guardian of the Bedchamber of the Sun, sole Monarch of the Orient, Lieutenant to the Gods of the Mines, Possessor of Infinite Treasures, at whose Name a Hundred Millions of my Subjects touch­ed the Ground with their Foreheads; am now ready to be trampled under Foot, by the Basest of my Slaves. But, I will prevent my own Disgrace, and carry this Majestick Soul Inviolate, to my renowned Fathers: Whose Ven­geance join'd with that of all the Gods, shall fall on the Perfidious Man­darins, who have betrayed both Me and this Exalted State to Ruine.

A Narrative of these Mournful Passages, was Printed in the Chinese Language; sup­posed to be done, by the Order of the Em­peror's Attendants, who follow'd him into the Garden, and were Witnesses of what was said and done. A Copy of which, my Bro­ther procur'd to be translated into Arabick, by a Merchant of our Nation, who under­stood the Chinese Language, and resided in Pequin.

[Page 285]In fine, my Brother says, That when he departed from China, he left the Tyrant Ly­cungz in Possession of the Emperor's Palace; where he found a Hundred Millions of Ingots in Gold and Silver, besides an Inestimable Treasury of Pearls and Precious Stones. All which Wealth, had been heap'd together, by the Frugality of the Chinese Emperors.

By this thou mayst take an Estimate, of the Grandeur and Strength of this Formidable Monarchy, of which we have had such Con­temptible Notions. Neither shalt thou have Occasion, to be surprized at the Monstrous Rise and Fortune of this Rebel, who in so short a Time, was lifted to the Height of Humane Sovereignty; when thou considerest, that all Things are subject to Vicissitude and Change.

That God, who establishes whom he pleases on the Thrones of the Earth, and at the De­termined Period of Empires, deposes such as trust in their Strength and Riches; defend our Sovereign from Treasons, and from the Arrows that fly in Obscurity.

LETTER VII. To Darnish Mehemet, Bassa.

WHAT Obligation have I, to be concerned for the Infidels? Or, what Interest in the Ʋncircumcised? Yet, Nature has tied all our Race, in some Com­mon Bonds of Affection; and Humanity teaches us, to rejoice at the Deliverance of the Op­pressed.

The Kingdom of Naples, has long groan'd under the Yoke of Spanish Tyranny. The Labour of the People, sufficed not to pay the Unreasonable Taxes, that were Imposed on them. They sweat Blood, to become yet more Miserable; whilst their Cruel Masters, having fleec'd 'em to Nakedness, would take Advantage of their Poverty, to rivet their Chains yet deeper, and render their Servitude past Redemption.

The People were sensible of their Calami­ty, yet knew not how to shake off the Yoke. It had gall'd 'em to the Nerves and Sinews; their Strength was gone. Despair of Redress, had rendred 'em supine; and took from 'em, the very Power of meditating their Reco­very. But Heaven, which protects the Op­pressed, has raised up a Youth from among the Meanest of the People, to assert the Publick Liberty. A Fisherman, who has not seen Four and Twenty Winters, has under­taken [Page 287]to restore the Ancient Privileges of the Neapolitans. Who can penetrate into the Methods of Eternal Destiny, which makes Use of so Contemptible Instruments, to check the Power of the Greatest Monarchs?

This bold Youth, inspired with a Zeal for the Publick, ran one Day into the Streets, crying with a loud Voice, Long live the King of Spain, but let the Corrupt Officers perish. He had no other Weapon, save a Reed in his Hand; but was soon followed, by a Multi­tude of Boys and Young Men, with Clubs and Staves, who went along the Streets of that Populous City, repeating the Cry after him, Long live the King of Spain, but let the Cor­rupt Officers perish. At first, the Citizens laugh'd at the Infant Tumult; but, in less than Two Hours, this Fisherman (whose Name was Masanello) had enrolled above Two Thou­sand Boys.

The next Day his Numbers encreased, by the Accession of all Sorts of lewd and idle Persons, Malecontents, Debtors, and such as were desirous of Novelty. Nay, some of the better Sort of Citizens, shut up their Shops, took Arms, and mingled with the Popular Insurrection: So that, ere Mid-day, there were above Ten Thousand Men and Boys, marching along the Streets, and burn­ing the Custom-Houses, with all their Books of Accompts, throughout the City.

When Masanello beheld himself at the Head of so vast a Multitude, he thought it time to declare the Reason of his raising this [Page 288]Tumult. Wherefore, getting on an Eminent Place in one of the Markets, he speaks to his Followers to this Effect:

Rejoice, O ye Faithful People, and send up Acclamations to the God of Heaven, who hath this Day put it into your Hearts and Hands, to be your own Redeemers. As for me, my Spirit burned within me, to see the Publick Oppression; and, I set no Value on my Life, when I first began this Glorious Enterprize. One of the Princes threatned me with the Galleys, if I persisted; but, here are Thou­sands my Witnesses, That in stead of fearing him, I smote him on the Breast, and sent him away joyful, that he escaped with his Life. O ye Faithful People, trust not the Princes or Nobles: They are the Men who Oppress you, and would enslave you. Trust in your Arms, and the Justice of your Cause. God has brought you together; let Nothing separate you, till you have freed your Country, your selves, your Wives and Children, from perpetual Ser­vitude. Chuse you a Leader, a Man of Cou­rage and Resolution, who is willing to sacri­fice his Life for the Common Good. As for me, I have hitherto liv'd a Fisherman, and so I intend to die.

The People, exceedingly mov'd with this Speech, chose him with one Accord for their Leader; Crying out with loud Acclamations, Long live Masanello, the Patron of the Neapo­litan Liberties.

[Page 289]The first Thing he did, after he was con­firmed in this Authority, was, to set open the Prisons, and list the Prisoners under the Banner of the People. Then he divided this confused Army, into Regiments and Compa­nies; and sent forth a Proclamation through­out Naples, commanding all to take Arms, on Pain of having their Houses burnt. So that in a little time, he had above Fifty Thousand Armed Men at his Heels.

Thus accompanied, he marches directly to­ward the Viceroy's Palace, vested in Cloath of Silver, with a Naked Sword in his Hand. He was accompanied by a Cardinal, who under­took to be a Mediator, between the Viceroy and the People. His Presence restrain'd the Multitude, within some Bounds of Moderati­on; for, they Reverenced him, as the Father of the City. Yet, they burnt above Sixty Pa­laces of the Nobles to the Ground, with all their Furniture and Goods; and, it was pre­sent Death for any one, to rescue or purloin any Thing from the Flames: So rigorously Just was this New Lawgiver, this Moses of the Neapolitans. It was in Vain for the Vice­roy, to oppose Force against so Formidable an Insurrection. He entertain'd the Young Fish­erman, with Ceremonies due to a Prince: And, having concluded a Truce, gave him the Title, of Chief Tribune of the Faithful People. This encreased the Veneration, the Citizens had already conceiv'd for Masanello: So that in a Day or Two more, he saw himself at the Head, of a Hundred and Fifty Thousand [Page 290]Armed Men. He gave out all Orders for the Republick; publish'd new Edicts; and, all Commissions, were issued in his Name. He procured the Gabels to be for ever abolish'd; restor'd the People to their Ancient Liberty: And, in Fine, was Murdered by his own' Followers.

Let me not seem an Advocate for Sedition, when I tell thee, there was something Brave and Heroick in the Actions of this Youth. So strange a Revolution, in so short a time, has scarce been heard of in the World. For a Beardless Slave, to raise himself in Six Days, to as Absolute and Uncontroulable a Sovereign­ty, as the Greatest Monarch on Earth enjoys; to be obeyed by an Infinite Number of Peo­ple, without the least Hesitation or Demurr, were it for Life or Death; and all this, without any Motive of Ambition or Interest, but only to assert the Publick Liberty; Is a convincing Argument of his Vertue, and shews, That Heaven approved his Enterprize. But then again, for him to lose all this Power in Four Days more, to be Murd'red in Cold Blood by his own Party, by the People whose Cause he had so successfully vindicated; this shews, the Instability of Human Affairs, and, that there is Nothing Permanent on this Side the Moon.

I pray God, to inspire the Ministers of the Sublime Port, to take such Measures, as may preserve the Mussulman Peace. Adieu.

LETTER VIII. To Solyman, his Cousin, at Constantinople.

WHEN I clos'd up my Last, the Hour of the Post was near expir'd; and the Messenger who carries my Letters to him, hastned my Dispatch, preventing what I had farther to say to thee.

I am solicitous for thy Welfare, both as thou art a Mussulman, and so near a Re­lation. Do not forfeit those Titles, by dege­nerating from thy Kindred, and from all the Illuminated of God. Truth is compriz'd in a little Room; but, Error is Infinite. Thou makest a wrong Inference, from the Mode­ration and Charity of the True Believers, when thou concludest, That because they believe, it shall go well with all Honest Men, let their Opinions and Ceremonies be what they will; therefore thou shalt be safe, in retrenching the Endless and Burdensom Wash­ings (as thou termest them) of the Mussul­mans, so long as thou leadest a Good Moral Life.

Art thou such a Friend to Idleness and Im­purity, that thou wilt by a most pitiful So­phistry, cheat thy self of Salvation, rather than take the Pains to wash thy self after the Manner, and at the Times appointed by [Page 292]the Prophet of God, and practis'd by our Fa­thers, and all the Faithful throughout the World? If it be allow'd, that such as either out of Ignorance, or hindred by some other Invincible Cause, do not embrace our Holy Law, are not Circumcised, and repair not to the Assemblies of the Faithful, shall ne­vertheless enter into Paradise, provided they obey the Law of Nature Imprinted on their Hearts; does it follow therefore, that one who has been bred up in the Ʋndefiled Faith, who has been Circumcised, and lifting up his Right Hand to Heaven, has pronounc'd the Seven Mysterious Words, which cannot be repealed; does it follow, I say, that such an one, shall be regarded by God or his Prophet, any otherwise than as a Heretick or an Infi­del, if he live not up exactly to the Graces that have been given him? No, assure thy self, if thou art in the Number of these, thou art an Apostate; thy Vertues are Vices, and all thy Good Works are an Abomina­tion.

Remember the Piety and Magnanimous Zeal of Assan Hali, thy Grandfather; who, when he was taken Prisoner by the Cossacks, was entertain'd with extream Rigor and Se­verity. Nevertheless, a certain Jew in the City, who knew him, brought him every Day, by Permission of the Keeper, as much Water as would suffice to wash him, and to quench his Thirst. But, one Day, as he went with his accustomed Load, and was en­tring the Gate of the Prison; the Keeper, [Page 293]either out of Malice or Wantonness, spilt most of the Water on the Ground, forbidding the Jew at the same time, to bring any more that Day.

The honest Hebrew, went in with the Remainder of the Water, and deliver'd it to the Prisoner; who, presently prepared to wash himself, after the accustomed Manner of the Mussulmans. The Jew seeing that, told him, There was not Water enough to quench his Thirst. And therewith, related to him what the Keeper had done. I see there is but a Little (reply'd the Vertuous Old Man) but, he that Drinks, or Eats, before he has Wash'd himself, is guilty of de­filing his Soul, and is not worthy to be num­bred among the True Believers. Therefore, it is better for me to die for Thirst, than vio­late the Law brought down from Heaven, and transgress the Traditions of my Fathers. Ha­ving said this, he Wash'd himself, being Re­sign'd to Providence.

Cousin, deceive not thy self with vain O­pinions, nor suffer Hypocrites to seduce thee. Imitate the Adder, and shut thy Ears against the Crafty Insinuations of Hereticks. It is reported of this little Serpent, That by Na­tural Instinct, being sensible when a Ma­gician is about to utter Words which be­ing heard will ensnare it, lays one Ear close to the Ground, and with its Tail stops the other, to the End the Enchantment may have no Effect.

[Page 294]Admit not any Man to thy Conversation, who shall attempt to warp thee from the Simplicity of the Faith and Obedience, which thou owest to the Apostle of God. Without Water, there is no Purity on this Side the Grave. That Element, has a Force in it, of which thou art not aware. 'Tis the Third, in the Rank of Living Principles. 'Tis the Ta­bernacle of the Winds; The Seraglio of the Generative Spirit; The Stage of Wonders. In fine, it is the Purifier of every Thing that has Breath.

Thou knowest, that to serve the Necessities of the Prophet and his Army, Ʋnderstanding and Speech was given to a Fountain in Ara­bia; which having promised to follow him to the Place of his Repose, made a Channel through the Desart, and kept Pace with the Troops of the Faithful, till they came to Medina Talnabi: That so, the Submissive to the Will of Heaven, might not want that Element, without which, Life it self would be a Burden and a Curse.

And yet, thou speakest contemptibly of Water, as a very Indifferent Thing, whether we use it or not, any other ways than to quench our Thirst. Thus, making no Diffe­rence, between the many Advantages we reap from that Element, and that Common Use, to which the Beasts put it. In how many Places of the Alcoran, does the Holy Prophet record the Mercy of God, in giving us Water that is Fresh and not Salt? How does he ce­lebrate his Wisdom and Goodness, for di­recting [Page 295]the Clouds to barren and dry Places? Thou canst not be Ignorant, that it is one of the Encomiums of Paradise, that there are Gardens wherein flow many Rivers. And after all this, wilt thou dispise so Holy and Blessed a Gift, without which, Earth and Heaven, Men and Angels, could not be com­pletely happy?

Go learn then of the Indian Idolaters, who have never heard of the Book of Glo­ry: Go learn of these Barbarians, to prize this Sanctify'd Creature. They travel many Hundreds of Leagues, to bathe them­selves in the Waters of Ganges. With those Incorruptible and All-purging Streams, the Brachmans fill certain Vessels, and transport the Invaluable Liquor, to the Utmost Parts of that Wide Empire. They travel on Foot, sometimes Two Thousand Miles together, each Man with his Load of that precious Water, to supply the Wants of those, who live so remote from the River. So that a Bottle of it, is many times sold to the Prin­ces and Nobles, for Two Hundred Sequins, or Eight Hundred Roupies: And yet, for all this, those very Princes, would not die with a safe Conscience, had they not at least once in their Lives made a Pilgrimage, to this Re­nowned River, and bath'd themselves in the Waves which blot out Sins.

O Cousin, let the Example of these In­fidels, make thee blush at thy Impiety, and excite thee, to a diligent and indispen­sible Practice of Cleanness. So shalt thou [Page 296]have a Sound Mind, in a Healthy Body. And, the Angel of thy Nativity, will not shun thy Person. Adieu.

LETTER IX. To the Kaimacham.

THE Defeat of the Venetians and Mor­lacks in Bosna, has reached these Parts. That News, is not unwelcom to Mahmut. But, I could wish, our General had used his Victory with more Moderation. The Chri­stians term him Barbarian, Salvage, Devil Incarnate; and, load him with Execrations. For, having taken Prisoner the Captain of the Morlacks, he caused him to be flead a­live, and afterwards to be Impal'd. This Captain, was an Ecclesiastick: They call him, Stephano Sorich; and, in Honour of his Zeal and Fidelity, they entitle him, the Good Priest. They applaud his Magnanimity and Cou­rage in Battel; and, no less do they extoll his Constancy, during the Torments of so Cruel and Ignominious a Death. But, I trem­ble to think of the Blasphemies and Curses, they utter against our Holy Prophet, and all the Mussulmans! For, this Cruel Execu­tion, [Page 297]has scandaliz'd the Nazarenes, and im­bitter'd 'em even to Fury. Their Revenge is implacable: They would go to Hell them­selves, provided the True Faithful might be Damn'd for Company!

What will our Divine Lawgiver say? Or, what Apology will our General make, when the Sent of God shall charge him, with dri­ving so many Thousand Souls, into an Irre­concilable Hatred of the Ʋndefiled Faith? For, they look not on this, as the Action of a Private Man, but of one who represents the Person of our August Sovereign, the Great Protector of the Law brought down from Heaven. They suppose him, to be honour'd with the particular Instructions of his Master. And therefore, they say, the Sultan has authoriz'd this Unheard-of Cru­elty; and, that our Religion countenances Tyranny, and the most Nefandous Methods, of shedding Innocent Blood.

I am no Advocate for Infidels; yet, suffer me to vindicate Nature, which is the Com­mon Parent of us all. Suffer me to be So­licitous, for the Honour of our Holy Profes­sion, which is blemish'd by this Inhumane Murder. What Offence had this Unhap­py Captain given, that deserv'd so dire a Pu­nishment? Was it, because he fought vali­antly, and perform'd Wonders in Defence of his Country? This is Nothing, but what becomes every Honest Man to do. And, had our General been truly Brave, he would have entertain'd his Prisoner, with a Respect due to his Merit.

[Page 298]Who was a more Inveterate Enemy of the Mussulmans, than the Renowned Ischen­derbeg, Prince of Albania? Who more Va­liant or Successful, against the Ottoman Ar­mies? It is Recorded of him, That he never shun'd a Battel, never fled from his Ene­mies, never shrunk from Perils, nor was ever wounded but once, in all his Life. And yet, he sustain'd a Continual War, from Two Suc­cessive Osman Emperors; defeated Seven Vi­zirs, with their Forces; took all their Am­munition and Baggage; and, in several Com­bats, slew with his own Hands, above Two Thousand Mahometans.

Our Fathers did not basely revenge them­selves for all this, but cherish'd a Veneration for this Heroick Enemy, and honour'd the very Dust of such an extraordinary Person. For, after his Death, having conquer'd Al­bania, they sought out his Tomb; where they performed their Devotions, as at the Sepul­cher of a Prophet. They open'd the Dormi­tory of the Desunct Warriour; and, with Religious Solemnity, took up his Bones, shar­ing the Honour'd Reliques among them; and, wrapping them up in Silk, wore them continually at their Breasts, esteeming them as Sacred Amulets against Misfortune.

Surely, our General would blush, at an Example of so great Vertue. But, perhaps he was incensed, because his Captive was a Priest: Mistaken Zeal, might prompt him to this horrid Butchery. Thou, who art Justice it self, wilt not approve his Bloody [Page 299]Passion, when thou considerest, That the Priests of Jesus, are Men, as well as others; and, if they live in Error, the Fault is in their Education. However, many of them, are Humble, Chast, Sober, and Lovers of Vertue. If there be others, whose Corrupt Lives have contradicted this Character, let the Crime and the Punishment, rest on their Heads. It is not Reasonable, that the Inno­cent should suffer, for the Faults of the Guilty. The Captain of the Morlacks, had the Reputation, of a Devout and Just Man, and a Stout Champion for his Country. Had he been taken for a Spy, or an Assassin, the Law of Arms would have adjudg'd him to Death. Yet, such was the Clemency of Por­senna, King of the Hetrurians, that when Mu­tius Scaevola, a Valiant Roman, came into his Camp, with Design to Murder him, but by Mistake stabb'd one of the Captains, thinking it had been Porsenna; and, to revenge that Miscarriage on himself, thrust his Hand into the Fire, till the Flesh was consum'd to the Bones; the King astonish'd at his Undaunted Spirit, sent him away in Peace, raised the Siege of Rome, and entred into a strict Friendship with that Nation. Such Honour he bore, to the Fortitude of his Enemy, and designed-Murderer. But, the Captain of the Morlacks, was not taken under these Circumstances: He lost his Liberty in the Heat of Battel, bravely combating at the Head of his Army.

Wouldst thou know the Grounds then of our General's Cruelty? It was purely for the [Page 300]Sake of a Jest. There went a Report, That when this Priest was born, his Body was all over raw; so that the Physicians, were forc'd by Art, to supply him with a Skin. Our Cruel General, to sport himself in the Poor Man's Misery, commanded him to be flea'd alive; uttering at the same Time, this Inhu­mane Sarcasm; There was no Reason, that he should carry a Skin out of the World, who brought none in. This is attested by Two Gen­tlemen, who were made Prisoners with their Captain, heard these Words, saw him Exe­cuted, and afterwards made their Escape.

The Nazarenes vow, to Revenge this Un­paralell'd Cruelty, on all the Mussulmans that fall into their Hands, if this Butcher (as they term him) be suffer'd to go Unpunish'd. I tell thee, such Barbarous Actions, draw down the Vengeance of Heaven, on those that commit them and, excite the very Beasts of the Earth to make War, and rid the World of such Monsters.

Thou knowest, what use to make of this Intelligence. I will not pretend to Instruct the Second Minister in the Ottoman Empire.

LETTER X. To the Mufti.

IF there be any Truth in what the Astrolo­gers tell us, That the Stars have Influence on the Governments of the Earth; one would think, that Spain lies under some Malignant Aspect.

The Fortune of that Kingdom, has for a long time run Retrograde. They have had nothing but Losses by Sea and Land. The Revolution in Portugal, the Revolt of Catalonia and Roussillon, the Loss of Ormus in Persia, and the Defection of Goa, with other Rich Towns of Traffick in the Indies, came one upon the Back of another.

Since which, there have been many Towns and Castles taken from the Spaniards in Flan­ders. The French made an Insurrection in Palermo, breaking open the Prisons, and re­leasing the Prisoners: And grew to such a Head, that the Viceroy, fearing they would revenge the Tragedy of the Sicilian Vespers; to pacifie the Multitude, was forc'd to repeal the Edicts for Taxes, and disannul them for ever, and to pass an Act of General Indemnity, both to the Rabble and to the Prisoners whom they had freed.

This Tumultuous Spirit, pass'd from thence to the Kingdom of Naples; and there, like an Infection, soon spread it self through all Parts, [Page 302]both of City and Country: Two Hundred Thousand Men took up Arms, to vindicate the Privileges of the Neapolitans, under the Conduct of a Poor Young Fisherman. I have already transmitted to the Sublime Port, a Relation of this Formidable Sedition: Where­in, it may be thought, I have discovered too much Tenderness to the Infidels, and seem'd to Favour the Violences of a Faction. But, I hope, thou wilt acquit me, when thou con­siderest, that these Governments of the Na­zarenes, are not to be compared to the Sacred Osman Empire, which is establish'd by a Di­vine Right: It having been determined by the Angel, That he who should possess the Glo­rious Dormitory of the Sent of God, should be Entituled, The Sovereign of all the Kings on Earth. Therefore, it would be a Crime of the Highest Nature, to raise a Tumult or Sedition, within the Territories of our August Emperour, whose Dominion is confirm'd to him for ever, by a Patent from Heaven. But, the Case of the Nazarene Princes is different; who being professed Enemies to the Messenger of God, have no other Right to any Thing, but what their Swords purchase. And there­fore, when they prey upon others, and by Rapine and Spoil augment their Riches, it is no Wonder, if the Great Avenger of Crimes, stirs up some undaunted Spirits, to free their Country from Slavery and Ruine.

Those who are curious, have remark'd ma­ny Observable Circumstances in this Revolu­tion at Naples; as, that it was foretold by an [Page 303] Astrologer, a considerable Time before it hap­pen'd, who pointed out the very Year wherein it should come to pass. The Extraordinary Eruptions also of Mount Vesuvius some Years ago, were esteem'd as Presages of some ap­proaching Troubles in the State: For, it rain­ed Ashes on the City of Naples. I spoke of this Mountain, in one of my former Let­ters.

'Tis reported also, That about the same Hour, wherein Masanello, the Ringleader of the Seditious was Murd'red, there was seen a Man hovering in the Air, over the Principal Temple of Naples, with a Sword in his Hand, which he was putting up in his Scabberd: And, that a Voice was at the same time heard from on High, to utter these Words, His La­bour is finish'd, give him Rest.

This is certain, that whilst he was at the Head of an Hundred Thousand Men, Seven Assassines were hired by some of the Princes to shoot him; yet, none of the Bullets could penetrate his Body, though Unarm'd, and only covered with his Fishing Rags: And, it was evident, that these Bullets smote him in divers Places; his Garments being marked with them, and he stagger'd with the Force of the Blows.

These are Extraordinary Occurrences, and would tempt one to believe, That this Young Fisherman was the Instrument of Providence, and that Heaven protected both Him and his Cause.

'Tis true indeed, it seem'd at last, as if he [Page 304]were abandon'd by that Divine Power, which had carried him through so Important an En­terprize, in that he was Slain by his own Soldiers. But, then it must be remembred, that this was not done, till his Work was finished, and he went beyond his Commission. Want of Sleep, the Multitude of Affairs, and much Wine, had impaired his Reason, and rendred him Frantick; so that, his Actions were Insup­portable, and his own Admirers grew weary of him. After his Death, his Head was cut off, and carried up and down the Streets on a Lance; and his Body was dragged through the Kennels. Yet, the very next Day, the Multitude, to shew their own Fickleness, took the Dead Body out of a Ditch, where they had laid it all Night: They Washed and Em­balmed it; and, having join'd the Head to it, carried it with great Pomp and Solemnity to the Principal Temple of Naples, attended with Drums and Trumpets, and above a Thou­sand Priests, with Torches in their Hands. A Crown of Gold was put on his Head, and a Scepter in his Hand.

Thus the Neapolitans honoured that Beard­less Youth, who in 'Ten Days time, had caused such a Revolution, as is scarce to be paralell'd. For, he was an Absolute Monarch, in Effect, during that time. And of him it may be said, as it was once of an Emperor, That during his whole Reign, there was neither Spring, nor Autumn, nor Winter: For, his Royalty begun and ended, in the Seventh Moon.

[Page 305]By Letters from Nathan Ben Saddi, at Vienna, I perceive he is molested with Scruples about his Religion, being desirous to build upon the surest Foundation. I sent him the best Advice I could, without making my self a Hypocrite; which, thou knowest, is more offensive to God, than an Open Sinner. I drew up an Abstract of the Mussulman Re­cords; and presented him with the Faithful Genealogy, from Ismael, the Son of the Patri­aroh Ibrahim, down to our Holy Prophet. This I did, to rectifie an Old Inherent Errour of the Jews, who boast, That only the Sons of Isaac were True Believers. I endeavoured not to proselyte him, by Sophistry and Arti­fice; but referred him, for better Satisfaction, to the Writings of the Ancients. I promised to furnish him with Books of our Law, and the Comments of our Holy Doctors. This is impossible for me to perform, whilst I am in this Place; unless thou, who art a Guide of those who seek the Truth, vouchsafest to second my Zeal. I address to thee, Sovereign Prelate of the Faithful, in Behalf of a De­scendent from the Younger Brother of Ismael; in Behalf of one Circumcised, but not in the Right Way. Favour him with thy Divine Instructions, and supply him with Treatises of Light and Reason. A seasonable Appli­cation, may bring this Hebrew, into the Number of the Mussulmans; for he is alrea­dy disgusted at the Synagogue.

But, if I have presumed too far, in endea­vouring to snatch a Soul from the Paws of [Page 306] Tagot, correct me in thy Wisdom; for, I am but as an Infant before thee.


The Beginning of this Letter is wanting in the Italian Translation, the O­riginal Paper being torn. — All Mens Hearts are filled with Joy for this prosperous News, whilst I mourn for the Dishonour of Our Arms. Nothing but sad Tydings grate my Ears from those Parts, and more melancholy Presages possess my Soul. Methinks, I see thick Clouds gathering o'er the Imperial City: My Sleep is disturb'd with fearful Visions. I start in my Bed, and waking lay my Hand on my Sword, as if some Danger were at Hand. I dream of Tumults and Disorders, neighing of Horses, and clashing of Arms in the Streets of Constantinople. I pray God avert the Omen.

It is reported here, That Ali, the Sangiac-Bey of Lippa, is taken Prisoner, and that his Son was tormented to Death before his Face, in a Manner peculiar to the Invention of the most Barbarous Tyrants: For, they caused sharp Thorns, to be thrust between his Nails and his Flesh; which creates an intolerable Anguish. They laid him on a Bed of Iron-Spikes, [Page 307]and poured Melted Lead, Drop by Drop, on all Parts of his Flesh. Then they made a small Fire, and roasted him slowly to Death. If he chanced to groan, or make the least Complaint, in the Midst of those grievous Tortures, they bid him remember the Good Priest Sorich, who set him an Ex­ample of Constancy and Courage; in that he never shed a Tear, or so much as sigh'd, when he was Flea'd alive.

Thou seest, that Revenge is sweet, even to those, who having receiv'd no Injury in their own Persons, yet are touched to the Quick, with the Violence that is done to another. This will appear in the Humour of the Ita­lians, who prosecute their Enemies, with ir­reconcilable Hatred and Malice; whole Fa­milies being often engag'd, in executing the Resentments of Two single Persons, who first began the Quarrel: But, much more forcible is this Passion in those, who have been noto­riously hurt themselves. And, the Re­venge of a certain Captain was Extravagant; who being informed, that his General had Debauch'd his Wife, took an Opportunity to single him out from all other Company, pretending to walk in the Fields. When he had him there alone, he clapt a Pistol to his Breast, threatning to kill him forthwith, if he moved Hand or Foot. Then he up­braided him with what he had done, in such Language, as convinced the General, his Life was in extreme Danger. Wherefore, he humbled himself, and confessed his Crime; [Page 908]begging of the Captain, to spare his Life, and he would preferr him forthwith, to the best Office in the Army next his own. But, the furious Italian, would not sell his Honour so Cheap. He forced him to deny God, and utter many Blasphemies, in Hopes of Sa­ving his Life: And, when he had thus done, the Captain said, Now my Revenge is com­plete, since I shall send thee Body and Soul to the Devil. With that he pistoll'd him.

But, leaving these Infidels to their Diabo­lical Passions, I am concern'd at the Capti­vity of thy Brother; if it be true, which is related here, That he was taken in his Return from Canea to Constantinople. It will cost the Bassa of Algiers a Thousand Crowns to ransom him.

Adieu, Renarba. And, if thou art desirous to raise thy Self, take that Method which I have now proposed to thee. God be pro­pitious to thy Endeavours.

LETTER XII. To the Venerable Mufti.

THou wilt say, the Neapolitans are a rest­less People, when thou shalt know, That there have been no less than Forty General In­surrections [Page 309]in this Kingdom, since its first Se­paration from the Grecian Empire, whereof it was formerly a Member; and, that in the Space of Two Years, they have had Five Kings, all of different Nations.

One would have thought, That after the Death of Masanello, the Ringleader of the late Innovation, the Popular Heats would have slacken'd, and the People returned to their Duty; but, the passionate Desire of Liberty, caus'd them to continue in Arms, till the Confirmation of their Privileges, should come from the King of Spain.

In the mean Time, Don John of Austria, who lay before the City with a Fleet of Fifty Gallions, play'd upon them incessantly with his Cannon by Sea; and, the Castles batter'd them by Land.

Cardinal Mazarini, who has the earliest Intelligence of Foreign Transactions, has had a Principal Hand in fomenting this Flame. For, as soon as the News of Masanello's Death arriv'd here, he dispatch'd away Couriers to Rome, with Instructions to the French Em­bassador at that Court, requiring him, to use all possible Means, to cherish the Tumults in Naples, and not neglect so fair an Opportu­nity, of reducing that Kingdom under the Protection of France.

It will not appear strange, That this great Genius, should aim at the Conquest of Na­ples, when we consider, That this Kingdom abounds in all Manner of Riches, to which its fortunate Situation contributes not a Little: [Page 310]For, it lies in the most Temperate Part of the World. And, the Inhabitants, are not Se­cond to any People of Europe, in Martial Courage and Bravery. This is a Bait, which tempts the Cardinal; who is not ignorant, how valiantly the Ancestors of the present Neapolitans, behav'd themselves in the Wars of Caesar and Pompey, and those between the Romans and Carthaginians. Nor are they less Celebrated, for the stout Resistance they made against the Huns, Goths and Vandals. So that, this Kingdom, were it once brought under the French Dominion, would prove a Nursery, from whence this Monarch might draw many Thousands of excellent Soldiers, to serve him in his Wars.

Besides, it would be more commodious for him, to make Incursions from hence into the Pope's Territories, if there should arise any Difference between the Two Courts; as there often do, about the Rights of the Gallican Church, the Franchises of the Embassadors of this Crown in Rome, and other Privileges to which they pretend.

Therefore the French Embassador, accor­ding to the Instructions of Mazarini, sent Commissioners to treat privately with the Peo­ple of Naples, offering them Two Millions of Crowns, Twenty Gallions, with Eight and Fifty Gallies, and other Vessels. They accepted the Proposal, being weary of the Spanish Government, and desirous of Novel­ty, Encourag'd also by what those Commissi­oners represented to them, concerning the [Page 311]Success of the English, who by standing on their Guard, and using that Power which God and Nature had given them, for the Defence of their Lives and Liberties, were now in a Manner become a Free People, having Abolish'd the Monarchy, and set up a Commonwealth: And this, they told them, was also done by Cardinal Mazarini's Counsels and Assistance. Now, all the Cry in Naples was, Let France and the People of England flourish, and let the Faithful Neapolitans, assert their own Li­berty. So blind were these People, as not to consider. That in putting themselves under the Protection of the French, they did but ex­change One Bondage for Another; it being im­possible, for any foreign Prince, to keep this Kingdom, and pay all his Officers Civil and Military, together with those under their Commands, with much less Charge than the Revenues amount to. And, the French are as good at inventing new Taxes, as any Court in Europe.

However, the Neapolitans were enchanted with the Thoughts of so much Gold, and o­ther Assistance offer'd by the French Commis­sioners; and sweeten'd, with their fair Words, and glorious Promises. So that they imme­diately sent Deputies, to entreat the Duke of Guize, who was then at Rome, to come and protect them, in taking on him the Chief Command of their Arms.

This Prince, thinking it a Generous Action to relieve the Oppressed: And, that at the same Time, he should do a considerable Service to [Page 312]the King of France, in rendring him Master of this Noble and Opulent Kingdom; went to Naples. Where, at first, he was receiv'd with Infinite Applause; was made their General; took an Oath of Fidelity to the People; did ma­ny Notable Services; but was, in the End, be­tray'd, and sent Prisoner to Spain.

If the Generosity and brave Resolution of this Prince, has acquired Commendation from some, in attempting to rescue these People from the Tyranny of their Governours: Yet, his Conduct is call'd in Question by others, who say, He discover'd but little Prudence in trusting himself to the Neapolitans, who had already sacrific'd Two of their Generals. (For, after the Death of Masanello, they chose another Captain, whom they call'd the Prince of Massa: This Prince falling under their Suspicion, was beheaded by the Inconstant People.)

'Tis certain, that there is little Confidence to be put in the Multitude, whose Passions Ebb and Flow, and are more Tempestuous than the Sea. Yet, a Brave and Generous Mind, will shun no Dangers, to serve his Prince and his Country; for whom, it is a Glorious Mar­tyrdom to die. There is no great Undertaking without Hazards, and, he that is afraid to venture his Liberty and Life, in a Good Cause, is not worthy to bear Arms. Had the Duke of Guize succeeded, his Conquest of Naples had made him Viceroy of one of the largest Kingdoms in Europe. It is said to be Five Hun­dred Leagues in Circuit, containing Twelve [Page 313]ample Provinces, Twenty Archbishopricks, Bishopricks One Hundred Twenty Seven: Thirty Castles: Barons One Thousand Four Hundred. Earls Fifty Three. Forty Mar­quises. Thirty Four Dukes, and Twenty Prin­ces. The Inhabitants of this Kingdom, are said to be above Two Millions. The ordinary Revenues of the King, amount to Three Mil­lions of Crowns yearly, besides the Voluntary Donatives, which have been given by the Sub­jects of this State to their Kings, within the Space of Forty Years, amounting to Twenty Eight Millions, and Six Hundred Thousand Duckats. This Kingdom, is water'd by a Hun­dred and Fifty Rivers, besides Ten Lakes stor'd with all Manner of Fish; among which, is one called Averno, over which if any Birds flie, they immediately drop down dead. The An­cient Pagans, had strange Opinions of this Lake; it being the Place, where they used to Sacrifice Men to the Infernal Gods. And, hard by, is the Cave of one of the Sybills.

There are Thirty high Mountains in this Country, of which Adonai relates many strange and delightful Passages, (for, 'tis from him I receiv'd this Account of the Kingdom.) I will not trouble thee, with a Repetition of all that this Jew tells me; onely one Thing is worthy Remark.

He says, That the Bodies of the Three Young Hebrews, who were put into the bur­ning Oven by the Babylonian Monarch, be­cause they would not adore his Idols, are pre­serv'd in a Mosque on one of these Mountains. [Page 314]And, that on the said Hill, no Eggs, Flesh or Milk, will endure an Hour without Putrefa­ction, but presently breed an Infinite Num­ber of Worms. He speaks in the Praise of these Mountains, which are cloath'd with Vineyards, Gardens and Woods on the Top and Sides; and in their Bottoms, have very Rich Mines of Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Crystal, Alabaster, Adamant. In fine, A­donai, who has travelled over all this King­dom, calls it, The fertilest Region of all Italy, which is esteem'd, the Paradise of Europe.

Dost thou not think now, Venerable Guide of the Elect, that the Duke of Guize had Rea­son to prefer the Honour of conquering so Renowned a Kingdom, to the Safety of his Person? or wilt thou not rather conclude, That the Reduction of this Happy State, would be an Expedition worthy of the Ottoman Arms? It is certain, That the Riches and Plenty of this Region, have tempted more Nations to invade it, than any other Kingdom on Earth: It having been the Prize, at which no less than Five and Twenty several Nations have aim'd.

Cardinal Mazarini, is much troubl'd at the Duke of Guize's Captivity, and has of­fer'd great Sums of Mony for his Ransom; but, the King of Spain rejects all Proposals of that Nature. So that 'tis thought, the Cardinal will contrive some Way for the Duke's Escape, either by bribing his Keepers, or by some secret Stratagem.

[Page 315]I am not much concern'd for the Infidels; but, it would be no small Joy to hear, that some Care were taken, for the Redemption of Mahomet Celebee, who, thou knowest, has not deserv'd ill of the Sublime Port. Adieu, Holy Patriarch, and forget not Mahmut in thy Addresses to Heaven.

LETTER XIII. To Abdel Melec Muli Omar, Super­intendent of the College of Sci­ences at Fez.

THOU, to whom the Issues of Paradise are Revealed, and the Road of the An­gels when they come down and go up through the Seven Heavens! Thou, that canst mar­shal the Hoast of the Stars, and understand­est the Discipline of the Armies living and strong, the Orders of the Potentates encamp­ed in the Fields of Light, the Domestick Guards of the Throne Blessed for Ever; Tell me the Age of the World, and declare the Beginning of Time. Resolve me, Whether this Mighty Fabrick be but of Yesterday, that is, of Five or Six Thousand Years standing, as the Jews [Page 316]and Christians say; or, whether the Years of its Duration, be not past a Calcule.

The Visions of thy Progenitor, the Lieute­nant to the Sent of God, are extant in the A­rabick Tongue. In them it is written, My Soul on a sudden, became as though it had Wings; a Spirit enter'd me, and a subtle Wind lifted me up to the Top of Mount Uriel, where I be­held Marvellous Things. I looked behind me, and saw the Ages that were past; and loe, they were without Number, or Beginning. I beheld the Four Seasons of the Year, ever re­turning at their accustomed Time, and the Sun forsook not his Course, for a Thousand Thousand Generations. I counted a Million of Ages, and yet there appear'd not an Hour, wherein Darkness had possessed the Abyss of Matter, or wherein the Endless Firmament was not Illuminated by the Moon and Stars. Whilst I considered these Things, a Liquor was given me to drink by an Ʋnknown Hand, it was of the Colour of Amber: When I had tasted it, I felt a marvellous Force in my Body, and my Eyes were more piercing than an Eagles. A­nother Wind, more powerful than the former, blew out of a Cloud, and carried me up to an exceeding High Place, for above the tallest Mountains; There I trod in the soft Air, as on a Pavement of Marble. I was ravish'd at these Things; and the Exaltation of my State, made me forget my Mortality. I beheld the Earth at a vast Distance under my Feet, as one that did not belong to it; it look'd like a shining Globe, not much unlike the Moon, but far [Page 317]bigger. All the Living Generations, which had successively Inhabited the Earth from its Nativity, pass'd by me; and they appear'd in various Forms. First came a Race of Cen­taurs, then of Satyrs, next of Angels, and last of Men. While I marvelled at these Things, a Voice reach'd my Ears, as from behind me, saying, These are the Four Ages of the World, and the Four Species of Beings, to whom I gave the Possession of the Earth; but, for the Impiety of the Three former, I have exterminated them. And, when Men shall have completed the Mea­sure of their Sins, I will cause the Trumpet to sound, and all Things shall retire into the Cave of Silence and Darkness. Having heard this, I found my self in a moment on the Earth, which I had before seen afar off; then I knew that I had been in a Trance, &c.

I do not rehearse this Vision, to reach thee any new Thing, Venerable President of the Southern Sages (for, I know, the Archives of thy College, are replenish'd with all Manner of excellent Treatises, and that thou art no Stranger, to the Writings of the Prophets) but, to crave thy Interpretation of so great a Mystery, and to reason with thee about the World's Duration. My Satisfaction would be small, in contemplating the various Beau­ties of the Ʋniverse, the Qualities of the E­lements, the Natures of Living Things, the Vertues of Plants and Minerals, with the Force of the Heavenly Bodies, were I assur'd, That these Things were not always so. That Thought, would damp my greatest [Page 318]Enjoyments, if I were convinc'd, That so ma­ny Splendors, Riches and Pleasures, as this Visible Frame affords, were not disclos'd for Millions of Ages, but lay hid in the Bosom of Eternity. Methinks, it is too low an O­pinion of the Omnipotent Goodness, and looks, as if the Authors of it, suspected God of Envy: Who, when he might have made Infinite Myriads of Creatures happy, in these Visible Emanations of his Divinity, without either Beginning or Ending of Time; yet, accor­ding to their Doctrine, contented himself, to let onely a Determinate Number taste of his Munificence, for a few Centuries of Years. This is not suitable, to the Character of that Infinite Being, the Eternal Source of all Per­fections.

What then is meant by those Four Ages, and the Four Species of Beings, which were shew'd to the Exalted of God in that Holy Vi­sion? Tell me, Great Light of Asrick, Is it repugnant to Reason or Faith, to believe, That the Earth has been Inhabited from E­ternity; since our Holy Doctors teach us, That it was peopl'd long before the Creation of Adam? No Mussulman, that has ever gone the Sacred Pilgrimage, but has visited Mount Araffa, where Adam first saw Eve his Wife. There he has been instructed, in the History of that First Father of Mankind; and how that before his Time, the Earth was Inhabited by Angels, who being commanded to adore Adam, refus'd it, and were turn'd to Devils, being expell'd from the Earth. Thou know­est [Page 319]moreover, that it is in the Sacred Tradi­tions, That God gave to Adam a Wife whose Name was Alileth; but, that she being of the Race of these Devils, refus'd to obey Adam: Whence it came to pass, That they liv'd in continual Quarrels and Enmity, for the Space of Five Hundred Years; till at length, Alileth flew up into the Air, and abandon'd her Hus­band. Of which, when Adam complained to God, he sent Three Mighty Angels in Pur­suit of her, commanding them to tell her, That if she would return to her Husband, it should go well with her; but if she would not, a Hundred of her Children should die every Day. The Angels follow'd her, and over­took her on the Red Sea, where they threat­ned to drown her, unless she would return to her Husband. But she made Excuses, and told them, She was created to destroy Young Children. Then the Angels laid Hands on her: When she, to pacifie them, swore by the Bottom of Hell, That whensoever the Names of them Three, should be written on any Schedule, that she should have no Power to hurt the Infants, they dismiss'd her. Af­ter this, God compassionating Adam's Soli­tude, gave him another Wife call'd Eve.

This Tradition, confirms the Vision of the Prophet; and, we need not doubt, That the Earth was Inhabited before Adam's Time. And, if that be granted, why might it not be Peopled for Millions of Ages, as well as for the smallest Term, that Ignorance or Er­ror may assign to its Duration?

[Page 320]I have discoursed with several of the Jew­ish Rabbi's, and Christian Doctors on this Sub­ject, Men of abstruse Learning, and sublime Thoughts: Yet, I can find but a few, who are emancipated from the Prejudices of a Superstitious Education. They have been from their Infancy, prepossess'd with a false Notion of the Works of God; believing them to be Finite, both in Extent of Space and Time. They circumscribe this Visible World, within, I know not what Flaming Circle; and believe the First Matter it self, to be but Five Days Older than Adam, taking each of those Days, for the Space of Four and Twen­ty Hours, wherein the Sun finishes his Diur­nal Circuit through the Heavens. They con­sider not, That according to their own Bible, there was Light and Darkness, and conse­quently Day and Night, before the Sun was Created. But, how long those Days and Nights were, is not determin'd by Moses. Yet in another Part of their Bible, it is said, That a Day with God, is a Thousand Years, and a Thousand Years, is a Day. So that, according to this Interpretation, Adam was not Created, till above Five Thousand Years after the Beginning of the World. Yet, when I bring this Positive Place of their Own Scripture, against the Nazarene Sages, they shuffle it off with empty Evasions; and, ra­ther than believe the Indesinite Antiquity of the World, they contradict their own Sence and Reason, invalidate the Testimony of a Prophet, deny their Faith, and appear Un­mask'd Insidels.

[Page 321]Both they and the Jews, have corrupted the Truth with many Errors; and, we must seek farther, for the Original Science of Nature. The Illuminated of God, have always taught, That the Earth was Inhabited long before the Appearance of Adam. And, all the Eastern Sages, believe a Series of Generations, to have dwelt on this Globe, for Indeterminate A­ges.

I have a Brother lately come from the In­dies: He relates strange Things of certain Books, which are onely in the Hands of the Brachmans. They are written in a Lan­guage, which none understand but these Priests; yet a Language as Copious as any o­ther, and taught in their Colleges by Rule. These Books contain a History of the World, which, they say, is above Thirty Millions of Years Old. They divide the Term of its Du­ration, into Four Ages; Three of which they say are already past, and a good Part of the Fourth. Now I would fain know, who wrote these Books; and, at what Time, and where this Language was spoken? They call it, the Holy Language; saying, that it was the First spoken on Earth. It is strange, That no Hi­story should mention so Divine a Speech. We have the Chronology of the Latin and Greek; and can give an Account, when and where they were spoken, though they are now grown Obsolete, and no otherways to be learn'd, but in the Schools and Academies. This ar­gues, the Antiquity of the Bramins Language and Books, in Regard, they fall not within [Page 322]any other Record save their own, which says, they are as Old as the World. For, if this As­sertion were false, the Imposture would have been discover'd as soon as broach'd, and the Learned Sages of the East, would quickly have disprov'd so manifest a Lye. There seems to me something Extraordinary, in this Pre­tension of these Indian Philosophers, and I would gladly be convinc'd of the Truth. Methinks, it is an Illustrious Idea of the Di­vine Perfections, when one conceives all this Vast and Endless Concatenation of Beings, to flow from the Eternal Nature, as Rays from the Sun: And, that they can no more be se­parated from it, than those Beams can from that Visible Fountain of Light. It will not be difficult then, to Interpret the History of Moses, by this Register of the Bramins, and reconcile the Six Days of the one, with the Four Ages of the other; since, a Day in the Divine Sence, may amount to Millions of Years, as well as to a Thousand. And, it will be more congruous and agreeable, to believe, that after the Birth of the First Mat­ter, there elaps'd Many Ages, before it was wrought into such an Infinite Variety of Ap­pearances, as we now behold; and, that the Five Days, which Moses computes, be­fore the Production of Adam, might be some Millions of Years: In which Time, the Di­vine Architect gradually drew from the Abyss of Matter, the Sun, Moon, Stars, Plants and Animals; which may serve also to Illustrate, the Vision of thy Holy Ancestor, with which I begun this Discourse.

[Page 323]Adieu, Sublime Intelligence of the Torrid Zone, and favour Mahmut with a Transcript of thy Thoughts concerning these Things. But, if thy Silence shall condemn my Pre­sumption and Importunity, I will wait for thy Answer, till the Platonick Year, when, according to the Doctrine of that Philosopher, we shall all be alive again.

LETTER XIV. To the Mufti.

IN a former Dispatch to thy Sanctity, I have acquainted thee with the Insurrections in Palermo, mentioning the Fear of the Viceroy, lest the French in that Island, should then take their Opportunity, to revenge the Pro­verbial Cruelty of the Sicilian Vespers. If thou art unacquainted with that Tragedy, I will inform thee in Brief.

About Three Hundred and Threescore Years ago, there Reign'd in Sicily, one of the Royal Blood of France; they call him, Charles of Anjou. He had French Garrisons in all the Cities of that Kingdom: But, these Soldiers committed so many Insolencies, as rendred 'em Odious and Insupportable to the Natives, [Page 324]who therefore resolved to exterminate them.

The French are very Licentious in their Conquests; neither sparing Men in their An­ger, nor Women in their Lust. They make no Difference, between the Noble and the Vulgar; but sacrifice all the Regards of Ho­nour and Civility, to their Impetuous Ap­petites.

They were guilty of innumerable Rapes and Violences in Sicily, among the Meaner People; and sometimes, extended their Rude­ness, to Persons of the Best Quality. It was common for them, to affront both Virgins and Matrons as they went along the Streets, by thrusting their Hands under their Gar­ments, on Pretence of searching for hidden Arms. Among the Rest, the Wife of a cer­tain Lord in Palermo, going to pay her Devo­tions at the Temple, was seiz'd by the Com­mand of the Captain of the Guards, and strip'd Naked before all the Soldiers, in Order to discover certain Treasonable Papers, which they suspected she carried about her. But finding none, she upbraided the Captain with Inhumanity, in offering so gross an Affront, to a Lady of her Rank. He seeming to be sorry for the Indignity she had received, begged her Pardon; and retiring with his Soldiers out of the Room where she was, left her to put on her Apparel. In the mean while, he was en­flamed with a furious Passion for this Lady, (she being very Beautiful;) and having sent the Soldiers away, he return'd to the Room where she was. He address'd her with much [Page 325]Courtship; but, finding that Ineffectual, he Forc'd her.

When this was made known to her Hus­band, he burn'd with Desire of Revenge. And stirring up all the Sicilian Nobles and People, it was privately agreed between them, that on a certain Festival, when the Bells should toll to Even-Song, all the Sicilians should take Arms, and Massacre the French throughout the Island. This Plot was carri­ed so secretly, that before the French could get the least Intimation of it, they were all murd'red, on the Day appointed.

I forgot to acquaint thee in my last, with a Villainy, which was discover'd in the late Tumults of Naples. As they were march­ing up and Down the Streets, burning the Custom-Houses, and the Habitations of those who had been concern'd in gathering the Taxes, they entred the House of a certain Notary or Publick Scribe of that City, who had been represented to them, as a Promoter of those Unreasonable Impositions. They sei­zed on the Man, and began to carry his Goods out into the Streets, in Order to be burnt. But, as they were rummaging in an Apart­ment which was toward the Gardens, they heard a great Shrieking, as of Women af­frighted: And, perceiving the Voice to pro­ceed from within a Wall in the Room where they were, they search'd about for a Door to enter into that Place; but finding none, they broke through the Wall, where they found Two Women, with their Hair hanging down [Page 326]to their Ancles, and their Nails grown like the Talons of an Eagle. Enquiring of them how long they had been there, and on what Occasion, the Eldest of the Women made this Answer; The Master of this House, is my own Brother, who when my Father died, was entrusted by him, to pay me Six Hundred Duckets, which he bequeath'd me as a Le­gacy, for my Maintenance, my Husband being dead: But my Brother, instead of doing me this Justice, Immur'd both me and my Daugh­ter, whom you see here, between these Walls, where we have lived these Seventeen Years, being allowed, by this cruel Man, no other Food but Bread and Water.

The People Incens'd above Measure, at so barbarous a Cruelty, hang'd up the Notary, and gave all his Estate, to this Widow and her Daughter. An Exemplary Piece of Ju­stice, performed by Mutineers, which could not have been done by the Law, the Crime not reaching his Life; though, in the Sence of all Men, he merited Death. This is ano­ther Argument, that Destiny had a Hand in this Insurrection; and, that Masanello the Fisherman, was the Executioner of God.

I obey thee, Sovereign Prelate, with an Ʋnconditional Devotion, and revere the Idea of thy Sanctity: Vouchsafe to pray for Mahmut, that whilst he condemns the Bar­barous Cruelties of the Nazarenes, he may not render himself Inexcusable, by doing any Injustice himself.

LETTER XV. To the Kaimacham.

THE Arabian Proverb says, There is more Danger to be fear'd from one of the Co­reis, than from a Thousand Bobeck's. Thou knowest, both these were Noble Families in Mecca, and Sworn Enemies of the Messenger of God: But, the Latter, as their Name im­ports, were too open in their Counsels, to do any considerable Execution against the Holy One: Whereas the Former, were always reser­ved, and laying of Secret Trains.

Such is Cardinal Mazarini, the Hidden Enemy of the Ottoman Empire. There seems to be an Ambition in this Great Genius, equal to that of his Predecessor Richlieu, who would be esteemed the most Eminent among Men. Nothing will satisfie this Minister, less than a Subversion of all the Monarchies on Earth, which appear Obstacles of that Grandeur, to which he Designs to raise his Master. Yet, he attempts not this by Open Force, know­ing, that is impracticable: but, acts in the Dark, striving to undermine those States by Intrigue, which he cannot subdue by Arms. He has his Agents in all the Courts of Christen­dom; and, thou needest not startle, if I tell thee, there is Ground to suspect, he is not without his Creatures at the Sublime Port. All Europe is sensible, that the Late Revolu­tions [Page 328]in Portugal and Catalonia, the Insurre­ctions in Sicily and Naples, and the Rebellion of the English, Scots and Irish, are, in Part, owing to the Policies of this Minister: And, I can tell thee more on that Subject, than is known to every one.

Osmin the Dwarf, who still retains his good Inclinations to the Sublime Port, finds an insuspected Access to all the Grandees, to whom the Smallness of his Bulk and Stature, affords no small Divertisement. Besides, they delight to pose him with Problems, in Regard, there is always something so lucky, besides the Wit in his Answers, as either creates Admiration or Laughter. But, their Mirth would quickly be changed into other Passions, were they sensible, that their Little Buffoon, is no other than a Spy upon them. For, Osmin having so many. Opportunities, lurks in Corners like a Spider, undiscovered, and unthought-of: He Creeps into their Bedchambers and Cabinets, where he becomes privy to their greatest Secrets. If they should catch him in any of his Concealments, be­hind the Hangings, or under a Bed, 'twould only pass for a Frolick to give 'em Diversion; and, he never wants for a Repartee or a Jest, to bring himself off.

I have taught him a Cypher, which he makes Use of, to transcribe any Letters, or o­ther Papers of Moment; with Characters for Speedy Writing, which comprehend whole Sentences in a Dash or Two of the Pen.

[Page 329]'Tis but lately, we have pitched on this Method; and, the first Attempt Osmin made, was in Cardinal Mazarini's Closet: Into which he slipt under the Skirt of a Nobleman's Cloak, who just then went in to speak with the Cardinal. This active Dwarf, taking Ad­vantage of the Nobleman's Approach to the Table, dextrously crept under the Carpets which cover'd it, reaching down to the Floor, where he lay unseen, till the Cardinal was gone, and the Closet lock'd up.

During the Time of their Conference, which was not very long, Osmin heard the Cardinal speak these Words to the Lord: One of the Slaves of that Bassa, said he, is an Italian, whom I formerly entertain'd in my Service, and one in whom I confide: He was taken by the Turks at Sea; and, as soon as he was sold to this Grandee, he acquainted me in a Letter, with his Condition, imploring my Assistance to­ward his Ransom. I promis'd to Redeem him, on the Conditions I have told you; and since that, he has not fail'd to perform them; his Master having accepted the Pistols, and enter'd into the Association: So that I hope in a little Time, to see that proud Tyrannical Race ex­terminated, the Tartars excluded from Suc­cession, and the Empire divided by the Sword of Strangers. Ragotski is the onely Obstacle; That Prince is wavering, and we cannot trust him. The Bassa of Aleppo, with those of Sidon, Damascus and Babylon, are ready to cover the Fields of Asia with their Armies. If Things were as secure on the Side of Europe, the Blow should soon be given.

[Page 330]There pass'd some other Discourse between them, which Osmin could not distinguish, in Regard, they removed to the Window, and spoke low. But, this was enough to rowze his Curiosity, and put him on a farther In­quisition.

As soon as the Room was void, by their Absence, he came forth from his Retirement, and fell to examining the Papers, which lay on the Table, hoping to discover more of this Plot; but, he was disappointed, and only met with a few Letters from his Agents in En­gland. Wherein, among other Matters, they gave the Cardinal an Account, That they had hunted the Lion into the Toils, past all Hopes of an Escape. By which, I suppose, they meant the English King, whom the Rebels have confined to a certain Castle in their Possession. Osmin transcribed some of these Letters, and brought them to me: A Copy of one of them, I here send thee enclosed. 'Twas written from the Council of the Irish Rebels. By which thou mayst see, what a Share the Cardinal has, in abetting these Traytors. Else, how could they Demand of him, The Performance of the Queen-Re­gent's Promise, to assist them with Money and Men?

There is one also Dated this present Year, and Subscribed by Monsieur Bellieure, the French Embassador in England. But, Osmin had not time to transcribe that, being pre­vented by the Cardinal's Return; which made the Dwarf snatch up his Tools, and [Page 331]abscond under the Table. Yet, he remem­bered some of the Contents of that Let­ter, and told them me at his next Visit: The Ambassador in that Letter, informs the Cardinal, of a certain German Prophet, who foretold, That there should be a great Re­volution in the Government of England; and, that One of the Mightiest of all the Eastern Princes, should be Deposed this Year, and Murdred by his Subjects (I pray Heaven, avert the Omen from the Seraglio.) He ac­quaints this Minister also, That he had suc­ceeded in his Negotiation with the Officers of the Rebels Army. There were other ob­scure Passages in the Letter, which Osmin has forgot. But, these are sufficient to demonstrate, how busie the Cardinal is, and what a Hand he has in Foreign Af­fairs.

Another Opportunity, I hope, will bring to Light, more of this Minister's Secrets. Adieu.

LETTER XV. To Pestelihali, his Brother.

THE oftner I peruse the Journal of thy Travels, the more I am delighted with it. For, it is evident, That the Coun­tries through which thou hast pass'd, have been as so many Schools of Wisdom to thee; Wherein thou hast learn'd, even from Mens Vices, the Way to Perfection; much more from their Vertues. Thou hast found, that though Mens Natural Dispositions differ, as do the Climates, which afford them Breath; yet, they all agree in Com­mon Frailties. There are also Vices pecu­liar to certain Countries; 'twere to be wish­ed, they could be match'd with as many National Vertues. But, Human Nature is a Rank Soil, more fertile in Weeds, than whole­som Products. Yet, there are Gardens as well as Desarts: And, thou hast observed some Persons, Illustrious for their Goodness, and the Noble Endowments of their Minds.

I am extreamly pleased with that rare Ex­ample of Generosity, which thou relatest of an Indian Merchant; who, not content to give Alms to all that ask'd him, or whom he knew to be Poor, sought daily Occasions to exercise his Charity, hunted out the Indigent and Unfortunate: And, where-ever he dis­covered the Lineaments of Poverty in a [Page 333]Man's Face, or trac'd the Footsteps of it in his Behaviour, he could not rest till he had relieved his Wants, and made him Happy, to his very Wishes. I tell thee, Poverty is a Hell upon Earth; and, he that has this Curse, anticipates the Torments of the Damn'd. It eclipses the brightest Vertues, and is the very Sepulcher of brave Designs; depriving a Man of the Means to accomplish, what Nature has fitted him for, and stifling the Noblest Thoughts in their Embryo. How many Illustrious Souls may be said, to have been Dead among the Living, or buried alive in the Obscurity of their Condition, whose Perfections have rendred 'em, the Darlings of Providence, and Companions of Angels; yet the insuperable Penury of all Things, has ranked them among the Castaways of the Earth, in the Eyes of Men? To such as these, our Divine Lawgiver commands us to extend our Charity, giving us certain Characters and Marks, by which we may distinguish them from the Crowd of the Unfortunate. And, I like the Indian's Bounty the better, in that he so exactly seems to comply with this Pre­cept of the Alcoran, generously preventing the Requests of the Indigent, and by an Excess of Benignity, courting them to except of Relief. In this he also verifies the Arabian Proverb, which says, He gives Double, who gives unask'd.

Thou commendest the Industry of the Chinese, the Advances they have made in Arts and Sciences, which, thou concludest, is [Page 334]to be attributed to the Force of their Laws, which oblige the Son to follow his Father's Trade, throughout all Generations. In this I must dissent; for, it seems rather a Curb than a Spur to Ingenuity, to be confin'd to Employments, for which a Man may have an Aversion. The Son not seldom aborring those Things, wherein his Parents took De­light. Or, if not so, yet he may be cast in a Finer Mold, have a more subtile Invention; and consequently, be capable of making greater Improvements, in any Trade of his own Choice: Since, Delight sets an Edge on the Mind, gives Vigor to the Body, and adds Wings to Business. Besides, I do not think this to be so much thy own Remark, as the Insinuation of some of that Country, who are the most Conceited People in the World; ever extolling their own Policy, Laws and Government; and imposing them as a Pattern, to all other Nations.

One Thing I grant, they boast of with a great Deal of Truth, that is, their Antiquity and unmix'd Race. Though, since the Conquest the Tartars have made of that Coun­try, they are like to undergo the Fate of o­ther Nations, and Corrupt their Genealogies with the Blood of Strangers.

Thou camest away before that Conquest was begun, or perhaps, before 'twas talked of. And, I can give thee, but a very Im­perfect Account of it. All the Intelligence we have from that Kingdom of late, comes in Fragments: For, the Ships which bring this [Page 335]shatter'd News, left China in an Uproar and Confusion. Only they assure us, That the Tartars had passed the Celebrated Wall, which divides them from China; that they entred and subdued the Northern Provinces, with an Army of Six Hundred Thousand Men; that very little Resistance was made against them, not even in Pequin it self, the Capital Seat of the Chinese Empire, which the Ʋsurper Lycungz had abandon'd to the Conquerors, carrying away with him, all the Inestimable Treasures of the Palace, and retiring into one of the remote Provinces, was never heard of afterwards. Whence it was judg'd, That some of his own Party had murder'd him; partly, for the Sake of his prodigious Wealth, which they shared among them; and partly, to revenge his Treason against the Emperor, and the Innumerable Calamities he had brought upon his Country.

Before these Merchants came away, the Cham of Tartary was proclaimed in Pequin, and Crowned Emperor of China. They say, He was not above Thirteen Years Old at that Time; which was, in the 12th. Moon, of the Year 1644. And, that having sent for the Chief Nobility of Tartary to Pequin, he made Preparations, to pursue his Conquests.

This is the best Account we yet have, of the Affairs of that Empire. By which thou wilt easily be induced to be of my Opinion, That the Blood of the Chineses, will in Time be mix'd with that of Strangers.

[Page 336]We must not seek for the Originals of any People, in the Country where they dwell. The most Renowned Kingdoms and Empires in the World, had their first Foundations laid by Vagabonds and Fugitives. Thou art not ignorant, how vast an Extent, the Ancient Roman Empire had through Asia, Africk and Europe. Yet, that City which was called the Mistress of Nations, the Governess of the Whole Earth, was first built by a handful of Banditi, People who lived by Pillage and Robbery, the Outlaws and Scum of Italy, assembled together from divers Parts, under the Con­duct of Romulus and Rhemus. Neither had that City, proved any better than a Sepulcher to them and their Designs, had they not by a witty Stratagem, over-reach'd the Sabine Women, and so secured to themselves a Po­sterity, who should not only defend but enlarge the Dominions of their Fathers. Yet, these People of so Obscure and Confused an Original, afterwards boasted of the Antiqui­ty and Noble Descent of their Families. No Name more Venerable in succeeding Ages, than that of a Roman.

To look no farther than the great and for­midable Empire of the Osmans, we shall find it took its first Rise from Colonies of Tran­splanted Scythians; so that he who would have the Genealogy of a Turk, must not look in the Registers of Greece, where they now live, but must carry his Search beyond the Mountain Caucasus, examine the Border of Palus Maeotis, or hunt his Pedigree ous [Page 337]in Chersonesus. What Revolutions have not happen'd in Asia and Africk, since the As­sumption of the Messenger of God into Para­dise? Where shall we now find any Remains of the Ancient Saracens, or Mamalukes? The Mighty Empire of the Ottomans has swallow'd up all. Thus, one Nation expells another; and, there is so general a Mixture of Foreign Blood, made by the Conversion of innumerable different Nations to the Mussul­man Faith, that it is hard to know, Whether our Ancestors were Scythians or Persians, Jews or Grecians; Whether they were of the Mountains or the Valleys, of the Forests or the Plains.

In this I will except my Countrymen, the Arabians, and those who seem to approach nearest them in Manner of Life, the Tartars; the one dwelling in Tents, the other in Wag­gons; both in a moving Posture; both Hap­py in this, That they are not confin'd to the Rigors of a Cold Winter, nor the Scorching Heats of the Summer; but, change their Soil and Climate, as the Season of the Year varies: Thus ever securing to themselves in all Places, either a blooming flow'ry Spring, or a mode­rate and fruitful Autumn. These were never subdued, nor expelled those Regions wherein they take Delight, neither would they ever mix with Strangers. But, the Chinese would excell all the World in the Purity of their Ʋnmix'd Blood, were it not for the late In­cursions of their Potent and Victorious Neigh­bours.

[Page 338]The French say, That these People had the Use of Guns and Printing, many Hundreds of Years before they were found out in Europe. But, the Germans claim the Honour of these Inventions to themselves.

Thou confirmest the Opinion of the For­mer, in telling me, thou hast seen some of the Cannon belonging to the City of Pequin, on which was engraven, in Chinese Chara­cters, a Register of their Age, which was a­bove Two Thousand Years.

I had a great Deal more to say, Dear Pesteli, but the Post calls on me to hasten. Besides, an extreme Dullness and Languishing of my Spirits, with which I have been persecuted, ever since this Moon first shewed her Crescent: Now she is in the Wane, and so I hope is my Malady. The Influence this Planet seems to have on me, may make thee conclude me a Lunatick: We are all so, in one Degree or other. There are not more apparent Symp­toms, That the Flux and Reflux of the Sea, owes its Original to the Neighbourhood and Motion of that Planet, than that our Consti­tutions vary, according to its Monthly Ap­pearances.

He that Created the Moon, and the Constel­lations, not without Respect to Mankind, give us Wisdom which shall entitle us to a Dommion over the Stars.

LETTER XVII. To the Aga of the Janizaries.

THE Duke of Chastillon, arrived here Six Days ago from the Army in Flanders, bringing News of a Signal Victory, obtained by the Young Prince of Conde, on the Plains of Lens. This Battel was fought, on the 20th. of the last Moon, the French having entirely rou­ted the Spaniards, kill'd Three Thousand of them on the Spot, taken Six Thousand Priso­ners, with all their Artillery and Baggage. And, to crown the Day, they have taken Lens also.

But, though Fortune thus favours their Arms Abroad, she has mixed Poison with their Counsels at Home. All Things here seem to portend a Civil War. The Parlia­ment thwart the Proceedings of the Court, taking on them, the Power of the Ancient Spartan Ephori: They will be Comptrollers of the Regal Authority, suppressing the King's Edicts, calling his Expences to Account; and, pretending to reform the Court, they play the Paedagogues with their Sovereign. On the other Side, Cardinal Mazarini, the Duke of Orleans, and other Grandees, do their ut­most Endeavours, to dissolve the Meetings of this Senate. They perswade the Young King, that it is but a Precarious Reign, where the Sovereign must be curb'd by his Subjects. Thus they instill into his tender Years, those [Page 340] Maxims by which they would have him Rule, when he comes of Age.

There is a Man in the Parliament, whom they call Monsieur Brussels, one of their Great Counsellors, a bitter Enemy of Cardinal Mazarini, and therefore cry'd up by the People, for a Patriot: He is of a furious Temper, and mean Abilities; yet his noisy Zeal for the Publick Liberty, has fastened to him the Vulgar: He is become the Ring-leader of the Seditious.

This Man was seized, as he returned from the Chief Temple, where Te Deum was sung Yesterday, for the late Victory in Flanders. And, some are of Opinion, that 'twas this hap­py News, which emboldned the Court, to snatch from the People their Darling, their I­dol, the Man from whose Courage, they ex­pect a Redress of all their Grievances. In­deed, one may say, it would seem safer for a Traveller in the Desarts of Arabia, to tear from a Lioness her Young One. For, the Heads of the Faction, waited but for such an Opportunity, to set all in a Flame. And, the ill Success of the Court in this Action, shews, That it is dangerous to provoke the Multitude. For, presently we were all in Confusion, the Burgesses in Arms, the Shops shut up, the Streets Chained, and all the Avenues of the Palace barricado'd. The Rabble marched up and down the Streets, threatning Destruction to Cardinal Mazarini, and all his Party. The Parliament were for­ced to become the Messengers of the People, [Page 341]to carry their Petitions, or rather their Com­mands to the Court; being threatned also, if they failed of Success. For, they protested Unanimously, that they would not lay down their Arms, till the Imprisoned Counsellor was Released.

The Queen appeared at first Inexorable and sent these Senators away with Denial and, Scoffs; wishing them Joy of their New Ho­nour, in being made the Porters of the Rabble. And, the Young Monarch, incensed to see his Native Royalty, thus Prophaned by his Sub­jects, bent his Brows; and casting a Look, divided betwixt Majesty and Disdain, on the Senators, uttered these Words: Sirs, Shall it always be a Custom, thus to molest the Mi­nority of your Kings? Or, do you think Our tender Years, incapable of the Common Sense of other Mortals, that you presume thus Inso­lently to invade our Right? Accuse not the Multitude, nor make them an Ʋmbrage to your Sedition. I know the Authors of these Tumults; and shall find a Time, to make 'em feel the Weight of my Displeasure. Think not that I wear this Sword, only for Ornament, [laying his Hand fiercely on the Hilt] or, that the Blood of my Renowned Ancestors, is grown degenerate, or turned to Lees within my Veins. Go tell your Factious Comrades, There sits this Day upon the Throne of France a King, who, though he's Young, yet has a Spirit and Memory, which will outlast his Pupillage. With that, he commanded them out of his Sight.

[Page 342]Yet, notwithstanding this, the People threatned, to bring their Darling away by Force, if he were not Released in Two Hours.

There were above a Hundred Thousand of them in Arms, and it might have proved a dangerous Insurrection. But, the Queen, at the Second return of the Senators, heark­ning to the Advice of Mazarini, and the Duke of Orleans, and remembring the late dreadful Effects of Masanello's Tumult in Naples, releas'd the Prisoner; who was con­ducted Home last Night in Triumph, by an Infinite Crowd of People, who filled the Air with Shouts and Acclamations.

It is discoursed here, That the Prince of Conde will speedily return to Paris. From whom, both the Court, and the Faction, pro­mise themselves new Grounds of Triumph.

During these Commotions, Mahmut fails not to act his Part, being at no small Ex­pence, to maintain a certain Number of Strangers, whose whole Dependance is on me. These I instruct, to mix themselves with the Rabble, to insinuate into them hate­ful Notions, of Cardinal Mazarini, and the Court. They buz up and down the City, like Flies in this hot Season, and sting the Multitude to Fury, with their Stories. I spare no Cost, to procure the Cardinal's Ru­ine. That pernicious Wit comes not short of his Predecessor Richlieu, being as active in embroyling Foreign States; witness, the Re­volutions of Portugal, Catalonia, England and Naples; (in all which, he had a principal [Page 343]Hand) and is ever projecting, how to ag­grandize his Master. And, the Universal Success of the French Arms in Germany, Flanders, Italy and Spain, has left him No­thing worth a Thought, but the Destructi­on of the Osman Empire.

Eliachim brings me News every Hour, how my Mirmidons succeed; for, he acts a­broad in the Streets, while I keep my Cham­ber, during the Tumults; being of Demo­sthenes's Mind, who, when the Athenians were in an Uproar, took Sanctuary in the Tem­ple of Pallas, and prostrating himself before the Altar of the Goddess, uttered these Words, O Pallas, I fly to thee for Protection; defend me from Ignorance, Envy, and Inconstancy; for, I love not the Society of the Owl, the Dra­gon, and the People.

Yet, whether in my Chamber or Abroad, be assured, Illustrious Prefect, of the Impe­rial City, that Mahmut divides his Time between the Vows he makes, and the Services he does for the Grand Signior.

LETTER XVIII. To Achmet Beig.

THIS Court is now in Mourning, for the Death of Ʋladislaus, late King of Po­land: Whilst the Politicians, are canvasing the next Election. Those who Side with the House of Austria, favour the Succession of Prince Charles. But the French, are for Casimir, their former Prisoner.

The Duke of Bavaria, is also dead. They say, he died of Grief, to see his Country ex­posed to the Insults of a Victorious Enemy: For, all his Forces were intirely defeated.

The Prince of Conde, has taken Ipre in Flanders; and, the Arch-Duke of Austria, has rendred himself Master of Courtray, without drawing a Sword, or firing a Gun: The Mareschal de Rantzan, has made an unhappy Attempt, to surprize Ostend, a Sea-Town in Flanders. For, carrying his Forces by Water, as soon as he had Landed his Men, a Tempest rose, and drove all his Ships out to Sea: So that, being encompassed by a nu­merous Army of his Enemies, and having no Way to escape, he and all his Troops were made Prisoners.

From the Sea we have Advice, that there has been a Combat, between the Duke of Richlieu, Commander of the Naval Forces sent to assist the Neapolitan Revolters, and [Page 345] Don John of Austria, Admiral of the Spanish Fleet on that Coast. But the Issue of the Battel, is not yet known: Though most People, guess the Victory to be on the French Side, in Regard Cardinal Mazarini had, by the Advice of an Indian Ship-wright, caused all the French Ships to be plastered over with Allom, so that no Fire-Ships can hurt them. The Spaniards make great Use of these Fire-Ships, in all their Sea-Fights; having learn'd to their Cost, from the English, what Da­mage these Vessels do, when they formerly lost their whole Armada, which they be­fore termed Invincible, and with which they sailed to Conquer that Island.

From Catalonia the Posts bring News, which pleases the Wives and Friends of the Soldiers in those Parts: For, the Mareschal de Schomberg, has cut in Pieces the Spanish Army, taken Tortosa by Assault, where the Soldiers found a Booty of above Fifteen Hun­dred Thousand Livres.

A Courier is come from Suedeland, who brings an Account of a late Formidable Con­spiracy in Russia, against the Life of the Czar. The greatest Part of the Moscovite Grandees, were concerned in this Plot; de­signing to Change the Form of Government, and divide that Mighty Empire into several Principalities, whereof every one of the Conspirators should have a Share. And, that they should be all Subject to One Chief, who should be elected by the Rest, after the Manner of Germany. To this [Page 346]Purpose, they had made a Private Treaty with the Tartars. Morosoph, the Prime Mi­nister of State, and the Chancellor Nazari, were of the Conspiracy. Perhaps, thou wilt lament the Fate of the Latter, having receiv'd extraordinary Civilities from him, when thou wert at that Court.

Banaanoph, Son of the Patriarch of Mosco, revealed the Plot, with the Names of the Conspirators to the Grand Duke: Who sent for them next Day to his Palace, under divers Pretences; where he commanded them all to be Killed, and their Bodies to be thrown to the Dogs in the Streets of that City.

The French report strange Things of Sul­tan Ibrahim: I wish all go well at the Sub­lime Port. If thou hast the same Desires, reveal them to none but thy Friend. For, at some Times, a Man's best Thoughts will be interpreted for Treason. Adieu.

LETTER XIX. To the Mufti.

THY Venerable Letters are come safe to my Hands, bringing Light and Conso­lation to the Faithful Exile. With pro­foundest Reverence, I kiss'd and unfolded the Papers, which contain the Sacred In­structions of the Vicar of God. I blessed my self, when I read the Charge of Royal Enormities, the exorbitant Passions of a Mussulman Emperour, and the Prophanation of the Throne founded on Justice. Thou hast prevented the Qualms of a too scrupu­lous Loyalty, by assuring me, That it is a Fundamental Maxim, of our Law, That all Men in the World, without Respect of Birth or Quality, are obliged to appear before the Justice of God: And, That he who obeys not the Law, is no Mussulman: And, If the Emperor him­self be in this Number, he ought to be Deposed forthwith.

This has abundantly satisfied my Con­science, coming from the Hands of him, from whose Sentence, there can be no Ap­peal on Earth. I shall therefore readily obey thy Orders; and, without Demurr, put in Execution what thou hast command­ed me.

[Page 348]Who can blame the Just Indignation of Sultan Morat's Widow, who in Defence of her Chastity, threaten'd to sheath her Pon­yard in the Breast of her Sovereign? But, in­comparably more Eminent, was thy Daugh­ters Vertue, who not being able to resist the Force of the Mighty Ravisher, after she was polluted, would like another Lucretia, have stabb'd her self, had she not been prevented by the Sultan. How has he sully'd the Glory of the Osman Race, by these Effeminate Vi­ces? What an Indignity has he committed, against our Holy Law? Against the Principal Patriarch of the Elect? Much more noble, was the Continence of the African Scipio, who, when at the Conquest of New Carthage, a Virgin of admirable Beauty, was chosen from a­mong the Captives and presented to him, would by no Means defile her, but restor'd her again without Blemish to her Parents, saying with­all to those that stood near him, Were I a Pri­vate Man, I would gratify my Passion, by the Enjoyment of this lovely Maid; but, it becomes not the Leader of an Army, to give so bad an Example; nor a Conquerour, to yield his Heart to the Charms of his Captive.

But it seems, that Sultan Ibrahim was ra­ther Ambitious of the Character of Augustus the Roman Emperour, of whom it is said, That he never spared any Woman in his Lust: but, if he cast his Eye on a Beautiful Lady, though her Husband were of the First Quality in the Empire, he would immediately send his Officers, to bring her to him by fair Means or by Force.

[Page 349]The Philosopher Athenodorus, who was ve­ry intimate with this Monarch, took a pretty Method to reform this Vice in his Master. For, when the Emperour one Day had sent a close Sedan or Chair, for a certain Noble-Woman, of the House of the Camilli; the Philosopher fearing some Disaster might ensue, (for, that Family was very Popular, and high­ly respected in Rome,) he goes before to the Ladies Palace, and acquainting her with it, she complains to her Husband, of the Indig­nity was offer'd her. He boiling with An­ger, threaten'd to stabb the Messengers of the Emperour, when they came. But, the pru­dent Philosopher appeas'd them both, and one­ly desir'd a Suit of the Ladies Apparel; which was granted him. He soon put it on, and hiding his Sword under his Robes, enter'd the Sedan, personating the Lady. The Messen­gers, who knew no other, carried him away to the Emperour. He heighten'd with Desire, made hast to open the Sedan himself. When Athenodorus suddenly drawing his Sword, leap'd forth upon him, saying, Thus mightest Thou have been Murder'd: Wilt thou never quit the Vice, which is attended with so much Dan­ger? Jealousie and Revenge might have sub­stituted an Assassin thus disguis'd in my Room: But, I took Care of thy Life. Henceforth take Warning. The Emperour pleas'd with the Philosopher's Stratagem, gave him Ten Ta­lents of Gold, thanking him for this seasonable Correction: And, from that Time, began to refrain Unlawful Pleasures, applying him­self to a Vertuous Life.

[Page 350]Thou seest, Holy Prelate, that by perusing the Histories of the Ancients, a Man may fur­nish himself with useful Examples, and pro­per Observations. I always keep by me Plu­tarch's Works, and those of Livy, a Roman Historian; as also Tacitus, who has left the Annals of that Formidable Empire to Posteri­ty. It were a desirable Thing, That the Mussulman Scribes were employ'd, in Trans­lating such Records as these, into the Ara­bick or Turkish Languages: That so the True Faithful, who are Destin'd by God to Conquer the World, may not be ignorant of the Me­morable Transactions of Former Ages. Some of our Sultans have been curious, to have Plu­tarch's Writings render'd in the Familiar Speech of the Ottomans. There are other Memoirs, not less worth the Labour. If it shall enter into thy Heart, to encourage so profitable a Work, the whole Empire of the Resign'd to God, will be indebted to thee. But, who am I, that presume to direct the Great Father of the Faithful? Thou art en­light'ned with all Knowledge and Wisdom! Peradventure, thou hast Reasons to divert thee from such an Enterprize, which I cannot com­prehend. Therefore, I cover my Mouth with Dust, and acquiesce.

As to the late Revolution, I am not to dis­pute the Will of my Superiours. However, I receive the News of that Tragedy with less Discontent, in Regard, Thou thy self, who are the Oracle of the Mussulmans, hast thought fit to Depose Sultan Ibrahim: Using herein, [Page 351]the Advice and Consent of his own Mother, and of Mahomet Bassa, with that of the Janisar Aga; who, next to thy self, are Two the most Knowing Sages in the Em­pire.

What remains, but that I shall pray for the long Life of Sultan Mahomet? Desiring also, that Heaven may so direct his Counsels, That he may never do any Thing, to merit the Fate of his Ʋnhappy Father.

LETTER XX. To Chiurgi Muhammel, Bassa.

AT length, the Deputies of the Nazarene Princes at Munster, have concluded a Peace. They have been these Six Years, debating about Trifles and Punctilio's, as is the Manner of the Christians, even in the most Important Affairs. This Treaty was Sign'd, the 24th. of the last Moon; when all farther Hostilities ceas'd on all Sides, except on the Parts of France and Spain, whose Quarrel could by no Means be adjusted, in this General Agreement of Christendom.

[Page 352]Thou hast by this Time, heard of the late Tumults and Emotions in this City; the Disaffection between the Court and Parliament, with the Short Siege of Paris. Now Things seem to be compos'd, and in a Calm. But, it may only prove a Truce, while both Parties take Breath, to rush up­on each other with the greater Violence. The City is unmeasurably Rich and Popu­lous, and can Arm an Hundred Thousand Men at an Hours Warning. The Parlia­ment abets their Quarrel. This encourages them to vye with the Court. The Mer­chants live like Petty Kings: Abundance of Gold, fills them with Pride and Ambition. Whilst the Court, in the mean Time, are Close and Reserv'd, projecting how to destroy the Faction, and assert the Regal Authority. The Queen-Regent, is Resolute and Severe; yet suffers her self to be Mollify'd, with the Milder Counsels of Cardinal Mazarini, and the Duke of Orleans.

In the Beginning of this Reign, I gave an Account to the Ministers of the Port, of the Duke of Beaufort's Imprisonment in the Castle of the Wood of Vinciennes, which is one of the King's Palaces. This Prince, is now escap'd from his Confinement, and come into the City. The Factious cry him up for a Patriot, and are resolv'd to protect him, with their Lives and Fortunes.

If thou yet retainest thy Health and Vi­gor, thou art Happy. As for me, I feel conti­nual Decays: Yet am not troubled; perceiving [Page 353]at the same Time, that I approach nearer to Immortality. Wherefore, I neither seek Re­storatives, nor consult the Physician; but suf­fering my self to dissolve Gradually, I die with Pleasure, Pluming and preparing my self daily, as one ready to take Wing for a more Happy Region.

LETTER XXI. To Dgnet Oglou.

I Am not surpriz'd at the News of Sultan Ibrahim's being Depos'd and Strangled: Tis but what I have for a long Time fear'd: These restless Janizaries, will ruine the Otto­man Empire. Neither am I startled to hear, that his Mother was accessary to his Fall; ha­ving a Double Motive, Ambition and Re­venge, to induce her Consent. She always affected to Rule; and therefore, could not brook the Sultan's resolute Management of Affairs, without following her Advice. Be­sides, she could not easily forget her Disgrace and Confinement, on the Account of the Ar­menian Ladies Death.

[Page 354]But, I am astonish'd and vex'd to hear, That the Mufti should be concern'd in so Black a Tragedy. How shall we have the Confidence hereafter, to reproach the Christi­ans, with their frequent Treasons and Mur­d'ring of their Kings; since it will be easie for them to retort, That the Supreme Patriarch of Our Law, has enter'd into the Secret of Rebels, Conspir'd the Death of his Sovereign, and caus'd him to be Depos'd and Strangled?

As for the Aga of the Janizaries, I suppose him rather over-aw'd into the Conspiracy, by the Forcible Reasons and Elegant Parole of the Mufti, than any ways Voluntarily engaging himself in Crimes, to which he seems to have no Inclination. Besides, he could not refuse to make one in the Party, after it had once been propos'd to him; unless he were resolv'd, to be the First Victim of their Jealousie, and be Murdred himself, to prevent the Discovery of the Rest. Yet, his Duty and Honour, ought to have superseded all other Considerations: And, he should have chosen to Die in his Allegiance, rather than to live stain'd with so foul a Crime.

However it be, I cannot approve their Trea­son. For, whatever the Vices of the Sultan were, they had no Right to punish him. He was accountable to None but God: And, they invaded the Prerogative of Heaven, in Dethroning Him, whom the Divine Provi­dence, had invested with the Imperial Dia­dem.

Much less can I approve their Impiety, in Defaming him now he is dead. Neither can I [Page 355]in Conscience comply with the Injunctions of the Mufti, who has commanded me in a Letter, to spread an Ill Character of Sultan Ibrahim among the Christians, that so his own Proceedings may appear Just. 'Tis true, I owe Much to the Authority of this Sovereign Guide of True Believers; yet I must not, to pay this Debt, turn Bankrupt of my Reason: I owe Something to my Self, and to the Di­stinguishing Character of a Man. I promis'd him indeed to obey his Commands in this Point: But, he that has given me a Dispen­sation for all the Lyes and Perjuries I shall be guilty of in Paris; will, I hope, pardon me, if I turn my Own Confessor, and Absolve my self, for not performing my Word to him in this Point.

I am not often guilty of Aspersing the Li­ving, but I abhor to Injure the Dead: Lest I should incurr the Fate of him, who being at Enmity with a Famous Wrastler, pursu'd him with Malice and Revenge even in his Grave. For, envying the Honour that was due to this Wrastler's Memory, in that his Statue was set up in a Publick Place, he went privately one Night, with Design to throw the Statue down, But, after he had spightfully Dis­figur'd it in several Parts with a Hammer, and was busie in working its Overthrow; the I­mage, on a suddain, fell on him, and crush'd him to Death. As if the Spirit of him, whom it represented, had given it this Fall, to re­venge the Malice of his Adversary.

[Page 356]Certainly, the Ancients were not ignorant what they said, when, among other Sage Coun­sels, they advis'd Mortals, Not to speak Ill of the Dead, but to esteem them Sacred, who are gone into the Immortal State. And, Plato's Ring had this Motto on it, It is easier to pro­voke the Dead, than to pacifie them, when once provok'd. Intimating thereby, That the Souls of the Departed, are sensible of the Injuries that are done them by the Living.

Therefore I will shun Detraction, especially of the Dead. And, if I cannot say much in Praise of Sultan Ibrahim's Virtues, let his Vices be buried with him in Eternal Oblivion.

I run no Hazards in Writing thus frankly to thee, being assur'd of thy Fidelity. Besides, Death (which is the worst Punishment can be inflicted on me, for what I have said, should it be known) would not be bitter, when given by a Friend. Dear Gnet, Adieu.

LETTER XXII. To Danecmar Kesrou, Kadilesquer of Romania.

WHEN I informed thee, how the Scots had Sold their King to the English Rebels, it was easie to presage the Consequence, without a Revelation. When Sovereign Monarchs become the Merchandise of Factions, they commonly pay the Price with their own Blood. And, there are few Examples, of Princes that have been Impri­son'd by their Subjects, and yet have escaped a Violent Death. For, those who have once advanced so far in their Treason, as to seize the Person of their Sovereign, can never retire with Safety to themselves; or, at least, their Own Guilt makes them think so. The Con­sciousness of what they have already done, prompts them to proceed in their Wicked­ness: And, their Despair of saving their own Lives, makes them conclude it Necessary to take away his, whose Violated Majesty, they fear, will never pardon so Impudent an Essay of Treason.

But, the Method which the English have taken to Murder their King, has not a Pre­cedent in History. These Infidels, have out­strip'd all Former Traytors, in the Contri­vance and Execution of their Regicide: They [Page 358]have even surpass'd Themselves, and their own First Designs.

It has been usual for Traytors, to take a­way the Life of a Depos'd Monarch Private­ly, by Poison or Assassin, either in Respect to his Royal Blood, or to avoid the Possibility of a Rescue, from any of his Loyal Friends and Subjects. But, these Barbarians, were re­solved Publickly to insult on Majesty, to brave the whole World in the Execution of their Villainy, and make a Pompous Con­clusion of their Treasons. For, they Erected a New Divan or Court of Judicature, com­posed of the most Infamous Traytors: There they formally Try'd their Sovereign, by a Law of their own making; Condemn'd him as a Tyrant and a Traytor: And finally, caused his Head to be chopt off with an Axe, by an Executioner, before the Gates of his own Palace, in the Sight of Thousands of his Sub­jects; that so they might appear, not so much to Kill their King, as to Destroy the Monar­chy it self, and Triumph in its Ruine.

Hast thou, O Venerable Judge of the Faith­ful, ever Read or Heard of such a Daring Treason? All Europe startles at the Monstrous Fact. And, Cardinal Mazarini himself, who carried on that Private Web of Factious De­signs in England, whose First Threds his Pre­decessor Richlieu had spun; yet expressed an Horror, at the News of this Tragedy. And, I look not on this, to be an Artifice of Policy in him to blind the World; but, a real Dis­covery of his Sentiments: For, he is too ge­nerous, [Page 359]to approve so Barbarous a Proceeding, against a Sovereign Monarch, though his E­nemy.

T'other Day he was heard to say, That in Revenge of the King's Murder, he would em­barass the Counsels of the English Rebels, more than he had done those of their Sovereign.

This was not spoken so secretly, but Mah­mut had Intelligence of it within an Hour: For, I have more Ears in Paris, than those in my Head, to hearken after the Intrigues of this Minister: And, it will be difficult for him hereafter, to speak, write or act any Thing; no, not even in his Private Closet, which will not be disclosed to me.

Yet, though I thus watch his Motions as an Enemy, and do my utmost, to render his Designs against the Ottoman Port, Ineffectu­al; I cannot in my Heart condemn this Mi­nister, who all the while, acts but the Part of a Faithful Servant and an Able Statesman, in striving to aggrandize his Master.

His supporting also the Factions in England, and nourishing the Discontents of that Giddy-Headed People, were but the Result of his Zeal for his Country, and for the Church whereof he is One of the Principal Pillars: It being Evident from his Grief at that King's Murder, That he bore no Malice against him, but only sought to humble him into Terms of Compliance with France.

When I say this, I suppose the Cardinal's Sorrow on that Account, to be free from Fiction: But who knows, when the Actions, [Page 360]of Statesmen are Undisguiz'd, and when not? For, I am well assur'd, That whilst his A­gents were busie in Embroyling that Nation, he promised the Exil'd English Queen, to assist her Husband with Men and Money, a­gainst those very Rebels, with whom he held a Private Correspondence, and to whom his Coffers were really open.

Most of the European Statesmen, are cor­rupted with the Maxims of a certain Famous Writer, whom they call Matchiavel. This State-Casuist has taught them, to boggle at no Crimes, which may advance the Ends they aim at; Every Thing, in his Opinion, be­ing Honest, that is Successful. Thus, Policy among the Nazarenes, is Degenerated into Sordid Craft: And, that which was once de­servedly esteem'd a Virtue, necessary to the Governments of the World, is now turn'd into a Vice; of which the very Out-Laws, Free-Booters and Pirates, are asham'd.

God, who suffer'd the Earth to be Inhabi­ted by Angels, for an Infinite Number of Ages before he Created Adam, and then Expelling them Hence for their Wickedness, and turning them to Devils, gave this Globe for a Dwel­ling-Place to Men; grant, that the Enor­mous Crimes of Mortals, may not provoke Him to Exterminate our Human Race, and Restore the Devils to their Ancient Habitation.

The End of the Third Volume.

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