THE Spheres, (which ever moving are) imply
That Arts, and Learning, if unactive, die.
Our Subject's Worth, is by URANIA meant,
Our Poet's, PAN, and MERCURY present,
Who sings rough Matter in smooth Verse, t' invite
The Ignorant to Learn, the Learn'd Delight.
THE SPHERE of M. MANLIVS▪ made An English POEM.

By Edward Sherburne, Esq




W. Hollar fecit 1673




Printed for Nathanael Brooke, at the Sign of the Angel in Cornhil, near the Royal Exchange, MDCLXXV.



MAY it Please Your Majesty, To Vouchsafe Your Royal View to this Copy; The Original was by a Great Master, and dedicated to the Great Augustus. Having been long buried by Barbarity, and Ignorance; It hopes now to rise unto New Life, and Lustre, by the Gracious Aspect of Your Sacred Majesty.

The Author now first alters his Native Language, exchanging it for that of Your English Subjects; Be pleased Great SIR, to afford Him Your Eare, never denied to Strangers, whom Fortune happily casts upon Your Royal, and All-obliging Goodness.

He briefly represents the Splendid Oeconomy of the Celestial Spheres, the Pattern of the most Flourishing Empires; then most Glorious when most conformable to the Heavens.

—imitatur Olympum Officiis Augusta Domus—

[Page]These Rudiments of Astronomy crave Acceptance from Your Majesty, who in Your Late Naval Expeditions, have been pleased to shew Your Self so great a Favourer of that Learning, by encouraging the Noble and Generous Youth of these Nations, to enable themselves thereby, for that Your Service.

SIR, It would have seemed an unpardonable Omission, not to have added Your Name to the Constellations, who by your Excellent Virtues justly deserve, and without Question shall in due Time obtain a most Eminent Place among them. But Your Clemency and Moderate Government makes your Subjects to pray,

Serus in Coelum redeas, diuque Laetus intersis Populo—

Which Blessing upon Your Sacred Self and Us, None more fervently implores, than

May it please Your Majesty, Your Majesties most Obedient Subject and Servant, EDW. SHERBURNE.


THE High Esteem, which the Antient Romans had for Astronomical Learning; appears even by their Publick Games in the Circus Maximus; whose Or­der and Disposition represented that of the Heavens. The Circus being of an Elliptical or Oval Figure; having twelve Gates or Entries resembling the twelve Signs of the Zodiack. In the Midst an Obe­lisque, as the Sun: On each side thereof three Metae, denoting the other Six Planets, which in their respe­ctive Courses mark out the several Intervals or Spaces, into which the Mundane System is divided. So that the Circensian Games seem not to have been so much, an Exercise of Charioting and Racing, as an Astronomical Cursus; wherein the People were not only delighted by the Exhibition of corporal Games, but had their Cassiodor. Variar. l. 3. Epistol. 51. Sic factum est ut Natu­rae Mysteria Spectaculo­rum composi­tâ Imagina­tione [...]ude­rentur. Minds also instructed to apprehend the Course and Order of the Celestial Bodies, which in the Great Circus of the World are continually moving.

This Method of inculcating Knowledge with Delight (though in a different way) Manilius hath likewise pursued; who intending to exhibit to the Age wherein he lived the Rudiments of Astronomy, chose to represent the same in a Poetical Dress, that so his Readers might be allured to relish with the greater Gusto the initiating Principles of a Science not easily acquired; and he thereby gain to himself the Repute which good Poets chiefly affect, of being able at once both to instruct and please.

What upon this Accompt he hath delivered in the first of his five Books of Astro­nomicks, which of it self is a Compleat and entire Poem of the Doctrine of the Sphere; We have adventured, as well for its Brevity and Politeness, as its Perspicuity and Usefulness, to transfer into our Native Tongue.

But some perhaps will demand,

Daphni quid Antiquos coelorum suspicis Ortus?

Why, in an Age wherein the learned World is so fruitful in Accurate Productions of this Kind, obtrude We upon the Reader a Piece of less curious and less knowing Antiquity?

[Page]This frivolous Objection will easily be obviated and answered, if we shall but duly consider, that it is a design no less commendable for the Industry of this present Age, grate­fully to revive the valuable (but too much obscured and unregarded) Helps, by which the Wits of former Times have benefitted Posterity; than it is to labour in the Pursuit of new Discoveries and Inventions; which many times are rather pretended than real Improvements; and are (some of them) found to be, but the Disguises and Alte­rations of elder Ingenuity.

And we may without derogating or detracting in the least, from the worthy Endea­vours of the Learned, modestly affirm, that there are some Particular Notions, touching the Nature of the Heavens and the Celestial Bodies, delivered in the Piece we now pub­lish, which having been revived, and of late dayes reasserted by some of the most emi­nent Modern Astronomers, have been received with general Applause, and thereby have added no little Honour to their Names.

To instance in the following Particulars.

First, The Opinion of the Fluidity of the Heavens, against the Aristotelean Hypo­thesis of Solid Orbs, appears in this Work to have been expresly delivered by Ma­nilius near 1700 years since; which, by the Noble Tycho, Galilaeo, Scheinerus, and others, hath of late Dayes with all the Acumen of convincing Reason been defended, and demonstrated.

Secondly, That the Fixed Stars are not all in the same Concave Superficies of the Heavens, equally distant from the Center of the World, but that they are placed at un­equal Distances in the Aethereal Region, some higher, some lower, (whence the Diffe­rence of their apparent Magnitudes and Splendor) is by the famous Kepler (Epitom. Astron. l. 1,) and other Modern Astronomers lately asserted; and seems by many to be taken for a Novel Opinion; which yet in this Piece we find to have been many Ages since, declared by our Author.

Thirdly, The Assertion, which by the most knowing Astronomers of these Times is embraced, affirming the Fixed Stars to be of a fiery Nature and Substance, and conse­quently endued with native and propper Lustre, and that they are (as Galilaeo terms them) so many Suns, conform, and like unto this Sun of ours, appears in this very Poem to have been long since maintained by our Manilius.

Fourthly, What by help of the Telescope hath been lately detected and demonstrated by Galilaeo, Kepler, and others, that the Galaxie is a Congeries of Numberless small Stars, was by the sole Perspicil of Reason, discovered by the Ancients, and is here by our Author proposed as the most probable Solution of that Phaenomenon.

Of the Parts of this Poem, their Distribution and Order, and of our Endeavours in explicating the same both in our Notes and Appendix, We hold it not amiss in this Preliminary Discourse, to give the Reader some Accompt.

The Poem begins with a Succinct Indication of the Original and Progress of Arts and Sciences, more particularly of Astronomy, of which last, besides what We have no­ted in our Marginal Illustrations; We have added, for the Satisfaction of the more Curious, a Compendious History, continued down to the Age wherein Manilius lived; together with a Catalogue of the most Eminent Astronomers from the first Parent of all Arts, and Mankind it self, to this Present.

[Page]It is continued on with a Description of the Mundane System, and of the Celestial Signs and Constellations; The first of which we have explained according to the va­rious Hypotheses both Antient and Modern; The latter we have described by the Number of the Stars that compose them, their several Denominations in most of the Learned Languages, and as they are distinguished into prophane and Sacred Figures or Morphoses, according to the different Uranography of the Antient Ethnicks, and some late Christian Astronomers.

The Description of the Celestial Circles makes up the next Part of this Poem; for the better understanding of which, over and above what is explained in the Marginal Notes; We have added a Cosmographical, Astronomical Synopsis, for the most part according to Mersennus; to which We have likewise annexed the twelve Propositions of Theodosius de Habitationibus in English.

And seeing our Authour hath briefly touched upon the fiery Nature of the Fixed Stars; We have thought fit in the Appendix to make some further and more curious Enquiries touching their Substance, their Light, Colour and Scintillation, their Number, Figure, Magnitude, Place, and Distance from the Earth, or rather the Sun.

In the next Place the Planets are enumerated; whose several Denominations (by which they were known and distinguished by the Antients) We have given in our Notes; and in the Appendix have further enlarged touching the Nature and Substance of the Sun, his Maculae and Faculae (which are likewise represented to View in a particular Scheme) something also being said of his Vertiginous Motion, Magnitude, and Distance: Of the Moon and of her Spots, whereunto we have added the Selenographick Schemes of Hevelius and Grimaldi with their respective Nomenclatures; and have exhibi­ted a like brief Accompt of the Nature, Substance, Structure, Figure, Magnitude, and Distance of the other Planets.

The Poem concludes with a Corollary of fiery Meteors and Comets: These We have in Part explained in our Notes; and have more fully in the Appendix discoursed of their Names, Kinds, and several Species, their Matter, Place, and Efficient Causes; adding in the Close a Chronological Historical Table of the most Notable Comets, that have appeared since the Flood to this present. Having in the Illustration of the Whole, observed (in some Measure) the Method prescribed by the great Imp. Iusti­nianus Insti­tut. l. [...]. Titul. 1. Roman Le­gislator, which cannot better be expressed than in his own Words. Ita Omnia videntur tradi commodissimè, si primò levi ac simplici Via, deinde diligentiori, atque exacti­ore Interpretatione Singula tradantur.

And seeing it is Customary in publishing Works of this Nature, to premise some­thing touching the Authors: It may justly be expected we should here do the like in re­ference to

MANILIUS his Life, Country, Quality, Studies, Writings, &c.

Of this, (though we are not ignorant, that in a Subject so obscure, and to which Antiquity affords so dim a Light, it will be hard for us either clearly to discern, or cer­tainly to determine; yet,) for the Satisfaction of the Curious and Ingenious Reader, We shall in the following Discourse endeavour to give, if not a full, at least a fair and probable Accompt.

VVho this Manilius (whose Name the following Poem bears) should be; partly through the Silence of those Authors which are come to our Hands; partly through the [Page] Loss of others, of which the Injury of Time hath deprived us, is left very uncertain. The best means that we can use for the clearing of a Matter so dark and dubious, will be to take a View of Those, who by the Name of Manilius have been recommended to Posterity, as qualified with the Knowledge of good Letters, and among them to consi­der, which in all rational Appearance may be the Person we look for.

Varro in his fourth and sixth Books De Lingua Latinâ, makes mention of one Man­lius or Manilius a Poet, out of whose Works he cites these Verses

Deli Gemellos Creta Titana Deos
Latona pariit, casto complexu Jovis.

(Which Verses may happily be taken out of Chrestus Manlius, whom Gyraldus reports to have written De Deorum Hymnis) and these Others

Cascum duxisse Cascam non mirabile est,
Quoniam Canoras conficiebant Nuptias.

Or as Jos. Scaliger reads the last Verse

Quoniam Charon eas sanciebat Nuptias.

But finding no express Evidence (besides the bare Name) to prove the Manilius menti­oned by Varro, to have written any thing on the Subject of Astronomy, much less to have been the same with the Authour of this Poem; We shall wave this Authority, and pass on to some others more Explicit and Declarative.

Pliny l. 35. c. 17. tells us of one Manilius surnamed Antiochus, who with Publius Mimus and Staberius Eros, was brought to Rome, all three, of Servile Condition, but Persons of good Literature. His Words are These. Pedes Venalium transmare adve­ctorum, Cretà denotare instituerunt Majores; Talemque Publium (Syrum,) Mimicae Scenae Conditorem, & Astrologiae Consobrinum ejus Manilium Antiochum, item Grammatices Staberium Erotem eâdem Nave advectos videre Proavi, i. e. Our An­cestors used to mark with white Lead or Chalk the Feet of such Slaves as were brought over from beyond Sea to be sold. And such an one was Publius (Sy­rus) the Founder of the Mimick Scene, and his Cousin German Manilius Antiochus, of Astrology, and Staberius Eros of Grammer, whom our great Grandfathers saw in that manner brought together in one and the same Ship.

This Manilius, Laurentius Bonincontrius (who near two Ages since commented upon our Authour) conceives the same with Manilius, who wrote this Astronomical Poem: To confirm which Opinion, he produces the Evidence of a Silver Medal in his Possessi­on, whereon was the Figure of a Man, in an Exotick Habit, with a Sphere placed near his Head, with this Inscription MANILI. the same is affirmed (sayes Lilius Gy­raldus) by Stephanus Dulcinus; and the said Gyraldus further assures us that a fa­miliar Friend of his, one Nicholaus Trapolinus, had by him another Medal of the like Stamp and Inscription.

But against this Opinion of Bonincontrius, and Gyraldus, Scaliger opposes a dou­ble Argument, one, drawn from the seeming inveracity of that supposed Evidence; No such Medal being at this Day to be found in the Cabinets of any, no not the most cu­rious Antiquaries; the other from the Reason of Time; for Manilius Antiochus be­ing brought to Rome (as Scaliger supposes) in the beginning of Sylla's Dayes, must [Page] needs, if he were the same with the Author of this Poem, have been (as he reckons) 120 years old when he began to write (an ill Age to play the Poet in) this Piece being written in the later years of Augustus his Reign. But the Author in the Proem of this Work wishes for long life to compleat his intended Poem; Where­fore (sayes Scaliger) certainly he was not then old, who wished he might live to be so. But leaving this Argument at present, to be anon reassumed. We shall go on in our further Enquiry.

The same Pliny l. 36. c. 10. speaks of one Manilius a Mathematician, who upon the Obelisque which Augustus erected in the Campus Martius, for finding out the Hours of the Day by the Shadow of the Sun, with the Increase or Decrease of the Dayes and Nights, placed a guilded Ball. Cujus Vertice Umbra colligeretur in se­me tipsam, alia Incrementa jaculantem Apice, ratione (ut ferunt) à Capite Hominis intellecta, sayes Pliny, who commends the Design, as a Thing worthy of Knowledge, and the Invention of a pregnant Wit.

To this Person Scaliger conceives this Work may with fairer Probability be ascri­bed than to the former; which Opinion is by divers other learned Persons likewise embraced.

The excellently learned Doctor Isaac Vossius conceives yet, that the Manilius Antio­chus, and the Manilius Mathematicus, before mentioned are not two distinct Persons, but one and the same under different Titles and Appellations, and the very Author of the Poem we now publish. Whose Particular Sentiments upon this Subject, and Argu­ments confirming the same, he was pleased not long since to impart to Me, by his most obliging Letter, in Answer to some Queries by Me proposed in one of mine to him, upon Occasion of my intended Publication of this Piece, which for the Readers Satisfaction, I shall here make Publick, though not in his own Words, yet as near as may be in his own Sence.

And first in Answer to Scaliger's Argument, drawn from Reason of time, against Ma­nilius Antiochus, upon the Supposition, that Staberius Eros, (one of the three before­mentioned) set open his Grammar School in the Time of Sylla, ninety five years before the Death of Augustus; And that therefore (according to Scaligers Computation) Manilius could not probably be less than 120 years old, at the time when this Poem was written. He urges by way of Reply, that Suetonius (from whom Scaliger takes the Ground of his Argument) does not say, that Staberius Eros opened his School in Sylla's Time, but that he taught Gratis, the Children of Those, who in Sylla's Time were pro­scribed. The Words of Suetonius are these. Sunt qui tradunt tantâ eum (scilicet Sta­berium) honestate praeditum, ut temporibus Syllanis Proscriptorum Liberos gratis & sine Mercede ullâ in Disciplinam receperit: How long that was after the Times of Proscription will be needless here to declare; and that Manilius was not so old as Sca­liger conceives, when this Piece was written, may be made out from this, that he was the Cousin German of Publius Syrus, who that he was brought a Young Boy to his Pa­tron, Macrobius affirms; from whom likewise and from the Verses of Laberius, it may, not obscurely, be collected, that he was but a Youth when he came upon the Stage against Laberius, which was a little before the Death of Julius Caesar, and of Laberius also; to whom he succeeded on the Mimick Stage in the second Year of the CLXXXIV. Olympiad, that is in the Year of Rome DCCXI. as Eusebius testifies; And therefore seeing it is manifest that Manilius published this Poem soon after the Varian Defeat, which hapned in the DCCLXII. of Rome; it is as evident likewise that between the Youth or Adolescence of Manilius, and the Time wherein he writ this Piece, there could not pass above one and fifty years; and consequently there is no Reason to assign so great an Age to Manilius as Scaliger here does; since perhaps he was [Page] not Seventy years old, when he had finished this his Astronomical Poem.

As to what Scaliger subjoyns touching Manilius his Wish for long life, together with a chearful Old Age, and the Inference he thence makes, that he could not rea­sonably be then thought to be Old, who wished he might live to be so. The Ar­gument is but weak: for Senium is one thing, and Senium Annosum another. Nor does he simply wish Vitam Annosam, but Vitam Annosam quae conjuncta sit cum molli Senecta, which may be wished for even by those who are very old.

As for the Name of Antiochus, he seems to have taken it from the famous Philoso­pher Antiochus Ascalonita, often mentioned by Cicero, Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, and others; whose School not only Cicero, but Varro, Brutus, and divers others are said to have frequented, and in all Probability this our Manilius also, as being not only of the same Nation, but happily born in the same Town: (Ascalon.) So that it may seem no VVonder if after the manner of those Times, he took upon him the Name of his worthy Tutor and Instructor. For that he was a Syrian is not only manifest from his Consanguinity with Publius Mimus; but may likewise be collected from the Title, or Inscription of this VVork, which in an antient and excellent Manuscript in the Pos­session of the said Doctor Vossius, is this: M. MALLII POENI ASTRO­NOMICON, DIVO OCTAVIO QUIRINO AUG. That the Phae­nicians were by the Romans called POENI, is manifest out of Horace, Cicero a pud Nonium, and our Author in this very Poem. He concludes therefore that this our Manilius, or, (as he is rather pleased to call him) Manlius, was a Phaenician, and in all Probability Native of the same Town as Antiochus his Tutor, whose Name he assumed.

From this Dedication of his VVork to Augustus, by the Name of Quirinus, as the Inscription shews, will appear the Error of those, who imagine the same to have been dedicated to Tiberius or some later Roman Emperor. And the reason of attributing the Name of Quirinus to Augustus may be made clear from the VVords of Suetonius, Censentibus quibusdam Romulum appellari oportere, quasi & ipsum Conditorem Urbis, &c. Dion likewise tells us; [...]. That (Augustus) Caesar extreamly desired to be called Romulus, and Joannes Philadel­phensis (scripto de Mensibus, in Aug.) [...], &c. Octavianus Son of Octavius was after his great Victories honoured with divers Names; for by some he was called Quirinus as another Romulus, &c.

As to the other Manilius by Pliny stiled Mathematicus; he conceives, that Titular Distinction to make no Difference in the Person; but that he is the same with the for­mer; further adding, Omninò existimo & illum quoque de Nostro Manilio accipi debere. And whereas Salmasius affirms that the Name Manlius (or Manilius) is not to be found in that Place of Pliny in any antient Manuscripts, and therefore ought to be expunged out of the Printed Copies; he makes it appear that Salmasius is ex­treamly mistaken; by the Testimony of several antient MS. of. Pliny in his Possession, whereof one is in a Character written above 8 or 900 years since: In all which, the Word Manlius is found though with some small difference in writing of the Name. Nor does he think the Name of Marcus praefixed to Manlius ought to be scrupled at, upon the account that none of the Manlian Family after the CCCLX. Year from the Build­ing of Rome, could or did use that Praenomen, seeing that Prohibition, as Cicero (in Philip.) intimates, is only to be understood of the Patrician Race: Now that this Manilius, or (as he calls him) Manlius was, before his Manumission, a Slave; not only the Place of Pliny already cited, but the very Agnomen of Antiochus sufficiently evinces; for as much as a Greek Agnomen joyned to a Roman Name, is alwayes a most certain Token of a Servile Condition.

[Page]With this rational Discourse of so incomparable a Person, both my Self and Reader might well rest satisfied; Did VVe not meet with another Manilius, mention­ed by Pliny (l. 10. c. 2.) of Senatorian Dignity; honoured by him with the Chara­cter of the most diligent of all the long Robe, and enobled with the greatest Learning without any Teacher. VVho is said first of all the Romans to have writ­ten of the Phaenix, That there was never any man that saw it feed, that in Arabia it is Sacred to the Sun; and (to omit the mention of some other Particulars) that it lives 660 years, and that with the Life of this Bird, is consummated the Conversi­on of the great Year; In which the Stars return again to their first Points, and give Significations of the same Seasons as at the Beginning. That this Great Year be­gins about High Noon on the Day, wherein the Sun enters the first Degree of Ari­es, and was compleated (as he declares) when P. Licinius, and M. Cornelius were Consuls, &c.

This person (not taken Notice of by any others that have written touching our Au­thor) Monsieur Tristan in his Historical Commentaries (Tom. 1.) conceives to be the same with our Manilius. The Reasons inducing him to embrace this Opinion, being grounded upon the Concinnity of Time, and Conformity of Study. The Subject here mentioned clearly implying him to have been conversant in the like Astronomical Ex­ercises as our Author, whom not improbably he believes to have made these curious Remarks touching the Phoenix and the Annus Magnus, in the sixth Book of his Astro­nomicks, which is now lost: though, as Scaliger affirms, extant in the Time of Firmi­cus, who from thence collected his [...] Sphaerae Barbaricae, as he did from the fifth Book, yet extant, his [...]. For, that Manilius wrote of the first Kind as well as of the last mentioned, may appear by these Verses.

Quae mihi per proprias Vires sunt cuncta canenda,
Quid valeant Ortu, quid quum merguntur in undas?

The Elogy which Pliny gives him, seeming likewise (as Tristan observes) to insinu­ate, besides a particular Respect, a kind of Intimacy and Acquaintance, between this Manilius (supposed our Author) and Pliny; who, as he was a Person very curious might be desirous to be known to him upon the Score of his Eminent Learning; and happily enjoyed what he desired, about the end of Tiberius his Reign; at which time Manilius might be far advanced in years, and Pliny a Young Man.

I am not yet ignorant, that the Learned Pighius in his Roman Annals, and some o­ther knowing Persons are of Opinion, that this Elogium ought to be applied to Titus Manilius Son of Publius, and Nephew of Marcus Manilius, whom Cicero in Roscio calls Ornatissimum Senatorem: But with the leave of those Learned Persons; I do not find that among the Characters which Cicero gives him, there is any one of his Learning or Erudition; for though he sayes he was a most honourable Senator, of a great Age, by Nature pious and Religious, and of a plentiful Fortune, yet he honours him not with any Encomium of his Studies, or of his great Profici­ency in all Sciences; which doubtless he would have done, had he merited eminently in that kind.

In all Reason therefore We may conclude the Manilius mentioned by Pliny, to be dif­ferent from that of Cicero, and with much seeming probability suppose him (as Tri­stan does) to be the same with our Manilius, Author of this Poem, who by Petrus Cri­nitus de Poet. Latin. is reported (we wish he had strengthened his Assertion by some Authentick Testimony) to have been of illustrious Extraction, which adds some fur­ther Weight to Mounsieur Tristan his Conjecture.

[Page]But since this cannot be made out by other Arguments than what are meerly probable, we shall sorbear to determine positively thereupon; but leave the Reader freely to judge which hath the best Pretence to be entituled to this Work, the Slave or the Senator.

As to that Opinion started by Gevartius, that this our Manilius was the same with Manlius Theodorus (who 400 Years after the Death of Augustus, and of our Au­thor t [...]o, was Consul, and Praefectus Praetorio in Illyrium, under the Emperors Theo­ [...], Honorius and Arcadius, and who by Claudian is celebrated for an excellent [...], Philosopher and Astronomer.) It is so groundless, and so unworthy the Name of Gevartius, that we shall not spend time in refuting it, since the Reader may find suffici­ [...]nt Evidence against it from the Pen of our Author in this very Poem, without the help of those Arguments, which from thence are drawn by Tristan in his Commenta­ries before mentioned (Tom. 1. p. 114, and 115.) and Barthius in his elaborate Ani­madversions upon Claudian (p. 112.)

The Name of Manilius is no less controverted than his Person; some affirming it to be Manilius, some Manlius, and others contracting it (compendio improbo, as Barthius terms it) into Mallius. But his true Name, (uncertain whether derived to him by Adoption or Descent) seems to be MANILIUS, which was the Name of a Roman Family distinct from that of the Manlian, as is apparent, both by the Capitoline Tables, and other Evidences in the Roman Story, of which see Schottus de Famil. Roman. and Glandorpius in his Onomasticon. This Name of Manilius all the Antient Editions in the very Infancy of Printing, give him, and most Manuscripts; particularly, as Barthius (in Claudian.) notes, that of Corpus Christi Colledge in Oxford; and (as he adds) he is so named, with the Addition of the Praenomen, Marcus; above 600 Years since by Gerbertus Rhemensis Bishop of Ravenna, and afterwards Pope of Rome, in his cxxx. Epistle in these Words. Age ergo, te solo conscio, ex tuis sumptibus fac mihi scribantur, Marcus Manilius de Astrologia, Victorinus de Rhe­torica, Demostenes Ophthalmicus, &c. And though some Antient MSS. call him Caius, yet generally all the late printed Copies give him the Name of Marcus Manili­us; Which, as being confirmed by the most prevailing Authority, we admit of.

Of his Studies, his own Writings give us the clearest and the best Accompt. By those, (that is to say his five remaining Books of Astronomicks, for other Writings of his, the learned World is not acquainted with) he is represented to Us to have been an Excellent Mathematician, Astronomer, Astrologer, a great Humanist, Philosopher, (and which comprehends all the rest) an admirable Poet. In Astronomy and Astrology he chief­ly followed the Doctrine of the Chaldeans and Aegyptians. In Philosophy, though he was generally conversant in all the different Opinions of the Antients, yet, he more particularly adhered to that of the Stoicks, with which he seems to have been through­ly imbu'd; as may appear by several Instances; particularly that excellent Proem of his fourth Book; a Taste of some Part of which, We hold it not amiss to give the Reader. It begins thus.

Quid tam sollicitis Vitam consumimus Annis?
Torquemurque metu, caecaque Cupidine rerum? &c.
Why waste We Life in Years of anxious Pain?
With fears tormented, and blind Love of Gain?
Worn old with Cares, not Age; which in th' Acquest
We loose, and with no End of Wishes blest,
Act as to live still, yet ne're live indeed:
So much more Poor, as our Desires exceed.
What We have not We covet; what We have
We count not; and though Nature little crave,
We hoard up Matter for vast Luxury,
And purchase Spoyl with Superfluity;
With Gain buy Loss; as if the End of all
Our Wealth, were only to be Prodigal.
Lay, Mortals, Lay these Cares, these Follies by;
All govern'd is by changeless Destiny,
That rules the World; and Times long Courses run
In a link'd Series, not to be undon.
Ev'n in our Births We die; and our last End
Does on our Live's Original depend, &c.

Of the Time or Manner of his Death We find Nothing recorded.

What Stock of Credit and Esteem he hath left behind him, will best appear by the Censures which the ablest Criticks of these later Ages have given of him, and of his Writings. Some of which for the Reader's Satisfaction we shall here enumerate.

JUDGEMENTS of the Learned on Manilius.

We begin with ALDUS MANUTIUS, in his Edition of our Author.

Manilius (sayes he) was the first of all the Latines who wrote of Astronomy, and therefore, when in many Places of this Work he not a little glories therein, deservedly to be born with; for it is an Argument of no mean Wit and Industry, to have explained such difficult Matter, so aptly and so clearly in Verse as he hath done; to have only attempted, though not performed such a Design, being abundantly Praise-worthy and Noble.

By ANGELUS POLITIANUS (in Nutric) He is stiled Bis Vates, Doubly a Poet; for describing so excellently in Verse the Babylonian, and Aegyptian Astrology.

PETRUS CRINITUS (De Poet. Latin.) thus speaks of Him.

Marcus Manilius is reputed to have been of Illustrious Extraction; and flourished at Rome, when Augustus happily swayed the Empire thereof; and doubtless was most acceptable to so great a Prince for the Eminency of his Learning, and Excellency of his Wit. He employed his Study and Industry chiefly in Mathematical Arts, with so much Proficiency, as he thereby gained from the World no mean Applause of his Ingenuity.

ALEXANDER ab ALEXANDRO (Genial. Dierum l. 2. c. 21.) speaking of seve­ral Authors signalized by Fame for their eminent Skill and Knowledge in Celestial Matters, reckons, among the Greeks, Berosus, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Empedocles and Aratus; among the Latines, Julius Firmicus and Marcus Manilius.

REMBERTUS DODONAEUS (in Isagog Cosmogr.) citing the Verses of Manilius proving the Figure of the VVorld to be Spherical, adds this Encomium,

As sings that Divine Poet.

ADRIANUS TURNEBUS in Adversar. gives him the Title of a Noble Poet, adding withall, that he was an Honour and Ornament even to Poesie it self.

[Page]LUDOVICUS CARRIO (emendat. l. 2.) stiles him a most Grave and Learned Poet.

MONSIEUR de MESMES, in his Institutions Astronomiques, written long since in French, calls him, The Gentile Astronomical Poet.

The Incomparable JOSEPH SCALIGER (to whose Learned Labours our Author ows his Second and better Life) thus writes of him in his Preface to his last Edition of him.

As for MANILIUS I cannot say, whether I should rather wish that he had been publickly read in the Schools, or lament that he hath lain hitherto so neglected. A most ingenious Poet, and Polite Author; having illustrated so Obscure a Sub­ject in such Luculent Verse, and displayed a Matter of it self Morose, in such a pleasing Character. All his Proemial Inductions, His Transitions and Excursions are beyond Censure, than those Nothing can be said more divine, nothing more co­pious, more weighty or more delightful.

Then coming more particularly to the Censure of this Part which We now publish.

Certainly (sayes he) it is a Piece so useful and advantagious to all Generous Youth, as it ought to prepare their Way to the Elements of Spherical Learning.

And again in his Epistle to the Learned Stadius.

I exhort all knowing and worthy Professors, that when ever they go about to in­struct their Pupils in the first Elements of the Sphere, they would initiate them therein by this first Book of our Author; for whence (sayes he) can they better derive the Principles of that Science, than from this most Disert Poet; who hath omitted Nothing which may seem pertinent to that purpose.

The Learned ISAAC CASAUBON (Annot. in Strabon. & alibi) honours him with the Title of a most Elegant Poet.

PAULUS MELISSUS in his Encomium upon Scaliger's first Edition of our Author, thus sings of Him.

Iove pitying humane Weakness; gave to Us
Th'Inspector of the Stars, Manilius.
Who to Rome's Nephews first the Knowledge brought
Of Heavens high Orbs, and their hid Motions taught.

JOANNES AURATUS upon the same Occasion describes him thus:

Manilius, like another Atlas bears,
Or an Alcides, on his Head the Spheres

FRANCISCUS JUNIUS in the Dedicatory Epistle before his Edition, gives him this following Elogy.

Manilius for Gravity of Stile, Propriety of Language, and Usefulness of Argument is to be preferred before many.

[Page] And again.

In my Judgment he expresses all Things briefly, gravely, sweetly, and most commo­diously for the Instruction of all that read him.

CHRISTOPHERUS SCHEINERUS in his Accurate Work entituled Rosa Ursina, delivers this Censure of him.

Marcus Manilius, (whom some call Caius Manilius) wrote most elegantly (much above any Others) of the fluidity, and Liquidness of the Heavens. That egregi­ous Authour having with extraordinary Clearness, Roundness and Elegancy ex­prest all things concerning the Heavens and the Celestial Bodies.

GASPAR BARTHIUS (in Adversar.) gives him the Commendation of a most judicious and ingenious Poet; and one of the most elegant of the Augustaean Age, and (in Animadvers. in P. Statium) adds; that he was a Poet most consultive in Philosophy. No less Praise is afforded him by

JOANNES GLANDORPIUS (in Onomastic. Roman.) who gives him the Cha­racter of a Noble Mathematician and Poet, and One who first of all the Latines wrote of Astronomy in Verse.

JULIUS NIGRONIUS (de non legend. Libr. Amator.) reckons him among the most Useful and Instructive Authors. I exhort (sayes he) that Young Persons read such Authors as they may peruse without offence to good Manners, such as Persius, Seneca, Silius, Lucan, Claudian and MANILIUS. Of the same Iudge­ment is

ARNOLDUS CLAPMARIUS (in Nobil. Triennio) where he thus advises the Generous Young Student. Read, and read o're again Homer with Theocritus and Vir­gil; Horace with Pindar; Lucretius and MANILIUS, with Aratus.

The most eminently learned and judicious HUGO GROTIUS In the Preface to the Edition of his own Latine Poems, shews us the Esteem and value he set upon our Author. I acknowledge my self (sayes he) to be now and then full of Lucan's Spirit, sometimes above measure studious of MANILIUS.

The excellent GERRARD. JO. VOSSIUS (l. de 4. Artibus Popular.) speaking of that Part of Philosophy which is comprised under the Title of Grammatica Exegetica.

Without this (saith he) how can any interpret Lucretius, or Manilius, Parme­nides, or Melissus? who besprinkle their Writings with many things drawn from the inmost Recesses of Philosophy.

PAGANINUS GAUDENTIUS sometime Publick Professor of Law and Rhetorick at Pisa, in his Treatise De Initio & Progressu Philosophiae apud Romanos; ranks him among the Eminent Lights of Learning in the Augustaean Age; concluding with an Epigram (which for Brevities sake we forbear here to insert) in Honour of so great a Poet and Astronomer, as he there stiles him: And in his Obstetrix Literaria thus further Discourses of him.

If any shall go about to describe Arts and Sciences in a Poetical Stile, he takes not more from Poetry than the bare versifying Part; for he then begins to assume from his Subject the Part either of a Philosopher, Astronomer, Physician, or such like, in which kind certainly Empedocles, Lucretius and MANILIUS were more than Poets.

BRIETIUS in Syntagmate de Poet. Latin. comparing the Latine Poesie with the different Ages of Man; makes the virile and perfect State thereof to consist of Vir­gil, Horace, Ovid, Tibullus, Propertius, and our MANILIUS.

Add we to these the Opinion of the most Ingenious

Mr. ABRAHAM COWLEY, Who in his Essay of constituting a Colledge for the infusing into Youth, Knowledge and Language at the same time; conceives the Way to be by breeding them up in Authors or Pieces of Authors that treat of solid and Learned, that is Natural Matters. Among which he commends Virgil's Georgicks, Gratius, Nemesianus and MANILIUS.

To accumulate more Encomiums, were superfluous; Hear himself now speak his own Character.

OF The two Hemispheres OF THE STARS.

THe One serves for the Northern Constellations; the Other for the Southern. The Stars are expressed ac­cording to their several Magnitudes, as may be seen in the Scale thereof set down in the Southern Hemi­sphere. And the Constellations are only pricked out, wherein (with Galluccius) the Middle Way is taken, betwixt not placing them in any, or representing them in too dark shadowed Figures, as some have done.

In the Projection, the Eye is supposed to touch the South Pole, for the projecting of the Northern Hemisphere upon the [...] of the Equator, and contrarily for the Southern. So that the Stars are placed in either by the Arches of right Ascension measured upon the Equator, and by their Distances or Declinations from it, set off from a Scale of Double Tangents, which this and All other Stereographical Projections require: Amongst which, I accompt this the most proper and useful to be here placed, because by adding an Index made as above said, and divided as you see one of the Semidiameters done in either Hemisphere, any Star may easily be found either on the Proje­ctions or in the Heavens; And the Way or Course of a New Star or Comet may be traced upon them by any that have but ordinary Skill in the Sphere; and may serve very well instead of a Celestial Globe; and being held up before one in the Night, placed according as the Heavens require, will plainly shew the Position at that Time. And are ready, to those that are yet more Curious, by the putting on a particular Horizon, for other several Uses. But yet these Instruments are not true Astroscopes; there is not any point to place the Eye in, for discerning the Stars in the Heavens as they are placed in the Hemispheres; for that will require another Polar Projection much like this following, viz.

The Eye is to be supposed at the Center of the Sphere, projecting on a Plane touching the Sphere at the Pole Point, in which the right Ascension is measured as before by the Angle at the Pole Point, and the Polar Distances are set off by the Tangents of the said Arks; On which Supposition an entire Hemisphere cannot be projected; And this is no other than the Plane of an Equinoctial Dyal, which being placed Erect to the Axis, if the Eye be sup­posed therein at the Distance of the Radius from the Plane, and if at the Situation of each Star on the Plane. Holes were supposed or made in the Plane; if the Eye beholds two known Stars shining through their proper Holes, at the same Time it should behold All the rest likewise shining through their Holes, to which their Names being affixed, this Projection becomes an Astroscope to teach Beginners to know the Stars, and will also serve as a Nocturnal for finding the Stars hour, and by Consequence, by Ayd of the Sun's right Ascension, proper to the Day of the Moneth, the true hour of the Night likewise.

The Polar Dyal or Meridional Plane, as Kircher in his Ars Magna Lucis & Umbrae affirms, hath been applied by Griembergerus; as an Astroscope to teach Tyros how to know the Stars in both Hemispheres, and to find the Hour of the Night by the Rotation of the Plane, affixed as it were to the Handle of a Carpenter's Wimble; the Axis thereof being conceived to be Parallel to the Axis of the World, and the Eye, at a Knot tyed in a Thread on the said Axis, to be the Center of the Earth, is supposed to behold the Stars shining through their proper Holes as be­fore; the Distance from the Eye to the Plane being the Radius of the Projection.

But neither of these Astroscopes are the same as Schickardus treats of; His is supposed to be the Surface of a Cone; In the Circle of the Base whereof conceive a Thread to represent a Diameter; a Knot in it the Center, a Perpendi­cular from that Knot to the Side of the Conick Surface the Radius, and a Line passing through the Vertex of the Cone (which represents the Pole Point) and the Foot of that Perpendicular to be a Tangent Line each way, in which, the Stars are to be placed according to their Distances from the Pole, counted from the Pole Point, in respect of the Graduation of the said Tangent; the Arches of right Ascension being measured by the Periphery of the Circle in the Base of the Cone, and this Surface is to be conceived to be directed to the Pole, and that the Eye is at the Knot or Center of the Base of the Cone, beholding two known Stars shining through their Proper Holes, and at the same time it shall likewise behold the rest shining through their respective Holes; The Rotation of this Figure about an Axis serving as a Nocturnal to give the Hours of the Night.

Other Astroscopes there are; As one, that being rectified and set to the Hour of the Night, the Sight through two Pinnacides shall be directed to that Star to which the Instrument is rectified. Of All which to treat, is not our present Design, and 'therefore shall refer the Reader to the Authors and Composers of such kind of Projections or Astroscopes.

[Page] [Page]

[map of northern constellations]


[map of southern constellations]


S [...]lmasius (in Diatrib. de Annis Climact. & de Antiqu. Astrolog.) ex­pounds divinas Artes according to the opinion of the Stoicks; who held the Stars to be Deities, and thinks that Manilius gave to Astro­logy that Epithete in regard of the Divinity of its subject: We rather take it in the same sence as Divina­trices. So Horace uses the Word Imbrium Avis Divina Imminentûm: so Iuvenal. Satyr. 10. ‘Exta & candiduli Divina Toma­cula Porci.’ See Scaliger, and Barthius Adversar. lib. 25. c. 2.
Arts, and Stars
So we have chosen (for the better cadence of the Verse) to render—conscia fati sydera—not assuming a greater liberty than the sence of the words will bear, in making conscia fati in this place (according to the Tenet of Mani­lius) to express as much as praesciae venturi. How far yet this fore­knowledge of the Stars extends, is not agreed upon by the Antients. Some (with Plotinus, in libro si fa­ciunt Astra, as cited by Macrob. in somn. Scip.) believe, that the Stars of themselves know nothing of Fate, but that men skill'd in the Art of Divination read it in the Book of the Stars, as in the Tables of the Gods; as Birds are not conceived to be skill'd in Augury, though from their voice or flight, men knowing therein foretel future events: Others, that the Stars know all things, but not that they effect what they know or signifie. Some that the Stars carry about (as included within them) the Fate of all things, and what they know requisite to be done, produce into act. Which last Opinion, though by Seueca (Epistol. 80.) proposed as doubtful, is by Manilius (in the heighth of Stoicism) positively asserted: See Lips. Philosoph. Stoic. l. 2. c. 14. And Vossius l. 2. Idololatr. c. 49.
The Proem.
So Ausonius,
Omnia quae varìo rerum metimur in Actu
Astrorum Dominatus agit; terrenaque tantum
Membra homini; è superis Fortuna & Spiritus Auris.
And (before him) Seneca: Ex syderum quinque levissimis motibus Fortunae Populorum dependent: & Maxima ac Minima proinde formantur, prout aequum iniquumve sydus incessit. Some went yet further, and assign'd peculiar Stars to the particular condition of Persons, as the large and bright to the Rich, the lesser to the Poor, the obscure to the feeble and decrepid: But this opi­nion is by Pliny exploded as a vulgar error, Sydera quae affixa dicimus mundo, non illa, ut existimat vulgus, singulis tributa sunt nobis: Clara divitibus, minora pauperibus, obscura defectis, & pro sorte eujusque lucentia ad munera mortalibus. Non tanta coelo Societas nobiscum est. Vid. Plin. l. 2.
Varying the divers Turns of Humane State,
(The Work [...] of Heav'ns
The Stoicks held the World to be a rational Creature, and to consist of Heaven and Earth, as Soul and Body: The Hea­vens (according to them) being the same to the whole, as reason to man. Hence Arnobius (l. 3. advers. Gent.) In Philosophiae Me­morabiles studio, atque ad istius nominis columen (vobis laudatoribus) elevati, universam ìstam molem Mundi, eujus omnibus amplexibus ambimur, regimur, ac sustinemur, Animans esse unum, Sapiens, Rationale, Consultum, probabili Asseveratione definiunt; with whom consents Hilarius in Genes.
Haec tamen Aethereoquae machina volvitur Axe,
Non tantum pictura poli est, sed celsa voluntas,
Mens Ratioque subest.—
Upon which Verses Barthius (l. 31. Adversar. c. 12.) notes, that Mens & Ratio Coeli est Astrorum, ut vocant, Influentia, quae Genus gu­bernat humanum. Expressing the sence and meaning of our Author; but how truly, the thing I leave to be considered.
high Reason) We bring down
In Verse, from Heaven; and first move
Helicon [...] Aoniae Baeotiaeque Mons Musis Sacer (Vib. Sequester) so call'd, according to Plutarch (l. de Nominibus fluviorum & Montium) from Helicon, the Brother of Cithaeron, of which see there the Fable. Or, as Casaubon (in Pers.) conjectures from the Hebrew word, Halike, i. e. Ambulatio, in regard the Antients used to have there their Walks, and to confer and discourse of na­tural and divine Matters: Where also as Athenaeus (l. 14. Deipnosoph.) from the Authority of Amphion Thespiensis reports, there was a Colledge instituted for all Musical Exercises, in which the Youth of those Times were accurately instructed. But Bochar­tus conceives the name derived from the Arabick, Halic, or Halica, which signifies a high Mountain, for such is it describ'd to be by Strabo l. 8. & l. 9.
[Page 2]And it's green Groves, with unacquainted Rimes,
Offering strange Rites, not known to former Times.
Caesar! thy Countries
Augustus Caesar: of whom Horace,

Ames dici Pater atque Princeps. A Title first given to Iulius Caesar (as his Coins attest) for his singular Clemency. Yet Cicero enjoy'd it before either of them, though not in the same Extent and Latitude, yet as the Encomium of a good Pa­triot: hence Iuvenal Satyr. 8.

‘—Roma Parentem Roma Patrem Patriae Ciceronem Libera dixit.’ The reason of this Imperial Title Seneca gives (in de Clementia Io) Patrem quidem appellavimus, ut sci ret sibi datam esse Potestatem, quae est Temperatissima subditis tanquam Li­beris consulent, suaque post illas repo­nens. The Ceremony of Augustus his Instalment in this Titular Di­gnity, is thus describ'd by Suet mi­us. Valerius Messala was deputed by the Senate to present him with the Votes of the House, which he deliver'd in these Words, Quod foe­lix faustumque sit tibi domuique tuae, Auguste! (sic enim nos perpetuam Reipublicae foelicitatem, & laeta huic precari existimamus) Senatus Te (consentiens cum Populo Romano) consalutat Patriae Patrem. To whom Augustus with tears in his eyes thus answer'd: Compos factus votorum meorum (Patres Conscripti) quid habeo ali­ud Deos immortales precari quàm ut hunc consensum v [...]strum, ad ultimum vitae finem mihi perferre liceat?
Prince and Father! Thou,
To whose
The Original hath Augustas Leges, which Epithete our Author doubtless made use of in Allusion to the Title of Augustus given by the Senate at the instance of Munacius Plancus to Octavianus Caesar: who after his settlement in the Empire according to Eusebius in Chronie. (as rendred by Saint Ierom) Romanis plurimas leges statuit. To which Ovid likewise alludes (Metam. 15)
Pace datâ terris, Animum ad Civilia vertet
Iura suum; Legesque feret Iustissimus Auctor.
These Laws in honour of Iulius Caesar, were by Augustus call'd Iuliae, either as being first enacted by Iulius Caesar, or as re­viv'd and put into execution by Augustus, according to the Advice and direction of his Uncle, left in his Memorials, or Com­mentaries behind him, as he perswaded the People to believe; which see enumerated by Donatus in Tacitum. p. 144. and Polle­tus de foro Romano. l. 4. and more particularly by R [...]smus in Antiqu. Rom. l. 8.
Imperial Laws the World doth bow,
Our Author here seems to make a difference between the Divinity of Augustus, and that of Iulius Caesar, attri­buting to the Nephew Heaven as his due and Merit; to the Uncle, as the Grace and Concession only of the Gods. Plin. l. 7. c. 45. speaking of Augustus, says; Ille Deus, Coelumque nescio adeptus magis an meritus. Of the other, Vitruvius in Praefat. Iulius Caesar Consilio Coelestium in Sedibus Immortalitatis dedicatus est.
merit'st, what was granted to thy Sire,
Heaven as a God! do'st this high Song inspire.
And now, Heaven
Propter numen Caesaris jam receptum; vel Augusti jam recipiendum, says Barthius Adversar. l. 1. c. 8. Or rather in regard of the great Discoveries made by the Extent and Progress of the Roman Conquests in Climates and Regions formerly un­known, by which means (to use Valerius Flaccus his Expression, Argon. 1.) ‘—Tantum terrae, tantum cognoscere coeli Permissum est.—’
kinder to the Curious grows,
And courts in Verse, it's Treasure to disclose.
Fit Task alone for Peaceful Leisure! Rise
We then through yielding Aire, and mount the Skies,
There live and range; Learn all the Signs, and prove
How in their
That is from West to East, contrary to the Motion of the Primum Mobile; which Motion of the Planets in the time of Democritus was not known among the Greeks; Eudoxus being the first that discovered it to his Countrymen, as Seneca ob­serves Natural. Quaest. l. 7. c. 3.) having deriv'd that knowledge from the Aegyptians, to whom he travel'd in the Company of Chrysippus the Physician and others, supported by the Bounty of his Friends, and recommended by Agesilaus his Letters to Nectabis the King, and by him to the Priests, as Diogenes Laertius in his life, l. 8. Yet Lucian (de Astrolog.) assigns the first Observation thereof to Atreus, King of the Argives, confirm'd by Achilles Tatius (in Arati Phaenomen.) who saies, that Atreus ( [...]) found out the opposite motion of the Planets. So that Gassendus (Tom. 1. l. 3. p. 591.) conceives the more universal and exact Theory of that Motion, rather than the Original or Primary Invention thereof, is to be ascribed to Eudoxus.
adverse Course the Planets move:
To know but which were little; we will sound
The hidden Entrails of this ample Round,
Enquire how Stars Creatures beget and sway,
Which whilst we sing,
Not unlike to that of Virgil (in Culicis Prooemio:) ‘Phoebus erit nostri Princeps & Carminis Author, Et recinente Lyra fautor—’ The Poets usually applying that Musical Instrument to their Songs; quod dum mens foeta parturit, ipsa ferat opem. And there­fore a late triple Crowned Poet (Urban 8. in his Ode upon St. Lewis) calls the Lyra, Sonoram Cantûs Obstetricem, as is noted by Paganinus Gaudentius in Additament. Crit. c. 9. And for this reason Manilius here brings in Phaebus with his Lyra to bear a part with him in confort.
Apollo's self shall play.
Justly does Scaliger condemn Lilius Giraldus for supposing our Author in this place to profess himself to have been twice Law­reat: who means no more by these double Sacrifices than the Invoca­tion of double Assistance, being to treat of the gravest subject in the most pleasing style; and therefore he erects two Altars to the two Patrons of Astronomy and Po­etry.
Two Altars bright with Flames, we raise; repair
T' a double shrine, prest with the double Care
Of Verse and Matter; on these certain Grounds
Raising our Song, concordant Heaven surrounds
It's Poet with deep Harmony, and Words
Scarce fit for Latian Characters affords.
Who to inferiour Earth did first reveal
The Origi­nal and Progress of Astronomy.
These Gifts of Gods? Who, what they hid, could steal?
All-ruling Heaven! What Mortal dar'd so high
As spite of Gods, himself to Deifie?
Open the highest Path, the lowest Deep?
Tell how the Stars their bounded Courses keep?
The Force, and Motions of the Signs impart?
Mercury; so called (accord­ing to Festus) Quòd omnem rem ser­mone sine manibus conficiat, quibus Partibus Corporis qui car [...]nt [...] vocantur. And therefore the Her­metical Statues were made of a square Trunk, or Stone only. O­thers (saith Festus) will have him so called (not à Cyllenia via, as it is commonly read; but as Mr. V [...]ssi­us in Melam. corrects the Text) à Cyllene Avia, from his Grand-Mo­ther Cyllene, by whom he was edu­cated. Others will have him to be so called from the Mountain Cyllenius in Arcadia, where he was bred. That he first taught the Ae­gyptians Astrónomy, and indeed all other Arts and Sciences, is the ge­nerally received Opinion; which (besides Iámblichus) is asserted by Plato in Phaedro, (where he is styled [...]) and by Cice­ro, Lib. 3. Divinat. Vide etiam La­ctantium lib. 1. c. 6. But as to the first Authors of Astronomy, see more in the History of its Origi­nal and Progress in the Appen­dix.
Cyllenius! Thus first taught'st this sacred Art;
Thou th'inmost Heavens, & utmost Stars mad'st known,
That so to Natures Power, not Face alone,
Might greater Awe, and Reverence accrue;
And Nations learn what to that God was due,
Who did through Seasons, to be known, display
The Heavens, and this great Worlds Phaenomena.
Nature help'd too; Her self, Her self improv'd,
Lucian (de Astrolog.) makes Astrology to be [...], The study of Antient Kings belov'd of the Gods: The Poet here particularly respects the Babylonian and Aegyptian Princes.
And Monarchs (next to Heaven in power) first mov'd
T' affect these Arts; who near Sol's rising Beams
Fierce Nations tam'd; whose Lands
One of the most celebrated Rivers of the East, arising in Armenia Major, and watering on the left hand Mesopot [...] ­mia, on the right hand Syria, Arabia, and Babylonia (now Caldar.) It was heretofore according to Plutarch (de Nomin­fluv. & montium) call'd Medus, and before that Zarandus, of which see there the Reasons. Its Modern Name answering to its Antient Apherat, or Phraat, which owes its Original (as some conceive) to the Arabick, in which Language Pharatta signifies inundare, whence Iphraton Inundatio (this River overflowing in the same manner as Nilus) or rather from the Hebrew Huperath, signifying frugifer, crescens, or fructificans: It was antiently divided into five Principal streams. The first whereof passing by Seleucia falls into Tygris. The other four loosing themselves in so many great Lak [...]s. The first of these four Branches, and most Easterly, was call'd Tsartsar: The second, Naar-Malcha, (by Pliny corruptly Armalchar) i. e. Regium flumen; by the Arabs in the same sence Al Melic, in memory of some of the Babylonian Princes, who caused that Cut to be made; and Chobar from the Name of the Praefect or Overseer of the Work, as observed by Scaliger, l. 5. de Emendatione Temporum. The third passing by Babylon, was that, which was properly called Euphrates; as believed to be the Native Channel of the River, and not made by Art as the others; call'd likewise Sur, from the City Sura, or Sora, seated upon its Banks. The fourth and most Westerly was (according to Pliny) called Narragam, by Ptolomy Baarsarem, or Maarsarem, and by some others [...], which Bochartus (in Phaleg. lib. 1 c. 8.) rather reads [...], which nearlier answers to Plinie's Narragam, or Naar-Agam, i. e. fluvius stagni. By the Greeks antiently this great River was otherwise nam'd, being call'd from its Source to the Mountain Taurus, Pixyrates; where it breaks into the Mountain Taurus, Omyra; after its emersion from thence, Euphrates, as Pliny lib. 5. c. 24. See likewise Ptolomy lib. 5. Strabo lib. 11. & alibi. And Salmasius at large in Plin. Exercitat. Tom. 1. pag. 625. & sequent.
Euphrates Streams
[Page 4]Divide, and
The Learned Mr. Vossius (de aetate mundi & in Melam) conceives our Poet in this place to follow the Opinion of the Antients, who before the discovery of the Indian Ocean, were so ignorant as to be­lieve, that Nilus derived its source from the utmost East, even from India it self. With which Error (besides divers others of the An­tients) Virgil seems to comply (Georg. 3.)
Quaque Pharetratae Vicinia Persidis u [...]get,
Et [...]iridem Aegyptum nigra foecun­dat Arena;
Et diversa Ruens septem discurrit in Ora
Usque coloratis Annis devexus ab Indis.
On Quiver-bearing Persia's Hem he strains,
With black Sands marling Aegypts verdant Plains:
In seven Streams forcing his divi­ded Course,
And from the Sun-tann'd Indians draws his Source.
But our Poet does no more than concisely mark and point out the Babylonian and Aegyptian Territo­ries, Per flumina Urbes eorum alluen­tia ac foecund [...]tia, as Barthius notes, l. 1. Adversar. c. 9. The se­veral Names given by the Antients to this River are collected by the Learned Maussacus (in Plutarch. de Fluv. & Mont. nominibus.) It was first of all called Oceanus, or (but as he saies barbarè) Oceames: Then Ae [...]os seu Aquila, and Melas from its Profundity or depth, because all deep Waters seem black, or from Melas, the Son of Neptune: Afterwards Aegyptus, either from Aegyptus, the Son of Belus, or of Vulcan and Leucippes, who threw himself into it; or [...], à Capras pinguefaciendo. From whence likewise the whole Country of Aegypt seems to be so nam'd. The Hebrews call it Gebon, and Schior, the latter signifying nigrum seu turbidum; whence happily is derived the Aethiopian Name, Siris: It was called also [...], sive Nùs & Trito; and lastly Nilus, from the Husband of Garmathones, an Aegyptian Queen so named; or from Nilus the Son of Cyclops, or Nileus, or Nilasius, Aegyptian Princes; or rather [...], i. e. à novum limum aut foecem ferendo. By the Latines it was peculiarly call'd Melo, as is evident from the Testimonies of Ennius, Festus, Servius and Ausonius. Of the Original of Nilus, and Cause of its Inundation, in former Ages so unknown; See Kircherus in Mund. Subterran. and Mr. Vossius in his particular Tract of that subject.
Nile inundates; where the Sun
Returning, does o're
Taken from Hesiod [...].
—Super Nigrorum Hominum Populum, Urbemque
Meaning the Aethiopians; particularly those seated beyond the Eastern Bank of Nilus.
Negro Cities run.
Next, chosen
Aegyptian Priests, from whom Astronomy received its first Rise and Increase in that Nation: Instructed therein by Hermes Trismegistus, whom the Arabs called Adris; the Aegyptians, Theut, or Thoth. These Priests in their Supplica­tions and Vows, as Kircher (in his Oedip. Aegypt. Tom 3.) tells us, Primo ante omnia Sapientiam & Mentis petebant illuminatio­nem: Quam adepti, ab omni fatorum Necessitate se absolvi & [...] effici putabant, perpetuo Numinum Consortio beatos. Which gives some light to the following Verses.
Priests, who serve from Age to Age
At Publick Altars, and with vows ingage
Th'indulgent God, whose awful Presence fires
Their Zealous Minds with uncorrupt Desires;
He with himself possest them, and made known
Not unlike to this, Statius de Vindic. Hercul. Sylv. 4. ‘—Deus ille Deus, seseque videndum Indu'sit Lysippe Tibi—’ And Quintilian Declamat. 10. Quales Humanis se offerunt Oculis Propitii Dii, quale laetissimum numen est, cum se patitur videri.
unveil'd Deity unto his own.
Such were the Men, who first could apprehend
That Humane Fates on wandring Stars depend;
Cicero Lib. 1. de Divinat: ascribes this to the Assyriant. The Assyrians (Ut ab ultimis Auctoritatem repetam, says he) by reason of the plainness and large Extent of their Country, affording on all sides a clear and open view of Heaven, ob­served the Course and Motion of the Stars. Which having duly calculated, they from thence made Predictions of future Events. Amongst whom the Chaldeans (Non ex Artis sed ex Gentis vocabulo Nominati) arriv'd to that perfection of skill, as to be able to foretel what should happen to any one, and under what Fate they were born. Which Art the Aegyptians ac­quired from them many Ages since. Thus Cicero. Vitruvius (Lib. 9. c. 7.) more particularly; Among the Chaldeans (says he) Berosus was the first, who taught the Greeks judiciary Astrology: After him Antipater and Achinapolus were reputed famous Gencthliologists. Of Natural Causes and Effects, Thales Milesius, Anaxagoras Clazomenius, Pythagoras Samius, Xenophantus Colophonius, and Democritus are reckoned the most eminent Observers: following whose Inventions, and ob­serving the Rise and setting of the Stars, and the Seasons of the Year, Eudoxus, Eudaemon, Callisthus, Melo, Philippus, (and not as Salmasius will have the Text to be read, Phainus) Hipparchus, Aratus, and others left to Posterity their Astro­logical Prognosticks, in their Tables or Parapegmata. Of which see Geminus, and Theon in Arati Phaenomena.
They to each time apply'd its own Events,
And by long Toyl observ'd the Accidents
Of many Ages, Birth-days, Lives, what Power
Of Fortune govern'd each successive Hour,
And what great Changes the least Motions cause.
Thus when Heavens various Face, (the Stars by Laws
Of Fate returning in their ordered Course)
Was fully known; and each Signs proper Force,
[Page 5]Experience fram'd thereof an Art; the Way
‘Omnis enim nostrae paulatim industria vitae Fluxit ab exemplis—’ Claudian de Hystrice. But by Exam­ple here our Authour means the Observations and Prognosticks, which Posterity received from the Tables or Parapegmata of the An­tients.
Shown by Example; Which through long Essay,
And various Speculation, learn'd from far
The tacit Laws of e [...]ery ruling Star;
Saw in alternate Course Heaven still move round,
And Fate to vary as it's Aspects, found.
For before them, rude Man no difference made
'Twixt Natures works, nor things with Reason weigh'd;
Astonish'd at Heavens new disclosed Light,
Ingeniously imitated by Statius (Theb. 4. speaking of the Primitive Arcadians.)
Hi Lucis stupuisse vices, Noctisque fe­runtur
Nubila, & occiduum, longe Titana secuti
Desperasse Diem—
And by D [...]acontius (in Hexaemer.)
Nec Lucem remeareputat terrena Pro­pago.
Ast ubi purpureum surgentem ex aequo­re cernunt
Luciferum, vibrare Iubar, flammas­que ciere
Et reducem super Astra Diem de sole rubentem.
Mox revocata fovent hesterna in gau­dia Mentes,
Temporis & requiem noscentes Luce diurna
Coeperunt sperare Diem, ridere Tene­bras.
The learned Mr. Selden de Diis Sy­ris, Syntagm. 2. (citing for Testi­mony this Place of Manilius) con­ceives the Original of Adonis Fe­stivals with the Antients to have sprung from no other ground. Non aliud cogitarunt, (says he) qui primum bas Naenias instituerunt, quam Solis Accessum & Recessum. Quem ut amissum nunc Lugebant, & renatum Laetis excipie­bant Austiciis. Ita Rudiores olim, & qui simpliciorem vitam degebant, priusquam ab Astronomis Leges siderum didicerant.
Now mourn'd the Stars as lost; now at their Sight
As if new-born rejoyc'd: th' uncertain Times
Of Day and Night, differing in different Climes,
Till then none knew; nor could the Causes clear
The Demonstration of this depends upon Gnomonick Principles: One is, That the lower the Sun is, the longer shadow it makes upon an Horizontal Plain; the higher and more elevated, the shorter. Hence when the Sun approaches near the Hori­zon, the shadows of things become greater, according to that of Virgil (Eclog. 1.) ‘Majoresque cadunt altis de Montibus umbrae.’

But the farther he is mounted above the Horizon till he comes to his Meridian Altitude, the shadows are less. Ovid. Meta­morph. 3.

‘Iamque Dies Medius rerum contraxerat umbras.’ So likewise when the Sun is in the Tropick of Cancer, and in its greatest Northern Elevation; we are then (to use the ex­pression of Achilles Tatius in Arat.) Brachyscii, and cast the shortest shadows. But when it is in the opposite Tropick, and con­sequently in its greatest Depression as to us, we are Macroscii, and cast the longest shadows. See, as to this subject, more par­ticularly Iunctinus in Sacrobosc. c. 3. and Aldus Manutius in Praefat, ad scriptores Rei Rusticae. To which may be added Beda his Poemation de Compositione Horologii.
Of shades unlike the Sun far off and near.
Yet witty Cunning no
Arts are distinguished into Illiberal or Manual, and Liberal or Ingenuous. And though of the first, the number be almost numberless, yet both kinds vulgarly (though very imperfectly) are reduc'd to a Septenary Division, and exprest in this Distich:
Lingua, Tropus, Ratio, Numerus, Tonus, Angulus, Astra.
Rus, Nemus, Arma, Faber, Vulnera, Lana, Rates.
The first Verse expressing Grammar, Rhetorick, Logick, Arithmetick, Musick, Geometry and Astronomy. The second A­griculture, Hunting, Arts Military and Fabrile, Chirurgery, Spinning and Weaving, and Arts Nautical. Of whose first Inventors see Pliny, l. 7. c. 56. Polydor Virgil, Garzoni his Piazza universale, and Vessius de Sect. Philosoph. As to the different esteem and practice of these Arts among the Greeks and Romans, see Aldus Manutius in Quaesit. per Epistol. lib. 2. c. 9.
learn'd Arts had found;
Under rude Swains waste lay the untill'd Ground:
The first that found out Gold is said to be Cadmus the Phoenician; or, as others, Thoas, in the Mountain Pangaeus; or ac­cording to the Chronicon Alexandrinum, Mercury the Son of Iupiter or Picus King of Italy, who quitting his own Countrey, travell'd into Aegypt, and was there elected King after Misraim the Grand-child of Cham, for this Invention called [...], i. e. Deus Aureus. Aeschylus attributes the Invention both of that and all other Metals to Prometheus. There are others who write that Aeaclis (Hyginus calls him Caeacus the Son of Iupiter) or Sol the Son of Oceanus was the first Inven­tor of Gold in Panchaia, see Pliny, l. 7. c. 56. and Polydor Virgil. l. 2. de rer. Inventor. c. 9.
Gold then in Desert Mountains lodg'd at Ease,
Our Poet here alludes to the Detection and Conquest of Great-Britain by Iulius Caesar, which the Romans then called a New World, from their recent discovery thereof. However it was long before known to others of the Antients, as is mani­fest by the Testimony of Pytheas, mentioned by Strabo, who in the time of Ptolom. Philadelph. wrote [...]. Touching which see Casaubon (in Strabon. l. 1. & 2.) Vossius de Histor. Graec. l. 4. c. 11. and Paganinus Gaudentius delli Peregrinatione Phi­losophica. And that it was some Ages before Caesar's time known to the Phoe [...]icians, the learned Bochartus in his Geogr. Sacr. Tom. 2. l. 1. c. 29. evinces, who blames our Camden for saying, that this Island of Ours non nisi serò fuisse cognitam, was not known till of late.
New Worlds lay hid in unattempted Seas,
[Page 6]
To this purpose appositely Seneca in Medea.
Audex nimi [...]m qui freta primus,
Rate tam f [...]gili perfida rupit:
Terrasque suas post Terga videns,
Animam levibus eredidit Austris, &c.
Candida nostri saecula patres
Videre, procul fra [...]de rem [...]á,
Sua quisque piger Litora tange [...]s,
Patrioque Senex factus in A [...]vo,
Parvo dives; nisi quas [...]ulerat
Natale solum, non nôrat Opes.

Rash man was he with Ships frail Beak

Did first the treacherous Billows break:

And leaving the safe Shoar behind,

Durst trust his life to trustless wind, &c.

The candid Age of Innocence

Our Fathers saw; free from all sense

Of fraud: then in secured rest
Each man on his own ground liv'd blest
With length of days, with little rich;
Nor of more wealth, than that with which
His Native Soyl was stor'd, could tell.
With which last likewise Ovid concludes, lib. Metamorph. 1.
Nullaque mortales praeter sua litora nôrant.
To Mortals in those days were known
No other Shoares, besides their own.
To waves and winds to trust their Lives none dar'd,
To know themselves and theirs, Men only car'd.
But when long Time and Toyl their Wits had whet,
Theocritus, Idyll. 21.
Want, Diophantus, is Arts only Spur,
The Rise and Rule of labour is from her,
For Care keeps watch in every poor mans eyes▪
Hence Arnobius lib. 2. Supellectiles necessariae quas familiaris usus exposcit, non sunt ista scientiae munera, sed pauperrimae necessitatis Inventa. And hitherto not impertinently may be applyed, what I find recorded of the Temple of Hercules at Gades by Phi­lostratus in vita Apollonii, (as cited by Photius;) wherein among other Altars there was one Dedicated to Penury and Art; Intimating, that as Penury stirr'd up A [...]t, so A [...]t drove away Penury; as Hercules put to flight and subdued Monsters, the Incitements of his Val ur. Vide Riccard. Brixian. See likewise Casaubon explicating this Verse of Perseus in Prologo: Magister Artis Ingeniique largitor Venter.
Want an Edge on Indusiry had set,
Then thousand Cares their working Heads possest,
Whilst to scape Need, they Sacrifice their Rest;
Conclusions try'd: and whatsoe're
Consonant to this place is that of Columella, l. 10.
Ipsa novas Artes varia Experientia rerum
Et labor ostendit Miseris, usus que Magister
wise Use
By oft-repeated Practice did produce
Of sure Effect; the new Experiment
Unto the Common Good they gladly lent.
Then Barbarous Tongues receiv'd new
As all our Actions, saies Scaliger (l. 1. Poetices, c. 1.) so Speech is to be considered under three kinds. First, that of Necessary; Secondly, of Useful; Thirdly, of Delightful. The first kind was that which serv'd as a means of necessa­ry Intercourse between Man and Man, to make themselves barely understood. Such may be imagined that manner of Speech, which we find in Lactant. (de vero cultu) that Mankind according to the Opinion of some of the Antients us'd; for they believed at first that men exprest their meanings by signs and nods. Afterwards (as he saies, and before him Diodor. Sicul. Bib [...]. l. 1. and Horace l. 1. Satyr. 3.) They made Essays of Language by imposing distinct nominal Notes upon several things, and so by degrees perfected a kind of Speech. The second sort (saies Scaliger) was something more refin'd by apting it for use and commodiousness, and applying as it were certain Dimensions, Prescriptions and Lineaments to the rude and inchoated Body, whence proceeded a certain Law and Rule of Speaking. The third sort was yet more polite; and had added to it the Ornament of Elegancy, as it were its Dress and Apparrel. Now among these Laws of Language, not in the last place is to be reckon'd the Invention of Letters, which, as Cicero (in 1. Tuscul.) Sonos vocis, qui infiniti vide­bantur, p [...]cis literarum notis terminavit. This Suidas calls [...], and attributes the Invention thereof to Prometheus. But as to the first Characterizers of Speech (besides the learned Digression of Ioseph Scaliger de liter. antiqu. in Euseb. and Petit. in observ [...]. l. 2. c. 1.) take these antient Anonymous Verses, as they are recorded by Crinitus and Giral­du [...], and [...]rom them transcrib'd by Gerard. Ioh. Vossius, l. 1. de Arte Grammat.
Primus Moyses Hebraieas exaravit literas.
Mente Phoenices sagaci condiderunt A [...]ticas.
Qu [...]s Latini scriptitamus, edidit Nicostrat [...].
Abraham Syras & idem reperit Chaldai [...]as.
Isis Arte non minore protulit Aegyptias.
Gulfilas prompsit Getarum quas videmus Literas.
But with more likelihood is their Original by others referr'd to Adam himself; It being conceiv'd very Improbable that he, who was to convey all Learning and knowledge to his Posterity, should want those necessary Organs for such a Work: for which Opinion makes the early mention of Letters, even in Seth's time, who was his Son, and doubtless receiv'd them from him. To which purpose there is extant in the Vatican Library at Rome, an Antient Picture of Adam with an Hebrew Inscription over his Head, and under his Feet, this Latine one; ADAM DIVINITUS EDOCTUS, PRIMUS SCIEN­TIARUM ET LITERARUM INVENTOR. Vide Lomeier. de Biblioth. p. 10.
Laws, the Earth
[Page 7]
Of all Arts, Agriculture, by the Confession and Testimony of Varro (l. 3. de R. R.) is the most antient. This among the Ae [...]ypti­ans was first said to be found out by Osyris or Maneros. In Greece by Ceres, so called, quasi geres, à geren­dis frugibús, (as Cicero,) or rather (as Vossius conceives) from the He­brew word Geres, which signifies a Green Spike of Corn. In Italy by Saturn, the Son of Coelus and Iel­lus. By whom the said Vossius (l. de Philosoph. c. 6.) not improbably supposes Adam to be meant: for who besides him was the Son of Heaven and Earth? The name Saturn seeming likewise to be deriv'd from the Hebrew word Satar, which signifies to lie hid, and is applicable to Adam for his flight and absconding himself after his Fall. Iosephus yet attributes it to Cain, (l. 1. Antiqu. c. 3.) [...], &c. Pastorit [...]am vitam Abel, Agricul [...]s­ram verò primus excogitavit Cain. Manuring of Ground by Stercoration is by Pliny, l. 17. c. 9. ascribed to King [...], who is said first to have instructed the Greeks therein, as Hercules the Italians, who for that reason likewise immortal [...]z'd their King Stercutius, the Son of Faunus, but rather the same with Evander, the Arcadian, who first brought the Worship of Faunus, (which is Pan, or universal Nature) into Italy, and taught the Latines the Art of Manuring Ground, for which he was ho­noured as a God by the name of Stercutius; by Tertullian. in Apologet. call'd Sterculus or Sterculius; by Servi [...]s in 8 Ae [...]eid. Sterquilinius, whom he will have to be Pitumnus, Brother of Pilumnus; by Macrobius called Sterculus; [...] he makes to be one of the Attributes of Saturn: Saturnum Romanietiam Stercutum vocant, quòd primus Stercore foecundit [...] Agris c [...]m­paraverit. Vide Macrob. Saturnal. l. 1. c. 7.
Manur'd, to various Fruits gave timely Birth.
Bold Seamen the
The Original hath—in caecum penetravit Navita Pontum.

By caecum understanding obscurum quid, incertum, vel [...], the Sea being yet undiscover'd, impervious and unknown; Lucretius,

‘Improba Navigii ratio tum caeca manebat,’

(i. e.) Ignota, as Lambin upon the Place. So likewise Virgil, Georg. 2. more expresly to the sence of our Authour.

‘Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca—’

And Propert. l. 2. Eleg. 27. Et Maris & terrae caeca perîcla viae.

Upon which words caeca Pericla, Passeratius notes, caecum non tantùm quod non vide [...], sed etiam quicquid non videtur; in which respect the Ocean may be term'd caecus, its Bounds being stretch'd beyond Ken, and its many dangers undiscoverable. Of the Original of Navigation, and the first Essaies thereof, Claudian elegantly in Praefat. Rapt. Proserp.

Inventá secuit primus qui Nave profundum
Et rudibus remis sollicitavit Aquas,
Tranquillis primùm trepidus se credidit undis;
Litora securo tramite summa legens.
Mox longos tentare Sinus, & linquere Terras;
Et le [...]i coepit pandere vela Noto.
Ast ubi paulatim praeceps Audacia cre [...]it,
Cordaque languentem dedidicêre metum,
Iam vagus erupit Palago, Coelumque secutus;
Aegeas Hyemes Ioniumque domat.
He who in new built Ship first Plow'd the Main,
And with rude Oars furrow'd the Watry Plain,
Fearful at first the Seas calm Billows try'd,
Securely steering by the Shoares known side.
Straight leaving Land, through wide stretch'd Bays, he sails,
Spreading his Canvas unto Gentle Gales.
At length by often daring, bolder grown,
His heart by past Fears taught Fear to disown,
He takes the deep; Heaven his sole Guide; and braves
Aegean storms, and the Ionian Waves.

The Nations who are fam'd for this Invention, are, first, the Phoenicians, from whence it came to the Aegyptians, from them to the Greeks, and among them in the first place to the Cretans or Candiotts. But more particularly as to the first building and use of Ships (not to instance in that of Noah's Ark) Clemens Alexandrinus ascribes it to Atlas the Lybian; Aeschylus to Prome­theus; Diodorus Siculus to Neptune. The Invention likewise of Sails Aeschylus ascribes to Prometheus; Diodorus to Aeoius; Pli­ny and Pausanias to Daedalus and his Son Icarus; Cassiodorus (l. 5. Variar.) and Hyginus to Isis; who for that reason on the Re­verse of some of the Roman Coins, is figured holding in her hands a Sail swelling with the Wind, and by the Latines she was term'd Isis Pelagia, as President of Navigation, as may appear by this Inscription in Gruterus, pag. 312.

blind Ocean did invade,
To this effect our Country-man Ioseph of Excester (not unpoetically,)
—Sine remigis usu,
Non nôsset Memphis Romam; non Indus Iberum,
Non Scytha Cecropidem, non nostra Britannia Gallum.
—Without the Seaman's pain,
Memphis had ne'r known Rome; nor▪ India Sp [...]in;
Greece Scythia, nor our Britain France.

The Original of Traffick is generally ascribed to the Phoenicians; some particularly attribute it to Mercury, as Ph [...]rnutus, (o [...] Cornutus) de naturâ deorum, and Caesar, l. 6. de Bello Gallico; for which reason by Arnobius (l. 3.) he is stil'd Nundinarum, Mer­cium, Commerciorumque Mutator. To whom Merchants us'd to sacrifice, as to the God of Gain, and President of Nego­tiation and Commerce: confirm'd by Ovid, l. 5. Fast.

Te quicunque suas profitent [...]r vendere Mer [...]es,
Thure dato, tribuas ut sibi l [...]cra, rogant.

To this purpose likewise makes that antient Inscription, found at Metz, Anno 1589. Recorded by Philip. Thomasinus [...] Donariis, p. 17 [...]

And 'twixt strange Lands procur'd a mutual Trade:
Thence Arts of War and Peace in time arose,
For Art by Practice propagated, growes.
[Page 8]What's yet more strange, they learnt
That Birds and brute Beasts have a Language, seems to be main­tain'd by Sextus Empiricus (l. 1. Pyrh [...]n. [...].) with whom com­plies Lactan. de I [...]a Dei, [...]. 7.) where he saies, No [...]is quidem v [...]ces eorum videntur [...]conditae, sicut i [...]is f [...]rtasse nostrae, s [...]d ipsis, qui se in [...]elligunt, verba sunt. That Magicians un­derstood them, was believ'd by credulous Antiquity: Hence that Fable of Apollonius Ty [...]naeus ex­pounding the Notes of Swallows (as Porphyr.) or the Chirpings of Sparrows▪ (as Philostratus▪) for which s [...]ill likewise Tyr [...]s is fam'd. And Mopsus in Apollon. Rhod. l. 3. is said to expound the Language of Crows and D [...]ws. And that Me [...]mpus was taught the Interpretation of the Tongues of Birds, by a Serpent licking his ears, we find (yet as fabulous) related by Pliny, l. 10. c. 49. And for such reports he, what Democritus delivers; That out of the Blood of certain Birds mixing together and corrupting, a Serpent is produc'd, which whoever [...]ates, Intellec [...]us sit Alitum Colloquia. Not to instance that Salomon (according to some Rabinical Tales) was skill'd therein, and by a certain Bird is said to have sent a Message to the Queen of Aethiopia (who must therefore be believ'd to be as knowing in this Birdish Language:) Or that in the Alcoran he is made to say, O Homines intelligite Avium [...]! And that a Lapwing, or a Bird called a Houp, brought to him the first News of the Queen of Sheb [...]. Of which in Prolegom. in Bibl. Polygl [...]t. But Delrius denies that Birds or Beasts can use Discourse, as wanting Reason; yet confesses they have certain Indications of their affections and appetites, which men by long Observation may come to be acquainted with; and that they are perfectly known to the Devil, and that he may instruct Magicians therein. Which whether he ever did (saies he) I know not, Non est incredibile fecisse. Vid. illum disquis. Mag. l. 2. c. 19.
the Tongues of Birds,
Divination from the Inspection of the Entrails of sacrificed Beasts, Pliny ascribes to the Delphians, Cicero (de divin.) to one Tage [...], who appearing suddainly out of the Ground to the H [...]trurians as they were plowing, is said to have instructed them therein. [...] yet re [...]ers the Invention thereof to Prometheus. The Divination was made from the Site, Colour, and Marks of the Entrails. The Parts inspected were the Heart, Lungs, Liver and Gall. That of the Heart, not practic'd by the Romans, until the 123 Olympiad. That of the Liver, most antient and usual. The Parts of this Inspected, were the Fi [...]rae, Fissum, and Caput. Of which see particularly Brissonius de formulis, l. 1. Yet this kind of Divination seems by the Romans themselves in the time of their Greatness to have been despis'd, as may appear by Tacitus, and Quintus Curtius; The later of whom condemns Alexander the Great, for being addicted to those Superstitions, which he terms, Humanarum Mentium Ludibri [...], &c.
Entrails t'inspect,
The Charming of Serpents even from the Testimony of Scripture it self (Psalm 58. ver. 5. Ierem. 8. ver. 17. Eccles. 10. [...]er. 11.) appears to have been frequent with the Antients: To which we may add the farther Testimony of Virgil. (Eclog. 8.) ‘Frigidus in Pratis cantando rumpitur Anguis.’ And Ovid, (l. Metam. 7.) in whom Mede [...] boasts of her self, ‘Vipereas rumpo & verbis & carmine fauce [...].’ As likewise Nemesianus, (Eclog. 4.) ‘Cantavit quod Luna timet, quo rumpitur anguis.’ See Pliny, (l. 8. c. 16. and l. 28. c. 2.) where treating of the power of Enchantments, he writes, Figlinarum opera multi cre­dunt rumpi tali m [...]do. N [...]n pauci etiam Serpentes. Upon which place Turnebus notes, That Serpents, if aware of the Charmer, have the faculty recanere, i. e. retorquere & dissolvere Incantationem, to dissolve the Charme. Pliny (loco citato) assert­ing hunc unum esse illis intellectum. The people most notorious for these kind of Incantations, were the Psylli, a people of Africa, and the Marsi, a People of Italy, of which later thus Lucilius in Satyr.
Iam disrumpetur medius, jam ut Marsus Colubras
Disrumpit cantu, venas cum extenderit omnes.
Horace likewise in Ca [...]id. Caputque Marsae dissilire Naenia. And Ovid de Medicamine faci [...]i. ‘Et mediae Marsis findantur cantibus Angues.’ The Aegyptians were likewise of old famous for the charming of Serpents, as at this Day the Indians, Negros, and those of Peru; Vide B [...]art. in Praefat. ad Hieroz.
burst Snakes with powerful words;
In this many of the Antients vainly gloried. So Empedocles in Laertius (l. 8.) boasts he could teach the Art by which, [...]. ‘Extinctumque Hominem nigra revocabis ab Orco.’ So Canidia in Horace, (Epod. ult.) Possum crematos excitare mortuos. And Tibullus of a certain Witch, Haec cantu finditque solum, Manesque Sepulchri [...] ‘Elicit.—’ So the Nurse in Seneca his Hercul. Oct.—Mea jussi prece ‘M [...]nes loquuntur.’ And Alecto in Claudian. in Ruffin.—Condita funera traxi. ‘Carminibus victura meir.’ See Delrius Disquis. Magic. l. 8. quaest. 26. and particularly Leo Allatius refuting this Diabolical Vanity in his Learned Syn­tagma de Engastrimytho.
Call'd up pale Ghosts, mov'd Hell it self, the
So, in Seneca, Medea boasts she had
Heavens Laws invert [...]d, shown the World the Light
Of Sun and Stars, at once.—
Mundus Lege confusa Aetheris
Et Solem & Astra vidit.—
But this is more than M [...]gick can perform; Divine Providence not permitting the Divel or his Agents to interrupt or di­sturb the Course and Motion of the Heavens or Stars, or confound the Order of the Universe, however by Poetical Licence 'tis allowed. Hence the Tragoedian Seneca in Hercule furente, ‘Nox media Solem vidit & Noctem Dies.’ And Petronius—Trepidusque furentes ‘Fl [...]ctere Phoe [...]us Equos revoluto cogitur Orbe: Tantum dicta valent.—’ So likewise A [...]eius (l. 2. de Au [...]. Asin.) speaking of a certain Witch, Omnem istam Lucem Mundi siderali [...] imis Tartari & in V [...]tustum Cha [...]s submergere no [...]it.
Turn'd into Darkness, into Day the Night.
[Page 9]Ingenious Industry made All things bend;
Nor put they to their curious Search an End,
Till Reason had scal'd Heaven, thence view'd this round,
And Nature latent in its Causes found;
Anaximander and Metrodo­rus supposed Thunder to be a Wind conceiv'd and inclos'd within a thick Cloud, which breaking forth with violence makes a crack: the Lightning being caused by the breaking of the Cloud; as is il­lustrated by Anaximenes his Comparison of the Sea, which being broken with Oares, sparkles and shines. Anaxagoras held it to be a portion of ardent matter quencht in a moist Cloud, which makes a noise, as red hot Iron dipt in water. The Stoicks believ'd it to be a Noise occasioned by the Collision of two hollow Clouds, Lightning pro­ceeding from their attrition. Descartes (not much differing from them) conceives Thunder to be occasioned when divers [...]at Clouds (Tabulatorum instar) like so many Floores or Scaffolds) are driven with violence the higher upon the lower, and clatter one upon another; the Lightning proceeding from the Nature of the Exhalations included in the Interstiti [...] or spaces between the Clouds, which by them falling one upon another, is violently crusht out. Our Countrey-man Mr. Hobbs will have it to be the breaking of a Cloud congeal'd to Ice, by the strugling of inclosed Air, which he borrowed from Lucretius, l. 6.
Denique saepe geli multus fragor, atque Ruina
Grandinis, in magnis sonitum dat nubibus [...]lte.
But much more consonant to Truth is the Opinion of those, who hold Thunder to be an Exhalation hot and dry, of a Sulph [...] ­reous and Nitrous matter contracted within a cold and moist Cloud, from which striving to get out, it kindles by Agitation, and violent­ly breaks through its Prison.
Thunder does the suffering Clouds assail;
Why Winters
Pliny, l. 17. c. 2. calls Snow the Foam of Coelestial Waters. Aristotle, and from him most Modern Philosophers, de­scribe it to be begotten of a moist but rare and thin Cloud, which being condensed by a sharp cold falling down, parts (that it may the easilier divide the Air) into Flakes like Fleeces of Wool, to which the Psalmist alludes, Qui dat Nivem sicut Lanam; Though Bodin (in Theatro Naturae) conceives the Psalmist resembles Snow to Wool, for the warmth it affords to Plants and Vegetables in the cold time of Winter, (as Woollen Vestments do to men) rather than for its Fleece-like Similitude. Its whiteness (though Anaxagoras maintain'd it to be black, and in Armenia it is found of a ruddy colour, by reason the Terre­strial Particles or Atoms of that soil, which abounds in Minium, mixing with those of the Air, tinge it, and give it that hue, as Eustath. in Iliad. 2.) is derived from its Efficient cause, Cold; and the copious mixture of Aerial Spirits: Of the Admirable Contexture and Figure of its Parts, which are said to be always Sexangular; See Kepler in his particular Tract upon that Subject.
Snow's more soft than Summers
Hail is nothing else but Rain congeal'd in its fall; and this Concretion or Congelation happens not far from the Earth, as is Manifest by high Mountains; on which Snow is often found, but never Hail. The nearer to the Earth it hath its fall, the more Triangular or Pyramidal is its Figure, the higher its fall, the rounder. Those Angles or Inequalities being worn away and rounded by the length of its passage through the Air. The cause of its congeal'd hardnes, is the Ant peri­stasis of the lower Region of the Air, which is the Reason likewise why it falls more frequently in Summer, than in Winter, and seldom in the Night, unless the Night be warm. Vide Fromond. Meteorolog. l. 5. c. 9.
Thales & Democritus ascribe the Cause of Earth-quakes, to Subterranean Waters breaking out and undermin­ing the Bowels of the Earth. The Stoicks, to Moisture rarified into Air; which seeking for room to break [...]orth, when it meets (as Anaxagoras likewise held) with the thick and tough Body of the Earth, by its strugling for vent it shakes it. Others conceive it proceeds from inclosed Air, or Spirits arising from combustible matter (such as Sulphur, Nitre, Allom, Sal Armoniack, or Bitumen) set on fire, and consequently rarified, causing the like effect, as Gunpowder in Mines. See Fromond. Meteorolog. l. 4. c. 1, 2, 3. and Kircher in his Mund. Subterran. l. 4. c. 2. The several kinds of Earth-quakes are thus reckon'd up by Apuleius, l. de Mundo; The first is term'd Epiclintes seu Incli­nator, that is, when it strikes at oblique Angles, turning things sideward. The second is called Brastes, or [...]ffer­vescens, from the similitude of boiling Water, bearing up all above it in a direct Line. The third is termed Chas­matias, whose Violence makes a Breach or Hiatus, in which the place forced, is swallowed up. The fourth is called Rhectes, from forcing its way by a Rupture, but not making such a Chasma, as the former. The fifth O­stes, which at once shakes and overturns. The sixth, Palmatias, which shakes but overturns not. The last, Myce­matias, from the bellowing Noise it makes. Ammianus Marcellinus, l. 16. and Coelius Rhodiginus from him reckon but four kinds.
Earthquakes come, and Subterranean
That there are Subterranean Fires, and those great and many, appears by the Vulcanian Islands; by the Mountains Aetna, Vesuvius, Hecla, and others, ejecting Flames, and by hot Baths and Fountains breaking out of the Earth, which as Vitru [...]īus; l. 2. instances could not be, Si non in imo haberent aut de Sulphure, aut de Alumine, aut Bitumine ardentes Maximos Ignes. In which words he briefly declares their Causes. To which, as a further Proof, (to omit divers others) may be added Earth-quakes, deriving (as but now alledged) their Original from these Subterranean Fires, and therefore by our Authour not unproperly joyn'd together in this Verse. Who would be further satisfied touching this matter, may consult Pliny, l. 2. c. 106. Gassendus his Epicurean Animadversions▪ and particularly Kircher in his Mund. Subterran. l. 4. where the Natures of these Fires, their Necessity, Diffusiveness, Fo [...]d and Prodigious Effects are exactly described. See likewise I [...]tigius expresly upon this Subject in his Tract de Monti­um Incend. and the Curious Disquisition of Alphonsus Borellus in Historia & Meteorologia Incendi [...] [...], Anno 1669.
[Page 10]Why
Rain is defin'd by Aristotle a Cloud converted into Water, and distilling in drops. Epicurus makes two ways or means of ge­nerating Rain; One by Transmu­tation, when the parts of a Cloud, either by absence of Heat, or acces­sion of Cold, are so transpos'd and varied, as render them more apt to flow and fall, as is exemplified by Vapo [...] in a Limbeck, gathering together, and then falling in drops. The other by Compression; when by wind or cold the Cloud is com­prest, and the vaporous Corpuscula within the hollows thereof are crowded together, and by accession get weight and fall. Whence it appears that the drops of Rain are form'd by Coalition, rather than Division; And that Rain is not (as vulgarly conceiv'd) a watry Mass effus'd from a Cloud, like water from a watring-Pot, (or as [...]repsiades jestingly in Aristophanes, declar'd it to be caus'd when Iupiter, urin'd through a sive) For if there were any such stagnation of Water in a Cloud, it would fall from thence like a Torrent or Spout, rather than in Drops. Of Rain there are reckon'd three kinds, S [...]illicidium, Imber, and Nimbus. The first is a small Misty Rain. The second is more intense, and composed of greater Drops. The last is yet more violent, and falls more thick, and as Fromondus says, Decumanis Gu [...]tis. Apuleius de Mundo sums up the Matter when he sa [...]es, Tot Diversitatibus pluviae cadunt, quot modis Aer Nubium conditionibus cogitur.
show'rs descend, what force the
The Original of Wind is reckoned among the Abscondita of Nature; But I find it reduc'd chiefly to three Heads or Causes, Viz. the Earth, the Water, the Air. The first is maintain'd by Aristotle, who makes it a dry Earthy Exha­lation. The second is maintain'd by Metrodorus, and partly by Anaximander, chiefly by Vitruvius, l. 1. c. 6. Where he says, Ventus est Aeris fluens unda, cum incerta motus redundantia: Nasciturque cum fervor offendit Humorem, & Impe [...]us fervoris exprimit vim Spiritûs flantis. Which he illustrates by your Aeolipilae, or Wind-balls, so demonstrated likewise by Descartes, l. 4 Metear. c. 4. and asserted by Salmasius (l. de Ann. Climacter. p. 811.) in Vitruvius his own words. The third seems to be most antient, which makes Wind to be nothing else but Air moved. Apuleius de Mundo is of the same Opinion; Nec enim aliud est ventus, nisi multum & vehemens in unum coacti Aeris flumen. But this not assigning the first Cause of that Motion, leaves the matter undetermin'd. The most probable Opinion is, that Wind is an Earthy or Watry Exhalation mixed with saline Spirits, and other Vapours, drawn or forc'd out of the Earth or Sea, by the power of the Sun or Subterranean Fires; which being rarified by Heat, or condensed by Cold, and impelled for the most part by a transverse, sometimes by a direct Motion, ex [...]gitates the Earth, Air, and Sea. But of this Subject, see particularly the Lord Verulam, in his Book de ventis, Descartes (loc. cit.) Gassend. Animadvers. in Epicur. Fromond▪ Meteor. Kircherus in Mund. Subterran. and Mr. Isaac Vossius de Motu Marium & ventorum.
wind inspires.
From Error thus she wondring Minds uncharm'd;
See Lucretius, l. 6. arguing to this effect, against the pretended and fabulous Power of Thundring Iupiter. But far better and with more Analogy to Truth, Seneca in Natural. Quaest. l. 2. Interim hoc dico, Fulmina non mi [...]i à Iove; sed sic omnia disposita, ut etiam ea, quae ab illo non [...]ant, sine ratione non fiunt, quae illius est. Vis eorum illius permissio est. Nam etsi Iupiter illa nunc non facit, fecit ut fierent: singulis non adest, sed signum & Vim & Causam dedit omnibus; Thus far Seneca. In which there only wants the true Name of the first Divine Cause. Why Iupiter is said to be the Author of Thunder and Lightning, Pliny (l. 2. c. 20.) gives this Physical reason. That the Fires of the three uppermost Planets falling to the Earth, carry the name of Lightning, but that especially which is seated in the midst, that is to say, Jupiter; because participating of the excessive Cold and Moisture from the upper Circle of Saturn, and the immoderate Heat of Mars that is next under, be by this means discharges the superfluity of either; whereupon it is commonly said, that Jupiter darts Lightning, &c. Of the Superstiti­ous Opinions of the Antients touching Thunder and Lightning, see Nardius in his 27. accurate Animadversion on the 6. Book of Lucretius de rerum Naturâ.
Unsceptred Iove; the Thunderer disarm'd;
Of Name and Power dispoyl'd him, and assign'd
Fire to the Labouring Clouds, Noise to the Wind.
These to their proper Causes having brought,
Next on the whole Worlds Mass she casts her Thought,
Of which the
Of the several Mundane Systems, Antient and Modern, see the Appendix.
System in her self she frames,
Dispensing to the Signs both
Who first reduced the Stars into Asterisms, or Constellations, is not easily to be found out: As hard a Task it is to reconcile the different Morphoses or Figures in the several Spheres of the Chaldaeans, Persians, Aegyptians, Greeks, Arabi­bians, Indians, Chineses and Tartars, whose various differences may appear partly by the Description of Abu Masher, com­monly called, Albumazar, partly by Aben Ezra de Decanis Signorum, published by Scaliger in his Notes upon our Authour: Of all which Salmatius (in Praefat. ad Diatrib. de Antiqu. Astrolog.) conceives those of the Greeks (most vulgarly used amongst us) to be the newest and latest. As to the Names of the Stars, it is not to be doubted, but that they were first imposed by Adam, Though those (except some few preserv'd in Scripture) be long since utterly lost. Yet the Names we now use are most of them above two thousand years standing, as is manifest by Hesiod and Homer. It is not yet to be imagined, that they were all impos'd about one and the same time; some being of much later Denomination, as particularly Coma Berenices (so called by Conon) Antinous, and others. Some report Astraeus to be the first, who gave Names to the Stars; whom for that reason ‘—Fama Parentem Tradidit Astrorum—’ As Germanicus makes Aratus speak, concerning which see Theon. Others ascribe this to Mercury. But as to the several Denominations of the Signs and Constellations, see after in the following Notes.
Forms and Names;
[Page 11]Their
The Aspects or mutual Ra­diations of the Signs and Stars, are the Habitudes of one unto ano­ther in a determinate distance, in which they are apt to Cooperate; and these commonly are reckoned five in number, and are attributed pe­culiarly to the Stars and Signs within the Zodiack, but extended likewise to the rest. These Censo­rinus de die Natal. c. 8. calls Con­spectus, the Antient Greeks [...] and [...], the later [...]. The Arabs, Almantar. Their Characteristick Notes, Names, and Distances, thus ex­prest:
  • Conjunctio, [...]Gr. 0
  • Sextilis, [...]Gr. 60
  • Quadratus [...]Gr. 90
  • Trinus, [...]Gr. 120
  • Oppositio, [...]Gr. 180
To which Kepler and Mestlinus add several others: But the most emi­nent Aspects are the great Conjun­ctions of the three Superior Planets, and their distances in Trine Aspects of the Zodiacal Signs, called there­fore Triplicities. The first fiery, whose Angles answer to the fiery Signs, Aries, Leo, and Sagittary. The second aery, answering to the aery Signs, Gemini, Libra, Aqua­rius. The third watry, pointing to the watry Signs, Cancer; Scorpio, and Pisces. The last Earthy, whose Angles are terminated in the Earthy Signs, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.
Aspects and their Order notes, and saw
Heavens changing Face gave fatal changes Law.
This is our Muses Theme, as yet
Others of the Romans, says Scaliger, [...] tentarunt, essay'd to write of this Subject in Prose, as Varro and Nigidius, who both wrote of the Sphere, (as well the Barbarick as the Greek) Cassiodorus (in Astronom.) mentioning the first, Servius (in Georg.) the other. And among the Greeks, Eratosthenes, Aratus, Heg [...]syanax, and Hermippus wrote of the Coele­stial Phaenomena; and Ovid, after Marcus Tullius, and Germanicus after him, translated Aratus into Latine Verse; But not any amongst the Romans before our Authour (for ought appears) ever wrote an Astronomical or Astrological Poem of their own Invention. Nor of the later sort any among the Greeks, save only Dorotheus Sidonius, who wrote an Apotelesmatick Poem, though now lost. And therefore not unjustly does our Authour assume the Glory of this to himself from all the Latines.
In Verse by None: Propitious Fortune aid
The bold Attempt; with Ease my Life befriend,
And to a long and chearful Age extend,
That so I sink not with my Subjects weight,
But with like care, great Things, and small relate.
Now since from Heaven it self our Verse descends,
And down to Earth Fates settled Order tends,
We first must Natures General State reherse,
And draw the Picture of the Universe.
Which, whether it from Nothing were deriv'd;
The Origi­nal of the World ac­cording to the vari­ous Opini­ons of the Antients.
Or (of Beginning both, and End depriv'd)
The Opinion of Xenophanes, who held the World to be eternal, ungenerated, uncreated and incorruptible; with whom agree Parmenides, Melissus and Aristotle, to whose Opinion likewise Xenocrates subscribes, and with them Pliny (l. 2. c. 1.) thus concludes. Numen esse Mundum credi par est, aeternum immensum, neque genitum neque interiturum unquam. Vide etiam Censorin. de die Natal. c. 4. And as to this and the several other Opinions of the Antients touching the Efficient Cause, Matter and Principles of the Universe, (besides Plutareb de Placit. Philosoph. and Stobaeus in Eclog. Physic.) see Paul. Merula his Learned Dissertation in Q. Ennii Annal. p. 119. upon these Verses.
Corpore Tartarino prognata Paluda Virago,
Quoi par Imber & Ignis, Spiritus & Gravi' Terra.
ever been, and ever shall endure;
Our Authour here makes Chaos to disclose and separate the mixed Principles of things, and to bring forth the World. Claudian more conform and agreable to the Antient Theologie of the Ethnicks, makes Clemency or Love to effect this Work, l. 2. de La [...]d. Stilicon.
—Prima Chaos Clementia solvit,
Congeriem miserata rudem, vultuque sereno
Discussis Tenebris in Lucem Saecula fudit.
Hesiod (as Plutarch delivers his Opinion l. de Iside & Osyride) makes the Principles of all things to be Chaos, Earth, Tartarus, and Love; By Earth understanding Isis; by Love Osyris; by Tartarus Typho; by Chaos [...]. The Place▪ Region or receptacle of universal matter; to which its name answers: Chaos signifying no other than Hiatus seu vi­stitas quaedam. Philo Biblius from the Writings of Sancuniathou, as cited by Eusebius in prima Praeparat. writes thus: [...], &c. (i. e.) The Theology of the Phoenicians makes the Principles of the Universe [...] dark Spiritual Air, or a Spirit of dark Air, and confus'd Chaos involv'd in Obscurity; These were infinite, and for some time with­out Bound or Term: But when the Spirit was touch'd with the love of his own Principles, and a Mixtion was made, there was given to that Ne [...]re the name of Love. This was the beginning of the production of all things; But the Spirit it self had no Generation: And from this Connexion of the Spirit was begotten M [...]T; which some call slime, &c. From which Theology of the Phoenicians, Hesiod, Ovid, and others deriy'd their Fables of Chaos, as the Phoenicians theirs from their Neighbours, the Iews, and the Writings of Moses not clearly understood. See Grotius in his Notes upon his Book deveritat. Relig. Christ. l. 1. Of the se­veral acceptions of the word, Chaos, according to the different Notions of the Poets, Philosopher [...] and Divines; See Ri [...]cio­lus on that Subject in Almagest. Nov. Tom. 2. lib. 9.
Chaos severing from the Mass obscure
[Page 12]The mixed Principles of things, this bright
World teem'd, whilst Darkness took to Hell its Flight;
Or that made up of
The Opinion of Democri­tus, Leucippus, and Epicurus, and before them of M [...]schus, or rather M [...]chus, the Sidonian, who as Stra­bo (l. 16.) from the Authority of P [...]sidonius, affirms, was the first Au­thour or Introducer of these Indi­visible Principles, and liv'd before the time of the Trojan War. By Atoms is to be understood what the Latines call Insectile, that is, a Body incapable of Division both by reason of its solidity, ob vacui care [...]iam, and the Minuteness of its Body, whence it is properly said to be quid minimum, or as our Authour terms it penè Nihilum. But see these explain'd in Lucreti­us de Rerum Naturâ, and the Inge­nious Interpreter of his first Book Mr. Evelyn; more especially Gas­sendus in his incomparable Epicure­an Animadversions.
Atoms Nature's Frame
Exists, and shall resolve into the same
Some thousand Ages hence, and almost brought
From Nothing, fall again to almost Nought;
Or that the Heavenly Spheres and Globe of Earth,
This was asserted by Hyppa­sus the Metapontine, and from him by Heraclitus the Ephesian; The Opinion thus delivered by Laerti­us; All things consist of Fire, and in­to that are resolv'd: for since all things are made by Condensation and Rar [...]faction, and flow for the most part in manner of a River; Fire when it is condens'd, bumectates and becomes Air; Air when comprest, becomes Water; Water contracting and growing concrete becomes Earth: this is the way down. On the contrary, the Earth being diffus'd, thereof Water is made, of Water the rest after like manner: this is the way up. To this effect likewise Plutarch de Placit. Philosoph. l. 1. & Stobaeus Eclog. Physic. l. 1.
Fire, not such blind Matter, drew their Birth,
Whose flames in all things dwell, kindled Heav'ns
Meaning the Stars, according to the Stoicks; who make the World to be a Corporeal Deity, and the Stars its Eys. See Plutarch de facie in Orbe Lunae, and Lips. Physiol. Stoic. l. 2. Dissert. 10.
And form the glittering Lightning of the Skies;
Or sprung from
Of this Opinion was Thales the Milesian, and Pherecydes of Scyrus; who held Water to be the first principle of all natural Bodies, whereof they consist, and into which they resolve. The Reasons or Grounds for which Opinion are these. First, because the Seminal and generating principle of all living Creatures is humid. Secondly, because all kinds of Plants are nourished by moisture, wanting which they wither and decay. Thirdly, because Fire, even the Sun it self and the Stars are maintained by Vapours proceeding from Water, and consequently the whole World consists thereof. See Plutarch de Placit. Philosoph. and particularly (to omit divers others) my learned Dear Friend Mr. Stanley in his History of Philosophy, Part. I.
Water, which dry Matter soaks,
Not improperly is that Epithet given to Fire; it being by some of the Antients believed to be a devouring Animal: And for that reason the Aegyptians refused to burn their dead, imagining fire to be [...], Animata Bellua, as He­rodot. l. 3. informs us.
ravenous Fire, that would devour it, choaks;
Or unbegot were Earth, Air, Water, Fire,
And these
Asserted by Empedocles, who held the Principles of all things to be the four Elements; to which he added two Powers, Amity and Discord, the one Unitive, the other Discretive: See Plutarch de Placit. Philosoph. Laertius in Vit. Empedocl. Achilles Tatius in Arat. Phaen [...]men▪ and Lactantius lib. 2. Which last conceives he deriv'd this Opinion from Hermes Trismegistus. These Elements he called after this manner. Fire he termed Iupiter: the Air Iuno, or (as Laertius saies, but not with so good reason) Pluto. The Water Nestis [...], i. e. fluere. The Earth Pluto, or (according to Laertius) Iuno, i. e. Vesta. Conso­nant to this Opinion of Empedocles, thus Ovid Metam. l. 1. ‘Quatuor aeternus genitalia Corpora Mundus Continet.—and again, l. 15.’ ‘—Omnia fiunt Ex ipsis, & in ipsa Cadunt—’ Lipsius Philosoph. Stoic. lib. 1. conceives our Authour in these Verses to touch at the Opinion of Strato the Peripatetick, who h [...]ld this Mundane Deity to be formed of these four Elemental Limbs, Sine Mente gubernante. Of which thus S [...]neca (in a fragment of his, cited by St. Augustine, l. 6. de Civitat. dei) Egone feram Platonem, aut Peripateticum Stratonem, quorum alter (scil. Plato) Deum sine Corpore fecit, alter sine Anima?
four Limbs make up the God entire,
And form this World; nor will that ought be found
Beyond themselves, since All things they compound,
[Page 13]Applying Hot to Cold, to Humid Dry,
To Heavy Light, which kind
To this purpose Lactantius; l. 2. Philosophi quidam & P [...]e taedis [...]or­di Concordia Mundum constare dixe­runt, i. e. some Philosophers and l [...]o­ets report the World to consist [...]f discording Concord: So likew [...]se Cassiodorus (lib. 2. Variarum) Meri­to dicunt Philosophi Elementa sibi Mutuis complexi [...]us illigari & mira­bili conjungi foederatione, quae inter se contrariâ intelliguntur varietate pugnare. This dis [...]onant Harmony of Nature being represented by Orpheus in his Tetrachord; In which, as there were four strings; from the mixture of whose diffe­rent Tones resulted a sweet Har­mony; so by concourse and mix­ture of the four Elements, all things are generated. And as in the Tetrachord the [...] rendred the gravest sound, [...] the most acute, and the nearest in gravity of sound to the first came the [...], to the se­cond in acuteness the [...] So among the Elements, there is one the heaviest, Earth, and one the lightest, Fire, answering to the two first Notes; Water and Air answering to the two intermediate Tones. This admirable Consent of the contrary Elements is here not unaptly called The Matrimonial Band of Nature. And for this rea­son, saies Lactantius (loco citato) The Marriages of the Antients were confirmed and plighted by the Sacrament of two contrary Elements, Fire and Water. In re­gard that Heat and Moisture are the Parents of all Generation, as Ovid (l. 1. Metam.) hath likewise exprest it.
Quippe ubi Temperiem sumpsere Hu­morque Calorque,
Concipiunt, & ab his oriuntur [...]unctá duobus,
Cumque sit Ignis Aquae Pugnax, vapor humidus omnes
Res Creat; & Discors Concordia foetibus apta est.
The Matrimonial Bands of Nature knits,
And Principles for all Production fits;
We can but guess its Birth: obscur'd it lies
Beyond the reach of Men and Deities.
Yet though its Birth be hid, its Form's disclos'd,
Disposition and Order of its Parts.
And in due Order all its Parts dispos'd;
Our Authour here Confines not the Element of Fire within the Convex of the Lunary Sphere, as Aristotle, and his followers; but with the Stoicks transmits it to the Aethereal Region, which they will have so called, [...], i. e. ab Ardore, as consisting of Fire, and to be Heaven it self, imbracing all things, as Cleanthes in Cicero, (i. e. de Natura Deorum) describes it. Ultimum, & altissimum, atque undique circumfusum, & extremum omnia cingentem atque complexum Ardorem, qui Aeaher nominatur. To this purpose likewise Macrobius (in Somnio Scipionis) Quicquid ex omni Materiâ, de quâ facta sunt omnia; purissimum ac liquidissimum fuit, id tenuit summitatem; & Aether vocatus est.
Fire up to the Aethereal Confines flew,
And a round Wall of Flame 'bout Nature drew,
The subtle Air possest the second Place
Diffus'd throughout the vast Globes middle space,
Whence its hot Neighbour draws cool Nourishment:
The third Lot level'd the wide Seas Extent,
And in a liquid Plain the Waters spread,
Whence hungry Air is by thin Vapours fed;
Prest down b' its
So Ovid, ‘—Tellus Elementaque grandia traxit, Et pressa est gravitate suâ—’

Upon which Words Iacobus Cruceus; Per Elementa grandia nos materialem intelligimus All [...]vionem, &c. By the heavy Ele­ments we understand that Material Conflux, which the Greeks call [...], being the settling and Dregs of all the Elements; To the same sence likewise Lucretius,

—Terrae concreto corpore pondus
Constitit, atque omnis Mundi quasi Limus in Imum
Confluxit, gravis & subsedit funditus ut ▪faex.
So the Scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius, in l. 1.— [...], &c. Zeno affirm'd The Chaos, whereof all things, according to Hesiod, were made, was water; which settling became slime; the slime condens'd into solid Earth▪
Sediment, Earth lowest fell,
Whilst sand-mixt slime contracting did expel
The subtler moysture; which to flight constrain'd
Rose by degrees 'till it the surface gain'd,
And the more that into pure Water went,
The more the
Virgil, Eclog. 6. ‘Tum durare solum, atque excludere Nerea Ponto Coeperit—’ Our Authour perhaps in this place hints at Anaximander, who said of the Sea, that it was [...] The remainder of Primitive Moisture, after this Exclusion and Separation. Plutarch. l. 1. c. 4. de placit. Philosoph. thus expresses the sence of our Authour: Of those Bodies which settled below, was made the Earth; and that part thereof which was m [...]re subtile and of a thinner form and consistence, gathered round together, and engendred the Element of Water, which being of a liquid and fl [...]wing nature, ran downward to hollow place [...] lying low, which were able to receive and hold it.
squeez'd out Seas the drain'd Earth pent,
[Page 14]Settling in hollow Vales; whilst Hills thrust out
Their Heads from Waves circling the Globe about:
This lowest, in the midst is still confin'd,
On all parts equally from Heaven disjoyn'd,
Secur'd from further falling by its fall,
The Earth in the midst of the World.
The Middle both and Bottom of this All,
In whose
To this purpose Cicero, l. 2. de Naturá Deorum. Si Mundus Glob [...]sus est, Omnesque ejus partes un­dique aequabiles, &c. If the World be round and of a Globose Figure, and all its Parts contained in like proporti­on, by and among themselves; It must happen to the Earth by necessary Conse­ [...]uence, seeing all its parts press and tend to the middle, (now the middle in a Sphere is that which is lowest) that nothing can p [...]ssibly interpose, which may be able to weaken or hinder so great a Convention of Gravity.
concentring Parts, on every side
Bodies Encountring, are to sink deny'd.
And did not Earth by its self-Poize suspend,
Phoebus, the Stars approaching, could not bend
His Course to set, nor set, e're rise again,
Nor Phoebe drive through the Aereal plain
Her Wave-drench'd
Homer and O [...]id make the Moon to be drawn in a Chariot by two Horses; whereof the one is said to be white, the other black, in regard (as Bassus in Germanicum gives the reason) she is sometimes apparent by Day, as well as by Night. Others will have her to be drawn by Oxen, and therefore by N [...]nus in Dionys. l. 12. she is called ‘— [...].—Boum Agitatrix Luna.’ Of both which we have express representations in the Roman Coyns, and particularly in those of the Empress Iulia Domna, touching which, see Tristan in his Historic. Commentar. Tom. 2. p. 129, 130. She is said likewise to be drawn by Mules, in regard, (as Festus in v [...]ce Mulus observes) that as Mules are not generated ex suo genere, sed Equi; So the Moon is said to shine not by her own, but as Catullus expresses it,—Notho Lumine, which she derives from the Sun. Claudian l. 3. de laudibus Stiliconis, makes her to be drawn by Stags, in regard of the swiftness of her Motion, &c. and so we have her like­wise represented in divers Consular and Imperial Coyns, in Ursinus, Golzius and Gorlaeus.
Steeds; nor
The Star or Planet Venus, called likewise Lucifer, (as Cicero in 2. de Naturâ Deorum, and Pliny, l. 2. c. 8.) when it precedes the rising Sun, as being the Harbinger of Light, (and not as Iulius Scaliger Exercit. 75. conceives, for being the brightest of all the Stars, and from its splendour so nam'd.) It is likewise call'd Hesperus, Vesper, & Vesperugo, when it rises in the Evening and ushers the Night. Of this, thus Seneca in Hypolit.
Qualis est Primas r [...]ferens Tenebras
Nuncius noctis, modo lotus undis
Hesperus, pulsis Iterum Tenebris
Lucifer idem.
Such the bright Usher of dark Night
Rises from Seas with new-bath'd Light,
Hesper: The same, Night chac'd away,
Phosphor, the Herald of the Day.
We shall only add as a further Illustration to this, and the foregoing Note, what Cassiodorus hath (l. Variarum 3.) in Explana­tion of the Circensian Games. Big a quas [...] Lunae, quadriga Solis Imitatione reper [...]a est. Equi Desultorii, per quos Circensium Ministri miss [...]s denuntian [...] Exitu [...]os, Luciferi Praecursori [...]s velocit [...]tes imitantur.
Phosphorus the Light
E're usher more, if Hesperus to Night
Now in the Middle Earth suspending thus,
Not sunk to th Bottom, All is Pervious:
For We nor can the rising Stars conceive
He points at the ridiculous Opinion of Xenophanes the Colop [...]onian, who held that the Moon and Stars were certain Clouds set on Fire, extinguish'd every Day, and re-kindled at Night; as on the contrary, the Sun extinguish'd every Night, and re-kindled every Morning; or, to express it in Minucius Foelix his Words, Congregatis ignium Seminibus Soles alios atque alios semper splendere. For the Rising and Setting of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, according to this Tenet, is nothing else but their kindling and extinguishing. Of the same Opinion like wise was Heraclitus, whence the Proverb in Plato, Heracliteo Sole ci ius extingui. From them Epicurus receiv'd by Succession, Haereditatem [...]tultitiae (as Lactantius terms it) This Inheritance of Folly, which he left improv'd by himself, and Lucretius, who thus asserts it, l. 5.
—conveniu [...] Ignes, & semina multa
C [...]fluere Ardoris consuerunt tempore certo,
Quae faciunt Solis n [...] semper Lumina gigni,
Quod genus Idaeis fam [...] est è montibus al [...]is

Dispersos ignes ori [...]i Lumine cerni, Inde c [...]ire Globum quasi in u [...]um, & conficere Orbem.

By which instance of Lucretius i [...] may appear, that Epicurus did not hold so much the Quotidian Cre­ation of a new Sun, as the dayly Renovation of the Old; To which Horace in Carmine Saecular. seems to allude,

‘Alme Sol Curr [...] nitid [...] di [...]m Qui promis & celas, aliusque Et idem nasceris—’ And to this purpose I find his Opi­nion expressed by Gassendus. See­ing the Ocean compasses the Earth, the Sun may be extinguished by it in the West, and return all along it by the North into the East, and thence rise re-kindled, which yet little mends the matter.
casual Production; nor believe
[Page 15]Of the chang'd Heavens, the oft-renascent State,
Sol's frequent Births, and his Quotidian Fate;
Since the Signs always shew the self-same Face,
Heav'n keeps one Course, the Sun one constant Race,
The Moon in certain, although various, ways,
The changes of her Light, and Orb displays.
Nature, the Tract which first she made, observes;
Nor e're like an unskilful Novice swerves.
Day with eternal Light is carried round,
This the times shew, in several Regions found
Successively the same; and we may see
Eastward its Rise, its Setting West to be
(The further unto either as we run)
Continued with Heavens Motion, and the Sun.
Nor need the Pendent Earth wonder beget,
Since the whole World suspends as well as it,
To this may be applied that of Plato (in Timaeo) [...], &c. Thus inter­preted by Cicero in his Fragment of Timaeus, seu de universe. Nec Maenus ei Deus affixit, quia nec capi­endum quicquam erat, nec repellen­dum, necpedes, nec alia membra qui­bus Ingressu corpus sustineret, &c. i. e. God affixed to the World no hands, because it was neither to take nor repel any thing; nor Feet, nor other Members, whereby it might sustain its body by walking or going▪ But gave it a Motion, which is most sutable to its Figure; wherefore by one and the same Conversion, it is whirl'd and turn'd about it self.
Foot upon no certain Bottom rests,
As its swift Course and Circular attests.
The radiant Sun suspended runs its Rounds,
Never transgressing his Aethereal Bounds.
The Moon and Stars in Skies
Aristotle, Anaximander, and their followers at this day, hold the Heavens to be solid, and the Stars fixed therein, as Nails in a Wheel, or Jewels in a Ring; the contrary to which Opini­on is here asserted by our Authour, with whom concur among the Antients, Homer, Virgil, Cicero, Lucretius, Seneca, Ptolemy, Pliny, Metrodorus, and others: And of the Moderns, the most Eminent Astronomers from Tycho, to this present, who all maintain the Heavens to be fluid, and the Stars to move therein, as Fishes in the Water, or Birds in the Air. Between these there is a middle Opinion, which maintains the Heaven of the fixed Stars to be solid, but that of the Planets to be fluid. The first Authour of which distinction, is conceiv'd to be Empedocles; Of which see Plutarch, l. 2. de Placit. Philosoph. c. 13. and upon the whole subject matter, Ricciolus in Almagest. Nov. l. 9. c. 7.
suspended stray,
And Earth by Imitation
This Libration, or Suspension of the Earth, Achilles Tatius in Arat. Phaenomen. thus illustrates, If any one should put a Millet-Seed, or other small Grain into a Bladder, and by blowing into it fill it with Air, the Seed or Grain will be carried up, and re­main in the middle of the Bladder. After the same manner, the Earth being on all sides forced by the Air, suspends poiz'd in she midst thereof. To which Aristophanes in Nubibus, alludes; [...] ▪’
Great Lord and King, Thou Immense Air!
Which dost the Earth suspended bear.

See Turnebus, l. Adversar▪ 4. c. 17▪ explaining these Verses of Ovid, (l. 1. Metam.)

Et circumfuso pendebat in Aere Tellus
Ponderibus Librata suis—
hangs as they,
Poiz'd in the middle of circumfluent Air:
The Earth of a Sphe­rical Form.
Not flatly stretch'd, but swell'd into a Sphere,
Rising alike, and falling every where.
This is the Face of Nature; thus th' Heav'ns roll'd
Swiftly about, into
He alludes perhaps to the Opinion of Leucippus [...], which see more particularly ex­prest in Hesych. [...] in voce [...].
round Figures mould
The Sun and Stars; round is the Moon to sight,
And with a swelling Body barrs the Light;
Hence never wholly Lucid is her Ball,
When the Sun's Beams on it obliquely fall.
A Form eternal, like the Gods alone,
In which, Beginning there or End is none;
But like throughout, and every where the same.
Such are the Stars, such is the whole Worlds Frame.
Hence 'tis We see not in all Lands all Signs,
This is a Noted Star of the first Magnitude, in the Southern Rudder of the Ship, Argo; so called, from Canopus, Pilot to Osy­ris, (according to the Aegyptians) or to Menelaus, (according to the Greeks) who landing in Aegypt, was by the biting of a Serpent slain, and buried near one of the Out-lets of Nilus, from him call­ed Ostium Canopicum; the place of his burial receiving likewise his Name, and growing to a City, in which he had his Temple, being honoured with Divine Rites, and worshipped in the form of a Pit­cher or Watring-Pot, with a large round Belly, as the Deity presiding over Nilus, and the watry Ele­ment: Of whose Contest with the God of the Chaldeans (Fire,) and Victory thereupon; see the Story in Suidas in verb. Canop. and from him in Kircher. in Oedip. Aegypt. Tom. 1. p. 209.
Canopus not till you reach
To this purpose Vitruvius, l. 9. c 7. U [...]i Septentriones circum A­xis Cardinem versantes non occidunt, neque sub Terrâ subeunt: Sic & circa Meridianum Cardinem, qui est propter inclinationem Mundi sub­jectus terrae, Sydera versabunda la­ [...]entiaque non habent egressus orientes, &c. i. e. As the seven Stars, or the Bears turning about the Northern Axis of the World never set; so the Stars near the Southern Pole, which (by reason of the Worlds Inclination, being deprest under the Earth,) make occult and hidden Revolutions, never rise, nor can be observed or known by us in regard of the Earths Interposition. Of which the Star Canopus is proof, which in these Regions is unknown, as those Merchants which travail to the uttermost Parts of Aegypt inform us.
Aegypt shines,
And they
To the same effect Pliny. Septentriones non cernit Trogloditice, & Confinis Aegyptus; nec Canopum Italia. i. e. The Land of the Troglodites, and its Neighbouring Aegypt sees not Helice, nor Italy Canopus. Scaliger yet con­demns both Pliny and our Authour, as mistaken in the first particular; for at Alexandria the Sun being about five Degrees of Pisces under the Horizon, both Helice and Canopus are in the Evening seen to rise in the East; and were so to be seen in the time of Manilius, the Sun setting in the twenty third Degree of Aquarius. What is said of Canopus, as not appearing in Italy, is true.
lack Helice, who see his Light,
Earth's Tumour hind'ring th'intercepted Sight.
The Truth of this Thou Cynthia mayst attest,
When dark'ning Shadows thy bright Looks invest,
Gassendus in Append. Animadvers. in Epicur. noting upon this place, thus advises. Cautè esse interpretandum quod ad ha [...]c rem Manilius habet. For those Words, Pariter, prius, & post, (saies he) are not to be taken as to di­vers Moments of time, for the Moon at one and the same instant is beheld to be Eclipsed by all those, to whom she appears above the Horizon; but to be meant of the diversity of Hours by reason of the several Meridians; by which means it happens that at the same instant of time that the Moon is seen to be Eclipsed, above our Horizon, They Eastward of us may reckon the Eclipse at one, two, or three in the Morning; They Westward at nine, ten, or eleven at Night, after the preceding Noon. Vide etiam Baltoreum in l. 1. Cleomedis Meteor.
At once thou dost not all the World amaze,
But first the Eastern Nations miss thy Rays;
Then those which under the Mid-Heaven are plac'd;
Next, tow'rd Hesperia fly'st thou, cloudy-fac'd;
[Page 17]Then those who yet more distant have their Seat,
Later (to aid thee)
So Ovid, (l. 4. Meta­morph.) ‘—resonant aera auxiliaria Lunae.’

And Statius, l. 6. Theb.

‘—Procul auxiliaria Gentes Aera crepant—’ That Custom springing from the foolish belief of the Antients, that the Moon at the time of her E­clipse, was endeavoured by the Charms of Witches to be drawn from her Sphere. And therefore they made that Noise that she might not hear their Incantations; Practised by the Ignorant People, even in St. Ambrose his time, as we find by his reprehension of that Piece of Paganism, cited by Turnebus in Adversar. And what is more affirm'd by B [...]nincontrius (who first within less than two Centuries of Years, Commented upon our Authour) to have by himself been seen acted upon the like Occasion, by his own Coun­trey-men, the Italians. The Turks continue it to this Day, as Scaliger affirms. Plutarch in Ae-milio reports that the Romans, be­sides their beating of Brazen Ves­sels, and sounding of Trumpets, us'd to reach up flaming Links and Torches towards Heaven, to re-supply the Light of the Moon, which they believed by Charms to be extinguish'd. Delrius in Se­nec. Tragoed. says, he hath read that the Indians us'd with Tears and Lamentations to prosecute this defect, or Deliquium of the Moon, as believing she was then by the Sun whip'd till she bled, to which they attributed her dark and sanguine colour. Vide Delrium in Commentar. ad Hippolyt. p. 195. See likewise Turnebus in Adversar. l. 22. c. 23 & 24. And Pincierus in Parerg. Otii Marpurg. l. 2. c. 37.
brazen Vessels beat.
If then the Earth were flat, this sad Defect
Of Light, the whole World might at once detect,
But since 'tis Round, to These first, then to Those,
Her Rising self, or setting Delia shows;
For carried Circular, she first attains
Th' Ascending Parts, then the Descending gains;
Now climbs this Arch, anon leaves that behind,
Whence that the Earth is Round, we clearly find.
This is by Men, and Beasts, and
Whether Birds, which are generally call'd Genus Aereum; and by the sacred Text it self, volatilia Coeli, may be properly reckoned among Terrestial Animals, is by some questioned. Ovid (Metam. l. 1.) seems not to allow thereof in his Distribution of Animals,
Astra tenent Coeleste solum, Formaeque Deorum,
Cesserunt nitidis habitandae Piscibus undae,
Terra feras cepit, Vol [...]cres agitabilis Aer.
The like Division is made by Cicero, l. 2. de Nat. Deor. and in Timaeo, and by Aristotle, as he is cited by Plutarch. in 5. de Placit. Philos. To which may be added that belief of the Antient Greeks (derived to them from the Aegyptians) that Birds were produc'd before ever the Earth was form'd, whereunto Aristophanes in Avibus, alludes. But Apuleius sides with our Authour, and ends the Controversie in these words: Si sedulo animadvertas, ipsae quoque Aves, Terrestre Animal non Aereum rectiùs perhibeantur; Semper enim illis victus omnis in Terra, ibidem Pabulum, ibidem Cubile, tantúmque Aera proxi­mum Terrae volando verberant; Iterum cum illis fessa sunt Remigia Alarum, Terra seu Portus est. i. e. If you seriously consider, Birds may be more truly reckon'd a Terrestrial Animal, than Aereal; For all their living is upon the Earth, there is their Food, there their Nests. They only in their flight beat the Air; But when their Oars and Sails, their Wings, begin to fail them, the Earth is their Harbour. But as to this Question, (not much unlike that which troubled the heads of Aristotle, Theophrastus, and most of the Antient Peripateticks, as Censorinus de die Natal. c. 14. delivers it, which was, Avesne ante, an Ova gene­rata sint, cum & Ovum sine Ave, & Avis sine Ovo gigni non possit?) See Hieron. Magius, l. 1. Miscellan. c. ult. Iacobus Cru­ceus Syllog. 3. and Kircher. in his Iter. Extatic. 2. Dialog. 2. c. 5.
Birds possest,
The North Parts Eminent, the South deprest
Beneath our Feet; whose surface seems to be
(It's Breadth deceiving its Declivitie)
Stretch'd to a lengthful Plain; the large Extent
Compos'd of equal Rising and Descent.
Hence when Sol's Beams i'th' West our Orient Face
There rising Day does sleep from Mortals chace,
And when the Light to Labour summons Those,
'Tis Night with Us, and Time for our Repose.
[Page 18]The watry
Homer (saies Geminus) and almost all the Antient Poets, make the Sea to round the Earth, as an Horizon, dividing the upper from the lower Hemisphere; whence the Horizon it self is by them call'd the Ocean, according to this Verse of Neoptolemus Parianus, and Euph [...]rion cited by Achilles Tatius in A [...]at. Ph [...]nom. [...].’ ‘The Ocean girdling the surrounded Earth.’ To the same purpose Agatharchi­des, as cited by Ph [...]ius (in Bibli [...]th.) asserts, [...], &c. Quod Or­bem t [...]tum O [...]anus ct [...]umluet & am­bi [...]t; Custodiens eum fluxib [...]s suis & continens. Hence H [...]mer gives to Neptune the title of [...], i. e. Terram continens, sive ambitu su [...] c [...]mplectens; and by Secundus ( [...]) the Sea is stil'd, [...], i. e. Mundi amplexus, Corona Mariti­ma, salsu [...] vinculum, Cingulum A [...] ­lanticum, totius naturae Ambitus, Or­bis fascia; Being of old likewise among the Greeks called [...], probably deriv'd from the Phoeni­cian Ogg. i. e. Circulus, sive Ambitus (for so they call'd the Ocean) as first observed by Vossius Idol. l. 2. from H [...]sychius▪ And from him by Bochar­tus (in Geograph. sacra, l. 1. c. 35.) Vide etiam Casaubon. Animadvers. in Strabon. l. 1. p. 4.
Girdle of the Ambient Main,
Does either Hemisphere divide, and chain.
This Worlds huge Mass fram'd into One Entire
The Divine Spirit or Soul of the World.
Of different Parts, as Earth, Air, Water, Fire,
A Power
Plato, Trismegistus, Pythagoras, and many other of the Antient Philosophers, conceive the World to be indued with a Rational Soul, perswaded thereunto by the admirable Order and Connexion of its Parts, which they conceiv'd, could not be sustain'd, but by a soul intrinsically informing, ordering, disposing and connecting them. Hence that of Virgil, imitated by our Authour,
Spiritus intus alit, Totosque infusa per Artus
Mens agitat Molem, & Magnose Corpore miscet.
This Soul, Thales imagines to be God himself; thus explained by the Hermetick Philosophers. The Divine Spirit which produc'd this World out of the first Water, being infus'd as it were by a continual Inspiration into the Works of Nature, and diffus'd largely through, by a certain secret and continual Act, moving the whole and every particular according to its kind, is the Soul of the World. See Mr. Stanley in the Life of Thales. Plato, and the old Academists, (as Cicero in Acad. Quaest. l. 1. delivers their Opinion,) say thus of it: The Parts of the World and all things therein, are kept together by a sensitive Nature, wherein is likewise perfect Reason; It is also Sempiternal, for there is nothing more strong, whereby it may be dissolv'd. This Power is call'd the Soul of the World. Heraclitus asfirm'd the Soul of the World to be an Exhalation of the humid Parts thereof, as Plutarch in 4. de placit. Philos [...]ph. c. 1. Varro, fire, of which Tertul▪ ad Nat. l. 2. perhaps meaning the same with Chalcidius in Timaeum, who calls Vesta▪ animum Corporis universi [...] or with Pliny, who asserts the Sun to be this Soul of the World. Hunc Mundi esse [...]otius Ani­mum [...]c plane Mentem, Hunc principale Naturae Regimen ac Numen credere decet, says he, l. 2. c. 6. Of the same Opinion is Iulius Firmi [...]us. But as to this, see more particularly Caelius Rhodigin. Antiqu. Lect. l. 1. c. 14. l. 6. c. 11. & alibi. As like­wise K [...]pler, in Harmon. Mundi, l. 4. Kircher. O [...]dip. Aegypt. Tom. 2. Part. 2. p. 526. Gassendus. And Ieronymus Vitalis in Lex. Mathem [...]t. p 305. &c.
Divine, whose sacred Influence glides
Through all its Limbs, with tacit Reason guides,
And mutual Leagues inclines them to contract,
That some may
To the same sence Crito Pythagoricus in Stob. Sermon. 2.— [...] &c. In the Universe the Conjunction of either Nature, viz. of that which is always Active, and the other which is always Passive, make this World, which otherwise could not subsist. Consonant to which a Modern Italian Poet, Ianus Pannonius (in obitum Guarini Veronensis) as cited by Barthius Adversar. l. 54. c. 25.
Iunge etiam semper Patientis, semper Agentis
Materiae Fluxus, & Fata regentia Mundum.
suffer, what the Others act,
And the whole Frame (although diversify'd
By various Figures) be throughout ally'd.
Now we the radiant Signs in Order sing;
The Twelve Signs of the Zodi­ack.
First those which guirt Heaven with an Oblique Ring,
And Phoebus by alternate Courses bear
Through the successive Seasons of the Year.
Then those whose Course to Heav'n is Opposite,
All which may numbred be in a clear Night;
The Laws of Fate depending on their Power.
First then of Heav'ns chief Part, its Starry
That is the Zodiack. The Aeeyptians held, that in every Asterism or Sign in the Zodiack, or rather in each Dodecate­m [...]rion thereof, a peculiar Deity resided; and in every Star belonging to one of those Constellations a peculiar Genius, as the inferiour Ministers of each Deity; whose vertue they believed to flow by an Influx in form of a Pyramide, whose Basis con­tain'd the whole Extent of the Asterism, or rather D [...]decatemorion, and whose Vertex or Top was terminated in the Centre of the Earth; and these they termed [...], seu Arces Deorum; and from them the Arabians call'd the Signs Bu [...]ugi, signifying Towers, Castles or Forts; and in the singular Burgi, believing the Signs to reside in so many Castles or Palaces, by the Persi­an [...] call'd K [...]shk, or as we usually term them Houses. And therefore our Authour elsewhere calls the twelve Signs or Houses in the Zodiack, Castra; and the Zodiack it self in this place, Arcem Mundi, or the Tower, or Citadel of Heaven▪ con­sisting of so many Bulwarks. See Kircher. in Oedip. Aegypt. Tem. 2. and Mr. Hyde the Learned Commentator upon Ulugh B [...]gh, his Tables, p. 30.
I have chosen so to En­glish Princeps Aries, rather than the Leading Ram, perswaded thereunto by the Authority of our Poet, who, l. 2. gives him that Title, ‘—Aries Caput est ante omnia Princeps Sortitus—’

And again, l. 4.

‘Consilium ipse suum est Aries, ut Principe dignum est.’

And by that of Germanicus, in Aratum; where he is stil'd

‘Princeps Aries—’

And of Columella, (l. 10.) who gives him the Title of

‘Signorum & Pecorum Princeps—’ So likewise Varro, l. 5. de Linguâ Latin. speaking of the Original and Etymology of the Agonalian Festivals, (in which, an­tiently the Kings of the Romans us'd in their Palace to sacrifice a Ram) tells us, they were so call'd from the Question of the Sacrificer, Ago ne? Eo quod Interrogatur Princeps Civitatis, & Princeps Gregis immolatur. This Principality being given to this Sign above the rest, in regard that at the Worlds Nativity, according to the Astronomical Computation of the Antients, he was found seated as in a Throne, in Medio Coeli, i. e. the Tenth House; of which Macrobius in Somnio Scip. and Salmasius Diatrib. de Antiq. Astrolog. p. 180. And for this reason (perhaps) it was, that the Ram among the Romans was taken for the Symbol of Principality: To which effect, we find among the Coyns of Domitian, some, on whose Reverse is stamp'd a Ram with this Motto, PRINCEPS JUVENTUTIS. And with the Greeks, the Word [...], which signifies a Ram, is taken for a Prince or Potentate. See Magius Miscellan. l. 2. and Tristan. in his Historical Commentar. Tom. 1. p. 323.
This Sign is by the Greeks called [...], Chrysomallus, Iupiter Ammon; by the Aegyptians or Copties, Tametouro Amnou, i. e. Regnum Ammonis; in Hebrew, Tele; in the Syriack, Emro; by the Arabians, Al Hámal; by the Persians, Bérri, or Bére; by the Turks, Kuzi. All signifying a Lamb full grown, as I find in the Learned Commentator upon Ulugh Beigh his Tables; whom in the Nomenclature of these Signs, and th' other Constellations I most particularly follow, as being in that more exact and copious than either Scaliger, in Sphaer. Barbar. Schickardus, Bayerus, Hues de Globis, Grotius in Arat. Ricciol [...]s, or (whom he follows,) Kircher, whose several assistances I yet make use of upon occasion; and only premise this to avoid (for brevity sake) the trouble of future Citations. In this Constellation are reckoned according to Ptolomies Computation, seven­teen Stars, whereof four inform (which sort of Stars, reckoned either in this, or any other Constellation, are by the Greeks call'd [...], i. e. Informes; and by the Arabs, particularly by Ulugh Beigh, Chârigi Sûrat. i. e. extra figuram positae.) Bayerus reckons nineteen, whereof three are of the third Magnitude, two in the Western, and one in the Eastern Horn, call­ed by the Arabs, Alsheratein, or Alsheratân; in Hebrew, Sartai, and Mezarthim; the third in his Head, in Arabick, Al Ashra; all from the singular Sherat, i. e. Signum seu Indicium, a Sign or Mark; the seventh, eighth, and eleventh Stars are call'd in Arabick, Min Botein, from their Situation near the Belly of the Ram. This according to the Tradition of the Aegyptians, was made a Constellation in Honour of Cham. But as Nigidius (cited by the Scholiast of Germanicus) reports, for discove­ring to Bacchus, and his thirsty Army in the Desarts of Africa, a Fountain of Water; or, according to Pherecides, for trans­porting of Phryxus, and Helle over the Sea, flying from the fury of their Step-Mother Ino. It is under the Tutelage of Iupi­ter and Minerva, according to the Doctrine of the Pythagoreans, deriv'd from the Chaldaeans, who held the Principal Gods to be twelve; To each of whom they attributed a Month in the Year; and one of the twelve Signs in the Zodiack, as is ob­serv'd by Diodorus Siculus, l. 1. Bibliothec. This Sign was first discover'd by Cleostratus the Tenedian, as Pliny witnesses, l. 2. c. 8. and comes to the Meridian at Midnight, about the end of October, and beginning of November.
Ram glittering in Golden Wool,
Wonders to see the backward-rising
This Sign is called Io, Isis, Apis, and Orias, i. e. Statio Hori, by the Aegyptians; by the Greeks and Latines [...], and Taurus; in Hebrew, Shôr; by the Arabs, Al Thaur; by the Syrians, Thauro; by the Persians, Ghau; and by the Turks, Ughuz, i. e. Bos. It consists according to Ptolomy, of 44 Stars, whereof 11 shapeless; or as Bayerus counts, of 48, as Kepler, of 52; among which there is one of the first Magnitude, by the Greeks called [...]; by Ptolomy, [...]; by the Arabs Al­debaran, i. e. Stella Dominatrix, and Ain Al Thaur, i. e. Oculus Tauri; by the Aegyptians, Piorion, i. e. Statio, seu Dominium Ho­ri, in regard of the power of the Sun in Conjunction with that Star; by the Romans, Palilicium, because heretofore it rose at Rome on the Feast-day of Pales, translated into Heaven in Memory of the Rape of Europa by Iupiter in that shape; or in Honour of Io, or Isis, transform'd by Iuno into a Cow, and Constellated by Iupiter. Hence Ovid.
Vacca sit an Taurus non est cognoscere promptum,
Pars prior apparet, Posteriora latent.
Seu tamen est Taurus, sive est haec foemina Signu [...]
Iunone invitâ Munus Amoris habet.
If Bull or Heifer hard 'tis to descry
Seen are its fore▪parts, hid its hinder lie.
But be't a Masculine or Female Sign,
It spite of Iuno, as Loves Mark does shine.
Others will have it to be the Symbol of Osyris or Mesoris, or Mizraim, the Son of Cham, who first taught the Egyptians Til­lage; or rather of the Patriarch Ioseph, for his preserving Aegypt in the time of Famine; to which the Learned Grotius, in his Tragedy of Sophomphania, alludes. To confirm which Opinion, Ger. Io. Vossius in his most accurate Work de Orig. & Progress. Idololatr. shews that Apis was the same with Joseph (de quo etiam vide Tertull. l. 2. ad nationes) and that under the Symbol of an Ox, he was honoured by the Aegyptians, as the most proper to express the Benefit conferr'd by him upon that People; as among the Romans, we find L. Minucius, Praefect of the Corn-stores, Bove aurato extra Portam Trigeminam est donatus, because in a time of scarcity he supplied the Roman People with Corn at a Cheape Rate. Venus is Patroness of this Sign; which about the end of November, and beginning of December, is at midnight seen in the Meridian.
[Page 20]With submiss Looks beckon the
These are call'd [...], Tindaridae, and Dioscuri by the Greeks and Litine [...]; In the Cop­tick, Clusos, (i. e.) Claustrum Hori; in the Hebrew, Te [...]min; in Syriack, Tóm [...]; in Arabick, Taw' amân, i. e. Gemelli. They are likewise by the Arabs call'd Giauzâ, as it were by a Me [...]athesis, or Transposition of the Word from Zaugi, i. e. Bini, [...]. Others derive it from Giauz, signifying a Nut; and therefore the Turks call this Sign, Kùs Siphetlu Burgi, i. e. Nucem, vel Nuces referens Signum; by the Persians, Ghi [...]degán, to the same sence. But with more probability, (says my Authour) they are call'd Giauza, because plac'd i [...] Giauz al Samà, i. e. in Medio Coeli. There are reckon'd in this Constellation, according to Ptolomy, twenty five Stars, whereof seven are inform; Repler makes them thirty, Bayerus thirty three; whereof that in the Head of the Western Twin, which first rises, is by the Arabs call'd Ras al Tawum A [...]mukeddem, i. e. Caput p [...]ioris geminorum; the other, Ras al Tawum Mu­accher, i. e. Caput posterioris Geminorum. The Star reckon'd the fourteenth in number in this Constellation, is by Higynus and Bassus, call'd Prop [...]s, by Ptolomy [...], quia praecedit Pedes Geminorum; and by the Persians, Pish-pai. The seventeenth and eighteenth opposite to one another in the feet of the said Gemini, are by the Arabs call'd al Hen'a, (i. e.) quaevis res quae aliam immediate sequitur. These Twins Varro and Servius (in 11 Virgil. Aen.) will have to be Apollo and Hercules, call'd by the Arabs, Ap [...]ellan, and Hie [...]aclus, and commonly, but most corruptly, Aphellar, Anhelar, and Abrachileus. Others will have them to be Triptolemus and Iason; some Amphion, and Zethus; or Dii Samothraces; Plutarob, according to the Tradition of the Aegyptians, makes them to be Helitomenius and Harpocration, the Sons of Isis, and Osyris. But with more probability they are conceived to be Castor, and Pollux. For as the same Plutarch (l. de Amore fraterno) affirms, the Spartans of old us'd to call the Statues of Castor, and Pollux, [...], i. e. Trabalia, being no other than two Wooden Pests set parallel one to another, and joyn'd together at each end by two other traverse Beams. Hence (saies the Learned Palme­riu [...] upon that place of Plutarch) Astrologers make use of the like Figure or Character to denote this Twin Sign, which they de­riv'd from the Lacedemonians. It comes to the Mid-Heaven at Midnight, in the end of December, and beginning of Ianuary, and hath Phoebus for its Superintendent.
Twins; next whom
Cancer is in the Greek call'd [...], and [...], i. e. Octipes; It is likewise called Nepa Astacus, Camarus; In Arabick, Assert [...]n; in Hebrew, Sartan; in Syriack, Sartóno; in Persian, Chercjengh; by the Turks, Lenkutch, or Lenki [...]ch, and Yenkutch, or Yenkitch, and Yilenkutch, or Yilenkitch, i. e. Cancer; In the Coptick it is called Klaria, i. e. Besti [...], seu stati [...] Typhonis. The whole Constellation made up of thirteen Stars, whereof four shapeless, according to [...] my; Kepler reckons seventeen, and Bayerus thirty five. Among which, the first Star in this Constellation is call'd in A [...]bick, Malaph, i. e. Praesepe, or the Manger; in Greek, [...]: It is likewise by the Arabs call'd Al Net [...]ra; in Chaldi [...], Pesebre; and is a Cloudy Star, by Galilaeo discover'd to consist of thirty six smaller ones. The fourth and fifth Stars are by the Arabs call'd Al Himarein, or Al Him [...]rân, i. e. du [...] Asini; Our Authour elsewhere calls them Iugulas. The Crab was made a Constellation at the Intreaty of Iuno, being kill'd by Hercules, for biting him by the Foot, when he encountred Hydra: The Asinegoes, with their Manger, were constellated, because in the Fight with the Gyants, Bacchus and Vulcan charged upon Asses, who with their Brayings, frighted, and so put to flight their Enemies; see Higyn. and Bassus in Germani [...]. (or rather Eratosthenes, for that Comment is no other than Eratosthenes translated.) This Sign is appro­priate to Mercury, and is famous according to the Chaldaick and Platonick Philosophy, for being supposed the Gate by which Souls descended into Humane Bodies; touching which, see Mecrobius in Somn. Sc [...]p. Coel. Rhodig. antiq. Lect. l. 15. c. 23. and Kircher in Oedip. Aegypt. Tom. 2. p. 535. It illustrates the Mid-Heaven about Midnight, from a little after the beginning, until the end of Ianuary.
Cancer, who after him sees
This Sign by the Greeks is called [...]; in Hebrew, Ar'ye; by the Arabs, al Asad▪ in Syriack, Ar'yo; in the Per­sian, Shîr; the Turk [...] call it [...], or As [...]in, i. e. Leo; the Aegyptian Cop [...]ies call it Pimentekeon, i. e. Cubitus Nili. It consists of thirty nine Stars, whereof eight inform, according to Ptolomy, of forty according to Kepler; to which number Bayerus adds three more. The first Star in this Constellation, is by the Arabs called Minchir al Asad, i. e. Nares Leonis. The third, Ras al Asad, al Schemali, i. e. Caput Leonis Boreale. The fourth, Ras al Asad, al Gienubi, i. e. Capu [...] Leonis Australe. The fifth sixth, and seventh Stars are called by them al Gieb'ha, i. e. Frons. The eighth they call Mesichi, to which the Greek [...], and the Latine, Regulus, answers; they give it likewise the name of Kal [...] al Asad, i. e. Cor Leonis, being a Star of the first Magnitude. The twentieth Star is in Arabick call'd Duhr al Asad, i. e. Dorsum Leonis, and is also with the twenty second call'd Min al Zub'ra, i. e. de Crine Dorsi. The twenty seventh Star they call S [...]rpha, i. e. Mutatrix, from the Change it brings of Heat from Cold; and Danab al Asad, i. e. Cauda Leonis; and is likewise of the first Magnitude. The Lyon was made a Coelestial Sign by Iuno, to spite Her [...]ules, by whom he was slain; and is said to have been bred in the Moon, and from thence to have fallen near the Nemaeean Grove in Arcadia, from whence call'd Nemaeeu [...]; as likewise, Claeoneus, and Herculeus; to which, besides Achilles Tatius in Arat. Seneca alludes in He [...]cul. furente, in these Words, ‘Sublimis alias Luna concipiat feras.’

And again

—Leo Flammiferis aestihu [...] ardens,
Iterum è Coelo cadet Herculeus.

The Poets, (as is observ'd by Scaliger. not. in Ceirim) feigning Animals, exceeding th' ordinary [...]ize, to be bred in, and to come from the Moon; Hence Claudi [...], or some one more Antient than him, in the Poem of the Praises of Hercules, speaking of the Marathoni [...]n Bull, subdu'd by that Hero,

—Taurus med [...] nam Sydere Lunae
Progenitus, Dictaea Iovis possederat arv [...].
This Sign,—Iupiter (& cum Matre Deûm) regit,—says our Authour, l. 2. It appears in the Meridian at Midnight, in the Moneth of February.
Leo come;
[Page 21]Him
This Constellation in Greek bears the name of [...]; to which the Latine Virgo answers. In Hebrew it is call'd Bethula; in Syriack, B [...]thulto; in Arabick; Adra, and Adrenedepha; and in the Persian, D [...]shiza Pakiza, all to the same sence with the former; in the Aegyptian or Coptick, it is called Aspholia, i. e. Statio Am [...]ris; It is likewise in respect of the chief Star by which it is signaliz'd, being one of the first Magnitude in her left hand (though Vitru­vius and Hyginus erroneously place it on her right,) call'd by the Hebrews, Shibboleth; by the Syrians, Shev [...]lto; by the Arabs, Súmbela; by the Persians, Chûshe; and by the Turks, Sálkim; All signifying a Spike, or Ear of Corn. In this Sign; Ptolo­my reckons thirty two Stars, six whereof inform; Kepler thirty nine, and Bayerus forty two, of which the sixth and seventh Stars are by the Arabs called Min al Auwa, i. e. de latratore; and so likewise the tenth. The seventh is by them called Zawija al Auwa, i. e. Angulus Latratoris. The thirteenth, which is also one of the first Magnitude in her right wing, call'd by Proclus [...], i. e. Praevindemiator, is by the Arabs in the same signification called Mûkdim al Kétaph. The four­teenth, which is the Spica, is by them likewise call'd Simak al A'zal, i. e. Efferens Inermem, scil. Virginem; to distinguish it from another Star, in Bootes, call'd Simâk al Ramih, i. e. Efferens Hastiferum, vulgarly, but corruptly call'd Azimeth and Huzi­meth, and by S [...]aliger, (but amiss) Huzmet al Hisál, i. e. Fasciculus frumenti vel segetis. The twenty second, twenty third, twenty fourth and twenty fifth Stars are call'd Min al Gaph'r, i. e. Ex al Gaphr, which signifies Velamen, Ventrem & Tect [...]ram, Quòd Stellae ejus obtectae sint. This Sign according to the Vulgar Opinion, is taken for Astraea, o [...] Justice, by others, for Erigone, Daughter of Icarius, (so Servius.) Others suppose her to be Ceres, quòd s [...]icas teneat, (says Bassus.) Others call her Atergatis, the Goddess of the Ass [...]rians. Some will have her to be Fortune, pro eo quòd sine Capite Astris infer [...]ur, says the same Bassus. Avienus makes her to be Isis; and others again will have her to be Concord, or Peace; for which Opinion (says Vossius l. 2. Idol.) makes the Figure in Commelins Antient Manuscript of Hyginus, and that of Grotius in Germanic. Arat. ubi manu dextrâ Olivam, sinistrâ Caduceum tenet, as commonly the Antients represent Peace. Ceres is Lady of this Sign, which visits the Meridian at Midnight about the end of March, and beginning of April.
Virgo follows; then the
This Asterisme by the Greeks is call'd [...]; to which the Latine Libra answers; by Cicero it is called Iugum, particularly answering to the last of the Greek names. In Hebrew it is called Mozenâim; in Syri [...]ck, Masáth [...], in Arabick, al Mizan; by the Persians, Terazu: All signifying Libram, Stateram, seu Bilancem. The Turks commonly use the A­rabick name Mizan, which by them in their Language is explain'd Tartagick alati, i. e. Ponderandi Instrumentum. In the C [...]ptick it is call'd Lamb [...]dia, i. e. Statio Propitiationi [...]. The Constellation is made up of seventeen Stars, according to Prolomy, whereof nine inform; Bayerus reckons but fifteen, Kepler eighteen. Among which the first Star in Account, by the Greeks called [...], is by the Arabs, in the same signification, call'd Zubâna Gjenubi, i. e. Chela australis, and Al Kiffa, Al Gienubija, i. e. Lanx australis; the third, call'd by the Greeks [...], is accordingly by the Arabs call'd Zubâna Shemâli, i. e. Chela Bo­realis, and al Kiffa al Shemâlija, i. e. Lanx Borealis. This Sign owns Vulcan for its Patron, and is famous for being ascen­dant in the Horoscope of Rome, at its Foundation, according to the Calculation of Lucius Tarruncius Firmanus, as Cicero wit­nesses (l. 2. de Divin.) There is no distinct Fable of this Sign, it being part of Scorpius, whose Chelae or Claws (by the Arabs call'd Zubâna) make▪ the Scales; Hence our Authour, lib. 2. ‘Scorpius in Librâ Consumit Brac [...]hia.—’ It mounts the Meridian at Midnight in the beginning of May.
Scales, that weigh
In even Ballance equal Night and Day,
Draw on the
The Hebrews call this Sign Akrab, pro Akatzrab, à magno aculeo (mediâ vocis literâ per compendium elisâ) according to Bochart his Interpretation. The Syrians call it Akr [...]vo; the Arabs, Al Akrab; the Persians, Ghezdum; the Turks, K [...]irughi, quasi [...], Caudatus, or Uzûn Koirughi, i. e. longá Caudâ praeditus. By Cicero it is call'd Nepa▪ which Festus says is an African Word, happily a Phoenician says Bochartus, Neb or Nebba (b chang'd into p) à Caudae Internodii's; by the Greeks; [...]; and by the Aegyptian Copties, Isias, i. e. Statio Isidis. There are counted therein by Ptolomy twenty four Stars; whereof three shapeless; by Kepler▪ twenty eight; by Bayerus twenty nine; of which the six first are by the Arabs call'd I [...]lil al Gieb'ha, i. e. Corona Fro [...]tis, and simply I [...]lil▪ Corona. The sixth is particularly called Gieb'ha al Akrab, i. e. Frons Scorpii. The eighth is by them called Kalb' al Akrab, i. e. Cor Scorpii, &c. In Greek [...] or [...], i. e. Tyrannus. On each side of which Star there are two others, by the Arabs call'd al Niyât, i. e. Praecordia. The twentieth and twenty first they call al Shaula, which properly signifies the Tail of a Scorpion, and not of any other Creature. From which name al Shaula, not rightly read or written, have proceeded the corrupt names of Shomleck, Moshleck, and alasha, commonly found in most Authours. The Scorpion is fabled to have been made a Constellation, for having slain Orion, who boasted he would in Hunt­ing destroy all the Wild Beasts in the Forrests; or according to Nigidius, for that hunting with Diana in the Mountain Che­lippius in the Island Chios, he contemn'd and derided her, as inferiour to him in Skill; or according to Palaephatus and Ni [...]ander in Theriac. for daring to have violated her Chastity; for which in Revenge, she is said to have sent this Scorpion to sting him to death (though Horace says he was—Virgineâ domitus sagittâ) being for that, at her request, by Iupiter made an Asterism in Heaven; owning Mars for his Deity; and is seen to crawl toward the Meridian at Midnight, about the end of May and beginning of Iune.
Scorpion with the fiery Sting,
At which the
This Constellation is in Hebrew call'd Kesheth; in Syriack, Keshto; in Arabick, Al Kaus; in the Persian Tongue Kamân; in the Turkish, Yai. All signifying an Arrow. In Greek [...] & [...] & [...], i. e. Sagittarius; according to which signification it is likewise by the Arabs call'd al Rami; by the Aegyptians, Pimaere, i. e. St [...]tio Amoenitatis▪ It consists of 31 Stars, as Ptolomy reckons; of 32, as Bayerus; of 34, as Kepler. Of which the first is by some among the Arabians call'd Zugi al Nushaba, i. e. Cuspis, vel Ferramentum Spiculi. But both that and the second in Ulugh Beighs Tables; Min al Nâaim, al Wârida, i. e. E pecoribus ad [...]untibus (scil. ad aquam▪) The 6th and 7th according to those Tables, Min al Nâim, al Sadira; i. e. E pecoribus redcuntibus (scil. ab aquatione.) The 8th Star in this Constellation, is by the Arabs call'd Ain al Rami, i. e. Oculus Sagittarii. The 23d Urkûb al Rami, i. e. Suffrago; the Hough or Pastern. The 24th Rukb [...] al Rami, i. e. Genu, the Knee of Sagittarius. Hyginus, from the Authority of Sositheus, will have this to be Crotus, the Son of Eu­phemis, or Eu [...]hemis, the Nurse of the Muses, at their instance by Iupiter plac'd in the Zodiack. Others will have him to be Chiron. This Sign is under the Tutelage of Diana, and of Apollo likewise, to whom it is sacred; as Tristan, in his Com [...]entar. Tom. 3. evinces, from the Coyns of Gallienus, on some of whose Reverses is stamp'd the Figure of Sagittarius, with this Inscription, APOLLINI CONSERV. AUG. This Sign at Midnight aims at the Meridian, about the end of Iune, and beginning of Iuly.
Centaur his Shaft levelling
[Page 22]Seems ready to let f [...]y: To these comes on
The Greeks give to this Sign the Name [...], & [...]; The Latines, Hircus Ae­qu [...]ris (so Asclepiadius and Voma­nus) and Pelagi Procella (so Vitalis) by Horace being styl'd, ‘—Tyrannus’

Hesperiae Capricornus undae.

In Hebrew, it is call'd G [...]di; in Sy­ria [...], G [...]dio; in Arabick, Al Gjedi; in the Persian, Buzegh [...]le; in Turk­ish, Uglack; all signifying a Kid or Goat. In the Coptick or Aegyptian Tongue it is call'd Hopeutus, i. e. Brachium Sacrificii. It is made up, by the joynt Account of Ptolomy, Kepler and Bayerus, of 29 Stars; of which the first and third are by the Arabs call'd Min Sad Al D [...]ih, i. e. Ex fortuna Mactantis; and simply, D [...]bigh, i. e. Mactans. The 23d and 24th Stars are call'd by them, Sad N [...]shira, i. e. Fortuna averruncantis, vel divulgantis Nuncium. But the 24th by a parti­cular Name, from its situation, is called Da [...]ab Al Gjedi, i. e. Ca [...]da Capricorni. This was made a Constellation in honour of Ae­gip in the Son of Iupiter, by the Olenian Goat, or rather his Foster Brother, Son of Aega the Wife of Pan, whence his Name▪ who as Bassus in Germani [...]. from the Authority of Epimenides, writes, assisted Iupiter in his Wars against the Titans, and arm­ed the God; and for that reason honoured with this Coelestial Dignity. The reason of his being figur'd half Goat half Fish, Theon the Scoliast of A [...]atus reports, was, for that he finding on the Sea-shore an empty Murex or purple shell, is said to have wound it like a Horn, thereby striking a Panick [...]ear into the Titans, and therefore they represented him with a Tail like a Sea-Mons [...]er. Celebrated it is according to the Doctrine of the Pythagoreans, and Platonists, for being the Gate, by which Souls ascend into Heaven; and therefore stil'd Porta Deorum: Nor less Famous, to use our Authours Words,

‘—In Augusti foelix quòd fulserit Ortum.’ Of which see Suetonius in August. Scaliger in Manil. [...]ct. Sam. Petit. in Observa [...]. l. 1. c. 5. Vindelinus and Albertus Rubeniu [...] upon that subject; Ricciolus in Chronolog. reformo [...]. T [...]m. 1. l. 4. p. 104. and Spanhemius in Dissertat. de Numismat. Vesta is the Goddess appropriate to this Sign. It climbs the Mid-heaven at Midnight, about the end of Iuly, and beginning of August.
Goats contracted Constellation.
This Sign is by the Greeks call'd [...]; by Appian, Hydridurus, and in the same signification by the Arabs, Sakib Al M [...], i. e. Effus [...]r A [...]uae. It is by them likewise called Al Delu, and in H [...]brew, Deli; in Syriac, Daulo; in the Persian Tongue, D [...]l; in the Turkish, K [...]gha; all signifying a [...] Urn, or Watring-pot. The Aegyptians or Copties, call it Hup [...]utherian, i. e. Brachium Beneficii. There are reckon'd therein according to Ptolomy and Kepler, 45 Stars, whereof three inform. Bayerus yet reckons but 41. Of which the 2d and 3d are in Arabick call'd Sa'd Al Melick, or Sa'd Al Mùlck; the first signifying fortu­na Regis, the later, fortuna Opum & Substantiae. The 4th and 5th are call'd Sa'd Al Suûd, i. e. fortuna fortunarum; under which are some other Stars of less note call'd Al An [...]. The 6th and 7th are call'd Sa'd Bulâ & Al Bul [...]an, i. e. fortuna Deglu­tientis, or D [...]glutientium. The 9th, 10th and 11th Stars are call'd Sa'd Al Ahbija, i. e. fortuna Tentoriorum. The 14th Star in this Constellation, being one of the first Magnitude, is in Arabick call'd Diphd [...] al Auwal, i. e. Rana Prima; It is likewise call'd Phom al H [...]ut al Gje [...]bi, i. e. Os Piscis Australis, commonly, but corruptly, Phomahant. This Asterism is by some fabl'd to be Ganym [...]de the Cup-bearer of Iupiter, by some Deucalion; (whence by Vomanus this Sign is entituled Deucalionis Aquae;) by others, Aristaeus; of which, see the Scholiast of Germanicus. It is seen in the Meridian at Midnight, about the end of August, and beginning of September▪ Iuno is its Lady Regent.
Aquarius next pours from his Urn a Flood,
Whilst the glad
This Sign in the Greek is call'd [...], and by the Iews accordingly Dagáim, i. e. Duo Pisces. But the Arabs call it Al H [...]ut, & Al S [...]maca; the Syrians, Nâno; the Persians, M [...]hi; the Turks, Balick, which signifies a Fish in the singular number; so likewise in the C [...]ptick, it is call'd Pikotorion, i. e. Piscis Hori. The Northern of these Fishes is in the Arabick call'd Haut Ash [...]li, i. e. Piscis B [...]realis, and is known by the peculiar Name of [...], as being represented by the C [...]ns with the Head of a Swallow; the reason as Scaliger conceives, because when the Sun is in that Sign, the Swallow begins to appear in those Regions. The Southern is call'd Haut al Gjenubi, i. e. Piscis Australis. The whole Con­stellation consists, according to Ptolomy, of 38 Stars, (whereof four inform,) according to Bayerus of 39. But Kepler reckons therein 59. The Stream, or Tenuis fusio Stellarum utris [...]ue Piscibus disposita, Vitruvius, l. 9. c. 7. calls [...], i. e. Mercuri [...] Donum s [...]u Delici [...]s, which Scaliger conceives ought to be read [...], i. e. Laqueum; or as Pliny terms it, Commissuram Piscium. The Compiler of the Vitruvi [...]n Lexicon seems to come nearer to the truer Reading, and will have it to be [...], i. e. Nodum, or to use the Words of the said Lexicon, Coaptatimem qua Piscis Pisci seu vinculo al [...]ga­tur; by Proclus call'd [...], by Aratus, [...], which Cicero renders Coelestem Nodum. The Arabians call it Ch [...]it, vel Ch [...] Kettani, i. e. Filum Linteum. These are fabled to be the Syrian Deities according to Germanicus, Syriae du [...] Numi [...]a Pisces, by which are understood Venus and Cupid, as Hyginus (from the Authority of Diognetus Erythraeus) writes. For Venus and her Son Cupid coming to the River Euphrates, and frighted with the suddain appearance of the Gyant Typ [...]n, cast themselves into the River, and assum'd the shapes of Fishes, by which means they scap'd from danger. For this reason the Syrians abstain from eating of Fish, lest they might happen to devour their Deities. But the Scholiast of Germanicus (from Nigidius) writes, that these were the Fishes, which turn'd or roll'd up upon the Bank of Euphrates a great Egg, upon which a Dove sitting, hatch'd Venus, the Syrian Goddess. The Exposition whereof, see in Beyerus in Additamen▪ in Seldeni System▪ de Diis Syriis, p. 290. This Sign is under the Patronage of Neptune, and is seen in the Me­ridian at Midnight, almost throughout the whole Moneths of September and October.
Fish to the lov'd Waters scud,
Pis [...]es.
By Aries touch'd, and make the closing Sign.
Now in the Skies near where the bright Bears shine
(Which from Heavens Top on all the Stars look down,
Nor know to se [...]; but plac'd on the World's Crown,
Though differently, whirle round the Stars and Skies)
Stretch'd through thin Air the
The Axis of the World (so called ab [...], v [...]lvo) is an Imaginary right Line, passing through the Center of the Mundane Sphere from North to South, whose extremities are terminated in the superficies thereof; the two points ter­m [...]ating the said A [...]is being called the Poles of the World: About which immoveable Line the Sphere it self is turned. By this Description it may appear that the Axi [...] of the Sphere is likewise the Diameter thereof; but on the contrary every Diame­ter thereof is not its Axis; because the Sphere is not turned about every Diameter, but only about that, which is extended from North to South. Vid. Cl [...]v. in Sacrobosc.
subtle Axis lies,
The Axis of the World, and the Poles.
[Page 23]Whose distant Poles the Ballanc'd Fabrick hold;
Round this the Star-imbellish'd Orbs are rowl'd:
Whilst yet it self unmov'd through empty Air,
And the Earths Globe extends to either Bear.
Nor is't a
To this purpose Achilles Tatius in A [...]at. Phaenom. [...], &c. Of the M [...]te­riality of this Axis, (though some Philos [...]phers have conceiv'd i [...] a Spirit passing through the inter­jected Mundane space) Aratus (saith he) hath taught us n [...]thing. For if any shall conceive it to con­sist of a fiery substance, when it passes through the Sphere [...]f the Water, it would be extinguish'd, or consum'd by the Sphere of the fiery Element; or should it be supposed to consist of any other of the Elements, as of Air or Water, it would not mix with the others, but would be destroy'd by its contraries: Wherefore Mathe­maticians have defin'd it [...], i. e. Li [...]eam quandam subtilem, seu tenuem, and is here by our Authour excellently described.
solid Substance, or opprest
With Weight, though the Worlds
Homer and most of the Antient Poets seem to attribute to the Sphere of the World a kind of Gravity or tendency downward, and for this Reason they describe it to be supported by A [...]las. But this Fancy Aristotle eludes in his Book De Communi A­nimalium Mo [...]u, by applying (not unappositely) the Fable of A [...]las to the Axis of the World, upon which it is imagined to be supported and turned about.
weight upon it rest.
But as the Air mov'd in a Circle goes,
And on it self, whence first it flow'd, reflows,
What e're that is which still the midst doth hold,
'Bout which, (it self unmov'd) All else is rowl'd,
So subtle it can no way be inclin'd,
That by the Name of Axis is design'd.
Upon whose Top (to Mariners distrest
The Constel­lations of the North­ern Hemi­sphere.
Well known, their Guides through Seas) two bright signs rest.
So named by the Greeks, quòd [...], i. e. volvitur (Circa Polum A [...]ticum:) It is likewise called [...], and [...], i. e. Ursa Major & Plaustrum Majus. In Arabick (according to Ulugh Beigh) Dub Ackber, i. e. Ursus Major in the Masculine Gender; as likewise Agala, i. e. Plaustrum seu v [...]hiculum▪ from whence by the change of one only Letter, is that corrupt Name of Aganna, mentioned by Scaliger from Hesychius. It is likewise by the Arabs call'd Benât Al Nash Al Cubra, i. e. Filiae feretri Majoris, in regard the four Stars that make the Body of the Bear resemble a Bier, and the three in the Tayl, the Virgins or Maids that attend the Corps. And for this reason saies Kircher the Christian Arabs call the four Stars in this Constellation, Nash L [...]ázar, i. e. Feretrum Lazari; and the three in the Tayl, Mary Magdalen, Martha and their Maid. By the Persians it is call'd Haphtûrengh Mihîn, i. e. Septentrio Major; and by the Turks, Yidigher Yilduz, i. e. Septenae stel [...]ae; and [...] Yidigher, i. e. Septenae; as by the Latines, Septem Triones, quasi Teriones, à terendo semitam circa Polum. The whole Constellation consists according to Ptolomy of thirty five Stars, whereof eight inform; according to Bayerus, of thirty two; Kepler yet reckons fifty six; among which the twelfth and thirteenth Stars are in Arabick call'd Al Nekra Al Th [...]litha, i. e. Cotyle, Scrobs seu Cavitas ossis Tali. The sixteenth D [...]br Al Dub Al Ackber, i. e. Dorsum ursi Ma­joris: The seventeenth Merák Al Dub Al Ackber, i. e. Epigastrium ursi Majoris. The eighteenth Meg'res Al Dub Al Ackber, i. e. Uropygium ursi Majoris. The nineteenth is call'd Phaid Al Dub Al Ackber, i. e. F [...]mur ursi Majoris; and these four last named, make up Al Na'sh Al Cubrá, Feretrum Majus. The twentieth and twenty first Stars are called Al Phikra, or rather Al Nekra, Al Thanija, i. e. Vertebra seu Cotyle secunda. The twenty third and twenty fourth Al Phikra, or rather Al Nekra, Al Ula, i. e. Vertebra seu Cotyle prima, as the Commentator upon Ulugh Beigh his Tables would rather have it read in both Places. The three Stars, that make the Tayl, are call'd Al Benát, i. e. Filiae: Whereof the first is called by some Al Haun, or Al Gjaun, signifying albam Nubeculam; by others, Al H [...]er or Al Haur (commonly but corruptly, Alcor) i. e. Albedo oculi, or Populu [...] Alba. The second is called Al In [...]k, or Al An [...]k, i. e. Capella. The third Alkaid, i. e. Gubernator. This Constellation was first found out by N [...]uplius, as Theon, the Scholiast of Aratus, affirms, and was antiently the Greek Sea-mans Guide, as the lesser, the Phoe [...]icians: The Reason; because to the Greeks, who sayl'd the Mediterranean, Pontick and Euxine Seas, this Constellation was still apparent, but to the Sidonians, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who were more Southerly, part of the greater Bear was either by the Position of Sphere, or some other Accident, sometimes deprest and obscur'd; but Cynosura al­ways apparent to them; whence that of Valerius Flaccus in Argonaut.Certior in Tyrias Cynosura Carinas. And therefore these last chose the lesser, as the Greeks the Greater Bear for their Directress. Vide Ricciol. in Almagest. Nov.
Helice moves in a
La Cerda explicating this Verse of Virgil's (in Georg. 1.) ‘[Maximus hic flexu sinuoso elabitur Anguis]’ Cites these Verses; and conceives by the greater Bend and lesser Orb, our Poet means the greater and the lesser flexure of the Serpent; that is to say, that of the Tayl (being the larger) about Helice, that of the head (being the more contracted) about Cynosure. But this is far from the meaning of Manilius, whose sence is this, that Helice being more removed from the Pole, makes by its Circumgyration a larger Circle than Cynosura, which being nearer to it, must consequently make breviorem [...], as Grotius (in Arat. Phaenom.) terms it: This Interpretation is confirm'd by these Verses of Aratus, to which doubtless ou [...] Authour had respect.
Multa lucens Helice primâ à Nocte:
Altera vero parva, s [...]d N [...]utis Melior;
Minori enim Tota convertitur Orb [...].
To which purpose see likewise Theon, the Scholiast of Aratus.
greater Bend
Mark'd with seven fair Stars, the Greek Pilot's Friend,
[Page 24]Small
So called by the Greeks, quasi Canis Cauda, or as V [...]ssius (l. de Scient. Mathemat. c. 32.) derives it from the Hebrew▪, U­ra, i. e. Lumen, flamma, Ignis; and Nghus, i. e. coligere, ut sit Cyno­sura quasi Collectio luminis seu Ignis, or from the Chaldae [...]n, Kinush, i. e. Umbilicus; for by its Conversion is made a small Circle, as it were Umbilicus Igneus. The Hebrews call it Genash, i. e. Gallinam cum filiis suis, as Kircher expounds it. By the Arabs it is called Dub As­gher, i. e. U [...]sus Minor, and Benat al Mash al Sughra, i. e. Filiae Feretri Minoris; by some of them it is call­ed Agiala, i. e. Plaustrum, and by Scaliger and Schickardus Al Rueba, vel Arrucba, which yet Mr. Hyde says is not to be sound in any A­rabick writer, unless happily they derive it from the Chaldaick Re­cubà or Recuvà, which signifies Currum, vel V [...]hiculum. By the Persians it is call'd Haphturengh [...] i. e. S [...]entrio Minor. The Star in the Extremity of the Tayl is by the [...] call'd Caucab She­m [...]i, i. e. Stella Borealis; by the Turks, Yilduz Shemali, and abso­lutely Yilduz, i. e. Stella; and by a peculiar Name in Arabick it is called Gjedi, i. e. Hoedus. The Ita­lians call it Tramontana; and we the Pole, or North Star. The two last and brightest in the Fere­trum or square, are by the Arabs call'd Al Phercadân or Al Phercadein, i. e. Duo vituli. The whole Constellation consisting according to P [...]olomy and Bayerus of eight Stars, whereof one inform; as Kepler reckons, of twenty. Of the Fabulous Anastr [...]sis of this and the former Constellation, Diodorus Siculus Biblio [...]b. Histor. l. 4. reports, that these were the Nurses of Jupiter, and privately kept him from the search of Saturn; for which they were by him in Gratitude plac'd in the Heavens, and call'd by the Name of the two Bears, being worshipped with Divine Rites, by the Cretans and Sicilians; by whom they were styl'd [...], i. e. Deae Matres. Others refer it to the Fable of Callisto and her Son Arcas, of which see Hesiod and Ovid. This Constellation was (among the Greeks) first discovered by Thales the Milesian, as (besides Theon and Laertius from the Testi­mony of Callimachus) Hyginus, l. 2. Astronom. Poet. affirms, for which reason it was call'd likewise Phoenice, from Thales its Inventor being by descent a Phoenician, who first gave it the Name of Arctos, or the Bear. But trulier so denominated, from the whole Nation of the Phoenicians, who in their Navigations (and that long before the time of Thales) observ'd her, as their Directress: See Palmerius his Learned Exercitations, p. 445, and 446.
Cynosure, less both in Light and size,
A less Orb holds; whom yet the Tyrians prize
More than the Great; by This the
Of the frequent Voyages of the Phoenicians and Carthaginians into the Atlantick Ocean, and their Discoveries of the Western Coasts of Africk, and a large and wealthy Island in that vast Ocean; See Diodorus Siculus Biblioth, l. 5. and Aristotle (in Admirand. Audition.) which forementioned Island Turnebus (l. Adversar. 20. c. 11.) conjectures to have been some part of America not fully discovered; of which Opinion likewise is Cluverius (in Sicilia Antiqu. l. 2.) And for fur­ther proof of the Punick Navigations, we have the Periplus of Hanno yet extant; though by many as well of the Antients, as Moderns, supposed a Fiction (whence the Proverb, applicable to a credulous Person, Dignus est quem oblectent Lybici libri de Erroribus Hannonis, as Casaubon notes in his Animadversions on Athenaeus) yet is the truth thereof asserted by the learned B [...]chartus in Geograph. Sacra; and by Mr. Vossius (in Melam) commended as a signal Monument not only of Historical Verity, but of Antiquity likewise, beyond any Extant Remains of Graecian Learning.
Poeni steer
Through vast Seas to the Western Hemisphere.
These joyn not Fronts, but eithers Head turns to
The others Tayl; pursu'd, as they pursue.
Between both which, his large unfolded Spires
This Constellation the Poets feign to have been the Dragon that kept the Hesperides slain by Hercules, and made an Asterism by Iuno. Others (says Stoefler) will have the Dragon to be brought by the Gyants in their fight with the Gods to oppose Minerva, and by her to have been strangled and thrown up to Heaven, and there fixt as a Trophy of her Vi­ctory. This by the Greeks is call'd [...]; by the Latines, Draco; in Hebrew, Tannin, i. e. Draco; by the A­rabs, Tinnin and Tannin, as the Hebrew: it is by them likewise call'd (according to Kircher) Taaban, or rather Thuban, and in the same sence by the Persians, Ashdeha, which is interpreted Serpens, qui Homines ac Bestias devorat. Some among the A­rabians give it likewise the Name of Al Haija, which is also appropriate to the Southern Constellation of the same kind. It is made up (as Ptolomy reckons) of 31 Stars; as Kepler, of 32; as Bayerus, of 33. Of which the first Star in the Tongue is by the Arabs call'd Al R [...]kis, or Arrakis, i. e. Saltator, seu Tripudiator, the three next Al Awaîd, i. e. Pulsatores Testudinis. The fifth in the Head is call'd Ras Al Tinn [...]n, i. e. Caput Draconis. The 14th, 15th and 16th Stars are call'd Al Thâphi, i. e. [...], from their Posture, representing a Skillet with Feet Tripod or Brandiron. The 20th and 21th are called Adphar Al Dib, i. e. Ungula Lupi. The 27th is called Aldibe [...], i. e. Victima, as being plac'd before that in the Horn of Capricorn, call'd Sa'd Al Da [...], i. e. F [...]rtuna Mactantis. This is seen in the Meridian at Midnight about the end of Iune.
Serpent stretches; and with winding fires
Embracing them, one from the other parts,
And from their
Macrobius (in Somn. Scip. l. 1. c. 18.) Septentrionum quoque Compago non solvitur; Anguis qui inter eos labitur semel circumfusum non mutat amplexum.
Stations sees that neither starts.
'Twixt this, and Heavens Mid-Circle, where the Sun,
And six Lights more 'gainst the bright Zodiack run,
Rise Stars of different Magnitude and Power,
Some near the Pole, some near Heav'ns radiant Tower.
From the Philosophy of the Egyptians, of which thus Diogenes Laertius in Prooem. [...], i e. That the Stars are of a fiery Nature, and that by their Contemperation all Things are produced on the Earth. To this Effect is that Caballistick Maxim, Non est Herba inferiùs, quae non habeat S [...]ellam superiùs, qu [...] dicat ei Cresce; of which Kircher in Magnet. Natur. Regn. Sect. 2. c. 3.
temper'd by the disagreeing Air
The fruitful Earth for humane use prepare.
Next the cold Bears, (the Cause t' himself best known)
Shines forth a
This Asterism in Greek bears the Name [...] and [...], i. e. Ingeniculus; It is likewise call'd [...] & [...], i. e. Clavator s [...] Claviger, and by some of the Latines, Nisus vel Nixus, quia La­boranti similis. By the Arabs Giathi ala Rucbatei [...]i, i. e. Incumbens Ge­nubus, (from which corrupted may come those commonly mistaken Names of Elgiaziale and Rulxba­ [...]ei) by the Persians interpreted Bersanu Nisheste, i. e. genubus insi­dens, from whence the Commenta­tor upon U [...]ugh Beigh conceives the corrupt Persian Name, Ternevelles Sandes, may be deriv'd; which he supposes ought to be read Zurnai, vel Zernai Zan; implying as much as fistulator, sive vir aureo canens calamo. The number of Stars in this Constellation are by Ptolomy reckon'd to be 29; by Bayerus, 48; by Kepler but 28; of which the first is called Ras Al Gi [...]hi, i. e. Caput Ingeni­culi, and commonly, but falsly, Ras Al Aben. That in his Elbow from its situation is called Marphak; that in his Wrist Mi' sám, i. e. Carpus, and by mistake commonly Maasym. This Constellation some will have to represent Theseus, or Ixion; others, Or­pheus or Prometheus; others, Thamyris or Thamyras a Thracian Poet, who contending with the Muses for Skill, and by them overcome, was punish'd with the loss of his Eyes, and in the Memorial of their Victory plac'd in the Heavens in a supplica­ting posture, as deprecating his punishment. But Panyases (in Heraclid.) will have this Asterism to represent Hercules; so likewise Hyginus from the Authority of Aeschylus, with whom agrees the Scholiast of Germanicus. This comes to the Meri­dian at Midnight in the Moneth of Iune.
kneeling Constellation.
Behind whose Back
Arctophylax and Boötes are one and the same Constellation; the first signifying Custos Ursarum; the later so call'd [...], i. e. Bovis, & [...], i. e. pellere, quasi Boum Agitator, to which Name our Authour alludes; but in the Eastern Tongues the same seems to be deriv'd [...], i. e. à Clamando, whence by the Arabs call'd Al Auwa, i. e. V [...]fe­rator, and Al Neckar, i. e. Fossor seu Pastinator. It consists according to Ptolomy of 23 Stars, Kepler counts 28, and Bayerus 34. This some Fable to be Lycaon; Others Arcas, the Son of Callisto his Daughter by Iupiter. The Scholiast of Germanicus makes it to be the Constellation of I [...]arus, and accordingly Propertius stiles the Septentriones, I [...]arus his Oxen, in this Verse; ‘Flectant Icarii Sidera tarda B [...]ves.’ This is seen in the Meridian at Midnight about the beginning of May.
Arctophylax appears,
Arctophy­lax or Bootes.
The same Boötes call'd, because yoak'd Steers
He seeming drives; who through the rapid Skies
Some will have this Star so call'd, quasi ab [...], i. e. à Cauda Ursae, but trulier ab [...], i. e. Custos Ursae, in the same sence as Arctophylax. This the Arabs call al Simak al Râmih, i. e. efferens H [...]stiferum; in the common Globes falsly Huzme: Tzetzes says it is likewise call'd by the Greeks [...], and in Chrysococea's Persian Tables (published by E [...]li­aldus at the end of his Astronom. Philolaic.) it is called [...], i. e. Hastili aut Conto armatus. It is a Star of the first Magnitude, by Vitruvius plac'd Media Genuorum Custodis Arcti, but according to others in the knot of Arctophylax his Girdle; so Germanicus in Ara [...]is; ‘Arcturum dicunt sidus quà vincula nodant:’
Arcturus in his Bosome) hies.
On th' other side see the rich
This by the Greeks is call'd [...], & [...], i. e. Corona Borealis, & Prima; And accordingly by the Arabs, Al I [...]lil Shemali, i. e. Corona Borealis, and simply Al I [...]lil, i. e. Corona; it is by them likewise called Al Phecca, i. e. Apertio; in Hebrew Kir Schetali, i. e. Corona Sinistra, and in Chaldee Malphelcarti, i. e. Sertum Pupillae. The Constellation is in form of a Circle, not compleated, and therefore by the Vulgar Arabs call'd Kâse Shekéste, i. e. Scutella fracta, and Kas [...]hi Dervishan, i. e. Scutella pauperum, and in the same sence, by some of them Kasa Al Masakin, or Alsa [...]lik. In [...]'s Tables [...], i. e. Discus fractus. The brightest in this Circle being of the second Magnitude, is call'd Lucida Coronae, and by the Arabs, Nair Phecca, i. e. Lucida Pheccae, & Mumir, i. e. Pupillae. It consists according to Ptolomy and Kepler of eight Stars, yet Bayerus reckons twenty. This Crown some fable to have been of Gold: Athenaeus l. 15. from the Authority of Timachides, says it was made of a Flower or Herb, call'd Theseus; others will have it to be of Lawrel or Myr­tle: Bayerus from some Antient Greek Coyns describes it to have been composed of Elder Leaves, mix'd with Berries. Ph [...] ­tius in Bibliotheca (out of P [...]olomaeus Ephaestionis his fifth Book Nov. Histor.) gives this Fable thereof. They report (saith he) that a certain Nymph named Psalacantha in the Island Icaria being in love with Bacchus, endeavoured to procure Ariadne to his Bed, on condition, he would likewise be kind to her: Which Bacchus refusing, she plotted to do Ariadne a Mischief: This the God discovering, he in Passion transform'd her to an Herb bearing her Name: But afterwards repenting the Fact, by way of Recompence and Honour he caus'd the Flower to be entwin'd about Ariadnes Crown, which he had already fix'd in the [...]. As to the Fable of Ariadne deserted by Theseus in the Island Naxos, and reliev'd by Bacchus, the same is sufficiently known. And though most make only her Crown to be constellated, yet others place Ariadne her self in Heaven; as Sca [...]iger hath observ'd in his Notes upon Catullus his Poem de Coma Berenices, of which Opinion likewise is Propertius in these Verses;
Te quoque enim non esse rudem testantur, in Astris
Lyncibus in coelum vecta Ariadna tuis.
To which as a further Proof we shall add the Testimony of one of Nero's and another of Trajan his silver Coyns, having on their Reverse, the Figure of Ariadne, carried up to Heaven in the same manner, as is represented by Propertius; touching which see Monsieur du Choul, de la Religion des Anciens Romains; and Occo in Nu [...]ismat. p. 199. Videsis etian [...] Tertullian. in Sc [...]rpiace, & Pascalium de Coronis.
Crown display
Ariadnes Crown.
Its Luminous Gems, bright with a different Ray:
[Page 28] [...] Whom the swift
This Constellation is call'd Pegasus, by the Greeks [...]. It is called likewise Equus Major, Medusaeus, Gorg [...]nius, Beller ph [...]maeus and Me­ [...]ppe, or rather Melanippe; by the Arabs, Al Pharas Adam, i. e. E [...]uus Major, and Alpharas Al Th [...]ni, i. e. Equus Secundus, to distinguish it from the Equus Mi­ [...]r, omitted by our Poet. In Hebrew it is call'd Ha Sus chail Kernim, i. e. Equus [...]. It consists according to P [...]olomy of twenty Stars; according to B [...]yerus and Kepler, of twenty three. Among which the Chief (being in Umbilico Equi) is promiscuously reckon'd as appertaining to the Head of Andromeda, as well as to Part of this Constellation, and therefore by the Arabs call­ed as well Ras Al Mara Al M [...]salsala, i. e. Caput Mulieris Catenatae, as Sirra Al Pharas, i. e. Umbilicus Equi. That in the joyning of the Wing is call'd [...], i. e. Equitandi vel vehendi locus, Sagma, Ephippium. The third Star is call'd by them Menkib Al Pharas, i. e. Hu [...]erus Equi. The fourth they call Mat'n Al Pharas, i. e. Lumbus Equi, vel Dorsum. The fifth and sixth Stars are call'd Alkerb, vel Alkereb, i. e. Funis. The seventh and eighth Sa'd Má­tar, i. e. Fortuna Pluviae. The ninth and tenth Sa'd Bari, i. e. Fortuna praecellentis. The eleventh and twelfth Sa'd Al Homam, i. e. Fortuna Herois, vel Sad Al Hamm [...]m, i. e. Fortuna Obtrectatrieis. The fifteenth and sixteenth are call'd Sa'd Al Bahâim, i. e. Fortuna Besti [...]rum. In the Common Globes for Sa'd is mistakenly put Sheat. The se­vent [...]enth Star is call'd Phom Al Pharas, i. e. Os Equi, and Gjahphela Al Pharas, i. e. Labrum Equi; by others Enph or Emph Al Pharas, i. e. Nasus Equi; this some will have to be Bellerophons; others Perseus his Horse: Callimachus and Catullus call him Unigenam Memnonis, Brother of Memnon and Son of Aurora. The Greek Commentators make him to have been presented by Aurora to Iupiter; but Lycophron describes him to be the wing­ed Steed of the Morning, upon which she is said to ride. Palaephatus and Artemidorus yet make Pegosus to be a Ship and not a Horse; so Sch [...]ffer de Mi [...]it. N [...]vali, l. 1. c. 4. and according to Vossius, (l. 3. de Idololatr.) The Name Pegasus seems to be derived à [...], sive [...], i. e. compingo, quia Navis è multis componitur lignis. It is seen in the Meridian at Midnight about the middle of August, and beginning of September.
Courser strives t' oretake, his Brest
With a refulgent Signature imprest,
Which closes in the fair
This Asterism is by the Arabs call'd Al Mara Al M [...]salsala, i. e. Mulier Catenata. In Hebrew Isha Shalahajala B [...]al, i. e. Foemina c [...]rens viro. It consists of twenty three Stars according to Ptolomy and Kepler; according to Bayerus, of twenty seven. Among which the twelfth is by the Arabs call'd Gjemb Al Mosalsala, i. e. Latus Catenatae, and Bet'n Al Hut, i. e. Venter Piscis. That in her Zone or Girdle is for that reason by them call'd Izar and Mizar, whence come the corrupt Names of Mirach, Mirar, Mirath, and Miraz. The twenty first Star being in the Hem or Border of her Vest is therefore by the Arabs call'd Al Deil, vel Addeil, i. e. Syrma seu Lacinia Vestis. The fifteenth is called Rigil Al Mosálsala, i. e. Pes Catenatae; by Ulugh Beigh, Anâk Al Ard; which Scaliger and others will have to be read Al Amach or Almâk, i. e. Cothurnus; which Errour Mr. Hyde from good Authority consutes, and thews that Anâk is a little Beast, by the Persians call'd Siyâh Gush, i. e. Nigra Au [...]icula, (the Epithete of Al Ard, i. e. Terrestris being added) from its Ears which are black; Its whole Body besides being of a Brown or Ruddy Co­lour; and is Usher to the Lion, when he hunts for his Prey. We call it a Jack-call, for by his barking he calls the Lion to the Place, where his Prey lies. It comes to the Meridian at Midnight about the middle of October. As to the Fable of Andromeda; see after in the Notes upon the Whale, and in the Appendix or Comment.
Was the Grand-child of Acrisius, King of the Argives, begotten by Iupiter on his Daughter, Danae, plac'd in the Heavens by favour of Minerva for having slain Medusa or the Gorgon, and freed Andromeda from the devouring Sea Monster. This Constellation is by the Arabs call'd Cheleub or Chelùb, i. e. Deceptor; or (happily) Kellùb, i. e. H [...]rpago, seu aduncum quodvis, (says Mr. Hyde;) and from the Greek Name Perseus, Bershâush and Bersheush. It is likewise call'd by them H [...]mil Ras Al Ghùl, i. e. Portans caput Larvae. It consists of twenty nine Stars according to Ptolomy, whereof three inform; Bayerus reckons thirty eight; Kepler thirty three; whereof the first is call'd Misam Al Thuraiyâ, i. e. Carpus Plei [...]dum, and Al Gjemb Bershâush, i. e. Latus Persei. The twelfth is call'd Ras Al Ghùl, i. e. Caput Larvae. By the Iews, R [...]sh ha Sathan, i. e. Caput Diaboli. The twenty fourth Star is in Arabick call'd Menkib Al Thuraiyâ, i. e. Interscapilium Pleiadum. This Constellation is seen in the Meridian at Mid­night in the Moneth of November.
Perseus Shoulder lends her Feet a Stay,
And joyns t' himself; but a large Space divides
Deltoton or the Triang [...].
Call'd likewise Trigones, and Delta, by the Latines Triangulum, and Nili Donum; by the Arabs, Mothallath, i. e. Triangulum; In Hebrew, Hammosciush, i. e. Tripartitus. It consists of four Stars according to Ptolomy and Ke­pler; Bayerus reckons five, whereof that in the top of the Triangle is call'd in Arabick, Ras Almothallath, i. e. Caput Trianguli. This is said to have been plac'd in Heaven by Mercury in Memorial of the first Letter of Iupiters Name [...], of which Grotius in N [...]t. ad Arat. Bassus in Germanicum, and Hyginus write that Mercury at the Command of Iupiter plac'd it over the Head of Aries, as a Mark the better to discern that sign, of it self, ‘—Obscuro lumine labens:’ As Ci [...]ro in Arataeis. Others will have it to be the Figure of that part of Aegypt constellated, which Nilus after that manner encompasses. Vide Bassum in Germ [...]nic. This at Midnight comes to the Meridian in the Moneth of [...].
Deltoton brighter in its Base than sides,
[Page 29]So call'd from its Resemblance;
The Name of this Ast [...]rism by the Arabs (to use Scaliger's Words) ridiculè exearnificatum est: For sometimes they call it Kikaus or Kekeus; sometimes Can­caus, and often Phicares. Which Erroneous Names proceed from the mistake of the Letter [...] Kaph for [...] Phe. Whence instead of Keiphus, which is the true Arabick Name, deriv'd from the Greek; it is commonly written Keikaus or Kekeus. In Hebrew it is call'd Baa­lath Halab, i. e. Domina Flammae, and in Arabick, Múltahab, i. e. In­flammatus. It consists of 13 Stars according to Ptolomy, whereof two inform. Bayerus reckons 17. A­mong which there is one in his Foot, call'd Al Rai, i. e. Pastor; and between his Feet another, call'd AlKelb, i. e. Canis, and upon his Hands certain others called Al Agh'nâm, i. e. Pecudes. The 3d, 4th and 5th Stars in this Constellation are by Ulugh Beigh call'd Cawâkib Al Phirk, i. e. Stella Gregis. This Cepheus was Son of Belus by Anchinoe the Daughter of Nilus, from whom the Persians were heretofore call'd [...], over whom he was King, as likewise of Phoenieia, and reign'd both in Babylon and Ioppa, reckon'd among the Royal Fautors of Astronomy. It is beheld in the Meridian at Midnight about the end of August and beginning of September.
It is likewise by the Greeks call'd [...], i. e. Mulier sedis, sive Throni. By the Arabs, Dât Al Cúrsa, i. e. Inthro­nata. It is also known by the Latine Names of Cathedra, Thronus & Sedes Regia. It consists of 13 Stars according to Ptolomy; Bayerus counts therein 25. And Tycho Brahe hath observed therein no less than 45; besides the New Star which appear'd in the Year 1573. and vanished the Year following: It is resembled by Aratus to the form of a Laconian or a Carian Key, as his Paraphrast Avienus expresses it.
—Sic qualem Caria quondam
Noveratintrantem per Claustra Tena [...]ia Clavens
Formatur Stellis distantibus.—
The first Star in this Constellation is by the Arabs call'd Caph Al Chadib, i. e. Manus tincta. Whence in Chrysoc [...]cea's Tables [...], i. e. Manus tincta, in the same sence with the Arabick. The 2d Star is [...] call'd by the Name of the whole Constellation Dât Al Cursa. The 5th is call'd Rueba Dât Al Cursa, i. e. Genu Inthronatae. The Bright one in its Breast is call'd Sad'r, i. e. Pectus. This Cassiopea was the Wife of Cepheus, and Mother of Andromeda, who contending for Beauty with the Neveides, was as a Punishment, and in Memorial of her Arrogance, plac'd in Heaven with her heels upward. But Tycho gives us a better ground of the Fable, who writes, That Cepheus was a great Astronomer, or at least a Favourer of the Profes­sours of that Science, who in a grateful acknowledgment of his Encouragement of their Studies, gave to several Constellati­ons the Name of himself, Wife, Daughter, and Son in Law; which he received from Cicero, where he says, Nec Stellatus Ce­pheus cum uxore, genero, filiâ, traderetur, nisi Coelestium Divina cognitio Nomen eorum ad Errorem Fabulae traduxisset. He likewise reports that in the time of Cepheus those Starrs, which make the Constellation of Cassiopea, did rise with the first Degrees of Aries: And that under that Constellation the Aethiopians did solemnize the Inauguration of their succeeding Kings in Me­morial of their first Mother, Cassiopea, whom he supposes more probably to have been called Cussiepea. Vide Tychon. Brahaeu [...] in Progymnasm. l. 1. p. 233. This Asterism is discovered in the Meridian partly in the end of March and beginning of May; partly at the end of September and beginning of October.
Cassiopea made conspicuous
Ev'n to her Punishment, seems to deplore
Andromeda chain'd to the rocky shore,
Fearing the gaping Monster of the Deep;
But Perseus still does his old kindness keep,
Comes to her Aid, and of the Gorgon slain
Caput Algol, or Medusa's head.
Shows the fear'd Head, his Spoyl
The Latine Text of Scaliger's Edition hath—Testemque videnti. Testem being interpreted by Scaliger, idem quod praesentem. We have rather chosen according to the conjecture of Lannoius, as noted by Iunius, and with Gevartius (Elector. l. 2. e. 5.) to read, Pestemque videnti, i. e. Exitium & mortem; expressing the sence of the Fable, which makes all such as beheld the Gorgons Head to be thereby converted into Stone. Gevartius confirms this reading by that Exclamation of the Gyant Pallas, converted into Stone by Minerva, as Claudian in Gigantomachia expresses it,
—Quis Torpor inertem
Marmoreá me Peste ligat.
Pestis being taken (as Meursius in Auctar. Philolog. c. 28. observes) for any kind of Death, as Febris for any kind of Disease.
the Seers Bane.
Close running by the kneeling Bull, behold
Auriga or the Charrio­teer.
This by the Greeks is call'd [...]. By the Iews Ha Roah schobid Ha re­san, i. e. Pastor tenens fraenum; and in the same sence by the Arabs, Mâsik Al Inán, i. e. Tenens Habenam; or Múmsik Al Ainna, i. e; Tenens Habenas, to which the Greek Name Heniochus answers, i. e. Habenifer. It is by some of the Arabs likewise call'd Roha, i. e. Auriga, and Memesciath, i. e. Mulus Clitellatus. It consists according to Ptolomy of 14 Stars; according to Bayerus of 32, Kepler reckons 27. Among which the 4th [...] call'd Menkib Dil Inan, i. e. Humerus Heniochi. The 11th, Ca'b Dil Inan, i. e. Talus Heni [...]chi. This Constellation the Scholiast of Germanicus will have to be Mirti [...]us; The Trezenians are for Hippoly­tus, others for Ericthonius, whom Pliny makes the first that joyn'd four Horses in a Chariot, as before him Virgil in these Verses in 3 Georg.
Primus Ericthonius Cu [...]us, & quattuor ausus
Iungere Equos, rapidisque Rotis insistere Victor.

Eus [...]bius in Chronic. makes Trochilus the Argive, who was Son of Callithea, the Priestess of Iuno, the first Inventor thereof▪ of whom likewise Tertullian de Spectac. He is mistakenly by Hyginus call'd Orsilochus. In which Errour he is followed by Corip­pus in Panegyr. 1. in these Verses, as cited by Scaliger in Eusebium:

Orsilochum referunt primas junxisse Quadrigas
Et Currus armasse [...], Pelopemq [...]e Secundum
In Soceri venisse Necem—
Dempster yet in his Edition of Corippus instead of Orsilochum reads Cecropidem, thereby meaning Ericthonius the 4th King of Athens, from Cecrops; others will have him to be Oenomaus. But Theon the Scholiast of Aratus says plainly, That the Constella­tion of Heniochus is [...]; The Representation either of Bellerophon or Trochilus, the first In­ventor of the Quadrigae. This Sign attains the Meridian at Midnight about the middle of December.
Heniochus, who gain'd by skill of old
[Page 30]Heav'n and his Name; as first
In the manner of joyning these 4 Horses to a Chariot, the Antients as they differ'd from us, so they differ'd among themselves; for some made 2 Poles to a Chari­ot, one between each two Horses, for they went aequatâ fronte, all a breast; so that all the Horses were [...], i. e. Iugales, yoak'd, or coller'd to the Poles, Afterwards Clisthenes the Sicyonian chang'd that manner and made only one Pole to a Chariot; so that the two middle Horses were only Iugales; the other two outmost on either hand, had only Reins and Harness, and therefore call'd [...], i. e. Funales, and were at more liber­ty than the Iugales: Of these We have in Suetonius in Tiberio an eminent Example, where he says, Tiberius pubescens Actiaco Triumpho currum Augusti comitatus est sinisteriore funali Equo, cum Marcellus Octaviae filius dexteriore veheretur; which Place by Alexander ab Alex. (who undertakes to explain it) is not clearly understood; he conceiving the Equi funales to be so called à funali­bus, i. e. Facibus Triumphalibus, &c. from the Triumphal Lights, or Torches born by their Riders: But not having op­portunity to say more hereof in this Place, I refer the Reader to Salmasius, who particularly and at large handles this subject in his Plinian Exercitations, Tom. 2. p. 899. to the Figures of the Currus Quadrijuges in the Consular and Imperial Coins in Ursinus, Goltzius, and Panvinius de ludis Circensibus; more particularly to Scheffer, who hath expresly written upon this Subject in a late Treatise de Re vehiculari veterum. Romulus is said to have first shewed the Quadriga to the Romans, as Tertullian l. de spectaculis witnesses: Of the Currus Sejuges, Chariots drawn by six Horses, Pliny mentions the first among the Romans to have been in the time of Augustus, to whom the Senate decreed it as a Triumphal Honour, but by the modest Prince refused.
four Steeds he drove
On flying Wheels, seen, and install'd by Iove.
These are 2 Stars in the left Arm of Heniochus, call'd by the Arabs (according to Scaliger in Sphaer. Barbar.) Saclateni, or trulier Sadateni, i. e. Brac [...]ium sequentes; they are likewise call'd Giedyân, and in the Common Globes instead thereof Maazein, i. e. duo Capri. These Cleostratus the Tenedian (according to Hyginus) is said first to have discovered. They are observed both at their rising and setting to cause Storms and Tempests, and therefore by the Poets call'd horrida & insana Sy­dera; and by Germanicus ‘—Nautis inimicum sydus in undis.’ By our Poet they are said to close or bar up the Sea; So Vegetius l. 5. c. 9. Circa Nonas Octobris, Hoedi Pluviales, &c. Ex die igi­tur tertio Novembris usque in Diem sext. Id. Mart. Maria Clauduntur; and as the first of those days did shut up the Seas; so the later (to use Plinies Words) did aperire Navigantibus Maria; which not unaptly by Vegetius is stil'd Natalis Navigationis, and was celebrated among the Antients Solemni Certamine, publicóque Spectaculo, by the Greeks in their Panathenaean, by the Ro­mans in their Quinquatrian Games: See Turneb. Adversar. l. 18. c. 24. and Steweeb. in Veget. l. 5. c. 9.
Kids next, the Seas barring till the Spring,
Hoedi [...]r▪ the [...] The A [...]an [...].
Then the
This is a bright Star in the shoulder of Heniochus of the first Magnitude, call'd by the Arabs Aiynk, and commonly in­stead thereof Atud. In Hebrew, Ash, or Aish; in Syriack, Iyûtho. All signifying Capellam. This the Poets fable to have been Mother of the two Kids, and Nurse to Iupiter; though others (from the Authority of Agathocles Babylonius) report him to have been suckled by a Sow; the Cretans for that Cause honouring that Creature, as sacred: Of which see Casaubon in Ani­madvers. in Athenaeum, p. 649. But the more general Opinion is, that he was suckled by a Goat, and from thence he deriv'd the Title of Ae [...]iochus, or the Goat-nurst. And to this effect in some Medails of the Emperour Valerianus he is represented in the Figure of a Child, mounted on the back of a Goat, with this Inscription, JOVI CRESCENTI: Touching which see Choulius de la Religion des Anciens Romains, &c. I shall hereto only apply an Ingenious Epigram of Crinagoras in the Greek Anthologie, l. 1. c. 33. upon a Goat, whose Milk Augustus Caesar us'd to drink.
When Caesar did our full Bags Nectar taste,
Whose Spring th' exhausting Pale could never waste:
Me, that he might not want that Milky store,
To Sea with him in his own Ship he bore.
Straight 'mong the Stars shall I be made to shine,
For he I serve, than Iove's no less divine.
Goat, Nurse to the Worlds Infant King,
Who from her Teats scal'd Heaven, her Milk, did grow
To brandish Lightning, and fear'd Thunder throw,
By her own Iove a Constellation made,
And for the Heav'n she gave, with Heav'n repay'd.
[Page 31]Last view the
Seven Stars on the Back of the Ball, by the Latines from the time of their rising call'd Vergiliae, by the Greeks ( [...], quòd ortu suo Tempus navi­gandi ostendant, or from their Plu­rality) [...]. By the Arabs for the last Reason Al Thuraiyá, from the singular Therwa, i. e. Multus seu Copi [...]sus. They are likewise by them called ( [...]) Al Ne­gim, i. e. Astrum. By the Aegyptian Coptic [...]. By the Syrians they are called Chima; by the Per­sians Peru, and [...]; by the Turks, Ulgher; by the Iews they are distinguish'd by two several Names; the first is Chima, answe­ring to the Arabick Al Thuraiyá▪ the other is Succoth Benoth, which is interpreted commonly Taberna­cula filiarum, and represented after the similitude of a Hen, brooding over her Chickens. According to which Interpretation this Asterism is by the Italians call'd La Gallinel­la. These are said to have been the Daughters of Atlas and Pleione, whom Maero Poetria Bysantina (as cited by Athenaeus l. 11.) makes the Nurses of Iupiter, who sed him with Ambrosia; But commonly they are reputed the Nurses of Bacchus, and for that constellated. Their Names Maia, Sterope, Taygeta, Celeno, Electra, Merope; or according to the Scholiast of Theocr. (in Idyll. 13.) Coacymo, Glaucia, Protis, Parthenia, Maia, Stonychia, Lampado. Michael Flo­rentius Langrenus (who as Ricciolus writes was an exact observer of them) adds to them two other Stars, which he calls Atlas and Pleione. Galilaeo hath observ'd in this Constellation above 40 Stars, and Ricciolus no less than 50.
Pleiad's and the
Seven Stars in the Head of the Bull, called, [...], by the Greeks, [...] pluere, because when they arise Cosmically they cause Rain and Showers, or from [...], for that they resemble the gaping Jaws of a Swine, whence by the Latines call'd Suculae, or (according to Theon and Bassus in Germanic.) from the Greek Letter Y. Upsilon, which they resemble, or from their Mother Hya, Daughter of Oceanus, and Wife of Atlas: by Ulugh Beigh they are call'd Al Debarân, from their Position, the word signifying quicquid ponè, vel posterius est. However that Name is peculiarly applyed to the brightest of them, commonly call'd Oculus Tauri. They are sometimes by the Arabs call'd Al Najmon, or Negim, i. e. Stella, and Althu [...]aîya; for the same reason as the Pleiades. In Hebrew they are likewise called Chima, from the Number of Stars of which they consist. These excessively lamenting the Death of their Brother Hyas, slain in hunting by a Lyon, were by the commiserating Gods con­verted into Stars: their Names, Ambrosia, Eudora (or Eudoxa) Ph [...]sile (or Pasithae) Coronis, Prolixo (or Plexauris) Phileto (or Pytho) and Thyene (or Tuke.)
The Plei­ades and Hyades.
Both Parts o'th' Bull; The
In the Catalogue of these Northern Stars our Poet hath omitted Coma Berenices, Ganymed or Antinous, and Equicul [...]s or the lesser Horse; touching which see the Appendix.
Northern Signs are These.
Now see the Stars which 'bove the scorcht Earth run
Rising beneath the Path-way of the Sun,
The Southern Constella­tions.
And those which 'twixt the Tropick are confin'd
Of Capricorn, and Pole that is declin'd.
Near to the Twins behold
This Constellation was first by the Boeotians call'd Candaon, as Lycophron testifies, afterwards [...], call'd by the Latines Hyriades and Hyrides, from his Father Hyreus, of which see the Fable in Ovid Fasto [...]m l. 5. It is by Plautus, Festus, and Varro call'd Iugula, eò quòd armatus sit ut Gladius, says Bassus in Germanic. By the Iews it is called Gibbor, i. e. Gigas, and Kelb Ha Giebbor, i. e. Canis fortis, and Bellator fortis; by the Arabs, Al Giauza, and that for the same reason as is before al­ledged in the Constellation of the Twins; as likewise Al Giebbar, i. e. Gigas fortis. In which sence it is in the Syriack call'd Gavoro; in Chaldee, Niphla, answering to the Hebrew Chesil, or Kesil. It consists according to Ptolomy of 38 Stars; ac­cording to Bayerus of 49; as Repler reckons of 62. Among which the first Star is by Ulugh Beigh call'd H [...]ka, which signifies a white Circle or Mark. By which Name likewise the three Stars in his Head are denominated. The second is call'd Men­kib Al Giauza, i. e. Humerus Orionis, and Ied Al Giauza Al Iumma, i. e. Manus dextra Orionis, vulgarly, but erroneously be­ing read Bet or Beit Al Giauz, i. e. Brachium Orionis. The third Star is call'd Mirzam Al Nagjid, i. e. Leo Strenuus. The 17th and 25th are in the Arabick call'd Al Tagis and Al Dawaib, the first signifying Tiara, the other Antiae seu Lemnisci. The 26th, 27th, and 28th are call'd Mintaka al Giauza, and Nitak Al Giauza, i. e. Cingulum seu Baltheus Orionis. By our English Ma­riners, the Golden Yard; as likewise Al Nid [...]m vel Al Nedin, i. e. Series, seu quicquid ordine disponitur; also Phikár Al Giauza, i. e. Vertebra Dorsi Orionis. The 29th, 30th, 31th and 32th Stars are call'd Saiph Al Giebbar, i. e. Ensis Gigantis. The 35th is call'd Rigil Al Giauza Al Iusra, i. e. Pes Gigamis Sinister; and Rai Al Giauza, i. e. Pastor Orionis. The 38th is call'd Rigil Al Iumma, i. e. Pes dexter. The Fable of this Constellation (to omit others) is by some thus related. Orim being a great Companion of Diana's in her hunting Diversions, Apollo grew jealous of his too much samiliarity with his Sister, and to be revenged, seeing Orion one day swimming in the Sea, his Head appearing above the Waters like a black Mark, he shew'd it to his Sister, and told her she could not hit it: Whereupon she presently drawing her Bow let fly, and kill'd him, not knowing who he was, till the Sea had cast him on the Shoar; which perceiving and much troubled, to make amends she plac'd him in Heaven near the Dog and the Hare, where he seems still to hunt. The Persians will have this Aste­rism to represent Nimrod. It is seen in the Meridian at Midnight in the Moneth of December▪
Orion rise
With stretch'd Arms almost fathoming the Skies:
Nor marching with a less extended Pace.
Bright shining Stars his either shoulder grace.
Three Lights his Pendant Sword obliquely sign,
In his advanced Head three others shine
Deep in the Skies immerst; nor yet less bright,
Though such they seem 'cause more remov'd from Sight.
[Page 32]Him, as through Heaven he marches, follow All
The Southern Constellati­ons are here said to follow Orion, as Souldiers, their General: and Scri­pture it self hath reduc'd the Stars into a Military Order, and call'd th [...]m [...], Militiam Coeli, the Host of Heaven. Vide Petr. Fabri. Semestr. l 3. c. 1.
starry Legions as their General.
Next after whom with rapid Motion bent,
(No Star than that 'gainst Earth more violent)
The fierce
This is fabled to have been Orion's Dog, named Laelaps; o­thers make it Isis her Dog; some again Caephalus his. By Ovid it is called Canis Icarius and Erigonius. By the Greeks [...], i. e. Canis Asterismus, and [...], which Timosthenes cited by the Scholiast of Apollonius reports to have been [...] ▪ the Dog's name. By the Latines it is call'd Canicula. Why it is call'd the Dog Star, Artemidorus in On [...]irocrit. l. 2. c. 2. gives this Reason: The Star Syrius (saies he) is the Cause of Feavers, and therefore by some call­ed the Dog, which is a Creature fierce, and yet fawning, and for that reason [...], resem­bled to a▪ Feaver. The antient Ae­gyptians (as Plutarch testifies) be­liev'd this Constellation to be the Soul of Isis; but more properly (according to the relation of Diodorus Siculus, l. 1.) that Star in Ore Canis, call'd [...]. From which Greek name the Arabick Shiri or Shira seems to be deriv'd. As [...] from the Greek word [...], which signifies to gape, or a [...], which is to make dry, because at its rising the Earth becomes dry, Agente Terrá per Caniculam Rimas, (as Vi [...]gil in Catalect.) and Dogs gape with heat; or ab [...], i. e. aestum, whence [...] or [...], or à [...], i. e. exi [...]anio, quia sudore fluxo nos exinaniat, says the Scholiast of Apollonius, l. 2. Or from Siris, which Name (as Dionysius in Perieges. witnesses) the Aethiopians gave to Nilus, as if it were Sydus Niloticum, by reason of the great Affinity be­tween Nilus and that Star, for in the Dog days that River hath its greatest Inundation. Germanicus and Hyginus give it the Name of Maera; and by the Greeks it is call'd [...]. By the Arabs, Kelb Acbur, i. e. Canis Major. By the Syrians, Kelbo Gavoro, i. e. Canis Gigantis. By the Aegyptians it was call'd Sothis, perhaps in Memory of the King of that Name (Fa­ther of Rhameses) who was a great Erector of Obelisks, and Restorer of the Aegyptian Learning, de quo vide Kircherum in Ob­elisc. Pamphil. & alibi. The Constellation consists according to Ptolomy and Kepler of 29 Stars, whereof 11 inform. Bayerus reckons but 19. It is seen in the Meridian at Midnight about the end of December.
Dog runs; not one for Heat does rise,
Sirius or the Dog-Star.
Not one for Cold more grievous quits the Skies,
The World afflicting with a different Fate:
Nor ever fails upon the Sun to waite.
Who this from
Of the time of the Dog-Stars rising there is much difference among the Antients; (touching which see Ricciolus Alma­gest. Nov. Tom. 1. p. 471. Petavius Uranol [...]g. l. 2. c. 10. and Kepler Epitom. Astronom. l. 3.) That difference arising from the Antients confounding the true and Cosmical rising with the Heliacal, or from their different Computation of the Suns In­gress into the Cardinal Points, or their misapplying the Astronomical Fasti of one Climate to another; but the greater part of the Antients assign it to the time of the Sun's first entring into Leo, or as Pliny writes, 23 days after the Summer Solstice, as Varro 29, as Columella 30. See besides the forecited Authours Salmas. in Plinian. Exercitat. Tom. 1. p. 430. At this day with us according to Vulgar computation, the rising and setting of the said Star is in a manner coincident with the Feasts of St. Margaret, (which is about the 13th of our Iuly) and St. Lawrence (which falls upon the 10th of August) as this common Verse expresses it, ‘Margaris Os Canis est, Caudam Laurentius affert.’ Vide Bambrigium in Canicular. c. 3. & Weighel Sphaer. l. 1 §. 2. c. 2.
Taurus Crown first rising see
What our Authour here applies to the Observation of the Cilicians (which Scaliger conceives is done in respect to the Memory of Aratus) Cicero (l. 1. de Divinat.) attributes to the Ceans. Ceos accepimus Ortum Caniculae diligenter quotannis solere servare, Conjecturamque capere, ut scribit Ponticlus Heraclides, Salubrisne an Pestilens Annus futurus sit; Nam si obscurior, quasi caliginosa, stella extiterit, Pingue atque Concretum esse Coelum, ut ejus Aspiratio gravis, ac Pestilens futura sit; Sin illustris & perlucida Stella apparuit, significari Coelum esse Tenue purumqu [...], & propterea salubre. So likewise Horus Apollo, l. 1. c. 3. speaking of this Star, by the Aegyptians call'd Sothis, In exortu hujus Syderis, Ea signis quibusdam observamus, quae toto Anno peragenda sunt. For this reason was it honoured, as the chief of all the fixed Stars. Hence Pliny, l. 2. Non est Minor ei veneratio quam descri­ptis in Deos stellis: And Apollonius Rhod. l. 2. Argonaut. affirms ‘— [...].’ ‘—Hodie Saderdotes in Co Ante Caniculae Exortum operantur in Sacris.’

So among the Romans, as Ovid in quinto Fastorum testifies,

‘Pro Cane Sidereo Canis hic imponitur Aris.’ And Festus. Rutilae Canes, ut ait Atteius Capito, canario sacrificio immolantur pro frugibus, deprecandae saevitiae causa Syderis Caniculae.
Ghess thence of Fruits what the
The Growth or product of Fruit the Romans exprest by the peculiar Term of Eventus. Among whom there was the Deity, call'd Bonus Eventus, principally worshipp'd by Husbandmen, as Varro de Re Rusticâ, l. 1. testifies. Uti fruges, frumenta virgultaque grandire & bene evenire sinat: (to use Cato's words.) Festus likewise writes that they sacrificed also to Pan, ob frugum Eventum; which propriety of Term is here observed by Manilius, and is noted by the Learned Valesius (in Annotat. in Am­mian. Marcellin. l. 29)
Event may be:
What Health, what Quiet may the Year befal:
Here War it makes, there Peace does reinstal;
And as it variously returns, doth awe
Th' inferiour World; It's Aspect is their Law.
'Tis strongly credited this owns a Light
And runs a Course not than the
Hence the Name [...] applicable as well to the Sun as to this Star, propter splendorem [...], signifying as much as lucere Solis & Siderum in morem. So Hy­ginus (in fabul. speaking of this Star) Syrion appellatur propter flam­mae Candorem; quòd ejusmodi sit, ut praeter caeteras lucere videatur. [...] being by some held to be another Sun, and to illuminate the more remote Stars, within the Aetherial▪ Recess, as our Sun illuminates the Moon and the Planetary System. Vide Kircher. Itinerar. Exstat. Dia­log. 1. c. 9. inque illum Schot [...]um Schol. 3. nec non Gassend. Tom. 1. part. 2. p. 138.
Sun's less bright,
But that remov'd from Sight so great a Way
It seems to cast a dim and weaker Ray:
All other Stars it foyls, none in the Main
Is drench'd, or brighter thence ascends again.
Next, with the nimble
This Constellation is by the Greeks call'd [...] & [...]; by the Latines, Lepus. The Arabs call it Arneb, and the Iews Arnebeth, i. e. Lepus. It consists of 12 Stars according to Ptolomy, as Bayerus and Kepler reckon of 13; whereof the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th are call'd in Arabick; Arsh Al Giauza, i. e. Solium Orionis. Some will have this to be plac'd in Hea­ven in Memorial of the Chace affected by Diana and Orion; others make Mercury the Authour of this Constellation in Te­stimony of the fruitfulness and pregnancy of this Creature; of which Aristotle speaks in Histor. Animal. Hyginus and Bassies write, that antiently in the Island Hiero there were no Hares, until one of the Islanders brought thither from beyond the Seas a fe­male Hare big with young; and that from thence in a short time (every one being desirous by his example to breed up some) they increast and grew so numerous, as wanting sufficient food, they destroy'd all the Crop of the Island, and brought a famine upon the Place. In Memorial of which this Asterism was figur'd in the Heavens, ut Homines Meminissent Nihil his exoptandum in vit [...], si insol [...]ter utantur laetitiâ, quin dolorem capere posterius cogantur; saies the same Mythologist. There is an Ingenious Epigram of Caesar Germanicus in the Greek Anthology, imitated by Ausonius, which may not improperly be hitherto applied.
Trinacrii quo [...]dam currentem in litoris Ora,
Anticanis leporem Caeruleus rapuit.
At lepus; in me omnis Terrae Pelagique ruina est,
Forsitan & Coeli, si Canis Astra tenet.
A Hare by Hounds pursu'd, them having scap'd
Met on the shoar a Dog-fish, and was snapt.
Then cries; us Earth and Seas are bent t' undo.
Heaven's only left; yet there is a Dog too.
This is to be seen in her form near the Meridian at Midnight in the Moneth of December.
Hare see
Call'd likewise Canis Minor, Procynis, and Praecanis; by Cicero and Ausonius, Anticanis. Pliny saies, the Romans had no Name for it, unless (saies he) we should call it Caniculam. By the Arabs it is call'd Kelb Asgher, i. e. Canis Minor. It is likewise by them call'd Shira Al Shamiya, i. e. Syrius Shamensi [...] (eò quòd Occultatio ejus sit in plaga Al Shám, i. e. Syriae) and Shira Al Ghomeisa, vel Al Ghomuz; i. e. Syrius Oculi fluxu laborans, of which we find this Arabick Fable in the Commenta­tor upon Ulugh Beigh his Tables. Shira Al Ghomoisa sic dicunt, quòd soror ejus Shira Al Abùr, i. e. Canis Major, (for the Arabs make the greater and the lesser Dog to be the sisters of Canopus) transierit Galaxiam ad assequendum Can [...]pum; Illa vero manens in tractu boreali, propter Canopum, ita plorat, ut oculi sui lippitudine capti sint. This Constellation according to Ptolomy consists only of two Stars: Bayerus reckons eight, Kepler five. Among which that in his shoulder is by the Arabs call'd Al Mirzam, and Al Dira Al Mesbûta, i. e. Brachium expansum. The other (ad Radicem Caudae) is call'd Al Shira Al Shamiya, i. e. Syrius Shamensis, and Al Ghomeisa, as before. This Dog the Poets Fable to have been Erigone's, which mourn'd to death for the loss of his Mistress, who hang'd her self for grief that her Father Icarus was slain by his drunken Paysants. It is seen at Midnight in the Meridian in the Moneth of Ianuary.
Procyon rise,
Procyon and the Hare. Argo.
And then the noble
This Constellation is by Ptolomy call'd [...], and by some simply [...], i. e. Navis. By the Arabs, Mer­cab, i. e. Currus, seu vehiculum; for so by the Poets the Ship Argo, which this Asterism represents, is call'd [...], and Currus volitans. It is likewise in Arabick call'd Al Sephina, i. e. Navis. It consists as Ptolomy counts of 45 Stars; ac­cording to the Computation of Bayerus, of 63; as Kepler reckons of 53. In which the 3d, 6th, 7th and 22th Stars are by some Arabs call'd Tur'yeish, and in the Plural Tur'yeishat, which Mr. Hyde conceives ought to be read Tur'eis, and in the Plu­ral Tur'eisat, which answers to Ptolomies [...], i. e. Scutulùs, a little shield. The 44th Star, which is in the extremity of the Southern Rudder of the ship (for every ship antiently had two Rudders) is by the Greeks call'd Canopus, and in honour of Ptolomaeus Lagus, one of the Aegyptian Princes, [...]; by the Aegyptians, Sampilos; by the Persians in Chrysococca's Tables, Soail Iamane; and by the Arabs, Soheil Al Iemin, i. e. Canopus Iemanensis▪ (Ieman signifying Arabia foelix.) Some make Soheil or Suhel to signifie Ponderosum, in the same sence perhaps with Bassus, by whom it is call'd Stella Terrestris, because to us Europaeans it seems to sink low, and as it were stringere Horizontem, or as Salmasius (in his Plin. Exercitat. & in Diatrib. de Antiqu. Astrolog.) from the meaning of the name Canopus, which in the Coptick or Egyptian Language is [...] or [...], i. e. Aurum, that being the heaviest Metal the Earth produces. There are several stars of the second Magnitude not far from it, viz. the 17th, 31th and 35th, which by the Arabs are call'd Soheil Telkin vel Belkin, or as Mr. Hide reads it Belkis (that being the name of the Queen of Sheba that came to visit Salomon) and Soheil Hadar, Soheil Rekas or Rekash; Soheil Al Wez'n, and Soheil Al Muh [...]iph. The Fable of Argo (which Bochartus in Geograph. sacrâ will have so called, not from Argos its Builder, nor from the Son of Phryxus so nam'd, nor for that it was built near Argos, nor from the Argives which Mann'd her, but from the Figure of her Built, her length, and therefore in the Phoenician Tongue, call'd Arco, i. e. Navis l [...]nga, or as Hoelelin notes in Appollon. Argon. l. 1. from the Hebrew, Areg, i. e. Textura, à Pineis Textis) is sufficiently known. By the Poets generally reputed the first ship, that ever sayl'd the seas. But Diodorus Siculus l. 4. plainly affirms the contrary; for speaking of Iason he says that he first under the Mountain Pelius, built a ship of far greater bulk than any that were then us'd, for at that time (says he) Men only sayl'd in small Barques or Skiffs. So that Argo seems not to have been the first ship, but rather the first of its kind. Touching which Argument see (besides Fournier and Baiffius) Scheffer. de Militiâ Navali. This sails by the Meridian at Mid­night about the end of Ianuary.
Argo; to the Skies
[Page 34]From Seas translated which she first did plow;
Once tost with mighty storms, in Heaven fixt now,
And deify'd for saving Deities.
Close boarding her a glittering
This Serpent is by Ptolo­my call'd [...], i. e. Hydri Asterismus; (of which see the Fable in the next Note) by the Greeks likewise call'd [...]; and by the Arabs with little alte­ration from that, Alshugia, i. e. Serpens tenuis; or as Scaliger reads it, Asvia f [...]rtis seu Audax. Ricci­olus says it is in Arabick call'd El Hawick and Kirker Aphaak; in Hebrew, Hajah, i. e. Serpens. There is reckon'd in this Constellation by Ptolomy 32 Stars, whereof seven Sporades or inform; by Bayerus. 29; by Kepler 33. Whereof the first star is call'd Minchir Al Shugjâ, and the others from that to the seventh inclusive Min Al A'zal, i. e. ex [...], as if appertaining to the sign Virgo. The twelfth star, which by the Latines is call'd Cor Hyd [...]ae, is in the Persian Tables call'd [...], and accordingly in Ulugh Beigh, Unuk Al Shugjâ, Collum Serpentis; and Pherd Al Shugjâ, i. e. Solitaria Hydri; and simply Pherd, solitaria; quianullae in Circuitu stellae adjacent. The head of this Constellation is seen in the Meridian at Midnight about the beginning of February; its middle parts about mid March, and its tayl in the beginning of April.
Serpent lies,
And by so ordered Lights, seems to present
His speckled Bodies scaly Ornament.
The Crow. The Cup. The Cen­taur.
This by the Greeks is call'd [...] and [...], i. e. Corvus & Corvi Asterismus: in the same sence by the Iews it is call'd Orev; and from thence by the Arabs, Al Gorab, Corvus. It is likewise by them call'd Al Chiba, i. e. Tentorium, and A [...]sh Al Simâk, i. e. Solium efferentis (scil. inermem vel Virginem) and Agiar Al Asad, i. e. Clunes Lemis, and Al Ag [...]mâl, i. e. Cameli. It is seated upon the Tayl of the Serpent, and consists of seven [...], according to the joynt Accompt of Ptolomy, Bayerus and Kepler; whereof the first in Arabick call'd Minkar Al Gorab, i. e. Rostrum Corvi. The fourth Gienah Al Gorab Al Aiman, i. e. Ala dextra Corvi: The Fable of this Constellation is thus; The Crow being by Apollo sent to fetch Water for a Libation, seeing a Fig-tree full of Fruit, but not ripe, made stay there until the Figs were come to Maturity (which Fable, says the learned Bochart in Hierozoic. l. 2. c. 13. seems to be derived from N [...]ab's sending the Crow out of the Ark) and having satisfied his long­ing went to the Fountain to fetch Water; but coming there, meets with the Serpent before mentioned, whereat [...], he returns back with the empty pitcher, telling Apollo there was no Water in the Fountain. This un­truth being discover'd by Apollo, he prohibited the Crow from ever drinking at that time of the Year, and in Memorial of the Fact, plac'd the Crow, Snake, and Pitcher in the Heavens; see Hyginus and Bassus in Germanicum. The Crow is sacred to Apollo, the President of Divination; forasmuch as this Fowl by its different Notes is said to foretel fair and sowl weather; or. for that Apollo, fearing the pursuit of Typhon, is said to have assum'd the Figure of that Fowl; or in Allusion to the Suns departure, causing darkness and night, of the same colour with the Crow, as his Return does the Day or Light resembling the whiteness of the Swan, which is likewise sacred to that God. See Ricciard Brixian. Commentar. Symbolic. in voce Corvus. This Asterism at Midnight is seen in the Me­ridian about the middle of March.
Sols Bird, the
Our Poet here appropriates this Cup to Bacchus; Aratus, Hyginus and Bassus to Apollo, according to the Fa­ble before mentioned: But Pontanus in Urania seems to give it, with our Poet, to the first, where he says, by that is denoted to such in whose Horoscope it is ascendant ‘—Meri Genialis Amor studiumque bibendi.’ It is called by Ptolomy [...]; by others, Hydria, Calpe, Cratera, Patera, Urna, & Vas. By the A­rabs, Batiya; from the Persian, Badiya, i. e. Poculum Magnum. By some it is call'd Alkis, instead of Alkas, i. e. Cyathus, from the Hebrew, Kus, or Kos, signifying the same. Kircher says it is by the Arabs likewise call'd Al­phun. It consists as Ptolomy reckons of seven, as Bayerus, of eleven, as Kepler, of eight Stars, which by the Arabs are call'd Al Ma [...]laph, i. e. Praesepe. It is apparent in the Meridian at Midnight about the middle of March.
Cup dear to the God of Wine,
Some will have this to be the Minotaur; others, Ch [...]ron the Son of Saturn and Phi [...]yra, the Daughter of Oceanus, who taught Aesculapius Physick, Achilles Musick, and Hercules Astronomy; with one of whose poysonous Arrows casually falling out of his Quiver he was wounded in the Foot, and of that wound died, and by com­miserating Iupiter was made a sign in Heaven; call'd by Ptolomy [...]: The Arabs making use of the Greek Name, by whom yet according to Ricciolus it is call'd Albeze and Asmeat; by the Greeks, [...], and in bar­barous Greek, Taraopoz. It consists according to Ptolomy of 37 Stars, according to Bayerus of 40, as Kepler reckons o [...] 56. All which, together with those that make up the Fera Centauri, are by the Arabs call'd promiscuously [...], i. e. Spadices, bright dappled, propter multitudinem ac densitudinem collectionis earum. The 35th and 36th are by the Arabs call'd Al Hadur, i. e. solum, and Al Wez'n, i. e. Pondus, and Muhtalaphein, i. e. Iuratas, and [...], i. e. Pejuratas, as being by some Observer mistaken for Canopus, and averr'd upon Oath to be it, by at other sworn to the contrary, whence the Original of those Arabick Names. The 35th Star is yet by Ulugh Beigh call'd Rigil Kentaurus, i. e. Pes Centauri. Our Poet here omits his Hasta; by Proclus and Bassus call'd Thyr­si [...]s, and Thirsolochus; as likewise the Bestia Centauri, by the Greeks call'd [...], i. e. fera, and [...] à rapaci­tate, scil. Lupus. In Arabick it is call'd Sebu', i. e. Fera, and Pheh'd, i. e. Thos, Pardus. This Constellation gallops by the Meridian at Midnight in the end of April.
Centaure next in a mix'd shape does shine,
[Page 35]Half Man, half Horse; then Heavens bright Temple see,
Call'd by the Greeks [...] & [...]. By the Latines, Thuribulum, [...], Bathilus, Sacrarium, [...], Tem­plum, Lar, Ac [...]rra, A [...]a, & [...]. By the Arabs (according to Ricci­olus) Almegrameth or Al Mugamrah. It consists of 7 Stars according to Ptolomy and Kepler; as Bayerus reck­ons of 8. This was the first Altar (according to the Poets) that ever was erected,
In qua devoti quondam cecidere Gigan [...]es;
Nec prius armavit violento sulmine dextram
Iupiter, ante Deos quàm constitit ipse Sacerdos.
(As our Poet l. 5.) It was fram'd by the Cyclops, and in memorial of the fact constellated. Lactantius yet, l. 1. de falsa Relig. reports that the first Altar that Iupiter erected was in honour to Caelus. Deinde (says he) Pan cum deducit in montem, [...] catur Caeli Stela; Postquam eò ascendit contemplatus est latè Terras, ibique in eo Monte Aram creat Caelo, primusque in ea Arâ Iupiter Sacrificavit. The Deities, to whom Iupiter sacrific'd upon this Expedition against the Gyants, we find from [...] Sioulus Bibliothec. l. 5. to have been the Sun, Heaven and the Earth. This Constellation about the end of Iune passes the Me­ridian at Midnight under our Horizon.
Altar consecrate to Victorie,
The Al­tar.
What time th' inraged Earth a Giant Race
'Gainst Heaven produc'd, then Gods besought the Grace
Of the
These were by the Greeks call'd [...] and [...]; by the Latines, Dii Majores, Dii Valentes & Potentes., and Dii Samothraces, of whom see Dionys. Halicarnass. Antiq. lib. 1. and Macrob. Sa [...]urnal. l. 3. c. 4. They are likewise by the Greeks call'd [...], which Scaliger (in Varron. de Linguâ Lat.) conceives to be deriv'd from a Phaenician or Syrian Original, Cabir in that Language signifying Potens; which Gods were so call'd in Opposition to and Distinction from the Dii Casmilli, Camilli, or Camiri, i. e. Dii Ministri sive Minores, as observ'd by Heinsius (in Aristarcho sacro▪) These some will have to be Castor and Pollux, confirm'd by this Antient Latine Inscription, ‘CASTORI ET POLLUCI DIS MAGNIS SULPICIAE. Q. SULPIC▪ F. VOTUM. &c.’ And this Greek one, cited by Argolus in l. 2. Panvinii de Lud. Circens. extant at Venice in Aed. Episc. Torcell.
[...] i. e.

These yet the Scholiast of Apollonius (l. 1.) says were Iupiter and Bacchus; or, according to Athenian, Iasion and [...] Varro conceives them rather to be Ops and Saturn. Nigidius and Cornelius Labeo (as cited by Macrobius) will have them to be Neptune and Apollo. They are reputed likewise to be Cybele and Attys, as by two Antient Monuments erected to their Ho­nour, with this Inscription DIS MAGNIS, in Gruterus may appear, of which more particularly Pign [...]rius de Magna Deùm Matre & A [...]tide. Others make them to be the Dii Penates: against which Opinion thus Turneb. Adversar. l. 15. c. 21. Magnos Deos à Penatibus diversos facit Maro; Penates enim Dii Penetrales videntur fuisse, Diique familiae: Dii magni, illi qui maximum Imperium & Numen habent, publicéque coluntur, &c. or according to Antonius Goveanus (in Terrent.) Dii Magni quos majorum Gentium Cicero vocat, qui à Terris in Coelum non pervenêre. These by Diodorus Siculus, l. 1. c. 8. are said to be five in number, i. e. [...] seu Spiritus, [...] seu Ignis, [...] seu Siccum, [...] seu Humidum, and [...] seu Aer. By the first, meaning Iupiter; by the second, Vulcan; by the third, Tellus seu Ceres; by the fourth, Neptune, sive Oceanus; by the last, Minerva. Theon Smyrnaeus (in Mathemat. Plat.) reckons them to be eight; [...], i. e. aiunt octo esse Deos omnium Dominos: Thus enumerated in an Antient Inscription upon an Aegyptian Pillar, as cited by the said Theon from the Testimony of Evander.

For so we read that In­scription ac­cording to the ingeni­ous Emen­dation of the Excel­lent Msr. de Fermat, in his Epistle (to Msr. de Pellisson) an­nexed to the last Edition of Diepha [...] ­tus Alex.
[...] &c. i. e.

And from hence the Proverb [...], i. e. omnia octo; which see explain'd in the learn'd Notes of Bulial [...]us upon that Authour. Others make them to be twelve in Number, reckoning them according to this Distich of Ennius.

Iuno, Vesta, Ceres, Diana, Minerva, Venus, Mars,
Mercurius, Iovi', Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.

Whose several Interests or Concerns are thus describ'd and distinguish'd by Sallustius ( [...]) mundum eff [...]ci­unt Iupiter, Neptunus, Vulcanus; animant Ceres, Iuno, Diana; adaptant Apollo, Venus, Mercurius; [...] Vesta, Palias, Mars. Yet these Great Gods, though in degree above the rest, were not invested with absolute Rule, that being only reser­ved for Iupiter, according to Aeschylus in Prometh. vinct.

Omnia sunt Diis concessa praeter imperare,
Nam nullus est Liber nisi Iupiter.
Who was (as Apuleius Met. l. 1. says of Osyris) Deus Deûm, Magnorum Potior, & Majorum Summus, & Summerus Maximus, & Maximorum Regnator.
great Gods; and Iove himself
So Claudian de Bello Getico, ‘—Ipsumque Iovem, turbante Typhoeo, Sifas est, timuisse ferunt—’
fear'd too
He wanted Power to do, what he could do.
[Page 36]When he amaz'd the rising Earth beheld,
How ev'n 'gainst Natures self, Nature rebell'd,
Saw Mountains heap'd on Mountains to aspire,
And Stars from the approaching Hills retire,
Charg'd with dire Arms by a
Applicable to this Place may seem this not common and not unelegant Description of Si­dorius Ap [...]llinar. in Carm. 9. ad Foe­li [...]em.
N [...]n hic Terrigenam loquor Cohortem
Admixto magè [...]ividam veneno,
Cui praeter Speciem [...] c [...]rentem
A [...]gues Corporibus voluminosis,
A [...]te squammea Cru [...]a porrigentes,
In a estigia fauce desinebant.
Sic [...]ormae triplicis Procax Iuventus,
[...] Pedem proterens voraci
Curs [...]at Capitum stupenda gressu;
Et cum Classica Numinum sonabant,
Mex c [...]ntrà Tonitrus resibilante
And h [...]t Superos ciere plantâ.
Nec Ph [...]egrae legis ampliata rura,
Missi dum [...]olitant per Astra M [...]ntes,
Pindus, Pelion, Ossa, Olympus, Othry [...],
Cumsilvis, gregibus f [...]ris, Pruinis,
S [...]xis, fontibus, Oppidis, levati
Vi [...]rantium spati [...]siorum dextrâ.
Of th' Earth-born Race is not our Song
Who by mix'd Poisons grew more strong;
Their Limbs immeasurably vast;
About whose legs wreath'd Serpents cast,
With gaping Jaws which downwards bend,
Did like to cloven feet extend.
Three-form'd srupendious Race! that treads
Not upon heels, but runs on heads.
These when the Gods did sound to fight,
Mock'd at their Thunder; and in spight
Kick'd 'gainst the Skies with hissing feet.
Nor tell we here how they did meet
On P [...]legro's Plains, and Mountains hurl'd
Against the Bright Lamps of the World;
How Pindus, Pelio [...], Ossa flew
Toss'd by their Hands, Olympus too
And Othrys with their Woods and Flocks,
Wild Beasts, Towns, Fountains, Snows, and Rocks.
deformed Birth
Issuing from Ruptures of the teeming Earth.
The Latine hath H [...]stiferum quemquam; by Barthius (Adversar. l. 24. c. 10) interpreted Hostias ferentem. Servius in prim. Aeneid. Hostiae dicuntur sacrificia quae ab his fiun [...] qui in Hostem pergunt. We have therefore chosen to follow Barthius his Interpretation; Scaliger being here at a loss, who conceives some errour to be in the word H [...]stiferum, and would instead thereof read Pestiferum.
Victime-Bearers yet the Gods had known,
Or that there were Powers Greater than their own;
Then did Heav'ns King this Starry Altar raise,
Whose fires ev'n yet with brightest Lustre blaze.
Near which the
This Asterism is by the Greeks call'd [...] and [...], by the Latines accordingly Cete and Cetus, Balaena, [...], Leo, or U [...]sus Marinus; by the Arabs (from the Greek) Alk [...]tus. Ptolomy reckons therein 22 Stars, Bayerus 27. Kepler 25. Of which the bright one in the snout of the Whale is call'd Menkar Alketus, i. e. Rostrum Ceti. That in the Tail, Da­n [...] Alke [...]us, i e. Cauda Ceti, and both these are likewise call'd by th' Arabs, Al Diphdaan, i. e. duo Ranae. There are two also in his hands, (for this Fish is conceiv'd to be the same with Dagon or Dercet [...], the Syrian Idol; which was represented in the upper part after a humane shape, in the lower, after that of a Fish, and by the Iews nam'd Adir Dag, i. e. Piseis Magnus; de quo Seld [...]nus de Diis Syris Syntagm. 2.) and are by the Arabs call'd Al Naaman, or according to Mr. Hyde, Al Naamât, i. e. [...] Cameli. The second Star in this Constellation is call'd Caph Al Giedma, i. e. Manus truncata. The 21th Star is call'd Danab Al Ketus Shem [...]li, i. e. Ceti Cauda Borealis. The 22th, Danab Al Gienùbi, i. e. Cauda Australis, and Al [...] Al Th [...]ni, i. e. Rana Secunda. It is seen in the Meridian at Midnight from the beginning of Octo­ [...] to the end of December.
Whale raising his scaley Limbs
The Whale.
In large Wreaths, wallowing on his Belly swims,
And gapes as ready just to seize his Prey:
As when the same th'
Of the exposure of And [...]omeda to this Sea-Monster, and the Combat betwixt that and Perseus, see the Ap­pendix. The Ground of which Fable may happily arise; for that the Ship in which she was carried away had for its Ensign, the Whale; the Story of which see in Photius his Bibliotheca from the Narrations of Conon; or in regard the Person by whom she was first demanded in Marriage was some Insulary Prince, and exercis'd Piracy, and for that reason compar'd to a Whale or Sea-Monster, of which see Vossius l. 1. de Idololatr. & Scheffer. de Militiâ Navali. l. 1. c. [...]. But not to insist longer upon the Fable; Divers admit of the exposure of Andromeda to this Sea-Monster as a [...] Story; see the same defended by Bartholom. Barrientus, in Sylv. Annotat. c. 1. from the Testimonies of Stra­ [...], [...], St. Ierome, Aegesyppus and Pliny; the last of whom speaking of Ioppa, thus writes: Ioppe Phoenicum, [...] In [...]datione ut ferunt, insidet Collem, praejacente Saxo, in quo Vinculorum Andromedae vestigia osten­dum. And elsewhere reports that the Bones of this Monster were brought from Ioppe to Rome, and among other [...] sights were by Marcus Scaurus in his Aedile-Ship shown to the People, in length forty feet, his Ribs in [...] exceeding the tallest Indian Elephants, the thickness of his Back-bone being a foot and half over. Vide Plin. i. 5. [...]. 13. and l. 9. c. 5.
expos'd Andromeda
[Page 37]To her sad Fate approaching once beheld,
Who the forc'd Waves beyond their Shore impell'd.
In Heaven's South Part, the
The Poets fabled this to have been the Fish, which saved Phacetis (or rather Aphacitis) the Daughter of Venus, fallen into the Lake Boeth, and for that reason constellated; by the Arabs called Al Hau [...] Al Gienubi, i. e. Piscis Australis; by Higynus, Piscis so­litarius, and by Bassus in Germani­cum, Piscis Magnus; and is said to have spawn'd the other two in the Zodiack. It is made up, according to Ptolemy and Bayerus, of 12 Stars, among which the Bright one in his Mouth is call'd Al Diphda Al Au­wal, i. e. Rana prima; and Al Da­lim, i. e. Agger; and Phom Al Hant, i. e. Os Piscis, commonly but erro­neously Phomahant. This glides by the Meridian at Midnight about the midle of August.
Fish then from the Wind,
The South­ern Fish.
Call'd Southern, rises; close to which conjoyn'd
In mighty flexures
This Stream is by Scaliger call'd [...], i. e. fusio A­quae, and is different from that which by Vitruvius is call'd fusio Stellarum, (of which already in the sign Pisces, call'd likewise [...]) and is distinct also from that other starry stream call'd Eridanus, or [...], i. e. Fluvius Orionis. Manilius here gives to this stream as it were a double Head, making it to flow as well from the Mouth of the Southern Fish, as from the Urn of Aquarius, and to unite in the mid­dle, as is likewise observ'd by Gas­sendus upon this Place, Tom. 1. l. 2. p. 543. Of the other Southern Constellations, unknown to the Antients, see in the Appendix.
starry Rivers run.
One of their Heads flows from Aquarius Tun,
Whose Waters by communicated Streams
Meet in the midst, and mix Sidereal Beams.
'Twixt the Ecliptick and the
That is the Antartick or Southern Pole, to us invisible, which our Poet imagines to be adorn'd with the like Constellations as the Northern; and therefore he calls them the latent Bears.
latent Bears,
Which 'bout the creaking Axis turn the Sphears,
In respect to us, inhabiting the Northern Hemisphere. Not unaptly Sidonius Apollinaris calls the Stars on either side the Zodi­ack, Exotica Sydera, strange or for­reign; quasi [...], Extra Zodiacum; as is noted by Sirmondus.
stranger Orbe with these Stars painted shines,
Which Antient Poets call'd the Southern Signs.
The rest o'th' World lies under
That is that part of the Southern Hemisphere to us incon­spicuous, being terminated by our Horizon; for the Antients, as is be­fore noted, [...] vocabant, says Scaliger upon this Place. For this Reason by the Eastern People these Southern Constellations are call'd Chadre Teman, i. e. Penetralia Austri, quasi sint in loco Occulto; as Aben Ezra cited by Mr. Hyde.
Water hid,
Where unknown Realms, Lands to our Sight forbid,
Take from one Sun with us a common Light,
The Con­stellations of the Southern Hemisphere to us in­conspicu­ous.
As being to us [...]. They having Dextros Ortus & Sinistram Umbram: We Sinistros Ortus & Dextram Umbram. And as Macrobius in Somn. Scip. l. 2. notes, Idem Sol illis & obire dicetur nostro Ortu, & orietur cum nobis occidet.
several Shadows, and a different Night.
Where Stars sinistral set, and dextral rise,
Their Heav'n as ample, nor less bright their Skies,
Their Stars as numerous, only thus outvy'd,
In that to them Augustus Star's deny'd,
Which does our World with Rayes propitious bless;
Earths present, and Heavens future Happiness.
That the Extreams which 'bout the neather Pole
The Constel­lations a­bout the Southern Pole (sup­posed) like those about the North­ern.
Deck'd with bright Stars, though inconspicuous, rowl,
The upper Pole's resemble, with
Our Authour here argues [...], that about the Southern Pole there are, or ought to be the same Con­stellations, as about the Northern; which Errour is to be attributed to the Ignorance of the Times wherein he lived, in which that part of the World was altogether unknown to the Romans. But Modern Experience evinces, that there are not only no such Asterisms as the greater and lesser Bear and Dragon; but also no Stars within many Degrees of that Pole. The nearest to it being a Star in the Tayl of the Hydrus, call'd by the Dutch, the Water Schlang. Vide Ri [...]ciol. Tom 1. l. 6. p. 410. Hence Herigon in his Cursus Mathemat. Tom. 1. p. 37. Nulla Coeli pars minoribus & paucioribus Stellis [...] quam Austrin [...] Circumpolaris, for which Reason it may be stil'd (as by Seneca in He [...]cul. Fure [...]e, it is) De [...]ior Polu [...].
Signs grac'd
Like that; where Bears with Fronts averse are plac'd,
And by one Dragon parted; we suppose,
Induc'd to credit what Example shows,
[Page 38]For Reason urges from Analogie,
The Parts unseen are like to those we see.
These several Stations, by large Skies disjoyn'd;
To all the Constellations are assign'd,
The Forms and [...]gines of the seve­ral Constel­lations not corporeal.
Yet think not they corporeal Figures are,
Or all their Members equal Lustre share;
To the same purpose like­wise our Poet in the end of his 5th Book,
Ipse suas Aether Flammas sufferre ne­quiret,
Totus & accenso Mundus flagraret Olymp [...].
Yet this Reason of our Authour Picus Mirandula (l. 1. in Astrolog. p. 255.) thinks only worthy of laughter. Mallium (so he calls Ma­nilius) nisi esset Poeta, Bone Deus! quo risu prosequeremur, qui Coelestes illas quas fingit Imagines paucis stellis i [...]choatas potius dicit, quam absolutas, Ne pluribus [...]bi ignibus accensis Incen­dia Mundus flagraret? But with the leave of that Prince of Learning, our Author is herein (as to the fiery nature of the Stars) defended by most of the Antients: Hence in Orpheus, the Sun, Moon and Stars are said to be [...], mem­bra Vulcani: And Cicero in secundo de Natura Deorum, gives this Rea­son why the Stars are said to be nourished by moisture, ut nihil ferè in [...]reat aut admodum paululum, quod A [...]rorum Ignis aut Aetheris Flamma c [...]umat. Nor wants he the suf­frage of divers of the Fathers, Schoolmen and Moderns: In proof of which it may suffice to in­stance only what the Learned G. V [...]ssius hath to this purpose, l 2. Idololatr. c. 39. Unless (says he) the Stars be of a fiery Nature, I see no Reason why the Waters should be plac'd above the Heavens, as we are told both by the Writings of Moses and others, they are: But now the Reason is plain, to wit, that by them the exaestuating Fire of the Stars might be repress'd and temper'd, lest by their heat and fervour the whole Heavens should be dissolv'd: The same Reason being rendred by St. Basil, St. Ambrose, Theodoret, Pro­copius, Damascen, Beda and others. Thus He. Vide etiam Gassendum, Tom. 1. l. 1. p. 502.
Heaven could not suffer so intense a Heat,
Were no Part voyd, but all with Fire repleat.
Some therefore cautious Nature kept from Flame,
Lest it should hazard the Coelestial Frame,
Only to mark their Figures out content,
And Signs by certain Stars to represent,
Whose Lights design their shapes; fire answers fire,
Mean to Extream, the Lower to the Higher,
It is enough they are not hidden quite.
Some Stars the Moon half full show greatest Light,
But all the nameless Commons of the Sky
Obscur'd by her completed Splendour, fly:
The brighter Signs yet nor their Number change,
Their rising and setting constant and regu­lar.
Nor with less Stars in mixed Motion range,
But the same Course (the better to be known)
And Order, in their Rise and Setting, own.
Nor in this World may Ought more wonder raise
Than that the Whole Reason, and Laws, obeys,
Where Nothing's crowded, Nothing loosely roves,
Or cross to its determin'd Order, moves;
What more confus'd in shew? yet what in Course
More certain? a clear Reason to inforce
Hence the Govern­ment of the World by divine Providence is asserted.
That this World's
Clean [...]hes in Cicero de Natu­rá Deorum l. 2. urging reasons to evince the Belief of a Deity, a­mong others gives this for the last and weight [...]st, Aequa [...]ilitatem mo­tùs, &c. The Aequability of the Mo­ti [...]n and Conversion of the Heavens, Sun, Moon and Stars, their Distincti­on, Variety, Beauty, Order. The very view of which (says he) sufficiently declares them not to be fortuitous or [...]: And again, Quid potest esse [...]am ap [...]rtum, tamque pe [...]spicuum cùm C [...]um suspexinius, &c. What can be more evident or perspicuous, when we behold the Heavens and contemplate the Coelestial Bodies, than that there is a Deity, by whose Excellent Providence they are govern'd? Thus far Cicero, (with our Authour) from the bare suggestion of Nature, truly. What follows, where the World it self is said to be a God, is from the mistaken Principles of the Platonists and Stoicks, who (as before is noted) make the World to be a God, but a Secondary one; for that Power which they primarily call God, is by them term'd Ratio & Mens; by whom they affirm'd the World to be created: So Cicero in Timaeo; Deus ille Aeternus (scil. Mens) hunc perfecte beatum Deum (scil. Mundum) procreavit. The World being in their sence the universal Fusion of the first Divine Mind; for so Chrysippus in Cicero in primo de Natura Deorum describes it: Vim Divinam in Ratione esse positam, & uni­v [...]rsae Naturae Anima atque Mente. Ipsumque Mundum Deum dici & ejus Animae fusionem universam. The Divine Power is seated in Reason, and in the Mind of universal Nature. And this World is said to be a God, and the universal Fusion or Extension of that Mind. Vide etiam Lips▪ Philosoph. Stoic. l. [...]. Dissert. 8.
govern'd by a Deity
And is it self a God; nor casually
[Page 39]Together met, as he would once perswade,
Who first the VValls of this wide System made
Democritus, whose fol­lower was Epicurus, as is before noted. There is in Derision of this Opinion an Epigram of Lu­cilius in the Greek Anthology, l. 2. wherein there is a jocular Comparison between Diophantus, a very little Dwarf, and Epicu­rus his Atoms,


Of Atoms Epicurus did compose
This World, 'cause nothing he thought less than those.
Had Diophantus liv'd then, he this All.
Had brought from him, for he is yet more small.
Or though he held Atoms All else contriv'd,
From Him yet sure he Atoms had deriv'd.
Of Atoms, and to those resolves again;
Of which, the solid Earth, the floating Main,
The fiery Stars, and Aether that creates
Infinite Orbs, and others dissipates,
Consist: All which revert unto their Springs,
And transmutate the various Forms of things.
But who can think this World educ'd should be
From such blind Grounds without a Deitie?
If Chance did give, Chance rules this All; Whence are
The Signs then in their Course so regular?
Rising by Turns, as if by Laws injoyn'd,
None posting on, whilst others stay behind?
The same Stars Summer, the same Winter grace,
Day takes, and leaves to Heaven one certain Face.
What time Troy's State was by the Greeks undon,
Respecting this Place in Homer, Iliad. 6.


Ursamque quam & Plaustrum cognomine vocant,
Quae ibidem vertitur & Oriona observat.
Where [...], answers to Manilius his—Adversis frontibus ibant. These two Constellations being plac'd [...], in a direct line against one another, as two jealous Princes marking each others Motion, according to Mr. Sel­den his Observation in his Titles of Honour (c. 1.) for the Bear being Princess of the Northern Constellations, observes and looks at Orion Prince of the Southern. Which [...] or Position of these Constellations Casaubon (in Strabon. l. 1.) con­ceives Manilius to have collected from the only Authority of Homer before cited.
Oppos'd did Arctos and Orion run.
She the World's Top to circle still content,
He facing her, to round th' whole Firmament.
The times of obscure Night, were then
The observation of the time of Night from the rising or position of the Stars was usual among the Antients in the time of the Trojan War, by which they ordered their Watches, as by those they divided the Night. Instances whereof we have in Euripides his Iphigen. in Aulid. and Rhesus. From the later of which take this:

[...], &c.

Cujus est vigilia? Quis per vices
Succedit mihi primùm?
Iam occidunt signa, & septemgrad [...]
Pleiades Aetheriae (oriuntur)
Volat autem Aquila in Medio Cali, &c.
The Manner and Method of their Observation is thus deliver'd by Attalus, an Antient Scholiast upon Aratus, as cited by Hip­parchus. Since Sun-set is the beginning of Night, and that the Sun is in always one of the 12 Signs; It is manifest, that knowing in what sign the Sun is, and in what degree thereof, it may be easily told, what sign and what degree will arise in the beginning of Night. For the part of the Zodiack which is Diametrically opposite to that which the Sun is in at his setting, will at the beginning of Night be seen to rise: which being observ'd and known, for as much as every Night six signs arise from the East, it may be told what part of Night an­swers to their rising, and how much is remaining between that and the rising of the Sun. But the Errours of this▪ rude observation Hipparchus refutes from the inequality of Time in the Ascensions of the several signs, some of them being less than their Dode­catemoria, others extending beyond; as for Example: Cancer is much less than the 12th part or division of the Zodiack al­lotted to it. Virgo takes up some part of Leo and Scorpio. The Southern Fish is almost wholly in the Dodecatemorion of Aqua­rius: So that their unequal and different rising must needs beget an Errour in the Computation of Time, and consequently the hour of Night cannot thereby be truly determin'd. Vide Hipparch. in Arat. Ph [...]nomen. l. 2. & Marcianum Capellam l. 8. c. 24.
[Page 40]From the bright Stars; Heaven hadits
The hours as they are now distinguish'd are by some conceiv'd not to have been in use with the Antients; for cer­tain it is, says Casaubon, (Ani­madvers. in Athenaeum, l. 1. c. 1.) that neither in the time of Plato or Aristotle, nor many years after them, was the Word [...] in use among the Greeks, as we n [...]w take it: And therefore Pollux reckoning up the Parts, by which the Day and Night were distinguish'd by the Antients, makes no mention thereof▪ Of this Opinion likewise is Salmasius in Plin. Exercitat. Tom. 1. p. 650. with whom Menagius seems to comply in Observat. ad Laertium. l. 1. p. 44. The contrary, yet, (viz. that the Day was then by the Greeks divided into Parts Analogical to the hours in use with us,) with clearer Arguments being defended by Petavius in Uranölog. Dissertat. l. 7. c. 8. And the learned Leo Allatius dé Mensurá Tem­porum Antiquorum, c. 4. And that among the Iews and other Eastern Nations the division of the day into hours was very antient, if not Coaeval with the first division of Time into Days, Weeks, Moneths or Years, Kircher (in Oedip. Aegypt. Tom. 2. part. 2. p. 225.) endeavours to demonstrate. Indeed as to the Romans, Censorinus de Die Natal. c. 23. plainly affirms that the Word Hora was not known among them until 300 Years after the Building of Rome: They dividing the day into two parts only, which they call'd Ortum & Occasum. Afterwards, as Pliny (l. 7. c. 60.) witnesses, the Noonstead was added, call'd Meridies, quèd Partes Diei, bifariam tum divisi, discernebat, says Censorinus. These Parts of the Day they call'd Tempestates; so in the 12 Tables▪ SOL OCCASUS SUPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO. The Manner of signifying the time of day was by a Beadle or Cryer at the Command of the Praetor or Consul. Pliny describes it thus: The Consuls Beadle or Cryer standing in the Court, when he beheld the Sun between the Rostra and the Graegostasis pronounced it was Noon. But when the Sun inclined downward from the Column named Moenia, to the Common Gaolor Prison, then he gave warning of the last Quarter of the Day, and so pronounced. Nor had they any other means to know how the Day went, until after the time of the first Pu­nick War. Afterwards they divided the Day (and so the Night likewise) into 12 Parts, which they call'd hours, not equal, but varying according to the length or shortness of the Day in Summer or Winter, and therefore call'd [...] seu Tem­porales. Which Division or Distinction of Time they receiv'd from the Greeks, who deriv'd it from the Aegyptians, as they from the Babylonians, or Chaldaeans according to Herodotus; The Aegyptians giving to the several hours of the day these par­ticular Names. To the first, Lampé; to the second, Alexidi; to the third, Terpsithi; to the fourth, Phenon; to the fifth, Erebe; to the sixth, Diauges; to the seventh, Proka; to the eighth, Panphé; to the ninth, Loitia; to the tenth, Porphuré; to the ele­venth, Panphout; to the twelfth, Truphé. Those of the Night had likewise their distinct Denominations; But Salmasius, who (in Diatrib. de Antiq. Astrolog.) gives us these, says, he could never meet with the other. The Chinese antiently, and from them the Turkish Astronomers, divide the [...], or natural day into 12 equal parts, each part they call Iagg, answering to our Bihoria, and to every Iagg they apply a particular name from some Creature; As, to the
1. ZehCescu. Mus.
2. Iiu.Tut. Bos.
3. Yem.Pars. Pardus.
4. Mau.Tuskan. Lepus.
5. Iin.Lui. Crocodilus.
6. Siz.Yilang. Serpens.
7. Vou.Iunad. Equus.
8. Vi.Kui. Ovis.
9. Shin.Pijin. Simia.
10. You.Daki [...]k. Gallina.
11. Su.Eit. Canis.
12. Chai.Tungus. Porcus.
Every one of these Iaggs they divide into eight Parts which they call Geh, and may be term'd Scrupula horaria. Again, they divide every day into 10000 Particles, calling each Particle Fenac, which may be interpreted Scrupula Diaria. Vid. Epoch. Celebr. Ulugh Beigh Edit. per Gravium. p. 6. Of the Oeconomical Distribution of the 12 hours of the day among the Romans; see Martial. lib. 4. Epigr. 8. and the particular explication thereof in Stuckius de Antiqu. Conviv. (l. 1. c. 11.) and in Galluccius in Virgilian. Vindicat. (Aeneid. l. 9. loc. 2.) The Invention of Sun-Dyals for distinguishing the hours was not known in Rome until the Time of the Tarentine War; of which see Pliny and Censorinus, as before cited. Among the Greeks it was earlier, being attributed by some to Anaximenes; by others, to Pherecydes of Syrus, of which Laertius in his life. B [...]ebartus in Geogr. Sacr. l. 1. c. 14. makes the Invention much antienter from the Testimony of Homer (Odyss. ó.) With the Iews it was 200 Years before the time of Pherecydes, as appears by King Achaz his Dyal. The use of the Clepsydra or water-hour-glass was first invented by Cresibius of Alexandria, who flourished in the time of Ptolomaeus Evergetes; first brought into use among the Romans by Scipio Nasica, as Vitruvius l. 9. c. 9. The use of Clocks or Watches seems not to be very antient; there not appear­ing any mention thereof earlier than in these Verses of Bato the Comick Poet, cited in Atbenaeus, l. 4. ‘— [...].’ ‘—ut aliquis putet Non Ampuliam Te circumgestare, sed Horologium.’ Which Bato, Casaubon reckons inter [...] Poetas, (though his Conjecture be severely reprehended by Allatius in his Work before cited) and believes that Citation to be the only instance that is to be found in any Monument of Antiquity touching that Subject.
Hours design'd:
Since when how many Kingdoms waste are lay'd?
How many Nations have been Captive made?
To this Purpose, Ennius, l. 8. ‘Mortalem summum Fortunarepente Reddidit è summo regno ut famul' infimus esset.’

Apposite likewise is that of Iuvenal, Satyr. 7.

‘Servis Regna dabant, Captivis Fata Triumphos.’ And of Seneca (Controvers. l. 1. e. 1.) Mutabilis est Casus; dederunt victis Terga Victores; & quos provexerat fortuna, destituit. Quid referam Marium Sexto Consulatis Carthagine Mendicantem, Septimo Imperantem?
Empire and Servitude how oft dissolv'd
By Fortunes Power? and differently revolv'd?
[Page 41]
Meaning the Roman State and People, which rose from the Ruines and Ashes of subverted Troy; which may be illustrated by this of Cyprian de Idol. vanitat. Regna non merito accidunt, sed sorts variantur. Imperium antè tenuerunt & Assyrii & Medi & Persae; E [...] Graecos & Aegyptios regn [...]sse c [...]gnovi­inus. Ita vicibus petestatum Roma­nis quoque ut & caeteris imperandi tempus obvenit.
Troy's Ashes now to what a glorious State
She reinspires?
The Romans bringing upon Greece the same Desolation, which that once brought upon Troy, one of the most flourishing Cities of Asia; To this place may not im­pertinently be applyed that Epi­gram of the Emperour Adrion in the Greek Anthology, l. 1. [...].
Hector thou Blood of Mars▪ if Words thine Eare
Now in the Grave may reach, rise and appear!
See thy fam'd Troy's by a new Race possest,
Though not so stout as Thee, vali­ant at least;
Foyl'd are the Myrmidons; tell Achilles, These,
Thessaly now stoopes to th' Aene [...] ­des.
Greece suffers Asia's Fate.
'Twere tedious to recount the Ages past,
How oft the Sun hath seen the World new cast.
All Things by humane Laws created, change:
Lands to each other known, in time grow strange:
Nations in course of many Years, put on
A various Face; but Heaven wears always one;
Grows not by length of Days, nor wastes with Age,
Always in Course, yet faints not in its Stage,
The Opinion of Xenophane [...] (as before noted) and of Aristotle; defended by Averroes, borrowed from Ocellus Lucanus [...].
Will ever be the same, since such 'twas ever;
Other than 'tis our
Not unlike to this is that Argument in St. Peter, Epistol. 2. taken up by the Libertines of that Age, Ex quo Patres dormi [...]runt, O­mnia sic permanent ab Initio Cre [...] ­nis. But against this unchangeable Durability of the Heavens Seneca declares. Quid Mutationis Periculo exceplum? Non Terra, non Coelum, &c. What is ex [...]pe from the danger of Change? Not the Earth, not Heaven, not the universal Context of all things guided by the Conduct of God himself; It shall not always bold this Order; A Day will come that shall throw it quite out of its Course. Senec. Epistol. 71.
Fathers saw it never,
Nor shall our Nephews: 'tis a God, and knows,
Nothing of Change, which Age and Time impose.
That the Sun ne'r starts to the North aside,
Nor changing Course back to the East does ride,
And to strange Lands a new-born Day disclose;
That the Moon always the same
Appositely Macrobius in Somn. Scip. l. 1. c. 6. Similibus Dispensationibus Hebdomadum, Luna sutluminis vices sempiternd lege variando disponit, and Statius (Sylv. l. 3.)
Servit & Astrorum velox Chorus, & vaga servit
Luna, nec injussae t [...]ties redit Orbita Lucis.
These Changes of the Moon the Antient Greeks call'd [...], and from them the Latines, Phases, sive Apparitiones. The Names of the said Phases or Appearances, especially of the four most notable, are these. The first, (reckoning her increasing Changes) [...], i. e. Cornicula [...]a, about 60 Degrees distant from the Sun. This Phasis is by the Turks and Arabs call'd Nalka, because it resembles the Figure of a Horse-shoe. The second, [...], i. e. Bis [...]cta, siu Dimidiata, at 90 Degrees distance. The third, [...], i. e. Gibbosa, sive Dimidio Orbe Major, when distant 120 Degrees. And lastly, [...], i. e. Toti-lunis, when full and in Opposition to the Sun, or 180 Degrees distant, from whence in a contrary Order are recko­ned her decreasing Changes. Vide Cleomed. l. 2. c. 3. Vitruvium, l. 9. c. 4 ibidemque Philandrum; Geminum c. 7. Amian. M [...]r­cellin. l. 20. Plin. l. 2. c. 14. Ricciolum Tom. 1. l. 4. c. 3.
changes shows,
The Laws observ'd of her Increase and Wain,
That Stars themselves from
Hence the Stars receive their Denomination. Stellae à stande. Servius ad 1. Georg. from the Authority of Varro. Stelle cadere non possunt, quarum natura est ut stent semper unde & Stellae vocantur: and from him Isidor. l. 3. c. 70. Stellae dictae à stando, quiae fixae stant in Coelo, nec cadunt. And Martianus Capella l. 8. Stellae à stando, Sidera à Considendo. Vide etiam Cassiodorum de Astronomia.
falling still sustain,
And run in measur'd Courses, seems to Sense
No Work of Chance, but Act of Providence.
These Signs divided thus by equal space
Heavens azure
Caelum (says Pliny, from the Testimony of Varro) haud dubie à Coelati Argumento diximus, from the Variety and Orna­ment of the several Constellations, (in varias Coelum laqueantia formas, as Manilius expresses it) imbellishing the same, as Carving or Fret-work, some curious Roof or Cieling. Hence Turnebus, Coelum ita vocatum alii censent, quòd sit coelatum im­pressumque variis signis. Vide Turneb. in Varron. de L. L. & in Adversar. l. 20. c. 29.
Celing with Gold fret-work Grace,
[Page 42]Bove which is
So says Aristotle in primo de [...] [...], c. 9. [...], [...], [...], [...], i. e. ne­que Corpus, neque Locus, neque Vacu­um, neque Tempus. But the Stoicks determine otherwise, who though they allow not of any thing corpo­real, yet admit of a certain vacuity. In which separate Inanity, or imagi­nary space (as both Modern Philoso­phers and Divines call it) they fan­cy the World to suspend. Perem­ptorily asserted by Lipsius: Cogi­t [...]nti cuicunque (says he) aliquid vacui extra Mundum vel invito oc­currit: quodetiam Philo Iudaeus pa­lam adstruit, & in Scripturis Abys­sum dici contendit. Vid. Lips. Physio­log. Stoic. l. 2. Dissertation. 9. Et Io. Baptist. Port. in Pneumatic. l. 1. c. 3. Nec non Gassendum, Tom. 1. part. 2. p. 186. Vides [...] etiam Cleomed. Mete­ [...]r. l. 1. c. 1. Inque illum Balforeum. Et Quonem de Guericke de vacuo spatio, &c. l. 1. c. 35. & l. 2. c. 5, 6▪ &c.
Nothing; there the Worlds height ends,
Nor further Natures Publick
In Allusion to that of Var­ro: Mundus Domus est Maxima Om­nium; and of Cicero (in secundo de [...] Deorum) Est enim Mundus quasi communis Deorum atque Ho­minum Domus. Consonant to which is that of Tertullian: Totus hic Mun­dus una omnium Domus est; and of Minucius Foelix (in Octav.) Una Do­mus est Mundus hic Totus. See like­wise Lipsius, as before cited, Dis­sertat. 7.
House extends,
Which Seas imbraces and the Earths round Ball.
All These in mutual Courses rise and fall,
As the revolving Skies, here downward bend
Beneath th' Horizon, and there reascend.
Now to what Compass Heaven's extreamest Round
The Di­mensions of the Uni­verse.
Is stretch'd; what Limits the bright Zodiack bound,
Reason will teach; to whom there's nothing hard,
From whom by space or Bulk nothing's debarr'd;
To her all stoop; She sounds the Depths of Night,
And Heaven it self is pervious to her Sight.
How far the Stars are 'bove the Earth and Main,
So great the space is, which two Signs contain,
And if the Worlds
Known is that Demonstra­tion of Archimedes in [...]. That the Circumference of every Circle is greater than three times the Diameter thereof by a part less than 1 / 7th and greater than 10 / 70. Hence Manilius cautiously advises of this small difference that is to be made in computing the propor­tions betwixt the Diameter and Perimeter of the Sphere. See the same Argument in Pliny, l. 2. c. 23. and in Macrobius in Somn. Scip. l. 1. c. 19.
Diameter you take,
That, with small Difference, will a third Part make
Of its Circumference; Four Signs then, (so far)
Heavens Zenith and its Nadir distant are;
And twice four added its whole Round compleat.
But since i'th' midst Earth hath its Pendant Seat,
'Tis two Signs distant from Heaven's Depth or Height.
Thus All which 'bove the Earth is reach'd by Sight,
Or underneath, by that unseen, extends,
Each way the space of two Signs comprehends:
And six times that measures the Circle, where
Twelve Constellations equal Mansions share.
Nor wonder that the self same Signs create
Uncertain Births mix'd with much different Fate;
Since Each six rising with their Lights entire,
So great a space, and so long time require.
It rests, We now th' Aetherial
Having described the Coelestial Phaenomena and the Di­mension of the Universe, Mani­lius proceeds to the Description of the Coelestial Circles; diffe­ring therein from the Method of Aratus; who places the Mundane Dimension in the last Place. But this Dispositi­on (as Scaliger observes) is only Arbitrary. However he prefers the Method of our Authour before the other.
Bounds design,
Of the Heavenly Circles.
The Circles which the parted Heavens confine,
[Page 43]And of the Stars the splendid Order steer.
The Artick Polar Cir­cle.
Whence call'd the Artick Circle [...]—i. e. ab ursá, (one of the Constellations so named) being totally compriz'd within it.) It is likewise call'd Septentrionalis & Borealis, from its Situation, and contains within it the Northern Frigid Zone, and ter­minates the Temperate. It is dou­bly to be considered, either accord­ing to the Modern, or Antient Hy­pothesis; According to the Mo­derns, It is a lesser Circle Parallel to the Aequator, passing about the Axis of the World by the Northern Pole of the Ecliptick: According to the Antient it is described a Circle pas­sing about the Axis of the World, by the Intersection of the Horizon and Meridian, of an Indefinite Magnitude, in respect to the several Situations of divers Regions more or less Northerly posited, of which Chalcidius (in Timaeum Platonis) Circuli vicini Polis, i. e. Septentrionalis & huic diversus Antarticus neque Magnitudine neque Positione solidati sunt; sed pro differentia Regionum Aquilom [...]ae itemque Austra­lis, apud quosdam Majores, apud alios Minores putantur. See Scaliger upon this Place, Geminus, and upon him Petavius in Ura­nolog. Gassendus, Tom. 1. l. 3. p. 591. Pincierus in Parerg. Otii Marp. l. 2. c. 13. and Grotius in Arati Phaenomen.
One tow'rd the North sustains the shining Bear,
And from the Pole
The Antient Greeks divided the Sphere into sixty Parts (whereof one was equal to six of the Common Division of 360▪ Degrees) This manner of Division our Authour (as following Eudoxus and Hipparchus) here makes use of, though hereafter in describing the Zodiack he takes up the Common way of dividing a Sphere or Circle into 360 Parts or Degrees; which shews the same to have been also usual with the Antients at least about his Time. Ac­cording to the first Division our Authour here makes the Artick Polar Circle to be distant from the Pole six of those sixty Parts, making thirty six Degrees according to the later Division; which yet cannot be understood of the Roman Horizon, wherein Manilius then wrote; but is to be applyed to that of Cnidus or Rhodes, according to the Doctrine of Eudoxus and Hipparchus, whom Manilius here follows, as is rightly observ'd by Scaliger upon this Place, and Gassendus, as before cited. And generally the rest of the Greeks gave the like Situation of this Circle in the Athenian Horizon, and by a Catachresis, universally in any other Part of Greece. This being here premis'd and observ'd, the Reader will the better understand the following Measures and Descriptions which our Authour uses in the position of the Coelestial Circles.
six Parts of Heaven retires,
The other touching
That is the Tropick of Cancer. The Tropicks being so call'd from the Word [...], which signifies Con­version or turning; because the Sun, when it comes at those Circles, turns back to the Aequator again, nor ever goes beyond those Bounds either to the North or South. Hence the Aegyptians, as is noted by Clemens Alexandrinus (l. 5. Stromat.) Hieroglyphically decyphered the Tropicks under the Figure of two Dogs, as if they were Guards deputed by Nature to keep in and restrain the Sun from running beyond his Bounds. The first among the Greeks, who found out these Tropicks, is said to be Thales, the Milesian, of which he wrote a particular Treatise according to the Testi­mony of Eudemus, cited by Laertius.
Cancer's utmost Fires,
The Sum­mer Tro­pick, or Tropick of Cancer.
(Where Phoebus consummates his Light and stay,
Bearing through
Not unlike is that of Nemesianus, ‘—Postquam Phoebus candentem fervidus Axem Contigerit; tardasque vias, Cancrique Morantis Sidus inest—’ Where Ulitius gives the Reason of that Epithete Morantis, quia Incrementa Dierum tardè adeo consummantur & [...], ut vix percipi possit, & quasi sistatur Sol▪ whence the Solstice. The Explication whereof cannot be better given than in the Words of Iulius Scaliger in Problemat. Gellian. Is Circulus quem Sol quotidie signat, non est Circulus▪ sed mag [...]s quaedam Spira. Neque enim Revolutionis finis, eodēm committitur, unde initium habuerat: Major enim Distantiae est à puncto, unde digressus est, ad punctum ad quem Horae 24 eum perduxere, ubi propior fit iis signis quae propius ad Ae­quinoctium accedunt, propter obliquitatem. Itaque cum tendit ad Solstitia propter lineae prope rectitudinem, vix vari [...], ideo Solstitia dicta. That Circle which the Sun by its dayly Motion describes, is not a Circle, but rather a Spiral Line. For the end of its Revolution is not terminated in the point, whence▪ it began. Its Distance from that Point whence he di­grest, unto that to which he is brought by the Revolution of 24 houres, being greater when he is nearer those Signs which▪ are [...]ighest to the Aequinoctial by reason of the Obliquity of his Course. But when he approaches the Solstitial Points by rea­son of the almost directness of the said Line, there appears no variation of his Course, whence it is call'd the Solstice.
tedious Rounds the tardy Day)
Does from the Season, and
This Tropick is call'd [...], i. e. Tropicus Aestivus, from the Heat of Summer, which We in the Northern Hemisphere enjoy, when the Sun is near that Circle. It is describ'd a l [...]sser Circle Parallel to the Ae­quator, whose distance from thence i [...] equal to the Sun's greatest Declination or the Obliquity of the Zodiack, which it touches in the first point of Cancer. Its Office is on one side to terminate the Torrid Zone, on the other, the North­ern Temperate one, and to make the Summer Solstice and longest day Northward, and the Winter Solstice, or shortest Day Southward.
Mid-Summers heat
Derive its Name; and to the Sun's Race set
Th'extreamest Bound: which
That is 30 Degrees according to the usual and received Division; see the like Distribution, as to the Di­stances of these Parallel Circles, in Ge [...]inus conform to this of Manilius, [...]. p. 19.
five Parts of the whole
Declines the Circle of the Northern Pole.
[Page 44]The
This Circle is call'd by the Greeks [...], by the Latines, Aequidialis, Aequinoctia­lis, Aequator and Cingulum Mun­di; Mariners commonly call it the Line: It is one of the great­er Circles of the Sphere, whose Poles are the same with the Poles of the World, from either of which it is equally distant, dividing the Calestial Globe into the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. It is de­scrib'd, according to Clavins (in Sacrobose.) by an Imaginary Line draewn from the Center of the World and extended to the first Point ei­ther of Aries or Libra, and thence carried about by the Diurnal Re­volution of the Primum Mobile. In this the Sun being posited (which happens twice every Year, when he enters the first Degrees of Aries and Libra) it makes the Days and Nights even.
Third, which the Worlds middle Region holds,
The Aequa­tor or Ae­quinoct [...]at Circle.
Olympus with a mighty Bend infolds,
On either Hand viewing the Pole; the Way,
In which the Sun makes even Night and Day.
When by the Springs and Autumn's Points he glides,
And Heaven i'th' midst by equal Parts divides.
This from the Solstice
That is four Parts of 60, according to the Antient Divisi­on, or 24 of 360 according to the later and commonly re­ceived.
four Degrees retreits;
The Winter Tropick, or Tropick of Capricorn.
The next beyond nam'd from the
This is called the Tro­spick of Capricorn, and is de­crib'd a smaller Circle Parallel to the Aequator, whose Distance from thence is equal to the Sun's great­est Declination, and touches the Ecliptick in the first Point of Ca­pricorn; on one side bounding the Torrid Southern Zone; on the o­ther, the Southern Temperate one; making the Winter Solstice or short­est Day Northward, and the Summer Solstice and longest Day Southward.
Winter, sets
The utmost Bound to the Sun's backward flight,
Obliquely rend'ring us his
For this reason says Macrobius (Saturnal. l. 1. c. 21.) the Aegyptians represented the Statue of the Sun with his Head shaven on one side, and long Hair on the other. By the first intimating the time of the Winter Sol­stice, cum velut abrasis Incrementis, angustâ manente Exstantiâ, ad Minimum Diei Sol pervenerit Spatium. By the later, the Summer Solstice, or his full grown Splendour, to which he arrives by Degrees, emerging from those straits of Light in his abode in this Winter Tropick: or to express it in Macrobius his own Words, Ex quibus latebris vel Angustiis, rursus emergens, ad aestivum Hemisphaerium enascens, in Augmenta porrigitur.
niggard Light
By a short Course; but long o're Those He stays,
Whose Lands are warm'd by his directer Rays;
Of this We have given the reason and explication, in the Note upon the Tropick of Cancer, and shall here only add, that the Antient Aegyptians when they would express the Course of the Sun in his Solstice, signifi­ed the same by the Hieroglyphick of two feet fasined together; (as represented by Pierius, l. 5. c. 41. and Casalius de Veter. Aegypt. rit. c. 20.) Intimating thereby the slowness of his Motion, or rather Stationary Condition, to which I know not whether our Authour in this place may allude, when he says, ‘Vixque dies transit—’ As if the feet of the Day were fetter'd.
slow-pac'd Day there hardly passing round.
This from th' Aequator four Degrees is found.
One Circle more yet rests, whose The Antar­tick Polas Circle. Site inclines
Tow'rd the South Pole, and Southern Bears confines,
Rang'd from the Winter Tropick five Degrees,
And near its Pole, as the North's far from his.
Thus Heaven in two divided, Pole from Pole,
Does by that double Summ measure the Whole,
(f) The Antartick or Southern Polar Circle; which is describ'd a smaller Circle, Parallel to the Aequator, passing about the Axis of the World by the Southern Pole of the Ecliptick, comprehending the frigid Southern Zone, and termina­ting the temperate; and is call'd the Antartick Polar Circle, in opposition to the Artick, before describ'd, to which it is equal.
[Page 45]And by
The four Parallel lesser Cir­cles before described, that is to say, the two Tropicks, and two Polar Circles, mark out the Heavens into five Zones, which by the Latines are called Fasciae, Cinguli, Plagae; and by Cicero, Maculae and Orae. That included between the two Tropicks, is called the Torrid Zone, which Polybius divided into two, parted by the Aequator; but he is not followed therein by any. The two included between the Tropicks and the Polar Circles, are called the temperate; the o­ther two included within the Po­lar Circles, are call'd the Frigid Zones. Of these Thales is said to have been the Inventor, though Posidonius cited by Strabo without ground ascribes it to Parmenides.
five Bounds distinguish'd into
The Distinction of the Zones not sufficing the Antients to mark out the various Position and Situation of several Regions on either side of the Aequator; They added divers other Parallel Circles, which they called Cli­mates. A Climate being a little Zone included between two Cir­cles, parallel to the Aequator, or between the Aequator and one Cir­cle parallel thereunto, mutually distant from one another by the Arch of a Meridian, answerable to an half hours difference, by which the longest day of the Year under one Parallel varies from the longest Day of the Year under another. They are call'd Climata, quasi Inclinamenta, as it were deflexious from a right Po­sition of Sphere, or so many st [...]ps and degrees, mounting from the Aequator towards the Poles. The Antients reckon'd only seven, which they distinguish'd by the Names of the Places over o [...] through which they passed: Viz. [...], &c. i. e. Per Meroen [...]per Syenen [...]per Alexandri­am, per Rhodum, per Romam, per Pontum, per Boristhenem. But Mo­dern Astronomers and Geogra­phers reckon 48. that is to say; from the Aequator on each side, to either of the Polar Circles 24. At which the Climates end; the longest day there exceeding the ordinary Horary Measure, unless by a kind of Analogy We reckon Moneths and half Moneths for hours and half hours. Those Climates are again by the Moderns subdivided by drawing in the Middle of each Climate another Parallel Line, dividing the same into two smaller Zones, which by a Peculiar name are term'd Parallels: Of which, the more remote from the Aequator hath the longest Day of the Year differing from that nearer to it by the space of ¼ of an hour. These are in number double to the Climates. Vide Weigel. Me­thod. Sphaeric. l. 1. Sect. 1. Cap. 3.
Marks out the Difference of Place and Times.
Which (Parallels) One Course with Heaven partake,
And equal Rise with that and Setting make,
Since in th' Aethereal Texture they observe
Their stated Distance, and thence never swerve.
Passing a-cross by either Pole
These are the Coluri, which are two great Circles, cutting each other at right Angles in the Poles of the World. Whereof one passes by the Aequinoctial, the other by the Solstitial Points of the Zodiack. They are call­ed [...], i. e. Mutili, because in our oblique Position of Sphere, they never entirely appear above the Horizon, either at once or by Successive Conversion.
two more
There are, which intersect all Those before,
And themselves too; concurring in th' Extreams
Of the Worlds Axis at right-angled Scheams,
Which mark the Seasons out, and Heaven beside
Into four Quarters equally divide.
Of these, through highest Heaven its Course
The Colurus Aequinoctiorum is describ'd a great Circle of the Sphere, passing by the Poles of the World, and cut­ting the Aequator at right Angles in the two Equinoctial Points or first Degrees of Aries and Libra, whose Poles are in the first Points of Cancer and Capricorn, or otherwise whose Poles are 90 Degrees distant from the first Points of Aries and Libra.
one steers
Colurus Aequino­ctiorum.
Parting the Serpents Tayl and undrench'd Bears,
And Tips of Scorpio's Claws, born through Mid-skies,
Of Hydra cutting the Extremities
And Middle of the Southern Centaur, then
Concurring in the Adverse Pole, agen
Returns by the huge Whale: whose Scaly Chine,
Bright Trigon, and the Bounds the Ram confine
It marks; then by Cepheïs Waste doth run,
Her Mothers Head, and ends where it begun.
By th' midst of this, the Worlds Extremitie,
And the Fore-feet and Neck of Helice,
Colurus Solstitio­cum.
(Which first of all when Sol withdraws his Light
With seven fair Stars illuminates the Night)
[Page 46]The
The Colurus [...] is a great Circle, passing by the Poles of the World and Poles of the Zo­diack, cutting both the Aequator and Ecliptick at right Angles in the So [...]al Points or first Degrees of Cancer and Capricorn, and hath its proper Poles in the first Degrees of Aries and Libra. To these two Circles are to be applyed this Vul­gar Dis [...]ch:
Haec duo Solstitium faciunt Cancer, Capricornus,
Sed N [...]ies ae [...]uant Aries & Libra Diebus.
other runs; the Crab and Twins divides,
By the fierce Dog and Argo's steerage glides;
Then cross the formers travers'd Signs is born
By the South Pole; Thee touching Capricorn!
Parting the Eagle from its Starry Fires
By the Lyre running, and the Dragons Spires;
Then cuts the less Bears Tayl and hinder Feet,
And makes its End with its Beginning meet.
The Seasons thus have fixt within these Rounds,
Their Everlasting Seats and changeless Bounds.
These two are moveable: Whereof one Bend
The Meri­dian.
Does through Mid-Heaven from
The Meridian Circle, by the Greeks call'd [...], by the Latines, Meridianus, and by Astronomers Li [...]a M [...]dii Coeli, and M [...]ii D [...]i, Cus [...]is Re [...]alis, Cardo R [...]ius, and M [...]aium Coeli. It is de­scrib'd a great Circle, passing by the Poles of the World, and the Zenith and N [...]dir Points, and hath its pro­per Poles in the Aequinoctial Points of East and West, though Scaliger up­on this place (defended therein by the Learned Mr. Isaac Vossius Not. in Me [...]am.) will have the Poles of every Meridian to be the Poles of the World. It is call'd Meridian, because when the Center of the Sun reaches it, it is Noon or Mid-day, to all such as are directly under that Circle, when the Sun is above the Horizon.
Helice ascend,
The Day distinguishes, the sixth Hour tries,
And at just distance East and West descries,
Changing the Signs by turns, still as we run,
Or tow'rd the rising or the setting Sun,
Cutting Heavens hightith' midst; and with Earth's Place,
Varies the Skies Position, and Times Race.
The Reason thus rendred by Macrobius in Som. Scip. l. I. c. 15. Quia Globosuas Terrae Habitationes omnium aequales sibi esse non patitur; non eadem Pa [...]s Coeli omnium verti­cem despicit. Et ideo unus omnibus Meridianus esse non poterit: sed sin­gulis Gentibus super verticem suum pr [...]prius Meridianus eff [...]citur: and therefore the Meridian is distingui­shed into the General and Particu­lar; the General being one and al­ways the same; the Particular, on the contrary, mutable and diverse, according to the change and di­versity of Place, either Eastward or Westward, and may be imagined as numerous as there are vertical Points. Vide Bartschium in Planisphaer. Stellat. c. 2.
All have not one Meridian; th' Hours fly round:
When first we see Sol rise from th' Eastern Sound,
'Tis their sixth Hour by his
St [...]ler in his Commentary upon Proclus, conceives that Manilius here by the Golden Orb, means the Meridian Circle, and imagines it to deserve that Title, because the Island Taprobana, being as he says, in Meridiem exposita, is famous for its plen­ty of Gold and Silver. A ridiculous Interpretation; for aureus Orbis is not to be understood of the Meridian Circle; but of the Globe of the Sun, coming to and pressing upon the Meridian.
gold Orb then prest;
Such theirs, when he to us sets in the West.
These two
This Place hath exercis'd and foil'd the Wits of the greatest Criticks; the Verse in the Latine is this,

Nos primam, & summam sextam numeramus utramque.

S [...]aliger interpreting Primam & summam for one and the same hour; quia summâ horâ Noctis (i. e. duodecima says he) confecta, incipit [...], as the Athenians us'd to term the last day of the Moneth [...], The Old and the New. But this is far from the [...] of Manilius. Gassendus endeavouring to mend the matter, instead of primam & summam, conceives it ought to be read Im [...]m & Summam, ab [...] inter Imam & Summam Antithesin (says he,) by Im [...]m understanding the Hour of Mid­night, by Summam that of Mid-day; but this is yet wide from the Mark. Salmasius undertaking to put a better sence upon the words than the former, is himself grav [...]l'd; for thus he expounds this and the 3 foregoing Verses. Cum Sol oritur Roma­nis, &c. when the Sun (says he) rises at Rome, it is their first Hour of the Day, but to the Indians their sixth, or Noon; and again when it is Noon to the Romans, it is Sun set to the Indians or their last Hour of the Day; so either of these Hours, viz. the first and the [...] says he) by reason of the Diversity of Meridians is reckon'd for the sixth hour; which Interpretation reaches not the mean­ing of [...]; being justly reprov'd by Pe [...]avius, in Vranol [...]g. l. 7. who thus expounds both this and the three foregoing Ver­ [...]s. [...] est says he) Manilium, Tractum illum terrarum & [...], ubi tum degebat, in medio ponere, & quae utrinque distant [...] longitu [...] 90, cum Habitatione suâ conferre. Qui ad Ortum siti sunt Eoos appellare, qui ad Oc [...]asum, Hesperi [...]s, &c. Hence he infers, when the Sun seems to rise at Rome, it is in the Meridian of those that are posited 90 Degrees Eastward from thence; and again, when the Sun at Rome seems to set, it makes the like sixth Hour or Noon to those so posited Westward: Either of which sixth [...] [...]r N [...]ontides to those Eastward or Westward, they at Rome count not their sixth Hour, but name the one, the first, the [...], the last Hour of their Day. This Exposition of Petavius (whereunto our Interpretation is consonant) speaks the [...] of the words, which I held my self oblig'd thus to clear, lest the Authority of the other great Persons might be objected against us, or impo [...]e upon the Reader.
sixth Hours we count our first, and last,
[Page 47]When from th' Extreams of Light
By Reason of the obliquity and depression of the Suns light at Morning and Evening, the Air likewise being then coolest in re­gard of the chill Briezes usually stirring. Hence the Evening in Ge­nesis 3. ver. 8. is call'd Ru [...]h, i. e. spiritus seu ventus Diei; and what by the [...] is there rendred [...], or the Evening, is by others rendred [...], and [...], i. e. adspiritum seuventum Diei. Vi­de Salmas. in Epictet. et Simplic. p. 125.
chill Beams are cast.
This Circle is call'd Hori­zon, from the Greek [...]. coming from the Verb [...], which signifies to bound, or terminate, for which reason it is by the Latines called Finiens and Fini [...]or, because it bounds the sight. It is divided into the Rational (which is like­wise call'd the Natural and Astro­nomical) and the Sensible (which is likewise call'd the Physical, Ap­parent and Artificial:) the Rational Horizon is describ'd a great Circle of the Sphere, whose Poles are the Ze­nith and Nadir Points, (though Sca­liger with the approbation of Mr. Isaac Vossius makes the Poles of e­very Horizon to be as well the Ae-quinoctial Points of East and West) dividing the Globe equally into the upper and lower Hemisphere. The Sensible Horizon is describ'd a smaller Circle, parallel to the Rational, dividing the Sphere into two unequal Segments, of which the uppermost is the least. This though in respect to any one particular place, it be im­moveable, yet generally it is to be conceiv'd mutable, forasmuch as when we change any Place upon the Earth, we likewise change the Horizon.
others Bound if thou desir'st to know,
The Hori­zon.
Look round about far as thy sight will go,
What e're Earths Surface with Heavens Verge doth close,
And the divided Hemispheres compose;
Couches in Seas the Stars and thence doth send;
Rounding the travers'd Earth with a slight Bend;
That, shifting Place about the World still flies,
Now more and more unto the South applies,
Now to the North again as much inclines,
Now runs against, now with the
The Latine hath—Mota sub Astra. Which Salmasius (in Plin. Exercitat. p. 661) Criticizing upon this Place, will needs read muta sub Astra. Interpreting muta Astra [...], i. e. not apparent; and by those words conceives our Authour implies the Antartick Pole, to us invisible. But as Petavius says, mu­tum esse praestat, quàm talia dicere; for M [...]nilius by—Mota sub Astra, means only the shifting of the Horizon East or West, either against or with the Course of the Stars, as Petavius rightly expounds those Words. Per Mota Astra (says he) Orientem atque Occidentem breviter elegantérque designat Manilius. Vide illum, Uranolog. l. 7. c. 14.
moved Signs.
But wheresoe're its wandring Course it steers,
As now to this, then to that Part it bears,
It changes still; a new Arch always making;
For leaving now this Heav'n, then that forsaking,
One half 'twill still disclose, or hide, and sign
With varying Limits which the Sight confine.
This is terrestrial, 'cause the Earth it rounds,
And call'd Horizon, 'cause the sight it bounds.
To these two others add, obliquely born,
Whereof the
That is the Zodiack; by Ptolomy call'd [...], i. e. Circulus Animalium; because parted into 12. Signs, resembling men and other living Creatures. The Iewish Astronomers give it several other Denominations, as Galgal Ham­mazzaloth, i. e. Orbis Signorum, and Ighul Hammatzaloth, i. e. Circulus Signorum, and Ophun Hammazzaloth, i. e. Rota Signorum; and Ezor Hammazzaloth, ie. Zona Signorum. The Syrians call it Chudronûtho de Malûshe, i. e. Circulus Signorum, and the Arabs Phelek Al Burugi, i. e. Orbis Signorum. By the Latines it is call'd Signifer, and by the Greeks [...], and is describ'd [...] Circle or rather a Fascia or Zone obliquely passing from East to West by the Aequinoctial and Solstitial Points, parted in the midst by the Ecliptick, which divides it into two Parts, the one Northern the other Southern, which are terminated by the Circumferences of two imaginary Circles less than one of the great Ones, distant so far from the Ecliptick, as is the greatest Latitude of any Planet from then [...]e; The Invention of this Circle is by some ascrib'd to Pythagoras, by others, to Oenopides the Chian, by some again, to Anaximan­der the Milesian. Vide Plutarch. de Placit. Philosoph. & Plin. l. 2. c. 8.
one twelve radiant Signs adorn,
The Zodi­ [...]k.
Through which the Sun runs his Career of Light,
And the Moon follows in her Coach of Night,
And five Stars more 'gainst Heavens swift Course ad­vance
Meaning the Primary and proper Motion of the Planets from the West to East; for their Secundary or Diurnal Motion from East to West is not their own, but that of the Primum Mobile, by which they are violently carried about contra­ry to their own Course. Which double Motion of the Planets is elegantly thus describ'd by Germanicus in Arataeis:
Omnibus his gemini Motus, quorum alter ab ipsis
N [...]scitur, & proprios ostendit sydere Nisus,
(Tunc Mundum subeunt lentopede) concitus Alter
Invi [...]os rapit, & Coeli circumrotat Orbem.
All these have double Motions; one their own,
By which their proper Tendency is shown,
That's a slow March; th' other's swift, and bears
Them running Counter, back with the rapt Spheres.
oppositely Nature-guided Dance.
[Page 48]On whose Top Cancer, Base the Goat resides,
Twice through th' Aequator runs it, twice divides
At Libra and the Ram; whose sloping Bend
Obliquely by three Circles does extend;
Not hid; nor, as the rest (discern'd alone
By mental view)
Though our Authour here speaking Poetically, make the Zo­drack a visible Circle, because the 12 Signs moving in it are visible; yet properly speaking as it is taken for a Fascia or Zone, it is but [...], perceivable only by Reason. And therefore Geminus in Isagog. says rightly, that of all the Circles in the Heavens, only the via Lactea is perceivable by sense, the rest being no otherwise discernible than by the Eye of Reason.
to mental view is shown;
But shines a glittering
Hence by the Arabs call'd Al Mintaca and Nitac, i. e. Balthe­us, and by the Iewish Astrologers, Ch [...]hebh Ephadath Haggalgal, i. e. Opus Phrygionarium, or Limbus Textilis, according to Scaliger. Why this Circle above any of the rest is called Baltheus seu Cingulum (from the like denomination of [...] and [...] given to it by the Greeks) take from Ulitius in Nemes. p. 341. Ideo veteres Zodiacum Bal­theum dixerunt Astrologi, quia obli­quus Meridianum secat. And before him Balforeus (in Libr. 1. Cleomed.) Zodiacus Appellationem Bal [...]hei, (quem etiamnum b [...]die transversum gestamus) apud Manilium meruit. Et omnino haec forma Balthei, à dextro humero ad latus sinistrum per medi­um Corpus obliquè ducti, Zodiaci Si­tum optimè exprimit.
Belt with bright Stars grac'd,
And girdles with its golden Fires Heavens Waste.
Degrees three hundred and thrice twenty counts
Its Circles Round; its Breadth to
Sacroboscus (says Rieciolus Tom. 1. l. 1. p. 19. in Schol.) and Clavius upon him, give to the Zo­diack 12 Degrees of Latitude, be­cause for the most part the Planets recede not from the Ecliptick a­bove 6 Degrees on either side. But Regiomontanus extends the La­titude thereof to 16. others other­wise. For Kepler gives 7 Degrees of Northern Latitude to Mars; to Venus in her greatest Evagation 10, or according to Argol (Pandos. Sphaer. c. 29) 9degr.—3′. So that the Total Latitude of the Zo­diack according to Modern Obser­vation is extended to no less than 20 Degrees.
twelve amounts:
Within which measur'd Limits is confin'd
The Planet's Motion, variously inclin'd.
The Galaxie, or Milky way, by the Greeks call'd [...] and [...], by the Latines Circulus lacteus, and Orbis lacteus. By the Arabs according to Scali­ger, Tarick Al lubbana, i. e. Via la­ctea; according to Kirker, Almegiret or rather Magierra, i. e. Tractatrix, and Tarick Al Tibn, i. e. Via straminis; and to the same sence by the Aethiopians, Chasara 'tsaman­gadu. (Isis according to the Aegyptian Fable in her flight from Typhon scattering bundles of fired straw to retard his pursuit, whence the Original of that Name) In Syriack it is called Shevil Tévno; by the Persians, Rah Kahkeshân, i. e. Via Paleamtrahens; the Turks call it Samân Ughrisi, i. e. Pal [...]am rapiens. In the Coptick Tongue it is called Pinóiten Tépitoc, i. e. Via straminis; others call it Viam Romae, and Viam Sancti Iacobi. The Turks, Hâgjiler Yuli, i. e. Via festum Agentium, or the way of Pilgrims to Mecha; by the Aegyptian Astrologers call'd Porta Mansionum Lunae. It is a great Circle having for Center the Center of the World, or rather an oblique Conspicuous Zone, of a different Breadth or Latitude, being no where broader than 10 Degrees, and in some places not exceeding 6 or 7. in some stretching to 8 or 9. Where its Course is not divided. From this Circle, as Pliny (l. 18. [...]. 29.) reports, the Antients believ'd all Plants received their Milky Juice or Nourishment; and hence perhaps is that Arabick Name of Um Al Sama, i. e. Mater Coeli, (quasi ejus lactatrix) Nor less famous for the strange Productions, which Modern Eperience hath observed therein; it being found the Store-house from whence have issued all the new Phaeno­mena's that have hapned either in this or the precedent Age.
other, carried tow'rd the opposed Bears
Galaxia or the Milkie Way.
Its Course close by the Artick Circle steers,
And by inverted Cassiopea tends;
Thence by the Swan obliquely it descends
The Summer Tropick, and Iove's Bird divides,
Then cross th' Aequator and the Zodiack glides
'Twixt Scorpio's burning Tail, and the left Part
Of Sagittarius, near the fiery Dart;
Then by the other Centaure's Legs and Feet
Winding, remounts the Skies (again to meet)
By Argo's Topsail and Heaven's middle Sphere,
Passing the Twins t' o'retake the Charioteer;
Thence Cassiopea seeking Thee does run,
O're Perseus Head, and ends where it begun.
Three middle Circles and the Zodiack too
Twice passing, and by that as oft past through.
[Page 49]Nor needs it to be sought; its obvious Course
It self illustrates, and the sight doth force;
For in the azure skies its candid Way
Shines like the dawning Morn, or closing Day;
And as by often passing o're some Green,
An even Path, parting the Mead, is seen;
Or as a Ship plowing the Seas smooth Plain,
Of foaming Bubbles leaves a silver Train:
So shines its milky Path in the dark Night,
Parting the blew Skies with its numerous Light.
And as through Clouds the Rainbow does extend,
So on Olympus Height shows its white Bend,
And Mortals fills with Wonder, whilst they spy
New Lights unknown Flames darting through the sky.
The sacred Causes humane Breasts enquire,
Whether the Heavenly
The Opinion of Diodorus, who conceiv'd the via lactea to be a Coelestial fire, of a dense and compacted Nature, shewing it self through the Clefts of the starting and dividing Hemispheres, as Ma­crobius in Somn. Scip. (l. 1. c. 15.) expresses it, Ignem densatae concre­taeque naturae, in unam curvi Limitis Semitam Discretione Mundanae fa­bricae coacervante concretum. Hence says Gassendus we may observe Ge­nium Stoicae Providentiae. They calculating the Destruction of the World to commence from the Breach or loosening of the Com­missures of the closed Globe. To which doubtless Manilius here al­ludes. Vide Gassend. Tom. 1. l. 1. p. 506, 507.
Segments there retire
Various O­pinions concerning the Ga­laxie.
(The whole Mass shrinking) and the parting Frame
Through cleaving Chinks admits the stranger flame?
Astonishment must sure their Senses reach
To see the Worlds wounds, and Heavens gaping breach!
Or meets Heaven here? and this white cloud appears
The fancy of Theophrastus, that great Philosopher, who de­clar'd the Galaxie to be no other than the soldering and knitting to­gether of the Hemispheres. So Macrobius delivers it, Lacteum dixit esse Compagem, quâ de duobus Hemi­sphaeriis Coeli Sphaera solidata est; & ubi O [...]ae convenerint notabilem Claritatem videri. Vide illum loco [...]oitat.
The Cement of the close-wedg'd Hemispheres?
Or seems that old Opinion of more sway
That the Sun's
Oen [...]pides Chius (according to Achilles Tatius in Arat. Phaeno­men.) affirmed that this Circle was antiently the Course of the Sun; till frighted from that Tract by Thyestes his bloody Banquet, he chose this he now holds in the Zo­diack, but left behind him the Im­pression of his former Course. Of which ridiculous Opinion was likewise Metrodorus, and some other Pythagoreans, whereof Plutarch in Placit. Philosoph. l. 3. c. 1.
Horses here once ran astray,
And a new Path mark'd in their straggling flight
Of scorched Skies, and Stars adusted Light,
Changing to paler white Heavens azure Face,
And with the burnt Worlds Ashes strew'd the Place?
Fame likewise from old Time to us succeeds
See Ovid Metamorphos. l. 2. and Plutarch loco citat.
Phaëton driving his Fathers Steeds
Through radiant Signs, and with a wounding Eye
Viewing th' approached Beauties of the Sky,
[Page 50](Whilst in his Chariot proud he childlike plays,
And things yet greater than his Sire essays)
Left the known Path, and a rough Tract imprest
In the smooth Skies, whilst wand'ring Flames infest
Th' affrighted Signs, not brooking the loose Course
Of th' erring Chariot and ill-guided Horse.
Hence the whole World became a fiery spoyl,
And burning Cities made Earths funeral Pile;
When from the hurried Chariot Lightning fled,
And scattered Blazes all the Skies o'respred;
By whose approach new Stars enkindled were,
Which still as Marks of that sad Chance appear.
Nor must that gentler Rumour be supprest,
Eratosthenes as cited by Ac [...]iller Tatius in Arati Phaenomen. is reputed the Father of this Fable, in his Book entituled [...], i. e. Partitio (or rather [...], i. e. Asterismi) which is by Achilles Tatius thus re­lated. [...], &c. Hercules being an In­fant sucking at Juno's breast, and too hardly pressing the Nipple, she suddain­ly withdrew it, and spilt the milk, which form'd this Circle in the Hea­vens. The like (says he) is re­ported by the same Eratosthenes of Mercury's sucking Iuno.
Milk once flowing from fair Iuno's Breast,
Stain'd the Coelestial Pavement; from whence came
This Milky Path, its Cause shown in its Name.
Or is't a
This is the true Cause of the G [...]laxie; which long since by Con­jecture and probable Reason was asserted by Democritus, as Plutarch (in Placitis Philosoph.) attests. But since the Invention of the Telescope, clearly demonstrated by Galilaeo, Kepler, and others.
Crowd of Stars crowning the Night?
A candid Diadem of condens'd Light?
The antient Ethnicks believed the condensed light of the Milky way to proceed from the Crowd and multitude of valiant, wise, and Pious Souls inhabiting that Circle. Hence Macrobius in Somn. Scipionis. Rursus filium Pater, ut in Deos Piu [...], nt in homines Iustus esset, hortatus Praemium adjecit, Ostendens Lacteum Circulum, virtutibus debitum, & Beatorum Coetu r [...]fertum. Believ'd no less even by Christians, (as is manifest by that Prayer of Ausonius in Ephemeride:
Pande viam quá me post vincula Corporis aegri,
In sublime feram; puri quá lactea Coeli
Semita ventesae superat vag a lumina Lunae:
Quá Proceres abiére Pii.—)
Of the Original of which Errour La Cerda (in Virgil. Bucolic. Eclog. 5.) from the Authority of Philo ( [...]) gives this Reason. In the highest Heavens (says Philo) are most pure Souls, which the Greek Philosophers call Heroes; Moses from their Office, Angels. Whence it may appear that the Heathens having some dark Notion of the Angels, called them by the Names o [...] their Heroes, and fixed them here. Vide etiam Turneb. Adversar. l. 13. c. 2.
valiant Souls freed from corporeal Gives
Believ'd antiently the Sea [...] of Heroick Souls.
Thither repair and lead Aetherial Lives?
There the
Agamem [...]on and [...] the Sons of Atreus, Kings of Mycenae and Sparta, and Generals of the Grecian Forces against the Trojans.
Atrides, there th' Aeacides,
Son of Tydeus and Deiphile, King of Ae [...]olia, one of the most valiant Commanders of the Greeks against the Tr [...]jans.
Diomede; He, who through Lands and Seas
(e) [...] The Grand-child of Ae [...]cus by Pel [...]us and The [...]is, the most signal of the Greeks in the Trojan War, and Pyr [...]bus or [...] his Son.
[Page 51]His Triumphs over conquer'd Nature rear'd,
That Epithete being pecu­liar to him, who is likewise call'd [...] & [...], ob mu [...]tiformem prudentiae varietatem, says Coelius Rhodigin. l. 14. c. 18. and Polyeides à perspicaci solertiâ re­rúmque prudentia, as Ianus Parrha­sius Syllog. 4. Epistol. 39. The My­thology of Ulysses (by which is chiefly denoted Wisdom, quae in­victa per omnia pericula intrepidè per­transit) See in Natalis Comes l. 9. c. 1.
Subtle Ulysses, We believe inspher'd.
There Nestor's thron'd among the Grecian Peers,
Crown'd with
‘—Senectâ Ins [...]gnem Triplici—’

Says the Original in an indefinite sence, by Senecta expressing what Homer (Ili [...]d. 1.) calls [...], i. e. aetatem. seu aevum. Hence Nevius in Alceste (as cited by Aulus Gellius) calls Nestor Trisech-senem, and by Horace he is stil'd Senex [...]ter Aevo functus. But there is much difference among the Antients about the extent of this [...] or Aetas; the same being diversly interpreted by divers. Herodicus, as cited by Censorinus de Die Natal. c. 171. stretches it no further than to 25 years. Zenon and Hera­clitus to 30, with whom consents Artemidorus Oneirocrit. l. 2. c. 75 according to which Computation Porphyrius (in libro de Homericis Quaestionibus) and Eustathius determine of the longevity of Nestor. Others inlarge it, making 3 [...] equal to 100 years. So Herodotus l. 2. and Clemens Alexandrinus Stromat. l. 1. p. 335. But taken in its greatest extent, a [...] or Ae­tas amounts to no less than 100 years, as appears by Genes. c. 15. v. 13 and 16. and according to this Computation most of the Latines sum up the Age of Nestor. So Ovid in the person of Nestor:

‘—Vixi Annos bis Centum, nune tertia vivitur aetas. In which sence Tibullus, Propertius and Iuvenal are to be taken, when they say of Nestor that he liv'd terna and tri [...] Saecul [...], and so we have adventured to interpret [...] Senect [...]m. Vide Francisc. Floridum Sabinum. Lect. sub [...]isiv. l. 2. c. 3.
a triple Century of years.
M [...]mnon the Son of Aurora by Tithon, who came to the succour of Troy with 20 Thousand Foot, and 200 Chariots, being sent (according to Diod [...]rus Siculus, l. 2.) by Teutamo, King of the Assyrians, slain by Achilles, or rather by the Treache­ry of the [...], famous for the yearly combat performed at his Monument by the Fowls called Aves Memnoniae, raised from his Ashes, as it were in an Annual Parentation to his Memory. Of which see Ovid Metamorphos. l. 13. Pliny l. 10. c. 26. Solinus, and his Exercitator Salmasius Tom. 2 p. 870. and 871. Nor less signal for his Statue at Thebes in Ae­gypt after the fashion of a man sitting, of an entire black Marble, the upper part being broken off from the seat by some Earth-quake, as both Strabo and Pausanius, eye-witnesses, report; which every day at the Sun rising, or as Phil [...]stratus says, when touched by the Sun-Beams, rendred a sound not unlike that of a Harp or Lute. Chearful at the Suns approach, at his deparure or setting, sad. Strabo yet doubting whether the Musical sound proceeded from that Cause, or from some Artif [...]ce, within the Basis of the Statue, or from some of the Company or by-standers. Vide Strab [...]nem l. 17: The Satyrist Iuvenal (Satyr. 1.) ascribes it to Magick. ‘Dimidio Magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae.’ See likewise Coelius Rhodiginus Antiqu. lect. libr. 22. c. 5. and Scho [...]tus in Ortel. Tabul.
Aurora's Black Son, He who
Sarpedon King of Lycia, Son of Iupiter and Europa, according to Herod [...]tus and [...] Sicu [...]us; but as Homer will, of Iupiter and Laodamia; slain in the defence of the Trojans against the Greeks by Patroclus, of whom Iupiter in Virgil, ‘—Occidit unà Sarpedon mea Progenies—’

Who is said to have mourned his loss with tears of blood, as Homer Iliad 16. Ausonius bestowing upon him this Epitaph.

Sarpedon Lycius, geni [...]us Iove, Numine Patris
Sperabam Coelum, sed teg or hoc tumulo,
Sanguineis fletus lachrymis, beu ferrea fata!
E [...] [...] luctum qui probibere potest?
I Lycia's King, Iove's Son, who thought to gain
Heaven by my Birth, Sarpedon, here lie slain:
Wept for with bloody Tears; dire fate! must he
Know grief, who souls from grief can only free?
Lycia sway'd
Iove's Royal Issue; and Thou
[...]. Daughter of Mars, according to Diodorus Siculus (l. 2.) whence by our Poet, stil'd M [...]vortia Virgo; and by Calaber, l. I. [...], Empress of the Amazons [...], signal for her valour against the Greeks in the defence of Ili [...]m, fall­ing at length by the destroying hand of Achilles, which see in Calaber. [...].
Martial Maid!
The Kings whom Asia did or Greece beget,
To the same purpose Mela. l. 2. c. 3. Macedonum Populi centum quinquaginta u [...]bes inhabitant, quarum Pella & Maxima & Illustris. Alumni efficiunt; Philippus Graeciae Domitor, Alexander eti [...]m Asiae. It was seated upon a Lake, not far from the Sea, into which run the two Rivers, Axius, now called Bardari or Vardari, and by some Vistrizz [...], and Ludias, now Castoro. The Greeks at this day call it [...], i. e. Paru [...] Palatia, where are dayly dig'd up Marbles with Antient Inscriptions, and the foundations of Princely Buildings, in the Place, where the Inhabitants believe the Pallace of Philip and Alexander stood, as the learned Lucas [...] (in Annotat. in Or [...]elium) from the Authority of Critopulus reports. By the Romans it was called Colonia Iulia Augusta, being made a Colony either by Augustus Caesar, or some other of the Roman Emperours, as the curiously diligent Spanhemius proves from the Testimony of Antient Medails, in Dissertat. de Prae [...]t. & usu Numism Dissert. 9. Vide etiam Pa [...]in in Num. Imper. Rom. p. 195 and 370. By the Turks it is at this day call'd Ieniza, or Ienizza, which in their Language signifies a New Town.
Pella justly greatest in the Great.
[Page 52]There those whom Wisdom hath exalted, shine;
The Athenian Law g [...]r, who deserv'd that Epithete, [...]is [...] M [...]deramine Legibus; for the Justice and Equity of his Laws; as Ammianus Marcellinus (l. 22.) at­test [...] ▪ who further adds that the Model of his Laws, Romano quoque Iu [...]i maximum addidit Firmamen­tum, added also to the Roman State the greatest Foundation. For the Ro­m [...]s as Li [...]y (l. 3.) writes, agree­ing concerning Laws in General, but differing about the Law-giver, sent Embassadors to Athens, Sp. [...] A [...]bus, A. Manlius, and P. Sulpitius Camerinus, command­ing them to transcribe the renown­ed Laws of Solon: which trans­ferr'd out of the Books of Solon, the Decemviri expounded in the 12 Tables, as Aurel. Victor. de Viris Illustr.
Solon, stout
The famous Spartan Legislator; who to ennoble his Laws pretended he received them from Apollo, as Cicero (de Divi­ [...]. l. 1.) or according to Lucian (in Astrolog.) [...], deriv'd from his skill in A­stronomy; He contemperating his Laws according to the Course and Influence of the Celestial Bodies. Hence one of his Laws was, that the Spartans should never go forth to War before the full of the Moon. But rather according to the Scholiast of Thucydides (in l. 2.) really comp [...]l'd out of the Laws of the Cretans and Aegyptians. See besides Plutarch (in vita Lycurgi) the learned Io. Meu [...]sius Miscellan. Lacenic. l. 2. c. 5.
Lycurgus, the
That Epithete being given him for the excellency of his Stile, Manners, and Philosophy; of which Cicero in Tusculan. l. 9. Credamus Panaetio (speaking of Plato) quem omnibus l [...]cis Divinum, quem Sapientissimum, quem Homerum Philosophorum appellat; nay he sticks not elsewhere to call him Philosophorum Deum. By Numenius in Clemens Alexandrinus (Stromat. l. 1.) he is stil'd [...]. Moses Articissans. Vide etiam Suidam in voce [...].
Plato, and
Socrates the Instructor of Plato.
He who made him such; whose Doom
The unjust Condemnation of Socrates brought a General Calumny upon Athens. Hear Socrates in defence of him­self in Xenophons Apologie [...], &c. That I die unjustly will not trouble me. It is not a reproach to me, but i [...] th [...]se that condemn'd me. Nor brought it only a Calumny, but a Calamity likewise; for as Eunaplus (in Aedesio) observes, from thence forward the Athenians did nothing considerable, but the City by degrees decay'd, and with it all Greece.
condemns his Athens: He
Scaliger by Persidis Victor (in the Original) understands Xerxes the Persian Monarch; so likewise Tanaquil Faber (not. in Lucret.) who instead of Victor would read Rector. We rather conceive Themistocles to be here meant, Authour of that signal Defeat given to Xerxes his Naval Forces, before Salamis, wherein was the strength of all Persia, (of which in Herodotus, l. 8.) For what had timorous Xerxes to do among the valiant Heroes? The Verse in the Latine is thus commonly read, ‘Persidis & Victor strârat qui Classibus aequor.’ Gronovius (in Di [...]trib. ad S [...]atii Sylv.) instead of qui, reads quae, which gives us clearly the sence of the Verse according to our Interpretation.
by whom
Persia was foyl'd, which strow'd with Fleets the Main,
And Roman Worthies, the more numerous Train.
There's all their
Festus (in breviari [...]) Regnaverunt Romae per annos 243. Reges numero septem, &c. Romulus the first, who Reigned 37 years, (then the Senate for one year) Numa P [...]mpilus 43. Tullus Hostilius 32. Ancus Marcus 24. Priscus Tarquinius 38. Servius Tullius 44▪ & Tarquinius Superbus 25. in the last of which years he was expell'd by Brutus and his Faction.
Kings but the Proud Tarquin; there
The Story of the 3 Curiatii and the 3 Horatii Brethren, the first Albans, the other Romans, (who when the two Armies under the Command of Metius Suffetius, General of the Albans, and Tullus Hostilius King of the Romans were ready to joyn, upon Parl [...]y, were chosen out on both sides to end the quarrel by Combate) is sufficiently known, recorded by Livius, l. 1. Dionys. Halicarnass. l. 3. Lucius Florus l. 1. c. 3. Aurel. Victor de viris Illustr. and others. One of the Horatii only sur­viving the Duel, to which Manilius elsewhere alludes. l. 2.
Nulla Acies tantum vicit; pendebat ab uno
Roma viro—
No Battle ever was so fought; Rome's state
Depended upon one man's single Fate.
Th' Horatii, who their Sides sole Army were;
So Sidenius Apollinaris in Carmine de Narbone, ‘—Trunco Mutius eminet lacerto.’

Than whom none is more celebrious in the Roman Stories; his daring Attempt compriz'd in this Epigram in Catalect. Veter. P [...]t.

Lictor [...]m p [...]o Regen [...]eans nunc Mutius ultro
Sacrific [...] propriam c [...]ncremat igne Manum.
Miratur Porsenna virum, poenámque relaxans
Maxime cum obs [...]ssis soederà Victor in [...].
Plus flammis P [...]triae confert quàm for tibus Armis,
Una d [...]mans Bellum funere dextra suo.
Stead of the King his Lictor Mutius slew,
Then makes his Hand in Flames its Errour rue.
Porsenna wonders; does his Pains release,
And Victor with th' e'en vanquish'd makes a Peace.
More to his Country, than stout Arms and Swords,
By its self Ruine one Brave Hand affords.
Rewarded▪ by the Senate with the Ground where Porsenna pitch'd his Pavilion and Camp; call'd from thence Mutia Prata; and honour'd with a Statue; which seems too great a Reward for an Act of Desperate Assasination, (for it is censur'd no other by Tertullian in Apologet.) and derogatory from the Roman Magnanimity to encourage or recompence such an Attempt against a free Prince, waging a fair and lawful War. But Paganinus Gaudentius excuses the Roman Senate, as rewarding the [...], not Intention of his Act. Vide [...]um de 'Fatti del Grand. Alessandro. See likewise Alberic. Gentilis arguing upon this Act of Scaevola's Pr [...] & C [...]n. l. 1. & 2. de Armis Roman.
Scaevola glorying in his Arms stump; then,
[Page 53]
A Roman Virgin, one of the Hostages (amongst others of her Sex) in Porsenna's Camp, who one Night deceiving her Keepers lead her Fellows within the shot and darts of the Enemies to take the Tiber and swim to Rome for their Liberty: For which Fact admir'd even by Porsenna, who extoll'd Rome as happy not only in breed­ing Men of Valour, but Virgins of like Bravery; The Romans per­petuating her Memory by a Bra­zen Equestral Statue at the Head of the via sacra: under which, as Aldus Manutius (in Cicer. Offic. l. [...].) affirms, were these Verses engraven▪ ‘VOS ETENIM JUVENES ANIMUM GERITIS MULIEBRE ILLA VIRAGO VIRI—’ Paul Merula conceiving Ennius to be the Authour of those Verses in 4 Annal. and to be the very Encomium which Porsenna gave of her daring spirit. This Statue Dionys. Halicarnass. l. 5. reports to have been destroyed by the firing of the Neigh­bouring Houses before his Time. See likewise Livy l. 1. Plutarch in Vita Poplicolae Valer. Max. l. 3. c. 2. and Pliny l. 34. c. 6. who yet from the Authority of Annius Faecialis reports it was not Claelia but Valeria, the Daughter of Publicola that was so honoured. But it were Injury to deprive this Lady of her Antient Merit, whose Story affords such Romantique Divertise­ment to our Modern Ladies.
Claelia although a Maid more Brave than Men.
Horatius Cocles, so called for having formerly lost one of his eyes in a Combat; renowned▪ [...] his Valour in singly de­fending the Sublician Bridge against a whole Troop of the Thuscans, until the Bridge (as he direct [...]) was cut down behind him, who then, armed as he was, threw himself into the Tiber, crying out, Veniat si quis vult sic euntem sequi; and swam safe (notwithstanding a multitude of Darts and Javelins thrown after him) to Rome: yet Polybius (l. 6.) expresly affirms him to have perished in the Attempt. However it was, he is said for this eminent piece of service to have been by the Romans rewarded with as much ground, as could be ploughed in one day, and honoured with a Statue in the Comitium with a Civick Wreath or Mural Crown. Which Statue of his coming after to be stricken with Thunder; The Romans consulting the E­trurian South-sayers about the Omen, were by them (out of Malice to such a Monument of exemplary valour performed a­gainst them) perswaded to take the Statue from the Place, where it stood, and to set it in some obscure low ground, where the Sun might not shine upon it. This being performed, and the People understanding at whose instance it was done; the South-sayers were called before them and examined; who confessing their perfidious intent, were condemned and executed, and the Statue planted in a higher Place, in the Area of Vulcan's Temple, which proved happy and successful to the Commonwealth. Upon this Occasion grew that Common Proverb (expressing the sence of that Greek Verse in Hesiod [...].’ ‘Malum Consilium Consultori Pessimum▪’). To be taken up and sung by the Young People and Children of Rome, as Aulus Gellius, from the Authority of the Annales Maximi and Verrius Flaccus his memorable Stories, relates. l. 4. c. 5.
Cocles with Romes Walls crown'd which he maintain'd,
And He who by a Crows Assistance gain'd
Both Spoyls and Name,
Marcus Valerius, who when Camillus, the younger, pursued the Reliques of the Galli Senones, being then a Tribune o [...] Colonel, undertook the Combate with the Giant-like General of the Gauls, who dared the stoutest of all the Roman Army to a single Encounter. In the Conflict a Crow is said to have pearched upon Marcus Valerius his Helmet, and to have as­saulted the face of his Enemy, wounding him with his Beak and Tallons, and buffeting him with his wings, by which Assist­ance he vanquished and slew the Gaul, and from thence gain'd the Surname of Corvinus; rewarded beside with a Donativē of ten Oxen, and a Crown of Gold; as Livy l. 7. c. 36. reports. Which Story of the Crow the learned Vossius (Idololatr. l. 1. c. 27.) conceives to be fabulous, and will have it to be only a Figure of a Crow upon his Crest or Helmet, according to the Custom of the Antients who adorn'd their Casques with the Effigies of several Birds and Beásts. Against which his Conjecture we shall only oppose these Words of Aulus Gellius l. 9. c. 11. de M. Valerio, qui Corvinus appellatus est, ob Auxilium Propugnati­onémque Corvi Alitis, haud Quisquam est Nobilium Scriptorum qui secùs dixerit. Augustus Caesar erecting a Statue to Corvinus in the Portico of his Forum, as the said Gellius affirms Rei Pugnaeque Monumentum. Nor seems it more incredible than what is reported of Alexander the Great, while he fought in the Battle at Arbela against Darius, that an Eagle all the while hovered over his Helmet, nor left him, till he had obtained the Victory; touching which see Quintus Curtius l. 4. c. 15. Of this Corvinus▪ Plutarch (in Mario) reports, that like him there was none, upon whom the Roman People conferred so many Magi­stracies, nor any, whose Suits or Petitions they answered with such readiness. He was six times Consul, as often Praetor, and as many times Aedile, once Censor, and twice Dictator. Vide Pighii Annal. Rom.
Corvinus! on whose Crest
Phoebus does in his black-plum'd Emblem rest.
A most signal Example of Loyal Magnanimity, who being by L. Apuleius Tribune of the People, accused as though he had unjustly divided the Veientine Spoyls, and a day appointed for him to answer; not brooking such an Affront, before the day of hearing came, betook himself to a voluntary Exile; upon whom in his absence the inraged People imposed a heavy Fine. In the interim the Gaules besieging the Capitol and ravaging the Country about, as far as Ardea, whither Ca­millus had retired himself; He (notwithstanding the Injury done him by his ungrateful Country men) perswades the Arde­ates to take up Arms against the Gauls, fights and defeats them; whereupon by the remainder▪ of the Roman Army, which af­ter the Overthrow at Allia were escaped to Veii, he was chosen General, and by a Decree of the Senate call'd home from Ba­nishment, and though absent made Dictator; yet would he not return, till all Acts touching his Magistracy and Restitution were solemnly past by the People. Seven Moneths had the Capitol been besieg'd, and at last, capitulated to give the Gauls a vast summ of Gold to quit the siege; at which instant Camillus arrives with his Army, commands the mony not to be paid, saying his Country was to be freed by Steel, not Gold; and thereupon charges the Gauls within the Ruins of the City, defeats them, pur­sues them in their flight in the Gabine way, and makes so general a slaughter of them, that hardly any escaped to carry home news of their Overthrow. For this and other his eminent services to his Country (among which that of hindring the People from quitting Rome for Veii, is to be reckon'd, whereby, as Victor says, & Oppidum Civibus & Cives Oppido reddidit) he was thought worthy to be stil'd the second Founder of Rome, and call'd by the name of Romulus: Of which see Li [...]y. l. c. Cassiodorus in Chronic. Eutropius libr. 1. and Aurel. Victor. de Vir. Illust. c. 23. He was 6 times Tribune, 4 times triumph'd, was once Censor, 5 times Dictator, and thrice Interregent.
Camillus too, who Heaven with Iove may claim,
Whom saving Rome, We may Rome's Founder name.
[Page 54]The Generous
Lucius Iunius, Son of Mar­cus Iunius by Tarquinia; the Sister of Tarquinius Superbus, to avoid the Tyranny of the King his Uncle, who had put to death his Brother Mar­cus, seigned himself to be a Fool, and thereby gain'd the Surname of B [...]utus; notorious for expelling the Regal Power, and the whole Fami­ly of the Tarquins out of Rome, and introducing the Government of Consuls; of which he was the first, and for a time the sole, notwithstanding his Colleague Collatinus; to which Virgil alludes ‘Consulis Imperium hic primus, saevasque secures Accipiet:—’ He was honoured by the Romans with a Brazen Statue, plac'd in the Capitol among those of their Kings with his sword drawn as Plutarch in his life, being s [...]ain by Aruns, Son of Tarquinius (as he by Brutus singly encountring one another) for whom the Roman Ladies and Matrons kept a solemn mourning, during the space of one whole year, as for their Publique Father and Avenger of the violated Chastity of their Sex. See Livy l. 2.
Brutus her Infranchiser,
The Papyrii Father and Son were signaliz'd by their Triumphs over the Samuites, Lucanians, Tarentines and Brutians, who all joyn'd with Pyrrhus against the Romans. The Father was twice Dictator, five times Consul, and thrice triumph'd over the Samnites; whom Livy doubts not to compare with Alexander the Great, and reckons him the fittest General to have op­posed him, had he after the Conquest of Asia turn'd his Arms upon the Romans: Of which Livy l. 9. c. 16. But the Papyrius here meant, is the Son; who with Sp. Carvilius triumph'd over the Samnites, Lucanians, Tarentines and Brutians; having compell'd Milo, the Prefect of King Pyrrbus, to deliver up Tarentum; which he dismantled and spoyled of all its strength by Sea and Land: by which Victory he put an end to the most desperate War, which (till then) the Roman People had ever been engag'd in. The Memory of this Victory and Triumph is preserv'd in some silver Coins; On one side of which is the armed head of Rome, with the Rostrum or Beak of a Ship, thereby signifying the increase of Naval Power to the Romans by the Conquest of Tarentum▪ On the Reverse the Figure of Victory in a Chariot drawn by four Horses, implying the Advantage and Superiority, which [...] Victory gave them by Land. The Inscription this. L. PAPYRI. L. F. SP. N. CURSOR. See Vinand. Pighii Annal. Rom. Tom. 1. p. 447.
Papyrius, who reveng'd the Pyrrhick War;
Manius Curius Dentatus; so call'd for that he was born with teeth: by Valerius Maximus stil'd, the most exact Rule of Roman Frugality and perfect Pattern of Fortitude, famous for his exemplary Abstinence, and his refusal of a vast sum of Gold presented him by the Embassadours of the Samnites, saying he held it more honourable to command over those that were rich, than to be rich himself; nor less ennobled by his many Victories and Triumphs over the Samnites, Sabins, Brutians, Appulians, Lucanians, and the defeat and expulsion of King Pyrrbus out of Italy, making good the Character he gave of himself, that he was neither to be corrupted by money, nor vanquish'd by Arms. See more of him in Cicero, (in Cato. M.) Valerius Maximus l. 4. c. 3. & Aurel. Vict. de Vir. Illustr. c. 35.
Curius, and
C. Fabricius Luscinus, of whom Valerius Maximus says, that in Honour and Authority he was greater than any Roman Citizen of his time; but in estate as mean as the poorest; who yet when sollicited by Pyrrhus with the offer of the fourth part of his Kingdom to become his Friend, refused with scorn so great a Bribe. No less exemplary for his Justice; for when Pyrrhus his Physician offer'd him in hopes of reward to poyson his Prince; Fabricius was so far from accepting the Offer, that he dis­covered the treachery to Pyrrhus, and sent back the Traytour, bound, to receive the just recompence of his villany: where­upon Pyrrhus is said to break out into this expression, That it was harder to draw Fabricius from Honesty, than the Sun from his Course. See (besides Seneca Epist. 120.) Valerius Maximus, l. 4. c. 3. Aurel. Victor. de Vir. Illustr. c. 39. and Eutropius in Brev. Histor. R [...]m. To which I shall only add what I find mentioned by Seguinus in select. Numismat. touching an antient silver Med­daile, having on one side the head of Iuno, with this title, MONETA; on the Reverse the several instruments of Coyning, with this Inscription, SALUTARIS; which Coyn the said Seguinus conceives was stamp'd in honour, and as a Memori­al of this great General. The occasion this; When the Romans (as Suidas in voce [...] reports) were in the War against Pyr­rhus impoverished, they were by Iuno, whom they consulted by sacrifice, told, That if they wag'd War with the Arms of Justice, they should not want mony: which Admonition Fabricius observing, gained to himself the honour of Equity and Justice, as well as Valour and Conduct, and by those means obtain'd a glorious Victory, which brought with it a vast Treasure to the Roman People, and so rendred MONETAM taken in which sence you will, SALUTAREM to the Commonwealth.
Fabricius, a stern Pair!
Marcus Claudius Marcellus, of whom thus briefly the Triumphal Tables.



To this Ausonius alludes (in Monosyllab.)

Tertia [...]pima dedit spoliatus Aremoricus Lars.

Lars being there no proper Name, but Title, signifying as much as Prince. See Scaliger in Propert. p. 237. Aurelius Victor de [...]. adds, that he first taught the Roman Souldiers how to make a Retreat, without turning their Backs, and at Nola made it appear that Hannibal was vincible; he took the City of Syracuse after a 3 years siege; and when denied by the Senate through the calumny of his Enemies a Triumph at Rome, he of his own accord and at his own expence triumph'd at Mount Alb [...]nus: being the fifth time Consul, he was slam, over-reach'd by the treachery, rather than valour of Hannibal: See more of him in Virgil lib Ae [...]neid. 6. Propertius l. 4. Eleg. 11. Livy l. 27. c. 16▪ and Plutarch in his life, call'd by Hannibal, the sword of Rome.
Marcellus, who the third
These the Romans call'd [...]pima [...], quasi optima, ampla, magnifica vel honorifica, in which sence by Plutarch (in vita Mar­ [...]) call'd TIMIA, according to whom the conditions requisite to those spoils were; First, that they were to be taken by the General of one Army from that of another; Secondly, that they were to be taken in Battle; Thirdly, in Prima Aci [...], in the first Part o [...] Front of the Battle, to which Livy adds a fourth, That they were to be born or carried to Iupiter Feretrius by the Victor General, whence Iupiter according to Propertius (l. 4. Eleg. 11.) had that Title of Feretrius. See this noted by La Cerda in 6. [...]. Aeneid. by Alexander ab Alex. Genial. D [...]erum l. 1. c. 14. and Ianus Rutgersius Var. Lect. l. 4. c. 7. The first that ever won the [...]e Spoils and Triumph'd was Romulus, having slain Acron, General of the Ceninenses.
rich Trophies bare
[Page 55]And
Of him thus Livy, l. 4. C [...]rn▪ Cossus eximi [...] pulchritudin [...] corporis, Animo & viribus Par. And the Tri­umphal Tables,



Of which Ovid briefly in this Pentameter, as cited by Priscian,

‘Larte ferox caeso Cossus opima tulit, &c. See likewise Propertius l. 4. Eleg. 11. Livy l. 4. Valer. Max. l. 3. c. 2. Aurel. Victor. de Viris Illustr. and Servins in Octav Virgil. Aereid.
Cossus Second, from Kings spoyl'd of Life.
Of the Decii (Father and Son) devoting themselves to a voluntary death for the Good of their Contrey, the Roman Stories are full: See Livy more particularly, l. 8. and l. 10. Hence Lucan l. 6. calls them ‘Lustrales bellis Animae—’ As if they had been propitiatory sacrifices for the welfare of the Roman Legions in time of hazard, concerning which Valeri­us Maximus, l. 5. c. 6. Dignosci arduum est utrum Romana Civitas utilius habuerit Decios vivos, an amiserit: quoniam vita corum ne vinceretur obstitit, mors fecit ut vinceret. I shall only add what is not commonly taken notice of, that there were not two only, but three of this Name and Family, who devoted themselves as sacrifices for the good of their Country; of which thus Cicero in Tusculan. . Quaestion. l. 1. Simors timere [...]ur, non cum Latinis decertans Pater Decius, cum E [...]ruscis filius, cum Pyrrho Nepos, se hostium telis obtulissent.
Decii in their Vows at noble strife,
In Honours equal;
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus call'd the Buckler and Shield of Rome, as Marcellus the Sword; who as Ennius says, cunctando Romanam restituit Rem; or as L. Florus more nearly to the sence of our Authour: Novam de Hannibale Victoriam commen­tus est non velle pugnare. Hence the Proverb, Romanus sedendo vincit. Propertius likewise, l. 3. Eleg. 3. stiling his wary and de­latory prosecution of the War Victrices Moras: Of whose Actions (so generally noted in the Roman Stories) we cannot give a better Summary than what is contained in this following Antient Inscription on a Marble found long since at Aretium, as Marlianus reports, and extant at Florence in the House of Petrus Victorius, as Panvinius in his Fasti affirms.





See likewise Antonius Augustinus, Dialog. 10th, and Pighii Annal. Roman. Tom. 2. p. 132. and Paul Merula in Commentar▪ ad Ennii Annal. l. 8. p. 467.
Fabius, Romes Defence,
In War unconquer'd, by the War's suspence.
[Page 56]
M [...]rcus Livius Salinator, Consul with Claudius Ne [...]o in the 546th year after the building of Rome, triumphed for the over­throw of Asdrubal the Brother of Annibal, who came into Italy with a great Army intending to joyn with that of his Brothers, which (if effected) had prov'd the Ruine of the Roman State. But Nero, who attended the motion of Anni­bal in Apulia, secretly upon notice of Asdrubal's Arrival, not far from Sena or Senogallia, (where Livius was encamped) taking with him 7000 Foot and 1000 Horse of the choisest of his Camp, left the rest to face Hannibal, and marching with incredible speed, joyn'd his Forces with those of his Fellow Consul, who together defeated the whole Army of Asdrubal and slew him in the Battle. Nero returning to his Camp before Hannibal understood any thing of his departure, or heard news of his Brothers defeat: The first notice whereof Nero himself gave him by causing Asdrubal's head (which he had brought with him) to be cast before the Camp of Hannibal; which he seeing cryed out, That the Fortune of Carthage was overthrown. Of this Meritorious Act of Nero's, thus Horace, Carm. l. 4. Od. 4.
Quid debeas â Roma Neronibus
Testis Metaurum Flumen, & Asdrubal
Devictus, & pulcher fugatis
Ille dies Latio tenebris.
What Rome thou ow'st to Nero's Name
Metaurus and slain Asdrubal proclaim,
And that bright Day,
Which chac'd from Latium Night away.
Livius the Victor of slain Asdruball,
With Nero the joynt Authour of his Fall.
Of these Scipio's the one was Publius Cornelius Scipio, who being Pro-Consul of Africa in the second Punick War drew Hannibal from Italy to the Defence of his own Country, whom he defeated and brought the Carthaginians to sue for Peace and acknowledge themselves tributary to the State of Rome; for which he triumphed, being call'd Scipio Africanus Major: The other, the Son of Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, adopted into the Cornelian Family by the Son of Afri [...]anus Major, and call'd Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, who took and utterly destroyed Carthage in the third and last Punick War, and reduced Africa into the Form of a Roman Province, for which he triumphed and gained the Sir-name of Africanus Minor, samed for his Justice and Military Science; whence is that Adagial Encomium, Scipione Iustior, & Militarior: in Tertull. [...]. c. 2. These Virgil in 6 Aeneid. calls ‘—Geminos duo Fulmina belli Scipiadas, Cladem Lybiae—’ Of whom likewise Lucius Florus says, Fatale Africae Nomen Scipionum videbatur. See more of them in Livy, Velleius Pater­culus, Orosius, Appian. de Bello Civil. Lucius Florus, Aurelius Victor, & Eutropius.
The Scipio's unto Carthage both one Fate:
Vel [...]eius Paterculus, l. 2. speaking of Pompey designed General in the War against the Pyrates, says, it was voted by Decree of the People and Senate, that Cn. Pompeius ad eos opprimendos mitteretur, essetque ei Imperium aequum in omnibus Pro­vinciis cum Proconsulibus usque ad Quinquagesimum Miliarium à Mari. Quo. S. C. paene totius Terrarum Orbis Imperium uni viro deferebatur: Confirmed by Plutarch in Pomp. and further asserted by some Antient Coins, stamped in honour of the said Pompey, with this Inscription: ‘MAGNUS. IMPERATOR.’ And on the Reverse of some others (in token of his Dominion by Sea and Land) a Scepter figur'd erect between a Dolphin and an Eagle. See Fulv. Ursin. in famil. Pomp. p. 204.
Pompey, 'fore Caesar Prince of Rome's great State,
And the aw'd World, which
Commemorated by Albinus the Poet (not the Historian) in his Poem of the Gests of Pompey the Great, out of which Priscian l. 7. cites these Verses.
Ille cui ternis Capitolia celsa Triumphis
Sponte Deûm patuêre, cui freta nulla repostos
Abscondêre Sinus, non tutae Moenibus Urbes.
In which Verses are celebrated the three Triumphs of Pompey; the first from Africa over King Iarbas; the second from Spain over Sertorius; the last from Asia over Mithridates and the Pyrates. See Popma in Schol. in Fragment. Historie. But what is to be chiefly noted, these Triumphs were permitted to Pompey contrary to the Express Decrees of the Roman State, before he had undergone any Magistracy, being only a private Knight; which Privilege none before him ever injoyed. But it was in a Time quo silebant inter A [...]ma Leges. Of the stupendious Splendour and Luxury of these Triumphs, especially of the last, see particularly Pliny l. 37. c. 2.
thrice his Triumphs sung,
Marcus Tullius Cice [...]o; of whom it were lost Labour to speak, save in a Language equal to his own. And therefore I shall only salute him, as Pliny does l. 7. c. 30. Salve Primus omnium Pater Patriae appellate. Primus in Toga Triumphum, Linguaeque L [...]uream merite; & facundiae Lati [...]rúmque literarum Parens; atque (ut Dictator Caesar Hostis quondam Tuus de ie s [...]ipsit) Omnium Triumphorum L [...]uream ad [...]pte Majorem, quanto plus est Ingenii Romani Terminos in tantum promovisse, quàm Imperii. (i. e.) Hail Thou who of all Men wert first saluted Father of thy Country, who first deservedst a Triumph in thy long Robe, and a Laurel Garland for thy Language. The only Father of Eloquence, and Latian Learning; and (as Caesar Dictator sometimes thine Enemy hath written of thee) honoured with a Crown so much more glorious than those of other Tri­ [...]mphs, by how much nobler it is to have enlarged the Bounds of Roman Wit than those of its Empire.
Tullius worthy Heaven for his sweet Toung.
[Page 57]There the great
Of the Claudian Name there were two Families, one Patrician the other Plebeian. Of the first, were the several Surnames of the Pulchri, Centhones, N [...]rones, Regil­lenses Crassini, Cae [...]i, Crassi, Caudices, Hortatores, Rufi, Sabini, C [...]nini. Of the latter, which yet was more signal than the first, were those of the Marcelli, Aesernini, Aselli, Cliti [...], Flaminii. All descended from Re­gillus a Town of the Sabines, whose Chief was Atta Tatius Clausus, who about the sixth year after the Expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus came to Rome, and was admitted into the Patrician Order; changing his Name into Appius Claudius. Of the Original of which Family thus Vir­gil (Aeneid. 7.) more Poetically, than truly (for he alludes to this very Appius Claudius)
Ecce Sabinorum prisco de sanguine, Magnum
Agmen agens Clausus, Magnique ipse Agminis instar,
Claudia nunc à Quo diffunditur & Tribus, & Gens
Per Latium—
See Clausus of old Sabine blood, who brings
A Mighty Troop, himself as Great; whence springs
The Claudiam Tribe, and Family, now spred
Through Latium
Plutarch derives them from Sparta, and makes them to have been part of a Lacedaemonian Colony planted in Italy: This Fa­mily in the Time of Tiberius (who was of the same Race, and whom perhaps the Poet in this Place flatters, as being the de­signed Heir to Augustus) was signaliz'd with 28 Consulates, 5 Dictatorships, 7 Censorships, as many Triumphs, and 2 Ova­tions; as Suetonius in Tiberio witnesses. See more in Antonius Augustinus de Familiis Roman. and Andreas Schottus in his Idaea Rom. Histor. ad Pighii Annal.
Claudian Progeny does shine,
And all the Worthies of th'
The Aemilian Family some derive from Mamercus the Son of Pythagoras the Philosopher call'd ' [...] from his Affability and singular Humanity, as Plutarch in Numa, and in the life of Paulus Aemilius, and Festus in voce Aemil. attest. O­thers, as the same Festus notes, deduce it from Ascanius who had two Sons Iülus and Aemylus, the later of whom is supposed to have given the Origine to that Name and Family. It was one of the most celebrious in all Rome, and honour'd even from the first times of the Roman Liberty until the Empire of Augustus, with the most signal Magistracies of that State. It was of Patrician Degree, and distinguished into 5 Principal Surnames, of the Barbulae, Lepidi, Mamercini, Papi, and Pauli: To these Onuphrius adds the Buae, Liviani, Marci, Porcini, and Privernates; to whom likewise are to be added the Regilli and Scauri. See all these with their several Honours and Performances enumerated by Antonius Augustinus de Fami [...]. Rom. and Pighius in Annal.
Aemilian Line;
The Metelli were the Noblest Branch of the Caecilian Family; which though it were Originally Plebeian, rose yet to the greatest Honours which the Roman Commonwealth could afford: Nineteen of which Name in the space of 280 years were signaliz'd with 4 Chief Priesthoods, 2 Dictatorships, 3 Presidentships of the Senate, 7 Censorships, 9 Triumphs, 20 Consulships, and 2 Masterships of the Cavalry. The most famous of the Metelli, were Metellus Maced [...]nicus, so call'd from his Conquest of Macedonia, whose saying it was That he would burn his shirt if he thought it could know his Designs or Counsels. Metellus Numidicus so call'd from his Triumph over Iugurth King of Numidia, and Metellus Pius who gain'd that Surname by his assiduous Supplication and Intercession for the recalling of his Father from Banishment, which at last he effected: See Aurel. Victor de Viris Illustr. & Valer. Maximus. The Name (notwithstanding its great Nobility) seems to be deriv'd from some servile Military Employment, touching which thus Festus in voce Metell. Metelli dicuntur in re Militari quasi Mercenarii. Attius Annal. 17. ‘Calones, Famulique, Metellique, Caculaeque.’ A quo Genere Hominum Caeciliae Familiae Cognomen putatur dictum. See more of this Family in Antonius Augustinus, and Schot­tus ad Pighii Annal. as likewise Ursinus in Numism. Gentis Caecil. Vide etiam de Origine hujus Nominis Meurs. Exercit. Critie. part. 2. p. 108.
Metelli, signal for their Noble Name;
Marcus Porcius Cato call'd Uticensis from Utica the Place of his Death, and Minor, to distinguish him from Cato Ma­jor or Censorinus, thus character'd in Velleius Paterculus. Per omnia Ingenio Diis quàm Hominibus propior: Omnibus humanis vi­tiis immunis, semper fortunam in sua Potestate habuit. The great Assertor of the Roman Liberty in time of the Civil wars be­tween Pompey and Caesar; chosing rather to dy in freedom by his own Hand, than to fall a Captive into those of the Conque­ror. Of whose resolute and Heroick Death, see Seneca l. de Providentia, and almost every where else. And particularly Dion Cassius l. 43. This is further observable of him, that though he himself chose rather to dy, than to submit to Caesar, yet at his Death he perswaded his Son to do so, giving for it this Reason; That he having always liv'd in Liberty and a free State, could not in his old Age be brought to change that manner of life, and subject himself to a servile condition; but for his Son, he being born and having lived in other Times, he advised him to comply with the Fortune that should be offered him. See Dion Cassius loco citato: Which Reason is likewise hinted at by Cicero in primo de Offi [...]. Caeteris forsitan vitio datum esset, si se interemisse [...]t, propterea quod eorum vita lenior, & mores fuerunt faciliores: Catoni autem cum incredibilem tribuisset Natura Gravitatem, eamque ipse per­petuâ Constantiâ corroboravisset, semperque in proposito, suscept [...]que consilio permansisse [...]; moriendum potius, quàm Tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit. Manilius elsewhere (l. 4.) calls him ‘—Invictum devictâ Morte Catonem.’
Cato, who Fortune ev'n in Death o'rcame;
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa though of a mean Family, by his Merits and Valour attained to that eminent Degree, as to be Second in the Empire under Augustus, and to become his Son in Law: Of which thus Taci [...]us in primo Annal▪ Marcum Agrip­pam ignobilem loco, bonum Militiae & Victoriae S [...]cium geminatis Consulatibus extulit; mox defuncto Marcello, Generum sumpsit. Vel­l [...]ius Paterculus giving this further Elogy of him, That he was Virtutis Nobilissimae, Labore, Vigiliâ, periculo invictus, parendi­que, sed uni, scientissimus, aliis sanè imperandi cupidus; & per omnia extra dilationes posi [...]us, consultisque facta conjungens. To whom Augustus may justly be said to owe the Establishment of his Throne aud Empire by those 2 Memorable Victories gain'd by his Conduct and Valour, over Sextus Pompeius near Sicily, and Marcus Antonius near Actium, for which he merited a Naval Crown. Yet this great Statesman, and Souldier, the latter of which he was even born as Manilius here intimates, (for we read with Scaliger upon his last and better thoughts—Matrisque sub Armis, not Martis, by Armis understanding Armos, i. e. Ulnas, not Arma; as if sub ipsa Matre cum lacte imbibisset Militarem Scientiam: Though we cannot but here acknowledge the Interpretation of Spanhemius (in Dissertat. de Numism.) to be very ingenious, who understands by Matris, Patriae, seu Ro­mae belligerantis, that Title of Mater being often by the Antients apply'd to Rome) was of that equal and moderate Temper, that he never advis'd Augustus to any Actions but those of Humanity, Honour, and Publick Utility; the Glory whereof he never arrogated to himself nor made of the great Honours and high Charges conferred upon him, any Advantages to his own private Gain and Pleasure, but converted and applyed them wholly to the profit of his Prince and Country. Indelible Characters of an excellent Subject and Patriot▪
Agrippa, Souldier from his Mothers Brest;
[Page 58](
Meaning Iulius Caesar, of whom [...] P [...]rculus (l. 2.) Nobilissimá Iuliorum genitus Fami­liâ, & qu [...]d inter omnes Antiqu [...]s­simos constabat, ab Anchise ac Ve­nere duceus Genus. The Iulian Family taking its Name from [...]lus the Son of Aeneas, and Grand-Child of Venus; whence Virgil (Aeneid. l. 1.)
Niscetur pul [...]râ Trojanus Origine Caesar
Iu [...]ius, à Magno demissum Nomen Iulo.

Confirm'd by Livy l. 1. Strabo l. 19. Appian de belio Civil. l. 2. and the Testimony of Caesar him­self, in his Funeral Oration up­on Iulia the Wife of Caius Ma­rius, his Aunt; as recorded by Sue [...]onius, where he thus speaks. Amitae Meae Iuliae Maternum Ge­nus ab Regibus orium, Paternum cum Diis Immortalibus conjunctum est. Nam ab Anco Marcio sunt Reges, quo Nomine fuit Ma [...]er. A Venere Iulii, cujus Gentis Familia est Nostra. Hence the Title of VENUS GENETRIX on the Roman Coyns stamped in Honour of Iulius and Augustus; and this Inscription mentioned in Gruterus:

‘VENERI GENETRICI D. JULI. IN MEMORIAM GENTIS JULIAE &c.’ See more to this purpose in Ursinus in Famil. Iul. And as to the Pretence of its Original see the same discussed by the [...] B chartus in his Particular Tract entituled, Num Aeneas unquam fuerit in Italia.
) Venus her Iulian Offspring, repossest
Of Heaven, whence first descended; which now proves
The Rule of great (
[...] here questions Manilius for giving to Augustus, a share in the Government of Heaven before he [...] thither. Quare dicit Coelum regi ab Augusto quod nondum tenebat? Hoc mortuo melius conveniebat (says [...] that Illustrious Critick might have remembred, That Augustus was even in his life time (such was the [...] Adulation of those Times) reputed and honoured as a God, and had his Priests, Altars, Sacrifices, and [...] as is manifest by those Altars with their Inscriptions erected to him at Lyons and Narbon: To which [...] [...]udes (Epist. l. 2.) where he says that Augustus had that Praeeminence above either Romulus, Bacchus, [...] or Pollux, who were not honoured as Deities till after their Deaths. For this Reason Manilius while yet [...] gives him a share in the Celestial Government, as another Iupiter. And hence Philippus in that flattering but [...] Epigram of his (in Antholog. l. 1.) upon occasion of a Laurel springing out of an Altar dedicated to Au­ [...] at Arragon in Spaine, calls him [...], JOVEM AENEADEM. Nor did Augustus' think [...] himself, as may appear by his facetious and yet tar [...] Answer to the Arragonians who told him of that Pro­ [...]y of the Laurel, or rather Palm, as Quintilian relates it: Apparet (inquit) quàm s [...]pe accendatis. It is a sign [...] he) how often you kindle fire there; taxing them thereby of Negligence in his Worship: For if they had fre­ [...]ntly sacrificed, the Laurel or Palm could not have grown there. And that he had equal share with Iove him­ [...] in the Vows and Addresses of Suppliants appears by this Antient Inscription found near Nismes in France: ‘SANCTITATI JOVIS ET AUGUSTI SACRUM LUCILIUS CESTTI FIL. &c.’ [...] which Gruterus (in Inscript.) and Guiranus (in Explicat. Num. Nemaus.) But of the servile and Idolatrous Adula­ [...] of the Antients, and particularly of the Athenians and Romans towards their living Kings and Emperours; see [...]aeus Deipn [...]soph. l. 6. c. 14 and 15. and the learned Casaubon thereupon.
) Augustus joyn'd with Iove's;
Who'mong the Deathless Deities inroll'd,
His Father and Quirinus doth behold.
More high th' Immortal Gods have fix'd their Seat,
Next whom, is This, with Godlike Men repleat.
But of the Stars e're we the Laws rehearse,
And fatal Changes, We the Universe
Must first compleat; and shew what does dispence
Throughout the Whole, or Light, or Influence.
Having finished the Description of the fixed Stars and their several Asterisms, together with the Doctrine of [...] [...]stial Circles: The Poet to compleat his Work, adds a brief mention of the several Planets according to their [...] and Position; and then subjoyns (as a Close to the Whole) a short Enumeration of Comets, and other fie­ [...] [...]. Of the Planets the first is
) Some Stars there are which 'gainst the World's Course bend,
The Seven Planets.
And wand'ring 'twixt the Earth and Heaven suspend.
[Page 59]As (
Saturn; by the Greeks call'd [...] from the slow time of his motion; by Plato in Timae [...] [...], i. e. Apparens; as being of all the Planets the least obscur'd under the Sun's Beams; by others [...]; and by Plutarch (in facie Lunae) [...], i. e. N [...]ctis Cu­stos. In a fragment of an Antient Astronomical Poem (cited by Sca­liger in Ausonian. Lect.) stil'd Pollu­cis Pr [...]les; which by Fulgentius is thus explained. Saturn (says he) is called the Son of Pollux, sive à pol­lendo, sive à pollucibilitate, i. e. humanitate. In Hebrew this Planet is call'd Schabtai, i. e. Saturatio seu Quies. The Arabs call it Zohalo from Zahala, which signifies abscedere, recedere, vel discedere, quòd multùm retrogradus sit, says the Learned Doctour Pocock (Not. in Carm. Tograi.) By the Chaldeans it is called Caun, by the Egyptians Rephan, i. e. Deus Temporis, and (according to Achilles Tatius) [...], Nemesis Stella; by Astrologers term'd Infortuna Major.
) Saturn, (
This Planet is in Hebrew called Cochab Tzedeck, i. e. Stella Iustitiae & Aequitatis; by the Greeks, [...]; by Plato in Ti­maeo, Phaëton from its brightness; by the Latines, Iupiter, i. e. Iuvans Pater; by the Aegyptians, Picheus, i. e. Deus vitae, answering to the Greek, [...]; by Achilles Tatius (in Isagog.) [...], Osiridis Stella; by Hesychius, Molobobar, or rather (as Vossius Idololatr. l. 2. conceives the word ought to be read) [...]. In the Phrygian Tongue Mazeus, (si fides Hesychio, says Mr. Selden.) In the Chaldee, Taus; in Arabick, El Mes [...]icri. The Antient Germans called this Planet T [...] ­ranis, or Taran. Astrologers entitle him by that of Fortuna Major: Which they have from the Iews who call this Planet by the Name of Mazal Tob, i. e. Sidus bonum, seu fortuna bona. And therefore among them it was usual in the Marriage Cere­mony for the Bridegroom to deliver to the Bride a Ring in which was inscrib'd MAZAL TOB. This Star in their O­pinion conducing much to Fertility, and the Propagation of Children. As Mr. Selden (from the Authority of Munster) de Diis Syris, Synt [...]gm. primo.
) Iove, (
Mars, call'd likewise by the Latines, Gradivus, seems to be derived from the Hebrew, Maratz, which signifies strong and powerful; or from Mechares, destroying, (as the often cited G. Vossius de Idololatr. l. 2.) call'd also in Hebrew, Ma [...]dim, from his Colour resembling Blood. In Greek [...], and [...] from his fiery light, as also [...] or Thuras, quasi Thra [...]um Deus, according to Bochartus his Interpretation (Phaleg. l. 3. c. 2.) By the Aegyptians called Mel [...]ch, i. e. Deus Destructionis, and (according to Vet [...]ius Valens, as cited by Mr. Selden de Diis Syris Syntagm. primo) Artes, [...], as being the Destroyer of Life; and according to Pliny and Achilles Tatius [...], Herculis Stella; by the Emissae­ans, and those of Edessa styl'd Azizus, whom they believ'd to be [...] Assessor Solis (as Iulian the Apostate in his Encomiastick Oration upon the Sun;) by the Chaldeans call'd Ari [...]z, i. e. praevalidus; by the Arabs, El Marigh, i. e. Sangui­nolentus. Astrologers stile him Infortuna Minor.
) Mars, (
This glorious Luminary is in Hebrew call'd Cham [...]h, or Schemash from his Heat, or Adon Schemez, i. e. Dominus Sol; by the Phoenicians, Baal Schemaim, i. e. Dominus Coeli; in Chaldee, Schemso; in Arabick, El Schems; by the Greeks, [...] & [...] quasi [...], i. e. Lux vitae; whence the Latine, Phoebus; call'd likewise Titan and Apollo, Cor Coeli, Oculus Iovis, & [...], i. e. Oculus Aetheris. By the Aegyptians styl'd Potiris, i. e. Deus Sanctus, and Osyris from his vital and kindly Heat, as on the contrary Typhon and Seth from his violent and destructive fervor, call'd by them likewise Horus; by the Persians call'd Mi [...]hra, i. e. Dominus sive Dynasta; by the Arabs antiently Urotalt, i. e. Lucis Deus, and Dusares, or Dai Us [...]r, i. e. Deus perlustrans, as S [...]bedius de Diis German. interprets those Names; by the Syrians according to Macrobius call'd Adad, or as Scaliger and Mr. Selden would rather have it, Ahad, or Elhad, i. e. Unus, or as Pontanus (Not. in Macrob.) Badad, i. e. Solus, Unicus.
) Phoebus, (
Mercury is in Hebrew call'd Cochau, or Cochab, i. e. Stella fulgens, and Choteb, i. e. Scriba seu literatus, and Margim [...], i. e. Negotiator, and Merkolis, whence some derive the Name Mercury, though Arnobius l. 3. says he is so call'd by the Latines, quasi Medicurrius, from his Office as Messenger between the Gods and Men. In the Astronomical Fragment before cited he is called Semo, quia ferein infimis collocatus (says Scaliger in Auson. Lect.) as those Deities were likewise call'd S [...]mmes, qui in­fimi censebantur, being Majores Hominibus, Minores Diis, as Fulgentius expounds the Word; by the Phoenicians call'd Sumes, i. e. Minister says Bochar [...]us (Phaleg. l. 1. c. 2.) call'd by them likewise Adared. By the Chaldeans, N [...]bu; and as Hesychius says, S [...]ehez; which some make the same with Sesach. He is likewise by the Emissaeans and Edessaeans call'd M [...]mimus, They Holding him to be one of the Suns [...] or Assessors, as Azizus or Mars was another, according to the Testimony of Iulian before cited. By Astrologers he is stil'd Fortuna per Aspectum, or (according to Apulcius de Mundo) Communis Stella, as participating of the Nature of the Star, with which he is in Conjunction, good with the good, bad with the bad. Hence the Authour of the Fragment after Censorinus de Die Natal. Stella Mercurii fit similis illi quam videt.
) Maia's Son,
Plac'd under these 'twixt (
Venus in Hebrew is call'd Nogah, i. e. Lux. The Name Venus coming from the Hebrew Word Benot, by the change of the first and last Letters; as Mr. Selden de Diis Syris Syntagm. 2. c. 7. and Vossius Idololatr. l. 2. c. 22. derive it. By the Greeks call'd [...], and [...], i. e. Phosphorus, seu Lucifer, when she is the Morning Star, as [...], i. e. Hesperus, Ve­sper, and Vesperugo, when she is the Evening Star; by Timaeus Locrus call'd [...], i. e. Iunonis Astrum. The Aegypti­ans call her Suroth; the Chaldeans, Spharphara, and Astaroth; by the Arabs named Elzahareth and Chabar, i. e. Magna.
) Venus and the (
This Planet or Luminary is in Hebrew call'd Lebanah or Laneah from its white Colour; by the Greeks [...], from the renewing of its Light. She is by them likewise honoured with the Title of [...], and [...], as Gaul­min. notis in Psellum ( [...].) By the Latines, Luna, quasi Lucuna or Lucina, the middle Syllable being cast away, as Isidor. (Origin. l. 8.) and before him Cicero (de Natur. Deorum l. 2.) Luna à Lucendo, eadem enim Lucina. Or as V [...]ssius (I­dololatr. l. 2.) derives it from an Oriental Original, Luna potius à Lon, i. e. pernoctavit, and Metaleptically, quie [...]it: In regard as the Sun is President of the Days Labour, so the Moon is Surintendent of the Nights Rest and Quiet: By the Egyptian Copies call'd Isis Pcochos Act [...]phcom, i. e. Domina Maris & humidorum; by the Chaldeans, Scha [...]ro; by the Persians, Anai [...]is; by the Arabs, Alkamer, and Abilat, and Alitta; by the Indians ador'd under the Name of Schendra.
) Moon.
Others there are too of less usual kind;
For Suddain Flames streaming through Skies We find,
And Times more rare have Comets seen to blaze
Comets and [...]iery M [...]teors.
According to the Vulgar Belief, who conceive Comets to be fore-runners of great Troubles and Commotions; by which Manilius here signalizes their Exstinction.
) And loose midst mighty stirs their threatning Rays.
[Page 60]Whither as
Alluding to the opinion of those who hold Comets to be ge­nerated of Elementary Matter, that is of Exhalation and Vapour; the first from the Earth hot and dry; the other from the Water, hot, moist and unctuous, carried by their Lightness above the Aiery Region, where compacted they are by Motion of the superiour Orbs set on fire. Of which Opinion is Aristotle and his followers, and (differing only as to place) Galilaeo [...], Guiduceius, and some others. See Gassendus Tom. 1. part. 2. p. 702. and Ricciolus in Almagest. Nov. Tom. 1. l. 8. and Fromond. Meteorolog. l. 3.
Earth transpires its Native fumes,
Those humid Spirits the hot Air consumes,
Their Original.
When a long Drouth from Clouds hath clear'd the Sky
And Heav'n by the Sun's scorching Beams grows dry;
Whence fitting Aliment is snatch'd by Fire,
And Matter like to Tinder flames acquire.
And since the Principles which Air compose
Are not gross Bodies, but like Smoke that flows,
The fiery Substance is not permanent,
But with the Comet,
Touching the Duration of Comets, Pliny (l. 2. c. 25.) makes the shortest to be Septem Die­rum, the longest Oct [...]ginta, or ra­ther (as Muretus conceives the Text of Pliny ought to be read) C. & Oct [...]ginta, a 180 Days; which E­mendation Tycho Brahe Progymn. l. 1. p. 273 (though Scaliger seem to disallow it) approves of. And so long Seneca (Natural. quaest. l. 7.) affirms the duration of one seen in the beginning of Nero's Reign. Iosephus de Bello Iudaico l. 7. re­ports one to have continued a wh [...]le year a little before the De­struction of Ierusalem in the form of that which is called Xiphias, or the Sword Comet. But this Ty­cho conceives to have been super­natural and extraordinary; so that the longest Duration of Co­mets (their ordinary not extending to half that space) seems not to be above six Moneths: Of which co [...]tinuance we find in History on­ly three. The first that of Nero's beforementioned in the year of Christ 64. the second in the year 603. not long before the appear­rance of the Impostor Mahomet; and the last in the year 1240. observed by Albertus Magnus.
soon as kindled, spent.
Else, if its Rise and Fall were not so nigh,
We should another Day in Night descry,
And the couch'd Sun, when from the watery Deep
Return'd, would the whole World surprize in sleep.
Then since the arid Vapour is not us'd
To be alike attracted, or diffus'd;
The Word Comet though when strictly taken it signifies Stellam Crinitam, and Sidus Cincinnatum; yet in a larger sence it is us'd as a common and general Name for all sorts of fiery Meteors: Of which Pliny (l. 2. c. 25.) reckons twelve several Spec [...]es: Viz. Cometa, Pogonias, Acontias, Xiphias, Disceus, Pithetes, Ceratias, Lampas, Hippeus, Argenticomus, Hircus, Longchites, seu Hast [...]. Divers of which are by our Poet here enumerated; whose Explanation we shall give in the follow­ing Notes; and shall only add the Distinction which is made by a Reverend and Learned Authour upon this Subject, who will have such Meteors to be peculiarly called Comets, as are super-Lunary, and have (as he says). proprium Aetherium, Geo­metricum motum, qualis esse solet Planetarum; to the others he gives the Name [...], as having some Resemblance with, but differing as to their Motion, Place, and other Affections, from Comets properly so called; their Birth and existence being within the sublunary Sphere. Vide D. Setb. Wardi Praelect. de Cometis.
several Shapes to Meteors are assign'd,
Their seve­ral kinds.
As in dark Nights their suddain Births they find.
For now (like long hairs flowing from some head)
The Flame is in dishevell'd
These kind of Meteors are by the Greeks properly called [...], [...], [...], i. e. Stellae Crinitae, seu Cincinnatae, as is before noted; whose blaze rises upward, above the Head or Body of the Comet, whence Pliny calls them [...] modo in vertice Hispidas: But when the Cheveleure is round about equally diffused, then the Comet is called Rosa.
Tresses spred;
Cometa or Stella Cin­cinnata.
Then what a fiery Peruke first appear'd,
Assumes the Figure of a blazing
Thence called [...], i. e. Barbata, from the Greek [...], i. e. Barba, which the Vulgar distinguish not from that which is called Caudata, as Fromondus observes, l. 3. c. 4. That difference being caused only by its Respect to the Sun, for if it appear in the Morning before the Sun-rise it seems bearded, the Blaze tending in Anteriora, before the Sun, Westward; but if it appear in the Evening the Sun being set, then it seems Caudata, the Train flowing from behind the Sun, Eastward: But it is more properly said to be Barbata, when the Head or Body of the Comet is above, and the Train or Stream under­neath flow [...]ng downward [...] More Barbae, in opposition to that which is called Crinita, whose Hair or Bash is above the Head of the Comet. See Stobaeus Eclog Physic. l. 1. And Suidas in voce [...].
Pogonias or Stella Barbata.
[Page 61]Sometimes 'twixt equal-bounded Sides it flows,
And a square
This Com [...] or Meteor is called in English a Beam or Post; in Latine, Trabs; in Greek, [...], i. e. Igni [...]a Trabs. When extended to an extraordinary length, it was by the Greeks like­wise called [...], i. e. Via▪ as A [...]isto­tle Meteorolog. l. 1. c. 6. affi [...]ms. Pliny (l. 2. c. 26▪) reports such a one to have appeared at what time the Lacedemonians (vanqu [...]shed in Fight at Sea) lost the Empire of Greece; and Charimand [...]r in his Book of Comets, as cited by Sene­ca (Natur. Quaest. l. 7.) rela [...]s the like Meteor of unusual Brightness and Greatness to have been ob­served by Anaxagoras, for many days continuance. Callisthenes like­wise affirms such a one to have ap­peared a little before Buris and He­lice were swallowed up in the Sea: The difference between a Trabs and Columna is this: The first is of an oblong Form in a down lying Posture, the latter appears in an e­rected Figure. Vide Fromond. Me­teor. l. 2. c. 5.
Post, or a round Pillar shows,
Doki [...] or Trabs.
Like a big-bellied
Call'd therefore by the Greeks [...], [...], and [...] from [...] Dolium, and thence by the Latines, Pi­thetes, thus described by Pliny (l. 2. c. 25.) Pithetes Doliorum cernitur Figurā in C [...]ncavo fumidae Lucis, i. e. Pithetes is seen in the form of a Barrel or Tun, within the Concave of a fumid or smoaky Light; which according to Seneca (Natural. Quaest. l. 7.) vel fertur, vel in uno loco flagrat. And to this kind is to be reduced the Meteor called Tenaculum, sub ciner [...]o fumo Luridum, says Ricciolus Almag. Nov. Tom. 1. l. 8.
Tun now its swoln Beams
Dilate, and then contract to narrower Streams,
Like little
Known by the Name of [...], from the Resemblance it bears to a small Lock or Curle of Hair, which in Greek is [...]; in Latine, Cincinnulus.
Locks which in small Curles are ti'd,
Now like fir'd
Manilius here describes these kind of Meteors by the Periphrasis of Hirta M [...]ssis: They are commonly called Stipulae Ardentes, resembling the firing of Straw or Stubble in the Fields. Which appear (as Aristotle says) when the Exhalation that causes them is extended to a considerable breadth and length.
sheafs, now like branch'd
Called therefore Lampadias, imitating burning Lamps or Torches, which Manilius here divides into [...]issus Ram [...]sos, branched sprayes, and are not seen but in their Fall. Of these kinds Pliny (l. 2. c. 26.) reports one to have appeared at Noon in sight of all the Roman People, at what time Caesar Germanicus exhibited a Prize or Spectacle of Fencers. He makes of them a double difference; the first called Lampades, Lamps or Torches, which burn only at the Tops, though they draw a long fuming Train after them. The other called Bolides (commonly englished Lances) burning through the whole Extent or Length of their Train: Of which last sort (says he) there were some seen in the Calamity o [...] [...] when that City was sack'd.
lamps descri'd,
Stipulae Ardentes.
Now falling
Anaxagoras would have these kind of Meteors to be sparkles falling from the fiery Region. By Eunapius in Ae [...]es. they are called [...], Effluentiae seu Trajectiones quaedam Stellarum; by Aristotle [...] and [...], discursus, seu Stellae fluxus; By the Arabs called Shihâb: which (as I find in the Commentator upon Ulugh [...]eight Tables) is expounded, Stella quae nocte incedit sicu [...] Ignis; and Stella Daemones pellens; for the Antient Arabs and Ea [...]ern People fancy'd falling Stars to be fiery Darts lanc'd from Heaven against the Devils or evil Spirits of the Aire, as is likewise observed by the Learned Golius (notis in Alferganum. p. 65.) But Fromondus (Meteor. l. 2. c. 3.) according to the Doctrine of Aristotle describes them to be a fiery Exhalation expulsed out of a Cloud, having the Resemblance of a true Star falling. They are con­ceived to come from the same Cause and Origine as Lightning, though they are not attended by Thunder, at least as to us perceivable; Bearing the same Proportion to Lightning, as the firing of a Musquet does to that of a Canon. For as at a great distance we may see the Fire of a Musquet, but scarce hear its Noise; but of a Canon within the same distance we may both see the Fire and hear the Noise: So by reason of the Exility of the Exhalation we hear not the Noyse when these fall­ing Stars break from a Cloud, as we do Thunder when ushered by Lightning. Fromondus compares these Meteors to ou [...] kind of Fireworks called Rockets (though their Motions be different, the one being forced upward the other downward) which run in a Train and fall in the manner of Stars. And therefore Pliny calls them Scintillas & Discursus Stellarum; Ptolo­my, Trajectiones; both which our Poet expresses when he says they shoot and sparkle.
Stars seem to shoot every where,
Stella Ca­dens.
When wandring Lights do sparkle in the Aire.
And darted Flames swift
Call'd in Greek [...], and from thence in the Latine Acontiae, which as Pliny says Iaculi m [...]do vibrantur [...] significatu. Of which the Emperour Titus, or (as some will) Tiberius, is said to have written an excellent Poem. This Meteor when it appears in a shorter form is called [...], i. e. Ensis Gladius, seu Pugio, the Head or Body of the Comet representing the Hilt, the Ray or Iubar, the Blade of a Sword, and appears of all others the most Pale.
Arrows imitate,
When the dry Train runs in a narrow Strait,
For every Thing does mixed Fire infold;
That dwells in pregnant Clouds which Thunder mold,
Pierces Earths Veins; Heavens Terrors counterfeits
From Aetna's Caves; in Springs cold Water heats;
[Page 62]Lurks in hard Flints, and in green Bark finds Room,
When Woods by their (
To this Accident Vitruvius (l 2. c. 1.) ascribes the Original of our Culmary Fire; where he says, Ab Tempest [...] & ventis densae cre­bri [...]ibus A [...]bores agitatae, & inter se [...] Ramos, Ignem ex [...]itave­runt. Which being observ'd by the Antients, they from thence derived their [...], by rubbing one stick against another, until being heated they catched Fire, which they fed by dry Leaves, and such like com­bu [...]ible Fuel. This Part says Tur­nebus (no [...]is in Theophrast, de Igne) was by them called [...], i. e. F [...]cus, or according to the Scho­liast of Apollonius [...], i. e. Strator. Which we may compare with our Tindar. The other parts which were the sticks the [...] called [...], i. e. Terebrum▪ and served instead of our Flint and Steel. The Trees most subject to this manner of taking Fire, are reckoned the Fig-Tree, Laurel, Oake and Ilex, the Tile-Tree, Ivy and Vine, but especially the Laurel. Coneparius de Atramentis c. 13. reckons up these several ways of generating and kindling Fire. Propagatione, Putredine, Coitione, Antispasi, Fricti­one, & Percussione. Which he re­duces to these three kinds, Propa­gation, Coition, and Motion. In which the rest are included; for Putredo, and Antispasis kindle fire by compelling the dispersed Heat to unite together, and therefore fall under the head of Coition, as Friction and Percussion under that of Motion.
) Collision flames assume;
So fertile every Matter is in fire.
Nor suddain Flames breaking through Skies admire,
Nor frequent Coruscations by Earths hot
Exhaling Vapours in the Aire begot,
Which the swift-feeding Flame pursues or flies;
Since trembling Lightning darted through the Skies,
Thou mayst behold in midst of falling Rain,
And Thunder through forc'd Clouds its way constrain:
Whether from (
He resumes his former Ar­guments touching the Original of Comets, and begins with that of the Peripateticks, asserting (as is before noted) Comets to come from a sulphureous unctuous ignescent matter exhaling from the Earth and Sea, &c. Vide Aristotel. Meteor. l. 1. c. 7. and 10.
) fiery Seeds inclos'd in Earth,
Their Causes farther en­quired in­to.
And thence emitted, Comets draw their Birth,
Or Nature did those fading Lights design
As (
The Opinion of Anaxagoras and Democritus; who held Comets to be the Coapparition of wandring Stars or Pla­nets, which when they approach near each other seem mutually to touch, and to become as it were all one; or as Plu­tarch expresses it, A Conjunction of divers Stars meeting with their Lights together; or according to Laertius, a Concourse of Planets emitting Flames. O [...] which Opinion likewise was Zeno in Seneca Natural. Quaest. l. 7. c. 19. Our Zeno (says he) was of the Opinion of these who judged the Stars to concurr, and intermingle their Rays, and by that Society of Light to beget the Image of a long Star; which Coll [...]cency from the Conjunction of the Rays of divers Stars or Planets Manilius here calls Subjuncta Sidera.
) sub-united Stars in Heaven to shine,
Or the (
The Chaldeans (as Stobaeus Eclog. Physic. c. 3. delivers their Opinion) held that there were other Planets besides those ordinarily observed, which are sometimes inconspicuous, in regard they move at a great distance above us. But now and then appear when they come nearer to the Earth, and run a lower Course; at which time by those who know them not to be Stars, they are called Comets. Again, they seem to disappear and vanish, when they retire back into the Depth or Profundity of the Aetherial Region: As Fishes cease to be discerned when they sink down into the Bot­tom of the Sea. Of which Opinion likewise Seneca reckons Apollonius Mindius; who held these to be aeterna Naturae Opera; Or, to use Pli [...]y's Words, esse Sydera Perpetua, suoque ambitu ire, sed non nisi relicta à sole cerni. Whence by Manilius they are said sometimes to be involved, sometimes dismissed by the Sun. See Ricciolus in Almagest. Nov. Tom. [...]. l. 8. and Gassendus Tom. 1. l. 5. c. 1.
) Sun's rapid Course these Meteors rears
And draws t' himself, his flames involving theirs,
And now dismisses; Like (
Mercury; who because he makes a [...] almost equal Course with the Sun, and ascends not (as Aristotle says) to any great Height above the Horizon, is therefore seldom seen.
) Cyllenius Light,
Or fair (
Venus; so called from her Mother Dione; Daughter of Tethys and Oceanus: Whence that of Theocritus (Eidyll. 15.) [...] Dionaea Cypris: And of Virgil. Aeneid. 3. ‘Sacra Dionaea Matri—’
) Dione's Star, Usher to Night;
Which often shine, as oft the sight delude,
(Hiding themselves) and then again are view'd:
[Page 63]Or God in Pity to our humane State,
Sends these as (
The Belief of the Illite­rate; asserted lik [...]wise by the Learned of divers Ages. Seve­ral of the Antient Fathers main­taining the Opinion, That Co­mets are made by the immedi­ate Act and Power of God, and designed for the Terrour, D [...]ru­ction, or [...] at [...]ast, of the offending World, especi­ally of Princes. [...] of which Opinion are [...]koned Tertullian, Nicephorus, D [...]scen; and Saint A [...]. Vide [...] ­lum A [...]st. N [...]v. Tem. 2. l. 8. Petit Disser [...]ac. sur les C [...]es, where he discourses against that Opinion; and L'escaloperius in Ciceron. de N [...]tur. Deorum, mo­derating the Assertion of Dama­scen▪ who [...] Comets to be sent by God as the p [...]culiar [...]ore­running Signs of the Death of Kings and Potentates.
) Nuncio's of ensuing Fate,
Never did Heav'n with these fires vainly burn;
Deluded Swains their blasted Labours mourn,
Their Cala­ [...] Effects.
And the tir'd Husband-man to fruitless Toyl
Compels his Oxen in a barren Soyl:
Or the lethiferous Fire their Bodies kills,
Wasting their Marrows out with lingring Ills,
People consumes, whole Towns depopulates,
Whilst flaming (
By burning of the Dead, which was customary with most Nations amongst the Antients; especially with the Athenians, and the Greeks in general, for so says the Scholiast of Thucydides (l. 2.) [...]. It was established by Law among the Athenians, and all the Greeks. The Ground [...] Rea­son thereof proceeding from their Opinion, that what was Divine and Immortal in Man, was by that hery V [...]i­culum carried up to Heaven, and what ever was Terrestrial and Mortal, subsided in the Ashes. They did by that Means likewise as they conceived (according to the Testimony of Psiny l. 7. c. 54.) avoyd the [...] of the Aire by the Putrefaction of buried Carkasses; but especially the Injury or Ignominy which might be do [...]e to the Bodies of the Dead, by taking them out of the Grave ere consumed. For which reason the Tyrant Sylla ordered his Corps to be burned, lest he might be served in the same kind as he before had served his Enemy [...]ius Marius; whose Body he caused to be digged up and thrown into the River Aniene, (now Teverone) as Cacero in secundo de Legibus, and Plutarch in his Life testifies. This Custom of burning the Dead ceasing among the Ro­mans about the Time of Maximinus the Tyrant, or not long before: It being hard to point out the Precise Time: Seeming to be abolished by the contrary Custom of the Iews and Christians, especially by the Prevalence of the lat­ [...]er. Vide Kirkmanum de funere Rom. l. 1. c. 2. & Meursium de sunere, necnon Vales. Not. in Euseb. Histor. Ecclesi [...]st▪ l. 9. c. 8.
) Piles conclude the publick Fates.
Through (
The Athenian Territories: so called either from Erectheus the Son of Vulcan and Minerva, Daughter of [...], or Cranaus, or from Erectheus Son of Pandion. Diodorus Siculus (Bibliothec. l. 1.) makes him to have b [...] by Birth an Egyptian, and that in time of a general Famine, he brought great store of Corn from Egypt to Athens, and for that signal Benefit, was by the Athenians made their King. Herodotus [...] l. 8.) calls him Earth-born, [...] he says that in the Castle of Athens there was the Temple [...], of Erectheus the Earth­born; alluding perhaps to the fabulous occasion of his Birth (of which Apoliodorus Bibliothec. l. 3.) Or in regard of the incertainty of his Parentage; whence those whose Original was not known were by the Antients reputed [...] filii. Vide Casaubon. in 6. Satyr. Persii upon these Words ‘Terrae est jam [...]—’ Eusebius in Chronic. makes him Brother to Perseus, but erroneously: Vide Scalig [...]r. Animadvers. in Euseb. and [...] de regno Attico l. 2. c. 1. and 7.
) Erecthean Lands as that (
He alludes to that Memorable Plague at Athens, which hapned in the beginning of the Peloponnesi [...]n War▪ of which Lucretius l. 6. ‘—Mortifer Aestus Finibus in Cecropis funestos reddidit Agros, Vastavitque Vias, ex [...]ausit Civibus Urben [...].’ Accurately described by Thucydides (l. 2.) and thence paraphrased in English Verse after the Pindarick Way, by [...] excellent Pen of Doctor Spratt; who for that Reason merits with Thucydides himself (in [...]. [...].) to be stiled ‘—Tyrannus Atticae Febris—’
) Plague stray'd,
[Page 64]
I [...]. [...] in his particu­lar Treause de Fo [...]tuna [...], c. [...]o conceives the Epithete Anti­quae to be here given to Athens by [...] for distinction sake, be­cause (as he would have it) that C [...]ty in Man [...]ius his Time (whom he [...]iles as falsely as incons [...]lerately [...] Scriptorem) was call'd N [...]vae A [...]henae. This he would seem to make out from the Authority of this following In­ [...] in Gruter [...], extant at Millan; cited likewise by Scaliger in 5. de Emendatione Tempor. & in Animadvers. in Euseb. ad Numer. MMCXLVII. ‘IMP. CAESAR. T. AELIUS HADRIANUS ANTONINUS AUG. PIUS. COS. III. TRIB. POT. II. P. P. AQUAEDUCTUM IN NOVIS ATHENIS COEPTUM A DIVO HADRIANO PATRE SUO, CONSUMMAVIT. DEDICAVITQ.’ But against this his Opinion we oppose the better Judgment of Salmasius; who (in Not. in Aelium Spartianum) makes it [...] that the Grecian Athens was never call'd N [...]vae Athenae. But that that Part of it which was re-edified by Hadrian, was expresly call'd [...]; as is clear from the Testimony of Spartianus. Besides, Quis credat Inscriptionem Latinam in Urbe Grae [...] suisse posi [...]am, says Salmas [...]us? Or what Relation had the Works or Structures at Athens in Greece, to Millan in [...]? Quid [...] cum Athenis? Says S [...]aliger Animadvers. in Euseb. With fairer Probability therefore conclude we (as Salm [...]sius does) that the Novae Athenae mentioned in the foregoing Inscription was a Town so called in Liguria a Region of Italy (which comprizes part of the Dutchy of Millan) whereof Stephanus de Urbibus; and that Manisius by that Epithere means no more than to set out a Matter of fact of great Antiquity without any reference to the Novel Conceit, or Nominal Dis [...]inction, which [...] fancies.
Old Athens waste by
Tan [...]quil Fa [...]er in his Notes upon the sixth Book of [...] by way of Collation cites these two Verses of Mani­lius, thus read in the Original.
Qualis Erect [...]eos Pestis populata Colonos
Extulit Antiquas per sunera Pacis Athenas.

Which Verses he undertakes to correct or amend, but trul [...]er to corrupt after this manner.

Qualis Ereth [...]os olim populata Col [...]nos
Extulit Antiquas per funera, Pestis Athenas.
He confessing that he made that Alteration for this Reason, Because he never yet saw any that could understand the meaning of [...] P [...]is. But that nimble Critick might have forborn the exposing of his own or others Ignorance in that Point, and have left M [...]nilius his Elegancies unbl [...]mished by so rude an Interpolation; who ingeniously uses the expression of funera P [...]eis, or Peaceful funerals in Opposition to (cruen [...]a funera, or funera Belli) those occasioned by the Sword. For as Thu­ [...]ydides observes, the Athenians were at once doubly afflicted, [...], H [...]minibus inter [...] m [...]rientibus, Terrque extrà vastatâ. Which Place his Scholiast illustrates by applying this Verse of H [...]mers. [...] ‘Siquidem simul Bellumque domat & Pestis Achivos.’ Now the Mortality occasioned by the Plague, Manilius here describes by the Periphrasis of funera Pacis; which had brought upon Athens, unconflicted by any Enemy within, a greater Destruction than the bloody Effects of War had done upon its Territories without.
peaceful Funerals lay'd,
When each contracted others Death; whilst Art
No Cure could find, nor Prayers no help impart;
Care to the Sick, and Funerals to the Dead,
Tears were a main part of Funeral Exequies, whence that of Servius in Virgil. Sine fle [...]u non est Sepultura. The want of them being reckoned as unfortunate as the Deprivation of Funeral it self. Virgil (in 11. Aeneid.) joyns them as alike [...]. ‘N [...] Animae viles, inhuma [...]a, infletaque Turba.’

And O [...]id (Metamorph. 11.) brings in the drowned C [...]yx appearing, and thus speaking to his Hal [...]yone:

Surge, age, d [...] Lacrym [...]s, Lugu [...]riaque indue, nec Me
[...] sub inania [...].
Rise, weep, and put on black, nor undeplor'd,
For pity, send Me to the S [...]ygian Ford. G. S.
The Antients believing the Dead to be comforted and delighted with the Tears of their surviving Friends. And upon this Ground it is that We meet so frequently in the Antient Epitaphs with LACRIMAS POSUIT, and CUM LA­CRIMIS POSUIT, and LACRIMIS ET OPOBALSAMO UDUM CONDIDIT, and TU­MULUM LACRIMIS, PLENUM DEDIT. Of which Gutherius (l. 1. de Iure Manium) affords the Examples. Wherefore not unfitly does Manilius here, by the Defect of so mean and ordinary an Obsequie, aggravate the Miseries of a [...] Mortality, by which Mankind is deprived of all the Resentments and Benefits of commiserating Humanity.
Tears were wanting: Those no Mourners shed.
[Page 65]The wearied Flame did from its Office cease,
And Heaps of
Thuryliles delivers the same historically. Some (says he) when one Body was burning, brought another, and casting it upon it went their Way. Leaving the Reliques of one fired Carkass to burn ano­ther. For as Dr. Sp [...]at ingeni­ously paraphrases upon that part of the Story,
The Woods gave Funeral Piles no more,
The Dead the very [...]ire dev [...]ur.

A sadder kind of Funeral than that which Virgil (Ae [...]eid. 11.) gives to the slaughtered Latines, for they had yet Wood to burn them.

‘Caetera confusaeque ingentem Caedis Acervum Nec Numero, nec Honore cremant—’ Upon which last Words Gutherius observes, Nec Numero nec Honore cembusti dicuntur, qui confuso Lignorum Acervo, lento dabantur Igni, multis Corporibus simul congestis. And this by Macrobius, is called Tumultuarium funus, only used in calamitous Accidents. In which kind of promiscuous Funeral it is noted by Macrobius that it was usual to eve­ry ten Mens Bodies to add one Womans to make them burn the better. He gives the Reason likewise; Quòd Muliebre Corpus juvabat ardentes Viros, non Caloris erat, sed Pinguis Carnis & Oleo similis. Vide Macrob. Saturn. l. 7. c. 7.
fir'd Bones burnt dead Carkasses;
Whilst to so great a People scarce an Heir
Remain'd. Such Woes dire Comets oft declare.
They bring with them the Worlds
Manilius here will have Comets to be the Ushers of the Worlds general Conflagration. Which Opinion seems to be grounded upon this supposition, That the Aether by reason of the long Consumption of its humid A­liment shall be then fitted for such fiery Productions; at which time likewise the Sun and Stars having wasted all the Elementary Supplies, shall reduce the World into Flames. Being the Opinion of the Stoicks, especially of Ze­no, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, and (but doubtingly) of Panaetius; of which Cicero in secundo de Natura Deorum: Though the Doctrine be as antient as Heraclitus, Empedocles, and Hyppasus the Metapontine. Yet was it not by them be­lieved that this Conflagration should bring with it a total, substantial Destruction, but rather a purifying Renova­tion of the World: For so Cicero delivers their Opinion where he says, Ad extremum Omnis Mundus ignescet. Ita relinqui nihil praeter Ignem; à quo rursum animante ac Deo Renovatio Mundi fie [...], atque idem Ornatus orietur. Christi­an Philosophy likewise declaring not only the Worlds [...] or Conflagration; but its [...] or Res [...]i­tution. See Lipsius in Stoic. Phil. Dissertac. 22, and 23. Delrius in Commentar. ad Octav. Senec. p. 533. Gassendus Tom. 1. Syntagm. Philosoph. part. 2. p. 178. and L'escaloperius in Ciceron. de Natur. Deorum. l. 2. Sect. 118.
last Funeral Fire,
In which sick Nature one Day must expire.
Suppos'd to occasion the Worlds General Conflagra­tion.
Wars they proclaim too, Tumults to arise,
And open Arms from secret Treacheries.
So when the Nations late from Faith withdrew,
When the fierce Germans our great
Divers, and some eminently learned (among whom is Sleydan de 4. Imper. Stadius in L. Florum, and the ex­cellent Gassendus in vitae Epicuri) conceive the Quintilius Varus here mentioned to be the same with that Quinti­lius Varus, of whose Death Horace in that consolatory Ode of his to Virgil (Carm. l. 1. Od. 24.) But since it is e­vident that Quintilius Varus who was General of the Roman Legions in Germany was not slain till twenty eight years after the Death of Virgil (to whom that Ode is directed) Virgil dying in the DCCXXXIV year of Rome, and Varus not till DCCLXII year of the same (at which time neither Virgil nor Horace were living) It must be against all Reason and Chronology to imagine him the same with that Quintilius Varus whom Horace there bewails. He being justlier conceiv'd to be the same with him mentioned by Eusebius in Chronic. in these Words. Olymp. CLXXXIX. Quintilius Cremonensis Virgilii & Horatii familiaris, moritur. Servius likewise stiling him [...] Vir [...] gilii, and therefore Horace makes this Particular Application of his Loss to Virgil. ‘Multis ille quidem flebilis occidit, Nulli flebilior quàm Tibi Virgili.’ See Torrentius in his Notes upon that Ode, and Tanaquil Faber expresly discussing this Point. (Epistol. 46. l. 2.) But the Quintilius Varus here meant, was the Son of Sextus Quintilius Varus, who (together with A [...]ius Va­rus) warred against Iul. Caesar, as we find in his Commentaries de bello Civili l. 2. and was flain afterwards in the Battle with Brutus and Cassius against Augustus by the Hand of his Freeman, Quem id facere [...]egerat cum se In­signibus Honorum velasset, as Velleius Paterculus l. 2. c. 71. relates. Whose Fate his Son followed though in a diffe­rent Cause, Quippe, (to use Paterculus his Words) Paterni, Avitique Exempli Successor, se ipse transfixit. He was before the Generalship of the Army in Germany, Prefect of Syria; Quam, Pauper, Divitem ingressus, Dive [...], Paupe­rem reliquit, as the same Velleius Paterculus testifies l. 2. c. 117.
Varus slew,
[Page 66]And Fields in
Of this s [...]d defeat of Quin­ti [...] Varus, and the Roman Legi­ons by the Germans under the Con­duct of Arminius, (occasioned by Varus his overweening confidence, who in the midst of an Em [...]my Country, undertook to rule by the bare Formalities of Law, a fierce and warlike People whom the Power of the Sword could not ter­ [...] or subdue.) See Strabo l. 7. [...] Paterculus l. 2. Lucius Flo­rus l. 4. c. 12. Tacitus Annal. l. 1. [...] in August.) and Dion Cassi­us l. 56. A Disaster so resented by A [...]uius that it brought him al­most to despair; who often in Passion knocking his Head against the wall would cry out, Quintili Va­ri, redde Legiones. Quintilius Varus, restore M [...] my Leg [...]ons! The Place of this defeat Cluverius (in Antiqu. German. l. 3.) will have to be near the Town of Dietmel, antiently Th [...]utoburgium; for thus (from the forenamed Authorities) he de­scribes Varus his March as he was train'd by the subtlety of Armi­ni [...]s from his Camp at Alizon, now Esen, towards the Borders of the Cherusci. First p [...]ssing through the utm [...]st Bounds of the Marsi towards a Town which now is called Teuten Meyer, he came to the Woody Hills, where is the Castle at this Day called Falkenberg: In the Vallies beneath which runs the River vulgarly called Beerlebeker Be [...]k so named from the Town Beerlebek'; then entring the con­fines of the Cherusci, he was there between the said Mountains, and the Town of Theutmel or Dietmel, set upon, and his whole Army defeated and slain. Otho Frisingensis l. 3. reports this Defeat to have been given within the Territories of Ausburg near a Place where there is a Hill by some said to be raised by the heaped up Bones of the slaughtered Romans, and there­fore called Perleich, quod ibi Legiones perierint: But that gross Errour is refuted by Velserus l. 1. Rerum August. Vindel. Ber­ [...] in Sueton. affirms the Place where this Defeat was given, to be at this Day by the Germans in Memory of their Victo­ry called [...], near the Town Horn in Westphalia, not far from Dietmel aforesaid. But one Place or Time was not suf­ficient to comprize so signal a Disaster, for the Fight (or slaughter rather) was continued for three days. The first Days Conflict was near the Head of Luppia, now called Lips-spring; the second Days Discomfiture was carried more remote from thence toward the Castle of Falkenberg; the third and final Defeat was in the Fields (from their Victory by the Germans called [...]) between Horn and Dietmel before mentioned. Vide Monument. Paderbornens. p. 35.
Blood of three whole Legions drown'd,
Through all the Skies such Ominous Lights were found;
As if with Those warr'd Nature; and 'gainst Ours,
Threatning an End to All; oppos'd her Powers.
Nor wonder Men and States such Mischiefs grieve,
The fault's at Home; We will not Heav'n believe.
Oft Civil Wars, and Kindred Arms they raise,
Nor more did Heaven with such fires ever blaze,
Than when fierce Leaders joyning bloody hands
Rang'd on
He refers to the Civil Wars raised by Brutus and Cossius, who on th [...]se Plains fought a desperate Battle against Augu­stus Caesar, wherein they both perished together with the Roman Liberty: Of which see Livy Epitom. l. 124. Plutarch (in the Lives of Marcus Antonius and Brutus) Lucius Florus, l. 4. c. 6. and Appian de Bellis Civilibus l. 4. These Plains were so called from the Town Philippi, heretofore called Bunomos or Bunomia, Datus and Crenides; the last name being given it from the many Springs there rising, but afterwards renamed from Philip the Father of Alexander its Reedifier, particularly de­scribed by Appian (loco citato) a Place fatal to the Roman Common Wealth; by most conceived the same with the Pharsalian Plains where Pompey received his last and fatal overthrow; but erroneously. For those were in Thessaly near the River Pharsalus; these in Thrace or the utmost Limits of Macedonia not far from the River Strimon. Vide Bunonem in Cluver. Intro­duct. Geograph. l. 4. c. 8. However the Poets generally, and Virgil himself, with our Manilius confounds them with the Pharsalian Plains; as in this Verse in 1. Georgic. ‘Romanas Acies iterum videre Philippi:’

And in complyance with that Vulgar Opinion Cabellavius in this following Epigram upon the present Subject.

Pharsa [...]s Ausonias frangit rursum Hasta Secures,
[...] rursum Aemathio Pulvere Roma cadit.
Cred [...] suum Macetum Tellus imitatu [...] Alumnum:
Hic Orbem, [...] Vrbem vici [...] & Orbis Heram.
Once more Pharsalia routs Ausonian Bands,
And Rome once more falls on Aemathian Sands.
The Land sure imitates her great Son; He
The whole world vanquish'd; the worlds Empress she.
Philippick Plains confederate Bands.
The Roman Souldiers on Sands yet scarce dry,
Trampled fresh Reliques of Mortality.
Empire, It self with its own Strength assayl'd,
But Great Augustus (Iulius-like)
The Memory of this Victory, which seems chiefly to be attributed to the Valour of the Praetorian Cohorts, is pre­served in some an [...]nt Medails, on one side whereof is the Figure of Victory standing upon a Globe, holding forth in her right Hand a Laurel Wreath with this Inscription, VICT. AUG. On the Reverse three Military Ensigns with this In­scription, COHOR. PRAET. PHIL. See Goltzius, Occo, and Patin in Numism. Imp. Rom.
[Page 67]Yet ends not there: the
The Battle of Actium was one of the most signal that ever was fought at Sea; upon whose Success depended no less than the Empire of the whole World. The Chiefs interessed were Augustus Caesar, and Mark Anthony, abetted with all the Strength of the East and West. Plutarch reckons on Mark Antonies side no less than e­leven Kings engaged, whereof six were personally present in the Action. The Battle being deno­minated from the Town of Acti­um in Epirus seated upon a Promontory of the same Name, at present call'd Capo Figalo at the Mouth of the [...] Golf, known at this Day by the Name of Golfo de Larta; near to which on the third of September in the 723. year after the building of Rome, (as Brietius computes it) the Engagement hapned. Augustus his Fle [...] consisting of 400 stout Men of War, Mark Antonies being double that Number, and of much greater Burden. But by the Valour and Conduct of Agrippa the Victory after a long and dubious Dispute rested on Augustus his side; Cleopatra first flying, and after her Antony shame­fully following. See Virgil, Aeneid. l. 8. Horace Od. 37. l. 1. and Epod. 9. Plutarch in the life of Mark Antony, and parti­cularly Fournie [...] in the fifth Book of his Hydrographie, where he treats de la Puissance Navale des Anciens. p. 217, and 218.
Actian Battle's fought;
When Armies as a fatal
So by Sidonius Apolinaris (in Panegyr. ad Majorian.) the Army which Mark Anthony and Cleopatra brought against Augustus is called Dotalis Turba in this Verse, ‘Dum venit à Phario dotalis Turba Canopo.’

For Anthony had promised to Cleopatra, by the help of that Army to give her the Roman Empire for her Dowry; consirm'd by Propertius l. 3. Eleg. 11.

‘Conjugis obscoeni Pretium Romana poposcit Moenia—’

And Lucius Florus l. 4. c. 11. Mulier Aegyptiaca ab ebrio Imperatore Pretium Libidinis, Romanum Imperium pe [...]is, & promis [...] Antonius, to which Albinovanus (speaking of M [...]aenas) alludes.

‘Hic modò Miles erat, ne posset Foemina Romam Dotalem stupri, turpis, habere sui.’

And the Authour of this Epigram (in Catalect. Veter. Poet.)

Venerat Eoum quatiens Antonius Orbem
Et conjuncta suis Parthlea Belia gerens,
Dotalemque petens Romam Cleopatra Canopo, &c.
Dowry brought,
Once more engag'd for the Worlds glorious Prize,
And sought at Sea, a Ruler of the Skies;
When Fleets did on a Womans Sway depend:
Manilius here calls them Isiaca Sistra, the Sistrum being a kind of Musical Instrument or Crepitaculum used in the Sacri­fices of Isis to whom it was sacred; reputed to have been her Invention, and thence so named according to Isidor, or from the Greek Word, [...], i. e. quatio, because it was shaken (when play'd on) crispante Bracchio, as Apuleius (l. 1. Metamorph.) describes it. It was made in form of a Racquet, of Iron, Brass, Silver, and, sometimes, of Gold; through the Rim, Webb, or Border thereof was put several small Rods, of the same Metal with the Sistrum, on which were hung divers Rings, which, when shaken by the Handle, made a kind of gingling Noise. The Greek Poet Hedylus in an Epigram of his cited by Athenaeus, seems to derive the Invention of the Sistrum from the murmuring Sound which Milus makes passing through the Clifts and rocky Places; touching which, see Casaubon, Animadvers. in Athenaeum, l. 11. c. 13. It is by Scaliger (in C pam Virgil.) and Salmasius (in Flav. Vopisc) confounded with the Crotalum, but erroneously, as observed by Pignorius (de [...], p. 8 [...].) where the Differences are clearly stated from their contrary Figures. It was the peculiar Instrument of Aegypt: That Land being by the Prophet Esay (c. 8. v. 1.) according to the Interpretation of [...] (in G [...]ogr. Sacr. l. 4. c. 2.) called Terra C [...]m­bali O [...]arum, i. e. Cymbali Marginati The Land of Timbrels with Rims or Borders (to distinguish them from the Timbrels of other Countries) and not as our English Translation reads it, the Land shadowing with Wings. Isidore yet affirms the Amazons to have used this sort of Timbrel in their Wars instead of Trumpets, as well as the Aegyptians; and gives the Reason, [...] ejus erat Mulier (namely Isis.) Kirker likewise (in Arte Magna Conson. & Disson. l. 2.) reports the Iewish Timbrel [...] call Thoph, to have been of the same Fashion with, and made in Imitation of the Aegyptian Sistrum; And that [...] Virgins used it in their Solemn Dances, as he proves by the Examples of Moses his Sister, and I [...]phte's Daughter: [...] thereof being yet continued in Palestine as he affirms from the Testimony of credible Witnesses, the Figure whereof [...] us correspondent to that of the Aegyptian Sistrum; of which see more in Plutarch, (l. de Iside & Osyride) [...] his particular Tract entitled Isiacus seu de Sistro, Dempster in Paralipom. ad Rosin. l. 2. Pierius Hieroglyp [...]. l. 4. c. 6, and 7. [...] [...] ­da in 8. Aeneid. ad Vers. 696. and Kirker in Oedip. Aegypt. Tom. 1. & alibi.
Nile's Timbrels 'gainst Rome's
Tristan in his Historical Commentaries (Tom. 1. p. 82.) conceives by the Thunder here mentioned, some Tempest of Thunder, which he observes to have been always favourable and auspicious to Augustus, and instances particularly (from Ap­pian) in the Conflict against Sextus Pompeius; imagining the like propitious Accident to have happened in this against Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. But his Conjecture is without Ground: for the Poet intends no more in this Place than to set forth the Engagement between the Forces of Augustus under the Protection of Iupite [...] Capitolinus or Tonans, the Roman Deity; and those of Anthony and Cleopatra under the Protection of Isis, the Aegyptian Goddess. Hence that in Catalect. Vet. Poet. ‘—Capitolino Sistra minata Iovi.’

And Propertius speaking of Cleopatra Lady General in the Battle of Actium,

‘Ausa Iovi nostro latrantem opponere Anubim.’

Consonant to which is that of Lucan. l. 10.

‘Terruit Illa suo, si fas, Capitolia S [...]stro.’
Thunder durst con­tend.
[Page 68]There yet remain'd the
He calls it the Servile War, because the Forces of Sextus Pom­peius were compos'd of Slaves and Prisoners which he had pick'd up to manage his Py [...]atick War. [...]o this Lucan alludes l. 1.
Accedant fatis, & quas premit a­spera, Classes,
Le [...]cas, & a [...]denti Servilia Bella sub Aetna.
See Laurentius Abstemius Sylloge 4. V [...]r. Annotat..
servile War behind;
When with his Countries Foes young Pompey joyn'd,
Harrass'd those Seas his Father did defend.
But this suffice the Fates; now let Wars end;
And Adamantine Fetters Discord bind,
To close Restraint eternally confin'd.
Whilst Father of his Country
Manilius (as is well ob­served by Spanhemius (in Dissertat. de Numism.) alludes in this Place not unappositely to the Title of INVICTUS usually given to the Roman Emperors. Of whom perhaps Augustus was the first that enjoyed it. In after Times we find it frequent. Hence in the Coyns of Septimius Severus INVICTO IMPERATORI, and of Geta SEVERI INVICTI AUG. P. FIL. and of Alexander Severus INVICTUS AUG. So likewise in these Antient In­scriptions within the Territories of Verona collected by Panvinius: ‘IMP. CAES. M. AUR. CLAUDIO P. F. INVICTO AUG.’ and ‘IMP. CAES. M. AUR. MAXENTIO P. F. INVICTO AUG.’ Rome likewise being frequently honoured with the same Attribute, as in the Coyns of Constantinus, Priscus Attalus, Alexander the Tyrant, and Athalaricus, where we find the Inscriptions of ROMA INVICTA, and ROMA INVICTA [...]TERNA. Of which in Goltzius, Occo, Tristan, and Patin.
ne're o'recome,
Augustus lives; such too beneath him, Rome.
And when a God she to a Heavenly Throne
Resigns Him up; else in the World seek None.


INtending the subsequent Appendix as a further Illu­stration of the Precedent Poem, I find my self ob­liged to follow the same Method which our Au­thor himself hath laid down, and to trace him in his own steps, through the main Design of his Work; in the very Front whereof appears, as it were lightly delineated,


Of which ere we begin to speak, it will berequisite to give some Account of its NAME. It is derived [...] ▪ because it teaches the Laws and Rules where­by the Motions of the Stars are regulated and determined▪ being anciently, by a Pro­miscuous Community of Denomination, called also Astrology: For what is, by Plato, call'd ASTRONOMY, is, by Aristotle and others, term'd ASTROLOGY. Thus a Salmas. in Pli [...]. Ex [...]rci­tat. Tom. 1. p; 6; Tha­les is said first among the Greeks [...], to Astrologize, who never treated of the Iudiciary Art: So to Pherecydes they gave the Title of Astrologer, though he was absolutely an Astronomer; and the Astronomical Treatise of Phocus the Samian, which some have ascribed to Thales, bears the Inscription of Nautical Astrology. On the contrary, our Manilius inscribes his Poem, which treats (all but the First Book) of Iudiciary Astrology, ASTRONOMICON. But this Synonymy in after­times ceased: For this Celestial Science, known anciently in Greece by that Part of it only, which was properly call'd Meteorologick, as considering the Motions of the Stars with the Reasons thereof, came, in succeeding Ages, to receive the Ad­dition of another Part, call'd Apotelesmatick, which teaches to divine and progno­sticate from the Site and Aspects of the fixed Stars and Planets, their Influence as to the Production of future Events. And when this last became transplanted into Greece, and had there taken Root, there was given to it (as a peculiar and distinctive Appellation) the Name of Astrology, there being reserved to the former only that of Astronomy; which is properly understood, and so described to be, That Science which contemplates the Motion, Distance, Colour, Light, Order, Place, Magnitude, and the like Adjuncts of the fixed Stars and Planets, without any respect to the Iudiciary Part.

As Astronomy, so its Professors were doubly distinguished. Plato, in Epinomi­de, differences them by the Titles of [...], and [...]. By the first, he means those who observe the Rising and Setting of the Stars, in Order to the Prognosti­cation of the Seasons of the Year, and Temperature of the Air; these he calls Astronomers, according to Hesiod: by the later, he understands those, whose study is particularly confin'd to the Theory of the Planets.

[Page 2]As to its ORIGINAL, we cannot reasonably refer it to a better Parent than Ad­miration. So says [...]. Astron. Gassendus, Originem ipsi fecit Admiratio. For our Forefathers admiring the Splendour, Variety, Multitude and Magnitude of the Stars, together with their constant and regular Motion, transferred their Admiration into Ob­servation, and that in process of time into Tables, or Parapegmata, for the Infor­mation of Posterity. And upon this Ground we may, with [...]rasat. in Tom. [...]. [...]lma­gest. [...]ov. Ricciolus, affirm Astronomy to be as ancient almost as the Stars themselves, and that it was first (with other divinely infused Arts) reduced to Experiment and Practice by Adam himself, and by his Posterity perpetuated, as we find by L. 11. Autiq. Iud. c. 3 & 8. Iosephus, who writes that Seth, having been instructed therein by Adam, and understanding that the World was twice to perish, once by Deluge, afterward by a general Conflagration, reduc'd this Art to an Epitome, and inscrib'd it on two Pillars; the one of Brick, against the Violence of Fire; the other of Stone, against the Inundation of Waters: One of which (that is the Pillar of Stone) he affirms to have been extant in his Time, in a Place call'd Syrias or Seirath M [...]. Is. Voss. l. de [...]tate Mundi, p. 271. conceived to be the Land bordering up­on Mount Ephraim, not far from Iericho.

Astronomy being thus brought into the World, was cultivated and improved by the following Patriarchs, who, by reason of their long lives, had the Opportunity of observing and noting many Astral Revolutions. To which end chiefly (according to the Opinion of some of the Jewish R [...]bbi Isa [...]. [...], [...]. de lon [...]vitate prim. Patr. Doctors) the Prolongation of their Lives was by divine Providence in a manner miraculously extended. Among whom, in this Science the most celebrated is Enoch, whose Books upon this Subiect are said to be extant at this Day; whence Tertullian and Origen produce several Citations.

But to what Extent of Improvement this Science was brought before the Flood is uncertain.

This only from the Testimony of Origen, citing the Books of Enoch before mentioned, appears, That the Stars were then reduced into Asterisms, under peculiar and distinct Denominations: Touching which Names the said Enoch wrote many secret and mysterious things. And Scripture makes it manifest, that the Year then, as now it is, was computed by [...] Revolutions of the Moon, to one of the Sun's through the Zodiack. For in Genesis, it is said, that Noah entred into the Ark the 17. Day of the 2. Moneth; there is likewise express mention of the 7. and the 10. Moneth; and that on the 27. Day of the 2. Moneth of the Year fol­lowing, Noah went out of the Ark. Whence we may infer, that the Patriarchs had then the knowledge, as well of the Sun's Course as of the Moons, with their Periods, and in probability of the other Planets. And that the Opinion of those, who conceive the Year, before the Flood, to have been only Menstrual, deserves to be exploded, as most absurd and ridiculous.

After the Flood, and the Dispersion of Mankind over the face of the Earth, the Study of Astronomy began to be improved by several Nations, who doubtless had derived the Knowledge thereof from Noah and his Posterity. So that it may seem no wonder, if at one and the same Time divers Persons in divers Regions applied themselves to the Observation and Study of this Astral Science. Hence arises among several Nations the Contest for the Glory and Honour of its Invention. But seeing it is clear beyond all Controversie, that Mankind issued and dispersed themselves out of Asia into Africk, Europe, and other parts of the World, the Glory thereof ought in the first Place to be attributed to the Asiaticks; and among them chiefly to the Babylonians, Chaldeans and Bactrians. Among whom are prin­cipally celebrated Evahdnes, Belus, Zoroaster, and his Successor Otanes; as like­wise [Page 3] Cidenas, Naburian, Sudinus and Seleucus the Chaldean; before whom yet is to be reckoned the Patriarch Abraham, and his Father Thare, as great Improvers of those Inventions, which had been handed down to them from their Forefathers, and the Sons of Noah.

From the Assyrians and Chaldeans it came in the next Place to the Egyptians, brought thither by the Patriarch Abraham, as L. 9. Pr [...]par, Evan [...] ▪ c. 16, 17, 18, &c. Eusebius proves, from the Autho­rity of Iosephus, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Melo and others, as cited by Alexander Polyhistor; though Eupolemus seem to infer, that Abraham first taught the same to the Phenicians, before his Descent into Egypt.

There are others yet who attribute the Honour of its Invention to the Egypti­ans, before the Chaldeans, conceiving that Tradition of Abraham's instructing the Egyptian Priests to be inconsistent with Reason; since Abraham's Vid. [...], in Praefa [...]. ad Vit. T [...]ch. Brahae [...]non Dom. Io. [...], p. [...]1. Stay in E­gypt (however Artapanus report it to have been 20 years) seems not to have been above 3 Moneths; most of which time was spent in Fears, Jealousies, and Dangers, which in all Probability would not permit him to communicate, at leisure and with freedom, the Mysteries of that sublime Science.

They add further, that the Egyptians were so far from receiving the Knowledge of Astronomy from the Chaldeans, that on the Contrary, they affirm the Chaldeans to have been first instructed therein by the Egyptians. To prove which they pro­duce the Testimonies of [...] l. [...] Diodorus Siculus, and Fabul. 271. Hyginus; The former writing that Babylon was a Colony of the Egyptians, founded by Belus, Son of Libya, who therein instituted a College of Priests, who were to contemplate the S [...]ars in the same manner as those in Egypt: The later reporting, that one Evahdnes is said to have come from beyond the Seas into Chaldea, and there to have taught Astronomy.

But it seems strange, if this Science were known to the Egyptians, before the Ba­bylonians and Chaldeans, that yet the Egyptian Observations should be so much later than those of the Babylonians; for we find scarce any of the Egyptians to pre­cede the Time of Alexander the Great his Death, than which even those of the Greeks are earlier; whereas the Observations of the Babylonians appear to have been made almost 2000 years before that Time.

Others there are who would rob both the Chaldeans and Egyptians of this Ho­nour, and assign the Invention thereof to the Ethiopians; of which Opinion is Lucian, [...]. But this Assertion seems to want much of Validity, as be­ing opposed by the general Stream of Tradition, and that long before Lucian's Time.

Nor wants Africa, besides the Egyptians, and Ethiopians, other Pretenders to the Invention of Astronomy; particularly the Mauritanians, who are said to have been instructed therein, by Atlas (the Son of Libya) their King.

From the several Nations before mentioned Astronomy seems to have been divid­ed anciently into Three Principal Sects, that is to say, the Assyrian, comprehend­ing the Babylonian and Chaldaick, the Egyptian, and the Atlantick: of which last yet the Greeks and Romans made no reckoning, for among them were only enu­merated these 3 Sects, the Chaldaick, Egyptian and Grecian; the Original and Progress of which last comes next to be described.

To pass by the fabulous Age, touching which there is nothing certain, we shall [Page 4] only confine our Discourse to the Historical, which began with the Olympiads. Nor do any Monuments of this Later inform us, that the Greeks had made any considerable Advance in Astronomy, before the Death of Alexander the Great. For, excepting some few Observations of Eclipses, made by Thales and Anaxagoras, the rest of the Greeks imployed their Studies no further, than in nothing the Rising and Setting of the fixed Stars, and accommodating the Cycles of the Sun and Moon to the Constitution of the Civil Year; to which end they observed the Solstices and Equinoxes: Oenopides, Cleostratus, Harpalus, Democritus, Meton, Euctemon, or Eudoxus, having not delivered to us any thing of the proper Motion of the fix­ed Stars, or their certain Distances from one another, nor yet (says Ricciolus) of the Revolutions of the Planets, or the Periods determining the Apocatastasis of the Moons Anomaly and Latitude.

And yet such was their Self-conceit and Presumption, as confidently to affirm, that Astronomy ow'd its Invention to them, and particularly to the Rhodians, from whom they will have the Egyptians to have receiv'd it, as Diodorus Siculus reports in the story of the Heliadae. Others of them ascribe its Original to their Poet Orpheus. But these assertions savouring too much of the Fable, perswade us rather to conclude with the Opinion of those, who maintain Astronomy to have been first brought into Greece by Thales the Milesian, who derived it from the Egyptians.

From him it was improv'd by Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Empedocles, Euctemon, Meton, Eudoxus, and others of the Athenian School, till the Time of Alexander the Great his founding the City of Alexandria in Egypt. After which the Ptolemies, his Successors, erecting there an Academy for all man­ner of Studies, the Grecian Astronomy made its Retreat thither, and under those Princes flourished in equal Glory with the Egyptian. From thence we hear of the famous Names of Autolychus, Calippus, Timochares, Aristyllus, Eratosthenes, Conon, Hipparchus, Sosigenes, Theon Senior, Ptolemy, Paulus Alexandrinus, Theon Alexandrinus, and his Daughter, the Excellent, but Unfortunate, Hypatia.

Among the Romans it was long before it gain'd Acquaintance, or Professors. For though Orat. [...]9. Dion Prusieus affirm the Italians to have been instructed by the Pytha­goreans, and that in Probability the Doctrine of Philolaus, Timaeus, Archytas and others (the fame of whose Learning invited even Plato himself to make a voyage into Italy) could not be concealed from the curious and ingenious Spirits of Rome: Yet that Martial City being more addicted to Arms than Arts, slowly entertained, these kind of speculative Studies. And therefore (to pass by the rude Essays of Numa Pompilius) we find in the Roman Stories no Mention of any Persons consi­derably knowing therein, before Cains Sulpicius Gallus, who was Legate to Ae­milius Paulus in the War against Perses King of Macedon, who first among them published a Discourse of Eclipses. After him we hear of Lucius Taruntius, Nigi­dius Figulus, Varro, and Cicero, who applied themselves to the Study of Astronomy; But to none of the Latines is that Science so much indebted as to their Great Dictator C. Iulius Caesar, who

—media inter Praelia semper
Stellarum, Coelique Plagis, Superisque vacabat.

He with the assistance of Sosigenes, the Egyptian, reduced the Roman Year to the Course of the Sun, which we yet retain, and wrote, in Greek, of the Stars. From him Mathematical Arts, and particularly Astronomy, began to flourish among them; his Nephew and Successor Augustus, by his Example encouraging the [Page 5] same. In whose Reign our Manilius wrote this his Astronomical Poem.

And thus having clearly and concisely, to Manilius his Time, deduced the History of Astronomy from its Original, I conceive it may serve as a competent Illustration of his Proemial, but brief Indication of the first Rise, Authors, and Promoters thereof.

To continue the Progress thereof down to these Times in the same Series of Discourse would perhaps be both tedious and unsatisfactory. I have therefore chosen for the better Information (and it may be Delectation) of the more Inquisitive and Ingenious Lovers of these Studies, to collect a Catalogue of the most Eminent Astronomers, as well Antient as Modern, their Works and Writings, according to the Succession of Time from the first Birth of Astronomy to this present, whereby the Curious Reader may perceive, when, how, and by whom it hath been improved to that Degree of Perfection wherein it now stands.

A CATALOGUE Of the most Eminent ASTRONOMERS, Ancient & Modern.


ADAM, the first Authour of Astronomy, as of all5600. other Arts and Sciences, according to Suidas; [...], Hujus sunt omnia in­venta omnésque Doctrinae. That he particularly in­structed Seth in this Astral Science, and that by writing, is the opinion of the Iewish and Arabian Doctours, and, among them, expressly of Gelaldi­nus Arabs, cited by Kircher in Obelisc. Pamphil. pag. 5. the Book which goes under the title of Liber Creationis, being own'd for his, and com­mented upon, as such, by Rabbi Abraham, and Rabbi Ioseph Ben Uziel; but how far to be credited, see Bangus, Exercit. Literar. pag. 4.

SETH, the son of Adam, inscrib'd on two Pillars, one of Brick, the other of5200. Stone, the Theory of this Celestial Science, received from his Father, and after­wards by that means perpetuated by Cainan, Mahaliel, Iared, &c. unto Enoch.

ENOCH, the seventh from Adam, wrote of Astronomy, and particularly of4400. the Number and Names of the Stars, and their secret Vertues; the Book reported to be yet extant in the Territories of the Queen of Sheba, as Vossius, De Scientiis Mathemat. affirms.

CHAM, the son of Noah, by some conceived the same with the first Zoroaster, 3400. by others taken for Menes, or Osyris the first King of Egypt, is famed for his skill [Page 7] in Astronomy, which yet he is said to have contaminated by the addition of diversANNI ANTE CHRISTUM. Magical arts.

NEBROCH, or NEMBROTH, or NIMROD, the son of Ch [...], the2847. son of Cham, and the first King of Babylon, is reported to have writ some things in Astronomy and Astrology, as Simler affirms in Biblioth. Gesner.

BELUS the Assyrian, King of Babylon, by Pliny (l. 6. c. 26.) stiled The In­ventor 2346. of the Science of the Stars, to whom Semiramis his Daughter erected a Tem­ple in the middle of Babylon, of an exceeding Height, by the Help whereof the Chaldeans, who addicted themselves there to Contemplation of the Stars, did ex­actly observe their risings and settings: of which Diodor. Sicul. l. 2.

ABRAHAM the Patriarch, instructed by the Posterity of Noah, (from whom2069. he was the tenth, as Noah was from Adam) taught this Knowledge to the Phoeni­cians and Egyptians, as Eusebius attests. He is said to have inscribed on two Pillars (as Seth before had done) whatever related to the Astronomical Science, as Ranzo­vius from the Authority of Marianus Scotus affirms in Catalog. Astronom.

ZOROASTER, called PERSO-MEDUS, the first of the Magi, and a1990. most knowing Astrologer, besides four Books, De Naturâ, left five others of Pre­dictions, Ex inspectione Stellarum, as Suidas testifies in Voce [...], which yet by G. Vossius are supposed not to be authentick, De Scient. Mathemat. p. 371.

COELUS, the most ancient of the Ethnick Gods, by the Greeks called [...],1800. which name he acquired by his continual Observations of the Heavenly Bodies. His sons were Saturn, Hyperion, Iapetus, &c.

HYPERION, the son of Coelus, is said to have demonstrated the Course of the1750. Sun and Moon, and thence the people took occasion to call his Son, Helius, and his Daughter, Selene, as Diod. Sicul. l. 3. affirms.

MOSES, by Extraction a Chaldean, by Birth and Education an Egyptian, the1593. Great Legislator of the Iews, and first truly Divine Philosopher, is not to be omit­ted in this Catalogue of Astronomers; for Philo Iudaeus, in his life (l. 1.) affirms, That he received from the Assyrians the Chaldaick Learning of the Stars, and Know­ledge of the Heavens; In which likewise he improved himself from the Doctrines of the Egyptians, chiefly addicted to Mathematical Studies.

ATLAS, King of Mauritania, inventor of the Sphere, and therefore by the1590. Poets feigned to have supported Heaven.

PROMETHEUS, Brother to Atlas, instructed the Assyrians in Astronomy,1590. making his Observations on Mount Caucasus, with that assiduous care and sollici­tous study, as gave occasion to the Fable of his being tortured by a Vultur feeding on his Liver.

HERMES, called likewise THEUT or THOTH, and MERCURI­US1480. TRISMEGISTUS, a great Propagator of Astronomy among the Egyp­tians. Something bearing his name was printed at Norimberg 1532. His Books called [...] did treat [...], as we find in Eusebius; and Iambli­cus, (out of Chaeremon) speaks of other his Writings upon the same subject.

ENDYMION, a curious Observer of the Moon's motion: which on Mount1445. [Page 8] Latmus he used to contemplate, and for that cause was fabled to have been her Para­mour.ANNI ANTE CHRIST [...].

BELLEROPHON, Son of Glaucus, Prince of Corinth, who is fabled to1360. have backed Pegasus the winged Horse, and soared up to Heaven, is by Lucian, [...], reputed a great Astronomer; for thus he writes of him. I believe not at all (says he) the Story of his winged Horse. But this I conceive of him, that he being much addicted to Astronomical Contemplations, and conversant in the Observa­tion of the Stars ( [...]) was carried up to Heaven not by a Horse, but by his Mind.

CEPHEUS, King of Ethiopia, a Royal Promoter, and Advancer of Astrono­mical1345. Studies, of whom we have already made mention in our Notes upon the Con­stellations.

HERCULES, called [...], or Musarum ductor, to distinguish him from1238. the other Hercules, was so well learned in the Doctrine of the Sphere, that he is therefore feigned to have eased Atlas of his burthen; whence Ovid, ‘Hercule supposito Sydera fulsit Atlas.’

ATREUS, Brother to Thyestes, King of the Argives was, according to the1205. testimomy of Lucian, ( [...]) an excellent Astronomer. For when the Argives by publick consent had decreed, That the Kingdom should be given to him of the two who should manifest himself the most learned in the knowledge of the Heavens; Thyestes is thereupon said to have made known to them the Constella­tion in the Zodiack called Aries. But Atreus discovered to them the course of the Sun, with his various rising and setting, demonstrating his Motion to be contrary to that of the Heavens; Whereupon they elected him to be their King.

PALAMEDES found out many Observables concerning the Stars, their1200. Measures, Distances, and Motions, as we find exprest in Sophocles.

SOLOMON, King of Israel, besides his other divinely infused knowledge,1012. was excellently skilled in the course of the Heavens, and order of the Stars, as it is said of him, Wisdom, chap. 7. v. 19.

NUMA POMPILIUS, second King of the Romans, first Authour of the716. Roman year, which he so disposed (to the end the Lunar might agree with the Solar year that every four years there was an Intercalation of 45 Days, which he divided and adjusted after this manner, adding to the first 2 years 22 Days, and inserting in the latter 2 years 23 Days. Vid. G. Voss. de Scient. Math.

NECEPSO, though but a petty Prince of some part of the lower Egypt, was660. one of the greatest Instauratours of Astronomy in that Nation, and brought into practice and publick use, whatever Thoth, or the first Mercury had invented, or Siphoas, Son of Vulcan, the second Mercury had deposited in writing in the private Archives of their Temples. In which Writings of Mercury were contained (besides Hieroglyphicks and other sacred Ceremonies) Cosmography, Geography, the course of the Sun and Moon, and of the other five Planets; as Clem. Alex. Strom. l. 6. testifies.

PETOSYRIS, an Egyptian Priest, and Philosopher, wrote, according to the660. testimony of Suidas, of Astrology, collected out of the Sacred Books of the [Page 9] Egyptians, which he dedicated to Necepso, one of the Egyptian Kings immediatelyANNI ANTE CHRISTV [...] before mentioned, yet extant (as Simler, in Biblioth. Gesneriana, affirms) in Biblioth. Carpensi & Sancti Angeli.

PHOCUS SAMIUS wrote de Astrologia Nautica, as Diog. Laertius testifies.600. This Phocus is conceived to be the same to whom Solon inscribed a Poem, as Plutarch writes.

THALES, the Milesian, one of the Greek Sages, first Introducer of Astronomy590. among the Greeks. He first observed the apparent Diameter of the Sun to be the 7 [...]0th part of the Orb in which he moves; first found out, or at least denominated the Constellation of the Lesser Bear, and first foretold Eclipses, particularly that memorable one, happening in the time of the Battle between Halyaties King of Lydia, and Astyages King of Media, recorded by Herodotus. He first divided the Celestial Sphere into five Zones, and composed two Treatises, the one of the Tre­picks, the other of the Aequinoctials, therein asserting the obliquity of the Zodiack, and distinguishing the Seasons of the year; and measured the height of the Egypti­an Pyramids by their shadows.

OENOPIDES, the Chian, is highly commended by Plato, Proclus, and Theon 560. Smyrnaeus, for his eminent Knowledge in Astronomy; Eudemus asserting him to have first found out the Obliquity of the Zodiack. Aelian, in his Various Histories (lib. 10. c. 7.) reports, that he set up a Brass-Table at the Olympicks, having written thereon the Astronomy of LIX. years; within which Term or space he comprized the Great Year, or the Annus magnus vertens.

ANAXIMANDER, Country man, Companion, Kinsman, and Disciple to544. Thales, first asserted the Moon to receive light from the Sun, yet withall affirming that she hath a light of her own, but very thin. He first erected a Gnomon at Sparta, to discover by the shadow of the Sun the times of the Solstices and Equinoxes. The invention of the Zodiack's Obliquity, is likewise attributed to him.

HYSTASPES Son of Arsames, or Arsa [...]es, King of Persia, and Father of540. Darius; of whom thus, Ammianus Marcellinus; (l. 24.) Hystaspes was a most Wise Person, who boldly penetrating into the Inner Parts of upper India, came to a woody Desert, whose calm Silence was possest by those high [...] the Brach [...]. Of these he learnt the Discordant Concord of the Motions of the St [...]rs, and [...]f Heaven▪ and of pure Rites of Sacrifice, which, returning into Persia, he contributed as [...] Addition and complement to Magick.

CLEOSTRATUS, the Tenedian, is said first to have studied the Parts, or540. Division of the Zodiack, and noted the Commencement of the Sign Aries and Sagittary. He invented a Luni-Solar Cycle, consisting of eight Solar years, thence called Octaëteris, in lieu of the Tetraëteris, which the Greeks before used, touching which see Ricciolus Almagest. l. 4. c. 19.

ANAXIMENES of Miletus, Friend, Disciple, and Successour to Anaximan­der, 530. first demonstrated the Eclipse of the Moon to be by the Earth's Interposition between Her and the Sun, and maintained the Stars to move, not only above, but about the Earth.

HARPALUS corrected the Octaëteris of Cleostratus, according to whose opi­nion,520. at the expiration of every ninth year, the New Moon returned again at the same hour, unto the same point of the Heavens, in which it was nine years before▪ [Page 10] But this Cycle, proving erroneous, was afterwards corrected by Me [...]on. [...].

PYTHAGORAS, the Samian, travelled into Egypt and Chaldaea, to improve5 [...]9. himself in the study of Philosophy and Astronomy. He first discovered, that Lu­cifer and Hesperus (believed before to be two several Stars) were but one and the same, being the Planet Venus. The invention of the Zodiack's Obliquity is like­wise ascribed to him. He first gave to the World the name [...], from the order and beauty of all things comprehended in it; asserting the same to be made ac­cording to musical proportion; and the seven Planets to have an harmonious mo­tion and Intervals correspondent to musical Diastemes. He held the Sun (by him and his followers termed the fiery Globe of Unity) to be seated in the midst of the Universe, and the Earth to move about it.

ALCMAEON, of Crotona, son of Perithus, Disciple to Pythagoras, a Physician490. and Physiologist, asserted that the Planets held an opposite course to that of the fixed Stars, as Plutarch affirms, Plac. Philosoph. l. 2. c. 16.

ANAXAGORAS CLAZOMENIUS, Disciple to Anaximenes, held480. the Moon to be a dark Body enlightned by the Sun, and to be habitable, having Plains, Hills, and Waters, as the Earth hath.

DEMOCRITUS, of Abdera, Disciple to Anaxagoras & Leucippus, wrote470. of the Sun and the Moon and the other Planets, of the Annus Magnus, and Astro­nomical Prognosticks. Of which Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. 18. cap. 35. and the Scholiast upon Apollonii Argon. lib. 2. cites him [...]. Laertius mentions his [...], sive [...], his [...], and [...].

EMPEDOCLES, who studied under Parmenides, Pythagoras, & Anaxago­ras, 470. wrote (besides his other Pieces of Philosophy) of the Sphere, in Verse, yet extant; though the same, by some, be ascribed, not to him, but to Demetrius Triclinius.

TIMAEUS LOCRUS, a Pythagorean Philosopher, wrote de Naturâ Mun [...] 450. from which Piece Plato borrowed the greatest part of his Dialogue entituled [...], in the beginning whereof he commends Timaeus, as most knowing and [...] Astronomy.

METON, an Athenian Astronomer, observed, with Euctemon, the Solstices,432. and instead of Cleostratus's Octaeteris, introduced a Novendecennial Cycle, called Meton's Cycle, or the Golden Number.

HIPPOCRATES wrote of judging of Diseases by the Rules of Astrono­my,432. which by Gesner is said to have been published by Ioannes Ganivettus, at Lyons, in the year 1508. an imperfect MS. Copy whereof is now extant in Gonvil and Caius College in Cambridge.

EUCTEMON observed, at Athens, the Solstices 108 years before the death432. of▪ Alexander the Great; see more of him in Pliny, Hist. lib. 18.

PHILOLAUS, of Croton, a Pythagorean Philosopher, maintained the opini­on430. of the Earth's motion about the Sun. Of which sentiment was likewise Seleu­cus, Cleanthes Samius, Leucippus, and Ecphantus, as also

HERACLIDES PONTICUS; who wrote (as we find it cited by430. [Page 11] Chalcidius, in Timaeum) of the Planetary Spheres, or Circles, conceived by M [...]ur­sius, ANNI ANTE CHRISTUM. to be that Piece of his, which bears the Title [...], which he inscrib­ed to Democritus, as Laertius affirms in his Life. There is also another [...] mentioned by the same Laertius, who writ De Astrologia.

PLATO, the Divine Athenian Philosopher, travelled into Egypt, under pr [...] ­tence420. of selling Oyl, but indeed to fetch from thence a far more noble Merchan­dise, Astronomy; informing himself by their Priests of the Celestial motions; and hath, in his Timaeus, Epinomis, and other his Dialogues, left sufficient testimonies of his improved knowledge, treating therein of several Parts of Astronomy, and particularly of the Celestial System.

THEAETETUS ATHENIENSIS, Disciple to Socrates, and a familiar410. Friend of Plato's, a Philosopher and Astrologer, as Suidas affirms, who yet gives us no account of any Writings of his in Astronomy.

HERMES AEGYPTIUS, Disciple to Plato, writ De Sole; De Imaginibus 410. Martis; De Imaginibus Iovis; De Imaginibus Saturni; De Septem Annulis Pla­netarum; De Medicinis & Conjunctionibus Planetarum. To him likewise is attri­buted the Book, De duodecim Herbis duodecim Signis attributis, & aliis her [...]is septem Stellis dicatis; as Simler. in Biblioth. Gesner.

ARCHYTAS TARENTINUS, a noble Pythagorean Philosopher, Ma­thematician,405. and Cosmographer, whom Horace calls

—Maris ac Terrae, numeróque carentis Arenae Mensorem.—

He wrote several Works (though none of them have been so happy as to escape the injury of Time) both Physical, Moral, and Mathematical; particularly (to instance only what is pertinent to our subject) a Tractate, [...], De Univer­so, cited by Simplicius in Aristot. Categ. as noted by Meursius, in Hesych. De viris illustribus.

HELICON CYZICENUS, a familiar Friend of Plato's, and an eminent404. Astronomer, who having foretold to Dionysius the Tyrant an Eclipse of the Sun (which hapned at Athens 30 Sept. feria 6ta hora 9.¼ post mediam Noctem) was, for that, rewarded by him with a Talent of Silver.

PHILOSOPHUS, one of Plato's Disciples, so called by his proper name,390. wrote of Eclipses, of the distance and magnitude of the Sun, Moon, the Earth, and the other Planets, as also of Lightnings, and several other Pieces, mentioned by Suidas. Gesner is of opinion, his name might be corrupted, and that it ought to be read Philippus Opuntius.

EUDOXUS CNIDIUS, the Son of Aeschines, instructed by Archytas, in368. Geometry; in Physick, by Philistio, the Sicilian; in Philosophy, by Plato; tra­velled into Egypt, and of the Priests there learned the proper motions of the Pla­nets, which he first communicated to his Countrymen the Greeks. He wrote De Mundo, De Coelestibus, De Phaenomenis, Astrological Fasti, with Prognosticks. He reformed the Octa [...]teris of Harpalus, and introduced a new one of his own; of which yet others make Dositheus the Authour. He wrote likewise an Astronomi­cal Poem, as Suidas affirms. But his two most celebrated Pieces were his [...] seu Speculum, & [...], sive Apparentium, as Hipparchus (in Arataeis▪) witnes­sess. [Page 12] He is reported to have been so greatly enflamed with the love of Astronomy, [...]NI ANTE CHRISTUM. that he usually professed he would willingly (as the Poets fable of Phaeton) perish by the scorching beams of the Sun, provided he might first approach so near it, as clearly to discern its Figure and Magnitude. G. Voss.

XENOCRATES CHALCEDONIUS, a Platonick Philosopher, writ,366. among divers other Works, one Book, [...], De Intervallis, and six Books, [...], De his quae circa Astrologiam versantur, as Laertius in his Life. There is likewise a Piece under h is Name, De Influentia Planetarum in Corpora; mentioned by Iac. Phil. Thomasinus among the MS. of Io. Rhodius (in Bibliothec. Patavin.)

DEMOPHILUS, son of Ephorus, according to Gesner, writ certain Pieces,360. called Astronomica; And his Apotelesmata, as Labbeé reports, are in the French King's Library.

CALIPPUS CYZICENUS, an eminent Philosopher, of whose Systeme350. of the Celestial Sphere Aristotle makes mention, in his Metaphysicks. He was Au­thour of a Luni-Solar Cycle of LXXVI. years, consisting of four Metonick Cycles reformed.

ARISTOTLE, besides his other learned Works in Philosophy, hath left340. several testimonies of his study in Astronomy, particularly in his Book De Coelo. He left likewise a Book entitled [...], as Diog. Laertius testifies in his life. There is likewise a Treatise under his Name, De Astrologia Navali, extant in MS. in Biblio­thec. Sancti Ioannis in Viridario Patav. as Thomasinus in Bibliothec. Patavin. attests.

THEOPHRASTUS, of Evessus in Lesbos, a great Philosopher, Disciple322. and Successour to Aristotle in the Lycaeum, wrote six Books of Astrological History, and particularly of Democritus's Astrology.

EUDEMUS of Rhodes, one of Aristotle's Disciples, in emulation of Theo­phrastus, 322. wrote likewise some Astrological Histories, in which he described the Lives and Inventions of divers Astrologers and Astronomers, together with the Original and Progress of Astronomy, as Clemens Alexandrinus, and Laertius affirm; and from them Ionsius, lib. 1. cap. 15. De Script. Histor. Philosoph.

ARISTYLLUS was Contemporary with Calippus, and, together with Timo­chares, 300. observed the Declinations of the Fixed Stars mentioned by Ptolemy in Magn. Construct. as also in the Greek Prolegomena to Aratus, where we find several others of the name famous for Astronomy.

AUTOLYCHUS PRYTANAEUS, Tutour to Arcesilaus, left two300. Books, yet extant; the one, De Sphaera Mobili, the other, Of the Rising and Setting of the Fixed Stars, some parts whereof are translated by G. Valla. The former published by Mersennus according to the Translation of Maurolycus, and the Pro­positions illustrated, in Synops. Mathemat.

TIMOCHARES the Astronomer, (as may be collected out of Ptolemy's294. Almagest. lib. 7. c. 2, & 3.) observed the Fixed Stars, and particularly, one of the eight Stars in the Constellation of Lyra; mentioned by Theon upon Aratus.

MANETHO, an Egyptian Priest at Heliopolis, and Notarius Sacrorum Pene­tralium 282. per Aegyptum, writ Physiologica Apotelesmatica, in Verse, and other Astrono­mical [Page 13] Pieces, as Suidas attests, and may be proved from this Verse of [...]. ANNI ANTE CHRISTUM.

—Arati numeros, & picta Manethonis Astra.

His Apotelesmaticks are reported to be yet extant in the Florentine Library, by Simler. in Biblioth. Gesner.

ERACUS ASTRONOMUS is said to have written something in280. Astronomy, about the time of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, as Gesner testifies.

ARISTARCHUS SAMIUS, following the Opinion of Pythagoras and280. Philolaus, maintained the Earth to move about the Sun. He wrote a particular Trea­tise of the Distances and Magnitudes of the Sun and Moon, yet extant, translated and commented upon by Commandinus, with some Explications of Pappus Alexandrinus, and animadverted by Mr. Forster, in his Miscellanies. There is ano­ther Piece which goes under his Name, of the Mundane Systeme, its parts, and mo­tions, published in Latine by Robervalle, and Mersennus in his Mathematical Synopsis. But the same, by Menagius, (in Diog. Laert.) and Descartes, in his Epistles, is censured as a supposititious Piece of Robervalle's, and not the genuine Work of Aristarchus.

ARATUS SOLENSIS, at the Command of Antigonus Gonatas, turned280. into a Greek Poem the Phaenomena of Eudoxus, translated into Latine Verse by Cice­ro, Germanicus Caesar, and Avienus, and commented upon, by the several Com­mentatours hereafter mentioned, as they are cited at the end of the Prolegomena in the Edition of Iunta, in folio.


There are some few others who have likewise commented upon Aratus, the Mention of whom the Reader will find elsewhere in this Catalogue.

ERATOSTHENES, a Native of Cyrene, succeeded DEMETRIUS270. PHALEREUS in the charge of the Alexandrian Library. He wrote [...], being a Comment on the several Asterisms of Aratus, lately printed; (perhaps the same with that Piece which is cited under the Title of Astronomica, by Suidas, Plu­tarch. de Placit. Philosoph. Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and Proclus in Timaeum) Of the Zones, and of the measure of the Terrestrial Globe. He caused likewise several Armillae, and other Mathematical Instruments to be placed in a publick Portico, [Page 14] at Alexandria, for observation of the Celestial Motions. He was a most skilful [...] Geometer, and writ a Treatise de Medietatibus, mentioned by Pappus in his Mathe­matical Collections, not now extant.

BEROSUS, the Chalaean, of whom Iosephus (l. 1. Antiqu. Iudaic. c. 8. &270. in l. 1. contra Appian.) writes, that he was, [...], &c. Most celebrious among those conversant in the study of Astronomy, and the Philosophy of the Chaldeans, of which he published Books among the Grecians. He flourished in the time of Antiochus Soter, and hath left it recorded, that, among the Chaldeans, he observed Astronomical Ephemerides of 480. years, inscribed on baked Bricks or Tyles. He is said likewise to have invented divers kinds of Sun-Dyals, and, for the certainty of his Predictions, to have been rewarded by the Athenians with a Statue, having a golden Tongue in its mouth.

APOLLONIUS MYNDIUS, by Seneca (Natur. Quaest. lib. 7.) stiled270. peritissimus inspiciendorum naturalium, travelled into Chaldea, to be instructed in Astronomy, and wrote particularly, De Cometis.

EPIGENES BYZANTINUS, Contemporary and Partner in Study and270. Travels with Apollonius, by Pliny (lib. 7. c. 56.) joyned with Berosus and Crito­demus, and reputed to have been an Authour of equal credit with the best, hath left it recorded, that, among the Babylonians, there were found Ephemerides, con­taining the Observation of the Stars, for the space of 780. years, inscribed in Brick and Tiles. He wrote likewise, as Seneca affirms, Of Comets.

ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse, famous, besides his other Mathematical Works,270. for his admirable artificial Sphere of Glass, wherein the Motions of the Sun, Moon, and the other Planets were represented, to the astonishment of the Beholders, celebrated by Claudian in a particular Epigram. In his Book entituled [...] (sen Arenari­us) he examines divers Astronomical Hypotheses as to the Distances of the fixed Stars, of the Diameters of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and other Planets, according to the opinions of Aristarchus Samius, Eudoxus, and others of the Ancient Astrono­mers, being commented upon by Paschasius Hammel, Rivaltus, and Mersennus. The Lemmata of Archimedes recovered out of the Rubbidge of Antiquity were published in Mr. Forster's Miscellanies, as likewise by Borellius at the end of the three latter Books of Apollonius.

CONON, an excellent Geometrician and Astronomer collected divers Obser­vations26 [...]. made by the Chaldeans, of the Solar and Lunar Eclipses, wrote six Books of Astrology, (not now extant) and invented the Constellation called Coma Berenices. Celebrated he is by Pliny and Hyginus:

C. SULPITIUS GALLUS, a Roman Tribune, by his skill in Astronomy,168. much encouraged the Roman Army in the War against Perses. For when the Souldiers were terrified with the Eclipse of the Moon, by his Oration to them he made it appear, that what they apprehended as a Prodigy, was only the effect of a natural Cause, describing to them the Reasons of the Eclipse; and so animated the drooping Army with fresh courage, to the attaining of a glorious Victory.

HIPPARCHUS, (by the Arabs and Eastern Writers called Abrachys) whom140. some make a Native of Nice, a City in Bithynia; others, a Rhodian, Prince of Astronomers in his time. He wrote a Catalogue of the fixed Stars, several Obser­vations of the Aequinoxes, mentioned by Ptolemy; of the Moon's monthly moti­on, according to Latitude; A Collection of divers Observations of the Chaldeans, [Page 15] touching Eclipses, by him examined and compared. Chalcidius, in Timaeum, cites ANNI ANTE CHRISTUM. a Book of his, De Secessibus atque Intervall is Solis & [...]; which Me [...]rsius (Not. in Chalcid.) conceives to be the same mentioned by Poppus (in 5. Syntax. Ptol [...].) under the title [...], i. e. De Magnitudinibus & Distantiis. He hath left likewise (yet extant) three Books, by way of Comment upon Aratus, in which he shows Aratus to have taken all from Eudoxus, and to have followed him even in his Errours; first published from a Manuscript in the Medicaean Library by Petrus Victorius, and since in Greek and Latine, by Dionysius Petavius in Uranolog.

NIGIDIUS FIGULUS wrote a Comment, De Sphaera Graecanica & Bar­barica, 86. mentioned by Servius, in Georg. Virgil, whence the Commentatour in Ger­manici Arat. cites divers particulars.

L. TARUNTIUS FIRMANUS a familiar Friend of Varro's, and a86. great Astronomer. He calculated the Nativity of Romulus, and the Horoscope of Rome's foundation, and wrote, in Greek, of the Stars. He is mentioned by Cicero and Plutarch, though with some small variety in the writing of his name.

MARCUS VARRO, the most learned of his time among the Romans, 86. wrote of Astronomy, of which Cassiodorus makes mention, in Mathem. Discipl.

GEMINUS, a Native of Rhodes, wrote an Isagoge in Meteora, and in Arati 83. Phaenomena; out of which Proclus's Sphere is for the most part compiled, published by Petavius, in Uranolog.

POSIDONIUS APAMENSIS SYRUS, a Stoical Philosopher,60. Disciple, and Successour to Panaetius, observed, at Rhodes, the Star Canopus. He is commended by Cicero, for an Artificial Sphere, by him made, representing the mo­tions of all the Planets. Laërtius mentions a Book of his [...], De Meteo­ris; and another [...]. And Labbeé, in his Catalogue of Manuscripts, men­tions another Piece of his, Of the Original of Comets, and [...], extant in the French King's Library.

M. TULLIUS CICERO translated the Phaenomena of Aratus into Latine 80. Verse.

THEODOSIUS TRIPOLITA signalized his name by his three Books52. Sphaericorum, and his twelve Propositions, De Habitationibus, both published by Mersennus, in his Synopsis Mathemat. He wrote likewise De Diebus & Noctibus: and Sceptica capita Astrologica, as cited by Laertius.

JULIUS CAESAR, first of the Roman Emperours, according to the testi­mony45. of Pliny, wrote of Astronomy in Greek; Macrobius affirming likewise, that he left several not unlearned Books of the motions of the Stars, which he derived from the Doctrine of the Egyptians.

SOSIGENES, a famous Astronomer of Alexandria, whose assistance Iulius 45. Caesar made use of, in reforming the Roman year, and reducing it to the course of the Sun, which we yet retain. Of this Argument he writ three Discourses, as Pliny witnesseth, lib. 18. c. 25.

DIONYSIUS AFER, called [...] Geographus, wrote a Greek Poem▪ 30. De situ Orbis. He was sent, by Augustus, before his adopted son Caius, into the East, the better to describe to him those Regions and Provinces.

[Page 16]ALEXANDER EPHESIUS, surnamed LYCHNUS, wrore besides [...]. his Historical Pieces, an Astronomical Poem of the Heavens, and another of the30. Description of the Parts of the Earth. He is mentioned by Strabo, lib. 14. and therefore cannot be less ancient than these times. He wrote likewise a Comment, in Arati Phaenomena.

P. OVIDIUS NASO, the most Ingenious of the Latine Poets, besides that20. he translated Aratus his Phaenomena into Verse, which is lost; hath leftfix Books, De Fastis Romanorum, yet extant, being a Calendar, describing their Year, Moneths, Festival Days; together with the rising, and setting of the several Constellations, and the most noted of the fixed Stars; dedicated by him first to Augustus, afterwards revised in his Exile, and addressed to Germanicus Caesar.

STRABO, the Geographer, hath left us the Description of the World in20. seventeen Books, wherein there are divers Astronomical Disquisitions.

ARTEMIDORUS COSMOGRAPHUS was Contempora [...]y [...] 20. Strabo, and wrote upon the same Subject.

MARCUS MANILIUS wrote five Books of Astronomicks, ( [...] 15. Heroicis non contemnendis, sayes Ricciolus, in Chron. Astronom.) which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar, wherein he comprehended as well the Astronomy, as the Astrology, of the Ancients, according to the Doctrine of the Chaldaeans and Egyptians; the first of which five Books, treating of the Sphere, is the Subject of our present Un­dertaking.

The few following Authours, not being reducible to the certain time wherein they flourished, either before or after our Saviour's Nativity, are, for want of authentick Testimony, in this place, ambiguously inserted.

BOLUS MENDESIUS, a Pythagorean Philosopher, wrote (among other things) de Signis ex Sole & Luna, & Ursa, & Lucerna, & Arcu Coelesti, as Suidas testifies in voce [...].

LASBAS BABYLONIUS wrote of Astronomy, in a Book entituled Selech, cited by Iohannes Camaterus, in Opere Astrologico, especially in the Chap­ter De Canonibus Astrorum, & Sorte Fortunae; extant in Manuscript, in the hands of my worthy Friend, Mr. Thomas Gale.

ZEUCHRUS, or TEUCHRUS, or TEUCER BABYLONIUS, by Scaliger, in Manilium, and Salmasius, De Annis Climactericis, stiled an ancient Authour, wrote, De Decanis Signorum; some Fragments of his, according to Labbeé, being extant in the French King's Library.

ALBU-BATUR is, by Iunctinus, placed in the Catalogue of Astronomers about the 500. year before Christ; he writ De Nativitatibus, Printed at Noremberg by Iohannes Petreius, in the Year 1540, but wanting good Authority to confirm the Time wherein he flourished, We have rather inserted him in this Place.

PAPYRIUS FABIANUS, is mentioned by Pliny in several places of his Natural History, out of whose Works he has made frequent Citations, upon seve­ral arguments and occasions, being by him stiled Astrologus & Physicus, upon which score we have given him a place in this Catalogue.

[Page 17]DOROTHEUS SIDONIUS wrote an Apotelesmatick Poem, as ci [...]edANNI ANTE CHRISTUM. by Athen [...]us, of which little or nothing is now extant, except what is pre [...]ed in the Excerpta, mentioned in Labbeé's Bibliotheca. Simler (in Biblioth. Ges [...]) will have Manilius to have followed aud imitated him, in his Astronomical Poem; S [...]a­liger, (in Manilium) and Vossius, affirming the like to have been done by Omar, Mes­salah, and Alchabitius in their Astrological Tractates. Iulius Firmicus gives this Character of him, that he was Vir prudentissimus qui Apotelesmata veri [...] & disertissimis versibus scripsit. I find likewise in Iames's Eclog. Oxon. Cant. a P [...]ce under the name of Dorotheus, De esse Solis in Domibus Planetarum. But whether that Authour be the same with this Dorotheus, is altogether uncertain.

CRITON NAXIUS writ an Octaeteris, which some (sayes Suidas) will have to be that of Eudoxus. Gesner writes thus of him; Ha [...]a dubio est Criton Astronomus, cujus Plinius meminit, lib. 18. c. 31.

ANTIMACHUS HELIOPOLITANUS Aegyptius is by Suidas said to have written [...], Mundi fabricationem, in a Poem of 3780. Verses.

SPORUS NICENUS wrote a Comment upon Aratus's Phaenomena. He is mentioned in the Isagoge of Leontius Mechanicus.

LEONTIUS MECHANICUS wrote [...], Printed, inter Astronomica Veterum Scripta Isagogica Graeca & Latina, Ex Officinà St. Andraeana, 1589.

DIONYSIUS CORINTHIUS writ a Treatise of Meteorologicks, [...] Suidas affirms.

LASUS MAGNES, in the Life of Aratus, MONOPHANTUS, by Thèon, upon Aratus, and PHILIPPUS, by Hipparchus, in his Exegesis, are mentioned for Astronomers; as is likewise MNESISTRATUS, by Censorinus.

ANTIOCHUS wrote in Greek Thesauri Apotelesmatum, distinguished into 107. Chapters, extant at Rome in the Vaticane Library, as Simler, in Bibl. Gesner▪ affirms. He is mentioned more than once by Firmicus.

DOSITHEUS ASTROLOGUS is mentioned by Pliny, lib. 18. c. 31. to have written Of the Rising and Setting of the Stars.

JULIANUS LAODICENSIS PHILOSOPHUS, wrote [...], as Gesner affirms.

BELINUS, a Greek Authour, seemeth to have written on this Argument, as the Title of his Book, De judiciis Futurorum, and De Imaginibus, imply. See Gesner, and something of him now extant in his Majesty's Library at St. Iames's.

GEZ, perhaps GESSIUS, a Greek Authour, wrote Libros Imaginum, Et De Stationibus, Et De Imaginibus Veneris, as Gesner testifies; if yet those Treatise [...] may not be Philological, rather than Astrological.

APOMASARIS Apotelesmata, with some other Authours of that kind, are extant in the Vaticane Library, and in that of Ausburg, as Simler affirms, in Biblioth▪ Gesner.

[Page 18]HELICONIUS, according to the testimony of Suidas, writ [...]. [...] i. e. De Syderum & Tempestatum Effectis, Et De Aeris Signis.

DEMETRIUS TRICLINIUS writ De Schematismis Lunae, & Macu­la in ejus facie, extant in the French King's Library; to whom is likewise ascribed that Greek Poem, De Sphaera, attributed to Empedocles, and for such translated into Latine, and published by Q. Sept. Florens Christianus. Simler in Bibl. Gesner. as­c [...]ibes to him another Work, under the Title of Inventum Astronomicum, written in Greek.

POLEMON ATHENIENSIS, supposed the same with Him who was Disciple to Xeno [...]rates, writ a Book de Interpretatione Naturae Signorum, translated into [...]atine by Nicholaus Petreius Cor [...]yraeus, and Printed at Venice, apud Gryphium 1552. cum al [...]is quibusdam, as Simler, in Epitome Bibl. Gesner. testifies.

EUTHYMIUS writ, in Greek, a Synopsis of Astronomy, or as Simler enti­tles it, De Sphaera, extant in the French King's Library.

DION NICAENUS writ De Septem Planetis.

GIAPHAR ASTROLOGUS wrote a Book which he entituled Major Introductorius. He wrote likewise a Book of Commentaries, and another, of Ex­periments, mentioned by Gesner.

CAUDAS ASTROLOGUS wrote Nine Books de Annulis Astronomicis, a Book de Tribus figuris Spirituum, and another de figura Almandal. as Simler, from the Authority of Guil. Pastregicus, de Originibus Rerum, affirms.

ASTRONOMERS after our SAVIOUR's Nativity.


MODERATUS COLUMELLA, De Re Rustica, hath left an Astrolo­gical 10. Calendar; with Prognosticks.

THRASYLLUS, Native of Mendes, a City of Egypt, multarum Artium scienti­am 14. professus (sayes the old Scholiast of Iuvenal) prostremò se dedit Platonicae Sectae, ac deinde Mathesi, quâ praecipuè viguit apud Tiberium. By Mathesi, is to be under­stood chiefly Astronomy, or rather Astrology, according to the Doctrine of the Chal­d [...]ns, in which he instructed Tiberius. He wrote likewise Of Musick; out of which Porphyry, upon Ptolemy's Harmonica, and Theon Smyrnaeus cite some Pieces. See more of him in Paganinus Gaudentius, De Philosophia apud Romanos, cap. 54. and V [...]ssius de Histor. Graec. l 4. c. 16.

TIBERIUS CAESAR, the Emperour, was skilful in Astronomy and14. Astrology, instructed therein by Thrasyllus, quem ut Sapientiae Professorem contuber­nio adm [...]verat, sayes Suetenius, especially during his recess or exile at Rhodes. He had the luck to predict many future Events, particularly to foretel, by inspecting Galba's Nativity, that he should one day be Emperour; which he declared (Galba being then but a Youth) in these words, Et tu, Galba, quandoque degustabis Imperi­um, as Tacitus relates it, though Suetonius and others apply it to Augustus. He is also reported to have had always by him the Genitures of all his Nobility, and that according as he found his own or the Kingdom's Horoscope to be well or ill looked upon by theirs, so he let them stand, or cut them off by Legislative Astrology; to use the ex­pression of the famous Mr. Gregory.

[Page 19]GERMANICUS CAESAR, that excellent Prince, translated [...] h [...] ANNI POST CHRISTUM. Phaenomena into Latine Verse yet extant.15.

CHAEREMON, a Philosopher of the Stoical Sect, by birth an Egypti [...]. 25. Master to Dionysius Alexandrinus; wrote of the Egyptian Astrology, as we find by the mention made of him in Iamblichus, De Mysteriis, Aegypt. although both the Latine Translatours mistook his Name. He wrote also De Cometis, as Origen and Seneca testifie, the latter of whom calls him Charimander, and not Chaeremon, which G. Vossius conceives to be a mistake in the Text. He is mentioned by Strabo ( [...]ib. 17.) to have attended Aelius Gallus in a Voyage from Alexandria up into Egypt, whence we may conclude him to have flourished, about the latter end of Augustus, or beginning of Tiberius's Reign.

DIONYSIUS AREOPAGITA may justly be admitted into the num­ber34. of Astronomers, since it is reported of him, that, at Helipolis in Egypt, toge­ther with Apollophanes, he observed that miraculous Defection of the Sun, at the time of our Saviour's Passion: Whereupon he broke out into this Exclamation, Aut Deus Naturae patitur, aut Mundi machina dissolvitur. He was afterwards con­verted to the Christian Faith, for which he died a Venerable Martyr, being aged a­bove one hundred years.

JULIUS HYGINUS, whom some would have to be the Freed-man of34. Augustus, others, with more probability, of Severus and Antoninus, or of Iulia Severa the Empress, wrote the Astronomicum Poeticum, De Mundi & Sphaerae par­tibus, and the Fables of the several Asterisms, yet extant.

SENECA, the Philosopher, occasionally intermingles in divers of his Writ­ings50. several Astronomical Dissertations, and, in the seventh Book of his Natural Questions, hath expresly written of Comets.

ANDROMACHUS CRETENSIS was Physician to Nero, and about60. the latter end of his Reign wrote (as it is affirmed by Lucas Gauricus, and Clavius, in Sacroboscum) the first of any touching the Theory of the Planets; His Writing [...] are much commended by Galen.

PLINY the Elder, in the second Book of his Natural History, hath written ma­ny80. things touching the Celestial Bodies.

JARCHAS Prince of the Brachmannes was a famous Astronomer according90. to the Testimony of St. Ierome ad Paulinum, whose Words are These, Apoll [...] (whether the Magician as vulgarly reputed, or the Philosopher according to the Tr [...] ­dition of the Pythagoreans) went to the Brachmannes that he might hear Jarchas fit­ting on a Throne of Gold, and discoursing of the daily Revolution and Motion of the Stars. Damis likewise reports that the said Iarchas gave to Apollonius seven Rings inscribed with the Names of the seven Planets, which he was to wear successively every Day One. See Rantzov. in Catalog. Astrol.

APOLLONIUS TYANAEUS wrote four Books, de Divinatione Astro­logica, 90. as Philostratus relates in his Life, though none of them be now extant.

PLUTARCHUS CHAERONENSIS, in his Book, De facie in Or [...]e 90. Lunae, and in his Work, De Placitis Philosophorum, hath shown himself studious and skilful in Astronomy.

[Page 20]MENELAUS, a most eminent Mathematician and Astronomer, was an Ob­serverANNI POST CHRISTUM. of the Stars for a long time, both at Rhodes and at Rome. He hath left Three91. Books Sphaericorum, published by Mersennus, in his Synopsis Mathemat.

AGRIPPA, the Mathematician, observed (as it is reported by Ptolemy [...].)92. the Conjunction of the Moon with the Pleiades, happening Anno Nabonassar. 840. Nov. 29.

ASCLETARION was an Astrologer in the time of Domitian, whose95. fate he had predicted; for which being questioned and avowing the Prediction, he was asked by the Emperour what his own fate would be? To which he confi­dently reply'd, that he should be torn in pieces by Dogs. Whereupon Domitian com­manded that he should be immediately slain, and carefully buried, that the vanity of his Art might appear: But a sudden and violent tempest happening at the en­terment of him, his body was deserted, and the Dogs came and tore it in pieces. See Sueton. in Domit.

HADRIANUS the Emperour was singularly well skill'd in Astronomy, and120. particularly in Judiciary Astrology, according to the Testimony of Aelius Spartia­nus in his Life, who affirms that he used yearly in the Evening of the Calends of Ianuary to calculate what ever should happen to him for the whole year following. And in the Life of Verus, His Successour, he gives us this further Testimony, which take in his own Words: Fuisse Adrianum peritum Matheseôs, Marius Maximus usque adeò demonstrat, ut eum dicat cuncta de se scîsse, sic, ut omnium dierum usque ad horam mortis futuros actus antè perscripserit.

AQUILA PONTICUS was a learned Mathematician of Synope, first a130. Christian, but afterwards, by the Church, for his too great adherence to Judiciary Astrology, excommunicated; whereupon he became a Iewish Proselyte, and transla­ted the Old Testament (though not very sincerely) into Greek.

THEON ALEXANDRINUS Senior (whom some would have to be132. the same with that Theon Smyrnaeus, who wrote in Mathematica Platonis, published by Bulialdus) made several Observations of the Planet Venus in the sixteenth year of the Emperour Hadrian, mentioned by Ptolemy cap. 10. Almagest. In the Library at Ausbourg, there is extant a Tractate of his [...], [...].

PHLEGON TRALLIANUS, the Freed-man of Hadrian the Emperour,134. among other his Works, wrote De Olympiadibus, in which, according to the testi­monies of Origen and Eusebius, he made a Chronological remark on the obscurati­on of the Sun, which happened at the time of our Saviour's Passion.

CLAUDIUS PTOLEMAEUS a Native of Pelusium, descended as some135. would have it of the Royal Race of the Ptolemies Kings of Egypt; The Prince in his Time of Astronomers, Geographers, and Astrologers; His Principal Works being eight Books of Geography, thirteen Books, [...] [...], commonly called Almagestum; [...], seu Quadripartita Syntaxis de judiciis Astro­rum; And Parapegma de Apparentiis & Significationibus Inerrantium Stellarum, de Analemmate, &c. there are likewise ascribed to him [...] [...], i. e. faciles & expediti, upon which Theon Alexandrinus Iun. is reported to have commented, or ra­ther (as Golius in Alferganum from the Authority of Keusian Gilaeus notes) to have composed himself, and to have given them the Title of Canones Ptolemaici, because computed according to the Hypotheses of Ptolemy.

[Page 21]SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, Nephew to Plutarch the Philosopher, in hisANNI POST CHRISTUM. Hypotyp. Pyrrhon. writes sharply against Iudiciary Astrology. 135.

HEPHAESTION THEBANUS wrote de Configurationibus Stellarum, 140. as cited by Salmasius, De Annis Climactericis, and others. Of whom divers Excerpta, De duodecim Zodiaci Signis & eorum Effectibus, are published by Camerarius, in Greek and Latine, amongst his Astrological Collections Printed at Norimberg. Of this Authour also three Books [...] are, by Simler, affirmed to be yet extant, in Bibliotheca Strozzae.

CLAUDIUS GALENUS Native of Pergamus in Asia, the most famous140. Physician of his time, in which Function he served three Roman Emperours, Adri­anus, Lucius Verus, and Antoninus Pius. That he was learned in Astronomy and Astrology appears by his Books, de Diebus Decretoriis, his Epid. and his Mathemat. His Father likewise being well skilled therein, for thus (according to the Testimony of Antonius Fumanellus cited by Rantzovius in Catalog. Astronom.) he writes of Him. Pater Meus Optimus fuit Mathematicus, Exercitatus quandoque in Geometria, Arithmetica, Architectura, & Astronomia.

APULEIUS (if the Piece bearing his name be genuine) wrote De Sphaera, 160. now extant, with other Astronomical Tractates, amongst the Manuscripts in the Li­brary at Westminster, and in that of Nicholaus Trivisanus of Padua, as cited by Thomasinus in Bibliothec. Patavin. under this Title, Sphaera Apuleii Platonici.

LUCIAN the Philosopher, a Native of Samosata (at this Day Scempsat) a171. City in Syria, in the Province of Comagene, the facete Authour of the Ingenious Dialogues, wrote a Particular Treatise of Astrology, or Astronomy, setting forth it's Original, Antiquity, and Excellency. In which Dissertation, and in his Satur­nalia, Bourdelotius affirms he hath inserted many things taken from our Manilius.

ANDRUZAGAR, an Arabian Astrologer, is said to have flourished about230. this time, by Iunctinus, in his Catalogue.

CENSORINUS, in his Book de Die Natali, hath written divers things238. touching the Harmonical Systeme of the Heavens.

ANATOLIUS ALEXANDRINUS, Bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, is283. mentioned by St. Hierome in his Book De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, to have been well skilled in Astronomy.

RABBI ADDA, about the end of Dioclesian's, or beginning of Constanti­us's298. Reign, composed an Hebrew Calendar, and Rules for finding out the Tekupha's, or revolution of the Equinoxes.

JULIUS MATERNUS FIRMICUS, a Sicilian, about this time314. wrote eight Books Astronomicôn, containing Astrological Precepts, which, like an ungrateful Plagiary, he transcribed for the most part out of Manilius, without making the least mention of his name.

VETTIUS VALENS, of Antioch, by some called Vestius Valens, a famous320. Astronomer, or rather Astrologer of the same time, who calculated, for Constantine the Great, the fate of New Rome's Foundation, as L. Taruntius had done that of Old Rome; by G. Vossius conceived to be the same with him, of whose Works some Pieces are published by Ioachimus Camerarius, In Astrologicis Veterum opuscu­lis, [Page 22] Edit. Norimberg. Anno 1532. His Anthologia is now intended for the Press, at [...] Paris, by the care, as I am informed, of Mons. Huetius.

PORPHYRIUS, a famous Platonist, but bitter Enemy to Christianity, wrote325. an Isagoge of Astronomy in three Books, as Suidas testifies. His Isagoge to Ptolemy's Apotelesmatice, is also here to be mentioned; Printed at Basil.

MARIUS VICTORINUS AFER, Master to St. Ierome, among many340. other Works translated Porphyrius his Astronomical Isagoge, into Latine, yet ex­tant with the Comment of Boetius thereupon, as Gesner affirms.

THEON ALEXANDRINUS Iunior, a Philosopher, contemporary to36 [...]. Pappus, and an excellent Mathematician. He observed an Eclipse of the Sun in the year of Nabonassar 1112. and besides other Mathematical Tractates, wrote (ac­cording to Suidas) De ortu Caniculae, Canonem expeditum in Ptolemaeum, a Com­mentary in parvum Astrolabium, and upon Ptolemy's Almagest, in eleven Books first published at Basile, by Ioachimus Camerarius, according to the Greek Manu­script, brought into Italy by Cardinal Bessarion, and from thence into Germany, by Regiomontanus; as also upon Aratus's Phaenomena, this last lately Printed at the Theater in Oxford; but upon no account so famous, as that of being Father to the excellent HYPATIA.

ABYDAS ASTRONOMUS is mentioned by Epiphanius; against whom375. Bardesanes the Syrian (in his Book de fato) writ, who flourished in the time of Antoninus Verus.

PAULUS ALEXANDRINUS wrote an Astronomical Isagoge, or In­troduction;378. perhaps the same whom G. Vossius calls Paulus the Philosopher, who wrote likewise Apotelesmatica, sive, de Effectibus Syderum, Published by Rantzovius.

MACROBIUS-AMBROSIUS-AURELIUS-THEODOSIUS,390. Consul of Rome, born at Parma, contemporary with Symmachus, wrote two Books, De Somnio Scipion [...]s, wherein he handles divers Astronomical Arguments, as he does likewise in his Saturnalia.

CLEOMEDES, a learned Astronomer and Philosopher of the Stoical Sect,390. wrote two Books [...], i. e. De Contemplatione Orbium Coelestium, first published, in Greek, by Conradus Neobarius, afterwards translated into Latine, by [...] Valla, and commented upon by Robertus Balforeus, Printed at Bourde­ [...] [...]05.4o.

SEXTUS AVIENUS RUFUS, an elegant Poet, by birth a Spaniard, 395. [...] the Phaenomena of Aratus into Latine Heroick Verse, and likewise para­phrased Dionysius Afer, De Situ Orbis, and wrote, in Iambicks, De Oris Maritimis.

FLAVIUS MANLIUS, or MANLIUS THEODORUS, Consul [...]99. of Rome is celebrated for his great Erudition, having written several Pieces both in Philosophy and Mathematicks, particularly in Astronomy, as may appear by that elegant Panegyrick Poem written in praise of him, by Claudian; whence we have taken these following Verses to shew his Indeavours on that Subject.

—Elementa doces, sempérque fluentis
Materiae causas; quae vis animaverit Astra,
Implêritque choros: quo vivit Machina Motu.
[Page 23]Sidera cur septem retrò nitantur in Ortus
Obluctata Polo, variisque meatibus idem
Arbiter, an geminae convertant Aethera Mentes.

But the Injury of Time hath not left us any Remains of these his curious and learn­ed Labours.

PAPPUS ALEXANDRINUS, besides other his Mathematical400. Works, wrote a Comment upon Ptolemy's Almagest, and in his sixth Book of Ma­thematical Collections hath left some Explications, In Aristarchum Samium, De Magnitudinibus & Distantiis Solis & Lunae, yet extant, and translated by Comman­dinus; published at Pesaro, 1572. and likewise to be found in Mr. Foster's Mis­cellanies.

HYPATIA, Daughter to Theon Alexandrinus Iunior, and Wife to Isidorus 400. the Philosopher, which name she her self more justly merited, as being eminently learned in the Mathematicks and Philosophy, which she publickly professed and taught, till by the barbarous Christians, or Monsters rather, of Alexandria, out of meer envy for her admirable skill in Astronomy, and other Mathematical Learning, she was most inhumanely murthered and torn to pieces, in the very Cathedral Church. She wrote (besides a Comment upon Diophantus, and another upon Apol­lonius's Conicks) an Astronomical Canon, as both Hesychius and Suidas affirm.

About this Time flourished two Aegyptian Monks; ANIANUS, who, after400. the Example of Eusebius, writ a Chronological Work; and PANODORUS, who to his skill in Chronology added the Knowledge of Astronomy. Out of the Fragments of which last Syncellus hath excerpted many things, as Scaliger likewise, in his Eusebian Animadversions.

SYNESIUS, first a Heathen Philosopher, afterwards a Christian, and Bishop of410. Cyrene, writ, among other his Works, De Instrumentis Astronomicis, being a Dis­course occasioned by his presenting Paeonius with an Astrolabe, and is extant in his Majesty's Library at St. Iames's. There are also extant divers Epistles of his to the before mentioned Hypatia, with this direction, [...].

AETIUS AMIDENUS (Comes & Medicus, sayes Ricciolus) wrote He­merologium, 434. De Significationibus Stellarum, translated first out of Greek into Latine, by Cornarius, and since published by Petavius, Uranolog. pag. 421.

S. CYRILLUS, Bishop of Alexandria; besides other Works of his, wrote437. De Cyclo Paschali, mentioned by Sigebertus Gemblacensis, in Chron.

BACHARIUS MACCAEUS, a Britain, Disciple of St. Patrick, Publi­shed460. a Book, De Prognosticis Nativitatum, according to Balaeus.

S. PROSPER AQUITANUS, Bishop of Rhegium, composed a Paschal 466. Cycle, consisting of 532. years.

VICTORINUS AQUITANUS, whom G. Vossius conceives to be more467. truly called Victorius, composed a Paschal Cycle, being by Pope Hilarius, for his eminent skill in Astronomy, invited to Rome, to undertake the correction of the Calendar. Yet his Paschal Cycle seems to have been not long after reformed by Victor, Bishop of Capua, who likewise wrote on the same Subject.

[Page 24]THEODORET, Bishop of Cyrus, is by Iunctinus, in his Catalogue, putANNI POS [...] CHRISTUM. into the number of Astronomers, as also by Ricciolus, in Chron. part. 2.469.

MAUGANTIUS, a Britain by extraction, a famous Philosopher, and Mathe­matician,470. in the time of Vortigerne, to whom he was principal Physician, as Geoffry of Monmouth reports. He studied in the City of Chester, in which at that time Astronomy, and all other Arts flourished, and, from the diligent observation of the course of the Stars, and Planets, became more eminently learned in Astrology, than any of his time. He calculated the prodigious conception of Merlin, and wrote De Magia Naturali.

AMBROSIUS MERLINUS, a Britain, in the time of King Vortigern, 480. was famous for his admirable skill in Astronomy and Astrology, of whom Balaeus thus writes; Merlinus in Urbe Legionum (Caerlleon) studiis diligenter in [...]ubuit, & eruditis Artibus & literis operam dedit, Magiae potissimùm Naturali. Unde Astrono­miae tandem peritissimus futura praedixit multa, quibus sequenti saeculo mirabilem se praebuit. He wrote a particular Treatise of a certain Comet, which appeared in his time, as Balaeus testifies, and a Book of obscure Predictions translated into Latine by Geoffry Monmouth, as Gesner affirms.

CARPUS ANTIOCHENUS wrote [...], i. e. Rei Astronomicae 490. libros; of which Proclus, in primum Euclidis, mak [...]s mention. To him Mr. Selden ascribes the Books commonly entituled Ptolemaei Centiloqutum. Vid. Selden. de Diis Syr. Syntagm. 1. seu de Teraphim.

CASSIODORUS, a Person of Consular dignity, and honoured with the490. most eminent Charges of State in the time of Anastasius the Emperour and Theodo­ricus King of the Goths, afterwards a Recluse in the Monastery of Cassina, wrote, amongst other things, Of Astronomy, & De Computo Ecclesiastico.

SIMPLICIUS, a Native of Phrygia, an eminent Platonick Philosopher, and500. excellent Commentator upon Aristotle, De Coelo, merits to be here mentioned.

MARIANUS, Marci Causidici F. wrote a Metaphrasis of Aratus, in MCCCXL.500. Iambicks. He lived in the time of Anastasius the Emperour. See Simler in Bibl. Gesner.

THIUS ATHENIENSIS wrote seven Books of Observations of the 500. mean Motions of the Stars, so much the more acceptable (sayes G. Vossius de Scient. Mathem.) in regard that from Ptolemy's time unto that of Albategnius, there are not any Observations of the Celestial motions extant. These, transcribed from a Manu­script in the King of France's Library, were first published by Bulialdus, at Paris, Anno 1645.

PROCLUS LYCIUS, a Platonick Philosopher, surnamed DIADO­CHUS,500. Disciple to Magnus Syrianus, taught for a long time at Athens, and writ a Comment upon the first Book of Euclid; Of the Sphere, (being for the most part an Epitome of Geminus;) Of the Astrolabe and Astronomical Hypotheses, (being a Compendium of Ptolemy's Almagest.) There was another Proclus surnamed Siccen­sis, who was Master, or Tutor, to M. Antoninus the Emperour, confounded by some with this Proclus Diadochus; but without all reason. For Diadochus flourished not till the Reign of Anastasius, being 300. years after Siccensis. Ricciolus conceives this Proclus Diadochus to be the same with Proclus the famous Mathematician, who as Zonaras (part. 3. Annal.) reports, made, in imitation of Archimedes, Burning-Glasses, [Page 25] with which he fired Vitalianus his Fleet, at the Siege of Constantinople, andANNI POST CHRISTUM. was employed by Anastasius the Emperour, as Interpreter of his Dreams.

MARINUS NEAPOLITANUS, Disciple to Proclus Diadochus, wrote,500. Praevia ad Phaenomena, and Phaenoménôn Librum singularem, sayes Voss. de Scient. Math. p 166. who yet doubteth whether this be not another Marinus, who writ [...], ad Euclidem.

JOANNNES LAURENTIUS PHILADELPHENSIS LY­DUS,500. wrote in the time of Iustinian the Emperour, [...], de Mensibus, with other Mathematical Tractates, mentioned by Photius, and Suidas, yet extant in MS. in the Library of my honoured and most learned Friend, Mr. Isaac Vossius.

DIODORUS MONACHUS, Bishop of Tarsus in Cilicia, wrote (ac­cording520. to Suidas) contra Astrologos & Fatum; he put forth likewise a Book de Sphaera, & septem Zonis, of the Annual Progress of the Stars, and of the Sphere of Hipparchus.

DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS, by birth a Scythian, but a Roman Abbot,526. wrote a Paschal Cycle, or rather corrected that of Victorinus, or Victorius, as Victo­rius had done that of Theophilus, and he, that of Cyrillus. This Computus, or Cycle was observed by the Latine Church, until the correction of the Calendar by Pope Gregory XIII. From this Dionysius, the Christians first learnt to reckon their years, from the Nativity of our Saviour, thence called Aera Dionysiana; whereas before, they reckoned, from the Persecution of Dioclesian.

TRIBONIANUS SIDETES, a Civil Lawyer in the time of Iustinian 550. the Emperour, wrote a Comment upon Ptolemy's Canon, in Verse. He published likewise Concentum Mundanae & Harmonicae Dispositionis; and another Book, de Planetarum domiciliis, as likewise de Mensium Permutatione, and some other Pieces; of which Suidas.

PHILIPPUS MEDMAEUS, so called from Medme, a Town of Italy, by550. Stephanus, in Voce Medme, stil'd [...], which G. Vossius conceives ought to be read, [...]. for he wrote de Ventis, as they are foreseen or predicted, from the Position of the Stars, or Constitution of the Heavens. He also flourished in the time of Iustinian the Emperour.

PHILOPONUS, surnamed Grammaticus, deserves here to be recorded for his574. Comment in Astrolabium planum, sive de usu Astrolabii, written in Greek, yet ex­tant in New Colledge, Oxford, and (as Simler in Bibl. Gesner. adds) in the French King's Library.

BUZUR-GIUMHUR, an ancient Persian Authour, being one of the Coun­sellours580. and Courtiers of Nushirvân King of Persia (in the 42. year of whose Reign Mahomet the false Prophet was born) wrote De Quaestionibus Astrologicis.

MARTIANUS FELIX MINAEUS CAPELLA, in his Work,600. entituled, De Nuptiis Mercurii cum Philologiâ, wrote of Geometry, Arithmetick, Musick, and Astronomy.

ISIDORUS, Bishop of Hispalis, or Sevit, in Spain, Son to Severianus, Duke636. of Carthage, in his Book, De Originibus, hath inserted a Compendium, or Epitome of all the Mathematicks; and in his Book, De Mundo; with the like brevity treated of [Page 26] the Sphere. The Astronomical Poem, (of which the Fragment is published by Pythaeus ANNI POST CHRISTUM among the Ancient Latine Poets by him set forth) under the Name of Fulgentius, is by Pythaeus conceiv'd to belong to Isidore, at the End of whose Works it is com­monly inserted without any other Name to it; if yet (as Pythaeus adds from the Conjecture of a certain Learned Person) it may not rather be ascribed to Varro Atacinus.

HEMOALDUS, an English man, surnamed PROVIDUS, between640. whom and Venerable Bede there was great familiarity, to whom he addressed his Book De Rebus Mathematicis, yet extant, as Bede, on the other side, did an Epistle to him, De Ratione Quadrantis Anni, sive, de Bissexto.

THEODORUS MELITENIOTAS, Magnus Sacellarius Magnae 680. Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae, wrote of Astronomy, and particularly upon Ptolemy's Astronomical Syntaxis, or Almagest; the Proem of which Work from a MS. out of the Library of Mr. Isaac Vossius, Bulialdus lately published, at the end of his learned Comment, upon Ptolemy's [...].

BEDA, commonly called Venerable Bede, was renouned for his knowledge and700. study of Astronomy, amongst whose Works there is yet extant, De Argumentis Lunae, De Ephemeride, De Embolismis, De Circulo Decennovennuali, De Cyclo Pas­chali, De Circulis Sphaerae & Polis, De Planetis & Signis Coelestibus, De Astrolabio, & De Aequinoctio Vernali.

ADELMUS DUROTELLUS, seu BLADUNIUS (i. e. MAL­MESBURIENSIS)709. Son of Kenred, and Grandchild of Ina, King of the West-Saxons. Bishop of Sherburne, (now translated to Salisbury) wrote De Cyclo Paschali, contra Britannos, and De Astrologia, as Balaeus affirms.

FLACCUS ALBINUS, sive ALCUINUS, an English-man, born in770. York shire, Scholar to Venerable Bede, and Tutour to Charlemaigne, to whom he was sent upon an Embassie by Off a King of the Mercians, and, for his exquisite Learning, invited by Charlemaigne, to continue with him in France; which he did; per­swading that Prince to erect the University of Paris. He was excellently well skilled in all the Parts of the Mathematicks, which he publickly taught; and wrote De Septem Artibus Liberalibus, and De Astrologia, as Vossius, De Scient. Mathemat. testifies.

CHARLEMAIGNE, King of France, and Emperour, instructed by Alcui­nus 770. aforesaid, became excellently well skilled in the Mathematicks, particularly in Astronomy, insomuch that he wrote Ephemerides, and was extremely delighted in making observations of the Stars. He gave names to the Moneths of the Year, and to the Winds, in High-Dutch, which continue to this Day. He was, by a King of Persia his Contemporary, upon the knowledge he had of his affection to Astrono­mical Studies, presented with a Piece of Clock-work, showing the motion of [...]he Planets; which the Emperour being then at Paderborne, in Westphalia, received with no less admiration than pleasure. Vid. Voss. De Scient. Mathem. c. 35.

JOHANNES CAMATERUS, Chamberlain to the Emperour Porphy­rogeneta, 790. writ De Genethliis, & Syderum positione, & Astrologiam Chaldaicam, in Verse, now in the Possession of my Learned Friend Mr. Tho. Gale.

ALMAEON, whom some call ALMAMON, the deservedly renouned827. Califfe of Babylon, (as Mr. Graves stiles him in his Pyramidograph.) fifty years be­fore [Page 27] the time of Albategnius, observed the greatest Declination of the Sun to haveANNI POST CHRISTUM. been 23°. (according to Elancanus and Herigone) or 23°. and 35′. (according to Ricciolus, from the authority of Alfraganus.) He first commanded Ptolemy's [...] to be translated into Arabick; which Translation gave that Work the corrupt, but now common name of Almagest. He found by observation and mea­suring in the Plains of Singar, that one Degree of a great Circle on the Earth is equal to 56. miles. His Astronomical Designs were so acceptable to the Genius of that Nation, that in the Times succeeding, no less than Thirty Kings are said to have emulated his Example; as is observed by Golius (notis in Alfergan.)

EGMUNDUS, surnamed ASTROLOGUS, is by Ricciolus put also in­to446. the Catalogue of Astronomers about this Time.

MESSHALA ARABS, sive MESSAHULACH, signalized his Name860. by his Book De Receptionibus, & De Conjunctionibus Planetarum, & De Revolutio­nibus Annorum Mundi. He wrote likewise, De Elementis & Orbibus Coelestibus; a third Book, De Ratione Circuli & Stellarum Operationibus; and another, De Com­positione & Utilitate Astrolabii: The first Printed at Venice, Anno 1493. with P [...]o­lemy's Quadripartitum; The second, at Norimberg, by Montanus and Neuberus; The third, at Basil, by Hervagius, Anno 1533. And the fourth and last, by Henricus Petri, in Appendice Margaritae Philosophicae.

LEO PHILOSOPHUS writ something in Astrology, yet extant in the879. French King's Library, as Labbeé testifies, in Catal. MS.

ALBATEGNIUS or trulier ALBATTANIUS ARACENSIS,880. called likewise MAHUMETES TINEU, vel MAHUMETES ARA­CENSIS, or (but mistakenly) ARACTENSIS, from the City of Arrac, com­monly, but corruptly, called Aracta, in Syria, Son of Geber Auchan, Son of Cruen, Prince of Syria, made diligent observations of the Stars, both at Arrac and Antioch: And finding that Ptolemy's Canons in his time dissented much from the course of the Heavens, he made new Tables of his own. He wrote a Book De Scientia Stel­larum, first translated out of Arabick into Latine, by Plato Tiburtinus, and illustra­ted with Annotations, by Io. Regiomontanus. He observed the Sun's greatest De­clination to be 23°. 35′. and the first Star of Aries to be 18°. 2′. in Longitude from the Equinoctial Point. His Observations were Printed at Norimberg. His Book De Numeris & Scientia Stellarum, according to a Transcript thereof, taken by Lucas Valerius (Publick Professour of Mathematicks at Rome) out of the Vati [...]an Library, was reprinted more correctly in Latine at Bologna in the year 1645. and dedicated by Bernardinus Ugulottus to Ferdinand the second Grand Duke of Tuscany.

ACHILLES TATIUS wrote a Book De Sphaera, as Suidas affirms, part of890. which G. Vossius conceives to be his Commentary in Aratum, Published in Greek and Latine, by Petavius, in Uranolog.

MOHAMMED IBN ZACHARIAE AL RAZI wrote many930. Books in several Sciences, and among the rest, a Particular Astronomical Treatise, as I find it mentioned in the Catalogue of Golius his Manuscripts. He died in the year of the Hegira 320. of Christ 932.

ABDORRAHMAN AL-SUPHI, commonly (but corruptly) called936. AZOPHI, or ELZUPHI, or EBENNOZOPHIM, an Arabian Astro­nomer, Authour of the Persian Tables, in which, sayes ricciolus, Stellarum Sche­mata & loca ordinata sunt. The Work transcribed by his Son, with the Delinea­tion [Page 28] of the Celestial Signs in Miniature by the same hand, is extant among theANNI POST CHRISTUM. Manuscripts of Iacobus Golius.

ALFRAGANUS MAHUMEDES, or AMETUS, or AHEMED,950. or MUHAMED, the Son of Amet, called Alfraganus, or rather Alferganus, from the City Fergana, in the Province of Sogdiana. He wrote Elementa Astrono­mica, compiled chiefly out of Ptolemy, which by Rabbi Iacob Antolius were turned into Hebrew, and by Iohannes Hispalensis, in the year 1142 translated out of Ara­bick into Latine, but lately published in Arabick and Latine, by the famous Iacobus Golius, with learned Notes, which yet he lived not to compleat. He writ likewise de Astrolabii Descriptione & Usu, and a Book of Dialing, as Golius in his Notes asserts. G. Pastregicus mentions another Treatise of Alfraganus, entitled De Aggre­gationibus Stellarum. V. Simler. Bibl. Gesner.

HALI BEN RAGEL is about this time, by Ricciolus, inserted into the956. number of Astronomers.

ARZAHEL ALA BEN writ Tables and Canons of the Motions of the 970. Celestial Bodies, preserved in MS. in the Library of Merton Colledge in Oxford, and in that of Caius and Gonvil in Cambridge, according to Iamesius Eclog. Oxon. Cant. Whether the same with Arzahel Hispanus (of whom in the next Century) we leave to be considered.

ALI IBNO'L HOZEIN, a Persian, wrote of the Theory of the Planets,980. as Abul Pharagius in Hist. Dynast. witnesses, and De Demonstratione Planisphaerii, as Hottinger, in Smegm. Orient.

ALFARABIUS Arabs, stiled by Blancanus, Astronomus celebris, called like­wise980. ABUNASR, according to Abul Pharagius, in Histor. Dynast. under whose Name Simler, in Bibl. Gesner. affirms, there is extant a Piece entitled de Compositione Astrolabii.

ETHEL WOLDUS WENTANUS, of the Race of the West-Saxon 984. Kings, sometime Abbot of Abington, afterwards Bishop of Winchester, wrote, among other Works of different Subjects, a Treatise de Planetis, & de Climatibus Mundi, as Balaeus affirms.

MUHAMMED IB'N AHMED ALBIROUNI, a Persian Astro­nomer,995. wrote De modo mensurandi Altitudinem Stellarum; as also an Explication of the use of the Astrolabe, extant amongst the Manuscripts of Iacobus Golius.

IB'N JUNES, or JOUNIS, an Egyptian, wrote Astronomical Tables, to­gether996. with a History of Various Observations, and the reason of Calculating the Celestial Motions; which he dedicated to Hakein, perhaps Elhacain King of Egypt, who flourished about the year 373. of the Hegira, of Christ, 996.

ABBO FLORIACENSIS, so called as being Abbot of the Monastery1004. of Fleury, in Burgundy, a French man, Native of Orleans, among other Works, wrote De Motibus Stellarum, De Planetarum cursu, & Demonstrationes Astronomicae.

CAMPANUS NOVARIENSIS, an eminent Astrologer and Astrono­mer.1030. He found a peculiar way of erecting a Celestial Scheme, by division of the prime vertical Circle, which way Gazulus followed. He wrote, besides Theoricas Planetarum, De Sphaera, & De Computo; Another Piece, de Compositione Astrolabii; [Page 29] and a Calendar. Simler mentions another Piece of his entitled Breviloquium duo­decim ANNI POST CHRISTUM. Signorum Zodiaci, which he sayes in his Time was extant, apud M. Dresse­rum in MS.

ABU-ALI-IBN SINA, commonly called AVICENNA, a famous Phy­sician,1032. whose life is exactly written and prefixed to Plempius's Translation of the second Books of Avicen's Canon Medicinae, and of whom an excellent account is given in Abul Pharagius his History of the Dynasties. He writ De Astronomia & Chronologia, mentioned amongst the Manuscripts of Iacobus Golius. He was born in the year of the Hegira 370. and died in the year 428. which are the years of Christ, 980. and 1036.

IB'N HAITEM wrote touching the motion of the Center of the Moon's1035. Epicycle; Of the difference of the Solar and Lunar Year; Of the Dimensions of the Earth, Sun, and Moon; And De Motu Circulari: As also touching the exact method of taking the Elevation of the Pole. He died at Grand-Cairo about the Year of Christ, 1038.

HERMANNUS CONTRACTUS a Monk, but of noble Extraction,1050. as being Son of Wolferad, Earl of Varinge in Suaben, (which Surname of Contractus he gained à membrorum contractione, as G. Vossius affirms) wrote three Books De Com­positione Astrolabii, and one De Utilitate Astrolabii. He wrote likewise another De Eclipsibus, and translated the Works of several Arabian Astronomers into Latine.

ISAACIUS ARGYRUS MONACHUS wrote de Cyclis Solis & 1050. Lunae, and de Computo Ecclesiastico; which last Petavius hath published in Greek and Latine, in Uranolog. His Astronomical Tractates are said to be kept in MS. in the Library at Auspurg; and what other Mathematical Pieces he wrote, will appear in Simler's Epitome of Gesner's Bibliotheca.

OLIVERIUS MALMESBURIENSIS, by some called ELME­RUS,1060. wrote Astrologorum Dogmata quaedam, and another Book, De Signis Planeta­rum; as Balaeus testifies.

GULIELMUS, Abbas Coenobii Hirsaugiensis, in the Diocess of Spires, com­posed1070. Three Books Rerum Philosophicarum, & Astronomicarum; Printed at Basile, 1431.

ARZACHEL HISPANUS, an Arabian by extraction, 190. years after1070. Albategnius, observed the greatest Declination of the Sun to be 23°. 34′. Some make him a Native of Toledo, being called likewise Abraham Elzara Keel. Georgius Ioachimus Rheticus, in the Preface to his Ephemerides, makes him to be the Au­thour Toletanarum Tabularum, and that he left 402. Observations, touching the Sun's Apogaeum. Vid. Ricciol. in Chronol. Astron.

ROBERTUS LORRAINE, so called by the English, by reason he was1071. Originally a Lorrainer, Profest and taught both in the Schools of France and Bel­gia, Philosophy, Rhetorick, and Mathematicks, for which Reason he was well esteemed by William the Conquerour, and advanced to the Bishoprick of Here­ford; He wrote de Stellarum Motibus, Tabulae Mathematicae, & de Lunari Computo. See Balaeus.

ALHAZEN ARABS, wrote, besides seven Books of Opticks, one De Cre­pusculis, 1072. in which, sayes Blancanus, Aeris suprema maltitudinem acutissimè rimatur. [Page 30] Fredericus Risner published and illustrated his Works with a Comment and Sculps,A [...]I [...] CHRISTUM. and makes mention of three other Signal Arabians of the same name, as Ricciolus (Chronic. Astron.) affirms.

GEBER HISPALENSIS ARABS, explained Ptolemy's Almagest, in1090. nine Books, first Printed at Norimberg by Petreius, Anno 1533. together with Pe­trus Apianus, his Scheme or Instrument of the Primum mobile. In the beginning of which Work he treats of Spherical Triangles, as far as requisite to Astronomical Cal­culations; from whence, (sayes Mersennus, in Synops. Mathemat.) Purbacchius and Regiomontanus excerpted many things in their Epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest. His chief study was to amend what he found defective in Ptolemy. However Coperni­cus stiles him Ptolemaei Calumniatorem.

ALKINDUS, a Philosopher and Astrologer, wrote, much about this time, a1100. Piece entitled, De Temporum mutationibus: And about the Year 1235. Iacobus Alkindus wrote, among other things, De Radiis Stellarum, yet extant in France. See Labbeé's Bibliotheca.

RABBI ABRAHAM wrote de Sphaera, sayes Blancanus, from the Au­thority1115. of Christmannus in Alfraganum.

ATHELARDUS, Bathoniensis Coenobii Monachus, Philosophus, Astronomus, 1130. Rhetor, ac Poeta non vulgariter eruditus (sayes Balaeus Cent. 2.) leaving England, out of a desire to enrich himself by the Acquisition of Forreign (especially the Eastern) Learning, travelled into the Oriental Parts, and having made a Peregrina­tion through Egypt and Arabia, and in a great measure satisfied his curious and learned Appetite, he returned into his own Country, and published, among other Works of his, a Treatise of Ezychiafarim, of the seven Planets, by him translated out of Arabick; he wrote likewise a Book de septem Artibus Liberalibus, and ano­ther, de Astrolabio.

RICHARDUS, Monachus Eboracensis, wrote upon Arzahel's Tables, now1132. extant in the Publick Library at Oxford.

ALMAEON ALMANSORIUS, in the year 1140. observed the greatest1140. Declination of the Sun to be 23°. 33′. His Aphorisms, Propositions, or Astrolo­gical Sentences, Hervagius published in the year 1530. together with Iulius Fir­micus. This Almaeon, Vossius conceives to be different from Almaeon King of the Arabs, of whom before.

JOANNES HISPALENSIS first translated into Latine, Alfraganus, as1142. Blancanus, from Christmannus, and from them both Vossius, de Scient. Mathem. c. 35. affirm. He likewise translated Alcabicius his Isagoge ad Magisterium Iudiciorum Astron. He writ likewise Epitome totius Astrologiae, first Printed at Norimberg 1548. with Ioachimus Hellerus his Preface, contra Astrologiae Adversarios, as Simler. Bibl. Gesner. hath noted.

RODOLPHUS BRUGENSIS, a Mathematician of Tholouze, transla­ted1144. into Latine, and Published Ptolemy's Planisphere, which he dedicated to his Ma­ster, Theodoricus Platonicus, (as Gesner testifies) Printed together with Aratus, by Valderus, at Bafile, 1536.

ALPETRAGIUS, an Astronomer of Marocco, as Ricciolus affirms. He1149. wrote Theorica Physica, translated out of Latine by Calo Calonymus Parthenopaeus, [Page 31] and likewise, De Astrologia, sayes Vossius, who conceives him to be the same withANNI POST CHRISTUM. him mentioned in Summa Alberti Magni. He observed the Declination of the Sun to be the same with that of Almaeon.

ABRAHAM ABEN-EZRA, or, according to others, AVEN-HESRE,1150. a great Astronomer and Philosopher, wrote a Book entitled Mispatho Hamazzaloth, i. e. De Iudiciis Signorum; and another, called Ta [...]min, i. e. Rationum Astronomi­carum; and a third, De Luminaribus & Diebus Criticis, sayes Ricciolus. This last was revised and published at Rome by Angelus Blondus, as Vossius, in Addend ad L. de Scient. Mathemat. affirms. There is likewise extant under his name, a Book, a­mongst the Manuscripts of Iacobus Golius, entitled, De Anni magnitudine, and Indorum Astronomia.

MANUEL COMNENUS, Emperour of Constantinople, wrote several1150. Astronomical Tractates, yet preserved in the Vatican Library; as Simler. in Bibl. Gesner. testifies.

JOHANNES DE HEXHAM, so called from the place of his Nativity;1160. a Town in-the Bishoprick of Durham, a Benedictine Monk, wrote, among other things, De Signis. & Cometis.

RABBI MOSES BEN-MAIMON, commonly, from the initial Letters1160. of his Name, called Rambam, among many other Works, writ De Astrologia, sive Siderum Viribus & Effectis, first published in Hebrew, afterwards translated into Latine, by Ioannes Isaac Levita Germanus, Professour of the Hebrew Tongue in the University of Colen, and there Printed by Maternus Cholinus, in the Year 1555.

AVERROES, an Arabian Physician of Corduba, for his diligence in com­menting1160. upon all the Works of Aristotle, called Commentator Magnus, and simply Commentator, reduced Ptolemy's Almagest into an Epitome.

SIMEON, Monk of Durham, wrote De Cometa, & Combustione London, & 1164. aliis injuriis, as I find it cited by Iames's Eclog. Oxon. Cant. who affirms the same to be extant in Benet▪Colledge Library in Cambridge. Balaeus sayes of him, that he was Vir suo saeculo in multis Scientiis eleganter instructus, praesertim Mathematicis.

ALBUMAZAR, otherwise called ABU-ASSAR, and JAPHAR, wrote1166. Eight Books De Magnis Conjunctionibus, & Annorum Revolutionibus, and is report­ed to have observed a Comet, in his time, to have been above the Orb of Venus. He wrote likewise Introductio in Astronomiam, Printed in the Year 1489.

ROGERUS HEREFORDIENSIS, of whom Balaeus sayes, That he1170. was, Astrorum Peritus, & Metallorum Indagator Maximus, wrote In Artem Iudicia­riam; Theoricam Planetarum; De Ortu & Occasu Signorum, and Collectaneum Anno­rum Planet.

CLEMENS LANTHONIENSIS, so called from the Town of Lan­thony 1170. near Gloucester, an Augustine Fryer, wrote, among other things, De Orbibus Astrologicis, and flourished about the same time.

HUMENIUS AEGYPTIUS, about this time, wrote Astronomical Tables, 1170. which Christmannus, in Alferganum, affirms to be yet extant in the Palatine (now the Vaticane) Library, as also in the Publick Library at Oxford.

[Page 32]DANIEL MORLEY, so named from the place of his birth, a Town inANNI POST CH [...]ISTUM. Norfolk, out of his great inclination to promote and advance Mathematical Learn­ing,1190. having sometime studied in the University of Oxon, travelled to Toledo, in Spain, to instruct himself in the Language and Learning of the Arabians, which there chiefly flourished, and, after his return home, wrote De Inferiori Mundo, One Book; Another, De Superiori Mundo; and a Third, entitled, Principia Mathema­tices.

OMAR ASTROLOGUS, or HOAMAR or HOMAR, Son of1199. Belnal Fargardian, a Native of Tyberias, wrote Three Books Of Nativities, pub­lished by Hervagius, together with Firmicus, 1532.

HALY ABEN RODOHAM, an Arabian, or according to G. Vossius, 1200. an Egyptian, wrote a Commentary upon Ptolemy's Centiloquium and Quadriparti­tum, Published by Octavianus Scotus, at Venice, together with other Arabian Astro­logers. He wrote likewise De Radiorum Projectionibus, and Three Nativities, whereof one his own, annexed to his other Works. This very Year he observed a Comet in the fifteenth Degree of Scorpio; of which more in the History of Comets.

LEOPOLDUS DE AUSTRIA, Son of the Duke of Austria, Episco­pus 1200. Frisingensis, writ Ten Tracts, De Astrorum Scientia, Printed at Augsbourg, 1489.

GILBERTUS LEGLEY, Philosophus & Mathematicus suae Aetatis non 1210. vulgaris (sayes Balaeus) wrote Compendium in Astronomia, & in Prognostica Hippo­cratis. He was Physician in Ordinary to Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury.

JOANNES AEGIDIUS, vel de SANCTO AEGIDIO, born at St.1224. Albans, Philosophus Summus, Physician to Philip King of France, Professour of Physick and Philosophy, both in the University of Paris and Montpelier; He wrote Prognostica Futurorum, and another Book, de Materia Coeli. Balaeus, de Scriptor Brit.

ALEXANDER DE VILLLA DEI, Dolensis, wrote of the Sphere.1240. He published likewise a Book of Arithmetick, and Computum Ecclesiasticum; as G. Vossius, De Scient Math. affirms.

GEORGIUS MEDICUS CHRYSOCOCCA, writ De Inventione 1240. Feriae, and an Exposition Syntaxeos Persarum, with several Tables Mediorum Motu­um, published by Bulialdus, at the end of his Astronomia Philolaica.

RABBI IASAAC HAZAN, i. e. Cantor, as being Chaunter to the Iewish 1252. Synagogue at Toledo, was one of the Principal Compilers of the Alphonsine Tables.

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, Bishop of Ratisbon, one of the most learned1252. Persons of his Age, among other the various Monuments of his Wit and Learning, wrote De Sphaera, De Astris, De Astronomia, and Speculum Astronomicum; as Simler. in Bibl. Gesner.

ROBERTUS LINCOLNIENSIS, Bishop of Lincoln, commonly1253. called Grossa Testa, in English, Grouthead, writ a Compendium of the Sphere, Pub­lished first by Lucas Gauricus, 1531. He wrote likewise De Coelo & Mundo, De Sphaera Coelesti, Theoricam Planetarum, and In Astrologiam, as Balaeus affirms.

ROGERUS BACON, a Franciscan Fryer of Oxford, a most acute Philo­sopher1255. [Page 33] and admirable Mathematician, insomuch that he was reputed, but falsely, aANNI POST CHRISTUM. Necromancer. Out of whose vast number of Books written upon several subjects, by which he hath eternized his name, we shall select only what is proper to our pur­pose, as they are enumerated by Balaeus. He wrote a particular Treatise, De Utili­tate Astronomiae; Introductio in Astrologiam; De Coelo & Mundo; De Cosmographia; De Radiis Solaribus; De Locis Stellarum; De Aspectibus Lunae; Et Prognostica ex Siderum cursu, with other Pieces of Opticks very considerable in that Age.

ALBUASSIN, or ALBOAZEN HALY, Son of Aben Ragel, wrote1255. De Stellarum Fixarum motu ac locis (according to Ricciolus, Chron. Astron.) as also De Iudiciis & Fatis Astrorum, translated at the command of Alphonsus King of Castile, out of Arabick into Spanish, by Iudas Ben Musce, and out of Spanish into Latine, by Aegidius de Thebaldis, of Parma, Printed at Basile 1550. He writ likewise another Book Signalium Astronomiae, as Simler. in Bibl. Gesner. affirms.

JOHANNES DE SACRO BOSCO, an English man, born at Halli­fax, 1256. anciently called Holy-wood, from which he took his name. After some time of study at Oxford, he became a Doctour of the University of Paris, and compiled, out of Ptolemy, Albategnius, Alfraganus, and others of the Ancients; his Four Books De Sphaera, commented upon by Vinetus, Iunctinus, Clavius, Barocius, and divers others. And though Barocius hath detected and published no less than 84. Errours in that Work of Sacroboscus, yet it still keeps up its credit in the Schools, as a Classick Piece.

ALPHONSUS x. King of Castile and Leon, having sent for the most learned1256. among the Moors, Arabs, and Iews, began the Instauration of Astronomical Tables, which in the Year 1252. he first published, having, in Books, Instruments, and other Necessaries, relating to that Work, expended no less than four hundred thousand Crowns. These Tables, from his Name called Alphonsine, being defective, ground­ed partly upon Cabalistick Figments, he afterwards (viz. Anno 1256.) Published more correct. He observed in the Year 1250. the first Star of Aries, to have been distant from the Equinoctial Point 23°. 40′. as Blancanus reports. Ricciolus affirms, that Egnatius Dantes, in the fourth Part of his Astrolabe, reports, that he saw a Book of all the Alphonsine Instruments, translated out of Arabick into Spanish, and thence into Latine.

PROFATIUS, a Iew, about this time, applyed his study to the Observation1260. of the Stars. He writ Tables of the Motion of the Eighth Sphere, as Balaeus affirms, and found the Sun's greatest Declination to be 23°. 32′. His Almanack Perpetuum is now extant in several of our Libraries.

JOHANNES PECKHAM, a Franciscan Fryer, and Archbishop of Can­terbury, 1260. wrote among other learned Works of his, De Sphaera, and Theoricam Plane­tarum.

VITELLIO THURINGO-POLONUS, an excellent Mathematician,1269. wrote Ten Books [...], i. e. of the nature, reason, and projection of Visual rayes, &c. commonly called Perspective; Printed first at Norimberg by Petreius, Anno 1535. and afterwards reprinted, and adorned with Figures, by Frederick Ris­ner, at Basile, 1572. a Work subservient to Astronomy.

—ODINTON, a Benedictine Monk in the Abbey of Evesham, and1270. an English man, Scholar to Profatius the Iew and of Iewish Extraction, endeavoured to vindicate his Name from Oblivion by his Book, De Motibus Planetarum, and De Mutatione Aeris; as Balaeus affirms.

[Page 34]COGIA▪ NASIR EDDIN. TUSAEUS, wrote Astronomical Tables, ANNI POST CHRISTUM. which he dedicated to Ile-Chan, Prince of the Tartars, and a Treatise of the Astro­labe, 1272. in twenty Chapters, as I find mentioned in the Catalogue of Golius's Manu­scripts. He died in the year of the Hegira 675. of Christ, 1276.

KOTBODDINUS SHIRAZITA, wrote a Book entitled Donum Re­gium 1272. seu Universae Astronomiae Syntagma. He was contemporary with Nasir Eddin Tusaeus.

THEBIT BEN CHORA, i. e. the Son of Chora, by Profession a Iew, and1275. according to [...]eland, born in England, though others make him a Native of Spain, first introduced the motion of Trepidation in the Eighth Sphere (by some called Motus Accessus & Recessus) from North to South; and observed the Sun's greatest Declination to be 23°. 33′. He wrote likewise De significationibus Planetarum; De Capite & Cauda Draconis; Demonstrationes in Almagestum, and Additiones in Sphaerica Menelai, as they are particularized by Balaeus. There are mentioned like­wise other Treatises of his Writing, as Practica Planetarum; Ganones Astronomici, and De Prognosticatione Temporum, said to be extant in his Majesties Library at St. Iames's.

GUIDO BONATUS FORO-JULIENSIS, wrote Theoricae Plane­tarum, 1282. Published at Venice, 1506. He wrote likewise, De Astrologia Iudiciaria.

HENRICUS BATEN of Mechlin, Dr. in Theology, Chancellour of the1290. University of Paris, and Chaunter and Canon of Liege, Published a Book, De Er­roribus Tabularum Alphonsinarum, as Ricciolus affirms, in Catal. Astronom.

MICHAEL SCOTUS, surnamed Mathematicus, for his eminent skill in1290. that kind of Learning, by Balaeus stiled, Eximius Physicorum Motuum, Cursúsque Siderei Indagator, Published a Comment, super Authorem Sphaerae; Four Books, De Constitutione Mundi; Two Books, De Coelo & Mundo; Imagines Astronomicae; And Dogmata Astrologorum; De Signis Planetarum, l. 1. De Natura Solis & Lunae, l. 1. Printed at Venice 1546. He wrote likewise other Opera Astrologica, of which the MS. is extant in the Bodleian Library.1293.

GULIELMUS DE SANCTO GODIALDO gained about this time the honour and repute of an able Astronomer, that is, as G. Vossius notes, twenty years and more after the Publication of the Alphonsine Tables.1300.

PETRUS DACIUS, or DE DACIA, as G. Vossius, from the Autho­rity of Trithemius, calls him, Published Astronomical Tables, extant in MS. in the Library of Benet-Colledge in Cambridge. He wrote likewise, De Calculo, sive Com­puto; and set forth a Calendar.1310.

ISAAC ISRAELITA, wrote a Book entitled Iessod Holam, i. e. De Fun­damento Mundi; in which he often takes occasion to treat of the Motion of the Eighth Sphere.1320.

PETRUS▪ DE APONO, called likewise CONCILIATOR, Ob Li­brum, quo Veterum Medicorum Scripta conciliat, (sayes G. Vossius, de Scient. Mathe­mat.) wrote De Astrolabio Plano, Published at Venice, 1502.1320.

NICHOLAUS TRIVET, a Dominican Frier, Son of Sir Thomas Trivet Knight, one of the Judges of the Courts of Common Law in Edward [Page 35] the Third's time, among other learned Works, wrote De Astronomia. ANNI POST CHRISTUM.

JOHANNES BACONTHORP, a Carmel [...]e Fryer in the Monastery1320. of Blackney, in Norfolk, reputed one of the most learned of his time, stiled Doctor Resolutus, wrote four Books, De Coelo & Mundo; One, De Sphaera Iudiciali; and another, De Astrorum Scientiis.

NICHOLAUS OCKHAM, a Franciscan Fryer, in Coenobia Oxoniensi, 1320. Praelector Publicus (sayes Balaeus) wrote, De Latitudine Oppositionum, and another Book, entitled, Astrologi Iudicium.

ISMAEL ABULFEDA, Sultan of Syria, Assyria, and Persia, an illustri­ous1322. Cosmographer, and Geographer, whose Tables the learned Mr. Graves pub­lished in the year 1650. in Arabick and Latine.

CICHUS ASCULANUS, Dr. of Physick, Philosopher, and Publick1322. Professour of Astronomy at Bologna, was accused for a Necromancer, and burnt at Florence (being LXX. years of age) Anno 1328.

RICHARDUS WALLINGFORD, so called from the Town of1326. Wallingford, where he was born; Son of a Blacksmith; after some time of Study in Oxford, betook himself to a Monastick life, in the Abby of St. Alban, whereof he had the Honour to be Abbot. He was excellently well skilled in Arithme­tick, Astronomy, and Geometry. He caused to be made a famous Clock or Horo­loge, for the use of the Monastery, being (according to the Words of Leland) a miraculous Fabrick, sive quis Cursum Solis seu Lunae, seu fixa Sidera notet, sive ite­rum Maris Incrementa & Decrementa, seu Lineas unà cum figuris ac Demonstrationi­bus, ad infinitum penè variis, consideret. For the better Explanation of which Cu­rious Piece, and the orderly regulating thereof; he published Canons or Rules, in a particular Treatise, which he entitled Albion. Alluding something to the Name of the Monastery; But thereby chiefly expressing this sence or meaning, in English, All by One, i. e. Omnia per Unum, as Balaeus reports. He wrote besides his fore­mentioned Canones in Albionem; a Book; De Iudiciis Astronomicis; and another, De Rebus Astronomicis.

JOHANNES DANK, a Native of Saxony, writ Canones Eclipsales, Cano­nes 1330. Tabularum, & De Astrolabio, as Gesner testifies.

GUALTERUS CATTON, an English Fryer in the Convent of Corde­liers 1330. at Norwich, a learned Theologue and Philosopher, published a Treatise Adver­sus Astrologos.

RABBI LEVI, eminent in all kind of Learning, and particularly in Astro­nomy,1335. wrote a Book called Milhamot-Hessem, i. e. Defensionem Dei.

JOHANNES BARWICK, by some (but corruptly) called1340. BRENLANTIUS, surnamed likewise BRITANNUS, a learned English Franciscan Fryer, published several Books, De Astrologorum Praenotionibus; in which he impugnes Judiciary Astrology.

ROBERTUS HOLCOTH, a Dominican Fryer, of Northampton, of1340. whom Balaeus sayes, that he was penè infinitae lectionis Homo, atque ingenii solidissi­mi, wrote De Effectibus Stellarum; and another Treatise, De Motibus Stellarum, as G. Vossius affirms, out of Possevinus.

[Page 36]GAUFREDUS DE MELDIS, published a Treatise, entitled Iudici­um [...] POST CH [...]ISTUM. Stellae Comatae Anno Dom. 1330. and of two other Comets, which appeared in1340. the years 1337. and 1338. preserved yet in Manuscripts in the Library of Pembroke Colledge in Cambridge. See Iames, Eclog. Oxon. Cant.

RABBI DAVID ABUDERKEM, writ a Treatise, entitled, Ordo In­tercalationis. 1341.

JOHANNES MANDOVICH, sometime Fellow of Merton Colledge1342. in Oxford, a learned Physician and Astronomer, published Astronomical Tables.

JOANNES ESTWOOD, or ESTWED, or ESCHU [...]D of1347. Ashenden, sometimes Fellow of Merton Colledge in Oxford, highly com­mended by Io. Picus Count of Mirandula, wrote a Book, which he en­titled Iudiciale Astronomicum, sive Summa Iudicialis. He published likewise Elucidarium Planetarum, Tabulae Planetarum, and Canons of their Utility and Practice; of the Conjunction of Saturn and Mars in Cancer 1357. and of the Conjunction of Saturn and Iupiter, & de Signis Conjunctionum. His Iudiciale Astronomicum sive Summa Anglicana, or Iudicialis, vel de Accidentibus Mundi (for those several Titles it bears) was Printed at Venice in the year 1442. and is yet ex­tant in MS. in the Publick Library at Oxford, and in that of Oriel Colledge. It was afterward Printed at Venice in the year 1489. and elegantly for that Age, at the Charge of a Patrician, for the Honour of whose Name (because Noblemen in those Dayes would be at the charge of Printing of good Books) I will subscribe what follows, as I received it from my very deserving and ingenious Friend, Mr. Francis Bernard, in whose Possession the said Book (among other curious ones with which he is stored) now is. Summa Anglicana Iohannis Eschuid, Opus factum est tum Diligentiâ, tum Impensâ Francisci Bolani Patritii Veneti, Viri certè bonarum Ar­tium studiosi, Clarissimi quondam Oratoris Candiani; Nec defuit Impressoris Iohan­nis Lucilii Santritter Herbronensis Germani maxima Lucubratio, maximus Labor, & Diligentia.

NICHOLAUS CABASILAS, a Grecian, Archbishop of Thessalonica, 1350. wrote a Comment upon Ptolemy's Almagest.

JOANNES ELIGERUS of Gondersleven, a German, writ de Compositi­one 1350. Astrolabii; de Utilitate Astrolabii; de Utilitate Quadrantis; Two Books de Magnete, and One de Astrogemetro; and several other Pieces, as Simler in Bibl. Ges­ner. affirms.

JOHANNES DE SAXONIA, and JOHANNES DE LIGNE­RIIS,1350. both Germane Astronomers, and Contemporaries. The latter put forth Canones Primi Mobilis, together with Tables, and a Book De Sphaera. He is recko­ned by Petrus Cirvellus Daiocensis, in his Preface in Sphaeram Mundi, to have been one of the four most celebrious Astronomers, that had flourished between the times of Alphonsus and Purbacchius; as cited by Vossius in Addend. ad Scient. Mathemat.

GUILELMUS GRIZAUNT, an English man, Fellow of Merton Col­ledge1350. in Oxford, and Dr. of Physick, leaving England, setled at Marseilles in France, where he dyed in much Esteem for his Knowledge and Practice in Physick, leaving behind him a Son of his own Name; who was first Abbot of the Canons Regular at Marseilles, afterward Pope of Rome, by the Name of Urban the Fifth: Of the Issue of his Brain, I find these following, mentioned by Balaeus, relating to our Pur­pose. [Page 37] Speculum Astrologiae; De Magnitudine Solis; De Qualitatibus Astrorum; ANNI POST CHRISTUM. De Significationibus Eorundem.

JOHANNES KILLINGWORTH, Fellow of Merton Colledge in1360. Oxford; wrote De Iudicio Astronomiae; Canones & Tabulae Astronomicae; De Cre­pusculis; & De Nubium Ascensionibus.

NICEPHORUS GREGORAS writ De Astrolabio, extant in the King's1360. Library at St. Iames's. Gesner mentions another Piece of his, De Calumniatoribus Astronomi [...], & De Astronomia. Andreas Cellarius, in Praeloquio Harmon. Macrocosm. reports that in the 27th year of his Age he applied himself to Andronicus Palaeolo­gus, Emperour of Constantinople, offering to him Reasons for the Emendation of the Roman Calendar.

LUDOVICUS CAERLION, so called from the Town of Caerlion in1360. Wales, where he was born, a learned Theologue and Physician, wrote De Eclipsi Solis & Lunae; Tabulae Eclipsium Solis & Lunae, secundum Diametros Richardi Walling­fordi, now extant in his Majesty's Library at St. Iames's; Canones Eclipsium; De Tabulis Umbrarum; and Fragmenta Astronomica.

IB'N SHATER DAMASCENUS, stiled by Mr. Graves, Sedulus Coeli 1363. Siderúmque Inspector, by many Observations made at Damascus, found the Obliqui­ty of the Zodiack to be 23°. 31′. He wrote likewise Canons, and universal Pre­cepts of Astronomy, and Of Astronomical Instruments, and their use; as likewise De extruendis Coeli Thematibus, as cited by Hottinger, Smegm. Orient. His Tables are extant in the Publick Library, at Oxford.

JOHANNES BOCCACIUS is about this time numbred among Astro­nomers1370. by Gualterus, in Chronico, as cited by Ricciolus, in Catalog. Astron.

THEOPHRASTUS PARACELSUS, besides his many other Works1370. in Physick and Chymistry, hath left some Astronomical and Astrological Fragments, published by Gerardus Dornus, together with his Book, De Meteoris & Tribus Prin­cipiis: He writ De Astronomia Magna, & Astronomiae Magnae Compendium, Printed in the year 1584.

RICHARDUS LAVINGHAM, of Suffolk, Professour of Mathema­ticks,1370. Philosophy, and Theology in the University of Oxford, composed a Book, De Planetarum Distantia; Compendium Meteororum, in four Books, and two Books, De Coelo & Mundo. He was killed in that Popular Tumult; wherein Simon Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murthered.

SIMON BREDON, or BRIDON, alias BIRIDANIUS, born at1370. Winchcomb in Gloucester-shire; Fellow of Merton Colledge in Oxford, Dr. of Phy­sick, and Professour of Astronomy, wrote, according to Balaeus, Two Books In De­monstrationes Almagesti; One, In quaedam Capita Ptolemaei; De Rebus Astronomi­cis; Aequationes Planetarum; De Latitudine Planetarum; Super Introductorio Al­cabitii; Astronomia Calculatoria; and Astronomia Iudiciaria. His Book De Aequationibus Planetarum, is yet extant in Manuscript, in the Library of Peter-House in Cambridge.

NICHOLAUS DE LYNN, so named from the Town where he was1370. born, in Norfolk, a Carmelite Fryer, Astrologorum sui Temporis in Anglia celeberri­mus ac maximus, sayes Balaeus: He wrote Canones Tabularum; De Natura Zodiaci; [Page 38] De Planetarum Domibus; De Sphaera Iudiciali; Astrologorum Dogmata; De Fi­guris ANNI POST CHRISTUM. & Signis; De Mundi Revolutione; De Usu Astrolabii, De Eclipsi Solis; De Astrorum Iudiciis; & de Variis Genituris.

BLASIUS PELACANIS, or (as the Italians write him) BIAGIO1378. PELACANO, of Parma, by Alberto Leandro (in Descript. Ital.) stiled an Ex­cellent Philosopher and Astronomer; left (sayes Simler from the Authority of Iovius) Quaestiones Subtilissimae, in Astronomia & Optica. He taught at Pavy under Io. Galeazzo first Duke of Millain; His Book being yet extant in MS▪ in the Medicean Library.

LEO Emperour of Constantinople, Son of Basilius Macedo was very learned in1385. Mathematicks. His Tactica, sive de Acie ordinanda, are yet extant, Printed at Basile, 1554. And some MSS. of his are in the French King's Library, entitled Logarica (an Obsolete Word instead of Logistica) and are supposed to contain some Astrono­mical Computations, and an Exercise upon Diophantus.

HENRICUS DE HASSIA, a Germane, Professour of Theology and1390. Astronomy at Vienna, having shewn his Knowledge in the latter, in his Comment upon Genesis, lib. 1. and in Theoricis Planetarum, as Ricciolus affirms.

JOHANNES CHYLMARK, Fellow of Merton Colledge in Oxford, 1390. Mathematicus insigniter doctus, as Balaeus characters him, published a small Treatise, De Accidentiis Planetarum.

JOHANNES SOMER, a Franciscan Fryer, in the Convent of that Order1390. at Bridgewater, wrote Calendarii Castigationes; Tertium Calendarii; Astrorum Cano­nes; and De Quantitate Anni.

RICHARD the Second, King of England, wrote something in Astronomy1390. or Astrology, now extant in his Majesty's Library at St. Iames's.

JOANNES DE LINERIIS, or DE LINARIIS, Siculus, wrote1396. Canones primi Mobilis, of which mention is made by Zacutus in his Tables. He wrote likewise Canones Quadrantis compositivi & operativi; which Pieces of his are extant in MS. in the Library of Nicholaus Trivisanus of Padua, as I find in Thomasinus his Bibliothec. Patavin.

GERARDUS CREMONENSIS translated Geber, out of Arabick in­to1400. Latine, and put forth Theoricae Planetarum; but such as are severely censured by Io. Regiomontanus.

JOHANNES DE EGMUNDA, Professour of Astronomy at Vienna, 1400. Published Tables, De Motibus Planetarum, & de Luminarium Eclipsibus, calculated for the Meridian of Vienna. He wrote likewise De Astrolabio, together with other Works, which are said to be yet extant in the Library at Vienna.

GALFRIDUS CHAUCER, a learned Knight, and Prince of English 1402. Poets, Cui Veneres debet Patria lingua suas, to use Leland's Encomium of him, me­rits a place in this Catalogue, for his Book of the Astrolabe, which he composed for the use and instruction of his Son.

JOHANNES WALTERUS, Scholar, at first, in the Colledge of Win­chester, 1410. afterwards, Fellow of New-Colledge in Oxford, where he chiefly applied [Page 39] himself to Mathematical Studies, and published Tabulae Aequationis Domorum, andANNI POST CHRISTUM. Tabulae Ascensionum Universalium, as they are cited by Balaeus.

GULIELMUS BATECUMB, alias BADECON, Professour of1410. Mathematicks in the University of Oxford, wrote De Sphaera Concava; De fabri­ca & usu ejusdem; De operatione Astrolabit, and D [...] Sphaera Solida. He is said to have flourished in the Reign of King Henry V. by G. Vossius; and by Balaeus he is ranged among the Authours of this time.

PETRUS ALIACENSIS, Cardinal and Bishop of Cambray, and Chan­cellour1410. of the University of Paris, wrote, besides his other Theological Works, Quaestiones in Sphaeram Sacrobosci; De Reformatione Calendarii; and another Tra­ctate, entitled, Concordia Theologiae & Astronomiae.

JOHANNES GERSON, Chancellour of the University of Paris, put1419. forth at Lyons, Trilogium Astrologiae Theologizatae; or as G. Vossius mends the Ti­tle, Trilogium Astrologiae ad Theologiae Trutinam expensae.

PROSDOCIMUS DE BELDEMANDO of Padua, some time be­fore1434. Io. Baptista Capuanus, Published a Comment in Sphaeram Sacrobosci, which Lu­cas Gauricus caused to be Printed in the year 1531. He writ likewise Canones Ope­rativi & Compositivi Astrolabii, and Canones de Motibus corporum Coelestium, written in the year 1434. Whereof a MS. transcribed by Candus Master of Arts and Do­ctour of Physick, Nephew to the said Beldemandus, is extant in Bibliotheca Cando­rum, as Thomasinus affirms in Bibliothe [...]. Patavin.

GEORGIUS TRAPEZUNTIUS, born in Creet, but taking his name1436. from Trapezond, a City in Cappadocia, translated into Latine, Ptolemy's Almagest; to which he added, of his own, an Isagoge, together with a Comment. He commen­ted likewise upon Ptolemy's Centiloquium, and wrote a Book, De Antisciis; and an­other with this Title, Cur Astrologorum judicia plerunque fallant? as Voss. de Sci­ent. Mathemat. affirms.

ULUGH BEIG, Nephew to the Great Tamerlane, put forth most exact1437. Astronomical Tables in Arabick, of the Longitude, and Latitude of the Fixed Stars, calculated for the Meridian of Samarcand. To which were added the Com­mentary of Ali▪Cushgi. But the said Tables, collated with Three Persian Manu­scripts in the Bodleian Library, about the year 1665. were translated into Latine, and Printed with the Arabick at Oxford, by Doctour Hyde, Keeper of the said Li­brary, to which he added his own most learned Commentary, together with Moham­medes Tizinus his Tables, of the Declination and Ascension of the Fixed Stars, in Arabick and Latine.

ALI CUSHGI wrote Astronomica, extant among the Manuscripts of Iaco­bus 1437. Golius: He flourished in the time of Ulugh Beig, to whom he was assistant in composing his Tables.

KADI ZADA, or as the Persians pronounce it, KAZI ZADE, whose1437. name more fully expressed is MULANA SALAH EDDIN MUSA, sur­named Cadi-Zadi Rumaeus, was one of the Assistants to Ulugh Beig, in calculating his Astronomical Tables.

MULANA GIJATH EDDIN GIEMSHID Published a Piece,1437. by him entitled Scala Coeli; or Of the Distances and Magnitudes of the Cele­stia [...] [Page 40] Bodies. He was likewise an Assistant to Ulugh Beig. ANNI POST CHRISTUM.

JOHANNES GAZULUS, of Ragusa, a great Astronomer and Astrolo­ger,1438. flourished about this time; of him Simler writes, that Nescio quid Astronomi­cum scripsit; He is named by Ioannes Regiomontanus, in his Tables of Directions; and what he writ was a Method of the erecting a Celestial Figure or Scheme, which is now called the Way of Campanus and Gazulus.

HUMPHREY, Duke of Gloucester, surnamed The Good, Son of Henry the1440. Fourth, King of England, Nobilitatis omnis, atque Eruditionis Phoenix planè Unicus, as he is stiled by Balaeus, was a great Lover of Astronomical and Astrological Learn­ing, and set forth Tables of Directions, of his own Composing.

GEORGIUS THEMISTUS PLETHO CONSTANTINO­POLITANUS1440. composed a Book, entitled, De Mensium ac Annorum Ordine [...] Dierúmque Recensione.

NICHOLAUS CUSANUS, born at Cusa, a Town seated upon the1440. Moselle, in the Diocess of Treves, known by the title of Cardinal of St. Peter's ad Vincula, a most subtile Divine, Philosopher and Mathematician, wrote (besides other his Works, not relating to our Subject) De emendatione Calendarii; and De Stellarum Fixarum Canone.

GEORGIUS PURBACCHIUS, so called from the Town of Peurbach 1450. (the Place of his birth) in the Confines of Bavaria and Austria, was publick Pro­fessour of Mathematicks both at Ferrara and Vienna, and a great Instauratour of Astronomy. His first Essayes were several Tractates of Dyalling, with Tables fitted for the variety of Climates; a Small Piece, with a Table thereto, of the Sun's Altitude; Astrolabial Canons (as Gassendus terms them) with a Table of Paral­lels, proportioned to every Degree of the Equinoctial. The making and use of So­lid Spheres, or Globes, especially the Celestial, to which he added a New Table of all the Fixed Stars▪ with their augmentation of Longitude, from Ptolemy's time, to his own. But his chiefest Work (after his Theory of the Planets, and Tables of Eclipses) by which he intended to signalize his Name, was the Reducing of Ptole­my's Almagest into a correct Epitome, or Compendium, being chiefly encouraged thereunto by Cardinal Bessarion, which he lived not to complete, but left the same, by Testament, to be fulfilled by his Scholar Iohannes Regiomontanus.

JOHANNES FUSOR, or FUSORIUS, contemporary with Purbacchi­us, 1450. published Tables of Sines and Chords; and by command of Charles VII. King of France, made Observations for the better composing of new Tables of the Cele­stial Motions, as Gassendus, in the Life of Purbacchius, testifies, extant in MS. in the Library of Nicholaus Trivisanus of Padua, as Thomasinus in Bibliothec. Patavin. affirms.

GUILELMUS BOTONER, an English Knight, noble by Extraction,1460. but much more ennobled by his Learning, as well in History, Physick, as Mathema­ticks, Published with other Works, upon several Subjects, a Book, De Astrologiae Valore.

JOHANNES JOVIANUS PONTANUS, a Neapolitane, acquired1460. no little honour and esteem, by his Astronomical Studies and Writings. He trans­lated into Latine, Ptolemy's Centiloquium, and published it with an Exposition or Comment thereupon, and wrote XIV. Books, De Rebus Coelestibus, and Five others, [Page 41] in elegant Latine Verse, entitled, Urania, sive, De Stellis; and One other, inANNI POST CHRISTUM. Verse, De Meteoris.

MICHAEL SCOTUS, a diligent Observer of the Stars, at the desire of1460. the Emperour Frederick the Third, put forth, (about this Time) Quaestiones in Sphaeram Ioh. de Sacro Bosco, as Ricciolus, Chronol. Astronom. affirms; which certain­ly is a great mistake: for Frederick the Third came to the Empire much earlier, and was deposed in the year 1323. Scotus flourishing according to Balaeus in the year 1290. about which time the Reader will find him already inserted in this Catalogue.

JOHANNES MULLERUS, commonly called JOHANNES RE­GIOMONTANUS,1460. or DE MONTE REGIO; from Cunisberg a Town in Franconia, where he was born, Disciple to Purbacchius, finished the Epi­tome (begun by his Master) of Ptolemy's Almagest. He published likewise Tables of Directions and Eclipses, and first of all in that Age set forth Astronomical E­phemerides, of many years duration, Printed at Augsburg 1488. He wrote likewise De Theoricis Planetarum, & De Cometis, and published a Treatise De Triangulis, Printed at Basile in folio, by Daniel Santbech, and is still a Book of good accompt, as containing in it divers extraordinary Cases about plain Triangles. He assisted Sixtus IV. (by whom he was honourably to that end invited) in the emendation of the Iulian Calendar, though he lived not to perfect what he had begun. He dedi­cated his Tables of the Primum Mobile, to Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, who not only rewarded him with 800. Hungarian Crowns, but also made him his dayly Guest, for some time, at his Table, justly deserving to be honoured by Poste­rity, as the great Advancer of all Mathematical Learning, especially of Astrono­my, as well by his own Labours, as the publishing in Print, at Norimberg, the most eminent Authours among the Ancients in that Science; particularly our Manilius, Ptolemy, Theon, Proclus, Menelaus, Theodorus, Firmicus, Hyginus, and others, to the number of Thirty at least. He observed the Sun's greatest Declination to be 23°. 30′. He died, as some write, at the 33d. or, as others, at the 40th. year of his Age, not without the suspicion of being poysoned by the Sons of Georgius Trape­zuntius, the envious opposers of his merits, and lies buried at Rome, in the Panthe­on. See more of him in Gassendus, who writ his Life.

JOHANNES BLANCHINUS, was, as Blancanus affirms, of Ferrara, 1462. but more truly, as Ricciolus, of Bologna, and composed Astronomical Tables, which he dedicated to the Emperour Frederick the Third, to whom he was both well known and acceptable. These Tables, with new ones of his own, and more cor­rect Canons, and several Additions, were by Lucas Gauricus published at Venice, 1526.

EBERHARDUS SCHLUSINGERUS of Gasmanstorfe in Franco­nia, 1470. Doctour of Physick at Zurick, writ a Treatise of Comets, and of their Signi­fications; particularly of a Comet which appeared at Zurick in the year 1472. He writ likewise an Introduction to Astrology, chiefly relating to Medical Elections.

BESSARION, by birth a Grecian, Cardinal of the Roman Church, and Pa­triarck 1473. of Constantinople, a great Favourer of Astronomical Studies: He left (among other his various and learned Works) a small Tractate, whereof the Manuscript is extant in the Emperour's Library at Vienna, entitled Methodus cognoscendi quot ho­ris, singulis Noctibus Luna fulgeat; as the same is cited by Simler in Biblioth, Gesner.

ABRAHAM ZAGUT, or ZACUTI, was first publick Professour of1474. [Page 42] Astronomy at Carthage, afterwards at Salamanca, of whom Ricciolus affirms, that [...] he was Astronomiae consultissimus. Vossius sayes he was Astrologer to Emanuel King of Portugal. He wrote Fasti, sive Almanach perpetuum omnium coeli Motuum, Print­ed at Venice 1502. In the Preface of which Work he makes mention of Abenverga, a Iew, his Astronomical Tables, but without giving any account of the Time where­in he flourished. In the year 1474. he observed the Star called Spica Virginis to be in the 17°. 10′. of Libra, as Ricciolus from the Authority of Augustinus Riccius af­firms. His Almanach Perpetuum sive Ephemerides were calculated for Salamanca, the Radix they began from was the year 1472. but the Places of the Planets were taken from Regiomontanus his Ephemerides; his first part (which whether ever Printed is uncertain) beginning from that year. He writ the Preface to the Bishop of Salamanca, (who he was doth not appear) Ioannes Michael Germanus made the Problems before it, Alphonsus de Corduba Hispalensis made a Canon of the Equation of Venus, and discourses a little of the Errours of Zacutus. In the same Book one Octavius Sfortiades Episcopus Aretinus, sayes, that Marcus Antonius Grimanus Patricius Venetus, Iuntae Calcographiae imprimendam tradidit Novam Tabellam, ut­pote Supplementum Aequationis Veneris in 30 Revolutionibus, quam suae Celsitudini Abraham Zacutus ex Damasco destinaverat paululum antequam Diem clauderet Novis­simum. Gauricus (being but a young Man) corrected and put out the Book at Venice Anno 1515.

JOANNES ODDI, of Padua, by Ia. Phil. Thomasinus (in Bibl. Patav.) 1475. stiled Physicus, & Astronomus (upon the Score of which last, We give him place in this Catalogue) wrote a Book which he dedicated to Frederick Duke of Urbine, de Impressionibus Elementorum, de Copia rerum, & Pretio, de Bello, de Religione, de Principibus, de Civitatibus; which I conceive to be some Astrological Discourse, or Prognostick, extant in MS. in the Library of Hippolytus Oddi of Padua Knight of St. Mark.

JOHANNES BAPTISTA CAPUANUS SIPONTINUS, De 1475. Manfredonia, and as Ricciolus affirms, Canon Regular of the Church of Lateran, while he was a secular Person▪ his name was Franciscus Capuanus, and he was pub­lick Professour of Astronomy at Padua, at which time he wrote an Exposition, In Sphaeram Sacrobosci. Being afterwards made a Bishop he revised it, and dedicated it to his Fellow-Canons, sometime his Auditours. He wrote likewise In Theoricas Purbacchii, Computus Ecclesiasticus, and a Book, De Compositione Quadrantis.

ANDALO of Genua, a most excellent Mathematician, wrote of the Astrolabe, 1475. Printed at Ferrara 1475.

THEODORUS GAZA wrote in Greek, De Mensibus, & De Anno, in1478. which sayes Ricciolus, Astronomiae non inscium se ostendit; Published by Petavius, in Uranolog.

CHRISTIANUS MOLITOR, of Clagenfurt, was, as Ricciolus affirms,1480. Astronomus insignis, and wrote, at Vienna, Opuscula Astrologica, which, according to the testimony of Vossius, apud Doctos in magno pretio habentur.

NICHOLAUS ORESMIUS wrote a particular Treatise, by way of1480. Commentary, against the Superstition of Iudiciary Astrology. He is cited by Io­hannes Picus Mirandula, by the name of Nicholaus Orem, to have written a Book, De Proportionibus Proportionum, as Simler in Biblioth. Gesner attests.

ALEXANDER ACHILLINUS, of Bologna, Professour of Philoso­phy,1480. wrote De Orbibus Coelestibus.

[Page 43]ALCHABITIUS, or ALCABITIUS, called likewise ABDILA­ZUS,ANNI POST CHRISTUM. an Arabian, composed an Isagoge, or Introduction, Ad scrutanda Astrorum 1480. judicia, and writ De Planetarum Conjunctionibus. Ricciolus affirms he wrote four Tractates, in which he comprized the Elements of Astrology, commented upon by Naiboda. Iohannes Hispalensis first translated him into Latine, Printed at Venice in the year 1491. and 1521. together with the exposition of Ioannes de Saxonia, and the Emendations of Antonius de Fantis, Doctour of Physick at Trevigi in Italy. He wrote likewise of Opticks, of which see Vossius, De Scient. Mathemat. There is a MS. Treatise in the Bodleian Library, entitled Introductio ad Iudicia Astronom. under the Name of Algabicus; I know not whether mistaken for Alchabitius.

MARCILIUS FICINUS, an eminent Florentine Physician, Philosopher,1480. and Astronomer, who both in his Notes In Timaeum Platonis, and other his Dia­logues, discourses learnedly, as occasion requires, upon several Astronomical Sub­jects, having likewise put forth an Apology, De Medicina Astrologiae▪ jungenda; a Disputation Contra Iudicia Astrologorum; and a Book, De Sole & Lumine. In his Book, De vita coelitùs comparanda, he shews himself very Learned in Astrology, though he writ against the Astrologasters.

JOHANNES KENT, alias KAYLEG, Native of Caermarden in South-Wales, 1482. a Great Philosopher, Botanist, and Mathematician, of which Studies he was Professour in the University of Cambridge, put forth Astronomical Tables.

JOANNES ANGELUS put forth Opus Astrolabii Plani cum Tabulis, 1488. Printed August. Vindel. 1488.

JOHANNES ERGHOM, of York, an Augustine Fryar, having, at Ox­ford, 1490. professed Logick, Natural Philosophy and Theology, gained to himself the re­pute of an eminent Scholar, and put forth a Book of Astrological Calculations.

JOHANNES PICUS, Count of Mirandula, Ingeniorum Phoenix, as some1490. have stiled him, besides other Works of exquisite and profound Learning, wrote Twelve Books Against Iudiciary Astrology.

NICHOLAUS COMES DE COMITIBUS, a Noble Italian, 1490. wrote a Tractate, De Motu & Recessu Octavae Sphaerae, extant in MS. among those of Nicholaus Trivisanus of Padua, recorded by Iac. Phil. Thomasinus in Bibliothec. Patavin.

PONTICUS VIRMIUS, alias VIRUNNIUS, Native of Trevigi 1490. in Italy, Professour of Philosophy, writ, besides many other Works upon different Subjects, a Commentary In Sphaeram Iohannis Sacrobosci.

JACOBUS SCHONHEINTZ, Professour of Mathematicks and Phi­losophy,1490. in Academia Herbipoli, writ an Apology in vindication of Astrology, a­gainst Io. Picus Count of Mirandula.

DOMINICUS MARIA NOVARAS FERRARIENSIS, Pro­fessour1490. of Astronomy in Bologna, and Master to Copernicus, is said to have observed the Sun's greatest Declination to have been 23°. 29′. He was a great Promoter of Astronomical Observations, both by his teaching and practice.

BERNARDUS WALTHERUS, of Norimberg, Disciple to Regiomon­tanus, 1491. and a Continuatour of his Observations, wh [...]ch with his own were published, [Page 44] first at Norimberg; afterwards together with the Hassian and Tychonick, by Wille­brodus ANNI POST. CHRISTUM Snellius. He was a great Observer of the Stars, and partly from the Autho­rity of Alhazen and Vitellio, partly by his own experience, made it appear of how great moment the Doctrine of Refractions is, in relation to the Stars, when near the Horizon.

HERMOLAUS BARBARUS, a Noble Patrician of Venice, and Patriarch1492. of Aquileia, besides his other eminent Works, both in Historical and Critical Learn­ing, writ a Book, De convenientia Astronomiae & Medicinae.

CHRISTOPHORUS COLUMBUS, a Native of Genua, by Blancanus 1493. stiled Argonautarum Princeps, trusting to his skill in Astronomy and Geography, by a high and daring, yet a happy and successful undertaking, discovered, to the Old, a New World.

JOHANNES ABIOSUS, of Naples, Doctour of Physick, and Professour1494. of Mathematicks, writ Dialogues in defence of Iudiciary Astrology, in which he predicts many Schismes and future Changes to happen in the Church. He dedica­ted his Books to Alphonsus King of Sicily.

JOANNES LUCILIUS SANTRITTER HEILBRON­NENSIS,1494. reduced the Alphonsine Tables into a most easie Order and Method, to which he added Tables of his own, with Rules or Canons▪ thereunto. He writ like­wise a Book of the Judgements of Nativities, Printed at his own Shop in Venice, 1494.

JOANNES ANGELUS BAVARUS, of Aichen, put forth a Cor­rection1494. of the Romane Calendar, a Plain Astrolabe, a Treatise of Nativities, and of unequal Hours in each Climate of the World, as also Ephemerides, and various Prognosticks, Printed at Venice in the year 1494. He died in the year 1512. at which time he was about finishing Purbacchius's Table, of the Equations of the Planets Motions.

LAURENTIUS BONINCONTRIUS MINIATENSIS, writ1494. Three Books, De Rebus Coelestibus, in Heroick Verse, Printed by Robert Winter, at Basile, in the year 1540. with the accession of divers Observations of the Eclip­ses of the Sun and Moon, made by Philippus Melancthon, Iohannes Stigelius, M. A­contius, Ioachimus Camerarius, and Georgius Aemilius. He was the first that wrote a Comment upon Manilius's Astronomica, Printed both at Bologna, and at Basile.

JACOBUS FABER, besides his Arithmetical Epitome of Boetius, and1495. his Comment upon Iordanus Nemorarius, wrote also a Commentary, In Sphaeram Sacrobosci.

RAPHAEL VOLATERRANUS, a Chronologer and Cosmographer,1495. who in the third Tome of his XXXVIII. Books Urbanorum Commentariorum, col­lected (as himself affirms) out of more than a thousand Greek and Latine Authours, hath written, De Philologia, sive Artium Rudimentis, in which those of Astronomy are included.

LUCIUS BELLANTIUS, of Siena, wrote Twenty Questions touching1495. the truth of Astrology, and Twelve Books in defence of Astrology, against Picus Mirandula, Printed at Florence and Basile. To which are annexed the Dialogues of Gabriel Pirovanus, De Veritate Astrologiae.

[Page 45]CONRADUS COCUS WIMPINAE DE BUCHONIA, Pro­fessourANNI POST CHRISTUM. of Theology at Francfort, and Leipsick, writ, among divers other Tractates,1497. six Books De Corporibus Coelestibus, as Simler testifies.

STEPHANUS ROSINUS of Ausbourg, Professour of Philosophy,1500. Batchelour of Divinity, and Canon, at Vienna, taught Astronomy there, and published Tables of the Declinations of the fixed Stars, with Prognosticks.

JOHANNES MANTZ, of Plabeim, a famous Theologue, and Astrono­mer,1500. in his time, wrote Prognostica ex Stellis.

ANDREAS STIBORIUS, a Bohemian, Canon and Professour of Ma­thematicks1500. at Vienna, a most acute Astronomer. He composed an Epitome of Pto­lomy's Almagest, Albategnius, and Geber; wrote five Books touching Shadows; a Book of Astronomical Instruments, of the first and second Mobile, with his own Canons, and those of the Ancients; an Introduction in sensilem Astronomiam; a Book of Mathematical Authours; and of the Primum Mobile divided into four parts, and handled Geometricè, Arithmeticè, Exemplariter, & Instrumentaliter. See more of him in Vossius, de Scient. Mathemat.

MARCUS BENEVENTANUS, a Celestine-Monk, wrote upon Thebit, 1507. De Octava Sphaera. He likewise corrected Ptolemy's Planisphere, and together with Iohannes Cota of Verona, Scipio Carteromachus, of Pistoia, and Cornelius Be­nig [...]us, of Viterbo, sedulam navavit operam in Geographia Ptolemaei corrigenda, sayes G. Voss. De Scient. Mathemat.

BARTHOLOMAEUS VESPUCIUS, a Florentine, publick Professour1507. of Astronomy in the University of Padua, where he drew many into admiration of his Learning. He commented in Sphaeram Sacrobosci, and put forth an Oration, in Laudem Quadrivii, sive, Quatuor Disciplinarum Mathematicarum, chiefly of Astrology.

JOHANNES GANIVETUS, of the Order of Minime Fryars at Vi­enna, 1508. put forth a small Astronomical Treatise, beginning with these words, Quod Coeli enarrant, &c. To which he added an Abbreviation of Aben-Ezra, De Lumi­naribus & Diebus Criticis, with the Astrology of Hippocrates, as Gesner affirms, Printed at Lyons, in the year 1508.

JOHANNES EZLER, of Mentz, published a Piece entitled Speculum 1509. Astronomicum, in which he treats of the Causes of the Errours in Astrology pro­ceeding from the neglect of the Equation of Time. He put forth likewise the Theory of the Planets, and of the Eighth Sphere; Printed at Basil, by Henricus Petri, 1509. Unà cum Theoricis Purbacchii.

JACOBUS LOCHER, PHILOMUSUS GERMANUS, wrote1510. among other things, a Treatise De Cometa, mentioned by Simler. in Bibl. Gesner.

AUGUSTINUS RICCIUS, of Casal, wrote a learned Treatise, Of the 1513. Motion of the Eighth Sphere, in which he professes to have learnt Astronomy of Abraham Zaguti, at Carthage and Salamanca. He wrote likewise an Epistle touch­ing the Authours of Astronomy, wherein he shews the same to have come originally from the Hebrews. In which Work of his (sayes Simler. in Bibl. Gesner.) are con­tained Platonica quaedam & antiqua Magiae Dogmata.

[Page 46]JOHANNES VERNERUS, of Norimberg, Successour to Ioh. Regio­montanus, ANNI POST CHRISTUM. and Bernardus Walterus, commented upon Ptolemy's Geography, wrote1514. De motu Octavae Sphaerae, and published Astronomical Tables. In the year 1514. he observed the Sun's greatest Declination to have been 23°. 28′. and the distance of the first Star in Aries, from the Equinoctial Point, 26°.

LUDOVICUS VITALIS, a Bolognian Astronomer, flourished about1514. this time, as Ricciolus (Chronolog. Astronom.) affirms, though without any menti­on of his Works.

JOHANNES HEREMITA, of Ferrara, is by Ricciolus in Chronic. 1515. Astronom. stiled Geometra & Astronomus non vulgaris, but he gives no particular account of his Works or Writings.

PAULUS MIDDLEBURGENSIS, Bishop of Fossombrone, or Forum 1515. Sempronii, wrote XIV. Books of the Emendation of the Calendar and Observation of Easter, in which Work he not only treats of the Romane Account, but also of the Iewish, Egyptian, and Arabian Years, having therein designed the exact Do­ctrine of all Times. He wrote likewise XIX. Books of the Year and Day of our Saviour's Nativity and Passion, and other Pieces of like Argument, Voss. de Scient. Mathemat. He writ Prognosticon ostendens Anno Dom. 1524. Nullum neque Univer­sale neque Particulare Diluvium futurum. Forum Sempronii 1523.

JOANNES STOEFLERUS JUSTINGENSIS, Professour of1516. Mathematicks at Tubingue, wrote a Treatise De fabrica & usu Astrolabii. He like­wise composed Ephemerides, Calendarium Romanum Magnum, dedicated to Maximi­lian the Emperour, and Astronomical Tables, and wrote a large Commentary in Sphaeram Procli. His Death, or the occasion thereof at least, was very remark­able (if the Story be true.) Having found by calculation, that upon a certain Day his life was like to be endangered by some ruinous accident, and the day being come, to divert his thoughts from the apprehension of the danger threatning him, he in­vites some Friends of his into his Study, where, after discourse, entring into some dispute, he, to decide the controversie reaches for a Book, but the Shelf on which it stood being loose came down with all the Books upon him, and with its fall so bruised him, that he died soon after of the hurt, Voss. in Addend. ad Scient. Mathe­mat. But the whole Story of his Death, of which some make Calvisius the Au­thour, is false by the Testimony of Io. Rudolphus Camerarius Genitur. 69. Centur. 2. who had it from Andreas Ruttellius his Auditour; for he died of the Plague at Blabira Febr. 16. 1531. in the 78th year of his Age, happening (according to Cal­culation if you will believe it) from the Direction of ☉ to ♂.

ALBERTUS PIGHIUS, besides his other learned Historical Works,1518. wrote of the Observation of the Solstices and Equinoxes; Of the Restitution, or Emendation of the Calendar, and a Defence of Astrology, against some Prognostica­tours of his Time, particularly an Apology against the New Astronomy of Marcus Beneventanus, a Celestine-Monk, traducing the Opinions of all Modern Astrono­mers, touching the motion of the Eighth Sphere.

JOHANNES HASFURT VIRDUNGUS, a Germane Astrono­mer,1521. set forth Tables, (by him entitled Tabulae Resolutae) for supputation of the Celestial Motions, Printed at Norimberg by Iohannes Petreius, in the year 1542. He published likewise in the year 1521. Prognosticon, upon the stupendious Conjunction of the Planets, which was to happen in the year 1524. following; with some other Prognosticks of his, written in High-Dutch, as Gesner. affirms. He [Page 47] writ likewise Novam Medicinae Methodum quâ ex Mathematica ratione curandi ratio­nem ANNI POST CHRISTUM. ostendit, Printed Helingae & Hagenoae 1532. and set out afterwards with a Com­mentary by Ioannes Paulus Galluccius Venet. 1580:

GEORGIUS COLLIMITIUS TANNESLETTERUS was1522. Scholar to Andreas Stiborius, as Gesner affirms. He writ De Applicatione Astrologiae ad Medicinam; De Natura & Proprietatibus Planetarum, out of Haly, Firmicus, and Alchabitius, and some other Tracts upon those Arguments, Printed at Basil, 1524.

MOHAMMED IBNO'L ATTAR, published Astronomical Tables1523. of the Motions of the Planets, calculated for the Longitude of Damascus; written in the year of the Hegira 930. and of Christ 1523. and preserved in Manuscript in the Publick Library at Oxford.

ALBERTUS BRUDZEVIUS, Professour of Mathematicks in the1524. University of Cracovia, was the first Master and Instructour of Copernicus in Astro­nomy, as we find it mentioned by Gassendus, in the life of Copernicus.

PETRUS APPIANUS, of Leipsick, called in the Germane Tongue, Bine­wilt, 1524. Professour of Mathematicks at Ingolstadt, (in intimate favour with the Empe­rour Charles the Fifth, who not only invited him to his Court, but also honoured him with Knighthood) wrote a Book of Cosmography, revised and augmented by Gemma Frisius, together with Observations of several Eclipses. He put forth like­wise an Instrument, or Table of the Primum Mobile, with 100 Problems thereupon; and another Piece entituled Opus Caesareum, in which, to use Ricciolus's Expression, Rotulis & Automatis ingeniosissimis docet expedire omnia ferè Problemata Astronomi­ca. Of his several other Works, not proper to this place, see Vossius, De Scient. Mathemat.

FRANCISCUS SARZOSUS of Xelsa in Arragon, wrote two Books1525. in Aequator [...]m Planetarum Alphonsinae Hypothesi superstructum, as Ricciol. affirms, Chron. Astronom. Part. 2.

JOHANNES VOGELLINUS was Disciple to Ioh. Regiomontanus, 1527. and made Observations on the Comets appearing in the years 1527. and 1532.

PETRUS CIRVELLUS, besides his Cursus Mathem. Artium, Published1528. a Treatise De Correctione Calendarii, Printed Compl. 1528.

HENRICUS BAERSIUS, alias, VEKENSTYL, a Mathematician1528. and Printer to the University of Lovaine, put forth, but not under his own Name, Tabulae perpetuae Longitudinum & Latitudinum Planetarum, calculated for the Me­ridian of Lovaine. And under his own name he likewise set forth a Book, De Compositione & Usu Decretorii Planetarum; and another, De Compositione & Usu Quadrantis.

OTHO BRUNFELSIUS, Doctour of Physick at Mentz, totius [...],1528. cultor, a great Student likewise in Divinity and the Sacred Scriptures, out of which he endeavoured to refute Iudiciary Astrology. He prefixed likewise to the Edition of Firmicus, Printed by Hervagius, and dedicated to him by Nicholaus Prucnerus, a small Treatise not unuseful to young Beginners, De Definitionibus & Terminis Astrologiae.

[Page 48]JOANNES FERNELIUS of Ambois, a famous French Physician, andANNI POST, CHRISTUM as eminent a Geometrician and Astronomer, wrote besides other his Learned1528. Works, a particular Treatise, entituled, Cosmotheoria, in which he explains the Motions, Site, Magnitude and Theory of the Celestial Bodies; and another Piece, called Monalosphaerium.

JOHANNES CARIO, besides his Chronological Work, left, as Vossius 1530. terms them, Practicas Astrologicas, nec non Ephemerides, beginning with the year 1536, and ending in the year 1550.

JACOBUS MILICHIUS, Professour of Mathematicks at Wittemberg, 1530. and Tutour to Erasmus Reinholdus, wrote a Commentary upon the Second Book of Plinius Secundus, the Subject whereof is chiefly Astronomical.

ORONTIUS FINAEUS, of Dauphiné, Regius Professor of Mathema­ticks1530. at Paris, wrote De Sphaera; Of Cosmography; Of the Theory of the Planets; Astronomical Canons, or Problems of the Primum Mobile; Of the difference of Lon­gitude, to be found by the Moon; and several other Pieces; which (as Blancanus ad­vises) ought to be read cum Antidoto Petri Nonnii de Erroribus Orontii.

HIERONYMUS FRACASTORIUS, a Native of Verona, an ex­cellent1530. Poet, Physician, Philosopher, and Astronomer, Published a Book De Orbibus Excentricis & Homocentricis, which he dedicated to Pope Paul III.

SEBASTIANUS MUNSTERUS was famous for two things, as Vossi­us 1530. affirms, to wit, Hebraeis Literis, & Mathesi. As to what concerns our purpose, he wrote Notes, In Geographiam Ptolemaei, & Universalem Cosmographiam, and of Dyalling; as also Organum Uranicum, wherein the Theories of the Planets, and their Motions were computed for an hundred years and more. He was also Authour of the Canones super novo Luminarium Instrumento.

JOACHIMUS FORTIUS RINGELBERGIUS of Antwerp, writ1530. De Horoscopo, De Tempore, De Cosmographia, and Three Books of Astrological In­stitutions.

JOHANNES ROBINUS, in English, Robins, was a great Astrologer, and1530. put forth a Book, De Portentosis Cometis, dedicated by him to King Henry VIII. which Balaeus calls, Opus valde Lucidum, now extant in Manuscript, in the hands of Mr. Thomas Gale.

SIMON GRYNAEUS, Native of Viring, a Town in Suevia, or Suaben, 1530. merited eminently in all kind of Learning, particularly by publishing, in Greek, the [...] of Ptolemy, to which he added a Preface of his own touching the use thereof, Dedicated to King Henry the Eighth of England, Printed at Basil, 1538.

HENRICUS GLAREANUS, a Geographer, Chronologer, Musician,1531. and Physician, Native of Glarona, commonly called Glarys, a Town in Swisserland, put forth a Book De Geographia, induced chiefly thereunto, as he pretends in his Preface, because he found the Sphere of Proclus to be too concise, and only fitted to the Horizon of Greece, and erroneous, as to the Description of some Circles; and Sacroboscus in his Parallels and Climates, mutilous and defective. He published likewise other Pieces, both in Astrology and Cosmography, being (according to the testimony of G. Vossius) Vir undequaque doctissimus.

[Page 49]ACHILLES P. GASSARUS of Lindaw, by Gesner stiled Medicus & ANNI POST CHRISTUM. Mathematicus praestantissimus, put forth a Chronology from the beginning of the1532. World to the year of Christ 1532. He published likewise a Mathematical Table, entituled, Sciaterion Pedarium, Printed at Zurick.

JODOCUS CLITCHTHOVEUS NEOPORTICENSIS,1533. writ a Comment upon Iacobus Faber his Theory of the Planets.

GEORGIUS PRUCNER, of Ruspach, left behind him (sayes Simler in 1533. Bibl. Gesner.) very fair and exquisite Astronomical Instruments, and several Books collected by him, in Astrorum Scientia, yet preserved at Vienna, in Bibliotheca Fa­cultatis Artium.

JACOBUS CEPORINUS of Zurick, eminently learned in the He­brew, 1534. Greek, and Latine Languages, put forth a Commentary upon Dionysius his Periegesis, and Aratus his Astronomicon, Printed at Basil, by Wolphius, in the year before mentioned, as Gesner testifies.

LUDOVICUS DE RIGIIS, published Astrological Aphorisms, addressed1535. to the Patriarch of Constantinople, Printed at Norimberg, in the year 1535. together with Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos.

JOHANNES STIGELIUS, Native of Gota, a City in the Province of1535. Thuringen, in Germany, an ingenious Poet and Mathematician, Professour at Wittem­berg and Iena, put forth Prognosticks upon the Eclipse of the Moon happening in the year 1536, as likewise others upon one of the Sun in the year following, and upon one of the Moon, and another of the Sun, in the year 1551.

JACOBUS KAEBELIUS, besides an Arithmetical Treatise, Published1536. another of the Astrolabe, in High-Dutch, which was Printed afterwards in Latine, at Paris.

JACOBUS ZIGLERUS, of Landaw, a City in the Province of Vasgow, 1536. in the lower Alsatia, set forth Constructionem Solidae Sphaerae, Printed at Basil, by Valderus, together with Aratus and his Scholiast, in the year 1536. He wrote like­wise Scholia in Procli Lycii Sphaeram; and De Canonica per Sphaeram operatione; and De Hemicyclio Berosi, mentioned by Vitruvius, l. 9. c. 9. He published likewise a Comment upon the Second Book of Pliny's Natural History; in which he explains the most obscure, especially Astronomical, Places therein.

NICHOLAUS COPERNICUS, by Bulialdus, not without reason,1536. stiled Vir absolutae subtilitatis, a Native of Thorne in Prussia, and Canon of the Church of Frawenburg, the Cathedral of Warmerlandt, Scholar to Dominicus Ma­ria, of Ferrara, to whom he was Assistant in making his Astronomical Observati­ons at Bologna; and Professour of the Mathematicks at Rome, honoured at his Pub­lick Lectures with the Assembly of the most Illustrious Persons in that City, whence returning into his own Country, he wholly applyed himself to the study and in­stauration of Astronomy, finding the Sun's greatest Declination to be 23°. 28′. The year before his Death, at the instance of the Cardinals, Schomberg, and Ghisi, he published his Noble Work, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, in Six Books, in which he not only revived, but most happily united, and formed into an Hypo­thesis of his own, the several Opinions of Philolaus, Heraclides Ponticus, and Ecphantus Pythagoreus. For according to the opinion of Philolaus, he made the Earth to move about the Sun, as the Center, whence its Annual Motion.; And with [Page 50] Heraclides and Ecphantus, he likewise gave it a Motion like that of a Wheel aboutANNI POST CHRISTUM. its own Axis, whence its Diurnal Motion; an Hypothesis so near the Truth, that like that when persecuted, maugre all Opposition,

Per damna, per caedes, ab ipso
Sumit opes animúmque ferro;

As Ricciolus (though a Dissenter from it) observes.

ANDREAS OSIANDER took not only care in publishing the first Edi­tion1536. of Copernicus his Book De Revolutionibus, but condescended to be Overseer of the Press, while it was Printing, to which he added a brief Preface of his own, there­in chiefly endeavouring, because of the seeming Novelty of the Opinion, to per­swade the Reader, to look upon it as an assumed Hypothesis, rather than an asserted Tenet. To which purpose, about that time was published this Distich,

Quid tum si mihi Terra movetur, Solque quiescit
Et Coelum? Constat Calculus inde Mihi.

Of which Gassendus, in Vitâ Copernici.

JOHANNES SCHONERUS, a Native of Carolostadt, Professour of Ma­thematicks1536. at Norimberg, put forth Astronomical Tables for their perspicuity called Resolutae, and a Book De usu Globi Stelliferi, De Compositione Clobi Coelestis, De Usu Globi Terrestris & de Compositione Ejusdem; as also another Piece, called Aequatori­um Astronomicum; Libellus de Distantiis Locorum per Instrumentum & numeros in­vestigandis; De Compositione Torqueti; In Constructionem & Usum Rectanguli sive Radii Astronomici Annotationes; Horarii Cylindri Canones; Planisphaerium seu Me­teoroscopium; Organum Uranicum; Instrumentum Impedimentorum Lunae. All Printed at Norimberg in fol. 1551.

GEORGIUS VALLA, an Italian, Native of Piacenza; among other his1536. Learned Works, wrote a Treatise in four Books De tota Astrologia, In which, Fa­brica Ususque Astrolabii exaratur, & quae Signorum in exhibendis Medicaminibus sit habenda Observatio. He writ likewise a Commentary in Almagestum & Quadripar­titum Ptolemaei, and translated out of Greek into Latine, Proclus Diadochus his Hypotyposes Astronomicarum Positionum, and Cleomedes de Contemplatione Orbium Coelestium. V. Simler. in Biblioth. Gesner.

JOHANNES BAPTISTA AMICUS COSENTINUS, wrote1537. De motu Coelestium, juxta Principia Peripatetica, Published in the year 1532.

PETRUS PITATUS, of Verona, wrote Isagogen ad Ephemerides, and De 1537. novo Calendario instituendo, which he addressed to Pope Paul III. He wrote like­wise an Explication of the Rising and Setting, of the Fixed Stars, Printed at Basil, 1568.

JOHANNES LUCIDUS SAMOSATHEUS, about this time1537. put forth his learned Chronological Labours, non sine Eruditae Caveae Applausu, sayes G. Vossius; in which are contained Emendationes Temporum ab Orbe condito, with Canons in perpetuam Temporum Tabulam; Of the true Day of our Saviour's Passion; And an Epitome of the Emendation of the Romane Calendar, Printed at Venice by Iunta, 1537.

[Page 51]BONETTUS a Iew, put forth a small Treatise De Annulo sive Instrumento ANNI POST CHRISTUM. Astronomico, Printed at Marpurg 1537.1537.

SYMPHORIANUS CAMPEGIUS (alias CHAMPERIUS)1537. Eques Auratus Lugdunensis, a French-man, among other Learned Works of his in Physick and Philosophy, put forth several Mathematical Treatises, and particularly One of Astronomy, Printed by Henricus Petrus, at Basil 1537.

JOHANNES GIGAS STAINFORTENSIS, Published Enchiridi­on 1538. Sphaericum, seu Systema Cosmographicum compendiosum. He wrote likewise, ac­cording to the Testimony of Simler in Bibl. Gesner, an Elegy upon two notable Eclipses of the Moon, which happened in the year 1538. Whereof the former was on the fourteenth of May, the latter on the sixth of November. His Enchiridion Sphaericum was Printed at Oxford in the year 1664.

MAURUS FLORENTINUS, first, a Monk, of the Order of the Hu­miliati, 1538. afterwards, of the Fraternity of the Servants of the Blessed Virgin, of whom Gerardus Vossius sayes, That he was most learned in the Latine, Greek, and Hebrew Tongues, and excellently well skilled in Cosmography, and other Sciences, Published in his own Language (the Italian) divers Pieces, as his Annotations in Sphaeram Sacrobosci; and (besides his Sphaera Theologica & Christiana) Sphaera Pla­tonica, which he dedicated to Cosmo de Medicis. He wrote likewise De Arte Na­vigatoria; and an Epitome of Musick.

GASPAR BORNERUS, Professour of Phylosophy at Leipsick, among1539. other Tractates, put forth a Book, De Stellis.

JOHANNES PENA, a French-man, Regius Professor of Mathematicks in1540. the University of Paris, translated Euclid's Opticks into Latine; to which he prefixed an Encomium of Opticks, wherein (to use Gesner's Words) there are Iucundissimae Disceptationes & imprimis arduae, touching the Epicycles, Excen­tricks, Apsides, Apogaeums, and Perigaeum's of the Planets, as likewise of their Pa­rallaxes; together with ingenious Arguments concerning the Earths Rest or Mo­tion, drawn from the Principles of that Art. He first maintained the Heavens to consist of no other Substance than that diffused through the Aery Region, and discovered some Comets to have been above the Moon; as Gassendus, in the life of Tycho, observes.

JOHANNES PIERIUS VALERIANUS, the noble Authour of1540. Hieroglyphicks, wrote and dedicated to Cardinal Alexander Farneze, being but yet young and much addicted to Astronomical Studies, an elegant Compendium Of the Sphere.

PETRUS CATENA a Venetian, Doctour in Theology and Professour of1540. Mathematicks at Padua, about the same time with Pierius, wrote upon the same Sub­ject of the Sphere; and other Mathematical Peeces.

JULIANUS RISTORIUS DE PRATO, a Carmelite Fryar, Do­ctour1540. in Theology, and an eminent Astronomer, Tutour to Iunctinus, by whom, in his Preface to his Tabulae Resolutae, he is reported to have observed the Planets for several years, viz. from the year 1536. to 1542.

PAULUS CRUSIUS published a Treatise, wherein he sets forth the1540. Doctrine of the Sun's Revolutions, and Tables of the mean Conversions of [Page 52] [...]ime, and of the Sun's motion, in Annis Tropicis & Sideriis. [...]

ANGELUS FORTIUS Doctour of Physick, is by Gesner, in Biblioth. 1540. reckoned as an eminent Astrologer.

ANTONIUS DE MONTULMO, Doctour of Arts and Physick,1540. published a Book De judiciis Nativitatum, illustrated with the additions of Io. Monteregi [...]s; Printed at Norimberg, 1540.

JOHANNES MASSAEUS, put forth twenty Books of Chronology, from1540. the beginning of the World to the year now mentioned, to which he prefixed a fourfold Calendar, to wit, the Egyptian, Hebrew, Macedonick, and Roman. Voss. De Scient. Mathemat.

FRANCISCUS MAUROLYCUS, Abbot of Messena in Sicily, whom1540. Ricciolus calls Siciliae Lumen clarissimum, wrote three Books of Cosmography, in­tended as a Comment upon Ptolemy's Almagest. To him we are beholding for Theodosius's Sphaerica, and those of Menelaus, which he first of all published. He put forth a Piece, De Lineis Horariis, Fabricam Astrolabii, and divers other Works, mentioned in the beginning of his Cosmography. He was the first that wrote of Secant Lines, as Blancanus affirms. He left likewise behind him a Posthume Work, entituled, De Lumine & Umbra, and many Treatises unprinted, as appears at the End of his Opus [...]ula, and though it be beside our Argument, yet in regard it is not well known, we think fit to mention that Alphonsus Borellius published in Sicily about 1656. the Comment of Maurolycus on the first four Books of Apollonius his Conicks, with two more of the said Authours, of which if there were Copies they would be grateful to Students, and more acceptable than that of Commandinus, in which the Text and Comment lie dispersed, which Inconvenience is avoyded in that of Maurolycus; the said Borellius is likewise now about publishing Maurolycus his Archimedes at Rome.

JOHANNES ANTONIUS DELPHINUS, of Casal, Provincial1540. of the Franciscan Order, wrote, and dedicated to Camillus Palaeottus, a Senator of Bologna; a Book, De Caelestibus Globis, & Motibus, full of Erudition, as Ricciolus affirms.

PHILIPPUS MELANCTHON, among other the numerous Volumes1540. by him published, set forth Tabula de Mensibus Graecorum, & Descriptiones Eclip­sium Solis & Lunae, annis jam aliquot visarum, usque ad Annum 1540. and transla­ted out of Greek into Latine, Ptolemy's four Books, De Syderum effectionibus. V. Simler.

AUGUSTINUS NIPHUS PHILOTHEUS SUESSANUS,1540. who by his great Learning gained to himself the Title of Philosophus Magnus, among other the various Works by him published, writ (as to our purpose) a parti­cular Treatise, De figuris Stellarum Helionoricis, in two Books; Another, De Die­bus Criticis, seu Decretoriis; a third, De falsa Diluvii Prognosticatione quae ex con­ventu omnium Planetarum (qui in Piscibus contingeret anno 1524.) divulgata est, in three Books, addressed to the Emperour Charles the Fifth. He wrote likewise E­ruditiones in Apotelesmata Ptolemaei, & Annotationes in Librum secundum Ejusdem Quadripartiti, mentioned, wi [...]h the rest, by Simler, in Bibl. Gesner.

JACOBUS PELETARIUS, a French man, besides his Geometrical1540. Works, wrote De Constitutione Horoscopi. He published likewise Astronomical Ta­bles, [Page 53] [...]and a Compendium of Astronomical Fractions; as also of the Sun's place, and▪ ANXI POST CHRISTUM▪ that of the Moon, in the Zodiack.

ERASMUS OSWALDUS SKREKENFUSIUS, of Austria, Dis­ciple,1541. according to Ricciolus, to Henricus Glareanus, according to Vossius, to Se [...] ­stianus Munsterus, Professor, at Freiburg in Brisgaw, of the Hebrew Tongue and Mathematicks, wrote a Comment in Sphaeram Sacrobosci, Annotations on [...] Almagest, put forth a Book De Primo Mobili, and of the Theory of the Plan [...] ▪ Another De Gentium Calendariis, and translated, out of Hebrew into Latine, the Sphere of Rabbi Abraham Cai.

JOACHINUS CAMERARIUS, of Bamberg, a Town in Franconia, 1541.. put forth, at Norimberg, in the year 1532. several Greek Astrological Authours, by him translated into Latine, as [...], sive, Rationem Orbis Solaris; likewise, Excerpta ex Hephaestione Thebano, De Duodecim Signis & eorum effectis, also [...], i. e. Quid Stellae Erraticae, sive Quinque Planetae, in unoquoque Zodiaci Signo significent. These Pieces he set forth in Greek and Latine. And in Latine only, he published a Fragment of the first Book of Vettius Valens, his Florida; and in Greek only Mercurius Irismegistus his [...], i. e. Medicationes rationibus Astrologicis convenientes. In the year 1535▪ he set forth, at Norimberg, in Verse, Tùm Phaenomena, sive Siderum ac Stellarum Histori­olam, tùm Prognostica. And in the year 1541. he published the two first Books of Ptolemy, De Iudiciis Astrologicis, by him translated into Latine, and illustrated with Annotations. We are obliged to him likewise, for the first publication of Theon Alexandrinus, his eleven Books of Commentaries upon Ptolemy's Almagest, which he caused to be Printed at Basil, by Walderus, from a MS. of Cardinal Bessarion's, brought into Germany by Regiomontanus. See more of this eminently learned Person, in G. Vossius, L. de Scient. Mathemat.

RAINERUS GEMMA FRIZIUS, Physician and Professor of Ma­thematicks1542. at Lovaine, put forth a Book of the use of the Globe, and the Astrono­mical Ring; De Principiis Astronomiae & Cosmographiae; De Astrolabio Catholico, &c▪ He left his Son Cornelius Gemma, his Successour in the Professor's Place.

JOANNES GUIDO wrote, De Observat. Temporis Astrorum, Printed at1543. Paris 1543.

CLAUDIUS MARIUS ARETIUS a Patrician of Syracuse, and1544. Historiographer to the King of Spain, wrote a Comment, by way of Dialogue, upon this Verse of Virgil's. ‘Defectus Lunae varios, Solisque labores.’

BUCHARDUS MITHOBIUS, wrote a Piece entituled Compositi [...] [...] ­li 1544. Astronomici, Printed together with the Treatise of Iohannes Driander, De Annul [...] Astronomicis; as Simler affirms.

MICHAEL ANGELUS BLONDUS, Doctour of Physick, w [...]ote1544. and dedicated to Pope Paul III. a Book De Diebus Criticis; and to Rudolphus Cardinal of Carpegna another, De Anticipatione Stellarum fixarum cu [...] [...] significationibus.

COELIUS CALCAGNINUS, among the various Works by him pub­lished,1544. set forth a Paraphrase on the three Books of Aristotle's Meteors; A Com­mentation, [Page 54] Quod Coelum stet, Terra moveatur; De Mensibus, & De Re Nautica▪ ANNI POST [...] See more of him in Simler. Bibl. Gesner.

GEORGIUS PILANDER published a Book De Annulo Astronomico, 1544. aut Sphaerico.

POMPILIUS AZALUS writ De omnibus Rebus naturalibus quae continen­tur 1544. in Mundo, viz. De Coelestibus, de Terrestribus, & Mathematicis, Printed at Venice in Folio; as Simler in Bibl. Gesner. testifies.

JOHANNES STADIUS, Professour of the Mathematicks and History,1545. first, at Paris, afterwards at Lovaine, put forth among other his Mathematical Works, Ephemerides, which he entituled Tabulae Bergenses, in honour of Robertus à Bergis, Bishop of Liege. He put forth likewise other Ephemerides, from the year 1654. to the year 1606. with an Isagoge in Astronomiam & Astrologiam. He left Tabulas aequabilis & apparentis Motus Coelestium Corporum, as G. Vossius stiles them, and Prognostica Stellarum fixarum, cum Tabulis, in the beginning whereof he hath prefixed the History of Astronomy.

NICHOLAUS SOPHIANUS CORCYRAEUS, wrote in Greek 1548. of the Astrolabe, and by Gesner is said to have flourished about this Time.

VICTORINUS STRIGELIUS of Kaufbeurn, a Town in Suaben, 1548. published, at Wittemberg, an Epitome of the Doctrine of the Primum Mobile, illustrated with Demonstrations. He was Scholar to Melancthon.

AUGERIUS FERRERIUS of Tholouse, Doctor of Physick, whom1548. Scaliger the Father entirely loved and consulted in all his learned Designs, writ, as I find mentioned in Gesner Castigationes Practicae, & De Diebus Decretoriis secun­dum Pithagoricam Observationem.

JOHANNES MERCURIUS MORSHEIMERUS, put forth at1548. Heidelberg, a Dissertation of the Name of Astronomy, it's Division and Causes; to which he adjoyned a Table of the Species of [...]ontinued Quantity, serving only for the use of young Beginners. He professes himself to have been Scholar to Me­lancthon.

JOACHIMUS HELLERUS corrected and published several Astrologi­cal1548. Authors, before which he prefixed Prefaces of his own, at Norimberg.

ANDREAS GERARDUS HYPERIUS, Professor of Divinity in1548. the University of Marpurg, writ, besides other various Tractates, Geometrica, Optica, Cosmographica quaedam, as Simler affirms, in Bibl. Gesner.

ERASMUS REYNOLDUS, Native of Salfieldt, a Town in Thuringe, a1549. Province in the Upper Saxony, Son to Iohannes Reynoldus, and Scholar to Iacobus Milichius, was Professor of Mathematicks in the University at Wittemberg, and wrote a most learned Commentary on Purbacchius's Theory of the Planets. He compo­sed likewise, and dedicated to Albert, Marquess of Brandeburg, and Duke of Prussia, Astronomical Tables, according to the Hypothesis of Copernicus, which he called Prutenick Tables, in honour of the said Prince, as also Tables of Directions. He endeavoured likewise to illustrate and establish Chronology from the Eclipses of the Luminaries, and the great Conjunctions of the Planets; but his Death prevented the finishing of that Work. He had also a Son, called after his own Name, an [Page 55] eminent Mathematician and Physician, who wrote upon the new Star in Cassiopaea, [...] as Tycho Brahe testifies; Progymnasm. Tom. 1.

ARIEL BICHARDUS put forth a Collection of Questions, In Sphaeram 1549. Iohannis De Sacro Bosco, which he dedicated to his Godfather, Antonius Mullerus, sayes Ricciolus, in Part. 2. Chronic. Astronom.

JOHANNES ROIAS wrote, and dedicated to the Emperour Charles the1550. Fifth, certain Commentaries upon the Astrolabe or Planisphere.

JOHANNES MARIA TOLOSAS, of the Order of the Predicants,1550. wrote something of the Sun's greatest Declination. He published likewise a short Correction of the Roman Calendar, touching the due celebration of Easter.

JOHANNES BAVARUS, Medicus & Mathematicus, put forth Ephe­merides, 1550. beginning in the year 1551. and ending in the year 1560. This Bavarus, is different from Iohannes Angelus Bavarus, mentioned in the year 1494.

GEORGIUS JOACHIMUS RHETICUS, Disciple to Copernicus, 1550. and Professor of Mathematicks in the University of Wittemberg, where he inter­preted and explained Alfraganus. But hearing of the new Hypothesis of Coperni­cus, he quitted his Professor's place, and went to Copernicus, whom he ceased not to exhort to perfect his Work, De Revolutionibus, which after his death he made pub­lick, illustrating his Hypothesis by a particular narration, which he dedicated to Io­hannes Schonerus, published by Maestlinus, and annexed to Kepler his Mysterium Cos­mographicum, in the year 1621. He likewise set forth Ephemerides, according to the Doctrine of Copernicus, until the year 1551. What other Astronomical or Astrological Works he had either perfected or designed, will appear by his Epistle written to Petrus Ramus.

LUCAS GAURICUS, a Neopolitan, first, Professor of Mathematicks at1550. Ferrara, afterwards Bishop of Civita Reale, corrected the▪ Alphonsine Tables, as also those of Regiomontanus, and Blanchinus, and published Tables of his own of the Primum Mobile, commonly called Tables of Directions, and Laurentius Bonincontri­u▪s his Book, De Rebus Coelestibus, and Zacutus his Tables, together with Astrologi­cal Precepts and Problems. He illustrated with Annotations Ptolemy's Almagest, put forth a learned Dissertation touching the miraculous Defect of the Sun at the time of our Saviour's Passion, and composed a new Ecclesiastical Calendar, compiled out of the Sacred Scriptures, and Ancient Synods, which last was Printed at Venice 1552. at which time like wise he published at Venice a Book called Tractatus Astrolo­gicus, wherein are many Astrological Judgments on the Nativities of the most emi­nent Persons of his Time. V. Simler. Bibl. Gesner.

TOBIAS MARMORARIUS, a Florentine, and Monk of the Cistertian 1550. Order, Vir Mathesios studiis egregiè excultus, as Vossius sayes of him, wrote yearly Prognosticks, of the Seasons of the year, and future Events.

ANTONIUS MYZALDUS writ Phaenomena, sive, Tempestatum Signa, 1550. quatuor Aphorismorum Sectiunculis Methodicè concinnata; Cometographia; Aescula­pii & Uraniae Conjugium; Planetologia; Three Books of the Sphere, illustrated with Figures and Demonstrations; Zodi [...]cus, sive duodecim Signorum Coeli Hortu­lus, Libris tribus concinnatus; Planetarum Collegium, and some other Tractates of like Argument, as Simler, in Bibl▪ Gesner.

[Page 56]JACOBUS HOMELIUS is, about this time, reckoned, by Ricciolus, [...] POST CHRISTUM in the Catalogue of Astronomers, but without any mention of his Works. There1550. was also one Iohannes Homelius, who wrote concerning the New Star in Cassiopea, and is mentioned by Ticho Brahe, in Progymn. Tom. 1.

JOANNES STABIUS, of Austria, Poet Laureat, Cosmographer, and1550. Historiographer, to the Emperour Maximilian the First, Professor of Mathematicks at Vienna, wrote a Piece entituled Horoscopicum Universale; and several other Works, mentioned by his Scholar Georgius Collimitius, in Gesner's Bibliotheca, Tom. 1.

PAULUS EBERUS KYTZINGENSIS, put forth Calendarium Hi­storicum, 1550. in the Preface to which he treats, De ejus Utilitate, & de Mensium apud diversas Gentes varietate. See more of him in Gesner's Bibliotheca.

GASPAR PEUCERUS, Son-in-Law to Philip Melancthon, wrote of the1551. Doctrine of the Celestial Circles, and the Primum Mobile, and De praecipuis Divi­nationum generibus, and among them, De Praedictionibus Astronomicis, as it is affirm­ed by Vossius, De Scient. Mathemat. He wrote also Hypotheses Astronomicas, seu The­orias Planetarum, ex Ptolem [...]i & aliorum Veterum Doctrinâ, ad Observationes Coper­nici, & Canones Motuum ab eo conditos, accommodatas, Printed, as Draudius affirms, at Wittemberg, 1572.

JOHANNES SCHRAETERUS VINARIENSIS, published, at1551. Vienna in Austria, Astrological Tables, designing to gain himself, a repute by his predictions; of whom see Gesner's Biblioth.

HIEREMIAS BROTHEIEL, put forth various Prognosticks mentio­ned1551. by Simler. in Addit. Bibl. Gesner.

ANDREAS PERLACHIUS of Stiria, Doctor of Physick and Profes­sor1551. of Mathematicks in the University at Vienna, set forth, as Gesner stiles them, G [...]mentaria Ephemeridum, ita conscripta, ut quisque absque Praeceptore, ex sola Le­ctione integram inde Artem consequi possit, Printed by Aegidius Aquila at Vienna 1551.

FRANCISCUS RAPALDUS, Doctor of Physick at Bruges in Flan­ders, 1552. wrote against Astrology as altogether useless to a Physician, to whom Petrus Haschardus, of Lisle, a Chirurgeon, replied in a Discourse by him entituled, Clipe­um Astrologicum.

ROBERTUS RECORD, a Learned Doctor of Physick, and an excel­lent1552. Mathematician, descended of a generous Family in Wales, illustrated by his learned Labours, Cosmography, Geometry, Musick and Astronomy. He published Cosmographiae Isagogen, wrote a Book, De Arte faciendi Horologium; and another, De usu Globorum, & de statu Temporum. All which with several others he writ in the English Tongue.

PETRUS NONIUS, a Portuguez, Professor of Mathematicks in the Col­ledge1552. at Conimbra, wrote 'De Crepusculis; De Erratis Orontii; Astronomical Pro­blems, and Rules for Observation, together with Annotations in Theoricas Purbacchii, commendable, sayes Vossius, not only for their Acumen and Perspicuity, but for discovering divers things omitted, and detecting several Errors committed by others.

HIERONYMUS CARDANUS, a Native of Milan, Professor of Phy­sick1553. [Page 57] and Mathematicks at Bologna, commented upon Ptolemy's Quadripartitum, De ANNI POST CHRISTUM Iudiciis Astrorum, and put forth several other Tracts, as 1. De Supplimento Al­manach. 2. De Restitutione Temporum, & Motuum Coelestium. 3. De Iudiciis Genitu­rarum. 4. De Revolutionibus. 5. De Exemplis Centum Geniturarum. Aphorismi Astronomici: Not to mention his many other Works, not relating to our purpose.

LEVINUS LEMNIUS, Medicus Zirizaeus, writ three elegant Tractates,1554. in the first whereof he treats of Astrology, shewing the verity or falsity of that Art, in which, sayes Gesner, multae amoenissimaeque causae explicantur, and particularly the Original of the Proverb, Quartâ Lunânati.

MICHAEL NOSTRADAMUS, Physician to Henry II. Francis II. and1555. Charles IX. Kings of France, is famous for the several Centuries of Prophetical Prognostications extant under his Name (lately Englished with large Annotations) which in his Epistle Dedicatory of some part of them to Henry II. he affirms to have calculated by Astronomical Doctrine. But whether he were a greater Trifler or Astronomer, is by some questioned; but especially by Iodelé an ingenious French Poet, who hath bestowed on him this Distich; ‘NOSTRA DAMUS cum falsa damus, nam fallere nostrum est, Et cum falsa damus, nil nisi NOSTRA DAMUS.’

NICHOLAUS SIMUS, Professor of Mathematicks in the Univertsiy of1555. Bologna, set forth the Theories of the Planets, reduced to a Compendium, illustrated with divers Sculps and Figures. He put forth likewise Ephemerides for 15. years, calculated for the Meridian of Bologna, with Canons expounding the use of the said Ephemerides.

MARCUS FRITSCHIUS LAUBANUS HEXAPOLENSIS,1555. wrote a Book De Meteoris, with a Catalogue of Prodigies and Ostents; Printed at Norimberg, 1555. as Gesner attests.

ANDREAS SCHONERUS, Son of Iohannes Schonerus of Carolostadt, 1556. published Tables of the Primum Mobile, according to the Fundamentals of Regio­montanus.

HADRIANUS JUNIUS HORNANUS, for his Learning merited1556. to be stiled, Alterum ab Erasmo Hollandiae Lumen. He published a Commentary, De Anno & Mensibus, likewise Fastorum Liber sive [...], rerum Memorabilium qualibet Anni die actarum apud Hebraeos, Graecos, Romanos, gentesque exteras, also Ca­lendarium Syllabicum, so called, because the dayes of the year, Vocabulorum Syllabis respondeant; besides these he put forth Fasti Caesariani & Calendarium. These as he writ them were from hand to hand presented to Edward the Sixth King of Eng­land, afterwards being enlarged and corrected, dedicated to his Sister Queen Mary. See more of him in Meursius in Athen. Batav. and G. Vossius de Scient. Mathemat. p. 398.

JOANNES GARCAEUS, a Brandeburgher wrote a Piece entituled Metho­dus 1556. Astrologiae, illustrated with 400. Genitures, as Ricciolus affirms. To which Vossius adds, that he put forth, at Wittemberg, a Commentary consisting of XXII. Propositions, in which he comprizes the Doctrine of erecting a Celestial Scheme, and computing the Motions of the Planets. Draudius sayes, he put forth a small Treatise, De Tempore, sive De Ortu & Occasu Stellarum, & De usu Globi Coelestis, Printed at Wittemberg 1565. He was Scholar to Gaspar Peucerus.

[Page 58]JOSEPHUS ZARLINUS, a Native of Fossa Clodia (commonly calledANNI POST CHRISTUM. da Chioggia) an excellent Musician, who in his Institutioni Harmoniche, published1557. in Italian, treats likewise of the Harmonick System of the Spheres.

RODOLPHUS BATTINGIUS, a Friezlander, published Methodum 1557. Astrolabii, according to Vossius, De Scient. Math.

CORNELIUS VALERIUS VETERAQUINAS, Successor to1557. Petrus Nonnius at Lovaine, in Collegio Trilingui, put forth an Encyclopaedia, in which he treats of the Sphere, and the Elements of Astronomy, and Geography, suc­cinctly and elegantly.

JEAN PIERRE DE MESMES, a French Gentleman, writ in his own1557. Language, Astronomical Institutions, Printed at Paris, in folio, 1557.

CONRADUS DASYPODIUS, Professor of Mathematicks at Stras­bourg, 1557. put forth Astronomical Precepts, and wrote a brief Treatise of Comets and their Effects, famous for being Author of the Astronomical Horologe set up in the Great Church at Strasbourg, the Description whereof he published in the year 1578.

GULIELMUS XYLANDER, Successour to Iacobus Mycillus in the1558. Greek Professor's place at Heidelberg, a Person of good repute for his Philosophical and Mathematical Studies, among other Tractates of the later kind, put forth a small Treatise, De usu Globi & Planisperii, Printed at Heidelberg.

DANIEL BARBARUS, a noble Venetian, and Patriarch of Aquileia, 1559. hath sufficiently manifested his excellent knowledge in all Parts of the Mathema­ticks, and particularly in Astronomy, by his learned Commentary upon Vitruvius his ninth and tenth Books.

JOHANNES TEMPORARIUS wrote an Astronomical Treatise,1560. which he entituled Organum Astronomicum, grounded upon the Prutenick Tables, in which the whole Work of Astronomical Calculation is contracted to two Operati­ons, to wit, only Addition and Substraction. All Proportional Scruples are laid aside, in the search after which much time is fruitlesly spent. The true Precession of the Equinox, which by the Alphonsine Astronomers is called the Motion of the Auges of the fixed Stars, is exposed to view for some Ages to come. The places as well of the Planets as the fixed Stars are with little or no trouble found for any time given. The Conjunctions and Defects of the Luminaries, with their Quantities and Durations, are most exquisitely defined, not only [...]n one Climate, but in any Parallel whatsoever. The Parallaxes, whose invention gives trouble to the most ex­perienced Artists, are by a wonderful compendious way found out and cleared, as to Latitude and Longitude, without the trouble of Calculation. Whence any one may frame to himself Ephemerides without any pains or labour. The Original Ma­nuscript of which Work is at present in the possession of my worthy Friend, George Wharton Esquire.

PHILIPPUS FANTONIUS, a Florentine Monk, afterwards Abbot of1560. Camaldolat, published a Book in Italian, of the reason of reducing the Year, to its true Form and Measure; of whom G. Vossius sayes, that he was Matheseos Scientia egregius, which he publickly professed in the Academy at Pisa. See more of him in Simler. Bibl. Gesner.

CYPRIANUS LEOVITIUS, of the Leonitian Family in Bohemia, 1 [...]60. [Page 59] Mathematician to Otho-Henry, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, put forth Astronomical ANNI POST CHRISTUM. Observations, with Astrological Prognosticks, upon the new Star in Cassiopaea. He likewise accurately described (to render Vossius's words) several Eclipses from the year 1556. to the year 1606. and published Ephemerides, and several other Works, mentioned by Simlerus, in his Bibliotheca Gesneriana, among the rest, Brevis & perspicua Ratio judicandi Genituras ex Physicis Causis & vera Experientia extracta, &c. to which is prefixed Admonitio de vero & licito Astrologiae usu per Hierony­mum Wolphium, Printed at London 1558. Of Him Tycho Brahe (in Progymnasm. l. 1.) writes at large, adding withall, that, Pleraque ipsius Manuscripta opera, ad supputationes Astronomicas, praesertim primi Mobilis Tabulas copiosiores & faciliores reddendas facientia; Augustae in Fuggeorum Bibliotheca non sine harum A [...]ium pro­movendarum Incommodo, detinentur.

JOHANNES DRIANDER, Doctor of Physick, and Professor of Ma­thematicks,1560. which he illustrated by his learned Writings, particularly by his Book of the various Composition of Sun-Dyals; by his Description of a nocturnal In­strument, for taking the hour of the Night from the inspection of the Stars; Astro­labial Canons, and the Explication of the Quadrant; with several other Astrono­mical Inventions; as it is testified by the excellent Thuanus, and Draudius in Bibl▪ Classica.

GEORGIUS BUCHANANUS, that learned Scotch-man, hath written1560. Five Books of the Sphere, in a Latine Poem; to which Iohannes Pincierus hath ad­ded a Supplement of the fourth and fifth Books, and Arguments to them all.

RABBI ORI, filius Simeonis, a Iew of Palaestine, put forth Calendarium 1560. Palaestinorum, & omnium Iudaeorum, computed for forty years, first Printed at Ve­nice, in Hebrew, afterwards translated into Latine, and illustrated with Annotations by Iacobus Christmannus; and published at Francfort, 1594.

FEDERICUS COMMANDINUS of Urbino, optimè meritus, si quis­quam 1560. alius, de Mathematicis, sayes Blancanus. For besides the many other excel­lent Monuments of Greek Learning, which we owe to his happy Traduction, we are beholding to him for Aristarchus Samius, De Magnitudinibus & Distantiis Solis a [...] Lunae, which he illustrated by a Comment of his own. He put forth likewise Ptole­my's Analemma, and wrote De Lineis Horariis.

MICHAEL BEUTHERUS, Native of Carolostadt in Westphalia, not1560. far distant from Wurstburgh, Scholar to Erasmus Reinholdus, afterwards Professor of Poetry, History, and Mathematicks; in the University of Gripswaldt, in the Dukedom of Pomerania, read at Paris publick Lectures, De Annorum Supputatione. He wrote De Globo Astronomico; De Circulis; Of the Correction of the Gregorian Calendar; Of the seventy weeks in Daniel; Of the time of the World's Creation, and the day of our Saviour's Passion. He was Library-Keeper to Otho-Henry, Prince Pa­latine of the Rhine, and of his Council in Ecclesiastical Affairs, and restored to the same Charges afterwards by Frederick the Third.

ELIAS VINETUS, Professor at Bourdeaux, besides his Notes on Pomponius 1560. Mela, De situ Orbis, wrote a Commentary in Sphaeram Sacrobosci; for which he just­ly merits a room in this Astronomical Catalogue.

JOHANNES HONTERUS CORONENSIS, of Cronstadt (in1560. Transylvania) anciently called Zarmigethusa, writ Four Books, in Verse, De Ru­dimentis Cosmographiae, which he adorned with several Land-Tables or Maps. To [Page 60] which he adjoyned, in Prose, a Treatise of the Principles of Astronomy and Geo­graphy.ANNI POST. CHRISTUM

PETRUS RAMUS, first Disciple to Orontius Finaeus, afterwards Regius 1560. Professor of Mathematicks in the University of Paris, besides his Two Books of Arithmetick, and XXVII. of Geometry, put forth XXXII. Scholarum Mathemati­carum, in the first of which he treats of many things relating to the Rise and Ad­vancement of Astronomy.

MICHAEL NEANDER, è valle Ioachimica, put forth Elementa Doctri­nae 1561. Sphaericae, & Materiam Computi Astronomici, as Ricciolus affirms in Chronolog. Astron.

DANIEL SANTBECH, of Nimmeghen, put forth, according to Riccio­lus, 1561. Praeclara Problemata Astronomica & Geometrica, in VII. Sectiones distributa: In the first whereof he treats of several Observations of the Phaenomena of the Sun, Moon, and fixed Stars; In the second, he exhibits Canons of the Primum Mobile, extracted from the Tables of Regiomontanus; The third is of the Reasons of Gno­mons and Shadows. The other Four are upon Geometrical Subjects.

JOSEPHUS MOLETIUS Professor of Mathematicks at Padua, besides1562. his Comment upon Ptolemy's Geography, composed out of the Prutenick Tables, others, which he called Tabulae Gregorianae; for which by the Senate of Venice, he was rewarded with 200. Ducats, and promised by Pope Gregory XIII. for the con­tinuation of them 300. Crowns more. He published likewise Introductio ad Ephemerides, Printed together with the Ephemerides of Iosephus Scala, of Sicily, in the year 1589.

LUCILLUS PHILALTHAEUS, Doctor of Physick, wrote as Ricciolus 1563. terms them, Luculentos Commentarios, upon Aristotle, De Coelo.

LEONARDUS DIGGES, of a generous Family in Kent, besides his1564. Stratiotices, and his Mathematical Discourse of Geometrical Solids, wrote an Astro­nomical Prognostication, then Printed.

ALEXANDER PICOLOMINAEUS, of Siena, wrote Four Books,1565. De Sphaera Mundi; as also a Treatise of the Fixed Stars in Italian, in which Lan­guage he likewise published another, of the Theory of the Planets, and dedicated the same to Cosmus de Medicis; and farther another, De Magnitudine Terrae & Aquae; all rendred into Latine by Nicholaus Stupanus, and Printed at Basil, 1568.

SAMUEL SYDEROCRATES wrote De usu Partium Coeli, in Com­mendationem 1567. Astronomiae, Printed at Strasbourg, as Draudius affirms, 1567.

TITUS à POPMA, a Friezlander, wrote Tabellas in Sphaeram, & Elemen­ta 1568. Astronomiae.

EDO HILDERICUS writ a small Treatise entituled Logistice Astronomi­ca, 1568. Printed at Wittenberg 1568. mentioned by Simler, in Bibl. Gesner.

CHRISTIANUS VURSTISIUS, of Basil, Professor of Mathematicks1568. in the University of Zurich, wrote learned Questions in Theoricas Purbacchii; whereto he prefixed an Introduction of his own, Printed at Basil, by Henricus Petri, 1586.

[Page 61]ABRAHAMUS ORTELIUS, of Antwerp, Geographer to Philip II▪ ANNI POST CHRISTUM. King of Spain, most deservedly challenges a place in this Catalogue, especially for1570. that great Work of his, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, with it's Parergon, and his Thesau­rus Geographicus.

GERARDUS MERCATOR, a Native of Rupelmonde in Flanders, 1570. made several Mathematical Instruments for the Emperour Charles the Fifth, particu­larly a Globe, in which was comprized the Constitution of the Planets, and the Celestial Signs and Constellations. He likewise made for the said Emperour two other Globes; the one Celestial of Chrystal, the other Terrestrial, of Wood. He put forth a Cronology from the beginning of the World to the year 1568. exactly composed and calculated, as well from Eclipses, and other Astronomical Observations of all Times, as from the Sacred Scriptures, and other Authentick Authors, highly com­mended by Onuphrius Panvinius. Not to mention his other Geographical Works.

HUGO, sive HUO HELTILIUS, of Groeningen, in Friezland, wrote1570. in Spanish of the Planisphere.

HENRICUS BRUCAEUS of Alost in Flanders, Doctor of Physick and1570. Professor of Mathematicks at Rome and Rostoch, put forth Three Books of the Pri­mum Mobile, and the Institutions of the Sphere, of whom Vossius, De Scient. Math. gives an ample Account.

FRANCISCUS BAROCCIUS, a Patrician of Venice, wrote (besides1570. his other Works in Mechanicks and Geometry) Four Books of Cosmography, in the Preface to which he detects no less than LXXXIV. Errors of Io. de Sacrobosco, and his Followers.

JOANNES LALAMANTIUS, of Antun in Burgundy, a Physician pub­lished1571. a Tractate entituled, Collatio Rationis Anni exterarum ferè Omnium & Prae­cipuarum Gentium cum Romano Anno, Printed at Geneva apud Crispinum 1571. 8o.

ADAMUS URSINUS, of Norimberg, wrote Prognosticks upon the new1572. Star in Cassiopaea, touching which, see Tycho, Progymn. Tom. 1.

ANDREAS NOLTHIUS, of Embeck, wrote concerning the Star in1572. Cassiopaea about the same time as the Landtgrave of Hesse, as is likewise noted by Tycho, Progymnas. Tom. 1.

BARTHOLOMAEUS RASACHERUS, Professor of Mathematicks1572. at Vienna, wrote also touching the Star in Cassiopaea.

CORNELIUS GEMMA, of Lovaine, wrote likewise upon the same1572. Subject: So also did

CORNELIUS FRANGIPANUS, whose Censure see in Tycho Brahe, 1572. Progymnas. Tom. 1.

HIERONYMUS MUNOSIUS, Professor of the Hebrew Tongue and1572. Mathematicks in the University of Valentia, and Physician to the Emperor Maxi­milian the Second, put forth his Observations upon the New Star in Cassiopaea.

ELIAS CAMERARIUS, Professor of Mathematicks at Francfort, upon1572. Oder, wrote De Nova Stella Cassiopaeae.

[Page 62]GUL [...]ELMUS POSTELLUS, Native of Barenton, a Town in Norman­dy, ANNI POST CHRISTUM▪ about this time put forth his Cosmography, sive, De Universitate, and wrote,1572. De Nova Stella Cassiopaeae.

JOHANNES DEE, Doctor of Physick and an excellent Mathematician1572. (besides other his learned Works, whereby he hath honoured our Nation, not per­tinent to our present purpose) wrote, upon occasion of the New Star in Cassiopaea, a small Treatise, by him entituled Parallacticae Commentationis & Praxeos nucleus, highly commended by Tycho Brahe, in Progymnasm. Tom. 1. He published in the year 1558. a Treatise entituled, De Praestantioribus quibusdam Naturae Virtutibus, [...], containing several curious Astronomical and Astrological Aphorisms; In the Preface to which Piece, he makes mention of the several Astro­nomical Tractates following, by him intended for the Publick, but whether ever yet Printed is uncertain; as first, De Planetarum, inerrantium Stellarum, Nubiumque à Centro Terrae Distantiis, & Stellarum omnium veris inveniendis Magnitudinibus in two Books, De praecipua Perspectivae Parte, quae de Radiorum Fractione tractat, in three Books, De Caelestis Globi amplissimis Commoditatibus, in two Books, De Nova Navigationum Ratione, in two Books, and one Book, De Annuli Astronomici multi­plici usu, divided into a hundred Chapters, besides some other Mathematical Pieces, among which, his Apology for Fryar Bacon. A farther Account of the Works and Writings of this Stupendious Person the Reader may happily e're long meet with in his Life; intended to be written (if Providence second his Design) by my wor­thy Friend Elias Ashmole Esquire, whose singular Affection to Astronomical and Astrological Studies may justly entitle him to a Place in this Catalogue.

PAULUS HAINZELIUS, Consul of Ausbourg, diligently observed, at1572. Gegginge, near the City of Ausbourg aforesaid, the motions of the Stars and Pla­nets, using in his Observations a Quadrant of fourteen Cubits, as Ricciolus, in Chro­nol. Astron. affirms. His Prayses and Commendations may be seen in Tycho Brahe, Progymn. Tom. 1.

PAULUS FABRITIUS, a Mathematician and Physician to the Empe­rour1572. of Germany, wrote De Nova Stella Cassiopaeae 1572.

THEODORUS GRAMINEUS, Professor of Mathematicks at Colen, 1572. published a Prolix and tedious Commentary, or (as Tycho more truly terms it) Com­mentum, upon the New Star in Cassiopaea.

MICHAEL MAESTLINUS GOEPINGENSIS, at first Parish-Priest,1572. or Curate of a little Town called Bachnang, afterwards Professor of Mathe­maticks in the Universities of Heidelberg, and Tubinge, and Master or Tutor to Kepler, wrote De Stella Nova Cassiopaeae, and of the Comet which appeared in the year 1576. as also Ephemerides according to the Prutenick Tables, and Additions to the first Narration of Rheticus, with an Appendix; De Dimensionibus Orbium Coele­stium, according to the Opinion of Copernicus. He published likewise Theses De Eclipsibus, and an Epitome of Astronomy, and wrote against the Gregorian Calendar, in which he was opposed by Clavius; yet happy in this, that he was not only Ma­ster to the learned Kepler, but first Motor to the famous Galilaeo (addicted before that time entirely to Aristotle and Ptolemy) of his embracing the Copernican Hypo­thesis, perswaded thereunto by the force of his Arguments, which in a Publick Le­cture upon that Subject he used at the time of his being in Italy.

GELLIUS SASSERIDES, a Dane, of Copenhagen, was one of those1572. who assisted the noble Tycho Brahe in his Celestial Observations; some of whose Epistles are extant in Maginus, De Directionibus.

[Page 63]JOHANNES HECKIUS, of Daventer, Doctor of Physick, wrote a smallANNI POST CHRISTUM. Treatise upon the New Star in Cassiopaea, termed by Ricciolus, Opus non inelegans. 1572.

TYCHO BRAHE, descended of an illustrious Family among the Danes, 1572. as being eldest Son to Otto Brahe, Lord of Knudsthorp, in the Island Schonen, not far from Elzinbourg, who was Son of another Tycho, Son of Axilius Brahe, Lord of the said Place; the Hipparchus of his Age, who even from his Childhood being addicted to Astronomical Studies, though diverted from them by the Advice of his Friends and morose humour of his Tutour, grew by his own Ingenuity and Indu­stry without any Instructor, so great a Proficient therein, that in the time of his Mi­nority, and without the help of other Instruments, than a small Globe little bigger than a Man's Fist, and a large pair of Compasses, with which by applying his Eye to the Head of the Compasses, and opening the shanks thereof, he used by stealth to take the Distances of the Stars, he made a shift to detect divers considerable Errors, both in the Alphonsine and Prutenick Tables. At length by his Studies and Travels, having consummated his Knowledge in Astronomy. He was by Frederick the Se­cond King of Denmark (at what time he resolved to make his Retreat into Switzer­land, the better to apply himself entirely to the Contemplation of the Stars) invi­ted to fix his Studies at Home, and to honour his own Country with his Learned La­bours and Observations. To which end the King gave him the Island Huena, com­monly called Ween, between Scania and Zeland, in the Baltick Sound, as a Place for his Retirement and Studies. Where causing to be built a Stately Pallace, to which he gave the Name of Uranoburgum, procuring most costly and exquisite Instruments for observing, and calling to his Assistance the most learned Astronomers of that Age, he happily began and made his glorious Progress in the Instauration of Astronomy. In which Work he is said to have expended no less than two hundred thousand Crowns. And as Copernicus had corrected many things in Ptolemy, so did Tycho no less in Copernicus. So that from thence the Learned World began to look upon on­ly three chief Sects of Astronomers, whereof the Tychonick was the mean and mid­dle between the Pythagorean or Copernican, and the Aristolean or Ptolemaick. Of his Works there are published Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata, in three Parts; whereof the first treats of the Restitution of the Sun's Motion, as also of the Moon's, and the fixed Stars; chiefly of the new Star which appeared in the Constellation of Cassiopaea, 1572. The second of several new Phaenomena's of the Aetherial World, more particularly of the Comet which appeared in the year 1577. The third and last contains his Astronomical Epistles to divers Persons. There is extant likewise a Book of his entituled Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica, dedicated by him to the Empe­ror Rudolphus the Second, describing the several stupendious and costly Instruments, by him used in his Astronomical Instauration. To these is to be added his Historia Coelestis, being a Collection of twenty years Observations preserved in MS. by three mighty Emperors, Rudolph the Second, Ferdinand the Second, and Ferdinand the Third, and lately by Command of his Imperial Majesty Leopold, made publick at Ausburg. Which said Observations are ushered by a Liber Prolegomen [...], compen­diously representing the Observations made from the time of the Infancy of Astro­nomy unto that of it's Restauration by the Illustrous Tycho, reduced into 7. Class. containing the Babylonian Observations, the Grecian, the Alexandrian, the Syro-Persian, the Norimbergian, the Borussian, and mixt Observations from the year 1529. to the year 1582. After which begin the Tychonick Observations in twen­ty Books, containing as many Annual Observations ending in the year 1601. which was the last of Tycho's life: A correct Copy of these Observations (transcribed from the Original, by Erasmus Bartholinus) being now likewise in the Press at Pa­ris. See more of him, in his life, written by the excellent Gassendus, in six Books.

PETRUS BEAUSARDUS, Doctor of Physick, and Regius Professor of1573. [Page 64] Mathematicks in the University of Lovain, wrote of the Astronomical Ring, or theANNI POST CHRISTUM. Armilla.

THADDAEUS HAGGECIUS of Haic, Disciple to Ioachimus Came­rarius, 1573. and Physician to the Emperour Maximilian the Second, put forth a Piece, entituled Dialexis, touching the New Star in Cassiopaea, whose several Arguments see reported and examined by Tycho, Progymn. Tom. 1.

JOHANNES RASEH, at Munichen, wrote De Cometarum Significationi­bus, 1573. about the year 1573. About the same time

GEORGIUS BUSCHIUS, Pictor & Astronomus Erfordiensis, as Riccio­lus 1573. stiles him, wrote of the Star which appeared in Cassiopaea. And

ANTONIUS SANTUTIUS, Professor of Mathematicks at Pisa, wrote1573. De Cometis, in which he treats of the same Star.

WOLFANGUS SCHULERUS, Professor of Mathematicks in the U­niversity1573. of Wittemberg, wrote upon the same Subject, in answer to Caspar Peucerus, the Younger, his Proposals touching the said New Star.

FRANCISCUS BORDINUS, of Correggio, Doctor of Arts and Phy­sick,1573. and Publick Professor of Mathematicks in the University of Bologna, published Chilias Quaestionum & Responsorum Mathematicorum ad cognitionem Universi perti­nentium, divided into three Parts; the first treating of Geometry, the second of Geography, and the last in a more ample manner of Astronomy, Printed at Bologna.

JACOBUS SCHOL, of Strasbourg, Doctor of Physick, set forth a Book,1573. wherein he reduces Theses aliquot rei Medicae simplicioris, Integritati Astronomicae. He published likewise a Book, De brevi applicatione Astrologiae ad Medicinam; with Canons of their conveniency and agreement; Extant in the King's Library at St. Iames's.

JOHANNES FRANCISCUS OFFUSIUS, wrote De Divina Astro­rum 1574. Facultate, in Larvatam Astrologia