Mathematicks made Easie: Or, a Mathematical DICTIONARY, EXPLAINING The Terms of Art, and Diffi­cult Phrases used in Arithmetick, Geo­metry, Astronomy, Astrology, and other Mathematical Sciences. Wherein the true Meaning of the Word is Rendred, the Nature of Things signified Discussed, and (where Need requires) Illustrated with apt Figures and Diagrams. With an APPENDIX, exactly con­taining the Quantities of all sorts of Weights and Measures: The Characters and Meaning of the Marks, Symbols, or Abreviations commonly used in Algebra. And sundry other Observables. By Joseph Moxon, a Member of the Royal Society, and Hydrographer to the King's most Excellent Majesty.

LONDON. Printed for Joseph Moxon, at the Sign of Atlas on Ludgate-Hill. M. DC. LXXIX.

To the Honourable, Sr GEORGE WHARTON, Baronet, Treasurer and Pay-Master of His Majesties Office of the ORDNANCE.

SIR,

YOu have suf­ficiently sig­naliz'd your Loyalty to our King, and Love to our Countrey, by in­gaging [Page] your Person, Sword, and Pen, for their defence, in our late Re­bellious Times. But then, Sir, I onely knew you by Fame; yet some time af­ter I have had the happi­ness to be Personally ac­quainted with you, which has rendred me many op­portunities to know much of your Civility to all Mankind, and of your excellent Accomplish­ments in Arts Mathema­tical, and other Philoso­phical Learning. And therefore, Sir, I am bold to offer this small Trea­tise [Page] to your kind acce­ptance; and with it, those observant Respects due to you, from,

SIR,
Your most humble and most obliged Servant. Joseph Moxon.

TO THE READER.

TO Expatiate in En­comiums on the Ma­thematicks, were to Gild Gold; an Undertaking vain and impertinent. This sort of Learning has sufficiently justifi'd its Excellency, both from the Certainty of its Principles, and Use­fulness of its Practise, to all Ingenious Men.

Nor had the number of its Vota­ries been so few as they are, had not the difficulty of the Terms (some Ara­bick, most Greek, and divers of them Latine, according as they have [Page] been derived to us from the most Learned of those respective Nations, in several Ages) deterr'd many of great Natural Parts from wading in­to its Mysteries, or at least clowded its ravishing Beauties from their Eyes.

To remedy this, and at once promote such Praise-worthy and advantagious Arts, and serve the young Students therein, I have taken the pains to Collect and Explain the Hard Words, Difficult Terms, and Abstruse Phrases used by Authors, in all the several Mathematical Sciences, and Branches depending thereupon; than which, nothing has hitherto more discouraged hopeful Tyro's from Proficiency.

But here is offered them a Key, that will open to them the choicest Treasures of Urania, and her Sub­lunary Handmaids: Nay, We have taken care to demonstrate the Na­ture of the Things, as well as genu­ine [Page] Sence of the Words; and to rivet them in the Understanding, have ac­commodated the Senses with Demon­strative Diagrams, where they are requisite.

If any useful Terms have escaped our diligence, let the Reader consi­der the Nature of the Work, impossi­ble to be begun and perfected at once: for we were forced to trace an almost Untrodden-Path.

If any Errors have been commit­mited in the Interpretation (as who in such Variety dar [...] ▪ pretend to a full and perfect understanding how, and in what sence every Author has used a Word) let Imbecility of Judgment, or Defect of Memory be pardoned, but zealous good will for propagating of Arts be encouraged, which was never more cordially designed than in this Work: But the performance is submitted to the Charity of thy Cen­sure.

[Page]A main thing which induced me to this Undertaking, was from Expe­rience, how much such a Work was wanting: For about thirty years ago, when I first began to apply my self to Mathematical Learning, I found my self not a little perplex'd with the difficult Terms used by Au­thors, and therefore then began to Collect such hard Words as I met with, that I might either by my Reading, or Enquiry of some of my Mathematical Acquaintance, learn to know the meaning of them. Thus have I ever since been storing up Words and their Interpretations, with Memorandums in what Book and Folio I might find their Definitions or Explanations, against I should be ready to digest them into an Alpha­betical Method; which at last (though long first) I did, and intend­ed then speedily to have finished this Book. But finding my self encum­bred [Page] in many other Concerns, I con­sidered the Task would be too tedious for me to run through alone, and therefore desired the assistance of my good Friend, Mr. H. C. by whose pains it is at last arrived to what you see.

It is true, that since this was, as aforesaid, Collected, I did light on Vitalis, a French Author, Printed in Latin; and by comparing my Colle­ctions and his Book, I found I had ga­thered more Words purely Mathema­tical, than he had done: But he hath indeed inserted the Names of most Stars, and upon them made somewhat long Discourses; which, before I saw his Book, I had also Collected: But upon consideration, that it would make this Book swell beyond its in­tended Size, and that they would prove of small vse to English Begin­ners, I left them out.

Having given thee this Account, [Page] it onely remains to advertize thee a word or two for thy better apprehensi­on of the scope of the Book.

First, Consider, 'Tis intended for Beginners, not Accomplish'd Artists, therefore adapted to the meanest Ca­pacities; preferring sometimes a Plain, Familiar, and Intelligible De­scription, before a Rigid, Abstruse (though Exact) Definition: Nay, rather (though rarely) venturing up­on a Repetition, than running the hazard of not being understood.

Secondly, Observe, We have in most places hinted the Derivation of the Word, which both assists the Me­mory, and informs the Understand­ing: yet have put the Greek words in English Characters; for those that understand Greek know them well enough now; but those that do not, could not perhaps have read them otherwise, so much as to have perceiv­ed any Analogy between them and [Page] the Words, we say owe their Original to them.

Thirdly, The Letter G. or sometimes Gr. shows the Word Originally Greek; and L. or Lat. Latin. And what is included between these two [] Crot­chets, is the natural, strict, and pro­per Signification of the Word; what follows is the Mathematical acception: and in that where I have been forc'd to use any hard Word, I have ex­plain'd it by another Synonymous (of the same signification) in a Parenthe­sis immediately following.

JOSEPH MOXON.

ERRATA.

THe Reader is desire [...] to [...] these mistakes, before he peruse the Book▪

In page 6. line 2. for Sch [...]m [...] 2. read Scheme 6.

In page 43. line 33. for A B. read F B.

In page 68. line 28. for Fig. 4. read Fig. 5.

Mathematical Dictionary, &c.

A
A Bscission [or cutting off] of Light,

from the Latin word Abscindo, to cut from, is a term in Astrology, and signi­fies a weakning of a Planet, which happens when three Planets are within the bounds of their Orbs, and the middle­most is a weighty Planet; to which another lighter, being in fewer degrees of the Sign, applies; and the third being in more degrees, separates from it: But before the first, moving Direct, comes to be corporally joyned with the said ponde­rous Planet, the third becoming in the mean time Retrograde, does thereby come up before it to the said middle Planet: Then is the third said to cut off the light of the first. It may likewise happen another way, that is, when the middle Planet ap­plies to a conjunction with the last; but the first being lighter, (that is, more swift in motion) pas­ses him, and comes first to a conjunction with the Planet which he is tending unto.

Absis, or Apsis;

a Latin word, signifying pro­perly, the bowing, or hollow arch of an Oven; [Page 2] but amongst Astronomers 'tis used as well for the highest part of the Circle; to which, when a Pla­net comes, it is at the greatest distance from the earth; as the lowest part thereof, when he is the nearest to the Earth that he can be. The first is call'd, the Apogaeum: The second, the Perigaeum of a Planet. By the mutation of these Absides, or points, and their passing from one Sign to another, Astrologers pretend to discover the Revolutions of States, &c.

Absolute Equation,

is the aggregate or sum of the Excentrique and Optique Equations; and therefore it is called the Absolute or Compound Equation.

Accidents;

Astrologers by this term mean the most remarkable chances that have happened to a man in the course of his life: As a grand sickness at such a year: An extraordinary fortune such a year: An eminent danger at such a time, &c. By these, where they have not the true, but only the estimate time when a person was born, they find out the true hour and minute of the Native's birth, as exactly as they could have found out at what age such accidents should have happened to him, had the true time of birth been given them.

Accidental Dignities and Debilities

are certain casual affections of the Planets, whereby they are streng­thened or weakned, by reason of being in such a house of the Figure, or the like. As a Planet in the mid-Heaven has five Accidental Dignities: In the 12th house as many Accidental Debilities. They are called Accidental, because they are suddenly altered, and in contra-distinction to Essential Forti­tudes and Debilities: As when a Planet is in his own [Page 3] House, or in his fall. The Table of the Planets essen­tial dignities is common in Mr. Lillie's Almanack. That of their Accidental Fortitudes and Debilities, you have in his Introduction, p. 115.

Acre,

A measure for Land, containing (by the Statute) 160 square Rods or Perches. See the Ap­pendix.

Acronycal,

From a Greek word Acronychos; signifying, of, or belonging to the evening, is one of the remarkable manners of the Rising or Setting of Stars, and different both from Cosmical, or He­liacal: For when a Star rises when the Sun Sets, 'tis said to Rise Acronycally; and when it Sets when the Sun Sets, 'tis said to Set Acronycally.

Acute Angle,

Is an Angle less than a Right An­gle, or less than 90 degrees, and therefore called Acute, that is, sharp: As in Scheme 1. the Angle O. A. B. containing but 40 degrees, is an Acute An­gle.

Addition

is one of the five vulgar Rules of Arithmetick; and is no more but a putting toge­ther, or collection of two or more numbers into one.

Aera,

A Latin word, and sometimes from the Greek, called Epocha, is the beginning of an ac­count of Time, founded on some extraordinary ac­cident. As we Christians reckon from the Birth of our Saviour: The old Romans, from the founda­tion of their City, &c. Hence the Birth of Christ, or the Building of Rome, is called the Aera of our or their account.

Aestival

Solstice, From Aestas, Summer, Sol, the Sun, and Sto, to stand; is when the Sun enters Cancer, (generally the 11th of June) For when the Sun is got furthest from the Equator, and is [Page 4] ready to return, 'tis called a Solstice, that is to say, a stay of the Sun, because he seems then for some time to stand still. The other called the Hyemal, Brumal, or Winter Solstice, is in December, when he enters Capricorn.

Aggregate,

The whole gathered together; the Sum, or Total.

Airy Triplicity;

Astrologers having divided the 12 Signs of the Zodiack into four Threes, accord­ing to the four Elements, call'd Gemini, Libra, and Aquary, the Airy Triplicity.

Alcochoden,

or the Giver of Life; is a Planet that disposes of, or has dignities in the Hylegiacal (or principal) places of the Figure when a person is born; and according to his condition, so may the Natives life be expected to be longer or shor­ter.

Aldebaran,

The name of a Royal Fixed Star in the 4th degree of Gemini, within almost three degrees of South Latitude, of the nature of Mars, and so violent, that Astrologers say, being with the Luminaries, or Saturn or Mars, especially in the Ascendant, he threatens an untimely or violent death.

Alfridarie,

is a word often used by Arabian Astrologers, and signifies a temporary power which the Planets claim over the life of a Native in such an order; which being both difficult, and vain, I omit.

Algebra,

is an Arabick word, and signifies an abstruse sort of Arithmetick, the art of Equation, or a certain Rule for the finding out the hidden powers of numbers, as well absolute as respective. See the derivation in Dee's Mathematical Preface to Euclid.

[Page 5] Alhadida,

is a word seldom used by English Au­thors, but signifies only the Label or Index that moves upon the Centre-pin of an Astrolabe.

Aliquot parts,

are the even or equal Numbers that may be had out of any great Number; As 6. 4. 3. 2. 1, are severally Aliquot parts of 12; be­cause six may be had twice in 12. Four may be had thrice in 12. Three may be had four times in 12. Two may be had six times in 12. And One, twelve times.

Aliigation,

A Rule of Arithmetick; so named, because it teacheth to knit or bind together divers things of unequal prices, whereby to find how much of each must be taken, according to the question propounded.

Almagest,

The Title of an excellent Book, written by Ptolomy, of the Sphere, &c.

Almanack,

The word is originally Arabick, and signifies as much as distribution, or numeration, whence our Annual Books, wherein the days of the month, Eclipses, Lunations, Festivals, &c. are set down, numbred, and distributed, are so cal­led.

Almicanthars,

are Circles of Altitude pa­rallel to the Horizon.

Almuten,

An Arabian word, and term in Astro­logy, signifying the Lord of a Figure, or strongest Planet in a Nativity, viz. That Planet that hath most Essential and Accidental Dignities.

Altern Base,

A term used in Trigonometry, distinguishing from the true Base: As thus; in ob­lique Triangles the true Base is always either the sum of the Sides, (and then, the difference of the Sides is called the Altern Base,) or the true Base is the difference of the Sides, and then the sum of the [Page 6] Sides is called the Altern Base. As in the Oblique Triangle, A D E (in Scheme 2.) A C is the sum, and A F the difference of the Sides D E and D A; A E is the true Base, and A I the Alternate Base, ac­cording to Norwood.

Altitude,

[Lat. Height,] the Sun, Moon, Stars, &c. being any number of degrees above the Hori­zon, are said to have so many degrees of Alti­tude.

Amblygonium,

From the Greek Ambluys, blunt, or obtuse, and Gonia, an Angle; is a term in Geometry, and signifies a Triangle, that hath one of its Angles obtuse, that is, greater than a Right Angle. See Angle.

Amblygon,

is of the same derivation and sig­nification, but used for an obtuse Cone, viz. A Cone whose Axis is shorter than the Radius of its Base.

Amphiscii,

(From the Greek Amphi, on either side, and Scia, a shadow, or, in English, people of double shadows) are the Inhabitants of those Re­gions under the Equator, or between the Tropicks of Cancer and Capricorn, because their shadows are cast sometimes towards the North, and sometimes towards the South, according to the Sun's different course; such are the people of the Golden Cherso­nesus, or Malacha in the East-Indies, the Isle of St. Thomas, the middle of the Isle of St. Laurence, &c.

Amplitude,

Lat. signifies the space or number of degrees contained between the East or West point of the Horizon, and the Rising or Setting of the Sun, Moon, or any Star; or if the Sun, Moon, or Star be above the Horizon, then so many de­grees as are contained between the Azimuth of the [Page 7] Sun, Moon, or Star, and the said East or West point, shall be called their Amplitude.

Anabibazon,

Gr. Anabibazo, to lift up, or rise; The Dragon's-head, or the Northern Node of the ☽, where she passes from South to North Latitude, (thus marked ☊) is sometimes so called, because 'tis above the other Node, called the Tail.

Anacamptics,

A branch of the Opticks, cal­led also Catoptrics, a Science, which by the Rays of some luminous object, reflected on a plain super­ficies, partly obscure, and partly diaphanous, con­siders, and finds out its form, affections, greatness, distance, and the like.

Anaclatics,

Are also part of the Opticks, which by the lines of the Stars, and other visual objects, refracted in a medium of different thickness, mea­sures their figures, magnitudes, distances, &c.

Analemma,

Gr. [properly the Firmament, but used for] A plain Projection of the Sphere, called al­so the Orthographical Projection, where the Sphere is cut into two Hemispheres, and the Eye placed at an infinite distance vertically to one of the Hemi­spheres, then a right line extended from the Eye to any assigned point in the Sphere, called Surface of that Hemisphere, shall project the assigned point upon the plain, and the distance upon the plain from the Apex, or top of the Hemisphere, to the projected point, is equal to the sine of the Arch from the ver­tex of the Hemisphere to the assigned point, the Radius being the Semidiameter of the Sphere. See the Description and Use of the English Globe, sect. 6.

Analysis,

Gr. [A resolution, unfolding, or untwisting of a Matter, Argument, or Problem;] Whence the Adjective Analytical, done▪ or doing, by way of opening, or resolving.

[Page 8] Analogie,

Gr. [Proportion, or like compari­son;] but in Mathematicks 'tis a double compa­rison, or proportion of Numbers or Magnitudes one to another: As when we say, as 4 is to 2, so is 8 to 4. Hence Analogicai, proportionate, or alike.

Anareta,

Is a Greek word, and signifies, A cutter off; and therefore Astrologers use it for the killing Planet, or Planet threatning death in a Na­tivity, which is usually the Lord of the Eighth, or one posited near the Cusp of the 8th. &c.

Angle,

In Geometry, the meeting of two Lines make an Angle. As in Scheme 1, A is an Angle, so is B and C, &c. Thus B is the Angle of the sides B A and B C; and C is the Angle of C A and C B. Thus the meeting of two Walls in a Building makes a Corner, (call'd in Latin Angulus, whence this term of Art is derived.) An Angle is either Right, Acute, or Obtuse. A Right Angle is, when a Right Line falls perpendicularly upon an­other Right Line, so as it leaves an equal space on either side: for where it so touches the other Line, it makes two Right Angles. As in Scheme 3, the line B A makes two Right Angles at A, on the line D A C. It contains just 90 Degrees. An Acute Angle is less than a Right one, that is, it leaves less space between both sides, and is more sharpned. It contains less than 90 Degrees. But an Dbtuse [blunt or broad] Angle, is that which is greater than a Right one, and less sharp, and contains more than 90 Degrees. As in Figure 1 The meeting or joyning of the Lines B A and A C at A, makes two Right Angles. The Lines C A and B A at A makes an Acute Angle at C: and the Lines B C and B D meeting at B, makes an Obtuse Angle at B.

[Page 9]In Astrolology certain Houses of a Celestial Scheme are called Angles, viz. The Horoscope, or first House, the Angle of the East; the 10th House, the Angle of the South; the 7th House, Angle of the West; and the 4th House, the Angle of the North. See Fig. 2.

Angle of Incidence,

is an Angle made by a line that falls a-slope upon another line; as in Fig. 1. The line C A falling so upon the line BA, makes at CAB an Angle of Incidence with the line B A.

Angle of Reflection,

is an Angle made by a straight line, which proceeds from the Angle of In­cidence, as the line AI is an Angle of Reflection to the line AC. And note, that both these terms, An­gle of Incidence, and Angle of Reflection, are chiefly used in Dialling, and sometimes in Astro­nomy, for calculating Eclipses of the Luminaries. Now in Dialling, the Angle of Incidence is made by the straight line that pro [...]eds from the Sun to the Dial-plane. And the Angle of Reflection is made by the straight line that proceeds from the Angle of Incidence, making on the other side a perpendi­cular Angle equal to the Angle made by a perpen­dicular, and the line of Incidence, as is best demon­strated in Ceiling Dials; for the Glass receiving the beam of the Sun, reflects it upon the Ceiling with the same Angle it receives its beam from the Sun; so that the Angle of Reflection is equal to the Angle of Incidence.

Angle of the Sun's Position,

is the An­gle made by the Intersection of an Arch of a Me­ridian Line, with an Arch of an Azimuth, or any other great Circle cutting through the body of the Sun.

[Page 10] Angle of Parallax.

See Parallax.

Animodar,

commonly called the Animodar of Ptolemy, because he invented it; is one of the ways of Rectifying Nativities, or artificially to find out the exact minute ascending at Birth; which is thus: Consider the degree of the Sign wherein the last New Moon was before the Birth; or if it were a Full Moon, the degree of that Sign either of the Luminaries that was above the earth, was in, and see which Planet hath most Essential Dignities in that degree: And if the degree it be in, is nearer to the Cusp of the Ascendant, than to the Cusp of the mid-Heaven, place so many degrees Ascending as the Planet that so ruled the degree wherein the last New or Full Moon was, is in the Sign; but if its degrees be nearer the mid-Heaven than the Ascendant, make the degrees of the mid-Heaven the same its are, and so vary your former Figure according to either of those Angles. But neither this way, nor that other called the Trutine of Hermes, is so much to be approved as the me­thod of Rectifying by Accidents; but are chiefly used in Childrens Nativities, calculated before Ac­cidents have happen'd.

Antartick.

See Artick.

Antecedent of the Reason,

By Geometri­cians is termed the Quantity in all Proportion that refers it self to another: As that to which another refers it self, is termed the Consequent of the Rea­son. Thus, in the Reason of a line of six Feet, to a line of three Feet; the line of six is the Antece­dent, and the line of three, the Consequent of the Reason.

Antilogarithme,

The Complement of the Logarithme of any Sine, Tangent, or Secant to 90 degrees.

[Page 11] Antipodes,

From the Gr. Anti, against; and pous, podos, a foot: People going with their feet right against ours; or the Inhabitants of one part of the Earth diametrically opposite to another. St. Austin de Civitat. Dei, L. 16. C. 9. derides the notion; and others of the Fathers denied that there could be any such thing: but now, not only in reason from the sphaerical form of the Earth, but also from experience, we are satisfied of the truth of the opinion.

Antiscions,

From the Gr. Anti, against; and scia, a shadow, are places of the Zodiack of the same vertue: As the Antiscion Signs are those which, with reference to each other, are equally distant from the first degree of the two Tropical Signs ♋ and ♑. As for example, The Sun in the 10th degree of Taurus, is as far distant from the first de­gree of ♋, as when he is in the 20th degree of ♌. And therefore he is said to cast his Antiscion to the 20th of ♌; that is, he giveth vertue or influence to any Star or Planet that at that time either is in the same degree, or casteth any Aspect into it.

Antoeci,

Gr. From Anti, against; and oicos, an house or dwelling: [People dwelling just contrary;] Those are called so by Geographers, that dwell in equal or opposite Parallels, having the same Latitude and Elevation of the Pole, but not of the same Pole, but the other on the contrary side of the Equator; so that as much as the North-Pole is Elevated to one, so much is the South to the other: As the An­toeci of London are those that dwell in 51½ South, having like Ascensions, but in opposite Signs, like length of days, and temperature of Climate, but not in the same, but quite contrary months.

Apertio Portarum;

Lat. [An opening of the [Page 12] Gates.] 'Tis used by Astrologers to signify some great and evident change of Air, upon certain meetings or configurations of the Pla­nets, whence such Positions or Aspects are called Apertiones Portarum; and those so accounted, are the Conjunctions, Squares, or Oppositions of Pla­nets: whose houses are opposite: As Saturn and the Sun; (Leo the house of the latter being opposite to ♒ the house of the former.) Saturn and the Moon, Jupiter and Mercury, Mars and Venus, (for the like reason.) And so much greater will the mu­tation be, if the Moon separate from one, and ap­plying to the other, convey and reinforce their vertue.

Apomecometrie,

From the Greek Apo, from mécos, a distance, and metria, a measuring; is an Art teaching the Practiser how to measure things at a distance, viz. how far they are off from him.

Apparent,

The apparent or visible place of any Star or Planet, is that place of Heaven which it seems to be in by the straight line that proceeds to it from the eye. See Parallax.

Aperture,

From the Lat. Aperio, to open. The Glass at the further end of a Tube; it hath some­times part of its circumference covered with a Pastboard, having a round hole in it, that the Ob­ject, if it be small, may be the better beheld in the centre of the Glass; and then so much of the Glass as is seen through that hole, is called the Aperture, as well as the whole circumference.

Apex,

[L. The top, or highest Point.] There are the pictures of Stars placed on the Reets of the Mathematical Jewel, and upon some Astrolabes, and one of the points of the Stars i [...] always longer [Page 13] than the rest. This point is called the Apex, and is indeed the place of the Star; the whole figure of the Star being made only to guide you there­unto.

Aphelion,

A Greek word, from Apo, from, and Helios, the Sun; is that point in which the Earth, or any Star, is furthest distant from the Sun; as Perihelion is when 'tis nearest the Sun.

Apheta,

Gr. otherwise called Hylech, [The Giver of Life.] In the Figure of ones Nativity, Ptolemy reckons up only four Significators that can be so accounted, viz. The Light of the Time; (that is, the Sun by day, the Moon, if born in the night.) The Planet that has most dignities in the places of the Luminaries, the part of Fortune, and the Ascendent.

Aphorism,

Gr. A general rule, or short notable observation experienc'd for a truth in Art.

Aplanes,

[Setled, or free from wandring. A Greek word, from Alpha, which in composition, is of privative signification, and planesi, wandring.] Fixed Stars, in contradistinction to Planets, are so called, but most-times the Sphere it self wherein they are placed.

Application,

is a term in Astrology, used when two Planets within the quantity of their Orbs are drawing near together either by Conjunction, or Aspects: Note, that the Superior Planets are not said to apply to the Inferiors, (unless they be Re­trograde,) but ever the lighter to the more pon­derous. As if ♄ be in 10 degr. of Taurus, and ♂ in the 7th d. of the same Sign, here ♂ applies to a ♂ with ♄. If Mars had been in 7 d. of ♋, he had applied to a ⚹ of ♄, and so of the rest. An Application may happen three ways; as when both [Page 14] Planets being Direct, the swifter overtakes the slower; or when both are Retrograde, and the lighter does not come Direct, till he comes up to the body or Aspect of the heavier; or when one is Direct in fewer, the other Retrograde in more de­grees of a Sign. The first brings on business fairly and kindly, the other two either suddenly perfect it, or after many hopes and crosses utterly destroy it.

Apotome,

[A thing abruptly cut off; from the Greek Apotemno, to cut off.] A term in Geo­metry: As if from a Rational Line ACD be cut off a Rational Line AC commensurable in power only to the whole; the remainder BC is irrational, and may be called an Apotome, or a Residual. See Euclid. Elem. 10. Prop. 74. for the demonstra­tion, and Elem. 10. Third definition.

Apogaeon,

From the Gr. Apo, from, and gé, or gaia, the Earth. The highest part of the Pla­nets Eccentrick, or Epicycle, or the point where they are furthest off the Earth, and more elevated, and strong. As the Sun is in his Apogaeon about the 6th deg. of Cancer, being then 4588960 miles from the earth; whereas in Perigaeon, when he is in Capricorn, he is not above 4272480; so that the whole quantity of his Elongation, or the space between one and t'other is in a direct line 316480 miles. And note, the Apogaea, and Perigaea of the Planets are not fixt always in the same place, but varied in Time; being observed, according to the order of the Signs, to be moved with a daily (but exceeding) slow and almost insensible Progression. All which causes irregularity in the Planets mo­tions, being slower in their Apogaeons, and swifter in their Perigaeons. See Abfis.

[Page 15] Aporrhaea,

The Moon is called so by Greek Authors, when she separates from one Planet, and applies to no other. See Uoid of Course.

Aquarius,

A Water-bearer, from the Lat. Aqua, water. The Eleventh Sign of the Zodiack, thus character'd ♒; 'tis one of the Houses of Sa­turn, of the Aiery Triplicity, &c.

Arch,

(By some written Arke, and derived from the Lat. Arcus, a Bow.) Is a part of a Circle intercepted from one point to another, by which Geometrically, and by way of Proportion, we ga­ther the quantity of the whole Circle, or some other thing sought after. As in Fig. 1, BL is an Arch, so is LI, and LF, or any part of a Circle less than a whole Circle.

Arch of direction,

A quantity of the Equa­tor intercepted between two points in Heaven, whereof one is the place of the Significator, the other of the Promissor; and which one of them, in a certain space of time, must run over, until he is devolved to the other.

Architecture,

is a Mathematical Science, which teaches the Art of Building, or a skill obtain'd by precepts of Geometry, &c. teaching the right way of designing all sorts of Structures; and is three­fold, Edification, or the Art of Building of Hou­ses: Gnomonica, or Dialling; and Machinatio, the mystery of Machines, or Engines. See Vitr. L. 2. C. 3.

Arctos,

Gr. [The Bear.] A Constellation in the North part of Heaven, whence the North-Pole being near thereunto, is called the Pole-Arctick; and the Circle described 23½ degr. from the same Pole, The Arctick Circle, as the opposite or South-Pole of the World, and Circle thereunto, are termed [Page 16] the Antarctick Pole and Circle. But note, There are two Arctick and Antarctick Poles, and two Arctick and Antarctick Circles, viz. Those of the Poles of the World, and those of the Poles of the Eclip­tick.

Area,

Lat. [An open space, or yard, but] in Geo­metry, the plain superficies comprehended between the sides of any Figure, plain or circular.

Argument,

The Arch by which we seek ano­ther Arch, (or part of a Circle) is called by Mathe­maticians, the Argument, in resemblance of Argu­mentation in Logick; for as a Logical Argument leads us to the knowledg of something before un­known, so this Arch notifies to us another Arch un­known, proportional.

Argument of the Moons Latitude,

is her distance from the Dragons-Head, or Tail, viz. where the Orbit of the Moon in two points diametri­cally opposite, is interfected by the Ecliptick, where­by we find out the quantity of the real obscura­tion in Eclipses, or how many digits are darken­ed.

Argument of Inclination,

is an Arch of the Orbit intercepted between the Node ascend­ing, and the place of a Planet from the Sun, being numbred according to the succession of the Signs. See Harmon. Coelest. Book 2. Cap. 14.

Aries,

Lat. [The Ram.] One of the Celestial Signs, and first in order in the Zodiack, of the fiery Triplicity; the House of Mars, and Exaltation of the Sun, who coming to enter the first degree there­of, makes the days begin to exceed the nights, which is called the Vernal Equinox, or Revolution of the World.

Arithmetick,

From the Greek word Arith­mos, [Page 17] numbers. The Art of Numbring, one of the principal Disciplines of the Mathematicks, and which necessarily precedes the rest, being conver­sant about Discrete Quantity, that is, Numbers, and thereby distinguish'd from Geometry, which considers Continued Quantity; yet are they not so opposed, but that they joyn hands, and help each other; Geometry carrying the same proportion to Arithmetick, as a point to an unite, a line to a Sim­ple number, and a Body to a Number compounded; and in most of their operations they mutually bor­row terms and assistances from one another.

Armillary Sphere,

From the Lat. Armilla, a bracelet, or round ornament for the Arm. An hollow Sphere made up only of the Circles, and not representing the solid body of the Celestial Globe, or places of the fixed Stars.

Artificial day night

From Sun-rising to Sun­setting.

From Sun-set to Sun-ri­sing.

Artificial Numbers, Secants, Sines, Tangents.

See Logarithmetical Numbers, Secants, Sines, Tangents.

Ascendent,

From Ascendo, to arise. That part of Heaven which ascends, or is coming up above the Horizon in the East; called also, the Ho­roscope, the Angle of the East, and the First House in a Celestial Figure, which signifies the begin­ings of things, the life corporate, and manners of a Native, &c. But by some Authors, all that [Page 18] quarter of Heaven, spreading from the fourth House, by the way of the East to the mid-Hea­ven, is called the Ascendant, because the Planets therein, and parts of the Primum Mobile, are al­ways rising; and on the opposite part, from the Meridian to the 4th House by the West, they are always descending. See Fig. 2.

Ascensions and Descensions of Signs,

are parts of the Equator, which do co-ascend, [rise] or set with such a Sign or part of the Zodiack, or any Planet hapning to be therein. And these Ascensions and Descensions are either Right or Oblique. Right Ascensions are parts of the Equator, which ascend by a Right Line, compre­hending all those parts of Heaven which are con­tained under a Right Line drawn by the Poles of the World, and the opposite parts of the Equator; and always happen in a Right or Direct Sphere. But in an Oblique Sphere, only in the Right Circle or Meridian. Oblique Ascensions and Descensi­ons are parts of the Equator, which rise or set ob­liquely in an Oblique Sphere, that is, where one of the Poles is elevated, and the other depressed; and the more oblique the Sphere is, the more ob­lique will the Ascension of the Equator be, and consequently less of it ascend with Northern Signs, and more with Southern: and, on the contrary, the greater Arch will descend with Northern Signs than with Southern. And this Arch of the difference intercepted between the Right and Oblique Ascen­sion, is called the Ascensional difference. See Sphere.

The Ascensional difference,

[which is on­ly the number of degrees remaining after substra­ction of the Oblique from the Right Ascension:] [Page 19] For having the Elevation of the Pole of your place, and the Declination of the Star, presently the Ascensional difference appears, which according as the Declination is Northern or Southern, is to be ad­ded or substracted from the Right Ascension of the same Star; which being done, gives the Ob­lique Ascension or Descension at the said Elevation of the Pole, by which means Directions are per­fected.

Aspect,

From the Lat. Aspicio, to behold: is a correspondence or familiarity of two Planets mu­tually beholding each other with some Ray har­monically consider'd; or when they are posited at such a certain distance in the Zodiack wherein they mutually help or afflict one another; or have their vertues encreased or depraved: For by good Aspect they assist, but in evil they are said to hurt each other. Of these Aspects properly there are but 4., viz. Sextile, Quartile, Trine, and Opposition; to which is added a Conjunction, though improper­ly called an Aspect. Kepler defines an Aspect thus; that it is an Angle formed on the earth, by the luminous Rays of two Planets, efficacious to the stirring up of Nature; for when two Planets are joyned with, or beheld of each other, they seminate something in sublunary Bodies according to their own nature. See the Appendix.

Asterism,

[From Astrum, a Star.] A Con­stellation; or parcel of fixed Stars put together, so as to represent the figure of some particular thing, and thence all called by a common name; as the Bear, the Harp, the Lion, &c. are Constellations.

Astrolabe,

A Mathematical Instrument to ob­serve the Sun or Stars with; otherwise called a Planisphere, because it represents in Plano, almost [Page 20] the whole Celestial Doctrine, as the Motions, Di­stances, Ascensions, Descensions, Declinations, &c. of the Stars.

Astrology,

From the Greek Aster, a Star; and Logos, the speech or reason; and therefore sig­nifies in English, the speech or language of the Stars. It is a Science that teaches a conjectural know­ledg, obtained from the observation and position of the Stars; of the success of things depending on Celestial Influences; to predict the grand mutations of nature, and natural fortune of man, woman, or child.

Astronomy,

[The Law of the Stars; Gr. From Aster a Star; and Nomos, a Law, or Rule.] A Science that teacheth us the affections and motions of the Planets and Celestial Bodies for any time past, present, or to come.

Athazer,

is when the Moon is in the same de­gree and minute with the Sun, or when she is 12 degrees, or 45. 90. 150. 168. 180. 192. 215. 270. or 34.8 degrees from him.

Atmosphere,

[The Sphere of Vapours: Gr. From Atmos, a vapour; and Sphoera, a sphere.] That part of the Air which is nearest to the Earth, as far as the Terrestrial vapours ascend; for the Earth and all the Planets are enclosed in their several At­mospheres; so much of the Circumambient Air as is within the Sphere of their respective Activity, be­ing called the Atmosphere of the Earth, or of such a Planet.

Austral, [Southern] Signs,

The six last Signs of the Zodiack, viz. ♎, ♏, ♐, ♑, ♒, and ♓, are so called, because they are on the South-side of the Equinoctial.

Automata,

[Gr. Self-movers.] Mechanical [Page 21] Instruments or Engines, that going by a Screw, Spring, or Weight, &c. seem to move of them­selves; as a Clock, a Jack, &c.

Autumn,

Harvest, or Fall of the Leaf; one of the four Quarters of the Year, begining when the Sun enters ♎. Called so from the Latin Verb Augeo, which signifies, to Encrease, because then the Fruits of the Earth are encreased to full ma­turity, and the Husbandman's Gains augmented thereby.

Aur,

or Auge. See Apogaeon, which signifies the same.

Axiom,

Gr. A Common Sentence, Principle, or Ground of any Art, generally taken for granted.

Axis,

Lat. An Imaginary Line which passing from one Pole of the World through the Centre of the Earth, is terminated in the other Pole, about which we conceive the whole Machine or frame of the World to be turned.

Azimene,

Gr. [Lame, or Weak.] Certain de­grees in the Zodiack are called so by Astrologers; because Persons born when any of them Ascend, are generally lame, blind, or have some other incu­rable Imperfection.

Azimuth,

is an Arabick word, signifying the Arch of a great Circle of Heaven, imagined to pass from the Zenith to the Nadir, cutting the Horizon at Right Angles.

The Azores

are Islands in the North Latitude of 40 degrees, said by some to be scituated at the true Western Meridian, whence they would Com­pute the Longitude of all places from thence, rather than the Fortunate Islands.

B
BAckstaff,

An Instrument used by Sea-men for observing the Height of the Sun with ones back towards it, whereby the great inconveni­ence of the Sun's beams glaring in the Eye is avoided.

Barren Signs,

Gemini, Leo, and Virgo, are counted so by Astrologers: As, if a Question be propounded whether one shall have Children, or not? If one of these Signs Ascend, or be upon the Cusp of the 5th House, they take it for an Argu­ment that the Querent shall have none.

Base, or Basis,

The Ground-work, or Foun­dation of a matter, the Pedestal of a Statue; in Geometry and Perspective, either the Ground-Line, or the Flat upon which other Lines or Figures are Erected.

Besieged,

is when any Planet is placed be­twixt the Bodies of the two Malevolent Planets Saturn and Mars; as ♄ in 15. ♈. Mars in 10. of ♈, and ♀ in 13. ♈. Here Astrologers call Venus Besieged, and it represents (says Mr. Lilly) in Que­stions, a man's going out of God's Blessing into the warm Sun, if Venus be his Significatrix.

Bestial Signs

are, Aries, Taurus, Leo, Sagit­tary, and Capricorn, because they bear the names, and are represented on the Celestial Globe in the Figure of Four-footed Creatures.

Bicorporeal,

Double-bodied: A word some­times [Page 23] used by Geometricians, but oftner by Astro­logers, Gemini, Sagittarius, and Pisces are Bicorpo­real Signs.

Bimedial,

If two medial Lines (as in Fig. 4.) AB. and CD. commensurable in power onely, containing a Rational Rectangle, are compounded, the whole AC shall be irrational, and is called a first Bimedial Line. For the Demonstration, see Euclid, Elem. 10, Prop. 38.

Biquintile,

Is a new Aspect observed by Kep­ler; so called, because it consists of two fifth parts of the whole Circle, viz. 144 Degrees, and counted a benevolent Aspect, as the Quintile, Sextile, and Trine are, though of smaller force.

Bissextile,

Leap-Year; (so called, because then they said twice the sixth Calends of March) when once in four years a whole day is added, to make up the odd six hours, which the course of the Sun yearly exceeds 365 days, being inserted, or put in next after the 24th. of February.

Bisect,

[From the Lat. Bis, twice, and Seco, to cut,] To cut in two. A Line or Arch that cuts another Line, Arch, or Circle into two equal parts, is said to Bisect that Line, Arch, or Circle: As in Fig. 1. the Line BAF is Bisected by the Line CAI in A, and the Line CAI is Bisected by the Line FAB in A; so is the Circle BCFI Bisected by the two Lines BAF in B and F, and in CI, the Lines CAI and FAB; (being prolonged.)

Bisegment,

One of the equal parts so Bi­sected.

A Body,

is Geometrically defined to be a Mag­nitude which has length, breadth, and depth, and is either Regular, Irregular, or Mixt: The Regu­lar Bodies are five, viz. A Cube, a Tetrahedron, a [Page 24] Dodecahedron, an Octohedron, and an Isocahedron. Some Geometricians would take in a Sphere for a sixth Regular Body, but others reject it. An Irre­gular Body hath not its sides equal to one another. A Mixt Body is made by an equal cutting off the Angles of a Regular Body.

Boreal,

Lat. [North] Signs, ♈, ♉, ♊, ♋, ♌, ♍, because placed in the Northern Semicircle of the Zodiack.

Box and Needle,

An Instrument used in Sur­veying of Land: and finding out the situation of any Side, by the pointing of one end of its Needle towards the North.

Brachiolum,

Lat. [A little Arm] A mem­ber of an Instrument sometimes used upon Astro­labes, and other projections of the Sphere. 'Tis commonly made of Brass, having several joynts, that the End or Point may be set to any Degree on the Astrolabe. It is by English Writers some­times called a Creeping Index.

Broken Radiation,

A term in the Dioptrick Art, wherein is considered the breaking of Beams, as they are seen through a Glass or Crystal, cut into several plains or faces.

C
CAcodaemon,

[The Greek, Kacos, and Dai­mon, the Evil Genius.] Astrologers call the 12th. House so, because of its direful significations, as secret Enemies, Imprisonments, &c.

[Page 25] Cadent,

[Falling, or Weak, and Abject; from the Lat. Cado, to fall:] are Houses next from the Angles of an Astrological Figure, as the Third, the Sixth, the Ninth, and the Twelfth. Also a Planet is said to be Cadent, or in his Fall, when he is in a Sign opposite to that of its Exaltation.

Calends,

The Ancient Romans divided their Months into Calends, Nones, and Ides; which way is still used by many writing in Latin. To un­derstand it, observe 1st, That the Calends were the first day of the Month; the next were the Nones, being 6, in March, May, July, and October, and fell on the 7th day of these Months, but in all other Months were but 4, and hapned on the 5th day. The Ides were last, eight in every Month, be­ing on the 15th of the four before-mentioned Months, but on the 13th of all the rest.

2ly. Note, that they reckon'd all these back­wards, as Calendis Maii, is the first of May; but pridie Calend. Maii, the day before the Calends of May, is the 30th of April; III Calend. May, April 29, and so downwards to XVIII Cal. Maii, which is 14 April. Then began the Ides, as Idibus Aprilis the 13th of April; Pridie Id. Apr. the 12th April, III Id. the 11th of April, and so on to VIII. Id. Apr. which is April the 6th. Then were the Nones, as Nonis Aprilis, April the 15th. Pridie Nonarum, April the 4th. III. Non. Apr. the third of April. IV. Non. Apr. the second, and their Cal. Apr. the first of April. Thus to go on with May, the second of May is VIto Nonarum, (because we told you that was one of the Months that had 6 of them.) The 3d day is V. Non. The 7th day, Nonis Maii: The 8th day, VIII of the Ides of May; The 15th the Ides of May; but the 16th shall be the 17th of the [Page 26] Calends of June; The 17th of May XVI. Calend. Junii, and so on. All which the Ancients, for the help of memory, expressed in these five Verses.

Prima dies Mensis cujusque est dicta Calendae.
Sex Nonas Maius, Octobris, Julius & Mars;
Quatuor at Reliqui; dabit Idus quilibet octo.
Inde dies reliquos omnes dic esse Calendas,
Quos retro numerans dices à Mense sequente.

Which I thus English.

The Roman Month its several days divides
By reckoning backwards, Calends, Nones, and Ides.
Eight Ides hath each, and but four Nones they say,
Yet six have March, October, July, May:
After these Nones, and Ides, the rest of all
The days you must the next Months Calends call.

I have been the larger upon this, because most Authors that have gone about to explain it, have left it in as perplexed an obscurity as they found it, especially to one unacquainted with the Roman Usages. From these Calends comes our common word Calendar.

Callippick Period,

is an Agreement of the great Lunar year with the Nineteen-year Circle of the Sun, found out by one Callippus, and therefore so called. It contains 76 years; in which time the Lunations, or Changes of the Moon, return to the same day of the Month, and hour as before.

Cancer,

[Lat. the Crab.] A Sign of the Zo­diack, thus character'd, ♋; 'tis the House of ☽, and the Exaltation of Jupiter; and is so called, as well because there are in it 3 Stars on each Side, which represent a Crabb's Claws, as because the Sun, when [Page 27] he comes into this Sign hastens to the Equator, go­ing backwards from us like a Crab.

Canon,

[Gr. A Rule.] The Tables of Arti­ficial Sines, Tangents, and Secants, are so called.

Capital,

signifies in Architecture the Ornament that is made on the top of a Column, from Capita­lis in Latin, of or belonging to the Head.

Carpentum,

[Lat. A Chariot,] or Throne of a Planet, is when he is Posited in a place where he has most Dignities, as Aquary of Saturn, be­cause he has there both House and Triplicity; Sa­gittary of Jupiter for the same reason, &c.

Capricorn,

[Lat. the Goat,] one of the Signs of the Zodiack, the 10th in order, thus character'd ♑. Earthly, dry, and cold; the House of Saturn, and Exaltation of Mars.

Chart, or Card,

[From the Lat. Charta, a Paper.] A Draught of Sea-Coasts, Sands, Rocks, &c. 'Tis also sometimes taken for the round Pastbord whereon the 32 Points are described in the Nautical Compass.

Cardines,

Lat. signifies properly the Hinges of a Door, but is used for the chief or most material parts on which the rest do in some sort depend; As

Cardinal Points,

The Angles, or 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th Houses.

Cardinal Signs,

The Signs, ♈, ♋, ♎, and ♑.

Cast a Point of Traverse,

is a term in Na­vigation, which signifies to prick down on a Chart the Point of the Compass any Land bears from you; or to find by Art what Point your Ship bears at any instant, or what way the Ship has made.

Catabibazon,

From Catabibazo, a Greek word, signifying to descend, or go down against. [Page 28] The Dragons-Tail; sometimes so called, because it goes exactly against the Dragons-Head.

Cathetus,

A Greek word for a Perpendicular. See Perpendicular.

Catoptricks,

A branch of the Opticks, or an Art that teaches to Project a Confused Figure, seem­ingly without a design; yet when it is reflected on a proper Polish'd Body, it shall shew the de­sign. From the Greek words Cata, against; and Opto, to see; because it chiefly treats of Re­flexions.

Cazimi,

An Arabick word, signifying the Cen­tre of the Sun: so a Planet is said to be in Cazimi, when it is not above 17 minutes distant from the Centre of the Sun, as Saturn in 3 degr. 21 minutes of Taurus and Sol in 3 degr. 31 min. of ♉. Here Saturn is in Cazimi, which is reckoned a great For­titude to any Planet; but how it should be so, when Combustion is so grand a Debility, let Astro­logers consider.

Centiloquium,

A Book containing one hun­dred Astrological Aphorisms commonly ascribed to Ptolemy, as its Author, but by some to Hermes Trismegistus: So called from the Lat. Centum, an hundred; and Loquor, to speak: as much as to say, the hundred notable Speeches.

Centre,

A Point in the middle of a Sphere, or Circle; from which all lines drawn to the Super­ficies or Circumference are equal. 'Tis also used in Perspective for the Visual Point. The word is Greek, Centron.

Chord,

is a streight Line subtended under an Arch, dividing a Circle into unequal parts, by which it differs from a Diameter: for that passing by the Centre divides a Circle into two equal [Page 29] parts. Thus the Lines EL, HO, in Fig 1. are cal­led Chords.

Chorography,

From the Greek Choros, a place or tract of Ground; Grapho, towrite, describe, or treat of: Called also Topography, is a part of Geography, which delivers the description of par­ticular Provinces or Kingdoms onely.

Chronocrator,

From the Greek Chronos, Time; and Crator, a Ruler; being as much as to say in English, Lord of the time. Some take it for the Sun in the day, and the Moon by night. Others divide the life of Man into seven parts, and ascribe the Government of each to a particular Planet; as from the birth to four years old to the Moon, from thence to 14 years old, to Mercury, thence to 22, to Venus, &c. And these they call Chronocrators.

Circle,

Is a plain Figure, contained in one Line onely; in the midst whereof there is a Point, from whence all Lines drawn to the Circumference are equal. As in Fig. 1. the Circle is marked CLOB­DIFHE, and is described upon the Centre A; from whence all straight Lines drawn to the Circum­ference are equal.

Circles of Altitude.

See Almicanthars.

Circle of Inclination

is a great Circle about the Sun; in the Sphere of the Fixed Stars, falling right upon the Ecliptick.

Circles of Position,

Arc Circles passing by the common Interfections of the Horizon and Meridi­an, and through any Degree in Heaven, or the Cen­tre of any Star, or other Point in Heaven, used for the finding out how such a Star is situated, in respect of the World. The twelve Astrological Houses are likewise distinguish'd by Semi-circles of Position.

[Page 30] Circumference,

From the Lat. Circum, about, and Fero, to bear, or encompass; in Greek Peri­pherie: They both signifie no more, but the out­termost Circular Line, which embraces the whole Area (or Contents) of any Figure. Sometimes the words are used for the whole Superficies of the Earth, or for the Convex and outward part of any Celestial Sphere.

Circumferentor,

Has the same Etimology with the last word; but is also the name of an Instru­ment used for Surveying of Land: So called, I con­ceive, because 'tis fit and easie to be carried about with one. See Rathbourn's Survey, B. 3. Chap. 4.

Civil Days,

contain just 24 hours a-piece, reckon'd from 12 a clock at Noon, or Night (ac­cording to the custom of the place) on one day, to the same time the next day. In which space of time, the Equinoctial makes one Diurnal Revolu­tion on the Poles of the World. See Tutor to Astro­nomy, Book 2. Probl. 51.

Civil Year,

(So called in contra-distinction to the Natural,) is the Legal Year, used in conversation between man and man, for Bargains, Contracts, &c. which with us begins not till the 25th. of March; it always contains onely 365 civil days, except in the Leap-year, and then it has 366 days.

Climate,

From the Greek word Clima, of the same signification; is a portion of the Earth or Hea­ven contained between two Parallels. And for di­stinction of Places, and different temperature of the Air, according to their situation; the whole Globe of Earth is divided into 24 Northern, and 24 Southern Climates, according to the half-hour­ly encreasing of the longest days; for under the Equator we call the first Climate: from thence as [Page 31] far as the Latitude extends, under which the long­est day is half an hour more than under the Equa­tor, viz. 12 hours and an half, is the second Climate: where it is encreased a whole hour, the third Climate: and so each Northerly and Southerly Climate re­spectively hath its longest day half an hour longer than the former Climate, till in the last Climate North and South, the Sun Sets not for half a year together, but moves Circularly above the Hori­zon.

Climacterical Years:

So called from the Greek word Climax, a Gradation, or Rounds of a Ladder, because they are the great Steps, or remarkable De­grees whereby Man's life ascends, or mounts up to its appointed Period, are certain observable years which are usually attended with some grand mu­tation of Life or Fortune. As the 7th year, the 21th, made up of three times seven; the 49th, made up of 7 times seven; the 63 d, being 9 times seven; and the eighty first, which is 9 times nine; which two last are often called the Grand Climactericks. In which many famous men have been observed to die. Not only the Learned Heathen; as Plato, Ci­cero, Macrobius, &c. have written much of these Climacterical years; but several Fathers, and Do­ctors of the Church, as St. Ambrose, Austin, Bede, &c. have justified the Observation to be neither Superstitious, nor unprofitable.

Collection of Light,

An Astrological phrase, when two principal Significators do not behold each other, but both cast their several Aspects to a third Planet more weighty than themselves, whom they both receive in some of their Essential Dignities; then is such Planet said to Collect, or gather to­gether their Lights, which signifies in Art thus, that [Page 32] a person somewhat interessed in both Parties, and described and signified by that Planet, shall by his Interposure effect and accomplish the business, which otherwise could not be perfected.

Column,

An upright round Pillar, made ac­cording to the Rules of Architecture; the Body of it is called in Lat. Scapus, in English the Shaft or Shank; the Ornament on the Top, Epistylium, or Capitellum; in English, the Capital, or Chapiter; that which it stands on, Basis, or Pedestal.

Colures,

So called either from the Greek Verb Coláo, which signifies to joyn, or glew together, because the other moveable Circles of the Sphere are (as it were) Conglutinated or united by these; or from the Greek words Colobon, a piece or part divided from the whole; and Oura, a Tail; be­cause in the Conversion of the World, these Cir­cles in most places of the Earth, are never seen whole, but only some parts of them, like mutilated Tails: Whatever be the Original of the name, they are two great Circles imagined in the Heavens, pas­sing by the Poles of the World, and mutually cut­ting each other at Right Angles, the one passing from Pole to Pole through the begining of Aries and Libra, is thence called the Equinoctial Colure; The other through the begining of ♋ and ♑, which occasions it to be term'd the Solstitial Co­lure. Their use is, to divide the Equator, Zodiack, and all the Heaven into 4 equal parts, and shew the 4 principal Points of the Zodiack, to which, when the Sun comes, he distinguishes each quarter of the year.

Combust,

[Burnt, or scorched; a Participle of the Latin Verb Comburo, to burn.] When a Planet is not above 8 degr. and 30 minutes distant [Page 33] from the Sun either before or after him; he is said to be Combust, or in Combustion, as ♃ in 10 degr. of ♈, the Sun in 18 of ♈; here ♃ is Combust, which is always a great Debility; and in Judgment shews, that the party by such a Planet signified, is in great fear, and much over-powred by some great per­son. And note, Combustion is much the worse, when the Sun hastens to ♂ with the Planet, than when he recedes from him; in regard its the Body of the ☉ that doth afflict.

Combust way,

By reason of several violent and malefique Fixed Stars in the second half of Li­bra, and throughout the whole Sign Scorpio. All that space is called Via Combusta, the Combust way, being about 45 degrees in Longitude, which is counted unfortunate, and to weaken any Planet that happens to be therein, especially the Moon, who is there so much Debilitated, that it is reckoned next to an Eclipse.

Cometes,

Gr. A Comet, or Blazing-Star: so called from another Greek word Kome, hair; be­cause most Comets seem to have hairs about them. There are several opinions, or rather offers con­cerning the Matter they consist of; but the most vulgar opinion is, that they are Earthy vapours, ha­ving gross parts strongly compacted, which being drawn up sometimes even above the Orb of the Moon, are there set on fire, and continue flaming for some time; and then, the matter being consu­med, disappear. They are generally thought to be as Beacons fired, to foreshew the approach of Divine vengeance, in Sword, Plague, Famine, or some other lamentable Calamity.

Commanding Signs,

These first six, ♈, ♉, ♊, ♋, ♌, and ♍, are accounted and called so by Astrologers.

[Page 34] Commensurable in Power,

[From the Lat. Con, or cum & mensura, that is to say, equal measures.] Right Lines are said to be Commen­surable in Power, when their Squares are measured by one and the same space, or Superficies. See Euclid. Elem. 10. Definit. 3.

Commensurable Mag­nitudes,

are such as are mea­sured by one and the same Common measure; as A and B by C; for C reapeated 6 times, measures A; and re­peated 3 times, B: Therefore A and B are said to be Com­mensurable. See Eucl. Elem. 10. Def. 1, 2, &c.

A|---|---|---|---|---|---|

B|---|---|---|

C|---|

Common Signs,

are ♊, ♍, ♐, and ♓. So called, because they are characteriz'd in a double form; and for that, being respectively at the end of each Quarter of the year, they partake of more or less of both Quarters; as the Sun in Pisces not only ends the Winter, but begins the Spring. Under these Signs are born, as Astrologers say, Twins, Her­maphrodites, Monsters, &c.

Compass,

An Instrument Sea-men use to Steer the Ship by, much more easy to be understood by a sight, than the best description.

Complement,

[Lat. From Compleo, properly a filling up, or making good: And therefore in Arithmetick it signifies that Number that makes a lesser Number equal to a greater Number. As 45 is the Complement of 45 to 90; so in Geometry 'tis used in the Mensuration of Figures and Bodies: as if a Figure or Body contain 7 foot, and 4 foot be measured out of it, here 3 is the Complement. [Page 35] But by the Complement of an Arch, is usually un­derstood so much as the Arch wants of 90 degrees to make it a Quadrant, or so much as it wants of 180 degrees to make it a Semicircle, or so many degrees as it wants of 360 degrees, to make it a whole Circle.

Composite Order,

A Way or Order in Ar­chitecture Compounded out of the other 4 Orders, Tuscan, Dorick, Jonick, and Corinthian. 'Tis used therefore to distinguish the size and shape of Co­lumns. See Vignola's Compleat Architect, pag. 64. And when Authors say, The Composite Capital, or Composite Base, they only mean the Capital or Base that belongs to a Column of the Composite Order. So called, because it partakes, and is composed of the rest, as aforesaid.

Compound Equation.

See Absolute Equa­tion.

Compound Number,

is that which some Number may measure besides Unity; as 15, which is measured by 5 and 3.

Composition of Reason,

is when the Ante­cedent with the Consequent are taken together, as one to be compared to the same Consequent, called Composition of Reason, because of the Antecedent and Consequent, there is compounded another new Antecedent. See Euclid. 5th Elem. Def. 14.

Concave,

Lat. Hollow, or Bowing: As the face of Heaven appears to us; or the in-side of a Tube, or the like. The contrary side of which bulging out, is called Convex.

Concentrick,

Having the same Centre; as all Circles that are drawn from one Centre, though never so great or little; whence Astronomers call those Celestial Orbs, Concentrick, whose Centre is [Page 36] the same with the Centre of the World; as they term those Eccentrick, (of a different Centre) which, though they encompass the Earth, yet they have another Centre, and not that of the World.

Cone,

[From the Greek [...], properly a Pine-Apple;] and from thence it is used by Geo­metricians to signify a like Figure, viz. A Body with a round flat Base, upon which every side of it is placed, so as it ends at the top, in a Point hang­ing directly over the Centre of the Base.

Constellation,

A company of Stars called by one name. See Asterism; From the Latin Cum, with, and Stella, a Star; as much as to say, many Stars one with another. As Aries is a Constellation; the Great Bear is a Constellation; the Little Bear is a Constellation, Bootes, Auriga, Canis Major, &c. are Constellations.

Contingent Line,

is a streight Line where­on is set the distances of the hour-Lines in the ma­king Sun-Dials; from the Lat. Contingo, to hap­pen upon, or touch: it is indeed a Tangent Line.

Contra Antiscion,

Gr. The degree and mi­nute in the Ecliptick, opposite to the Antiscion. Which see.

Convex,

Lat. The out-side of a Ball, Globe, or any round Body. See Concave, that being the internal, this the external side or prospect of the same thing.

Converse Direction,

is a deduction of a Significator to the place of the Promittors, made by the motion of the Primum Mobile, contrary to the succession of the Signs.

Corinthian Order,

One of the 5 Orders in Architecture, whereby to distinguish the size and shapes of Columns; and the Bases, Capitals, &c. [Page 37] thereunto properly belonging. See Vignola's Ar­chitect, pag. 52. because invented, or chiefly used at the City of Corinth.

Corollary,

An Addition beyond what was pro­posed. The Illustrations following Geometrical Problems, are oft-times called so in Mathematical Authors.

Co-Secant, Co-Sine, and Co-Tangent.

The Complement of Sines, Se­cants, or Tangents, to 90 degr. or so many degr. as they want thereof respectively. See Se­cants, Sines, and Tangents.

Cossick,

The old word for Algebra.

Cosmical,

Stars are said to Rise Cosmically, when they Rise with the Sun; and to Set Cosmically, when they Set when the Sun Rises.

Cosmography,

An Artificial description of the whole World, Earth and Heavens, and the se­veral parts thereof; but 'tis sometimes used only for Geography, or a description only of the Globe of the Earth.

Course,

A Sea-term signifying the Point of the Compass which the Ship Sails upon. As if you Sail Eastward, 'tis an Easterly Course, &c.

Crisis, and Critical days.

These terms are chiefly used by Physitians; but since they can­not be found out but by Astro­nomy, we shall here briefly explain them. Crisis is used for a sudden change of a Disease into better or worse, Life or Death; and because by experi­ence it hath been found that such changes happen for the most part regularly at such and such times; Hence they call those days Critical days, which are commonly believed to be every 7th day, by reason of I know not what kind of vertue in that number: [Page 38] but the truth is, the reason of those Conflicts be­tween Nature and the Disease, is the Moons coming to the Quadratures, Opposition, or Radical place, where she was at the beginning of the sickness; and one of these generally happens about the 7th day; but as the Moon is swifter, or slower in mo­tion, it often comes sooner or later. Therefore the discreet Physitian ought to consult Ephemerides, without which they cannot give any true or ra­tional Account of their observing these Critical days: For the better doing it, they should Erect a Scheme with 16 Houses; the form whereof you have in Mr. Culpeper's Semiotica Uranica.

Cronical.

See Acronical.

Cross-Staff,

An Instrument Sea-men use to ob­serve the Height of the Sun or Stars with.

Cube,

A Solid Body containing equal and square Sides; as a Dye.

Cubed Cube,

The sixth Power in Numbers.

Cube Number,

The third Power in Num­bers.

Cube Root,

The Root or Side of the third Power: So if 27 be the Cube, 3 is the Side or Root.

Cubed Square,

The Biquadrat, or 4th Power. Thus 2 is the Side, 4 the Square, 8 the Cube of 2, 16 the Biquadrate, 32 the 5th Power, and 64 the 6th Power, or Cubed Cube.

Culmen Coeli,

The highest Point in Hea­ven that any Star or Planet can rise to in any La­titude. 'Tis taken by Astrologers for the 10th House; and when a Star comes to the Meridian of any place, 'tis said to Culminate, or be Cui­minant.

Cuneus,

Lat. A Body in form of a Wedg, and [Page 39] sometimes a Ruler or Label fitted to a Projection of the Sphere in Plano.

Curved, or Curvilineary,

Crooked, or a Body Hollow­ed; whence Figures consist­ing of Triangles, Quadran­gles, &c. when they are considered as, or referred to Circles in the Heaven, are called Curvilineary, because they all consist of Arches of Circles.

Cusp,

The beginning or first Point of each of the 12 Astrological Houses is so called.

Cycle [the very same with Circle] of the Moon,

Is the Revolution of 19 years, which be­ing expired, all the Lunations return to their former place in the Calendar.

Cycle of the Sun,

Is a Revolution of 28 years, for finding out the Dominical Letters, which then return all in the same order as before.

Cylinder,

[Gr. properly a Rowler, such as is used in Gardens] whence in Geometry 'tis used for any Solid Body of that shape, viz. whose Base and Top are Flat, the Circumference of its Bases Round and Equal, and its Shank Long and Streight.

Cypher or Cyfer,

a Character used in Arith­metick, in form somewhat like the Letter o, which alone or before (that is, towards the left hand of) any Numerical Figure, signifies nothing; but after another Figure, (that is, towards the right hand) increases that Figure ten times; if two Cy­phers be placed after a Figure, they increase it an hundred times; if three, a thousand times: as 10, 100, 1000, &c.

D.
DAta,

[Lat. Things given or granted] A Term in Geometry for something proposed or known, in order to the finding out of other things unknown. As two Sides and an Angle given in a Triangle, to find the third Side; Here two Sides and an Angle are the Data. See Eu­clid's Data.

Davi's Quadrant,

An Instrument used by Sea-men, wherewith they observe the Heighth of the Sun, with their backs toward it, to avoid its glaring in their eyes. See Back-staff.

Daily Motion,

The Progress which any Pla­net makes in 24 Hours, by his own proper Motion.

Debilities,

[Lat. Weaknesses.] Certain Affe­ctions of the Planets, whereby they are weakned, and their Influences become less vigorous, or more depraved; and they are either Essential, as when a Planet is in his Detriment, Fall, or Peregrine; or Accidental, as when he is in the 12th. 8th. or 6th. Houses; or Combust, or beheld of the Infortunes, &c. By each of which Circumstances, as he is com­paratively more or less afflicted, so he is said to have in such a case so many or so few Debilities.

Decanate,

[from Decem; Ten] by some called Decurte, and in Astrologie, The Face, is one Third part [or Ten Degrees] of each Sign, attri­buted to some particular Planet, who being there­in, shall be said to have one Dignity, and conse­quently [Page 41] cannot be Peregrine; though if he be not otherwise fortified, we may repute him like a man ready to be turn'd out of doors, having much ado to keep up his sinking Credit. How these Faces are a [...]gn'd, you may see in the Table of Essential Dignities, commonly printed in The Tutor to Astro­logy.

Decimal Arithmetick,

[from Decem, Ten] or, The Art of Tens, wherein any Integer, as Pounds, Yards, Perches, &c. are taught to be divided into Ten, a Hundred, or a Thousand parts.

Declination

[Lat. a bending, stooping, or going downwards] Is a Term in Astronomy, used for the Bending or Digression of any Star, or part of Heaven, from the Equator towards either of the Poles of the World; and to which of them it hap­pens to be, thence 'tis called North Declination, or South Declination. The beginning of Aries and Libra have no Declination at all, because they fall upon the Equator: but the Fixed Stars and Planets may Decline as far as the Parallels in which they are, even to 90 Degrees. By the Declination of a Star, we know the Quantity of its Diurnal and No­cturnal Arch, its Elevation above the Horizon, Distance from the Zenith, Circle of Position, and the like. Of great use in Astronomy.

Decumbiture,

[Lat. properly a Lying down] In Astrology 'tis understood for a Figure erected at that moment, when a Disease first invades a Per­son, or when he is first so sensibly afflicted, as to take notice of it, and keep his Bed or Chamber, or re­frain his Business. By which Figure of the Decum­biture, the Artist finds out the nature of the Disease, Parts afflicted, Prognosticks of Death, or Recovery, the most proper Medicaments, true Times of the Crisis, &c.

[Page 42] Definition,

An Explanation, which in few words fully expresses what the thing is that is spo­ken of.

Deferens,

[from the Lat. de and fero, to carry] or, The Deferent, signifies in Astronomy a Circle or Orb, carrying not so much the Epicycle, as the very Body of the Planet fix'd therein, and causing the same to be roll'd about the World, whether in its Epicycle, or proper Orbite. See Ricciolus, l. 3. c. 20.

Degree,

The 30th. part of a Sign, or ra­ther the 360th. part of the whole Circle. As in Scheme 1. the several small spaces between the two innermost Circles, are Degrees. Each of these Degrees are divided into 60 parts, called Minutes, each Minute into 60 parts more, called Seconds, and so to Thirds, Fourths, Fifths, &c. The di­stance of one Degree of Heaven is vulgarly ac­counted to give 60 Miles on Earth; but by Mr. Norwood's Experiment it is 69. Of these Degrees, Astrologers have noted some to be smoaky, some to be dark, some deep-pitted, &c. of which you have a Table at large in the Tutor to Astrology.

Depress the Pole.

So many Degrees as you Sail or Travel from the Pole, you are said to De­press the Pole, because it becomes lower and nea­rer to the Horizon: And so many Degrees as you approach towards it, so much you are said to Raise the Pole, because then it becomes higher, and nearer the Zenith.

Descension,

A Setting, or going down. See Ascension.

Detriment,

[Lat. properly Loss or Damage] Astrologers call by that name one, and the greatest of the Essential Debilities of a Planet, viz. the [Page 43] Sign that is Diametrically [or Directly] opposite to that which is his House; as the Detriment of the Sun is ♒, because opposite to ♌; of the Moon ♑, because opposite to ♋.

Dexter Aspect,

[Lat. a beholding towards the Right hand] Is an Aspect contrary to the Order of the Signs; as ♄ in ♈, casting his ⚹, □, or △ to any Planet in ♒, ♑, or ♐. This is called a Dexter Aspect, or beholding towards the Right hand, or forwards: Whereas if being so in ♈, he behold a Planet in ♊, ♋, or ♌, according to the natural Succession of the Signs, 'twould be a Sini­ster [or Left-hand] Aspect. And note, that the Dex­ter Aspect is, by the Ancients, accounted more forcible than the Sinister; but this is contradicted by others. See the Tutor to Astrology, p. 55.

Diagonal,

[from the Gr. Dia, and Gonia, of or belonging to a Corner] In Geometry a Streight Line drawn from one Angle of a Square to the opposite Angle.

Diagram,

A Figure made with Lines or Cir­cles, for the Demonstration of any Geometrical Pro­position, such as you have throughout Euclid's Elements. But in Musick it signifies a Proportion of Measures, distinguished by certain Notes.

Diameter,

[from Dia, of or belonging; and Metria, the Measure of a thing] A Line which go­eth through the middle part of any Figure; or more properly, as 'tis defined by our great Master Euclid, A certain Line drawn through the Centre, and terminated at each end in the Circumference of the Circle, thereby dividing the Circle into two equal parts. As in Fig. 1. the Line A B is the Dia­meter.

Diametrically opposite,

Overthwart, right [Page 44] a-cross, or exactly Contrary, as one end of a Diame­ter is to the other.

Difference of Ascension.

See Ascensional Difference.

Digit,

[Lat. Properly a Finger, or Fingers­breadth,] but used by Astronomers for one Twelfth part of the Body of the Sun or Moon, which they divided into so many parts, that they might know to a twelfth part how much of them was obscured in Eclipses.

Dignities,

Are certain Advantages which a Planet hath by vertue of being in such a place of the Zodiack, or such a Configuration with other Planets, &c. whereby his Vertue is encreased and and augmented.

Dimetient,

Lat. The Measurer: But see Dia­meter, being the same thing.

Diopter,

Gr A Rule or Line placed in the middle of an Astrolabe, or any the like Instrument; called by some Linea Fiduciae; by others, Alhida­da. Which see before.

Direct,

A Planet is then said to be Direct, when by its proper motion it goes forward in the Zodi­ack according to the succession of the Signs, as from 10 degr. of ♉ to 20. and thence into ♊.

Direction,

is a real motion perform'd by the motion of the Primum Mobile, whereby the Sun, Moon, or any other Star, or part of Heaven, that at a mans birth was his Significator, or undertook to effect any thing concerning him, are carried to another Star, or part of Heaven, signifying likewise something referring thereunto; and as it were ex­pecting the same to compleat an effect; thereby accomplishing what in the Radix was signified ac­cording to the time of their Devolution each to other.

[Page 45] Discus,

[Lat. properly a dish or platter, whence it comes to signify] any Figure Round and plain. And because the Bodies of the Luminaries, although really Spherical, by reason of their distance seem plain; therefore they are called Discus Solaris, vel Lunaris, the Disck of the Sun or Moon.

Dispositor,

[Lat. The Disposer.] In Astro­logy is that Planet which is Lord of the Sign in which another Planet happens to be, whom he is therefore said to dispose of.

Distance,

A term oft used in Navigation, and signifies the Number of Degrees, Leagues, &c. that a Ship has Sailed from any proposed Point, or the distances in Degrees, Leagues, &c. of any two places.

Diurnal,

[From Dies, a Day,] daily, or of or belonging to day. But Planets or Signs are called Diurnal, which contain more Active than Passive Qualities; as on the contrary, they that abound in Passive Qualities, are said to be Nocturnal. For Example, since Saturn is more cold than dry, Jupi­ter more hot than moist, the Sun more hot than dry, they are term'd Diurnal Planets. But Mars being more dry than hot, and the Moon more moist than cold, are stil'd Nocturnal. The like observe of Signs.

Diurnal Motion,

is so many degrees and mi­nutes as a Planet moves by his proper Motion in 24 hours.

Diurnal Arch,

The Arch of degrees that the Sun, Moon, or Stars runs between their Rising and Setting.

Dodecaedron,

Gr. From Dodeca, twelve, and Edron, a Side. A Figure in Geometry of Twelve Sides, or as Euclid defines it; A Solid Figure con­tained [Page 46] under Twelve equal Pentagons, of equal Sides and Angles. As Tetraêdron is a Figure con­sisting of 4 Triangles; Octoêdron of eight Trian­gles; Isoêdron, a Figure contained under twenty equal and equilateral Triangles: So the Dodecaê­dron consists of twelve Pentagons.

Dodecatemorion,

Gr. Properly the twelfth part of any thing, but generally used for a Sign, or 12th part of all Heaven: As when we say, the Dodecatemorion of Aries, or Taurus, &c.

Dominical [or Lords-day] Letter,

From the Lat. Dominicus, one of the first 7 Letters of the Alphabet, wherewith the Sundays are mark'd throughout the year in Almanacks: To find which it is for every year, there are several Common Ta­bles and Rules.

Dorick Order,

[From the Dorii: A people of Achaia in Greece, where this sort of Building was first Invented.] One of the 5 Orders in Ar­chitecture: The perfect description whereof, see in Vignola's Compleat Architect. pag. 5.

Dragons Head and Tail,

Two Points where the Or­bit of the Moon Cuts the Orbit of the Sun, and the Ecliptick; the one of them tends Northwards, the Moon beginning there to have North Latitude, and the other Southward, where she Commences South Latitude. This her Deviation from the Ecliptick seems to make a Figure like that of a Dragon, whose Belly is where she has the greatest Latitude, and the Intersections represent the Head and Tail; from which resemblance 'tis so called. But note, these Points abide not always in one place, but have a motion of their own in the Zodiack, but almost Retrograde almost 3 minutes a day.

[Page 47] Duplicate,

[or Double] Proportion; double the size or proportion of one Figure or Body to another Figure or Body.

Duplicate Reason.

See Euclid. Elem. 5. De­fin. 10.

Dysis,

The 7th House, sometimes so called. The word in Greek signifying the West.

E
EArthy Triplicity,

Signs whose Nature and Influence participate of Earthy qualities, viz. Coldness and Dryness; which are Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.

Eccentrick,

A Greek word, from Ec, the Prae­position, and signifying, out of; and Centron, a Centre.] Not having the same Centre with the World, or with an assigned Circle, of which kind several Orbs were Invented by Ancient Astrono­mers, to solve the Appearances of the Celestial Bo­dies. Thus the Eccentrick Orb of any Planet, is that the Concave and Convex of whose Deferent have each of them a different Centre from that of the Universe: But because these Eccentrick Orbs are carried with a rapid motion about the Earth, they thought it necessary there should be two other Orbs to include and carry about the former, which in one part, viz. their Concave or Convex should be Eccentrick, and in the other Concentrick, (that is, having the same Centre with the World.) So that each Planet was supposed to have three seve­ral [Page 48] Orbs, &c. But this confused Celestial Clock­work, the Copernican System has pretty well re­moved.

Eclipse,

[a wanting or failing, from the Greek word Ecleipsis] A deprivation of the Light of one of the Luminaries, when by their Conjunction in the Orbit of the Sun, his Face, by the Interpositi­on of the Moons Body, is hidden from our sight: Or when at their Opposition in the same Orbit, the Moon, by the Shadow of the intervening Earth, is obscured. But between an Eclipse of the Sun, and of the Moon, there are several differences. 1. In the Lunar Eclipse, she really loses her Light, and is obscured, by wanting the Illumination of the Sun; but in the Solar, he loses not his Light, but onely we are deprived of it. So that to speak properly, we should call it an Eclipse of the Earth, rather than of the Sun. 2. As the Moons Eclipse is Real, so 'tis Universal, and appears always in the same Quantity on every Superficies of the Earth, where 'tis visible; but the Suns Eclipse is not Uni­versal, but varied greater, lesser, or not at all, ac­cording to the diversity of the several Climates. Lastly, the Moon always begins to be Eclipsed on the West side, the Sun on the East side their Bodies.

Ecliptick,

[so called from the Greek Verb Ecleipo, which signifies to fail, or want, because under this Line, the Sun and Moon is in the middle of the Zodiack, and always suffer their Eclipses, or fail of their Light.] A Line, or rather a great Cir­cle in Heaven, equally distant from its Poles, as the Equator is from the Poles of the World. This is called Via Solis, the Sun's Way, or Orbit, because the Sun never goes out of it; and is termed the Ecliptick, because all Eclipses happen therein.

[Page 49] Elections,

[from the Lat. Eligo, to choose.] Astrologers mean by this Term certain opportuni­ties of Times, elected (or chosen) by Astrological Observations, as most fit for such a particular Bu­siness or Enterprise.

Elements,

Lat. The first Roots or Principles of Things, as Fire, Air, Earth, and Water, whereof all Bodies are composed. So Letters are called the first Elements of Learning; and Euclid's Fifteen Books of Geometry are so called, because without being acquainted with the Principles therein laid down, no Mathematical work can be undertaken and demonstrated.

Elevated,

[from the Lat. Elevo, to lift up] A certain pre-eminence of one Planet above another; or, A concurrence of Two to a certain Act, where­in one being Stronger, is carried above the Weaker, and does alter and depress its Nature and Influence: But wherein this being Elevated consists, there are several Opinions; some say, when a Planet is near­est the Zenith, or Meridian: Others will have it onely that Planet that is highest, or nearest to the Apogoeum of his Eccentrick or Epicyle. And Argol admits of all these, and several other Advantages, and thence advises to collect the several Testimo­nies, and that Planet who has most, shall be said to be Elevated above the other.

Elevation of the Pole,

The Heighth or Number of Degrees that the Pole, in any Latitude, is above the Horizon.

Elipsis,

Gr. An Oval, or Geometrical Figure, in shape of an Egg, comprehended in one onely Line, but that not Circular, nor having all its parts equally respecting the Centre.

Elongation,

Lat. The removal of a Planet [Page 50] to the furthest distance it can be at from the Sun; commonly taken notice of in Venus and Mercury.

Embolism,

A Greek word, signifying the Interlacing, or putting in of a Day in the Leap­year, but used for the Excess of the Solar Year above the Lunar, whereby the Lunations happen every subsequent Year eleven days sooner than in that fore-going; which when they amount to 30 days, make a new Moneth, called the Embolismical Lu­nation; which must be added, to make the common Lunar Year equal to the Solar.

Empyreum,

[from the Greek word Pyr, sig­nifying Fire] The Heaven of Heavens, the Throne of God, Residence of Angels, and Eternal Man­sions of Saints.

Emergent,

A Planets getting out from un­der the Suns Beams, and becoming visible.

Enneatical Days or Years,

[from the Gr. En­nea, Nine] Every 9th. day of a Sick­ness, or Year of one's Life, which is thought to bring some great alteration in the Disease, or Mu­tation of Fortune. See Critical and Climacte­rical.

Epact,

[quasi Epiaucta, that is, an Augmenta­tion, or Additional Supply] 'Tis used for a Num­ber whereby we note the Excess of the common Solar Year above the Lunar, and thereby may find out the Age of the Moon every Year: For the Solar Year consisting of 365 Days, the Lunar but of 354, the Lunations every Year get 11 days before the Solar Year; but thereby in 19 Years, the Moon compleats twenty times twelve Luna­tions, or gets up one whole Solar Year; and hav­ing finished that Circuit, begins again with the [Page 51] Sun; and so from 19 Years to 19 Years: for the first Year afterwards, the Moon will go before the Sun but 11 days; the second year, 22 days, which is called the Epact of that Year; the third Year, 33 days; but 30 being an entire Lunation, cast that away, and counts that Years Epact onely 3; the next Years 14; and so on, adding yearly 11 days, and casting away 30, when the Number amounts to more.

Ephemeris,

[from the Greek Hemera, a Day] A Diary, or Day-book; but especially amongst Astronomers those Books which contain the daily Motions of the Planets, with their Aspects, and other Circumstances, for every day in the year, are called Ephemerides.

Epicycle,

Gr. A little Circle, whose Centre is in the Circumference of a greater; or a small Orb, which being fix'd in the Different of a Planet, is carried along with its Motion, and yet with its own peculiar Motion carries the Body of the Pla­net fastned to it round about its proper Centre; which antient Astronomers attribute to all the Pla­nets, for solving their Appearances, except the Sun.

Epocha,

[or rather Epoche. In Greek it signifies a Root or Begining] but 'tis generally taken for some remarkable Occurrence from whence, or man­ner whereby, some Nations Date and Measure their Computation of Time; as the Olympiads amongst the Greeks, the Indictions among the Ro­mans, &c.

Equal Reason.

See Reason.

Equinoctial, or Equator,

[From the Lat. Aequus, Equal; and Nox, the Night] A great Circle, equally dividing the [Page 52] Sphere into two parts, whereof one lies towards the North, the other towards the South Pole, this Circle lying in the middle, and equalling all parts: Whence by the Ancients 'tis called, Cingulum Mundi, the Girdle of the World; and also the Equi­noctial, because those that live under it have always their Days and Nights both of a length, and so have we, and almost all the World, twice a year, when the Sun holds this Circle, entring the be­gining of Aries or Libra, which are called Equi­noctial Points, or Signs, for that reason; and the Times, the Vernal, or Autumnal Equinox.

To Erect a Figure,

or draw a Scheme, Is onely to divide the 12 Houses aright, and put down the proper Sign, Degree, and Minute on each Cusp, and the Planets in their proper places; so that your Figure may truly represent the Po­sitions of the Celestial Bodies at that moment of time for which it is intended. See Fig. 2.

Errones, or Erratick Stars,

[A Latin word, that properly signifies Wanderers] The Pla­nets are usually called so, in contradistinction to the Fixed Stars, by reason of their having each a pe­culiar Motion, and divers respects to each other, which by such Motion they daily change; where­as the Stars of the several Constellations, though hurried daily round from East to West by the Primum Mobile, and back again by a most slow and imperceptible Motion of the Firmament; yet because themselves move not, but retain always the same place in the Firmament, and distance from each other, they are justly reputed, in respect of the others, Fix'd and Immovable: But these Er­raticks, or Wanderers.

Essential Dignities,

Certain real Advan­tages, [Page 53] whereby a Planet is fortified: as when he is in his House, or Exaltation. See Dignities, and a Table of them always in Mr. Lilly's Almanack.

Eudemon,

[In Greek, Eu signifies Good, or Well; and Daemon a Spirit] The Good Genius or Spirit. The 11th. House of a Celestial Figure is so called, by reason of its good and prosperous Signi­fications; as, store of Friends, Attainment of Hopes, &c.

Even Number,

Is that which may be divided into two parts; as 4, 10, 40, &c. are Even Num­bers, forasmuch as each of them may be divided into two equal parts, whereof their halves are 2, 5, 20, &c.

Evenly Even,

Is that which an Even Num­ber doth measure by an Even Number; as 32 is said to be a Number Evenly even, because 8, an Even Number, doth measure it by 4, which is like­wise an Even Number.

Evenly Odd,

Is that which an Even Num­ber doth measure by an Odd Number; as 30, which 2 or 6, Even Numbers, do measure by 15 or 5, Odd Numbers.

Exagonum,

[from the Gr. Gonia, an Angle, and Hex, six] A Figure consisting of six Angles, but in Astronomy a Sextile Aspect. Hence

Exagonal,

Of or belonging to such a Figure or Ray. 'Tis sometimes written Hexagonum.

Exaltation,

Lat. An Essential Dignity of a Planet, next in vertue to being in his proper House. Or a place where a Planets Influence is always ob­serv'd to be very strong; which is, where a Planet of a contrary nature is very weak: As Sol, the Fountain of Light, in Aries, which is the Fall of Saturn, a Lover of Darkness; Jupiter, Author [Page 54] of Justice in Cancer, where Mars the Master of Misrule is in his Fall, so ☿ in Virgo the Fall of Ve­nus; one signifying Science and Study, the other only Mirth and Pleasures, &c. Thus, Almansor an Ancient Astrologer in his Aphorisms to the King of the Saracens.

Exhalations,

Lat. Vapours drawn up from the Earth or Sea into the Air, whereof are genera­ted all kind of Meteors, as Rain, Hail, Snow, Thun­der, Lightning, Comets, Falling Stars, &c.

Extraction of Roots,

Radix, or the Root, is the side of a Figure, or a Number which being multiplied in it self, makes the Powers of that Number. And the Extraction is but the unravel­ling of a Power (or Number proposed as a Power) to find the Root.

Hence the Extraction of the Square Root is the finding a Number, which being multiplied in it self, shall make a proposed Number.

And the Extraction of the Cube Root is the find­ing a Number, which being multiplied twice in it self, may equal a given Number.

Also the Extraction of a Biquadrat Root, is by the untwisting of a given Number to find another, which being multiplied in it self, and again that Product in it self, may make the first given Num­ber, &c.

Extream Reason,

A Right Line is said to be divided according to Mean and Extreme Reason, when-as the whole is to the greatest Segment, as the greatest Segment is to the lesser. See the Demonstra­tion in Eucl. Elem. 6. Def. 3.

Extuberous Body,

Lat. A swelling Body, or bulging out, as the knobs on Galls are Extube­rances.

F
FAce,

The third part of every Sign ascribed to some Planet, who has therein one Essential Dig­nity. See Decanate.

Fall,

The Fall of a Planet is the Sign opposite to that wherein he is Exalted; in which he is said to suffer 4 Debilities.

Feral,

[or Beastly.] From the Lat. Fera, a wild Beast. The Signs so called are ♌, and the latter part of ♐. Not only because they are called and painted as wild Beasts, but because they have really some kind of Savage Influence, and give fierce and cruel Manners to a Native born under them, espe­cially if the Luminaries be therein, and the Male­volents in Angles. The Moon is also said to be Feral by some Authors when she is void of Course, that is, has separated from one Planet, and applies to no other whilst she remains in the same Sign.

Figure,

Is defined by Eucl. Lib. 1. Def. 14. to be a quantity included under such or such terms or bounds. As a Plain Figure, a Spherical Figure, &c. But in Astrology 'tis taken for a Scheme or Draught of the face of Heaven at some determinate time.

Figurate Number,

Is a Number made by the multiplication of one Number or more by ano­ther.

Fiery Triplicity,

Are such Signs of the Zo­diack as excel the rest in Fiery Qualities, viz. Heat and Driness, which are ♌, ♈, and ♐.

[Page 56] Fraction,

From the Lat. Frango, to break. A broken Number expressing so many parts of a whole, as 2/4 two fourths, that is, one half of any thing.

Frigid [or Frozen] Zones,

The space be­tween the Poles of the World, and the Arctick and Antarctick Circles respectively, imagined by the Ancients, to be altogether uninhabitable, because of its excessive Cold.

Finitor,

[From the Lat. Finis; the Bounder or End.] The Horizon or great Circle dividing the upper Hemisphere from the lower, is so cal­led; because it bounds our sight, which conceives that there the Earth and Heavens meet.

Firmament,

The Eighth Orb, or Heaven of the Fixed Stars.

Fired Signs,

Are ♉, ♌, ♏, and ♒, so called, because the Sun passes them respectively in the middle of each Quarter, when that particular sea­son is more setled and fix'd than under the Sign that begins or ends it. Thus the Spring wholly prevails when the Sun's in ♉. Summer when in ♌. Autumn when in ♏. And Winter when in ♒. Be­sides their Nature and Influence tends more to Sta­bility and Duration, as may be observ'd in Plant­ing of Trees, Building, &c.

First Mover.

See Primum Mobile.

Forestaff, or Crostaf,

An Instrument at Sea, for observing the Sun or Stars, &c. with ones face towards the object.

Fortitudes,

[From the Lat. Fortitudo, strength.] Certain advantages which Planets have to make their Influences more strong, by being so or so Po­sited, Qualified or Affected. See Dignities.

Fortunes,

The two benevolent Planets ♃ and [Page 57] ♀, by reason of their kind and friendly Nature, are generally so called. As ♄ and ♂ for a contrary Na­ture, are called Infortunes.

Fruitful, [or Prolifick]

Signs, are ♋, ♏, and ♓. The meaning is, if one enquire if he shall have Children, and the Moon and principal Significators be in any of these Signs, and strong, there is no doubt but he will have Issue.

Frustum,

A Latin word signifying a Bit, or Piece cut off, or separated from any Body: As the Frustum of a Cone is a part or piece thereof.

Frustration,

[From the Lat. Frustro, to pre­vent, or make void.] Is a kind of Debility which happens to a Planet when he is applying to the Conjunction of another, being within Orbs; but before they are Corporally joyn'd one of them be­comes Retrograde, and so he is frustrated of his End.

Furlong,

The Eighth part of a Mile, or For­ty Rods.

Furniture of a Dial,

Such are the Paral­lels of Declination, Length of the day, Azimuths, or Points of the Compass; the Planetary Hours, Babylonish and Jewish Hours, &c. for Ornament.

G
GAlaxia,

[A Greek word, from Gala, Galactos, Milk.] See the Milky way.

Gemini,

A Latin word signifying Twins.] The third Sign in order of the Zodiack, the House [Page 58] of Mercury, Common, Airy, and Humane. And note this Constellation of ♊ like the rest, is gone back out of its place in the 8th Sphere since Pto­lemy's time, and begins at 25 ♊, and is Extended to the 25 of Cancer.

Genesis, or Geniture,

The first a Greek, the second a Latin word, both signifying the Birth or Nativity of a man, but more used for the Figure of Heaven artificially erected for that moment of time when an Infant is brought into the World. Hence Genethliacal, of or be­longing to such Geniture or Figure.

Geocentrick,

[From the Greek Gè, the Earth, and Centron, the Centre.] Any Planet or Orb that has the Earth for its Centre, or the same Centre with the Earth.

Geodoesia,

Gr. The Art of Measuring Land, or Surveying.

Geographie,

[From the Greek Gè, the Earth, and Grapho, to write, or describe.] A description of the habitable World, or a general Survey of the whole Terrestrial Globe, containing the Scitua­tion of all Countreys and Continents, distance of Places each from other, &c.

Geometrie,

[A Greek word, from Gè, the Earth, and Metron, measure;] signifying no more, in a strict sense, but Measuring of the Earth; and therefore was anciently used for the two words last explained; but now it has been long appropriated to the most noble of all the Mathematical Scien­ces. The Consideration of Continued Quantity, or Sensible Magnitudes, whose parts, though never so vast or remote, by its Demonstrations are under­stood and exactly measur'd; so that indeed it has the whole Universe for its Object. And therefore [Page 59] the profound Dr. Dee would rather have it called Megethologia, (from the Gr. Megethos, Magnitude, and Logos, Speech or Reason) that is, the conside­ration of Bulk, or all kinds of Magnitudes, rather than that narrow unfit name of Geometry.

Geomancy,

An Art that teaches to resolve Questions, and foretel things to come, by certain Circles or Pricks made in the Earth; but now it is performed somewhat after the manner of Astro­logy, by Figures on Paper. See Cattons Book of this Art. 'Tis derived from Ge and Mantia, A Di­vination, whence also comes Necromancy, and other the like words.

Giver of Life.

See Alcochoden, or Hylech.

Globe,

Is properly, A solid Body, exactly round, contained under one Surface; such as the Bodies of the Planets, the Earth, &c. But the word is now usually attributed to Two Artificial Repre­sentations of Heaven and Earth; of which, one called the Celestial Globe, shews the several Con­stellations and Stars, the Circles, Longitudes, and Latitudes of each part of Heaven, fitted with their Horizon and Meridian to every Elevation of the Pole, &c. The other nam'd the Terrestrial Globe, discovers on its Surface the Description of the whole Earth and Sea, with its Meridians and Parallel Circles, &c. whereby the Longitude, La­titude, and Distance of Places from each other, may be presently understood.

Gnomon,

[A Greek word, signifying a Shewer, or Discoverer, but used for] The Pin, or Cock, or Style of a Dial, the Shadow whereof pointeth out the Hour. Hence is called—

Gnomonice,

The Art of Dialling, or that part of Astronomy, which by the Shadow of the [Page 60] Sun, and sometimes the Moon, artificially made, measures their Course, and the space of Time, in Hours or otherwise, which elapses during the same, and plainly exhibits it to our view.

Golden Number,

(so called, because for its great use it was yearly set up publickly in Golden Letters) Is an Artificial Revolution of a Nineteen years Circle, distributed for the years following from One to Nineteen, and then begining again.

To find the Golden Number, add One to the Year of our Lord, and divide by 19, the Remainder is it; but if none remain, then 19 shall be the Gol­den Number. It was first invented to find out the Lunations and Movable Feasts; but at this day 'tis very insufficient: and therefore Origanus mer­rily says, Since it will no longer perform its business without gross error, instead of Golden he'll call it the Leaden Number.

The Golden Rule,

The Rule of Three is so intituled, by way of Excellency in Arithmetick, teaching from Three Numbers known, to find out a Fourth unknown, perform'd by multiplying the Third Number by the Second, and dividing the Product by the First, the Quotient gives the Fourth Proportional Number sought for.

Great Circles,

Are such as divide the Sphere or Globe into Two equal Parts, and are commonly accounted Six in number; viz. the Horizon, the Meridian, the Equinoctial, the Ecliptick, and the two Colures.

Great Circle-Sailing,

Which directs a Ship the nearest Course between two places, in the Arch of a Great Circle, would the Winds favour to keep therein.

Gregorian Year,

The New Account, or [Page 61] New Style, instituted upon the Reformation of the Calendar, by Pope Gregory the 13th. (from whom it takes the name) Anno Domini, 1582. whereby ten days being then taken out of the Moneth of October, the days of their Months go always ten days before ours, as their 11th. is our first day. Which new Style or Account is used in most parts beyond the Seas, and does much better agree with the Solar Year, but yet not exactly. How to do it infallibly for ever, see a small Treatise, Intituled, The Jewish Calendar explain'd, written by H. Care, and some years since published.

Gunter's Chain, Quadrant, Rule, Scale, and Sector.

All useful Ma­thematical In­struments, in­vented, or much improv­ed by that famous Mathematician, Mr. Edmund Gunter, sometimes Professor of Astronomy in Gresham-Colledge, London, and from him bearing their names. The Descriptions and several Uses of all which, being not to be declared in a few words, and already set forth by himself, I shall thi­ther refer the Philo-Mathematick Reader.

Gyre,

A whirling Motion, or swift Turning round, such as we see in the Flie of a Jack, &c. The word is Originally Greek, but used in Latin in the same sense.

H
HAle,

A Circle about the Sun, Moon, or Stars, with a seeming brightness like Rays, being thick Vapours, not resolved, but gathered together into that part of the Air above which the Star is, and so inlightned by its beams, appear like a bright Ring round about the Body of the Sun or Star. See Parhelia.

Hayz,,

An Arabian word, used in Astrology, to signifie a certain Dignity or strengthning of a Planet, by his being in a Sign of his own Sex, and a part of the World agreeable to his own Nature; as when a Masculine and Diurnal Sign is in the day-time above the Earth, and in a Masculine Sign; Or a Feminine Nocturnal Planet, in the Night, in a Femine Sign, and under the Earth: But if he be onely in a Sign of his Sex, and under the Earth in the day-time, being a Diurnal Planet, then he is said to be in his Light, but not in Hayz.

Heart of the Sun.

See Cazimi.

Heighth of a Figure,

Is the Perpendicular Line drawn from the Top of the Base. See the Ex­planation in Eucl. Elem. 6. Def. 4.

Heighth of the Pole.

See Elevation of the Pole.

Heliacal Rising,

[or a Rising of a Star from the Sun] Is, when a Star having been under the Suns Beams, gets from the same so as to be seen again. And Heliacal Setting is, when a Star, [Page 63] by the near approach of the Sun, first becomes in­conspicuous. This is reckoned in the Moon but at 17 Degrees distance, or thereabouts; but in other Stars 'tis as soon as they get distant, or come near the Sun by the space of a whole Sign.

Helicosophie,

[from Helix, a Spiral-Line, and Sophia, Wisdom, Craft, or Skill] An Art Mathe­matical, which demonstrateth the designing of all Spiral-Lines in Plano, on Cylinder, Cone, Sphere, Conoid, and Sphearoid, and their Properties ap­pertaining. The use whereof in Architecture, and divers Instruments and Engines, is most necessary; for in many things the Screw worketh the Feat, which else could not be performed.

Helix,

A Greek word, signifying a winding Spiral Figure, or a crooked Line, which is une­qually distant from the midst of the space, howsoever inclosed.

Hemisphere,

[half the Sphere] Generally ta­ken for one of the two parts made by the Horizon, dividing the Heavens into two Segments, whereof one is always conspicuous to us, the other not to be seen.

Heptagon,

[from the Greek Hepta, seven; and Gonia, an Angle] A Figure of seven Angles, whence Heptagonal, an Adjective, of or belonging to such a Figure.

Heteroscii,

A Greek word, often used amongst Cosmographers, which signifies onely, People that have their shadows cast but one way at Noon, such are we English, and all the Inhabitants of the Tem­perate Zones, viz. on either side the Equator, from the Tropicks to the Arctick and Antarctick Circle; our Shadow at Noon being to the North, theirs to the South: Whereas they that live between the [Page 64] Tropicks, cast their Shadow now one way, and then another, and once a year have no Shadow at all at Noon, the Sun being Vertical, or right over their heads.

Heragon, or Exagonon,

A Figure that con­sists of six Angles, or a Sextile Aspect. From Hex, six, and Gonia, an Angle.

Heterogenial,

Of a different kind, not alike, nor of the same nature; from the Greek Heteros, another, or different; and Genos, a Kind or Race.

Holometrum,

[The General Measure, or Measure of the whole] A Mathematical Instrument, for the easie Measuring of any thing; invented by Abel Tull, who published a Book of its use. 'Tis de­rived from Holos, the whole, and Metron, Measure, in Greek.

▪ Homocentrick,

Having the same or a like Centre. See Concentrick; from the Gr. Homos, alike; and Centron, a centre.

Homogeneal,

[from the same Homos and Ge­nos] Of the same kind or sort, alike, that which dif­fers not in Nature, agreeable, &c.

Homologal,

Agreeable, or alike to one an­other in Reason: As when we say, There is the same reason of A to B, as of C to D. Here A is Homologal to C, as B to D, because of the simili­tude between Antecedents and Consequents.

Horary Question,

A Question ask'd at a cer­tain Hour. 'Tis a Term used in Astrology, when one goes to an Artist, and propounds a Question to him, he presently erects a Figure for that Hour, in which you declare your mind, and from the face of Heaven at that time, pretends to resolve you. A Horary Question being the Birth or Delivery of the Mind, as a Nativity is of the Body; and if it [Page 65] be Radical, and soberly ask'd of a discreet Artist, there may be no contemptible satisfaction obtained by it.

Horizon,

[From the Greek word Horizein, to Bound, Enclose, or Terminate] A Great Circle in the Sphere, so called, because it bounds our sight, and divides the upper Hemisphere, or part of the Heaven which we behold, from the other lower part, which is inconspicuous. More plainly, It is the Circle where the Heavens and Earth seem to meet, as far off as you can see when you turn your self about at Sea, or in an open field: And above which, when the Sun or any Star comes▪ 'tis said to Rise; when it goes below it, to Set. But yet more particularly, the Horizon is to be considered two manner of ways.

First, the Natural Horizon.

Secondly, the Mathematical Horizon.

The first is that apparent Circle we have just now described. But the second, which is oftner made use of in the Doctrine of the Sphere and Astronomy, Is a great Circle which divides that part of Heaven which we call above us, from that which is counted under us, precisely into two equal parts, whose Poles are the Zenith and Nadir; and in which Cir­cle, the Azimaths, or Vertical Circles are numbred; and likewise by it our Days and Nights measured out unto us; for whilst the Sun is above the Ho­rizon, it is Day; and when under, Night.

Horizontal Line,

Any Line drawn parallel to the Horizon, upon a Plain, or Dial.

Horizontal Proiection,

A Projection of the Sphere in Arches of Circles, called Stereographick, wherein the Sphere is pressed into the Plain of the [Page 66] Horizon, and the Meridians and Parallels of the Sphere projected thereon.

Horologiography,

The Art of Making, or Treating of Clocks, Dials, and other Instruments, to tell the time of the Day. From Horologium, a Clock or Dial; and Grapho, to Write or Treat of.

Horometrie,

[from the Gr. Hora, an Hour; and Metron, Measure] The Art of Measuring or Dividing Hours, and keeping Account of Time.

Horoscope,

[from the Gr. Horos, the utmost bounds of a thing, and Scopeo, to view, watch, or look abroad as far as one can] The Angle of the East, or that part of Heaven which Arises every moment from the lower Hemisphere to our sight, exactly East; the Ascendant, or first House; but more properly, the Sign and Degree on the Cusp of that House. And since the same has a very great signification of the Constitution, Corporature, and Manners of a Native, 'tis used in Authors sometimes for the General Fate of a Man's Life. It differs, as you may perceive, from Horizon, because that is the whole Circle round about, this onely that point of the Ecliptick which lies in the East.

Hour-Circle,

Is part of the Furniture of a Globe, being a small Brazen Circle fitted on the Meridian, whose Centre is the Pole of the World, divided into 24 Hours, which in a Revolution of the Globe, are all pointed at with an Index for that purpose, fitted on the Axis of the Globe. See Tutor to Astronomy, p. 6.

Houses of Heaven,

A Twelfth part of the Heavens, considered in the situation of the World, is called a House. For Astronomers divide the whole Sphere into Four equal parts, by the Meri­dian and Horizon, and each of these Quadrants [Page 67] into Three other parts, thereby making Twelve Divisions of the whole, which are called Houses, which are reckoned in order, contrary to the Mo­tion of the Primum Mobile: As, the first House is the Horoscope; the second, not that which the Stars come to next above the Earth, but that to­wards the North, under the Earth. Of the reason for this division of the Heavens, and why such a parti­cular Signification is ascribed to each House, see Morine in Astrologia Gallica; or that exquisite Tract by Mr. Coley, in English, called, The Key to Astrology new Field.

Humane Signs,

Are counted amongst Astrologers not onely those Signs of the Zodiack, which have, as it were, the form of Man, as Gemi­ni, Virgo, Aquarius, and the first half of Sagitta­rius; but also such Asterisms without the Zodiack, as are usually represented in humane shape, as Per­seus, Andromeda, Cassiopoea, Cepheus, Orion, &c. It being found by experience, that the same were not either casually or fantastically ranged in such Figures, by the wisdom of the Antients, but by reason of a certain Affinity, Connexion, or Sym­pathy which they had with Mankind. Hence that common Axiom in Astrology, The meeting of the Infortunes in a Humane Sign, especially in the 8th. House, causes the Pestilence, and great Mortality amongst men. And that of Ptolomy, in Contiloquio, Whoever has neither the Lords of his Geniture, nor the Ascendent, in Humane Signs, will himself be a stranger to Humanity, or of churlish savage be­haviour.

Hydrography,

[from the Gr. Hydor, Water, and Grapha, to Write or Treat of] An Art con­versant in the Description and Measuring of the Sea, [Page 68] or great Waters; teaching how they may be Sail'd, or pass'd over with greatest conveniency; the Nature of Bays, Rocks, Shelves, Counter-Tides, Soundings, and other Remarkables on the Coasts; what Winds they lie obnoxious to, how far in a Right Line one Port is from another, &c.

Hyleg, or Hylech,

An Arabick word, signi­fying, The Giver of Life; A Planet, or part of Heaven, which in a Man's Nativity, becomes, in an Astrological sence, the Moderator or Significa­tor of his Life. Hence

Hylegiacal Places,

Are such, as when a Planet happens to be posited therein, he may be said to be Hyleg, or fit to have the Government of Life attributed to him; which places are generally reckon'd five, viz. The Ascendent, the Mid-Heaven, the 7th. House, the 9th. and the 11th. House.

Hypogeon,

[under the Earth, from the Greek Preposition, Hypo, under, and Ge, the Earth] but especially the 4th. House, or Imum Coeli is so called.

Hypoteneusa,

[a Greek word, properly sig­nifying, A Line drawn under] but used by Geo­metricians, when a Right Line is drawn under two Right Lines, that make a Right Angle, and of which, one is bigger than the other, then the Line subtended (or Hypoteneusa) must needs exceed each of them in length. As in Fig. 4. the Line B C is the Hypoteneusa to the Lines A B and A C.

Hypothesis,

Gr. A Supposition, a Sentence laid down, and taken up for granted for Arguments sake, or to be discoursed of. So the several Models of the World conceited and delivered by Ptolomy, Copernicus, Tycho, &c. are called such an one's Hy­pothesis.

I
JAcobs Staff,

A Mathematical Instrument for taking Heights and Distances. See Cross-staff.

Ichnography,

[from the Gr. Ichnos, a Pattern, and Grapho to Write] The Art of making of Mo­dels of Building, a Plat-form, the Plot of a House to be built, drawn out on a Paper, describing the form of all the Rooms, Lights, Chilmneys, &c. according to which form the Workman goes to work. See Vignola's Compleat Architect, in the Preface.

Icosaedron,

Gr. A solid Figure, contained un­der twenty Equal and Equilateral Triangles. 'Tis one of the five sorts of Regular Bodies; so called, because all the Plains wherein they are contained are Equal, Equilateral, and Equiangular. They are by some term'd Platonical Bodies, because Plato in Timeo, compares the Simple Bodies of the World, Fire, Air, Water, Earth, and Sky, to these. The other four are, Cube, Tetraêdron, (or four Triangles) Octaêdron, (or eight Triangles) and Dodecaêdron, (or twelve Triangles.)

Ides.

See Calends.

Ignis Fatuus,

[Lat A foolish Fire] A Jack with a Lantern, or Will with the Wisp. An Exha­lation or Light, frequently seen in Meadows, Church-yards, &c. supposed to lead people out of the way; by reason of its irregular skipping up and down, (as Fools use to do) according as the Air is agitated, 'tis called Fatuus.

[Page 70] Impure Logarithm,

Or a Defective Loga­rithm, or the Logarithm of less than Unity.

Imum Coeli,

[Lat. The bottom of Heaven.] The fourth House in a Figure of the Heavens, called also Fovea, [the Ditch,] and Angle of the Earth.

Incidence,

[Lat. A Falling upon] the place where two Lines or Rays meet, or light one upon the other.

Inclination,

[Lat. A bowing downward, or leaning awry] but when we speak of the Inclina­tion of a Planet, we mean its motion towards such or such a Point in Heaven.

Incommensurable

Quantities, are those which have no Aliquot part, or any common mea­sure that may measure them: As is the Diameter of a Square, and the Side of the same Square. For although that each of those Lines have infinite Aliquot parts, as the half, the third, and other parts; yet not any part of the one, be it never so little, can possibly measure the other; as is demonstra­ted, 10 Elem. Propos. 117. by Euclid.

Increas'd in Number,

[Auctus Numero, in Latin.] A Planet is said to be so, when by his pro­per motion he exceeds his mean motion. See Swift.

Index,

[Lat. A Shewer, or Discoverer.] The Table of a Book. In Mufick D. Sol. Re. in the Gamut. The longer piece of Wood of the two in a Jacob's Staff. In a Globe 'tis a little Ruler to be put upon the Pole, pointing out the time on the Hour-Circle.

Indiction,

Lat. The space of fifteen years, in which space the Roman Tribute throughout all the Empire being Indicted, that is, appointed and limi­ted [Page 71] to be paid in, they therefore used to reckon and date their Writings such a year of the Indi­ction. To find this year of the Indiction for any year of our Lord, Add 3 to the year of our Lord, and divide by 15, what remains besides the Quo­tient, is the year of the Indiction; if nothing re­main, then 'tis 15.

Infortunes,

Saturn and Mars are so called, because of their malevolent Natures, and unfortu­nate Influences.

Informed Stars,

[That is, without form.] Such of the Fixed Stars as are not cast into, or ranged under any Constellation, or form. See Spo­rades.

Ingress,

Lat. An Entrance upon, or going in­to; 'tis used chiefly in Astrology, for the Sun's en­tring the first Scruple of one of the four Cardinal Signs, especially Aries, which they account the Annual Revolution of the World.

Integer,

[Lat. Whole, Entire, or Compleat.] In Arithmetick a whole Number: As one pound, whereas 4/4 four fourth parts of a pound signifies the same thing, and is only a way of expressing that Integer by Fractions.

Intercalary day,

[From the Lat. Inter, be­tween, and Calo, to call, or insert.] The odd day put in, or inserted in the Leap-year, whereby the 6th Calends of March (that is with us the 24th of February) was reckon'd twice.

Intersection,

A cutting off, a chopping of one Line upon, or through another. From Inter, between, and Seco, to cut.

Inverse▪

See Transposed Reason.

Jonick,

From Jonia, a Province of Greece. One of the Five Orders of Architecture, or Arti­ficial [Page 72] modes of Building there first practised. See Vignola's Compleat Architect, p. 38.

Jove.

See Jupiter; Jovis being only the Ge­nitive Case thereof.

Joys of the Planets,

Are certain Digni­ties hapning to them, either by being in the place of a Planet of like Condition and Nature, as the Sun, in houses of Jupiter, Saturn of Mercury, Ve­nus of the Moon, &c. or in a house of the Figure agreeable to his own Nature. Thus ♄ delights in the 12th, ♃ the 11th, ♂ in the 6th, ☉ in the 9th, ♀ in the 5th, ☿ in the Ascendent, and the Moon in the third.

Iris,

Gr. The Rain-bow, called also by the Ancients, the Daughter of Thaumantis, that is, Wonder, from the admirable variety of Colours therein.

Irrational Lines,

Such as are Incommensura­ble to a Rational Line supposed in Length and Power, and not in Length only. So Figures Incommensurable to the Rational Square, may be called Irrationals, or Surds. In like manner the Reason that is between Quantities Incommensura­ble, is called Irrational Reason. For further Light, see the word Reason.

Isagon,

A Figure consisting of equal Angles; From the Gr. Isos, equal; and Gonia, an Angle.

Isoperimetroe,

From the same Isos, and Peri­metros, a circuit. Figures that have equal Circum­ference, or Contents.

Isosceles,

[A thing of equal shanks.] A trian­gular Figure in Geometry, having two Sides only equal, but the third bigger or lesser than either of them.

Julian Year,

The old Account instituted by [Page 73] Julius Caesar, which to this day we use in England, in contra-distinction to the New Account framed by Pope Gregory.

Jupiter,

[The Genitive Case in Latin being Jovis, we often call him Jove in English.] One of the seven Planets, placed above Mars, and next to Saturn, he is counted the greater Fortune, being of a benign temperate nature, and makes his Revo­lution in about 12 years, and 312 days, having the Sun for his Centre; as the Learned Tycho ob­serv'd. By Galilaeus and others assisted with the Telescope, notice has been taken of four Stars guard­ing and waiting upon this Planet's Body, in seve­ral Epicycles observing him for their Centre; be­ing now further off, now nearer to him, sometimes hidden by him, &c. and yet their motion not equal; for one of them is observed to Compleat its Re­volution in one day and about 18 hours, the second in three days and almost 13 hours, the third in se­ven days and 4 hours, and the last in sixteen days and 18 hours. Some say this Planet is called Jupiter, as if we would say, Juvans Pater, an Helping Father, by reason of his kind Influ­ences.

K
KAlends,

See Calends.

Kalendar,

See Calendar.

Kakotyche,

[Gr. Evil Fortune.] The Sixth House of a Figure is sometimes so called, from its [Page 74] bad significations; as Diseases, &c. and being the most Abject part of Heaven.

The rest seek in Letter C.

L
LAtitude,

[Lat. Breadth or Width.] A term used both by Astronomers and Geographers.

In Astronomy, 'tis the space that any Planet, or other Star does, or can wander from the Ecliptick towards either of its Poles: And as this deviation is either towards the North, or South, so it takes the denomination of North or South Latitude. Note, the Sun going on always in the very Ecliptick, can never have any Latitude, nor can it be above 9 de­grees in any other of the Planets; but in fixed Stars it may be greater and greater, even to 90 degrees, that is, to the very Poles of the Ecliptick. Nor did the Ancients think it could be above 6 de­grees in any Planet; but experience in ♂ and ♀ proves the contrary.

In Geography, the distance of the Equator from the Vertex (Zenith, or Point of Heaven right over Head) of any Countrey or City, is called The La­titude of that place; or more plainly, 'tis An Arch of the Meridian comprehended between the Equator and the Place enquired after; numbred on the Meridian from the Equator both ways, viz. North and South, till it come to the Poles, or 90 degrees; and agrees with the Elevation of the Pole above the Horizon; as the Elevation of the Equator [Page 75] above the Horizon agrees with the distance of the Pole from the Zenith.

Lemma,

A Greek word that signifies an As­sumption, or the Title or Argument in a Mathe­matical Author of what he intends to Treat.

Leo,

[Lat. The Lion.] The Fifth Sign in the Zodiack, thus characteriz'd ♌. 'Tis the House of the Sun, who therein causes the greatest heats, be­ing of the fiery Triplicity, hot, dry, and barren, and therefore was called the Lion, for the resem­blance it had to the nature of that Royal Ani­mal.

Level,

An Instrument used by Carpenters and other Mechanick Artificers, called in Latin Libra, or Libella, a Ballance: The use of it is for the try­ing or examining of a Plain or Floor, whether it do lye parallel to the Horizon or not: As the Plumb­rule is for trying of an erect Perpendicular, as a Column-Pillar, &c. whether it stand right, or not.

Libra,

[Lat. The Ballance.] One of the Signs exactly opposite to Aries, thus mark'd ♎; and cal­led so, because when the Sun enters thereinto, he makes the days and nights even, as if they were pois'd in a pair of Scales. 'Tis the house of Ve­nus, and Exaltation of Saturn, Airy, movable, hot, moist, &c. Ptolemy observes that persons born un­der this Sign, are of good Countenances, and plea­sing Manners; but for the most part, the cause of their own deaths.

Light of the Time,

Is the Sun in the day­time, and the Moon in the night: For so we know they were Originally appointed, the Sun to Rule by day, and the Moon by night.

Light,

A Planet is said to be Light, that is, nim­ble [Page 76] or quick, compared to another that moves slower: As the Moon in respect of all the Planets. The Sun in regard of the 3 Superiors. But ab­solutely the 3 inferiors, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, are called Light, and the Superiors Pon­derous, [or heavy,] because generally their Diurnal motion does not exceed that of these; though some­times when ♀ and ☿ are retrograde, or stationary, the Superiors move faster than they.

Limbus,

[A Latin word signifying a Border, or Fringe,] used by Astronomers for the outtermost Limb of an Astrolabe, or the like Geometrical Instru­ment, in the Plane whereof are inscribed the hours and degrees thereunto answering, the names of Winds, &c.

A Line,

Is a Length void of Breadth, or as others define it, the Flux of a Point conceived to move from place to place, Length being the proper difference of a Line, as Breadth is of a Superficies, or Solidity of a Body; yet is there not such a Line without Breadth in any material thing. But as the Point, so the Line which we draw, is the Sign of that which we Conceive in mind: For if the Point which we Conceive be moved, and leaveth an Ima­ginary Tract, that shall be a Line; Long, by rea­son of the motion, but not Broad, because the Point from whence it proceedeth, is void of all Extension.

Line of Incidence,

A Ray starting from some Luminous Body, and ending on a Point of some Superficies; the knowledg whereof is chief­ly necessary for finding out the Greatness and Du­ration of an Eclipse.

Line of the mean Motion,

A Right Line terminating the mean motion or place of a Star, [Page 77] which in an Epicycle is imagined to be drawn from the Centre of the World to the Center of the same Star; but in the Eccentrick from the Center of the Eccentrick, by the Centre of the Star to the Eclip­tick.

Logarithms,

[Derived from two Greek words, Logos, reason, and Arithmoi, Numbers,] Are Artificial Numbers invented by Arithmeticians, to the end that being put in the place of Natural Num­bers, they may be fit to manifest what Progressive difference there is in them: For they always keep in themselves the same Progression Arithmetical, as those in whose stead they are Constituted, do Pro­gression Geometrical. Hence it comes to pass, that when 4 Numbers have proportion one to the other, the Sum of the Logarithm of the first and last shall be equal to the Sum of the 2 middle ones. As for Example, take two Numbers, 4 and 8, where one is as big again as the other. Hence the like pro­portion shall be between all Numbers doubly as big as each other: As between 5 and 10, 12 and 24, 24 and 48, 50 and 100, &c. And therefore the Logarithms of the Numbers, 4 and 10, 4 and 24, 4 and 48, 4 and 100, added together, will be equal to the Aggregate of the Logarithms, 8 and 5, 8 and 12, 8 and 24, 8 and 50, &c. The use of these Logarithms is very excellent, both for ease and saving of time; for whatever can be done by the Golden Rule by a wearysome Calculation, and tedious Circuit through Multiplication and Divi­sion, that a 4th Number unknown, may be found out from 3 known; this by Logarithms is per­formed at one single operation: For if 2 Numbers be to be multiplied, take their Logarithms, and you have your intent only by Addition: If to be divi­ded, [Page 78] you need onely use Substraction. For example,

43Log.1, 633468
25Log.1, 397940
1075Log.3, 031408

Would you multiply 43 by 25; set down those Numbers, and against them set their respe­ctive Logarithms. So the Logarithm of 43 is 1, 633468; of 25 is 1, 397940, which added, make 3, 031408. Which Logarithm being found in the Table, the absolute Number answering thereunto is 1075. And so much is the Product of 43 multiplied by 25.

Logistica,

[being of the same derivation with the last Word] Is a part of Arithmetick, which applies the Rules of Computing, Multiplying, and Dividing, to Degrees of Signs, Circles, and Angles; as also to Days and Hours, Minutes of Degrees or Hours, &c.

Longitude,

[Lat. Length] Is considered in a two-fold respect: Either by Astronomers, and then 'tis reckon'd in the Zodiack, from the first De­gree of Aries to the last of Pisces; and this by Cir­cles passing by the Poles of the Zodiack, and each of its Degrees at opposite places. So that the Arch of the Ecliptick intercepted between the first Degree of Aries, and that Circle which passes through the Centre of any Star, shall be said to be the Lon­gitude of that Star; and the more 'tis distant from the said point, the greater is its Longitude.

But Longitude, amongst Geographers, is, An Arch of the Equator, comprehended between the first Meridian, and the Meridian of the Place you [Page 79] enquire after; and shows how much one Place is more Eastern or Westernly than the other. For the greater a Places Longitude is, so much the more is it situate towards the East, and consequently the Sun Rises earlier, and comes to the Meridian sooner. Whence to compute the first or true Me­ridian, whether from the Canaries, or Fortunate Islands, according to Ptolomy and the Ancients; or the Azores, as most of the Moderns do, has been heretofore disputed; nor is it much material, if the World were but agreed upon it: We always in our Maps and Globes reckon it from the Isle Gra­tiosa, one of the Azores. By this, the Greater or Lesser Distance of Places from each other may be found out, allowing for every Degree 60 Miles.

Lord of the Year,

Is that Planet that has most Testimonies of Fortitude in a Revolutional Fi­gure.

Lord of the Geniture,

Is that Planet that has greatest strength in the Figure of any Persons Nativity, (called Geniture, from the Latin word Gigno, to beget) and so becomes principal Signifi­cator of his Temperament, Manners, Affections of his Body, &c. But what Planet this shall be, is con­troverted: for Julius Firmicus, a celebrated Au­thor, that flourish'd about 320 years after Christ, would have it to be the Lord of that Sign into which the Moon enters next after the Birth, ex­cept onely the Luminaries, as being universal Sig­nificators. But we must note this Author to be a bet­ter Latinist than Astrologer; and the sounder opi­nion is, To constitute that Planet of the Five, Lord, that being in fit Places, shall have most Dignities in the places of the Luminaries, the Ascendant, the Mid-Heaven, and part of Fortune.

[Page 80] Lord of the Hour,

Is a Planet governing each 12th. part of the Day, and also of the Night, severally and respectively, divided into 12 parts, which therefore we call Unequal, (as being varied according to the Length of the Day) or Planetary Hours, beginning at Sun-rising, and the first Hour attributed to that Planet which that Day is assigned to, as on Sunday to ☉, on Munday to ☽, and so count­ing downwards, as the Planets are situate, and be­ginning again, till all the 12 Hours are past, and then going on with the next Planet for the Night; but reckoning a greater or lesser space for the No­cturnal Hours, as the Night happens to be Longer or Shorter than the Day. Some Authors ascribe a great deal of vertue to these Horary Rulers; but the Judicious Morine seems to slight the observation of them.

Lucifer,

[Lat. a Bringer of Light] Venus is called so, when she is Oriental, and Rises before the Sun; which the Greeks also term Phosphorus, and the Vulgar, The Day-Star: So when she Sets after the Sun, she is called Hesperus, or the Evening-Star.

Luminaries,

[Lat. Great Lights] The Sun and Moon, called so by way of Eminence, for their extraordinary Lustre, the one ruling the Day, the other the Night.

Luna,

The Latine name for the Moon, the lowest or next to Earth of the seven Planets, Femi­nine, and Nocturnal; for that borrowing her Light from the Sun, she excels in Passive Qualities and Moisture: And therefore as the Sun presides over the Heart, Spirits, and Blood, so the Moon over the Brain, Bowels, and Phlegm. She perfects her course in the Zodiack in the space of 27 days, 7 Hours, [Page 81] and 41 Minutes; but till she overtakes the Sun again, is required 29 Days, 12 Hours, and 44 Mi­nutes. Hence arises a three-fold Moneth, of Pera­gration, or Periodical, wherein she finishes her Re­volution. 2ly. Synodical, the space of time between her parting from, and returning to the Sun. And 3ly. The Moneth of Illumination, that is, the space that she is visible to be seen, which is about 26 Days and 12 Hours. There have not been wanting some, both Ancient and Modern Philosophers, that have conceited the Body of the Moon to be Inhabitable; but this seems repugnant to Divinity. Quae supra nos, nihil ad nos.

M
MAgick,

[from Magos, a Greek word, signi­fying an Interpreter of Divine Mysteries, properly the study of Natural Wisdom] A good and innocent Science, teaching the knowledge and mutual application of Actives to Passives, thereby performing many excellent and wonderful works. Such were the Three Magi, or Wise men that came out of the East to worship our Saviour. But after­wards the Study being depraved by the Arabians, and fill'd with many Superstitious Vanities, the word became to be taken in an ill sense, for Conju­ration, or some such wicked Art, that by confede­racy with, and the assistance of the Devil, does either truly do, or rather in a jugling deceitful way seem to perform some Miraculous Operations, or [Page 82] above the ordinary attainments of Humane Na­ture. In which Pliny represents Zoroaster as the first Grand Master.

Magnitude,

[Lat. Greatness, or Bigness] Is the proper Subject of Geometry, about which 'tis busied; as Speech is of Grammar, or Reasoning of Logick. 'Tis defined to be, A Continued, or Con­tinual Quantity. As Number is said to be a Discrete (or Disjoyned) Quantity; for one, two, three, four, do consist of one, two, three or four Unities, which are disjoyned and severed parts: whereas the parts of a Line, Surface, and Body, are contained and continued without distinction or separation.

Malesick,

[Causing evil or mischief, a Latin word, from Malus, Evil, and Facio, to do] But is generally applied to Saturn or Mars, by reason of the ill effects attributed to them by Astrologers.

Mapp,

[Lat. Mappa] a Geographical, and some­times a Chorographical Description of the Earth, or some particular parts of it, projected upon a plain Superficies, describing the form of Countreys, Ri­vers, Situations of Cities, Hills, Woods, and other Remarks.

Mars,

[sometimes called Mavors, both Latin names for him] The third (in order descending) of the Planets, being in nature Hot and Dry, but excelling in Driness, finishing his Revolution in the space of almost two years. He (as all the rest of the Planets, except the Moon) has the Sun for his Centre, so that when he is Achronically opposite to him, he seems to be below him, nearer the Earth, and appears almost as big as Venus, having a greater Parallax than the Sun, viz. four Minutes, as has oft been observed: Hence, when he is in the lowest Absis of his Orb, we find a great Intension [Page 83] of Heat, if it be Summer, or Remission of Cold in Winter: And the contrary, when he is in his Apo­gaeon; for the distance between them is said to be 1690280 miles, and therefore no wonder if it somewhat increase or abate his Effects on Earth, as he is so much nearer to, or further from it. This Planet, by Astrologers, is called, The Lesser Infor­tune, an Enemy to Humane Nature, by reason of his scorching and over-drying Qualities. He signi­fies Military Men, Chyrurgeons, Smiths, &c. and of Diseases, such as proceed from Adust Choler and heat of Blood, as acute Fevers, Yellow Jaundice, Small-Pox, and the like.

Masculine Planets or Signs.

This Term is used by Astro­logers, not to denote any real distinction of Sex in the Celestial Bodies, but onely Analogically serves to signifie the Qualities they are principally endued with: For if a Planet or Sign excel in Active Qualities, (that is, Heat, or Coldness) then 'tis said to be Mas­culine; but if its Passive Qualities (that is, Moi­sture, and Driness) exceed, then 'tis called Feminine. Of Planets, Venus and the Moon are counted Fe­mine, all the rest Masculine, except Mercury, who is a kind of an Hermaphrodite: Of Signs, Aries, Ge­mini, Leo, Libra, Sagittary, and Aquary, are Mas­culine; the other six Feminine.

Mazzaroth,

A Chaldean word, signifying the Zodiack; 'tis used, Job 38. 32. Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? but seems there to intend some Constellation.

Mathematicks.

The word Mathesis being originally Greek, signifies Learning or Discipline. And the Ancients concluding onely those Sciences, [Page 84] which are founded upon Certainty, and proceed by Demonstration worthy of that name, called them, Mathematicks. They contain in general, Geometry, Arithmetick, Astronomy, and Musick; but indeed comprehend many other most excellent and useful Branches of Learning; as, Cosmography, Hydrography, Opticks, Astrology, Navigation, Ar­chitecture, &c. Of the Necessity, Profit, Extent, Use, Dignity, and Excellency of all which, see John Dee's most profound and incomparable Pre­face to Euclid's Elements.

Matutine,

[a Latin word, of, or belonging to the Morning] Astronomers call the other six Planets so, when being Oriental from the Sun, they are above the Earth when he Rises, and Vespertine when they Set after him. Now the three Superior Planets are strongest, being Oriental and Matutine; but the three Inferiour, when they are Occidental and Vespertine. The reason is, because the first in the first Case, but the last in the second, do then descend to the lowest part of their Orb, are increased in light, and approaching nearer the Earth; and so on the contrary, the Inferiors Matutine, the Supe­riors Vespertine, are weakned.

Measure of Time,

Is a matter much to be regarded in handling Nativities, that when you have a Direction, you may know how long it will be before it operates. For which purpose there are three opinions: First, Ptolomy's, to direct the Ascendant by Oblique Ascensions, the Mid-heaven by Right Ascensions; and finding the Difference, allow for every Degree of the Equator one year. The second of Maginus, (induced thereto, as he confesses, by our late mentioned Dr. Dee of Lon­don) which is, For the common Measure of one [Page 85] Years space in the Directions of every Significator, to take that Ark of the Equator agreeing to the apparent motion of the Sun at the time of birth, according to his Right Ascensions, and not Oblique Ascensions of the Region. The last, and now ge­nerally approved and practised, is that of Valentine Naibod in his Comment upon Ptolemy, which is, to find the distance between the Significator and Promittor, as in the first way, and then reckon for one of those degrees, one year five days and eight hours, and for every minute, six days and four hours; of which you have Tables in most Genethliacal Authors.

Mechanicks,

[From Mechanè, a Greek word, signifying Endeavour, Contrivance, or Invention.] Are those Operations which are dispatch'd as well by the labour of the hands, as of the brain. A skill enabling a Workman without knowledg of Ma­thematical Demonstrations, perfectly to work, and finish any sensible work by the Mathematician De­monstrated, or Demonstrable. Furthermore, as their Arts, so such Workmen themselves are often called Mechanicks: A word ignorantly used by the Vulgar, in contempt, whereas there are scarce any Faculties more necessary to Humane Life.

Medium Coeli, Lat. In English, The Mid-Heaven,

Is the tenth House, or Angle of the South in an Astrological Figure: In which, Planets and Stars have the greatest Altitude that they can have, and consequently dart Rays more direct, and of greater Efficacy; it signifies Kings, Governors, Commanders, all sorts of Magistrates; a private man's Preferment, Profession, or Trade. Jupiter or the Sun found here, are very propitious; but Saturn or the Dragons-Tail in this House are said to deny [Page 86] such a Native Honour, and signify that he shall be but little esteemed in the World.

Mercators Cart, or Projection;

A Pro­jection of the Face of the Earth in Plano, where­in the degrees upon the Meridian increase towards the Poles, in the same proportion that the Parallel Circles decrease towards the Poles: called Merca­tors Cart, or sometimes Projection, because Mer­cator was the first that published Carts so made; though our Countrey-man Mr. Wright was the first that made the Tables for this Projection. See Wright's Correction of Errors.

Mercury,

The least of all the Planets, and lowest, except the Moon. Though some place him in the very Deferent of the Sun, and allow him not any proper Orb, but only an Epicycle, whereby sometimes he is placed above the Sun, and rendred invisible. 'Tis certain he is never above 28 de­grees, or there-abouts, removed from the Sun, nor Venus above 48. And therefore neither of them both can ever make any Aspect with the Sun, but a Conjunction, which in truth is none. This Pla­net Mercury is of a dusky colour, but seldom seen, for the reason aforesaid; his mean motion is 59 minutes, and 8 seconds; but sometimes so swift, that he goes a whole degree and 40 minutes in a day. His nature is various, and participates much with the Planet he is with, or beheld by; yet in his own nature he is cold and dry, a great stirrer up of Winds; and being strong, signifies a good wit, or subtil, politick brain, studious and docible; but when Ill-dignified, an hair-brain'd, troublesome, prating fellow, a Liar, or Buffoon, &c. He gene­rally denotes one of an high stature, (but if Ori­ental, more low,) an high fore-head, and somewhat [Page 87] narrow, long face, long nose, his eyes but small, and neither perfectly black, nor gray; thin lips and nose, little hair on the chin, but much on his head, of a sad brown, or enclining to blackness; long arms, fingers and hands, his whole Body slender, and little; nimble in his gate, and quick in all his motions; his complexion palish, or like an Olive or Chesnut-colour: He signifies all Letter'd men, Philosophers, Mathematicians, Merchants, Secre­taries, Advocates, Ambassadors, and sometimes Thieves, Taylors, Carriers, Footmen, Solicitors, busy Secretaries, and they unlearned, but talkative; Conceited Schoolmasters, &c.

Meridian,

Is a Semi-Circle imagined in Hea­ven, that reaches from North to South, and passes through the Zenith of the Place we inhabit in, in­to both the Poles: It Cuts the Equator at Right Angles; and its Axis is a Line passing by the Cen­ter of the Earth to the Heavens, and the ends there­of are called the Poles. 'Tis so called from the La­tin word Meridies, signifying Noon; because when the Sun, by the motion of the Primum Mobile, is brought to the Meridian of any place at all times of the year, it there makes Noon; and therefore by the help thereof, is found the Quantity of Day and Night; the Semidiurnal and Seminocturnal Arch of any Star, &c.

But you must know, that there are infinite Meri­dians in Geography; for all places lying East or West from one another, have different Meridians; so that a man moving directly North and South, keepeth the same Meridian; but going East or West, alters it. But the Meridians delineated up­on the Terrestrial Globe, are in number 36; So that between two Meridians is contained 10 de­grees [Page 88] of the Equator: From the first of these Me­ridians, (which is divided into twice 90 degrees) accounted from the Equator towards either Pole, is the beginning of Longitude; which upon our English Globes, is at the Isle Gratiosa, one of the Isles of the Azores, and numbred in the Equator East­wards, with 10, 20, 30, &c. to 360 round about the Globe, till it end where it began. See Tutor to Astronomy, pag. 8.

Meridional,

Southern, or towards the South; From the Lat. Meridies, the Noon-Point, which being always to us in the South, is likewise taken for it.

Metonick Year,

[So called from one Meton, an Athenian that invented it;] Is the space of 19 years, (and thence for the most part called, The Great Metonick Year.) In which space of time, the Lu­nations return, and happen as they were before.

Mesolabum,

(as Slucius calls it, or as Mr. Oughtred calls it, Mesolabium,) Gr. from Meson, and Lambano, an Instrument for finding mean Pro­portions.

Meteors,

Gr. Are imperfect mixtures of the Elements drawn up by the Sun and Stars, and there hapning into several Forms. As sometimes where the matter is extraordinary, into Comets, bla­zing Stars, strange Appearances in the Air, Ignes fatui, &c. but commonly into Hail, Snow, and Hoary Frost, which are soon resolved again into the form of their Elements.

Mid-Heaven.

See Medium Coeli.

Mile,

See the Postscript explaining and de­fining this and all other Measures used amongst us.

Milky-way,

[Called in Greek Galaxia, in Latin Via Lactea, which are all of the same in [Page 89] sense, in the three several Languages.] Is the only real Circle in Heaven; for in a clear night 'tis al­ways conspicuous like a Swadling-band, infolding the Constellations of Cassiopea, the Eagle, part of Sagittary, the Tail of Scorpio, the Centaur, the Ship Argo, the feet of Gemini and Perseus, &c. It appears with a kind of whiteness like Milk, but the cause thereof was much disputed, till our mo­dern Telescopes convinc'd us, that 'tis only a heap of Stars, which by reason of their smalness, and distance from the Earth, cannot be distinctly dis­cern'd, and yet altogether make that part more bright than the rest of the Firmament. The Poets Fable that 'twas made by Ganimedes spilling a large Bowl of Nectar, and that it was the Gallery through which the Gods went to Council with Jupiter. See Ovid 1. Met. Est via sublimis, &c.

Minute,

In Latin Minutum, from Minus, less. Is the sixtieth part of a whole Degree, or Hour: So that every hour or degree of the Equator or Zo­diack is divided into 60 Minutes, every Minute into 60 Seconds, each Second into 60 Thirds, and so to 10ths, or further, if you think you can carry your Conception so far.

Moon,

See Luna.

Moveable Feasts,

Are those Festivals which, though they are celebrated on the same day of the week, have no fix'd seat in the Calendar, but in se­veral years happen on several days of the moneth; of which kind, besides Easter and Whitsontide, &c. are all the Lords days in the year, whereof many being called by particular strange names in our Common Almanacks, I shall here take leave to ex­plain them in order; Since, if all the Almanack­makers themselves can well understand the reasons [Page 90] thereof, I am sure not one in a thousand of their Readers understand it.

To begin then with the year: If there be any Sunday between the Circumcision of our Lord, called New-years-day, and Twelfth-day, called Epi­phany, [from the appearance of the Star to the Wise men,] such Sunday has no name assigned. The Sundays following Epiphany, are noted in or­der; as the 1st, the 2d, &c. after Epiphany; and they are sometimes more, and sometimes fewer: As Easter falls high, or low; for they must be en­ded, and give place to Septuagesima, which is al­ways the 10th Sunday inclusively before Easter, and thence is so called, as being Seventy days before it: So the next Sunday is called Sexagesima, and the next after that Quinquagesima, called also Do­minica Bacchanaliorum; the Sunday of Revellers or Bacchanalians, because then, and in the week following, many Christians shew themselves as mad as the Drunken Worshippers of Bacchus amongst the Heathen. 'Tis also called Esto mihi, because then the Introitus was out of Psalm 30. v. 3. be­ginning Esto mihi. The Wednesday in this week is Dies Cinerum, or Ashwednesday, being the begin­ning of Lent, on which they were wont to be­sprinkle their heads with Ashes. The next Sunday is Quadragesima, or the first Sunday in Lent, cal­led also Invocavit, because then is sung that of the Psalmist, Invocavit me, & ego exaudiam eum, He called upon me, and I will hear him. The second Sunday in Lent is called Reminiscere, for the same reason, taken from Psalm the 25th. v. 6. Re­member, O Lord, thy tender mercies, &c. The third, Oculi, from the 15th ver. of the same Psalm, Oculi mei semper ad Dominum, Mine eyes are ever [Page 91] towards the Lord. The fourth, Laetare, from that Isa. 66. 10. Laetare cum Jerusalem, Rejoyce thou with Jerusalem: Some call it Dominica de Rosa, be­cause then the Pope holds a Golden Rose in his hand at Church before all the People; and others Dominica de Panibus, because the miracle of the five Loaves in the Gospel is explained: This day with us is generally term'd Mid-Lent Sunday. The 5th Sunday in Lent is called Indica, from Psalm 43. ver. 1. Judg me, O God, and plead my cause. The next is Palm-Sunday; so called from the Palm­branches which the people strew'd before our Sa­viour entring Jerusalem: 'Tis likewise called Do­minica Magna, for the Great and Ineffable Good wrought in the week following for the faithful; for the Friday next is Good-Friday, as the day whereon our Blessed Saviour suffered for the sins of mankind. Then comes Easter-Sunday, cele­brated in memory of our Saviour's Resurrection, which is the Foundation and Rule for all the movea­ble Feasts. After this follows the Quinquagesimal, or space of 50 days between Easter and Whitson­tide. All which the Ancient Christians kept as a Festival, containing 6 Sundays: The first Quast­modo Geniti, from that of 1 Pet. 2. 2. As new­born Babes, &c. 'Tis also called Dominica in Al­bis, because those that were Baptized at Easter, used to go in White Garments all the week, which this day at night they left off. The second Sunday is called Misericordia, from Psalm 32. 5. The third Jubilate, from Psalm 65. 1. The fourth, Cantate, from Psalm 97. 1. The fifth, Vocem Jucunditatis, from the Introit that day beginning so; 'tis also called Rogation-Sunday, and the whole week fol­lowing, Rogation-week, because then they made [Page 92] their Processions into the Fields, said the Litany, and made their Prayers and Requests [Rogationes] to God publickly. The Thursday in this week is Holy Thursday, kept in memory of our Saviour's Ascension into Heaven. The last is called Exaudi, from that of Psal. 27. Hear, O Lord, my voice. Then succeeds the Grand Feast, called by us Whit­sontide, (because people appeared in such colour'd Garments anciently;) but in Greek Pentecost. Which, as it was observed by the Jews in memory of the Promulgation of the Law at Mount Sinai, just 50 days after their Pass-over, so Christians observe it the seventh Sunday after Easter, (called still Pas­cha,) by reason that then the Holy Ghost was sent, and the Gift of Tongues conferr'd upon the A­postles. The next is Trinity Sunday, and from thence the Sundays are reckon'd in order; as first, second, third, &c. after Trinity, to the first Sunday in Advent. Which time of Advent [or Coming] being a kind of Preparation for the Grand Festi­val of our Lord's Birth, contains the four Sundays next before Christmass; and are reckon'd by num­ber, as first, second, &c. Sunday in Advent. And thus much of Movable Feasts, which may seem a Digression, but not to be condemn'd by them that perhaps had never heard so much, if they had not met it here.

Movable Signs,

Are the same that are na­med Cardinal, viz. Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricorn; so called, because they are Arguments of the Motions of Times; as from which, the mu­tations of the Seasons are made in Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter; one passing to the other ac­cording to the Predominancy of the four first Qua­lities; so Aries and Libra bring in the Spring and [Page 93] Autumn, Cancer and Capricorn Summer and Win­ter, each of them excelling in suitable qualities. And as these Signs are the beginning of Mutation in Celestials, so in these Inferiors they cause Muta­bility, and are tokens of Mutations, as on the con­trary, Fixed Signs are of Stability.

Multipler,

Manifold, from Multus, many, and Plico, to fold.

Multilateral,

[Many Sided.] All Figures that have more than four Right Lines, are so called by Euclid El. 1. From the Latin, Multus, many; and Latus, a Side.

Multiplication,

Is a common Rule in Arith­metick, serving instead of a manifold Addition. In it there are two Numbers given, one to be multi­plied (which is the greater) called the Multiplicand; the other that by which it is to be multiplied, called the Multiplicator; and a third Number to be found, called the Product, which as often shall contain the first Number, as there are Unites in the second.

Musick,

Gr. Is one of the Seven Liberal Sci­ences, and a fourth Branch in the general Division of the Mathematicks, having for its Object Dis­crete Quantity or Number, but considers it not ab­solutely like Arithmetick, but with proportion of Time and Sound, and in order to making a delight­ful Harmony; so that indeed Musick is nothing else but the Agreement, apt Proportion and Mix­ture of Acute, Grave, and Mixt Sounds.

Mute [or Dumb] Signs,

Are those which are denominated from Creatures that have no voice, as Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces; and in Nativities, when the Significators are therein, do spoyl, or cause some Impediment in the Native's speech.

Mutilated,

[Lat. Lame, or Deficient:] Other­wise [Page 94] called Azimene Degrees; are certain degrees in several Signs: As from the 6th, to the 10th of Taurus; from the 9th, to the 15th of Cancer; the 18. 27 and 28 of Leo; the 18 and 19 of Scorpio; the 1. 7. 8. 18 and 19 of Sagittary; the 26. 27. 28 and 29 of Capricorn; and the 18 and 19 of Aquary, that threaten the Native that has them As­cending, or the Moon Lord of the Ascendant, or of the Figure, in them, with lameness, deafness, halt­ing, or some Inseparable defect in some eminent Member. And amongst the Fixed Stars, Caput Me­dusae, if mixed with the Significators by Direction or otherwise, is said generally to threaten Behead­ing, or loss of Limbs.

N
NAdir,

Is an Arabick word, and signifies that Point of Heaven under the Earth, which is Diametrically opposite to the Point directly over our Head, which in the same Language is called the Zenith; so that they both are as it were Poles of the Horizon, and distant from it on each Side 90 degrees, and consequently fall upon the Meri­dian, one above, the other under the Earth; and look what distance one of them has from the Equa­tor, and one of the Poles of the World; the same on the contrary has the other to the opposite Pole, and adverse part of the Equator.

[Page 95] Natural Day and Year,

The space of 24 hours, or Revolution of the Primum Mobile; one Revolution of the Sun by his proper motion, or 365 days and almost 6 hours.

Nativity,

In an Astrological sense, is the true time of any person's Birth, viz. when he first begins to breath in the World, and thereby in a peculiar manner becomes liable to the Celestial Influences; but is appropriated rather to the Scheme or Figure of the Heavens carefully Erected for that moment of time. The word is from the Lat. Nascor, to be born, or rather its participle, Natus sum.

Navigation,

Is an Art that demonstrateth, how by the best way, aptest direction, and shortest time, a sufficient Ship, between any two places (in passage Navigable, assigned) may be Conducted, and in all storms and disturbances hapning, how to use the best possible means to recover the place first Assigned.

Nebulous [Cloudy] Stars,

Are certain Fixed Stars of a dull, pale, and obscurish Light. So called either because they look Cloudily, or ra­ther because they generate Clouds; and setting with the Sun, render the Air troubled, and duskish: As also they are found by Experience, being joyn'd with the Luminaries to afflict a Native with blind­ness or dimness. There are also in every Sign cer­tain degrees called Dark, and others Smoaky, which have the like effect in altering the Complex­ions, and impairing or obscuring their Understand­ings; whose principal Significators happen to be Posited therein. Of which, and several other Divi­sions of the Signs, see a necessary Table, in that useful Enchiridion for all Artists; Entituled, A Tu­tor to Astrology, p. 64.

[Page 96] Neomenium,

A Greek word used by some Authors, that signifies only the New Moon, or Change.

New Moon.

See Noviluneum.

Nocturnal,

[From the Lat. Nox, the night,] Of or belonging to the night. Signs or Planets are said to be so, in which Passive Qualities, as moisture and driness, excel. See Diurnal. Also the name of an Instrument used for the observation of the Stars, &c.

Nodes,

[A Latin word signifying properly Knots, twistings or twinings one over another; but] by Astronomers used to signify the Intersections of the Orbit [tract or course] of the Sun, commonly called the Ecliptick; and the Orbits of the other Planets that have Latitude: So that the Point where a Planet passes over the Ecliptick out of Southern Latitude into Northern, is called its North-Node. And where it descends from North to South, its South-Node, which change their places in the Zo­diack like the Planets, but contrary to the succession of the Signs; yet those of the three Superior Pla­nets move insensibly; those of the three Inferiors faster; but those of the Moon are only or chiefly taken notice of, commonly called, the Dragons­head and Tail. Which see before.

Nona Sphoera,

[Lat. The Ninth Sphere;] Is usually termed Primum Mobile, it is the First Mover, being above the 8th Sphere or Starry Hea­ven, and carrying with it all the Inferior Spheres with a most swift motion from East to West, finish­ing its Revolution in 24 hours.

Novilunium,

From the Lat. Novus, new; and Luna, the Moon. The Latin word for all that time before and after the Moons Conjunction with the Sun, (or Change) wherein she is not visible. But [Page 97] to find the exact moment of the Conjunction, some Authors prescribe a pleasant sensible Experi­ment, viz. Take a Glass or Silver Vessel, fill'd with Lye or fair Water, into which some time be­fore, put the Ashes of an Olive-tree or Vine, which will rest quiet in the bottom; but as soon as the Moon enters the Diameter of the Sun, will rise, trouble the Water, and be hurried round, not rest­ing till she is perfectly past the Body of the Sun. This my Author affirms he hath often tried.

Nones.

See before in Calends.

Northern Signs,

The first six Signs are called so, because they decline from the Equinoctial Northward.

Number,

Is commonly defined to be, A Col­lection of Units, or Multitude composed of Units; so that One cannot be properly termed a Number, but the begining of Number: Yet I confess this (though generally received) to some seems questio­nable, for against it thus one might argue: A Part is of the same matter of which is its Whole; An Unit is part of a multitude of Units; Therefore an Unit is of the same matter with a multitude of Units: But the matter and substance of Units is Number; Therefore the matter of an Unit is Number. Or thus, A Number being given, If from the same we substract o, (no Number) the Number given doth remain: Let 3 be the Num­ber given, and from the same be taken 1, or an Unit, (which, as these will say, is no Number) then the Number given doth remain, that is to say, 3, which to say, is absurd. But this by the by, and with submission to better Judgments.

Numeration,

[Lat. Numbring] the first of the five Vulgar Rules of Arithmetick, teaching to [Page 98] read truly any Sum or Number, or write it down aptly when 'tis propos'd.

Numerator,

Is the upper Figure in a Fra­ction; so called, because it Numbers how many parts are to be taken out of those into which the Whole is divided: And the under Figure is called Denominator, because it shews how the parts taken are to be denominated, whether Seconds, Thirds, &c. As ¼ One Fourth part, One is Numerator, Four Denominator.

O
O Beying Signs,

The Southern, or last six Signs of the Zodiack are so called.

Oblique,

Crooked, bending or winding towards one side. The word Oblique signifying crooked, warpt, or bending.

Oblique Ascension.

See Ascension.

Oblique Sphere.

See Sphere.

Oblique Angle.

See Angle.

Oblique Signs.

See Signs.

Oblong,

A long Square, or Figure in Geometry, of four Sides, and Rectangled, but not Equilateral, or not having all the Sides equal to one another, though its opposite Sides be.

Obtuse,

Blunt, or Broad.

Obtuse Angle.

See Angle.

Occidens, and Occidental

Occidens is Latin for the West, because the Sun and Stars do occidere, fall down, or Set [Page 99] there. 'Tis properly therefore that part of the Ho­rizon where the Equator, or a Star therein, descends into the lower Hemisphere. But 'tis improperly, yet frequently taken for all that Arch of the Ho­rizon, which defines the Occidual Amplitude of the Stars. Hence in Astronomy, the 7th. House from the Horoscope is called, The Angle of the West. In Geography, the West was anciently reckon'd from the Fortunate Islands, but now is generally counted from the Azores.

Occidental, Oriental,

A Planet is said to be Occi­dental, when it Sets after the Sun; but Oriental, when it rises in the morning before him. See Matutine.

Octahedron,

[from Octo Eight, and Hedren, a Side] Is a Solid Figure, contained under eight Triangles, Equal, and Equilateral. Eucl. Elem. 11.

Olympiads,

the Space of four years, whereby the Antient Greeks reckoned their Memorable Oc­currences; they took their Original from those famous Games celebrated every 5th. year in Elis, and came into use about 500 years after the de­struction of Troy: And in the year of the world 3248. Before the Institution of these Olympiads the Greeks History is generally fabulous.

Opposition,

[from the Lat. Oppono to op­pose, thwart, or contradict] Is, when two Planets being distant 180. degrees behold one another diametrically opposite; and therefore is Counted an Aspect of the greatest Enmity: Yet between the Benevolents (especially of the same Nature) it becomes good, as some Artists are of opinion.

Opticks,

[so called from a Greek word signi­fying Seeing, and from the Lat. Perspective] An Art Mathematical which demonstrates the [Page 100] manner and properties of all Radiations, Direct, Broken, and Reflected. See a Book entituled, Pra­ctical Perspective.

Orb,

[A Latine word, signifying properly any round thing, and so 'tis often taken for the World; but in an Astronomical sence] It is taken for the Deferent of each Planet, which is vulgarly called its Sphere: Yet in truth, an Orb differs from a Sphere; for this properly signifies a Globe, con­tained under one onely Superficies, and solid even to the Centre; but an Orb is a Spherical Body, li­mited with two Superficies, one outward, which is Convex, (or bulging forth) the other inward, which is a Concave, (or hollow, vaulted over like an Oven.) And therefore look how many Hea­vens, so many Orbs there are, the Higher en­compassing the Lower; and how much the Con­cave Superficies of the uppermost is, so much also is the Convex of the Nethermost, much like the several Peels or Coats of an Onion. But because every Orb or Heaven contains within it self like­wise other Orbs; as for example, the Orb of the Sun contains three other several Orbs, of which, two are Excentrick after a certain sort, and the third simply so: Therefore for avoiding confusion of words, use has obtain'd, that now the Heavens themselves should not be called Orbs, but Spheres; and thus the greatest Sphere is the Primum Mobile; next the Sphere of the Fixed Stars, after that of Saturn, then of Jupiter, &c. to that of the Moon, the lowest and least of all, as well in circuit as thick­ness, the compass of her Concave being 758250 miles; the thickness, that is, the space contained between her Concave and Convex 109056 miles; the compass of her Convex, which is the same [Page 101] with the Concave of Mercury, as aforesaid 1443750 miles.

The thickness of Mercuries Orb 370480; the compass of his Convex Superficies 3772500 miles.

The thickness of the Orb of Venus 3413756; the Circuit of her Convex 25230375 miles.

The thickness of the Deferent of the Sun 339102; the compass of its outward Convex Superficies 27361875 miles.

The thickness of the Orb of Mars 27339375; the compass of its Convex 199209375 miles.

The thickness of the Orb of Jupiter is extended unto 19775497; the compass of its Convex 323512500 miles.

The thickness of the Orb of Saturn is 29474574; the compass of his Convex, and con­sequently of the Concave Superficies of the Firma­ment or Heaven, in which the Fixed Stars are placed, 508781250 miles.

The compass of that Firmament 80241471; and the compass of its Convex 1017562500 miles; which last sum is the circuit of the Concave of the Primum Mobile; but its thickness, or the measure of its Convex, is by no means to be found out: yet rationally by comparison we may judge it so vast, that even the Starry Orb may not be much more comparable to it, than our Earthly Globe to the Firmament. Well then, from this Immense Fabrick may we with the Psalmist cry out, The Heavens declare the glory of God, and shew forth the Workmanship of an Almighty and Adorable Architect. They that would be satis­fi'd further on this Subject, let them read Clavius on the Sphere of Sacroboscus, cap. 1.

[Page 102] Orbit,

[Lat.] Is properly the Tract left by a Wheel in the Road; hence Astronomers use the word to signifie the way or course of the Sun, (peculiarly called the Ecliptick) as also of any other Planet moving on according to the Cir­cle of its Latitude; nor is this without reason: for the transient Planet leaves behind him I know not what impression or footsteps of his Virtue and Quality, as Snails and other Insects leave marks of their tabifick quality in the path they pass over.

Oriens,

[from the Lat. Orior, to arise] The East point properly where the Sun Rises, when he is in the Equinoctial points Aries and Libra, but serves for all that part of the Horizontal Circle in which the Sun, at any time in the year rises to us. Hence comes the world Orienta [...], of or belonging to the East, or pertaining to Rising. See Oc­cide [...].

Orthogon,

[from the Greek Orthos, Right, and Gonia, an Angle] A Right Angle, or a Geo­metrical Figure which consists of Right Angles, and has an Equality of all its parts.

Orthographie,

[from Orthos, True or Right, and Grapho, to write; so that] The true English of this word being of Greek descent, is true or right Writing, and so 'tis used by Grammarians. But in the Mathematicks, and particularly in Archite­cture, 'tis taken for the Model, Platform, and de­scription of the Front and Bigness of a House that one is going to build, contrived according to the Rules of Geometry; according to which Idea or Pattern, the whole Fabrick is erected and finished. 'Tis a term also frequent in Perspective; and [Page 103] therein, the Orthography of any Body or Build­ing, is the fore-right side of any Plain, that is, the side or plain that lies parallel to a straight Line, that may be imagined to pass through the outward convex points of your two Eyes, continued to a convenient length: So that the Office of Ortho­graphy is, to delineate, the fore-right Plain.

Oval Figure,

[from the Lat. Ovum, an Egg] Geometricians call that so which resembles an Egg, round, but Oblong, so that Lines drawn from its outmost Superficies to the Centre, are not equal, and yet answer well enough to each other from the opposite sides: It differs from an Illipsis, because that is plain and circumscribed by one onely Line, whereas this is solid, included every where with a Superficies, as a Globe is; onely the Globe is exactly round, which this is not.

Oxygon, or Oxygonium,

[from the Greek Oxys, acute, or sharp, and Gonia, an Angle] Is a Ge­ometrical Triangular Figure, having necessarily all its three Angles acute; in which it differs from an Amblygon, that must have but two acute, and the third obtuse. Therefore every Oxygonal Tri­angle may be either Equilateral, which necessarily will not be a Right Angle, and consist of three Acute Angles; or an Isosceles, viz. if it have two equal Sides, and those greater than the Third; or a Scalenum, which hath all its Sides unequal. Whereas an Amblygon can onely be an Isosceles, or a Scalenum, but not Equilateral; since a Figure which has altogether equal Sides, can in no wise terminate in an Obtuse Angle.

P
PAnselene,

A Greek word, used by some Au­thors for the Full Moon; from Pan, All, or the Whole, and Selene, the Moon.

Parabola, (or, according to some, Para­bole)

[a Greek word, signifying a Plant] Is a Figure in Geometry, or Area, circumscribed by two Lines, one Right, and the other Crooked; of which, the great Archimedes wrote much, and first of all, with many Arguments and Demon­strations attempted to Square it, and that not with­out success.

Parallax,

A Greek word, signifying a Change or Variation, but used in Astronomy for the De­viation or Error of the Sight, occasion'd by the distance of the Term of the visual Line, proje­cted from the Superficies of the Earth to a Star, or other Phaenomenon in Heaven, from the Term of another Line projected from the Centre of the Earth to the Body of the same Star, in the place where he truly is: For when we behold the Stars from the Earths Superficies, which is almost 3035 miles from its Centre, it must needs follow, that the place designed, by a Right Line from the Centre of the Earth, would be different from what we now make, so that the Star would seem to be quite otherwise situate. This variation or diversity of Aspect is called the Parallax, which is greater or lesser, according to the greater or lesser nearness [Page 105] that the Star has to the Earth. Besides, it has place, in a Ray obliquely cast, or when a Star, not being Vertical, projects his Beams, as it were, on one side, and so to the Centre and Superficies of the Earth: For when 'tis Vertical, casting its Beams directly to the Superficies, it must needs pass by the Centre which is just under, and so suffer no Parallax: Therefore the further they are from the Zenith, and nearer the Horizon, so much the greater is their Parallax; which on the contrary is proportionably decreased, as they more and more approach the Vertix.

Comets and new Appearances in the Aery Re­gion suffer the greatest Parallax, next the Moon, and other Planets, to whom the Earth carries some sensible proportionate bulk: But higher, as in the Sphere of the Fixed Stars, to which the whole Earth is but as a Point, there is no Parallax; nor is it sensible in Saturn, or Jupiter; but Mars in Pe­rigaeon, has a Parallax of 4 Minutes; in Apo­gaeon, scarce any at all; Sol generally 3 Minutes, Venus and Mercury very little; but the Moon, when near the Horizon, almost a whole Degree, and always appears lower than indeed she is. By help of this Parallax, we know the distance of the Planets between themselves, and from the Earth, the time of their true Conjunction, and especially come to distinguish the true moment of Eclipses from the apparent.

Parallels,

A Greek word, signifying things that are equal to each other mutually, when com­pared together, and so are Circles or Lines equi­distant from each other, which though infinitely extended, can never touch. But more usually the word is taken for Circles of a like distance from [Page 106] the Equator; and this as well considered on the Superficies of the Earth, as in the Heavens; for those that are in the same distance from the Equa­tor towards the same Pole, are said to be in the same Parallel. Now as there are infinite Meridi­ans, so there are infinite Parallels; and as the Me­ridian Lines on the Globe are drawn onely through every 10th. Deg. of the Equator, so are the Paral­lels but to each 10th. Deg. of the Meridian. These Parallel Circles run East and West about the Globe, even as the Equator; onely the Equator is a great Circle, and these are every one less than other, dimi­nishing gradually till they end in the Pole.

Parallel Sphere,

hath one Pole of the World in the Zenith, the other in the Nadir, and the Equinoctial Line in the Horizon; so called, because the Sun, Moon, or Star, in a Diurnal Re­volution of the Heavens, neither ascend higher, nor descend lower, but always move parallel to the Horizon. The Earth is thus posited under the Poles, and there a whole year makes, as it were, one day, viz. six months Light, and six Darkness. See Sphere.

Parallelogram,

Is a Quadrilateral (or four­sided) Figure, whose two opposite Sides are paral­lel, or equi-distant; from the word Parallel and Gramma, a Letter or Figure. It is also the name of an Instrument, whereby two Copies of a thing may be writ or drawn at once.

Parallelopleura,

Are imperfect Parallelo­grams, and Irregular Correspondencies of the Angles or Sides whereby they are constituted; for they are a sort of Trapeziums, as having unequal Angles or Sides, but not all so; for they keep at least somewhere a certain regularity and propor­tion [Page 107] of Parallels, whence they do not extend so larg­ly as Trapeziums which include every kind of figure in any manner Irregular, yet like them they may be Multiplyed and Diversifyed almost Infinitely. Whereof see Clavius on Euclide.

Parallelopipedon.

Gr. Is a solid figure con­sisting of 6 plane equal sides, of which every one is equal, and Parallel to that which is opposite to it. So that every Parallelopipedon may be called a Prism, but not every Prism a Parallelopipedon, as by the Definition of a Prism will appear. See Prism.

Parelia,

[Mock-Suns] are Reflexions of the Solar Beams in hollow watrish Clouds, which like a Glass they receive, and so lively represent his Image that there appears as it were another Sun, and make it difficult to a vulgar Eye to distinguish which is the real, and which the fictitious one; for sometimes the Reflection is single, only on one side, sometimes double on either side, and the true Sun in the midst. Their natural signification is to denote approaching Rain.

Paratelene,

[A Mock-Moon] the same kind of Resemblance of the Moon, as Parelion is of the Sun, and occasion'd by the same means, but not so frequently; Both words are part Latin part Greek, the first from Par (equal or like to) and Elios or Helios (the Sun) The second from the same Latin word Par, and the Greek word Selene signifying the Moon.

Part of Fortune,

Is said to be the Lunar Horosoope, or place in the Scituation of the world, from whence the Moon takes her progress at that moment that the Sun Emerges from the Line of the East; And therefore if you take it upon a New [Page 108] Moon, twill fall in the Ascendant, If upon a Full Moon, in the 7th house. &c. The usual way of taking or finding it is thus:

1. Take the Sign, Degree, and Minute of the Moons place.

2. The Sign, Degree, and Minute of the Suns place; Substract the Latter from the Former, adding 12. Signs to the Moons place if it can not be done otherwise;

What remains add to the Sign and Degree of the Ascendant, and if both make above 12 Signs, cast away 12. and what Signs, De­grees, and Minutes remain, (Reckoning here as in the whole Work from the begining of Aries) Let your part of Fortune be there.

Tis called part of Fortune, because most Astrolo­gers do regard it in Judgments of a Natives For­tune, Estate or Riches: And according as tis well or ill affected, pronounce concerning the Same; Its Character is thus ⊕; but being only an Ima­ginary point can cast no Ray or Aspect. There are likewise other parts, as Part of Life, Part of Death, Part of the Wife &c. Invented by the Arabians, but being generally exploded as vain I omit them.

Partile Aspect,

Is not as some may fancy by the sound of the word partly or almost an Aspect, or an Aspect in Part; But the most exact and full Aspect that may be so called, because it consists precisely of so many parts or degrees as are requisite to Compleat such an Aspect even to a Degree; As Mars in 24 Degrees of Aries, and Venus in just the 24th of Libra, this is a Partile Opposition; The Sun in one Degree of Taurus and the Moon in one Degree of Cancer make a Partile Sextile; And it [Page 109] is a more strong Sign or Argument in judgments for performance of the thing, or that the matter is near hand Concluded, when the Aspect is so Partile, and signifies Good, than when 'tis Platick, but it's as much a Sign of present Evil when Mis­chief is threatned, whereas the Platick Aspect shews something past or to Come, rather than now pre­sent or suddenly imminent. See Platick.

Part Proportional,

A part or number a­greable and Analogous to some other part or Num­ber; Or Medium to find out some part or Num­ber unknown by proportion and equality of Rea­son.

Pentagon,

[Gr. from Pente five, and Gonia an Angle] Is a Geometrical figure having five Angles, whether they be Equilateral (of equal sides) or not; If it be Equilateral it is also called a regular Isoperimeter, which in the Heavens makes that New Aspect called a Quintile, but if it have unequal sides then it is called absolutely Irregular, and may like Trapezia's, many ways be varied.

Pentangle,

The same, only a Greek and Lat. word joyned, having five Angles.

Perch,

See the Appendix of Measures.

Peregrine,

[A Latine word that properly signifies a Stranger, one out of his own Country where he has no Home, nor Authority] It is a Term attributed by Astrologers to a Planet that is found in a place of Heaven, where he has none of his five Essential Dignities. viz. House, Exalta­tion, Triplicity, Term, or Face; So Saturn in the 10th of Aries is Peregrine, but in the 27th Degree cannot be said to be so, because there he is in his own Terms: Or if there be a mutual Reception of two Planets by House or Exaltation, as the Sun [Page 110] in Virgo, Mercury in Leo, then neither of them shall be said to be Peregrine; In other Cases where a Plannet is so, it is Counted an Essential weakning, and like being in his Detriment reckon'd five De­bilities.

Perihelion,

[Gr. from Peri about, and He­lios the Sun,] That point of a Planets Orb wherein he is nearest to the Sun.

Perimeter,

A Greek word, the same with Cir­cumferentia in Latine, or That which incloses any Figure, as the Perimeter of a Triangle is a Line made of 3 Lines; of a Circle, a Periphery, of a Cube, a Surface compounded of six Surfaces, of a Sphere, one whole Spherical Surface. &c.

Perioeci,

[Gr. from Peri about and Oiki habitations] The Perioeci of any place is in the same Latitude, but is distant in the Longitude 180 De­grees. viz. half the Circumference of the Earth in that Parallel. Thus the Pirioeci of England is about 20 Degrees to the Eastwards of Cathaio; In the Perioeci of any Place there happens not that Con­trariety of Seasons in the year, that doth in the Anti­podes, nor in the Length of Days: for the Days in both Places are of equal Length, but in the Times of the Day there is the same contrariety: for though their Spring be our Spring, and the rest of their Seasons of the year the same with ours; yet their Morning is our Evening, and their Night our Day. See Antoeci.

Periphery,

A Greek word signifying That Circular Line which goes about and Infolds the whole Area or Content of a Circular Figure: The proportion of which to its Diameter is as 22 to Seven: the word is likewise sometimes taken for the whole Superficies of the Earth, or for the Convex [Page 111] and outermost part of any Celestial Sphere.

Periscii,

[from the Greek Peri, about, and scia, a shadow] People that live within the com­pass of the Artick and Antartick Circles; so called, because their shadow is various, and runs round about them.

Perpendiculum, and Perpendicular,

[From the Lat. Perpen­do, to hang down] A Perpendicular, or Plumb-line, is an Instrument well known to Ma­thematicians, and most Mechanicks, used for the finding out whether any Pillar, Wall, &c. stand upright. Hence Geometricians call that a Perpen­dicular, which is let fall from above to a certain Bottom, with the same streightness as the Plummet hangs in a Perpendiculum. Astronomers also are wont to say, those Stars that are Vertical (or right over our heads) are Perpendicular, because their Beams fall so upon us.

Perspective,

[from the Latine Perspicio, to look at, or through] A Faculty, which, according to Geometrical Precepts, by the visual Rays, spe­culates and measures all visible Bodies and Colours, &c. and is three-fold; One strictly called Per­spective, which renders a reason of those Appea­rances, which offer themselves to our sight other­wise than the things really are, by reason of their different situation and distance. The second is con­versant about several Refractions, which it for the most part considers in or from Looking-glasses, 'tis thence called Ars Specularia. The third is em­ploy'd about Shadows, and shows how those things that in Painting appear confused and dis­orderly, by the diversity of site or placing, may appear agreeable, and in order; and so on the con­trary▪ [Page 112] And this is called Sciatoptrica. Of all which, see Kerchers elaborate Treatise, entituled, Ars magnae Lucis & Umbrae. See also Practical Per­spective.

Phases,

A Greek word, signifying Appea­rances, or the manner of things showing them­selves, and therefore used for the several postures in which the Planets (especially the Moon) offer themselves to our sight, as obscure, horned, half illuminated, or full of light; which, by the Tele­scope, may likewise be observed in Venus and Mars.

Phoenomena,

[from the Greek Phainomi, to shew or appear] Appearances, or strange Sights; often used for Comets, or new Stars, whether in the Elementary or Aetherial Region.

Phoenon,

Saturn is sometimes called so, from his Nature, the word signifying bloody, sad, and cruel.

Phosphorus,

The Usher or Harbinger of Day; Venus is so called in Greek, when she is our Morn­ing-Star.

Pilasters,

A Term in Architecture, signifying Square Pillars, that usually stand behind Columns to bear Arches, &c.

Pisces,

[Lat. the Fishes] The twelfth and last Sign of the Zodiac in the Southern Semicircle, but bordering on Aries, and therefore common, waterish, cold, and moist. The House of Jupiter, and Exaltation of Venus.

Planets,

The word is originally Greek, and signifies as much as Wanderers; whence we call them Erratick Stars, viz. Stars not placed in the Firmament, as the Fixed, but in Orbs of their own, and by their proper motions wandring in the Zo­diack, contrary to the motion of the Primum Mo­bile, [Page 113] from West to East, according to the succession of the Signs. They are in number Seven, (not to speak of those lately discovered about Jupiter and Saturn) viz. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. These all differ from the rest of the Stars, not onely in Motion, as aforesaid, but also in Light, being to be known from the other, in that they never Twinkle, which the Fixed always do.

Planisphere,

[from Planus, Plain, and Sphae­ra, a Sphere] A Sphere described in Plano, or a plain or flat Projection of the Sphere; viz. all the Lines and Circles thereof: And thus the Maps either of Heaven or Earth are called Planispheres.

Plain,

amongst Geometricians, is a flat Super­ficies; that is, a Superficies that lies equal between its Lines, whereby 'tis opposed to a Spherical Body, and a Circle, which are circumscribed with a crooked Line, or Superficies. Hence that vulgar Axiom, That a Spherical Body touches not a Plain but in one Point.

Planetary Hour.

See Lord of the Hour.

Plain Chart,

A Plat or Chart that Sea-men Sail by, whose Degrees of Longitude and Latitude are made of the same length. Thus in

Plain Sailing,

Sea-men keep their Account of Sailing East, West, North, South, or any other Point of the Compass, and of the Distance the Ship has Run upon the Plain Chart.

Plain Scale,

A thin Ruler of about a Foot in length, whereon is graduated the Line of Chords, Leagues, Rhumbs, &c. By which little Instrument Sea-men are much help'd to keep an Account of the way the Ship has made.

[Page 114] Planimetry,

The Art of Measuring Plains and Superficies.

Platick Aspect,

Is a Term to distinguish it from Partile. Platus in Greek signifies wide, or broad; so this Aspect takes more room than the other which is confined to the same Degree, whereas this is a Ray cast, not exactly from one Planet to the Body of another Planet, but onely within the Orb of his Light. To know when this Aspect happens, you must know the quantity of each Planets Orb; and add them together, and take one half thereof, and if your Planets be within so many Degrees of a Partile Aspect, then they are in Platick Aspect one with another; the quantity allowed to each Planet for its Orb, before or after any Aspect, is as follows.

 dm
Saturn1000
Jupiter1200
Mars0730
Sol1700
Venus0800
Mercury0700
The Moon1230

Now suppose Venus in the 10th. Degree of Tau­rus, and Saturn in 18 Degrees of Virgo; here she is in Platick Trine with him, because she is within the moiety of both their Orbs; for the moiety of Saturns Rays or Orb is 5 deg. and of Venus 4. and the distance between them and their perfect Aspect is but 8 deg.

Thus also the Fixed Stars have an Orb of Acti­vity on either side, those of the first magnitude 7 deg. 30 min. of the second Magnitude 5 deg. [Page 115] 30 min. of the Third 3 deg. 40 min. of the Fourth 1 deg. 30 min. And note, that this Platick Aspect is▪ cast either on this side, or beyond the Body of the Planet; the first is called Application, for in that case, the Planet aspecting applies and disposes himself to have familiarity, and come to a Partile Aspect with the other. The second is na­med Separation, for then it has been in Partile Aspect, and now by motion is parting away, but yet not got out of the bounds of its Orbs; which is chiefly regarded in the Moon: and the nearer this is to a Partile Aspect, so much the more effi­cacious it is; and better generally is an Application, than Separation or Deflux. See Partile-Aspect.

Plumb-Line.

See Perpendiculum.

A Point,

[in Latine Punctum] is the smallest part of Quantity, or that Extreme which can be divided into no further parts. The same (in a man­ner) in Quantity, as a Unit in Number, an Instant in Time, or a Sound in Musick. To apprehend its Nature and Use, let us imagine an exceeding small Tittle, Prick, or Point made on a Paper with the nib of a Pen, which if again it shall be drawn out further, it will make a Line, having Length indeed, but not Breadth or Depth, and terminated at the two Ends with Points. Next, let us suppose the sai [...] Character indivisible, and produced long­wise a [...]d broadwise, two or more parallel Lines touching each other side by side, will make a Su­perficies; and then, if at last it be produced as well to be deep as long and broad, which it will be, if several Superficies be conceived one upon another, then have we a solid Body, capable of all dimen­sion. And thus are exhibited all the three kinds of Quantity, according to the three-fold Dimension [Page 116] about which all the labour and speculations of Geo­metry are employ'd.

Poles,

[from [...], a Greek word, that sig­nifies to turn about] are properly the two Extre­mities of an Axis about which anything movable is turn'd: And because in the Heavens there is such a regular and never ceasing Circular Motion, and many Moveables, of which, each goes by its proper Orbit, therefore the Poles are very much to be minded in our Considerations of the Heavens, and as many Orbits as there are, so many double Poles are to be conceived. Thus the Poles of the Horizon are the Zenith and Nadir; the Poles of the Meridian, the two Points of the Rising and Setting of the Equator in the Horizon; the Poles of the Equinoctial Colure, are the two Solstitial Points Cancer and Capricorn; the Poles of the Solstitial Colure, the two Equinoctial Points Aries and Libra; the Poles of the Equator, and Circles thereunto Parallel, are the two Poles of the World; and lastly, of the Zodiac and Ecliptic, the Poles of the Zodiac, which describe two lesser Circles, Artick and Antartick, distant 23 Degrees and a half from the Poles of the World. Yet the word Poles absolutely taken, and without addition, is usually meant the Poles of the World, because onely they continue immovable, and all the Spheres hurried by the motion of the Primum Mobile, are once in 24 hours wheel'd round about them. Or, 2ly. the Poles of the Zodiack, about which are turn'd all the second Movables, as the Starry Hea­ven, or Orbs of the Planets, from West to East, in appointed periods.

But since these Poles are onely Points conceived in the Heavens, therefore that the Artick Pole of [Page 117] the World may be known, we must imagine a Right Line from the Pole-star to another next it in the Tail of the Little Bear; on which Line, make an Equilateral Triangle towards the Head of the Great Bear, at the top of which Triangle is the true place of the Pole. But this labour will be saved in the next Age, for then the Pole-Star, that has 88 Deg. Declination, will have 90, and so fall directly on the Pole.

Pole or Perch,

A Measure. See the Appendix.

Polar Circles,

The Arctick and Antarctick are so called. See Arctos.

Polar Draught,

A Representation of the Earth, or of the Heavens, projected upon the Poles of the Equator. In Polar Draughts, all the Meridian-Lines are Equi-distant from each other in every Parallel, but the Circles representing the Parallels are not Equi-distant from one another.

Poles of a Dial.

All Dials, though upright, or Inclining, or Reclining, are yet Horizontal Di­als in some part of the Earth, and the Zenith and Nadir of that Horizon are the Poles of that Dial. But how to find where these Poles will fall, see Tut. to Astron. & Greg. Book. 5. Prob. 14.

Polyedron, Polygon, and Polygram,

A Geometrical Figure con­sisting of ma­ny Plain Faces, Angles, Lines.

Edron being Greek for a Basis, Face, or Side; Go­nia for an Angle, and Gramma for a Line.

Ponderous,

[Lat. heavy or slow] Those Pla­nets are said to be so that move leisurely and slowly, like a man under a burden; as Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, who never by their Diurnal Motion can reach one whole Degree.

[Page 118] Position,

A putting, placing, or represent­ing of things; As the respect of a Planet, in an Astrological Figure, to other Planets and parts of the Figure, is called his Position.

Postventional,

Coming, or that is to come after. They are words seldom used but in reference to the Lunations, (Change or Full of the Moon) next before or after any great Conjunction of the Superiors, Appearance of a Comet, Revolution of the World, or other Figure; from consideration of which foregoing or following Lunation, the Artist is assisted in his Judgment.

Preventional,

[from the Lat. Proevenio] Coming, or that hath come, Before.

The Prime of the Moon,

An old word for signifying the New Moon at her first appearing, or about three days after the Change, at which time she is said to be Primed.

Prime Figure,

Is that which cannot be di­vided into any other Figures more simple than it self; as a Triangle in Plains, the Pyramis in So­lids; for all Plains are made of the first, all Bodies or Solids compounded of the second.

Prime, or First Number,

Is defined by Euclid to be that which onely Unity doth mea­sure, as 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 33, 29, 31, &c. for onely Unity can measure these.

Primum Mobile,

[Lat. the First Mover] Is the Ninth Sphere, which includes both the Fir­mament, or Heaven of Fixed Stars, and all the Spheres of the Planets, and hurries them round from East to West once in 24 hours, on the Poles of the World. And this Heaven is known onely by its Motion, for there be in it no Stars, no Images, nor Characters, (as some have vainly and superstiti­ously [Page 119] fancied) for even the Signs and Circles which we imagine to be therein, are onely fictitious. Yea, some of the Learned (amongst whom is the Noble Tycho himself) are of opinion, that there is no such distinct Sphere, Anastron, (or without Stars) and onely serving for Motion: For they con­ceive probably, that the Diurnal Conversion of the World, is not caused by any such separate Pri­mum Mobile, but from the nature of the whole Celestial Region; that is, that the whole Aether is mov [...]d on the Poles of the World by its proper vertue, conferred on it by God, from East to West; in which, in the mean time, all the Stars and Planets are carried, by their proper Motions, from West to East, on Poles of the Zodiack; which are therefore called Secunda Mobilia, to distinguish them from the other.

Prisme,

[In Greek Prisma signifies a sawing or cutting, but used in Geometry for] A solid Fi­gure, contained of Plains, two of which (those that are opposite to one another) are equal, alike, and parallel; but the others are Parallelograms.

Problem,

Gr. Is a Proposition, which requir­eth some action or doing, as the making of some Figure, or to divide a Figure or Line, to apply Figure to Figure, to add Figures together, or to substract one from another, &c. As the first Propo­sition of Euclid's first Book is a Problem, viz. Up­on a given terminated Right Line, to make an Equi­lateral Triangle; which, after the Demonstrations is concluded after this manner, Therefore, &c. which was to be done.

Profections,

[from Proficiscor, to pass, or go forwards] Are equal and regular progressions of the Sun, and other Significators, through the Signs [Page 120] of the Zodiack, according to the Successions of the Signs, allowing to each Profection the whole Circle, and one Sign over: As if the Sun, in the first year, be in 24 Degrees of Aries, next year he shall be in 24 Degrees of Taurus. Besides these Annual Profections, there are others Monthly and Annual. But being devises not much regarded by Modern Artists, I shall not hear trouble the Reader further about them.

Prohibition,

[Lat. a forbidding or hinde­rance] Is, when two Planets, that signifie the effe­cting, or bringing to conclusion any thing de­manded, or applying to an Aspect, and before they can come to a true Aspect, another Planet inter­poseth either his Body or Aspect, so that thereby the matter is hindered and retarded.

Projection of the Sphere,

Is a describing the Lines and Circles of the Sphere, or so many of them as the purpose requires, upon a flat surface. Thus Maps, Astrolabes, Sun-Dials, Quadrants, &c. are all Projections of the Sphere.

Promittors, or Promissors,

[Lat. from Promitto, to promise or engage, to bring somewhat to pass] A term used in the Genethliacal part of Astrology, treating of Directions; so called, be­cause they promise in the Radix something to be accomplish'd, when the time of the Direction is fulfilled; and are onely the Planets, or their Aspects, or in some cases Fixed Stars, to whom the Signifi­cators, that is, the Horoscope, Mid-heaven, Sun, Moon, and Part of Fortune, are directed.

Proper Motion,

Is the Motion of a particu­lar Planet from West to East, in contradistinction of its enforced Diurnal Motion from East to West, caused by the Primum Mobile.

[Page 121] Proportion,

[called in Greek Analogy, and sometimes after the Latines, Proportionalitas] Is a similitude or likeness of two or more reasons between themselves. This is the Basis on which the whole Structure of Geometry is founded, and the scope to which all its Precepts tend. But because Quan­tity is two-fold, Continu'd and Disjoyn'd, hence arises a Two-fold Proportion, Geometrical, and Arithmetical; the first is regarded in Continued Quantity, the second in Numbers, comparing one with another, and thereby coming to the know­ledge of others before unknown; yet both are per­formed by Numbers, and retaining each his own name, extends it self to consider the others Quan­tity, according to the divers reason of Proportions, and habitude of one thing to another; applying afterwards to Continued Quantity what was made out by Quantity Discrete: And on the contrary, feigning in Numbers all the Passions of Continued Quantity, that what in one is conspicuous, may be made appear so in the other, by the same reason of Habitude. Thus in Quantity Discrete, 'tis as easie as in Continued, to assign a Whole and Parts, Indivisible Points, which are Units, composing the same Discrete Quantity, Numbers, Plain, Solid, Square, and all other sorts of Figures. The Arith­metical Proportion therefore is, when three or more Numbers proceed with the same difference, as 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, &c. each Number exceeding that which goes before by the Number Three. But the Geometrical Proportion is, when three or more Numbers have the same Reason, as 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, &c. where every Number bears the same pro­portion to that which precedes, or Triple Reason, containing three times as much.

[Page 122]Of Proportions, whether in Continued or Dis­crete Quantities, some are Rational, others Irra­tional: The Rational is that which two Commen­surable Quantities have between themselves. The Irrational that which two Incommensurables have. Now those Quantities are said to be Commensurable, which have one common Aliquot part, or which one common Measure can mete; as are Lines of 20 and of 8 Inches, whereof the Aliquot part is a Line of 4 or of 2 Inches. But Incommensurable Quantities have no Aliquot parts; that is, there is no common Measure given that may measure them; as is the Diameter of a Square, and the Side of the same Square: For though each of those Lines have infinite Aliquot parts, as the Half, the Third, &c. yet 'tis not an Aliquot part com­mon to both, that is, not any Aliquot part of the one, be it never so little, can possibly measure the other. There are divers other Considerables about Proportions, for which, see Euclid, Elem. 5.

Proposition,

[from the Lat. Propono, to pro­pound, or shew forth] Amongst Geometricians is a Sentence set forth to be proved by Reasoning and Demonstrations, and therefore is again repeated in the end of the Demonstration.

Prorogator of Life,

The same with Hylech, which see.

Prostapheresis,

[A Greek word, signifying as much as filling up, or Adequation] Is that part of the Ecliptick which is to be added or substracted from the Mean Motion of the Planets to obtain the True, or from their True to obtain their Mean Motion.

Pseudostella,

[Greek, a false Star] Any kind of Comet or Phaenomenon newly appearing in the Heavens like a Star.

[Page 123] Pyramid,

[so called from the Greek word Pyr, signifying Fire, because a flame ends Taper in a point like this Figure] So a solid Figure contained under diverse Plains, which meet or Terminate, at one and the same point being drawn from another plain which is for the Base of the Pyramid; and here note that every Body whether Opacous or Lu­minous transmits its shadow or Light after a Pyra­midal Form. Only the Luminous Body casts it so, that the Vertex (Top) of the Pyramid form'd is in that point of the Luminous body from whence the Light proceeds, and the Basis on the Superficies of the Body Inlightned, but an Opacous body casts it shadow contrary-wise, the Basis of the Pyramid by it made, being in the Superficies of the body making the shadow, and the Vertex in a point of any body to which the shadow is extended.

Pyrois,

[Greek Fiery] A Greek name for Mars, from his firy Nature, colour and brightness so called.

Q
QUadrant,

[from the Lat. Quatuor Four] Is the 4th part of a whole Circle, or 90 De­grees, and from thence the Name of an Instrument, which amongst all Mathematical ones may justly Claim the Preeminence, for by its help almost all the operations of Geometry, Astronomy, and other Mathematical Sciences are both effected, and [Page 124] easily apprehended; but especially the Elevation of the Pole, and height of the Sun or other Stars above the Horizon; Their Declination, Distance from each other, Place in the Zodiac, &c.

Quadrant of Altitude,

Is the part of the Furniture of an Artificial Globe, being a thin Brass Plate divided into 90 Degrees, and marked up­wards with 10, 20. &c. being Rivetted to a Brass Nut which is fitted to the Meridian, and hath a screw in it, to screw upon any Degree of the Meri­dian; when it is used it is most commonly screwed to the Zenith. Its use is for Measuring the Altitudes, finding Amplitudes, and Azimuths, and describing Almicantarahs. See Tutor to Astronomy, pag. 6.

Quadrat,

See Square.

Quadrangle,

A Geometrical Figure consist­ing of four Angles, as a Parallelogram, Rhombus, Rhomboides, &c.

Quadrature of the Circle,

See Squaring of the Circle.

Quadrilateral,

having 4 Sides.

Quadrupedial,

[From the Lat. Quatuor 4, and Pes a Foot, four-footed] Signs, See Beastial.

Quadruple,

Fourfold.

Quarters of Heaven,

The four principal, East, West, North, and South; but in Astronomy they are Intersections of the Sphere considered as well in the World as in the Zodiack, of which two are Oriental and counted Masculine, reckoned from the Rising of the Sun to his place at high Noon, and from the West to the Imum Coeli in the world, and from the begining of Aries to the begining of Cancer, and from the begining of Libra to the [Page 125] end of Sagittary, and the other two just the con­trary.

Quantity,

Is the proper and largest object of Geometrical Arts, not as tis an accident adhering to matter, and endued with sensible qualities; (For so the consideration of it belongs to Philosophers) but as it is an Extension of parts, and a certain apt measure both to measure other quantities, and be measured again by them. See Point.

Querent,

[From the Lat. Quaero to seek] An Enquirer, the person that demands a Question of an Astrologer generally signified by the Ascendent its Lord, and Planets therein, and the Moon. Hence

Quesited,

The party or thing Enquired after, or concerning, whose Significator is varied accord­ing to his Relation to the Question, or nature of the business belonging to such or such an House; As if a Question be askt about a Brother, the third House and its Lord shall signifie him; If a Child, the 5th, &c.

Quinque-Angled,

That has 5 Angles, from the Lat. Quinque, Five.

Quintuple,

Five-fold.

Quintile,

One of the New Aspects invented by Kepler, thus marked, Q. It happens when Pla­nets are distant a 5th part of the Zodiack or 72 Degrees, and in its Nature is good and favourable.

Quincunx,

Another of those New Aspects, when Planets are distant 5 Signs or 150 De­grees.

Quotient,

A term in Arithmetick derived from the Latine word Quoties, how often; because it shows how often a small Number in Division is con­tained in a greater, as 4 is the Quotient of Twenty divided by 5.

R
RAdius,

Lat. properly a Ray or beam of the Sun, but in the Opticks tis defined to be a Lu­minous straight Line, or an Illumination made by a right Line, and yet that is but one sort of them, for there are two others; A Reflex Ray, which is transmitted from the body Illuminated either back to the Luminous body, or sideway on some other Object; and a Refracted Ray, which is when the Medium is too thick, and so it glances into a thin­ner, or too thin, and so it chooses one more thick, as when from the Air tis diffused upon the Water. In Astronomy, a Radius or Ray is taken for the Aspect or Configuration of two Stars: so we say Saturn beholds Venus with an Hostile Ray, &c. when she is square with him; but amongst Geome­tricians by Radius is meant, the greatest Sine, which is the Semidiameter of a Circle, and the half Chords subtended under the whole Circle, after which fol­low other Lesser Circles always Less and Less even to the Complement of the Arch under which they are subtended; by which (by the help of the Rule of Proportions) we find out the Quantity of the other Sines, and the Arch by which each is subtended, as also of the Tangent and Secant: In Scheme 1. A B is Radius [...]o that Circle. See further Radix.

Radix,

[In Lat. a Root] by similitude taken from the root of a Tree; from whence all the body [Page 127] and Branches proceed: It is used by Artists for the begining of things, or the foundation whence is drawn the reason of Computing the Celestial Mo­tions, relating to such a person or thing, so the Na­tivity or figure erected for the time of any persons birth, is called The Radix in respect of Revolutions, Directions, Progressions, &c.

Rational way of Erecting a Figure,

Is a way of Distributing the spaces of the Houses; Invented first by Abraham Avenesra, and since highly asserted by Regiomontanus, who for the Ex­cellency of it in his apprehension called it the Ratio­nal way, as esteeming the method prescribed by Pto­lomy and others of the Ancients absurd or fantastick, Now the Division they propose, is to divide the Equator (as Ptolomy and his followers did the Zo­diac) into twelve equal parts by 6 great Circles drawn through mutual Sections of the Horizon and Meridian, &c. Being the way now commonly Practised by all Astrologers in Erecting their Figures.

Reason,

This word is used by Mathematicians in a peculiar Sence, and is thus Defined by Euclid El. 5. Reason is an Habit of two Magnitudes of the same kind compared the one to the other, accord­ing to Quantity: whereby it appears, that when two Quantities of the same kind, as two Numbers, two Lines, two Superficies, two Solids, &c. are Compared to one another according to Quantity; that is to say, according as one is greater or less than the other, or equal thereto, such Comparison is called Reason, or (as others will have it) Propor­tion; Reason and Rational in this Sence is variously divided, as Reason, Rational, and Irrational, Rea­son of equality and inequality, Reason Multiplex, [Page 128] Reason Multiplex Superparticular, &c. For all which see Euclid. in the 5th El. aforesaid, where they are all explained: and no pretender to Mathe­maticks being to be supposed to be without that most Necessary Author, I think it not necessary here to transcribe them.

Reception,

[Lat. a Receiving or Entertain­ing from Recipio] Is a kind of accidental Dignity or Fortitude happening to two Planets (especially if they are agreeable in nature, and friendly) when they are found in each others Houses, Exaltation, or other essential Dignities, as ☉ in ♈ and ♂ in ♌ Or ☉ in ♉ and ☿ in ♈. The first is a Reception by House, (which is the best and strongest) The second is a Reception by Triplicity, if the Question or Nativity be by day.

Reflexion,

Lat. Is a Redoubling of the Action or quality sent from some Agent upon the Patient, whereby the same Action or quality pro­duced in the Patient, is intended, and Acted over, endeavouring to tend back again to the first Agent. So Light darted from the Sun upon a Looking-glass is intended (or made more strong) and turn'd back encreased through the same Medium that it came; Tis to this Reflection of the Solar Beams that Hea­ven ows those thousands of Beauties which every clear night we admire: for the Stars are supposed to have no Light of their own, but what they re­ceive this way from the Sun.

Refraction,

[Lat. a breaking back or again] The word is used in Astronomy and Perspective, to signify that diversity of Aspect, and Error of the Sight which happens in our contemplating the Stars, or beholding any other bodies at a great distance, either by Optick Instruments, or any other interpo­sed [Page 129] Diaphonous body, when thereby the Rays or Species of the Visible object are broken, and repre­sent the things otherwise than in truth they are; as is manifest in Looking-glasses, which according to their greater Density or rarity notably alter the Object; the general Cause of Refractions are the obliquity of the Sight, and the thickness of the Air, which the thicker it is the greater will be the Re­fraction, hence Stars near the Horizon are most obnoxious to it, whereas in the Meridian the Air is more clear and free from vapours, so that there they suffer little or no Refraction; the knowledge here­of is of good use in Eclipses to find out the true time of Incidence, Greatness and Duration from the Ap­parent.

Refraination,

[from the Latine Particle Re, and Fraenum a Bridle, a holding back as with a Bridle] 'Tis a kind of weakning to a Planet, which is called so by Astrologers when a Planet going to an Aspect with another, before they come up to it becomes Retrograde, and thereby is as it were pluckt back, as Saturn in 12 Degrees of ♈ Mars in 7 Degrees here ♂ hastens to a Conjunction of Saturn, but before he comes to the 10th or 11th Degree of ♈, he becomes Retrograde, and by that means refrains to come to a ♂ of ♄. who still moves for­ward in the Sign. Nothing signified by the for­mer Conjunction will be Effected.

To Rectify a Nativity,

Is to bring the Esti­mate and supposed time to the true and real time of a persons Birth. For which there are several ways, as the Animodar of Ptolomy, the Trutine of Hermes, and by Accidents, which last as the most certain is generally followed.

Reclining,

[Lat. to Lean backwards] A [Page 130] Term used in Dyalling for a Plane, that leans from you when you stand before it. See Mechanick Dyalling.

Rectangle,

A Right Angle. See Angle.

Regular Figures,

Are such as are Equilate­ral, and of equal Angles, as are all Isoperimeters, and yet these words not Synonimous, for Isoperi­metral Figures are understood to be those which contain equal Circuits; But Regular Figures are those where the Angles and Lines or Superficies are equal: On the contrary, those are called Irregular, which have not the Equality of Sides and Angles, as are Prisms and Trapezia's; and to know these, Describe a Line about any Figure from its Centre at its Angles, if the Circumference equally touch all the Angles, the Figure is Regular, otherwise Irregular.

Retrograde,

[Lat. moving or going back­wards] A Planet is said to be so by Astronomers, when by his proper Motion in the Zodiac he moves contrary to the succession of the Signs; as if he go from the second degree of Aries to the first, and so into the 30th degree of Pisces, which is by all ac­counted the greatest Debility that can happen to a Planet, as to be swift in Motion is a very great Fortitude; the reason whereof seems to be this, that when a Planet is swift, he strives more against the Motion of the Primum Mobile, and staying longer above the Earth has more time to diffuse his Light and Influence on Inferiors, whereas he that is Retrograde is so far from resisting, that he An­ticipates the Motion of the Primum Mobile, and finishes his Revolution in less than 24 hours, so has not time to affect inferiors so powerfully with his Qualities, and consequently must be accounted weak; [Page 131] and this (by the way) may be one reason why the Planets have more power over us than the Fixed Stars.

To Retrogradation all Planets, except the Lu­minaries, are subject; not that really they move backward, but because they are carried every one in his Epicycle, which has the Sun for his Centre and so whilst the Orbs are carried about with the rapid motion under the Primum Mobile, their Bodies, in respect of us, seem sometimes to move backwards, sometimes to stand still, and sometimes move swifter and slower, though in truth they always go on equally and in the same manner in their Epi­cycle. But when they are in their first station, de­scending from their Apogaeon to their Perigaeon, they appear Retrograde, as you may sensibly be­hold in a Sphere.

Revolution,

[Lat. a turning round, or rol­ling about] Is the Circulation of any Sphere or Star, till it return to the same point in which it was when first it began to move. Thus Saturn finishes his Revolution in the Zodiac in the space of almost thirty years, Jupiter in twelve, Mars in two, the Sun in one year, the Moon in one month, and the Primum Mobile in the space of one natural day, that is, 24 hours. But sometimes, especially among Astrologers, the word is more strictly ta­ken for the return of the Sun precisely to the same point of the Zodiac that he was in at the beginning of a thing. Thus the Figure of his en­tring Aries is called the Revolution of the World. So in the Doctrine of Nativities, a Revolution is the annual return of the Sun to that very point wherein he was at the Radix, or time of Birth. [Page 132] And the Figures erected at these moments of time, are called Revolutional Figures.

Rhabdology,

[from the Greek Rhabdos, a Rod] A way of counting and measuring by Rods; called Napiers Bones.

Rhombus,

Is a Geometrical Figure, having four Sides, and those equal, but the Angles unequal, two opposite ones being Acute, the other two Ob­tuse. So called from the Greek word Rhombos, which signifies the Fish called a Turbot, and the Quarrels of Glass in a Window.

Romboides,

Is of the same derivation, being just of such a shape or form, a Figure of four Sides, having not onely its Angles, but Sides too unequal; yet so, that two as well Sides as Angles opposite to each other are equal: And is a Figure between a Rhombus and a Parallelogram; from the one it takes proportion of Angles, from the other corre­spondence of Sides: And therefore for its likeness to a Rhombus, is called Rhomboides.

Rhumbs,

Are neither Circles, nor Streight Lines, but Helispherical or Spiral Lines; but in Plain Cards, and Mercators Cards, they are repre­sented by Streight Lines: They proceed from the point where we stand, and wind about the Globe of the Earth, till they come to the Pole, where at last they lose themselves. They represent the Thirty two Winds of the Mariners Compass. Their use is to shew the Bearing of any two Places one from another: that is to say, upon what Point of the Compass any Shoar or Land lies from an­other. They were first called Rhumbs by the Por­tugals, and that name since continued by all Au­thors, (as well Latine as others) that have occasion to speak of them.

[Page 133] Right Angle,

See Angle.

Right Ascension, Descension.

See Ascension.

Right Line,

Is that which is equally distend­ed between its points; that is, hath nothing of turn­ing or bending any way, and consequently of all Lines is in its nature the shortest.

Right Sphere,

See Sphere.

Right Sine,

See Sine.

Roman Indiction,

See Indiction.

Rod, Rood,

See the Appendix of Measures.

Rule of Chree,

A Rule in Arithmetick, so called, because by the help of Three Numbers given, it finds out a Fourth unknown; and for the Excellency of its use is stiled, The Golden Rule: The way is, to multiply the Third Number by the Second, and dividing by the First, the Quotient shall be the Fourth Number sought. As if the Question were thus: If a Pillar of 6 Foot high cast a Shadow of 10 Foot; how high must that Tower be that casts a Shadow of 125 Foot? Set your Numbers thus, still observing to set Numbers of the same Nature over against one another.

[figure]

And having wrought it, you will find the Quo­tient to be 75 Foot, which is the heighth of the Tower enquired after.

Ruminant Signs,

[from the Lat. Rumino, Signs chewing the cud] Are those Signs of the [Page 134] Zodiac represented by Creatures that use that Qua­lity, viz. Aries, Taurus, and Capricorn. And it seems the Moon, in any of them, causes effects somewhat like that of Beasts, holding their meat in their throat, and chewing it over again. For Physicians caution us by no means to take Phy­sic then, because 'twill lie long in the Stomach, and be apt to be cast up again by Vomit; and there­fore Vomits do best then.

Rythmos,

A Greek word, signifying Num­ber, or rather the Harmony and Proportion of Numbers. Whence come the Words Arithmetick, Logarithms, Rithm, which we commonly write Ryme, &c.

S
Sagittarius,

[Lat. the Archer, or Bowman, from Sagitta, an Arrow; in Greek 'tis called also Chiron, and Philyrides] Is the 9th. in order of the 12 Signs of the Zodiac, the House of Jupiter, and Triplicity of him and the Sun. The Ancients would have the Dragons-head to be exalted in it; but many modern Artists do not agree thereunto. 'Tis a fiery common Sign; in the first Mediety, (or half) Humane; in the rest, Ferine, (wild, or bestial.) The reason of the name of this Sign must be drawn from the Poetical Fable of Chiron, the Son of Saturn, who was a Centaur, (that is, half a Man and half a Horse) Whence the Herb Centaury is so called, he being the first that found [Page 135] it out, for he had great skill both in Herbs and Astronomy; insomuch that at last (as the Story goes) he was translated into Heaven, and turn'd into this Constellation.

Satellites,

[a Latin word, signifying pro­perly Gentlemen of the Guard, or Soldiers attend­ing a Prince for the safety of his Person] Is taken by Astronomers for those Planets who are continu­ally waiting upon, and roll'd round about another Planet; as Venus and Mercury may be called the Satellites of the Sun. But the word is chiefly used for those new discovered small Planets, or little Erratick Stars, which make their Revolu­tions about Saturn and Jupiter, and retain their Bodies for their Centre; of which, four belonging to Jupiter and two to Saturn, were lately discovered by Galilaeus.

Saturn,

The slowest of the Planets, and most remote from the Earth, his Sphere being imme­diately next under the Heaven of the Fixed Stars, by reason of which distance, he seems to us the least, though in truth greater than any of all the Seven, except the Sun and Jupiter: Of a leaden, whitish, somewhat obscurish colour; by nature cold and dry, and so inimical to the nature of Man and all Creatures, that he is generally counted the Greater Infortune. He is slow in Motion, requiring 29 years, 157 days, and 22 hours to finish one Re­volution in the Zodiac; and his greatest North Latitude is 2 degr. 48 min. but towards the South 2 degr. 49 min.

Scalenum,

[from Scala, the Latine word for a Ladder, with which this Figure has some remote resemblance] Is a kind of Triangle, having all its Angles and Sides unequal, whereby 'tis oppo­site [Page 136] to an Equilateral Triangle; the Mean be­tween them both is the Triangle called Isosceles, which has two of its sides onely unequal.

Scenography,

[from the Greek words Scenè, a House or Tabernacle, and Grapho, to write or describe] Is a Model or Descripion of the Front and Sides of a Building, or the Art of rightly contriving Draughts in Architecture.

But in Perspective, the Scenographick appearance of any Figure, Body or Building, is that Side that declines from, or makes Angles with that streight Line imagined to pass through the two outward convex points of your Eyes, generally called by Workmen the Return of a fore-right Side; and differs from the Orthographick Appearance in this, that the latter represents the Side of a Body or Building as it is seen, when the Plain of the Glass stands parallel to that Side. But Scenography re­presents it as it seems through a Glass not parallel to that Side. See Practical Perspective, fol. 4.

Sciography,

[from Scia, Greek for a Sha­dow, and Grapho, to write or describe] Is the Art of Shadows, comprehending Dialling, and part of Astronomy, as far as serves for finding out the hour of the Day or Night, or other Question, by the Shadow of the Sun, Moon, or Stars.

Scheme,

[from Schema, a Greek word, sig­nifying a Form, Figure, or Shape of a thing] 'Tis used by Astrologers mostly for the Representation of the Celestial Bodies, in their true Places for any moment; or an Astrological Figure of the Heavens, often termed Schema Coeli, and the doing of it, Erecting or Drawing a Scheme. 'Tis taken like­wise for the Draught or Representation of any Geometrical or Astronomical Figure or Problem [Page 137] by Lines sensibly to the Eye, though these are more frequently called Diagrams.

Scorpio,

[Lat. the Scorpion] The Eighth Sign of the Zodiac, and House of Mars. 'Tis called so, by reason of the sympathy it has with our Terrestrial Scorpions, who when the Moon is in this Sign, are said to be more fierce and dan­gerous. Nay, Authors affirm, that a House begun to be built when this Sign is on the Ascendent, will continually be haunted with Serpents. Its na­ture is prolifick, watery, and Fixed; but veno­mous, treacherous, boasting, &c.

Secant,

See Sine.

Second,

The sixtieth part of a Minute.

Sector,

[Lat. a Cutter] The Sector of a Circle is defined by Euclid, Lib. 3. to be a Figure con­tained under two Right Lines, which constitute an Angle at the Centre, and the Circumference com­prised between the same Lines. Hence the word is used for a Mathematical Instrument of excellent use, whereof our worthy Artist Mr. Edmund Gunter has written a compleat Treatise, to which I refer you.

Segment [Lat. from Seco, to cut] of a Cir­cle,

Is a Figure comprehended under a Right Line and the Circumference of a Circle, whereby so much seems to be cut off from the rest.

Semicircle,

[Lat.] half of a Circle, whence in the Sphere and great Circles it imports always 180 Degr. and in the Zodiac six Signs; Semis in Latin signifying half.

Semidiameter,

Half the Diameter.

Semiquadrat,

[Lat. Half a Square] Is one of those new Aspects invented by Kepler, com­monly marked thus, S. q. and happens, when two [Page 138] Planets are distant from each other the fourth part of the Semi-circle, or one Sign and 15 Degr. This Aspect is chiefly regarded in Judgments on Dis­eases, or in Lunations concerning the Weather; for then the Moon becoming visible, makes her effects manifest: Whence that vulgar Latine Proverb,

‘Quarta, Quinta, Qualis; Tota Luna Talis.’
As is the Fourth and Fifth days weather,
So's that Lunation all together.
Separation,

Is when two Planets have been in Conjunction or Partile Aspect, and the Lighter by reason of his Swifter motion, is going out of the moiety of both their Orbs. And this is two-fold; First, Simple, when both are direct, but the ligh­ter Planet in most Degrees. The second Mutual, when the Planet that is in most Degrees is Direct, and he in the least Degrees Retrograde, for then there is a Separation made on both sides. The con­sideration of this is of great use in Astrology; for admit two Planets, being Significators in a Question of Marriage, are lately separated but a few minutes, we may judge there has been but few days before great probability of effecting the Mar­riage; but now it hangs in suspense, and there seems some dislike or rupture in it: and according to the number of Degrees that the swifter Planet wanteth ere he can be wholly separated from the more pon­derous, so many days, weeks, months and years as the Signs are movable, common, or fix'd, may it be ere the two Lovers will wholly desist, or see the matter quite broke off.

[Page 139] Septangulus,

[from Septem, Latin for seven, and Angulus, an Angle] A Figure in Geometry consisting of seven Angles, whether it be Plain or Solid, Regular or Irregular. 'Tis sometimes called Heptangulus also, from the Greek word Hepta, seven.

Septentrional,

[Lat. from Septentrio, the North] Northern, of or belonging to the North; so we say, Septentrional Latitude, and Septentrio­nal Signs, as the first six Signs, because they de­cline towards the North from the Equinoctial.

Serpentine Line,

a crooked winding Line, that incloses it self continually, as a Serpent wraps her self up in folds. See Spiral.

Sesquiquadrate,

One of the new Aspects, when two Planets are distant from each other as much as makes a Square, that is, 3 whole Degrees; and also half another Square, that is in all, 4 Signs and 15 Degrees of the Zodiac. 'Tis of the same nature with the Square, unlucky, but in a less degree.

Sexagenary,

[Lat. from Sexaginta, sixty] of or belonging to sixty. And indeed this Division of Degrees into 60 Minutes, and each minute into 60 Seconds, is of great use in Astronomy; for be­ing a Number divided by many, 'tis the most con­venient for Calculation; to ease which the more, there are Tables called

Sexagenary Tables,

Contrived of parts proportional, where by Inspection you may find the Product of two Numbers to be multiplied, or the Quotient of two that are to be divided, &c.

Sexangle,

A Figure consisting of six Angles.

Sextans,

[Lat.] A sixth part.

Sextile,

[Lat.] An Aspect, when two Planets are distant one sixth part of the Zodiac, viz. two [Page 140] whole Signs. 'Tis sometimes called in Greek Hexa­gon, which signifies the same thing. 'Tis of the nature of a Trine, good and friendly, but more weak and imperfect.

Shade of Extuberance,

The Shadow made by the greatest swelling part of a Body, more par­ticularly of a Globulous Body.

Sidereal Year.

See Solar Year.

Signifer,

[Lat. from Signum, a Sign, and fero, to bear or carry] The Zodiac is sometimes so called, because therein are all the 12 Signs. See Zodiac.

Signs,

Are certain Notes in the Zodiac, di­vided by equal Twelve parts, each of which consist of 30 Degrees in length, and 12, or rather 18, in breadth. And that the Natures of them may be taken notice of, whether by reason of the Fixed Stars that are with them respectively; or by those effects which the Sun, passing through each of them, causes in things below; they are mark'd and called by Images and Names of Animals, or other things which might best represent their Qua­lities; in which the Antients were very curious, not to give Appellations at random, but after a curi­ous disquisition of all circumstances, so that it would be almost impossible to give them any other names, which should hint so many of their pro­perties as they already given do; which are, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces. Now you must note, that all Stars are said to be in one of these Signs, not onely those which are within the Latitude of the Zodiac, but those without it too: So that as if the Ecliptick were divided into 12 equal parts, and Circles from the [Page 141] Points of the Divisions described by or through the Poles of the Zodiac; whatever is included betwen those two Semicircles, or in the Superficies, which the two Semicircles enclose from one Pole of the Zodiac to the other, shall be said to belong to that Sign, which is included within these two Semicir­cles in the Zodiac.

Signs, of Short Ascension Long Ascension

are ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ♓ ♈ ♉ ♊

These Signs of long Ascension continue two hours and more upon the Ascendant, but those of short Ascensions little more than an hour, and some less, for the first Ascend rightly, the last obliquely; for under­standing whereof, we must note, that those Signs are said to Rise obliquely, with whom there Ascends a lesser Portion of the Equator; whence it follows that the Arch of the Zodiac containing such Signs Ascends more Crookedly than the Equator does; But those Ascend rightly, who rise more right than the Arch of the Equator answering to them, that is, Ascend with more Degrees than the Equator: Furthermore, those Signs that Ascend obliquely, Set afterwards Rightly, because a lesser portion of the Equator goes down with them, and those that Ascend Right, Set obliquely.

Sines, Tangents, and Secants.

These Terms having common relation to Spherical Trigono­metry: I have thought fit to Explain them here all at once.

For the word Sine, in Latine Sinus, it signi­fies properly the wideness between two Terms, hence that Crookedness within the breast and the folding of the Arms which we call a persons bosom is [Page 142] called in Latin Sinus; so the space contained be­tween Crooked shoars, which run out far like two Arms of the Continent into the Sea, in English cal­led a Bay, is exprest likewise in Latin by this word Sinus. Hence by way of similitude, Geometrici­ans call the Halves of the Chords, or Right Lines, which shut up the Cavity of any Arch, Sines.

Tangent comes from the Latin word Tango to Touch, and Secant, from Seco to Cut, the reason of which Appellations are plain, the first being a per­pendicular Right line without a Circle, falling upon the end of the Diameter of the Circle, the second a Line drawn from the Centre of the Circle towards the first, and Cutting the Circle, which if Con­tinued long enough, the first must at length needs Touch it; but for more evident satisfaction, See Figure 1. where the Lines that are called Sines, Tangents, Secants, and their Complements have the word Sine, Tangent, Secant, &c. over them.

Sine, Tangent, Secant, Complement,

The arch of a Circle numbred in Degrees, that any given Sine, Tangent or Secant wants of 90 Degrees: as the Sine, &c. of 55 Degrees being given, its Sine &c. Comple­ment shall be the Sine of 35 Degrees.

The use of these Sines, Tangents, and Secants, and their Complements, are very great in the Mea­suring of all sorts of Triangles; as well Rectilineal, as Spherical.

Sinister Aspect,

[Lat. Left-handed, or towards the Left-hand] Is a position of two Planets that happens according to the succession of the Signs, as Saturn in Aries, and Mars in the same Degrees of Gemini; here Saturn is said to cast a Sinister Aspect to Mars, but on the Contrary, [Page 143] Mars beholds Saturn with a Dexter Aspect, be­cause 'tis Contrary to the Succession of the Stars, and this Sinister Aspect is of more force than a Dexter one, says an Ingenious Modern Author (Salmon Synopsis Medicinae. p. 14) but acknowledges his opinion therein to be Contrary to that of the Ancients.

Sol,

[Lat. the Sun] The King of the Planets, Fountain of Light, and Eye of the World, by na­ture hot and dry; a Fortune by Aspect, but Infor­tune by Body; he has many names given him, both by Poets and other Authors, as Sol, Titan, He­lios, Appollo, Poean, Diespiter, &c. His mean Motion is 59 m. and 8 s. sometimes but 57 m. 16 s. never above 61 m. and 6. s. never Retro­grade, always without Latitude, because always in the Ecliptick, &c.

Solar vear,

Is either Tropical or Sideral, Tropical [from Tropè a Greek word signifying Conversion, or Returning, whence the two Tro­picks take their name] is that space of time wherein the Sun returns again to the same Equinoctial or Solstitial Point, which is always equal 365 days, 5 hours, and about 55 minutes; the Sideral or Starry year, is the space wherein the Sun comes back to any particular fixed Star, which is a little longer than the other; viz. 365 days, 6 hours, and 9 minutes.

Solid,

Lat. Is a Body that hath both Length, Breadth, and Thickness, and all Solids are either Spherical or Eliptical, which have properly no Side or Angle; or Prisms, which are contained in Plains; or Trapezia's, which are bodies Irre­gular.

Solid Number,

Is so called by way of Ana­logy, [Page 144] being that which is made of three Numbers mutually Multiplying one another, which Num­bers shall be called its Sides, as are 2. 3, 4. in re­spect of 24.

Solstice,

[In Lat. Solstitium from Sol the Sun, and Sto to stand] Is that time when the Sun Entring the Tropical Points is got furthest from the Equator, and before he returns back towards it, it seems for some days at a stand, being moved in the same Parallel, scarce making any Lines but almost perfect Circles, so small is his progress; these Sol­stices are two; the Estival or Summer Solstice, when the Sun Enters Cancer on the 11th of June, making the longest day and Shortest night, and the Hyemal or Winter Solstice on the 11th of Dec. when he Enters Capricorn, the nights being at longest, and the days at shortest: but this is only in these Northern Regions, for under the Equator there is no variation, but a Continual Equinox, and in the Southern parts Capricorn makes the longest day, and Cancer the longest night.

Solution,

An unfolding, explaining, or giving satisfaction to any Question, from Solvo in Latine to loose or unty.

Speculum,

[a Latine word signifying pro­perly a Looking-Glass, but] used for a kind of a Table framed by Astrologers after they have erected the Figure of a Nativity; Containing the Planets and Cusps with their Aspects, Terms, &c. all in their proper places; thereby to find out the pro­gression of the Significators to Promittors, and Rectify the Estimate time of the Scheme by Acci­dents: See the Form and manner of drawing it, in Mr. Coleys Clavis Astrologiae.

Sphere,

[a Greek word, in Latine Globus, a [Page 145] round thing or Ball in English] Is defined in Geo­metry by Euclid to be, A Solid Body, contain'd in one onely Superficies; in the midst whereof there is a Point conceived, to which all Lines drawn from the Superficies are equal.

But in Astronomy 'tis taken more specially for the whole Frame or Machine of the World, being of a Spherical Figure: but most strictly, for the Primum Mobile, embracing all the other Orbs and Celestial Bodies, which, in the space of one Natu­ral Day, is volv'd and carri'd round on the Poles of the World about the Earth, according to Pto­lomy; and which by reason of its different habi­tude, or respect of the parts of the Earth to its Poles, is said to be either Right or Oblique.

A Right or Direct Sphere hath both the Poles of the World in the Horizon, & the Equinoctial transiting the Zenith; so that all the Circles parallel to the E­quator make Right Angles with the Horizon, and by it are divided into two equal parts, the Sun, Moon, and Stars being always 12 hours above, and 12 hours below the Horizon; conse­quently the Days and Nights always just 12 hours long: and is called Right, because all the Celestial Bodies, by the Diurnal motion of the Pri­mum Mobile Ascend directly above, and Descend directly below the Horizon As at the Isle of St. Lawrence, and other places under the Equator. The adjoyned Figure is a re­presentation of the Right Sphere.

[figure]

[Page 146]

[figure]

An Oblique Sphere is, where one of the Poles is ele­vated above, the other de­pressed below the Horizon; as in all places wide of the Equator. The adjoyned Fi­gure is a representation of the Oblique Sphere.

[figure]

A Parallel Sphere is so called, because there the Equator lies directly in the Horizon, and in parallel thereunto; the whole year there being but as one Natural day, viz. one half year Day, and the other Night. The adjoyning Figure represents a Parallel Sphere.

From this division of the Sphere arises the di­versity of Ascensions, to wit, of the Degrees of the Equator, and parts answering thereunto, thence denominated Right or Oblique. For in a Right Sphere, all the Ascensions are Right; but in an Oblique Sphere, Oblique.

All which is demonstrated sensibly in that Ma­thematical Instrument called the Sphere, which hence takes its name, having the Poles, Lines, and Great Circles therein represented.

Besides this, the Orb of each Planet is called, the Sphere of such a Planet: and sometimes the word is likewise used for the Sphere of a Planets Activity, and that extension of Light and Vertue, so far as any Planet is capable of making or re­ceiving a Platick Aspect; and how far that is re­spectively [Page 147] in each, see Platick. See also Atme­sphere.

Spherical,

of or belonging to a Sphere; and hence Spherical Triangles are those which serve for measuring Distances by the Great Circles of the Sphere.

Spiral Line,

[Lat.] A Tortuous or crooked Line, unequally distant from the midst of the space, howsoever inclosed; which seems to be almost a Circle, onely it does not meet, and like that, run again into it self, but keeps on at a proportionate distance or deviation, like the making up of Ropes, or the foldings of a Serpent, when she lies close in so many Rings with her body.

Square,

In Geometry, is a Figure that is Equi­lateral and Right Angled; that is to say, which hath the four Sides equal, and the Angles Right. But in Astrology, a Square in an Aspect be­tween two Planets that are distant a fourth part of the Circle, or 90 Degrees; for from those Points, Lines drawn to one another, will make a perfect Equilateral Rect-Angled Square. This is an un­fortunate Aspect, but not so prejudicial as an Oppo­sition.

Square Number,

A Number equally even, or contained under two equal Numbers; as 25, which rises equally even by the mutual multiplica­tion of 5 into or by 5.

Square,

Called in Latin Norma, Gnomon, or Canon, is an Instrument consisting of two shanks, including a Right Angle, commonly known to, and used by Carpenters, &c.

Squaring the Circle,

Is a contriving to any Circle a Square equal thereunto, and exactly cor­respondent: A thing that has puzled the ablest [Page 148] Mathematicians, being in truth, to find out the Area of some Square that shall be exactly equal to the Area of some Circle, so that the Area's of both Figures shall be alike capacious. This, though the great Archimedes, and others, have not exactly done, yet they have come near enough for any use, and taught those things, which, if fully understood and pursued, the Circle may come to be Squared: For if they have Squared a Parabola, (which is an Area intercepted between two Lines, one Right, and the other Arcular, or bow­ing) why should not the Circle it self, which con­sists of two Parabola's, be as well Squared?

Sporades,

[from the Greek Sporos, scattered up and down, or in several places] Are those Stars dispersed in the Firmament, which were never yet rank'd in any particular Constellation, nor had peculiar names assigned. They are called thus by way of Analogy, from the Islands called Sporades near Crete in the Carpathian Sea, which were not described by Ptolomy, nor inserted in the old Maps.

Stationary, and Station.

[from Sto, Lat. to stand] The Consistence of the Pla­nets in their Eclipses, when they are furthest off their Centre in respect of the Zodiack, and being to be either Direct or Retrograde, is called their Station. To under­stand which, we must note, that all the Planets, ex­cept the Moon, are moved in their small Orb or Epicycle about the Sun, whom they respect as their Centre, (according to Tycho) and in the mean time both they and their greater Orbs, or Deferents, are carried about by the Primum Mo­bile, yet keep on their proper Motion according [Page 149] to the succession of the Signs, and have four re­markable points: First, their Apogaeum, where they are furthest from the Earth, and are all above the Sun, joyned with him in the same Ecliptical Degree, whereby the Superiors become Oriental, but the Inferiors Occidental. The second is their Perigaeum, where they are below the Sun, and nearest to the Earth, yet joyned again to the Sun in the same Degree of the Ecliptic, and from thence the Superiors become Occidental, and the Inferi­ors Oriental. The other two points are on each side, in which they are farthest removed from the Sun, and are called their Stations, because as they are Ascending therein to their Apogaeum, or De­scending therein to their Perigaeum, they seem in a manner to stand still, and not change their place in the Zodiac: Of which, the first Station is that on the right hand of the Sun, where they begin to go backward in the Zodiac, passing by their Pe­rigaeon to their second Station, when being on the left hand of the Sun, they begin to grow Di­rect.

Hence a Planet is said to be Stationary, when he is about either of these his Stations, Ascending or Descending in his Epicycle to his Apogaeum or Perigaeum, for that he seems not at all, or insensi­bly at least, to be moved in the Zodiac, but per­sisteth long in the same Degree, as long as he Ascends or Descends in those parts of his Orb, which are directly under one Degree of the Zo­diac.

Sterenometrie,

[from two Greek words, Stereon, a Solid, and Metria, a Measure] Is none of the least amongst the Mathematical Sciences, and properly a Branch or Handmaid to Geometry; [Page 150] Treating of Measuring all sorts of Solid Bodies.

Stilbon,

[from the Greek word Stilbos, bright or shining] One of the names of the Planet Mercury, because he twinkles more than any of the rest of the Planets.

Subiunaries,

[from the Latin Sub, under, and Luna, the Moon] All things below the Moon, as the Elements, and all things mixt or composed of them, whether Perfect or Imperfect, Animated or Inanimated, all being liable to the Influences of the Celestial, and especially the impressions of the Moon, as the common Conveyancer of the Superi­ors Vertues down to these Inferiors.

Stratarithmetrie,

[from the Greek Stratos, an Army, and Arithmetice] Is the skill appertain­ing to War, by which a man can set in Figure Analogical to any Geometrical Figure appointed, any certain number or sum of men of such a Fi­gure capable, and certifie of the over-plus (if any be) and of the next certain sum, which, with the over-plus, will admit a Figure exactly proportio­nal to the Figure assigned. By which skill also, of any Army or Company of Men (the Figures and Sides of whose orderly Standing or Array is known) he is able to express the just number of men within that Figure contained, or (orderly) able to be contained: And this Figure and Sides thereof he is able to know either by, and at hand, or afar of. See Dr. Dee's Preface to Euclid's Ele­ments.

Succedent-Houses,

Are so called, because they succeed or follow Angles in a Celestial Figure; as the 11th. the 2d. the 5th. and the 8th. which succeeding, is yet not so much in Order, as in Con­dition and Dignity: For a Planet in them is [Page 15] counted moderately strong, though not so much as in Angles; whereas in Cadent Houses he is most of all debilitated.

Subtense,

[Lat.] Is a Line drawn under an Arch of a Circle, or a Right-Line drawn within a Circle, at each end terminated in the Circumfe­rence, cutting the Circle besides the Diameter in­to two unequal parts, to both of which it is sub­tended, that is, hung or drawn underneath them.

Substraction,

[Lat. from sub and traho, to withdraw] A common Rule of Arithmetick, teaching how artificially to take a lesser Number out of a greater, and find what remains overplus of the greater, when the value of the smaller is sub­stracted, that is, withdrawn, or taken away from it.

Succession of the Signs,

Is that order in which they are usually reckoned; as first Aries, next Taurus, then Gemini, &c.

Sunday-Letter.

See Dominical Letter.

Summer-Solstice.

See Aestival Solstice.

Superficies,

As much as to say, Superna fa­cies in Latin, that is, the uppermost or outward face: for by this word, Geometricians mean the external part of any Body, which is beheld with the eyes, and touch'd with the hands; being defined by Euclid to be a Longitude and Latitude without Depth or Thickness: whereby it differs from a Point, which has no Dimension; from a Solid, that has all kinds of Dimension; and from a Line, that enjoys onely Length, and is void of both Breadth and Depth.

Superiors,

Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars are called so by way of Eminence, because their Orbs are above the Sun; as the other three Planets, Inferiors, for the contrary reason.

[Page 152] Svmmetrie,

A Greek word signifying Pro­portion, but it is usually meant a faculty acquired by precepts of Geometry which in Architecture pur­sues the Order of Nature, and makes all the parts of any Structure compleatly agree to, and with the whole.

Surd,

[in Latin properly Deaf or unreason­able] whence Euclid calls figures Incommensu­rable to the Rational square, Surds, and so like­wise Lines Incommensurable to, (that is having not any common Measure with,) the proposed Rational Line, are called Surds, or Irrationals, or things Inexplicable.

Surface,

see Superficies, being the same.

Swift in Motion,

A Planet is said to be so, when by his own proper diurnal Motion he exceeds or moves further than his mean diurnal Motion! Which is accounted amongst the Chief fortitudes of a Planet: As to be slow in Motion, that is when his Motion happens to be less than his mean Motion, is a great Debility, the reason whereof see in the Word Retrograde; The mean Motions of all the Planets are daily, (that is in the space of 24 hours) as follows,

Saturn 2 Minutes, and 1 Second, Jupiter 4 min. 59 sec. Mars 31 min. 37 sec. the Sun 59 min. 8 sec. Venus 59 min. 8 sec. Mercury 59 min. 8 sec. and the Moon 13 deg. 10 min. and 36 sec. in a day.

So that you need only look in an Ephemeris, and take the diurnal Motion of a Planet by Substract­ing his place the day before, if he be direct, or the contrary, if Retrograde, and you have his present [Page 153] Motion, which compared with this Table, you see whether he be to be counted Swift or Slow. Note, you will find some Planets move much further sometimes in a day, but these are their true mean Motions, which if exceeded he is reckon'd Swift, and the more he exceeds it, so much the stronger.

Synodus,

[A Greek word signifying a meet­ing or Convention] used by Astronomers Com­monly for a Conjunction of two or more Planets, and sometimes for their meeting by Beams in other Aspects.

Synopsis,

A brief and Orderly Representa­tion or view taken of a thing.

Systeme,

A Greek word whereby is intended the general Constitution, Fabrick and Harmony of the Universe, or an orderly Representation there­of, according to some noted Hypothesis, wherein the Celestial Bodies are so disposed amonst them­selves, and in respect of the Earth; as their Scitua­tion, Order, Motions and Passions, may in such an Authors opinion best answer Appearances and Phi­losophical Demonstrations; To this purpose the Ancients agreed, that the Globe of the Earth and Sea should be the Centre of the World, about which was diffused the Air, and round that the more light Element of Fire; Then the Orb of the Moon, and so Mercury, Venus, Sol, Mars, Ju­piter, and Saturn, in order, all respecting the Earth as their Centre; After which they placed the Firmament or Orb of the fixed Stars, and last of all the Primum Mobile.

But of late, Copernicus, (a most ingenious Astro­nomer) the better to Solve the appearances Invented, or rather revived, (for it was many ages before Started by some old Philosophers, but now buried [Page 154] and forgot) he, I say, revived another Hypothesis, which Constitutes the Sun Immoveable in the Centre of the World, next the Orb of Mercury, then Venus, in the third place the Globe of Earth, with the Moon continually moving about it, to which Globe of Earth, he assigns a threefold Mo­tion, Diurnal, in 24 hours from West to East, which was before attributed to the Primum Mobile, An­nual, which the Sun antiently challeng'd, and a third of Libration, whereby he solvd the Inequa­lity of the Equinoxes, and obliquation of the Ecliptick from the Equater, for the 5th. Planet he places Mars, then Jupiter, then Saturn, and last of all the Sphear of fixed Stars,

Since this, the Noble Tytho Brahe proposed his Hypothesis, making the Earth the Centre of both the Luminaries, and the Orb of fixed Stars, but the Sun the Centre of the othet four Planets; whom he counts all Eccentrick to the Earth, and constantly moving in the fluid Ether about the Sun, &c.

All these Systemes have found their Disciples, and Propugnators: if any have a mind to be better Instructed in all or any of them, there are Sphears extant fitted for every of them, and shewing all the Motions and Affections of the Celestial Bodies truly, according to the intention of each Hypothesis.

Syzygiae,

[The word originally Greek signi­fies a marriage, society, or familiarity,) but is used for the Entercourse of the Planets one with another, or the Commixtures of their Beams, either by Corporal Conjunction, or other Aspects; and therefore you shall find in some Ephemerides over the Left hand page, Syzygiae Lunares, that is, the Lunar Aspects.

T
TAble of Houses,

are Tables Calculated for the Assistance of young Artists in setting of a Figure; for by the help thereof the meanest Capacity may presently Learn to do it, but without them it would be exceeding difficult. See Tutor to Astrology.

Tangent,

See Sine.

Taurus,

[Lat. the Bull] the second Sign of the Zodiac, fixed and Earthly, the house of Venus, and Exaltation of the Moon, called by this name, because 'tis found by Experience, Persons born un­der it are Laborious, but slow of Apprehension, and have high Foreheads, and sticking out on both sides like Bullocks; or rather because this Sign does more peculiarly Affect such Cattel; and being pos­sest with an Infortune, threatens Murrain and Destruction to them.

Telescope,

[Gr. a large Optick Instrument in­vented by Galilaeus, for observing the Celestial bo­dies, whereby several new Phaenomena have been discovered and great Improvements made in Astro­nomy.

Temperate Zone,

See Zone.

Term,

In Geometry is the bounds or limits of a thing, as a Point of a Line &c.

Terms,

In Astrology, are certain Degrees of the Signs, in which such respective Planets have been observed to have their virtues and strength en­creased; [Page 156] whence a Planet in those Terms is said to have two Dignities; To know what Terms each Planet has, See the ordinary Table of Essential Dignities, every year in Mr. Lillies Almanack.

Tetrahedron,

[from the Gr. Tetra four and Hedron a Side] A solid Figure comprehended un­der 4 equal equilateral Triangles.

Tetragonus, or Tetragonum,

[from the Gr. Tetra four, and Gonia an Angle] Signifies any Figure consisting of 4 Angles; but is used generally by Astronomers for a square Aspect.

Thaumaturgick,

[A Greek word signifying the Wonder-working] Is one of those Arts men­tioned by Dr. Dee in his Preface to Euclid, and by him Defined to be that Art Mathematical, which giveth certain order to make strange works of the Sense to be perceived, and of men greatly to be wondred at. See Dr. Dee's Preface to Euclid.

Theodelite,

A Mathematical Instrument for Surveying of Land. See Rathbourns Surveying.

Theme,

Is frequently used by Astrologers for the Position of the Superior bodies at any moment, when they inquire the success of any thing then be­gun, or proposed: Calling their Figure Thema Caeli.

Theorem,

A Greek word signifying a Propo­sition, which requireth the searching out, and de­monstration of some Property or Passion of some Figure, wherein is only Speculation and Contem­plation of mind, without doing or working of any thing; whereby it differs from a Problem, in which something is always to be done.

Topographie,

[Gr. from Topos a place, and Grapho to describe] The Description of some par­ticular place; See Thorographie.

[Page 157] Torrid Zone,

See Zone.

Translation of Light and Nature,

Is when a Light Planet separates from a more weigh­ty one, and presently Joins to one more heavy; As suppose ♄ in 20 Degrees of ♈, ♂ in 15 of ♈ and ☿ in 16 of ♈, here ☿ being a swift Planet se­perates from ♀ and translates his virtue to Saturn; which purports in Judgment, that if a thing be pro­mised by ♄ then such a man as is signified by ☿ shall procure the assistance of a Martial man to Sa­turn to effect the business; be it a Marriage, a Suit, or the Like.

Transom,

The Vane of a Cross-staff. viz. A wooden member to be set across the Cross-staff, having a square Socket in it, upon which it slides Stiff upon the square of the Cross-staff, and may be set to any of the Graduations on it.

Transits,

[from the Latin verb Transeo to pass by or over] are a kind of Familiarities of the Stars, acquired by their Motion, through remarka­ble places of a Persons Radical Figure; as if the Ascendant be Sagittary, and Jupiter at any time by his proper Motion pass over the Degree Ascending; the Native is then healthy and fortunate, if Mars, he is moved to Choler, imbroil'd in Quarrels &c. And oftimes agreable Transits do bring into Act the matter signified by a Direction, whereby we may nearly Guess of the day, when any Considera­ble Accident will happen.

Traverse,

A Term in Navigation. See To Cast a point of Traverse.

Trapezia,

Are all sorts of Irregular Figures in Geometry, that is, such where neither the Sides nor Angles equally Correspond. The word seems to come from the Gr. Trapeza, a Table.

[Page 158] Trapezoides,

are a Species of Trapezia's, for they Comprehend all solid Irregular Figures, which have not Parallel sides, and these are such, as either are altogether Irregular, or that in somethings ob­serve a kind of rule of Equality; as Prisms, &c.

Triangle,

A Figure with three Angles, whence also, the word Triangular, of or belonging to such a Figure.

Trigon,

In Greek, is strictly the same with Triangle in Latine; but is used for the Aggregate of three Signs of the same Nature and Quality, be­holding each other with a Trine Aspect, and are accounted according to the four Elements; Thus Aries, Leo, and Sagittary are the Fiery Trigon, or Triplicity; Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn the Earth­ly; Gemini, Libra, and Aquary the Aiery; And Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces the Watry. Hence

Trigonocratores,

[Crator in Gr. signify­ing a Governor] the Lords of these Trigons. viz. Sol and Jupiter of the fiery; Venus and the Moon of the Earthly, Saturn and Mercury of the Aiery, and Mars alone of the Watry.

Trilateral,

Three Sided.

Trigouometry,

[A Greek word compounded of Treis three, Gonia, an Angle, and Metria Measure] A Mathematical Science, teaching how to Resolve all Triangles as well plain as Spherical: whereby three Sides or Angles being given out of six Con­tained in a Triangle, the other three unknown are found out; In order to which, the Tables of Sines, Tangents, and Secants, are of use; as shewing the Quantity of the half Chords, which are subtend­ed to parts of the Circumference within the Circle.

Trimorion,

Gr. the Aggregate of three Signs [Page 159] Contiguous, by which there is Constituted a square Aspect to the Apheta or Giver of Life, who coming to that Direction commonly cuts off the vital Thred; And therefore since three Signs, viz. 90 Degrees may sometimes give 120 Degrees of Direction and not more, therefore some think 120 years to be the utmost Extent generally of humane Life since the Flood.

Triplicity,

See Trigon.

Trine,

Lat. an Aspect of Friendship and Ami­ty between two Planets Distant from each other a third part of the Circle, that is, 120 Degrees.

Trochilike,

The Wheel-Art, or the Mathema­tical Skill Demonstrating the Properties of all Cir­cular Motions, Simple and Compound; Derived from the Gr. Trochos a Wheel.

Tropicks,

[from the Gr. Tropè a Conversion or Turning] Two lesser Circles in the Sphere equally distant from the Equator, viz 23 Degrees ½ on each side, being the bounds of the Suns Devia­tion from the Equinoctial, which when he touches he seems to stand still, and soon returns towards the Equator: The Northern one is Called the Tropick of Cancer, that makes our longest day, the Southern one, the Tropick of Capricorn that makes our longest Night.

Trutine of Hermes,

[properly a Trowel, and sometimes a Measure] An Artificial method of Rectifying a Nativity by finding out the day of Conception and the Place of the Moon then: said to be Invented by Hermes Trisme gistus; but the same being Common in most Authors, and what makes it less Considerable, not much regarded; but the Rectification by Accidents generally followed, I shall not here set it forth at large. Those that would [Page 160] make use of it (and in Childrens Nativities Calcu­lated before Accidents have happened it may be of use) may see the manner of doing it in Mr. Coleys Clav. Astrol.

Tuscan-order,

One of the five Ancient orders in Architecture; used by the Tuscans in Italy: For the Form of it, and all the other orders; See The Compleat Architect. p. 16.

V
VAne.

See Transum.

Uariation of the Needle,

The Turn­ing or Deviation of the Needle in the Mariners Compass some small matter from the true North Point, which happens more or less in all parts.

Uenus,

[some say from the Lat. Venio. to come, because every body, sooner or later, comes to Loves dotage, of which she is Lady] The brightest and most resplendant of all the Stars, whether Erratick or Fixt, the Sun always excepted; and this not because she is bigger than the rest, but because she is nearer the Earth than any of them, except Mercury, as appears by her having Parallax of almost 3 Minutes; whence it may al­so be gathered; that she is less than the Earth. 'Tis a Feminine Planet, accounted the Lesser Fortune, and finishes her Revolution about the Sun in the space of almost one year, and when she is at her great­est Elongation from him, (which is never above 48 Degrees) shines so bright as to cast a shadow: [Page 161] Yea, by the help of the Telescope it hath been ob­served, that she changes her appearances, and has almost the same variety of Phases as the Moon, so as sometimes to seem Full, sometimes Half-full, sometimes Horned, and sometimes not at all, viz. when she is above or under the Sun in Apogaeon or Perigaeon of her Epicycle, joyned to him in the same Degree of the Eclyptick.

Uersed Sine,

See Sine and Scheme 1.

Uerter,

In Latine, is the Point in Heaven just over our Heads, Perpendicular to the place where any one Lives. Hence a Star is said to be Uertical, that happens to be in that Point, and Vertically hangs over any place; and so the E­quator is said to be Uertical to them who have a continual Equinox; because, it constantly passes by the Vertex of the Place, and the Sun at Noon darts down his Rays so Perpendicularly, that no shadow is produced; this Point the Arabians call Zenith; which see afterwards: 'tis called Vertex, [which in Latine signifies the Top of a Mans Crown,] by reason it is so right over head, as aforesaid.

Uespertine,

when a Planet sets after the Sun. See Matutine.

Uesperugo,

the Evening-Star, Venus, when she shines after Sun-Set; both the words come from the Latine Vesper, the Evening.

Uia Combusta

Lat. See Combust way.

Uia Lactea

Lat. See Milky way.

Uiolent Signs,

are those in which the Ma­lefick Planets, viz. Saturn or Mars have any no­table Dignitie, as House or Exaltation, such are ♈, ♎, ♏, ♑, and ♒. And also those in which there are any violent fixed Stars of note, and within the [Page 162] Zodiac, as Taurus, for Caput Algol, and others.

Uirgo,

[Lat. the Maid or Virgin,] the 6th. Northern Sign of the Zodiac, next to the Autum­nal Equinox, and therefore Common: by Nature Earthy, Cold and Dry, the House and Exaltation of Mercury.

The Uisual Point

in Perspective, is not that Point the Eye is placed in (as young Students in that Art are apt to think,) but is a point in the Horizontal Line, wherein all the Occular Rays unite; As if ye were in a long straight Gallery, where the two Sides, the Floor and Cieling seem to incline and touch each other in a Point or common Centre, which Point reflected on a Glass erected perpen­dicularly on the Base, is called the Visual Point. See Practical Perspective, fol. 6.

Unite or Unity

An Unite is the begining of Num­ber, and (Properly, for here we speak not of Fractions) receiveth no division in Numbers, even as a Point in Mag­nitudes; or thus Unity is defined by Euclide L. 7. Unity is that according to which every thing of those which are, is said to be one.

Under the Sun Beams

[Sub Radiis, scilicet Solis,] Is when any Planet is not fully Elongated, or distant 17 deg. from the body of the Sun, either before or after him; this though not so bad as Combustion, which is only till a Planet is got 8 deg. 30 min. from him, yet still tis an Affliction, and reckoned 4 accidental Debilities.

Uoid of Course,

A Planet is said to be so, when he is separated from one Planet, and doth not during his being in that Sign, Apply to any other, either by Body or Aspect; This is most observed in the Moon; You shall seldom see a Business go [Page 163] handsomly forward, whilst she is so.

Umbra,

A shadow, a word oft used in the ob­scuration of Eclipses.

W
WInter Solstice,

See Solstice.

Watry Triplicity,

The Signs so ac­counted being Cold and Moist, are ♋, ♏ and ♓.

Z
ZEnith,

An Arabick word, signifying the Point in the Heavens right over ones head, being necessarily 90 Degrees from the Horizon. See Uertex.

Zigiatus,

Some Astrologers call every person so, that is born under Libra: of whom Ptolomy in his Centiloquium pronounces, That he shall be the Cause of his own Death; the reason of which Apho­rism Pontanus gives; because when ♎ is Horos­copical, Taurus will be on the Cusp of the 8th, and both Signs being under Venus, therefore the party will be apt to occasion his own Death; But we know the Stars do but Incline, not Compell, and have no force upon the free will of Man, which this Aphorism would seem to Infer: more reasonable it is, [Page 164] to conclude these Zigiati (if they will call them so) for the most part to make good Poets, Musicians, Orators, &c. And to be of a good pleasant Humour, and delightful to Society, as well because Libra is the house of Venus, as by reason of that most benign and pleasant Star Spica Virginis therein, upon the As­cendant.

Zodiac,

Gr. Is the Greatest Circle in the Sphear, being 12 Degrees broad, as the Ancient Astrono­mers thought; but the Moderns better acquainted with the Motions of ♂ and ♀ assert it to be 18, Cutting the Equinoctial into two equal parts: in the midst of it is the Ecliptick, under which the Sun con­stantly moveth, leaving on each side 6 Degr. of La­titude: 'Tis called the Zodiac from the Greek word a Zoon Living Creature; because herein are the 12 Signs, which for the most part are called by their names, and represented in the shape of Living Crea­tures; The whole Circle is divided by the 12 Signs into 360 Degrees; 'Tis from them called Signifer, and often times the Oblique Circle.

Zones,

Are certain broad Circles, Encompas­sing the Heavens and Earth like a Belt, or Girdle, whence the Name, [for Zona is Latin for a Girdle:] On the Earth, It is a space contained between two Parallels, and the Ancient Geographers reckon'd them to be 5 in Number, Two Frozen, Two Temperate, and One Burning Zone, of which they Imagined only the Two middlemost Habitable; The two Frozen Zones, are those parts of the Globe Comprehended between the North-Pole and the Ar­ctick Circle, and the South-Pole, and the Antarctick Circle, which they thought could not be Inhabited by reason of the Extream Cold.

The Temperate Zones, are the spaces contained [Page 165] between the Arctick Circle, and the Tropick of Cancer on the one side, and the Antarctick Circle, and the Tropick of Capricorn on the other; and between those two Tropicks lay the Torrid or Burning Zone, which they fancied to be Un-inhabitable by reason of the Excessive Heat; but we have now Discovered their mistakes, and find not only the cold Coun­treys somewhat near the Pole, but the warmer Re­gions under the Equator, to be Plentifully Inhabi­ted: In which last, notwithstanding the Suns Per­pendicular Rays at Noon, 'tis most pleasant Living, partly by means of the Plenty of Fountains and Water, and chiefly by the Equality of the Night, and gentle Breezes continually refreshing them a­bout Noon.

AN APPENDIX, Of Weights, Measures, &c.

Measures of Length.

THree Grains of Barley Dry and Round make an Inch; 'Tis called in Latin Uncia, and some­times in English, a Thumbs-breadth.

12. Inches make a Foot.

3. Foot a Yard, the 16th part whereof, viz. 2 Inches and ¼ is called a Nail of a Yard.

A Yard and a Quarter makes an Ell, that is to say, 3 foot 9 Inches.

Five yards and an half, (that is, 16 foot and an [Page 166] half) do make a Rod, Pole, or Perch, Statute mea­sure; But the Geometrick Perch or Gad, is 10 Foot, and in some places but 9 Foot.

Forty Perches in Length, and 4 in Breadth, make an Acre of Land; a Quarter of which, is called in some Places a Rod.

For all this, See the Statute 33 Edw. 1. de Terris Mensurandis.

40. Poles or Perches, make a Furlong.

8. Furlongs, viz. 320 Rods, make a Mile.

This is likewise Settled by Act of Parlia­ment. See the Stat. 25 Eliz. An Act to restrain New Buildings, &c.

So that in an English Mile there are

320.—Rods,

5280.—Feet,

And 63360.—Inches.

A League,

Is a Measure commonly reckoned at Sea, and Contains three such English Miles as of Degrees in Heaven, is reckoned to contain 60 English Miles. See Degree.

Besides these, there are some other Measures of Longitude, as

A Fingers-breadth,

[called in Latin Digi­tus] containing 2 Barley Corns Length, or 4 laid side to side.

An Hand-bredth,

[Palmus, or Palmus Mi­nor] Three Inches.

A Span,

[Spithama, or Palmus Major] 3 Hands-Bredth, or 9 Inches.

A Cubit,

Half a Yard, or 2 Spans, being Counted from the Elbow to the Top of the Mid­dle-Finger.

[Page 167] A Step,

[Gradus, or Passus Minor] Two Foot and an half.

A Stride,

[Passus, or Passus Major] Two steps, or 5 foot; from these the Romans Counted their Mile, calling it Milliarium, that is Mille passus, a 1000 Paces; But our English Mile you see before, is 56 Paces more.

A Fathom,

Six foot.

Of Liquid Measures.

THese amongst us in England, are varied in their Contents according to the several Liquor▪ they are to Measure, As

1. For Beer-Measure, 35 Cubical Inche▪ and a Quarter do make a Pint.

Two Pints, a Quart.

Two Quarts, a Pottle.

Two Pottles, a Gallon.

Nine Gallons, a Firkin.

Two Firkins, a Kilderkin.

Two Kilderkins, a Barrel, in which, (it appears from hence, that) there are 36 Gallons. viz. 144 Quarts, viz. 288 Pints, viz. 10152. Cubical Inches in a Bar­rel.

2. For Ale-Measure, the Pint, Quart, and Gallon, are the same as in Beer-Measure; But there are allowed but 8 Gallons to the Firkin, 16 to the Kilderkin, and only 32 to the Barrel; so that a Barrel of Ale is to hold but 128 Quarts, viz. 256 Pints, viz. 9024 Cubical Inches.

3. In Wine-Measure, there are but 29 Cubical [Page 168] Inches in a Pint, 2 Pints to a Quart, 4 Quarts to a Gallon, 18 Gallons to a Rund­let, three Rundlets and an half, or 63 Gal­lons make an Hogshead; one Hogshead and a third part of an Hogshead, that is to say, 84 Gallons, make one Tercion of Wine, that is the third part of a Tun, a Tercion and an half, or 126 Gallons makes a Pipe, or Butt, and 2 Pipes or Butts a Tun of Wine, which contains 252 Gallons, viz. 2016 Pints, viz. 58212 Cubical Inches.

A Barrel for Soap is 31 Gallons.

Dry Measures.

THe Gallon for dry Measures as Corn, &c. is lesser than the Beer and Ale Gallon, and greater than the Wine Gallon, containing 272 Cubical Inches and a Quarter, and divided into Pottles, Quarts, and Pints, as aforesaid.

Two of these Gallons make a Peck.

Two Pecks a Tovet, or Half Bushel.

Two Tovets, or 8 Gallons, a Bushel.

4. Bushels a Strike, or Coom.

2. Strikes a Quarter.

Of Weights.

1. Of Apothecaries Weights, and their Cha­racters.

[Page 169]Thus markt.

A Grain — gr. the least measure or weight of a Barly Corn.

A Scruple — ℈. Contains 20 Grains.

A Dram — ʒ. is 3 Scruples.

An Ounce — ℥. is 8 Drams.

A Pound — lb. Contains 12 Ounces.

(ss)semis Semis Half

Some other things used by Physicians, Chymists, &c. and their Marks.

An Handful [Manipulus] thus noted — M.

A Pugil being as much of herbs or the like, as can be taken up at once between 2 Fingers and ones Thumb, is thus marked — P.

Ana [that is as much as to say of Each] A. or Ana.

Recipe, Take thou — ℞

Semissis [half] (ss)semis

Tartar — 🜿

Sal — 🜕

Sulphur — 🜍

Antimony — (antimony)

Vitriol — 🜔

Our other Common Weights are Two­fold.

1. Troy Weight, whereby Bread, Gold, Silver, Apothecaries wares, as aforesaid, &c. are weighed: Containing only 12 Ounces in the pound, Each ounce 20 Penny-Weight, Each penny-weight 24 Grains. This seems to have been the Ancientest Weight by its

[Page 170]Name, as derived from the Famous City of Troy, from whence Brute and his People are said to have descended, and to have Called London Troy-Novant, or New-Troy: which whether true or fabulous, yet it may be a good Argument, that this sort of Weight, is at least of very Ancient use amongst us.

2. The second and more common Weight, is called Averdupois, which being French, is in English, Have your weight; signifying it to be a fuller and larger Weight than the other, for it Contains 16 Ounces, or 128 Drams, viz. 384 Scruples, viz. 7680 Grains: by this, is weighed all kind of Grocery wares, and inferior Mettals, as Iron, Copper, and Brass, as also Hemp, Flax, Rosin, Pitch, Tarr, &c.

A Great Hundred is not exactly what it seems to be by the word, but 112l. so the Half Hundred 56 pounds, the Quartern 28, and the Half quartern 14 pounds.

Wooll-Weights.

A Stone 14 pounds.

A Tod 20 pounds.

A Sack is 26 stone, that is 364 pounds.

Cheese Weight.

A Clove of Cheese is 8 pound.

A Wey of Cheese 32 Cloves, that is 256 pounds, viz. Twelvescore and 16 pound.

[Page 171]And so much weigheth the Wey of Suffolk Cheese, and the like is, or should be, the Barrel of Suffolk Butter.

But the Wey of Essex Cheese is but sixscore and sixteen pounds, and their Barrel of Butter the same.

Herrings are allow'd 120 to the Hundred, and ten Thousand of them are called A Last.

Characters in Astronomy.

The Planets,
  • Saturn—♄
  • Jupiter—♃
  • Mars—♂
  • Sol—☉
  • Venus—♀
  • Mercury—☿
  • Luna—☽
The Signs
  • Aries—♈
  • Taurus—♉
  • Gemini—♊
  • Cancer—♋
  • Leo—♌
  • Virgo—♍
  • Libra—♎
  • Scorpio—♏
  • Sagittarius—♐
  • Capricorn—♑
  • Aquarius—♒
  • Pisces—♓

The Dragons Head ☊

The Dragons Tail ☋

Part of Fortune ⊕

The Aspects New and Old.

Names.Characters.Distance.
  SD
Conjunction000
VigintileVig018
QuindecileQd024
Semisextiless100
Decile or SemiquintileDec106
[Page 172]Semiquadrate, Octile or SesquadrateSq115
Sextile, HexagoneX200
QuintileQ212
Quadrate, Square, or Quartile300
Tredecile, or SesquiquintileTd318
Trine40
SesquiquadrateSsq415
BiquintileBq424
Quincunx, or QuadrasextileVc500
Opposition600

G. or Gr. in Latin, and D. or Dr. in English Degrees, or the 30. part of a Sign. See Degree.

M. Minutes ′ thus markt, or the 60th part of a Degree.

S. or Seconds ″ thus markt, or the 60th part of a Minute.

Thirds thus markt ‴ the 60th part of a Second, and so on to Fourths, &c.

℞. Retrograde, Dir. Direct, Or. Oriental,

Occ. Occidental, M. A. Meridional or South-Ascending, M. D. South-Descending, S. A. Sep­tentrional or North-Ascending, S. D. North-Descending.

Signs, or Symbols now commonly used by some Algebraical Writers.

= Is the Sign of Equation, and signifies Equal to. As A = B. Is A. equal to B.

> Is the Sign of Majority, and signifies Greater than, As A > B. Is A greater than B.

< Is the Sign of Minority, or Lesser than, As A < B. Is A Lesser than B.

+ Is the Sign of Addition, and signifies more [Page 173] As + A + B. Is more A. more B. yet sometimes the Sign of the foremost Quantity is left out, As A + B = A + B, That is more A. more B. Is equal to more A more B.

− Is the Sign of Substraction, and signifies Less, As A − B. Is A. less B.

× Is the Sign of Multiplication, and signifies Multiplied by, As A × B. Is A. multiplied by B.

The Sign of Division is a Line drawn Level be­tween two or more Quantities, As [...] which is thus to be read, A more B. less C. Divided by D. or some­times thus D) A + B − C. that is, D. Dividing A more B. less C.

∝ Is the Sign of Continuation, As A, B, C, D, E, ∝. shows that these Quantities are in Con­tinual Proportion.

∷ Is the Sign of Interruption, and denotes the middle of 4 Proportionals Interrupted, As A, B, ∷ Y, Z. Is thus read As A. to B. so is Y. to Z.

( ) A Parenthesis, with a power-note in it, signifies Involution: As A, − B: (2) Is the square of A. less B. or, A − B: (3) Is the Cube of A. less B.

√ A Radical Sign with an Index in it, signifies Evolution, as √2: A − B: Is the Square Root of A. less B. or, √3: A − B: Is the Cube Root of A less B. But through an Irregular Custome √, is usually taken for a Square Root.

Fig. 1.

[Page] [Page]

Fig. 2.

The Shape of an Astrological Figure, or the Twelve Houses of Heaven: with their Names.

[Page]

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

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