Writ in Italian by Tomaso Moretii of Brescia. Ingenier first to the Emperour, and now to the most Serene Republick of Venice. Translated into English, with Notes thereup­on, and some Additions out of French for Sea-Gunners. By Sir JONAS MOORE, Kt.

With an Appendix of Artificial Fire-works for War and Delight; by Sir Abraham Dager Kt. Ingenier.

Illustrated with divers Cuts.

LONDON, Printed by A. G. and J. P. for Obadiah Blagrave at the Bear in St. Pauls-Church-Yard. 1683.


THE AUTHOR TO THE Courteous Reader.

IN the continual and laborious Service, for the space of five and twenty years (in which time, I have always exer­cis'd the Charge of an Ingeneer, as well in the Wars of Germany, Dalmatia, and in the Defence of Candia:) Amongst other my Mititary Observations, I have always much admired, the excellent In­vention and prodigious Effects of Great Artillery. Of which having Composed a small Treatise for my own Ʋse, which coming accidentally into the hands of my Friends, and being by them dispersed in Manuscripts into most Cities of Italy, I have at last by their importunities, and especially the earnest sollicitation of my [Page] worthy Brother, and famous Mathema­tician, Doctor Segnior Andrea, permit­ted it to be published for the Ʋse and Be­nefit of those who are curious in Artillery. Being a Sacrifice which I make, not to Ambition, but for the Friendship and Ʋtility of Souldiers. Some, perhaps have done better, but have inlarged so much for Ornameut and Elegancy, that they have made their Volumes almost as heavy, as the Artillery of which they Treat.

I therefore have writ that which I judge sufficient for the knowledge of a Souldier, and as succinct as possibly I eould, being not willing to be tedious in things less necessary. As for me, I never was to see the Artillery in China; but in this Part of the World, in which I have practised, I have not been wanting to see and examin, as much as could be, the best Proportions and Operations; And have always sought afer the Acquaintance, Practice, Advice, and Directions of the Eminent Professors in this Art, and have read most of those Books which have been written of this Subject.

[Page] Accept this my Military Fatigue, and if you find any opposition, or that in any part I have not been sufficiently plain, I pray you come to me, whilst I am yet [...]ving, and you shall receive all satis­faction.

Vivi Felice.

This Treatise is divided into Five Parts:

  • 1. Treateth Of Things General to all Artillery.
  • 2. Of Forming the Bore or Chase.
  • 3. Of Carriages.
  • 4. Of the Charge of Powder and Shot.
  • 5. Of Shooting in Great Artillery.

An Appendix: Of the Petard.


An Excellent TABLE for the finding the Periferies or Circumferences of [...] Elleipses or Ovals, so near the Truth as any Mechanical Practice can requir [...] Calculated with great Diligence and Care by Sir JONAS MOORE, and n [...] done before.

2.0000 502.4218 


WHere the longer Axis of the E [...]ipsis is [...] and the shorter. 78; Because [...] Table [...] made for such Elleips's, enter wi [...]. 78, th [...] Perifery of that Elleipsis will be 2. [...]38.


The longer Axis 1, the shorter. 4382, I enter with. 4 [...] gives 2.3371: Then to find the part answering to. 71, say [...] If 100 give. 117; what shall. 71 give? Answ.. 83, which added to 2.3371, gives 2.3454 for the Perifery desired.


Where the longer Axis is 388, the shorter 280, first say, 388: 280:: 1.000: Answ.. 721, seek in the Table for. 72, it gives 2.7166; then say, 1.0000: 2.7166:: 388: Answ. 1054.06, which is the Circumference desired.


The longer Diameter 32.54, the shorter 18.64; say; 32.54: 18.64:: 1.000: 572; to which in the Table answers 2.5114, and the part proportional for 2 is 26, which makes the whole 2.5140; then 1.000: 2.5140:: 32.54: 81.805 the Perifery required. The Area or Superficies of an Elleipsis is easily got by this Rule. As the longer Diameter, is to the shorter: So is the Circle of the longer Diameter, to the Elleipsis.

I have made above 45000 Arithmetical Operations for this Table, and am now well pleased it is finished. Some perhaps may find shorter ways, as I believed I had my self, 'till advised otherwise by the truly Honourable the Lord BRUNCKER. I therefore pursued the Rules given by me, in that Contemplation of the Elleipsis Printed in my Arithmetick, taking 100 Elleipsis betwixt that which falls upon the Diameter equal in this case to 2.0000 the first in the Table, and the greatest which is the Circle 3.1402 the last.


A Definition of Geometry.


A Point, is that which hath no party.


A Line, is a length without breadth.


A Superfice is that which hath length and broadness only.


A Body is that which hath length, breadth, and depth.


A straight Line, is equally ex­tended within its points.


An Oblique Line bended, is unequally comprehended within its points.


A perpendicular line, is that which falling upon another makes the straight Angles, which are of 90 degrees.


Parallel Lines, are those which are equal every where distant with­in themselves.


Angle, is the inclination of two lines a point.


A straight Angle, is that where­of the sides are perpendicular, and is of 90 degrees.


An Angle Obtuse, is that which is bigger then a straight one.



A Sharp Angle, is that which is less than a straight one.


An Angle of bended Lines.


An Angle Mixt.


A Triangle, is a Superfice composed of three Lines.


A Rectangle, is that which hath a straight Angle.


An Ambligone Triangle, is that which hath an Angle Ob­tuse.


An Oxigone Triangle, is that whereof three Angles are sharp.


An Equilateral Triangle, is that whereof the three sides are equal.


An Isoscelle Triangle, is that whereof the two sides are equal.



A Scalene Triangle, is that whereof three sides are une­qual.


A Quadrilateral, is a figure of four equal sides, and of four straight Angles


A long Square, is that which hath the four Angles straight, and not the four sides equal.


A Rombo, is that which hath the four sides equal, and not the four Angles straight.


A Romboide, hath the Angles and the sides equal opposite, with­out being equilateral or rect­angle.


A Parallelogram, hath the side, opposite Parallels as the four Pre­cedent Figures.


A Trapeze, is a figure whereof all or some sides are unequal.


Regular Superfice.


Irregular Superfice.



Bended Superfice.


All Lines drawn from the Center to the Circumference are equal.


Circle, is a plain figure, where of the circumference is equally distant from its Center.


Center, is the point within the Circle, equally distant from the circumference.


A Diameter, is a straight Line which passing by the Center [...] hath both its extreams within the Circumference.


A Semidiameter, is a straight Line from the Center unto the Circusmerence.


A Diagonal, is a straight Line drawn from one Angle to the o­ther, in a figure of four sides.


A Section or Corde, is a straight Line which doth not pass through the Center, and hath its two ends at the Circum­ference.

THE FIRST PART. Of Artillery in General.

Of the Names and Description of Great Guns, and of their Parts.

THis Military Engin, of which we intend to treat, came to be called Bombarda, Gun, Can­non, and Artillery; (whence come Gunners, Cannoneers, and Artillery-Men, being those that do Mannage them;) Bom­ [...], from Bombo, a resounding Noise, and [...] its sensible Effect, burning whilst it is [...]loyed; Cannone or Cannon, from the like­ [...] it holds with its Canna (Bore or Conca­vity) the Form or Frame being naturally long, [...]ound, and hollow in the midst; Artigleria, from (Artiglio) the Tallons or Claws of ra­venous Fowls, perhaps because its Shot flying far off dismembers and tears in pieces all that it meets; whence some Natures of this Ma­chine are called Smeriglii, long-winged Hawks; [Page 2] Falconi, Falconets; Passavolanti, swift-flyi [...] Arrows.

Artillery, or Great Guns, are nothing mo [...] than a long round piece of Brass or Iron bor [...] up, formed with Art and Proportion to offer [...] far off, with a Ball of Iron, Stone, or any [...] ­tificial Substance, Charged with Gun powd [...] which is in an instant fired within. They w [...] first put in practice by the Venetians aga [...] the Genoueses before Chiozza, in the Ye [...] 1376.

The Concavity, Anima. Chase, Concave of th [...] Peece, is that hollow or empty part in wh [...] they put the Charge, as in the Figure ( [...] Fig. 1. ACKM.

The Mouth or Muzzle, is the extremity o [...] the Concave, by which you load and unload th [...] Peece, ASC.

The Calibre, is the Diameter of the Mouth▪ AC.

The Touch hole, is that little hollow V [...] which passeth from the outward or convex: perficies of the Peece to the very Concave [...] Chamber, from that end or part where the Chase is inclosed, made to give fire to th [...] Powder within, IK.

The Culatta. Breech, is of solid Metal, which inclo [...] seth the Extremity of the Chase about th [...] Touch hole.

The Codone. Cascabel, or outmost Pommel or But [...] of the Breech, which serves for a Hand [...] to mannage the Artillery, RQ.

[Page 3] The Trunnions, or pieces of Metal which fall or stand out of the exterior Superficies of the Gun, and placed about the middle, by which the Peece lies equally ballanced in her Carriage, and upon which it moves, GH.

Maniglions, or Dolphins, after the German [...]nner, are two Handles, which are placed [...]on the Back or uppermost part of the Peece [...]ar the Trunnions, and near upon the Cen­ [...]r of Gravity of the Peece, to mount and dis­mount it with ease, a b.

The Body of the Peece, is that part which is [...]omprehended betwixt the Center of the Trun­ [...]ions and the Cascabel, which ought always to be more fortified than the other part, GR.

Volata. Vacant Cylinder, is that part of the Peece which is comprehended betwixt the Cen­ter of the Trunnions and the Muzzle, GB.

The Gioia della Boc­ca. Frees, or Muzzle-Ring, is that [...]k Cornish which incompasseth the convex [...]erficies of the Peece near the Mouth, E. [...]he Base-Ring, or great Ring next the Touch-hole, is that thick Cornish which binds [...]e convex Superficies of the Peece, NRO.

The other Rings are the Reinforced-Ring, T; [...]e Trunnion-Ring, F; and Cornish-Ring, Y.

The Line of the Cylinder, is a direct Line, [...]hich one imagins, described along the Chase [...] the lowest part of the concave Superficies [...] the Peece, which Line is parallel to the [...]ddle of the Chase of the said Peece, MC. [...]

[Page 4] The Line of Metal, or Cornishes, is a Line drawn above the Peece, touching both Cor­nishes, N & E.

The Dispart Line of the Peece, is the diffe­rence betwixt the Semidiameters of the Muzzle Ring and Base Ring, or a Line drawn from the utmost top of the Base-Ring, parallel [...] the Chase of the Peece, the Dispart being the nearest distance betwixt the same LIne and the top of the Muzzle-Ring, EZ.

The Vent of the Peece, is the Space betwixt the Shot and the concave Superficies of the Peece, or the difference betwixt the Diameter of the Shot and Mouth of the Peece, c d.

The Chamber in all fortified Peeces, is that part of its Chase towards the Touch-hole [...] equally large, nor narrower in one part [...] in another, forasmuch as it receives the Pow­der, and a Wad or Tampion of an [...] bigness.

The Campa­ [...]ia. Chamber in Drakes, and old tape [...] Peeces, is not equally large in all its parts, [...] narrower towards the Touch-hole.

Moscolo, is a moveable Chamber, which on takes up and joyns to the Bore of certain Pe­trieroes, by means of the Braga.

Braga, in some Petrieroes, is a Ring of Iron that holds firm the Moscolo or moveable Cham­ber to the Concavity of the Peece, and fir [...] the Breech to the Peece.

The Names of the Parts of Carriages, [...] also the most usual Instruments, we shall spea [...] of in their proper places.

Of the Mixture of Metals for Ordnance.

ARtillery are very often made of Iron, especially the Petrieroes de Braga, and other natures, which are used aboard Mer­chant-Ships; but the most proper and most used Metal is that called Brass, compounded of Copper, Tin, and another part of Latten. Copper alone is too soft, the Tin gives it hardness, but too much makes it brittle; the Latten unites, and gives an alloy to the other two.

To form a Proportion of these Metals to make Guns of, will be various according to divers Authors.

Some to every Hundred Weight of pure Copper, give 20 lb. of Bell-Metal, or in lieu 10 lb. of soft Tin.

Others to every Hundred Weight of Cop­per give 10 lb. of Latten, and 8 lb. of soft Tin.

Others mix together100108

Others, to every 100 lb. of Copper 10, 8, or 7 lb. of Tin, without the other; and these two last are estimated best.

But the best and most proper Materials will be the Copper alone beaten.

[Page 6] Some Guns are made with their Soul or Chase covered with Brass, and then bound about with Twine, and outwardly lin'd over with Leather for Lightness. aIt has been found that Iron Guns, made of pure English Cast Iron, have proved as good as any Brass: Therefore even for some of the First Rate Ships, by consent of His Majesty, and furtherance of the Right Honourable Sir Tho­mas Chicheley, Master of the Ordnance (for the encouragement of the Manufacture) the whole Complement are Iron turned, and handsomely finished.

Of Powder.

THe Efficient Cause for Expelling the Shot, is the Fire that is made of a Powder com­pounded of Saltpetre, Brimstone, and Charcoal.

The Saltpetre makes the Blow or Crack, the Sulphur takes fire, and the Coal rarifies the other two, to make them fire the better.

Two sorts of Gun-powder are commonly in use; One is made of five, one, and one, being compounded of five parts of Saltpetre, one of Sulphur and the other Coal,

The other sort, being stronger, is of six, one, and one, being made of six parts of Salt-petre, one of Brimstone, and the other of Coal.

[Page 7] For Artillery, that of five, one, and one, is ge­nerally used, and the other for Musquets and small Arms, although some use this for Artillery, especially for Field-peeces. bThe worst that is made for his Majesties use in England is of the latter, six, one, and one. It would be a very advantageous Experiment, that from a Barrel of Powder one could sepa­rate the Petre, and know what weight was of it exactly.

Anciently they made Powder of four, one, and one, viz. four parts of Salt-petre, one of Brimstone, and one of Coal, which served for the Artillery of those times, being smaller than our modern; but this Powder being overweak, is not now in use.

To compare together the strength of these three severally, the Gunners have commonly a regard to the quantity of Salt-petre which is found in each; from whence they say that these will make the same effect. 45l of Powder of four, one, and one; 42l of five, one, and one; and 40l of six, one, and one, finding in all these weights an equal quantity of Salt-petre, viz. 30l: and being to load an ancient Peece, it would be convenient, for example, to take 24l of Powder of four, one, and one, in lieu where­of they will imploy 22l ⅖ of that of five, one, and one, or else 21l ⅓ of that of six, one, and one.

Others in lieu of that of four, one, and one, [Page 8] make use of ⅘ of that of five, one, and one; and in stead of that of five, one, and one, imploy [...]/4 of that of six, one, and one. So in room of 30l of four, one, and one, they use 24l of five, one, and one; in lieu of 30l of five, one, and one, they make use of 22l ½ of that of six, one, and one.

And although this manner is disallowed by some, (notwithstanding it is not to be contem­ned) because an equal quantity of Salt-petre mix­ed with a different quantity of other materials doth not equally operate, but is more efficacious being united with a less proportion of the o­thers (even to certain proportions) than with [...] greater, because they overcharge the virtue o [...] the Salt-petre with their too great quantity o [...] the other. Whence 42l of Powder of five, one and one, are stronger than 45l of four, one, and one; and 40l of six, one, and one, works [...] greater effect than 42l of five, one, and one, al­though all contain 30l of Salt-petre.

So I have seen and tried by experience that [...] of Powder of six, one, and one, doth greater ef­fect than the whole of that of five, one, and one, viz. 20l more of that than 30l of the other.

How much Powder must be allowed to each Peece of Ordnance shall be spoken of in its pro­per place.

Of Shot, and its Vent.

TO Field-peeces of the first and second kind they give Shots of Iron, but to those of the third, Stone-shot, and other Artificial Bodies not heavier than the said Ball; and to Field-pieces of the least nature Shots of Lead.

Amongst Balls of the said Diameter, but the three Natures abovesaid, is commonly assign'd this proportion.

Iron weighs the triple more than Stone, as 3 to 1.

Lead weighs one half more than Iron, 3 to 2 [...]

Lead to Stone is 4½ times more, as 9 to 2 [...]

But to speak more properly:

Iron is to Stone, as 31½ is to 10.

Lead to Iron, as 14¼ to 10.

Lead to Stone, as 47½ to 10.

Nevertheless not all Leads, Iron, or Stone, are of the same weight.

To load Artillery with Shot, as well Iron, Lead, as Stone, they do not fill the Chase, but leave space for vent; for the Peece not being perfectly round, the Shot may go in and out easily. But there may not be too much vent, lest the Fire pass, and the Blow may come too weak.

[Page 10] Therefore the Diameter of a Ball being gi­ven, to have the Calibre or Diameter of the Mouth, you must adde its Vent; or the Cali­bre being given, to find the Diameter of the Ball, you must subtract the Vent.

In some the Vent is found, by adding to eve­ry 10 Pound of shot, one pound, as 30 making 33, and taking the Diameter of the Ball from 33, by the Caliper-Compasses giveth 30 l.

Others take for every 12l, 1l, viz. one Ounce in the Pound All Italy over, 12 Ounces makes a Pound., and makes the same thing.

But the usual Rule is to make the Vent al­ways the one and twentieth part of the Diame­ter of the Ball, or 1/22 of the Diameter of the Mouth or Muzzle.

Some are of opinion, that to make a Gun bear a certain Load of Ball, one make it just its Calibre, according to the Diameter of the Ball of which it weighs, but then they work with a lesser Ball: yet if one would make a Culvering from 30l, they take the just Diameter of 30l, then in action they use a Ball with the Vent, which will be less than 30l, but it seems more reasonable to make the Calibre greater to use the Ball of its true Weight.

The Diameter of the Shots of Iron, Stone, and Lead of all us'd Weights, is by Gunners described upon a Ruler of Brass, of four Faces, called by them the Calibre, viz. upon the three Faces the Diameters of Shots of Iron, Lead, and Stone; and upon the fourth Face, the Foot di­vided [Page 11] into Inches, &c. according to the Coun­try.

We put here the said Scale corrected and ad­justed to the Venetian Measure, unto 150l, as represented in the second Figure.

Note, that the said Scale, not holding lon­ger Diameters than of 150l, one may yet work by greater Weights unto 1200.

The Weight being given, to find the Diame­ter of the Ball, divide the Number of Pounds propounded, by Eight, then the Quotient of this Division being searched upon the Face of the Scale, will give you the Semidiameter, by redoubling of which you shall have the whole Diameter of the Shot required.

For Example, if 280 Pounds be given, di­vide this Number by Eight, the Quotient is 35, then the Diameter of 35 being taken upon the Scale, and redoubled, will give the Diameter desired of 20l.

The Diameter of a greater Shot being given contained in the Scale, to find the Weight in Pounds, divide the said Diameter in half, and applying it to the Scale, observing the Number to which it corresponds, which being multipli­ed by Eight, will give the Number of Pounds of the Ball required. aSpherical Bodies, of what Metal soever, are one to another in weight, as the Cubes of their Diameters; therefore if the Diameter and Weight of any known Spherical Body be given, [Page 12] and the Diameter of any other like Body be given, and the Weight sought; or the Weight given, and the Diameter be sought: say, As the Cube of the Diameter given, is to the Weight given; So is the Cube of the Diame­ter of the unweighed Sphere, to its Weight: and contrariwise for the Diameter. By this Rule, having the Diameter and Weight of a Shot, one may find the Weight of another; or having the Weight and Diameter of a Shot, and the Weight of another, one may find the Diameter. My Father, the 14th of March 1671, weighing several Iron Bullets with a Curious Scale, found one very near round of 6 Inches and 63/100 parts, to weigh exactly 41 Pounds, which agrees exceeding neer to 9 Pound for 4 Inches; and from the afore said Rule, a Bullet of 1 pound Weight will have for its Diameter 1 Inch, and 93/100 of an Inch. The Diameter of one pound of course Lead will be 1 Inch, and 69/100 parts, and of hard Stone 2 Inches, and 67/100 parts. For making the Ru ler for Calibres, the Author wants a Table of Solids; I here insert one, made long since by my Father, more exactly than those printed in Ars magna Artillerii, or Furnier, which sol­loweth.

[Page 13]

The Table of the Line of Solids.
(3)144:215246:640341: [...]70412:1

[Page 15] The Ʋse whereof is this. By a Scale of Inches, or from any Scale lesser or greater, which may represent Inches, and every 100 part of an Inch, as that (Fig. 2.) take out for Example 1 92/100 for Iron, 1 69/100 for Lead, and 2 67/100 for Stone, and prick them from the beginning of the Ruler A, upon the several Scales of Lead, Iron, and Stone, to the figure 1, which signifies one Pound: then you must make three equal Diagonal Scales for every one of those Divisi­ons A. 1. divided into 100 or 1000, as in the Fig. 3, one is done for Iron divided into 5000 parts. Now if you desire for Example to di­vide the Scale for each pound for Iron cast Shot, by the Diagonal Scale, and the Table of Solids, take the Numbers in the Table an­swering to the several Pounds or Parts, and from your Diagonal Scale (Fig. 3.) take those parts, and prick them from A the beginning of the Scale to the place that shall signifie the Pounds answerable. Suppose it be for 6l, I take 1. 81 from the Scale with the Compasses, and set it from A to b 6, and 2. 15 for 10l to c, and so from one Division to another 'till the Ruler be Compleat. The same work is to be ob­served for the Lines for Lead and Stone from their several Diagonal Scales; you may note that 100 from those Scales is for 1l, 200 for 8l, 300 for 27l, 400 for 64l, and 500 for 125l, because 1. 8. 27. 64. and 125 are the Cubes of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Note also, that the Table shews you the Tenths of a Pound to 3l, [Page 16] the Quarters to 6l, and the half to 20l, for the more exactness in the Divisions. For the use of the Calibre Ruler, if the Diameter of the Bullet be known in Inches, just over against those Inches and Parts is the Weight set in the Line, answering to the respective Metal; or contrary if the Weight be given, then the Dia­meter answers in the line of Inches. As for Example, against the Diameter of 4 Inches answers 9l of Iron, or contrary against 9l of Iron 4 Inches Diameter of the Bullet. But mine Author made his Scale to the Semidia­meter of Bullets, which makes him take the Cube of 2, viz. 8, and to double as you see in the uses of his Scale, which is far more trou­blesome than this way I have set down.

I have added another Line to the former three, called the Line for Powder, it gives the Weight of Powder that will fill up a Cylinder, whose Length and Diameter are equal; it is made as the former Lines were, from this po­sition (which is found by Experience) that one pound of Powder will fill a Bore or Cylinder of 3 Inches and 165/1000 parts of an Inch in Dia­meter and Length, and the uses are considera­ble for making Cartridges, or to know how much of the Cylinder of a Gun will be filled with a certain weight of Powder. As for Example, A Cylinder of 4 Inches and ¼ in Diameter and Length, will take 2 ½l of Powder to fill, as you may find over against 4 ¼ Inches, and over against 6 pounds of Powder you have 5¾ In­ches [Page 17] almost, for the Diameter and Length of any Bore, which I take to be very useful.

Of the Measure of Artillery or Guns.

THE ordinary Measure to form and pro­portion all the parts of any Peece of Ord­nance, and also its Carriage, is by the Diame­ter of the Mouth of the same Peece.

But to make the Ladle, Rammer, Spunge, and other Instruments as enters into its Chase, they work by the Diameter, not of the Mouth, but of the Ball of the same Peece. Therefore they use in some places the Foot divided into 12 Inches, and each Inch into 12 Points or Grains. We shall value them by Diameters, Bocca or Bore. follow­ing the more ordinary way; but one may re­duce all Diameters to Feet, Inches, and parts of an Inch, so it may be free for every one to make use of such Measure as shall please him best.

Of the several Natures of Artillery.

ALL Artillery are commonly reduced in­to three sorts. The first is that of the Culvering, the second Cannons of Battery, the third Cannons Petrieri.

The reason of this Distinction ought to be taken from the end to which the Artillery serves.

The intent of Artillery in general is to of­fend a far off; but sometimes is principally un­derstood the distance of Place, sometimes the Offence, although one never goes without the other: for being to shoot a far off, the Object must either be of a strong or weak resistance; but if you would offend not far off, the Object in like manner must be either of a weak or a strong resistance. Now there being four ends, it seems reasonable that Artillery be reduced to four sorts, according to the Intents for which they serve.

To offend a far off, in case of strong resistance, the Culverings do serve, which carries a Ball of Iron from 14 to 30l weight, although some make them to 120l.

To offend a far off, in case of weak resistance, as in Troops, Squadrons, &c. those Peeces do serve which are called Field-peeces, or the small [Page 19] Artillery, and not Royal, and carry an Iron shot from 1 pound to 10 or 12 pound.

To offend not far distant, in case of a strong resistance, are your Cannon of Battery, which carry a Ball of Iron from 20 to 50l weight, although some are made which carry to 100l and more, and serve to break down Walls and Parapets.

Lastly, to offend at a small distance, an ob­ject of weak resistance, as Ships, and other Ma­chines of Timber, they do use your Cannon called Petrieroes, because they carry a Shot of Stone, or any other Artificial Substance, and never of Iron; and this Ball of Stone may weigh from 14l to 100l weight.

Note, that these are the four principal intents of each of these Natures, but a Peece of one sort may serve in point of necessity for several Services.

We nevertheless will not discourse of the common use, but will name three only sorts of Artillery, reducing the first to Culvering, and Field-peeces, which come to one another in a neer proportion.

To the second they of Battery.

To the third Cannon Petrieroes, and to which we will also add the Mortars and Tri­bucchi's, which offend by a curved Line, and moreover an Appendix of Petars, although improperly they are reduc'd amongst Artillery not offending at a distance. aWe distinguish all our great Guns in England into two onely sorts, viz. Field-peeces from the least to twelve Pounders, and Cannon of Bat­tery, from Culvering to whole Cannon.


To divert the Reader a little at the end of each Part, I shall give some short Dis­courses of the stupendeous Bridge made by that most famous Warriour Alex­ander Prince of Parma, in the Year 1585, over the Schelde neer Ant­werp, and of the prodigious Effect of Powder, fitted into Vessels for breaking the same. First out of Furnier Hydro. lib. 2. in French.

‘THE Prince of Parma commanding in chief the King of Spains Armies in the Low Countreys, and knowing of what great concern the Recovery or the Retaking of the City of Antwerp would be to his Masters Affairs, laid Siege before it in the Month of August, in the year 1584, & having seized on several Forts and other important places about the City, resolved to make and lay a Bridge over the Schelde, at two Leagues from the City, to hinder the Besieged from Succours which might come from Zealand that way, [Page 21] that being the onely place by which they could receive them. And being Master of the Shore as well on that side of Flanders as Bra­bant, he rais'd two strong Bulworks on both sides, and then struck Piles of 30, 35, 40, and 50 Foot long, and mortass'd them together with strong Beams and Girders to uphold a wooden Bridge, which he called the Pallisade, and upon which ten men might march in front. The River was large in this place, 1500 pa­ces, and so deep that it was impossible to find Trees long and strong enough to reach the bottom; and not being able to carry on his work more then 1000 Feet into the water, he finished the rest, which was 1300 Feet, by 30 Ships, which were distant 30 Feet the one from the other: each Ship had two Ankers a head, and a Stern to hinder the impetuosity of the Tides, and many Shipmasts and Planks to make the Platform of the Bridge; the Ves­sels were fasten'd together with four Chains and four Cables, and carried two Guns a head, and two a Stern, and thirty Soldiers: upon this Bridge one might pass from Bra­bant into Flanders.

‘On the Bridge, at every 500 paces, there were Rafts made of Shipmasts and other wood, to stop those that came, and to give leisure to those of the Bridge to fire from a­bove and sink them. Moreover there were many small Vessels loaded with Soldiers, who guarded the Avenues.’

[Page 22] ‘At the time that they built the Bridge, the Bastions on both sides the River were well guarded with Infantry, and furnished with Cannon, which nevertheless could not hinder that in the space of seven months which they imployed in making the Pallisade, but that many Vessels went and came to Antwerp, where they also fortified themselves, and pre­pared several Inventions to break this Bridge.’

Frederick Junibell or Giambel, Native of Mantoua, an Excellent Ingeneer, who was sent there by the Queen of England, having demanded of the Citizens three Vessels, one of 150 Tuns, another of 350, and a third of 500 Tuns, and 60 others wide and flat, which he would have joyned together with Chains, and have them disposed in form of a half Moon, to have them rise with the Tide, well armed with Grapnals, but he could ob­tain but two of 70 or 100 Tuns, of which one was called the Fortune, the other the Hope, with ten other small flat Boats.’

‘Then seeing these two Vessels well tim­ber'd, and of a just capacity, he made in each, with great square pieces of white stone, a Cof­fer or Chest of five Foot thick, 40 Foot long, and three and a half large and deep; in one of which he put 10000l of Cannon Powder, and in the other 7500, and cover'd both of them with massive great broad Grave-stones, which might easily resist the violence of the Enemies Cannon.’

[Page 23] ‘There were laid cross these Machins seve­ral Matches dressed with Sulphur, and aboard each Vessel there was an artificial Engine, which ought to burn a whole hour before that the Coffers took fire, to amuse the Besiegers, and to make them believe that there was no other thing then what appeared alost.’

‘Besides, there were 32 very flat bottom'd Shallops, full of Ingredients, of which eight at every half hour ought to descend with the Tide, besides others full of wild fire, which were to burn leisurely the Rafts before the Bridge, to the end that the Enemy being wea­ry by continual firing, for the space of some hours, the great Vessels might have an easier access.’

‘The fourth day of July being appointed for this Enterprise, all this Preparation had not such success as they promised themselves, therefore they suspected some Treason; for these four Squadrons of eight Shallops apiece, set sail almost all in the same time, contrary to the design of the Ingeneer, the tide begin­ning to slack, and the two great Vessels going away sooner than they should have done, one ran ashore, and wanting water, did no Exe­cution then kill some Soldiers. The Prince of Parma believing that the rest would work no other effect, and that all would vanish in smoak, retired into St. Maries Fort. But a little after, three Shallops having burned some Rafts; and the great Vessel as it happen'd (se­veral [Page 24] of the Besiegers being come to view the Shallops) arriving just upon the point of the Pallisade, fired with such violence and fury, that it tore in a thousand pieces six of the Ships of the Bridge, overset and blew into the air several others, tumbled down the Prince of Parma, and the Marquiss of Pescara, (who were returning with as many men as they could find within a league about,) made an Earthquake four miles round, and broke the the Glass windows at six leagues distance, kill'd more than 500 persons, amongst whom were the Marquiss of Rubais, and the Lord of Billy; moreover, emptied the very chan­nel of the River, that being dry, and the water rais'd in the Air, and falling in the neighbou­ring fields, almost entirely fill'd with water an adjacent Fort, and the Soldiers in the field were up to the knees in water, had their Cloths, Matches, Musquets, and Artillery all wet, and were rendred so unfit for service, that they had been without question routed, if the Antwerpians had been in readiness to have made a brisk Sally. The Prince forth­with repaired this dammage, and left an open place in the Bridge to let all such like Vessels pass, if they should make any more attempt. Once more those of Antwerp sent another Ship of vast greatness, with hopes to perform more advantageous effects, and called her the End of the War, but succeeding very ill, as some others which were sent down in the same [Page 25] time against the Bridge the 22 of the same month, at last they were forced to render themselves the 17. August, 1583. This rela­tion was drawn out of the Annals of Bertius, and of P. Orlandin of the Campaigne of Jesus.

THE SECOND PART: Of the Bore or Chase of Guns.

Of the general Proportion of the Bores of Guns.

A Great Gun or Cannon, is a long Bar­rel, round and hollow in the middle. Before they are cast, they are drawn out in Design, with their Proportions.

The Proportions, are either general or parti­cular.

The General Proportions, are those which serve in all sorts of Ordnance, and those are, as touching their Breech, Touch-hole, Alteration of the thickness, Trunnions, the Cascabel, and Rings.

The Particular Proportions, are those which change according to the Nature and Species of the Artillery, as the Calibre, length, and thick­ness.

As to the General Proportions, the Breech is always thick, when the Metal at the Touch-hole is thick, comprehending also the Metal of the Chamber if there be any.



[Page 27] The Touch-hole is used at the end of the Chase.

The Line of Alteration of Metals, is made at the middle of the Length, betwixt the Touch-hole and the Muzzle in cast Ordnance.

The Trunnions are thick and long, one Dia­meter of the Chase or Concave (where they are made.) In Gross Cannons very often they make them shorter, not finding Side-Timbers or Cheeks strong enough to make the Carriages.

The Axletree of the Trunnions is distant from the Muzzle 4/7 of the length of the Chase, and from the Touch-hole 3/7, to the intent that the Peece may be moved easily, and being some­thing heavier behind than before, is not Muzzle heavy. Some by putting them far distant from the Muzzle, and from the Touch-hole ⅖, by which they are made too heavy at the Muzzle.

They are placed before the Level of the Me­tal under the Chase, that the Peece may be the higher mounted upon his Carriage, and may re­ceive more degrees of Elevation. Some often­times place them not so low, but make them so, that their highest leine corresponds and passes by the Diameter of the Chase, and the Diame­ter of the Trunnions, by the lowest line of Cy­linder, as do demonstrate the Fig. 3. and 4. Fig III. and IV.

Cascabel or Pummel serves to elevate and to direct the Cannon, and is lesser but longer than the Trunnions.

The Maniglions or Dolphins, are two great Cornishes at the Extremities, which rise higher [Page 28] than the Inequalities of the Rings which are upon the back of the Peece, and do not hinder the sight, and also serve for Ornament and Strength. The Muzzle-ring is high 2/8, and the Base-ring is high ⅛ part of the Calibre about, but the Rings in Petrieroes at the Mouth are ⅙, and at the Breech 1/12, and are large at pleasure.

Of the Particular proportions, we shall speak of them underneath, according to all the natures of Ordnance.

Of the Culvering.

CƲlverings are Distinguished into three manners; first, according to the Calibre or nature of the Ball; secondly, as to thickness of the Metall; thirdly, according to the length of the Bore.

As to the Calibre, they are called whole Cul­vering, Culvering, and Demi-Culvering.

The whole Culvering are called anciently Dragon-Drakes, and carry a Ball of Iron from 40, 50, to 60l &c.

The Culvering from 35l, 30, 25, 20.

The Half Culvering from 18, 16, and 14.

As to the thickness of Metal, some are called small, some common, other reinforced or fortified.

The Small, used in old time, have their Me­tal thick

[Page 29]

At the Touch-hole
In the Middle6/8 of their Calibre.
At the Neck4/8

The Common Modern have their Metal thick

At the Touch-hole1
Middle⅞ of their Calibre.
At the Neck4/8

The Modern Fortified

At the Touch-hole1⅛
Middle⅞ of their Calibre.

The Culvering does not grow equally small from the Touch-hole to the Neck, but fall off at several Rings for better Fortification.

Some make the Demi-Culvering better for­tified than the Culvering, as one may observe in Field-peeces, but it is not generally used.

As to the Length, they distinguish the Cul­vering into ordinary, extraordinary, and bastard.

The Ordinary Culvering, are long from the Touch-hole to the Muzzle 32 Calibres.

The Extraordinary are longer than the Or­dinary, viz. to 39, 40, 41 Calibres.

The Bastard are shorter than the Ordinary, viz. onely 28, 27, and 26.

Although the true measure of the Ordinary be 32 Calibres, notwithstanding they are some­times made of 30 and 33 Calibres, and are called Ordinary.

The Whole Culvering are made one Diame­ter or two less, and the Demi-Culvering one longer than the Culvering.

[Page 30] Of the several natures of Culvering, one may form nine species of each. As Culvering ordi­nary small, and Bastard ordinary small, extra­dinary small, Ordinary Cannon, Extraordi­nary Cannon, Bastard Cannon, Reinforced Or­dinary, Reinforced Extraordinary, and Bastard Reinforced.

One may say the self same thing of the Fig. V. Whole and Half Culvering.

Of Field Peeces.

FIeld Peeces are generally reduced into the same Natures as Culvering, and are also distinguished into three manners: 1. as to the Calibre, 2. as to the richness of the Metal, and 3. to the Length.

As to the Calibre, they have these principal natures following.

The Smeriglio or Rabinet carries a Ball of Iron from ½l to a Pound.

The Falconet from 2, 3, to 4l.

The Falcon or half Saker, from 5, 6, to 7l.

The Saker or ¼ Culvering from 8, 10, to 12l.

Others with the same Calibre as these, will carry as before.

As to the Richness of the Metal, they have the same distinctions that the lesser Culverings have, Common and Reinforced, although these [Page 31] Field-peeces are generally used Fortified, and the lesser they are the more Fortified, to resist better the Force of the Powder in their frequent Discharges.

The Thickness of Metal at the Touch-hole, Neck, &c. are the same as the Culvering.

As to the Length, they are distinguished into Ordinary, Extraordinary, and Common.

The Ordinary ought to follow the same Rule as the Culverings of 32 Calibre, often­times they are made longer, viz. from 32 to 34. The Saker, Rabinet, and Falconet, from 38, to 40, and 42, because the smalness of their Bore, if made 32, they would not advance be­yond the Circumference of their Wheels, and therefore would do no effect.

The Extraordinary, are those that pass the said measure, and amongst those is remarkable the Passavolante or Zabratana, long from 48 to 50 Calibres, and most rich in Metal, and which carries a Ball from 5 to 6 pound, as the Falcon, but now are seldom cast.

The Bastard, are those who do not arrive to 32 Calibres; amongst which are found the Moyenne or Minion, which is a Modern Peece Fortified, and carries a Ball of 8 or 10l shot (as the Saker,) but is long onely 26 Diameters, used in the Gallies, being so short for the smal­ness of the place.

The Aspide is an ancient Peece, and poor in Metal, and although it carries 8 or 10 pound shot, is no longer than 22 or 20 Calibres.

[Page 32] The Musquet di Givoco, is a small Peece used onely by the Venetian Gunners, carrying one Pound Ball of Iron as the Smeriglio, long 28 Diameters or 30, thick at the Touch-hole Dia­meters 1 1/16, at the Neck ⅝.

The Saltamartino, is a small Peece used by the said Venetians, long 15 Diameters, carries shot 4l of Iron as the Falconet, thick at the Touch-hole one Calibre, at the Neck ½. Diame­ter. It is called the Saltamartino, from being turn­ed about upon all occasions, and being loaded be­hind at the Tale of the Carriage, without draw­ing back the Peece, and there be many of them in the said State.

The Riba­docchino. Rabbonett, was a Peece of Artillery an­ciently used, and carried a Pound shot or 1½ of Iron as the Smeriglio, but this Rabbonett is used in Flanders, and carries as abovesaid, and long Ordinary 36 Diameters.

There be other particular Names for Field. Fig. V. Peeces, but these be the most usual.

Of Cannons of Battery.

THE Cannons of Battery, are Peeces ordina­rily shorter than Culverings, and are di­stinguished, first, as to their Calibre; secondly as to the Richness of their Metal; and thirdly, as to their Length.

[Page 33] The Calibres are as followeth.

The ¼ Cannon carries a Ball of Iron from 16 to 18 pounds.

The Demi-Cannon from 20 to 28l.

The Cannon from 30, 40, 45, to 50l, and formerly even to 60 pound.

The whole Cannon from 70 to 120.

The Cannon Basilisk from 130 to 150 and 200 pound Ball, used by the Turks.

As to the Richness of their Metal, some are Ancient and Small, others Modern and Com­mon, and Modern Fortified.

The Ancient are small, Tapered or Bell-bo­red.

The Chambred have their Metal thick at the Touch-hole 6/8, in the middle ⅝, and at the Neck ⅜ of their Calibre.

The Tapered are thick as the Chambred, but are more Tapered towards the Touch-hole, long Diameters 4, large in the beginning Dia­meters 1, and in the bottom Diameters ⅔, in the middle ⅚, at the Touch-hole ⅔ of the mouth.

The Common are either Chambred, or Ta­pered.

The Chambred have this thickness of Metal at the Touch-hole ⅞, in the Middle ⅝, in the Neck ⅜.

The Incamerated have the same thickness as the former, and moreover the Chamber neer the Breech long 4 Diameters of the Peece a­bout, large as much in the beginning as in the end ⅚, and with the risalto. Gengiva or degrees one [Page 34] over another, thick ½ of the Calibre.

The Modern Inforced are all Chambred, and have such thickness at the Touch-hole one Dia­meter, at the Middle 5 or 6/8, at the Neck ⅜.

Note, first, that some are called Inforced, al­though Common Incamerated.

Secondly, observe that the quarter, and Mo­dern half Cannon, have the Reinforcement [...] Fortification of a Culvering, the better to ser [...] in its place.

Thirdly, that the Cannon Basilisk hath greater Reinforcement, as we shall hereafter de­clare.

As to the Length, they are Ordinary, Ex­traordinary, or Bastard.

The length of the Ordinary is 18 Diameter.

Although very often they make the Dem Cannon 22 and 24 Diameters.

The quarter-Cannon is made long 26 Dia­meters, or 28, to the end being so long, and Fortified or Reinforced, they may serve in pla [...] of Culvering or Demi-Culvering.

The length of these Extraordinary Peeces [...] greater than the Ordinary respectively, and a­mongst the rest is famous the Cannon Basilis [...] used by the Turks in nature of a whole Can­non, which is long from 24 to 30 diameters thick at the Touch-hole diameters 1½, at the Middle diameter 1, at the Neck diameter ½, and carries, as we have said, a Ball from 130 to 150 and 200l weight.

The Bastard Cannon are those which are [Page 35] shorter than the Ordinary; if they are Can­nons or Whole Cannons, their Calibre is 24, or 22 if they are Demi-Cannons; 28 or 26 if they be Quatter-Cannons.

They are called Rebussi, Crepanti, Verrati, long Diameters 15; and the Saltamarino may be reduced to this nature as to the length, but by [...]s placed amongst the Field Peeces, by reason of the smalness of its Calibre. Some call those Bastard Cannon, which have a greater length than the Ordinary Cannon, which do not ar­rive to the ordinary length of Culvering; but these ought rather to be called either Extraor­dinary Cannon or Bastard Culvering. Fig. VI.

Of Cannon Petrieroes.

THE Petrieroes, are so called from its Ball of (Pietra) stone, with which they are loaded from 2 to 100 and 150l, for the most and all are Incamerated, or Chambred and continued in one Peece; or else with the Cham­ber separated with a Braga of Iron, and there­fore are called from that Petrie­roes a Bra­ga. Braga.

Those that are continued, and of one Peece, are either Antient, or Modern.

They are long from 8, 8½ to 9 Diame­ter, Cali­bre, Boc­ca, Bore, Mouth, all one, and B signifieth them all. diameters, although some are to 10 and 12.

The Antient have this thickness of Metal, the [Page 36] Chamber being not computed, at the Touch-hole ⅓, at the Middle ¼, at the Neck ⅙ of the Calibre.

The Chamber hath the Gengiva or rising ⅙ of the Calibre, the largness is ⅔, the length is D. 1½ of the Calibre, or else diameters 4½ of the same Chamber. The Modern have the thickness of the Metal rising at the Chamber; at the Touch-hole ¼, Middle ¼, and at the Neck ⅙.

The Gengiva, or rising of the Chamber, is thick diameters ¼.

The mouth of the same is ½ of the Calibre.

The Length is Calib. 2, viz. Dia. 4 and 6 of the Chamber.

But it is to be observed, that some make them Incamerated, that the Mouth of the Cham­ber be ⅗ of the Calibre, and three times as long as large.

Some make the Chamber so, that it may be the ⅓ of the weight of the Ball; as if the Peece carry 30l, they make the Mouth of the Cham­ber large, as much as is the Diameter of the Ball of Stone of 6l; they make the said Chamber long diameters 2 and ⅘ of the said Chamber, and make these Peeces long from 12 to 14 dia­meters of the same Chamber; and the thick­ness of the Metal of these two with the Cham­ber, is at the Touch-hole diameter 1, at the Middle diameter ½, at the Neck ⅓ of the Mouth of the Chamber.

Note, that some make Petrieroes not Inca­merated, long Calibres 12, and thick at the [Page]


[Page] [Page 37] Touch-hole ½, at the Middle ⅜, at the Neck ¼ of Fig. VII. the Calibre.

The Petrieroes a Braga, have their Cham­ber separated, which is called the Mascolo, Ser­vitore, and Covetta, and so they are loaded be­hind; they are serviceable upon Gallies, Ves­sels, Towers, and other narrow places, where the Peece cannot reverse; they are either of bea­ten Iron or Brass, as also the Servitory or Ma­scoli; the Braga is of Iron.

They carry a Ball of Stone from 2 to 14l, and no more.

They have their Chase long from 10 to 12 Calibres; the thickness behind is Calib. ½, at the Neck ¼, or else behind Calibre ⅓, at the Neck ⅙.

The Trunnions are thick and long ½ Calib. round about, distant from the Mouth ¼, and from the end ¼, about the length of the Bore.

Betwixt the Trunnions and the end in the middle, are placed two Wings, to fasten the Braga, and hang without ⅓ of the Calibre, and are fixt to the very Axletree of the Chase.

For every Petriero de Braga, there should be three Mascole, which are large at the Mouth ⅔, and also ½ of the Bore, long in the Chase 4, 5, or also 6 diameters. The Metal about is thick one diameter, and particularly about or as much as the Peece to the Bottom, they have an Handle, and at the Head are made small, to drive a little into the Bore well closed, viz. diameter ½ round about its Moscola.

[Page 38] The Braga is of Iron, ordinarily fastener straight to the Wings; it is prolonged within that it may be capable of the length of the Moscolo, and its Coine behind, which makes i [...] firm; and in the end hath a long trail or trai [...] Calib. 3 or 2 with its Button, or Pummel, and serves to mannage the Petriero: cross the Brag [...] underneath, is a place to sustain the Mascolo.

The Wedge is of Iron, thick ⅓ or ¼ del: Ca­lib. large at the least one Calibre, and long about. One also may have more Wedges to keep the Mascolo or Chamber joyned to the Bore.

Of Mortars or Trabucchi.

THey are short Peeces, of the nature of Pe­trieroes; and with these they shoot Balls of Stone, Granado-Shels, and Cases full of small Shot, not by a Right line, but by a Crooke from on high, so they fall where it should be appointed.

The Chase from the Touch-hole to the Muz­zle in all, is Calib. 2 and ¼. The Chamber is long Calib. ¾, large Calib. ½. The remainder is Calib. 1½, the Gengiva or Rise of the Cham­ber is thick Calib. ¼. They are thick besides the Chamber at the Touch-hole ¼, in the mid­dle ¼, at the neck ⅙ of the Calibre.

There is no other difference betwixt a Mor­tar Peece and a Trabuccho, but in the placing of [Page 39] Trunnions, since the Mortar-peece hath the diameter of the Trunnions, which corresponds to the end of the Chamber. And the Trabuccho hath its Trunnions placed in the thickness of its Breech.

The Mortars or Trabucchi, that have their Bore long Diam. 3½, are best to shoot Balls of Stone, Fire-balls, Base and Bur-shot, because they require a greater force; but to shoot Grana­does they do greater effects, being long diam. 2, or a little more, by reason of the Spoletta or length of their Bore.

They are most used to shoot Granadoes be­twixt Fig. X. 50 and 100l, although sometimes one fits them to 300l weight.


Concerning the Bridge, and Blow neer Antwerp, out of Pietro Paulo Flori­ani Diffesa & Offesa delle Piazza. page 141.

‘BUT it did not so happen with Alex­ander Prince of Parma, at the Bridge made at the Siege of Antwerp, the like to which was never yet seen or related in any History, being attacqued from a Machine of Fire, the most Horrible and dreadful that ever was put in practice in any part of the known World. An Engine without doubt invented by the proper Enemy of Mankind, and brought to perfection by his new Infer­nal Ministers. It was eight moneths in ma­king by the Ingeneer of Antwerp, and in it were the only hopes to relieve the City. It was a great Ship strongly timbred, in which was a strong Valut or Arch made of Stone and Morter, filled with 200 Barrels of Powder, and above the Valut were great Stones of all forms, Cannon shot, Chains of Iron, enough to ruine a whole City. And within these ves­sels was laid a secret Fire or Fusee so cunnin­ly, that it should not fire the Powder, 'till it was arrived at the Bridge, or a little after, &c.

THE THIRD PART. Of Carriages for Artillery.

Of Carriages for Culvering.

THE Carriages are made of two Cheeks, four Transomes, or cross beams of wood, with two Wheels, the Axle-tree, and their Iron work.

The Sides or Cheeks of the Carriage are once and a half as long as the Chase, which be­ing 32 Calibres long, the Carriage will have in length 48 Calibres. Fig. XI.

Some make onely the Carriage long one and ⅓ of the Chase or Cylinder, some one and ⅘, but the first manner is most approved for the following reasons.

As to the length of the Carriage, the longest suffers less in the splitting of the Peece, doth re­coyl enough, but is more subject to break in the midst, yet more spares the Wheels, is more easie to turn about, and mannage the Peece, and in short will last longer. But the short Carri­age makes a longer Shot, doth not recoyl so much, and is easie to break it self in the Breech, is good for small Platforms, and upon which [Page] one gives more Elevation to the Peece. Fig. XII.

The thickness of the Cheeks or Sides of the Carriages is ordinarily one Diameter of the Muzzle.

The largeness of the Head, to the very end of the Length, is equally from B 2 to B 3½.

The bending in of the middle from B 3 to B 3½.

The Tail from B 1 to B 2½.

The end of the Breech B 3 about; if at any time it turns or oversets, which happens when the Carriage is forward on the Wheel.

The Trunnion-holes are cut in the uppermost side, distant from the upper part B 3 compleat, and deep ⅔ B.

The holes for the Axletree are cut in the lowermost part large B 1½ square, distant from the Front B 4 compleat, or at the least B 3½ about, and distant from the uppermost Side B 2½ compleat. Some therefore do not make the Hole for the Axletree altogether square, but do make it blunt on the two inferiour An­gles, Fig. XIII. XIV. as shews the Fig. 13 and 14.

Some do not make a thorow hole for the Axletree, but only a Joynt made hollow into the lowermost part, when the Cheeks are not very large, and into the Joynt they place either all the thickness of the Axletree equally, or only ⅔ binding it with a band of Iron, which passeth Fig. XV. XVI. about, as in the Fig. 15, 16.

The two Cheeks or Sides of the Carriage, are fasten'd from the four Transomes or cross [Page]


[Page] [Page 43] Beams of Wood, which besides the general qua­lities of binding together the Cheeks, have also some particular.

First, that towards the Mouth of Front hin­ders Fig. XVII. that the Peece doth not split. Secondly, that of the Breech serves to hold up the Breech of the Culvering, and upon which it rests. The third, that of the Manovelle, or little Peeces, serves to rest upon, in elevating the body of the Peece. The fourth, that of the Train or Tail serves to place into the hole the Bolt or Fastning-pin of the Fore-Carriage of the Peece.

All the Transomes are thick B 1, and large B 1½ (from that of the Tail except when it is large B 2) all equally long, viz. as much as the Diameter of the Peece is near the Trunnions; and moreover B 1, because the middle Transome is joyned into the Sides, and so their Sides are parallel.

Some make the abovesaid Transomes equal in length, viz. that of the Breech as long as the diameter of the Breech, and moreover one dia­meter for the Mortess, and the other for the Manovelle or flat Transome a little greater, but that of the Tail longest, and the Fore-Tran­some shortest of all; and the Sides or Cheeks are not parallel, but follow the unequal thick­ness of the Peece.

When the Sides of the Carriage are parallel and narrow as above, they ought to be somewhat taken down betwixt the Trunnions and the Transome of the Breech, to the end that the [Page 44] body of the Peece and Cornishes may enter within.

Besides, some take down always the said Sides inwardly betwixt the flat Transomes and the Tail-Transome, raising ⅛ of a Diameter to render it more light and more easie to be man­naged.

The places of the Fore-locks are as follow­eth.

That of the Fore-part is distant from the Front compleatly B 1, and from the lower Side B½.

That of the Breech goes behind from the Trunnion-holes, as much as the Peece is long, from the Trunnions to the Breech, to the end that the Breech may lye just upon it, and is to lye as low as is possible, to give a greater Ele­vation to the Peece; it is to be therefore di­stant from the edge or lower side of the Carri­age B½.

That of the (flat Transome) is higher, and distant from the Line of the middle Plate to­wards the Trunnion-holes B 1, and under the upper side of the Cheek B½.

That of the Tail, is placed in the part turned up, or over the same Tail, distant from beneath and from above of the side of the Cheek and from the end B 1.

The Transomes do not enter with its whole piece into the Cheek, but grows small above and beneath ⅛ of its thickness.

The Iron-work necessary for a Carriage, are [Page 45] four Garnishing Bolts, great Bolts or Pins of Iron, viz. one near every wooden Transome which passeth through the sides of the Carriage, and may have Plate-rings and Fore-locks for to Fig. XVIII. keep the Carriage sides firm.

In the Tail Transome there is a hole made, which is armed with Plates of Iron, in which is placed the Iron Pin of the Fore-Carriage, for as much as it conducteth the Artillery upon the Carriage.

Against the Trunnion-holes are placed a lit­tle Bolster and Capsquare in the lowermost part, which doth shoulder or uphold the Trun­nion in the recoyling, to save the wood of the Fig. XIX. Cheeks with his Contraforts behind.

Of late, under the Trunnions they put the Counter trunnions or Capsquares, which is a Plate of Iron, which doth incompass the Trun­nion-holes, and part of the upper side; to the end that the thickness of the Peece may not spoil it: and where they place the Counter-trunnions, there is no need of a Bolster, al­though in some Peeces one may use both ways; the Counter-trunnion is shewed by Fig. 20. Fig. XX.

All the forepart is covered with a Plate of Iron, or Binding, under to the very joynting of the Axletree, and over to the Trunnion-holes fastned with Iron nayls.

Above the Trunnion-holes pass the Cap­squares, or joynted Plates, which stay the Trun­nions in the Trunnion-holes, and the Cap­squares are fastned by four long Capsquare-pins, [Page 46] which pass through to the very bottom of the Cheek, and under are fastned with its Fore-locks and Linch-pins.

One of these Capsquare-pins passeth by the Fig. XXI. Axletree to the Binding-plate below, where it is fastned with its Forelockeyes.

The Tail is also all bound over and under with its Plates fastned with Nailes, and lastly are placed two great Rings to the sides of the Cheeks, half behind the Wheels, to fasten Ropes for to mannage and conduct the Peece; and there are nayled two Hooks in the outward side of the Carriage, viz. one on each side near the forepart, to fasten other Cords to draw the Carriage forward on. Fig. XXII.

The Axletree of the Culvering is to be as long as to pass through the Carriage, the fore-part of the Wheel with that overplus as is ne­cessary to contain the fastning or Linchpins at the Nave, which may be 15 Diameters about.

The Thickness, for as much as the exterior largeness of the Carriage is 1 and ⅛ B, so more­over on each side of B 1½ square, and moreover that eighth part they leave; to the end that the Wheels in its motion do not touch the sides of the Carriage.

The remainer is round about the Carriage, thick in Diameter B ½ or B 1¾, and in the end thick B 1.

It is made of hard wood, as of Elme, Oak, or such like.

Its Length is throughly fortified with its [Page 47] bar of Iron which pasleth through, of two In­ches about, to the end that being strong, if the Axletree should break, it might alone be able to govern the weight of the Peece; it is let into the Axletree underneath.

That part which surmounteth the forepart of the Nave of the Wheel shall be B 1 or B ⅔, and is defended by its clout of Iron, which is an Iron-plate that incompasseth the Head of the Axletree, with two Sides for to naile or fasten it to the Axletree. Fig. XXIII

The Clout of Iron hath moreover only open its Nave or forepart, and in that part which sticks out is made a Hole which passeth through, as also in its Clout, where they put a Pin to hinder the Wheels that they do not slip off. Fig. XXIV

The same Axletret is fastned in the Sides with a Capsquare-pin, which passeth through it as abovesaid.

The Wheels for the Culvering by some are universally made high B 14 in Diameter, viz the greatness of the Nave B 4, which is long B 4½.

The length of the Spokes B 4 for every one, setting aside that part which is joynted in, and. B 1 for the bigness of the Fellows.

Some make them in Peeces of 12l to 30l, high in Diameter B 10, but others from 30l upward 9 Diameters.

Those of 10 B in Diameter have a more par­ticular measure.

The Nave is thick B 3, long B 3½.

[Page 48] The Spokes, long B 2½ compleatly, but more­over have B 1 or B 1½, to mortaise into the Nave and Fellows.

Those of 9 B in Diameter have all the Mea­sures as is already said, but the Spokes are one­ly long B 2 compleatly, besides that part which is mortaised into the Fellows.

The Nave doth handsomly diminish to its extremity, abating from that part towards the Carriage B ½, and of the other B 1, or little less in all.

The Spokes are 12 in number, and are fixed in the thickest part of the Nave, so that they en­ter B 1½ or more; but they are placed not per­pendicularly, but outwardly sloping.

The Fellows are in number six, and make up the Circumference of the Wheel, and in each of them are fixed two Spokes; the Fellow is thick B 1, and large B 1.

The Iron-work of Wheels are these.

The Fellows are armed about without with Plates of Iron called Dowledges, thick B 1/11 or 1/12, large B 1; and so long, that they may co­ver the whole Circumference of the Wheel Fig. XXV. Their midpart meets with the Joynt of the Spoke, and the Streaks joyn close unto the mid­dle of the Spoke. Upon which are nailed Nayle with large broad Heads, and to their Naves, which are something turned over without, also are bound over the Streaks by a Stirrup narrow within, with its string or Binding of Iron.

There are moreover high Stirrups, which bind Fig. XXVI [Page 49] fast the heads of the Spokes, fastned underneath Fig. XXVII. with their strings of Iron.

The Heads or Barrels of the Wheels are out­wardly bound with four Rings of Iron, two in the thickest part near the Spokes, and two more towards the Extremity. Furthermore they have the Mouth furnished for the Axletree with a Bocchole of Iron, according to the use of all Wheels; if they shall be of Brass, they shall be yet better, and more if they be upheld. Fig. XXVIII.

Of Carriages for Field-Peeces.

CArriages for Field peeces are like those for Culverings, and have the same pro­portion, except in these following particulars.

The Cheeks are thick B 1½, for having onely one Diameter they will prove too small, espe­cially in little Peeces.

The Axletree is not fortified with a Coun­ter Axletree of Iron, being sufficient to rule the Peece without that; nevertheless sometimes they are fixed in Sakers.

The Wheels are high in Diameter Boc. 14. and in the Smeriglio and Falconetto they are without Measures, but that they may not prove less than 4 Foot about in Diameter, to the end that they may come unto the Parapets and Em­brasures.

Of Carriages for Canon of Battery.

ALL the Artists do not agree to determine the exact Length of Carriages for Can­non of Battery. Some would have them once and half longer than the length of the Chase or Cylinder, as in Culverings; some one time and one third; but the most commodious way is that they be made one time and a half, o [...] B 28.

The thickness of the Cheeks are divers, ac­cording to divers Opinions. Some will have them B 1 always, other B ⅞, others B¾, other one B; in Peeces of 30l less, but in heavier Pee­ces, viz. from 30l upward they allow them 1 [...] for 100. In fine they are less than the Mouth.

The largeness of the said Cheeks are divers [...] At the forepart Cal. 3. 3¼. 3⅓: at the middle Calibre 2½, 2⅔, 3.

At the Tail always Cal. 2, the End being something turned up upwards, is Calibre 2½, [...] Cal. 2¾.

The Transomes are four, as in the Culve­rings; the Length is throughout equal, viz. [...] much as the thickness of the Peece, near [...] Trunnions, and moreover the thickness of t [...] half Cheeks for the Mortessing, to the end t [...] said sides may de parallel. The thickness shall [Page 51] be B 1, but better onely ¾. The largeness of the three first shall be B 1¼, but that of the Tail shall be of 2 B, or at least B 1½.

As concerning their place, that of the front shall be distant from the said front B 1, or at the least B½. That of the Breech, as is usual. That of the Manovel or flat Transome shall touch the very half of the length of the Carri­age, and that of the Tail shall be distant from the end B 1, or at the least ¾.

The Trunnion holes shall be cut in the up­per side, distant from the front B 3 compleatly, large B 1, and deep ⅔.

The Mortessing for the Axletree shall be di­stant from the front B 3 compleatly, (although some only will have them B 2½) and distant from the upper side B 2 or 1¾, large B 1, or at the least B 1¼ Throughly hollowed in the plain of the Cheeks, and in the lower side, as may be said of the Culverings, according to the Commodity of the largeness of the Cheeks.

The Axletree may be long Cal. 13, round about as much as is sufficient to comprehend the Carriage. Wheels and Locks thick Cal. 1, or Cal. 1¼. The rest round and thick near the Carriage B 1, and without B ⅔ round about.

The Wheels in Cannons even to 30l Ball, are made high in Diameter Calib. 10, in Can­nons from 30l upwards Cal. 9. The Measure of the Nave, Spokes, and Fellows as abovesaid, being of the same Diameter and proportion as those of the Culverings.

[Page 52] The Iron-work of the Carriage, Axletree, and Wheels for Cannon of Battery, are the same as for the Culverings.

In the half Cannons, and as for Cannons fa­shioned like Culverings, and longer then is usu­al, they follow altogether the Measure and proportion of Culverings.

Chambred Cannons are not measured by the Diameter of the Chase, but by the Chamber. Fig. XXVIII.

Of Carriages for Cannons Petrieroes.

THE Carriages for Petrieroes have the same fashion as those for Battery, and are long once and a half, once and two thirds, or once three quarters of its proper Bore at the Touch-hole or Mouth. The most commodious and most reasonable is to make 1⅔, viz. if the Soul of the Peece is long Calib. 9, the Carriage may be Cal. 15, or Cal. 15½.

The bigness of the Sides shall be B ½ or B ⅓.

The breadth at the forepart B 2¼, B 2⅓.

At the Middle B 1¾, B 2.

At the Tail B 1. B 1¼.

The extremity of the Tail bends and is di­stant from the end B 1½

The Trunnion-hole is distant from the Front compleatly B 1, and is large or broad B½, deep [...] of its breadth.

[Page 53] The Mortasing for the Axletree is distant from the Front B 1½, of the uppermost side B 1¼, and is squared round about B ¾.

The Transomes are thick B ½, and wide B ¾, but that of the Tail B 1.

That of the forepart is distant from the same B ½, and from the lower side ¼. That of the Breech distant B ¼ from the lower side, and that of the Mannovell or flat Transome from the uppermost side B ¼, betwixt which and the Center of the Trunnion-holes is such a space as is the length of the Peece from the Center of the Trunnions to the end of the Cascabel, viz. B 5 5/7 about. That of the Tail is distant from the end B ½, and from the upper and lower side Eig. XXIX. B ¼

The Axletree is big in the middle square B¾.

The Wheels are high in Diameter B 6, the Nave is thick B 2, and long B 2¼. The Spokes B 1½ compleatly, and moreover as much as is sufficient for their Mortaising.

The Fellows thick and large B ½.

Yet one must observe, that in Petrieroes of a small Mouth, that the Wheels are to be made so high, that the Peeces may arrive to the Port­holes or Embrasures, viz. of three Foot or four about in Diameter; and in the Petrieroes of a large Mouth they do not make them higher in Diameter than five or six Feet, to the end that they may stand covered by the Parapets ordi­narily six or seven foot high.

The Iron-work of these Carriages, Axletrees, [Page 54] and Wheels are the same as in other Carriages, and like Cannons of Battery.

In measuring and proportioning these Car­riages, they may be valued from the B of the Chamber, by redoubling the number of the B of the Chase &c. and these measures in old Petrieroes become greater, because the Cham­ber is larger from the end of the Chase.

The Carriages of Petrieroes de Braga (which on land are used in Towers and little Platforms, is a simple Cavaletto (or wooden Horse) made of a crooked beam, with two Feet before, Fig. XXX. on which is fixed a great Fork of one entire piece of Iron, which doth Clasp the Trunnions. And under the Feet and the Tail they put small little Wheels joynted in, to hale along with more facility the said Cavaletto.

But sometimes this crooked Beam, in place of Fig. XXXI. Feet before, is sustained by an Axletree with its Wheels as in other Carriages.

To make Short Carriages for all natures of Guns, one must observe, that the half of the Carriage be just in the end of the Breech, put­ting the flat Transomes below in the hinmost part of the Carriage, viz. under the half, as is shewed in the Figure 12, in a Culvering Carri­age.

Of Carriages for Mortar-peeces and Tra­bucchoes.

FOrasmuch as Mortar-peeces are not dischar­ged but by method, and that raised from 45 degrees to 90, whereas other Artillery is never elevated above 45 degrees; therefore the Carriages ought to be different.

Those for Mortars are made of three Sides or Cheeks, two for Sides, and the other for the the Bottom, all thick B ½ of the Mortar.

Those of the Sides are large or high B 2½: the Trunnion which is all mortaised into the Cheek, occupies B ½, the thickness of the Cheek at the bottom B ½, the other B 1½, and takes up almost all the inferiour part of the Mortar, viz. part of the Chamber B ½, the thickness of the Breech B ½, leaving a void place betwixt the Breech and the Bottom, to put the Coins more easily under.

The length in the top shall be B 3½, that be­low B 7½, whence leaving at the forepart B 1 fastned, the Remainer may be bevil'd or without an Edge.

The Cheek at the bottom is long B 7½, and large as is the Diameter of the Trabuccho on the outside, is little more than B 1½ with the Cor­nishes.

[Page 56] This length of the Carriage is necessary, to the end that the Mortar being depress'd to 45 degrees, then giving great Shocks with the Car­riage in the Horizon, and that it might not leap out, to which end it is necessary that the length of the Carriage be at the least double the height.

Others nevertheless make them only long B 6, because perchance they never make so low Shots.

To the Carriages commonly they never make Wheels, because in their March they are drawn upon Wagons; nevertheless to hale them along they put underneath four small Trucks, each made of an entire Plank, thick B ½, high in Dia­meter B 1¼, with a hole for the great Axletree B ¼ about.

They bind together the Carriage with four thick Transomes across, two below, and two aloft, which encompass all the thickness of the Sides and Wheels, with a Plate of Iron nailed to and across in most places for strength, espe­cially when the Sides are made of two pieces.

The Trunnion-holes are covered within with Iron, and there also they put their Con­traforts. Within it enters the whole thickness of the Trunnions, which is closed with a thick Plate of Iron above, which covers all the upper part, and is there fastned with four garnishing Bolts and Pins, which pass over all the height of the Side, and are made firm underneath.

Nevertheless the said Plates or Bands one may raise up and lay aside, every time as you [Page 57] would mount or dismount your Trabuccho.

Lastly, there ought to be fastned outwardly on each Side two Rings, which will serve to mannage and carry the Engine from place to Fig. XXXII. place.

The Trabucchi have for a Carriage a strong Frame made of two Beams, distant as much as the Trabuccho is wide, made fast with two strong Transomes at the ends, with the Trunni­on-holes in the middle, which are locked up with its Capsquares; and underneath are two Axletrees, on which are put two Rolers of Wood to conduct it, where there shall be neces­sity, which are drawn out and taken away when the Trabucchi is used.


To divert the Reader after this third part, I have continued the story of the Bridg and Engine at Antwerp, out of Hon­dius his Fortifications and Artillery, being a person very like to get the know­ledg of it truly, an Hollander, and one of that party. pag. 96.

‘THere were two Vessels equipped, one called the Hope, the other the Fortune, which was fitted by Pieter Timmerman, In­geneer of Antwerp, and not by Frederick Je­nibelly, [Page 58] though he had fitted many before, as E. de Metereus in his History relateth; for he is abused, and assuredly Timmerman fitted them, and in which he made a Chest of strong Wood and Stone in a Triangular form, as one may see in the Figure A; As long as the Vessel, four Foot broad at the bottom, and two at the top, and in which was put 18000 pounds of Powder. At the bottom was a Pipe of Latten, having little holes in the middle, to give fire on all sides in an instant, coming a­bove the letter A, from which went out four other little Pipes, for to give more certain fire at the time appointed. And then this Chest was well built with with Square stones, laid in Mortass all about, then covered with Grave-stones in the manner of the Roof of an house, and upon which Grave-stones there were Gutters of fine Powder. And also he laid 400 Wagon-load of Stones without Morter or Sand, and upon the Tomb-stones in the Gutters there were 24 Matches, which ought to fire at the prefixed time; and also they put Poles round about to hinder the Enemy from boarding, and encompassed the Vessel with great Pitched Casks which was to be fired, that none could possibly enter, as the Figure doth shew. The said Timmer­man took with him a Captain named Lank­hear, for to guide the Boats in the way, who with his Seamen did so fit it, putting under­neath a Sail, (that the Course of the River [Page 59] might better carry it before) a Foot under wa­ter, and the said Captain put behind a certain Tail or Train, viz. fastned behind the Rudder four Fathom long, and at the end was fastned a great bundle of old Nets, with a heavy piece of Timber, which kept the Ship steady in its course, that it could not role or sheer on either side; and being so finished, was conducted in the night towards the Bridge, by the said Pie­ter Timmerman, with other four Seamen in company to conduct the Rudder; and so floa­ting very near the Bridg, the said Timmer­man fired the 24 Matches, and went behind the Rudder to the other Seamen, and imme­diately the Pitched Casks were on a light fire all about the Ship. They fired many shots from on both sides the River, which forced Timmerman to retire as fast as he could, after whom the Spaniards made many Shots, but all in vain. The Ship arriving at the Bridge, one would have thought that Heaven & Earth had finished their course. When the Powder took fire, it gave so great a blow under water, that the water lept on the other side of the bank, filled the Fort on Callo side, and laid all the fields round about under water; all the Fire and Matches were extinguished, the grea­test part of the said Fort thrown down, and the Cannon lost. One might have seen great heavy Stones fly in the Air, and driven half a League into the Countrey. It blew up six Ships of the Bridge, of which three were so [Page 60] torn, that one could not so much as find a piece, the others cast and thrown with their bottom upwards, so that the Bridge was en­tirely broke. There were also more than 800 people blown up, and some persons of Quality, as the Marquiss of Reesbork, Gene­ral of the Cavalry; my Lord Billy, formerly Governour of Freeze, my Lord Torsy, and twenty three Captains, and some of the Prince of Parma's Court, the Prince himself being in great danger; for as Metteren relates, the Spaniards made all their Endeavours to ex­tinguish the fire by casting in of water, which they did all round about, (not dreaming of the Powder, and that the Matches were then ready to fire) begun to mock at its vain Ef­fects, thinking that all the outward fire was the product of this Engine. The Duke was so long time a looking on, that all the fire was quenched, but being already retired at some distance, the Blow was given with such fury, that the Duke, and the Marquiss of Guasto, and others that accompanied them, were all blown down, and one could not per­ceive the least trace of Footing of the Fort Awsterwell. But the said Timmerman willing that they should pursue the Victory, signified to the Lords, that there was made a sufficient hole or opening in the Bridge; but some seeing from afar the Spaniards turning and returning with Torches and Lanthorns upon the Bridge, could not believe that there [Page 61] was a sufficient overture made, or that it had done any great effect, and therefore did not at all follow that Advantage. In the mean time the Duke repaired it with all imaginable di­ligence, much admiring that the Antwerpers and Zealanders had not taken hold of that occasion, and given an Assault. For the breach was so great, that the City might have been easily supplied with necessary Provisions: and from this, one may observe, how one ought to follow a Victory undertaken, and how one ought to conduct such Works with­out leaving of them in such time, as the design is ready to take effect. Moreover the Figure (A) shews how the Ship was fitted a Stern, with its Masons work, and the Cask; and how the Trains and Fuses came within. Also the Matches were dipped in Oyl of Turpen­tine to give better fire together, for that gives a blow as swift as Lightning. Above the Stones were Fagots with Straw, and great Trunks of green wood fastned with chains of Iron together, all about the Ship, as the letter (B) doth shew, which could not but frighten the Beholders.’

THE FOURTH PART. Of charging Artillery, and Prepa­rations for the same.

Of charging and loading of Culverings.

THE Culvering carries a ball all of Iron.

The old and small require Powder of 4, 1, and 1, as much as its proper Shot weighs of Iron: so that if there be 30l weight of Ball, it will have 30l of four, one, and one: or if one gives of five, one, and one, ⅘ of the weight of its proper Shot of Iron, so that if the Shot weighs 30l, the Powder of five, one, and one shall be 24l.

The Common modern and fortified Peeces shoot Powder of five, one, and one, as much as the just weight of the Shot; so that if that weigh 30l, it also requires 30l of Powder of five, one, and one. Or if you would load it with Powder of six, one, and one, you may not give it above ¾ of the weight, viz. 22l ½. But these may very well support a just and equal [Page 63] proportion of Powder to the weight of its Ball.

To put the Powder into the concavity of the Peece, they use either a Ladle, or a Paper-Car­tridge.

The Ladle is an Instrument of Brass, made as a gutter'd Pipe, and fixed at the end of a Staff; the form of it is such, that for the Cul­vering it may serve to load it at two or three times.

If the Culvering is to be charged at two times, the weight of the Shot must not exceed 30 or 35l; but the said Culvering at three times may carry 35 more of these Pounds.

To load the Common Modern and Fortified Peeces at two times with Powder of five, one, and one, they make the Ladle with these Pro­portions: the part which is nailed upon the frame of the Handle, be long three Diameters of the Shot, (I do not say, Muzzle or Diame­ter of the Bore) and long one, that part which receives the Powder be long Shots 4, and large in the bottom Shots 2 less 2/6, and at the top Shots 2 less ⅓, that the point be round, making the Center one Shot, or at the least ⅞. At the Ears they make inwardly two quarters of the Circle for strength, and at the Point they cut away from some ⅙ of the Diameter, to the end that the Ladle may better touch the bottom of the Chase.

Others make large the under part for the Powder, ⅗ of the largeness for the Model or Frame, leaving each Ear large ⅕.

[Page 64] To charge the same Culverings, Modern and Fortified, at three times with Powder of five, one, and one, the Ladle is made long Shots 2⅔, the rest as the others.

To load the Ancient small Peeces with Pow­der of five, one, and one, (for that of four, one, and one is now out of use,) the said Ladle shall be shortned ⅕ about, (the two said Powders be­ing not much different in mass or weight,) or if with the Ladle you shall use that of five, one, and one, but smooth, not heaped up.

To load the Common Modern Peeces with Powder of six, one, and one, the Ladle shall be ¼ part above shorter than that of five, one, and one; or if you will work by the same, but smooth, not filled top-full.

To load the Modern Fortified with Pow­der of six, one, and one, or if it shall hold the common quantity, or if you shall yet use the same top-full, give it the full weight of the Ball.

Lastly, to load the Old small Peeces with Powder of six, one, and one, the Ladle shall be used, shortned ⅖ or ⅓ of its accustomed measure.

Observe here, that the three Powders are not proportionable in substance, weight, and activity, whence it is that if it hath the said pro­portion, which is oftner more probable than true; wherefore one ought to have it made clear by Experience.

The said thin Plate of Copper, cut out after the above said manner, is bended round, and is nailed with Studs of Copper to one module [Page]


[Page] [Page 65] long a Shot 1½, but something smaller before, for the fastning the Plate, and moreover long to fasten the Staff or Handle, and Inch and ½ in Fig. XXXIV. Diameter, that it advance out of the Bore at the least one Foot. Besides the Ladle there be other Materials or Preparations for the Can­non, which serve for Charging, as the Ram­mer, Spunge, and Wadhook.

The Rammer is a piece of wood, round and thick one Sh. and long one Sh. ½ about, having a Staff or Handle like the Ladle, and serves to press and ramm home the Powder into the Can­non, Wadd, and Shot, and is made of hard Wood, and is sometimes plated about with a Fig. XXXV. Plate of Copper near the head for strengths sake. Oftentimes they use upon the same Staff both the Ladle and Rammer.

The Spunge is no other then a Rammer-head, made of soft wood, and lesser in Diameter than the abovesaid by ⅓, wrapped round about with a Sheep's skin, and fastned with Studs of Cop­per, Fig. XXXVI. which serves to make clean and refresh the Peece

The Wadhook is another Material, made of a Rodd or great Wire of Iron, turn'd in a Serpen­tine manner, and in its end is put upon a Handle or Staff to draw out Wadds or Okume, that the Fig. XXXVII. Peece may be unloaded.

Of the Charges for Field-peeces.

FIeld peeces carry a Shot of no more than 10 or 12 l of Iron, which is always used, although sometimes in the smallest a Ball of Lead.

They are always allowed Powder of five, one, and one, of equal weight to its Ball, if they are Common Modern or Fortified; and if they are Fortified, they are also allowed the same weight of Powder of six, one, and one: but if they are Old small Peeces, they are only allow­ed ⅘ of Powder of five, one, and one, or ⅗ of that of six, one, and one.

They are loaded with the Ladle at one time with Powder of five, one, and one. The body of the said Ladle, viz. that part which holds Fig. XXXIII. the Powder, shall be Shot 7½, as was said of the Culvering, the Model large as accustomed, Shot 3, and long sh. 1½, in the rest as those of the Culverings.

That serves for Powder of five, one, and one in Modern Peeces, and for that of six, one, and one in Modern Fortified.

For the Small old Peeces they use the same, but smooth, not heaped up, with Powder of five, one, and one.

Of the Allowance of Peeces of Battery.

THey are commonly charged with Shots of Iron, giving them ⅔ of the weight of the ball of Powder of four, one, and one, in the An­cient; and of five, one, and one, in the Mo­dern Common and Fortified.

The Cannons which carry from 30 to 35 l Shot, are loaded with a Ladle at two times, but those which carry a greater Ball at three times. For to load at two times, they use a Ladle long in its Cavity three Shot, with the outpart Mo­del or Frame which is one Shot, or little less, the rest being after the usual form.

For to load at three times, let it be long only in its cavity Shots two, and for the Model ⅘, the rest being made as is usual.

And these serve, being smoothed, for all sorts of Powder respectively; and if you would load Old Pecces with Powder of five, one, and one, you must use it smoothed, nor heaped up; and moreover in loading the Modern Fortified, with Powder of six, one, and one, they use it also smoothed, not heaped up.

For Cannon Chambred, take the Diameter of the Chamber, substract the Wind, and the rest will serve for a Measure in making the Ladles.

[Page 68] For to load at two times, its Cavity must be long 3½ of its Diameter; and if for three times, let it be long 2⅓ of its measure, the rest as is usual,

In Taper-bored Peeces, the Ladle is made according to the form of the said Tapering, viz. narrower before than behind; near the Model Fig. XXXIX. or Shaft the Cavity is made large Shots 2, and at the Point is made large Diam. 2 from the bottom of the Tapering, long 3 Sh. and ½, or 4 and the part of the Model large 3 Sh. and long Shots ½ or ¾.

Of the Allowance for Cannons Petrieroes.

ALL Cannons Petrieroes carry a ball of Stone, or some Artificial body, as Sacks, small Barrels, Cases of wood, bags fill'd with Stones, and Bur-shot, but never heavier than the ball of Stone.

Petrieroes have their Chambers large 2/6 of the Mouth, they are allowed Powder of five, one, and one, ⅓ of the weight of its Stone-ball, and are loaded at one time with a Ladle long in its Mouth two Diameters of the Chamber (sub­stracting the Vent,) the rest framed as is usual. Others say, that the Ladle long in the Cavity B 1⅔ of the Chamber, will load at two times the third of the Stone-ball.

[Page 69] To Petrieroes large in the Chamber, the half of the B are allowed Powder of five, one, and one, commonly the half of the weight of the Stone-ball, and are loaded either at one time with a Ladle long B 2⅔ of the Chamber, or at two times with a Ladle long B 1⅓ of the Cham­ber, taking away the Vent, and the rest, as usu­ally is made.

Others nevertheless say by experience, that in these Petrieroes the Ladle being long (set­ting aside the Wind) B 3⅗, gives at two times one third of the weight of the Ball, and at three times the half of the weight of the Ball of Pow­der of five, one, and one.

In the following Petrieroes is given Powder of five, one, and one, in weight ⅓ of the Stone-ball, and the Ladle long in the Cavity Ball ¼ to load at one time.

The Chambred Petrieroes are more easily loaded with Cartridges (of which we shall speak) than with the Ladle; they also put the Cartridges cut open in that part towards the Touch-hole upon a Cartridge Ladle of wood, made in form of a Roof-Tile of a great house, as great as is the Open of the Chamber, and al­together Fig. XL. is thrust forward into the Chamber. Then the Chamber is sloped up with a Tampi­on of soft wood put in by a Spears point, as Fig. 41 shews. Then it is well rammed in with Fig. XLI, a Rammer, having a small Wheel made under­neath, and two Handles a cross, as the Fig. 42. Fig. XLII. and under which they put a Wadd of Hay or [Page 70] Okame, to the end the said Tampeon in driving may not break by the Stone-ball, and after which they put another Wadd without towards the Muzzle.

The Petrieroes de Braga carry the same Charge as the others. The Powder is put into the Moscolo or Chamber, and is closely shut up with a Tampeon and a Shot put into the Chase with a Wadd before and behind, and the Mos­colo is fitted into the Braga, and closed with a Coin of Iron behind.

The Charge of Mortars.

THE Mortars or Trabuccho's are loaded as the Petrieroes, with Stone-shot, but oftner with Artificial fires, Bombes, Bags fill'd with Hail-shot, and Stones, but not heavier than the Ball.

The Powder is not always of the same quan­tity, but sometimes more, sometimes less, accor­ding to the intention of the Gunner. The Or­dinary is ⅕ of the weight of the Stone-ball, which being put into the Chamber is closed up with a Tampeon of Wood, and above is Ram­med a Wadd of Hey or Okame before the ball of Stone; but in shooting Artificial Fires they do not work with a Tampeon, to the end that the Fire of the Chamber may kindle the Fire Ball or Granadoe.

Of Cartridges of Powder.

ALL Peeces of Artillery are loaded with Powder after two manners, viz. either with a Ladle as aforesaid, or with Cartridges, which are used in Forts by night; and upon the Sea, for dispatch and security in not firing the Powder. They serve for all sorts of Peeces, but principally for the Inchambred.

They are made of Cloath or Canvas sewed upon its Funnels, or of Paper sewed or glewed; being fitted, they are so thick, that they may conveniently enter into the Chase or Concave for which they are made: therefore the large­ness of the Paper or Canvas shall be always three Diameters of the Bore or Chase, or Chamber. Its Former must be of the same Dia­mer, the Length is diverse according to the Peece for which they are to serve, and accor­ding to the Powder which they are to contain. For the Culverings they may be long Shots four; for the Cannon of Battery, three almost; for the Petrieroes, two Bores of their Cham­ber. Nevertheless it is good to weigh the Pow­der, which one puts within, and to see how much it takes up in practice. Fig. XLIII, XLIV.

For those of Canvas, one may take a Former, and of the other part a Ligature or binding, gi­ving [Page 72] therefore to the Canvas half a Bore more Fig. XLV. XLVI. in length.

Before you put your Cartridges into the Chase, you cut and open that part which is near the Touch-hole.

Of Artificial Bodies used in stead of Shot, viz. Bags fill'd with Hail-shot, Case-shot, Tunnel-shot, Base and Bur, and Bombe or Granadoes.

THey do not always charge Artillery with Iron-shot or Stone, but oftentimes with other Artificial Bodies, or bags of Hail, Case, Base and Bur-shot, and Bombes.

The Bags are made of Canvas, and are filled with small shot of Lead of one or two Ounces, which serve to load Field-peeces, and those for the Cannon for to scatter wide abroad, either in the Field or upon the Walls in the time of an Assault. They are in Diameter 1 Sh. in length 1½. Those of small Artillery weigh one time and a half more than the Iron-shot; those for Cannon are of the same weight as the Iron-shot. The Shots are placed in order, and the Bags without are tyed with good Twine, which passeth betwixt the Chinks of the Balls, crossing like a Lettice. Fig. XLVII.

The Cases of Wood serve for Petrieroes, and [Page 73] Cannon of Battery, are made in form of a Cylinder or Column, with two Funnels or Squares of the same wood, distant one from the other one or two Inches. They are filled with Lead-shot, Stones, Chain-shot, pieces of Iron, &c. Although some make the Tonnels Fig. XLVIII. narrower at one end than the other, but neither ought to be heavier than the Stone-shot.

The Tonneletti or Tonnel-shot are as the Case-shot, but have their Pipe stands equally in Diameter at both ends, and are bound about with two Hoops of Iron or thin Plates, in the Fig. XLIX. middle of one is fastned a piece of Cord to draw it out of the Peece, as occasion serves. They are filled with the same materials as the Cases of Wood.

The Stuffies are made of soft Iron Wire, wo­ven as a Net, and are filled with the abovesaid Ingredients, are closed up as a Purse, and serve Fig. L. properly for Mortars.

The Bombes, are great balls of Iron or Brass hollow in the midst, and in which are put fine sifted Powder; and they give them a due fire by a Fuse, or small Trunk of Wood or Mettle fill'd with Powder, or other beaten substance, to the end that the Bombes may break as soon as they are come amongst the Enemies. They are used by Calibres of Iron from 50, 100, to 300l, with such a vacuum that may onely commodiously weigh the half. They are dif­ferent from Granadoes onely in bigness, because the Granadoes are less, and are cast by hand, [Page 74] are of Calib. of Iron of 15l, and with such a vacuum, that they may onely weigh about ⅔. Some to save charge are made of Glass and Earth, but do not so great effect, and therefore are seldom used.

Furthermore, there are used divers Fire-balls, the making of which you may learn from Fire-Masters.


A farther Relation of the making of the Bridge over the Scheld near Antwerp, and of the Effects of the Fireships; ta­ken out of Famianus Strada, the sixth Book of his last Part.

‘ABout the latter end of the Summer 1584, the most worthy Captain and General, Alexander Prince of Parma, with less than 20000 Soldiers besieged Antwerp, Ghent, Tendermond, Bruxels, and Mecklin, all at once, and within the year took them, and ma­ny other Cities besides. Antwerp, a great City, wherein were 100000 Souls, besides Seamen and Watermen, and whereto belon­ged above 1000 goodly Vessels, and was then the greatest City of Trade in the world, put the Prince most to it, having the River Scheld open, and thereby supplied with all Provisions and Ammunition from Zealan [...] [Page 75] and Holland. That after some time he found, that unless he could bridle the River by a Bridge, it was not possible for him with so few Forces to take the Town. Therefore betwixt Antwerp and Lillo, a little more than midway, over against Callo, he resolved to build a Bridge, and to that end built two Quadrangular Forts, that on Flanders side called St. Maries, and that on Brabant side St. Philip; and close to the water side at both ends, where he intended the Bridge should end, he built two strong Batteries or Castles, 50 Foot square, upon long and big Timbers, and furnished them both with very great Guns, on purpose to stop the Vessels, and secure the Carpenters and Workmen up­on the Bridge, and to be a Magazine for Ammunition. And to the end he might bring Timber, Ships, and other Materials for this great work, (after the Delivery of Ghent) he cut a Navigable River fourteen Miles long, which fell into the Scheld near Callo, by which he was supplied with Victuals and o­ther Provisions, as well as Materials for the Bridge abundantly. The River at this place was about 2400 Feet over betwixt the two Castles, and towards Flanders side for 200 Feet, and on Brabant side for 900 the Ri­ver was not so deep, but that long Timbers might be fixt into the bottom of the River, it being sandy and sound; therefore at the di­stance of eleven Feet, and thirteen alternately, [Page 76] there were with Bell Beetles at each distance three long Rafters driven into the bottom of the River, five Foot asunder, and formed like a Trussel or Peer, [as our Bridges at Stanes, and like to Downham and Stow Bridges over the Oase in Norfolk] and bound with cross beams and Timbers. These Rafters or great Timbers, when driven sufficiently down, were cut equally high, and mortaised into a strong Timber, to bear the Liggers of the Bridge. Of these Peers or Trussels there were 18 to­wards Flanders, and 74 towards Brabant, all strongly cover'd with Plank 12 Foot wide, and on each side a Brest-work five Foot high Musket proof, and eight Soldiers might well march a brest on the top. Before each Peer or Trussel there were many strong Piles driven triangular ways, for the keeping Vessels from running upon the Bridge, and at 20 Foot di­stance on either side great Piles driven to that end. Now for the Remainer of the River, that lay betwixt these two ends, which was neer upon 1300 Feet, and which was so deep that no Piles could reach the bottom, there were thirty two Ships or Vessels brought down Alexander's new River, of 66 Feet long and 12 Feet wide (called with us Bylanders) and placed with Ankers and Iron Chains, in a four­fold row, 22 Foot asunder, so as they might rise and fall with the Tides, which was about 12 Foot,) and the space betwixt each Ship was laid over with five long Beams, plank'd, [Page 77] and had Breast-works, and was as wide as the Bridges before nam'd were. On every Ship stood thirty Soldiers, and four Seamen, with two great Guns, one at each end of the Ves­sel. There were for the Defence of this Bridge near 100 great Guns ready planted into the two great Castles and Vessels, besides the great Guns in the Forts St. Mary and St. Phi­lip. This Bridge being thus finished, it yet was thought fit, before and behind the Ships or Vessels (viz. for 1300 Feet) to arme the same with eleven Barricadoes, (like half Moons before Bridges or Gates.) Each Bar­ricado was made of three great Lighters, made fast to one another, and formed in fa­shion of a Triangle, with three Ankers and Chains, to suffer them to rise and fall with the Tides: these were covered over with Masts and great Timbers, and stood about 100 Feet one from another, and were placed some 150 Feet from the Bridge both wayes. From each of these Barricadoes came out 40 long Piles sharpned at the ends, and armed with Iron, to terrifie the Vessels, lest by running upon them, they should be destroyed. The Lighters were fill'd with empty Cask, Iron bound, lest they should sink by Accident. Lastly, the Prince armed fourty Vessels, twen­ty on each side, for the defence of this Bridge, and so after seven Months hard working, this great Work was finished, and gave passage to all, and the day was solemniz'd with great [Page 78] Joy. The Antwerpians were more remiss in hindering the Progress of the making the Bridge, because they thought it was impossi­ble, and said, that the Scheld would no more endure any to bridle it, then the Free Belgi­ans would indure the Spaniard's Yoke: but when they saw the Work proceed on, and be almost finished: They sent a Spy out of Antwerp to view it, and bring them an account of the Prince's Actions, who was discovered and brought to the Prince; but contrary to ex­pectation was sent to see all the Forts and Ca­stles, and Bridge, and bid by the Prince to go and tell them that sent him, what he had seen; and to assure them, that he should not depart from that Bridge, before he should find either a Tombe under it for his Grave, or to pass over it into the City. The first thing that the Antwerpians did, was by help of Seamen in the Night to cut the Cables of the Floats or Barricadoes under water, which to some they did, which presently the Prince altered to Iron Chains; and most of this time was spent by the Antwerpian Ingeneers, to whom was sent an Italian by Queen Eliza­beth, called Frederick Jembelly, one that had extraordinary skill in Fire-works, and was famous for the same, neglected by the Spani­ards, and therefore willing to do them all the mischief he could. These Ingeneers prepared many Fireships for the destruction of the Bridge, many whereof came to little effect. [Page 79] There were two made, called the Hope, and Fortune, of about 100 Tun apiece: there were in each Vaults made of Stone and Mor­tar, fill'd with 200 barrels of Powder each, and above great quantities of Grave Stones, Mill-stones, and other great Stones form'd up into an Angle, and the Concavity at the top was fill'd with balls of Iron, Marble, Chains of Iron, old Ankers, Plow-Coulters, and all that these Infernal Workmen could devise to destroy men withall, [a more perfect description whereof you had at the end of the third Part.] The Prince hearing of all these Preparations, was not idle to strengthen his Guards, and make ready for their coming, which was on the 8th of April at night 1585, when behold first three Vessels appeared from the Town all on fire, afterwards other three, and so three after three, 'till fifteen Vessels came down, and burnt so as if all those Ves­sels had been one fire. Had not the Spectators been full of Care and Fear, certainly a more pleasant Spectacle could not be seen; all the Bridge, Castles, Forts, and sides of the River were full of the Prince's people with their Colours, most with Torches in their hands, and all the Vessels with Fire-works burning, so that it was light as day. Thus came these Vessels, directed by Seamen and Pilots, with­in 2000 Paces of the Bridge, down the Chan­nel; when as those Seamen and Pilots firing their Trains and Matches, leapt into their [Page 80] Boats, and went back to observe what success their Engines would have. But the Vessels kept not their Channels as was expected, but some went one way, some another; four sunk in the midst, some run a ground on Callo side, and some were boldly boarded by the Prince's Souldiers, the Matches put out, and Vessels taken. This made all the Beholders rejoyce, and scoff at these Engines, when be­hold the greatest Vessel, that had all those dreadful Fires and Stones, and was fitted pur­posely for destruction, came clear off all the Barricadoes and Floats, and fell close to the Bridge, which drew the Prince of Parma thither with the most of his principal Officers, who command the Seamen and Soldiers to put out and quench the Fires, being ignorant of the Infernal works within, and that all this time the Fusees were burning in order to the great Blast that followed. There was a Spanish Ensigne, whether by the knowledge he had of Jambelly, or by Divine Instinct, that upon his knees desired the Prince to get far from that Vessel; the Prince was angry with him, but when the Ensign with more courage begun to press him, He, with Guasto and Cajetanus, two great Lords, departed toward St. Maries Fort, leaving the Lords Billy and Rubais in the Castle or wooden Battery at the end of the Bridge, with many other Commanders; but just as the Prince with these Lords were entring into St. Ma­ry's, [Page 81] the Fusees had come to the Powder, and this deadly Vessel broke, and gave so great a Crack, that one should have thought the Heavens had come down, and the whole bo­dy of the Earth had been shaken; and throw­ing abroad those dreadful Stones, Chains, Shot, &c. there followed a lamentable slaugh­ter, such as never had been heard of before. For though the Prince had been gone a quar­ter of a Mile from the Bridge, yet not onely Himself, but the Marquiss, and all those by him, were violently blown to the ground, and some taken up for dead. That Castle or Bat­tery next St. Marys, at the Bridge-end, where­in were the aforesaid Lords, and many Com­manders, Soldiers, many great Guns and Arms were all driven as leaves before the Wind, and sunk down, without saving any Man's life, or leaving any sign of such a place. The Scheld shewed its bottom, and his Waters arose above the banks, and fill'd the Countrey a Foot deeper of Water than before; the Earth did shake for 9000 Paces off; the great Grave and Mill-stones were some of them found a 1000 Paces from the Bridge buried deep in the ground; many were kill'd who were near the Fire, many by the Water, and divers by the evil stink that was made there. Some were blown many Paces off into the River, and yet saved alive. The number of those that were slain amounted to near 1000, and neer as many hurt and wounded. [Page 82] This was a lamentable Night, nothing but Groans and Mourning to be heard; all la­mented for the Prince, thinking he had been in the wooden Fort that was destroyed, nei­ther was he ever so near Death, being taken up sore bruised, & not able to speak, Ld Guasto having hold of his Legs, and Cajetane woun­ded with a Brick in the Head. But a little after the Prince recovered, and returned to the Bridge, where he found the Castle or Battery quite gone, six of his Ships tore to pieces, much of the Bridge torn and shaken, many of his faithful Captains and Soldiers kill'd, and his Dearest Friends, Lords Billy and Rubais blown away. Yet for all this, calling together the Remainder of his Men, and many Commanders coming with their men from many parts to him, by the reason of the noise of the Blow, he so incouraged them, that before Light Day, by gathering together the Masts, Rasters, and Vessels, and other Materials, he had closed up the Breach, so that the Soldiers and Footmen might walk over, and which amazed the Antwerpians above the Bridge, and the Zelanders below, that they did not believe the Bridge was bro­ken, which was only the cause the Town was not relieved, there lying 200 Sayl at Lyllo ready to come to the City, &c.

Thus much out of Strada, by which and the former Discourses, at the end of each Part, it will be easie for the Reader to understand this [Page 83] great Action, far exceeding Caesar's Bridge o­ver the Rhyne, and equalling great Alexander's Actions at Tyre. And I have been more desi­rous to set this punctually down, because in a great measure it was the cause of England's safe­ty in that terrible year 1588, being done but three years before, and being fresh in the Spa­niards memory, caused them, upon sight of the English Fireships, coming burning towards their Fleet before Calais, to cry Jembelly, Jembelly, cut their Cables, and many Ships run them­selves a shore.

THE FIFTH PART: Of shooting in great Artillery.

Of necessary Operations before Shooting.

TO shoot securely in Great Ordnance, it is necessary that the Peece be first well Tertiated or Squared upon its Carriage, and that one knows duely to Load and Level the Peece.

To Tertiate a Peece, is to know if it hath its due thickness at the three places, viz. Touch-hole, Trunnions, and Neck; if the Trunnions are rightly placed, and the Chase streight.

To Quadrate a Peece mounted, is to see if it is directly placed, and equally poised: which diligence is used in the Carriage, in regard of the Wheels and Axletree. Also to Quadrate a Peece, signifies to find in the Convex Superfi­cies of the Base and the Muzzle-ring, the point which is perpendicular over the Soul of the Peece or Cilinder, which is done by an Instru­ment called the Levell, hanging upon both Cor­nishes, [Page]


[Page] [Page 85] and when the Thread covers the proper Mark, moving by little and little the Lead, un­till it touches the Cornish, which shall be the Point required. See the Fig. 52. But it will be Fig. LII. more exact and easie to have the Level in the Interior Base, and in it marked strait the Point from the perpendicular line, which touching im­mediately the Cornish, will shew you the desi­red Point. One may do the same thing with a Fig. LIII. small Line cross the Cornish, with two Plum­mets which touch the said Cornish, and dividing the part of the Line comprehended betwixt the Plummets in two equal parts, the Point of the Cornish which shall be under the said Division, shall be that required. See Fig. 54. Fig. LIV.

For what belongs to the Muzzle-ring, this manner will be easiest. That one stick a little piece of Wood cross the Mouth, which repre­sents the Diameter, in the middle of which e­qually distant from the ends, are noted or mar­ked a Point; then hanging a Plummet, and making it touch the Center, you shall see noted above the Point desired. Fig. LV.

These Points upon the Rings serve to place the Dispart.

The things belonging to load a Peece have been before spoken of.

To Dispart a Peece, is to place, fix, or elevate upon the convex Point of the Muzzle-ring a Mark, (which is ordinarily done with a little Wax Candle,) as far distant from the Cylinder of the Peece, as is the Point of the Base-ring; to [Page 86] the end that the Visual Ray which passeth by these marks, may be parallel to the said Chase, to make Shots at Point blank.

To find the Dispart, viz. the difference of the Semidiameters of the Cornishes, which is either with Calliper Compasses, or with a Pri­ming Iron thrust into the Touch-hole to the opposite part of the Chase, placing that diffe­rence upon the top of the Cornish-ring near the Muzzle, over the Middle of the inferiour Cylin­der.

Of several Differences and Ranges of Shot.

AS to the several Shootings in Artillery, the Ball being shot out, flies through the Air with a violent, mixt, and natural motion describing a Parabolical Line, in whose begin­ning and end are lines sensibly streight, and in the middle curved. In the beginning the Impres [...] Force driving forwards by the Fire the natura [...] gravity of the Ball, describeth a right line; i [...] the middle that force diminishing, and the natu­ral gravity prevailing, decscribeth a crooke [...] line; in the end the natural gravity overcom­ing the Imprest Force, which becomes weak or altogether faints, describes of a new a right line in which the Ball tends towards the Center of the Earth, as towards a place natural to all hea­vy bodies, as doth shew the Fig. 56. Fig. LVI.

[Page 87] The Shooting or Shots in Artillery are there­fore three. The first called Point Blank, is that space that the Ball flies in a line sensibly right, without any inclination.

The second called the Mean, which compre­hends all that space the Shot flies in a curved line.

The third, called the Dead Shot, which is the fall of the Ball by a sensible right line, towards the Center of the World, after that the violence is ceased.

The Gunners do take notice of these three parts of a Range, for three several ends.

Those shots of Point Black serve to batter the Rampires and Walls of Forts and Castles.

The middle of the Range or Mean, to mo­lest a far off the Troups in the Campaigne, and in their Quarters, and to ruine the Houses with­in Cities, Castles, &c.

The Dead Shots serve for Mortars or Tra­bucchoes, and Bombes, and other Artificial Fires, to be shot upon the Enemy, especially when they cannot be otherways offended, nor seen, being covered behind with Ramparts, Trenches, Hills, and other Eminencies.

A shot Point Blank, which is the most ordi­nary and most important, is distinguished into two manners, viz. in regard of the Horizon, and in regard of the Object which it strikes.

As to the Horizon they are of three sorts, first Level, secondly from Low to High, thirdly from High to Low, called under Metal.

[Page 88] The Horizontal, and by the Level of the Chase, is the most secure of all the rest.

That from low to high proves fallacious, be­cause by the recoyling which the Peece makes, the Shot flies higher than the Mark.

And that from under, or from high to low, is most fallacious, because the Shot, besides other notable effects, comes more low by the recoy­ling of the Peece. Therefore an Experienced Gunner must remedy these faults, by taking the due advantages in shooting.

As to the Object, a shot Point Blank, is made either at right Angles against the Superficies of the Object, or at oblique Angles.

At right Angles it strikes more furiously than at oblique Angles, therefore it is used against strong Walls to batter them, and are used to make Batteries Cameretta, or Tire by Tire; which is done by discharging all the Peeces of Battery against the self same Mark, and in the same instant, Holding it for a Max­ime, that ten Cannons discharged together, do far more Execution than dicharged one after a­nother.

At oblique Angles, they strike either Cross-ways, or rebounding like a Tennis-ball.

If they strike cross-ways, with two Batte­ries, one upon each side of the Object, it ruins more speedily the Defence either of Earth or Wall.

If they Batter obliquely, or by a Rebound, which is done when they cannot do it right [Page 89] forward; as if one would batter a Flank co­vered with an Orillion or Shoulder, one must strike the Curtain in so fit a place and oblique­ [...]y, so that by the rebound the Shot may leap into the Flank, holding for a Maxime in this operation, that the Angles of Incidence and Re­flection are equal.

The middle Ranges are divers, according to the divers Elevations of the Artillery.

The Elevations are regulated by the Gunners Square, which is an Instrument of Brass, made of two right Lines, one longer than the other, both which makes a right Angle, from which as from the Centre is described an Arch divided into 90 degrees, or into 12 equal parts called Points; and moreover the said Arch exceedeth a Quadrant by 45 degrees or 6 Points, and this Excess serves for shooting below the Horizon as the Quadrant doth for above; and from the Centre hangs a Thread with a Plummer, whose Leg being placed in the Chase, cutting the Arch, doth shew the degrees of Elevation, or De­pression. See the Fig. 57.

In this mean shooting one doth observe, that always goes farthest from the Horizon which hath some Elevation, and especially that of most points of Elevation, even to 6 points or 45 degrees, which is said to be the greatest Ele­vation, which one never exceeds in long Can­nons.

The dead Shot is that which is commonly worked with the Trabucchi or Mortars, and is [Page 90] done by giving Elevation from the points 6 or 45 degrees to the points 12 or 90 degrees, which are measured by the abovesaid Square; or with a particular Instrument like a Level, putting a Staff a cross the mouth of the Mortar, and upon that the Quadrant.

In shooting in these is observed, that at the sixth Point is the farthest off, and that at the seventh Point comes the nearest; and that at the eighth nearer, and so nearer and nearer to the twelfth Point, in which the Ball falls, in the same place from which it departed.

Of the Length of Ranges.

FOrasmuch as the Randoms or Ranges in a Peece of Point blank, and of the greatest Elevation, is difficult to be known without the Experience of every Point; yet in the War, for the length of every Cannon's shot, they ge­nerally compute the length of three Musquet shot, which will be from 400, to 450 Venetian Geometrical Paces. aA Geometrical Pace is 5 Foot, and the propor­tion betwixt the Venetian Foot and Ours, is as 1000 to 1153. Therefore here the proportion will be from 460 to 518 English Paces.

[Page 91] Nevertheless for more particular knowledg, these following Measures may serve, being Eng­lish Geometrical Paces.

Shots.P: Blanke.Greatest Elevat.
Smeriglio, Base, or Rabonet.207.691.
Falconet about 3l.322.1843.
Falcon, about 6l.392.3226.
Sacre, about 10l.634.4032.
Demi-Culvering, about 14l.783.4378.
Colebrina, or Culv. about 30l.1382.5760.
Culvering, about 50l.1498.6106.

Cannons of Battery shoot ⅓ less than Culve­rings of equal Calibre.

But Demi-Cannons and Quarter-Cannons, fashioned like Culverings, shoot little less than Culvering of equal Calibre.

Cannons Petrieroes, loaded with Artificial bodies, as Chain-shot, Case-shot, Barrel-shot, shoot not much farther than a Musket.

Of Shot made out of Mortars and Trabuc­choes, betwixt the Middle or Mean shot, and the Dead shot, is to be observed by Experience; those are equal, which are equally removed from the sixth Point of the Quadrant, viz. that the Bombe fall as far distant being shot from the same Peece, and with the same strength at the fifth as at the seventh Point, and the same thing at the fourth as at the eighth, and as much at the third as at the ninth, and second as at the tenth.

[Page 92] Shots from Mortar-peeces are more fallaci­ous, sometimes flying farther, sometimes shor­ter than needs, and the Bombes break in the Air, sometimes after the Fall they do not break, which gives time to the Enemy to retire, or to choak it; therefore if you would have a just blow, and to take effect, these following Adver­tisements must be observed.


1. One ought exactly to know how many Paces are to the place which you would shoot, which may be done with an Instrument.

2. That the Bombes, or other bodies which are to be shot, be of equal weight, other­wise the shots will vary.

3. That the Carriage in breadth may be always upon a Level, and without any Descen [...] that it do not leap in discharging.

4. That the Powder, with which the Mor­tar is loaded, be always of the same force and weight.

5. That the Charge of the Mortar, as well in Powder as in Wadding, may be always ramm'd in with blows equally heavy, and o [...] equal number.

6. That the Wadds be always either of Wood, or Tampeons, or else of untwisted Okam, for the strongest drives it farthest.

7. That the Fuses be newly made in those days that they are to be used, and that they be [Page 93] made of a mixture proportionable to the Range that the Shot shall make in the Air, and that it break in the very Fall.

To make the Bombes break in the Fall, the skill is in the Fusee fill'd with mixture of Com­position, which is to be such, that although the Bombe fall in the water, it ought to break.

To measure a just time, is done by filling the Fusee after the ordinary manner. Moreover take a small Barrel or Cane of Iron, of equal Bore to that of the Fuse, but something longer, with many little Holes all along its length, and filling it in the same manner as the Fuse. Then the Bombe being fitted in the Mortar, you give fire in the same time to the Fuse in the Mortar and the Iron Barrel, letting the Barrel burn un­till that you see the Bombe break, in which moment you observe the Barrel, and to what hole the Fire burns down, which will give an assured mark of the time that the Fuse ought to have.

If the Bombe in the very Fall shall break, the same quantity of Composition shall be conti­nued in the Fuse; but if it break before the Fall, you must abate the heat, by adding a small mixture of Charcoal-dust incorporated in the same composition: and if after its Fall it shall delay its effect, then you shall joyn with its mixture a little fine Powder-dust. And so you may by experience with this Barrel observe unto what marke or hole it burns; so that with such Fuses the Bombe shall justly break in [Page 94] the very Fall amongst the Enemies; afterwards observing always to fill the said Barrel with the first Mixture.

Being necessitated to use an Okam Wadd in lieu of a Tampeon, as was first used, so the Load of the Mortar shall be augmented to such a proportion, that the Bombe may carry to the same place, as it did when it was loaded and stopt with a Tampeon, or if it shall require an­other Elevation.

A Table for the several Randoms to each degree of the Quadrant, the greatest equal to 10000.
Deg. of Elev. Elev.Elev. Elev.

The Ʋse of the Table before set down.

To see the different Randoms caused by the different Wadds of Okam and Wood, I have made the Experiment in Mortars and Bombes of 100l weight in a plain field, which loaded equally and weighing each 55l, and the Cham­ber loaded with fine Powder of five, one, & one, 20 onz. and the Chamber stopped with a Tam­peon of Wood, and with the Elevation of the Mortar to 45 degrees. I say to the point of the Quadrant 6, the Bombe fell distant 600 Geo­metrical Paces. 691 English Paces.

Then with the same Mortar, Load, Bombe, and Elevation, but with an Okam Wadd in stead of a Tampeon, the Bombe fell onely di­stant 480 553 Englsh Paces. Geometrical Paces.

For these two different, and all other Ran­doms the aforesaid Table will serve; in which one may see the Proportion each Shot shall make, with the Elevation of degree to degree, interposing the proportional Numbers, with which and with the help of the Golden Num­ber, or Rule of Three, one may find what shall be the Random made in this or any other Mor­tar, at any Elevation, at 45 degrees, or any o­ther degree being first known.

Example I.

Let it be propounded, that a Mortar of 300 with a Tampeon of Wood, and Elevation of 45 degrees, or Points of the Quadrnt 6, carry [Page 96] a Ball 800 Paces; if one would know with the same Charge how many Paces it will shoot at the Elevation of 54 degrees.

See then, that at the said 54 degrees of the Ta­ble corresponds the proportional Numb. 9511, and at the abovesaid Elevation of 458, or points of the Quadrant 6, corresponds the proportio­nal Number 10000, which by the Golden Rule is so worked.

If 10000 gives me 800, so 9511 gives me the number of Paces which is required.

Thus I Multiply 9511 by 800, and Divide the Product by 10000, the Quotient will be 760, which are the Paces that the Mortar will shoot the Ball, with the Elevation of 54 degrees.

Example II.

Let it be granted or supposed, that a Mortar of 300, at the Elevation of 54 degrees, shoots the Bombe 760 Paces; if one should desire to know what Elevation one ought to give to the same to shoot the Bombe 550 Paces, you must work by the Golden Rule in this manner.

As 760 Paces give the Number proportio­nal 9510, so 550 Paces will give its proportio­nal Number.

Wherefore if you multiply the second 9510 by the third 550, and dividing the Product by the first 760, the Quotient will be 6882, which Number, if you seek it amongst the proportio­nal Numbers in the Tables, and not finding it just, if you take its nearest, it shall be the num­ber 6947, to which corresponds the degrees 68, [Page 97] which shall be the Elevation, and which ought to be given to the Mortar of 300, to fall in the distance of 550 Paces, with the same Charge of the first, and that is as much as I esteem ne­cessary for every Soldier as well as for a Gun­ner, who intends to be serviceable for his Prince and Countrey.

Of the Petarr.

A Petarr, is a Machine in form of a Mor­tar, which being loaded with Powder, and placed with its Mouth against Gates, or other wooden Engines, and giving fire, breaks and ruins them.

This Instrument was first invented by a Thief, or Robber, being first made of Wood, and bound about with Iron, not onely against Houses, but also to enter into Towns; which being observed to work admirable effects, it was afterwards put into Exeeution by Princes against the Cities of their Enemies: and to give them greater Force, they made these Pe­tarrs of Iron, but afterwards finding them too brittle, they were made of Brass, as they are now in use.

The Substance of which the Petard is made of, is an Union or commixture of Copper, Eng­lish Tin, and Latten well refined. Some do va­ry both in proportion, and also in the Metal, since that some would have them all of beaten [Page 98] Copper, without any other mixture: others to every 50l of Brass, 5l of Tin, and two of Latten. Others to every 10l of Brass one of Latten.

The Copper therefore is soft, the Tin gives it hardness, but if it be overmuch it makes it brittle; they would have the Latten mixed with the Copper and Tin together.

The Proportions for the Petarr.

THe Guide-line is divided into 24 equal parts, of which 16 is the Diameter of the Mouth.

The Diameter of the Concave at the Bot­tom, 10.

The Thickness of the Metal at the Breech, 2.

The Thickness of the Metal at the Mouth, 1.

The Cornice is one part. 1.

The Touch-hole is distant from the bottom of the Guide, part. 8.

Some make it perpendicular to the Guide, and others perpendicular to the Metal; but as well in the one as other fashion, it is terminated in the said point of the Guide.

Some soder or fasten the said little Barrel or Canetta, and others make it to enter with a Screw; the Joynting or Mortaising of the Mouth is part ½.

The Greatness of the Petarr is divers, accor­ding to the diversity of Matters which it ought to break, but all have the self same Proportion above named.

[Page 99] To break down Bridges they are long in the Guide a Gometrical Foot, which is commonly divided into 12 Inches. Which is almost 14 Inches En:

2. To break double Bridges they are high in the Guida 11 Inches. 12 In­ches Engl.

3. To break ordinary Bridges reasonable strong, you must allow in the Guida 8 Inches.

4. To break Barriers, Grates, Portcullis, Pallizadoes, they are made high 11 Inches.

They load a Petarr with the finest Powder that can be made, well fifted and dusted. They do not fill the whole, but only ¾ of its length, and ramme the Powder in from time to time to make it close, but not so strongly as to uncorn it.

The Powder, which is put within shall be of weight, for the

First subtle Pound from9 to 10.
For the second from6 to 7.
For the third from5 to 7.
For the Fourth from3 to 4.

Above the Powder they put a round piece of Past-board thick, and stops it an Inch about, and above that they cast Pitch and Wax melted together, but not over-hot, and above which you put a round piece of Wood well fitted, and above all a round piece of Cloth waxed, which is driven into the Joynt, or, is tied without with a Cord about the Edge, and all this that it may not receive water or moisture.

The Touch-hole is made near the bottom, but better than a third part distant from it; be­cause [Page 100] the Powder will be sooner fired, and the Recoyl will be greater.

In the Touch-hole they fix a Spindle or lit­tle prick of Metal to a Screw, which penetrates to the middle of the Powder; and this is filled with Composition for a time, that the Petarr-Master, and his Company may have time to retreat, and secure themselves, and may resist water.

So you may take fine Powder 3 parts.


All these Ingredients being stamped and mingled, putting above oyl of Stone by little and little, so that they may impast together, and letting them well dry in the Sun. Then load the Fuse, or take Powder 2 onz. Sulf. 2 onz. Saltpetre 3 onz. Camfire 1 onz. ½ beaten small, and fill the Fuse.

To the Petarr there are one or more Handles for to fasten the Madrill, although the Orl or Edge serve to nail it about.

The Madrillo is a strong beam of wood of Elm or Oak, shod with Iron, which is placed before the Mouth of the Petarr, and fastned to the Gate which you would break, to make grea­ter ruine. For every Petarr the Madrill is long B 3 of its Petard, measured and comprehending the Edge, and large 2 of the B.

The thickness is ordinarily of four Inches more or less, according to the strength that you are to batter.

[Page 101] Cross to the Madrillo there are two bars of Iron Diagonally let into the wood, each being thick ¼ of an Inch, nailed to it.

The Madrill with the Petard is fastned to the Gate in several manners, according to the na­ture of the thing which you intend to ruine, since that the Gate may have a Ditch, or if not, it may be well lined with Iron, or not at all.

Therefore if it have a Ditch, it must be hung on with a small Bridge; but if it is without Ditch, or strengthned with Iron, it may be fast­ned with a Plank; or if armed with a Fork or Rest, and in other particular manners, which would be too long further to explain.


Advice for Ship-Gunners, out of Furnier's Hydrography, p. 95.

Of Canoneers necessary for the security of a Ship.

BEfore Cannon was invented, they did use both at Sea and Land certain Machines which did throw Fire, Arrows, Stones, and Beams of Wood, which did as much dammage to the Enemy as our Cannon, but were not so easie to be governed. We do not know what were those Engines that Archi­medes did use for the Defence of Syracuse, onely we are certain, that he had those which did cast great Stones a vast distance, and as Plu­tarch observes, with Smoak, and a great Noise, and that he had Burning-glasses which did burn at indeterminated distances.

In the Advice, which in times past the Em­perour Leon gave to his Admirals and Sea-Captains, in several places he makes mention of Engines which did vomit fire and flames in close fights, and Sea Combats. And the Roman Hi­story doth relate, that Mithridates besieging Rhodes by Sea, after he had made a breach did [Page 103] great dammage to the Besieged by the means of a Sambuque or warlick Instrument of Pro­digious greatness, which being placed upon two Gallies, cast forth at one blow great number of Arrows, Stones, and Beliers, being square pieces of Timber pointed with Iron at both ends. All these Engines being very incommodious and troublesome, by reason of their bigness, and requiring over great a Train: at present they use nothing but Cannon, therefore I shall only speak here of this Machine, and only as much as shall be necessary for its well mannage­ment at Sea, or perhaps sometimes to make a Descent or Landing; judging it necessary not to omit this Treatise, since at present all the defence of a Vessel depends on the Cannon, and that in the time of fight there are more Shots made in one day at Sea, than in a Seige at land in two months.

The arming of a Gally is much different from that of a Ship or round Vessel, as also the Equi­page of Cannon at Sea differs from that at Land; at Sea the Ordnance are mounted upon small Carriages, and upon four and sometimes two low Wheels, without any Iron work. Each Gally carries ordinarily nine Peeces of Ord­nance in its Prow or Chase, of which the grea­test, and that which delivers his Shot just over the very Stem, and lies just in the middle, is cal­led the Corsiere, or Cannon of Course, or Chase Cannon, which in time of fight doth the most effectual Service, it carries generally a Shot of [Page 104] 33l or 34l weight, and are generally very long Peeces; it recoils all along the middle of the Gally to the Mast, where they place some soft substance to hinder its farther recoyl, that it might not endammage the Mast. Next to this Corsiere are placed two Minions on each side, which carries a 5 or 6 pound Ball; and next to these are the Petrieroes, which are loaded with Stone-shot to shoot neer at hand. Thirdly, there are some small Peeces, which are open at the breech, and called Petrieroes a Braga, and are charged with a moveable Chamber loaded with base and bar-shot, to murder near at hand. And the furthest from the Corsiere or Chase-Can­non are the Harquebuss a croc, which are char­ged with small Cross-bar shot, to cut Sails and Rigging. All these small Peeces are mounted on strong pins of Irons having Rings, in which are placed the Trunnions with a Socket, so that they are easily turned to any quarter.

In Ships or round Vessels are sometimes mounted 200 Peeces of Ordnance, although at present, experience shews that 100 are sufficient for the greatest Ships, Carraques or Gallions, it being impossible to have a greater number, giving a just distance betwixt each Cannon, that there may be room for men to ply the Guns, and that the fire of one may not endan­ger to give fire to the other.

All the Guns are mounted upon Wheels and Carriages; moreover the Petrieroes, which are planted in the Forecastle and Quarter to [Page 105] defend the Prow and Stern, are mounted upon strong Pins of Iron without any Reverse; the greatest Peeces of Battery are planted the low­est, just above the surface of the water, the smallest in the Wast and Steerage, and with the Petrieroes in Quarter-deck and Forecastle. Upon the Sea, to load great Ordnance they ne­ver load with a Ladle, but make use of Car­tridges, as well for Expedition as Security in not firing the Powder, which in time of fight is in a continual motion.

The Qualifications of him who takes the charge of the Cannon of a Ship.

THe Gunner, whom they call in the Straights Captain, Master-Canoneer, and in Bre­tagne and Spain and in other places Connestable, is one of the principal Officers in the Ship; it is he alone with the Captain who can command the Gunners. He ought to be a man of cou­rage, experience, and vigilant, who knows the goodness of a Peece of Ordnance, the force of Powder, and who also knows to mount a Peece of Ordnance upon its Carriage, and to furnish it with Bolts, Plates, Hooks, Capsquares, Axle-trees, and Trucks, and that may not reverse too much; to order well its Cordage as Breeching and Tackling; to plant the Cannon to purpose in the middle of its Port; to know how to un­clow it, make ready his Cartridges, and to have [Page 106] them ready to pass from hand to hand through the Hatches, and to employ his most careful men in that affair; that he have care of all, that he be ready every where to assist where necessi­ty shall be; and take care that all be made to purpose.

He and his Companions ought with their dark Lanthornes continually to see if the Guns play, and if the Rings in Ships do not shake.

If there be necessity of more Cordage, and to see that the Beds and Coins be firm and in good order; when the Ship comes to Anker, he fur­nisheth Cordage, and takes care that all his Companions take their turn and quarters, that continually every evening they renew their priming Powder, and all are obliged to visit their Cannon Powder every eight dayes, to see if it hath not receiv'd wet, although they be well stopped a top with Cork and Tallow; to see that the Powder-room be kept neat and clean, and the Cartridges ranged in good or­der, each nature or Calibre by it self, and mar­ked above in great Letters the weight of the Powder and nature of the Peece to which it be­longs, and to put the same mark over the Port­hole of the Peece; that the Linstocks be ready, and furnished with Match, and to have alwaies one lighted, and where the Cannoneer makes his Quarter to have two one above another be­low; that his Granadoes and Firepots be in readiness, and 3 or 400 Cartridges ready fill'd, Extrees and Trucks, to turn often over the [Page 107] Powder-barrels, that the Powder do not spoil; to have a care of Rings and of the Ports, that they have their Pins and small Rings.

Although every man ought to be a man well approved and experienced in all these things, before he can be trusted with the charge of a Vessel, which depends in time of fight more upon him than any other; nevertheless those whoaspire to the charge of a Master Cannoneer, ought to have the Theorick and Practick part joyned together, as well to practise themselves, as to instruct and correct the faults of their Un­dergunners, and moreover to teach them all sorts of Fireworks, which may serve as occasi­on shall require. The Sub-gunners and Ma­trosses ought to be so many, that each may have no more than two Guns to his charge. And for as much as one finds at Sea very few persons who understand all that I intend to speak of, and those who understand very often cannot inform, or else will not take the pains to instruct their Companions, and the Matrosse, who serve un­der them, therefore I will prolong this follow­ing Chapter, of that which I have in general touched here.

At Sea they never use the Ladle but Cartrid­ges, of Canvas or Parchment, to which they give three Calibres in breadth, and four in length, and two half Calibres for the lying, in case there is no Scrole; and before they put the Cartridge into the Chase, they open that end towards the Touch-hole with a Knife or Pri­ming [Page 108] Iron upon that part which corresponds to the Touch-hole. If the Cartridge is well made there is no need of ramming it after the Charge.

If with a Cannon or Pierrier you would shoot a Bullet red hot, before you put it into the Chase betwixt the Powder, in stead of Hay or Wadding you must put a Sod of Earth, and spunge well the Cannon.

To lay a Peece of Ordance to pass at Sea.

TO point a Peece of Ordnance, or lay a Peece to pass, is to level it directly against the Mark you intend to strike.

The practise whereof which they use at Sea, is different from that of the Batteries at Land. For at Sea all the exactness of Shot depends upon the motion of the Ship; when you give fire, the Heaving of the Ship, and setting of the Waves, are ordinarily so unconstant, that if the Cannoneer doth not well observe his time, he misseth his Aim, and loseth his Shor, and which depends wholly upon his judgment, having no other way to guide himself then this, which is so well to take time, that he expect and see that part the most elevated and raised up upon the water which he intends to strike, that it may not be covered and under water at such time as the Powder takes fire, and chaseth the Ball, which may happen in several manners, to wit, If we give fire when one of the Vessels in­gaging [Page 109] or ingaged sinketh it self into the hol­low of the Waves, then when that from whence you intend to shoot abaseth or raiseth its Deck on which is your Battery, your Peece then losing its Horizontal Line, or when the Waves which are betwixt the Enemies Ships swell up and cover your Battery, Judgment only and Experience can put this Advice into practice. Those that will apprehend, must first know the thickness of the Metal at the Touch-hole, and from thence judge the time that the Powder may be a firing to the Chamber. Secondly, they must well advise themselves of the distance of moving of the Object against which they aim, which ought to be no farther distant than 1000 common Paces or more, and then they level the Peece about 20 Paces before, in which time the Vessel overtakes the determinated di­stance, in the mean time that the Powder in the Touchole burns, and that the Shot slies. Thirdly, they must diligently observe the roling and motion of the Vessel, according to which they make tryal of their Judgment.

An Appendix of Artificial Fire-works for War and Delight; by Sir Abri­ham Dager Kt. Ingeniere.

First of an Artificial Mortar made of Wood, Canvas and Paste-board.

I shall not make mention here of any Mettal Mortars, since they are plainly treated of in the fore part of this book, but only show you how to make an artificial Mortar: you must get a Rouler A. of 8 inches in diameter, and 21 in length, then get a foot B. turn for the Brith of the said Mortar, of the same diameter as the Rouler, observing that the Lead D B E be of 13 inches in diameter, and 5 in the thickness B; then make a hole or Chamber in the Brith for the Powder, having 2 inches in diameter and three in depth, them two pieces must be joyn­ed together by the ends as it is represented, and after you have well rubbed your long Rouler with Tallow for fear the Glue should stick upon it, roul upon the same fome Canvas or Cotton Cloth, and Past-bord well wetted all over with Glue, the thickness of 2 inches or 2 1/ [...], then let it dry being well fasten'd round about with Cord wetted in Glue; and having [Page]


[Page] [Page 111] pull'd out the Rouler, and droven some nails of 4 inches long in the foot to joyn them to­gether, as you may see by FD'BE, then make a hole for the fuse, and get a foot of wood 24 inches square, 10 inches thick, and 7 in depth, where you shall set your Mortar upon its Brith in order to its operation.

The Ʋse of the Mortar.

This kind of Mortar is good to throw Gra­nadoes, Fire-balls or Stones over Walls or into a Garrison; and to hinder the Enemies works, as Trench, Batteries, &c.

This Mortar (as the others) riseth to any degree of the compass as you please, from 40 degrees to 45, and from 45 to 90 degrees. After your Mortar is charged, set fire to the fusee of the Granado, Fire-balls, or Balloons, then to the Mortar, and observe where your Granado falls, and according correct your faults the following Shots.

[Page 112]

Degrees of Proportion of the Compass, for the use of the Mortar.

Fire-Balls of Canvas.

TAke a round cloth ball filled with Sand, of such bigness as you desire make your Fire-balls, upon which you shall shape your Canvas, and after it is finished, you shall let [Page 113] out the Sand and take out the Linnen ball; after which, you shall sow it up, and fill it with this following Composition.

Take Saltpeter, Powder, Sulphur, of each e­qual quantity well pounded, and mixt toge­ther with as much Linseed Oyl as to make it in a kind of a Paste, which will be to fill your Balls.

Another Sort.

Take Saltpeter, Powder, Sulphur, Cam­phire and Borax, all well pounded in a Mortar with oyl of Piter, and dissolve in black Pitch, Wax, Colophone, and Mutton tallow, all these things must be well boiled together; then make up your Balls, and cover them with Tow, having made two holes with a Bodkin cross-ways, which you shall fill with prime of a slow composition, that they may have time to take fire: they are good to stick and set any thing on fire, and other things necessary.


Take one part of Powder, one of Saltpeter refined, one of Sulphur refined, Rosin, Burgundy Pitch, Vernish in grain, Salt Armoniack, add to every pound 4 ounces of Camphire, and as much Linseed oyl or Wallnut, and mix it together; note to warm your oyl a little before you mix it together, then make up your Balls.

For the Petard.

THe best are made of Copper with the 10th. part of Brass, (though many are made of Iron) they must be 12 inches long, the Diameter near the Brith 7½: and in the mouth 10 inches. Fig. R.

After the Chamber is fill'd with Powder, you must stop the hole with a round piece of Lether I, and afterwards with a wooden one L, that must go strait in, and after fill the rest with yellow Wax or Pitch cover'd over with a Cere cloth, then tye him upon his Madrier M, thus fastened at the door of the Fortress N, his fuse being full of a slow com­position, that the man fixing it may have time to withdraw, having tyed 2 screws (that must fasten him at the door) to the two corners of the said Petard, and to carry and keep him up; you must set him upon the Chariot O, having 2 sharp iron points to enter in, and strong e­nough to bear the said Petard, and a man whilst he maketh it fast at the said Door. See Fig. O and N.

Of the Fuse for Bombes.

THey must be of a slow composition, to give time enough to throw either Bombes, Granadoes, Fire-balls, Thundring Barrels, &c They are made thus; take a pound of Powder, [Page 115] four ounces of Saltpeter, one ounce of Sulphur well beaten, dry, and sifted separately; then mix it, and make up your fuse of it.


Take Powder of Benjamin, and small Coals all well beaten and mixt together, with some oyl of Piter, then use it.

How to make Fire Pots. Fig. P.

TAke a Granado charged as they are usual­ly, only without a fuse, then put it in an Earthen Pot, filled with fine Powder, and co­ver with Leather, having 2 Matches cross ways lighted, with a handle of cord to throw it more easily; when it falls, the Pot will break, and the matches set the Powder on fire; the Granado will have its effect.

How to set fire to any place.

YOu must have Bullets that holds 4 or 5 pounds of Powder, and after they are well stopt, tye to it some Matches lighted, and they will set on fire any place, whereever they break.

How to make a Light.

TAke little Faggots made of small dry rods, dipt in black Pitch, new Wax and Colo­phone [Page 116] melted together; they are good to set fire to Galerys, Palisadoes, &c. and to lighten.

Of Thundring Barrels. Fig. S.

THese Barrels are of a great use to throw in at a Breach, or tumble in the Enemies Lodgements; for being of a combustible mat­ter, they will set fire at any thing that they use to shelter themselves; they are made se­veral ways, some as ordinary Barrels and half Barrels, fill'd up with Tow, dipt in some Colophone, Turpentine, Pitch, Oyl of Piter, or any thing combustible, with Granadoes, Fire pots, Pistol barrels loaden with Bullets, and set so that they may not fire all at once, but scatter round about them.

Of Thundring Bullets.

THey are made of the following composi­tion, in which the Granadoes and Pistol Barrels loaden with Bullets, are set in order with whole Gun-powder betwixt each; and to hinder their firing all at once, you must put between them some Tow dipt and mixt in the following composition; 4 parts Turpen­tine, 2 of Powder, 2 of Small coals well sifted, 3 of Poyligui, one of Rosin, one of Camphire, ½ of stinking Benjamin, and ½ of Colophone, well mixt all together, and put into your Bul­lets, as it is said before, not forgetting to bore [Page 117] in it 2 or 3 holes filled with prime of a slow composition, which must be lighted before you put it in the Mortar: this Bullet will make a wonderful effect where it falls.

Of Artificial Fire-works useful both by Land and Sea.

FIrst of all of fire Lances, some are made four and five foot long, some of 3, and some of less, having a Belly near to the iron, which you shall fill with the following composition. Take some Tow dipt in a pound of new Wax and equal quantity of Turpentine, ¼ of Pow­der, as much Sulphur, 2/4 of black Pitch, all this well melted in oyl of Piter; these great Lances are good to set fire to a ship, the others are thrown with the hand, and the least are shot out of a Bow to set the Sails on fire, to defend a Breach, or to set any things on fire. Fig. T.

How to Contrive Artificial Fire Pikes. Fig. V.

THey are good to defend the approach of an Enemies Ship, their lengths must be from 12 to 15 Foot long, having a belly near the end filled with the following composition; one part Saltpeter, as much Turpentine, the same quantity of Bay salt, 20 parts of Powder well pounded, 3 of Colophone, 7 of Arsnick, ⅓ of Pitch, one part of Linseed Oyl, one of Sulphur, mixt all together with some Linseed [Page 118] Oyl and Tallow; then make up your work a­bout 3 inches long and one and an half thick.

How to prepare your Cotton for Prime.

TAke some Cotton Thread and double it 4 or 5 times, if you intend it for to prime your stars, but if you intend it for your Lan­ces or Rockets it must be 8 or 10 doubles, then wet it well in clean water, then take powder well beaten, and clear water, and make a Paste, and having squeesed the water out of the Cot­ton, dip it very well in the said Paste, then take it out, and roul it well in dry powder dust, and set up to dry, for your use.

Of Artificial Fire-works for delight.

THese Fires are divided into three parts, first them that flye in the air; 2dly. Them upon the ground; and 3dly, Them that swim upon the waters.

And every of these parts is divided also into three parts; the first and most royal for the air are the Balloons, the 2d. are the Rockets, and the 3d. the flying Saucissons.

Them upon the Earth are also divided into three parts; 1st. are the Rockets, 2d. Fire Lances, 3d. the Saucissons.

Them for the Waters are also three sorts; 1st. the Globes or Balloons, 2d, the double Rockets, and 3d. the single Rockets; but be­fore [Page 119] we speak of their contrivances, I shall treat a little of their Moulds and Tools.

Of the Proportions for the Moulds of Sky Rockets.

IF the Mould hath one inch in the mouth, it must have six in length, and the Rowler for the Coffin ⅓ of an inch in Diameter, but the Rammers D must be a little less, to go easily in the Coffin, having a hole bored just in the middle for the Broach C, the foot where it is fast must enter in the Mould one inch and an half, the Broach must be 3 Lignes thick, and 3 inches ½ long; if you desire a bigger mould, you must observe the proportions according to this Rule.

A is the mould, B the Rowler, F the Bodkin to bore the Rockets and Stars, G the Coffin.

The Mould for ground Rockets.

HIs mould must have ½ an inch diameter in the mouth, and 5 ½ in length, the Rouler for the Coffin 4 Lignes in diameter, which maketh ⅔ of half an inch, and the Rammer a little less; the Broach must be ⅔ of an inch long, the Brith going into the mould half an inch.

Of the Mould for Water Rockets.

IF the mouth be one inch in diameter, the length must be 8 inches, the brith or foot going in the Mould one inch, but without [Page 120] Broach; the Rouler must have ¾ of an inch in Diameter, and the Rammer a little less.

The Composition for Sky Rockets.

IF you desire to have your Rockets mount up with impetuosity, take only your great Canon Powder well pounded and sifted, and charge your Rockets as it is said hereafter.


Take a pound of your great Canon Powder well sifted, add to it two ounces of small coal dust well sifted and mixt together; but before you finish your Rockets try one, and if your composition is too weak, add some powder, if too strong, some coal dust, and for want of Willow Coals, you may use of wine ashes or sea-coals.

How to charge your Rockets.

FIrst you must take care not to put too much composition at a time, but about a Spoon­full at once, giving every time three or four good blows, with a hammer of a pound weight, continuing so till your Coffin is full to the Moulds mouth, or very near, then thrust hard upon it some paper doubled several times, or else a round piece of Paste-board bored three or four times with a Bodkin to give fire to your Stars, Serpents, or Saucisons, then cut [Page 121] the remainder of the Coffin as close as you can, and cover the rest with Paper well glued.

The Composition for the Ground Rockets.

TAke some Gun-powder without any mix­ture, well sifted, and fill your Rocket with it (as it is said before) within an inch of the Moulds mouth, then thrust in hard a piece of Paste-board or double Paper, bore in it some holes with the Bodkin, and then put in it a good Pistol charge of whole Gun-powder, and having doubled some Paper of the Coffin upon the said powder, choak the rest very well, and cut what remains.

Of the Composition for Water Rockets.

TO make her appear with a great Tail, take Saltpeter one pound, Powder half a pound, Sulphur half a pound, Coal dust, two ounces, all well sifted and mixt together, and fill up your Rockets the same manner as the o­ther; and having put a Saucisson at the end, cover it with Paper, and cover the Rocket all over with black Pitch and Rosin, to make it swim, and hinder the water from spoiling it: then tye to it a little Willow Rod of about two foot long, and if you desire to make them leap in and out of the water, you must put, in charging the said Rocket between every two fingers breadth of the composition ¼ of an inch of fine Powder well sifted.

How to make Serpents. Fig. 1.

TAke a Rouler a little bigger then a Goose quill, and roul some Paper upon it, eight or ten times, making your Coffin of about four inches long, then choak it near the middle, leaving a little light to communiguate the fire then fill part with composition, and the shortest with whole Gun-powder; then choak both ends, the end towards the Powder quite up, and the other with a little hole for the prime. The composition for Ground Rocket is the best for Serpents, the other composition for Sky Rockets being not so brisk, neverthe­less both will do good effect, and leap about very prettily.

How to make Gold Rain. Fig. 2.

TAke a quantity of Goose quills, cut the hollow end as long as you can, and fill them a little hard with the composition for Sky Rockets; then prime them with wet Powder, and keep them for your use.

How to make Silver Rain.

TAke one part Camphire, 8 of Powder, 12 of Sulphur, 24 of Saltpeter, well beaten together, wetting the Pestle with oyl of Almonds; then fill your quills as before, taking care that the air do not spoil it.

There are several sorts of Stars, the red ones are made as followeth.

TAke a pound of Saltpeter, ¼ of a pound of Sulphur, ¼ of a pound of Powder, all well sifted and mixt together; then roul that composition in Linen or Paper about the big­ness of a Nutmeg, making a hole through with a Bodkin, to prime it with the prepared Cot­ton. See 3, 4, 5, 6.


Take a pound of Saltpeter, ½ pound of Sul­phur, ½ pound of Powder, all well sifted and mixt together, then take some Linseed Oyl, or clear water, and make a hard paste made up in little Balls, roul them in Powder dust whilst they are wet, and after they be dryed, they are fit for your use.

Another of Blew and Red.

TAke Saltpeter 4 ounces, Sulphur, 2 ounces, Meal 8 ounces, Powder 2 ounces, all well sifted and mixt together with oyl of Spike.

Another of White.

TAke Powder eight ounces, Saltpeter 24, Sulphur 12, Camphire one, beaten well together with Oyl of Almonds, and keep it close for fear of taking air.

Another White one that lasteth long.

Take Powder 4 ounces, Saltpeter 16, Sul­phur 8, Camphire one, Oyl of Piter 2.

For Fire Lances.

THe Coffin must be as the others, of such bigness and length as you desire, then fill it with the composition for red Stars, the lower end must be stopt with a piece of wood of about two inches to nail them fast, and the upper end prime with wet powder.

How to make the Balloons. Fig. 7.

YOu must get a Rouler turned of such big­ness as you desire to make the Moulds of the Balloons, then roul upon it some Paste-board, not sparing the glue to make it fast; and having made your great Coffin, you must choak it at one end, and fill it with Saucissons, Ser­pents, Stars, &c. in good order, and well prime that when the Powder Chamber at the bottom taketh fire, and breaketh the Balloons, they may all take fire at once, then choak the other end, leaving a hole big enough for a fusse, that you shall glue to it, fill'd with composition able to light the prime, and make the Balloon to play with order and effect.

How to make Fire Wheels. Fig. 8.

TAke a Wheel of bigness according as you intend to make your fire, and having put your Rockets in order, so that when one ends, it may give fire to the next, and so continue.


Books sold by Obadiah Blagrave at the Bear in St: Paul's Church-Yard.

THe new World of Words, being a general English Dicti­onary, containing the Interpretations of all hard Eng­lish Words; with an Explanation of all Terms of Art, in a­ny of the Arts and Sciences, by E. Phillips, in Folio.

Dr. Robert Gell's Famous Notes and Observations on the whole New Testament, in 2 Vol. Folio.

Mr. Richard Saunder's Large Book of Physiognomy and Chi­romancy, with the Explanation of the Moles of the Body, shewing the signification of Dreams, with an Art of Memory, in Folio.

Cocker's Large Copy-Book, called Englands Pen-Man, con­taining 28 Copper-Plates of all the curious Hands now writ and practised.

J. Gadbury's Ephemeridis for 20 years yet to come, and un­expired, in Quarto.

Blagrave's Introduction to Astrology, being the Remain­der of his Astrological Works, formerly promised by him to publish in his Book called the Astrological Practice of Physick, in large Octavo.

Blagrave's Supplement to Mr. Nicholas Culpepper's English Physician; shewing the Virtues of such Herbs as were omitted by him, Printed so as that it may be bound with his English Phy­sician, in large Octavo.

Culpepper's Last Legacy, left and bequeathed to his dear Wife for the publick good; being his choice Secrets in Physick and Chirurgery, in large Octavo.

Culpepper's School of Physick, or the experimental Practice of the whole Art, wherein are contained Remedies for all Dis­eases, both inward and outward, in large Octavo.

[Page] Disucco Pancreatico, or a Physical and Anatomical Treatise of the Nature and Office of the Pancreatick Juice or sweet Bread in Man, Illustrated with Copper-Cuts, in large Octavo: By that Famous Physitian De Grass.

The Complete Mid-Wifes Practice enlarged in the most weighty and high Concernments of the Birth of Man: con­taining a perfect directory or Rules for Mid-Wifes and Nurses, by Sir Theodoret Mayern, Dr. Cham berlain, and Nicholas Culpepper; Illustrated with divers Copper-Plates, in large Oct.

May's Accomplisht Cook: or the Art and Mystery of Cook­ery, wherein the whole Art is revealed in a perfecter Method than hath been published in any Language, in large Oct.

The Queens Closet opened; incomparable Secrets in Phy­sick, Chyrurgery, Preserving and Candying; which were pre­sented unto the Queen by the most experienced Person, in Twelves.

Praxis Catholica, or the Countryman's Universal Remedy: wherein is plainly set down the Nature of all Diseases, with their Remedies, in Octavo.

The Rudiments of the Latine Tongue, by a Method of Vo­cabulary and Grammer, Comprising the Primitive, whether Noun or Verb; together with the forms of Declension and Conjugation, together with a Table of latin Words whose Sound and Signification resemble the English: for the Use of Merchant-Tailers-School, in large Octavo.

Abecedarium Scholasticum, or the Grammer Schollar's Flower Garden; containing these following Flowers, viz. Proverbs, proverbial Sayings, sayings also on several subjects, both plea­sant and profitable for the attaining the Latin Tongue, for the Use of St. Saviours-Southwark-School, in large Octavo.

The English Orator; or Rhetorical Descants, by way of Declamation upon some notable Themes both Historical and Philosophical.

Indiculus Ʋniversalis; or the Universe in Epitomy, wherein the names of almost all the Works of Nature, &c. of all Arts and Sciences, with their most necessary Terms, are in English La­tin and French methodically digested for the use of Schools, [...]arge Octavo.

[Page] Sr. Jonas More's Modern Fortification Illustrated with Cuts in Brass, large Octavo.

Sr. Jonas More's Mathematical Compendium, or useful pra­ctices in Arithmetick, Geometry, and Navigation, Dyaling, and the use of the Logarithms, in Twelves.

Wit and Drollery jovial Poems, corrected and amended with many new Additions, in large Octavo.

Quarl's Fons Lachrymarum, ora Fountain of Tears; from whence doth flow Englands Complaint, Jeremiah's Lamentation, with Divine Meditations; and an Elegy on Sr. Ch. Lucas, Oct.

Gerania, of a new Discovery of a little sort of People called Pygmies; with a Description of their Stature, Habit, Know­ledge and Government, in Octavo.

The Course of Catechising, or the marrow of all Expositors that have writ any Exposition on the Church Catechism, in Octavo.

Weighty Reasons for tender conscientious Protestants to be in Union and Communion with the Church of England, and not to forsake the publick Assembly, in divers Sermons, large Octavo.

Philosophy delineated; being a Resolution of divers knotty Questions upon sundry philosophical Notions, in large Octavo.

Loveday's Letters, Domestick and Forreign to several Persons in large Octavo.

Cleaveland's Poems, Orations and Epistles, together with his Life, in large Octavo.

Leigh's Description of all the Counties in England, setting forth the glory of this Nation, in large Octavo.

The Antiquity of China, wherein the Customs and Manners of China are presented, with a large Map of the Country, in large Octavo.

A Treatise of Taxes and Contributions, shewing the Na­ture and Measures of Crown Lands, Assesments, Custom, Poll-Mony, Lotteries, Benevolence, Penalties, Monopolies, Offi­ces, Raising of Coins, Hearth-Money, Excise, &c. By Sr. William Pette, Quarto.

A new Survey of the Turkish Empire, History and Govern­ment; [Page] being an exact Discovery of what is worthy or know­ledge, relating to that great Nation, in large Octavo.

The Woman is as good as the Man, setting forth the excel­lency of the Female Sex, in Twelves.

English Military Discipline; or the Way and Method of Exercising Horse and Foot, according to the practise of the present Time, in large Octavo.

A short History of the late English Rebellion, begun in 1640, by Marchamont Needham.

The Ruin of Papistry; a short display against the Simony of the Romish Church, with a circulatory Letter to the Fa­thers of those Virgins that desert their Families to turn Nunns, by Peter Dumoulin, Octavo.

Ethice Christiana, or the School of Wisdom; being the sub­stance of Moral Philosophy, Dedicated to the Duke of Mon­month, in Twelves.

The Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the Cler­gy; together with Observations upon the Answerer, Octavo.

The Evangelical Communicant in the Eucharistical Sacra­ment: declaring who are to receive the Supper of the Lord, in Octavo.

The whole Book of Psalms Paraphrased and turned into english Verse, for the use of Parish Churches, by Miles Smith, in large Octavo.

St. Foyn Improved; shewing the Excellency that Eng­land may receive by the Grass called St. Foyn, Quarto.

Bishop Sanderson's Life, with divers Resolutions of sundry Cases of Conscience, Quarto.

The Priviledge and Practice of Parliaments in England Quarto.

Troja Rediviva, or the Glories of London surveyed, in an He roick Poem, Quarto.

There is sold by the said Obadiah Blagrave an excellent Eye Water, which Wonderfully cureth all Rheumes, and preserveth the Eye in its perfect sight.

T [...]logia Mystica, or the divine Essence explicated by a new Method of mystical Divinity, in Octavo.


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