Blasij Monluci[?] Franciae Mareschall▪ Vera Effigies▪


WHEREIN ARE DESCRIB'D All the Combats, Rencounters, Skirmishes, Battels, Sieges, Assaults, Scalado's, the Taking and Surprizes of Towns and Fortresses; as also the Defences of the Assaulted and Besieg'd:

With several other signal and remarkable Feats of War, wherein this great and renowned Warriour was personally engag'd, in the space of fifty or threescore years that he bore Arms under several Kings of France.

TOGETHER WITH Divers Instructions, that such ought not to be ignorant of, as propose to themselves by the practice of Arms to arrive at any eminent degree of Honor, and prudently to carry on all the Exploits of War.

Cicero. M. Marcello. Epist. 8. l. 4.
Omnia sunt misera in Bellis civilibus, quae Majores nostri ne semel quidem, nostra aetas saepe jam sensit: sed miserius nihil, quam ipsa victoria: quae etiamsi[?] ad meliores venit, tamen eos ipsos ferociores, impotentiores (que) reddit: ut, etiamsi naturâ tales non sint, necessitate esse cogantur. Multa enim victori, eorum arbitrio, per quos vicit, etiam invito facienda sunt.

LONDON, Printed by Andrew Clark, for Henry Brome, at the Gun at the West End of St. Pauls, MDCLXXIV.

Academiae Canbabrigiensis Liber

To the Right Honourable, PHILIP, EARL of CHESTERFIELD, Lord STANHOPE of Shelford, &c.


THough all men that know me are sufficiently enform'd of the ma­ny and great oblig [...]tion your Lordship has layd upon me, and that as many of them as I have discours'd withal upon that subject, are able, if they will do me right, to bear witness with what candor and acknowledgment, not perhaps without something of ostentation, I have ever own'd and extol'd them; yet (my Lord) those men are so few, and the beforementioned obligations of so gene­rous a nature, that I confess I have a desire both to be more universally known your servant, and that the world at the same time should take notice, that though you may in my person have plac'd your fa­vours upon an unworthy, yet that they have never­theless been conferr'd upon a grateful man. Such a one (my Lord) I profess my self to be, and having no other way to manifest that I am so, have taken the li­berty to dedicate this Translation of mine to your Lord­ships diversion and acceptance, not suspecting that you who have honour'd me so many other ways should discountenance me in this, but rather protect me from [Page] others, as well as excuse me to your self; and in truth (my Lord) I am so much your own, that you may justifiably enough be a little partial in my fa­vour.

My Lord, it may perhaps be expected by those who know your Lordship for the noble person you are, that I should here salute you with a finer Epistle than peradventure I can write, or at least than this is either likely, or in truth intended to be; not that I would not present you with the best I have, but know­ing your Lordship aversion to such impertinencies as men sometimes stuff their Dedications withall, I should not only willfully offend you, but moreover step out of my own design, which is very clear from the vanity of thinking to advance your Honor or Name by any testimony of mine, and only intended with all submission to declare my self,

Your Lordships most humble and most obedient Servant, CHARLES COTTON.


A Man that has had no better luck in Printing Books than I, and receiv'd from the world so little thanks for his labour, should, one would have thought, have taken some reasonable warning, and in some moderate time have gi­ven over scribling; but notwithstanding these disencouragements, I have hitherto, and do yet continue incor­rigible, as, whoever will take the pains to read them, will see by the following Commentaries: and seeing I acknowledg this to be a fault, and that every fault requires some excuse, I think fit to give the Reader some account why I still persist so obsti­nate to pester the world with my writings.

It is not then out of any ill natur'd desire I have to be trouble­some, or any great ambition I have to be laught at; but beeing, by a perpetual confinement to the solitude of my own House, put eternally upon reading, that reading, when I meet with any thing that pleases my own fancy, inspires me with a desire to communicate such things as I conceive are worth knowing, and are out of the common Road of ordinary Readers, to their ob­servation▪ and to dedicate those hours which I my self have spent with some delight in such Translations, to their vacancy and diversion.

This is the true and only reason why I have, and some­times do spend so much time about such things as these, and it ought the less to offend the generality of men, because, though I only pretend by it to oblige but a few persons, and those none of the most considerable; yet it can be prejudicial to none, the Author only excepted, and he can suffer by it, with none nei­ther but such as will not take the pains to read him in his own Language; for such as cannot do it ought to rest satisfied, and [Page] provided the Subject be without reproach, are better with an ill Translation than none at all.

Such a one in plain truth is this; not that I am willing to confess I have much missed the sense of the Author; but though elegant enough for those times, 'tis a knotty piece in it self, and though wrapt up in very good sense, yet writ by the rough hand of a Soldier, and a rough one, and stuft up with old musty Proverbs (the mode of wit it seems at that time) and such as we have not sometimes Proverbs of our own to render them by, and to English a Proverb without a Proverb, is to make that unpleasant, and almost unintelligible in one Language, that is queint and elegant in another; to repair which I have in some places been necessitated almost to create Proverbs, or at least to render his after a Proverbial way, to make them a little like the Original.

But I could wish this was the worst fault the Reader will find in the Book; I am afraid it is not, and know also very well there are some others, for which no man living could pro­vide a remedy (unless upon the Author's heads he would have made a History of his own) to wit, intolerable digressions, and those intolerably long, with so many, and so long-winded A­parenthesies, included within tedious periods, as very much take from the grace of his Style (of it self a rude one) and strangely perplex the Reader; for which whether I should accuse Monsieur de Montluc's want of Art (which he himself confesses) or the luxuriency of his fancy (which often hurries him from his sub­ject) I am yet to seek.

I must also add, That though this Treatice have generally a very good reputation in the world, yet there are some, who are men of very great judgment, and who have no inclination to discountenance either good writings, or good men, that decry this Book for one of the vainest pieces that ever was writ; and indeed they have reason on their side, there being a continued thread of vanity and ostentation throughout the whole work, ou par tout on trouvera les Gasconades a bon marché. But the Author being a Gascon (to which Nation bragging is as natural, as bra­very) and the things he relates of himself being undeniably true, I conceive he ought to be excus'd, and the rather, because it is for the most part in vindication of himself from the ill offices and slanders of those little Monsieurs of the Court, of whom he so often complains, and gives himself the best description: a sort of vermin, that in truth have evermore insinuated them­selves into all Courts of Princes, especially that of France, where [Page] the worthiest men in all Ages have ever been subject to the clan­destine malice▪ and private calumny of such as durst not so much as have lookt on, to have beheld the brave actions perform'd by those they were not afraid to traduce, and bespatter at the distance of an hundred leagues, and under the protection of their Ma­ster's presence and favour.

After all these objections which I have here set down, as well to prevent others, as to excuse my self; I am now to tell you, that had I not for all this thought this Book a very good one, I should have found my self something else to do; and I may venture to declare I think it so, since it has had so great a reputation, with almost all sorts of men, that the truth of it in no one particular (that I ever heard of) was ever disputed by any; and that it has been allowed by all to be the best Soldiers Book, that is, the best Book for the instruction of a Soldier that ever was writ. Never certainly were Enterprizes design'd with more judgment and resolution, nor ever carried on with greater bra­very and conduct than all his were; besides the labour, hazard, and diligence, with which they were ever executed, were such as perhaps had never been practis'd before, nor, for ought I ever heard or read, ever imitated by any Frenchman since: from whence I am apt to conclude, that either Monsieur de Montluc was the great­est Soldier of a Subject that ever was in France, or that the Hi­storians of that Kingdom have not been so just to the rest, as he has been to himself.

I cannot deny but that to an invicible spirit▪ and an inde­fatigable constancy in suffering all the hardships of war, the fierce­ness of his nature, prompt, and perfectly Gascon, or else his zeal to Religion, and the service of his Prince, or both, made him sometimes do things which seem'd bloody and cruel; but the necessity of the time, and the growing faction of the Hugon ots, would have it so; neither do I think (I know not how discreet I am in declaring so much) that Sacriledge and Rebellion can be too roughly handled; and severity must needs appear a virtue, where clemency would evidently have been a vice. As to the rest, the Reader will find his Harangues well fitted to the several occasions, his Deliberations prudent, and well grounded, his In­structions sound, his Arguments rational, his Descriptions plain and intelligible, and the whole well enough coucht, from a hand that was better acquainted with a Sword than a Pen, and by a man whose design, as well as profession, was rather to do things worthy to be written, than to write things worthy to be read.

[Page]To conclude, I shall beg of the Reader in the behalf of the brave Author, to consider him a poor Gentleman, bred up to Arms, by which alone he pusht on his fortune to the highest degree of honor, without any addition of Letters, or other ad­vantages of education, the ordinary foundations of greatness, than what he forg'd out of his own courage, and form'd out of his own natural parts, which were notwithstanding such as approv'd him a Captain of extraordinary valour and conduct, and made him moreover allow'd to be a man of wit, Characters which all the Historians do generally allow him, and particu­larly Davila, though he only here and there glances upon his name. For my self, I have nothing to say, but this, that although this be no elegant, it is nevertheless (if I mistake not) an useful piece: and though we have lost the use of Bows and Targets, yet design and diligence will be in fashion, so long as the Practice of Arms shall endure. I expose my share of it then to every ones mercy, and good nature; such as will buy the Book, will keep me in countenance; 'tis no matter whether they take the pains to read it or no, for by that means my Bookseller's bu­siness will be done, and as to the rest I shall not be much disap­pointed, my design being in plain truth (though I should be glad, I confess, and proud it might take) chiefly to pass away my own time, and to please my self.



AS we see certain Countries yield particular fruits in great abundance, which are elsewhere rarely to be found; so it also seems that your Gascony does ordinarily produce an infinite number of great and valiant Captains, as a fruit that is natural and peculiar to that Climate, and that compara­tively the other Provinces are in a manner bar­ren. 'Tis to her Womb that the World stands oblig'd for those noble and illustrious Princes of the House of Foix, Albret, Armagnac, Cominge, Candalle, and Captaux de Buch. 'Tis to her that we stand indebted for Pothon, and la Hire, two happy Pillars, and singular Ornaments of the Arms of France. 'Tis she who in our dayes has ac­quainted the remotest Nations with the names of de Termes, de Bellegarde, de la Vallette, d'Aussun, de Gondrin, Terride, Rome­gas, Cossains, Gohas, Tilladet, Sarlabous, and divers other brave Gentlemen of the pure and true Soil of Gascony, without mentioning those at this day living, who generously enflam'd with the Trophies and Atchievments of their brave Predecessors, are emulous of their glo­ry, and put fair for an equal share of renown. 'Tis your Gascony (Gentlemen) that is the Magazine of Soldiers, the Nursery of Arms, the Flower and choice of the most warlike Nobless, of the whole Earth, and the Mother of so many renowned Leaders, as may dispute the pre­cedency of valour with the most celebrated Captains of the Greeks and Romans that ever were.

[Page]But of all those who (descended from your noble Families) have a­dorn'd the practice of Arms, no one for Prowess, Experience, or Re­solution did ever excel this invincible Cavalier Blaize de Montluc, Mareschal of France. That Prerogative of Honor cannot be dispu­ted with him, no more than the gifts Heaven was pleased to conferre upon him of a prompt and marvelous vivacity of understanding; of a present, and nevertheless a very reserved prudence, which he discover'd upon the most sudden and surprizing occasions in the management of af­fairs, of an admirable memory, and so rich, as the like is rarely to be found, of a great facility of speech, strong, and bold, and full of incite­ments of honor in the ardours of Battel; and in affairs of State, of a grave and temperate eloquence, heightned and illustrated with Pro­positions, Reasons, and Arguments, and all accompanied with so clear and lively a judgment, that although be was destitute of Letters, the beauty of his natural parts notwithstanding darkned the splendor of those, who to a long experience in affairs, had joyn'd a perfect and ex­act knowledg of the profoundest Arts and Mysteries, both of books and men.

The greatest part of you who knew him, and have often fought un­der his Ensign, stand in need of no other testimony than your own know­ledg: but the younger sort, who never had the good fortune to see this great man, besides what they may have gather'd by report, will per­fectly know and understand him by his own commentaries, the actions whereof you have seen him perform when living, and which he dictated when sick, and languishing of that great Harquebuze shot which shat­ter'd his face at the Siege of Rabasteins, where for a farewel to Arms he serv'd his Prince in the quality of Pioneer, Soldier, Captain, and General at once, after which from his Bed to his Grave this generous soul could never find any rest, which he was wont to say was his capital Enemy, and gave him occasion towards his end to command this Distick to be engrav'd upon his Tomb.

Cy dessous reposent les Os
De MONTLUC, qui n'eust onc repos.
Here with repose Montluc lies blest,
Who living never could find rest.

Seeing then, that assisted by your valours, he has so fortunately per­form'd so many glorious feats of Arms; I conceiv'd it but reasonable that this Dedication should address it self to you, that you might enjoy the fruits, and have the pleasure of reading those actions repeated in his Writings, and of seeing the names of your noble Ancestors recorded [Page] to posterity in a Chronicle of Honor. And, if I mistake not, there will hardly be found a History more repleat with variety, more grate­ful to the Reader, and more rich in instructions for the conduct and direction both of Peace and War than this, where (I fancy at least) the difference betwixt a History compil'd by a sedentary man, bred up tenderly and de [...]icately in the dust of old Studies and old Books, and one writ by an old Captain, and a Soldier brought up in the dust and smoak of Armies and Battels will easily be discern'd.

I know not what ancient Histories have the vertue in a little spac [...] to render those who read them with the greatest diligence and observa­tion very wise and circumspect leaders: but if any such there be, this, above all others, will easily obtein the precedence, and enform you (ge­nerous Nobless) of all the good and evil events that attend the fortune, or misfortune, the valour or the cowardize, the prudence or inconside­ration of him who is Chief or General of an Army, or who is Prince or Sovereign of a mighty Kingdom. You have here wherewith to de­light your fancy, to discretion your valour, to martialize your wisdom, and to form the true honor of a School of War. The Commentaries of this second Caesar will make you Doctors in Military Discipline, and will serve you for Model, Mirror, and Exemple; they have no ficti­tious lustre, no affected artifice, no foreign ornament of borrowed beau­ty. 'Tis nothing but simple Truth that is nakedly presented before you.

These are the conceptions of a strong, sound, and healthful digestion, that rellish of their original and native soil, bold, and vigorous concep­tions, reteining yet the breath, vigour, and fierceness of the Author. This is he, who having the first arriv'd to the highest step of all the degrees and dignities of war, has highly promoted the honor of your Country both by his Sword and his Pen, and to such a degree, that the name of the Montluc's shall gloriously live in the memory of a long and successful posterity, manifesting without envy to succeeding Ages, that your Captain and Historian, as he knew how prudently to enter­prize, and bravely to execute what he had design'd, was no less good at his Pen, but equally eminent in that faculty, to record with truth and judgment, what he had acted before with the greatest courage and conduct.

On the brave Mareschal de Montluc, and his Commentaries writ by his own hand.

MONTLVC, how far I am unfit
To praise thy valour, or thy wit,
Or give my suffrage to thy fame,
Who have my self so little name,
And can so ill thy worth express,
I blushing modestly confess;
Yet when I read their better lines,
Who to commend thy brave designs,
Their Panegyricks have set forth.
And do consider thy great worth;
Though what they write may be more high,
They yet fall short as well as I.
Whose is that Pen so well can write
As thou couldst both command, and fight?
Or whilst thou foughtst who durst look on,
To make a true description?
None but thy self had heart to view
Those Acts thou hadst the heart to do,
Thy self must thy own deeds commend,
By thy own hand they must be pen'd,
Which skill'd alike in Pen and Sword,
At once must act, and must record.
Thus Caesar in his Tent at night,
The Actions of the day did write,
And viewing what h'ad done before,
Emulous of himself, yet more,
And greater things perform'd, until
His arm had overdone his will,
So as to make him almost fit
To doubt the truth of what he writ.
Yet what he did, and writ, though more,
Than ere was done, or writ before;
Montluc by thee, and thee alone,
Are parallel'd, if not outdone,
And France in Ages yet to come,
Shall shew as great a man as Rome.
Hadst thou been living, and a man,
When that great Ceasar overran
The antient Gauls, though in a time,
When Soldiery was in its prime;
When the whole world in plumes were curl'd,
And he the Soldier of the world,
His conqu'ring Legions doubtless had
By thy as conqu'ring arms been stayd:
And his proud Eagle that did soar
To dare the trembling world before,
[Page]Whose Quarry Crowns and Kingdoms were,
Had met another Eagle here,
As much as she disdain'd the Lure,
Could fly as high, and stoop as sure.
Then to dispute the worlds Command
You two had fought it hand to hand,
And there the Aquitanick Gaul
Maintain'd one glorious day for all.
But for one Age 't had been too much
T'have had two Leaders, and two such;
Two for one world are sure enow,
And those at distant Ages too.
If to a Macedonian Boy
One world too little seem'd t'enjoy;
One world for certain could not brook
At once a Caesar, and Montluc,
But must give time for either's birth;
Nature had suffer'd else, and th' Earth
That truckled under each alone,
Under them both had sunk and gone.
Yet though their noble Names, alike
With wonder, and with terror strike;
Caesar's, though greater in Command,
Must give Montlnc's the better hand;
Who though a younger Son of Fame,
A greater has, and better Name.
With equal courage, but worse cause,
That trampled on his Country's Laws,
And like a bold, but treacherous friend,
Enslaved those he should defend:
Whilst this by no ambition sway'd
But what the love of glory made,
With equal bravery, and more true
Maintain'd the right that overthrew.
His Vict'ries as th' encreast his power
Laid those for whom he fought still lower;
Abroad with their victorious Bands,
He conquer'd Provinces and Lands,
Whilst the world's conqu'ring Princess Rome
Was her own Servants slave at home.
Thy courage brave Montluc we find
To be of a more generous kind,
Thy spirit, loyal, as 't was brave,
Was evermore employ'd to save,
Or to enlarge thy Country's bounds,
Thine were the sweat, the blood, the wounds,
The toyl, the danger, and the pain;
But hers, and only hers the gain.
His wars were to oppress and grieve,
Thine to defend, or to relieve:
Yet each to glory had pretence,
Though such as shew'd the difference,
[Page]By their advantages, and harms
'Twixt Infidel and Christian Arms.
France, Piedonont, Tuscany, and Rome,
Have each a Trophy for thy Tomb:
Sienna too, that nature strain'd,
Only to honor thy command,
Proud of thy name will be content,
It self to be thy monument:
But thine own Guienne will deny
Those noble Relicks elsewhere lye:
But there enshrin'd now thou art dead,
Where (to its glory) thou wert bred.
O fruitful Gascony! whose fields
Produce what ever Nature yields.
Fertile in valour as in fruit,
And more than fruitful in repute,
How do I honor thy great Name,
For all those glorious Sons of Fame,
Which from thy fair womb taking birth,
Have overspread the spacious Earth.
Yet stands the world oblig'd for none,
Nor all thy He [...]oes more than one;
One brave Montluc had crown'd thee Queen,
Though all the rest had never been.
Past times admir'd this General,
The present do, and future shall;
Nay whilst there shall be men to read
The glorious actions of the dead,
Thy Book in Ages yet unborn
The noblest Archives shall adorn,
And with his Annals equal be,
Who fought, and writ the best but thee.
Charles Cotton.

On the Commentaries of Messire Blaize de Montluc.
To the Worthy Translator.

HE that would aptly write of Warlike Men,
Should make his Ink of bloud, a Sword his Pen;
At least he must Their Memories abuse
Who writes with less than Maro's mighty Muse;
All (Sir) that I could say on this great Theme
(The brave Montluc) would lessen his esteem;
Whose Laurels too much native Verdure have,
To need the praises vulgar Chaplets crave:
[Page]His own bold hand, what it durst write, durst do,
Grappled with Enemies, and Oblivion too;
Hew'd its own Monument, and grav'd thereon
It's deep and durable Inscription.
To you (Sir) to whom the valiant Author owes
His second Life and Conquest o're his Foes,
Ill natur'd Foes, Time and Detraction,
What is a Strangers Contribution!
Who has not such a share of Vanity
To dream that one, who with such Industry
Obliges all the world, can be oblig'd by me.
Thomas Flatman▪

On the Commentaries of Montluc translated.

I Never yet the French Tongue understood,
Which may (what e're their Fashions are) be good;
Yet such as I, by your industrious hand,
Come now them and their State to understand.
This, and your well-translated Espernon,
Make those brave Histories of France our own.
Sir, these are noble Works, and such as do
Name you Translator, and the Author too.
You are our Author, and our thanks to you
(As yours to their Historians) are due.
Nay ev'n the French themselves must thank you too:
For we (and we are the major part) who know
Nothing of them, but what is noise and shew.
Hard names for damn'd course Stuffs, stinking Meat,
Adulterate Wine, strange Habits, Legs and Faces,
Might justly look on France, (not to speak worse)
To be of these the Mother, or the Nurse.
But us you undeceive, and do them right,
By these exact Translations which you write,
And we who understand no French, now find
You are both just to them, and to us kind.
R. Newcourt.


PAge 1. line 20. r. to justifie. p. 2. l. 24. r. and yet. p. 4. l. 50. r. the charge and honor. p. 5 1. 7. r. not for. p. 8. l. 32. r. and the. p. 11. l. 51. r. in, in. p. 12. l. penult. r. a fugitive. p. 15. l. 47. r. they. p. 19. l. 4. r. dine aboard. p. 22. l. 6. r. not d [...]ign. p. 24. l. 17. r. by burning. p. 28. l. 43. r. de Montpezat. p. 29. l. 22. r. at that time. l. 38. r. de Tande. p. 31. l. 25. r. de Montpezat. p. 32. l. 29. r. de Fonterailles. p. 39. l. 23. r. and me to Savillan. p. 41. l. 24. r. Monsieur d' Aussun. l. 50. r. knew the. p. 42. l. 14. r. could avoid. p. 45. l. 16. r. Reconis▪ p. 51. 1. 41. r. enough to do to. p. 54. l. 23. r. if they were. p. 56. l. 48. r. weary. p. 57. l. 11. r. fought. Ib 1. 14. r. fault. p. 59. l. 38. r. they advance, p. 6 [...]. l. 31. for d' Aussun, r. d' Anguien. p. 63. l. 10. for for now r. new. p. 65. l. 49. r. the Mareschal. p. 66. l. 13. r. the feast. p. 67. l. 46. r. when you arose. p. 68. l. 11. r. took notice. p. 8 [...]. l. 57. r. we are. p. 92. l. 39. r. if they. p. 126. l. 39. r. to scoure. p. 130. l. 29. r. and that Captain St. Auban. p. 133. l. 37. r. which was a. p. 143. l. 35. r. went a­bout to. p. 150. l. 17. r. in their. p. 159. l. 12. r. incon [...]iderable. p. 161. l. 20. r. hateful word. p. 173. 1. 59. and 60. r. a Trooper. p. 174. l. 32. r. the plain. p. 175. l. 40. and 41. r. had moor'd them in the Ditch. p. 176. l. 15. r. and that would make. p. 177. l▪ 19. r. stop short. p. 184. l. 16. r. no body else. p, 193. l. 6. r. Cremona. p. 197. l. 36. r. du Tillet. p. 209. l. 48. r. Quails. p. 213. I, 56. dele all. p. 232. l. 5. r. Commands. p. 233. l. 2. r. to p 242. l. 25. r. deliver'd to him. p. 246, l. 9 r. Coral. p. 281. l. 49. r. la Masquere. p. 289. l. 54. r. Cabinet. l. 58. r. the Children. p. 290. l. 45 r. repulst. p. 312. l. 40. r. best Curtall. p. 313. l. 28 dele that. p. 314. l. ult. r. Chalosse. p. 320. l. 2. r. suffering him. l. 34. r. to the friendship. p. 321. l. 23. r. I here. p. 322. l. 2. Comma [...] after Field. l. 29 r. had told. p. 323. l. 19. r. l' Isle p. 325. l. 40. r. he, and p. 340. l. 48. r. we should. p. 344. l. 9. r. see the wife. p. 345. l. 26. r. and would never. p. 348. l. 13. r. Clergy would l. 32. r. of which. p. 355. 1. 47. r. and had they. l. 49 r. they had had. p. 357. l. 45. r. one near unto Tholouze. p. 358. l. 12. r. the best friends I had. p. 359. l. 25. He has indeed. p▪ 363. l. 8. r. the Coins were broken. p. 364. l. 53. r. to the Hole of the wall. p. 365. l. 38. r. and that in case I should. p. 376. l. 15. r. I am sure mine never did. p. 382. l. 32. r. subjects. l. 53. r. your blood. p. 389. l. 13. r. all other employments. p. 391. l. 49. r. My Lord. p. 395. l. 44. r. t [...]an to Bourdeaux. p. 403. l. 44. r. It was.

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THE COMMENTARIES OF Messire Blaize de Montluc, MARESCHAL of FRANCE. The First Book.

BEing at the Age of threescore and fifteen retir'd home to my own House, there to seek some little Repose after the infinite Pains and Labours I had undergone, during the space of above fifty years, that I bore Arms for the several Kings my Masters, in which Service I past all the Degrees and through all the Orders of Soldier, Ensign, Lieutenant, Captain, Camp-Master, Go­vernour of Places, his Majesties Lieutenant in the Provinces of Tuscany and Guienne, and Mareschal of France: finding my self maimed in almost all my Limbs, with Harquebuz-Shots, Cuts and Thrusts with Pikes and Swords, and by that means rendred almost useless and good for nothing, without strength or hope ever to be cured of that great Har­qu [...]buz -Shot in my Face, and after having resign'd my Government of Guienne into his Majesties hands: I thought fit to employ the Remainder of my Life in a Description of the several Combats, wherein I have been personally engag'd in the space of two and fifty years, that I had the Honour to command: assuring my self, that the Ca­ptains who shall take the pains to read my Life, will therein meet with Passages, that may be useful to them in the like Occasions, and of which some Advantage may be made to the acquiring of Honour and Renown. And although I have in the several En­gagements I have undertaken (and some of them perhaps without great Reason on my side justifie my Proceedings) been exceedingly fortunate, and successful beyond all humane Aim; I would not yet any one should conceive that I attribute the Success or the Glory thereof to any other, than to God alone; and indeed whoever shall consider the Dangers and Difficulties I have gone through and overcome, cannot but therein ac­knowledge his Almighty and immediate Arm. Neither have I ever fail'd to implore his Assistance in all my Undertakings, and that with great Confidence in his Grace and Mercy, and Assurance of it; wherein his Divine Majesty has been pleased so far to be gratiously assisting to me, that I have never been defeated nor surpriz'd in any Exploit of War, where I have been in command; but on the contrary have ever carried away Victory and Honour. And it is very necessary and fit, that all we who bear Arms, should ever consider and always confess, that we, of our selves, can do nothing without his Divine Bounty, which inspires us with Courage▪ and supplies us with Strength to attempt and execute those great and hazardous Enterprises which present themselves to our Undertaking.

And because some of those who shall read these Commentaries (for it will be very hard to please all, though some will set a just value upon my Book) may perhaps think it strange, and accuse me of Vain-Glory for writing my own Actions; and say, that I ought in Modesty to have transferred that Work to another Hand: I shall tell such once for all, that in writing the Truth, and attributing to God the Glory thereof, there [Page 2] will be no harm done: Neither (besides that the Testimonies of several Men of Honour yet living will justifie the Truth of what I shall deliver) can any one give a better Account of the Designs, Enterprizes, and Exe [...]ntions, and the Actions happen­ing thereupon, than my self, who was an Eye-witness, and an Actor in them all; and who also design not herein to deprive any one of his due and particular Honour. The greatest Captain that ever liv'd was Caesar Caesar▪ and he has led me the way, having himself writ his own Commentaries, and being careful to record by Night the Actions he performd by Day. I would therefore by his Exemple contrive mine, how rude and impolisht soever (as coming from the hand of a Soldier, and moreover a Gascon, who has ever been more solicitous to do, than to write or to speak well) Wherein shall be comprehended all the Exploits of War, in which I have either been personally enga­ged, or that have b [...]en performed by my Direction; and those beginning from my greener years, when I first came into the World; to signifie to such as I shall leave be­hind me, how restless I (who am at this day the oldest Captain in France) have ever been in the Search and Acquisition of Honour, in performing Services for the Kings my Masters, which was my sole and only end, ever flying all the Pleasures and Delights, which usually divert young men whom God has endowed with any commendable Qua­lities, and who are upon the point of their Advancement, from the Paths of true Virtue and undisputed Greatness. A Book not intended however for the Learned Men of the World, they have Historians enough of their own, but for a Soldier, and wherein a Captain, and perhaps a Lieutenant of a Province may find something that may be worth his Observation. At the least I can affirm that I have written the Truth; having my Memory as good and entire at this instant as ever, and being as perfect in the Names both of Men and Places, as if all things had past but yesterday, as yet I never committed any thing to Paper, for I never thought at such an Age as this, to undertake any thing of this kind: which whether I have well or ill performed, I refer my self to such, as shall do me the Honour to read my Book, which is properly an Account of my own Life.

To you therefore (Captains my Companions) it is, that this Treatise does princi­pally address itself, to whom peradventure it may in some measure be useful. And you ought to believe that having so many years been in the same Command wherein you now are, and having so long discharg'd the Office of a Captain of Foot, and thrice that of Camp Master and Colonel, I must needs have retein'd something of that Condition, and that in a long Experience I have seen great Honours confer'd upon some, and great Disgraces befal others of that Degree. There have been some who in my time have been cashier'd and degraded their Nobility, others who have lost their Lives upon a Scaffold, others dishonoured and dismist to their own Houses, without ever having been more regarded either by the King or any other: And on the contrary, I have seen others who have trail'd a Pike at six Francs pay, arrive at great Preferments, performing things so brave, and manifesting themselves men of so great Capacity, that several who in their Original have been no better than the Sons of poor labouring Men, have rais'd themselves above many of the Nobility by their Prowess and Virtue. Of all which having my self been an Eye-Witness, I am able to give a precise and a true Account. And although I my self am a Gentleman by Birth, yet have I not­withstanding been rais'd to that degree of Honour wherein I now stand, as leisurely, and as much step by step, as any the poorest Soldier who has serv'd in this Kingdom these many years. For being born into the World the Son of a Gentleman, whose Father had made sale of all his Estate, to only eight hundred or a thousand Livres yearly Revenue, and being the eldest of six Brothers that we were, I thought it prin­cipally concern'd me to illustrate the Name of Montluc (which is that of our Family) as I have also done with as much Peril, and as many Hazards of my Life, as Soldier or Captain ever did; and that without ever having the least Reproach from those by whom I was commanded; but on the contrary with as much Favour and Esteem as ever any Captain had who bore Arms in the Armies, wherein I had the Honour to serve. Insomuch that whenever there happened any Enterprise of Importance, or Danger, the Kings Lieutenants, and Collonels, would as seon, or sooner, put me upon it, as any other Captain of the Army; of which the ensuing pages will give you sufficient Testi­mony.

From the time therefore that I was first advanc'd to the Degree of an Ensign,Play, Drink, a [...]d Avarice pernicious to Men in Com­mand. I made it my business to understand the Duty of an Officer, and to learn to be wise by the Ex­emple of such as committed Oversights, or were otherwise negligent in their Command. To which purpose I first totally wean'd my self from Play, Drink, and Avarice; as [Page 3] knowing well, that all Captains of that Complexion, are so unfit ever to arrive at any thing of Great, as to be much more likely to fall into the b [...]fore-nam'd Misfortunes. That Knowledge it was that made [...] positively resolve against all these three things, which Youth is very prone unto, and which are very prejudicial to the Reputation of a Chief. Of these Play is of such a Nature, that it subjects a man, neither to do nor intend any other thing, and that whether he win or lose; for if you win, you are ever­more solicitous to find out new Gamesters, being prepossest with an Opinion, that you shall still win more, and continue in that Error until all be lost. Being reduc'd to this point you run almost into Despair, and m [...]ditate nothing day nor night, but where and how to get more money to play again, and to try to recover your Losses by a better Hand. In which Condition how can you think to acquit your self of the Charge the King has put into your hands, when you shall wholly bend your Study, and employ your whole time in another thing, and instead of co [...]triving how to over [...] reach your Enemy by laudable Stratagems of War, you plot nothing else, but how to ruin your Camrade and Friend by an infamous Cheat at Cards or Dice? This must of necessity wholly divert you from your Duty; whereas you ought to be continually amongst your Soldiers, and so frequent, as if possible to know every man by his distinct Name; and▪ that for these two Ends, first to prevent any Acts of Insolence in their Quarters, for which you may expect and fear a just Reproach from the Lieutenant of the Province or your own immediate Colonel: And in the next place to take care that there happen no Mutiny amongst them; nothing being more pernicious to a Company, nor of more dange­rous Consequence to an Army, than mutinous Spirits. And how can you possibly have an Eye to s [...]ch Disorders, or give any tolerable Account of the Trust reposed in you, when your Heart shall be wholly bent upon Play; that will alarm you a hundred and a hun­dred times a day, and put you besides your self. Fly then (my dear Companions) fly I beseech you this hateful Vice, which I have often known to be the Ruine of many, not only in their Fortunes; but which is more, and that ought to be dearer, in their Honour and Reputation.

Now for what concerns Wine; if you be subject to debauch, you cannot avoid falling into as many and as great Inconvenienc [...]s as he that Plays; for nothing in the World so much stupefies the understanding of a Man, and that inclines him so much to sleep, as Wine. If you drink but little you will consequently not eat too much; for Wine calls upon the Appetite to eat, that you may the longer enjoy the Pleasure of Drinking: So that in the end being full of Meat and Drink before you rise from Table, it will be necessary to go sleep, and perhaps at such a time when you ought to be amongst your Soldiers and Companions, near your Colonel and Camp-Master, to enquire what News or Orders they have received from the Kings Lieutenant, that you may know when any Occasion is presented, wherein you may employ your Valour and Wisdom. To this; Excess in Wine brings along with it another and extreme Dan­ger, which is, that a Captain being drunk knows not how himself to command, and less how to permit others to do it; but will fall to striking and beating his Soldiers without all Sense or Reason; whereas, if there were a just Occasion, he ought first to chastise his Soldier with Remonstrances, mixt with some tart Menaces and Reproofs, giving him to understand, that if he relapse into the same Offence, he is to expect nothing but an exemplary Punishment. And is it not better to chastise your Soldier with Words and Threats, than with Bastinadoes, Cuts and Thrusts, killing him or maim­ing of his Limbs which Wine will prompt you to do? Neither must you expect to be the more fear'd for such Usage of your men, but on the contrary mortally hated by all your Soldiers. And what rare Exploits can you think to perform with men that hate you? I beseech you believe me, for I have seen the Experience of it, as much as another of my Age, I have seen no less than four Captains die by the hands of their own Soldiers, who have assassinated them behind, for the ill Usage they have receiv'd at their hands. They are Men as we are, not Beasts; if we be Gentlemen, they are Soldiers; they have Arms in their Hands, which inspire Mettle into any man's Brest, that bears them. Wine is apt to make you unreasonable and bloody for the least Of­fence, and that without all manner of Discretion, for you are not your selves. More­over, neither the Kings Lieutenant, nor your own Colonel, nor Camp-Master will ever put you upon any Enterprize of Honour, that might perhaps procure your Advancement; but will say, Shall we entrust an Execution of this importance to such an one as will be drunk, when he ought to have his Wits about him to know and dis­cern what he has to do? He will do nothing but throw away so many men, and by his ill Conduct bring upon us Loss and Confusion. O the vile Repute that this [Page 4] Wine will brand you withal, when nothing of good shall be expected from you! Fly then (my Companions) fly then this Vice, equally hateful, and more beastly, and scan­dalous, than the former.

A Captain likewise should in no manner be covetous; for though Wine and Play may most aptly be term'd Companions, yet Avarice is also one of the Gang that occa­sions a million of Mischiefs, and brings as great or greater Inconveniences upon a Leader, as any other Vice whatever. For in the first place, if you suffer your self to be carried away by this insatiate Thirst of getting, it is most certain, that you shall never have a Soldier worth any thing under your Command; all the good Men will avoid you, and report of you, that you value a French Crown more than a valiant Man; so that you shall never have men of any Resolution about you, but such as upon the first Occasion wherein you ought to give a Testimony of your Valour and Conduct, will leave you in the lurch, where you must either fly to your eternal Infamy, or stay to lose your Life, and that without any hopes notwithstanding, whether you live or die, ever to recover your Reputation. For if you be kild, though you have done bravely in your own person, every one will be apt to say, that your great Avarice brought you to your Ruine, for want of good men to stand faithfully by you; and if you save your self by running away, be you sure you will imprint such a mark in your Fore-heads, as it will be hard ever to wash away; at least you will be oblig'd to hazard your Life upon all Occasions more than another man, to clear the Prejudice that all men will have against you, and to wipe away the Blemish wherewith you have spotted your Reputation; wherein 'tis great odds you will lose either Life or Limb. And after all (as it is the ordinary Recompence of men who are more than commonly adventurous upon such occasions) for the Reward of your Merit it shall be said, that the Despair of your former Miscarriage, has push'd you upon the Execution you shall have perform'd, and not your own Bravery and Resolution. O how many more Misfortunes could I here reckon, that have befaln, and do daily befal Commanders, who have been and are tainted with this avaritious humor?

I know you will ask me now, what shall we do, if we do not lay up money, and clip the Soldiers Pay? When the War is at an end, we must go to the Hospital, for neither the King nor any one else will regard us, and we are poor of our selves. But can you imagine that a wise and valiant Captain, a man of great Attempt and Ex­ecution shall be sent to starve in an Hospital, as if such men flutter'd in a Camp by hundreds; It were well for the King and the whole Kingdom, if there were but a dozen such in an Army. Put forward then to get but a Leg amongst this dozen, and try to get in by your Valour, Wisdom, and Virtue. For these twelve cannot live for ever, and one being dead, though you cannot skrew in your whole Body at that time, yet you may edge in the one half, and the next that dies, you are in. And can you then believe, that either the King or any of the Princes, who have taken cognizance of your Valour, will suffer you to go to the Hospital? This is an Appre­hension so unb [...]coming a wise and valiant Captain, that it is only sutable to Drun­kards, Gamest [...]rs, and mean hide-bound fellows of no Value nor Account. And whoever applies himself to great and generous Actions, and has a care with Diligence and virtuous Resolution to exclude and banish from his Thoughts all the fore-mention'd Vices, nothing can be wanting to him. I have said that it were a great deal, if there were a dozen only such men in an Army; but if there were an hundred, yet the King is rich enough to provide that men of that Merit need not be sent to the Hospital. Or suppose that the King could not suddenly provide for the support of such deserving men;A brave Man is never to des­pair of his Fortune. there is notwithstanding no Prince, nor any other great Person, who has been engag'd in the War, where you shall have signaliz'd your selves for men of Honour, who will not be proud to receive and take some one into his Care and Protection, and that will not take hold of all occasions of doing you a good Office to the King, and of advancing you into some degree, and then on the other side, can you think the King will always continue you in the same Condition, or leave you in the same Command? Do not believe it, but assure your selves, that such men will be lookt after, on whom to confer the Care and Honour of greater Employments, who have honourably dis­charged those of less moment and account.

I pray what was I, but a poor Soldier like one of you? What were, or what yet are so many valiant Captains yet living, for whom the King and all Mankind have a singular Esteem? Have we who are yet in being enrich'd our selves by nimming from our Soldiers Pay? Have we purchas'd any great Estates out of the Thefts of our Com­mands? I could name some of our own Country of Guienne (who could get nothing [Page 5] but I must know it, no more than I could unknown to them) who have never got five hundred Crowns by their Service; and yet are those men despis'd? Are they sent to the Hospital? The King, the Queen, the Monsieur, all the Princes of the Blo [...]d, and all the Lords of the Court have so great a Respect for these men, out of the esteem [...] very one has of their Valour, that they have got the start of many great men in the Kingdom. Nay when they are in their own Country (where no man is a Prophet) they are there honour'd by men of all sorts and conditions, not from the Families from whence they are descended, nor for the Possessions they enjoy; but upon the single account of their own Merit. Now there are some who perhaps will say, If I do not purloin from the King, and poll from the Soldier, now whilst I am in Command, how shall I make Provision for my Children? To wh [...]ch I shall return, Would you enrich your Children with an ill Reputation and an infamous Name? A pretious In­heritance you will leave them, when for shame of your Miscarriages and Misdemea­nours, they shall be forced to hang down their heads amongst the Great ones, from whom they should derive their Fortunes and rec [...]ive honourable Commands. What Differ [...]nce will th [...]re then be betwixt the Reception and Esteem the King and all the Princes will then make of the Sons of such Fathers as I have mentioned, and of yours, who will not dare to appear before Men of Honour, having their Faces covered with their Fathers Shame? But perhaps some one may say, that I for my part, by the Pla­ces and Commands I have been invested withal by the King, have rais'd great Profits and got a great Estate, and therefore may talk at my ease: But I protest before Al­mighty God, and call him to witness, that in my whole Life I never had thirty Crowns more than my Pay; and what Condition soever I have been in, or what honourable Commissions soever I have had, whether in Italy, or in France, I have ever been necessitated to borrow money to carry me home.

At my Return from Sienna, where I had the Honour to command in the quality of the Kings Lieutenant, Monsieur the Mar [...]schal de Strossy gave me five hundred Crowns. When I returned a second time from Montalsin, Monsieur Beauclair, who was our Trea­surer, was fain to examine all the Purses in Town to provide me three hundred and fifty Crowns to carry me to Ferrara, and yet I had no less than ten Gentlemen in my Company. The Duke of Ferrara furnish'd me with a supply when I put my self into Verseil, and afterwards to carry me to Lions, where I found in Catherin Ican the Post-Masters hand, two or three thousand Francs that Martinean had there deposited for me, of my Pay, with which I defrayed my Charges to Court. To a worthy and a brave man, nothing can ever be wanting. Now would I fain know, if for all this I ever went to the Hospital, and whether I have not advantaged my self a hundred times more in serving my Kings and Masters, in all Integrity and Loyalty, than by all the Tricks and Shifts I could have? Oh (my Companions) take exemple by those who for having been loyal in their Charges, can walk with their Faces erect before all the World, and are therefore honoured and esteemed by all sorts of men; and not by such who by the Conscience of their Crimes are constrained to hide their heads in their houses, or that make their Posterity blush for them. Wealth will fall upon you when you least dream on 't, or expect it; and one Reward or Bounty from the King, is worth more than all the sharking Tricks, Thefts, and Larc [...]nies of your whole Li [...]e.

O how happy are those Soldiers, who [...]ollow Leaders, that for their Prowess and Virtue are esteem'd by all the World! How secure are their Lives and Honours under such Captains, and into what Disasters and Disgraces do those frequently fall, who follow the more unworthy sort of men. For with the former you shall learn and acquire Honour and Renown, that will raise you to an equal degree with your Chiefs, and on the contrary following the latter, you shall learn nothing but Vices, or at least things of very little Value, and they will rather lead you on to the ruine of your Lives, than to the Advancement of your Honour and the Improvement of your Name, there being nothing else to be learn'd of such as have no Valour nor Virtue in themselves. A man may serve a long Apprenticeship under a bad Master, and perhaps, not be much the wiser when he has done: but provided you be free from the three fore-men­tioned Vices, and that you have Honour in your Prospect, it is impossible but that all things must succ [...]d with you; at least you will have the Satisfaction of a noble End, if you propose to your selves to die like men of Honour, which is the ordinary Recomp [...]nce of War, and what every brave Man should heartily wish.

There yet remains a fourth, which if you cannot wholly avoid, yet go to it as sel­dom, [Page 4] [...] [Page 5] [...] [Page 6] and as soberly as you can, and without losing your selves in the Labyrinth, and that is, the Love of Women. Imbark not by any means in that Affair, for it is utterly an Enemy to an heroick Spirit. Leave Love at home whilest Mars is in the field; you will afterwards have but too much leisure for those Delights. I can safely say, that never any fond Affection, or affectionate Folly of that kind could ever divert me from undertaking and executing what was given me in command. Such little Amoroso's as these are fitter to handle a Distaff than a Sword. Love is a great Enemy to a Soldier, and besides the debauch and the time lost in those little Intrigues, it is an Occupation that begets a numberless number of Quarrels, and sometimes even with your dearest Friends. I have known more People fight even upon this account, than upon the score of Honour. And what a horrid thing it is, that a man should forfeit his Reputation, and very often lose his Life for the Love of a Woman! As for you Soldiers, above all things I recommend to you the Obedience that you owe to your Commanders, to the end that you may one day learn how to command: for it is impossible that Soldier should ever know how to command, who has not first learn'd to obey: And take notice, that the Virtues and Discretion of a Soldier are chiefly manifested in his Obe­dience, and in his Disobedience lies the Ruin of his Life and Honour. A resty Horse never yet made good Proof. The Proverb will serve, and you ought not to flight the Advice I give you, if but in respect to my Experience, who have seen a great deal; and I must needs be a very ignorant and senseless fellow, if in all this time of my Life, I have made no Observations of the Successes and Misfortunes both of the one and the other. But I have committed some to memory, and that is it which has given me occasion to write this Book in the latter end of my days.

Having in my greener years been bred up in the Family of Anthony Duke of Lorain, Monsieur Montluc's Education. and now grown up towards a Man, I was presently preferred to an Archer's Place in the Dukes own Company, Monsieur Bayard being at that time Lieutenant to the same. Not long after being enflam'd with the Report of the noble Feats of Arms every day perform'd in Italy, which in those days was the Scene of Action, I was possess'd with a longing desire to visit that Country. To this end making a Journey into Gascony, I made shift to procure of my Father a little Money and a Spanish Horse, and without further delay began my Journey in order to my Design, leaving to Fortune the hopes of my future Advancement and Honour.His first Sally. About a days Journey from my Fathers house, and near unto Leitoure, I turn'd a little out of my way to visit the Sieur de Castetna [...], an antient Gentleman who had long frequented Italy, of him to inform my self at large of the State, Condition, Manners and Customs of that Country in order to my future Conduct. This Gentleman told me so many things, and related to me so many brave Exploits which were there every day perform'd, that without longer abode, or staying any where longer than to refresh my self and my Horse, I past over the Alpes, and took my way directly to Milan. Being come to Milan, I there found two Uncles of mine by my Mothers side, call'd the Stillatts, both of them men of great Reputation and Esteem, of which the one serv'd under Monsieur de Lescut, Brother to Monsieur de Lautrec (the same who was afterwards Mareschal of France, and then known by the Name of the Mareschal de Foix) by whom I was presently put into an Archers place in his own Company, a Place of great Repute in those days, there being in those times several Lords and great Persons who rode in Troops, and two or three who were Archers in this; but since that Discipline is lost and grown degenerate, and all things are turn'd upside down, without hopes that any man now alive shall ever see them restor'd to their former Estate.

At this time the War betwixt Francis the First and the Emperour Charles the Fifth broke out again with greater Fury than before, the later to drive us out of Italy, and we to maintain our Footing there, though it was only to make it a place of Sepulture to a world of brave and valiant French. God Almighty rais'd up these two great Princes sworn Enemies to one another, and emulous of one anothers Greatness; an Emulation that has cost the Lives of two hundred thousand Persons, and brought a million of Families to utter Ruin; when after all neither the one nor the other ob­tein'd any other advantage by the Dispute, than the bare Repentance of having been the causers of so many Miseries, and of the Effusion of so much Christian Bloud. If God had pleas'd that these two Monarchs might have understood one another, the whole Earth had trembled under their Arms; and Solyman who was contemporary with them, and who during their Contests enlarg'd his Empire on every side, would have had enough to do to defend his own. The Emperour was, 'tis true, a great and a magnanimous Prince, yet in nothing superiour to our Master, during his Life, saving [Page 7] in a little better Success, and in that God gave him the Grace to bewail his Sins in a Convent, into which he retir'd himself two or three years before his Death. During the space of two and twenty months that this War continued, I had the good fortune to be an Eye-witness of several very brave Actions, which were very fit to season a raw Soldier; neither did I fail continually to present my self in all places and upon all occasions, where I thought Honour was to be purchas d at what price soever; and it is to be imagin'd I had my share of fighting, when I had no less than five horses kill d under me in the short continuance of that Service, and of those two in two days, which Monsieur de Roquelaure, Five horses kill'd under Monsieur Montluc. who was Cosen Germain to my Mother, was plea­sed to give me. For in this beginning of my armes I had the good fortune to gain so far upon the affections of the whole Company, that my horses being lost, eve­ry one was willing to help to remount me, and being moreover taken prisoner in Battel, I was soon after delivered by the procurement of my friends.

Let such therefore as intend to acquire honour by feats of Arms, resolve to shut their eyes to all hazards, and dangers whatever, in the first encounter where they shall happen to be present; for that's the time when every one has his eyes fix'd upon them, to observe their behaviour, and thence to form a judgment of their future hopes. If in the beginning they shall, by any handsom action, signalize their courage, and boldness, it sets a good mark upon them for ever, and not only makes them noted, and regarded by all: but moreover inspires them themselves with mettle, and vigour to perform more,The loss of the Dutchy of Millan. and greater things. Now you must know that in this War we lost the Dutchy of Millan. Of which (though I do not pretend to be any great Clerk) I could write the true History, and should his Majesty command me, I would deliver the truth, and I am able to give as good an account (though I was my self ve­ry young at that time) as any man whatever in France, I mean of those passages where I had the fortune to be present, and no other; for I will write nothing by hearsay. But I intend not to busie my self with a Relation of other mens actions, and less of the faults, and oversights by them committed, though they are yet as fresh in my me­mory, as at that moment; and seeing that what I my self perform'd in that Coun­try, at that time, was in the quality of a private Souldier only, I being not as yet step'd into Command: I shall no longer insist upon this melancholy Subject, which has also been writ before by others: only this I shall make bold to affirm, that Monsieur de Lautrec was by no means to be blam'd, he having there performed all the parts of a good, and prudent General; and, who indeed was in himself one of the greatest men I ever knew. Neither shall I trouble my self to give a narration of the Battel of the Bicoque, in which I fought on foot, as also did Monsieur de Mont­morancy, since Constable of France; A Battel that Monsieur de Lautrec was compel­led to consent unto, through the obstinacy of the Swisse, quite contrary to his own judgment. A Nation whose wilfulness I have seen occasion the loss of several pla­ces, & cause great inconveniences in his Majesties affairs.A Character of the Swisse. They are, to speak the trute, a very warlike people, and serve as it were for Bullwarks to an Army: but then they must never want, either money, or victuals; for they are not to be paid with words.

After the unfortunate loss of this fair Dutchy of Millan, all the forces returned back into France, and with them the Company of the said Mareschal de Foix, wherein I then had not only the place of a Man at armes; but moreover an Assignation of an Archers pay. Sometime after the Emperour set another Army on foot to recover Fontarabie; whereupon our Company, and several others were ordered to repair to Bayonne to Monsieur de Lautrec, who was his Majesties Lieutenant in Guienne. The said Sieur de Lautrec, that he might the better make head against the enemy, (who made a shew of attempting something upon the Frontier) made a suddain leavy of fourteen or fifteen Ensigns of Foot; which was the occasion that I (who ever had an inclination for foot service) entreated leave of Captain Sayas (who carryed the Cornette in the absence of Captain Carbon his brother) for three months only; that I might ac­cept of an Ensign offer'd to me by Captain Clotte; who at last very unwillingly gran­ted my suite, although he himself had first sent to Captain Carbon to sollicite it in my behalf Suddainly after this (the Enemy being dayly reinforced with fresh sup­lies) la Clotte was commanded away to Bayonne, Montluc made Ensign of foot. & a few days after that, Captain Car­bon took the Companies of Monsieur de Lautrec, and the Mareschal his brother, with two Companies of Foot, to wit, that of Megrin Comenge, and la Clotte to conduct us thorough the Woods straight to St. Iean de Luz, where the enemies Camp at that time lay. So soon as we were arrived at the top of a little Hill about half a quarter [Page 8] of a League distant from Luz (having already pass'd a little River by a wooden bridge, another half quarter of a League behind this little hill, at the [...]oot whereof, and before us, there ran a rivolet of fifteen, or twenty paces broad, and deep to a mans girdle, joyning to which there is also a plain which extends it self in an easie descent, down to the said Rivolet; from whence one may easily discover St. Iean de Luz, one of the finest Bourgs in all France, and seated upon the Margent of the Ocean Sea) Captain Carbon who commanded the Party, leaving two Cornets upon this lit­tle hill, the one whereof was carried by Captain Sayas, which was ours, and the other by Captain d' Andouins, which was that of Monsicur de Lautrec (but both of them onely in the absence, the one of Captain Carbon, the other of Captain Ar­tiquiloube,) and only twenty horse with each, together with our two Companies of foot, took the rest of the Gens-d' armes, and with them Monsieur Gramont, the same who afterwards dyed in the Kingdom of Naples, and who was at this time Lieutenant to the Company belonging to Monsieur de Lautrec.

With this Party Captain Carbon pass'd over the little River, and having divided his men into three squadrons (as one might easily discern from the Hill where we stood) trotted along the plain directly towards St. Iean de Luz. Being come to the middle of the plain, he there made a halt for an hour, or more, whilst a Trumpet went twice, and sounded the Fanfare to the Enemy, after which being about to re­treat, as not believing any one would stir out of the Enemies Camp, the forlorn which he had sent out towards the utmost skirts of the plain, return'd back upon the spur, to acquaint him that all the Enemies Camp began to move; and suddenly after we be­gan to discover three of their Squadrons of Horse, appearing upon their march, one upon the heels of another,The Action at St. Iean de Luz. and making directly towards Monsieur de Carbon. Of these the first that came up, presently, and smartly charg'd the foremost of ours, where there were many Launces broken on both sides; but more of ours, than theirs, for as much as in those times the Spaniards carried but few Launces, and those very slender, long, and pointed at both ends. During this charge Captain Carbon was leisurely drawing off the other two Squadrons towards the place where we were, when the second of the Enemies squadrons coming up, and uniting with the first, beat up our first to our second squadron, commanded by Monsieur Gramont, where the skirmish was very hot, and a great many men thrown to ground both on the one side, and other, amongst whom were the Seigneurs de Gramont, who had his horse kill'd under him, de Luppe Standard-bearer to Monsieur de Lautrec, de Poigreffi, who is since turn'd Hugonot, de la Fay de Xaintonge, who is yet living, and divers others. At the same instant we discover'd another great Party of Horse advancing towards us a little on our left hand, at the sight of which the Captains who carried our Colours came both of them running to me, and saying we are all lost, whereupon I told them, that it were better, than so to conclude, to hazard fourscore, or an hundred Foot, to bring off our Horse who were engag'd. To which la Clotte, and Megrin made answer, that that venture would only occasion a greater loss, and that moreover they very much doubted the Souldiers would hardly be perswaded to go down, seeing death so manifest before their eyes. Now you must understand there was no one present at this discourse, sav­ing the two forementioned Captains, and my self, our Foot standing drawn up four­teen, or fifteen paces behind; and it was not amiss; for I make a great question had they heard what we said, and seeing the Gens [...] d' armes in manifest danger to be lost, whe­ther I should have been so chearfully followed, as I was. And it is a good rule, as much as a man can to conceal from the Souldier the danger of any enterprize, if you intend to have them go briskly to their work. To this last objection of the two Captains, I made answer that I would run the hazard to lead them on, and that lost, or lost not, it was better to hazard, and to lose fourscore, or an hundred Foot, than all our Geus-d'­armes. And thereupon without further deliberation (for long consultations are often the ruine of brave attempts) I return'd back to the Souldiers, and the Captains with me (for the business requir'd hast) saying to them only these few words, Come on, come on Comrades, let us go, and relieve our Gens-d' armes, and was thereupon follow'd by an hundred Foot of our own Company, who with very great resolution descended with me to the foot of the Hill, where at the head of my men I passed over the brook, and there deliver'd twenty of my men to be led by the Bastard of Auzan, a Gentleman who has nothing blemish'd the legitimate Sons of his race; though all of them men of singular bravery, and remarkeable valour.

Now you must know that [...] the Company I commanded, [...]-bows. was no other than Cross-bows, for at this time the use of the Harqu [...]buze, had not as yet been introduc [...]d a­mongst [Page 9] us; only three, or four days before six Gascon Harquebusiers came over to us from the Enemy, which I had received into my Company, having by good [...]ortune been that day upon the Guard, at the great Gate of the City; and of those six, one was a native of the Territory of Mon [...]luc. Would to heaven that this accursed engine had never been invented, I had not then receiv'd those wounds which I now languish under, neither had so many valiant men been slain for the most part by the most pitiful fellows, and the greatest Cowards; Poltrons that had not dar'd to look those men in the face at hand, which at distance they laid dead with their confounded bullets: but it was the Devil's invention to make us murther one another. Being thus past the River, I order'd the Bastard d' Auz [...]n not to suffer his men to shoot, but only to present as if they intended to do it, to the end that he might favour mine, and give them time to discharge and retire again into their order, Now when I was under the foot of the Hill, I could not possibly see what our men did; but being advanc'd a little further into the plain, I saw all the Enemies three Squadrons drawn up into one body, and the great party on the left hand, marching upon a good round trot di­rectly towards ours, who were rallyed, and stood firm, without being able either to advance forwards, or to retire back, by reason of some great stones that lay scatter'd in their Rear. Here it was that Captain Carbon (who had no Arms on, having before been wounded in his left arm by an Arquebuze shot) seeing me so n [...]a [...] him, came up to me, and said, Oh Montluc, my dear friend, charge up boldly, I will never forsake thee: Captain, said I, take you only care to save your self, and your Gens-d' Armes, at the same instant crying out, shoot, Comrades, at the head of these Horse. I was not above a dozen paces distant from the Enemy when I gave them this Volley, by which (as it appear'd by the testimony of the Prisoners, who were taken a few days after) above fifty Horses were kill'd, and wounded, and two Troopers slain, an execution that a little cool'd their courage, and caus'd their Troops to make a halt. In the mean time Captain Carbon had leisure with his party to retire full gallop towards the brook I had pass'd over to relieve him▪ where such as had their horses lost, taking hold of the others horse tayls sav'd themselves also, and all toge­ther pass'd over the River. Which hast they were nec [...]ssitated to make, or otherwise the great party of horse on the left hand, had charg'd them in the Flank, had they drawn more leisurely off. In the mean time under favour of the twenty Cross-bows of d' Auzan, who sustain'd us, we rallied again, and gave another volley. So soon as Captain Carbon had passed the River with his Horse, remounted Monsieur de Gra­mont, on another horse, and mounted the rest [...]n Crouppe, he commanded the said Si [...]ur de Gramont to ride to the top of the hill, and in all hast to draw off the Ensigns both of horse and foot, at a round trot, directly to the other River, where the bridg was, that leads towards Bayonne. Which order being given he suddenly turned back again towards me, having in his company an Italian call'd Signior Diomed [...], and the Si [...]ur de Maina [...]a [...]t, where he found me retreating towards a ditch, upon the edg of a Marish, and of which I might be within some twelve, or fourteen paces, which not only hindred him from getting up to me, but moreover gave him enough to do to save himself. I notwithstanding in spite of the Enemy recovered the ditch of the Marish, being still sheltred by d' Auz [...]n, whom I commanded to climb over in great di­ligence, and there to make head, which he accordingly performed.

The Spaniards in the mean time made a shew, as if they meant to charge, but they durst not attempt to break into me; neither were my six Harquebusi [...]rs idle all this while, but did wonders with their shot, when having at last retreated my men with­in five or six pa [...]s of the ditch, I caused them all in an instant to throw themselves in­to it, and under favour of d' Auzan, almost as suddainly to mount the ditch bank on the other side, over which we all got safe and sound, saving three Soldiers, who were slain with Harquebuze shot, for not having been so nimble as the rest; and here it was that, as in a little sort, I made head against the Enemy. Now you must know, that that party of the Enemy which came up on the left hand, made a halt at the bank of the River, when they saw our Horse were already got half way up the hill▪ and those who had fought, and to whom I had given a stop at the ditch bank, were now upon their retreat home, when seeing three Squadrons of Harquebusiers coming along the plain, and making towards them with all the speed they could, it reviv'd their spirits, and inspir'd them with new courage to face about again. I, in the mean time (having also discover'd these fresh succours) began to shift along by the ditch, till being by the return of a corner of it, slipt out of their sight, I drew my men into a very narrow meadow, from whence at full speed I gain'd the [Page 10] [...]oot of the hill I had descended before, and having repass'd the River, soon recove­red the top of the mountain. The danger wherein I saw my self to be, as well of the Horse I had pressing upon my Rear, as of the Battaillon of In [...]antry which I saw fast advancing towards me, did not however make me loose my Judgment in a time of so great need; nor hinder me from discerning and taking this opportunity for my retreat, during which I made the little handful of men I had march very close together; and by turnes encouraging, and speaking to them, made them often face about and salute the Cavalry, who pursued me both with Cross-bow, and Harque­buze shot; when having gain'd the top of the hill, I drew into an Orchard, ma­king fast the Gate on the inside, that the Horse might not so suddainly enter, and by the favour of that, and several others planted with Apples, still made on towards the Bridge, till I came to a little Church call'd H [...]itée, from whence I perceived the great road to be all covered over with the Enemies Horse, there being nevertheless a great ditch betwixt them and me, from whence I bestow'd upon them some Ar­quebuze, and Cross-bow shot, which also very seldom fail'd of their effect, and compell'd them (seeing they could not come up to me) some to advance forwards, and others to retire. I then put some of my men into the Church yard, thinking there again to make head; the greatest folly I committed throughout the whole acti­on; for in the mean time a good number of their Horse gliding along by the meadow straight towards the Bridge, were already advanc'd so far, that I saw my self totally enclos'd, without all manner of hope to escape, and to save my self.

Now so soon as Captain Carbon had recover'd the Bridg, and that the Horse, and Foot were all pass'd over, he commanded Monsieu [...] Gramont to hast away, not only a trot, but a full gallop; for he already discover'd the Enemies Infantry in the Orchards, which I could not do; neither did I ever perceive them, till they began to shoot at me; and then I made a sign to my Soldiers in the Churh yard to come, and draw up to me in the great high way. Captain Carbon in the interim, being he saw nothing of me, half concluded us all for kill [...]d, or taken, and yet seeing all the Enemies Troops of horse both on the right hand, and on the left, making directly towards the Bridg, would leave Captain Campai (an admirable good Soldier) at the end of the Bridg with five and twenty horse, and thirty Cross-bows of Captain Megrin's Company, to try if there were any possible means to relieve me, were I yet alive, causing the Bridg in the mean time to be broken down. Now because that Troop of the Enemies horse which march'd on the right hand, made a great deal more hast towards the Bridge, than that of the left, I quitted the great high way, and under favour of a hedg made straight towards the River, where I was again to encounter the Horse, which notwithstanding I made my way thorow, chopt into the River, and in despite of them all, passed o­ver to the other side: wherein, the banks of the River being high, favour'd me very much, they being too steep for the horse to get down, neither was our shot of both sorts idle in the mean time. At last I recover'd the end of the Bridg, where I found Captain Campai very busie at work to break it, and who so soon as he saw me, was very importunate with me to save my self, at the same time presenting me the Crup­per of his horse to that end:A brave reso­lution in a Captain. but he had no other answer from me, but this, that God had hitherto preserved me, and my Soldiers also, whom I was likewise resol­ved never to abandon, till I had first brought them into a place of safety. Whilst we were in this dispute we were aware of the Spanish Infantry coming directly to­wards the Bridg, when finding our selves too weak to stand the shock, Campai with the Cross-bows of Captain Megrin took the Van in order to a retreat, and I remain'd in the Rear, having gain'd a ditch that enclos'd a little meadow, which was sufficient to defend me from the horse, it being so high, that they could not come to charge.

I had now nothing left me but my six Harquebusiers, my Cross-bows having al­ready spent all their Arrows; nevertheless to shew that their hearts were not down, I caus'd them to hold their Swords ready drawn in the one hand, and their Bows in the other to serve instead of a Buckler. Now Captain Campai's men had broken down the greatest part of the Bridg before they went away, by reason of which impedi­ment the Cavalry could not so soon [...]ome up to us, having been constrain'd to foord the River two Harquebuze shot on the right hand, whilst the Foot in the mean time with great difficulty fil'd it over one by one by the rails of the Bridg, a po­sture wherein it had been a very easie matter to defeat them, had I not foreseen that then the Cavalry would have come up to enclose me, and our honor depended [Page 11] upon our r [...]treat. Wherefore still getting ground, and from ditch to ditch, ha­ving gain'd about half a quarter of a league of way, I made a halt, that my men might not be out of breath, when looking back I perceiv'd the Enemy had done so too, and saw by his countenance that he grew weary of the pursuit, a thing at which I was very much astonish'd and not a little glad, for in plain truth we were able to do no more▪ having taken a little Water and Cider, and some Mai [...] bread out of a [...]ew small houses we met upon the way. In the mean time Captain Campai sent out some Horse to see what was become of us, believing me to be either dead, or taken. And now behold us arriv'd in a place of safety, with the loss of only three men in the first ditch; and the brave Bastard d' Auzan, who by loyt [...]ring something too long in a little house by the Church was [...] lost.

In the int [...]rim of this bustle which continued pretty long, the alarm was carried to Monsieur de Lautrec to B [...]yonne, together with the news, that we were all total­ly defeated, at which he was ex [...]dingly troubled, in regard of the ill consequen­ces that usually attend the fleshing and giving an Enemy blood in the beginning of a War. However he drew out presently into the field, and was advanc'd but a very little way, when he discover'd our Ensigns of Foot conducted by the Sicur de Gramont, marching upon the Road towards him, who so soon as he came up, pre­sently gave him an accoun [...] of what had happened, and did me the honor to tell him, that I was the cause of their preservation: but that withall I was lost in the service. Captain Carbon was not yet arriv'd, forasmuch as he had made a halt to stay for Captain Campai, from him to learn the issue of the business: but in the end he came up also, to whom Monsieur de Lautrec spake these words. Well, Carbon, [...] this a time wherein to commit such a piece of folly as this? which I do assure you is not of so little moment, but that you have thereby endangered the making me lose this City of Bay­onne, which you know to be a place of so great importance. To which Carbon made an­swer. Sir, I have committed a very great fault, and the greatest folly that ever I was guil­ty of in my whole life: to this hour the like disgrace has never befallen me; but seeing it has pleased God to preserve us from being defeated, I shall be wiser for the time to come. Monsieur de Lautrec then demanded of him, if there was any news of me, to which he made answer, that he thought I was lost: but as they were returning softly to­wards the City in expectation of further news, Captain Campai also arriv'd, who assured them that I was come safely off, relating withal the handsom retreat I had made, in despite, and in the very teeth of the Enemy, with the loss of four men only, and that it was not possible, but that the Enemy must have lost a great number of men. I was no sooner come to my Quarters, but that a Gentleman was sent from Monsieu [...] de Lautrec, to bring me to him, who entertained me with as much kindness, and respect, as he could have done any Gentleman in the Kingdom, saying to me these words in G [...]scon; Montluc mon amic you a [...] oublideray jamai lou service qu'abes fait au Roy, & m'en seviera tant que you vivrai. Which is, Montluc, my friend, I will never forget the service you have this day performed for the King: [...]ut will be mind­ful of it so long as I live. There is as much honor in an handsom retreat, as there is in good fighting, and this was a Lord who was not wont to caress many people; a fault that I have often observ'd in him; nevertheless he was pleas'd to ex­press an extraordinary favour to me all the time we sate at supper, which he also continued to me ever after, insomuch that calling me to mind four or five years af­ter, he dispatch'd an express Courrier to me from Paris into Gascony with a Com­mission to raise a Company of Foot, entreating me to bear him company in his expe­dition to Naples, and has ever since put a greater value upon me, than I deserved. This was the first action I was ever in the quality of a Commander, and from whence I be­gan to derive my reputation.

You Captains (my Camrades) who shall do me the honor to read my Life, take notice, that the thing in the world, which you ought most to desire, is to meet with a fair occasion wherein to manifest your courage in the first Sally of your Arms▪ for if in the beginning you shall prove successful, you do (amongst others) two things. First you cause your selves to be praised, and esteemed by the great ones, by whose report you shall be recommended to the knowledg of the King himself, from whom we are to expect the recompence of all our Services, and Labours: And in the next place, when the Soldier shall see a Captain who has behav [...]d himself well, and performed any notable thing at his first trial; all the valiant men will strive to be under his command, believing that so auspicious a beginning, cannot fail [Page 12] of a prosperous issue; but that all things will succeed well with him, and that under such a man they shall never fail to be employ'd; for nothing can more spite a man of courage, than to be left at home to burn his shins by the fire, whilst other men are employ'd abroad in honorable action. So that by this means you shall be sure always to be follow'd by brave men, with which you shall continue to get more honor, and proceed to greater reputation; and on the contrary, if you chance to be baffled in the beginning, whether through your Cowardise, or want of Conduct, all the good men will avoid you, and you will have none to lead, but the Lees, and Canaille of the Army, with whom (though you were the [...]eroe of the world) there will be no good to be done; nor other, than an ill repute to be ac­quir'd. My Exemple upon this occasion, may serve for something, wherein though perhaps there were no great matters perform'd, yet so it is, that of little [...]xploits of War, great uses are sometimes to be made. And remember, whenever you find your selves overmatch'd with an Enemy, that you can bridle, and hold at bay with the loss of a few men, not to fear to hazard them. Fortune may be favourable to you▪ as she was to me; for I dare confidently say, that had not I presented my self to lead on these hundred Foot (which all play'd their parts admirably well) we had certainly had all the Enemies Caval [...]y upon our hands, which had been a power too great, for so few as we were to with­stand.

The Enemies Camp soon after retir'd into Navarre, whereupon Monsieur de Lautrec disbanded the one half of his Companies, reserving only the two Ensigns of Monsi [...]ur de Cauna, and that of the Baron Iean de Cauna, consisting each of on­ly three hundred men (the first time they had ever been reduc'd to that number) they having formerly consisted of five hundred, or a thousand; a device whereby the King's Treasury was very much relieved, as it sav'd the pay of so many Lieu­tenants, Ensigns, Serjeants, and other Officers: but withall the command of a good number of men , usually invited men of Condition, and Estates into the Service, who at present disdain to accept of Commissions, where they see so many pitiful Captainetts, who are admitted into Command, without ever having strook a stroke.

At this time you must know Monsieur de Lautrec bestow'd my Captains Company up­on me, though I was then but twenty years of age, and leaving four Companies in Bay­onne, took Post, and went away to Court: which departure of his encouraged the Enemy to renew his Camp, and to lay Siege to Fontarabie, which they also took be­fore his return. The loss of this place was occasioned, either through the indiscre­tion, or the treachery of a Nephew to the Constable of Navarre, and Son to the late Mareschal de Navarre, who having been banish'd from Spain, for siding with Hen­ry King of Navarre, was, together with a Garrison of four hundred men (Exiles like himself) put into this City, where he was at this time so well solicited by his Uncle, that he revolted to his side, by which means this place was lost, which otherwise had been impregnable, though the Enemy had made two great breaches in it: but being I was not there present, and that [...] will deliver nothing upon report, I shall say no more but this, that Captain Frangett who surrendred it up to the Spaniard, and who for so doing laid the blame to the said Don Pedro, was afterwards for his pains degraded at Lyons. The loss of this place depriv'd us of very good footing we had in Spain. It was here that some years before, Monsieur de L [...]de won immor­tal glory, by enduring a whole years Siege in all the extremities that mankind can undergo, and he for so doing carried away honor, and reward, but Frangett infa­my and ruine; thus goes the world, and fortune. In the mean time, if any of the Princes, or the Kings Lieutenants shall vouchsafe to peruse this Book of mine (and perhaps they may read worse) let them take notice by this exemple, and others that I have seen, and that I may perchance make mention of hereafter, that it is very dangerous to make use of a man, that has once abandon'd his own Prince, and na­tural Soveraign; not that he is to be rejected, when he flies into a mans arms for refuge, and protection; but he ought not by any means to have a place entrusted to him, with which he may at any time make his own peace, and restore himself to his Princes favour. Or if they shall think fit to trust him, it ought not to be however till af­ter by a long tryal, he shall have so manifested his fidelity, that there is no more question to be made of his Faith; and then in such a process of time, the Country, into which he shall come at first a stranger, or f [...]gitive, and an Exile, will be grown natural and familiar to him, and he will have received benefits, and acquir'd [Page 13] such interests, and possessions, as may fix him there: and yet [...]v [...]n then let it be at a sufficient distance from such as he may have had any private correspondencies, or se­cret practices withal: For by what I have heard from several of the Emperour's Captains, had Charles of Bourbon taken M [...]rselles, and Provence, the Emperor would never have committed so great an error, as to have entrusted them in his hands, though he had faithfully promis'd so to do. But let us proceed.

All these Foot Companies being disbanded, excepting those which were left in Garrison, I who had no mind to be immur'd within the walls of a City, again put my self into the Company of Monsieur Le Mar [...]schal de Foix, wherein I continued till such time as King Francis went his expedition against Monsieur de Bou [...]bon, who, together with the Marquess of P [...]scara laid Siege to Marselles (which Sieur de Bour­bon, for an affront that had been offer'd to him, was revolted to the Emperor (there is nothing a great heart will not do in order to revenge) where seeing the King would permit the Mareschal de Foix to carry no more, than twenty men at arms of his own Company along with him, and finding my self at my arrival to be excluded that election, and none of the number, I took such snuff at it, that I went with five or six Gentlemen, who did me the honor to bear me company, to be present at the Battel, with a resolution to fight volunteer amongst the Foot. But Monsi [...]ur de Bourbon after having lain six weeks only before the City, rais'd the Siege. The Signior Ra [...]co de Cera, a Gentleman of Rome, a brave, and expe­rienc'd Captain, together with the Sieur de Brion were within, with a sufficient Gar­rison, his Majesty had thither sent for the defence of the Town; So that Monsieur de Bourbon found himself to be deceiv [...]d in his intelligence, and that he had reckon'd without his Host. The French did not as yet know what it was to rebell against their Prince; for so soon as he had notice of the Kings approach, he retir'd himself over the Mountains, and descended into Piedmont, by the Marquisate of Saluzzo, and Pig [...]erol, and not without very great loss, fled away to Milan, which also both he, and the Vic [...]roy of Naples, were constrain'd to abandon, and to fly out at one gate, whilst we entred in at another.

Signior Don Antonio de Leva (who was one of the greatest Captains the Emperor had, and who I do believe had he not been hindred by the Gout (with which he was infinitely tormented) would have surpass'd all others of his time) was chosen in this posture of affairs to be put into Pavi [...], with a strong Garrison of German Soldi­ers, supposing that the King would infallibly fall upon that place, as in effect he did. The Siege continued for the space of eight months, in which time Monsieur de Bour­bon went into Germany, where he so bestirr'd himself with the money he had bor­rowed from the Duke of Savoy, that he thence brought along with him ten thousand German foot, together with four or five hundred men at armes from the Kingdom of Naples, with which Forces encamping himself at Lode, he came to offer the King Battail upon a St. Matthias day, our army being very much weakened as well by the length of the Siege, as by Sickness, with which it had been miserably infected. To which disadvantages the King had moreover unluckily disbanded three thousand Grisons commanded by a Collonel of their own called le grand Diart, I suppose, to contract the charges of the War. Oh that these little pieces of good Husbandry do very often occasion notable losses! Also a few days before Monsieur d' Albaine was, by the King's command, departed with great Forces towards Rome, from thence to fall into the Kingdom of Naples: but in the end all vanish'd away in smoke; for, to our great misfortune, we lost the Battail, and all these enterprizes came to no­thing.

The Description of this Battail is already publish'd in so many places, that it would be labour lost therein to wast my paper; I shall therefore only say, that the business was not well carried in several places on our side, which occasioned their ruine, who behav'd themselves best upon that occasion. The King was taken priso­ner, Monsieur the Mareschal de Foix, both taken and wounded with an Arqu [...]buze shot in his thigh, which moreover enter'd into his belly, Monsieur de St. Pol taken, and wounded with thirteen wounds, with which he had been left for dead upon the place, and was stript to his shirt: but a Spaniard coming to cut off his Finger, for a Ring he could not otherwise pull off, he cried out, and being known, was carried with the said Mareschal into Pavie, to the lodging of the Marquess de Scadalfol; several other great Lords lost their Lives, as the Brother to the Duke of Lorrain, the Admi­ral de Chaban [...]s, and many others taken, amongst whom were the King of Navarre, M [...]ssieurs de Nevers, de Montmorency, de Brion, and others; but I shall not taxe the [Page 14] memory of any one for the loss of this Battel; nor set a mark upon those who beha­ved themselves ill enough, even in the presence of their King. During all the time of my abode in the Army, I was continually with a Captain call'd Castille de Navarre, without any pay, which Captain having the fortune to command the forlorn hope in the day of Battel, intreated me to bear him Company, which accordingly I did, as also the five Gentlemen who came in company with me. I was taken prisoner by two Gentlemen of the Company of Don Antoni [...] de Leva, who upon the Saturday morning let me go, together with two of my Camrades; for they saw they were likely to get no great treasure of me, the other three were killed in the Battel. Be­ing now at liberty I retir'd my self into the house of the Marquess, where Monsi [...]ur le Mareschal lay wounded. I found him with Monsieur de St. Pol, both together in one bed, and Monsieur de Montejan lodg'd in the same Chamber, who was also wounded in his leg. There I heard the discourse and dispute betwixt Si [...]ur Frederick de Bege, who was prisoner, and Captain Sucra who belong'd to the Emperor upon the loss of this Battel, who accus [...]d our French of many great oversights, particularly nominating several per­sons, whose names I am willing to forbear: but I judg'd their opinions to be very good, being both of them very great Soldiers, and what I then heard has since been service­able to me upon several occasions; an use that every one ought to make of such contro­versies, who intends to arrive at any degree of perfection in the practice of Arms. A man must seek not only all occasions of presenting himself at all rencounters, and Bat­ [...]els; but must moreover be curious to hear, and careful to ret [...]in the opinions, and arguments of experienc [...]d men, concerning the faults, and oversights committed by Commanders, and the loss, or advantages to the one side and the other ensuing thereupon; for it is good to learn to be wise and to become a good Master at another mans expence. The Kingdom of France has long bewailed this unfortunate day, with the losses we have sustain'd, besides the captivity of this brave Prince, who thought to have found fortune as favourable to him here, as she was at his Battel with the Swisse: but she play'd the baggage, and turn'd her tail; making him to know how inconveni­ent, and of how dangerous cons [...]quence it is, to have the person of a King expos'd to the uncertain event of Battel; considering that his loss brings along with it the ru­ine of his Kingdom. Almighty God nevertheless was pleas'd to look upon this with an [...]ye of pity, and to preserve it; for the Conquerors dazled with the rayes of victo­ry lost their understanding, and knew not how to follow their blow; otherwise had Mon­sieur de Bourbon turn'd his Forces towards France, he would have put us all to our Trumps.

The Munday following Monsieur de Bourbon gave order that such as were taken pri­soners, and had not wherewithal to pay their ransom, should avoid the Camp, and return home to their own houses. Of which number I was one; for I had no great treasure: he gave us indeed a Troop of horses, and a Company of Foot for our safe conduct: but the Devil a penny of money, or a bit of bread: insomuch that not one of us, had any thing but Turnips, and Cabbage-stalks, which we broyl'd upon the coals, to [...]at, 'till we came to Ambrun. Before our departure Monsieur le Mareschal commanded me to commend him to Captain Carbon, and the rest of his friends, whom he entreated not to be dejected at this misfortune; but to rouse up their spirits, and [...]nd [...]avour to do better than ever, and that they should go, and joyn themselves to Monsieur de Lautrec his Brother. After which he made me a very notable remon­strance, which was not ended without many tears, and yet deliver'd with a strong accent, and an assured co [...]tenance, though he was very sore wounded, and so much that the Friday following he died. I travell'd on foot as far as Redorte in Languedoc, where his Company then lay; whereof Monsieur d Lautrec, after his death, gave one Tertia to Captain Carbon, a command that he did not long enjoy; for soon after a Villain native of Montpellier, who had favour'd the Camp of Monsieur de Bourbon, kill'd him behind, as he was riding post upon the Road near unto Lumel. As great a loss as has been of any Captain, who has died these hundred years; and one that I do believe had he lived to the Wars,The Chara­cter of Cap­tain Carbon. that we have since seen, would have perfor­med wonders, and many would have been made good Captains under his command: For something was every day to be learn'd by following him, he being one of the most vigilant, and diligent Commanders, that I ever knew, a great undertaker, and very r [...]solute in the execution of what he undertook. Another Tertia was given to Cap­tain [...] ignac of Auvergne, who also did not keep it keep it long, for he shortly after f [...]ll blind and died. The third Tertia he gave to Monsieur de Negrepelisse, the Father to him now living, of which a Cosen German of mine called Captain Serillac carried the Ensign.

[Page 17]In the mean time Madame the Queen Regent, Mother to the King, and with her all the confederate Princes of the Crown, had set several Treaties on foot, and labou­red on all hands the Kings deliverance, with great integrity, and vigour, and to so good eff [...]ct, that in the end this mighty Emperor, who in his imagination had swal­low'd up the whole Kingdom of France, gain'd not so much as one inch of earth by his victory, and the King had the good fortune in his affliction to derive assistance even from those who at other times were his Enemies, yet to whom the Emperors greatness stood highly suspected. His Majesty being at last returned home, and mindful of the injuries, and indignities, had been offer'd to him during his captivity, having in vain tryed all other ways to recover his two Sons out of the Emperors hands, was in the end constrain'd to have recourse to Arms, and to recommence the War. And then it was that the expedition of Naples was set on foot under the command of Monsieur de Lautrec, who (as I have already said) dispatch'd a Courrier to me into Gascony to raise a Company of Foot, which I also in a few days perform'd, and brought him be­twixt seven and eight hundred men, of which, four or five hundred were Harque­busiers, though at that time there was but very few of them in France. Of these Monsieur de Ausun entreated of me the one half, for the compleating of his Company, which I granted to him, and we made our division near to Alexandria, Alexandria surrendred. which at this time was surrendred to the said Monsieur de Lautrec, who from thence sent Mes­sieurs de Gramont, and de Montpezat to besiege the Castle de Vig [...]e; before which place, as we were making our approaches, and casting up trenches to plant the Artillery, I was hurt with a Harquebuze shot in my right leg, of which shot I remain'd lame a long time after; insomuch that I could not be at the storming of Pavie, Pavie taken by assault, and half burnt down. which was carried by assault, and half burnt down to the ground. Nevertheless I caused my self to be carried in a Litter after the Camp, and before Monsieur de Lau­trec departed from Plaisance to march away to Boulongne, I again began to walk.

Now near unto Ascoly, there is a little town called Capistrano, seated upon the top of a Mountain, of so difficult access, that the ascent is very sleep on all sides, sav­ing on those of the two Gates, into which a great number of the Soldiers of the Country had withdrawn, and fortified themselves. The Count Pedro de Navarre, who was our Collonel, commanded our Gascon Companies to attaque this Post, which we accordingly did, and assaulted the place. We caus'd someMoving Pent-houses under the protection of which, Soldi­ers use to ap­proach a wall. Manteletts to be made wherewith to approach the Wall, in which we made two holes, of capaci­ty sufficient for a man easily to enter in, about fifty or threescore paces distant the one from the other: whereof I having made the one, I would my self needs be the first to enter at that place. The Enemy on the other side had in the mean time pull'd up the planks, and removed the boards, and tables from the roof of a Parlour into which this hole was made, and where they had plac'd a great tub full of stones. One of the Companies of Monsieur de Luppé our Lieutenant Colonel, and mine pre­par'd to enter at this place, and now God had granted me the thing, that I had ever desir'd, which was to be present at an assault, there to enter the first man, or to lose my life: I therefore threw my self headlong into the Parlour, having on a Coat of Mail, such as the Germans used in those days, a Sword in my hand, a Targuette upon my arm, and a Morrion upon my head; but as those who were at my heels were pressing to get in after me the Enemy pour'd the great tub of stones upon their heads, and trapt them in the hole, by reason whereof the could not possibly follow I therefore remain [...]d all alone within fighting at a door that went out into the street: but from the roof of the Parlour, which was unplank'd, and laid open for that purpose, they pepper [...]d me in the mean time with an infinite number of Harquebuze shot,The Sie [...]r de Montluc woun­ded with two Harquebuze shot. one of which pierc'd my Targuette, and shot my arm quite through, within four fingers of my hand, and another so batter'd the bone at the knitting of my arm and shoul­der, that I lost all manner of feeling, so that letting my Targuette fall, I was constrain'd to retire towards my hole, against which I was born over by those who fought at the door of the Parlour: but so fortunately nevertheless for me, that my Sol­diers had, by that means,And the same Arm at the same time broken in two places. opportunity to draw me out by the legs, but so leisurely withal, that they very court [...]ously made me tumble heels over head from the very top to the bottom of the Graffe, wherein rowling over the ruines of the Stones, I again broke my already wounded arm in two places. So soon as my men had gathered me up, I told them, that I thought I had left my arm behind me in the Town, when one of my Soldiers lifting it up from whence it hung, as in a Scarf, dangling upon my buttocks, and laying it over the other, put me into a little heart; after which; seeing the Sol­diers [Page 16] of my own Company gather'd round about me, Oh my Camrades (said I) have I always us'd you so kindly, and ever loved you so well, to forsake me in such a time as this? which I said, not knowing how they had been hindred from following me in.

Upon this my Li [...]utenant, who had almost been sti [...]led to death in the hole, call'd la Bastide (Father to the Savillans now living, and one of the bravest Gentlemen in our Army) propos'd to two Basque Captains call'd Martin and Ramon [...]t, who al­ways quarter'd near unto my Company; that if they would with Ladders storm by a Canton of the wall hard by, he would undertake, at the same time, to enter by the hole it self, and either force his entry that way, or lose his life in the attempt. To which I also encouraged them, as much as my weakness would permit. The Ladders being therefore presently brought, and tyed together, because they proved too short, la Bastide made towards the hole, having sent to the other Captains to do as much to the other;Capis [...]rano ta­ken by assault. but they did no great feats. In the interim that la Bastide was fighting within, having already gained the hole, Martin and Ramon [...]t gave a brave Scalado to the Canton, and with so good success, that they beat the Enemy from the wall▪ and entred the Town. Of this being presently advertis'd, I sent to la Bastide to conjure him to save me as many women and maids as he possibly could, that they might not be violated (having that in devotion for a vow I had made to our Lady of Lor [...]tta, hop­ing that God, for this good act, would please to be assisting to me) which he did; bringing fifteen or twenty, which were also all that were saved; the Soldiers being so animated to revenge the wounds I had receiv'd, and to express their affection to me, that they killed all before them, so much as to the very children, and moreover set the Town on fire.Burn [...] to the ground. And although the Bishop of Ascoly (this being a member of his Diocess) was very importunate with Monsieur de La [...]trec in behalf of the Town, the Soldiers could notwithstanding never be made to leave it, till they saw it reduced to Ashes. The next day I was carryed to Ascoly, where Monsieur de Lautrec sent Mes­si [...]urs de Gramont, and de Montpezat to see how I did, with whom he moreover sent two Chirurg [...]ons the King had given him at his departure, the one called Master Alesme, and the other Master G [...]orge; who, after they had seen how miserably my arm was mangled, and shatter'd, positively pronounced, that there was no other way to save my life, but to cut it off, the execution whereof was deferr'd till the next morning. Monsi [...]ur de Lautrec thereupon commanded the said Sieurs de Montpezat and de Gramont to be present at the work, which they promised they would, but not without some difficulty, out of the friendship they both had for me, especially the Si [...]ur de Gramont. Now you must understand that my Soldiers had, a few days before, taken prisoner a young man, a Chirurgion, who had formerly belong'd to Monsieur de Bourbon▪ This young fellow having understood the determination to cut off my arm (for I had entertain'd him into my service) never ceased to importune me, by no means to endure it; representing to me▪ that I was not, as yet, arrived to the one half of my age, and that I would wish my self dead an hundred times a day, when I should come to be sen­sible of the want of an arm. The morning being come, the forementioned Lords, and the two Chirurgions, and Physicians, came into my chamber with all their instru­ments, and plaisters, without more ceremony, or giving me so much as leisure to re­pent, to cut off my arm, having in command from Monsi [...]ur de Lautre [...] to tell me, that I should not consider the loss of an Arm, to save my life; nor despair of my for­tune; for although his Majesty should not regard my service, nor take it into consi­deration to settle a subsistence for me, yet that nevertheless his wife, and himself, had forty thousand Livers a year revenue, wherewith to recompence my valour, and to provide that I should never want; only he wished me to have patience, and to mani­fest my courage upon this occasion. Every thing being now ready, and my arm going to be opened to be cut off; the young Chirurgeon standing behind my bed's head, never desisted preaching to me by no means to suffer it, insomuch that (as God would have it) though I was prepared, and resolved to let them do what they would with me, he made me to alter my determination; whereupon, without doing any thing more, both the Lords, and the Chirurgeons return'd back to Monsieur de Lautre [...] to give him an account of the business, who (as they have all of them several times since assured me) said these words. I am glad to hear he is so resolved, and should also my self have repented the causing of it to be done; for had he dyed, I should ever have suspected myself to have been the occasion of his death; and had he lived without an arm, I should never have look­ed upon him, but with exceeding great trouble, to see him in such a condition; let God there­fore work his will.

[Page 17]Immediately after the two forenamed Chirurgions came to examine mine, whether or no he was sufficient to undertake the cure; for otherwise it was order'd, that one of them should remain with me; but they found him capable enough, to which they also added some instructions, what was to be done upon such accidents as might hap­pen. The next day, which was the fourth after my hurt, Monsieur de L [...]urtre [...] caused me to be carried after him to Termes de Bresse, where he left me in his own quarters, to the care of the man of the house, who was a Gentleman, and for the further assurance of my person, carryed Hostages with him, two of the most considerable men of the Town, whereof one was brother to the Gentleman of the house, assuring them, that if any the least foul play was offer'd to me, those two men should infallibly be hang'd. In this place I remain [...] d two months and a half, lying continually upon my reins, in­somuch that my very back bone pierced thorough my skin, which is doubtless the grea­test torment, that any one in the world can possibly endure; and although I have writ­ten in this narrative of my life, that I have been one of the most fortunate men, that have born arms these many years, in that I have ever been victorious wherever I comman­ded; yet have I not been exempt from great wounds, and dangerous sicknesses, of which I have had as many, and as great, as any man ever had, who outliv'd them. God being still pleased to curb my pride, that I might know my self, and acknow­ledg all good, and evil to depend upon his pleasure: but all this notwithstanding a scurvy, four, morose, and cholerick nature of my own (which favours a little, and too much of my native Soil) has evermore made me play one trick, or another of a Gascon, which also I have no great reason to repent. So soon as my arm was come to a perfect suppuration, they began to raise me out of Bed, having a little cushion under my arm, and both that, and my arm swath'd up close to my body. In this posture I continued a few days longer, until mounting a little M [...]le that I had, I caused my self to be carried before Naples, where our Camp was already sate down, having first sent away a Gentleman of mine on foot to our Lady of Lorett [...] to accomplish my vow, I my self being in no condition to perform it. The pain I had suffer'd, was neither so insupportable, nor so great, as the affliction I had, not to have been pre­sent at the taking of Malphe, and other places; nor at the defeating of the Prince of Orange, who after the death of Monsi [...]ur de Bourbon (slain at the Sack of Rome) com­manded the Imperial Army. Had not this valiant Prince (of deplorable memory, for the foulness of his revolt from his Lord, and Master) dyed in the very height of his Victories, I do believe he had sent us back the Popes into Avignon once again.

At my arrival at the Camp, Monsieur de Lautrec, and all the other great persons of the Army, received me with great demonstrations of kindness, and esteem, and par­ticularly Count Pedro de Navarre, who caused a confiscation to be settled upon me of the value of twelve hundred Duckets yearly revenue call'd la Tour de la Nunci [...]de, one of the fairest Castles in all the Tertitory of Labour, and the first Barony of Naples; belonging to a rich Spaniard call [...] d Don Ferdino. I then thought my self the greatest Lord in all the Army: but I found my self the poorest Rouge in the end, as you shall see by the continuation of this discourse. I could here dilate at full how the Kingdom of Naples was lost, after it was almost wholly conquer'd; a story that has been writ by many: but it is great pity they would not, or durst not relate the truth, being that Kings and Princes might have been taught to be so wary by this Exemple, as not to suffer themselves to be imposed upon, and abused, as they very often are: but no body would have the great ones learn to be too wise, for then they could not play their own Games with them so well, as they commonly do. I shall therefore let it alone, both for that I do not pretend to record the faults of other men, as also because I had no hand in these transactions, and shall only write my own Fortunes to serve for instruction to such as shall follow after, that the little Montlucs my sons have left me, may look with some kind of Glory into the life of their Grandfather, and aim at honorable things by his Ex­emple.

There were no great matters pe [...]form'd after my coming to the Camp; neither did they busie themselves about any thing but the City of Naple [...], which also they inten­ded to overcome by Famine, and it must suddainly have fallen into our hands, had it not been for the revolt of Andrea d' Auria, who sent to Count Philippin his Nephew to bring back his Gallies to Genoa, The revolt of Andr [...]a d' A [...] ­ria. with which he kept the City of Naples so close block'd up by Sea, that a Cat could not have got in; which he immediately did, and thereupon an infinite of provision was put into the Town by Sea, whilst our Galli [...]s delay'd to come. God forgive him who was the cause thereof, without which acci­dent the Town had been our own, and consequently the whole Kingdom. This [Page 18] Philippin Lieutenant or Vice-Admiral to Andrea d' Auria, A great Na­val victory obtain'd by Philippin d' Auria. near unto Capo-dorso obtai­ned a famous Naval Victory over Hugo de Moncada, and the Marquess de Gu [...]st, who came to the relief of Naples; but from this Victory proceeded our ruine: for Philippin having sent his prisoners to his Uncle to Genoa, and the King being importunate to have them deliver'd over to him, Andrea d' Auria would by no means part with them, complaining that he had already delivered up the Prince of Orange to the King, with­out any recompence▪ upon which occasion the Marquess de Guast (a man of as great dexterity, and cunning as any of his time, and a great Warriour) knew so well how to manage Andrea d' Auria's discontent, that in the end he turn'd his coat, and with twelve Galli [...]s went over to the Emperor's side. The King our Master was well e­nough informed of all his practices, and might easily enough have prevented the mis­chief; but his heart was so great, and he was so higly offended with Auria, that he would never seek to him, whereof he repented at leisure: for he has since been the cause of many losses that have befall'n the King, and particularly of the King­dom of Naples, Genoa, and other misfortunes. It seem'd as if the Sea stood in aw of this man; wherefore without a very great, and more than ordinary occasion, he was not fit to have been provoked, or disgusted: but perhaps the King might have some other reason.

In the end our Gallies arriv'd, and brought with them the Prince of Navarre, Brother to King Henry, with some few Gentlemen only of his train, who lived but three weeks after; for he came in the beginning of our sickness. At his landing Mon­si [...]ur de La [...]trec sent Michael A [...]tonio Marquess of Saluzzo for his Convoy (for he landed a little below la Magdaleine within half a mile of Naples) and with him a great part of the Ge [...]s d' Armes, with the black Italian Regiments, which were commanded by Count Hugues de Gennes, since the death of Signior Horatio Bail [...]one, and had been the Companies of Signior Giovanni de Medicis, Father to the Duke of Florence that now is, who had been wounded in his leg, with a Harqu [...]buze shot before Pavie, being then in the Kings Service,The death of Signior Gio­vanni de Me­dicis. and was thence carried to Plaisance, where he had his leg cut off, and thereof soon after dyed, and after his death the said Signior Horatio took upon him the command of his Companies. It seem'd that God would at that time some evil to the King, when he lay before Pavie. For in the first place some one advis'd him to send away the Grisons, secondly to send Monsieur d' Albain to Rome with another part of the Army, and for the sum of all misfortunes God sent this mis­chance to Signior Giovanni, who (to speak the truth) understood more of the af­fairs of War, than all the rest, who were about the King, having three thousand Foot under his command, the best that ever were in Italy, with three Cornets of horse, and I do verily believe (and there are several others of the same opinion) that, had he been well at the Battel, matters had not gone so ill as they did. Signior Horatio afterwards encreas'd the number a thousand men, which made up four thousand foot, who carried black Ensigns for the death of the said Signior Giovanni, and were more­over all put into mourning, from whence they deriv'd the name of the Black Regi­ments, and afterwards associated themselves to the Marquess of Saluzzo, who tem­poriz'd for about two years in Italy, and about Florence, and afterwards join'd with our Army at Troyes, or else at Nocera, I am not certain which, for that I lay at the same time wounded at Termes on Bresse.

But to return to the landing of the Prince of Navarre, because there was something of Action there performed wherein I had a share, I shall give an account of that business. Captain Artiguelaube (who was Colonel of five Gascon Ensigns which were wont to be under Monsieur de Luppée, and of five others commanded by the Baron de Bearn) was commanded, as also was Capta [...] de Buch, eldest son of the Family of Candale, to draw down to that place, and I also (poor wretch as I was) was one of the num­ber. So soon as we were got down to the shore▪ the Marquess left all our Pikes behind a great Rampire, which the Count Pedro de Navarre had caused to be cast up, and that extended on the right hand, and on the left, for about half a mile in length. Close adjoyning to this was a great Portal of Stone, through which ten, or twelvemen might march a breast, and that I do believe had been a Gate in former times, for the Arch, and other marks thereof were still remaining; to the checks of which Portal, our Rampire was brought up, both on the one side, and the other. Our Battaillon was drawn up about an hundred paces distant from this Portal, the Black Regiments some three hundred paces behind ours, and the greatest part of the Horse yet further behind them. Monsieur le Marquis, Monsieur le Captau, the Count Hugues, Captain Artigue­laube, and almost all the Captains as well Italians as Gascons along with them, went [Page 19] down as well to facilitate, as to be present at the Princes Landing; which said Seigneur Capt [...] had six Ensigns, three of Piedmontoise, and three of Gascons. They were so long about their landing, that they there staid three long hours; for they made the Prince to stay and dine abroad, before he came out of the Galley: a little delay some­times occasions a great mischief, and it had been better, that both he, and all the com­pany with him had made a good sober fast; but the vanity of the world is such, that they think themselves undervalued if they do not move in all the formalities of State, and in so doing commit very often very great errors. It were more convenient to move in the Equipage of a simple Gentleman only, and not to Prince it at that rate, but to do well, than to stand upon such frivolous punctillios, and be the cause of any misadven­ture, or disorder.

Captain Artiguelaub [...] in the mean time had plac'd me with thre [...]score or fourscore Harqucbusiers upon the cross of a high way very near to the Magdaleine, which is a great Church some hundred, or two hundred paces distant from the Gates of Naples; and upon another cross of the high way, on the left hand of me, where there stood a little Oratory, two or three hundred Harqu [...]busiers of the black Regiments, with an Ensign of Pikes; In the same place also, and a little on the one side, was plac'd the Company of Seign [...]ur de Candale, consist [...]ng of two or three hundred Harque­busiers, about two hundred paces distant from, and just over against the place where I stood. Being thus upon my Guard I saw both horse and foot issuing out of Naples, and coming full drive to gain the Magdaleine; whereupon mounting a little Mule that I had, I gallop'd straight down to the water side. All the Lords and Gentlemen were as yet on board, caressing, and complementing one another, to whom by certain Skip­pers that were plying too and again betwixt the Gallies, and the Shoar, I caus'd it to be cry [...]d out, that the Enemy was sallying out of the Town by whole Troops to in­tercept them, and to recover the blind of the Magdaleine, and that they should think of fighting, if they so pleased; an intelligence at which some were basely down in the mouth, for every one that sets a good face on the matter has no great stomach to fight. I presently return'd back to my men, and went up straight to the Magdaleine, from whence I discover'd the Enemies Horse sallying out dismounted, with the bri­dles in the one hand, and their Launces in the other, stooping as much as they could, to avoid being seen, as also did the Foot, who crept on all four behind the walls that enclosed the backside of the Church: I then presently gave my Mule to a Soldi­er, bidding him ride in all hast to acquaint Monsieur de Candale, and Captain Artigue­laube therewith, whom he found already got on shore, and who upon my first adver­tisement, had caus'd a Galley to put out to Sea, from whence they discover'd all that I had told them, which being in the Port they could not possibly do. This Galley up­on the sight presently began to let fly whole broad-sides of Canon at us, one whereof kill'd two men of my Company close by me, and so near that the brains both of the one, and the other flew into my face. There was very great danger in that place, for all the bullets, as well of this Galley, as of the others, which did the same, play'd directly into the place where I was, insomuch that seeing them still to continue their shot (for those of the Gallies took us for the Enemy) I was constrain'd to draw off my men in­to the ditches to secure them.

In the mean time they mounted the Prince in all hast on horseback, and made him to save himself full speed towards the Camp, all his Gentlemen running after on foot. They had no great leisure to stay with us, for I believe being so lately come, they had no mind to dye. Their hast was so great that they had no time to land, either the Princes Baggage, or his Bed, and there were some, who were wise enough to keep themselves aboard the Gallies. But the Seigneur de Candale, and Count Hugues were men of ano­ther sort of mettle, and staid upon the cross high way where their men had been plac'd before; and Captain Artiguelaube went to the Battaillon, that was drawn up behind the Rampire. The Game began with me, and I do not know whether it be my good or my evil fortune;The Fight. but so it is that in all places where I have been, that I have evermore found my self in the thickest of the blows, and there where the busi­ness ever first began. Now a Band of Harquebusiers came directly towards me, run­ning: and that because I had plac [...]d one part of my Harquebusiers behind a ditch bank that borders all along upon the high way, and the rest on the right and left hand in the ditches in file (which I did more for fear of the Artillery, that plaid from our own Gallies, than for any apprehension of the Enemy) and came within twenty paces of us, where we entertein'd them with a smart volly of all our shot, by which five or six of their men fell dead upon the ground, and the rest took their heels, and fled, we [Page 20] following after as far as the Magdaleine. There they rally [...]d, and withdrew from the high way on their right hand, and on that side where Monsieur de Lavall of Dauphiné stood with his Company of Gens-d' Armes, he was Nephew to Monsieur de Bayard, and Father to Madame de Gordes, who is at this time living, and a very valiant Gentleman. Monsieur de Candalle, who had seen my Charge, and saw that the Enemy now all discover d themselves, and that both Horse and Foot drew into a great Meadow, where Monsieur de Lavall stood; fearing they might charge me again, he sent me a supply of fifty Harquebusiers, just at the time when a Battaillon of German Foot pre­sented themselves within twenty paces on my right hand. The Spanish Harquebusiers in the mean time fir'd with great fury upon our Gens-d' Armes, who began to draw off at a good round trot towards the high way possessed by Monsieur de Candalle, where there was a great oversight committed, which I will also give an account of, that such as shall read it, may make use of the exemple, when the chance of War (as at one time or another it may) shall perhaps reduce them to the same condi­tion.

Count Hugues, and Monsieur de Candalle had drawn up their Pikes upon the great Road, without leaving room for the Cavalry to retire, and there was a necessity that Monsieur de Lavall must, in spite of his heart, pass that way; for betwixt Monsieur de Candalle and me there was a great ditch, that Horse could not possibly get over. Had they left the Road open, and drawn themselves up in Battalia behind the ditch, they might have given a stop to the Enemies fury; and by that means Mon­sieur de Lavall, might at great ease have got off along by the high way, and have made an honorable retreat. So soon as the Enemy saw that Monsieur de Lavall was forced to his Trot they presently charg'd him both in flank, and rear, with both Horse and Foot at once, when having thrown himself into the Road to get clear of this storm, he encountred these Pikes upon his way, where he was constrained a­gainst his will to force his way thorough, and in so doing bore down, and trampled under foot all that stood before him; for our Pikes were drawn up so close that they had no room to open. This put all into confusion, and I was ready to run mad to see so great an absurdity committed; yet is not the blame justly to be laid [...]pon Mon­sieur de Candalle, he being very young, and having never been upon such a service before: but Count Hugues is highly to be cond [...]mned, who was an old Soldier, and understood the discipline of War; yet I will not say but that he behaved himself with very great bravery in his own person: but it is not enough to be bold, and hardy, a man must also be wise, and foresee all that can happen, forasmuch as oversights are irreparable in matters of Arms, and smal faults are oftentimes the occasion of very great losses, as it happened here to him, who had not provided against all adven­tures: For he was himself taken prisoner, as also Monsieur de Candalle, being woun­ded in his arm with a Harquebuze shot.Captain de Buch, Count de Candalle slain. Three days after, the Enemy seeing he was not likely to live, sent him back to Monsieur de Lautrec, who was his Kinsman, and the next day he died, and was buried at Bresse.

He was a brave, and a worthy young man as ever came out of the house of Foix, and would in time doubtless have been a great Soldier, had he lived to hold on as he had begun. I never knew man so industrious, and desirous to learn the practice of arms of the old Captains, as this Lord was. To which effect he rendred himself as obsequious to the Count Pedro de Navarre, as the meanest of his Servants. He was in­quisitive into the reasons of things, and informed himself of all, without fooling away his time about trifles, that other young men covet and love: and was more frequent at the Quarters of the Count Pedro de Navarre, than at those of Monsieur de Lautrec; in­somuch that the Count would always say, he was there training up a great Captain. And in truth when he was brought back into the Camp, the said Count kiss'd him with tears in his eyes. It was a very great loss of him. All who were at the same post were [...]ither kill'd, or taken, some excepted, who saved themsesves by the ditches, leaping from ditch to ditch, but those were very few, for the Enemy pursued their victory on that side very well.

I on my side began to march along by the side of a hedg, with my face still towards the German Foot, the lesser evil of the two, and by good fortune both for me, and my Company the Enemy in my rear pursued us coldly enough. At my coming to the Portal I spoke of before, I there found a great Troop of the Enemies Horse, comman­ded by Don Ferdinando de Gonzaga (for it was he who gave the charge) so that to recover the Portal I must of necessity fight with a resolution either to pass thorough, or die. I made my men therefore to give them a volly of Harquebuze shot, for I for [Page 21] my part had nothing wherewith to fight, but my voice; upon which volly they made me way, so that having pass'd the portal, I fac'd about, and stood firm. At which time their Harquebusiers also came up, who at once altogether charged upon us, with all their united power both of Horse and Foot; when seeing this torrent coming upon me, I recover'd the back side of the Trench, with my Harqu [...]busiers only, who had saved themselves from the first encounter; which the Marquess seeing, he was in so great a perplexity, that he gave us all over for lost. I there disputed the portal a long half hour from the back side of the Trench, for it remained free, as well on their side, as on ours; they durst not attempt to pass, neither did we dare to approach it. If e­ver Soldiers plaid the men, these did it at this time; for all that I had with me could not arise to above an hundred and fifty men. The Marquess then came up to Captain Arteguelaube, to make him rise, they being all couched upon one knee, for had they stood upright, the Spanish Foot had had them in their aim, and cryed to him, Cap­tain Arteguelaube, I beseech you rise, and charge▪ for we must of necessity pass the Portal: But he returned him answer, that he could not do it without losing the best of our men, as it was very true, for all the Spanish Foot were then come up. I was close by the Portal, and heard all; but the Marquess not satisfied with this answer, spurred up to the black Regiments, commanding them to march up towards the Portal, which they accordingly did. I knew by the manner of their motion, what command they had received, which was the reason that I stept out, and cried to Captain Arte­guelaube, Camrade, you are about to be disgraced for ever, for here are the Black Re­giments, that, upon my life, are making towards the Portal, to carry away the honor of the service; at which words he started up (for the man wanted no courage) and ran full drive towards the Portal, when seeing him come, I suddenly threw my self before the Portal, and passed with all those who followed me, marching straight towards the Enemy, who were not above a hundred paces distant [...]rom us; we were imme­diately followed by the Foot, sent by the Marquess: but as we were half passed tho­rough, the Marquess gave the word from hand to hand, to make a hal [...], and to advance no further. The Enemy seeing us come on with such resolution, and the Cavalry following in our Rear, thought it the wisest course to retire. I was by this time ad­vanced where we were plying one another, with good round vollies of shot, at fifty paces distance, and we had a good mind to fall on to the Sword, when the Marquess, and another Gentleman with him, came himself on horseback to stay me. I think he did ill in it; for had we all passed thorough, we had certainly pursued them fighting up to the very Gates of Naples. There was in this place very many on both sides bea­ten to the ground, that never rose again, and I admire how I escaped, but my hour was not come.

That which occasioned the Marquess to retire, was the fear he had of tempting for­tune a second time; he was contented with what he had already lost, without being willing to hazard any more; so that tired out, and over spent, we return'd to re­pass the Portal, that had been so long disputed, where a great many good men lay dead upon the place. There it was that the Gentleman who was with the Marquess, when he came to command me to retire, I have forgot his name, said to him (for I heard him very well) Monsieur, I now see that the antient proverb is true, which says, that one man is worth an hundred, and an hundred are not so good as one: I speak it by this Captain who has his arm in a scarf, and leans to the Rampire (for in truth I was quite spent) for it must needs be acknowledged, that he is the only cause of our preservation. I heard likewise well enough, though I took no notice of it, the Marquess make him this answer. That man will always do well wherever he is. A passage, that although it be to my honor, and my own commendation, I would however insert it here, without bragging nevertheless, or vain glory. I have acquir'd honor enough besides: but this may perhaps serve to excite the other Captains, who shall read my Life, to do the same upon the like occasion. And I must needs confess that I was then better pleased with this Character, that this Gentleman, and the said Marquess were pl [...]ased to give of me, than if he had given me the best Mannor in his possession; though I was at that time very poor. This commendation made my heart to swell with courage, and yet more when I was told, that some one had entertained Monsieur de Lautrec, and the Prince with the same discourse, all the time they sate at Supper. These little points of honor serve very much in matters of War, and are the cause that when a man shall again happen to be in the like service, he fears nothing: it is very true that men are some­times mistaken, and gain nothing but blows: but there is no remedy for that, we must give and take.

[Page 22]You Captains, and Lords who lead men on to death (for War is nothing else) when you shall see a brave act performed by any of your followers, comm [...]nd him in pub­lick, and moreover relate it to others who were not present at the service: if his heart [...]it in a right place, he will value such a testimony more than all the treasure of the world, and upon the next occasion will strive to do still better. But if (as too ma­ny do) you shall not design to regard, or to take notice of the bravest exploit can by man be performed, and look upon all things with an eye of disdain, you will find that you must recompence them by effects, since you would not vouchsafe to do it by word of mouth. I have ever treated the Captains so, who have been under my command, and even the meanest of my Soldiers; by which they thought them­selves so obliged, that I could have made them run their heads against a wall, and have stood firm in the most dangerous post in the world, as (for ex [...]mple) I did here.

This was the first misfortune, and the first disgrace, that had yet befallen us in all this Expedition. It seemed to all the world that the Prince of Navarre brought us all misadventure and mishap: would to God he had staid in Gascony; neither had it been the worse for him, who came only to end his days a great way from home, without doing any thing but taking a view of Naples. He dyed three weeks,The death of the Prince of Navarre. or there abouts, after his arrival, and was the occasion of the death of this brave young Lord (which I shall ever lament) who also had the honor to be his Kinsman. Yet was not this all, for so soon as it was known that such a Prince was arrived, every one pre­sently concluded that he had brought some considerable succours, and relief, at least money for the pay of the Army: but there was nothing of all this; for neither he, nor the Gallies brought us one man of recruit; nor any other thing, but his own retinue, and some few Gentlemen Voluntiers; which was a great discouragement to our distressed Army, and the Enemy, who were very well informed of all, took new heart at it, knowing very well by that, that the Waters of France were very low, when a Prince of his condition, came to such a Siege as this, in an equipage, as if he had only come a­broad to see the world: but the fault ought not to lie at his door, they were too blame that sent him.

'Tis a great fault in Kings and Princes, who put men upon great attempts, to take so little care of those whom they know to be engaged in an enterprize of so great im­portance, as was this of the Sieur de Lautre [...]: for the taking of Naples had very much as­sured the State of France, which by that means would have had its arms at liberty for many years, and we should have disputed it long, had it once been ours, for we should have been made wise by our precedent losses. The King committed yet ano­ther oversight in not sending some handsom Troop of Gentlemen, and some conside­rable Body of Foot with this young Prince, the neglect of which (as I have already said) made our people believe, either that he did not much regard us; or that his hands were full, and that he had elsewhere enough to do. Wherein Monsieur de Lau­trec was by no means to be blam'd, who never ceased to send dispatch after dispatch, and post after post, to give his Majestie an account of all; but I return to my self; for (as I have always declar'd) I will by no means play the Historian: if I should, I should have enough to do, and scarce know at which end to begin.

This was the last engagement where I had any thing to do, wherein though I did not command in chief, yet had I notwithstanding the command of a very good Com­pany of Foot, and had my full share of the fight that was very handsom; but not for all; which I have set down to acquit my self of my promise, to wit, that I would give a particular account of all those passages, wherein I had the honor to command: passing the rest lightly over, as I do the remainder of this unfortunate Siege, which we were at last constrained to raise, Monsieur de Lautrec being dead,The death of Monsieur de Lautrec▪ to the great misfor­tune of all France, which never had a Captain endowed with better qualities than he was: but he was unhappy, and ill assisted by the King, after His Majesty had enga­ged him, as he did first at Millan, and now lastly before Naples. For my part with that little that was saved, which was almost nothing, I return'd the greatest part of my Journey on foot, with my arm in a scarf (having above thirty Ells of Taffeta a­bout me,a [...]d forasmuch as they had bound my arm and my body together with a cushion between) wishing a thousand times rather to die, than to live; for I had lost all my Masters and Friends, who knew, and lov'd me, being all dead, excepting Monsieur de Montpezat (the Father of this now living) and poor Don Pedro our Colonel taken, and carried prisoner into the Rock of Naples, O [...] Don P [...]dro de Navar [...]e. where they put him to death, the Emperor having commanded, that for the reward of his revolt, they should cut off his head. He [Page 23] was a man of great understanding, in whom Monsieur de Lautrec (who con [...]ided in few persons) had a very great confidence. I do also believe (and am not single in that opinion) that he counselled him ill in this War▪ but what! we only judg by Events.

In this handsom equipage, I came home to my Fathers house, where, poor Gentle­man, I found him engag'd in too many necessities of his own, to be in any capacity of much assisting me; forasmuch as his Father had sold three parts of four of the Estate of the Family, and had left the remainder charg'd with five children, by a second venture, besides us of my Fathers, who were no less than ten. By which any on [...] may judg, in what necessities we who are come out of the Family of Montluc have been constrained to fol­low the fortunes of the world. And yet our house was not so contemptible, but that it had near upon five thousand Livers yearly revenue belonging to it, before it was sold. To fit my self in all points I was constrained to stay three years at home, with­out being able to get any cure for my arm, and after I was cur'd I was to begin the world again, as I did the first day I came out from a Page, and as a person un­known▪ seek my fortune in all sorts of necessiities, and with extream peril of my life. I praise God for all, who in all the traverses of my life, has ever been as [...]isting to me.

Upon the first motions of War King Francis instituted his Legionaires,The Legion­aires institu­ted. which was a very fine invention, had it been well pursued (for a start all our Laws, and Ordinances are observed, and kept, but after a while neglected, and let down) for it is the true and only way to have always a good Army on Foot (as the Romans did) and to train up the people to War,1534. though I know not whether that be good or evil. It has been much controverted, though I for my part had rather trust to my own people, than to strangers.

Of these the King gave one thousand to the Seneschal of Thoulouse, Seigneur de Faudo­vas, who made me his Lieutenant Colonel, and although it was the Languedoc Le­gion, and that he was Colonel, I nevertheless raised him all his Regiment in Guienne, and appointed him all his Captains, Lieutenants, Ensigns, Serjeants, and Corpo­rals. A great rumor was at that time spread over all France, that the Emperor through the great intelligences he had within, was, for the conquest of such, and so great a Kingdom, coming up with vast, and invincible Forces; thinking at unawares to surprize the King; and in effect he did advance as far as Provence. The King to oppose so mighty, and so powerful an Enemy, summon'd in all his Forces from all parts: in or­der to which summons, we used so extraordinary diligence (neither was I ever slothful) that our Regiment was the first that arrived at Marselles, where we found Monsieur de Barbezieux (which was de la Rochefoucant) and Monsieur de Montpezat, whom the King had made his joynt Lieutenants there (the one having as much authority as the other) and the Seigneurs de Boitieres and de Villebon (Provost of Paris) the Regiments of Monsieur le Grand Eseuyer Galliot, and of the said Seigneur de Montpezat, who came from Fossan all dismounted, having each of them aOr pad Nag. Curtal only, for by Article at the surrender of the said Fossan (which was lost through the enormous, and perhaps unheard of Treachery of the Marquess of Saluzzo) they were oblig [...]d to leave their great hor [...]ses behind.The treache [...]ry of the Mar­quess of Sa­luzzo. The Emperor being soon after come to Aix, the Legionary Regiments (consisting of a thousand m [...]n each) of Monsieur de Fontrailles (the Father of these now living) and of Monsieur d' Aubigeons, came presently up to us, as also those of Christophle de Goust, with seven Italian Companies. I am not certain whether the Regiments of Monsieur de Boi [...]ier [...]s, and de Villebon were there, or no: but I very well remember that of the said Seigneur de Barbezieux; and so long as the Emperor continued at Aix, we remain'd at Marselles, 1537. where nothing however of Action past, but what I am now going to relate.

Whilst the Emperor lay very long at Aix, in expectation of his great Canon, where­with to come, and batter the walls of Marselles, his provisions did every day more, and more wast, and diminish. In which point of time the King [...] arriv'd at Avignon, where His Majesty was advertised, that if means could be made to destroy some Mills the Empe­ror had seiz'd into his hands towards Arles, and especially one within four Leagues of Aix, called the Mill of Auriolle, the Enemies Camp would soon suffer for want of bread. Upon which advice the King commited the execution of the burning of those Mills a­bout Arles, to the Baron de la Garde, who had a Company of Foot, to Captain Thorines Standard-bearer to the Count de Tandes, Mills burnt by the Fren [...]h. and some others, who accordingly executed the design. Which notwithstanding the Spies still brought word to the King, that he must also burn those of Auriolle; forasmuch as they alone ordinarily nourish [...]d not the [Page 24] Emperors whole houshold only; but moreover the six thousand old Spanish Foot, which he always kept about his own person. His Majesty sent therefore several times to Mes­sieurs de Barbezieux, and de Montpezat to hazard a Regiment of men, to go, and burn the said Mills of Auriolle.

The first to whom they recommended the execution thereof, was to the foresaid Christophle le Goast, who positively refused to undertake it, alledging that it was five Leagues to the aforesaid Mills,Captain Goast refuses to un­dertake the Enterprize, where they were to fight threescore Guards, that were within it,, and an entire Company that were quartered in the Town, so that he should have five Leagues to go, and as many to return, by means whereof he should going or coming be infallibly defeated upon the way, for the Emperor could not fail of intelli­gence, it being no more than four leagues only from the said Auriolle to Aix; and on the other side the Soldiers would never be able to travel ten long leagues without baiting by the way. This answer was sent back to the King, who notwithstanding would not take it for currant pay; but on the contrary sent another more positive order, than the for­mer, that it should be proposed to some others, and that though a thousand men should be lost in the Enterprize,and yet let them not concern themselves, for the benefit that would accrue burning the Mills, would countervail the loss (such easie Markets Princes make of the lives of men.)

Whereupon it was offer'd to Monsieur de Fonterailles, who was once in mind to un­dertake it: but some of his friends representing to him his certain ruine in the attempt, he piss'd backwards,Also Monsieur de Fonterailles. and would by no means touch. All which being sent word of to His Majesty (who continually had the manifest advantage the destroying of the other Mills had brought to His Majesties affaires, reminded to him) he still persisted to press the aforesaid Lords, to send some one, or another to demolish these. Now one day, after I had heard how discontented the King was, and the excuses that had been alledg'd by those to whom it had hitherto been recommended (which in truth were very rational, and just) I began to meditate with my self, which way I might execute this design, and to consider, that if God would give me the grace to bring it about, it would be a means to bring me to the knowledg of the King,It is underta­ken by the Sieur de Mont­luc. and to restore me to the same reputa­tion and acquaintance, I had formerly acquir'd; and that now by three years idleness, and the length of my cure, was as good as vanish'd and lost: for it is nothing to get a good repute, if a man do not uphold, and improve it. Having therefore taken with my self a resolution to execute this design; or to die in the attempt: I enform'd my self at full of my Landlord of the scituation, and condition of the place where these Mills were: who told me that Auriolle was a little Town enclos'd with high walls, where there was a Castle well fortified, and a Bourg composed of many houses, with a fair street tho­rough the middle of it, and at the end of the said Bourg, which led from the Town towards the Mill, was a little on the left hand the Mill it self. That at the Gate of the said Town there was a Tower, which look'd directly down the great street towards the Mill, before which no man could stand, without running great hazard of being either slain, or wounded; and that beyond the Mill was a little Church at the distance of about thirty, or forty paces. He told me moreover, that I was to go to Am­baigne, two Leagues from Marselles, and that from thence to Auriolle, it was three more, if we went by by the Mountains which the Horse could not possibly do; but must be constrained to go near upon a League about, where they were moreover to pass a River that was deep to the Saddle skirts, by reason that the Bridges had been bro­ken down.

My Landlord having told me all this, I consider'd, that if I should undertake this af­fair with a great party, I should be defeated; for the place being only four Leagues di­stant from the Emperor's Camp, he would have present intelligence, and would send out his Horse to intercept me in my return, as it also fell out; for immediately upon our coming to the Mill, the Captain of the Castle dispatch'd away in all hast to the Emperor. So that I conceiv'd it much better for me to undertake it with a small number of m [...]n, and those light and active fellows; to the end that if I did the work I went for, I might either have means to retire by one way or another; or at the worst if I should throw my self away, and those who were with me, yet they being but a few, the City of Marselles would by that miscarriage be in no manner of danger to be lost, which was the thing most disputed in the Council; whereas by losing a thousand or twelve hundred men, which were thought a necessary proportion for such an Enterprize, the said City might be expos'd to some danger, especially in a [...] time when they expected a Siege.

I then desir'd my Landlord to provide me three f [...]llows, who were expert in the [Page 25] ways, to guide me by night to the said Auriolle, and so that, as near as could be guess'd, they should bring me to the Mills two hours before day; which he accordingly did, when after having some time consulted with them, I found the men were fearful, and loth to go: but at last mine Host so encourag'd them, that they were all resolved; whereupon I gave to each of them a brace of Crowns, and caused them to be kept up in my lodging, which was about Noon; and having comput [...]d with my Landlord how many hours the nights were then long, we found, that provided I should set out about the twilight, I should have time enough to do my business.

All this being done, that my design might not be known, I went my self first to Monsieur de Montpezat, to acquaint him with what I intended to do; and more­over that I was resolved to take with me no more, than six score men only, which I would choose out of the Seneschall [...]s Regiment, to which I was Lieutenant Colonel. In all places wherever I have been, I have still made it my study to discern betwixt the good men, and the bad, and to judg what they were able to do, for all men are not proper for all uses.

The said Sieur de Montpezat thought my resolution very strange, and out of friend­ship advis'd me not to do so ridiculous a thing, as to hazard my self with so few men; telling me, that I might as well have five hundred if I would. To which I made an­swer, that I would never demand five hundred men for the execution of an Enter­prize, that I could better perform with six score, and tormented him so, that in the end he was constrained to go along with me to Monsieur de Barbezieux, who yet thought it more strange, than the other, and would needs know of me my reasons and by what means I would execute this design with so few people. To whom I made answer, that I would not declare to any one living, which way I intended to proceed: but that nevertheless (if they so pleased) I would undertake it. Whereupon Monsieur de Montpez at said to him, let him go; for though he should be lost, and all those with him, the City will not for that be in the more danger to be lost, and it will give His Majesty content. Monsieur de Villebon who was present at the deliberation, laugh'd, and jeer'd at me, saying to Monsieur de Barbezieux, let him go, he will infallibly take the Emperor, and we shall all be ashamed, when we see him bring him into the City to mor­row morning. Now this man did not love me, for some words that had passed betwixt us at the Port Royal; neither could I forbear to tell him, that he was like a dog in a manger, that would neither eat himself nor suffer others. All was pass'd over in jest though in plain truth, I was half angry, for a little spurring would serve to make me start. The Seneschall de Tholouse, my Colonel, adhear'd to my opinion, whereupon I had immediate leave granted me to go choose out my six score men, and no more, which I did, taking only oneOr Centu­rion, a term u­sed as suiting that of Legi­on. Centenier, and a Corporal, the rest were all Gentlemen, and so brave a Com­pany, that they were better than five hundred others. It is not all to have a great num­ber of men, they somtimes do more hurt than good, which made me entreat Monsieur de Barbezieux to cause the Gate of the City to be shut, being well assur'd that otherwise I should have had more company than I desir'd; which he also did, and it hapned well for another reason, for in less than an hour my design was spread all over the whole City.

Just at Sun-set, I, with my six score men, repair'd to the Gate, the wicket whereof was only open: but the street was so full of Soldiers, ready to go out with me, that I had much ado to distinguish my own, and was therefore constrained to make them all take hands, for I very well knew them every one. As I was going out of the Gate, Monsi [...]ur de Tavannes (who was since Mareschal of France, and at this time Standard-bearer to the Grand Escuyer Gal [...]iot) came to me with fifteen, or twenty Gentlemen of their own Company, telling me, that he, with those friends of his were come to offer themselves, resolved to run all hazards with me in the execution of my design. I used all the arguments I could to divert him from that resoluti­on: but it was time, and labour lost; for both he, and those with him were all positively resolv'd. Messieurs de Barbezieux, de Montpezat, de Boitieres, de Vil­lebon, and the Seneschal de Tholouse, were all without the Ga [...]e, and before the wicket, drawing us out one by one,Tavannes▪ when Monsieur de Tavannes offering to pass, Monsieur de Barbezieux would not permit him, telling him, that he should be none of the party, and there some words, and a little anger passed, both on side and the other: but Mon­sieur de Tavannes overcame at last, and pass'd the wicket; for which cause they detain'd from me fifteen or twenty men of those I had chosen: but I lost nothing by the ex­change, only these disputes deferr'd the time so long, that the night was shut up, before we began to march. Monsieur de Castelpers Lieutenant to Monsieur de Montpezat (who was my very particular friend) having heard how I had been raill'd,Castelp [...]rs. and jeer'd amongst [Page 26] them, determin'd to get to horse, with some fifteen, or twenty men at arms of the said Company, being all very well mounted, and to that end had spoken to Monsieur de M [...]ntpezat at his going out of the Gate, to entreat him, that he would not be displea­sed i [...] he made one in the Enterprize; telling him that I was a Gascon, and that if I fail'd in the attempt, it would beget matter of sport for the French, and they would laugh us to scorn. Monsieur de Montpezat was at first unwilling to it, but seeing him begin to grow into a little heat, at last consented, whereupon he presently ran to mount to horse, and there might be nineteen or twenty of the party.

Now to give a full account of this Enterprize, (which although it was not the con­quest of Millan, may nevertheless be of some use to such as will make their advan­tage of it) so soon as we came to the Plan St Michel, I gave to Captain Belsoleil (Centenier to our Company) threescore men; and threescore I kept for my self (Mon­sieur de Tavannes, The order of the Enter­prize. and his followers being compriz'd in that number) to whom I also deliver'd a good Guide, telling him withal, that he was not to come near me by a hundred paces, and that we would continually march at a good round rate. Which order being given, and Monsieur de Tavannes, and I beginning to set forward, up com [...]s Monsieur de Castelpers, of whose deliberation we till then knew nothing, forasmuch as it had been resolved upon at the very moment of our going out at the wicket, which hindred us another long half hour: but in the end we agreed, that he should go the Horse way, and gave him another of my Guides, which he mounted behind one of his men; so that we had three parties, and to every party a Guide. At our parting I gave him instructions, that so soon as he should arrive at the end of the Bourg, he should draw up behind the Church, for should they enter into the street, the Compa­ny quarter [...]d in the Town, would either kill them, or their horses; and that therefore he was not to appear, till first he heard us engag'd.

We now began to set forward, and marched all night, where as far as Aubaigne, we found the way to be exceeding good: but from thence to Auriolle we were fain to crawl over the sides of Mountains, where, I believe, never any thing but Goats had gone before: by which abominable way, having got within half a quarter of a league of Auriolle, I made a halt, bidding Monsieur de Tavannes, to stay there for me, for I must go speak with Belsoleil. I therefore went back, and met him within a hundred paces of us, or less; where speaking to him, and his Guide, I told him, that when he should arrive at the Bourg, he was by no means to follow me: but to march directly to the Gate of the Town, betwixt the Bourg and the said Town, and there make a stand at the Gate, it being necessary that he should gain two houses next adjoyning to the said Gate, which he must suddainly break into, to keep the Enemy from fallying out to disturb us; and that there he was to stay, and fight, without taking any care to relieve us at all; after which order given to him, I moreover past the word from hand to hand, to all the Soldiers, that no one was to abandon the fight at the Gate, to come to us to the Mill; but that they were punctually to observe whatever Captain Belsoleil should command them.

Returning then back to Monsieur de Tavannes, we again began to march, when being come near to the Castle, under which and close by the walls of the Town, we were of necessity to pass, their Centinels twice call'd out to us, Who goes there? to which we made no answer at all, but still went on our way, till coming close to the Bourg, we left the way that Captain Belsoleil was to take, and slipt behind the houses of the said Bourg, when being come to the further end where the Mill stood, we were to descend two or three stone steps to enter into the street, where we found a Centi­n [...]l, that never discover'd us, till we were within a Pikes length of him, and then he cry'd Quivive? to which I made answer in Spanish, Espagne, (wherein I was mista­ken, for the word was not then Espagne, but Impery) whereupon, without more cere­mony he gave fire; but hit nothing.

The alarm being by this means given, Monsieur de Tavannes, and I threw our selves de­sperately into the street, and were bravely follow'd; where we found three or four of the Enemy without the door of the Mill: but they immediately ran in. The door of this Mill was ma [...] with two folding leaves, both which were to be bolted fast with a great Iron Bar on the inside; one of these had a great Chest behind it, and the other the fore­said Bar h [...]ld more than half shut, and had these fellows behind it. The Mill was full of men, bod above stairs and below (for there was threescore men in it, with the Captain, who had no dependence upon the Governor of the Town, each of them having his command apart) and we were one by one to enter this place.

Monsieur de Tavannes would very fain first have entred and press'd forward with [Page 27]that intent; but I pulling him back by the arm, withheld him, and push'd in a Sol­dier that was behind me: the Enemy made but two Harquebuze shot, having leisure to do no more, being all fast asleep, excepting these three, or four, who had been pla­ced as Centinels before the Mill door in the street. So soon as the Soldier was got in, I said to Monsieur de Tavannes, now enter if you will; which he presently did, and I after him, where we began to lay about us to some purpose, there being no more but one light only to fight by within.The Mill of Auriolle to [...]ken▪ In this bustle the Enemy by a pair of stone stairs of indifferent wideness, recover'd the upper Room, where they stoutly defen­ded the said stairs from the floor above, whilst I in the mean time sent a Soldier to tell the rest, that were without, that they should get up upon the outside of the Mill, and uncovering the roof, shoot down upon their heads, which was immediately perform'd; so that the Enemy perceiving our men to be got upon the roof, and that they already let [...]ly amongst them, they began to throw themselves into the water out of a window on the backside of the Mill: but we nevertheless mounted the stairs, and kill'd all those that remain'd, the Captain excepted, who with two wounds, and seven others all wounded, were taken prisoners. Hereupon I presently sent one away to Captain Bel­soleil, to bid him take courage, and stoutly to dispute the Gate of the Town, for the Mill was our own.

The Alarm in the mean time, in the Town was very great, and those within three times attempted to Sally: but our men held them so short, that they durst never open their Gates. I sent Captain Belsoleil moreover most of my men to assist him, and in the mean time, with the rest, fell to burning the Mill, taking away all the Iron work, especially the Spindles, and Rinds, that it might not be repair'd again, never leaving it till it was entirely burnt down to the ground, and the Mill-stones rowl'd into the River. Now you must know that Captain Tavannes took it a little to heart, that I had pull'd him back by the arm, and ask'd me afterwards upon our returne, why I would not permit him to enter the first, suspecting I had more mind to give the honor of it to the Soldiers: to whom I made answer, that I knew he was not yet so crafty to save himself, as those old Soldiers were; and that moreover, that was not a place considerable enough for a man of his worth, and con­dition to dye in; but that he was to reserve himself for a noble breach, and not to loose his life in a paltry Mill.

Whilst these things were in doing, Monsieur de Castelpers arriv'd, and leaving his party behind the Church, came up to us on foot, and upon this the day began to appear: wherefore I entreated Monsieur de Tavannes, and de Castelpers to retire behind the Church (for the shot flew very thick in the street, where they could see any one pass) telling them, that I would go draw off Belsoleil; whereupon they both ac­cordingly retir'd, and as I was drawing off our men one after another running down on both sides the street, Monsieur de Castelpers presented himself with his twenty Horse at the end of the street by the Church, wherein he did us very great service, for the Enemy might otherwise have [...]allyed out upon us. I had only seven, or eight men hurt, who nevertheless were all able to march, one Gentleman only excepted, called Vigaux, whom we set upon an Ass of those we had found in the Mill, and presently began to retire towards the top of a mountain, which was al­most the same way by which Monsieur de Castelpers had come, when the Enemy discovering us to be so few,The Impe [...]allists maks [...] Sally. they all fallyed out in our Rear; but we had already gain'd the top of the Hill, when they arriv'd but at the foot of it, and before they recovered the heighth, we were got into the valley on the other side, rea­dy to climb another (there being many little hills in that place) and yet we ne­ver marched [...]aster than a foot pace; and so went straight on to Aubaigne.

I had given order to the Soldiers that went along with us, that every one should take with him a loaf of Bread, which they eat by the way, and I also had caus'd some few to be brought, which I divided amongst the Gens-d' Armes of Monsieur de Tavannes, and we our selves eat as we went; which I here set down, to the end, that when any Captain shall go upon an Enterprize, where he is to have a long march, he may take exemple to cause something to be brought along to eat, wherewith to refresh the Soldiers, that they may be the better able to hold out; for men are not made of Iron.

So soon as we were come to Aubaigne, two leagues from Marselles, where we had thought to have halted, and to have taken some refreshment, we heard the Artillery of the Gallies, and of the Town, which at that distance seem'd to be volleys of Har­quebuze shot; an Alarm that constrain [...]d us without further delay, or taking any [Page 28] other refreshment, than what we had brought along with us, to march forwards, and to enter into consultation amongst our selves what course we were best to take; we al­ready took it for granted, that the Emperor was arriv'd before the Town, and that he would certainly sit down before it;The Emperor Charles before Marselles. and thence concluded it impossible for us to get in again, which made us often repent, and curse the enterprize that had shut us out, the misfortune whereof was wholly laid to my charge, as the Author of all. [...]n this uncertainty what course to steer, Monsieur de Castelpers was once resolved to go charge desperately thorough the Enemy [...]s Camp, to get into the City; but when he came to acquaint us with his determination, we remonstrated to him, that that would be to throw himself away out of an humor, and that since we had together perfor­med so brave a service, and with which the King would be so highly pleased, we ought likewise together either to perish, or to save our selves. Captain Trebous Gui­don to the Company of Monsieur de Montpezat, told him the same, so that we conclu­ded in the end to leave the great high way, and crossing the Mountains on the left hand, to fall down behind Nostre Dame de la Garde, making account, that in case we could not enter into the City, the Captain of the said Cittadel would receive us in there. So we turn'd out of the way, and it was well for us that we did so, for Vignaux, and les Bleres keeping on the great Road straight to Marselles, had not gone on [...]ive hundred paces, but they met with four or five hundred Horse, which the Emperor (having had intelligence from those of Auriolle of what had been done) had sent out to meet, and fight us upon the way; and had not the Emperor parted from Aix by night to go before Marselles, so that the Messengers of a long time could meet with no body to whom to deliver their errand, I do believe we had certainly been de­feated: but the Emperor knew nothing of it, till break of day, whereupon he pre­sently sent out those four or five hundred Horse upon the Road to Aubaigne, who did no other harm to Vignaux, and those who were with him, but only took away their Arms.

In this manner we travail'd all day from mountain to mountain in the excessive heat, without finding one drop of water,Retreat. insfomuch that we were all ready to dye for thirst; al­ways within sight of the Emperor [...]s Camp, and ever within hearing of the Skirmishes that were made before the Town, Monsieur de Castelpers, and his Gens-d' Armes march­ing all the way on foot, as we did, and leading their horses in their hands, till com­ing near to Nostre Dame de la Garde, the Captain of the Castle taking us for the Enemy, let fly three or four pieces of Canon at us, which forc'd us to shift behind the Rocks. From thence we made signs with our hats; but for all that he ceas'd not to shoot, till in the end, having sent out a Soldier to make a sign, so soon as he understood who we were, he gave over shooting; and as we came before Nostre Dame de la Garde, we saw the Emperor, who was retiring by the way he came, and Christophle Goast, who had all day maintain'd the Skirmish, beginning also to retreat towards the City. We then began to descend the Mountain, when so soon as Monsieur de Barbezieux, and Monsieur de Montpezat (who, with some other Captains, were standing without the Gates of the City) had discover'd us, they would have gone in again, taking us for the Enemy; but some body saying, that then those of the Castle would have shot at us, the said Sieur Montpezat presently knew Monsieur de Castelpers▪ and we there­upon arriv'd at the Gate of the City, where we were mightily caressed, especially when they heard of the good success of our enterprize, and they talk'd with the Cap­tain of the Mill, who was wounded in the arm, and in the head, and after every one retir'd to his own Quarters.

I made no manner of question, but that Monsieur de Barbezieux, so soon as the king should come to Marselles, would have presented me to His Majesty, and have told him, that I was the man who had perform'd this exploit, that His Majesty might have taken notice of me: but he was so far from doing me that friendship, that on the contrary he attributed all the honor to himself, saying that it was he, who had laid the design of this Enterprize, and had only deliver'd it to us to execute; and Monsieur de Montpezat was by ill fortune at that time very sick, and could say nothing in my behalf, so that I remain'd as much a stranger to the King, as ever. I came to know all this by the means of Henry king of Navarre, who told me that he himself had seen the Letters which the said Sieur de Barbezieux had writ to the King to that effect,Injustice of Monsieur de Barbezieux towards the Sieur de Mont­lu [...]. wherein he attributed to himself the whole honor of that acti­on. Monsieur de Lautrec would not have serv'd me so; neither is it handsom to rob another man of his honor; and there is nothing that does more discourage a brave heart: but Monsieur de Tavannes, who is now living, can testifie the truth. So it is, that the destroying of these Mills, both the one, and the other, especially [Page 29] those of Auriolle, reduced the Emperors Camp to so great necessity, that they were [...]ain to eat the Corn pounded in a Mortar, after the manner of the Turks; and the Grapes they are put their Camp into so great a disorder, and brought so great a Mortality amongst them, especially the Germans, that I verily believe there never re­turn'd a thousand of them into their own Country, and this was the issue of this mighty preparation.

The Captains who shall read this relation, may perhaps observe, that in this En­terprize there was more of Fortune, than of Reason, and that I went upon it as it were in the dark, though it was happily brought about: but I do not suspect how­ever, that any one will conclude it to be wholly an effect of my good fortune, but will also take notice, that I forgot nothing of what was necessary to make the de­sign succeed; and on the other side they may observe, that my principal security was, that the Enemy within the Town by the Rule of War, ought not to sally out of their Garrison, till they should first discover what our Forces were, a thing in the obscuri­ty of the night, which they could very hardly do▪ all which notwithstanding, I did not yet so much rely upon their discretion, but that I moreover put a bridle in their mouths, which was Belsoleil, and his Company. A man must often hazzard some­thing, for no one can be certain of the event. I concluded the conquest of the Mill for certain: but I ever thought it would be a matter of great difficulty, and danger to retreat.

Thus did the Emperor Charles, both with shame and loss, retire, where that great Leader Anne de Montmorency (all that time Grand Maistre, and since Connestable of France) obtein'd renown.The death of Antonio de Le­va It was one of the greatest baffles the Emperor ever re­ceived, and for grief whereof his great Captain Antonio de Leva (as was reported) afterwards dyed. I have sometimes heard the Marquis de Guast say, that this ex­pedition was the sole contrivance of the sai [...] Antonio de Leva, and yet both he and his Master very well knew, what it was to attaque a king of France in his own Kingdom.

The Emperor being with his Forces retir'd, I would no longer continue Lieute­nant to the Seneschal's Regiment; who, had it lain in his power, would have re­sign'd it wholly into my hands. Monsieur de Boitieres then did me the honor to make me an offer of his Guidon, which I likewise refus'd to accept, having set my heart more upon the Foot, than upon Horse service. I had moreover an opinion, that I should sooner rise to advancement by the Infantry, which was the reason that I again return'd home, where having made some little stay, I would go into Piedmont there to serve under Monsieur de Boitieres, who was the kings Lieutenant in that Pro­vince, and in order thereunto went first to Marselles, where I was six or seven months detain'd by Monsieur de Taude.

Some time after the Emperor rais'd an Army therewith to go and lay siege to The­roa [...]e, and the King, at the same time, rais'd another to relieve it: whereupon I im­mediately took post, and went to Court, where Monsieur Le Grand Maistre gave me a Foot Company, and another to Captain Guerre, which we presently rais'd in, and about Paris, and were both of us receiv'd into the Guards of Monsieur le Dauphin, who was afterwards Henry the Second of France. The Army march'd presently away to Hesdin, and to Anchi le Chastea [...], both which places were taken by the said Grand Maistre, as also Saint Venant; neither could the Imperialists do any good upon The­roane, which Monsieur de Annebaut reliev'd in the very face of the Enemy, though there was a disaster happened upon that occasion, thorough the heat, and vanity of some young Gentlemen, who because they had a mind to break their Launces, would needs indiscreetly seek the Enemy, by whom they were defeated, and all taken, both Monsieur d' Annebaut, and all the rest.

Soon after which the Imperialists retir'd and the King's Army also: As for me, seeing there was no great matters to be done thereabouts, I return'd presently after into Provence, where I had left my great Horses, and my Armes: and where about ten or fifteen days after, I received a Packet from the said Monsieur le Grand Maistre, where­in there was a Commission to raise two Ensigns of Foot, and to march them away into Piedmont, whither the King himself was also going in person to relieve Turin, Monsieur de [...]oitieres being shut up within it. I thereupon presently took Post to go into Gascony, and made so good hast, that in eight days I had rais'd the two Compa­nies, of which I made Captain Merens my Lieutenant; when, being about Tholouse, I left the men with him, and went away Post, having heard that Monsieur le Grand Maistre was already arriv'd at Lyons, and that he march'd in great diligence to gain [Page 30] the Pas de Suze, wherein he shew'd himself to be no novice in War▪ So that seeing I could not bring up my Companies time enough to be with him at that Engagement, I was resolved to be there alone: I could not however make so great hast, but that I found the King got before me to Sorges, and Monsieur le Grand Maistre two days march further advanc'd: where His Maj [...]sty commanded me to return to my command, and to come up with Ambres and Dampons, who had each of them two Companies more, telling me moreover, that we were to be commanded by Monsieur de Chavigni, and giving me further instructions that we were to sit down before Barsellonette, and to seize all the Towns thereabout into our hands.

So soon as I came to Marselles, I had news brought me, that my two Companies had disbanded themselves; for (as the ambition of the world is great) Monsieur de Lieux my Brother had sent to my Lieutenant to desire him, that he would loyter a while in expectation of him up and down the Country thereabouts, forasmuch as he was raising a Foot Company,Mr. Lieux, brother to Mr. Montluc. which he intended speedily to march away under the shadow of my Commission; to which my Li [...]utenant very indiscreetly consented, not­withstanding the promise he had made me to march five leagues a day. But as my Lieutenant had quitted the great Road, and turn'd aside towards Albigeois to spin out the time, he came at last to a Town call'd l'Isle, where the Inhabitants shut their Gates against him, which forc'd him to give an assault, as he did, and carried the place, with so suddain an execution, that although my said Brother was then within a days march of him with his Company, yet would he not come up, till the business was done, where his Soldiers having sack'd the Town, and being by that means loaden with booty, they were afterwards in so great fear to march, that they all disbanded, and every one run home with his spoil to his own house. By which you may under­stand, A Captain ought as sel­dom as he can to leave his men. that an officer ought very seldom to leave his command, if not upon extraor­dinary occasion, for the great desire I had to be one of the first, made me to aban­don mine, which was the cause of this disorder. I was therefore constrain'd to raise two other Companies in Provence, wherein the Count [...]avour'd me very much, so that I had soon dispatch'd, muster'd at Villeueufve d' Avignon, and made so great hast, that (notwithstanding this accident) I yet arriv'd at the Valleys two days sooner than Ambres, and Dampons, and took the Castle, and the Town of Mieulan, where I made a halt in expectation of Monsieur de Chavigni, and the Companies of the said Ambres, and Dampons, who disputed the passage of Lauzet, which they could never have ob­tained, for all the people of the Country were there gather'd together to defend it: but that the Spaniards who were at Barselonette, and those who were gone to defend the passage, hearing that I had taken Mieulan, retir'd by the Mountains (for I was pos­sessed of the great Road towards Barselonette) and the common people seeing the said Spaniards to retire, quitted the passe by night, by means whereof they entred in­to it.

We then went to besiege Barselonette, The Sieur de Montluc shot. before which place we lay three weeks, where I receiv'd a Harquebuze shot through my left arm, but it never touch'd the bone, so that I was presently cured, after which the King having relieved Turin, His Majesty return'd, and we for not having been present at the service, were all three commanded back; upon which order Monsieur d' Ambres went away Post to his said Majesty, with whom he prevailed so far, that he was pleased to leave him one of his Companies: which when I understood with what difficulty he had obtain'd, I carried mine back into Provence, where having dismissed them, I retir'd my self to my own house. At which time there was also a cessation (seeing no peace was to be made) concluded for ten years.

I thought fit to commit this to writing (though there be no great matter in it) to let the world see, that I never rested long in a place; but was always ready at the first beat of Drum; for the days of Peace were whole years to me, so impatient I was of lying idle. At the end of this War, the King was pleased to honor Monsieur le Grand Maistre with the Office of Connestable of France; an employment that has ever been vacant (as it is at this day) after the death of Monsieur de Montmorency. A thing that I conceive our Kings have purposely so ordered, as well to take away all oc­casion of Jealousie amongst the Princes,The danger of creating a Connestable [...] France. as also for the danger of entrusting so great a power in one mans hands. Witness St. Pol, and Bourbon, the last of which indeed was very faithful, and dyed in his Majesties service, ever approving himself a great, and prudent Captain: which testimony I am constrain'd by truth to give of him, and by no other obligation that I have; for neither he, nor any of his were ever any friends of mine.

[Page 31]During the time of this Truce, I tryed (forsooth) to be a Courtier, but in vain, for I was never cut out for that employment, I have ever been too free, and too open hearted to live at Court, and I succeeded there accordingly. Now after the soul, and detested assassinate committed upon the persons of the Seigmeurs Fregouze and Rincon, Embassadours for the King our Master,The Truce broken by reason of the Murther of Mr. Frego [...]ze▪ and Mr. Rin­con, [...]mba [...]a [...]dors for the Christian King his Majesty incens'd at such an outrage, and for which he could obtain no manner of satisfaction; he resolv'd to break the Truce, and to that end set two Armies on foot, one of which he gave to Monsieur le Due d' Orleans, which was design'd for Luxemburg, and the other to Monsieur le Dauphin, who came into the County of Roussillon to reduce it to his Fathers obedience, having Monsieur d' Annebaut (who since was Admiral) in company with him. I therefore hearing that the said Mareschal was to take with him the Companies of Piedmont, which were commanded by Monsieur de Brissac, and also an Engineer called Hieroni­mo Marini, reputed the greatest man of Italy, for the besieging of places, I had a great desire to go to the Camp, to learn something of this famous Engineer. Where being accordingly come, I put my self under Monsieur d Assier, who commanded the Artillery in the absence of his Father, and who never stirr'd from the said Hie­ronimo Marini; by which means I happened to be at the approaches that were made before the City of Perpignan to which we had laid siege: but in two nights I perceiv'd that all he did signified nothing; for he begun the Trenches so far off, that in eight days the Canon could not be mounted, as he himself declared; to which I made an­swer, that in that time the Enemy would have fortified their City, four times as strong as it was on that side.

The King had for this Enterprize rais'd the bravest Army that ever my eyes beheld: it consisted of forty thousand Foot, two thousand men at Armes, and two thousand Light horse, with all necessary equipage for so considerabe a Body. Monsieur Montpezat had been the Author of the design: though not so secretly, but that Spain was before hand wholly possessed with the expectation of it: which notwithstanding, and that the Town was excellently well fortified; yet I dare boldly a [...]firm that if the Mareschal d' Annebaut would have given credit to my words, he had infallibly done his business. I had taken a private view of it: for some years before this, Monsieur le Connestable being gone to Leucate to treat a Peace with the Emperor's Deputy Granvelle, had sent me with General Bayard, and President Poyet (who was since Chancellor) to whom the Emperor's Deputy (at the instance of Monsieur de Veli Embassador for the King) gave permission to go, and recreate themselves three or four days at the said Perpignan. At which time the said Connestable made me put my self into the habit of a Cook belonging to Monsieur de Poyet, The Sieur de Montlu [...] [...]ent Spye into Perpignan. to the end, that under that disguise I might discover the place; and yet I once thought my self to be discovered: however I found oppor­tunity by the means of a Fleming servant to the said de Veli, which he had left be­hind him, to take an exact view of the place; for he had led me quite round the Town both without, and within, so that I was able to make a report to the Connestable of all the strength, and defects of the said City; who was pleased to tell me there­upon, that I had made a perfect discovery, as by several others, who had long been in­habitants there, he had been credibly informed.

Now you must know this was only a pretended divertisement of Poyet, and Bayard, who durst by no means take the Kings Engineer in their company, as the Co [...]nestable would have had them, fearing he might be discovered, and themselves, by that means, detained Prisoners: neither did they fail to relate to him afterwards the fright they were in when a Spanish Captain challeng'd me by my name: but I faced him out of the business, counterfeiting both my Country, and Language, and dissembling better to understand how to handle a larding-pin, than a sword, and saying that I was a Cook to Monsieur le President Poyet, who himself had not a word to say, for the ter­rible fear he was in least I should be discover'd: but General Bayard laugh'd the Spa­nish Captain out of his conceit, in private telling him, that he was not the first who had been so deceiv'd: but that the man he took me for, was one of the best Captains the King of France had. At all this story the Constable did only laugh; but I very se­riously told him, that he should never make me play the Spye again so long as he liv'd▪ 'Tis an employment of too great danger, and that I have ever abhorred: but so it was, that at that time I plaid the cook to discover the place; which I did exactly well, and that is the reason why I have said, that had Monsieur d' Annebaut given credit to me, he had easily taken the Town: but he would rather believe a suborned Gascon Ma­son (which the Enemy had thrust out of Town on purpose, and had order'd to give himself up, only to amuse the Mareschal, and to persuade him to assault that part, [Page 32] which he did assault) and his Engineer, than any thing I could say Insomuch that we did nothing either worth writing, or r [...]lating, which fell out so much the worse, as it was the Dauphin's first tryal of Armes, who had a mind to do as well, as Monsieur d' Orleans his Brother, who took Luxemburg: but it was no fault of his. Two days before the Camp dislodg [...]d, the said Mareschal went round about the Town, where I shew'd Monsieur d'Estree who is yet living, the place where I would have had them to have made their Attaque,The Siege raised from before per­p [...]gnan. and that very near at hand, though the Canon, and Harqu [...]buze shot they liberally bestow'd upon us, might reasonably have made us stand aloof: which after he had seen he cryed out, Good God, what an error have we committed! but it was then too late to repent, for the relief was already entred in, and the time of the Rains was at hand, which would have damm'd up our retreat; and yet we had enough to do as it was to draw off our Artillery, so ill a place is that Country, for an Army to move in.

During the time of this Siege the Company of Monsieur Boleves became vacant, which Monsieur le Dauphin sent to entreat for Boqual (who since is turn'd Hugonot) and I also writ to Monsieur de Valence my Brother, who was then at the Court at Salers; where the king was so discontented, by reason of the ill success of this enterprize, both with the Dauphin, and Monsieur de Annebaut (who had also sent to sollicite it in the behalf of another) that His Majesty would neither grant it to the one, nor the other: but was pleased to confer it upon me. The Camp being raised, Monsieur de Brissac had Capestaing assign' d him for Garrison, and Monsieur de I' Orge (Colonel of the Legionaries)Tuchant (the place to which they had drawn off all the ammunitions of corn that had been left in the Camp) assigned him for his, Where three days after all the said Legionaries forsook him, nothing but their Captains remaining behind; who thereupon sent to Monsieur Brissac, that if he did not come speedily to his relief, he should be constrain'd to abandon the said provisions, and to shift for himself: which made us march with all possible diligence, without being more then half a night only upon our way, and found him totally left alone, saving for Messieurs de Denez, and Fonterailles, and their servants.

Now there was a Castle upon the Mountain towards Perpignan, about a League from Tuchant, and on the left hand of Milan, and the said Seigneurs de Brissac and de I Orge being gone out of the said Tuchaut to hear Mass at a little Chappel about a Cross-bow shot from thence; at our coming out from Mass we heard very many Harquebuze shot at the said Castle, and discover'd a great many men about it, with a great smoak of Powder, whereupon I ask'd Monsieur de Brissac, if he were pleas'd that I should go thither with thirty or forty of my men, to see what the matter was; who presently gave me leave so to do: wherefore without any more delay, I presently sent [...]a Moy [...]nne my Lieutenant, to get them together, and to bring me a horse, which be­ing suddainly brought, I march'd directly towards the Castle Le Peloux wo was Lieu­tenant to Monsieur de Brissac had a desire to follow after, as had also Monbasin, St. Laurens (a Breton) and Fabrice, being all Launce-passades belonging to the Company of the said Seigneur, together with fifty or threescore Soldiers of the same. I made ve­ry great hast, when so soon as the Enemy had discovered me, as I was beginning to climb the Mountain, they retreated down the other side into a plain which lies below Tanta­vel where they clapt themselves down under the Olive trees, to stay for the rest of their fellows, that they had left behind them at Mila [...]. The Captain of the Castle was Barennes, an Archer of the Kings Guard, who had been placed there by Monsieur de Montpezat, and whilst the said Barennes was shewing me the Enemy, appear'd Peloux with his Soldiers, and with them a Gentleman called Chamant, a very brave man, so that although we knew the Enemy to be above four hundred men (as we were also assured by Berennes) we nevertheless concluded to go, and fight them.

This place was all Rock tufted over with a little Copse, thorough which we were to pass to get to them; wherefore we agreed, that Peloux should take a little path on the right hand, and I another on the left, and that the first which came up to them, in the plain, should fall upon them, the one in the Front, and the other in the Rear; which we had no sooner concluded, but that the Enemy rose up, and we disco­vered them all plainly at our [...]ase. Monbasin, Chamant, St, Laurens, and Fabrice who were all on horseback, would needs go along with me, at which Peloux was a little dis­contented, forasmuch as they all belong'd to Monsieur Brissac, as he himself did, excep­ting Chamant, who belonged to Monsieur le Dauphin. Artiguedieu, and Barennes likewise went in my Company.

[Page 33]From the very beginning of our desc [...]nt, the Enemy lost sight of us, and we of them, by reason of the wood, and of the Valley, which was pretty large▪ Le Peloux with his Guide took his way, and I mine, when so soon as I came into the Plain, I was as good as my word, for I charg'd the Enemy thorough and thorough; breaking in after such a manner amongst them, that above twenty of them at this en­counter were left dead upon the place, and we pursued them fighting, as far as the bank of the River, which might be some four hundred paces or more: But when they saw us to be so few, they rallied, and as I was about to retire, march'd directly up to me, whereupon I made a halt, as they did also at the distance of four or five Pikes length only from one another, a thing that I never saw done before. As for Peloux, when he was got to the middle of the Mountain, he began to think that I had taken the better way, which made him suddainly to turn off, and to follow my steps: and fortune also turn'd so well for me, that as we were Pike to Pike, and Harquebuze to Harquebuze,A brisk skir­mish. at the distance I have already said, grinning and snarling at one another, like two Masti [...]s when they are going to fight, Peloux and his Company appear'd in the plain; which so soon as the Enemy saw, they turn'd the point of their Pikes towards us, and their faces towards the River, and so fell to marching off, whilst we pursued pricking them forward with our Pikes, and pelting them with our Har­quebuze shot in their Rear: but they march'd so very close, that we could no more break into them as before; and when they came to the bank of the River they made a halt, facing about and charging their Pikes against us, so that although Peloux, and his Company made all the hast they could to come in to our relief, we were never­theless constrain'd to retire fifteen or twenty paces from the [...]nemy, who immedi­ately all on a thrump leapt into the River, and through water middle deep, pass'd over to the other side. Mo [...]basin in this engagement was hurt with a Harquebuze shot in his hand, of which he remain'd lame ever after, St Laurens and Fabri [...]e had their horses kill'd under them, and mine was wounded with two thrusts of a Pike▪ la Moyenne, my Lieutenant, was wounded with two Harquebuze shots in one arm, Cha­mant, who was lighted off his horse, had three thrusts of Pikes in his two thighs, and Artiguedieu one Harquebuze shot, and one thrust of a Pike in one thigh; to be short, of betwixt thirty and five and thirty that we were, there remain'd only five or six un­hurt, and only three dead upon the place. The Enemy lost one Serjeant of great re­pute amongst them, together with twenty or five and twenty others kill [...]d, and a­bove thirty wounded, as we were told the next day by two Gascon Soldiers who came over to us. In the mean time Messieurs de Brissac and de I' Orge doubting it would fall out as it did, mounted to horse, and came so opportunely to the Castle of Tantavel, that they saw all the fight, and were in so great despair at the Charge I had made, that they gave us twice or thrice for lost: an [...] very sorely rebuked Peloux, for not ha­ving observ'd the agreement we had concluded amongst us; which if he had done, we had infallibly cut them all to pieces, and brought away their two Colours; yet I am apt to believe it might not be altogether his fault (for he was a very brave Gen­tleman) but his Guides that led him the worse way, as Peloux himself since told me. However so it fell out, that the field was mine, with the loss of three men only, and not one of the Gentlemen dyed.

Soon after the Baron de la Garde came to Nice with the Turkish Army, conducted by Barbarossa, which consisted of an hundred or six score Gallies, a thing that all the Chri­stian Princes who took part with the Emperor, made a hainous business of, that the King our Master should call in the Turk to his assistance; though I am of opinion that towards an Enemy all advantages are good; and for my part (God forgive me) if I could call all the Devils in Hell to beat out the brains of an Enemy, that would beat out mine▪ I would do it with all my heart. Upon this occasion Monsieur de Valence, my Brother, was dispatch'd away to Venice, to palliate and excuse this proceeding of ours to the Republick, who of all others seem'd to be most offended at it, and the King would by no means lose their Alliance; who made them an Oration in Italian, which I have thought fit to insert here, until he shall think fit to oblige us with his own History; for I cannot believe that a man of so great learning, as he is reputed to be, will dye without writing something; since I who know nothing at all, take upon me to scribble▪ The Oration was this.

[Page 34]THe Emperor having been the cause of all the ruines,Oration of the Bishop of Valence to the Senate of Ve­nice. miseries, and calamities, which have befallen Christendom for these many years; it is a thing (most illustrious Princes) which to every one ought to appear exceeding strange, that his Ministers should be so impu­dent, and frontless, as to lay the blame thereof to the thrice Christian King my Lord and Ma­ster, and unjustly condemn him for keeping an Ambassador resident in the Court of Constanti­nople: [...]ut I would fain ask those people, whether they can imagine that the practices which have been set on foot by the Command of the Emperor, and the King of the Romans with the Grand Signior for ten years past, have been kept so secret, that the greatest part of Chri­stendom are not fully enformed thereof. Does not every one know what Truces, and what treaties of Peace ( [...] general, but particular) have been concluded, and what offers have been several times made to pay yearly a vast Tribute to the Great Turk, for the kingdom of Hun­gary? and yet he makes it a case of Conscience to endure, that a little King should hold that Kingdom under the favour and protection of the Turk, as a thing inconsistent with Christia­nity, and unbeseeming a Christian Prince? To which I could truly add, that at the time when the Peace was concluded betwixt your most Serene Republick and the Turk, the king of the Romans, by the secr [...]t practices of his Agents, did all that in him lay, to hinder that Treaty, as by the several Letters and Dispatches that have been intercepted, does most manifestly appear.

The same Ministers of the Emperor do think also, that they discharges themselves from all blame, in keeping a [...]lutter, and farcing their Posts and Gazetts, (as their manner is) with observations of the long abode that the Naval Army of the Grand Signior has, for some months, made in the Ports of France, and under that pretence would, by their passionate calumnies, impose upon the world a new Article of Faith, to wit, that no Prince, for his own defence, either can or ought to derive succours from such, as are of a Religion contrary to his own; not taking notice, that in condemning the King, my Lord and Master, they at the same time accuse David, a valiant King, and a holy Prophet, who seeing himself persecuted by Saul, fled away to Achish, who was an Idolater, and a profess'd Enemy to the Law of God; and not only so, but some time after, moreover rank'd himself in the Squadrons of the Infidels, even then, when they went to fight with the people of his own Religion. They also condemn Asa King of Juda, who called into his aid the King of Syria, to deliver him from the oppression of the King of Israel. They moreover reproach Constantine, a most Christian Prince, and he, who of all the Emperors, has best deserved of the Christian Commonweal, who in most of his expeditions, carried along with him a great number of Idolatrous Goths in his Army. They likewise taxe Boniface, so highly commended by St. Augustine in his Epistles, who, for his own defence, and perhaps to revenge some injury receiv'd, called into Affrick the Vandals, profess'd enemies to our Religion.

They calumniate Narses (the slave of Justinian, a very valiant, but, above all, a very re­ligious Captain, as may be concluded from the testimony of Saint Gregory, and also by the Churches he has built, both in this illustrious City, and that of Ravenna,) who called in the Lumbards to his aid, a people, at that time, abborring the name of Christian. Arcadius Emperor of Constantinople (allowed by all Historians for a Prince equally religious, and wise) having in the latter end of his days a desire to substitute some Governor, and Protector, that might be sufficient to preserve the Dignity and Authority of the Empire, turn'd his thoughts towards the King of Persia, an Idolater, and entreated him in his last Will to accept the Tu­ition, and Protection both of his Son, and the Empire. A choice that was singularly appro­ved by all the Christian Princes of that time, and so much the more, for that the king of Persia not only accepted the charge▪ but moreover worthily acquitted himself of his trust to the hour of his death. [...]efore H [...]raclius suffer'd himself to be infected with the poyson of Heresy, he served himself in an infinite number of Wars with Saracen Soldiers. Basile, and Constantine sons to John Emperor of Constantinople, took Apulia, and Calabria, by the means and assistance of a great number of Saracens, which themselves had first driven out of the Isle of Candie. I could say as much of Frederick, who by the help of the Saracens, Lorded it over the greatest part of Italy. I could present before you the Example of Henry, and Frederick, brothers to the King of Castile, who in the time of pope Clement the fourth, accompanied with Conradin, called the Saracens, both by land and sea▪ not for the security and defence of their own Country, but to drive the Fr [...]nch out of Italy, and with the same Army of Bar­barians, in a short time, made themselves Masters of a great part of Sicily. I could speak of Ludovico S [...]orza, who with several other Princes of Italy, made use of the Forces of Bajazet.

What shall I say of Maximilian of the [...]ouse of Austria who not to defend himself, but to ruine your state (most illustrious Senators) tryed to nettle, and incite the Turk against [Page 35] you, to your great prejudice and ruine? as it is faithfully recorded by Signi [...]r Andr [...]a Moce­nigo, one of your own Historians, together with the remedies you were fain to oppose in that exi­gency, and distress. If yet neither natural reason, nor exemples drawn from holy Scripture, and Christian History w [...]re sufficient to confirm you in, or to perswade you into the truth of this cause, I could accompany them with several others, which I am willing to omit, both because I would not [...]ire your [...]ordships patience, [...]nd also for that I believe there can remain no man­ner of scruple in you, considering, that, by the Exemples before alledged, I have already disco­ver'd the weak foundation of that Article of Faith, lately forged by the Imperialists, to serve for their own ends. And which is more, I do say, and will maintain, that the most Christian King my Lord and So [...]eraign, by the Exemple of so many renowned and religious Princes, may, without any prejudice to the place he holds, or to the Title of most Christian, which be [...]ears, serve himself in all affairs and n [...]cessities, with the aid and assistance of the Grand Signior. And if this with truth and reason may be understood of all his necessary affairs; how much more ought his most Christian Majesty, not only be excused, but highly applauded, who for no need, how great soever he has to defend himself, for no single revenge His Maj [...]sty might desire for so many injuries done, and so many wrongs received, so many assassinations, and slaughters exe­cuted upon his people, by the Emperor, or by his procurement, would accept of no other suc­cours, but only th [...]se which we by experience see are to all Christi [...]ns, of greater utility, than disadvantage? And if any one of th [...]se who adhere to the Emperor's party should demand how the Turkish Army can remain in our Ports, no l [...]ss for the benefit of Italy, than for our own particular convenience; I could ask him by way of answer, which way be can prove that Christendom has received any detriment by our having received, and refresh'd this Naval Ar­my in our Heavens? To which I am certain the wisest, and most aff [...]ctionate of the Imperial party could return me no answer, unless it were some one, who delights to argue for controver­sies sake, and takes more pleasure in hearing himself talk, than that he has really a desire to enter into a serious examination of things, to understand the negotiation, and to be enfomed of the reasons thereof. But that we may not leave any thing, that may beget the least imaginable doubt in the minds of such, as are not perfectly inform'd of this Affair, I shall handle the point us succinctly, and with as much brevity, as I can.

So oft as your Serenity has, by the Emperor's Embassadors, been applyed unto, for leave to pass thorough the Territories of any of your Seigniory, with his Alman, Italian or Spanish Forces, immediately thereupon there have been heard a thousand outer [...]es, and complaints of Rapes, Assassinations, and other Riots and disorders of their Soldiers, and it is but a few months since, that the Germans, who pretended to go to Carignan to keep their Easter, to outdo the villany of those, who before had so barbarously treated your Subjects in their persons, and so lewdly spoiled them of their Estates, displaid part of their rage, and Insolence against the Church, to the great disgrace, and contempt of Christian Religion, cutting off the ears, nose, and arms of the Crucifix, and other Images representing the Saints who are in Heaven.

This numerous and mighty Army (most Serene Prince) departed from Constantinople, being composed of Soldiers who were strangers to our Religion, and being designed, and accordingly sent for the relief of the King, my Lord and Master, sailed thorough the midst of your Islands, landed in the Dominions of the Church, pass'd thorough the Territories of the Siennois, and Geno [...]ses (people both of them, greater favourers of the Emperor's Greatness, than friends to their own proper liberty) yet is it not to be perceiv'd, nor can any man be found to complain of any insolence offer [...]d to him: but on the contrary, all men have been treated with all humanity, and free passage granted to all those they met upon the Seas, and just payment made for all the provisions they were nec [...]ssitated to take for the support of the Army upon their March. An effect of moderation in that rough sort of men, which must chiefly be attributed to the presence, and dexierity of Captain Polin, the king's Embassador; and with so great advantage to him, that never in times past, did either Turkish or Christian Army behave themselves so modestly upon such an occasion.

Who is [...]e (most Serene Prince) that can, or will deny, but that had not this Army been en­tertain'd by the King, my Master, for the defence of his Frontiers, Christendom had been as­saulted by it to their infinite damage? Who is he that will not judge, that this Army (its puissance considered) must have triumph'd over an infinit [...] number of Christian Souls, together with some City of great importance, had not we converted that power to our own advantage, which otherwise must necessarily have succeeded to the general advancement of the Grand Signior's affairs, and to the private benefit of his Captains, who are Enemies to our Faith? this Ar­my then being a Body disposed to Enterprize, and capable of performing high exploits, any man of a sound judgment will con [...]ess, that it has been of much greater advantage to Christendom, that is has been employed in the service of his Majesty, my King and Master, than that they had [...] invade the Christian borders upon their own account. So that besides that it was [Page 36] needful, and necessary for the King, my Master, to serve himself with this Army, therewith to correct the insolence of the Emperor's people, who had already seized upon four of his Gallies at Toulon, it may moreover be affirmed without reply, that to this private benefit of ours, is con­joyned the publick utility of all Christendom.

I flatter myself (most Serene Prince) clearly to have demonstrated to you, and to have con­firm'd by evident reasons, and infallible Arguments, these two principal things. First that the King without prejudice to his title of most Christian, has accepted the succours that have been sent him by the Grand Signior: and in the second place, that these succours so sent have been of greater profit, than disadvantage to the Christian Common-weal: to which I shall add a third, and that with as much brevity, as the importance of the subject will permit; and that is, that the Kings Majesty has not accepted these forces, either out of any ambition of Rule, or out of revenge for injuries received; neither to enrich himsel [...] with the spoils of others; nor to recover what has been unjustly usurped from himself; but has only entertained them for his own defence, that is (Illustrious Senators) for the defence of his Kingdom, which the Emperor both by open violence, and clandestine practice, by all sorts of intelligences, and treacheries, contrary to all rea­son and justice, has evermore labour'd to overthrow: and yet his Ministers are not ashamed to say, that his Caesarean Majesty has had no other motive to invade the Kingdom of France, but only to break the friendship that was said to be contracted betwixt the Kings Majesty, and the Grand Signior. O tender Consciences! O holy pretences! fit indeed to delude the credulous, and ignorant, but that will hardly pass (Illustrious Senators) with you, who in your admirable and celebrated wisdom, even before I could open my lips, must needs be satisfied in your own bosoms of the contrary, and in your prudence easily discern the foundation of this War to have been no other than a design to ruine that Kingdom, which for th [...]se thousand years past has approved it self the true and willing refuge of the oppressed, and the only Sanctuary of all sorts of afflicted persons. I would fain know of these men, who invent these subtil Arguments, what holy mo­tive of Faith spurr'd on the Emperor, combined with the King of England, to invade France on the side of Champagne and Picardy, an expedition that only ended in the burning of some few inconsiderable Villages, and the Siege of Mezieres, very dishonorable for him? What de­votion prick'd him on, at a time when Italy liv'd in peace, and assurance, by reason that Naples, Millan, Florence, and Genoa were possessed by several Princes, to come and shuffle all things into discord and confusion? What Religion (I say) moved him to league and combine himself with Pope Leo, to ravish away the state of Millan, which in a direct line of succession appertai­ned to to the Children of my King and Master? What mighty zeal for Religion prompted him to cause our King to be murthered by means of a Prince of France, whom, to that end, he had suborned with prayers and tears? when seeing his execrable practice, (before it came to executi­on) to be wholly detected, he sent the Seigneur de Bourbon, with an infinite number of people into France, in hope to effect that by open force, which (the bounty and providence of God not permitting him) by secret treacheries he could not bring to pass? What inspiration of the holy Ghost might it be, that seven years since conducted the Emperor, with seventeen thousand Foot, and ten thousand Horse, to invade the Kingdom of France, then, when he entred by Picardy, and Provence? What command of the Gospel can ever be found out, such as these men have found, who make a shew of so great devotion to the Christian Name, that can justifie to the world the con­federacy betwixt the Emperor and the King of England, especially the said King by the proper solicitations, and pursuit of his Caesarean Majesty being at that time by the Pope declared a Schismatick, a Heretick, and a Rebel? A conspiracy that cannot be baptiz'd by the name of a necessary succour: but an unjust, wicked, and detestable confederacy complotted betwixt them two, to the end that they might divide betwixt them a Christian, and a Chatholick Kingdom; which in all times, when any occasion has presented it self for the propagation of our Faith, has ever shew'd it self prodigal, both of its Blood, and Treasure.

But the whole world (most Serene Princes) were too little to satisfie his appetite of Rule;He means when Henry the eighth re­pudiated Queen Katha­rine so precipitously is he hurried on by his Ambition and Revenge. Would he not have been sensible of the shameful affront put upon him by the English King in the person of his Aunt, had not the design to subjugate all Christendom transported him to forget that outrage? How often, to frustrate the Turkish attempts, and to prevent the manifest ruine of Hungary and Germa­ny, have means been tryed, and endeavours used, to procure a peace and union amongst those Princes, and still in vain? Whereas now all particular animosities, and private interests, the respect to Religion, the common desire of liberty, the obligation of so many benefits anci­ently[?] received from our Forefathers, and of late from us, laid aside, and forgot; they are, to our great prejudice, confederated, and united like Herod and Pilate, who from mortal Ene­mies that they were, became friends, and Associates only in order to the persecution of Iesus Christ.

Shall then this Emperor (most Serene Prince) go about to possess himself of the Kingdom of [Page 37] France, and to offend this King, who, after so many injuries receiv'd, so amicably and so free­ly consented to the ten years Truce? shall the Emperor go about to rui [...]e this Prince, who after having been so many times undeservedly invaded in his own Kingdom, and as it were coming from the Obsequies of that most Illustrious and Serene Dauphin, his Son (so basely by the Em­perors corruptions poysoned) never [...]heless with the rest of his Children, and Princes of the Blood, at the peril of his life, went even into the Emperors own Gally, by that security to manifest to him, how much the peace, so necessary to all Christendom, was by his Majesty coveted and desired? Shall the Emperor go about to ruine, burn, and put to spoil this Kingdom, in his passage thorough which, he was so welcom'd, treated, honored and caressed, as if he had been an Angel descen­ded from Heaven? Shall [...]e attempt, by all undue and all violent ways, to make himself So­vereign of this Kingdom wherein for fifty days together, by the courtesie, and bounty of the King my Lord and Master, he saw himself more highly honoured, and respected, then their own natural Prince, with a power to command all things more absolute, than if he had been in his own Palace? Shall the Almans go about to make Hinds, and Slaves of those, who for the conservation of the German liberty, have so liberally exposed themselves, at the vast expence, and loss of their substance, and the effusion of their own blood? Shall the Germans and the English go about to ruine the Religion, that we with our valiant Armies, and by the Doctrine of an infinite number of men, eminent for piety and learning, have esserted and publish'd to all the world? Shall the Spaniards a people whom so often, and by di [...]t of Arms we have redu­ced to the Christian Faith, go about in revenge to compel us to forsake that Religion, which so long, and with so great honor to the name of Christ, we have maintained and upheld? If it must be so that (contrary to all duty and right) we must be abandoned by the rest of the Chri­stian world (which God avert) we who are the Subjects of the King, my Lord and Master, may with great reason and justice, cry unto God for vengeance against them all, for so foul an in­gratitude.

These are returns, by no means suitable to the merits of our Forefathers, for (having by the di­vine assistance) gain'd so many signal victories for Christendom under the conduct of Charles Mar­tel in those times when they fought with, and cut pieces fifty thousand Saracens, that were come into Spain. These are by no means fit rewards for the desert of our Ancestors, who (by the favour of the Almighty) acquir'd great advantages for Christendom, at the time, when by their Forces under the conduct of Charlemain the Infidels and Saracens were driven both out of Spain, and a great part of Asia. These are by no means acknowledgments proportionable to the reputation our people (by the Grace of God) acquir'd in the time of Urban the second, who without any difficulty, or the least contradiction, dispased our King, his Princes, Nobility, Gentry, and generally the whole body of the Kingdom, against the adversaries of our Faith; insomuch that altogether, and through our assistance, they coquer'd the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the Holy Land. These are by no means fit recompences for the desert of so many expeditions against the enemies of our Faith, fortunately undertaken by our Progenitors, under the Reigns of Philip and Charles of Valois And when his Holiness shall see so many Nations confederated, with a mischievous intent to ruine the rest of Christendom, and resolved to oppress this Kingdom, which of all other has best merited of the Christian Common-weal, I cannot doubt, but that he will lend us such succours, and assistance as he shall judge necessary [...]o our pro­tection, and defence. And should his Holiness do otherwise, he would do very much against himself, and contrary to the duty of an Italian, a Christian, and a Prelate. Of an Italian, forasmuch as our Holy father does very well understand, that the servitude, and calamity of Italy, can proceed from no other accident, than from the ruine and desolation of the Kingdom of France: Of a Christian forasmuch as the name of Christ having in all Ages been defended and propagated by this Kingdom, and it being at this time invaded by the means and ambition of the Emperor, and so many Nations strangers to our Religion, it cannot in this exigency be de­serted by any but such, as are no very good friends to the Christian Faith: Of a Prelate for as­much as it were contrary to the duty of his Holiness, being, as he is, thoroughly informed, and very well in his own knowledg assured, that the Emperor, obstinate in his own will, and resolute to subjugate both the French, Italians, and all other Christians, would never hearken to any over­ture of accommodation, that has by his Holiness been propounded to him. Whereas on the contrary the King my Master (equally desirous of his own, and the publick quiet) has often offered to sub­mit all his interests, and differences to the judgment of our Holy Father. To discharge then the office of a true Prelate, and a true Iudg, may he not take arms against him, who has not the confidence to deny, but that he is the sole perturbator of the publick peace, and the universal good? Which though his Holiness should forbear to do, yet to reprove his ingratitude in this re­spect, the very bones of Gregory the third, Stephen the second, Adrian the first, Stephen the fourth, Gregory the ninth, Gelasius the second, Innocent the second Eugenius the first, Inno­cent the fourth, Urban, and several other Popes would start up; who being persecuted, partly by [Page 38] the En [...]mies of the Faith, and partly by the Emperors, have been relieved by the Forces of this most Christian Kingdom, and by the Treasure of this Crown, as the sacred Anchor of all Christendom, and have been protec [...]ed, and restored to the holy Chair. The bones and ashes of pope Clement would rise up, who being, contrary to all reason, and equi [...]y, reduced to the ex­treamest calamity by the Emperor (who at this very time, allyed and confederated with Here­ticks, pr [...]pares, and stirrs up so many Tragedies, for good, and true Christians) was delive­red from all his oppressions by the arms of the King my Master, and that at the price of a great number of his people.

I do not believe (Illustrious Senators) that you have in the least [...]orgot the Vnion, and Ally­ance, which for seven years past, has been so in [...]iolably observed betwixt your Illustrious Republick, and the Crown of France. Can you forget the strict league that was maintained betwixt you and us in the late Wars? Neither can you have forgot that Enterprize wherein you, and we, in so short time, conquered Constantinople. Can you then endure, that a Nation your forefa­thers have so loved, honored, and esteemed, should be weakened by the means of your Enemies; a people with whom (neither you, nor we being degenerated from the vertue of our Predecessors) you may yet expect to perform more exploits; and such as may be for the enlargement of your own Dominions, and the universal benefit of all Christendom. I hope you consider (Illustrious Senators) with your wanted prudence, that if (as God forbid) any sinister accident should be­fall the King, my Lord and Master, the liberty of your most serene Republick, would be with­out all manner of Remedy, exposed as a prey to him, who aims at nothing less, than to subject us both to the same servile Yoke, as those who have ever been united for the defence of the com­mon liberty. Which though you should not do, yet the very bones of our forefathers would rise up in our favour, those Ancestors who se [...]ing Philip Maria Visconti to have subdued Genoa, and already to have reduced all Tuscany to a deplorable condition, not able to susser so great an injustice, nor to permit the Territories of so great Princes to be invironed by so dangerous an Enemy, with the Assistance of the Florentines, retook Genoa, and by this means, not only frustrated and repelled the Ambition of that Tyrant, but moreover with the singular applause, and obligation of all Italy, recovered Brescia, Bergamo, and Cremona.

I flatter myself by the remembrance of so many glorious actions, and by so many great exem­ples of the French fidelity, piety and honor, to have been so happy, as to have removed all difficul­ties, and impediments, wherewith by the calumnies of th [...]se of the Imperial party your Lordships may have been prepossessed, and as a most humble servant to you all, do beseech, and conjure you (most illustrious Senators) to consider the miserable estate of Italy, and generally of all Christen­dom, and before you resolve or declare for either party, not only to bear the most Reverend, and Illustrious Cardinal of Ferrara: but also thoroughly to weigh, and examine what be shall pro­pose to you in the behalf of the King my Master. And once more most humbly beseech your Serene Highness with your accustomed Prudence to consider the Emperor, not only as the cause of the ruine, and misery of Italy: but moreover to look upon him as the Insidiator of the li­berty of this most Serene Republick. Acknowledg, acknowledg, I beseech you, the house of Aus­tria for your Capital Enemy, and such a one, as has at all times used all sorts of endeavour to encroach upon, and to usurp the Territories and Dominions of others, and especially those of your most Screne Republick. And on the contrary that most Christian King, my Lord and Master, for your ancient, faithful, and affectionate friend, and remember with what promptitude, and alacrity, he has ever divided his Forces with you, for the recovery of your places unjustly possessed by those of the House of Austria, of which the recovery of Brescia, and Verona may serve for a sufficient proof. Neither is there any cause to fear, that such a friendship can by any means suffer it self to be violated, or dissolved; forasmuch as there having been betwixt that Crown of France, and this Illustrious Seigneury no kind of difference, either ancient, or of later date, and the one holding nothing of the other, the occasions must consequently be wanting upon which the amities of Princes de ordinarily dissolve: but on the other side, their Vnity, Allyance, and Con [...]ormities are such that the ruine of the one does threaten, and almost assure the calami­ty, and dissolution of the other.

What opinion the Senate might retain of so nice an affair, I am not able to say, neither do I know whether my Brothers eloquence made them approve of a thing, at which they had before been so highly scandalized: but this I know, that I have ever heard that action highly censured both then and since: and in plain truth, I do believe our affairs were not much better'd by it, but it is not for me to meddle with so great affairs. So soon as these mighty succours of the Turk arrived, every one thought the whole Earth had not been capable to receive them, such judgments men make of things before they come to be tryed.

Monsi [...]ur d' Angui [...]n who was at that time the Kings Lieutenant in Provence, having [Page 39] gathered together some Ensigns of Provençals, Nice besieged by the Tur [...]s. came to sit down before Nice; where after a great Battery had been made, the assault was given by the Turks and Provençals together: but they were repulsed. In the end the Town surrendred, but not the Ca­stle. In the mean time the Duke of Savoy solicited the Marquis de Gnast for relief, who accordingly with a good Army put himself into the Field. The Turks very much de­spised our people, yet I do not believe they could beat us number for number: they are, 'tis true, stronger men, more obedient and more patient of any hardship, than we are; but I cannot allow them to be more valiant; they have indeed one advantage over us: which is, that they study nothing but War. Barbarossa at this Siege was very much displeased, and cast out very tart and passionate language, especially when we were con­strain'd to borrow of him powder, and bullet, insomuch that he reimbarked himself, and departed,Barbarossa dis­gusted. without doing any great feats, as also the winter indeed drew on; but they behaved themselves very civilly towards all our confederates in their retreat, and the Provençals likewise disbanded.

I had forgot to tell you, that after the ill success at Perpignan, the King sent us or­ders to march straight away into Piedmont, and Monsieur d' Annebaut (who was Admi­ral) went to besiege a Cony, Siege of Cony. where we sped as ill as at Perpignan, and were very well drub'd in giving the assault, for not having well discover'd the breach; and where I saw the brave and valiant Captain Santo Pedro Corso behave himself admirably well,Santo Pedro Corso. who was almost wounded to death. The said Admiral having taken some few little places, and seeing the winter at hand, returned back into France, leaving Monsieur de Boitieres in the quality of the Kings Lieutenant there, whom he sent to Garrison at Ga­varet; and we to Savillan, where Monsieur de Termes was Governor, who was very glad of our coming, for he stood in need of us. During our abode there, several at­tempts were made both upon Turin, and upon us, and we likewise attempted some­thing upon the Enemy, wherein our fortune was sometimes better and sometimes worse: but there being nothing that particularly concerned me, I shall pass them over, and in­deed should I give a relation of all the Actions wherein I have been engaged, I should ne­ver have done.

After that the Turks were retir'd, as has been said, the Duke of Savoy, and the Mar­quis de Guast laid Siege to Montdevi, where the Seigneur de Dros a Piedmontois was Go­vernor The Swisse not good for the keeping of places. having with him four Italian Companies, and two of Swisse, who there behaved themselves exceedingly well, though it be none of their trade to keep places, and there were given two or three Scalados. Monsieur de [...]oitieres, had no possible means to re­lieve it, for the King had at that time very few Soldiers in Piedmont; and the Swisse, who had lost their Captains and Lieutenants with Canon shots, began to mutiny against the Seigneur de Dros the Governor, insomuch that he was constrain'd to capitulate. Now you must know,A device of the Marquis de Guast. that the Marquess de Guast (who was one of the most cautelous and subtle Captains of his time) to take from him all hopes of relief, had counterfeited Let­ters from Monsieur de Foitieres, wherein he writ him word to shift the best he could for himself, there being no possibility to relieve him: which coming to the Governors hands, and the cheat not being to be discover'd, and the Swisse at the same time begin­ning to mutiny, he surrendred the Town upon condition, to march away with Bag, and Baggage.Mount Devi surrendred. However the Articles (to the great dishonor of the Marquis de Guast) were very ill observed, and the Seigneur de Dros pursued, who sav'd himself upon a Spanish Horse, and it was well for him that he did so; for all the Gold in Europe would not have sav'd his life, for the hatred the Duke of Savoy had conceived against him, being that he, who was his Subject, had revolted to the Eenemies side. 'Twas said that he made his escape in the habit of a Priest by the means of an Italian Soldier, who had formerly serv'd him: but I believe it was after the manner I have related: but this I can say without lying, that he was one of the bravest men,Commenda­tions of the Seigneur de Dro [...]. and the greatest Wits, that ever came out of Piedmont, and dyed afterwards very honorably at the Battel of Seri­zolles.

The same day that Montdevi was surrendred, I had departed from Savillan (to the great regret of Monsieur de Termes) with five and twenty Foot, to try if I could find means to put my self into it; for with a great party it would be a matter of extra­ordinary difficulty; and took with me a Guide, who would undertake to conduct me by the deep vallies, and by a River that runs by Montdevi, in which we were to march a great way together, the water being but knee deep, and I do believe by that way I might have got in, though it would have signified nothing if I had, forasmuch as I must have done as the rest did, considering that the strangers by their number gave the Law: but they dearly paid for't, many of them being massacred at their marching out of [Page 40] the Town. I had moreover drawn out ten Soldiers, over and above my five and twen­ty, to convoy me over the Maupas, a place so call'd, and within half a mile of Marennes, where a man should hardly ever fail of meeting some of the Garrison of Fossan. And above, and on the right hand of Maupas, there stood an empty Inn, from whence one might discover all that came from Savillan straight to Cairas, and from Cairas, to the said Savillan. As I descended therefore into the plain that leads directly to Maupas, I was there aware of threescfore Italian Soldiers of Fossan, that were scouting towards that Inn, which stands upon an eminence, and presently saw the Party move, who made hast to gain the Maupas on that side towards Cairas, to sight me in that straight, which made me turn off on the right hand with intent to fall upon their R [...]ar, so soon as I should arrive at the Inn; when they perceiving my design, endeavour'd to recover the road of Fossan to retire: but I pursued them so close, that I con [...]rain'd them to take a house, which had a stable directly opposite to it, to which I set fire; who thereupon seeing themselves lost, they began to cry out for Quarter, casting themselves headlong, some out of the Windows, and some by the door, of which my Soldiers dispatch'd some in revenge of one of their companions,A combat near Maupas. very much beloved by them, who was kill'd, and two more wounded, the rest I sent back to Savillan bound together with match, for­asmuch as they were more in number, than we that took them. I went thence staight to Cairas, and at the Mill below Cairas found Monsieur de Cental, Governor of the said Cairas, who told me that Montdevi was surrendred, having yet the Letters in his hand, that had been sent him to that effect. I then presently turned about to recover Savillan, and to carry the news to Monsieur de Termes, that he might send it to Mon­sieur de Boitieres: but as I was on this side Cairas, and upon the skirts of the plain near unto some houses there called les Rodies, looking behind me I saw a Troop of Horse, that came fromwards Fossan, along by the meadow leading towards Albe which they then held: which made me to halt at those houses, to see what they would do; in which po­sture, they drawing nearer, discover'd me; and attempted to come up to me by a little ascent there was, enclosed with hedges on either side: but when I saw them advanced half up the Ascent, I sent out four or five Harquebusiers, who, firing upon them, shot one of their Horses, whereupon they very fairly saced about. Which I seeing, and conclu­ding it was for fear, advanced boldly into the plain, where I had not march'd five hun­dred paces, but I discovered them again in the said plain (for they had passed a little lower out of sight) being fourteen Launcers, and eight Harquebusiers on horseback, with another who came after leading the wounded horse. I had in all but five and twenty Soldiers, of which seven were Pikes, and Captain Favas and my self each of us a Halbert on our necks: Their Harquebusiers came up at a good round trot to charge us, firing all the way as they came, as some of ours also did at them, and their Laun­ces made a shew as if they would charge in amongst us; but it was very faintly; for upon the firing of our Harquebusiers they made a halt, and gave way, at which we took heart, and march'd boldly up to them with good smart claps of Harquebuze shot, upon which one of their men falling dead to the ground, they very fairly left him behind them, and descending once more into the plain retreated directly towards Albe. And thus I retir'd to Savillan, it being two hours within night before I got thither, which I thought sit to commit to writing, to the end, that other Captains may take exemple whenever Horse comes to charge the Foot, never to spend more than half of their shot, and reserve the other half for the last extream, which being observ [...]d, they can very hardly be defea­ted without killing a great number of the Enemy, who will never venture to break in whilst they see the Harquebusiers ready presented to fire upon them; who being resolute men, by the favour of any little bush, or brake, will hold the Cavalry long in play, the one still firing whilst the other is charging again. For our parts we were all resolv'd never to yield; but rather to fight it out with the sword, fearing they would revenge what we had done in the morning, for the four horse that escap'd to Fossan had carried back the news of their defeat.

So soon as Monsieur de Termes understood that Montdevi was taken, he resolved in the morning to put himself into Beme, which he accordingly did, where being arriv'd he there found two compani [...]s of Swisse, which were there in Garrison (having receiv'd also the others of Montdevi) who immediately abandoned Beme, and went to Cairas, leaving on­ly the Count's own Company, another of Italians, and that of Captain Renovare. From thence Monsicur de Termes dispatch'd away a M [...]ssenger to me on horseback, writing me word, that if ever I would do the King a timely service, I should immediately come a­way, and this was the next day after the said Seigneur arrived at Beme, which was Sun­day, and we were but just come from Mass.

[Page 41]After therefore having eaten a snap or two, I immediately put my self into the field to go thither; yet could I not make so much hast, but that it was above three hours within night before I got thither: it being necessary for me to pass thorough uneasie val­leys, forasmuch as we believ'd the Town already to be besieged, all the Enemies Camp being at Carru, but three little miles from Beme, and they having skirmish'd all the day before the Town. By good fortune Monsieur de St. Iulian Colonel of the Swisse, was at the said Beme, it being his Garrison, and Monsieur d' Aussun also, who was come to give him a visit, and to see what would be the issue of the Siege of Montdevi: The Sieur de Montluc puts himself into Beme. but it was impossible for the said St. Iulian to detain the Swisse, for I met all the four Companies already within half a mile of Cairas. I had so much honor done me, that both the Count, and the Countess his Mother, together with several other great persons, came to meet me at the Gates of the City, who were very glad of my coming, expecting in the morning to be besieged; but two days after my arrival their Camp march'd away toward Trinitat, having cast a Bridge over the River, near to Fossan; and the morning that the Camp re­mov'd, five or six light horse of Monsieur de Termes, and four or five Gentlemen belonging to the Count de Beme (who serv'd for Guides) with five or six Harquebusiers on horseback of mine, went in pursuit of their Camp. It was so great a mist that they could scarce see one another, which was the reason that they went to the very head of their Artillery, and took the Commissary (whom they call the Captain of the Artillery;) and the day be­fore Messieurs de Termes, d' Aussun, and de St. Iulian were gone away, having had intelli­gence that the Enemy were making this Bridge; whereof Monsieur de St. Iulian went straight to Cairas, where the Swisse likewise would not abide, but went thence to Carig­nan; Monsieur de Termes who doubted also they might go to Savillan, of which he was Governor, went thither; and Messieur d' Aussun went in great hast directly to Turin; In short every one was in fear of his own charge.

The said Bridge was further advanc'd than was imagin'd, for those of Fossan made it in three or four days, that their Camp lay at Carr [...], and at the time that the Commis [...]ary was taken, the greatest part of the Army was already pass'd over, and was encamp'd to­wards Marennes: particularly the Battaillon of the Germans, who were quarter'd in the Ca­stle, and the out-houses of the Palace of Messire Phillibert Canebons, a Gentleman of Savillan.

Monsieur de Termes had brought with him to Beme Monsieur de Caillac, the Commis­sary of the Artillery, who would needs stay with me out of respect to the great friend­ship betwixt us (which does yet continue) and we were in despair of ever getting any thing out of the said Commissary prisoner, till it grew to be very late, and then he told, and assured us, that the Army was gone to besiege Savillan: At which Monsieur de Caillac and I were almost at our wits end; for the said Sieur de Caillac had his residence more at the said Savillan, than at any other place, and I also, being it was my Garrison, and where I had continued for seven or eight months before. In the end we both of us resolv'd to go put our selves into it at all hazards and adventures that might befall. I had five and twenty Soldiers of mine own on horseback, which I took together with four of five more of Monsieur de Termes, which he had left at Beme (to the great grief of the Count, who would never be persuaded to permit Captain Favas, and the rest of the Company to depart) and about two hours within night, we arriv'd at Cairas, where we spoke with Monsieur Cental, whom we found in a very great chase, for that the Swisse had that day forsook him, and he told us that it was very great odds we should find the Camp lodg'd in the Countrey houses belonging to Savillan, the Germans excepted, who were quarter'd as I have said, and took up all the space betwixt that and Marennes, thorough which we were to pass; for my other way it was all ditches and Rivolets very troublesom to pass, especially having no Guide with us, which we had not provided our selves of, by reason we all of us very well know the ordinary way. How­ever we pass'd thorough the middle of the Village of Marennes, without any encounter at all (forasmuch as the Enemies Cavalry was yet about Fossan) and so came to Savillan, about two hours after midnight, where at the Gate of the Town we found Captain Cha­reze, Brother to B [...]quemar, whom Monsieur de Termes sent to Monsieur Boitieres, de­siring him to assure him, that we were all resolv'd to dye, or to preserve the place.

Monsieur de Caillac, and I then went to find out Monsieur de Termes at his Quarters, where stealing upon him before he heard any thing of us, we found him writing down the order of the Siege, with his back towards the door, which being open, he never heard nor saw us, 'till I coming behind him, and taking him in my arms said to him, Did you think to play this Farce without us? at which he suddainly start up, and leap'd about my neck, being scarce able to utter a word for joy, and likewise embrac'd Monsieur de Ca [...]llac, telling me, that he wish'd he had given half his estate, my Company was there also with [Page 42] me; to which I made answer, that I would make them to fly, provided he would sud­dainly find a messenger to carry a Letter to my Lieutenant Captain Favas; and im­mediately hereupon we dispatch'd thither a Foo [...]man of his, who before noon got to Beme, where so soon as the said Captain Favas had read my Letter, he presently went to acquaint the Count, that he must of necessity depart. The Count was again very importunate with him to stay; but nevertheless he march'd out about three of the Clock in the afternoon, and left the Flag of my Ensign as he pass'd by Cairas with Monsieur Cental, who plainly told him that he must not expect to pass without fighting, to which he made answer, that it was also all he did desire. We had given instructionsv to the Foo [...]man, that so soon as he should come to the end of the plain, he should lead him straight towards the Mill of the said Messer Philibert, which was about a Harquebuze shot distant from his Palace, and that then he should follow on along the side of the River, preparing himself to sight at the said Mill, not doubting but that he would there certainly meet with the Germans: but that nevertheless if he would avoid fighting, he should by all means do it, and make it his only business to get into the Town. A caution that was very much in season, for the Germans had dislodg'd the very morning that we pass'd by, and were encamp'd at Ma­rennes: but about two hours after midnight he safely arriv'd, which redoubled the joy, not of Monsieur de Termes only; but moreover of all the other Captains and Soldiers, and the Inhabitants of the Town; for to say the truth, I had one of the best, and the fullest Companies in all Piedmont. And indeed I would never have other than the best men I could choose, for when once I perceiv'd any one not to be right, I ever found one pretence or another to be rid of him.

Two hours before day, Monsieur de Termes had news brought him that the Duke of Savoy, and the Marquis de Guast were come that very night to Cavillimor, two miles from Savillan; which made us still more confident that the Camp was advancing with a resolution to besiege us, because they planted themselves upon the way by which we were to receive our relief; and so soon as the day began to appear there came some from Marennes to give us notice, that all the Infantry was upon the Road towards Montiron, and descen­ded into the plain of St. Fré, taking the way rather towards Carignan, than Savillan, of which we had still more and more intelligence.

I then begg'd of Monsieur de Termes to give me leave to go out towards Cavillemor, to follow in the Rear of their Horse, which he presently granted, causing Captain Mons his Ensig [...] with fifty Launces to mount to horse. Now in the time that I was gone to Beme, our Colonel Monsieur de Tais had sent the Companies of Bog [...]edemar and the Baron de Nicolas in great diligence to Savillan, and my own men being weary, I took only Captain Favas, and those who had come in with me, who were pretty well re­fresh'd, and some forty of the others, that were come overnight. Captain Lienard at that time Li [...]utenant to Gabarret with thirty or forty of his Company, and Captain Breü­il the Baron's Ensign, who (as I was very lately assur'd) is yet living, and has since been shot in the leg of which he is lame (as I am told) with as many of the Company of the said Baron, and went straight to Cavillemor, along the banks of a great Rivolet, lea­ding to the said Cavillemor, and on the left hand the great high way, when being ad­vanc'd within half a mile of the Town, I was overtaken by one of Captain Gabarret's men, whom he had sent to me, to desire I would stay a little for him, he being moun­ting to horse to come after me with all possible speed. I therefore made a halt, but (as he was ever very tedious and slow) he made us there to tarry for him above a long quarter of an hour, and so unhappily for me, that had I held on my way without stay­ing for him, I had met with the Duke of Savoy at a little Chappel without Cavillemor, towards Savillan, where he was at Mass, with only five and twenty Horse for his Guard, the Marquis being gone away with all the Cavalry towards Rouy, and already advanc'd above a long mile from thence upon his way. Thus a little delay oftentimes causes a great inconvenience, otherwise we had at this time perhaps light of a good booty: but so soon as the said Gabarret came up to us, I went on, and came presently to Ca­villemor, where the people of the Town enform'd me, that the said Duke could not yet be above half a mile from thence, which made both Captain Mons, me and all the Soldiers ready to eat our own flesh, to think what a prize we had lost through the negligence of Gabarret, whom to his face we curs'd to all the Devils of Hell.

After we had here staid a pretty space, not knowing what we should resolve to do, we at last began to put our selves upon our return home, when the intelligence we had from Marennes coming into my head, I presently alter'd that resolution, and took the way thorough the Meadows that leads towards that plain, still hearing the Drums [Page 43] of the Enemies Camp both before and behind us at the same time; for it is not above half a mile from Cavillemor to the sight of the plain, and so soon as we came within sight of it, we discover'd three or four Lacquais that follow'd the Camp. Two or three of our light horse spurr'd out to take them, and accordingly brought them in, by whom we learn'd that after them follow'd two Ensigns of Foot, and a Troop of Horse commanded by Monsieur de la Trinitat: the said two Companies of Foot were those of the Count Pedro d' Apporta Governor of Fossan, which were conducted by a Lieutenant of his call'd Captain Ascanio, and the Horse were commanded by the said Seigneur de Trinitat, together with the ammunition, bread, and a good part of the bag­gage of the Camp, whereof a great deal belong'd to the Gormans and Spaniards, and was guarded by fifty Soldiers of the one nation, and as many of the other; so that they might be some four hundred horses of carriage, or more, and fourscore and ten wa­gons laden with Provision, and the equipage belonging to the Artillery.

Captain Mons thereupon went out to discover Monsieur de la Trinitat, and went so near, that he had his horse shot under him, who presently returning back said these words to me; Captain Montluc, yonder is enough for us both to give, and to take. Where­upon I suddainly leap'd upon a little Mare of one of my Souldiers, and taking one of my Serjeants with twenty Harquebusiers along with me, went my self to discover the Enemy, who making no reckoning of those few Horse they had seen, still with Drums beating, held on their March; when being come pretty near, I saw a multitude of men and horses marching along the plain, which was the Baggage, and the Waggons, and afterwards upon the eminence on that side where I was, perceiv'd the two Ensigns and the Horse upon their march, and counted the Foot to be betwixt three and four hun­dred men, and likewise the Horse to be betwixt thirty, and five and thirty Launces; which having done I presently return'd back to Captain Mons, and told him, that having miss'd one great good fortune, we were now to attempt another, to which he made answer that he was ready to do whatever I would command him. Whereupon I desir'd him to stay for me, whilst I went to speak to my Soldiers, which he did, and I spurr'd away to them. Captain Gabarret was with the said Captain Mons on horseback, and Captain Favas, Lyenard, and le Breüil conducted the Foot, when coming up to them, I spoke both to them, and to the Soldiers, telling them, that as God had deprived us of one good fortune, he had put another into our hands, and that although the Enemy were at this time three times as many as we were, yet if we re­fus'd to fight them upon so fair an occasion, we were unworthy the name of Soldiers, as well out of respect to the honor we should acquire thereby, as in regard to the Riches we saw exposed before us, which was no contemptible prize. To which all the three Cap­tains made answer, that it was their opinion we ought to fight, whereupon, raising my voice, I spake to the Soldiers saying, Well, fellow Soldiers, are not you of the same opinion with these Captains? I for my part have already told you mine, that we ought to fight, and assure your selves we shall beat them, for my mind tells me so, which has never fail'd me in any thing I have ever undertaken, therefore I pray Gentlemen conclude them already as good as our own.

Now it was a custom I always had, to make the Soldiers believe, that I had a certain kind of presage, which whenever it came upon me, I was sure to overcome: a thing that I only pretended to amuse the Soldiers, that they might think themselves secure of the vi­ctory, and have ever found an advantage by it; for my confidence often emboldned the most timorous, and simple fellows, nay sometimes the most crafty knaves amongst them are easie to be gull'd, as these were, who thereupon with one voice cry'd out, Let us fight Captain, let us fight. I then declar'd to them, that I would place four of my Pikes in the Rear, to keep every one from [...]linching back, which if any one should offer to do, they should kill him, with which they were very well content: but I had much ado to make the said Pikes to stay behind, according to that agreement, so ardently for­ward was every one to be the first to fight, though it was very necessary they should do so, for that evermore disorders are most likely to happen in the Rear.

I then began to march, when so soon as the Enemy discover'd the Foot, they made a halt upon the edg of a great hollow, that had in the process of time been worn by the land flouds, which stretch'd it self in length till it ended under the Hill where we were. I saw them in the plain with their Launces all advanc'd, not offering to move, and saw also Captain Ascanio upon a little gray Nag, who plac'd his Pikes all in file along the hollow, and then spurr'd up to the Waggons to draw them up at the end of the hollow, and then to th [...] Baggage placing them behind, and afterwards to the Horse, by which order and diligence, I knew him to be a brave man, and fell to consider with my self, what would be the issue of the fight, of which I now began to be in some doubt, [Page 44] thorough the good order of this Chief. I nevertheless nothing alter'd my resolution; but whilst Captain Ascanio was busie ordering his Battail, I was as diligent to order mine, giving the Harquebusiers to Captain Gabarret, who was on horseback. And you must take notice, that the Enemies Foot was upon the top of the hollow directly over against us. I took then the three Captains with the Pikes, and left order with the Harquebu­siers by no means to shoot till they came within the distance of four Pikes, and to Cap­tain Gabarret by all means to see this order observ'd, which he also did. I then desir'd Captain Mons to lend me five and twenty of his Launceers to help me to kill; for they were so many that in a whole day, though they had had one hand tyed behind them, we should have had much ado to dispatch them, and with the rest he was to fight their Cavalry, though they were a great many more then ours. To which he readily consented, and gave five and twenty of his Launces to the younger Tilladet (the same who is now call'd Monsieur de Sainctorens) and moreover to Captain Ydrou some light horse of the said Company, who are both of them yet living, as also several others, who were of the same Troop.

These orders being given, all of us both Foot and Horse march'd directly towards the Enemy, and when I expected their Harquebusiers should have thrown themselves into the hollow, so soon as they should see our men come full drive upon them, they quite contrary march'd straight up to our men, and all at a clap gave fire within less than four Pikes length of one another. Now I had given order to our men, that so soon as they had powr'd in their shot, without standing to charge again, they should run up to them▪ and fall to the Sword, which they also did, and I with the Pikes ran to the end of the hollow, and fell in desperately amongst them. In the mean time Ydrou and Tilladet charg'd Monsieur de Trinitat, and put him to rout, and our Harquebusiers and theirs threw themselves altogether into the hollow: but ours had the upper hand, and our Pike men had thrown away their Pikes, and were fallen to't with the Sword, and so couragiously fighting we came all up to the Wagons,The Imperi­alists defea­ted. Captain Mons, and all, which were all overturn'd in a moment, and all their men put to flight towards two houses which stood in the bottom of the plain, where, still pursuing our Victory, and the Horse still firing amongst them, very few of them reach'd the houses. At the houses some particular men were ta­ken to Quarter: but of the rest very few were sav'd, and those who were left alive were so grievously wounded, that I do verily believe they had little benefit of their mer­cy. Our Gens d' Armes in those days wore great cutting Fauchions, wherewith to lop off armes of Male, and to cleave Morions, and indeed in my life I never saw such blows given. As for the Cavalry they were all taken running away towards Fossan, Mon­sieur de Trinitat excepted, and five others, who being better mounted than the rest, esca­ped; though young Tilladet with two others only pursu'd him within two Harquebuze shot of Fossan, and took one who attended one of the Colours, which the Ensign that car­ried it, had thrown upon the neck of him who carried off his horse. Presently after we began to march, leading off the Wagons, and Baggage, which were of necessity to return by the same way they had come from Marennes, forasmuch as the Car­riages could pass no other way, and there I saw so great a disorder amongst our people, that had twenty of the Enemies horse turn'd back upon us, we had certainly been defea­ted; for all the Soldiers both Foot and Horse were so laden with Baggage, and with horses they had taken, that it had been impossible for Captain Mons to have rallyed so much as one Launce, or I two Harquebusiers: insomuch that we left all the dead un­risled and untouch'd; but the Country people of Marennes came thither presently after, and performed that office for them, and have since several times told us, that they got there above two thousand Crowns; for not above three or four days before, those two Cap­tains had muster'd for three months. The booty is very often the occasion of ruine, where­fore Captains ought to be exceeding careful, especially when they know there are enemies Garrisons near at hand, that may sally out upon them; though it is a very hard thing to take order in, for the avarice of the Soldier is such, that he oftentimes quails under his burthen, and no reason will serve his turne.

After this defeat we return'd to Savillan, where we found that two Country fellows had given an Alarm to Monsieur de Termes, having brought him news that we were all defeated, and indeed we found him almost at his wits end, but afterwards he was the most overjoy'd man, that ever he had been in his life. There a man might have had flesh enough good cheap; for we took above forty German Whores and more than twen­ty Spanish, which kind of Cattel was the greatest cause of our disorder. We had an in­tention to have shar'd all the spoil equally amongst us, and found that we were but an hundred forty and five men, and fifty horse, but every one begg'd that he might keep [Page 45] what he had gotten, promising upon that condition to make me a present, forasmuch as I had not made it my business to look after spoyl, which I consented to, seeing every one was content, and they gave me six hundred Crowns, as also the horse presented Cap­tain Mons, but how much I am not able to say, and this we did that day in the Rear of their Camp. Of our people there was slain upon the place one Soldier only belonging to Captain Baron, with five or six more hurt, and one Corporal of mine, who all recove­red. There are a great many both of the Horse and Foot yet living, who were present at this business, who when they shall read this Book, I am certain will not give me the lye. I cannot remember (which I wonder at my self for) whether Monsieur de Caillac was with us at the engagement or no, or whether Monsieur de Termes did not detain him at home, but I am sure that if he was not there, he was in Savillan, and may very well re­member all this to be true.

Now the design of the Marquis de Guast soon discovered it self, which was to put him­self into Carignan, and there to raise a Fort, and leave in it a strong Garrison of Foot, as he did, and the very day that I gave them this defeat he encamp'd at a Village near Carmagnolle, on the right hand of the Road from Recoins to the said Carmagnolle (I have forgot the name) and at midnight sent the greatest part of his Cavalry to get over the Bridge at Lombriasse, over which an hour or two before there had passed two Light horse of Monsieur de Termes (who had been with us at the fight, and were stollen away with their booty, fearing they should be made to discount) who gave intelligence to Monsieur d' Aussun, and Signior Francisco Bernardin, who were both at Carignan, sent thither by Monsieur de Boitieres, on purpose to dismantle that place, calling to mind that Monsieur de Termes, and the said Signior Francisco had told him four months before, that the Marquis would do so, and possess himself of it in order to the raising of some Fortificati­ons there, which would be very prejudicial to the Kings Service.

I had nothing to do to write this, if it were not for a caution to the young Captains, who shall read this Book, that they must never attempt to retreat at the head of an Army, to which they are not strong enough to give Battel. But (as I was saying) so soon as these Light horse had spoke with Monsieur d' Aussun, and told him of the defeat we had given them, he had a great mind (as his heart was in a right place) to do something also before he retir'd: but the said Signior Francisco understanding by these Light horse where the Enemy was, presently concluded, that by break of day they would certainly be upon them, which made him very importunate with Monsieur d' Aussun to retire: but he would by no means hearken to him, and so soon as day appear'd, they saw the Marquis de Guast, all the Infantry, and part of the Horse marching all along the side of the River, when the Marquis advancing he caus'd Monsieur d' Aussun to be talk'd withal, only to hold him in play, which Signior Francisco perceiving, call'd out to him, that the Marquis did only this to amuse him; but he was deaf as before, and would believe nothing (a man cannot avoid his Destiny) till two Light horse he had sent out upon the Road towards Lombriasse, came and brought him an account of the truth: but it was too late, for already the grea­test part of their Cavalry was got over. There was but two Boats there, but they were very large, and they had begun to pass an hour after midnight.

Upon this Monsieur d' Aussun commanded Signior Francisco to retire as far as the Bridge of Loges, and there to make a halt, which he did. Foot he had none, but the Chevalier Absal, with his single Company, to whom he gave order to march softly, after the said Signior Francisco, and halt very often to relieve him, if occasion were, which he accordingly obeyed, when on a suddain came up fifty or threescore of the Ene­mies Horse to begin the skirmish. It is very true, that besides his own Troop, and that of Signior Francisco, he had thirty Launces of the Company of Monsieur de Termes, com­manded by the elder Tilladet, which had parted from Monsieur de Termes seven or eight days before, by the command of Monsieur de Bo [...]tieres, and at his entreaty to send them, which the said Monsieur de Termes very much repented after, wanting them himself, at the time when he expected a Siege. The said Seigneur d' Aussun then began himself also to retire, dividing his men into three Squadrons, whom the Enemy follow'd very close: his Lieutenant, call'd Hieronymo Magrin, commanded the first Squadron, whom the Enemy sometimes beat up to the second, commanded by Monsieur de Aussun, and otherwhiles the said Hierenimo recharg'd the Enemy, who were continually supplyed by a great number of fresh men, and who, as they found themselves the stronger, charg'd Captain Hieronimo with might and main, driving him back into the Squadron of Mon­sieur d' Aussun, who thereupon gave a charge, and repell'd the said Enemies up to their main body, which again charg'd the said Seigneur d' Aussun, and beat him back to the forenam'd Captain Tilladet, and at the same time another Troop of the Enemy, besides [Page 46] those, who came up upon the Gallop, charg'd the said Tilladet, who was advanc'd to relieve Monsieur d' Aussun; so that the Enemy was four times stronger in Horse, than we were, and fresh supplies, as they landed, still came up to them, insomuch that all was put to rout and confusion,Monsieur d' Aussun defea­ted, and taken prisoner. Monsieur d' Aussun beaten down to ground his Lieutenant, and above fifty more taken prisoners, Captain Tilladet twice taken, and rescued by his men, who closing together, and often facing about, made good their retreat in spite of the Enemy even to the Bridge of Loges. Signior Francisco Bernardin, who stood drawn up close by the Bridge, seeing this torrent coming upon him, and knowing that he with his Troop was not sufficient to remedy the disorder, took it into consideration, and passed over the Bridge, where he again made head, by which means a great many more of our People sav'd themselves, who under his protection fac'd about at the end of the said Bridge. In the mean time the Chevalier Absal, who had taken his way a little on the left hand, was still retreating a foot pace, and often made a halt, which was the reason that he could never recover the Bridge; for one part of the Enemy seeing the victory already secure, ran up to him, who having seen all our Cavalry rou­ted and defeated, any man may judge what courage he, or his men, could have, who were all cut to pieces, their Colours taken, and himself upon a little horse very hardly escap'd.

After this manner was Monsieur d' Aussun defeated, more out of vanity to do some notable feat, than out of any default of courage or conduct; for in the first place he order'd his Troops so well, that thay all fought, and secondly himself was taken, overthrown to ground, with his Sword bloody in his hand, for his horse was killed under him, and would he have been satisfied with reason, he had never enter'd into dispute with Signior Francisco Bernardin, Dispute be­twixt Mr. d' Aussun, and Signior Fran­cisco Bernar­din. who had perform'd all, both in his person, and conduct, that a brave Leader ought to do. But the King, after the said Seigneur d' Aussun was set at liberty, made them friends; for Signior Francisco had sent him a Challenge for the wrong he had done him, in reporting to the Marquis de Guast, and elsewhere, that he had abandon'd him in time of need: but Monsieur d' Aussun made him an honorable satisfaction, and indeed both the one and the other had very well perform'd their duty, though had Monsieur d' Aussun taken the advice of Signior Francisco, he had not been defeated; neither was it reasonable, that he should throw himself away to no purpose, when he saw it was too late to repair the fault committed in deferring the time of their retreat so long, as at last to be forc'd to do it in the face of an Army. I could give several exemples of it, if it were convenient so to do, where the advice of retreating at the head of an Army, has been as fatal, as it was here, witness Monchaut, where Monsieur le Mareschal de Strozzy lost the Battail, not for want of courage, for he was there desperately wounded; nor through default of conduct, for he had order'd his men for his retreat to Lusignan, as well as any man upon earth could have done. I could also instance le Seigneur Marion de Santa Fiore, who lost me almost all my Cavalry near unto Piance, in attempting the same at the head of an Army.The danger of retreating at the head of of an Army. Many others out of inconsideration have committed the same error, as I have already instanc'd, and I could name several others, which would be too tedious to recount. But, I beseech you, fellow Captains, despise not my coun­sel, for many brave and prudent Leaders having lost themselves after this manner, no good is to be expected. A man is only to attempt what he can, and ought to do, and not attaque his Enemy, and offer to retreat in the face of an Army stronger than himself.

The Marquis de Guast, Carignan forti [...]ied. at the same instant, with all his Camp, passed the Bridge, and put himself into Carignan, where he designed a Fort enclosing the Bourg within it, which he was not long in doing, forasmuch as the ditches that enclosed the said Bourg and the City, very much contributed to the work; and he there left two thou­sand Spanish, and as many German Foot, with Signior Pedro de Colonne to command them: wherein, in truth, he made a very prudent choice, and deceived none in the good opinion they had conceiv'd of him; for he was a man of great judgment and valour: having then left Caesar de Naples at Carmagnolle with some Ensigns of Italians (the number of which I have forgot) and two thousand Germans; The Chara­cter of Pedro de Colonne. and at Reconis, four Ensigns of Spaniards, (that is to say, Loys Quichadou, Don Iuan de Guibarra, Mandossa, and Argillere) and his Cavalry at Pingnes, Vinu [...], and Vigon, he afterwards (having first sent back the remainder of his Camp to Quiers, and the Duke of Savoy to Verseil) reti­red himself to Milan.

Sometime after Monsieur de Termes carryed on an enterprize,A notable en­terprize car­ried on by a Merchant. that was never discove­red to any but to Monsieur Boitieres, and my self, so much as to Monsieur de Tais, though he was our Colonel; and it was thus. There was a Merchant of Barges, a great [Page 47] friend, and servant to Monsieur de Termes, and good French man, call'd Gran [...]chin, who, coming from Barges to Savillan, was taken by some Light horse belonging to Count Pedro d' Apporte, Governor of Fossan, and being a prisoner was sometimes threat­ned to be hang'd; and sometimes promised to be put to ransom, with so great uncer­tainty, that the poor man for seven or eight days together was in despair of his life: but in the end he bethought himself to send word to the Count, that if he would be pleased to give him leave to talk with him, he would propound things that should be both for his advantage and his honor. The Count thereupon sent for him, where, be­ing come, Granuchin told him, that it should only stick at himself if he were not Lord of Barges, for that it was in his power to deliver up the Castle into his hands, the City not being strong at all. The Count greedy to listen to this enterprize, presently clos'd with him about it, agreeing and concluding, that Granuchin should deliver up his wife and his son in Hostage; and the said Granuchin proposed the manner of it to be thus; saying, that he was very intimate with the Captain of the Castle, and that the provisions that were put into it ever passed thorough his hands, and that moreover he had a share in some little Traffick they had betwixt them, to wit, betwixt the said Captain of the Ca­stle, call'd la Mothe, and himself; and that the Scotch man, who kept the Keys of the Castle was his very intimate friend, whom he also evermore had caused to get something amongst them, and whom he was certain he could make firm to his purpose; not the Captain de la Mothe nevertheless; but that he was sick of a Quartan Ague, that held him fifteen or twenty hours together; so that he almost continually kept his bed; and that so soon as he should be at liberty, he would go and complain to Monsieur de Termes of two men that were reputed Imperialists, who had told him, and given the Enemy intelligence of his Journey, and that after having left his wife and his son in hostage, he would go and demand justice of Monsieur de Boitieres, by the mediation of Monsieur de Termes, and then would go to Barges to the Castle, and that upon a Sun­day morning he would cause fifteen or twenty Soldiers that la Mothe had there, to go out (leaving only the Scotch man, the Butler, and the Cook within) to take those who had told him, as they should be at the first Mass in the morning, and in the mean time the Count should cause forty Soldiers to march, who before day should place themselves in ambush in a little Copse about an Harquebuze shot distant from the Postern Gate, and that so soon as it should be time for them to come, he would set a white Flag over the said Postern. Now there was a Priest of Barges, who being banish'd thence, lived at Fos­san, that was a great friend to Granuchin, and had labour'd very much for his delive­rance, and he also was call'd into the Council, where amongst them it was conclu­ded, that the said Priest on a night appointed, should come to a little wood the half way betwixt Barges and Fossan, where he was to whistle, to give notice that he was there, and that if he had corrupted the Scot, he should bring him along with him, to resolve amongst themselves how the business should be further carried on.

Things being thus concluded, Granuchin writ a Letter to Monsieur de Ter­mes, wherein he intreated him to procure for him a safe-conduct from Monsieur de Boitieres, that his Wife and his Son might come to Fossan, there to remain pledges for him, for he had prevail'd so far by the intercession of certain of his friends, that the Count was at last content to dismiss him upon a ransom of six hundred Crowns; but that if he was not abroad, and at liberty, no man would buy his goods, out of which he was to raise that sum; which safe-conduct if he should obtain in his behalf, he desir'd he would please to deliver it to a friend of his he nam'd in Savillan, to whom he also had writ to desire him to make what hast he could to send his Wife and Son to the said Fossan.

All this being accordingly procur'd, and done, and the said Granuchin set at liberty, he forthwith came to Savillan to find out Monsieur de Termes, to whom he gave an ac­count of the whole business. Whereupon Monsieur de Termes (who already began to feel himself falling sick of a dis [...]ase that commonly held him fourteen or fifteen days at a time) sent for me, to whom he communicated the enterprize, where it was by us all three concluded, that Granuchin should go talk with Monsieur de Boitieres, and in­form him at large of the whole design. To which purpose Monsieur de Termes gave him a Letter to Monsieur de Boitieres, who, having received and read it, made no great matter of the business, only writing back to Monsieur de Termes, that if he knew Gra­nuchin to be a man fit to be trusted, he might do as he thought fit: by which slight an­swer Monsieur de Termes enter'd into an opinion, that Monsieur de Boitieres would be glad he should receive some bassle, or affront, (and indeed he did not much love him) [Page 48] which made him once in mind to break off the design, and to meddle no more in it: but seeing the said Granuchin almost in despair to think, that the business should not go for­ward, and I being more concern'd than he, that such an opportunity of trapping the Enemy should be lost, earnestly entreated Monsieur de Termes to leave the whole business to my care; which he made great difficulty to grant, ever fearing, that should any thing happen amiss, Monsieur de Boitieres would do him a courtesie to the King, as the custom is: for when any one bears a man a grudge, he is glad when he commits any oversight, that the Master may have occasion to be offended, and to remove him from his command; condemning him for that he would not be govern'd by the wise[?]: but in the end with much importunity, he was content to refer the management of the business wholly to my discretion.

The said Granuchin departed then to go to Barges, where he made discovery of all to Captain la Mothe and the Scotch man, to whom Monsieur de Termes writ also, and the night appointed being come, they both went out, and alone (for Granuchin was very well acquainted with the way) and came to the wood, where they found the Priest; with whom they agreed, first that that the said Count should acquit Granuchin of his ran­som, giving him as much as the Soldiers, that took him, had taken from him, and moreover appoint him an Apartment in the Castle with the Captain he should put into it, with a certain Pension for his support; and secondly that he should marry the Scotch man to an Inheretrix there was in Barges, and also find out some handsom employment for him, forasmuch as he was never after to return either into Scotland, or into France. All which was agreed and concluded betwixt them, and moreover that the Priest should bring all these Articles sign'd and seal'd with the Arms of the said Count to a Sum­mer house in the fields belonging to the Brother of the said Priest, to which he sometimes repair'd a nights; and that the Sunday following the business should be put in execution.

Having accordingly received all these obligations, Granuchin returned again to Savillan, where he gave us an account of all, and shew'd us the Bond. Now there was only three days to Sunday, wherefore we made him presently to return, having first agreed that he should bring along with him two Guides of the very best he could find out; not that he should however discover any thing to them of the business, but only shew them some counterfeit Letters, wherein mention should be made of some Wine he had bought for me.

The Guides came accordingly by Saturday noon to Savillan, when, seeing them come, I took Captain Favas my Lieutenant apart, and privately in my chamber commu­nicated to him the whole design, telling him withal, that I had made choice of him for the execution of it; which he made no scruple to undertake (for he had mettle enough) and it was agreed that he should tye the Guides together, and that they were by no means to enter into any high way, or Road: but to march cross the fields. We had much ado to persuade the Guides to this, forasmuch as they were to pass three or four Rivers, and there was Snow and Ice all along, so that we were above three hours disputing this way: but in the end the two Guides were content, to each of which I gave ten Crowns, and moreover a very good Supper.

We were of advice, that we should not take many men, that less notice might be taken; and at that time we were making a Rampire at that Gate towards Fossan, where, in order to that work, we had broken down a little part of the wall, and made a Bridge over the Graffe, over which to bring in earth from without. By this breach I put out Captain Favas, and with him four and thirty more only, and so soon as we were without, we tyed the Guides for being lost, and so he set forwards. Now the Enemies assigna­tion, and ours was at the same hour; so that Granuchin had directed them the way on the right hand to come to this Copse, and ours he had ordered to march on the left hand, near to the walls of the City; who, so soon as they were come to the Postern, there found Granuchin and the Scot ready to receive them, it being the hour that the Scotch man us'd to stand Centinel over the said Postern, so that they were never discover'd, and he disposed them into a Cellar of the Castle, where he had prepar'd a Charcoal fire, with some Bread and Wine. In the mean time the day began to break, and as the Bell rung to low Mass in the Town, the Scot, and Granuchin commanded all the Soldiers in the Castle to go take these two men (that Granuchin had accused to have betrayed him) at Mass, so that there remain'd no more in the Castle, but only la Mothe himself, his va­let de Chambre, who also trayl'd a Pike, the Butler, the Cook, the Scotch man and Granu­chin.

The Scot then pull'd up the Bridge, and call'd out Captain Favas, making him to skulk behind certain Bavins in the base Court, kneeling upon one knee, which being done, [Page 49] they went to set up the white Flag upon the Postern; soon after the P [...]iest arriv'd, and with him about forty Soldiers, who were no sooner entred in, but the Scotch man shut the Gate, and at the same instant Captain Favas and his Company slew upon them, who made some little resistance, insomuch that seven or eight of them were slain; but Granuchin sav'd the Priest, and would not endure he should have the least injury offe­red to him. In the mean time a Country fellow, as he was coming from a little house below the Castle, saw the Spanish Soldiers with their red crosses enter in at the Postern Gate, and thereupon ran down into the Town to give the Alarm, and to tell them that the Castle was betray'd; at which news, the Soldiers who had been sent out to take the two men at Mass, would have return'd into the Castle: but ours shot at them, though so high as not to hit them, taking upon them to be enemies, and crying out Imperi, Imperi, Savoy, Savoy, which was the reason that the Soldiers sled away to Pignerol car­rying news to Monsieur de Boitieres, that Granuchin had betrayed the Castle, and that the Enemy was within it. Monsieur de Boitieres thereupon in a very g [...]eat fury, dispatch­ed away a Courrier to Monsieur de Termes, who lay sick in his bed, and almost di­stracted at the disaster, often crying out, Ah Monsieur Montlu [...] you have ruin'd me, would to God I had never hearkened to you: and in this error we continued till the Wednesday following. In the mean time the Soldiers who had enter'd were clap'd up in the Cellar, my Soldiers taking the Red Crosses, and moreover setting up a white Flag with a Red Cross upon a Tower of the Castle, and crying out nothing but Imperi, Imperi.

Things being in this posture, Granuchin immediately made the Priest to subscribe a Letter, wherein he had writ to the Count, that he should come, and take possession of the Town and Castle, for that Granuchin had kept his word with him, and then sent for a Labourer, who was tenant to the Brother of the said Priest, to whom he caused the Letter to be given by the Priest himself, saying, and swearing to him, that if he made any kind of Sign, either in giving the Letter, or otherwise, that he would pre­sently kill him; making him moreover deliver several things to the messenger by word of mouth; The fellow went away, and upon a ma [...]e of his own made all the hast he could to Fossan, it being but twelve miles only, immediately upon whose coming the Count resolv'd that night to send away a Corporal of his call'd Ianin, with five and twenty of the bravest men of all his Company, who about break of day arriv'd at Bar­ges. So soon as he came to the Castle, Granuchin, the Priest, and the Scot were ready to let him in at the foresaid Postern, whilst Captain Favas went to plant himself be­hind the Bavins as before, although Granuchin was something long in opening the Gate, both because he would clearly see, and observe whether the Priest made any sign, and also for that he had a mind those of the City should see them enter; when so soon as it was broad day, he opened the Postern, telling them that the Soldiers who came in with the Priest were laid to sleep, being tir'd out with the long labour they had sustein'd the day before, and so soon as they were all in, the Scot suddainly clap'd to the Gate, and as suddainly Captain Favas start up, and fell upon them, without giving them time, saving a very few, to give fire to their Harquebuzes, as ours did, who had them all ready; nevertheless they defended themselves with their Swords, so that six of mine were hurt, and fifteen or sixteen of this Company were slain upon the place, of which Corporal Ianin was one (which was a very great misfortune to us) together with a Brother of his, the rest were led into the Cellar ty'd two and two together, for there were already more prisoners in the Castle, than Soldiers of our own.

Now this fight continuing longer than the former, the Enemy in fighting st [...]ll cry'd out Imperi, and ours France; insomuch that their cries reach'd down into the City, and especially the rattle of the Harquebuze shot, so that to avoid being so soon discove­red, their design being to Train the Count thither (for to that end tended all the Farce) they all got upon the walls of the Castle, and from thence cryed out Imperi and Savoy, having on their red crosses, as I said before. Now the Country fellow that had been sent with the Letter to the Count, did not return with those men up to the Castle, but staid at his Master's Country house by the way, wherefore he was again suddainly sent for, and another Letter deliver'd to him by the hands of the Priest to carry to the said Count to Fossan, wherein he gave him to understand, that Corporal Ianin was so wea­ry he could not write, but that he had given him in charge to render him an account of all, and that he was laid down to sleep. So soon as the Count had read this Letter, he put on a resolution to go, not the next day which was Tuesday, but the Wednesday fol­lowing (when God intends to punish us, he deprives us of our understandings, as it [Page 50] happened here in the case of this Gentleman.) The Count in the first place was reputed one of the most circumspect (and as wise as valiant) Leaders they had in their whole Army, which notwithstanding he suffered himself to be gull'd by two Letters from this Pri [...]st, especially the last, which he ought by no means to have relyed upon; nor to have given credit to any thing, without having first seen something under his Corporal's own hand, and should have consider'd whether or no it were a plausible excuse, to say, that the said Corporal was laid down to sleep. But we are all blind when we have once set our hearts upon any thing of moment. Believe me, Gentlemen, you that are great un­dertakers of Enterprizes, you ought maturely to consider all things, and weigh every the least circumstance, for if you be subtle, your Enemy may be as crafty as you. A Trom­peur trompeur et demy, says the Proverb, Harm watch harm catch, And The cunning' stsnap may meet with his match. But that which most of all deceived the Count was, that the Tuesday those of the Town, who thought themselves to be become Imperialists, and yet in some doubt by reason of the various cries they had heard during the fight, had sent five or six women to the Castle under colour of selling Cakes, Apples, and Ches­nuts, to see if they could discover any thing of Treason (for all those that remain'd in the Town had already taken the Red Cross;) whom so soon as our people saw coming up the Hill, they presently suspected their business, and resolving to set a good face on the matter, went to let down the little draw bridge to let them in. My Soldiers then fell to walking up and down the base Court with their red crosses, all saving three or four that spake very good Spanish, who fell to talk with the Women, and bought some of their Wares, taking upon them to be Spaniards, insomuch that they afterwards re­turning to the Town, assur'd the Inhabitants that there was no deceit in the business: and moreover brought a Letter which la Mothe writ to a friend in the Town, wherein he entreated him to go to Monsieur de Botieres, and to tell him, that he had never consented to Granuchin's treachery; which Letter he delivered to one of the Women, knowing very well, that the party to whom it was directed, was not there to be found; but would be one of the first to run away, as being a very good French man: but their de­sign was, that the Letter should fall into the hands of those of the Imperial party, as ac­cordingly it did.

As the Count was coming on Wednesday morning, our people in the Castle disco­ver'd him marching along the plain, and the people of the Town went to meet him without the Gate, where being come, he ask'd them if it were certainly true, that the Castle was in his hands, to which they made answer, that they believed it so to be: but that at the entrance of his men the first time, there were a great many Harquebuzes shot off within, and a very great noise was made: and that on the Munday morning, when the others entred, they likewise heard a very great noise, that continued longer than the former, and that they once thought they heard them cry one while France, and another Imperi and Duco: but that notwithstanding they had yesterday sent their Wives into the Castle with Fruit, Bunns and Chesnuts, whom they had permitted to enter, where they saw all the Soldiers with red crosses. The Count hearing this, com­manded his Liesutenant to alight, and to refresh his horses and men, bidding those of the Town speedily get something ready for him to eat; for so soon as he had taken or­der in the Castle, he would come down to dinner, after which he would take their Oath of Fidelity, and so return back again to Fossan. Now you must know it is a very steep and uneasie ascent from the Town to the Castle, by reason whereof the Count alighted, and walk'd it up on foot, accompanied with a Nephew of his, another Gentleman and his Trum­pet. So soon as he came to the end of the Bridge, which was let down, and the Gate shut; but the Wicket left open, so that a man might easily pass, and lead his horse after him; Granuchin and the Priest being above in the window, saluting him, desir'd him to enter; to which nevertheless he made answer, that he would advance no further, till he had first spoken with Corporal Ianin; seeing then that he refused to enter, Granuchin in his hearing said to the Priest ( [...]o get him from thence) Pray Father go down, and tell Corpo­ral Janin that my Lord is at the Gate, where he stays to speak with him, and at the same time himself also departed from the window, pretending to go down; whereupon Captain Favas and his Soldiers ran to open the Gate, which was only bolted, and all on a suddain leap'd upon the Bridge. Seeing this, the Count who was one of the most a­ctive men of all Italy, and who held his horse by the bridle (the best one of them, that ever that Country bred, and which I afterwards gave to Monsieur de Tais) vaulted over a little wall which was near to the Bridge, drawing his horse after him, with intent to have leap'd into the Saddle (for there was no horse so tall (provided he could lay his hand upon the Pummel) but he could a [...]m'd at all pieces, vault into the Seat) but [Page 51] he was prevented by the Bastard of Bazordan, call'd Ianot (yet living, and then of my Company) who by misfortune being he either could not, or would not, get over the wall to lay hands upon him, let fly at him an Harquebuze, which taking the de­fault of his Arms, went into his belly,Count [...] Governor of Fossan woun [...]ded. piercing thorough his bowels almost to the other side, of which shot he sunk down to the ground. Captain Favas took his Nephew, and another the Trumpet, but the other Gentleman escap'd down the Hill, crying out that the Count was either kill'd or taken; whereupon the Lieutenant, and all his Company skutled to horse in so great a fright, that they never look'd behind them till they came to Fossan. Had it so fallen out that Ianin at the second entry had not been slain, they had not only snap'd the Count, and by degrees all his whole Troop (for they might have compell'd him to have spoke to them, with a dagger at his reins ready to stab him should he make a sign) but moreover might perhaps from hence have spun out some contrivance against Fossan it self; for one Enterprize draws on ano­ther.

These things being done, they in the evening dispatch'd away Captain Milhas (a Gentleman of my Company) to bring me the news, and to relate to me from point to point how all things had passed; together with a Letter from the said Count, wherein he entreated me, seeing he was my prisoner, and that greater advantage was to be made of his life than of his death, to do him the courtesie, as to send him with all speed a Physician, a Chirurgeon, and an Apothecany. Captain Milhas arriv'd just at the time that they open'd the Gates of the City, so that he found me putting on my cloaths, and there related to me the whole business, thereby delivering me from the great anxiety, and trouble wherein from Sunday till Wednesday I had continually re­main'd; for though I was really concerned for the place, yet was I much more afflicted for the loss of my Lieutenant, and my Soldiers, who were most of them Gentlemen, and all very brave men. Immediately upon the news, I ran to Monsieur de Termes his Lodgings, whom I found sick a bed: but I dare say, that neither he nor I were ever so overjoy'd; for we both very well knew, that had it fallen out otherwise, there were Rods in piss. So soon as I departed from him, I presently sent away a Phi­sician, a Chirurgeon, and an Apothecary, whom I mounted upon three horses of my own for the more speed; neither did they either stop or stay until they came thither: but it was impossible to save him, for he died about midnight,His death▪ and was brought to Savillan, whom every one had a desire to see, even Monsieur de Termes himself, as sick as he was, and he was very much lamented by all. The next day I sent the Bo­dy to Fossan, but detein'd the Nephew, and Trumpet with the rest that were taken prisoners at Barges, until they should send me back the Wife, and Son of the said Granuchin, which the next day they did, and I also deliver'd up all the Prisoners.

I beseech you, Captains, you who shall see and hear this Relation, to consider whe­ther or no this was a stratag [...]m for a Merchant; believe me, the oldest Captain would have been puzled, and have had enough to carry it on with so much dexterity, and reso­lution as he did; wherein although Captain Favas was the performer of it, when it came to execution; nevertheless the Merchant was not only the original contriver, but also a prin­cipal Actor throughout the whole business, having the heart in order to his revenge, to expose his Wife and Son to the extreamest danger. In reading of which (fellows in Arms) you may learn diligence with temper, and take notice what sleights, and po­lices were used, and continued for the space of four days together, such as no man either of theirs▪ (or which is more, of our own) could possibly discover, both parties being held equally suspended. The Count for a prudent Cavalier, behav'd him­self herein with very great levity, especially upon the second Letter; but he repair'd his fault when he refused to enter the Castle, without first seeing his man; though that caution signified nothing as it fell out. Whenever therefore you design an enterprize, weigh every thing, and never go hand over head; and without precipitating your selves, or being too easie of beliefe upon light foundations, judge and consider whether there be any appearance, or likelyhood in the thing; for I have seen more deceived than otherwise, and whatever assurance is given you, or whatever promises may be made, be sure to raise your Counter-battery, and never rely so wholly upon him, who is to carry on the work, but that you have still a reserve to secure your venture, should his faith, or conduct fa [...]l. Its not, I confess, well done to condemn him who has the management of an affair, if it do not succeed; for men should always be attempting how ever they speed, and hit or miss 'tis all one, provided there be neither treason nor absurdity in the case. Men must try, and fail; for being we are to con [...]ide in men, no one can see into their [Page 52] hearts: but however go warily to work. I have ever been of opinion (and do think that every good Captain ought to have the same) that it is better to assault a place upon a surprize, where no one is privy to the design, than to have perhaps some Traytor for your Guide; for as much as you are certain there can be no counter-treason against you; and though you fail, you retire with the less danger, for your enemy can have laid no am­buscados to entrap you.

Caesar de Naples being this day at Carmagnolle, had there news brought to him of the Count's disaster and death, at which he was extremely afflicted; and to secure F [...]ssan, would send thither three Companies of Italians, which had formerly been in Garrison there, to wit, that of Blaise de Somme a Neapolitan, that of Baptista a Millanese, and that of Ra [...]ssanne a Piedmontois, who nevertheless refus'd suddainly to depart (fearing we would fight them by the way) and would not stir till they might have a good and strong Convoy; and the Germans he had with him would not be perswaded to go, by which means he was constrain'd to send to R [...]conis to the four Spanish Companies which were in Garrison there; that is to say, that of Don Iuan de Guebara Camp-Master, of Louys de Quichado [...], Aquilbert, and Mendoza, which made it two days before they durst set out to march. In the mean time Monsieur de Termes was advertised by his spy, that the said Italian Companies were to set forth the next morning, to go put themselves into Fossan, and that they were to have two Troops of Horse to conduct them: but he had heard nothing that the Spaniards were to go.

The said Seigneur was at this time but newly recovered of his sickness, who the same morning communicated the affair to me, and at the very instant we concluded to draw four hundred Foot out of all our Companies, all pick'd and choice men, to wit, two hundred Harquebusiers, and as many Pikes wearing Corslets. Captain Tilladet (who had lost but two or three of all his Launces) was not yet return'd to Savillan, which was the reason that Monsieur de Termes his Company was not so strong; and on the other side Monsieur de Bellegarde his Lieutenant was gone to his own house, and had taken some few with him, by which means Captain Mons could make but fourscore Horse in all;A design to cut off the succours of Fossan. and the Spy told us, that the Italian Companies were to take the same way by which their Army had march'd when they went to Carignan, which was by the Plain, where we before had fought the Italians. We therefore concluded to take the way of Marennes, and to be there before them; when as we were going out of the Town Mon­sieur de Cental arriv'd, who came from Cental, having with him fifteen Launces of Seigneur MaurYé, and twenty Harquebusiers on horseback, which hindred us a little, forasmuch as he entreated Monsieur de Termes to give him a little time to bait his hor­ses, for he was also of necessity to pass the same way we were design'd to march, to go to his Government of Cairas. To whom we made answer, that we would go but very softly before, and stay for him at Marennes: but that he should make hast; for in case we should hear the Enemy was passing by, we could not stay for him. Monsieur de Termes had once a great mind to have gone along with us himself; but we entreated him not to do it, both because he had been so lately sick, and also that the Town being left in a manner naked, should any misfortune happen to us, it would be in great danger to be lost.

Being come to Marennes, we there made a halt, staying for Monsieur Cental, where we orderder'd our Battail in this manner, to wit, that the Captains Gabarret and Ba­ron should lead the two hundred Corslets, and I the two hundred Harquebusiers, with whom I presently took the Vanne, the Corslets following after me, and so march'd out of the Village. Captain Mons also divided his Horse into Troops: but to whom he gave the first I am not able to say, they being all Camrades, but I do believe it was either to Masses, Mousserie, Ydrou, or the younger Tilladet; and when we had march'd a little way, before we would discover our selves to the valley, thorough which the Ene­my was to pass, we made a stand. I then took a Gentleman along with me call'd la Garde (he being on horseback) and advanc'd a little forward to discover the valley, where presently on the other side in the plain of Babe, (a Castle belonging to the Castellano of Savoy) I discover'd the three Italian Companies, and the Cavalry march­ing directly towards Fossan. At which I was ready to run mad, cursing Monsieur de Cental, and the hour that ever he came, thinking there had been no more than those I saw on the other side, who were already got a great way before us; when being about to return to tell the rest, that they were already pass'd, and looking down into the valley (for before I had only look'd into the plain on the other side) I discover'd the Spanish Foot shewing them to la Garde (who before saw them no more than I) having almost all of them yellow breeches▪ and moreover saw their Arms glitter against the Sun, [Page 53] by which we knew they were Corslets. We never dream'd of meeting any more than the three Italian Copanies only, so that had we not by accident made some stay in expecta­tion of Monsieur Cental, we had met the Spaniards and the Italians together, and do ver [...]ly bel [...]eve had been d [...]feated, considering what defence the Spaniards made alone. I presently then went and gave the rest of the Captains an account of what I had seen, advising them withal, by no means as yet to discover themselves; for the Spaniards had made a halt, and stood still. I also began to lose sight of the Italians, who march'd directly to Fossan: it was a very great oversight in them to separate themselves as so great a distance from one another; la Garde then return'd, and told me, that Monsieur Cental was coming hard by, bringing a Trooper along with him, whom I made to stay above, keeping always his eye on the Italians, whilst I, with la Garde, went down to number their men, who let fly some Harquebuze shot at me: but I notwithstanding went so near, that I made shift to count them, to betwixt four and five hundred men at the most, and pre­sen [...]ly return'd to the top of the Hill, where I saw their Cavalry returning towards them, having left the Italians, who were already a great way off, and clean out of sight. I then sent the Soldier to my Companions to bid them presently march, for the Spaniards began to beat their Drums to return. The Troops of Horse they had were those of the Count de Saint Martin d' Est, Kinsman to the Duke of Ferrara; who himself was not there, but his Lieutenant only, and of Rozalles a Spaniard. Their Companies of Foot were those of Don Iuan de Guibara, Aguillere, and Mendoza, with one half of that of Louys de Gui­chadou, h [...] with the other half having put himself into the Castle of Reconis. Here Mon­sieur de Cental and Captain M [...]ns came up to me, they two only, and saw as well as I, that the said Spauiards pu [...] themselves into [...]ile, which we judg'd to be eleven or thirteen in F [...]le, and in the mean time their Cavalry came up to them.

Now they had already discover'd us, although they had hitherto seen no more than five, and I for my part was particularly known, when I went down to discover, by the Ser­jeant of Mendoza, who had been taken at the defeat of the Italians, and deliver'd three days after; whereupon they plac'd all their Cavalry before, and only twenty or five and twenty Harquebusiers at the head of them, a great Company at the head of their Pikes, and the remainder in the Rear; in which order with Drums beating they began to march. I took my Harbuebusiers which I divided into three Squadrons, the first whereof I gave to Captain Lienard, the second to le Pallu Lieutenant to Monsieur de Carces, who had his two Companies at Savillan, and I my self led the third in the Rear of them, the Cor­slets following after; where, at the first coming up, I had la Garde killed by my side. The Enemy still held on their march, without making any shew of breaking, firing upon us all the way with very great fury, and we also upon them, so that I was constrain'd to call Captain Lienard to come and join with me, forasmuch as a Squadron of Harque­busiers was drawn off from their Front,Encounter betwixt the Imperialists and the French. to reinforce their Rear. I likewise call'd up le Pallu, and after this manner they march'd on till they came within sight of the Castle of St. Fré, which was three miles, or more, continually plying us with their Harquebuze shot. I had once almost put them to rout, at the passing over a great ditch, near to a house where was a base Court, where we pursued them so close, that we came to the Sword, whereupon twenty of five and twenty of them leap'd into the base Court, and there some of curs falling in pell-mell amongst them, they were all cut to pieces, whilst in the interim of that execution, the rest got over the ditch: Our Cavalry had thought to have charg'd them, but did not, being kept off by the Harquebuze shot, by which many of their horses were slain, and as for Captain Gabarret and Baron, they committed an error, who, seeing us in the ditch, all shuffled pell-mell together, forsook their horses, and took their Pikes, yet could they not come up in time, which if they had, and that the Corslets could have march'd at the rate the Harquebusiers did, they had there been infallibly de­feated: but it was not possible, being hindred by the weight of their Arms, so that the Enemy march'd on, still ridding ground, till being come near to a little Bridge of Brick, I▪ left our Harquebusiers still fighting, and gallop'd to our Cavalry, that was in three Bo­dies, Monsieur de Cental leading his own, which still keeping at distance out of the reach of the shot ma [...]ch'd sometimes before, and sometimes a little on one side, to whom, coming up to him, I said, Ah Monsieur de Cental Will you not charge? do you not see that the Ene­my will escape us, if they once ge [...] over that Bridg, and immediately recover the wood of St. Fr [...]? which if they do, we are never more worthy to bear Arms, and for my part I will from this h [...] ur for swear them. Who in a great fury made answer, that it stuck not at him, but that I was to speak to Captain Mons, which I also did, saying to him these words. Hah Cam­rade! must we this day receive so great a disgrace, and lose so fair an opportunity, because your [...] will not charge? Who thereupon answered, What would you have us do, your cor­slets [Page 54] cannot come up to the fight, would you have us fight alone? To which I made answer, swearing for rage, that I had no need of Corslets, wishing they were all at Savillan, since they could not come up to fight; he then said to me, go speak to the foremost Troop, and in the mean time I will advance; I then spurr'd to them, where I began to remon­strate to Monsieur de Termes his Gentlemen, that it was not above nine or ten days since we had fought with the Italians, and beaten them, and now that we should fight with the Spaniards to obtain greater honor, must they escape from us? Who thereupon with one voice all cryed out, It does not stick at us, It does not stick at us. I then ask'd them if they would promise me to charge so soon as I should have made the Harquebusiers betake them­selves to their Swords, to run in upon them, which they did assure me they would upon pain of their lives. There was at that time amongst them a Nephew of mine call'd Serillac (who after was Lieutenant to Monsieur de Cyplerre at Parma, and there taken prisoner with him, and since slain at Montepullsianne, and, in truth, amongst these thirty Launces there were the best men that Monsieur de Termes had in all his Troop) to whom I said; Serillac, thou art my Nephew, but if thou dbst not charge in the first man amongst them, I benceforth disclaim thee, and thou shalt no more be any Kinsman of mine; who immedi­ately return'd me answer, You shall presently see, Uncle, whether I will or no. Which said he clap'd down his Beaver, as also did all the rest, to charge. I then cryed out to them to stay a little, till I first got up to my men, and thereupon ran to my Harquebusiers, where being come, I told them, that it was now no longer time to shoot, but that we must fall on to the Sword. Captains, my Camrades, whenever you shall happen to be at such a feast as this, press your followers, speak first to one, and then to another, bestir your selves, and doubt not but by this means you will render them valiant throughout, if they but half so before. They all on a suddain clap'd hands to their Swords, when so soon as Captain Mons, who was a little before, and Monsieur de Cental, who was on one side, saw the first Troop shut down their Beavers, and saw me run to the Harquebusiers, and in an instant their Swords in their hands, they knew very well that I had met with Lads of mettle, and began to draw near. I for my part lighted from my horse, taking a Halbert in my hand (which was my usual weapon in fight) and all of us ran headlong to throw our selves in amongst the Enemy. Serillac was as good as his word, for he charg'd in the first, as they all confess'd, where his horse was kill'd at the head of the Enemies Harquebusiers, and our own Horse, with seven Harquebuze shot. Tilladet, Lavit, Ydrou, Montselier, les Mau­rens, and les Masses, all Gascon Gentlemen of the same Troop, and companions of the said Serillac, charg'd the Horse thorough and thorough, whom they overturn'd upon the head of their own Foot. Monsieur de Cental also charg'd in the Flank, quite thorough both Horse and Foot,The Imperi­alists over­thrown. Captain Mons charg'd likewise on the other side, so that they were all overth [...]own, and routed both Horse and Foot. And there we began to lay about us, above fourscore or an hundred men being left dead upon the place. Rozalles, Captain to one of the two Troops of Light horse, with four others got away, as also did Don Iuan de Guibara upon a Tu [...]k with his Page only, who happened to be on horseback, being shot thorough the hand, of which he ever after remain'd lame, and I do believe is yet living.

This is the true relation of this fight, as it pass'd, there being several at this day alive, who were present at it, and I desire no other testimony to prove whether I have fail'd in one tittle of the truth. Monsieur de Cental carried away prisoner with him the Lieutenant of the Count St. Martin, he having been taken by some of his people, together with some others both of Horse and Foot, and with us went Captain Aguillere, and Mendoza the Lieutenant of Rozalles, he that carried the Cornette, and he that carried that of the Count Saint Martin, (though they had not their Colours with them) and all the rest both of Horse and Foot to Savillan. In ten days were all these three Actions performed, to wit, the rout of the Italians, the death of Count Pedro d' Apporte at Barges, and this defeat of the Spaniards. I must needs therefore say, for what concerns my self, that if ever God accom­panied the fortune of a man,The good for­tune of Mr. de Monluc. he went along with mine; and do stedfastly believe, that had he not put to his Almighty Arm, we had been overcome. But he sent us Cental, who de­ferr'd the time in very good s [...]ason for us, which had it fallen out otherwise, a more fuious combat had never been heard of then that had been▪ for if they were brave and hardy, we were nothing indebted to them. Ours was a marvellous spritely little Body[?], and (that I may leave nothing imperfect) I would not that any one should imagine, that the Corslets came not up to the fight for want of courage, nothing hindering them from advancing so fast as need requir'd, but the weight of their Arms: for we had scarce made an end, when they arriv'd upon the place of Battel, cursing their arms, that had hindred them from having part of the feast.

Now these three Companies and a half of Spaniards thus defeated, the three that went to [Page 55] tho [...]e who were retir'd with the Duke of Savoy, and the Marquis de Gu [...]st, and the four thousand German and Spanish Foot, which were l [...]ft in Carignan, had altogether very much weakened the Enemies Camp; so that after some time Monsieur de Boitieres resolv'd (having Monsieur de Tais and de St. Iulien with him) to draw all his Forces in the several Garrisons together, to make a slying Army. To this end he sent me order, with my own Company, the two Companies of Monsieur de Carces, and that of Count Landriano an I­lian, to meet him at Pignerol. He also sent to Monsieur de Termes, that he should only keep two Companies with him at Savillan, namely those of Gabarret, and Baron; where also the Q [...]arters were so good, that the forenamed Gentlemen were very glad, that Mon­sieur de Termes invited them to stay with him. I will write a word or two to serve for a caution to my fellow Captains, and to shew them, that they ought to consider all the in­conveniences that may happen to them, and to provide remedies against every accident that may befall.

Monsieur de Termes had a mind to perform an exploit at Castillholle in the Marqui­sate of Sal [...]zzo, upon three Ensigns of the Enemies, that had put themselves into three Palaces, one close by another, having Bastion'd the Streets in such manner, that they could go from one Palace to another, within their own lines, and his design was to kill two Birds with one stone; that is, to accompany me as far as Castillholle, and with two field pieces he intended to carry along with him to force the Palaces, and that from thence I should go on to Pignerol, and he (taking the two Companies of Baron and Nicholas to guard the Artillery) would return to Savillan. Now all the Enemies Forces were quater'd at Pinguons, Vimus, and Vigon, and in two or three adjacent places; so that I had no great stomach to this enterprize, forasmuch as the Enemies strength lying so near to the said Ca­stillholle, they might in seven or eight hours time have intelligence of any thing should there be attempted, and consequently in as much more be upon us: But Monsieur de Term [...]s, who had set his heart upon this design, would hear no argument of mine to the contrary, especially being that not four months before Monsieur de Aussun and St. Iulian had at the same place defeated two Companies, and taken their Captains, where I was present with them, they having borrowed me of Monsieur de Boitieres, and my Compa­ny also: but I represented to him, that these were the same Captains, that having paid their ransoms, were newly come out of prison, and who having seen the [...]rror whereby they had lost themselves before, had doubtless now provided against such surprizes. For after a man has once been trapp'd in a place, he must have a damnable thick skull, if, when he shall be again expos'd to the same danger, he look not better about him than before, and become wise at his own cost. And I have heard great Captains say, that it is convenient to be beaten sometimes, because a man becomes more circumspect by his disasters: but I am very glad that I never was, and had rather learn to be wise at another man expence than my own.

All my remonstrances could do no good, so that in the beginning of the night we began to march, and an hour before day arrived at the place. Monsieur de Termes then planted his Canon within an hundred paces of one of the Palaces, which le Baron and Nicolas imme­diately undertook to guard, and Captain Pallu, the Count de Landriano and my self were to fight. I won one of the Palaces, not that which was batter'd by the Artillery, but by break­ing thorough from house to house, till at last I had broke a hole into the Palace it self, thorough which nev [...]r [...]heless they kept me from entring (besides I very well re­membred the Hole where I had been so well cudgell'd, in the voyage to N [...]ples) which made me set fire to a little house adjoyning to the said Palace. They then retir'd into one of the others, the fight having continued until two of the clock in the afternoon, with­out any other laying to a helping hand, save our four Companies only. I there lost fifteen or sixteen of my men, Monsieur de Carces as many of his▪ and the Count de Landriano esca­ped not scot-free. We had notwithstanding compell'd them to quit the other, which the Artillery had batter'd, and to retreat to the third; where, being we were to unwall two Gates, som [...] were of opinion not to make any further attempt, but that Monsieur de Ter­mes should return with all speed to Savillan, and I, with my four Companies to take my way directly to Pignerol, which (to my great grief) was concluded; for I would either have made an end, or, with the remainder of my men, have perish'd in the attempt. And it is a vice that has ever been observ'd in me, that I have always been too obstinate in fight: but let them all say what they will, I have ever done better than worse. But Monsieur de Termes consented to give over, fearing he might lose some Captain, for which he might afterwards receive a rebuke, the King's Lieutenant having no knowledge of the enterprize; and I march'd on straight to Barges. When I came to Bo [...]rg the night fell upon me, and I had yet three long miles of plain to march over, before I could come to Ca [...]ours, where I inten­ded [Page 56] to bait, and to take three or four hours repose; when being entred into the Plan, I sent Captain Lienard (who was with me) to go speak with Monsieur de Boitieres, to know what kind of way it was to Cabours (for I had never been in that Country before) who brought me word that it was all plain. I then made a halt, and fell to discourse with Cap­tain Lienard, that we had set out from Savillan the night before, that in seven or eigh [...] hours Caesar de Naples might have intelligence of our motion, and that two days before it had been known all over Savillan, that I was to go [...] Pignerol▪ of which Caesar de Naples might have notice, and it was not above six or seven miles to Vigon, where the greatest part of their Cavalry lay, wherefore we could not possibily pass over this plain without running a manifest danger, which (especially in the night, where there is no shame) we might without any dishonor avoid. Captain Lienard confess'd that all this might be, but that nevertheless I had no other way to go, unless I would go three or four miles about, and pass the streight near to the source, where he thought we should however meet with wa­ter. Upon this my Guides overhearing our discourse, told me that there was water up to the middle of the thigh, and there was not a man amongst them, but was of a contrary opinion to mine: but I, contrary to the opinion of all, turn'd on the left hand, and took the way di­rectly towards the Mountain, [...]inding the water, by good for [...]une, but knee deep, so that we recover'd the side of the Mountain leading straight to Barges, whither we did not however expect to come till break of day; which we did without sleeping from the day we set out: For the evening we slept not, at night we began to march, all day long w [...] fought at the Palaces, and the night after we march'd to Barges, which was eight and forty hours. I have done the like without sleeping five or six times in my life, and six and thir [...]y several times. You must (fellow Soldiers) enure your selves betimes to labour and hardship, with­out sleeping, or eating, to the end, that in time of need, you may support all sorts of toyl, and travel with patience.

Now you must know, that my suspition was not vain, for Caesar de N [...]ples, having had intelligence of our design, parted from Carmagnolle with five hundred Harquebusiers on horseback, drawing out of Vinus and Vigon five hundred Horse, with which he came, and laid an Ambuscado in the middle of the plain, about a Cross-bow shot on the one side of my way, where he lay all night; so that when I came to Barges, a little after Sun-rise, as I was just laid down to sleep, I heard the Arrillery of Cabours, which shot at them as they went off; for they were of nec [...]ssity to pass by the Suburb of the said Cabours. I was not certainly enfo [...]n'd of this Ambus [...]ado, till three days after my coming to Pignerol. that Monsieur de Boitieres put himself into the field, at which time we went directly to Vigon, to force the Cavalry that were there, for Foot they had none at all; where we gain'd the houses adj [...]i [...]ing to the Gate: but being we could not enter the Town, our Camp retrea­ted a mile off, and in the night the Cavalry secretly abandoned the place; insomuch that at br [...]ak of day, when we had thought to have gone on to the assault (Monsieur de Boitie­res, having sent for two pieces of Canon from Pignerol) we found no body there, and the place totally empty. The same also did those of Vinus, Pingues, and the other places, with­drawing themselves to Carmagnolle.

I thought fit to discourse this affair, and commit this passage to writing to rouse up our Cap­tians spirits, that they may look about them, and whenever they shall sind thems [...]lves enga­ged upon the same account, may carefully compute, what time the Enemy may have where­in to be advertis'd of their motion, and also what time is re [...]uir'd wherein to make their retreat. Whereupon if you shall find, that your Enemy has time enough to take you upon your march, and that you are not strong enough to fight them, never scruple to turn out of your way, for the [...] of going three or four leagues about; for it is better to be wary, than to be kill'd or taken. You must not only have your eye at watch, but your under­standing also. 'Tis under your vigilance and care, that your Soldiers repose, consider there­fore every thing that may happen, always measuring the time, and taking things at the worst, and despise not your E [...]my▪ If you have the art, with chearful and srolick expressi­ons to [...]ajol [...] and rouse up the Soldier, by times representing to him the danger of a little delay, you may make them do what you list, and without giving them leisure to sleep, con­vey th [...]m and your selves into a place of safety, without engaging your honor, as several, whom I have known taken a bed a la Franç [...]ise (as the saying is) have done.The nature of [...]he French. Our Nation cannot suffer long, as the Spaniard and German can; yet is not the fault in the air of France; nor in the nature of the people, but in the Chief. I am a French man, impatient (they say) and moreover a Gascon, who exc [...]ed the other French in choler and impatience, as I think they do in valour; yet have I ever been patient of all sor [...]s of toyl and suffering, as much as any other could be, and have known seve [...]al of my time, and others wh [...]m I have bred, that have en [...]r'd and hardned themselves to all pain and travel, and believe me (you that [Page 57] command in arms) if you your selves be such, you will make your Soldi [...]rs the same in time. I am sure, had not I done so, I had been kill'd or taken. But let us return to our Subject.

The next d [...]y we went to pass the River of Pau, over which we made a Bridge of Wag­gons for the Foot only, the Horse fording it over at great [...]ase, it being no more than bel­ly deep: we were all night in passing, and at break of day when they were almost all got over, I with a Company of Harquebusiers went up close to the Town, where I f [...]ll to ski [...]mishing, having some Horse also with me. Caesar de Naples then immediately put his men in order to quit Carmagnolle, and began to march, retiring towards a River there to retreat to Quiers. Where had it not been that our Cavalry fetch'd a great compass to get clear of the ditches, we had certainly fault, and perhaps defeated them, as (to say the truth) we might have done however, had some been so dispose [...]. I'm sure it stuck not at our Companies; nor at Monsieur de Tais: But Monsieur le President Birague, if he will speak the truth, knows very well where the fought lay, for he was then in the Army with Monsieur de Boitieres, and both heard and saw all they said and did, and knows very well that I with two hundred Harquebusiers pursued them upon their retreat, fiting all the way for above a mile and a half together, and ready to tear my flesh to see how faintly they advanc'd, which shew'd they had no great stomach to fight.

'Tis an ill thing when a Generall is in fear of being beaten, and whoever goes timerously to work will never do any thing to purpose: had there been no greater men in the Com­pany than my self, without trisling after that manner, I had done as I did by the Spani­ards, which I defeated but fifteen days before. There were a great many excuses however on all sides, why we did not fight, and not only there, but also throughout all Piedmont, where they spoke of us God knows with what Characters of honor. After the report of this Cowardise (for it can be call'd by no other name) was spread abroad, Monsieur dc Boiti [...]res was not very well satisfied with himself: but I shall leave this discourse, and fall upon some other Subject; only this I must say, that the world had after, no great opinion of him; he was ill obey'd, and worse respected: [...]f there was any fault on his part or not, I leave others to judge, and there are enough yet living, that can tell better than I; yet was he a prudent and a good Cavali [...]r: but God makes no body perfect at all points.

Three or four days after came Ludovico de Birague, who propos'd an enterprize to Mon­sieur de Boitieres, which was, that in case he would leave Monsieur de Tais about Bou­longne (where he was Governor) with seven, or eight Companies of Foot, that then [...] would [...]ngage to take Cassantin, St. Germain, and St. Iago; a thing that, because Monsieur de Boitieres was upon the design of breaking the Bridge at Carignan, he made very great difficulty to consent unto, until the said Bridge should first be broken down: but Mon­sieur de Termes, being come with his own Company, and the two Companies of the Baron de Nicolas, it was concluded amongst them, that Monsieur de Tais might be spar'd to go with Signior Londiné, with seven Ensigns, being that still there would remain five or six; the three Companies of Monsieur de Dros, which he had again recruited, and seven or eight others of Italians. I do not well remember whether Monsieur de Strozzi was himself yet arriv'd or no, for the last nam'd were his men: but it may suffice, that we made up, what French and Italians, eighteen Ensigns besides the Swisse. It was therefore concluded in the Council, that before they should take in hand the breaking of the Bridge, they should first see how the enterprize of the said Signior Ludovico should succeed▪ which should it miscarry, and that they were defeated, all Piedmont would be in very great danger. But in a few days after news was brought to Monsieur Boitieres, that they had taken St. Ger­mans and St. Iago, with four or five other little enclos'd Towns. Neither must I forget that Monsieur de Tais stiffly insisted to have had me along with him, insomuch that there arose some dispute about it: But Monsieur de Boitieres protested he would not undertake to break the Bridge unless I was there: Monsieur de Termes, Monsieur d' Aussun, the President Birague, and Signior Francisco Bernardin stood very high on Monsieur Boitieres his side, so that I was constrained to stay, very much against my will, I having a very gr [...]t desire to have gone along with Monsieur de Ta [...]s, both because he lov'd me, and had as great confidence in me as in any Captain of the Regiment;The enter­prize of brea­king the Bridge of [...] ­rignan. as also that he was a man of exceeding great mettle, and would seek all occasions of fighting: however the foremention'd news being brought, the breaking of the Bridge was conccluded, and after this manner.

It was order'd that I with five or six Companies of Gascons, should go fight the hun­dred Germans, and hundred Spaniards that had every night kept Gaurd at the end of the Bridge, ever since our Army had been at Pingues. To which I made answer, that I would not have so many; for being to pass through narrow ways, so great a number of men would make so very long a F [...]le, that the sixth part of them could never come up to [Page 58] fight: and in short, that I would only have an hundred Harquebusiers, and an hundred Corslets, to be equal to the Enemy; not doubting, but, before the Game was done, to make it appear, that our Nation were as good, as either German or Spaniard: but withal that Boguede [...]ar, la Pallu, and another Captain (whose name I have forgot) should bring all the rest of the men after, at the distance of three hundred paces, to assist me in case the Enemy should sally out of Carignan, to relieve their own people. Which accordingly was left to my discretion.

There was a house on the left hand the Bridge, which it was order'd the Italians (who might be between twelve and fourteen Ensigns) should possess themselves of, to favour me, should the Enemy make a Sally; that Monsieur de Boitieres should advance with all the Cavalry, and the Swisse within half a mile; that Captain Labarda [...] with his Company should advance on the other side of the River, with two pieces of Canon, to make some shot at a little house which was on the Bridge end on our side, where the Enemy kept their Guard, and that Monsieur de Salcede (who but a little before was come over to us) with three or fourscore Country fellows (every one bringing a hatchet along with him) should attempt to break the Bridge.Order for breaking the Bridge. For whom also seven or eight Boats were prepared wherein to convey themselves under the said Bridge, where they were to cut the Posts, not quite tho­rough, but to the thickness of a mans leg, and that being done, to cut the long beams that supported the Bridge above, which dividing from one another the Pillars would totter and break of themselves; they had moreover certain fire works deliver'd to them, which they were made to believe, being applyed to the Pillars, would in a short time burn them down to the water. Every one then going to execute the orders they had received; I with my two hundred men, chosen out of all the Companies, went full drive directly towards the Bridge, where I could not however so soon arrive, but that the Canon had already made one shot at the little house, had broken into it, and kill'd a German, whom at my coming I found there not quite dead. And although it was night, yet the Moon shone out so clear that we might easily see from the one end to the other, saving that by in [...]ervals there fell a mist, which continued sometimes half an hour, and sometimes less, during which we could not see a yards distance from us.

Now either frighted at the report of the Canon, or at the noise I made at the house (it being not above an hundred paces distant from the Bridge) the Enemy took their heels, and fled away towards Carignan, after whom I sent some Harquebuze shot: but follow'd no further than the end of the Bridge. At the same time also Monsieur de Salcede, with his Boors and his Boats, arriv'd underneath, who at his first coming presently fastned his artificial fires to the Pillars: but it was only so much time thrown away, and he must of force make the fellows fall to't with their Axes, who having ty'd their Boats fast to the said Pillars, began to lay on at that end where the Swisse were, cutting on straight towards me, who kept the other end of the Bridge towards the Enemy.

This fury of the Clowns lasted for four long hours, continually laying on upon the Pil­lars, insomuch that though they were rank'd four and four together, and of a very great thickness, yet before we had any disturbance, they were all cut to the very place where I was. Monsieur de Salcede ever caused one Company to rest themselves upon the Bank of the River, where he had caus'd a little fire to be made, and from hour to hour made them to relieve one another; during which employment, the Enemy sent out thirty or forty Har­quebusiers to discover what we were doing, just at a time when the Fog fell, whom I could neither see nor hear for the noise of the axes, [...]till they were got within four Pikes length of me, and let fly amongst us, which having done they immediately retir'd: yet could they not see us by reason of the mist. Messieurs de Termes then and de Mon [...]ins with three or four horse came up to us to know the meaning of those Harquebuze shots; and sent back to Monsieur de Boitieres to tell him that it was nothing, and that for them we nothing desisted from the work, themselves alone still remaining with me. They had not staid an hour but that the mist again began to fall, and the Enemy as soon return'd upon us, that is to say, six hundred Spaniards chosen men, and six hundred German Pikes, Pedro de Co­lonne (as I have since understood) having order'd the business thus. That two hundred Harquebusiers again chosen out of the six hundred should charge full drive directly upon us, the other four hundred to march at an hundred paces distance, in the Rear of them, and the six hundred Germans two hundred paces after all. Now I had plac'd the Captains who led the Ensigns after me, against a great ditch bank some two hundred paces behind me, and sometimes Captain Favas my Lieutenant, and sometimes Bogutdemar came to me to see what we did, and again return'd back to their place. On that side of the Bridge towards the Swisse we p [...]dv [...]ure had broken down some twenty paces, having begun to cut the beams above, and found that as the Bridge divided it fell down for fifteen or [Page 59] twenty paces together, which gave us hope that we should make an end of the work. In the mean time Monsieur de S [...]lcede still made the Pillars to be cut over again, yet not quite thorough; but only a little more then before, which was the reason that he had divided his workmen into three parts, wherof one was in the Boats, the other upon the Bridge cutting the Traverse beams, and ten or twelve by the fi [...]e [...]ide. As God is pleas'd s [...]metimes to be assisting to men, he this night wrought a real miracle; for in the first place, the two hundred Harquebusiers came up to me, finding me in such a posture, that scarce one Sol­dier had his match cock'd, for they went by [...]ns ten or a dozen at a time to the Coun­try mens [...]ire to warm their hands, having two Centinels out a hundred paces from me, upon the way towards the City and not doubting but the Italians on their side would al­so have the same, for they were a little nearer than I; but it was a little on one side. How they order'd their business I cannot tell, for I had no more than my two Centinels, who came running in to me, and as they came in with the Alarm, the Spaniards also arriv'd crying out Spain, Spain, all the two hundred Harquebusiers firing upon us together. Whereupon Messieur, de Termes and de Moneins being on horseback, and alone, ran unto Monsieur de Boitieres, who had already seen the beginning of the disorder; and note that almost all the the two hundred men I had at the end of the Bridge ran away straight to the Ensig [...]s, and on a suddain the Ensigns also fled, and in like manner at the sam [...] time the Italians who were on our left hand did the same, neither once looking behind them till they came to the head of the Cavalry, where Monsieur de Boitieres himself stood. Our word was St. Pierre, but that did me no good; seeing which, I began to cry out Montluc, Montluc, you cursed cowardly whelps will you forsake me thus? By good fortune I had with me thirty or forty young Gentlemen, who had never a hair on their faces, the hand­somest and the bravest youth that ever was seen in one little Company, who thought I had run away with the rest: but hearing my voice, returned immediately towards me; with whom, without staying for any more, I charg'd straight to the place, from whence the shot came whizzing by our [...]ars: but to see one another was impossible for the mist that fell, together with the thick smoak that was mixt with it, and in running up to them my men discharg'd all together, crying our France, as they cry'd out Spain; and I dare affirm that we fir'd at less than three Pikes distance,Disorder in the night. by which charge their two hundred Harque­busiers were overturn'd upon the four hundred, and all of them upon the six hundred Ger­mans; so that all in a rout, and confusion, they fled full speed towards the City, for they could not discover what we were. I pursu'd them about two hundred paces: but my pursuit was interrupted, by the great noise in our Camp (I never heard the like) you would have sworn they had been all stark string mad, calling and bawling upon one another: yet these great bawlers are none of the greatest fighters. There are a sort of men who bustle up and down, call, command, and keep a great clutter, and in the mean time for one step advance, retire two paces backward: but this hideous noise was the reason, that I could never discover the enemies disorder; neither could they discover ours, by reason of the great outcry they made, at their entrance into the City, which was no other than a Postern near to the Castle, into which three or four men only could march a-breast. Thus then I return'd to the end of the Bridge, where I found Monsieur de Salcede all alone, with ten or a dozen of the Country fellows whose turn it was to rest; for the others that were in the Boats, cut the Ropes, and fled away with the current of the River straight to Montcallier, those on the top that were cu [...]ting the travers [...] beams, on that side towards the Swisse leaving their axes and hatchets upon the Bridge, cast themselves into the water, which was there no more than wast deep, they being not yet come to the depth of the River. The Swisse, likewise, who heard this dismal noise, fell to running towards Carmagnolle, having an opinion that both we and all our Camp were in a rout, and taking the two Cannons along with them made all the hast they possibly could to recover Carmagnolle. I sent one of my Soldiers after the run-aways, to enquire news of my Lieutenant Captain Favas, whom he met (having rallyed thirty or forty of his men) returing towards the Bridge, to see what was become of me, believing me to be slain; who presently dispatch'd away to Boguedemar, la Pallu and some other Captains, who had made a halt, rallying some part of their men, whom he caused in all hast to march directly towards the Bridge, telling them, that I had beaten back the Enemy, who there­upon came at a good rate, to seek me. Captain Favas was the fi [...]st that came, all torn and tatter'd like a skare-crow; forasmuch as the Soldiers in a crowd all run over his belly as he thought to have rallyed who found Monsieur de Salcede and me at the end of the Bridge consulting what we were best to do. So soon as he came he gave us an account of his fortune, and that of the rest of his companions, when seeing him so accoutred, we [...]urn'd all into laughter; but the hubub in our Camp continued above a long hour after.

[Page 60]The other Captains being come up to us, we concluded to make an end of breaking down the Bridge▪ or there to lose our lives: whereupon I presently took fif [...]y or three­score Soldiers, and Monsieur de Salced [...] the ten or twelve Country fellows he had left, giv­ing order to Captain Favas, Boguedemar and la Pall [...] to remain at the end of the Bridge, and to set out Centinels almost as far as the Gates of the City. I believ'd that the Italians notwithstanding the hurly-bu [...]ly in our Camp, were yet at their post, and therefore com­manded Captain Favas himself to go and see if they were there or no; who at his return found, that I had caused fifteen or twenty Soldiers to take up the axes the Peasants had left upon the Bridge, who, together with the ten or twelve Country fellows, were cutting the cross beams above; where he told us, that he had been at the house, but that he had found no body there. This news put us a little to a stand, what we were best to do: but nevertheless we stopt not to execute our former resolution; and so soon as the tumult was a little over, came Messieurs de Termes and de Moneins, who brought me a Command from Mr. de Boitie­res immediately to retire. The said Sieur de Moneins alighted from his horse, for Monsieur de Termes could not for his Gout, and came to me on foot, where he found that since the dis­order, we had at two cuttings made above thirty paces of the Bridge to fall, and were falling upon the third, each of them being fifteen, or twenty paces long; who thereupon return'd to Monsieur de Boiti [...]res to acquaint him how all things had pass'd, Monsieur de Salcede having lost almost all his Peasants: but that our Soldiers had taken their axes, with which they did wonders in cutting, and that all the Captains and Soldiers, Monsieur de Salcede and I were resolved to die rather than depart from thence, till first the Bridge was totally bro­ken down. Monsieur de Boitieres thereupon sent him back to protest against me for any loss, that might happen contrary to his command, which the said Sieur de Moneins did, telling us moreover, that the said Sieur de Boitieres was already upon his march to return, though he halted within a mile of us; which I conceive he did to the end, that by that means he might draw me off; for he wanted no courage, but he was always in fear to lose. Whoever is of that humor, may perhaps make a shift to save himself, but shall never atchieve any great conquests. Monsieur de Termes had made a stop at the end of the Bridge, so soon as he had heard Monsieur de Boitiere [...] to be upon his march, and return'd no more back with Monsieur de Moneins to carry my answer; but presently sent orders to his Company not to stir from the place where he had left them, and so we cut on all the remainder of the night,The Bridge broken down. 'till within an hour of day, that we march'd towards the little house upon the Hill. Monsieur de Moneins return'd again to us, just at the instant when the last blow was given, and Monsieur de Termes ran to his Company, to cause them to advance a little towards us, that they might favour our retreat, and Monsieur de Mo­neins ran towards Monsieur de Boitieres, whom he found expecting his return; so that having deprived the Enemy of a great convenience, we retir'd without any manner of impediment at all. I was willing to commit this to writing, not to magnifie my self for any great valour in this Action; but to manifest to all the world, how God has ever been pleased to conduct my fortune. I was neither so great a Fop, nor so fool hardy, but that could I have seen the Enemy, I should have retir'd, and perhaps have run away as fast as the rest, and it had been madness, and not valour to have staid. Neither is there any shame attends a rational fear, when there is great occasion; and I should never have been so senseless, as with thirty or forty Foot only to have stood the fight.

Captains by this may take exemple, never to run away, or (to put it into a better phrase) to make a hasty retreat, without first discovering who there is to pursue them, and more­over having seen them, to attempt all ways of opposition till they shall see there is no good to be done. For after all the means that God has given to men have been employed, and to no purpose; then flight is neither shameful nor unworthy: but believe me (Gen­tlemen) if you do not employ it all, every one will be ready to say (nay, even those who have run away with you) if he had done this, or if he had done that, the mischief had been prevented, and things had fallen out better than they did; and such a one vapours most and speaks highest, who perhaps was himself the first that ran away. Thus shall the re­putation of a man of honor (let him be as brave as he will) be brought into dispute with all the world. When there is no more to be done, a man ought not to be obstinate, b [...]t to give way to fortune, which does not always smile. A man is no less worthy of blame for wilfully losing himself, when he may retire, and sees himself at the last extremity, than he who shamefully runs away at the first encounter: Yet the one is more dirty than the other; and this difference there is betwixt them, that the one will make you reputed rash and hair­brain'd, and the other a Poltron and a Coward. Both extreams are to be avoided. You are never to enter into these ridiculous and senseless resolutions, but when you see your selves fallen into the hands of a barbarous and merciless Enemy; and there indeed you are to fight [Page 61] it to the last gasp, and sell your skin as dear as you can. One desperate man is worth ten others. But to fly, as they did here, without seeing who pursues you, is infamous and un­worthy the courage of a man. It's true that the French man is accus'd for one thing, that is, that he runs and fights for company: and so do others as well as they. There are ill work­men of all Trades. Now after the place was surrendred, I will tell you how I cam [...] to know the Enemies disorder. It was by the people of Carignan themselves, and from Signi­or Pedro de Colonna's own mouth, who related it to Snsanne, in the presence of Captain Renovard, who conducted him to the King by the command of Monsieur d' Anguien, ac­cording to his capitulation after the Battel of Serizolles, which you shall have an account of in its proper place.

The breaking of this Bridge was not undertaken but upon very mature consideration, and the Enemy soon after began to be very much distress'd, being no relief was to be had from Quiers, as before they had every night duly received. So soon as Monsieur de Tais and Signior Ludovlco de Birago had heard the success of this enterprize of the Bridge, they sent word to Monsieur de Boitieres, that if he would come into those parts where they were, they believ'd they might carry Ivreé. Whereupon both Monsieur de Boitieres and his Council were of opinion, that he ought to go, leaving Garrisons at Pingues, Vinus, Vigon and other places, nearest to Carignan. And as I remember Monsieur d' Aussun, with twelve or fourteen Italian Ensigns, and three or four of ours, his own and some other Troops of Horse (which I have forgot) remain'd behind to command in chief. The Enemy had no Horse at all at Carignan, which was the reason they were kept to short on every side.

Monsieur de Boitieres then departed, with Messieurs de Termes, de St. Iulien, President Birague, and the Sieur de Mauré, and went to joyn Forces at St. Iago and St. Germaine, and afterwards sate down before Ivreé, where we did just nothing, because it was not possible to break the Causey that damm'd up the water; which thing could it have been done, we had infallibly taken the place, forasmuch as there was no other defence but the River on that side: but we were constrain'd to let it alone, and to go to besiege St. Mar­tin, which also we took upon composition, after it had stood out two or three hundred Canon shot; and some other places thereabouts. And as we were returning towards Chi­vas, in the interim of the Siege of Ivreé, Monsieur de Boitieres had notice given him, that Monsieur d' Aussun was coming to command in his stead.

The King, in truth, was highly dissatisfied with him; both for that he had suffer'd Ca­rignan at so much leisure to be fortified, and also upon other particular accounts. A man must walk very upright to satisfie all the world. The said Sieur de Boitieres was however very angry at it; and 'twas said thereupon withdrew from before Ivreé in despite, which otherwise in the end 'twas thought he might have taken: but I am not of that opinion. So it was that Monsieur d' Anguien arrived, bringing with him for supplies seven Companies of Swiss [...], commanded by a Colonel call'd le Baron; and, as I remember, it was at this time, that Monsieur de Dros with seven or eight Ensigns, what of Provençals and Italians, came up also, and Monsieur de Boitieres retir'd to his own house in Dauphiné. There is much to do in this world, a [...]d those who are in great command are never without vexation; for if they be two adventurous, and come by the worst, they are look'd upon as fools and mad men; if tedious and slow, they are despised, nay reputed Cowards; the wife therefore are to observe a mean betwixt both. Our Masters in the mean time will not be paid with these discourses, they expect to have their business done, but we must ever be prating, and censuring others, when were we in the same condition we should find we had enough to do.

The End of the First Book.

THE COMMENTARIES OF Messire Blaize de Montluc, MARESCHAL of FRANCE. The Second Book.

AT the arrival of this brave and generous Prince, which promis'd great successes under his conduct, he being endu'd with an in­finite number of shining qualities, as being gentle, affable, va­liant, wise and liberal; all the French and all those who bore arms in our favour, did very much rejoyce, and particularly I, because he had a kindness for me, and was pleased to set a higher esteem upon me than I could any way deserve. Af [...]er he had taken a view of all the Forces,Mr. d' Angui­en the Kings Lieutenant in Pi [...]dmont. Magazines and Places that we held, and that he had taken order for all things after the b [...]st manner he could, about the beginning of March he dispatch'd me away to the King, to give his Majesty an account how affairs stood, and withal to acquaint him, that the Marquis de Guast was raising a very great Army,Monsieur de by Montluc sent Monsieur d' Anguien to the King. to whom new succours of Germans were also sent, and moreover that the Prince of Salerna was also coming from Naples with six or seven thousand Itali­ans under his command. It was at the time when the Emperor and the King of Eng­land were agreed, and combin'd together join [...]ly to invade the Kingdom of France, which they had also divided betwixt them. I had waited at Court near upon three weeks for my dispatch,1544. having already acquitted my self of my Commission, which was in sum only to demand some succours of the King, and to obtain leave to fight a Battel. And about the end of the said Month came Letters also to the King from Monsieur d' Anguien, wherein he gave him notice that seven thousand Germans were already arriv'd at Millan, of the best of those the Emperor had had before Landreci, where there were seven Regiments of them; but being he could not at that time fight with the King, he com­manded the seven Colonels to choose each a thousand out of their respective Regiments, ordering them to leave their Lieutenants to get their Regiments ready, and so sent them into Italy to joyn with the Marquis de Guast. Wherefore the said Monsieur d' An­guien humbly besought his Majesty to send me speedily away to him, and also reque­sted him, that he would please to do something for me, as a reward for my former services,The Sieur de Montluc made a Gentleman Waiter. and an encouragement to more for the time to come. Upon which Letter his M [...]jesty was ple [...]sed to confer upon me the Office of a Gentleman Waiter (which in those times was no ordinary favour; nor so cheap as now a days) and made me to wait upon him at Dinner, commanding me in the afternoon to m [...]ke my self ready to return into Piedmont, which I accordingly did. About two of the Clock Monsieur de Anneba [...] sent for me to come to the King, who was already entred into the Council, where there was assisting Monsieur de St. Pol the Admiral, Monsieur le Grand Escuyer, Gallio [...], Mon­sieur de Boissy (since grand Escuyer) and two or three others, whom I have forgot, to­gether with the Da [...]phin who stood behind the Kings Chair: and none of them were set, but the King himself, Monsieur de St. Pol, who sate hard by him, and the Admi­ral on the other side of the Table over against the sad Sieur de St. Pol.

[Page 63]So soon as I came into the Chamber, the King said to me, Montluc, I would have you return into Piedmont to carry my determination, and that of my Council to Monsieur d' Anguien,, and will that you hear the difficulties we make of giving him leave to fight a Battel according to his desire, and thereupon commanded Monsieur de St. Pol to speak. The said Monsieur de St. Pol then began to lay open the enterprize of the Emperor, and the King of England, who within six or seven weeks were determin'd to enter into the King­dom, the one on the one side and the other on the other; so that should Monsieur d' Anguien lose the Battel, the whole Kingdom would be in danger to be l [...]st: for as much as all the Kings hopes (for what concerned his Foot) resided in the Regiments he had in Piedmont, for that in France there were no other but what were now Legionary Soldiers, and that therefore it was much better, and more safe to preserve the Kingdom than Pied­mant, concerning which they were to be on the defensive part, and by no means to hazzard a Battel, the loss whereof would not only lose Piedmon [...]; but moreover give the Enemy footing on that side of the Kingdom. The Admiral said the same, and all the rest, every one arguing according to his own fancy. I twitter'd to speak, and offering to interrupt Monsi [...]ur de Galliot as he was delivering his opinion, Monsieur de St. Pol made a sign to me with his hand, saying not too fast, not too fast, which made me hold my peace, and I saw the King laugh. Monsieur le Dauphin said nothing, I believe it is not the custom, though the King would have him present, that he might learn; for be­fore Princes there are evermore very eloquent debates, but not always the soundest determi­nations; for they never speak but by halves, and always sooth their Masters humor, for which reason I should make a very scurvy Courtier; for I must ever speak as I think. The King then said these words to me, Montluc, have you heard the Reasons for which I cannot give Monsieur d' Anguien leave to fight? to which I made answer, that I had both heard and weigh'd them very well; but that if his Majesty would please to give me leave to deliver my opinion, I would very gladly do it: not that nevertheless for that his Majesty should any ways alter what had already been determin'd in his Counc [...]l. His Majesty then told me that he would permit me so to do, and that I might freely say whatsoever I would. Where­upon I began after this manner. I remember it as well as it had been but three days ago; God has given me a very great memory in these kind of things, for which I render him hearty thanks; for it is a great contentment to me now that I have nothing else to do, to recollect my former fortunes, and to call to mind the former passages of my life, to set them truly down without any manner of addition; for be they good or bad you shall have them as they are.


I Think my self exceedingly happy, as well that you are pleased I shall deliver my poor opinion upon a subject that has already been debated in your Majesties Council, The Sieur de Montluc's speech to the King to ob­tain leave to fight a Battel. as also that I am to speak to a Warlike King; for both before your Majesty was call'd to this great charge, which God has conferr'd upon You, and also since, you have as much tempted the fortune of War, as any King that ever rul'd in France, and that without sparing your own Royal Person any more than the meanest Gentleman of your Kingdom; wherefore I need not fear freely to deliver my opinion, being to speak both to a King and a Soldier. (Here the Dauphin, who stood behind the Kings Chair, and just over against me, gave me a nod with his head, by which I guess'd he would have me to speak boldly, and that gave me the greater assurance, though, in plain truth, I had ever confidence enough, and fear never stop'd my mouth.) Sir, said I, we are betwixt five and six thousand Gascons upon the List,Gascons.for yo [...]r Majesty knows that the Companies are never fully compleat; neither can all ever be at the Battel; but I make account we shall be five th [...]usand, and five or six hundred Gascons com­pleat, that I dare make good to your Majesty upon my H [...]nor: Of these every Captain and Soldier will present you with a List of all their names, and the places from [...]h [...]ce we come, and will engage our heads to you, all of us to fight in the day of Battel, if your Ma­jesty will please to grant it, and give us leave to fight. 'Tis the only thing we have so long expected and desir'd, without sneaking thus up and down from place to place, and hiding our heads in corners. Believe me, Sir, the world has not more resolute Soldiers than these are, they desire nothing more than once to come to the decision of Arms. To these there are thir­teen Ensigns of Swisse:Swisse. Of which the fix of St Julien I know much better than those of le Baron, which Fourly commands, yet I have seen them all muster'd, and there may be as many of them as of ours. These will make you the same promise we do, who are your natural Subjects, and deliver in the names of all to be sent to their Cantons, to the end that if any man fail in his duty, he may be be cashier'd, and degraded from all practice of Arms for ever. A condition to which they are all ready to submit, as they assured me at my de­parture. [Page 64] And being of the same Nation, I make no doubt but those of le Ba [...]n will do the same. Your Majesty may have taken notice of them all before Land [...]ecy. Here then, Sir, are nine thousand men, or more, on which you may depend, and assure your self that they will fight to the last gasp of their lives. Italians, Pro­vençals, and Fribourgers. As for the Italians and Proven [...]als which are under Monsieur des Cros, and also the Fribourgers that came to us before Ivreé; I shall not take upon me to become security for them, but I hope they will all do as well as we, especi­ally when they shall see how we lay about us (at which I lifted up my arm (in the earnestness of speaking) as if I were going to strike,Gensd'Ar­mes. whereat the King smil'd.Archers.) You should also, Light horse. Sir, have four hundred men at arms in Piedmont, of which there may well be three hundred, and as many Archers, as well disposed as we. You have four Captains of Light horse, which are Messieurs de Termes, d' Aussun, Francisco Bernardin and Mauré, each of which ought to have two hundred Light horse, and amongst them all they will furnish you with five or six hundred H [...]rse, all which are ambitions to manifest the zeal they have to your Service. I know what they are, and what they will do very well. The King then began to be a little angry to hear that the Companies of the Gens-d' Armes were not all com­pleat: but I told him that it was impossible; forasmuch as some of them had obtained leave of their Captains to go home to their own houses to refresh themselves, and others were sick: but that if his Majesty would please to give leave to those Gentlemen who would beg it of of him, to be present at the Battel, they would very well supply that default. Since then, Sir, said I, (continuing my discourse) that I am so happy as to speak before a Soldier King, who would you have to kill ten thousand Foot, and a thousand or twelve hundred Horse, all resolute to overcome or dye? Such men as these, and so resolv'd, are not so easily defeated; neither are they Novices in War. We have have sev [...]ral times attaqu'd the Enemy upon equal terms, and for the most part beaten them. And I dare boldly say that had we all of us one arm ty'd behind us, it would not be in the power of the Enemy to kill us all in a whole days time, without losing the greatest part of their Army, and the choicest of their men. Imagine then when we have both our arms at liberty, and our weapons in our hands, how easie it will be to beat us. Truly, Sir, I have heard great Captains discourse, and s [...]y that an Army of twelve or fifteen thousand men is sufficient to confront an Army of thirty thousand; for 'tis not the crowd but the courage that overcomes, and in a Battel the one half of them never comes to fight. We desire no more than we have, let us deal it out. (The Dauphin all this while stood laughing behind the King's Chair, and still made signs to me, for by my behaviour I seem'd already to be in Battel.) No, no, Sir, these are not men to be beaten, and if these Lords who have spoken, had once seen them at their work, they would alter their opinion, and so would your Majesty too. These are not men to lye dozing in a Garrison, they require an Enemy, and have a mind to shew their valour; they beg leave of you to fight, and if you deny them, you take away their spirits, and give it to your Enemies, who will be puffed with vanity to see thems [...]lves fear'd, whilst your own Army shall moulder away to nothing. By what I have heard, Sir, all that these Lords stumble at, who have deliver'd their opinions before you, is the appre­hension of losing the Battel, and that makes them always cry, if we lose, if we lose; but I have not heard one of them tell you, if we win it, what great advant [...]ges will thereby accrue. For Gods sake, Sir, fear not to grant our request, and let me not return with such a shame upon me, that men shall say you durst not trust the hazard of a Battel in our hands, who so voluntarily and chearfully make a tender of our lives to do you service.

The King who had very attentively hearkened to me, and that was delighted at my gestures and impatience, turn'd his eyes towards Monsieur de St. Pol, who thereupon said to him, Sir, will you alter your determination at the importunity of this Coxcomb, that cares for nothing but fighting, and has no sence of the misfortune; nor the inconveniences that the loss of a Battel would bring upon you? Believe me, Sir, 'tis a thing of too great im­portance to be referr'd to the discretion of a young hair-brain'd Gascon. To whom I made answer in these very words.The Sieur de Montluc's re­ply to Monsieur de St. Pol. My Lord, assure your self I am neither a Bragad [...]chio nor so arrant a Coxcomb as you take me for; neither do I say this out of Bravado, and if you will please to call to mind all the intelligences his Majesty has received sinse we return'd from Perpignan into Piedmont, you will find th [...]t wherev [...]r we encountred the Enemy, whether on horseback or on foot, we have always beaten them, excepting when Monsieur d' Aussun was defeated; who also miscarried through no other defa [...]lt than for attempting to retreat at the head of an Army, which a prudent Captain never ought to do. It is not yet three months (I am sure you have heard it, for it is known to all the world) since the two brave Combats we fought both on foot and on horseback in the plain over against St. Fr [...], first against the Italians, and since against the Spaniards, and both in ten days time; and M [...]nsieur d' Aussun fifteen days before he was taken, fought and defeated an entire Regiment [Page 65] of Germans. Consider then we that are in heart, and they in fear; we that are Conquerours[?], and they beaten; we who despise them, whilst they tremble at us; what difference there is be­twixt us. When should it be that the King should give us leave to fight, if not now, that we are in this condition in Piedmont? It must not be when we have been beaten, that his Majesty ought to do it; but now that we are in breath, and fl [...]sh'd with conquest. Neither is there any th [...]ught to be taken, save only to take good heed that we assault them not in a Fortress as we did at the Bicoque: but Monsieur d' Anguien has too many go [...]d and experi­enced Captains about him to commit such an error; and there will be no other question, if not how to tempt them into the open field, where there shall be neither hedge nor ditch to hinder us from coming to grapple with them, and then, Sir, you shall hear news of one of the most furious Battels that ever was fought, and I most humbly beseech your M [...]jesty to expect no other news but that of a great and glorious victory, which if God give us the grace to obtain (as I hold my self assured we shall) you will so stop the Emperor and the King of England in the midst of their Carre [...]r, that they shall not know which way to turn them. The Dauphin still conti­nued laughing more than before, and still making signs, which gave me still the grea­ter assurance to speak: All the rest then spoke every one in his turn, and said, that his Majesty ought by no means to rely upon my words: only the Admiral said nothing, but smiled; and I believe he perceiv'd the signs the Dauphin made me, they being almost op­posite to one another; But Monsieur de St. Pol reply'd again, saying to the King; What, Sir, it seems you have a mind to alter your determination, and to be led away at the perswa­sion of this frantick fool: to which the King made answer, By my Faith, Cozen, he has given me so great reasons, and so well represented to me the courage of my S [...]diers, that I know not what to say. To which Monsieur de St. Pol reply'd, Nay, Sir, I see you are already chang'd; (now he could not see the signs the Dauphin made me, as the Ad­miral could, for he had his back towards him) whereupon the King directing his speech to the Admiral, ask'd him what he thought of the business, who again smiling return'd his Majesty this answer, Sir, will you confess[?] the truth? You have a great mind to give them leave to fight, which if they do, I dare not assure you either of victory or disgrace; for God alone only knows what the issue will be: but I dare pawn my life and reputation, that all those he has named to you will fight like men of honor; for I know their bravery very well, as having had the honour to command them. Do only one thing, Sir, (for we see you are al­ready half overcome, and that you rather encline to a Battel than otherwise) address your self to Almighty God, and humbly beg of him, in this perplexity, to assist you with his Coun­sel, what you were best to do. Which having said, the King, throwing his Bonnet upon the Table, lift up his eyes towards heaven, and, joining his hands, said; My God, I be­seech thee, that thou wilt be pleased to direct me this day what I ought to do for the preser­vation of my Kingdom, and let all be to thy honor and glory. Which having said, the Ad­miral ask'd him, I beseech you, Sir, what opinion are you now of? When the King, after a little pause,The Battel concluded. turning towards me, with great vehemency cryed out, Let them fight, let them fight. Why then, says the Admiral, there is no more to be said, if you lose the Battel, you alone are the cause, and if you overcome the sam [...], and alone shall enjoy the satisfaction, having alone co [...]s [...]nted to it. This being said, the King and all the rest arose, and I was ready to leap out of my skin for joy. The King then [...]ell to talking with the Admiral about my dispatch,Words of Mr▪ de St. Pol to the Sieur de Montluc. and to take order for our Pay which was a great deal in arrear. Monsieur de St. Pol in the mean time drew near unto me, and smiling said, thou mad Devil, thou wilt be the cause either of the greatest good or the greatest mischief that can possibly befall the King (now you must know that the said Sieur de St. Pol had not spoken any thing for any ill will that he bore me, for he lov'd me as well as any Captain in France, and of old, having known me at the time when I serv'd under Mareschal de Foix) and moreover told me, that it was very necessary I should speak to all the Captains and Soldiers, and tell them that the confidence his Majesty repos'd in our worth and valour had made him conde­scend to permit us to fight, and not reason, considering the condition he was then in. To Whom I reply'd,Montluc's an­swer. My Lord, I most humbly beseech you not to fear, or so much as doubt but that we shall win the Battel, and assure your self, that the first news you will hear will be, that we have made them all into a Fricassé, The King's saying to the Sieur de Mont­luc. and may eat them if we will. The King then came to me and laid his hand upon my Shoulder, saying, Montluc, recommend me to my Cozen d' Anguien and to all the Captains in those parts, of what Nation soever, and tell them that the great confidence I have in their fidelity and valour has made me condescend that they shall fight, entreating them to serve me very well upon this occasion, for I never think to be in so much need again as at this present, that now therefore is the time, wherein they are to manifest the kindness they have for me, and that I will suddainly send them the money they desire, His answer▪ To which I made answer, Sir, I shall obey your commands, and this [Page 66] will be a cordial to chear them, and a spur to the good disposition they already have to [...]ight, and I most humbly beseech your Majesty, not to remain in doubt concerning the issue of our fight, for that will only discompose your spirit; but chear up your self in expectation of the good news you will shortly hear of us; for my mind presages well, and it never yet de­c [...]ived me; and thereupon, kissing his hand, I took my leave of his Majesty. The Ad­miral then bid me go and stay for him in the Wardrobe, and whether it was Monsieur de Marchemont or Monsieur Bayart that went down with me, I cannot tell: but going out, I found at the door Messieurs de Dampi [...]rre, de St. André and d' Assier, with three or four others, who demanded of me, if I carried leave to Monsieur d' Anguien to fight, to whom I made answer in Gascon, haresy harem aux pics, & patacs; go in presently, if you have any stomach to the entertainment, before the Admiral depart from the King, which they accordingly did, and there was some dispute about their leave: but in the end his Majesty consented they should go: which nothing impair'd their feast; for after them came above a hundred Gentlemen post to be present at the Battel. Amongst o­thers the Si [...]urs de Iarnac and de Chatillon, since Admiral, the Son of the Admiral d' Annebaut, the Vidame of Chartres, and several others; of which not one was slain in the Battel, save only Monsieur d' Assier, whom I lov'd more than my own heart, and Ch [...]mans who was wounded when I fought the Spaniards in the plain of Perpignan; some others there were that were hurt, but none that dyed. There is not a Prince in the world,Praise of the French Gen­try. who has so frank a Gentry as ours has, the least smile of their King will en [...]lame the coldest constitution, without any thought of fear, to convert Mills and Vineyards into Horses and Arms, and they go Volunteers to dye in that bed which we Soldiers call the bed of honor.

Being arrived soon after at the Camp, I acquitted my self of my charge towards Mon­sieur d' Anguien, and presented him my Letters from the King, who was infinitely overjoy'd, and embracing me in his arms, said these very words: I knew very well that thou wouldst not bring us peace, and turning to the Gentlemen about him, Well my Masters, said he, the King is pleased to gratifie our desire, we must go to't. I then gave him an ac­count of the difficulty I had met witht in obtaining that leave, and that the King him­self was the only cause of it, which ought the more to encourage us to behave our selves bravely in the Battel. He was moreover very glad when I told him, that the foremen­tio [...]ed Lords were coming after me, being certain that several others would also follow after them, as they did. Bidding me by all means go discharge my self of his Majesties commands to all the Colonels, Captains of the Gens-d' Armes, Light horse and Foot; which I did, not observing one that did not mightily rejoyce, when I gave them to under­stand, what assurance I had given the King of the victory. Neither did I satisfie my self with speaking to the Officers only; but moreover went amongst the Soldiers, assuring them that we should all be highly recompenc'd by the King, making the mat­ter something better than it was; for a man must now and then lye a little for his Master.

During the time of my absence Monsieur d' Anguien had block'd up Carignan, being he could not carry it by fine force without infinite loss,Carignan blocked up. quartering in the mean time at Vimeus and Carmagnolle, and soon after the arrival of these Gentlemen, the Marquis de Guast departed with his Camp upon Good Friday from Ast, and came to lodge at the Mountain near Carmagnolle, and upon Easter day remov'd his Camp to Cerizolles. The Company of the Count de Tande, was this day upon the Guard, to which Captain Van­rines was Lieutenant, who sent word to Monsieur d' Anguien, that the Camp was upon their march, and that their drums were plainly heard. Monsieur d' Anguien there­upon commanded me presently to mount to horse, and to go in all hast to discover them, and to bring him certain intelligence of their motion,The Sieur de Montluc sent to discover the Enemy. which I also did, Captain Va [...] ­rines giving me twenty Launciers for my Guard. I went so far that I discover'd the Ca­valry, who march'd thorough the Woods belonging to the Abby of Desteffarde, and heard the Drums, some marching before and some following after, which put me to a stand to guess what the meaning of this order might be. At my return I found Monsieur d' Anguien, Messieurs de Chatillon, de Dampierre, de St. André, Descars, (the Father of these now living) d' Assier and de Iarnac, in the Chamber of the said Seigneur d' Anguien, talking with him, having caused their Arms to be brought and laid upon the Beds in the said Chamber, where I made a report to him of what I had seen, whereupon all the Gentlemen cryed out to him, Let us go, Sir, let us go to fight to day, for it is a good day, and God will assist us. Upon which the said Seigneur commanded me to go bid Messieurs de Tais and de St. Iulien to draw out their Regiments into the field, at the same time sending another Gentleman to the Gens-d' Armes and the Light horse to do the same, which was perform'd in an instant, and we drew out of Carm [...]gnolle into a plain leading [Page 67] toward Ceriz [...]lles, where we were all drawn up into Battalia. Monsieur de Mailly Master of the Ordinance was there ready with his Artillery, as soon as any of us all, and we heard the Enemies Drums almost as plainly as we heard our own. In my life did I never see so chearful an Army, nor Soldiers so well disposed to fight, as this of ours was, excepting some of the great ones of the Army, who were evermore persecuting Monsieur d' Anguien, not to put it to the hazard of a day, representing to him what a blow it would be to the King should he lose the Battel, which might perhaps occasion the loss of the Kingdom of France; and others were still perswading him that he ought to fight, the King having granted leave, and expecting he should now so do; so that amongst them they put this poor Prince, being yet very young, into so great a perplexity, that he scarce knew which way to turn him,Mon [...]eur d' Anguien in suspence con­cerning the Battel. nor what to do. You may imagine whether I was not mightily pleased with these doings, and whether I would not have spoke at mouth, had I had to do with my match; neither as it was could I altogether forbear. The Lords who were lately come from Court, were all for fighting, and I could very well name both the one and the other, if I so pleased; but I shall forbear to do it; for I have not taken my Pen in hand to blemish any one: but the Admiral Chatillon and Monsieur de Iarnac, who are both living, know it as well as I. Both the one and the other had reason for what they said, and were not prompted by any fear of their own persons; but only the apprehension of losing all witheld them; and some perhaps (as I have often seen) argue against their own inclinations, and the plurality of voices, to the end that if any thing fall amiss,Dissimulatio [...] amongst Sol­diers. they may afterwards say, I was of a contrary opinion, I told him as much, but I was not to be believed. Oh there is great cunning in dawbing, and in our trade especially of all others.

Just as we should have march'd to go to fight, four or five drew Monsieur d' Anguien aside, alighting from their horses, where they entertained him walking up and down for above half an hour, whilst every one gnash'd their teeth for rage that they did not march: in the end the result of all was, that all the Regiments of Foot should re­turn to their Quarters, and also the Artillery and the Gens-d' Armes, and that Mon­sieur d' Anguien with four or five hundred Horse, and some of the Captains of his Coun­cil, should go to the plain of Cerizolles to discover the Enemies Camp; that I should bring after him four hundred Harquebusiers, and all the rest to retire to their Quarters. I then saw a world of people ready to run mad for veaxtion, and do verily believe that if God had so pleas'd that Monsieur d' Anguien had march'd according to his determi­nation, he had won the Battel with very little difficulty; for the Drums that I had heard return into the Enemies Rear, were all the Spanish Foot, who went back to draw off two pieces of Canon, which were set fast in such manner that they could not be stirr'd ei­ther backward or forward; so that we had had nothing to fight with but the Germans, the Italians and the Horse, none of which, nor even the Marquis himself, could have escap'd us. But after we had stood above three hours facing the Enemy, which were in a plain betwixt Sommerive and Cerizolles, who expected no other but to fight; (and the Mar­quis told Monsieur de Termes since (being a prisoner) as he has assured mee,The Marquis de Guast in fear. that he was never in his life in so great fear of being lost as that day, for his chiefest hopes was in the Spanish Harquebusiers) Monsieur d' Anguien return'd back to Carmagnolle as disconten­ted as ever Prince was, and at the descent of a Wood, as we were upon our return to the said Carmagnolle, I said to him as we rid along, Messieurs de Dampierre and de St. André being by,A saying of the Sieur de Montluc to Mr. d' Angui­en. these words; Sir, Sir, this morning what you arose what could you have desir'd of God Almighty more than what he has this day given you; which is to find the Enemy you have so much desired in the open fi [...]ld; where there was neither hedge nor ditch to obstruct you? but I perceeve you are more enclined to believe those who counsel you not to fight than those who advise you to it. At which he fell to swear and curse, saying, that hereafter he would belive no one but himself, by which I well perceiv'd him to be nettled, so that still going on to appease him, I said, No Sir, no, in Gods name believe no body but your self; for we all know very well that you desire nothing more then to [...]fight, and God will proper you, and so went on streight to Carmagnolle, vext to the blood, remembring what I had so largely promised to the King in his Council.

So soon as the said Seigneur came to Carmagno [...]le, he presently call'd a Council of War, and I at my arrival found our whole Regiment both Officers and Soldiers up to the ears in mutiny, demanding their pay: but they held them in hand with the coming of Mon­sieur Langey, who brought some money along with him. I was then entreated by Mon­sieur de la Molle the elder, who commanded two Ensigns, and the next day was slain, to speak to Monsieur d' Anguien in the behalf of all, and that he would bear the blame▪ and as we were all waiting in the Hall, by fortune Messieurs de Dampierre and de St. [Page 68] André came in, and finding all in mutiny said to us these words; Have a little patience I beseech you, till Monsieur d' Anguien rise from the Council (and I do believe they had been talking to him by the way, for I found him riding betwixt them) and so they entred into the Chamber, where they staid not long, but came out again. Monsieur de Dampierre came out first, who, because Monsieur d' Anguien immediately followed him, looking at me, he laid his finger upon his mouth, for a sign that I should say nothing, and Monsieur d' Anguien all in rage went straight to his Chamber, and the o­ther Colonels and Captains every one to his own quarters; but we stirr'd not from thence. Presently after Messieurs de Dampierre and de St. André came out into the Hall, and said to us these words:Resolution to fight. Get you home to your Quarters, and prepare your selves, for to morrow we must fight; as they came out we take notice of those who were for fighting, all of them smiling upon us, by which also we guess'd before hand how the matter went. In the evening when I accompanied Monsieur de Dampierre to his lodging, he told me the whole story, and what Monsieur d' Anguien had propounded to the Council, insisting upon the Error he saw he had committed in not fighting, by which he had lost an advan­tage that he could not again recover, entreating them all to consider of it, and to resolve upon a Battel. Whereupon some fell again to discourse the same thing they had said be­fore, of what a loss it would be to the King, with many other reasons to divert him from that resolution; and others maintain'd the same opinion they had over done, that he ought to put it to a Battel: But Monsieur d' Anguien, who saw himself fallen into the same dispute that before, broke out in a violent passion, saying, that he was resolved to fight at what price soever, and that if any one should any more dispute the contrary, he should never think so well of that man again, so long as he liv'd. Whereupon one in the Company, who before had so highly argued against it, made answer: O Sir, is it then a resolution you have taken that you will fight? yes replyed Monsieur d' Anguien, then says the other there is no more to be said; and thereupon it was concluded, that every one should repair to his com­mand, and that an hour before day, we should be all in the same Plain where we had been the day before, to march directly towards the Enemy, wherever he was to be found; which was accordingly perform'd, some remonstrating in the mean time to the Cap­tains and Soldiers, that it would be out of season to sta [...]d upon telling them out their pay in the face of the Enemy, and that they were to stay till the Battel was over, which was only a device to amuze those who were so importunate for their Pay.

Now being we had the day before left the Enemy in the Plain betwixt Sommeriv [...] and Cerizolles, Monsieur d' Anguien did not very well know whether they might be at Sommerive or at Cerizolles, notwithstanding that the Governor of Sommerive had sent him word, that the Camp intended to quarter there. Signior Francisco Bernardin therefore sent out three or four of his Light horse towards the said Cerizolles, who went so near that they discover'd their Camp, which was already in arms, and the Drums beginning to bear. That which had made them return to Cerizoll [...]s, was to stay for the Spanish Foot, who were gone for the two pieces of Canon, as has been said before. Monsieur de Termes likewise sent out again three or four of his people also, and in the mean time we march'd underneath toward Sommerive; but so soon as the Light horse return'd with the same intelligence, we turn'd on the left hand, and come up into the Plain, where the whole Army was, and there made a halt. And there Monsieur d' Anguien and Monsieur de Tais gave me all the Harquebusiers to lead, for which honor I returned him my most humble thanks,The Si [...]ur de Montluc com­mands all the Harquebusi­ers. telling him that I hoped, by Gods assistance, to ac­quit my self so well of my charge, that he should remain satisfied with my service, and said as much to Monsieur de Tais, who was my Colonel, and who came and commanded all the Captains and Lieutenants, that I would take, to obey me equally with himself.

I then took four Lieutenants, namely le Brüeil (whom I have mentioned before) le Gasquet, Captain Lienard and Captain [...]avas, who was my own Lieutenant. To Fa­vas and Lienard I gave the right wing, and my self with the two other took th [...] left, leading towards the little house,The order of the Battel of Cerizolles fought the 11. of April, 1544 that was afterwards so much disputed; and it was ordered that the Swisse which were commanded by Monsieur de B [...]itieres (who a little before the rumor of the Battel had been recall'd from his own house) and we should fight toge­ther in the Vantguard: the Battel was to be conducted by Monsieur d' Anguien, having under his Cornet all the young Lords that came from Court, and the Rear-guard was commanded by Monsieur d' Ampierre, wherein were four thousand Fri [...]ourgers, and three thousand Italians, led by the Sieur de Dros and des Cros, together with all the Guidons and Archers of Companies. Now there was a little Eminence, that dipt towards Cerizolles and Sommerive, which was all on a little Copse, but not very thick: The first of the Ene­my [Page 69] that we saw enter into the Plain to come towards us, were the seven thousand Ita­lians conducted by the Prince of Salerna, and in the [...]lank of them three hundred Launciers, commanded by Rodolpho Baglione, who belonged to the great Duke of Florence. The begi [...] ­ning of the Battel. The Skirmish began by this little Hill, on the descent whereof the Ene­my had made a halt just over against us, and so soon as the skirmish was begun, I gave one Squadron to Captain Brueille, being that which was nearest to me, and the hind­most to Captain Gasquet, about two hundred paces distant the one from the o­ther, and of my own I gave forty or fifty Harquebusiers to a Serjeant of mine called Arna [...]t de St. Clair, a valiant man and one that very well understood his business, and I my self stood for a reserve. Being at the foresaid little house, I discover'd three or four Companies of Spanish Harquebusiers, who came full drive to possess themselves of the house, and in the mean time Favas and Lienard fought the Italians in the valley on the right hand. The skirmish grew hot on both sides, the Enemy one while beating me up to the house, and I again other whiles driving them back to their own party; for they had another that was come up to second the first, and it seem'd as if we had been playing at Base: but in the end I was constrain'd to call Captain Brueille up to me, for I saw all their Foot embody t [...]gether, with a Troop of Horse to s [...]ank them. Now had I not so much as one horse with me, notwithstanding that I had advertised Monsieur'd Anguien that their Cavalry was also with the Harquebusiers that came up to me. Let it suffice, that of a long time no body came, insomuch that I was constrain­ed to quit the house; but not without a great dispute, which continued for a very great space. I then sent back Captain Brueille to his place, the skirmish continued for al­most four fours without intermission, and never did men acquit themselves better. Monsieur d' Anguien then sent Monsieur d' Aussun unto me, commanding me to repos­sess my self of the house,Monsieur de Montlucs con­test about the fight. which was neither of advantage nor disadvantage to me; to whom I made answer, Go and tell Monsieur d' Anguien that he must then send me some Horse, to fight these Horse that slank their Harquebusiers (which he also saw as well as I) for I am not to fight Horse and Foot together in the open field. He then said to me, It is enough for me that I have told you, and so return'd to carry back my answer to Monsieur d' Anguien; who thereupon sent Monsieur de Moneins to tell me, that one way or another he would that I should regain it, with whom also came the Seigneur Ca­bry, Brother to Seigneur Mauré, bringing with him threescore Horse, all Launciers, and Monsieur de Moneins might have about some five and twenty, he being then but beginning to raise his Troop. To whom I return'd the same answer I had given be­fore to Monsieur d' Aussun, and that I would not be cause of the loss of the Bat­tel: but that if they would go charge those Horse that slank'd the Harquebusiers, I would quickly regain the house. They then answer'd, that I had reason, and that they were ready to do it. Whereupon I presently sent to Captain Brueil to come up to me, and to Captain Gasquet to advance to his place, and immediately Captain Brueil coming up on the right hand, and the Horse in the middle, we march'd at a good round [...]rot directly up to them; for we were not above three hundred paces di­stant from one another. All this while the skirmish never ceased, and as we drew within a hundred or six score paces off them, we began to fire, upon which the Ca­valry fac'd about, and their Foot also, and I saw their Launciers turn their backs, retreating to their Troops. Monsieur de Moneins, and Seigneur Cabry went im­mediately hereupon to Monsieur d' Anguien, to tell him what they had seen their Cavalry do, and that if he did not send me up Horse to second me, I could not choose but be routed. I sent back Captain Brueil and Gasquet into their places.

Now there was a little Marish near unto Cerizolles, and a great hollow way, which hindred the Enemy that they could not come up to us drawn up in Battalia: and the Marquis de Guast had caused six pieces of Artillery to pass over this marish, and they were already advanc'd a good way on this side, when seeing their people driven back, they were afraid that the whole Army followed the pursuit, and that they should lose their Canon. Wherefore they presently made the Germans to passover this marish, and thorough the said hollow way, who, so soon as they came into the plain, drew up again into Battalia; for it was not possible for them to pass, but in great disorder, and in the mean time the Cavalry and Spanish Harquebusiers came up to me as before; inso­much that having no Horse with me, I was necessitated to quit them the place, and to retire to the place from whence I came.

Now I had discover'd their German Foot and their Artillery, and as I was retiring Monsieur de Termes and Signior Francisco [...]ernardin ca [...]e, and plac'd themselves on [Page 70] the right hand of our Battaillon, and upon the skirt of the Hill (which was very straight) and over against the Battaillon of the Italians; for their Launciers were exact­ly opposite to our Pikes. Monsieur de Boitieres with his Company, and that of the Count de Tande advanc'd on the left hand of our Battail, and the Swisse were three or four score paces behind us, and a little on the one side: In the mean time our Harquebu­siers that were conducted by Lienard and Captain Favas sometimes beat back the Enemy as far as their main Battalia, and sometimes the Enemy repell'd them up to ours. I saw then that I must of necessity disarm our Battaillon of the Harquebusiers that made our slank on that side where Monsieur de Boitieres stood, and give them to them, where­with to make a Charge, which they did, and with great fury beat them up to their Battail; and it was high time; for their Harquebusiers had almost gain'd the flank of our Horse.A furious skirmish. I therefore ran up to them, and we began a furious skirmish, which was great, and obstinately fought, for all our Squadrons were closed up together, and it continued a long hour or more.

Now the Enemey had placed their Canon by the side of the little house, which play'd directly into our Battaillon; Monsieur de Mailly then advanc'd with ours and pla­cing himself close by us, began to shoot at those of the Enemy by the little house; for there where we maintain'd the skirmish he could not do it, without killing our own men: when, looking towards our own Battail, I saw Monsieur de Tais, who began to march with his Pikes, charg'd directly towards the Italians; whereupon I ran up to him, saying, Whither do you go, Sir, whither do you go, you will lose the Battel; for here are all the Germans coming to fight you, and will charge into your flank. The Captains were the occasion of this, who ceased not to cry out to him, Sir, lead us on to fight; for it is better for us to dye hand to hand, than stand still here to be killed with the Canon. 'Tis that which terrifies the most of any thing,The Canon frights more than it hurts. and oftentimes begets more fear than it does harm; but however so it was, that he was pleased to be rul'd by me, and I entreated him to make his men kneel on one knee, with their Pikes down; for I saw the Swisse behind laid at their full length squatt to to the ground, so as hardly to be seen; and from him I ran to the Harquebusiers. The Enemies Harquebusiers by this time were beginning to retire behind the house, when, as I was going up to charge straight up to them, I discover'd the Front of the Germans Battaillon, and suddainly commanded the Captains Brueile and Gasquet to retire by degrees towards the Artillery, for we were to make room for the Pikes to come up to the fight, and I went to our Battel, where being come, I said to my men these words.

Oh my fellow Soldiers let us now fight bravely, Th Sieur de Montluc's Speech to his Soldiers. and if we win the Battel we get a grea­ter renown, than any of our Nation ever did; It was never yet read in History, that ever the Gauls fought the Germans Pike to Pike, but that the Germans defeated them, and to set this honorable mark upon our selves, that we are better men than our Ancestors, this glory ought to inspire us with a double courage to fight so as to overcome, or dye, and make our Enemies know what kind of men we are.A pardonable mistake in a Soldier not well read in History. Remember, Camerades, the message the King sent to us, and what a glory it will be to present [...]ur selves before him after the victo­ry. Now, Sir, said I to Monsieur de Tais, it is time to rise, which he suddenly did, and I began to cry out aloud, Gentlemen, it may be there are not many here who have ever been in a Battel before, and therefore let me tell you, that if we take our Pikes by the hinder end, and [...]ight at the length of the Pike, we shall be defeated; for the Germans are more dextrous at this kind of fight than we are: but you must take your Pikes by the middle as the Swis [...]e do, and run head-long to force and penetrate into the midst of them,The Sieur de Montluc's ad­vice to the Pikes, con­cerning the manner of their fight. and you shall see how confounded they will be. Monsieur de Tais then cryed out to me to go along the Battail, and make them all handle their Pikes after this manner, which I accordingly did, and now we were all ready for the Encounter.

The Germans march'd at a great rate directly towards us, and I ran to put my self be­fore the Battail, where I alighted from my horse; for I ever had a Lacquey at the head of the Battaillon ready with my Pike; and as Monsieur de Tais and the rest of the Cap­tains saw me on foot, they all cry'd out at once, Get up, Captain Montl [...]c, get up a­gain, and you shall lead us on to the fight. To whom I made answer, that if it was my fate to dye that day, I could not dye in a more honorable place than in their Company, with my Pike in my hand. I then call'd to Captain la Burre, who was Serjeant Major, that he should always be stirring about the Battaillon, when we came to grapple, and that he and the Serjeants behind and on the sides should never cease crying, put home, Soldiers, put home, to the end that they might push on one another.

The Germans came up to us at a very round rate, insomuch that their Battail being very great, they could not possibly follow; so that we saw great windows in their bo­dy, and several Ensigns a good way behind, and all on a suddain rush'd in among [Page 71] them, a good many of us at least, for as well on their side, as ours, all the first Ranks,A furious Charge. either with push of Pikes or the Shock at the encounter, were overturn'd; nei­the [...] is it possible amongst Foot to see a greater fury; the second Rank and the third were the cause of our victory; for the last so pushed them on, that they fell in upon the heels of one another, and as ours press'd in, the Enemy was still driven back: I was never in my life so active and light as that day, and it stood me upon so to be; for above three times I was beaten down to my knees. The Swisse were very sly and cun­ning; for till they saw us within ten or a dozen Pikes length of one another, they never rose; but then like savage Boars they [...]ush'd into their slank, and Monsieur de Boitie­res broke in at aOr Corner. Canton. Monsieur de Termes and Signior Francisco in the mean time charg'd Rodolpho Baglione, whom they overthrew, and put his Cavalry to rout. The Italians, who saw their Cavalry broken, and the Lansquenets and Germans over­thrown and routed, began to take the descent of the valley, and as fast as they could to make directly towards the Wood. Monsieur de Termes had his horse killed under him at the first encounter,The Sieur de Termes taken prisoner. and by ill fortune his leg was so far engaged under him in the fall, that it was not possible for him to rise, so that he was there by the Italians taken, and carried away Prisoner, and, to say the truth, his legs were none of the best.

Now you are to take notice, that the Marquis de Guast had composed a Battaillon of five thousand Pikes, namely two thousand Spaniards and three thousand Germans, out of the number of six thousand, being the same tha Count Laudron had brought into Spain, where he had remain'd ten years, or more, and who all spoke as good Spa­nish as natural Spaniards. He had formed this Battaillon only to claw away the Gas­cons; for he said that he feared our Battaillon mo [...]e than any of the other, and had an opinion that his Germans (being all chosen men) would beat our Swisse. He had placed three hundred Harquebusiers only in the nature of a forlorn hope, at the head of this Battaillon,A mistake of the Marquis de Guast. which he reserved to the forenamed effect, and all the rest maintain­ed the skirmish. Now as he was by the little house on the same side with the Germans, he saw the Fribourgers, who were all arm'd in white, and took them for the Gascons, and thereupon said to his men, Hermanos, hermanos, a qui estant todos Gascones, sarrais á ellos. They were not gone two hundred paces from him, but that he perceived our Battail, which start up, and saw his error when it was too late to help it, for we all wore black arms.

This Battaillon of five thousand Pikes march'd then at a good round rate directly up­on the Fribourgers, and they were of necessity to pass hard by Monsieur d' Anguien who by some body or other was very ill advised; for as they pass'd by he charg'd with his Gens d' Armes quite thorough their Battaillon in the Flank,The errot of Monsieur d▪ Anguien. and there were slain and wounded a great many brave and worthy men, and some of very conside­rable quality, as Monsieur d' Assier, le Sieur de la R [...]chechovard, with several others, and yet more at the second charge; there were some who pass'd and repass'd quite thorough and thorough; but still they clos'd up again, and in that manner came up to the Fribourgers Bat­talia, who were soon overthrown without so much as standing one Push of Pike, and there died all their Captains and Lieutenants who were in the first rank and the rest fled straight to Messieur des Cros: Monsieur d' Assier and Mr. de la Roche­chovart slain, and the Sieur des Cros. but this Battaillon of Spaniards and Germans still at a very great rate pursued their victory, and overthrew the said Sieur des Cros, who there dyed and all his Captains with him; neither could Monsieur d' Anguien any way relieve him, forasmuch as all the horses almost of his Cavalry, in these two furious, but inconside­rate charges were wounded and walk'd fair and softly over the field towards the Ene­my. He was then in the height of despair, and curst the hour that ever he was born, seeing the overthrow of his Foot, and that he himself had scarce an hundred Horse left to sustein the shock,Monsieur d' Anguien rou­sted. insomuch that Monsieur de Pignan of Montpellier (a Gentleman of his) assured me, that he twice turn'd the point of his Sword into his Gorget, to have offered violence to himself, and himself told me at his return, that he was then in such a condition, he should have been glad any one would have run him thorough. The Romans might have done so; but I do not think it becomes a Christian. Every one at that time passed his censure upon it according to his own fancy. For our parts we were as well as heart could wish, and as much pleased as the Enemy was afflicted; but let us return to the blows,The Cowar­dise of the Fribourgers. for there were yet both to give and to take. The cowardise of the Fribourgers occasioned a great loss on that side of the field; in my life I never saw such great lubbers as those were, unworthy ever to bear Arms, if they have not learnt more courage since. They are indeed neighbours to the Swisse, but there is no more comparison betwixt them than betwixt a Spanish Horse and an Asse. It is not all to have a great [Page 72] number of men upon the list; but to have those that are true bred; for a hundred of them are worth a thousand of the other. And a brave and valiant Captain with a thousand men, that he knows he may trust to, will pass over the bellies of four thousand.

After the same manner that Monsieur d' Anguien had seen his [...]ple [...]sacred before his eyes,The Marquis de Guast rou­ted. without any power to relieve them, did the Marquis [...] Guast behold his peo­ple also trampled under [...] by an equal fortune, so wantonly [...] on both hands with these two General [...]; for as he saw Rudo [...]pho Baglione and his Germans, both of them routed and overthrown, he took his horse and re [...]reated towards Ast. Monsieur de Sr. Iulien, who that day discharg'd the Office of Camp-Master and Colonel of the Swisse, was on ho [...]s [...]back (and, to say the truth, he was but weak of person and wanted strength to support any great burthen of arms on foot) saw their Battail overthrown on the one side [...] other, and before he went to Monsieur d' Anguien saw us Swisse and Gascons [...] the [...] thousand Spaniards and Germans, killing on all hands. And then it was that he turned back and overtook Monsieur d' Anguien near to the Wood that leads towards Carmagnoll, but very poorly accompanied, and cried out to him, Sir, Sir, face about, f [...]r the Battel is won, the Marquis de Guast is routed, and all his Ita­lians and Germans out to pieces. Now this Battaillon of the Spaniards and Germans had already made a halt, giving themselves for lost, when they saw neither Horse nor Foot of their own come up to them; by which they very well knew that they had lost the Battel, and began to take on the right hand straight towards the mountain from whence they had departed the day before. I thought I had been the cunningst snap in all the whole Army, having contriv'd to place a row of Harquebusiers betwixt the first and se­cond rank, to kill all the Captains fi [...]st, and had said to Monsi [...]ur de Tais three or four days before, that before any of ours should fall, I would [...] all their Captains in the first rank: but I would not tell him the secret till he had given me the command of the Harquebusiers, and then he called to him Burre the Serjeant Major, bidding him pre­sently make choice of the Harquebusiers, and to place them after that manner. Upon my faith I had never seen nor heard of the like before, and thought my self to be the first Inventor of it; but we found that they were as crafty as we, for they had also done the same thing, who never shot no more than ours, till they came within a Pikes length, and there was a very great slaughter, not a shot being fir'd but it wrought its effect.

So soon as Monsieur d' Anguien understood the Battel to be won, which before (by the defeat of those on his side of the field, and those cowardly Fribourgers, to encourage whom he had done all that in him lay) he had given over for lost; he presently put him­self in the Rear of those Germans and Spaniards; which as he was doing, several of those who had taken fright, and were shifting for themselves, rallyed up to him, some of which now appeared wonderful eager of the pursuit, who had run away but a little be­fore, and others had broke their bridles on purpose to lay the fault of their own fear upon the the poor horses, who by this means were to bear m [...]re than the weight of their Masters. He had a little before the Battel, by good fortune, sent to S [...]villan for three Companies of very good Italian Foot, to be present at the business, who being as far as Reconis upon their way from thence heard the thunder of the Artillery, by which be­ing assured that the [...]attel was begun, they mounted all the Harquebusiers they could on horseback, and coming all the way a gallop, arrived in so op [...]tune a season, that they found Monsieur d' Anguien in pursuite of the Enemy,Monsieur d' Anguien pur­sues the victo­ry. not having one Harquebu­sier in company with him; where, alighting from their horses, they put themselves in the Rear of them, whilst the said Seigneur d' Anguien with his Cavalry, one while in their Fl [...]nk and another in their Front, still push'd on the victory. Hee then sent a Trooper to us in all hast, to bid us turn that way, for there was more work to do, which messenger found us at the Chappel hard by the Gate of C [...]rizolles, having just made an end of killing with so great fury and slaughter, that not so much as one man remained alive, save only a Colonel call'd Aliprando de Mandr [...]ca Brother to the Cardinal of Trent, Great slaugh­ter at the Battel of Ce­rizolles. who being laid amongst the dead with seven or eight wounds upon him, Caubois a light hors [...] [...]longing to Monsieur de Termes, as he came thorough the dead bodies, saw him, [...] yet alive, but stript stark naked, spoke to him, and caused him to be carried to [...], to redeem Monsieur de Termes in case he should recover and live, as he [...] did.The Swisse re­v [...]ng'd for the foul play at Montdevi. The Swisse, in killing and laying on with their two-handed Swords, [...] [...]i [...]d out Montdevi, Montdevi, where those of their Nation had recei­ved no [...], and in short, all that made head against us on our side of the field were slam.

[Page 73]We had no sooner received the command from Monsieur d' Anguien, but that imme­diately the Battaillon of the Swisse and ours turn'd towards him: I never saw two Bat­taillons so soon reunited as these were; for of our selves we rallyed, and drew up into Battalia as we went, marching all the way, side by side. In this posture the Enemy, who went off at a great rate, firing all the way, and by that means keeping the horse at distance, discovered us coming up to them, who so soon as they saw us advanc'd within five or six paces, and the Cavalry in their Front ready to charge in amongst them, they threw down their Pikes, surrendring themselves to the horse: but here the Game began, some killing and others endeavoring to save, there being some who had fifteen or twenty men about him,Another body of the Impe­rialists defea­ted. still getting as far as they could from the crowd, for fear of us Foot, who had a mind to have cut all their throats; neither could the Cavalry so well defend them, but that above half of them were slain; for as many as we could lay our hands on were dispatch'd. Now you shall know what be­came of me.

Monsieur de Valence, my Brother, had sent me a Turkish horse from Venice, one of the fleerest Coursers that ever I yet saw; and I had an opinion which all the world could not dispossess me of, that we should win the Battel, wherefore I gave my said horse to a servant I had, an old Soldier, in whom I reposed a very great confidence; bidding him be sure always to keep behind our Battaillon of Pikes, and telling him that if it pleased God I did escape from the skirmish, I would then alight, and engage with the Pikes, and that when we came to close, if he should see our Battaillon overthrown, that then he might conclude me to be slain, and should save himself upon the horse; and on the contrary, if he should see us prevail over the Enemies Battaillon, that then he should still follow, (without offering to break in) in the Rear of our Battaillon. when so soon as I should be certain of the victory, I would leave the execution, and come to take my horse to pursue the Cavalry, and try to take some prisoner of Condition.

I had a whimsy came into my head that I should take the Marquis de Guast, or dye in the attempt,A conceit of the Sieur de Montluc, trusting to the swiftness of my horse; for which I had already in my imagination swallow'd a mighty ransom, or at least some remarkable recompence form the King. Having then a while follow'd the victory, I staid behind, thinking to find my man; and indeed I was so weary with fighting, running, and moreover so spent with straining my voice to encourage the Soldiers, that I was able to do no more, when I was assaulted by two great mastiff Germans, who had thought presently to have done my business; but having rid my self of one of them, the other betook him to his heels, but he went not very far; in truth I there saw very brave blows given. I then went to seek out that Son of a whore my man; but the Devil a man that I could find, for as the Enemies Artillery plaid upon our Battaillon, and very often shot over, the shot falling behind it, had remov'd my Gentleman from the place where I thought to find him; who very discreetly went, and put himself behind the Swisse▪ when seeing the disorder of the Fribourgers and Provençals, he very learnedly concluded us to be in the same condition, and thereupon fled back as far as Carmagnolle. Thus are men oftentimes deceived in their choice; for I should never have suspected that this fellow would so soon have had his heart in his breeches, and have run away with so little ado. I then found Captain Mons, having no more than one servant only with him, who had done a great deal better than mine; for he had kept a little pad Nag rea­dy for him, upon which he took me up behind him, for I was extremely weary, and so we pass'd on, still seeing the Germans knock'd down all the way as we went, till being sent for by Monsieur d' Anguien, we both alighted and went on foot, till the entire defeat of the Germans and Spaniards; when presently I saw my man come back, calling him a hundred Rogues and Cowards, for so basely running away; who replyed that he had not done it alone, but in company with better men and better clad than himself, and that he had only run away to bear them company; by which pleasant answer my anger was appeased, and upon my word he hit upon it in a lucky hour; for I was very near showing him a trick of a Gascon.

We then rallyed together some twenty or five and twenty Horse, what of those of Mon­sieur de Termes, of Signior Francisco Bernardin and the Sieur de Mauré, and rid a round gallop after the Marquis de Guast, and with us moreover a Gentleman whose name I have forgot, but he was one of those who came post from Court to be at the Battel, and as we went we met by the way two light horse leading prisoner Signior Carlo de Gonzaga, whom they had taken in the rear of the Enemies party, which still more encourag'd us to spur forward. So soon as we came so near to the Enemy as to discover what posture they were in, we perceived that they were rallyed and closed up [Page 74] to the Crupper, still marching on in very good order, at a good round trot, and their Launces ready in the Rest. Which made me say to those of our Company, these people are ready for us, and therefore I do not think it convenient to charge in amongst them, lest instead of taking some of the chief of them, it fare with us as with the Scotch man who took a Tartar. So that we return'd without attempting any thing more upon them; but I am yet of opinion, that had not that rascally man of mine play'd me that dog-trick I had taken some man or other of Command amongst them.The Enemy rallios upon their retreat. As we were upon our return, the Gentleman I spoke of before accosting me, said these words, Jesu! Captain Montluc, what danger was this Battel in once to day of being lost? To which I (who had neither seen nor heard of any disorder, and thought that the last we had defeated had been those of Carignan, who were drawn out of their Garri­son to be present at the Battel) made answer, why, which way were we in any danger, seeing that all day we have had the victory in our hands? I perceive then, said he, that you know nothing of the disorder has happened, and thereupon told me all that had befallen in the Battel. As God shall help me, I do believe, that had he given me two stabs with a dagger, I should not have bled, for my heart was shrunk up, and I was sick at the news, in which fright I continued for three nights after, starting up in my sleep, and dreaming continually of a defeat.

Thus then we arriv'd at the Camp, where Monsieur d' Ang [...]en was, to whom I went, and making my horse curver, said to him sportingly these words; What think you, Sir, am I not as pretty a fellow on horseback as I am on foot? to which he made answer (though yet very melancholy) you will always behave your self very well, both in the one posture and in the other, and bowing his body was pleased to embrace me in his arms, and knighted me upon the place;The Sieur de Montluc Knighted up­on the place of Battail by Monsieur d' Anguien. an honor I shall be proud of so long as I live, both for being perform'd upon the fi [...]ld of Battel, and by the hand of so generous and so great a Prince. Accursed be he that so basely deprived us of him. But no more of that; I then said to him, Sir, have I served you to day to your satisfaction? (for Monsieur de Tais had already told him, that I had fought with them on foot) to which he replyed, Yes, Cap­tain Montluc, and so well that I will never forget how bravely you have behaved your self; neither, do I assure you, will I conceal it from the King. Why then, Sir, said I, it lies in your power to do me the greatest kindness that ever you can do a poor Gentleman so long as you live: At which words, drawing me a part, that no body might hear, he asked me what it was that I would have him do for me, to which I made answer, that it was to dispatch me suddenly away with news of the success of the Battel to the King; telling him withal, that it was an office more properly belonging to me than any other, considering what I had said to his Majesty and his Council, to obtain leave to fight; and that the last words I had said to the King were, that he was only to expect news of the victory. To which, turning towards me, he made answer, that it was all the reason in the world, and that I should be sent before any other. And so all the Army returned victorious to Carmagnolle: but as I expected to have been sent away post in the night, I was told that Monsieur Descars had gained every one to speak for him, that he might go. Monsieur de Tais had also passed his word to me; but in the end he suffered himself to be overcome, as also did Monsieur d' Anguien, which was the greatest misfortune that possibly could have befallen me: for having overcome the King's Council and their deliberation, and that his Majesty had done me the honor to condescend to my opinion; here to have carried him the certain news of what I had promised and assured him so few days before, I leave every one to judge whether I should have been welcom or no; and what wrong I had done me, especially having been that day in a great and honorable command, and ac­quitted my self of it to my Generals content. It had been a great good fortune for me, and also a great honor, to have carried to the King what I had before promised, and assured him of; there was however no remedy, and I was forced to submit, though they had much ado to appease me: but it was to no purpose to be angry or to complain of the injury was done me. I have since repented me a thousand times that I did not steal away the same night, which if I had done, I would have broke my neck or have been the first that should have brought the news to the King,The Sieur de Montluc dis­contented. and, I am confident, he would not only himself have taken it in good part, but moreover have made my peace with o­thers. But I, from that time forward, gave over all thoughts of advancement, and ne­ver after expected to come to any thing, which made me beg leave of Monsieur d' An­guien to be dismiss'd, that I might return into my own Country. Which said Seigneur promised me great matters (knowing me to be discontented) and Monsieur de Tais did the same, using all the perswasions he could to make me stay: but I press'd my departure so much that at last I obtain'd leave, upon my promise to return; and for [Page 75] f [...]rther ass [...]rance of me, the said Sieur d' Anguien made me accept a Commission from him for the speedy raising of one thousand or twelve hundred Foot, to bring into Piedmont, to recruit the Companies, for in plain truth we had lost a great many men.

Now I shall tell you what advantages accrued to the King from this victory, which I only had from Monsieur de Termes, to whom the Marquis de Guast had told it,The great ad [...]vantages that the winning of the Battail of Cerizolles brought to the King. lying wounded in bed of a Harqueb [...]ze shot in his thigh. He told him that the Emperor and the King of England were agreed at one and the same time to en­ter the Kingdom of France, each on his own side▪ and that the Emperor had sent him the seven thousand Germans purposely to make him so strong, that Mon­sieur d' Anguien might not dare to fight him, and afterwards to march directly to Lom [...]rias there to throw a Bridge over the River, and to put in [...]o Carignan the provisions that he brought along with him, and as much more as he could provide besides, and thence to draw out the four thousand Spanish and German Foot, who were to return towards Ivré, leaving four thousand Italians in their stead; which being done, he was to send back the seven German Colonels, with their Regiments to the Emperor. That then there would still remain with him in his Camp five thou­sand Germans, and as many Spaniards, with which at the same time, that the King of England should enter the Kingdom, he was to descend by the valley of Ostia, thorough which he should march straight to Lyons, where he should mee [...] no body to oppose him but the Inhabitants of the C [...]ty, nor any Fortress at all: where lying between the two Rivers he might command all the territories of the Duke of Savoy, together with Dauphiné and Provence. All this was told me by Monsieur de Termes after his return; an enterprize that had not been hard to execute had we not won the Battel, in which betwixt twelve and fifteen thousand men of the Enemy were slain. The victory was very important, both in respect of the Prisoners, which were many of them very cosiderable, as also for the Baggage, which was ex­ceedingly rich; and besides many places surrendred out of fear, and in the end Carig­nan it self, of which I shall not meddle with the particulars, because I was not present at the surrender. Had they known how to make their advantage of this Battel, Millan had been in a tottering condition: but we never knew how to improve our victories to the best. It is also very true that the King had at this time enough to do to defend his Kingdom from two such powerful enemies.

His Majesty having intelligence of the great preparation that was made both by the one and the other, withdrew the greatest part of his Forces out of Piedmont, where I arriv'd at the time when Monsieur de Tais had received a command to bring away all the men he could; for I never could stay long at home, and never hated any thing so much as my own house, so that although I had once put on a resolution (for the wrong that had been done me) never to go any more into that Country, yet when it came too't I could not forbear to go. Monsieur de Tais had made choice of two and twenty Ensigns, the Companies whereof were now very well recruited, to which he moreover raised a new Company, which, at my request, he was pleased to give to Captain Ceste [...]geloux, who had been assisting to me in the raising, and conducting of my men, and had formerly carryed my Ensign in the Kingdom of Naples. And so we began to set forwards towards France, dividing cur Companies into five and five. Of these I had the first Division, and went before to Suzanne, to prevent the Soldiers from getting thither before us, and to take order for the provisions, much of which I found upon the way going thither, which made me redouble my diligence. I arri­ved in the night two hours before day, at Villaume, and at the Inn where I alighted, found Signior Pedro de Colonna, whom Captain Renovard carried prisoner to the King, according to the capitulation at Carignan. They were already got up and the said Captain Renovard carried me into the Chamber of the said Signior, who at my coming told me, that he understood it was I who had broken the Bridge at Carignan, and that had commanded the Harquebusiers at the Battel. After which, falling into discourse concerning the said Bridge, I told him, that had his people follow'd their fortune, they had found no body to fight with, but my self and some forty men at most; and that our whole Camp was in so great disorder, that had he pursued them, we had all been defeated; and Captain Renovard also assured him, that what I said was true. At which, after a little pause turning towards me he said: E v [...]i dicete che si la nostra Gente seguto havessi la sua fortuna: no havena a combatere piu di voi co quarante soldati, & havessimo poste in fuga tuta la v [...]stra gente. Io vi dico che si v [...]i h [...]vesti seguita la no­stra m' haveresti messo [...]ri di Carignan [...], per che la mia gente havia pigliato il spavento [Page 76] c [...]ssi forte che la citta no era bastante di vassecularli. Which in English is this. You tell me that if our people had followed their fortune, they had had to deal with no more of yours than forty Soldiers only, and had put your whole Camp to flight. And I tell you, that had you pursued your fortune, you had driven me out of Carignan, forasmuch as my people had taken so terrible a fright, that the strength of the City had not been sufficient to reassure them: And thereupon told us the great disorder his people were in, saying, that he had once thought the Spaniards had been men without fear, but that he was now satis­fied, they had as much of that passion about them as other men; and that he was then in so great extremity that he was constrained to throw himself before the Gare, to try to stop them: but that in so doing he was like to have been born down by the torrent, and that they entred in such a crowd, that they had like to have lifted the Gate [...] the hinges. And so soon, said he, as they were all entred in this disorder. I step'd to the Gate to clap it to, and knowing all the Captains call'd them name by name to come to help me; but not a man would come, inso much that had it not been for a servant of my own, that heard me call out, and came to my assistance, I could never have shut it. Nay the disorder in the Town was moreover so great, that above four hundred threw themselves over the Curtines, who in the morning returning back were ready to dye for shame, and this is the reason why I have told you, that if you had followed your fortune, you had ta­ken the Town with forty men. By which account of his I knew the Proverb to be true, that says,If one Ar­my knew what the o­ther Army did, that Ar­my would soon be de­feated. Que si l'ost sçavoit ce que fait l'ost, souvent l'on defferoi [...] l'ost.

Now notwithstanding that after the surrender of Carignan the [...]nhabitants of the City assured us of this disorder, yet could we not by any means believe it, especially at the first; or at least that it could be so great; it seem'd so unlikely and so exceeding­ly strange: but after it had been confess'd by their Governor himself, we were bound to believe it to be true: and that they were pursued by some Phantome, or possessed by some evil spirit; for we did them no harm, being as much frighted as they, and and it may be more: But the night is terrible when a man cannot see by whom he is as­sanlted. However this make me conclude, that all befel me through good fortune; for it cannot be called valour, but rather the greatest folly that any man could com­mit; and I do believe, that of all the good fortune God has pleased to bestow upon me, this was the most remarkable and the most stange: but let us proceed to our busi­ness.

The thirst of Revenge had prompted the Emperor (contrary to the faith he had en­gaged to the Pope) to league and confederate himself with the King of England, who was fallen off from his obedience to the holy Chair, out of despite; which two Prin­ces (as it was said) had divided the Kingdom (for so both the Marquis de Guast told Monsieur de Termes, and I have since heard the same from an English Gentleman at Boulogne) but however it was but disputing the bears skin.The strength of France. France well united within it self can never be conquer'd till after the loss of a dozen Battels; considering the brave Gentry whereof it is fruitful, and the strong places wherewith it abounds. And I conceive they are deceiv'd who say, that Paris being taken, France is lost. It is indeed the Treasury of the Kingdom, and an unexhausted Magazine, where all the richest of the whole Nation unlade their Treasure, and I do believe in the whole world there is not such a City, for 'tis an old saying, that there is not a Crown in Paris but yields ten Sols revenue once a year; but there are so many other Cities, and strong places in the Kingdom, as are sufficient to destroy thirty Armies. So that it would be easie to rally together, and to recover that from them again, before they could conquer the rest; un­less the Conqueror would depopulate his own Kingdom, to repeople his new Conquest. I say this because the design of the King of England was to run directly up to Paris, whilst the Emperor should enter into Champagne. The Forces of these two Princes being join'd together consisted of fourscore thousand Foot and twenty thousand Horse, with a prodigious train of Artillery, by which any man may judge whether our King had not enough to do, and whether it was not high time to look about him. Without all doubt these poor Princes have greater care and trouble upon them than the inferior forts of men; and I am of opinion the King did very well to call back his Forces out of Piedmont, though some are pleased to say, that the State of Millan might otherwise have been won, and that the Emperor would have been necessitated to have called back his Forces out of France to defend that Dutey: but all this depended upon event. So it was that God would not suffer these Princes to agree betwixt themselves, each of them being bent upon his own particular advantage; and I have often heard, and sometimes seen, that when two Princes jointly undertake the Conquest of a Kingdom, they never [Page 77] agree; for each of them is always [...] of being over reach'd by his companion, and evermore jealous of one another. I have not, I confess, much conversed with Books; but I have heard say, that after this manner we first lost the Kingdom of Na­ples, and were cheated by the King of Spain. This suspition and jealousie at this time preserved us, as it has at other times [...]one se [...]ral others, as the H [...]storians report. For my part, I should more apprehend one great single Enemy than two who would divide the Cake between them, there will always be some exceptions taken, and two Nations do not easily agree, as you see here. The English King came and sat down before Bou­logne, Boulogne sur­rendred to the English. which was basely surrendred to him by the Si [...]ur de Vervin, who lost his life for his labour; an example that ought to be set before all such as undertake the defence of strong holds. This by no means pleased the Spaniard, who reap'd no ad­vantage by it, saw very well that his confederate would only intend his own business.

Our Colon [...]l, Monsi [...]ur de Tais, brought three and twenty Ensigns to the King, be­ing all the same which had been at the Battel, saving one n [...]w Company; but I fell sick at Troyes, and came not up to the Army, till they were advanc'd near to Bou­logne, where the said Sieur de Tais delivered me the Patent his Majesty had sent me for the Office of Camp-Master;The Sieur de Montluc made Camp-Ma­ster. but there was nothing done worthy remembrance, till the Camisado of Boulogne. As we arrived near to la Marquise, the Dauphin who commanded the Army had intelligence that it was three or four days since the Town had been taken (though he knew it before) and that the K [...]ng of England was em­barked and gone for England. It is to be presumed that this Prince had made such hast away only to avoid fighting, forasmuch as he had left all things in so great dis­order; The King of England re­tires. for in the first place we found all his Artillery before the Town in a Mea­dow, that lies upon the descent towards the Tower of Ordre; secondly there was found above thirty Casks full of Corslers which he had caused to be brought out of Germany, therewith to arm his Soldiers, which he had left for the defence of the Town; thirdly he had left all the ammunition of victual, as Corn, Wine, and o­ther things to eat in the lower Town, insomuch that if Monsieur de Teligni be yet living (as I am told he is) the Father of this who is a Huguenot, and who treated the peace during these troubles, and was taken upon the Camisado in the lower Town, (where not one man but himself escap'd alive) he will bear witness that there was not in the higher Town provision to serve four days, for himself told it me.

The occasion of the Camisado was this.The Cami­sado at [...]ullen; A Son in law of the Mareschal de Bies (not this fine Monsieur de Vervin, but another whose name I have forgot) came to Monsieur de Tais, and told him that a Spy of his, who came from Boulogne, had assu­red him, that as yet nothing had been remov'd to the higher Town; but that all still remained below, and that if they would speedily attempt to take the lower Town (which might easily be done) they would in eight days time have the upper come out to them with ropes about their necks: and that if Monsieur de Tais so plea­sed, he would in the morning lead him, where he might himself discover all: the Spy morcover affirming, that as yet not one breach in the wall was repaired; but that all lay open as if it were a village.

Upon this information Monsieur de Tais was impatient to go to take a view of all, and took me along with him, together with this Son in law of the Mareschal. We might be about a hundred Horse drawn out of the several Troops, and just at the break of day we arrived before the Town, leaving the Tower of Ordre some two or three hun­dred paces on the right hand, and saw five or six Pavillions upon the descent in the great high way leading to the Gate of the City. We were no more than five or six Horse only, Monsieur de Tais having left the rest behind a little Hill. This Son in law of the Mareschal, and I therefore went down to the first Pavillion, and passed close by it into the Camp on the left hand, till we came to the second, from whence we disco­vered all their Artillery,Monsieur de Tais and the Sieur de Mont­luc discover the Town. at no further distance than fourfcore paces only; nei [...]her did we see any more than three or four English Soldiers that were walking up and down by the Canon, and in the foresaid second Pavillion we heard them jabber English. The Mareschals Son in law then made me return back to Monsieur de Tais, who imme­diately upon my telling him what we had seen, went down with me to the place from whence I came, and there with the foresaid Gentleman stood still. In the mean time it grew to be fair broad day, so that the Centinels very well perceived us to be none of their own people, and thereupon presently gave the alarm: but for all that we saw not a man offer to sally out of the Tower (I have indeed since been told that Dondellat, [Page 78] whom Monsieur de St. Pol had bred up of a Page, had the Guard at the Tower) and so we return'd.

Monsieur de Tais then with the said Gen [...]l [...]man presently went to find out the Dau­phin, and Monsieur d' Orleans, where it was concluded, that the next inorning at break of day a Camisado should be given,A Camisado concluded on. and that Monsieur de Tais, with our Com­panies, should give the first onset by three Breaches that were in the wall, on that side where we had been to discover; which were Breaches that had only been made for pleasure. The Rheingrave then entreated the Dauphin that he and his Germans might go on with us to the Assault: but Monsieur de Tais had already promised Count Pedemarie, that he would speak to the Dauphin to give him leave to go on with us, which was a very great misfortune: for had the Germans gone on with us to the Breach, the Enemy had never fir'd one shot, which would have invited a great many more to come in to our relief much sooner than they did.

We set out in the night with shirts over our Arms, and met the Rheingrave with his Germans ready and resolved to pass over a Bridge of Brick there was near unto la Mar­quise, which resolution he was not to be perswaded from; but would pass over after us, what promise soever he had made to the Count. Of which Monsieur de Tais sent pre­sent word to the Dauphin, and whilst they were in dispute about it, came the Admi­ral Annebaut, who so far prevailed with the Rh [...]ingrave, that at last he was perswa­ded to retire behind, giving us leave to pass, and the Italians after us; but for his own part he would not stir from the Battail of the Gens d' Armes, that was drawn up near to la Marquise and Monsieur Dampierre also, who was Colonel of the Grisons, came up as far as the Tower of Ordre, where he drew up his men into Battalia. Now Mon­sieur de Tais had given me one part of his men with them to fall on by the high way on his right hand, being the same he had discover'd the day before. I then charg'd up straight to the Artillery, and those who remain'd with Monsieur de Tais and the Ita­lians fell on by the three br [...]aches, which they bravely carried; and being there was nei­ther Gate not breach on that side where the Artillery was, I was fain to go all along by the wall on that side towards the River, where I at last found a breach of some ten or twelve paces wide, which I entred without any manner of opposition, and went on straight to the Church: where I saw no Captain of ours, save one only, who was running along by the River directly to the forementioned breaches, and him I call'd to, but he heard me not.

Now you must know that Monsieur de Tais was wounded,Monsieur de Tais wounded. and enforc'd to retire; what became of Count Pedemarie I know not: but I was afterwards told that all the Captains, both Gascons and Germans, were gone out of the Town, and had made no stay there, by reason of an Alarm, that the English had recovered the breaches by the out­side of the Town, as it was true: but there were of them not above two hundred men, that were sallied out on the outside from the higher Town: and I was moreover told that it was Dondellet, who [...]led from the Tower of Ordre straight to the Town. All our Ensigns were left in the Town, but I never perceived any thing of all this: for had I seen the disorder, I do believe, I should have done as the rest did; I will not pretend to be braver than I am. Before the Church I found two Italian Captains only with their Companies and Colours, where so soon as I arrived, I fell to assanlting three or four houses, and forced them, wherein were a great number of English, and most of them without arms; some of which were clad in white and red, others in black and yel­low, and a great many Soldiers also without those colours; but I soon understood that all those in Liveries were Pioneers; because they had no Arms, as the other had, who defended themselves, and so, that above two hundred of them were slain in the houses. I then march'd straight to the Church, where I found the said Italian Captains (the one call'd Caesar Porto, and the other Hieronimo Megrin, and with these Italians Messieurs D' Andelot and de Novailles, who was Lieutenant to Monsieur de Nemsurs) asking them where all our Captains were; who returned me answer, that they knew not what was become of them. I then began to perceive there was some disorder in the case, not see­ing one man of all our Companies; excepting those who were entred with me, and a­bout fifty or threescore others, who had staid behind to plunder, and were rallyed to me at the assault of the houses: whilst I was considering with my self what the matter should be, all on a suddain there came a great number of English full drive directly upon us, as we stood before the Church, and in the street adjoining, crying out, Who goes there? to which I made answer in English, A friend, a friend, (for of all the Langua­ges that are scattered mongst us, I have learn'd some words, and the Italian and Spa­nish passably well, which has sometimes been very useful to me) but the English pro­ceeding [Page 79] to further Interrogatories, they soon put me to to the end of my Latine; by which perceiving what we were, they presently fell on, crying out, Kill, kill, kill; I then call'd out to the Itali [...]n Captains, saying,Which I conceive is to be Englishe [...] thus (for Mr▪ Montluc, by his leave, was no very good Italian) Assist me and stand ready by me, for whilst I go to assault them, there is no reason that you should permit them to en­close me be­hind. Ajutate mi, & state appreso me, perehe io me ne vo assablir li, no bisogno lassiar mi investire. Which having said, I ran full drive upon them, who immediately fac'd about, and pursued them, laying on in their rear, to the end of the Street, where they turned off on the right hand along by the wall of the upper Town; from whence they discharged at us some small pieces, and a whole Cloud of of Arrows. I then retir'd back to the Italians, where I was no sooner come and settled in my former order, but that they return'd to charge me again: but I had taken a little heart, having found them so easily to run away, and therefore gave them leave to come up close to us, where I then charg'd them, and we thought they ran away with greater facility than before; I therefore retir'd once more before the Church: but then there fell such a furious storm of Rain, that it seem'd as if God Almighty had been disposed to drown us all; during which shower there came up ten or twelve Ensigns of ours from one of the breaches, at which they had entred, not having above six Sol­diers with them; and I might have about as many Ensigns with me. One of the Ensigns then told me that the Breaches were all taken, and that the Captains were fled away: Which having heard, I desir'd the two Italian Captains that they should a while make good that Canton,The English put to flight, where the Church stood (for there was a wall before the door of it) and I would go dispute the Breach by which I had entred, which so soon as I should recover, I would send them word, that they might draw off and come to me, and if peradventure the Enemy in the mean time, should come up to them, that then they should remember what they had seen me do, and boldly charge them.

I then went to the breach, where I saw already ten or twelve English got thither, two of which stood upon their defence; but of the rest, some leap'd over the Breach, and others slipt on the right hand along the inside of the wall, and so soon as we were got out, we saw moreover fifteen or twenty that came running towards us, along on the outside the wall, and seeing us turn'd on the right hand towards the other breaches, by which our people before had entred. I then entreated a Gentleman of Burgundy (whose name I have forgot) who was mounted upon a horse he had taken, that he would go to Caesar Porto and Hieronimo Megrin to call them away, which he was very willing to do, provided I would promise to stay for him, which I assured him upon my life I would do, and that dead or alive he should find me at this Breach. The Rain still continued more and more violent, when the said Gentleman returning, told me that he could not possibly get to them; and that they were either retreated into the Church, or all dead. when behold on a suddain three or four hun­dred English came at a good round trot directly upon us all along by the wall, just as we▪ were upon the point to enter again to go relieve the Italians: but seeing them come full drive upon us, we were constrained to alter that resolu­tion.

Messieurs d' Andelot, de Novailles, this Burgundian Gentleman and three or four others had never stirred from my side, from the time they had first met me before the Church (and it was well for them, for if they had they had gone to pot with the rest) and as the English came on in this fury, there arose a hubub amongst us, some crying out to me to fly towards the River,The French in fear. and others towards the Mountain: but upon the instant I resolv'd ro remonstrate to them, What have you to do to go to the Mountain? in our way thither we must of necessity pass close by the higher Town; for to go directly to the River, do you not see that it is rising, and got so high already that we shall be all drown'd? let no one therefore think any more of that; but let us make our selves ready, for we must fight these people. Whereupon Monsieur d' And [...]lot The courage of Mr. d' A [...] ­delot. cryed out aloud, I, I, Captain Montluc, I pray you let us fight them; for that is the best. He was a man of very great courage, and 'tis great pity he afterwards turn'd Huguenot; for I do be­lieve he was one of the bravest Gentlemen in the Kingdom. We therefore march'd directly up to them, when so soon as we came within four or five Pikes length of them, they let fly a great shower of Arrows upon us, and we ran up to them to push a Pike; for there were but two Harquebuze shot fired, and immediately they faced about, and fled the same way they came. We follow'd after, and very close, and when they came to the Canton of the Town towards their own people, who kept almost all our Ensigns enclosed, they seeing them come, and we pursuing in the rear of them, quitted the Breaches to relieve their own men, and rallying all together came running directly upon us, who were all at the foot of the Mountain of the Tower [Page 80] of Ordre. I then cryed to Monsieur d' Andelot, and to all the Ensigns and Sold [...]ers, Get away as fast as you can and climb the Mountain; for I, for my own part, with four or five Pikes, would stay to see the event of all, retiring towards a Rivolet which was by the Artillery. So soon as the English had quitted the breach, to come to us, our Ensigns leap'd out of the Town towards the valley, by which they had come, and being got to the foot of the Mountain, where Monsieur d' Andelot and the Ensigns were marching up, the Enemy saw that our Ensigns were again pass'd over the Breaches, and that the said Andelot with the other Ensigns were got half way up the Hill; they then thought to turn after the others, as they did, but could never overtake above eight or ten Soldiers at the most, whom they cut all to pieces. Five or six English then came up to me, and I pass'd the Rivolet, where the Water was more than knee deep above the Banks. They bestow'd some Arrows upon me, and shot them into the Targuet, and another thorough a sleeve of Mail I wore upon my right arm; which for my part of the Booty I carried home to my Quarters,The Sieur de Montluc came the last man out of Bullen. and having received them, went to mount the Hill on the backside of the Tower of Ordre. Monsieur le Dauphin, having with him Monsieur d' Orleans and the Admiral, made his Lansquenets to march to relieve us within the Town; but before they could come near the disorder was already hapned, and they found Messieurs d' Andelot and de Novailles with the Ensigns, who were got up to the top of the Mountain.

In the interim of this confusion the Vidame of Chartres, and my Brother Monsieur de Lieux, advanc'd as far as the bottom of the Hill, to see if they could learn any news of me; but they were sent back with a vengeance, and told the Dauphin that they did certainly believe I was slain within the Town: forasmuch as they had seen all the Captains, me only excepted; and whilst they were in this discourse Monsieur d' An­delot arrived, of whom the Dauphin demanded if he knew what was become of me, to whom he made answer, that I had been the preservation of him and all those that were with him: but that (it seem'd) I had not known how to save my self, which I might have done, if I had so pleased, as well as the rest. The said Sieur d' Andelot conclu­ded me for dead, believing that I had suffered my self to be snap'd about their Artillery, or by a Ship that lay upon the Rivolet I passed over; but I was no such fool: for I call God to witness, and let him punish me according to my perjury, if of all that day I ever lost my understanding, and it was a great blessing that God was pleased to preserve it to me entire; for had I lost my judgment, we had received a very great disgrace, which we could neither have concealed nor excused, and I had been in great danger never to have been a Mareschal of France. We had lost all our Ensigns, and those that carried them withall, which nevertheless God gave me the grace to save. When a man is once possessed with fear, and that he loses his judgment, as all men in a fright do, he knows not what he does, and it is the principal thing you are to beg at the hands of Almighty God, to preserve your unde [...]standing entire; for what dan­ger soever there may be, there is still one way or other to get off, and perhaps to your honor: But when fear has once possessed your judgment, God ye good even! you think you are flying towards the poop, when you are running towards the prow, and for one Enemy you think you have ten before your eyes, as drunkards do, who see a thousand candles at once. Oh 'tis a wonderful advantage to a man of our Trade, when his danger does not deprive him of his sence, he may then take his opportunity, and avoid both shame and ruin [...].

In the evening I went to the Dauphin for the Word, because Monsieur de Tais himself was wounded and could not go; when, so soon as I came into his presence, Mon­sieur d' Orleans, who always delighted to jest with me (as the Dauphin also himself sometimes would do) began to sing the Camisado of Bullen, and the assault of Cony, for the old Soldiers of Piedmont, jeering and pointing at me with his finger: at which I began to be angry, and fell to cursing those who had been the cause; at which the Dauphin laugh'd, and at last said to me; Montluc, Montluc, in plain truth, you Cap­tains can by no means excuse it, that you have not carried your selves very ill. Which way, Sir, (said I) can you conceive me to be any way in fault? if I knew my self to be guilty I would at this instant go, and cause my self to be killed in the Town: but in truth we were a company of Coxcombs, to venture our lives in your service. Whereupon he said No, No, I do not mean you, for you were the last Captain that came out of the Town, and above an hour after all the rest. He gave me very well to understand, when he came to be King, that I had not fail'd of my duty, by the value he was ever plea­sed to put upon me; for when he went his expedition into Piedmont, he sent an ex­press Courrier to fetch me from my own house, to which I had retired my self by reason [Page 81] of a certain piqu [...]e, that Madam d' Estampes had conceived against me, about the quarrel betwixt Messieurs de Ch [...]staign raie, and de Iarnac. A man has evermore one good office or another done him at Court, and the mischief on't is, the women evermore rule the rost: but I shall not take upon me to be a Reformer, Madam d' Estampes sent better men than my self packing from Court, who have made no boasts of it: but I wonder at our brave Historians that they dare not tell the [...]uth.

This was the success of the Camisado of Boulogne, Oversight in the Cam [...]sado at Bull [...]n. whereas had the Camp follow'd after us, they might all have quarrer'd in the Town, and in four or five dayes (as I have already said) the higher Town had been our own. Let any one ask Monsieur de Teligni, if he be the man who was taken prisoner there, and see whether or no I tell a lye. I do not know who was the cause that the Dolphin did not march, but I shall al­wayes affum that he ought to have done it, and know also very well that it did not stick at him; but it were to enter into disputes to say any more of that busin [...]ss. Had they come, the English would not have known which way to turn them. I discover'd them to be men of very little heart, and believe them to be better at Sea than by Land.

The Dolphin seeing the Winter draw on (having left Monsieur le Mareschal de Bies at Monstr [...]uille, to b [...]dle and keep Boulegne in aw) return'd back to the King, who also had concluded a Peace with the Emperor:Peace conclu­ded betwixt the Emperor and the King of France. all this great preparation, and those invincible forces, to our great good fortune, vanishing through the ill intelligence betwixt these two Princes, I mean the Spaniard and the English. Evil befal him that will ever love the one, or the other. Three months after I quitted my command of Camp-master, to go to de­fend a little estate that had been left me by an Uncle of mine. I had much ado to ob­tain leave of the King to go; but in the end the Admiral wrought so effectually in my behalf, that it was granted upon condition that I would promise him to take upon me the same employment in case the said Admiral should have the command of the Army. He fail'd not of that command, nor thereupon to summon me upon my promise I had made him, but obtain'd a Comm [...]ssion from the King (which he sent me) to be Camp-master to fifty or thre [...]score Ensigns that his Majesty would set on foot for the English voyage. I brought the men accordingly to Havre de Grace, where I delivered them in­to the hands of Monsieur de Tais. We then put to sea, Our Navy consisted of above two hundred and fifty sail, and the most beautiful Ships that ever eyes beheld, with their Gallies. The ardent desire the King had to revenge himself on the King of England made him enter into a very vast expence, which in the end serv'd to very li [...]le purpose, al­though we first landed,A Naval E [...] ­gagement be­twixt the French and the English A [...]no 1545. and afterwards fought the English upon the sea, where many Ships were sunk on both sides: When at our setting out I saw the great Carrick (which was certainly the goodliest V [...]ssel in the world) burnt down to the water, I had no great opinion of our Enterprize. But being that I for my particular perform'd nothing in that expedition worthy remembrance, and that moreover a perfect account of that Na­val Engagement has been given by others, I shall let it alone to give a Narrative of the conquest of the Territory of Oye: The French no very good sea­men. and indeed our business lies more properly by land than by water; where I do not know that our Nation has ever obtain'd any great victories.

So soon as we were return'd from the Coast of England, and disembark' [...] at Havre de Grace, the Admiral went to attend the King, and Monsieur de Tais went along with him, carrying all the Companies to the Fort of Outreau before Boulogne, where Captain Ville-franche had been left with the old Companies in the quality of Camp-master, he ha­ving been put into the Command that I had formerly quitted. The Mareschal de Bics his Majesties Lieutenant in that Country,The Mar [...]sch [...]l de Bi [...]s before Bullen. had something to do, as Monsieur de St. Ger­main, whom the King had given him for an assistant, can very well witness; for all the Pioniers had forsook him, and were stoln away, as is usual with those rascally people, if they be not narrowly look't unto: and yet had he all the Courtine leading towards the Bridge of Brick to make. Of which affair though there be no fighting in the case, I think fit to give an acco [...]nt in this place, that it may serve for an example to others in command, upon the like occasion.

The Mareschal being frequently solicited by the King to put this fort into a posture of defence to block up Boulogne, told me that there was a necessity the Soldiers should work, since the Pioneers were wanting; of which I accordingly carried word to the Captains, and they from me to the Soldiers, who all at once flatly deny'd to do it, say­ing They were Soldiers, The Captains refuse to work at the For [...] ­cation. and not Pioneers. With this answer the Mareschal was highly offended, and in great anxicty what to do, forasmuch as the Courtine remained open, and that the King of England had sent fresh supplies of men into Bullen. Wherefore the Mareschal having sent throughtout all the Country for Pioneers, and none being to be got, I contriv'd a way to make the Soldiers work, which was by giving them five [Page 82] pence a day, the ordinary pay given to the Pioneers. The Mareschal very readily consented to the motion, but notwithstanding I could not find one who would once put his hand to the work. Seeing therefore their refusal, to invite them by my example, I took my own Company, that of Monsieur de Lieux my Brother, with those of Captain Leberon my Brother-in-law, and Captain Labit my Cousin German; for those I knew durst not refuse me. We wanted no tools, for the Mareschal had made provision of very great store, and moreover the Pioneers who were run away, had left all theirs in a great Tent, which the Mareschal had caused to be set up to that purpose. So soon as I came to the Courtin I began my self first to break ground, and after me all the Captains. I had cansed a Barrel of wine to be brought to the place, and with it my dinner, which I had order'd to be much greater than ordinary, and the Captains also had brought theirs along with them, together with a Sack full of pence which I shew'd to the Soldi­ers; and after having wrought a start every Captain din'd with his own Company, and to every Soldier we gave half a loaf, some wine and a little slesh; of which also we were more liberal to some than to others, pretending they had taken more pains than their fellows, on purpose to encourage them; and so soon as we had din'd we again fell to our work, singing and plying our business until late in the evening, insomuch that one would have thought we had never follow'd any other Trade. So soon as we gave o­ver, three Treasurers of the Army paid to every man five sols, and at our return to our Tents, the other Soldiers by way of dirision call'd ours Pioneers and Delvers. The next morning Captain Forcez came to tell me, that all his men also wo [...]ld come to the work, and those of his Brother likewise (who is also yet living) all which I receiv'd, and we did as the day before; the third day they would all come, so that in eight dayes time we had finisht the whole Courtin; and all the Engeneers told Monsieur de St. Germ [...]in (who himself had never stirr'd from the work) that my Soldiers had done more in eight dayes, than four times so many Pioneers would have done in five weeks. And observe that Captains, Lieutenants, and Ensigns stuck all the while as close to the work, as the meanest Soldier did, and serv'd as inciters to the rest.

I thought fit to commit this Exemple to writing, to let the Captains see, that it is not the Soldiers fault, if they do not perform whatsoever you would have them do: but then you must get the knack to make them do it chearfully, and with a good will, and not by force; put your hands first to the work your selves, and your Soldiers will for shame follow your exemple, and do more than you would have them do. But if you come to ill words and blows, it must be when out of spite they refuse to do a thing to which they are no ways obliged; and to that we are indeed sometimes by necessicy con­strain'd. O Camrades, how often have I, seeing the Soldier weary, and ready to faint, alighted [...]rom my horse to walk with them on foot, to encourage them to make a long march! how often have I drunk water with them, that they might chearfully suffer by my exemple.

Believe me, Gentlemen, that all depends upon your selves, and that your Soldiers will conform themselves to your humour, as it is ordinarily seen. There is a mean in all things, sometimes a little roughness is very requisite, but then it must not be against a whole Company, but some particular person, who would grumble, and hinder the rest that are well disposed. I have ere now made some surly stubborn rascalls feel my anger of which I now repent me.

Sometime after the Mareschal de Biez would attempt to seize upon, and lay waste the Territory of Oye, Oye is a Coun­ty of Picardy wherein are the Cities of Calice, Oye, and some others of less note extend­ing it self as far as Duaki [...]k in the Low Countries, and was possest by the English 210 years. having in vain tryed to tempt the English to a Battail. All our new Companies therefore march't, for the old stirr'd not out of the Fort, but were kept there to guard it, and the Marescal took six or seven pieces of great Artillery along with him; so that we set out secretly in the beginning of the night, and went to some little Villages that had formerly been burnt. This Enterprise was taken in hand contrary to the opi­nion of all the Captains in the Army, out of the hope the said Mareschal had to bring it to a Ba [...]tail, which had drawn several Princes and Lords to come from the Court: Where after there was no more hopes of drawing the English into the field, the Mares­chal deliberated to take some Forts from them in the County of Oye. Now so soon as they drew very near to one of these Forts, the Mareschal, Messieurs de Brisac, and de Tais, drew themselves apart (I think Monsieur de Estre was with them, being then newly come out of prison) Monsieur de Bordillon, and three or four others (whose names I have forgot) and got up to a little eminence under the shadow of a Tree, from thence peeping and considering which of the said Bastions, that were opposite to us, they should as­sault; and in the mean time I caus'd all our Ensigns to make a halt for the last, which were yet a league behind. Now you must know I had never been there till this time; [Page 83] nei [...]her have I ever been there since, but to the best of my memory I shall describe the s [...]i [...]nation of the place.

I was to descend about thirty or forty paces,Description of the English Fort. to enter into a great Meadow, where on my right hand there was one Bastion, and on my left hand, at the distance of a good Ha [...]quebuz shot, another, and so consequently all along the C [...]ur [...]ine leading towards Calice (which Courtine was only of earth, and about two fathoms high) there was also two great Ditches with water middle deep, and betwixt the two Ditches there was a Terrace of earth. Whilst they were in cosultation under this Tree on my left hand, I took Cap­tain Favas, and la Moyenne, having both been my Lieutenants, and about 300 Harquebu­zeers, to whom I gave the leading of the sust Division, and I stood behind in the Rear of them.attempt upon the English Forts. There presently sallyed out of the Fort an hundred or sixscore English, who came into the Meadow, having planted five or six Muskeieers upon their Terrcss, betwixt two Ditches, and ply'd us smartly with their shot, having left betwixt the said Bassions and Ditches a little path, by which one man only could march a breast, to enter in, and fally out of their Fort, confident, it seems, that under favour of their Muskers, those of ours on the outside would not dare to charge them. Our men began then to Harque­buz it at a good smart rate, and they to let sly their arrows: but me-thought they had still an eye towards their retreat; wherefore being mounted on a little pad Nag, I came up to the Captains, and said these words to them. Camrades, these people are mainly enclin'd to retreat, and I see it is out of a confidence they have in their Muskets, charge then briskly through and through, and I will second you. I needed not to bid them twice, for before I could return to the head of my men, I saw them together by the ears, and in a moment the English put to [...]ligh [...]: wherefore I stop [...] my men from falling on, to make sirm in case any more should sally out. This little path was some­thing narrow, and adjoyning to the Bastion, under which the one part of them stood sirm, the rest cast themselves into the Ditches in so great hast, that they had not leisure to carry off all their Muskets, for our Soldiers leapt into the water as soon as they, and brought away sour of them; and there were four or five of the said Soldiers that pass't over the said Terrace, and the other Ditch, to the very foot of the Courtine, who brought me word that the greatest depth of water was in the first Ditch; for the other next the Courtine was not above knee deep. I then presently spoke to the Captains, Favas and la Moyenne, that they should draw up my Division and theirs together, and finding Captain Aurioqui, and almost all the other Captains entreated them them to make two Divisions of theirs; for that so soon as I had spoken with Monsieur de Tais, I would go on to an Assault. They then told me, that they wanted near half of their Soldiers, who were not yet come up, to which I made answer, that it was no matter, seeing that with those we had we could do our business, who thereupon without further reply began to divide themselves into two Bodies, and I ran to speak with Monsieur de Tais, whom I found with the Mareschal and the rest, and said to him; Let us go, Sir, let us go to the Assault, for we shall carry the Courtine; I have tasted them, and find, that they have more mind to run than fight. The Mareschal then said to me, What is it you say Captain Mont­luc, would to God we were certain presently to carry it with all the Artillery we have. Where­upon I answered him aloud; Sir, we shall have strangled them all before your Artillery can come up to us, The Sieurs de Tais and Mont­luc, go on to the Assault. and taking Monsieur de Tais by the arm, said to him; Let us go, Sir, you have believ'd me at other times, and have not repented; neither shall you repent you of this. I have discover'd by these approaches, that these people are little worth. Let us go then, answered he, and as we were entring into the Meadow, we already found our two Divisions of Pikes and Harquebuzeers separated apart. Look you, Sir, then said I, take your choice on which hand you will fight, whether on that of this Ensign over against the Bastion below, or on that of the Engsin opposite to those I have fought with: who thereupon said to me, Fight you that Body you have already attaqu't, and I will go fight the other, and so we parted.

So soon as the Mareschal de Biez saw us begin to march, he (as Monsieur de Bord [...]llon told me afterwards) said these words; now we shall see if Tais with his Gascons be so brave as he pretends. I then call'd all the Sergean [...]s of my Division, saying to them aloud at the head of our Battail; You Sergeants have ever been accustomed, when we go to fight, to be in the Flanks behind, but I will have you now fight in the first Rink. Do you see that Ensign there? if you do not win it, as many as I shall meet slinking off in my way as I go, I shall make bold to cut his hamstrings; you know I am pretty dextrous that way: then turning towards the Captains, I said, and you, Camrades, if I am not there as soon as they, do you cut mine. I then ran to Captain Favas and la Moyenne (who might be at the di­stance of some thirty paces) and said to them, March, and throw your selves headlong into the [Page 84] Ditch, and in an instant return'd to my men, when havingA Ceremo­ny formerly used when Sol­diers went on to an Assault, or to any des­perate Enter­prise. kist the ground, I ran straight up to the Ditches, making the Sergeants still to march before, and passing over the first and the second, came up to the foot of the Courtin. I then said to the Sergeants, Help one another, help one another with your Halberts to get up, which they speedily did, and others pasht them on behind, throwing them headlong into the Fort: I had also a Halbert in my hand. In the mean time arriv'd all the Captains and Pikes, who found me making a great shew of endeavouring to get up with my Halbert, holding with my left hand by the wood;An Assault gi­ven to the En­glish Fort. when some of them, not knowing who I was, took me by the breech, and pusht me quite over on the other side, making me by that means more va­liant than I intended to be; for what I did was only to encourage the rest to get over: but that follow, whoever he was, made me forget my policy, and take a leap that I had no intent to have taken; and indeed in my whole life I did never see people so soon get over a C [...]urtine. After I had taken this leap, Captain Favas and la Moyenne, who were in the Ditch of the Bastion, put themselves into the little pa [...]h, and past on the other side into the Bastion, where all they found within it they put to the sword. Monsieur de Tais, who went on to his encounter, seeing us scrambling, up the Courtine, threw h [...]mself into the Ditches of the other Fort,The English put to flight. when the English seeing their people put to flight[?], and we entring into it, quitted the Fort, and ran away as fast as they could towards Calice. The Mareschal this while seeing us run on so bravely upon the Enemy, cried out (as I was told after) Oh heavens! they are already got in; whereupon the Seigneurs de Brissac and de Bourdillon came full speed upon the spur, and the said Sei­gneur de Brissac General of the Horse, put his horse into the little path, where one man could not very easily pass, stretching out his legs at full length upon the horse neck, at whose mercy he past over, Monsieur de Bordillon after him, and after them follow'd some fourty or fifty horse, all leading their horses in their hands. Monsieur de Brissac then presently came up to me, whom he found drawing up all the men into Battalion, be­lieving that we should be fought with, and that those of Calice would certainly issue out to relieve their men. I had got an Ensign we had won upon my shoulder, which in his presence I restor'd to the Sergeant who had taken it, bidding him go and carry it to Monsieur de Tais, which he did, and the said Sieur de Tais so soon as he had receiv'd it, sent it by the same Sergeant to the Mareschal, who was very busie with his Pioneers, breaking down the Courtine (which was only of earth) to make way for the Gens-d'| Armes to pass over; and now we were all within, Artillery and all; where so soon as we were all arriv'd, Messieurs de Brissac and de Bordillon, with the forty or fifty horse that had entred with them, took the right hand toward the Sluces which separate the Coun [...]y of Artois from the County of Oye, where they met with forty or fifty of the English, bearing Launces, who presently began to retire full gallop towards Calice. Mon­sieur de Brissac was jealous, that these had only run away to draw him into some Am­buscado, and therefore made a halt, sending out Castegeac to discover a little valley that was on his left hand; which said Castegeac presently brought him word that he had seen above 400 horse, but it was no such thing, those he saw being no other than Country­men and women of the neighbouring Villages, who were flying towards Calice, which was a great misfortune; for otherwise Monsieur de Brissac had pursued them, and they were all the Cavalry that the Enemy had in Calice, which had been no inconsiderable defeart. A General of all things ought always to send out an old Soldier, or some one whose intelligence he may absolutely rely upon, to discover; for men of little experience soon take the alarm, and fancy Bushes to be Battaillons. I will not say that Castegeac The mistake of Castegeac. was no Soldier, but upon my word he here committed a very great error.

Our Cavalry being got over the Breach, the Mareschal had caused to be made, Mon­sieur de Tais would himself lead the Harquebuzeers, ordering me to remain with the Battail of Pikes. There were ten or twelve Ensigns which retir'd towards Calice, and had been coming to have disputed our entry, which, could they have come up in time, had found us enough to do, with our Artillery and all, as the Mareschal had told me when I went to call Monsieur de Tais to go on to the Assault: and although I know very well at whom it stuck, that we did not fight them ten or twelve Ensigns, I will however for­bear committing it to writing,Fault of the French forasmuch as in delivering the truth, I should be ob­lig'd to speak ill of some particular persons, and those none of the least, which I will by no means do: But if Monsieur de St. Cire (who was Lieutenant to fifty men at arms belonging to Monsieur Boissy, who died Grand Escuyer) were alive, he could tell where the fault lay, for he was there grievously wounded, had his horse kill'd under him, and above forty horses more of the same Troop kill'd and wounded. There fol­low'd [Page 85] a great quarrel upon it, which proceeded so far as almost to bring two men to fight in Lists. It was indeed a most infamous cowardise, and of great prejudice to his Majesties service; for had those been defeated, there had no body been left in Calice but old men and women, and I have since heard the Mareschal de Biez say, that had those Ensigns been cut off, with his Artillery he had taken the Town in two days. But seeing those people to be retreated safe into the City, they concluded to retire, which two days after we did; as also the season of the year began to settle into very great rain.

Let me tell you Captains you ought not disdain to learn something of me, who am the oldest Captain in France, and who have been in as many Battails, or more, as any Captain of Europe, as you will judge at the end of my Book. Know therefore that the reasons which induc't me to attempt this affault, were these. First, because I had felt the pulse of the English at my first arrival, and found them a very easie Enemy. Secondly, because they had abandon'd their Fortifications, which we gain'd, having the Bastion that serv'd them for a Flanker. Thirdly, because from the little eminence where I had made a halt before I went down into the Meadow, I had seen coming along the Plain on the inside toward Calice a great number of people coming from thence, and observ'd all the Courtine to be full of men, by which I saw it was high time to fall on; and for a fourth reason, because that in the Ditch next to the Courtine there was very little water, and from the said Ditch to the said Courtine it was but two good steps, where the Soldiers might stand well enough, and with a little help of their Pikes or Halberts, and the assistance of one another (the Courtine being no more than two fadoms high) we should carry the place. When (Captains) therefore your eye shall have discharg'd its office in discovering the number of your Enemy, and the strength of the place where he is, and that you have tasted, and found him apt to fly, charge him whilst he is in the fear you have possest him withal, for if you give him time to recover his senses, and to forget his fright, you will be more often in danger of being beaten, than likely to beat. Wherefore you ought evermore to pursue him in his fear, without giving him leisure to re-assume his courage, and carry always about you the Motto of Alexander the Great, which is: Deferr not that till to morrow thou canst do to day; for many things fall out betwixt the lip and the cup, especially in war, and then it will be too late to say, I should never have thought it. You shall execute many things in your heat, which, if you give your selves leisure to consider of, you will think of it thrice before you once attempt it. Push home then, venture, and do not give your Enemies leisure to consult together, for one will encourage another.

Being return'd to the Fort of Outrea [...]; there was hardly a day past that the English did not come to tickle us upon the descent towards the Sea, and would commonly brave our people up to our very Canon, which was within ten or twelve paces of the Fort: and we were all abus'd by what we had heard our Predecessors say, that one English man would always beat two French men, and that the English would never run away, nor never yield. I had retain'd something of the Camisado of Bullen, and of the business of Oye; and therefore said one day to Mousieur de Tais, that I would discover to him the mystery of the English, and wherefore they were reputed so hardy: which was, that they all carried arms of little reach, and therefore were necessitated to come up close to us to loose their arrows,A discourse concerning the valour of the English. which otherwise would do no execution; whereas we who were accustomed to fire our Harquebuzes at a great distance, seeing the Enemy use another manner of sight, thought these near approaches of theirs very strange, imputing their running on at this confident rate to absolute bravery: but I will lay them an Ambus­cado, and then you shall see if I am in the right or no, and whether a Gascon be not as good as an English-man. In antient time their Fathers and ours were neighbours.

I then chose out sixscore men, Harquebuzeers and Pikes, with some Halberts amongst them, and lodg'd them in a hollow which the water had made, lying below on the right hand of the Fort, and sent Captain Chaux at the time when it was low water, straight to some little houses which were upon the Banks of the River almost over against the Town to skirmish with them, with instructions that so soon as he should see them pass the River, he should begin to retire, and give them leave to make a charge. Which he accordingly did: but it fortun'd so, that he was wounded in one of his arms with a Hurquebuz shot, and the Soldiers took him and carried him back to the Fort, so that the skirmish remained without a head.Encountet be­twixt the Eng­lish and the French. The English were soon aware of it, and gave them a very brisk charge, driving them on fighting up to the very Canon. Seeing then our men so ill handled, I start up out of my Ambuscado sooner then I should have done, running on full drive directly up to them, commanding the Soldiers not to shoot, till they came within the distance of their arrows. They were two or three hundred men, [Page 86] having some Italian Harquebuzeers amongst them, which made me heartily repent that I had made my Ambuscado no stronger: but it was now past remedy, and so soon as they saw me coming towards them, they left the pursuit of the others, and came to charge upon me. We marcht straight up to them, and so soon as they were come up within arrow shot, our Harquebuzeers gave their volley all at once, and then clapt their hands to their swords, as I had commanded, and we ran on to come to blows; but so soon as we came within two or three pikes length, they turn'd their backs with as great facility as any Nation that ever I saw, and we pursued them as far as the River, close by the Town, and there were four or five of our Soldiers who followed them to the other side. I then made a halt at the ruins of the little houses, where I rally'd my people to­gether again, some of whom were left by the way behind, who were not able to run so fast as the rest. Monsieur de Tais had seen all, and was sally'd out of the Fort to re­lieve the Artillery,A pleasant dis­course of the Si [...]ur de Mont­luc concerning the English. to whom so soon as I came up to him, I said, Look you, did I not tell you how it would be? We must either conclude that the English of former times were more valiant then those of this present age, or that we are better men than our forefathers. I know not which of the two it is. In good earnest, said Monsieur de Tais, these people retreat in very great hast▪ I shall never again have so good an opinion of the English, as I have had heretofore. No Sir, said I, you must know that the English who antiently us'd to [...]eat the French, were half Gascons, for they married into Gascony, and so bred good Soldiers: but now that race is worn out, and they are no more the same men they were.

From that time forwards our people had no more the same opinion, nor the same fear of the English, that before. Therefore (Captains) as much as you can, keep your Sol­diers from apprehending an Enemy; for if they once conceive an extraordinary opinion of their valour, they ever go on to fight in fear of being defeated. You are neither to despise your Enemy, neither should your Soldiers think them to be more valiant than themselves. Ever after this charge I observ'd our men alwayes to go on more chearfully to [...]aque the English, and came still up closer to them; and let any one remember when the Mareschal de Biez The remarka­ble valour of the Mareschal de Biez. fought them betwixt the Fort of Andelot, and the Town, whe­ther our people needed to be intreated to fall on. The said Sieur de Biez there per­form'd the part of a very valiant Gentleman, for when his Cavalry were all run off the Field, he came alone to put himself in the head of our Battallion, and alighted, taking a Pike in his hand to go on to the fight, from whence he came off with very great honor. I my self was not there, and therefore shall say nothing of it; for two or three months after our return out of the County of Oye, I had askt leave of Monsieur do Tais to go to Court: but the Historians in the mean time are very unjust to conceal such brave acti­ons, and that was a very remarkable one in this old Cavalier. Being at Court I pre­vail'd so far with the Admiral, that he procur'd me a dismission from the King, for as much as I had reassum'd the office of Camp-Master upon no other terms, but only to command in the first Expedition that the Admiral should go upon; and having remain'd a month at Court, attending the King in the quality of one of his Gentlemen Waiters (who was now grown old, and melancholic, and did not caress men, as he had wont to do, only once he talkt with me about the Battail of Serisoles, being at Fountain-Bleau) I took my leave of his Majesty, and never saw him after. I then return'd into Gascony, from whence I never stirr'd till King Henry by the death of his Father was become King,Bullen deliver­ed up to the French the 25. day of April, 1991. having all that while been opprest with troubles and sickness. And that is the reason why I can give you no account of the surrender of Bullen, which the King of England by the ob­stinacy of Francis the first,The death of Francis the first. was constrain'd to quit for some consideration in mony. A little after he died, and our King stay'd but a very little behind him. We must all die; but this Surrender of Bullen hapened in the reign of King Henry, my good Master, who succeeded his Father.

Our new King having peace with the Emperor, and after the redelivery of Bullen, being also friends with the King of England, it seem'd that our arms were likely long to rust by the walls; and indeed, if these two Princes sit still, France may be at rest. After having continued some time at home, the King was pleas'd to call me away, and to give me the command of Camp-master, and the government of Montcallier The Sieur de Montluc Gover­nor of Montcal­lier. under the Prince of Malphé his Lieutenant-General in Piedmont, Monsieur de Bonnevet being our Colonel: he remembers me very well, and if those who have govern'd since had lov'd me as well as he, I had had as much riches and honour as any Gentleman that has come out of Gascony these many years. I there remain'd eighteen moneths, without doing any thing all the while worthy to be remembred; for I will write nothing, but that wherein I had some command. Having obtain'd leave to retire my self to my own house, I return'd into Gascony, where I heard a little while after, that by reason of the age and infirmness [Page 87] of the Prince of Malphé, the King was about to send thither Monsieur de Brissac Monsieur de Brissac Lieure­nant General in Piedmont. in the quality of his Lieutenant General there, which was the occasion that Captain Tilladet (who had also been dismist) and my self went together to Court, where at our coming, we found that the said Seigneur had taken his leave of the King in order to his Journey. We then presented our selves before his Majesty, who very graciously received us; and to the Constable, who was return'd to Court, and in greater favour than ever in the time of King Francis, which many did hardly believe he would have been: but the Ladies had now lost their credit, and others were entred in. Immediately upon our comming his said Majesty, who was all this time in a little Town betwixt Melun and Paris, called Ville-neufve Saint George, commanded us to go to Paris, and repair to Monsieur Brissac. The next day after our arrival, the said Sieur de Brissac departed, being very glad that we were come to him, and so we went as far as Suze, where we found the Prince of Mal­phé, The death of the Prince of Malphé. who had put himself upon his way, to come to end his life in France, as also with­in an hour after our arrival he died. Which, though I serv'd some time under his com­mand, is all I shall say of him, having very little opportunity to know more of him, than what I have taken upon trust; and it is a great misfortune to a Captain, so often to change his General; for before you can come to be throughly acquainted with him, you are old; and new friendships, and new acquaintance are troublesome. Monsieur de Brissac presently hereupon dispatcht away Monsieur de Forquevaux to the King with an account of all, whom his Majesty sent speedily back again with the Patent of Mareschal of France, Monsieur de Brissac made Mareschal of France. which he was pleased to conferr upon him.

We lay idle five or six moneths without any war; but it is hard for two so great Prin­ces, and so near neighbours, to continue long without coming to arms, and indeed soon after an occasion presented it self: the King having taken upon him the protection of Duke Octavia, whom the Pope, and the Emperor his Father in Law, would deprive of his Duke­dome. In order whereunto Don Ferrand de Gonzaga had laid siege to Parma, wherein was Monsieur de Termes, and to Miranda where Monsieur de Sansac commanded, who [...]ere acquir'd very great reputation, for having worthily acquitted and approved himself a sin­gular good Captain, as in truth he was; which he has also manifested in all places where­ever he has been.The war be­twixt France and Spain renewed. He was one of the best Horse-men that ever was in France: but be­ing I can give no account of these affairs, but by report only; nor of what passed at these two Sieges, I shall let them alone.

The King having intelligence that the Emperors forces were wholly taken up in Par­mesan, sent to the Mareschal de Brissac, This war be­gun in the year 1550. that he should break the Peace, and upon the rupture to attempt to surprize some Town or other upon the Frontier, which he did. For he took Quiers, and St. Damian: but the attempt upon Cairas did not succeed, as did the other two. Monsieur de Bassé went to execute that of St. Damian, which he surpriz'd betwixt break of day and Sun rise, and the Mareschal himself executed that of Quiers after the manner I am going to relate, and I think Monsieur le President de Birague, who was there present, will in this Book find that I have not much missed it in the rela­tion.

Monsieur d' Ausun was chosen to goe execute the design upon Cairas, who took with him the Baron de Cypi, and two or three other French Companies, together with Monsieur de Gental, and some Italians. The Scalado was given with great fury; but they were as well receiv'd.The Enterprize of Cairas. There died one of the Brothers of Monsieur de Charry, who was gone as far as Savillan, and being in their way as they marcht in the night, went along with them, and mounted a ladder the first man, from which he was beaten down. He was ill enough followed, as it was said. In the mean time Monsieur de Bassé took some Companies with him, with which by break of day he arrived within half a mile of St. Damian; they were once upon the point to return, seeing they should be discover'd before they could come to the place, but in the end marcht on to try their fortune. The custom of St. Damian was, that the Soldiers constantly opened the Gates every morning at break of day, to let all the people out to work, and afterwards placed some Centinels upon the wall; so that the Sieur de Bassé entered with his ladders into the Graff, and had rear'd them to the wall before he was discover'd. The Captains mounted first, and before they were espy'd by any, the one half of our people were got into the Town,St. Damian taken. where there was only one foot Company, which retired into the Castle, where there was not provision for one day, and in the morn­ing yielded up themselves. By which, Captains, you may see of how great importance it is to be careful never to leave a wall naked of Centinels, or at least to have them upon some Tower or Gate, especially about break of day, for that is the time of greatest dan­ger. People are weary of watching their walls, but your Enemy is not weary of watching his opportunity. All these three enterprizes of Cairas, St. Damian and Quiers should have [Page 88] been executed in one night; and indeed whoever will break a Peace, or a Truce, let him do all the execution he can, and make all the noise at one clap; for if he go piece by piece, he is certain to lose either a leg or a wing.

Three dayes before the Mareschal had been in consultation about the manner how to execute this enterpize upon Quiers, The Enterprise of Quiers. at which Council were assisting Messieurs de Bonivet, President Birague, Francisco Bernardin, de Bassé, and d' Aussun; and I cannot certainly say whether Sieur Ludovico de Biraga was present or no; but I am almost confident he was, forasmuch as the Mareschal resolved upon nothing without his advice, he being a man of a most approved judgment. It was there concluded that we should give a Scalado on the upper side by the Vinyards upon the way from Agnasse to Quiers. I had no fan­cy to this Scalado, neither did I think it likely to take effect, which made me entreat the Mareschal, that seeing he was himself resolv'd to go in person upon this design, and that it was the first place he had undertaken since his Lieutenancy, it might be ordered so, as to succeed, and redound to his honour: for if in his first tryal he should fail of success, men commonly judging of things by the event, would look upon it as an ill omen, and be apt to suspect his fortune, which is a very great prejudice to a man in supreme command. That therefore he should with great secrecy cause four or five pieces of Canon to march all night,The opinion of Monsieur de Montluc. that they might arrive at the same time that the Scalado should be given at the Port Iaune, and so by one way or the other he would not fail to carry the place; for since he was resolved to attempt it, he was to try all ways conducing to the end proposed. Now the Artillery was already mounted on carriages, and fit for present service, before the Castle of Turin; for so soon as the Mareschal understood that his Majesty had taken upon him the protection of the Duke of Parma, and that the war was already broke out in those parts, he made no question but the rempest would soon fall upon him, and there­fore had wisely made his preparations before hand, that he might not be to seek in time of need, being indeed one of the most prudent and circumspect Commanders that I ever knew.

This advice of mine suffered a great dispute; for it was objected that in one night the Artillery could not be drawn to Quiers, His opinlon disputed. and that all the three enterprizes would be dis­covered by the rattle of the Carriages, and the voice of the drivers of the Artillery: but in the end it was concluded that at Vespers the Gates of Turin should be shut, and that Oxen should be taken about Rivolle and Veillamie, and should be all brought in the Even­ing into the City, and great Guards kept at the Gates, to the end that no one living should stir our. It was moreover concluded, that I at the same hour should draw some Canon, and the great Culverine out of the Castle of Montcallier, and should take the Oxen be­longing to the Gentlemen and Citizens of Montcallier, which graz'd on the further side of the Bridge towards the Lodges. They made account that by one of the clock at night the Artillery would be at Montcallier, by the way beyond the Bridge, and Monsieur de Caillac and I were to stay together to convoy the Artillery with my Company, and the Mareschal, Messieurs de Bonnivet, and Francisco Bernardin would go the other way with all the rest of the Foor. The said Mareschal also left me Monsieur de Piquigni with his Company, and another, who were to go before us with the Pioneers, and ten Gabions that we took with us from the Castle of Montcallier, in which order we arriv'd both the one and the other at the time appointed before Quiers. The Ecalado fails. But the Camisado vanisht into smoak; for as much as all the ladders prov'd too short, and [...]he Graffe was much dee­per than had been reported to the Mareschal: which was the reason that we all turn'd to the Port Iaune, where we found that they had already filled the Gabions, and were ready to lodge the Canon for Battery. The Mareschal's good for­tune began here to dis­cover it self;The good for­tune of the Mareschal de Brissac. for had the ladders been of a sufficient length, and that we had gone on to the Afsault, all the Citizens as well as the Soldiers were resolute to defend their walls to the last man; so that in my opinion we should have been very well swing'd, and beaten off: for as much as they would neither suffer themselves to be surpriz'd by night, nor taken by force: and we could not carry our design so close, but that they had had notice of it the day before; so that it had been no hard matter for them to give us a repulse, which perhaps might have discourag'd them to do, as they afterward did. Don Ferrand at his departure from thence had there left an Italian Governor with three Companies, and had drawn out all the Spanish foot, to take them along with him to Parma.

Our Battery having for some space play'd against the Town,Quiers batter­ed. wrought its effect, and made a breach on the left hand of the Port Iaune: but there fell thereupon so violent a storm of rain as almost spoild all our work; yet notwithstanding by eleven of the clock the breach was eight or ten paces wide. Hereupon the Inhabitants of the Town, who de­sired nothing more than a fair opportunity of putting themselves into the Kings obedience, [Page 89] by reason of the ill usage they had received from the Spaniard, began to ask the Gover­nor if he thought himself sufficient with his Soldiers to withstand the Assault; to whom he made answer, that he was, provided the Towns-men also would take arms to assist him. Whereupon they plainly told him, that they would not do it, and moreover that they had not been so well entreated by the Spaniards, that they should take arms a­gainst the French. Division in Quiers. By which answer the Governor, who was an understanding man, per­ceiv'd himself to be lodg'd betwixt my Lord and my Lady, and doubted that those of the Town were more likely to assault him behind than otherwise, which made him say to them, Have a little patience friends, and I will make such a Capitulation with the Ma­reschal, as shall preserve you from any injury, and be honourable for our selves; and thereupon caused a Trumpet to sound a parly, sending out a man to desire the Mares­chal, that he would send him Signior Francisco Bernardin, and the Signieur de Monbasin, and in the mean time cause his Battery to cease. The Mareschal immediately then sent to us to give over shooting, which we accordingly did; and it was thereupon agreed, that the Governor should send out two or three in Hostage, and that then the two fore­named should enter in to Capitulate,The Capitulation of Quiers, and I think President Birague went in with them, by reason he would not the Town should be sackt, his Wife being a Daughter of Quiers, and the most part of the Gentry in the Town being by that means ally'd to him: but that I may not li [...], I am not certain whether he went a third or no. Neither would the Mareschal himself by any means, that any violence should be offer'd to them, being this would be an exemple to the other places that were in the Enemies possession, to draw them on, that when they should happen to be in the like condition, out of consideration of the Civility he should shew to those of Quiers, they might be the more enclin'd to take part with the French.

The greatest difficulty that hapned betwixt our Deputies and the Governor, and Inhabi­tants, was, that the said Governor, it being already almost night, said he could not possibly retreat to Ast, and consequently should be in danger of being defeared by the way; wherefore he desired that the Surrender might be deferred till the next day: The Mares­chal who stood upon thorns, fearing lest this night they might be reliev'd from Ast, de­manded then to have la Roquette deliver'd up to him, to put into it threescore men, and that they should choose out of our Captains any one whom they would, to enter in with them; in the mean time making our Companies still advance nearer to the Breach, which the Governor having notice of, he himself came upon the wall of the Roquette, where he call'd to me, entreating me to make the Soldiers retire, and telling me that they had con­cluded with the Mareschal. The conclusion of which agreement was, that they were to march away with Bag and Baggage, their Colours furl'd up, without beat of Drum the next morning; and for further assurance it was agreed, that la Roquette should be put into our hands.La Roquette surrendred. The Town then sent to the Mareschal to entreat, that I, with the three­score men might be put into it; for I had in Piedmont acquir'd the reputation of a man of good discipline, to prevent all sorts of disorder in the Soldier: and I order'd it so well here, that not any one of the Citizens lost the worth of a straw. The avarice of a little plunder does oftentimes turn the hearts of such as otherwise are enclin'd to favour ones party. This business was very well consider'd by the Mareschal; for that very night 400 Harquebuzeers set out from Ast to try if they could get into the Town; but they met intelligence by the way, that we were possest of la Roquette, which made them re­turn. There was one error committed in this business; for it was propounded in the Council, that without doubt the Enemy would come to us at the report of this Siege, and that therefore at the same time the Roquette should be deliver'd up to us, we should send out a good strong party to go the patrouille on the high way towards Ast, which had it been done as it ought to have been, we had certainly cut off this Relief.

The next morning Monsieur de Bonivet who was encampt upon the road of A [...]dezun, with fifteen or twenty Gentlemen in company with him came to Quiers, just at the time when the Italians were marching out of the Town, who being entred in, stayd at the Gate to sec them march away, when so soon as they were gone, Monsieur de Bonivet being under the second Gate to enter into the City, and the Mareschal having command­ed me not to suffer any person whatsoever to enter till he himself was first come in, I heard my Li [...]utenant very loud and angry at the Breach, where I had placed him to watch, that none should pass in that way; at which Monsieur de Bonivet said to me, there is some disorder, whereupon I presently ran to the place, and found that they were Thieves of the very Town of Quiers it self, who would have entred in to pillage the City: at which going hastily down the Breach to fall upon them, the ruines of the wall made my feet shp from under me, so that I sell upon my left side amongst the stones, with [Page 90] so great violence, that I put my hip out of joynt. I do think that all the tortures in the world are not comparable to this, by reason of a little nerve we have in that joynt, where the bones are all enchac'c into one another, which was extended, in so much that I have ne­ver walkt upright since;Monsieur Mont­luc hurt with a tall. but have ever had pain more or less, notwithstanding all the Baths and other remedies I could use to remove it. Monsieur de Bonivet caused me to be carried by the Soldiers into a Lodging, and I before had brought in the Quartermasters, who were ordering the Quarters. About an hour after I was hurt the Mareschal entred the City, and did me the honour to [...]light at my lodging to see me, expressing as much for­row for my mischance as if I had been his own Brother; and indeed he heartily lov'd, and had a very esteem for me. During our abode there he came three times to keep his Council at my Beds head, as President Birague, who is yet living can witness. He took great delight to hear men discourse in his presence, but in few words; and if any one said any thing, he would presently demand his reason. At the said Quiers, and at Montcallier I kept my bed two moneths and a half of this unlucky fall.

Don Ferrand leaving the war of Parma, came to Ast to draw his Forces together, thereof to form the Body of an Army, having left in Parmesan Signior Carles and the Mar­quis de Vins. The King having notice thereof, commanded the Admiral that he should in all hast send away six of his Companies to the Mareschal de Brissac, which were con­ducted by Captain Ynard, The arrival of the French No­bility in Pied­mont. who at that time was Sergeant Major onely. Monsieur d' Au­male, who was General of the horse, came also, as did Monsieur de Nemours a few days after; and presently after him Messieurs d' Anguien, and the Prince of Conde, Brothers, then Monsieur de Montmorency, who is now Mareschal of France, and eldest Son of the Constable Monsieur le Compte de Charmy, and his Brother Monsieur de la Rochefou­cault, having a great number of Gentlemen of very good quality in their Train, inso­much that three Companies of foot being quarter'd in Quiers, the Mareschal was con­strain'd to dislodge them to accommodate the Princes, and the Lords of their Train. Certainly there is not a braver Nobility in the world than the French,The Praise of the French No­bility. nor more ready to put foot in the stirrup for the service of their Prince; but then you must take them in the heat. Certain days after their arrival the Mareschal laid a design to go and take the Castle of Lans, which Garrison very much infested the Road betwixt Suze and Turin, by reason of a valley that extends it self from Lans to the high way, so that the Soldiers of the said Lans were almost continually there, having a little Castle in the mid way, that serv'd them for a retreat. The Marescal then sent for me to Montcallier, whi­ther six weeks after my fall I had caused my self to be conveyed in a litter: upon whose summons I made my self to be set upon a little Mule, and with extreme pain ar­rived at Quiers, every day striving by little and little to walk. Behold these were the successes of the taking of Quiers and St. Damian, and I will now give an account of the taking of Lans.

The Mareschal then,The Enterprise of Lans. and all the Camp (wherein were all the above-named Princes and Lords) march't directly to Lans, and because there are some of them yet living, who love me, and others that have an unkindness for me, I will come as near to truth as my memory will give me leave, to the end that those who hate me, may have no occasion to reprehend me, speaking the truth; and that the rest who love me, may take delight in reading what I have done, and call me to their remembrance, for the Historians I see mince the matter.

The Mareschal with all the Camp went before, leaving me with five Ensigns of foot, and the Masters of the Ordnace, Messieurs de Caillac and du Noguy, who were also at the taking of Quiers, to conduct the Artillery. The day after he departed from Quiers he arriv'd at Lans about noon, and we with the Artillery came up in the beginnging of the night. The Bourg of Lans is large, and enclosed with scurvey wall; the Mareschal took up his quarter in another Bourge, about a mile distant from the said Lans, and round a­bout him the Gens d' Arms, and all the Cavalry. All the Princes and Lords would be quarter'd in the Bourg of Lans, with some French and Italian Companies of foot, and particularly Monsieur de Bonivet, with his Colonel Company. At their arrival they went to the foot of the Mountain,Description of Lans. on the right hand as you come out of the Bourg. The Sergeant Major had already got to the top of the said Mountain behind the Castle round about which were very great precipices, and especially behind it, where the Mareschal was of necessity to go to take a view of the Place. There is nothing but precipice, saving in the front of the Castle, which looks towards the Town, and there were two great Bul­warks, and the Gate of the Castle between them. To plant the Artillery there, was only to lose so much time, and to place it on that side by which we came, we should be en­forc't to point the Mussel of the Canon upward, so that it could batter but one half of the [Page 91] wall, and besides we were to climb above a thousand paces, with the greatest difficulty imaginable; before we could come to the foot of the said wall. On the right hand it was the same, and behind the worst of all: for [...]alling thence, a man should tumble headlong a quarter of a mile down into the River. By reason of which great difficulty of bringing up Canon behind the said Castle, where there was a little even plot of some twenty or five and twenty paces broad, the Enemy had made no other fortification on that side, saving that they had cut a paltry Ditch of about half a pikes depth in the Rock, with two Ravelins on either side, that slanckt the Ditch; and it had not been a­bove three moneths before,The opinion of the Engi­neers. that two of the Emperors Engineers had been there, and had declar'd, that it was not possible for all mankind to bring up Artillery, either by this side, or any of the others, if they did not plant it on the Town side, before the Gate of the Castle, which also would be so much labour lost.

The Mareschal at his fi [...]st arrival with all the Prince and Lords, and the Engineers he had with him, went to take a view of the backside of the Castle, up an ascent of above 300 paces, and as uneasie ones as ever they went in their lives, where after they had discover'd, and remain'd above two hours upon the place, they all concluded it impossible to be ta­ken. At night I came with the Artillery, when it was presently told me, that the next day we were to return back again; at which I was very much dasht; but was so intolerably tormented with my hip, that I presently threw my self upon a Matrice, and saw not the Mareschal that night; for he was gone back to his Quarters, very much displeased with some who before had represented the Enterprise so easie to him, and would undertake to bring it about, and yet when it came to the push concluded it impossible. In the morning he came again, and again went to view the place; but the more they lookt, the worse they like't, and still discovered greater difficulties than before. Just as I had din'd Messieurs de Piquigny, de Touchepeid, and de Vinu, came to seek me out, and told me, that the re­solution was concluded to return, and that I would not be unwilling to it, if I had seen the place, putting so many whimsies into my head, that they got me upon my little Mule, and carried me behind the ridge of the Mountain,The Sieur de Montluc goe [...] to take a view of Laus. where Harquebuz shots were very good cheap, unless a man took on the right hand towards the River, and there it was hard to pass, and more hard to discover any thing; and both the Mareschal and all the Princes had gone up, and come down at the mercy of the E [...]emies shot. Whom God defends is well defended. I have seen the time when a thousand Harquebuz shot have been dis­charg'd within an hundred paces of me, and done me no harm: but we all four made such shift, that at last we got up to the top, and they led me the same way by which the Mareschal and all his Company had ascended and descended before.

I will here set down for an exemple to those that shall follow after us, how I found the thing feasible, and which way Canon was to be got up to this level; not however without very great difficulty: but how hard soever it appear'd to be, we concluded to bring up the Artillery to the top of the Mountain, and there to plant it in Battery. In the first place to look up from the foot of the Mountain to the height of it, was a per­pendicular the Angels themselves would have enough to do to climb; but I began to take notice, that making one advance of about an hundred paces, to a little place which might be some ten paces in circumference, that there we might have conveniency to rest the Piece, for the little place was almost even. I then conceived that we might make another Stage, crossing over on the left hand towards the Castle, to another little even spot, that was sufficient to repose the Canon, and afterwards that we were to make a­nother Stage, crossing again to the right hand to another level spot; and from thence indeed we had the ascent something steep to the backside of the Castle; but we should before have got past all the Rocks and Precipices.

By all these three resting-places we descended the Mountain in great danger of our necks, where I shewed them that each of them, was to undertake to advance the Ca­non from one reposing place to another, all which they took especial notice of, and af­terwards remounted me upon my Mule; for before they had led me all the way under the Arms like a Bride, and so we went directly to the Mareschal's Quarters, where I found them all set in Council, to take order for our return. So soon as I came into the room, the Mareschal said to me, How now Monsieur de Montlu [...], where have you been? I have sent for you twice to come to the Council, that you might hear the determination we have made to return. You must carry back the Artillery by the same way you came. To which I made answer, what Sir, will you return without taking this place, that is a reso­lution unworthy Monsieur de Brissac? I have been to view the place, and by the same way that you have view'd it your self, and do assure you that we will bring up the Artillery to the top of the Mountain. He then told me, that it must be God alone that must work [Page 92] such a miracle, for that it was not in the power of man to do it; to which I made an­swer, that I was not God, and yet that I would undertake to bring them up. He then said to me, yes in eight or ten days time perhaps with the help of Engines, and in the mean time Don Ferrand, who is at Verseil, shall gather together all the Forces he can make, both in the field, and out of the Garrisons, and come to give us Battail, who has 3000 Germains, and I have neither Germans nor Swiss to match him. Sir, then (said I) I will pawn to you my life and my honour, in two mornings to plant you four Pieces of Canon ready mounted on the back side of the Castle; notwithstanding which he was still harping up­on the 3000 Germains; at which growing at last a little angry, I said, Do you make so great account of Don Ferrand's Germans? The Admiral has here six Companies commanded by Captain Ynard, Monsieur de Bonnivet shall give him four more of his, with which En­signs he shall undertake to fight the Germans, and Monsieur de Bonnivet with the remainder of his shall fight the Spaniard [...]. Our Italians will engage to fight theirs, and for Cavalry you have (reckoning the Train of the Princes) a third part more than Don Ferrand. If C [...]ptain Ynard h [...]d rather sight with the Spaniards than the Germans, Monsieur de Bon­nivet and I will fight them, [...]nd let him take his choice. To which Captain Ynard made answer, that he was ready to fight either the one or the other, as the Mareschal should please to appoint; Monsieur de Bonnivet also said, it was all one to him, whereupon I said, and must we then make such a piece of matter of the Germans? I dare lay a good wager of those[?] three thousand, fifteen hundred have nere a tatter to their arses, whereas our Soldiers have most of them breeches of Velvet and Satin, and think themselves all Gentle­men. Seeing then themselves so well clad as they are, shall they be afraid to fight with the Germans? let them but come to us once, and we shall handle them as we did at Cerisolles. Monsieur de Montmorancy then stood up,The Sieur de Montlucs con­test in the Council. and said, Sir Monsieur de Montluc is an old Captain, methinks you ought to give credit to what he says; to which the Mareschal made answer, You do not know him so well as I, for he will never think any thing impossible, and one time or another will make us lose all; whereupon I made answer again, that where I saw a difficulty I fear'd my skin as much as another; but that in this I could discover no inconvenience at all. Monsieur de Nemours then spoke, and said, Sir, let him have his own way for once, A dispu [...]e in the Council concerning his advice. and see what he will do; Messieurs the Prince of Condé, and Monsieur d' Anguien laid as much, and Monsieur d' Aumalle the same. Monsieur de Gurnort who is now Mareschal of France, and Monsieur de la Rochefoucaut, the Count de Charney, the Sieurs de la Fayette, and de Terride, were all of the same opinion: which the Mareschal seeing, said, Well Gentlemen, I perceive you have all a desire that we should play the fools; let us do so then, for I intend to let you see, that I am as great a one as any of you all. And thus I got the victory against the whole Council.

Things being thus concluded I said to Monsieur de Nemours, Sir, it will be necessary that you Princes and Lords put your helping hands to this business, and lead the Soldiers the way, to the end that if you would shrink away, and avoid the great toyl and labour they are to undergo for the execution of the thing in question, we may reproach them, that the Princes and Lords put to their hands before them. In the mean time I told him, that it would do well if he so pleas'd, that he with his own Company should take a Canon he himself had brought thither with him, and conduct it to the foot of the Mountain, who answer'd me, that he would very willingly do it. Now the Artillery was of necessity to be drawn thorough the Town, and they were moreover constrain'd to break three or four Corners of houses, to draw them out, and also to level a little descent at the going out of the Town, from whence they fell into a plain way to the very foot of the Mountain upon which the Castle stood, about a thousand paces distant from the City. I said as much to Monsieur d' Anguien, and the Prince of Condé, who very readily consented to take up­on them the charge of other two, to whom also Monsieur de Montmorancy very frankly offer'd himself. As to the fourth piece of Canon, I cannot remember who it was, that undertook the care of that,The order a­bout the Bat­tery. for it was not Monsieur d' Aumale, being he was to go back to his Quarters to the horse with the Mareschal: but however it was they rested not of all night, all by Torch-light they had brought the Artillery to the foot of the Mountain. But before they went out of the Council, I said to Monsieur d' Aumale; Sir, will you go along, The Princes assist. and I will shew you which way we will get up the Artillery behind the Castle, and Sir (speaking to the Mareschal) I know you will not yet retire to your Quarters. Monsieur d' Au­male then went willingly along with me, having only Monsieur de la Rochefaucault, the Sig­neur Piquigny, The Sieur de Montluc goes again to view the Castle of Lans. and my self in company with him; who, though I was damnably plagu'd with my hip, nevertheless forc't my self that they might see with their own eyes which way it was to be done. So soon then as we had ascended the Mountain, and taken a view of the place, we returned back to the Mareschal, who stayd expecting the said Mon­sieur [Page 93] d' Aumale, who at his coming told him that my reason was very good, and that no body had taken notice of what I had perceiv'd; nor observ'd those resting places in the Rock. All the Princes and Lords were yet in the Hall where the Mareschal had din'd: where Monsieur de Bassé at that time was, I do not certainly remember, for the Mares­chal sent for him to come with his Company, and two French Companies more, with command to Captain Tilladet, and Savallan, to advance night and day, and come to joyn with him, which they accordingly did.

The next morning I went to see which way we were to get up this Mountain, with­our being gall'd by the shot from the Castle; and here I first discover'd five little loop­holes made for Harquebuzes only, to which we lay open and expos'd all the way we were to go: To countercheck these I intreated Captain Ynard to bring me three hundred Har­quebuzeers of the b [...]st marksmen he had in all his Companies; which, so soon as they came we divided to be set ten to each loop-lole, who shot as they do at a mark one after another, and all open; and when the last of the ten had made his shot, the first always began a­gain. There was in the Town a house higher than the rest, from the roof of which one might play into the Castle, and all along the Curtain: but the Enemy, to shelter them­selves from this inconvenience, had nail'd several plancks one above another, in such sort that those who were upon the top of the house could see nothing within the wall. Now these plancks were very thin, and before the beginning of the War I had put it into the Mareschal's head to cause four hundred Harquebuzes to be forg'd at Pignerol, of a bore to carry point blank three or four hundred paces, of which he might distribute twenty to each Company, with order to the Treasurers to allow twelveA Frank▪ [...] Livre, and [...] Cardecue are twenty pence English. Francks pay to such as should carry those arms. These Harquebuzes were already made, and distributed, where­fore I intreated Captain Richelieu (the same who was since Campmaster) to place twenty of those Haquebuzeers upon the said house, to shoot through the Planks along the Cur­tine, whose shot broke thorough with as much [...]ase as if they had been paper; insomuch, that what with the Harquebuzeers, that from the top of the house playd along the Cour­tain, and what with the other who fir'd by tens against the loop-holes, the Enemy were in such a condition, that not a man durst venture to pass to and fro on the inside of the Curtain.

We then deliver'd to every one of the three who had view'd the way up the Rock, twenty Pioneers and three Masons, with great hammers and picks of iron, wherewith to break some Rocks that were in the way. And thus about eight a clock in the morning we began to work upon the way, which by two in the afternoon was brought to perfe­ction, The Artillery mounted, and at one of the clock in the night they began to mount the first Piece, with four­score Soldiers of my company I had there with me (the rest being left behind at Mont­callier) which they also mounted. This Piece gave them more trouble than all the o­ther three; for they were after so well acquainted with the way, that the rest came up with much greater [...]ase. M [...]nsieur de Piquigny all the way carried a little Lanthorn to light the wheels of the Carriages, by the aim of which the Enemy began to shoot, but no shot ever toucht us. Messieurs de Caillac and de Duno were in the mean time busie behind the Castle above, placing the Gabions, and filling them with earth; and as the Pieces were hall'd up to the top of the Mountain, they still came to receive, and plant them in battery: but not a man ever put a hand to the drawing up of the foresaid Canon but my Soldiers only; for although Monsieur de Bonnivet had brought one Company, and Captain Ynard another to assist them; yet would they not accept of their service, but told them that they needed no help, and that since they had had the honour to hale up the first Piece, they would likewise have the advantage to bring up all the rest: Which I was very glad of, because they were already very perfect in all the turns, and by three of the clock in the morning all the pieces were planted ready to batter.and plan [...]ed in Battery. The Mareschal and Monsieur d' Aumale were by this time come from their Quarters, where I believe they had not slept much that night. The Mareschal out of the fear he had that it was not possible to hale the pieces up, and Monsieur d' Aumale on the other side was in no less pain, forasmuch as after he had viewed the place, he had assur'd him that I would infallibly mount them. The Princes and Lords, who had been at work the night before, took their rest, till the Mareschal sent to rowse them, which was not until Captain Martin (a Basque, who had a Company in his own Regiment) came and assur'd him that he had seen the last piece brought up to the top of the Mountain: Which Captain Martin I do verily believe made that night fifty journeys to and fro, for the Mareschal had sent him almost every moment to see in what forwardness we were.

The Mar [...]chal and all the Princes and Lords being come, they found that all the four Canon were ready mounted to begin the batter. I had caused half a Sack of a very ex­cell [...]n [...] [Page 94] sort of apples, four great leather Bottles of wine, and some bread to be brought to the place wherewith to refresh my Soldiers: But first the Mareschal, and after him all the Princes and Lords rob'd me of all my apples, and whilst they staid expecting the break of day, out of an ugly pot drunk two bottles of my wine. I leave those who shall read this History to judge, whether or no I did not swagger the Mareschal, seeing he had so highly oppos'd me, about the bringing up of the Artillery. I think in my whole life I was never in so good a humour, as well in respect to the con [...]entment I discover'd in the Ma [...]eschal, as also in all the other Princes and Lords, who were present, and had all had their share of the [...]. In the morning by break of day we made three or four vol­leys against the Wall, which pi [...]rc'd it, and thorough the Stables entred into the Bas [...]-Court, and from thence into the Lodgings of the Castle. The Mareschal had also caused three pieces of Canon to be planted below, on that side by which we came, which batter'd upwards, only to terrifie the Enemy, for hur [...] they could do none: But so soon as our Artillery,Lans surren­dered. had given their three or four volleys, they began to sound a parley, and pre­sently surrendred. The Mareschal left Captain Brueil, brother-in-law to Monsieur Sal­c [...]de, with his Company in Garrison there, [...]e being one of the Captains belonging to the Admiral; which being done, he march' [...] with all his Horse and Foot towards the plain of Ca [...]uge, to see if Don Ferrand might not be upon his way to relieve the Castle: but he had there intelligence, that he was yet at Verseil; whereupon the said Mareschal return'd to Quiers, and I return'd to Montcallier, where I fifteen dayes kept my bed of my hip, and do verily believe, that had I not so bestirr'd my limbs in this action it had ne­ver been cur'd.

This (fellow Captains) ought to teach you never to trust one or two to discover a place, and without relying on your own judgment, to call those to your assistance, whom you conceive to be men, not of the greatest experience only, but moreover of the greatest cou­rage; for what one cannot see, another may perhaps discern. Neither must you refu [...]e to take pains, where you discover a little difficulty in the thing, in order to the execution of a brave exploit, and learn to be wise at your enemies expence. When you have taken up a resolution to defend a place, take notice to smooth and cut off all the resting places that shall happen to be in any of the avenues, for wherever Canon shall find such places to re­pose in, as will allow the men time to pant, and take breath, they will in the end infalli­bly mount [...] them. Neitherwithout this convenience could I possibly have brought what I had undertaken to pass. The taking of this place depriv'd the Enemy of a mighty advan­tage, and vvas very convenient for us in order to the prosecution of this War.

Some time after the Princes (seeing no likelihood of Don Ferrand de Gonzaga's being drawn to a Battail, nor hearing of any preparation he made for the assaulting of any Town) return'd back to Court. And soon after their departure, the Mareschal by the advice of President Birague, The Character or Monsieur de Brissac Mares­chal of France. Signior Ludovico, and Francisco Bernardin deliberated to go take certain places about Tvr [...]é, to keep those in Yvrcé the better in aw. He was a General every way worthy his Command, always in action, never idle; and I do think that sleep­ing his fancy was evermore at work, and that he was ever dreaming of undertaking, and executing some notable enterprize.

To the forementioned end we march'd with all the Army directly to St. Martin, wherein was a Company of Italians, and where the Castle was batter'd, and taken, toge­ther with the Castle of Pons, Casteltelle, Balpergue, and some others about Yvreé, and we began to forti [...]ie the said Castle of St. Martin. Now Messieurs de Bassé and de Gordes had taken Sebe, wherefore so soon as the Fort of St. Martin was brought into a pretty good condition, the Mareschal went to Quiers, that he might be nearer to Monsieur de Bassé, to as­sist him in time of need; for he had already received intelligence, that Don A [...]bro de Cendé gathered together the Army in Alexandria (and I think Don Ferrand was at that time sick) which made the Mareschal doubt that he might have some de [...]gu upon Sebe, and therefore left Monsieur de Bonnivet, Signior Francisco, and me, making Signior Ludovico to retire to Chevas, and Bourlengue, to have an eye to those places, of which also he was Governour.

Eight dayes were not past before the Mareschal sent orders to Monsieur de B [...]nivet, and to me, that we should march in all diligence day and night directly to Montdevi, with five or six French Companies we had at St. Martin, leaving Signior Francisco to pursue the Fortification, which accordingly he did, marching night and day, as it was necessary we should, for the Mareschal was engag'd in Sebe, for the relief of Monsieur de Bassé: but when Don Arbro heard of our coming, that we had drawn another Company out of Savillan by the way, and that he saw us arriv'd at the corner of the Town, he present­ly drew off, and having recover'd a Bridg of brick, began to pass over his Baggage; [Page 95] whether Signior Ludovico de Biraga was with us, or no, I am not able to say, because vve had some Italian in our Company.

The Mareschal seeing himself disengag'd, [...]allyed out of the Town with all the Forces he had brought with him, and went to attaque the Enemy at the Bridge, vvhere it ap­peared Don Arbro had an intention to have encamped, for we there found many Huts, ready set up.Don Arbro de Cende a brav [...] Spanish Cap­tain, The skirmish was great, and smart on both sides; nevertheless I am of o­pinion that had we charg'd him home horse and foot and all, we had put him very hard­ly to't, and perhaps given him a shrewd blow; for after he had past the Bridge, he was to climb a steep mountain, where the way was so narrow, that they could only go one by one. But he made us know that he was a very able Soldier; for he first past over all his horse, fearing that ours would charge and overturn them upon his foot, then he past over his Germans, and himself remain'd behind with a thousand or twelve hundred Harquebuzeers, with which he still made good the Bridge, by the favour of three hou­ses that stood at the end of it, vvhich vve could never gain from him, he having opened them so, that they flanck't and defended one another.

On the top of the Mountain there was a Plain that extended it self to a little Town they held, being about the length of 1000 paces, or thereabouts, vvhere he first caus'd his people to make a halt, and afterwards retyr'd. But at his departing from the houses, we had thought to have fallen in amongst them, which we also attempted, and there were in that place some men slain, both on the one side, and the other, and we continually followed in their Rear up the forementioned narrow path, still plying them with our Har­quebuz shot; for we saw not the preparation he had made for us on the top of the moun­tain. Messieurs de Bonivet, and de la Moth Gondrin, and I were all on horse-back, and amongst the Harquebuzeers to encourage them, when so soon as vve [...]came to the top, he gave us a charge vvith a 1000 or 1200 Harquebuzeers, vvhich sent us back vvith a rattle di­rectly to the Bridge, and full drive upon the Mareschal; Monsieur de la Moth's horse was kill'd under him, and mine so hurt that he died five or six days after; and God was as­sisting to us, in having put it into our minds, to draw our men into two divisions, on the right and left hand of the way, though the ascent was very difficult and steep, for by that means we lost but very few of our men, whereas had we been all clutter'd together in the narrow path, vve had received a very great defeat, and had our selves remained upon the place. Take notice of this (young Captains) vvhen you shall happen to be in the like Ground, upon the like occasion; for the old and circumspect have been often snapt in such places as these, and know well enough how to avoid them. The Mareschal then withdrew with all his Army about Sebe, and the next day carried away the Canon, that Messieurs de Bass [...] and de Gordes had brought along with them vvhen they took it, [...]aving there three Companies, two French and one Italian, and so retired by Montdevi towards Turin and Quiers. How Sebe was after lost I do not remember, but lost it was, for we return'd a year after to recover it, vvhen it was much better defended, and longer disputed than before, as hereafter you shall hear.

Sometime after Don Ferrand set an Army on foot, by much exceeding all the forces the Mareschal could make, he having neither Swiss nor German Foot: wherefore (being ad­vertized by the Signeurs Ludovico de Birague, and Francisco Bernardin, that this Army was design'd for the retaking of St. Martin, and the other Castles we had taken before; and also to take Cassal, some seven leagues distant from Turin, and to fortifie it, to the end that Turin might receive no relief from the mountains and valleys of Lans, and espe­cially from Cassal, from whence we had most of the fruit and wood that vvas brought to Turin) So soon as Don Ferrand's Army was ready to march directly to St. Martin, Monsieur Bris­sac calls a Council at the approach of the Spanish Army. the Mareschal call'd a Council of his Officers to deliberate vvhat he should do concerning Cas­sal, seeing it was neither fortified nor tenable: who amongst them concluded to quit [...]t, and to dismantle it, though the dismantling could signifie nothing; forasmuch as Don Ferrand would soon have repair'd it again. I was the same night advertized at Mont­calli [...]r of this determination, which was the reason that I went early the next morning to the Mareschal to Turin, where I made bold to ask him if it were true, that he had taken a resolution to abandon Cassal, vvho told me, that yes, because he could find no one, who would hazard his life and reputation in putting himself into it, and that therefore they had concluded in the Council, to put only one Company of Italian Foot into it, which was to surrender the Town so soon as they should see Don Ferrand approach with an in­tention to attaque it. I then told him that that would signifie very little, for the Cap­tain himself would however tell the Soldiers as much, to make them willing to stay; but that he must Garrison it in good earnest, and not after this manner. And who (said he) would you have so senseless as to undertake the defence of it? to which I made answer that [Page 96] I would be the man. He then told me that he had rather lose the best part of his estate, than to suffer me to engage my self in it, considering that the place could not in a years time be fortified to resist Canon. To which I made answer, Sir, the King does entertain, and pay us for three things only: one to win him a Battail, to the end that he may overrun a great space of ground, and subdue several strong holds to his obedience; another to defend a Town; for no Town can be lost, but a great deal of ground goes along with it; and the third to take a Town;The Sieur de Montluc under­takes the de­fence of Cassal.for the taking of a Town brings a great number of people into subjection; all the rest are only skirmishes, and rencounters, that signifie nothing to any body but our selves, to make us known unto, and esteemed of our Superiors, and to acquire honor to our own particular persons; for the King has by this no advantage at all, nor by any other effect of war, saving by the three ferementioned services; wherefore before this place shall be so quitted I will lose my life in its defence. The Mareschal hereupon disputed it very strongly with me, to divert me from this intention; but seeing me resolv'd, at last gave me leave to do as I would. He was a man that would be govern'd by reason, without relying too much upon his own judgment, as did Monsieur de Lautrec, who was ever observed to be guilty of that fault, as I think I have said elsevvhere.

Cassal is a little City encl [...]sed with a rough wall of Flints without any one Axler stone amon [...]st them;Description of Cassal. a Graffe that environs it, into which the water comes and goes, so that the Gra [...]le can neither be made deeper, nor the water retain'd in any place, to be much above knee deep. There was no manner of Trench either within or without, neither were the four Flankers fill'd at all, so that the Enemy having once batter'd me a Courtain by the Canton, they might afterwards batter me in the flank. I demanded of the Mares­chal 500 Pioneers of the Mountain, which he sent presently to raise, so that within four dayes they were all at Cassal: I demanded likewise a great number of Instruments, and iron Tools, wherewith to furnish my Soldiers also for the work, which he also sud­denly sent me, together with great store of grain, bacon, lead, powder, and match; I de­manded moreover the Baron de Chipy la Gard (Nephew to the Baron de la Gard) le Mas, Martin, and my own Company. All these five Companies were exceeding good, and their Captains also; who having understood that I had made choice of them of my own accord, took it for a great reputation, and a high honour to them. I demanded of him also le Gritti a Venetian, who had a Company of Italian foot: all which were granted to me,

In the morning then I went to put my self into it, and at night all the Companies arrived. Monsieur de Gye, eldest Son of Monsieur de Maugiron was there in Garrison with the men at arms belonging to his Father, to whom the Mareschal sent order to march away, and to carry his Company to Montcallier: but he writ an answer back, that he had not continued so long in Garrison at Cassal, to abandon it at a time when a Siege was going to be laid before it, especially when so old a Captain as I had undertaken the defence thereof, and that therefore he was resolv'd there to live and die with me. The Mareschal would not take this answer for currant pay; for the next day betimes in the morning he came himself to Cassal, having Monsieur d' Aussun, Monsieur de la Mothe-Gondrin, Monsieur de Brissac visits Cassal. and the Vicount de Gourdon in company with him. I had there already as­sign'd all the Quarters for the Foot, without dislodging the Gens d' Arms, forasmuch as I saw Monsieur de Gye, and all his Company obstinately resolute to stay. And although the Mareschal himself was come in person, yet could he never prevail with Monsieur de Gye to depart the Town, who plainly told him, that he, if he so pleased, might com­mand his Company away from him, but for what concern'd himself, he was resolv'd not to stir a foot; which was the reason that the Mareschal returned very much dissa­tisfied with himself, that he had granted me leave to take upon me the defence of that place, which was conceived to be so desperate an undertaking, that Monsieur de la Mothe-Gondrin, and the Vicount de Gordon wept at parting with me, and all of them gave me over, as also did President Birague himself, who is yet living, for lost either in my life o [...] my honour, and so after dinner they departed. At their going away I entreated the Mareschal and all my Companions, that they should no more come to see me, for I would not be hindred so much as a quarter of an hour from intending my fortificati­on. I moreover desired the Mareschal to send me Colo [...]el Charomond, who was at Riboulle, to assist me in the said fortification, with two Engineers which the said Ma­reschal had, one of which was slain at the taking of Ulpian, and the other is the Cheva­lier Reloge, who is now in France.

We began then to fill the four Cantons,The d [...]ligence of the Sieur de Montluc in the fortifying of [...]assal. each Captain of four having taken one, and afterwards divided the other two Companies to the four Curtains, and also the 500 Pioneers, for all the Inhabitants of the Town above ten years of age carried earth for the [Page 97] four Captains. But (that I may deprive no one of his due honour) I shall tell you that Monsieur de Gye had an Ensigne of Dauphiné called Montfort, and the G [...]idon Monsieur de l' Estanc, who being arrived at Montcallier in the Evening, bega [...] to consider and la­ment their Captain's condition, insomuch that all the Company mutiny'd, resolving to go and dye with him, and never to stir from his side. Whereupon l' Estanc entreated the said Captain Montfort to stay, for it might fall out that the Mareschal would let them all go, when he should see that one part were already gone; and to the end the Mareschal might not be overmuch offended, that he should keep with him all those who were wil­ling to stay; which being agreed betwixt them, the said Estanc fearing lest the Mareschal should have any inkling of his design, stole away at midnight, and was followed by the whole Company; for not a man save only two Gens d' Armes and three Archers would stay behind with the said Montfort. They left their great horses and arms, excepting their Cuirasses and pots, mounted themselves each upon a little Curtal only, and leaving their Launces at their Quarters, took every one a Pike and a Footman, and so at sun-rise came to Cassal, six miles distant from Montcallier. Monsieur de Gye and the Baron de Chipy had undertaken to Terrass up the Gate, from whence they saw these people coming, and stood still a good while to discover what they were, and then both ran out together to meet them.Commendati­on of Monsieur de Gye. I saw by this that Monsieur de Gye was well belov'd by his Company, and he did very well deserve so to be; for I dare boldly say he was one of the worthiest and the bravest Captains in France. Monsieur de Mon [...]fort went in the morning to the Mareschal, and told him that he had lost the Guidon and all the Company, who were stollen away by night to their Captain, and therefore begg'd his leave that he might follow after with two men at arms, and three Archers only that were left behind, which he would by no means permit him to do, but expresly forbad him, and made him return back to Mont­callier.

Now our order in the Town was thus, that every morning generally all, as well Cap­tains, Soldiers,The excellent order in the City of Cassal, and Pioneers, as men and women of the Town, came every one before day upon pain of death to their work, which to compel them to I erected a Gallows, that they might see what they were to trust to; and indeed I had, and have ever had so, a little scurvey Character of being liberal of the rope, so that there was not a man great nor small who did not fear my Gascon humour and complexion. It being then winter, and in the shortest of days, they were to work from break of day till eleven of the clock, and then every one went to his dinner, and at twelve return'd again to his work, which he after­wards never left till it grew to be dark. As for their dinner, every one din'd of himself: but the supper was alwayes at my Quarters; or at those of Monsieur de Gye, or at one or another of the Captains, every one in his turn. To which place constantly there repair'd all the Engineers and Commanders of the work, where if any one had not advanc't his work so much as another, I assign'd him either Soldiers or Pioneers, that by the next night his work might be as forward as his neighbours. Now my business was to run up and down every where on horseback, one while to the Fortifications, then to those who were sawing the plancks at the Mill, of which I made a great many half a foot thick, and other posts and beams of timber, that were very necessary for us. The water of this Mill did us great good service, for by means of that the Saw never rested; and the most part of the night I went by torch-light quite through the Town; one while I went out to the place where they digg'd the Turf, another while where they made the Gabions, then re­turned into the Town, and went the round within: afterwards I went out again to view all the places, and never rested in a place, excepting at dinner, no more than the meanest Soldier in the Town, encouraging in the mean time all people to work, and caressing all both small and great.

I there learned what it is to take a business in hand where all people generally concur to the bringing a thing to pass, as also what a mass of people, ambitious to acquire honour in the place they have undertaken to defend, may do; and moreover that there is great praise to be obtain'd in so well ordering of things, and disposing of time, that not so much as a quarter of an hour shall be spent in vain; and indeed a Commander shall never do a­ny thing worthy speaking of, if they be not all of one mind, and have not equally a desire to come off from the E [...]terprize in hand, with great honour and reputation, as it was in this place. This (Captains) is a thing that principally depends upon you, if you have once got the knack to vvin the Soldier by a word, you shall do more than with a thousand Bastinadoes; it is true, that if there be some mutinous stubborn spirit amo [...]gst them, vvhich gentle ways cannot reclaim, you are to make others wise at his expence. But I will return to Monsi [...]ur de Gye, who never stirr'd from the Gate with his Gens d' Armes, till it was fully and sufficiently terrassed both within and without, who there all of [Page 98] them wrought as hard as the meanest common Soldier in the Town.

Oh (Captains) vvhat a beautiful exemple you have here, if you please to observe it, when an occasion shall present it self, to undertake the defence of a place! I will moreover say that I had taken such order, that there was not a morsel of bread eaten, nor a glass of wine drunk, but by weight and measure; and if you will take exemple by Cassal, you shall not only be able to undertake the keeping of a Town, let it be as ill fortified as it will; but even a Meadow enclos'd vvith no more than a contemptible ditch only, provided there be unanimity amongst you, as there was here: for we had all one vvill, one desire, and one courage, and the labour vvas a common delight to us all.

Now my good fortune was such, that Don Ferrand gave to Caesar de Naples the one half of his Army, almost all his Infantry, vvith a part of his horse, to lead them to Riverol seven little miles from Cassal, Vlpian being between; and the said Caesar de Naples staid two and twenty days about the taking of St. Martin, and the other Castles. During this time I had by my great diligence put the Town into a good posture of defence, and had caused great Trenches and Rampiers to be made behind all our Cantons, vvell ter­ra [...]ed all the Gates, and gabion'd all the upper Gabions with a do [...]ble row of Baskets, vvell resolv'd to cause our selves to be soundly battered, and get a brave share of honour. At last Caesar having taken St. Martin, and the other Castles, arriv'd at Riverol vvith his C [...]mp, vvhere immediatly Don Ferrand called a Council to determine, vvhether he ought to attaque us, or to let us alone, considering the time I had had vvherein to fortifie my self, and that I had finisht all the fortification I intended to make for my defence; vvhere also he forgot not to put them in mind, that vve vvere six Companies vvithin, all resolute to fight it out to the last; and that he doubted he should lose more valiant Cap­tains, Spaniards, and Italians in the assault than the Town vvas vvorth, giving them an account vvithal of all that I had done vvithin.A consultation of the Spani­a [...]ds conce [...] [...]g Cassal. The Spanish and Italian Captains, vvho vvere present at this Council, seeing the danger vvould fall upon them, caused it by their Camp master to be remonstrated, that the Emperor had there the best Officers he had in all Italy, and of vvhom he made greater account than of all the rest, and that therefore they entreated Don Ferrand to reserve them for a Battail, or some Enterprize of conside­rable moment, and not to expose them for the gaining of so trivial a place as that of Cassal. There followed therupon a great dispute, and three days the Council were in debate about this very business. Caesar de Naples, and the Governor of Vlpian obstinately maintain'd, that they ought to assault us; but the Spanish Soldiers who understood what Caesar de Naples had said, plainly told their Captains, that they might then go on to the assault with the Italians, if they so pleased, for as for them they would have nothing to do in the business, being resolv'd to stand to what by their Camp-master had been pro­posed. All these disputes came to the Mareschal's knowledge▪ after Don Ferrand was risen from before Riverol, by Letters that he writ to the President of Millan, which by some of Signior Ludovico de Biragu's people were intercepted, and whilst they were disputing a­bout a Town that was none of their own,Alb [...] surprised [...] the Spa­ [...]iard. the Mareschal surpriz'd Alba from them by Messieurs de la Mothe-Gondrin, Francisco Bernardin, and de Panau, the Lieutenant to his own Company, and some others whom I do not remember. The Mareschal by break of day had notice of the surprize (for our people entred at eleven of the clock in the night) who presently dispatcht a footman of his to me with a Letter which contain'd these words. Monsieur de Montluc, I have just now receiv'd intelligence that our design upon Alba has taken effect, and our people are within is which it, the reason that I am just now mounting to horse to go thither in all diligence. The Footman came to me about ten of the clock, and being the Govern [...]r of Ulpian de [...]ein'd a Trumpet of Monsieur de Maugiron, A Bravado of [...] Si [...]ur de Montluc. I sent thi­ther a Drum of Captain Gritti, to whom having shewed the Mareschals Letter, I gave him charge to tell the Governor of Ulpian, that Don Ferrand could not better revenge himself for the loss of Alba, than to come and attaque us at Cassal. So soon as the Drum came to the Gates of Vlpian he found that the Governor was gone by break of day to the Council to Riverol, and therefore told the Soldiers at the Gate of the taking of Alba, at which they were so incens'd, that they would thereupon have kill'd him, and in order thereunto began to pinion and bind him; but the Governor in the interim arrived, to whom I sent word, that he should restore me my Trumpet, considering that we had al­ways made fair war, and that he should take heed of beginning to shew foul play; for our people also had given good quarter at Alba. The said Governor then took the Drum from the Soldiers, and carried him to his lodging, where he told him, that if what he had said concerning Alba did not prove to be true, he would hang him; to which the Drum reply'd, that provided he would give him but a Teston, if it was true, he would be content to be hang'd if it prov'd otherwise. Whereupon the Governor return'd to [Page 99] horse, and went again to Riverol, where they continued all night in Council, to consider whether this news could be true, or no: but the next day arriv'd the Captain of the Castle of Montcalvo, who brought them certain intelligence from the Governor of Ast, that Alb [...] was certainly taken; which was the reason that the next morning Don Ferrand departed in all hast, and went to pass the River at the Bridg of Asture, to go directly to the said Alba to try if he could not recover it before the Mareschal could have leisure to better fortifie the place.

So soon as I saw my self delivered from all apprehension of a Siege, I immediately sent away my Pioneers to the said Alba, who at that time stood the Mareschal in very great stead. I did not there stay for a Command, and it is often necessary to do before we are bid­den, provided there be no hazard in the case. Monsieur de Bonnivet, and Santo Pedro Corzo, with seven Ensig [...]es put themselves into it. Now of Don Ferrand's arrival at the Bridge at Asture, and of his passing over the River there, Monsieur de Salvazon who was Governor of Berüe gave me speedy notice.The Sieur de Montluc sends succours to Alba. I therefore sodainly sent away the Baron of Chipy, la Garde, and le Mas, who were the next morning by break of day at Alba, of whose coming the Mareschal was exceeding glad, as also was Monsieur de Bonnivet, foras­much as they came from a place where they had undergone extraordinary labour in forti­fying, hoping that these would shew others the way, as they also did. Monsieur de Mau­giron would remain at Cassal, because it was a very commodious quarter for horse; I there left Captain Martin with him, and sent le Gritti to his Garrison, and Colonel Cha­ramond, and I went to wait upon the Mareschal at Turin, who was then but newly re­turn'd from Alba, and my Company went back to Montcallier. If I was welcome [...] no to the Mareschal, or whether caress'd by President Birague, and the whole Court of Parliament after such a service, I leave every one to judge.

When (Captains) therefore from any undertaking great profit and commodity may accrue, as there did from this (considering that Turin, had Cassal been possest by the Enemy, would have suffer'd a mighty inconvenience) do not stick boldly to hazard your persons for the defence of any place whatsoever. And when you shall be there, remem­ber after what manner, and with what diligence I carried on my work; for by that means you shall make your Enemy afraid to attaque you. He is more afraid to affault, than you are to defend. He meditates and considers who are within, and that he has to do with men that know how to fortifie themselves, which is no little advantage to a Sol­dier. It is true that Caesar de Naples committed a great error in squandring away so much time about those paltry Forts, and in the mean time giving us so much leisure to fortifie; for had he come directly to us at first, he would have put us to our Trumps: but I think he was afraid. My good fortune also would have it, that Don Ferrand should divide his Forces, who had he come to attaque us at the beginning, would have been the death of a great many good men; but we should have sold our skins very dear.

Now as Don Ferrand was at Ast, in his way towards Alba, he there met intelligence that Monsieur de Bonnivet was very strong within it, and that lately three Compa [...]ies were entred into the Town of those that I had at Cassal, together with a great number of Pioneers, which made him enter into a very great debate, whether or no he should go to Alba, Delays and negligence ru­inous to Mar­tial affairs. as he did before at Riverol whether or no he should go to Cassal. After five or six days then he departed from Ast with all his Cavalry to go take a view of Alba, where, after he had spent a whole day in discovering the place, he went to sit down be­fore St. Damian, having been told, that the Mareschal had taken thence almost all the amunition of powder, bulle [...], and match, to put into Alba, and had given order to some one to lay in as much more; but oftentimes the sloth and negligence of men intrusted with the care of affairs occasion very signal disadvantages; I never saw man that was slow about his business, idle or negligent in war, that ever perform'd any great matters; nei­ther indeed is there any thing in the world, wherein diligence is so much required. A day, an hour, may a minute is enough to make the bravest enterprizes vanish into air.

Now the Mareschal conceived that Don Ferrand was more likely to put himself into Carmagnolle to fortifie the Town, and to take the Castle, than to make any attempt up­on any other place, believing St. Damian to be replenisht with powder, and therefore came himself thither to take order for the security of that Fort, where Monsieur de Bass [...] who was Governor of the Marquesate of Saluzzo, would undertake the defence of the place. The Ma [...]eschal then went to Carignan, leaving me with the said Sieur de Bassé to assist him in pu [...]ng provision and ammunition into the Castle, which he did at the re­quest of Monsi [...]ur de Bessé himself, and the very same day that the Mareschal departed from us,Th: Siege of St. Damian. the had in [...]ligence by a letter from Messieurs de Briquemaut, and de Cavig [...]y, that the En [...]my was [...] down before St. Damian, and that they therefore entreated him to [Page 100] relieve them with powder, bullet, and match for the Harquebuzeers, they having not re­ceived that which he had promised, and taken order for; at which the Mareschal was the most highly concern'd imaginable, and immediately sent thither six loads of powder, and four of bullet, with a proportionable quantity of match, sending order to the Governor of la Cisterne (a Fort two little miles distant from St. Damian) who had three Conpanies of Italians in Garrison with him, that he should by all means venture that night to put those ammunitions into the Town. Monsieur de Bassé, and I had already heard that the Camp was set down before St. Damian by the same Massenger that carried the news to the Mareschal, he being of necessity to pass by, Carmagnolle, as also did this ammunition, three or four hours after, which was in the close of the Evening. Monsieur de Bassé and I exhorted him who had the conduct of the Ammunition to remonstrate to the Captains, that the powder must of necessity he put into the Town that very night; for otherwise it could not be possibly convey'd into it; and that he who undertook the conduct of it, was likewise to enter in himself: but we found the fellow so cold in the business, that we very well perceiv'd he would do no good: It is very easie to discover by a mass counter­nance if he be afraid or no, and whether he have the heart to execute what he hath un­dertaken;A mans cou­rage is to be known by his countenance. and we saw so much by this fellow, that we were rather afraid he should dis­hearten the Captains when he came to la Cisterne, than any wayes encourage them to the Enterprize enjoyn'd; which made me, resolve to go my self, to try by this relief to save the place, and Monsieur de Bassé would that Monsieur de Classe his eldest Son, with ten men at arms, he being Lieutenant of his own Company, should go along with me,

At one of the clock at night then we departed, and by eleven the next day came to la Cistrene, where I found the Governor and his Captains in a great perplexity, forming a great many difficulties about the conduct of the Ammunition, and which way it was possible to be convey'd into the Town; and in truth they had some reason so to do; For St. Damian is a little place, and Don Ferrand had in his Camp 6000 Germans, 6000 Italians,Monsieur Mont­uc undertakes to relieve St. Damian. and 4000 Spaniards, 1200 Light-horse, and 400 men at arms, and all these were encampt close by the Town, about which the Court of Guards in a manner toucht one another, so that to carry it into the Town upon the horses that had brought it to la Ci­sterne had been impossible, for it was a snow knee deep, and all the wayes were full of Soldiers Huts. But I presently caused a great many Sacks to be brought me, and made them to be cut each Sack into three parts, which by certain women, who were ready for the purpose, were handsomely sowed together again, and into these bags I put the pow­der. I then got together thirty Countrey fellows, upon whom I caused the powder and bullet to be tyed, with the match at their Girdles, and gave to each of them a good staffe in his hand to support him. Monsieur de Briquemant, the Governor of St. Damian, had sent six Swiss of his Guard out of the Town, who could not get in again, and so hapned to be at la Cisterne, who also took their share of the Ammunition.

Being then ready to set out, there arrived the Seigneurs de Pied-de-fou, and de Bourry (who I am told is sinceturn'd Hugonot) de St. Romain (Nephew to Monsieur de Fayette) and three or four Gentlemen more, who were going to put themselves into the Town, and slighting put themselves on foot, and sent back their horses. The Mareschal had writ to two of the Captains, who were at la Cisterne, that they should attempt to put the powder into St. Damian; An old Soldier feats death. which said Captains were old Soldiers, which made me that I had no great hopes of their doing any thing to purpose; for whoever would execute a hazardous enterprize, and where there is like to be good store of blows, must of all things take heed of employing an old Captain and an old Soldier, for as much as they too well understand the peril, and too much apprehend the danger of death, so that you shall sel­dom have any good account of their undertaking, as I have found by experience both in this, and upon other occasions: whereas a young fellow is not so apprehensive of his danger (it is true that there ought to be conduct in the case) and will easily undertake any execution where diligence is required; he is prompt and active, and his youthful heat en [...]lames his heart, which in old men is often cold and bloodless.

About two hours after midnight they departed, and so soon as they were gone out of the Town▪ I went up to a Platform hard by the Gate, from whence I could discover the Enemies whole Camp, excepting a little on the other side of the Town; and in the mean time sent out the Governors Lieutenant to give an allarm on the left hand by the Springs, which signified very little, the Enemy making very small account of it. So soon as our peo­ple were arriv'd at a little eminence near to the City, from whence they might discover all the fires,The relief can­not get into St. Damian. and even the men by the light of them, one of the Italian Captains said to Monsieur de Pied-de-fou, and the rest. Videte il Campo, Ecco la Caval [...]ie ecco la Gen­darmerie, [Page 101] [...]co li [...]ud [...]sci, ecco li Espaniolli, [...]cco li Italiani (pointing to them with his finger) non si intrareble una Gatta, bisogns tournar en dietra. Behold the Camp, see yonder the Cavalry, see the Gens d' Armes, see the Germans see the Spaniards, see the Italians, a Cat cannot possibly get in; and therefore 'tis convenient to turn back again. All this while I remain'd upon the Platform, with my pain in my hip, which plagu'd me to death, of which I was not yet cur'd, nor of two years after.

Behold then at break of day all our people return'd, where they gave me an account of what they had seen, which gave me trouble, but no satisfaction; wheresore I pre­sently dispatch't away a Messenger post to the Mareschal (who knew nothing of my be­ing at la Cisterne, but believ'd me to be at Carmagn [...]lle with Monsieur de Bassé to whom I gave an account of all that had past, and with: Il sent him word, that he was not to hope that these Captains would ever put the powder into St. Damian; for that I had already prov'd the contrary, entreating him therefore to send away post to Montcallier to Captain Charry who carried my Ensign, that he should forthwith come away with fifty of the best Soldiers I had, to wi [...], thirty Harquebuzeers, and twenty Pikes, and that he should n [...]t fail to be at la Cisterne by midnight. The Mareschal wondred to hear that I was there, and presently dispatch't away a Messenger post to Captain Charry, to whom I had also writ a word or two in haste to the same effect.

This valiant young man, full of spirit, and good inclination to the service, needed not to be intreated twice, but immediately came away with his fifty men, and about an hour after midnight came to la Cisterne, where I had in Cellar prepar'd three or four good Charcole fires, and a long Table full of meat, having lockt up the Country fellows on the one side, whom whilst the Soldiers drank and made good cheer, I caused to be loaden, together with the Swiss; and would no more speak to the Italian Captains to go with Captain Charry, save only that I encreated one of them to lend me his Ensign called Pedro Antonio, a vain young Coxcomb, whom I had known at Montcallier,Captain Char­ry undertakes the relief of St. Damian. and had there twice laid him by the heels for misdemeanors he had committed in the Town. I took him then aside, and said to him, Pedro Antonio, I will do thee more honor than thy Captain; thou hast seen what a fault thy Countrymen last night committed, in not striving to enter into the Town, from whence you all return'd with a company of pitiful excuses. For my part I am a man that take no excuse in payment, where the loss of a Town, and the men of honour within it, are in concern. I know thou hast courage enough, but thou art not wise; and if thou wilt now give a testimony of thy discretion, as thou hast at other times done of thy valour, I do engage to thee my word to make the Mareschal give thee a Company, and thou hast n [...]w an occasion offers it self, wherein to let him see, that at thou art bold to execute, thou art also prudent to command. I will therefore that thou take fifty men of thy Captains Company, to whom I will presently speak to deliver them to thee,A discourse of the Sieur de Montluc to Pe­dro Antonio. and at thy going out of the Town I will place all the Peasants and the Swiss that carry the Ammu­nition in the midst of the fifty Soldiers, and will moreover that thou take three Sergeants, which I will also cause to be delivered to thee, to place one in either Flanck, and one behind, to the end that they may encourage to Soldiers to follow thee, and have an eye that the Peasants do not steal away: but when Captain Charry shall attaque a Court of Guard, pass thou on with­out staying to sight, unless any on oppose thy way, and make still forwards, whether thou meet any opposition or no, until thou comest to the very gates of the City. He hereupon return'd me answer in Italian. Credete Signior, Chio la faro a pena di Morir, & voi connoscerle che Pietro Antonia sara divinuto Saggio; Whereupon taking him in my arms, I said to him▪ Io ti prom [...]tto ancora, che io mirecordero d ite, & che ti s [...]rarecognosciuto il servitio; no mi mancar di gratia, io ti giuro per la nostra Madonna se tu non sai chello che un huomo de bene debbe fare, io ti [...]rro un tratto de Monluco. Tu sa come io ho manegiato non suono quindeci die uno delle n [...]stri facendo d'il poltrone, Io non dimando sino un puoco di prudenza con pre­stezza. And indeed he kept his promise with me, and carried himself very discreetly in the action. The Captains gave him whatever he desired, being glad themselves to be rid of the employment; I also entreated Pied-de-fou, and the rest before named, that since they were resolv'd to put themselves into the Town, they were to do it so as to be assisting to the conservation of the place, and not to lose themselves together with all those who were within it; forasmuch as the preservation of the said Town consisted only in supplying it with ammunition, and that therefore it would be necessary that they should divide themselves, some into the Flancks, and others into the rear, to the end that whilst Capta [...] Charry should be fighting, they might encourage Pedro Antonlo's men to go on; which they accordingly did.

All of them therefore having received their instructions from me what every one was to do, as well Italians and Peasants, as my own Soldiers; they all in the order prescrib'd, [Page 102] marcht out of the Town; when going out at the Gate, I told Captain Charry in the hearing of all my Soldiers, that I would never see him more, it they did not enter, or die upon the place, as many as were of my Company; to which he made answer, that he only desir'd me to go to my rest, and that I should presently hear news of him. In truth he was a Soldier without fear. In his Company there was a Corporal of mine called le Turk, a Picard by birth, who said to me, What do you make a question of our entring into the Town? Par la mort bien[?], we should have spent our time and our blood very well, having above an hundred times fought with you, and ever remain'd victorious, if we should now stand suspected to you; at which I leapt about his neck, and said to him these words. My Turk, I do assure thee upon my faith, I think so worthily of you all, that I am confident if any men upon earth can enter, you will do it; and so they departed, and I went to place my self again upon the Platform, where I had stood the night before, and the Captain of the Watch kept me company.

About two hours after I heard a great alarm on that side by which our people were to enter,Relief put into St. Damian. and several volleys of Harquebuzshot: but they continued but a very little while, which put me into some fear that our men might be repulsed, or at least that that the Peasants were run away: who so soon as they were come to the enainence where the Italian Captains had told, them, that a Cat could not get in, they made a halt. There the Guides shewed them the Courts of Guard, from which, by reason of the ex­cessive cold and the snow, the Centinels were not twenty paces distant. Capatin Charry then called Messieurs de Pied de-fou, Bourg, St. Romain, and Pedro Antonio, to whom he deliver'd two Guides, reserving one for himself, and said to them, this is the last Court of Guard of foot, for the rest are all horse, which can do no great matters by reason of the snow; so soon therefore as you shall see me attaque this Court of Guard, run on as fast as you can, and stop[?] not for any thing you shall meet in your way, but make directly to the Gate of the City▪, who thereupon all of one accord see themselves in a posture to charge through. Captain Charry then drew near to the Court of Guard, which he put to rout, and overturn'd upon another Court of Guard, and both of them betook them­selves to flight; which being done he past on forward straight to the Gate of the Town▪ where he found Pedro Antonio[?] already arrived, and where they immediately delivered their Ammunition, without making any longer stay than whilst Messieurs de Chavigny and Briquemant [...]mbrac't Captain Charry entreating him to tell me, that since I was at la Cisterne, they thought themselves certain to be reliev'd with all things they should stand in need of, and that it would be very necessary to send them in some more Am­munition: but whilst the Enemy busied themselves about taking th [...] hers of the Guards that were run away (of which a Captain was the next day hang'd) Captain Charry and Pedro Antonio, with their Peasants, taking them in this disorder, charg'd them thorough and thorough, and came clear away. I there lost not so much as one Soldier, either French or Italian, neither was there any one hurt, not so much as Peasant, but all arrived safe at la Cisterne, it being fair broad day, where they found me still upon the Platform. I hereupon immediately sent away a dispatch to the Mareschal to entreat him to send me some more powder, for bullet and match they had enough already, which he also speedily did from Quiers: to which place he was remov'd▪ that he might be nearer to me.

Behold the age a Captain ought to be of, to whom you should entrust the execution of a hazardous and sudden enterprize, and I can affirm with truth, that these hundred years there has not died a braver, nor a more prudent Captain for his years than Captain Charry was, and am assur'd,The Character of Captain Charry. that Monsieur de Briquemaut will say the same, though he be of the Religion of those by whom he was since assassinated at Paris. The manner of his death I have nothing to do to meddle withall; for the King, the Queen, and all the Princes of the Court, knew it well enough, and besides it was so foul an act, that I will not blot my Paper with the relation, and I am sure very unworthy a Frenchman. When I lost him, together with Captain Montluc my Son, who was slain at the Island of Madera, belonging to the King of Portugal, it seemed to me that my two arms were lopt offf from my body, the one being my right, and the other my left. He had ever bred up Captain Montluc from the age of twelve or thirteen years, and vvherever he vvent had this young boy evermore hung at his Girdle: Neither could I have put him to a better Tutor,The Character of Captain Montluc. to teach him the trade of War: and in truth he had retein'd a great deal of his precept, insomuch that I may vvithout shame say (although he vvas my Son) that had he liv'd he vvould have made a great Soldier, daring, and discreet; but God vvas pleased to dispose otherwise of him. I shall therefore leave this discourse (vvhich extracts tears from mine eyes) to pursue my former subject.

[Page 103]Monsieur de Briquemant sent me word by Captain Charry, that they had no Engi­neers within, nor any one that understood where a Gabion was fifty to be placed, with which he desired me to acquaint the Mareschal, entreating me moreover to send back to him Captain Charry, and my fifty Soldiers, whom he esteemed as much as the best Com­pany he had in the Town, in return of which kindness he would be my servant for ever; which I did. Monsieur de Gohas that now is, was at that time one of my Company, and one of the fifty, though he was then but 17 years of age, it being in the beginning of his arms. The Mareschal therefore sent away post to Alba for the Engineers that were there, of which the Chevelier Reloge was one. So soon as Captain Charry returned back from St. Damlan, the Pikes took the Powder, and hung it at their own Girdles, as the o­thers had done before, and would have no convoy at all, but took their way a little on the right hand on that side where the horse lay, where they charg'd through, and with­out the loss of one man got safe into the Town; for Captain Charry was a man that understood his business very well. So soon as he was got in, he entreated Messieurs de Briquemaut, and de Chavigny, to entrust him with the defence of the Ditch, which they immediately did, and he there covered himself with loggs of timber, planks, and Gabi­ons after the best manner he could, and so soon as ever the Guides returned back to me, I sent away to the Mareschal to give him an account of all, beseeching him to send me Captain Caupenne my Lieutenant, with another fifty of my Soldiers, which he did, whom two days after his arrival I made venture to carry some more powder to the be­sieged. He went on that side where the Gens d' Arms lay, where the Enemy had now placed a Court of Guard of foot, who were aware of him at distance enough,Captain Ca [...] ­penne carries powder into St. Damian. and did all they could to stop his way: which notwithstanding he made shift to lay down the powder upon the edge of the ditch of the Gate, and by him the forenam'd Seigneurs sent me their service, withall desiring me to assure the Mareschall, that the place was no more in danger of being lost, forasmuch as they now had every thing they needed or desired. The Baron de Chipy who was with Monsieur de Bonivet at Alba, would after­wards try to put some powder into the Town, by that side towards the said Alba, and accordingly charg'd after the same manner that mine had done:The Baron de Chipy enter into S. Damian. but he lost his powder, and Peasants, and almost all his Soldiers, at least to fourteen or fifteen only who charg'd thorough with him, and got into the Town. There is luck in all things.

Now the Camp lay sixteen or seventeen dayes before the Town, and the Battery con­tinued for seven dayes, in which time Caesar de Naples had wrought two Mines which were carried on under the Ditch towards the Breach, and were already brought up al­most to the wall. A Pioneer running away from the Enemy was taken by our Italians, who told me all, and whom so soon as it grew to be dark I deliver'd to Captain Mau­ries, (who was at that time my Serjeant,The Mines at St. Damian discover'd. and in this last war Serjeant Major to Mon­sieur de Montferrand at Bourdeaux) who bound him, and would take no more but one Soldier only to guide him, with which he carried the business so well, that he met but two Centinels by the way, who also sodainly retyr'd to their Court of Guard, insomuch that he past without any difficulty at all, and carried the Pioneer into the Town, where he remained all night, and so soon as it was fair light day, Messieurs de Cavigny, and de Briquemaut, carried him upon the wall of the Battery, from whence he might discover the place where the Mine lay. They then presently descended into the Ditch, and began to dig and scrape, so that they presently found the holes, and as we after understood, must but very little of trapping Caesar de Naples there, who was come thither to view the Mine. Now the two last dayes they made a very great Battery, and Don F [...]rrand had caused a great number of Bavins to be made, which by the Spaniards, Italians, and Germans were thrown into the Ditch, having cut the Counterscarp in two or three pla­ces; but as many as they threw in, Captain Charry, who lay in the Ditch, conveyed in­to the Town through a hole they had made under the breach, so that thinking the said Ditch to be fill'd, they sent to discover in open day, being all drawn up in Battalia, ready to go on to the Assault: but they found all was gone, and not a Fagot left in the Ditch, which made them ply the Battery for two days with wonderful fury, and moreover part of the night by the light of the Moon; when after all, seeing the good countenance of our people within, and that neither their Mines, nor their Bavins had done them any good, they resolv'd at last not to attempt an assault, but to raise the Siege and depart. The last night that they gave over the Battery I made Captain Mauries again venture into the Town, who heard the rising of the Camp, and the drawing off the Artiller [...],The Siege of St. Damian raised. for Messieurs de Cavigny, and de Briquemaut would not let him depart, till he were first assur'd of the truth, that he might bring me certain news; and so he past and repast at his ease, with­out out encountring any one person, forasmuch as all the Camp was already in Battalia, and [Page 104] gone from their Huts. So soon as he return'd to me, which was about two hours be­fore day, I immediately dispatch him away upon very good horses to the Mareschal, whom he found yet in bed, because he [...]ad not slept one wink of all night, having been all day with President Birague, and Signior Francisco Bernardin upon the shoar of Quie­ras, where from two of the clock in the afternoon, having observ'd the Artillery to cease, and having staid till one of the clock at night, without hearing any thing at all, they all concluded the place to be taken, or surrendred; but in the morning, a little after sun-rise, and just as his man had open'd his Chamber door, when Captain Mauries stept in, and told him the news, I leave you to judge how he was overjoy'd A [...] sent me word to come speedily away to him.

Now you must know I here plaid the part of a young Captain; for [...] [...]ain Mauries had told me that the Enemy's Camp was rising, I went in [...] Damian, The Sie [...] de Montluc goes to St. Damian, and na [...]owly [...]scapes. where so soon as Captain, Charry, who was upon the wall [...] sall [...]ed out with my other Soldiers, which I had afterwards cause to [...] Enemy had clapt themselves down slat upon their bellies behind a [...] fifteen or twenty fair to be seen; a sight by which I was so [...] forsooth go and charge them, and did so; but so soon as I came [...] rest, they all start up and charg'd me on all sides, and followed [...] the very walls of the Town, which reliev'd me (in good time for [...] volley of Harquebuz shot from the wall, and there Captain Charry was wounded, and taken,Captain Char­ry taken priso­ner. and had it not been for my Lieutenant whom I had left at the Gabions, they had cut me, with all the fifty Soldiers of Captain Charry, to pieces. I lost seven or eight men, of which three were slain, and Monsieur de Gohas was once round enclosed, but after­wards escap't. The joy I was in to see the Siege raised, and the great mind I had to get some prise of the Enemy, were the occasions of this ridiculous sally of mine. This be­ing done after. I had seen Messieurs de Chavigny, and de Briquemaut, I returned back to la Cisterne, and the same [...]ight went to Quiers, where I was as much welcom'd by the Mareschal, and all those who were with him, as any man in the world could be▪ Which said Mareschal presently dispatcht away Monsieur de Biron to the King, to carry his Majesty news of the issue of this Siege, entreating of him the place of a Bedchamber man for me; and moreover at my great instance and importunity (and being I was e­ternally tormented with my hip) was pleased to discharge me of my Office of Camp­master though it was a request very unpleasing to him: but to gratifie me in whate­ver I would ask of him, he was willing to content me in that particular. And the said Seigneur de Biron being at Court, the King would not transfer to any one the said Office of Camp-master, till first he should be better enformed whom he ought to give it to: and therefore ordered that the Mareschal should name one, Monsieur de Bonivet another, and I a third: I therefore nominated Monsieur de Chipy, which was the reason that the said Sicur de Biron continued very long at Court, because of the dispatches to and again, that he was enforc't to make, during which I still continued Camp-master, till the return of the said Seigneur de Biron (who at that time carried the Mareschal's Guidon) who brought me my discharge,The Sieur de Montluc quits his office of Camp-master. his Majesty having transferred that command to the Baron de Chipy, whom I had nam'd, and also brought me the place of Gentleman of his Ma­jesties Bedchamber, for he would not depart till he had first seen me inroll'd in the room of one of the old ones that was vacant, and moreover brought me a Patent for the Government of Alha, which I never dream't of, and less imagin'd, that the King should prefer me to three or four others, in whose behalf the Mareschal had written to him. Behold the services I perform'd for the King, and the Mareschal his Lieutenant, all within fifteen or twenty dayes of one another.

Happy (fellows in arms) is he who serves his King under a General who will not con­ceal the merits of such as perform any remarkable exploit, which Monsieur de Brissac would never do: for never did any man under his command do any handsome thing, or any the least action which he thought worthy his Majesties knowledge, but he did forthwith give him notice of it: he was a Gentleman that would not cloath him­self with the spoils of another man's honor, nor conceal the bravery of any from the greatest to the least. When therefore it shall please God that you are employ'd under such a General, fear not to hazard your lives, and employ all your vigilance and dili­gence to do them the best service you can, if you have an intention to advance yourselves by your arms and virtue, if not, get you home, and never meddle with the practice of Arms. 'Tis an extreme grief and disappointment to a man, when he shall have exposed his life for the a [...]chievment of honor, to have his name then conceal'd from his Prince, from whom we are to expect the reward of our fidelity and valour. There is no these [Page 105] comparable to that of robbing another man of his honor, and yet Generals for the most part make no conscience of it.

During the time that Monsieur de Biron remained at Court, I still continuing Camp-master, as has been said before, and in the beginning of Iune when corn began to ripen, Don Ferrand would not suf [...]er the great Army he had to lye idle, but at the per­swasion of Monsieur de Trinitat, Brother to the Count de Benne, The Siege [...] Benne. would go lay siege to Benne, the said Monsieur de Trinitat advising him to cut off the water which turned certain Mills within the Town, saying that they had not within corn nor meal to serve them for a moneth, and moreover assuring him▪ that he would get him a pay for the Army, by cutting the corn that was now almost ready for the Sickle, which he would presently cause to be thrasht up by 300 Peasants he would take along with him for that purpose, knowing very well that those of Langues, and de Bernisse la Paille would be ready to buy it, and that so in a moneths time the Town would be surrendred with­out one Canon shot.

Monsieur de Savoy, who was then very young, that being his first [...]a [...]ly into Arms,The Duke of Savoy in the Spanish Army. was at this time with the Army, and they came to set down their Camp within a mile of Benne, upon the Banks of a River that was there, of which they so turned the cur­rent, that not so much as one drop came into the Town. Now, by ill fortune, the Mareschal had ordered a Governor (whose name I shall forbear) to cause twelve h [...]n­dred sacks of corn and meal, half of the one, and half of the other, to be brought into this place from his own Government, as the custom had been. I will no publish the occasion why the said Governor did not accordingly send in the said provisions, being it would too nearly reflect upon thin honor, and it is not my purpose to speak ill of any: But President Birague knows the reasons very well, he being present at the Council, when the Mareschal was pleased to send for me, and where there was a very great clutter, and high dispute about that affair. The Enemies Camp had already been eight days set down before Benne, and made no shew of any intention to assault it, hoping they should soon have it for want of victuals, although the Town was of it self sufficiently forti [...]ied, and that the Count and the Countess were very affectionate to the Kings service. There was in all but three Companies of foot within it, to wit, that of the Count, that of the younger la Molle, and of Louys Duke, which was that of Montdevi, making in all two Companies of Italians, and one of French. The said Captain la Molle was sick, and by order of his Physitians for change of ayr, had caused himself to be carried to Montdevi; so that the Count had no man of Command with him, but the said Louys Duke, and which was worse,The Count de Be [...]e in great perplexity. had never before been besieg'd, which put him into a very great per­plexity, having no body with him who understood at all the defence of a Town. An affair wherein the most [...]ardy are apt to be astonisht when they hear a furious rattle a­bout their ears, and see a mighty preparation against them, if they have not been at such work before: and on the other side he saw himself totally without provisions; in­somuch that he resolved to send the Mareschal word of all, and of the fear he was in, the place would be lost; as he had just reason, it being that where his chiefest interest lay, the Town being his own. He therefore presently dispatched away the Lieutenant to the Company of Montdevi, who arriv'd just as the Mareschal rose from dinner, he being then at Carmagnolle, and with him M [...]ssieurs de Bonivet, President Birague, d' Aussun, Francisco Bernardin, la Moth-Gondrin, and some other whose names I have forgot. So soons, and that the Governor (whose name I have omitted) had not sent any in accord­ing to his order, though he had still pretended to have done it, both he and all the com­pany entred into a very great dispair, and concluded the place for lost, being the Mares­chal had no visible way to relieve it, forasmuch as he had not men to resist the third part of the Enemy's Army. He then demanded of the Lieutenant what Captain he desir'd to have come to him to assist him, to which he made answer, that the Count lov'd me exceeding well, and often said, that I had once reliev'd him, and that he would give the one half of his estate, upon condition that I was with him. I was then but newly recover'd of a Feaver, with which my mouth and lips were much swell'd and broken out. The Mareschal then sent for me by his Valet de Chambre to come presently to his lodging,The Count de Benne demands the Sieur de Montluc to be sent to his re­lief. where I found him in this trouble. He there made the Lieutenant to give me an account of the extremity they were in in Benne, as he did, and moreover complaining of the Go­vernor by whom they had been so deceiv'd, earnestly entreated me to go and put my self into the Towr. To which I made answer, What would you have me do, there being nei­ther corn nor meal? I can work no miracles; to which he return'd, that the Count had [...] high an opinion of me, as also all those in the Town, that If I could once get in, they [Page 106] were very confident the place would not be lost, but that I would find some expedient to save it.

Every one knows how these great Lords, when they would make one undertake an impossible thing, can wheedle and flatter a man into a good opinion of himself, and accordingly they here represented to me the ex [...]mples of Lans, St. Damian, and other places where I had had to do, and had ever been so fortunate, as that all things had suc­ceeded according to my own desire. The President Birague then began to perswade me on the other side, but Monsieur de Bonivet and the rest said nothing, knowing very well how dangerous an Enterprise it was for the loss of my honor, and that I must in the end of necessity come to a Capitulation; as the Mareschal himself also told me, that for the last refuge I must proceed to that; to which I made answer, that I had rather die, than that my name should be found upon record subscribed to a Capitulation, or that any place should be surrendred I had once taken upon me to defend; but that I would do as God should direct me, in whose assistance I reposed my only confidence and trust. Monsieur de Bonivet then commanded twelve or fifteen Gentlemen of his to go along with me, (of which number the Governor de la Moth Rouge, who is yet living was one, and I took as many of my own, making up thirty horse, without taking any servant with me, save only a Valet de Chambre and a Cook) and writ to the Vicount de Gordon at Savillan, to furnish me with a good Guide, and to Captain Theodore Bedeigne, that he should con­voy me with his Troop,The Sieur de Montluc puts himself into Benn [...]. and this was upon the Saturday. Upon Sunday morning by break of day I entred into Benne, and the Count, if he be yet living, and will speak his conscience, will say that it was one of the greatest joys that ever he had in his whole life, as also the Countess, and the whole Town will witness the same. I presently laid me down to sleep in the Castle, and two hours after I awak [...] we went to dinner. The Count in the mean time had appointed all the head men of the Town, as also all the Masons and Carpenters to repair to the Town-Hall, to which place the Count, the Countess, and all of us likewise came.

I there proposed all that was necessary to be done, the Count complain'd of the little corn he had,Benne unfur­nisht of pro­visions. and the Towns-men declar'd, that they had not sufficient for eight days; so that although the Town was [...]cituated advantagiously enough, yet were they in a very great necessity, by reason it was the latter end of the year, and on the other side they had sold all their corn to the Genoeses, and to those about Savona, being tempted so to do by the rates they gave, it being at that time sold for three Crowns a sack: and the Count who was a man that liv'd at a very great expence, had sold all his in expectation, and up| on the assurance of the 1200 sacks vvhich the Governor, that I forbear to name, ought to have sent in thither. We then fell to disputing in case we had corn, vvhich way we [...] get it ground: But so soon as the Count had told me whereabouts the Camp [...] presently conceiv'd that I should make a shift to get corn, though I would not say any thing to any one, till after we were return'd from the Council, then I told it to the Count and the Countess only. Whilest vve were sitting in Council there was a little man a Mason of above threescore years of age, who presented himself before us, saying that he had formerly got several great stones to lay upon the Graves of the dead, from a Quarry that be nam'd hard by, and that he conceiv'd if those stones were taken off the Graves, they would some of them at least, if not all, be proper to make Mill-stones: whereupon we deputed two of the Town, together vvith the Countess, vvho would needs go along vvith them, to make tryal vvith the Masons, vvhether they could be of any use or no: and not long after the said Lady return'd with great joy, and offer'd her self to take the pains to cause the Mill-stones to be made;The Countess of Benne her self takes care to see the work of the Town go forward. vvhich at the first I vvould by no means endure; but in the end she would be obeyed, and vvas so diligent in the business, that in two days and two nights she had got eleven hand-Mills finisht compleat, vvhich were distribu [...]ed amongst those of the Town, vvho vvould thereupon undertake to nou­rish the Soldiers, provided there might be a vvay found to get corn. We then concluded vvith those of the Town, that at one of the clock at night they should bring me five or six hundred men and women, the one carrying little ropes, and the others Scythes and Sides to cut the corn, and that the Gates of the Town, should in the mean time be kept shut, to the end that no body might go out to carry intelligence to the Enemy; for Monsieur de Trinitat had several friends in the City, that the Count himself had in some suspition. I then dispatcht away two of the Inhabitants with a letter to Captain Hieronimo, The way to ge [...] [...]. the Son of Colonel Gi [...]vanni of Turin (who lay at a little Town, the name of which▪ I have forgot, but it was about a mile distant from the place where the Enemy had cut, and diverted the current of the River) entreating him that this night he would by one way or another attempt to repair what the Enemy had broken down, and do all that in [Page 107] him lay, if possible to send the water to us again, which that very night [...]e accordingly executed, though he was but a very young Gentleman, for I believe he was not then a­bove twenty years old. We then went home expecting the night, when being return'd back to the Castle, I told the Count, that it would be convenient we should go alone upon the walls to look out a field of corn that should be neerest to the City, which we were to cut all that night, whilst I sent out Captain Theodore with 200 Soldiers to give a strong and furious alarm to the Court of Guard, who were set to [...]inder those of the Town from cutting any Corn. So soon then as we had made choice of one, we return'd back to supper, and after we had supp'd, carried out Captain Theodore and two others, Commanders of Companies, that were there present upon the Wall of the Town, to shew them on which side they were to give the alarm, and the others to fight the Court of Guard. After which we appointed ten of the Townsmen on horse-back to overlook the people that cut the corn, to hasten them in their work.

At one of the clock at night all these people went out, the Soldiers to fight,Great dili­gence in the people and the people to cut; so that nothing was to be heard all night long but alarms, as well in the Camp, as at the Court of Guard, and as the people cut and bound up the corn, they still ran back to the Gate of the City, and there threw down their burthens, and im­mediately went again for more; for some were appointed to reap, and the rest to bind and carry. In the mean time the day appear'd, vvhen we caused those to vvhom the field belonged to convey away the corn from off the place, so there was not one sack of corn loft of all night. The Enemy vvho saw this field all cut, and carried away, plac [...] thereupon stronger Guards, and neerer than before; but the people vvho began to taste the sweetness of their gain, resolv'd to hazard themselves to get their corn off the ground, rather than the Enemy should have it; insomuch that at the beginning of the night there sallyed out above two hundred of the Inhabitants of the Town, of vvhich some ven­tur'd further, and others did their business neerer at hand. Now Benne you must know is almost totally surrounded vvith velleys,The scituation of Benne. vvhich are pretty vve covered vvith Copse, and vvatered with several Rivulets: so that vvhen they heard any body coming, they hid themselves vvith their corn, and in the morning at the opening of the Gates return'd back to the City. The next morning after my arrival the vvater by the diligence of Cap­tain Hieronimo, began to come down to the Mills, and for two days and two nights con­tinued its course; vvhereupon ensued a great confusion at the Mills; but vve made an order that no one should grind any more than to make ten or a dozen loaves only, by vvhich means every body got some to serve them a little vvhile, and two dayes and two nights after Captain Salines a Spaniard came to vievv the vvater, vvhich the same night vvas again taken from us. I then gave Captain Hieronimo notice of the place vvhere they had again return'd to cut it off from us, vvho never ceased till he had made up the Bank again: but he could not do it so as to send the vvater to us for above a day; for from hour to hour the Enemy still came to visit the vvork: but by this time to Coun­ [...]ess had made an end of her vvork, so that vve no more car'd for the vvater.

Now by means of frequent skirmishes, which were here as many,Handsome skirmisthes be­fore Benne. and as handsome as in any place where I ever had the fortune to be, and by the diligence was used in cut­ting by night, we had at last as much corn as the Enemy. When Don Ferrand seeing himself frustrated of the assurance had been given him by Monsieur de la Trinitat, began to be highly discontented with him. Captain Theodore the night after we had made the first cutting,Don Ferrand discontented with Monsieur de la Trinitat in which he also was engag'd, return'd back to Savill, and in going a| way had three or four horses and men of his Troop wounded, who therefore staid be| hind at Benne; but he fail'd not to send away an account to the Mareschal of what I had done upon my arrival; of which the Mareschal was exceeding glad, as also all those who were with him; and thenceforward began to entertain some hope of the conserva­tion of the place: though I am of opinion that had Don Ferrand better'd the Town with his Artillery, they must infallibly have been conforc' [...] to a surrender: but he was still buz'd in the [...]ars with this water,Don Ferrand's er [...]or. and the want of provisions in the Town, which rendred him very much dissatisfied with those who had advised him to this course, and made him entertain some kind of jealousie of Monsieur de la Trinitat himself; where­fore he raised his Camp the three and twentieth day after my arrival, having been [...]et down [...]ight dayes before I came. The Count is yet living as I am told,The Siege of Benne raised. and President Birague I know to be still in being, with several others who can bear witness, if I have inserted any thing but the truth; but whether Monsieur de Coff [...] was yet return'd back to the Ma [...]es­chal I am not able to say; for he was a little before gone into France. Thus then the Town was sav'd, and a few dayes after the Baron de Chipy, who was gone to Cour [...] to give his Majesty thanks for the donation he had made him of the aforesaid office return'd, [Page 108] and having taken upon him his command of Camp-master, I went to Alba to take pos­session of my new Government.

Oh Captains, the great things that a man may do, how little soever his judgment or experience may be, if he will intend nothing but that wherein he is immediately engag'd thence to come off to his own honor, and the advantage of his Master! and on the other side nothing but misfortune can attend him, who minds nothing of business, and only spends his time in pleasure, play, and feasting; for it is impossible but that the one must make you forget the other; we cannot serve so many Masters: whenever then you shall be engag'd upon such an account as this, strip your selves of all your vices, and burn them all, to the end that you may remain in the white Robe of loyalty and affection that we all owe to our common Master: for God will never prosper the vitious and voluptuous man; but on the contrary will ever assist him who is clad in the white Robe of loyalty. I give you the same advice that I ever gave my self, and it was therefore that God has ever assisted and been so favourable to me, that I have never been defeated, and have ne­ver been in any engagement (if I commanded) that I was not alwayes victorious. Nei­ther could I fail, for God evermore inspir'd me, and prompted my memory with what I had to do, and that is the reason that I have ever been blest with so good fortune. And he will also assist y [...]u, as he hath done me, if you study, nor busie your selves a­bout nothing but how to serve your Master with the loyalty and fidelity we all owe him. Afterwards when we have nothing else to do, we may freely enjoy our pleasures and de­lights, for then it will be no prejudice to the King, nor to him we serve under him. Then you shall enjoy a sweet and pleasing repose, when you shall return home laden with honor, and shall present your selves before your Prince, to whom it shall be told what you have done for his service. All the treasure in the world is not comparable to that. Take then (Camrades) exemple by me, who have never had other thought, nor design, that how to acqu [...] my self worthily of my charge, and doing so it will be im­possible, but you must acquire great honor and reputation. In the mean time you that are put in trust to attaque or block up places: whenever you have a design to reduce a Town by famine, if you find you cannot totally hinder the besieged from fetching in corn from the fields adjoyning, set them on fire: for taking this commodity from them, they will be sufficiently distressed; but to say you preserv'd it for your self, it must be concluded that you were very improvident to offer to attaque a place without having means and power to carry away all near unto, and in the very face of the Town you would attaque; in such cases you must have no pity, for this affair requires s [...]urvy re­medies.

Some time after the Mareschal undertook to go take Courteville, The Enterprise of Courteville which is a Castle and a little City in the Langues; the Castle is strong, and the River runs through the midst of the Town, over which there is a fair Bridge of Brick, and a Bourg adjoyning to it. The said Mareschal then came to Alba, and took me in his way along with him, with the one half of my Company, which he entertain'd for the Guard of his won person, leaving the other half in Alba and being come to the said Courteville, lodg'd in the Bourg on the further side of the River, on this side of which, and near unto the Castle was a Monastery wherein he lodg'd three Ensig [...]s, which notwithstanding those of the Castle commanded us more than we commanded them. Monsieur de Salcede had kept this place all the time when he was with the Spaniard. Courtevilla batter'd by Monsieur de Brissac. The Mareschal planted on this side the Bridge eight or ten pieces of Canon wherewith to batter the Curtain that was oppo­site to the Monastery, in which during the Battery, Monsieur de Bonnivet lodged himself, where although I was no longer Camp-master, I nevertheless never left him whilst the Battery continued day nor night. In two or three days time then we spent 1200 Ca­non shot against this Curtain, and in the end were never the nearer, forasmuch as they had raised a great and thick rampier behind the wall within; so that when that was beaten down, the place remained stronger than before, by reason of the said Rampier. The Mareschal thereupon remained three days in suspence what he were best to do, whe­ther he should send for more ammunition, or return without making any further attempt upon the place. Captain Richelieu had in the mean time gain'd the Town, and was with his own and two other Companies lodg'd within it: but so soon as I saw the Mareschal in this perplexity, I past the River on that side by the Monastery: for although I follow'd Monsieur de Bonnivet, I nevertheless now retir'd at night to the Mareschal. There was a Gate of this Monastery, that went out into a great high way, upon which one might ma [...]ch undiscover'd and secure, without being seen by those of the Castle: but betwixt the Gate and the high-way there were some fifteen or sixteen paces, which were to be nimbly dispatch [...], for the whole Curtain playd upon this Gate. Afterwards it was ne­cessary [Page 109] to go stooping up to the Bridge at the entry into the Town, and then to run full speed till you was within it. So soon as I had past this danger, and was got into the high way, I began to look about me if it was possible to carry Canon into the Town, which I perceived it a matter of great difficulty to do, and that was the reason that I went into the Town to take Captain Richelieu along with me, with whom I went to discover the backside of the Castle, which lookt into a great space uninhabited, betwixt the Castle and the Wall of the Town.The Sieur de Montluc goes to discover the place. There was there a little house close by the wall of the City, into which we put our selves to observe at our ease, whether or no the Castle were much fortified on that part, and there I observ'd some cracks and chinks in the wall, through which one might plainly see the light on the other side, and shew'd Captain Richelieu, that if by any invention we could bring three pieces of Canon to this place we should cer­tainly take the Castle, forasmuch as it had not been fortified on that side, by reason of the impossibility of bringing up Artillery to force it.

That which appears impossible to one, is feasible enough to another, and many places are so taken. I then return'd by the way near to the Abby, and Captain Richelieu with me, where we fell to discourse about the business, and began to consider if there was any way to be found to get Canon to the backside of the Castle: whereupon it suddainly came into my head to cause the River to be sounded, to see if the bottom was firm ground; to which purpose I caused a Soldier of the Abby to be call'd, to whom so soon as he came to me I made an offer of ten Crowns, if he would venture to [...]ound the River, telling him withall that he must creep on his hands and knees, till he came into the water, and that then he should chop up to the neck. I then call'd another Soldier by whom I sent vvord to the Captains in the Abby, that they should send out fifteen or twenty Sol­diers, which should go to the very foot of the wall, as if they went to skirmish, which accordingly was done, and by that means I sav'd the Soldier, insomuch that the Enemy never perceiv'd him, till he was got into the water. First he went directly to the wall of the City, where the water dasht against it, and thence waded upwards as far as the foard, where we used to pass over betwixt the Mareschals Quarters and the Abby,The River founded to pass over the Ca­non. and be­hind the Abby he entred into it, whether we ran full drive to avoid the danger of the shot, and found him already got into the Abby, and the Soldiers that had been sent out to skirmish returned a pretty while before, where he told me that the bottom of the River was very good, and the water no deeper than to the [...]ave of the wheels. Where­upon I presently mounted to horse, and went to acquaint the Mareschal with what I had seen, the two Masters of the Ordnance Balazergues and Duno being by, for Monsieur de Caillac was not there.Dispute be­twixt the Sieur de Montluc and the Masters of the Ordnance. There Duno disputed it against me, affirming he had discover'd all, and I affirming the contrary, till at last the Mareschal said it was their trade, and that to undertake a business, and not to effect it, were only to lose time and a great ma­ny men to no purpose. At which I began to moved, having been netled by Duno be­fore, and said to the Mareschal. Sir I have had the honor a great while to know Monsieur de Brissac, and never saw him so much afraid of Arquebuz shot, that he would forbear to discover a place he had a mind to see. I take you to be the same man, and that you are not become a Coward for being the Kings Lieutenant. Mount to horse, and I will make you confess, after you have seen it, that you shall take the Castle without the expence of ten Ca­non shot. We hereupon all in a fume got to horse, taking Duno along, and leaving Ba­lazergues behind, and went to pass the River above the Abby, into which we entred, and I had taken with me the Soldier who had founded the River. Now to get into the high way it was necessary suddenly to open the Gate, to which the Enemy had ever­more an eye, and run fifteen or twenty paces till we got into it, out of the danger of the Curtain of the Castle. The Gate then was suddenly thrown open, and I pas [...] run­ning and the Mareschal did the same; but as he was running they fir'd three Harque­buzes, with some of which I verily thought he had been shot, for I heard the noise of a Bullet, as when it enters a mans body, and when he came up to me, lookt him in the face, and saw that he shak't his head, and smil'd, and sitting down by me upon the ground (for we were to keep very low) I have scap't a scouring (said he) for the bullets flew betwixt my legs.The Mareschal de Brissac in great danger. You are very unwise Sir, said I, to follow me, do you not perceive that I aim at being the Kings Lieutenant if you die? which is the reason that I would be rid of you, and have brought you hither to that purpose; at which he laught only, seeing very well by my countenance, that I was very glad he had escap't the misfortune; for the fault would have been laid at my door, though God knows I could not have help't it: for those that go to such Weddings as these often bring away red Liveries.

In the mean time Duno and the Soldier arrived, to whom the Mareschal engag'd to pay the ten Crowns I had promised him; but that he must return and do the same again in [Page 110] his presence, and he would give him ten more, which the Soldier undertoo [...] to do. Duno then caused his Boots to be pull'd off, and went in his doublet only with the Sol­dier to enter into the water behind the Abby, for the man had heart enough, and men of his trade must no more care for a Bullet than a Codling, We saw them the one af­ter the other wade down the River, and afterwards came to the wall of the City, into which they went, landing hard by the Gate: Which was not perform'd without infinite danger both for them and us, for it was there very hot; so that I often wisht Monsieur de Brissac at his Quarters, being more afraid of him than of my self. Seeing then Duno and the Soldier past over, we ran at the mercy of the Harquebuz shot, and recover'd the Town. Whom God defends are well defended; for it was a miracle that some one of us at least was not pepper'd: but either my fear or my affection made me go more upright and nimbly than I was wont, so that I felt no great pain of my hip. I then ca [...]ryed the Mareschal, and shewed him all that Captain Richelieu and I had seen before; when after he had heard Duno's relation concerning the depth of the River, and found the truth of what I had told him, he began to break out into some passionate expressions against Duno; but I told him that he ought not to be angry, but intend the taking of the Castle, for that no one was [...] wi [...]e but he might be deceiv'd. Whereupon he gave order to Captain Richelieu to get together thirty or fourty great Wine-pipes, which at the beginning of the night he should cause to be carried to the place where Duno should appoint, and to another Captain to pull down a house, to furnish planks to put upon the Pipes after they should be filled with earth to raise the defence still higher, because of the great Tower of the Castle, that lookt into the recoyl of the Canon, commanding the other Captain also to provide great beams of Timber wherewith to raise the whole so high, that the Tower might not look into the recoyl of the Canon. And before we de­parted from the little house which was behind the Castle, I shew'd the Mareschal; a Rock where thirty or fourty Harquebuzeers might lye covered to shoot at the Battlements of the Tower, when the Enemy should present themselves to shoot at the Artillery; for they must of necessity shew themselves from the Girdle upward.

We afterwards went up the River to the Wall of the Town to measure what height the Canon was to mount to get into the City, and found that it was not two foot, be­cause the way was very low, When a Gentleman belonging to the Mareschal came to us, the said Mareschal having expresly forbid that any other should advance further than the Abby, to whom I caused the charge to be committed of breaking the wall, and ma­king it fall into the River, which being done we return'd, and Duno staid with Captain Richelieu. At the beginning of the night then came the aforesaid Gentleman with thirty or fourty Pioneers, and after him another Genntleman of the said Mareschal's with four­score or an hundred more, where they found that Captain Richelieu had already got a­bove half the Pipes upon the place. Monsieur de Bonnivet and I accompanied Balazergues, who drew three pieces of Canon with horses (the Mareschal having provided enow to draw [...]ix) and went on horseback above twenty paces in the River with the Canon, as also did Balazergues himself, and the Carters up to the Codpiece in water: we then turn'd to go down behind the Abby, and so went into the Town, vvhere though the Enemy shot very hard, yet could they see nothing by reason of the extreme darkness of the night, and therefore shot at random, and the level of fortune, vvhich at this time smil'd upon us; yet does she not alwayes do so, especially upon me: there are some in­deed so happy as never to be toucht, as for exemple that brave Cavalier Monsieur de San­sac (I do believe there are not two Gentlemen alive,The good for­tune of Mon­sieur de Sansac. who have been in more engage­ments than he and I) and yet he was never hurt that I know of, excepting at the Bat­tail of St. Denis: vvherein I have not been so fortunate as he. Now vvhen vve came to the place vvhere the Gentleman vvas, vve [...]ound the vvall already broken down, and tumbled into the River, and thereupon caused the Pioneers to break down two corners of houses that hindred the passage of the Canon, which presently came to the Wall, tho­rough which the horses entred the Town, and by the help of the Soldiers we thrust the Canon in after them; which being done Balazergues return'd to fetch the other two, which also we brought after the same manner to the place where Duno had fill'd the Pipes; so that two hours before day they were ready to Batter, and the Soldiers lodg'd behind the rock to shoot at the Battlements.

The Mareschal in the interim had intelligence brought him that Don Arlro de Cende was come to St. Stephe, within five miles of us, and would march by night to relieve the Castle, which caused the said Mareschal to send us word that he was going to possess him­self of a mountain of advantage, and to fight him by the way, and that in the mean time we should do the best we could with the six Companies we had in the Abby, and [Page 111] in the Town. The Mareschal accordingly gain'd the said Mountain by night, and set his people in order to defend the pass.

At the break of day when we had thought to have given fire to the Canon, the Drum of the Castle began to beat a Parley. There was a Spaniard Governor there whose name was Don Diego, Don Diego Go­vernor of Cour­teville. as proud a vain-glorious Coxcomb as could walk upon the earth, and so he was reputed. Monsieur de Bonnivet made the Capitulation, for I was laid to sleep in the little house upon a Matrice the said Sieur de Bonnivet had caused to be brought thi­ther for himself, till I was call'd to sign the Capitulation, for Don Diego knew me, he having been Lieutenant to one of the four Spanish Companies the King had when he took the County of Oye. The Mareschal in the mean time sent out a party of Horse to meet Don Arbro whom they found upon his retreat, by reason he had had notice that the Mareschal had gain'd the pass, so that about an hour after dinner he return'd back to us, where he found that Don Diego with his three Companies, one whereof was Spanish, was marcht away two hours before. There were several who made suit to the Mareschal for the Government of this place, it being very commodiously situated for the King's service: But Monsieur de Bonnivet, and I agreed together to cause it to be given to Cap­tain Richelieu, who was Lieutenant to one of his Colonel Companies, and accordingly at our request the Mareschal was pleased to confer it upon him, and moreover writ to the King to confirm it, which his Majesty did, and Monsieur de Bonnivet left with him his Company for some time.

Are these (Captains) I mean the taking of Lans, and that of Courteville two things fit to be omitted, weigh well I beseech you all that we did both at the one place and the other, and the account I gave of them both, without trusting to the report of others. And you Princes, and his Majesties Lieutenants, do not so much fear your skins, that you will not search into depth of things. Why have you that great authority, and those no­ble Commands; to [...]it still in your Closets? Observe how Monsieur de Brissac did; he needed not be importun'd to go to discover, but rather to be with-held; he was all bra­very and courage. And [...]ou that shall see your selves engag'd in a place, learn to be wise at the expence of these Bragadochio's, who surrender at the first summons, and yet pre­tend to be Rowlands. Whoever is stout of his tongue, ought to be doubly tall of his hands. I am very sure, that if Don Diego had so pleased, he might have found us enough to do: but to lose a place, and to carry away no honour, either alive or dead, he that put you into it does you manifest wrong, if he do not cut off your head. Without all doubt he might have been reliev'd, or at least he ought to have stood an assault, for we could not have carried it at the first push, but it would have cost us very dear. What pitiful place so­ever you have to defend, if you resolve to stay for the Canon, after it has endured a breach, it is very necessary, that he who commands it for his own honor, shall also abide an Assault, if he be not totally unprovided of all things, and have no means to make any entrench­ment within.

A few days after the Mareschal would go take Seve, and writ to me to Alba, The Enterprise upon Seve▪ that I should mak [...] my self ready, and that he would pass by Alba. So soon therefore as he had given me this notice of his departure, and that I should draw three Ensigns out of Alba to carry them along with me, I presently made them ready, and likewise two Culverines, which he had writ for also. Waiting then in expectation of his coming, I went in the mean time to Sarvenal, which is a little Town about four miles from Alba towards the Langues, and two other little places upon the same Road, where the Enemy had Garrisons, especially at Sarvenal, where there were an hundred men strangers. After I had a while batter'd it by the Gate, those within began to parly with me; but in the mean while my people entred by another side through a Window with Ladders; so that whilst their Cap­tain was dodging with me about the Capitulation, those within saw themselves taken, and were therefore enforc'd to render themselves upon discretion.The hours of a Parly dange­rous for surpri­zes. The moments of a Parly are always dangerous, and it is then that they ought the best to man their walls, to avoid surprizes: for betwixt the Fruit and the Cheese, as the Proverb says; at such an unexpected time a great mischief may be done. I have seen many very foolishly surpriz'd; therefore follow the Italian rule, which is, No te fidar, & no serai inganato: Do not trust, and thou shalt not be deceived: a lesson that ought to be very much studied by you Governors of places: for when a woman once endures a Parly, and has patience to hear, farewel Gossip, you have already one foot in the stirrup. In like manner when a Town once begins to hear­ken to a composition, you may certainly conclude it for lost. It is true, that you must not then give them leisure to consider better of it; for there are certain Catch-dol [...]s, who make a shew of parly, but it is only to work their own advantage. If you therefore fear a relief, or that you find your selves weak, take them at their word, make use of your [Page 112] time, and get Hostages betimes if you can. And on the other side, you who would de­fend a place, of all things take heed you never open your mouths to parly if you have not an intention to surrender, and are not necessitated so to do: for your Enemy pre­sently gets a marvelous advantage by it. 'Tis better the overture be made by some par­ticular person, and it is better becoming the Besiegers than the besieged, though both the one and the other ought to set a good face upon the matter, it will soon be seen who has the worst of the Game. At these times however be sure especially to have an eye to the main chance; for so soon as ever it is rumour'd, that there is a surrender towards, those within instead of looking after their defence, think, one of saving his money, another his arms, and so forth; and those without seeing themselves defeated of all hope of Booty, if the Capitulation take effect, will try to shew you a slippery trick; for then they ap­proach at greater ease to the wall, because of the Truce. Remember then that the hour of a Parly is dangerous.

The other two little places surrendred upon summons, and sent me their Keys; and the next day after the Mareschal arrived,The situation of Seve. who was very well pleased with my exploit, and so we march't directly to Seve. Seve is a little Town very nearly built, and enclosed with a very good wall. A River runs either thorough it, or close under the walls, I am not certain which, for I was never there, but when Monsieur de Bonnivet and I came to re­lieve the Mareschal, and at this time when we retook it, and then lay there but one night only: for the Mareschal sent me back in the morning, because Don Arbro with his for­ces was within five miles of us, and in Alba there was only left my Lieutenant, and the half of my Company. Now there is above the Town a Mountain, on the top of which there stands a Church, and in the Rock an Hermitage, the entry into which was over a planck from the Church into the said Rock, and within were Altars for Mass, and a Chamber for the Hermi [...]e, but no light into it, save only by the door where you come in, which looks towards the Town; and they had so order'd the matter, that by pul­ling in to them the planck, that lay over betwixt the Hermitage and the Church, all the world could not take them. They had also made another Fort on the right hand, at the distance of some twenty paces from this, which they had contriv'd after the manner of a pit, and the Counter [...]carpes very high; so that coming upon the Counterscarp, no man could shew so much as a fingers length of his head without being discover'd and kill'd, and they had moreover cast up a Trench that ran along from this Fort to the ve­ry body of the Church.

As Signior Francisco Bernardin and I, who were for that time Mareschaux de Camp, came to encamp near to this place, and being about to lodge the Army, there sallyed out two or three hundred men, what out of the Fort, the Trench, and the Church, and fu­riously charg'd upon us. I had no body with me but Captain Charry, with 50 Har­quebuzeers, and some few horse to Guard us. Wherefore the Baron de Chipy, Camp-Master, sent to re-inforce me with 100 Harquebuzeers: but I was constrain'd to send him word that he must send me more, for that we were already at it, and very near to one another: at which instant of time Monsieur de Bonnivet return'd post from Court, who hearing the skirmish without alighting, said to the Baron de Chipy, Halt here till the Mareschal come up, and in the mean time I will go find out Monsieur de Montluc. The Captains follow'd him, and some Harquebuzeers on horse-back, when just as we were embracing, the Enemy camp up and charg'd our men, seeing which I said to Monsieur de Bonnivet, [...]Sir for your welcome alight, and let us go charge these people, and beat them back into the Fort: whereupon every one immediately alighted, and he said to me, charge you directly upon those who would recover the Fort, which said he clapt a Target upon his arm, and I catcht up a Halbert, for I ever lov'd to play with that kind of Cudgel, saying to Signior Francisco Bernardin, Camrade, whilst we charge do you make the Quarters; to which he replyed, is that all the reckoning you make of the employment the Mareschal has entru­sted us withal? if it be so, I will be a fool for company, and once play the part of a Gascon; and so alighted, and went on with me to the charge. He was arm'd with very heavy arms, and moreover age rendred him unweildy of himself, which made him that he could not go so fast as I. At such kind of Banquets my body me thought did not weigh an ounce, and I fancied that I did not touch the ground, I had quite forgot my hip. I then charg'd up straight upon those on that side by the Trench, and Monsieur de Bonni­vet did as much on his side, so that we thundred them back with such a vengeance, that I past over the Trench pell-mell amongst them, and pursued them, killing all the way as far as the Church. I never laid so about me, nor did so much execution at one time. Those within the Church seeing their people in such disorder, and so miserably cut to pieces, quitted the place, and took a little path that went all along the rock of the Mountain [Page 113] down into the Town, where one of my men caught hold of him that carried the Ensign; but he disingaged himself very bravely from him, and leapt into the path, making to the Town as fast as he could trip. I ran after him, but he was too quick for me, as well he might, for he had fear in his heels. The Captain was kill'd, whom they very much e­steem'd, and I believe was a man of threescore years old, for he was all over white. They could not all recover the path, which made part of them return back into the Church, where they very bravely defended themselves. Thay had made a Raveline before the Gate, which we gain'd from them, and then they retreated into the Hermitage, and drew the planck after them like a draw-bridge.

Monsieur de Bonnivet was very rougly handled, for he lost at least twenty of the best men he had, and had above thirty more wounded: for as our people would throw them­selves at a venture from the Counterscarp into the Fort, before they could discover the Fort they were knockt 'oth head, and amongst others we lost four of those he had brought with him out of France; who came but too soon for them, as also two Basques, as valiant young men as the earth ever bore; I had known them before, but those people have such uncouth names I cannot remember them, which I am very sorry for; but after the loss of so many men the said Monsieur de Bonnivet vvas constrain'd to leave this Fort, and come to me to the Church.

The Mareschal in the mean time had caused all the Camp to make a halt about a mile off, expecting when Signior Francisco and I should bring him the Billets for the Armies Quarters; when hearing no news of the one or the other, he sent a Gentleman to see what was become of us; who found us at the Church, where he told us, that the Ma­reschal was discontented, and very angry, not knowing where to lodge, nor where the Quarters were made. To whom I then said, Get you back to him, and tell him that he has made two wise Quarter-Masters, who have thought of nothing but how to quarter him and his Army, but it has been by sending p [...]ople into another world. The Gentleman perceiving by this answer that there was nothing done, returned back, it being almost night, so that the Cavalry was constrain'd to draw into a valley on the left hand, and the Infantry into ano­ther on the right. The Mareschal himself then came up to us, and could have found in his heart to have been very angry, but seeing what we had done was well enough satisfied, and began to laugh at the Mareschaux de Camp he had made. Signior Francisco Ber­nardin laid the fault upon me, and I again upon him; but the Mareschal said, I know the white-head was too wise, and therefore it must needs be a Ga [...]con extravagance.

With the Mareschal came Colonel Santo Pedro Corso, and those of the Hermitage ask' [...] for him, because there were many Corses amongst them, and the Captain himself who was kill'd at the Gate was one. The Colonel assur'd them of the death of the said Cap­tain, and that if one or two of them would come out, he would shew them his body: Which they did, and the Mareschal was still with us, and staid there all night, for he knew not where to lye, and a great many were laid down,The Hermitage surrendred. who gave me many a black good-night After they had seen their Captain dead, they surrendred themselves upon the Colonels word, that they should march away with bag and baggage, whereupon the said Colonel entred the Hermitage with five or six of his own men only, and so soon as the day appear'd they went out, and almost all of them listed themselves under the said Colonel,The Fort sur­rendred. sending their Drum to those of the Fort, to let them know that they had sur­rendred, and that they advised them to do the like; which they likewise did upon the same conditions;The Town sur­rendred. for Colonel Santo Pedro managed the whole business. We then went down, and presently the Governor surrendred the same, and at the same instant march' [...] away with those men he had left; and the Mareschal lodg'd himself there with some few only, that the provision might not be devour'd, and to prevent any disorder in the Town. Of which he made Captain Loup Governor,Captain Loup. having with him four Ensigns of foot, and some Light-horse; which being done he retir'd back by the same way he came, and I (as I have already said) about one of the clock in the afternoon came to Alba.

This is all that I did in Piedmont worthy remembrance whilst I staid there with me Mareschal de Brissac: But if I should give an account of all the skirmishes wherein I have been engag'd, I must have double paper, and especially that of Andesan, which was the greatest and most furious skirmish wherein I have ever been;The skirmish of Andezan. all the foot of two Armies being therein totally [...]ngag'd, amongst whom I had no more but four and thirty Soldiers of my own Company, forasmuch as I then lay in Garrison at Savillan, and Monsieur de Termes would not suffer my Company to go out of the Town. I cover'd all my Soldiers Morrisons with yellow Taffata, out of respect to Monsieur de Termes, whose that colour was, who for so few men perform'd so great and almost miraculous [...]ats of arms, that whilst any ma [...]s memory shall live, who was then alive, the yellow Morrions of Montluc [Page 114] will be talkt of in Piedmont: In truth these four and thirty were worth five hundred o­thers, and I have my self an hundred times wondred at what these people did; I may therefore very well say, it was a little body, but a very good one. I gave found that it is of great use to give your Soldiers some particular distinction; for seeing themselves to be so distinguished and known, it redoubles their courage. I am sure these did very well, and obtein'd for themselves such a mark of reputation, that every one pointed at them as they marcht along, shewing for a wonder the yellow Morrions who had perform'd such noble feats of arms. I have since also been in several other skirmishes, which I will not trouble my Reader withall, for being too tedious: though I cannot forbear ma­king mention of one, which the Baron de la Garde may please to remember, when he brought the Gallies,The Skirmish before Bullen. we being then before Bullen. The great skirmish was at his land­ing, which continued for two hours, where the Canon-shot flew so thick that they seem­ed volleys of Harquebuzeers. I had all the Forces of Bullen upon me, notwithstanding which I made one of the bravest and most honourable retreats that man could possibly make. The late Monsieur de Guise saw it all, who had no more but five and twenty horse, and therefore could no wayes relieve me; to do which he must of necessity have come down into the plain, where he would immediately have been swallowed up by the Canon, and no man believ'd that I could possibly have made my retreat without mani­fest running away; but I did it alwayes at four Pikes length, often facing about, and must needs say, that I never perform'd any thing from whence I deriv'd more honor than from this action. Monsieur de Guise did sufficiently magnifie it, and commended me but two much. But I shall speak no more of these kind of things, and content my self with writing what I perform'd commanding only, wherein such as will do me the honor to read my book may learn some thing as to the practice of Arms, which is not al­together so easie as is believ'd. Great and commendable parts and qualities are required to the making up of a compleat Captain.What parts are required to make up a compleat Of­ficer. It is not all to be hardy and brave, we must have other pieces in our harness besides. Neither will I pretend to be one of the first form of Souldiers; but being the eldest in this Kingdom, my opinion will nevertheless be al­lowed a vote in the Chapter, which may serve to enform such as know less that I, and as for the rest they need no Tutor.

I then left Piedmont to go home a little to refresh my self, and to take some repose, by reason of a great distemper I was fallen into: but what just occasion soever I might have to ask it,The Sieur de Montluc re­turns into Gas­cony. I had nevertheless much ado to obtain leave of Monsieur de Brissac, though he at last was pleased to dismiss me, upon my promise speedily to return. At my coming home I found my self honour'd and esteem'd of all the greatest persons of the Country. My name was up, and therefore for one thing I had done they would perswade me I had done four: Report goes evermore encreasing; and also at the time Piedmont was the only Scene in vogue for a Nursery of war. I did not however continue long idle at home, my Masters neither giving me leisure, nor my own disposition enclining me so to do, I having ever proposed to my self by the way of Arms to arrive to all the degrees of honour, to which man can attain; and you who are Gentlemen born ought to consider that God has sent you into the world to bear arms for the service of your Prince and Country, and not to hunt the Hare, and follow after Mistresses; when peace comes you may take your share of pleasures and delights. Every thing in its due time and season.

The End of the Second Book.

THE COMMENTARIES OF Messire Blaize de Montluc, MARESCHAL OF FRANCE. The Third Book.

WHilst the War was kept on foot in Piedmont, after the manner I have before related,Piedmont the Nursery of War. under the conduct of this great Soldier, Mon­sieur de Brissac, who there established so admirable a Military Discipline, that it might with good reason be said to be the best School of War in Europe; they did not sleep in Picardy, Cham­pagne, and Mets, which was at this time besieg'd by the Emperor. There it was that the great Duke of Guise acquir'd immortal glory. I was never more troubled at any thing in my whole life then that I had not the good fortune to see this Siege: but a man cannot be in so many places at once. The King, who desired to discompose the Empe­ror's affairs in Italy, prevail'd so far by the practices and dexterity of some Cardinals of his party,Sienna revolts to the French the 5th of Au­gust, 1552. and of Monsieur de Termes, that he made the Inhabitants of Sienna to revolt, which is a very beatiful and important City in Tuscany, insomuch that the Spanish Gar­rison which was in it was driven out, and the Citadel raz'd to the ground. So soon as these people had thus shak' [...] off the Spanish yoke, and saw themselves at liberty, having set up the Ensigns of France, they were not wanting to themselves in imploring succours and assistance from the King,The Sieur de Strozzy the King's Lieute­nant in the State of Sienna. who accordingly gave the charge thereof to Monsieur de Strozzy, (the same who was afterwards Mareschal) who by the help and concurrence of the King's confederates and friends in those parts drew some forces into the field, being therein assisted by the Signiors Cornelio Bentivoglio, Fregosa, and other Italians, with the Sieurs de Termes, and de Lansac; where, though he had all the Forces of the Emperor and the Great Duke of Florence to deal withall, he nevertheless carried himself with so much bravery and conduct, as to make head against the Marquis de Marignano, who prosecu­ted the War with might and main. Notwithstanding which Monsieur de Strozzy in de­spight of him took several little Towns belonging to the State of Sienna, the particulars whereof I shall not meddle withal, forasmuch as I was not there present: but, by what I have heard, he there perform'd several very brave exploits: for the Emperor and the Duke of Florence desired nothing more, than to drive the King out of Italy, out of the appre­hension they had, that having got in a foot, he should afterwards skrew in his whole body: But we never yet knew how to husband our Conquests; I know not what we may do hereafter, though I fear that matter will never be mended, at least I see no signs of it yet; God grant I may be mistaken.

Monsieur de Strozzy then sent to the King to aquaint him, that it was not possible for him both to keep the field,Want of a Go­vernor in Sien­na. and to govern in Sienna too, and that therefore he most hum­bly besought his Majesty to make choice of some person in whom he might safely confide to command in the Town, so long as he should continue in the field. The King having receiv'd this dispatch, call'd for the Constable, Monsieur de Guise, and the Mareschal de [Page 116] St. André, where he acquainted them with Monsieur de Strozzy's request, desiring them to name each of them one for this employment; for all things past through the hands of these three, and nothing was determin'd without them. All our Kings have ever had this trick, to suffer themselves to be govern'd by some particular men, and perhaps too much, so that it looks sometimes as if they stood in awe of their own subjects. Of these the Constable stood in the highest degree of favour, and was ever more belov'd by the King than any other; he therefore first nam'd his man, Monsieur d [...] Guise another, and the Mareschal a third. Which having done the King said to them, you have none of you nam'd Montluc, A dispute about the nomination of Monsieur de Mon [...]luc for the Government of Si [...]nua. to which Monsieur de Guise made answer, that it was out of his head, and the Mareschal said the same, Monsieur de Guise moreover adding, if) you name Mont­luc I have done, and shall speak no more of him I nominated before; nor I said the Mares­chal, who has since related to me the whole debate. The Constable then stood up, and said, that I was by no means proper for this employment, as being too humorous, pee­vish, and passionate, to which the King made answer, that he had ever observ'd and known me to be peevish and passionate, upon the account of his service only, when I saw h [...]m not serv'd so well as he ought to be, and that he had never heard I ever had a quarrel with any one upon my own particular account. Monsieur de Guise and the Ma­reschal said also the same, adding moreover that I had already been Governor both of Montcallier and Alba, without so much as any one man's opening his mouth to com­plain of my Administration; and that also had I been a person of that temper, the Ma­reschal de Briss [...]c. would never have lov'd and favour'd me at the rate he did, not have reposed so great a confidence in me as he had ever done. The Constable hereupon answered very roundly again, and made good his former objection with great vehemency, and would by all means that the person he had nominated should stand: for he was impati­ent of being controverted, and more of being over-rul'd; neither indeed did he ever much love me, nor any of his. The Cardinal of Lorrain was there present, who may better remember than I, who it was that the Constable nam'd: but (if I be not deceiv'd) it was Boccal, who is since turn'd Hugonot: however in the end the King would carry it, having Monsieur de Guise and the Mareschal de St. André on his side, and dispatch't a­way a Courier to the Mareschal de Brissac to send me into Avignon, where accordingly I staid expecting a Gentleman his Majesty sent to me, who brought my dispatch to go presently away to Sienna.

Now the Mareschal had some dayes before given me leave to retire to my own house, by reason of a sickness I was fallen into, as I have said elsewhere; who had no mind to do it, as he himself confest to me since; and has done me the honor to tell me, that had he known of what importance the loss of me, would have been to him, he would nat have so commended me to the King as he had done, and that in his life he never repented any thing so much as the letting me depart from him, telling me of a great many things wherein he had not been so well served after my departure out of Piedmont. Monsieur de Cossé, President Birague, and several others can witness how oft they have heard him lament any abs [...]nce, especially when matters did not succeed according to his desire. And if any one will take the pains to consider what I perform'd while I was there under his Command, he will find that what I say is very true, and that he had some reason to regret me. I was alwayes at his feet, and at his head. I will not say nevertheless, that any thing would have been better done for my being there: but however I must needs speak the truth, and there are who can say more if they please.

He then writ a Letter to the King,Advice of the Mareschal de Brissac to the King concern­ing his nomi­nation of the Sieur de Mont­luc for the Go­vernment of Sienna. and another to the Constable, wherein he sent his Majesty word, that he had made a very ill choice of me to command in Sienna, for that I was one of the most cross-grain'd chollerick f [...]llows in the whole world, and such a one as that for half the time I had been with him, he had been necessitated to suffer much from me, knowing my imperfections. That indeed I was very good for the main­taining of discipline and justice in an Army, to command in the field, and to make the Soldiers to fight: but that the humour of the Siennois consider'd, it would be fire to fire, which would be the only means to lose that State, which was to be preserv'd by gentleness and moderation. He moreover entreated the Constable to remonstrate as much to the King, and in the mean time dispatcht a Courier to me, who found me very sick, by whom he sent me word, that the King would send me to Sienna; but, that as a friend of mine, he advised me not to accept of that employment,The Mareschal de Brissac's▪ pollicy to de­tein Monsieur de Montluc, entreating me not to forsake him, to go serve elsewhere under another, and assuring me withal, that if any Command hapned to be vacant in Piedmont, that I had more mind to than what I al [...]eady had, I should have it; which were all artifices to detein me.

O that a wise Lieutenant of a Province ought to have an eye, and to take heed of losing [Page 107] a man in whom he may absolutely confide, and whom he knows to be a man of valour, and ought to spare nothing that he may keep him; for oftentimes one man alone can do much. You must eat a great deal of Salt with a man before you can rightly known him; and in the mean time you are depriv'd of him with whom you were throughly acquainted, in whom you reposed your trust, and of whose fidelity you have already had sufficient proof. The said Mareschal had moreover sent word to the King, that I was in Gascony very sick, and in the morning as the Letters were read, the Constable, who was mighty well pleased with the contents, said to the King, Did not I tell your Majesty as much, you find the Mareschal to be of the same opinion, and no man living can know Montluc bet­ter than he who has so often seen him at work. To which the King (who naturally lov'd me, and had ever done so, after he had seen my behaviour at the Camisado of Bullen) reply'd, that although all those of his Council should speak against me, yet should they prevail nothing by it: for it was his nature to love me, and that he would not after his election let them all say what they would. Monsieur de Guise then spake and said, here is a letter very full of contradictions: for in the first place the Mareschal de Brissac says that Montluc is cross­gain'd and cholerick and that he will never suit with the Sie [...]nois, but will ruine your ser­vice if you send him thither; and on the other side commends him for qualities that are re­quired in a man of command, to whom the trust of great things is to be committed: for he speaks him:Cholerick men the be a man of an exact discipline, and great justice, and fit to make the Soldiers fight in great Enterprizes and Executions; and who ever saw a man endued with all these good qualities, that had not a mixture of Choller amongst them? Such as are indifferent whe­ther things go well or ill may indeed be without passion, and as to the rest, since Sir your Ma­jesty has your self made the Election, I humbly conceive you ought not revoke it. The Ma­reschal de St. André spake next, and said, Sir, what the Mareschal de Brissac complains of you may easily correct, by writing to Montluc, that your self having made choice of his person above all others for this employment, he must for your sake at much at he can govern his pas­sion, having to do with such a fickle [...]headed people as those of Sienne. To which the King made answer, that he did not fear but that after he had writ me a letter, I would do as he should command me; and immediately thereupon dispatcht away a Courrie: to me to my own house, by whom he sent me word, that although I should be sick, I must nevertheless put my self upon my way to go directly to Marseilles, where I should meet my dispatch, and should there embark my self with the Germans that the Rhinceroc brought, and ten com­panies of French foot, to which place he would also send me money for my journey, and that I must for a while leave my passion behind me in Gascony, and a little accommodate my self to the humor of that people. The Courrier found me at Agen very sick, and under the Physicians hands, notwithstanding which I told him, that in eight dayes I would begin my journey, which I did, and verily thought I should have dyed at Tholouse, from whence by the advice of the Physicians I was to return back again, which I would not do: but caused my self to be hall'd along as far as Montpellier, where I was again ad­vised by the Physicians to go no further,Cholerick Captains more valiant than o­thers. they assuring me that if I ventur'd to proceed on my journey I should never come alive to Marseilles: but whatever they could say, I was resolv'd to go on so long as life lasted, come on't what would, when just as I was going away there came another Courrier from the King to hasten me, and from day to day I recovered my health in travelling; so that when I came to Marseilles I was with­out comparison much better than when I parted from my own house.

In plain truth the King my good Master had reason to defend my cause, for my cho­ler was never prejudicial to his service, it has indeed been sometimes prejudicial to my self and some others, who would not avoid not comply with my humour. I never lost Place, Battail, nor Rencounter, nor ever was the occasion of losing any one of his Subjects; my choler never so far transported me as to do any thing prejudicial to his service, and if it be violent and prompt, it is the sooner gone: I have ever observ'd that such people are bet­ter to be employ'd than any other, for they have no malice in them, nor no dangerous re­servations, and if they be more suddain, they are also more valiant than those who by their moderation would appear to be more wise: but leaving this discourse I shall return to my voyage.

At my coming to Marseilles I found that the Baron de la Garde was already departed with the Army to go to Argiers, The Siege of Sienna was in the year 1555. there to prevail with the King of Argier to convoy him with his Fleet, forasmuch as the said Baron had been advertized, that Prince Auria lay waiting for him with a great Navy to intercept him by the way; and the Kings Fleet of it self was not strong enough to undertake him, which was the reason that we delayed the time for a few days. So soon then as the Baron arrived, having the Argier Fleet with him,The Baron de la Garde. we embarkt our selves at Toulon, and by the way met eight of nine Vessels laden with Corn, la Garde [Page 118] that came out of Sicily, and was going for Spain, which the Baron caused to be set on fire, excepting two that he took along with him for the support of his Army, and so went on to Port' H [...]rcole, at which place we could not possibly land, forasmuch as the Marquis de Marignano lay with his Camp near unto the way by which we were of necessity to pass to go to Sienna. We were therefore constrain'd to reimbark our men, and to fall back, to land with greater safety, near to Escarlin, where Monsieur de Strozzy lay with his Camp.The Prior of Capua slain. We there heard news that the Prior of Capua had but two days before been slain in viewing Escarlin, which was a very great loss, he being as brave a man as liv'd, both by land and sea, and a true Servant of the Kings. He was Brother to Monsieur de Strozzy, and it was said, was kill'd by the hand of a Peasant, that fir'd a Harquebuz at him from behind a Bush. Behold what a sad misfortune this was, that so great a Captain should perish by the hand of a Rascal with his fire stick. And so we marcht on to Bonconvent, Monsieur de Strozzy going always a little before us for conveniency of victual, and there all the Army joyn'd together.

Before the Germans and the French arriv'd at the said Bonconvent, Monsieur de Stroz­zy went out in the morning before, with the three thousand Grisons (of which Mon­sieur de Fourcavaux was Colonel) and the Italians, to make room for the Germans and French who had need to lye and rest an hour or two. I went over night to wait upon Mon­sieur de Strozzy, and in the morning departed with him, that I might come betimes to Sienna; where we found Monsieur de Lansac, who at our coming treated Monsieur de Strozzy, Monsieur de Fourcavaux and me at dinner. At the coming up of the Grisons and Italians there hapned a great skirmish at St. Bonde, a Monastery of Nuns near unto St. Mark another Monastery of Religieux. The Mareschal de Marignano lay with his Camp at the Palace of Diau which is upon the road to Florence, within a little mile of Sienna, and this very morning had raised his Camp to go to St. Bonde, there to assault Captain Bartolmeo de Pesera, whom Monsieur de Strozzy with his Company had quart [...]r [...]d at that place. The said Marquis had left his Italians at the said Palace of Diau, and taken all his Spaniards and Germans along with him,The Skirmish before Si [...]nna. and as we were at dinner the skirmish began very br [...]sk and round at St. Bonde. The Grisons and Italians halted at la Palassot, half a mile from Sienna, and our Italians also, by the command or Monsieur de Strozzy, to the end that he might both the sooner determine where he should lodge the Army, and al­so because he would, that before they should be lodg'd, the Germans and the French should be come up, that they might all at once sit down in their Quarters: but before we had made an end of dinner, we heard some little pieces go off at St. Bonde, that the Marquis had thither taken along with him. At which I said to Monsieur de Strozzy, Sir, the skirmish grows very loud, and is mixt with Artillery, they will deprive you of Captain Bartolomeo de Pesera, pray let us go see what they are doing; to which he replyed, let us go then, and we must go however to see where we are to lodge the Camp. Monsieur de Lan­sac lent me a gray Turk, for I had not brought my horses by sea; and I then asked Mon­sieur de Strozzy if he were pleased that I should go see what the business was, whilst he with Messieurs de Lansac and de Fourcavaux went to take order about lodging the Camp? to which he answered, with all his heart; and so we went out at the Port St. Mark. I went then directly to the place where the skirmish was, and they a little on the right hand to see where they should lodge the Army. So soon as I was on the other side the Tresse, where the skirmish was, I there found not so much as one Captain; so that the skirmish lookt like a very disorderly business, and the Enemy had got the advantage of our people; for they had drawn them from the little hills near unto St. Bonde, and driven them to the Medows that lye upon the banks of the River Tresse. At my arrival I askt for the Captains, but met not one that own [...]d that title, from whence a great disorder ensu'd: but upon the instant I saw one coming upon a gray horse, and gallopt pre­sently up to him, to ask him if he was a Captain or no, who told me he was; I then askt him his name, to which he made answer, Io mj chiamo Marioul de Santa Fiore, and I said to him. Signior Capitano Io mj chiamo Montluco audiamo ensiemi, Now all the Army had already heard that I was coming with the recruits;Captain Mari­ [...]ul de Santa Fior. so that though we had never seen one anothers faces before, yet we knew one another well enough by our names. I entreated him them to rally his men, and give a charge upon the Enemy, to beat them back again up the H [...]ll, which he did, and we accordingly drave them up to the very top. In the mean while the skirmish extended it self all along the ridge of a Hill, and by the Vineyards directly to the Pall [...]ssot, which is a little Palace, behind which were the Grisons, and on the back of the Mountain a little further the Artillery playd, which the Marquis had brought to St. Bonde. There all the Italian Captains, and Signior Cornelio Bentivoglio, who was there Colonel, were at the corner of the Vineyards looking towards St. [Page 119] Bonde and St. Mark, behind a little Oratory, by which they were covered from the Canon shot.

Now betwixt la Pallassot and the little Oratory it might be about three hundred paces, and Signior Marioul and I so ruffled the Enemy, that we drave the skirmish all along the ridge of the Vineyards directly upon them: I had brought with me Captain Charry, who was my Lieutenant at Alba, with thirty good Soldiers, almost all Gentlemen, who would by no means by left behind with my brother Monsieur de Lioux, to whom the King had given the government of Alba, at the humble request of Monsieur de Valence my Brother, and I had preferred in his behalf. About which there hapned a very great dispute, for the Mareschal de Brissac deferr'd to accept him till he had first had on answer from me; who so soon as he understood the King's resolution to send me to Sienna, he sent me another Courier,The Sieur de Liouz Gover­nor of Alba entreating me not to quit the Government of Alba, and that I might name, either my own Lieutenant, or any other to command in the place till my return, assuring me that he would accept whomsoever I should appoint, and in the mean time would take care that my pay should be kept for me, so that I should not lose so much as a denier; advising me withal to consider, that the Command the King gave me at Sienna would not be of so long continuance as that of Alba. But I most humbly be­sought him to approve of my Brother, ass [...]ring him that he would be as much his effe­ctionate servant as I was, and that if it should please God I ever return'd from Sienna, I swore to come and find him out, and to serve him in the condition of a private Soldier, though the King should not please to conferre any command upon me, that I might have the honor to be near his person. Now to give you an account of the humour of the Ma­reschal, I will say and maintain, that he was one of the bravest Gentlemen, and the best Masters that has been these fifty years in France, for such as he knew to be zealous and affectionate to the King's service; and if President Birague will lay his hand upon his heart, he will swear the same.Character of the Mareschal de Brissac. He was a man that had evermore a greater regard to an­other man's profit than his own, a man could never lose any thing by him, but every man had his share both of advantage and honor, and so to the rest, he lov'd and honor'd a worthy man, even to the meanest Soldier. The best men he knew by their names, and would give ear to the advice of all, without relying too much upon his own head-piece as Monsieur de Lautrec was too much enclin'd to do. But to return to the Skirmish, I found at the Oratory Signior Corneli [...], and Colonel Charamont, whom I had not before seen, since my arrival. Betwixt the said Oratory and la Bonde there is a great High-way, and by the side of it two little houses, some ten or twelve paces distant from one another. In this High-way we gave the Enemy a charge, and gain'd from them the two houses, into one of which Captain Charry put himself, and our Italians into the other, they there conti­nued about three quarters of an hour, almost alwayes fighting, insomuch that the Mar­quis sent thither all his Spanish Harquebuzeers, and even the Italians who were at their Fort of St. Mark, and planted six Ensigns of Spanish foot upon the great High-way to maintain the fight. Now the hottest of the skirmish was on the right hand, and on the left amongst the Vines, so that the Cavalry could do nothing. Signior Cornelio then by the advice of his Captains was about to retire, when I remonstrated to him that he must by no means offer to stir, till first he had some horse, and also the Grisons to make good his retreat, to whom I would presently go, and entreat them to come up half way be­twixt the Pallassot and the Oratory, and would likewise go to request the same of the Count de la Miranda, who was Colonel of the horse, and had halted in a Valley behind a little Wood near unto la Pallassot; which they approv'd of very well; and so I presently ran to the Grisons, entreating them to advance but two hundred paces only; but the Colonel that commanded under Monsieur de Fourcavaux would by no means be perswaded to it. I then spurr'd up to the Count, and pray'd him to send out four Corners of horse, which he presently did, and they were the Count de Pontavala, Cornello, Ioby, the Baron de Rabat, and my Nephew Serillac, who commanded the Com­pany of Monsieur de Cipierre. Now as the Cornets were advancing at a good round gal­lop, I saw Signior Cornelio, who at the importunity of his Captains was again begining to retire, and presently ran to him, remonstrating that the six Ensigns were upon their march, and that they were Spaniards, whose colours being so large, it was a sign the Mar­quis was there in person with all his Army, who would infallibly charge him so soon as ever he should begin to descend the Hill, entreating him therefore to return back to the same place, which he did, being departed from it not above thirty paces. I then return'd to the Corners, and stopt them in the mid-way betwixt the Pallassot and the Oratory, which having done, I once more went to the Grisons, who after I had made them sen­sible of the danger we were in to lose all the Officers, arose and began to strike up their [Page 120] Drums, and marcht up close by the Horse. The Marquis seeing the Cavalry and the Gri­sons begin to appear in the field, thought it now convenient to withdraw his six Ensigns out of the great High-way; there was not one Officer of ours on horseback but my self and Signior Marioul, who never stirred from my side, so that I could plainly see all the Enemy did: I then said to Signior Cornelio, Look you Sir, the Spanish Ensigns having discovered our Cavalry, and the Grisons are facing about, now charge them home, for now it is time: which being said, Signiour Marioul alighted, and clapt a Target to his arm, having his sword in his hand; I then said to Captain Charry, that he was now to shew what he had ever been, and must let these strangers see what a Gascon could do, bid­ding him be sure to charge in before them all. Monsieur de Fourcavaux had brought four hundred Italian Harquebuzeers from Parma, very brave men, who were drawn up close by the Oratory (for my part) I will not make my self more valiant than I am, for I a­lighted not, I already began to play the King's Lieutenant, and we divided the men to the right and left, all along a great High-way, and there we made our charge, which was a brave one, if ever any was, and such that we drave them as far as a descent on the left hand of St. Bonde, where the Marquis stood with the remainder of his Spaniards and Germans, and being the Spaniards stood just upon the edge of the ascent, those who were put to flight rusht quite through them, and both one and the other ran full drive upon the Germans. The Marquis who saw the torrent of this disorder coming upon him, be­gan, as well as he could, to retire by a Valley, without sound of Trumpet, or beat of Drum. Those who were come out of St. Marks, retreated also in very great haste, car­rying off with them the four little pieces with which they had batter'd St. Bonde, into their Fort. The Marquis told me after, when I came out of Sienna, as he accompanied me two miles from the Town, that had we follow'd the pursuit we had put all his Army to flight, and given him a total defeat: but we were not aware of his disorder; we thought our selves very happy, that we had come off so good cheap; and our Enemies thought themselves happier than we.

Monsieur de Strozzy, who was in a Valley on the other side the Port St. Mark, as he was consulting with Messieurs de Lansac and de Fourcavaux about the situation of the Camp, heard very well that there was a very great skirmish; but he knew that all the Captains were there, and that I was also gone thither; neither did they ever imagine it had been half so sharp as it was; but in the end hearing it grow so loud, they left all and came gallopping to us; yet could they not come time enough to the charge, which the said Monsieur de Strozzy was very much troubled at, and something discontented that no notice had been given him of the fight, and Monsieur de Fourcavaux was the same, foras­much as the Grisons, of which he was the chief Officer, were come up just to fight, and that his Harquebuzeers had fought. But I excus'd it to them both, telling them that I had never a horse-man with me, but Signior Marioul, and that he was too brave a Gentleman to leave the skirmish, having besides three or four Ensigns under his com­mand, wherefore it had not been possible for me to send them word. Now Monsieur de Strozzy at his rising from dinner had sent away Signior Roberto his Brother in all haste, to cause the Franch and Germans to advance, which he did, and found the Germans be­ginning to drink,The Germans are eating and drinking in the midst of the skirmish. and consequently could not suddainly get them from the Tables; for the said Signior de Strozzy had caused meat to be set ready for them upon the great High-way, which had he not done they had held on their march, and just in the nick had come into the heat of the fight, and so the Battail had been won; but we must say with the Italian. Fa me indevino, & io ti daro denari. This was that which was done the first day that I arriv'd at Sienna, where I so signaliz'd my self to the Siennois, and all the Italian Captains, that knew me not before, as purchased me a very great esteem, both with the Inhabitants of the City and the whole Army; for by running up and down amongst the foot now here, now there, ordering these on the one side, and those on the other, I gave them to understand that this was not the fist skirmish by a hun­dred wherein I had been engag'd.

The Mareschal then lodg'd his Camp betwixt Porto Novo and Porto Tuffo, in the beautiful Suburbs that are there, and not only there, for I dare boldly say, that if the Suburbs of Sienna had stood altogether, they would have been bigger than the City; for in the Suburbs were more goodly Palaces, and finer Churches and Monasteries than there were in the body of the Town. The next morning Monsieur de Strozzy carried us up to that part of the wall looking towards the Enemies Camp, where we fell into consul­tation ,A Consultati­on held at Si­enna about fighting a Bat­tail▪ whether or no it were good to hazard a Battail; and there the opinions were va­rious, some thinking it the best, and others conceiving it not convenient so to do. Those who were of opinion that we ought not to fight objected, that we could not go to the [Page 121] Palace of Diau, without passing close by a little Fort the Marquis had made, betwixt the little observance and the aforesaid Palace, where there was three or four pieces of great Artillery (as it was true), and that leaving that behind, we should also leave our own Fort of Camolia naked of defence. I then propounded that for any harm the Artillery of the little Fort could do us, we could pass by a little before day, and might leave an Ensign or two to bridle the little Fort from daring to sally out, and as for the Fort of Camolia, we could leave three or four Companies of the City to keep them likewise in aw,The Sieur de Montluc's ad­vice. and that I on my part with the rest of the Forces of the City would go out by Porto Fontebrando, and should by break of day to got to the top of a little Mountain, ready to present my self in the Plain at so opportune a time, that just as our Camp should appear near to theirs, I should at the same instant be got so near them, that they must of ne­cessity enter into some apprehension, to see us come the one on the one side, and the o­ther on the other.

The Siennois made account that they could draw four thousand good men out of the Town. There were some who approv'd of my proposal, and of the Siennois also which was to fight; and others were of a contrary opinion. The Game could not be plaid without being lustily disputed,The Forces of the Marquis of Marignan. for the Marquis had three Tertia's of Spaniards, namely that the Sicily, that of Naples, and that of Corsica (which we call Regiments) the two first composed of old Soldiers, and that of Corsica of new-raised men (wherein neverthe­less there were very good Soldiers) together with two Regiments of Germans, each of them containing twelve Ensigns, and four or five thousand Italians. As to the Cavalry I think ours would have beaten theirs, for we had very good Officers, and very brave Light­horse ; and for the rest, our Army consisted of ten Ensigns of Germans, ten of Grisons, fourteen of French, The French Forces. and betwixt five and six thousand Italians. Of all this day Mon­sieur de Strozzy could not resolve what to do, by reason of the diversity of opinions, ne­vertheless I think he was resolv'd the next day to have fought them; for the Siennols were stark mad of fighting, and I do believe fighting for their liberty would have playd the devils:The Marquis de Marignan dislodges his Camp. But the Marquis either had some knowledge of his intent, or else his design was not to stay any longer there; for he departed an hour before day in the morning; so that had God inspir'd Monsieur de Strozzy, that he had this day gone out to fight, we had in the morning found them all dislodg'd, and had fought them upon their retreat, and in disorder: but I must repeat what I said before, Fa me indevino, & io ti daro denari.

The Marquis took the way towards Mauchaut, where the Mareschal had left four Ensigns, or else the Marquis held it, who went to another place hard by, and Monsieur de Strozzy directly to Mauchaut, I do not certainly remember whether: but so it was that their Camps lay eight or nine days within seven or eight miles of one another, the one going to take some place, and the other following after to relieve it. Nevertheless the Marquis at last arrived before Mauchaut, and began to batter either to take or re­take it. I was not there, for I staid behind at Sienna, according to the King's intention, and in relation to my command; yet had it not been for a sickness that I began to fall into, I do believe Monsieur de Strozzy would have taken me along with him, and have left Monsieur de Lansac Governor, as before; but in the end, as Monsieur de Strozzy march't away, Monsieur de Lansac took his way towards Rome, to acquit himself of his Commission of Ambassador.Monsieur de Lansac goes Ambassador to Rome. So soon as the Marquis was sensible of Monsieur de Strozzy's coming, he gave place, and drawing off his Attillery, plac't himself a little on the right hand, at the distance of a hundred and fifty or two hundred paces from the Town, where he made his advantage of two or three little Mountains, under which lie entrencht himself on that side by the Fountains. Monsieur de Strozzy then came and encampt his Army all along a hollow way that there was betwixt the Marquis and the Town. Now Monsieur de Strozzy plac't himself so near in design to fight the Marquis, if he could once tempt him out of this Trenches, and there they lay seven or eight days to see which should first dislodge. The Marquis knew very well, that in case he should first move, Monsieur de Strozzy would infallibly fight him; and therefore would by no means be drawn to do it, being expresly forbid to put any thing to hazard, as we were after told by Don Iuan de Luna Don Iuan de Luna. himself, who was present with the Marquis at that time, and in his own person, a very brave Spaniard.

Now betwixt the two Camps there was no more than the breadth of one little field, and that not above fifty paces over, wherein there daily hapned skirmishes betwixt the foot of both Armies, and so disadvantageous to us, that we always came off with the worse, by reason of the Artillery the Marquis had planted upon the three forementioned little Mountains; so that Monsieur de Strozzy lost more men by their Canon than by their smaller sho [...]. The said Sieur de Strozzy was possest of one Fountain only, upon [Page 122] which the Ar [...]illery from one of the Mountainers continually playd, and kill'd a great many men; so that they were constrain'd to [...]etch all their water by night; neither could he ever draw up his Cavalry into Battalia,The Fench very much an­noy'd by the Enemies Ca­non. but that the great shot did great execution up­on them, and I was told that in three or four dayes time he had above sixscore men and horses kill'd, insomuch that our Cavalry was infinitely discourag'd, and the foot also very much baffled and out of heart. Notwithstanding all which Monsieur de Strozzy per­sisted obstinate not to remove his Quarters, and that both out of the hope he had that the Marquis would first d [...]slodge, and give him an opportunity to fight him, as also out of punctilio, that he would not give him that advantage, as the first to forsake his ground. Both the one and the other of these Generals had mettle enough, and both of them had glory in their prospect: but it is better to do one's Masters business, than to stand upon nicities of honor; I mean if there be no manifest shame in the case.

Monsieur de Strozzy every day sent an account of all he did, both to me and to the Senat, as we also met every day in Council to debate upon what he writ to us, and I eve­ry hour advised, and entreated him not to consume his Forces with continual loss, which would encourage the Enemies Soldiers, and dishearren his own: the Lords of the Senate likewise counsel'd h [...]m the same; but he had so passionate a desire to fight with the Mar­quis, that that longing alone blinded his judgment, and depriv'd him of the knowledge of his daily loss. I dy'd with desire to go to him, but the Senate would by no means consent unto it: at last he writ me word, that within two dayes he would retire in the face of the Enemy, directly to Lusignano, whereupon I immediately dispatcht away a Gentleman to him, who was present when the Letter came, called the Sieur de Lescussan, by him entreating and conjuring him not to make his retreat by day, since the loss in the skirmishes had hapned on his side (for by ill fortune our poeple had lost more the two last dayes, than of all the time before [...] and that whoever might advise him to the con­trary, I begg'd of him to be rul'd by me, and to retire by night, for it was no more than two miles to Lusignano; The Sieur de Montluc's ad­vice to Mon­sieur de Stroz­zy upon his re­solution to re­treat in the face of the E­nemy. beseeching him withall to remember that King Francis had re­treated from before Landrecy after this manner, and was so far from being condemn'd for so doing, that on the contrary he was highly applauded for it, and it was lookt upon by all the Princes and Potentates of Christendome for the most prudent thing he ever did; yet had he sustain'd no loss by skirmishes. I gave him moreover to understand, that hitherto I had never seen a good retreat made after this manner, neither by Friend nor Enemy, if they who made it were closely pursued. I further represented to him the re­treat that Messieurs de Montegean and de Boissy would make at Brignolles, who would not be perswaded to retire without seeing the Enemy, for all the Captains who were pre­sent with them could do or say, which was the cause they were defeated within less than half a mile of their Quarters. I also set before him the exemple of Monsieur d' Anne­baut, at that time Mareschal of France, at Theroanne, of Monsieur d' Aussun at Carignan, and several others:Retreats at the head of an Ar­my dangerous. and that since so great a Prince, and so great a Soldier, as King Francis was, had by all the world been commended for that discreet way of proceeding, he ought to take him for his president, considering also that so many valiant Leaders had lost themselves in retreating at the head of an Army; and that by such a loss (if it should so unhappily fall out) he might guess what would become of the City of Sienna. In short Monsieur de Lesussan brought me word, that once Monsieur de Strozzy was re­solv'd to do it after his sort,Thom. d' Albene the cause of Monsieur de Strozzy's mis­fortune. and had it not been for one unlucky fellow called Thomas d' Albene he had with him, he had retreated after the manner I advised: but as there are some men in the world, whom God has appointed to do good, so has he created o­thers to do mischief, as he did this Thomas; for he represented to Monsieur de Strozzy so many things, and so preacht what a dishonor it would be to him to steal away by night, that in the end he made him to alter his determination; who thereupon sent me word that he was resolv'd to make his retreat in the face of the Enemy: Whereas before, to let me see that he was resolv'd to follow my advice, he had at one of the clock in the night sent away two pieces of Canon he had with him straight to Lusignano; at which place I do believe they were already arriv'd (for it was but two little miles) before he al­tered his resolution. It was four of the clock in the morning before Monsieur de Les­cussan parted from him, who brought me his determination, and arriv'd at seven of the clock in the morning a la mode de France. This hapned to be in August, and presently I sent to the Senate, desiring them all to meet me at the Palace, for that I had something of importance to deliver them,The Sieur de Montluc sick. which they did. Now my sickness was still more and more encreast upon me, and was at last turn'd into a continued Feavor, with a Flix, not­withstanding which about nine of the clock I came to the Palace, where I began a Speech to them in Italian, which I spoke better then than I can write it now, which is one rea­son [Page 123] why I have here set it down in French, as also to the end that the Gentlemen of Gascony, who few of them understand that Language, and shall read my Book, as I am confident they will, may not be put to the trouble to have it interpreted to them. I very well remember what I said, and do truly believe I do not miss ten words, for my dis­course was only what was dictated to me by nature, without any help of Art.

The Sieur de Montluc's Ha­rangue to the people of Sien­na.

I have requested you to this Assembly, that I might remonstrate to you four things, which I conceive to be very important to your conservation, and have been moved so to do, by reason that Monsieur de Strozzy has this night sent me word by Monsieur de L'Escussan of the resolution he has taken this morning to retreat in o­pen day to Lusignano, in the very face of his Enemy. You all know very well what perswasions and intreaties we have used, that he would take heed of retreating after this manner, and particularly what arguments and exemples I laid before him by the said Sieur de l'Escussan, which he relisht very well at first, and was once resolv'd to do as King Francis did before Landrecy; nevertheless, by I know not what misfortune, he suffers himself to be carried away by a man he has with him, one Thomas d'Albene, who has made him alter his determination, by making him believe that to retreat by night would be dishonourable to him: God grant the ill counsel of this man do not prove dishonourable and ruinous both to him and to you also. Now Gentlemen, whilst we are in expectation what will be the issue of this Battail, I have four things to remon­strate to you. The first, and which most nearly concerns you, is, that you will please to call to mind, that you are Soveraigns in your own Republick, that your Predecessors from Father to Son have left you this honorable Title: that this War aims at nothing but the ruine of that Soveraignty; for if the Enemy remain victorious, you are to hope for no other, than from Soveraigns to be converted into Subjects, and Slaves; and that therefore it is much better for you to die with your arms in your hands in the defence of this honorable Title, than tamely to part with your Birth-right, and to outlive the loss of your Priviledges and Liberty with shame and infamy. The second is, that you will consider the friendship the King my Master has towards you, who pretends to no other advantage from you, than that your amity be reciprocal to his, and that since he has generously taken you into his protection, you will have this confidence in him, that he will never forsake you: for should you go less in your resolution for one little blow of fortune, consider with what contempt the whole world will look upon you; there is not a Prince upon the earth that will aid and assist you, should they once disover you to be a m [...]table and irresolute people.The Sieur de Montluc presa­ges the loss of the Battail. For all these considerations therefore I be­seech you to continue firm and constant, and approve your selves magnanimous and faithful in adversity, when you shall hear news of the loss of the Battail, which I ve­ry much fear you will soon do, considering the resolution Monsieur de Strozzy has ta­ken, though God of his goodness divert the misfortune. The third is, that you will consider in what a height of reputation your forefathers liv'd and dy'd, which also they have left you to inherit, that you may for ever carry the name of the most vali­ant and warlike people of all Italy, and have moreover left behind them honorable memory of the Battails they have won of those of their own Nation. You also derive your selves from the antient warlike Romans, and pretend to be their true legitimate Sons, giving their antient arms, which is the Wolf with Romulus and Remus, Founders of their proud City, the Metropolis of the World.Monsieur de Montlue is a little mistaken in this point, for the Siennois are not descen­ded from the antient Romans but from the Gauls. I therefore most earnestly beseech you Gentlemen, that you will call to mind who you are, and what your Progenitors have ever been; which title of honor should you once lose, what a shame and infamy would it be to your famous Ancestors, and what cause will your children have to curse the hour that ever they were descended of such Fathers, who have abandon'd their Liberty, to submit their necks to the yoke of servitude and subjection? The fourth thing I have to trouble you withal is to remonstrate to you, that as I have an entire confidence, you will manifest your valour and vertue upon this occasion, you in order thereunto will suddainly think of making provision of all things necessary to the conservation of your City; for the Battail I already give you for lost, not that it will nevertheless pro­ceed from any default in Monsieur de Strozzy, but from the losses we have sustein'd in the several skirmishes that have been fought before Mauchaut, it being impossible by reason thereof, but that our people must be mightily Crest-fallen and dejected, and those of the Enemy in greater heart and courage. 'Tis an effect of victory to be exalt­ed, and fear is the issue of misfortune and disgrace; neither do the little losses in skir­mishes, which are the usual forerunners of a Battail, ever portend any thing but disaster and ruine. On the other side also, those who retire must of necessity shew their backs [Page 124] to the Enemy; where, although they often face about, yet must they still make for­wards, where it will be impossible but they must meet with some hedge or ditch, o­ver which they must of necessity pass in disorder; for upon a Retreat every one will strive to be foremost,Fear ever ac­companies a Re [...]eat. because fear and terror are the ordinary concomitants of those who would retire; and for never so little disorderly haste they shall make all will be lost, if the Enemy have but half the courage that men should have. Remember (Gentle­men) the Battail that Hannibal gain'd of the Romains at Cannee near to Rome. The Battail of Canuce. The Romans who were at home in the City never suspected it possible that their people should be beaten, and therefore made no kind of provision, nor took any order in their affairs; so that when news came of the defeat, they were strook into so great a terror, that the Gates of Rome remain'd for three dayes and three nights wide open, not a man so much as daring to go shut them; so that had Hannibal pursued his vi­ctory, he might without any opposition have entred the City; as Titus Livie reports in his History. Therefore (Gentlemen) give present order for the securing of your Gates, and appoint men to guard them, which you must also choose out of those of best re­pute for the bravest and most faithful amongst you: In the next place cause procla­mation to be made throughout the Ci [...]y, that all those who have Corn or Meal at the Mills, shall make haste to get their Corn ground, and bring it all into the City. Cause also all those who have grain, or any other sorts of ptovision in the Villages immediately to fetch it into the Town, upon penalty of having it burnt, or put to sack if by to mor­row night it be not all brought within the walls; and all this to the end that we may have wherewith to support our selves, and maintain the Siege till the succours the King will send us shall arrive; for he is not so inconsiderable a Prince, but that as he has had the power to send you these aids that are already come, he is yet able to send you more; and moreover command your three Standard-bearers to have all their Companies in a readiness at the beat of Drum. My Fever pressing upon me, I am constrain'd to retire to my lodging, in expectation of such news as God shall please to send us, and you I hope in the mean time will take present order about such things as I have put you in mind of, in which assurance, for the service of the King my Master, and particularly your own, I make you a tender not only of the little experience God has given me, but more­over of my life for the defence of your City, and the antient priviledges thereof.

Thus then I departed from them, who immediately resolv'd to have patience in what fortune soever God should be pleased to send them, and to eat to their very children, before they would for any misfortune that should befall them, depart from the Amity and Protection of the King of France. I perceived both by their countenance and their speeches, that they were a people very well resolv'd to defend their liberty, and to pre­serve inviolate the friendship they had promised and sworn to me. A resolution at which indeed I was mightily well pleased. They immediately then caused proclamation to be made, upon which every one ran to the field to fetch in what they had, and about five a clock in the Evening arrived Captain Cambas, Camp-Master to the French Infantry, who came to bring me news that the Battail was lost, and Monsieur de Strozzy wounded to death,Monsieur de Strozzy de­feated the 3d of August 1 [...]55. whom they had laid upon Poles to carry him to Montalsin, and that that very night all those of the Army who had escap't the Battail would be at the Gates of Sienna. I leave any one to judge what a condition I was in, being sick of a Fever and a Dissente­ry, seeing our General dead, or what was as bad, it being not above fourteen or fifteen dayes since I arrived in this Republick, not having any acquaintance with any one person in the City, and consequently not knowing who were good Frenchmen, and who were not. Time is requir'd to the knowledge of men. Monsieur de Strozzy had left me but five Italian Companies, of which I did not know so much as one Captain, and those he had left in the Citadel and the Fort of Camolia, which were the Keys of the City. I then sent Captain Cambas to carry the news to the Senate, who were nothing dismai'd at it, but told him that three or four dayes before I had remonstrated to them, that this re­treat would be dangerous; and that although by what I had said to them they had give [...] the Battail for lost, they would nevertheless nothing after the good inclination they had for the King, nor despair of being reliev'd by him.

Do not think it strange (fellow Captains) if foreseeing the loss of a Battail, I also fore­told it to the Siennois, which I did, not to dishearten, but to assure them, to the end that the sudden news thereof might not strike a general astonishment throughout the whole City; 'twas this mad them resolve, this made them take counsel to prepare themselves▪ and in my opinion men do better in expecting the worst, than in being over confident of their Fortune. Upon what I had said to them every one put on a resolution to die in the [Page 125] defence of their walls, and every thing was presently brought into the City. At break of day in the morning the Infantry arriv'd, for Cavalry were gone away with Monsieur de Strozzy; neither had there indeed at Sienna been any thing for the horses to eat. Co­lonel Rheincroc, and Signior Cornelio Bentivoglio came to my lodgings, where amongst us it was determin'd, that the Rheincroc should out of ten Ensigns that he had make six Signior Cornelio six of Italians, and Captain Cambas six of French, and that all the rest should be sent away to Montalsin. The Foot were never permitted to enter the Town, till first the Election was made, and with the remainder we also sent away five Ensigns of Italians to goe to the said Montalsin: to which place I writ to Monsieur de Strozzy (upon the assurance Signior Cornelio had given me that there was yet hopes of his life) to give him an account of the order I had taken, which he did also very well approve. The Marquis knew not how to follow his victory,The Marquis de Marignan knows not how to make use of his victory. which if he had, all the Army had been cut to pieces, and all the earth could not have sav'd Monsieur de Strozzy from be­ing put to a cruel death by the Duke of Florence. 'Tis the ordinary fault of Conque­rors. You Generals of Armies therefore that shall come after us, learn to be wise at the expence of so many others, and suffer not your selves to be so far transported with joy for the winning of a Battail, that you forget to improve it to the utmost; follow your blow, and do not give your Enemy leisure to recollect himself. The Marquis came not till the next day to Lusignano, for he fear'd lest Monsieur de Strozzy might again rally his Army, considering that he had lost none of his horse, and not knowing him to be wounded, and came not of three dayes before Sienna.

I shall not undertake to give any account how this Battail was fought, nor how it was lost; both because I was not present there, and that also there is some dispute about it, and various reports made of those who had done well and ill. This is like a trial at Law, all parties must be heard before judgment be pronounced: for I have heard the French and the Lansquenets accuse the [...]risons and Italians for behaving themselves ill in this Battail (though they deny it) and the Cavalry much worse.Disputes about the loss of the Battail. Others say, and affirm that there was treachery in the business: for my part I can say nothing to't, for I know nothing but by hearsay; but shall stick to what I said before, that these retreats by day in the face of an Enemy are dangerous, and to be avoided, if possible; or if not, 'tis better to lay all at stake,

Monsieur de Strozzy lay thirteen days without discovering any hopes of life,The diligence of Monsieur de Strozzy▪ which notwithstanding he fail'd not to send out Captains towards Romania to raise new For­ces, and to furnish all the Garrisons upon the Sea Coast, and about Montalsin with foot and horse. He was a man of great vigilancy, diligence, and wisdome; but 'tis imposible to be alwayes fortunate.The Sieur de Montluc sick almost unto death. Now seeing my self reduc't to the last extremity, at the door of death, and given over by all my Physicians, I assign'd over the Government of the City to Signior Cornelio: but Monsieur de Strozzy hearing of my desperate condition, sent away post to Rome for Monsieur de Lansac to come and command there; who accord­ingly being come as far as Montalsin, he was there advised to go by night, and on foot with two Guides and one Servant, and to balk the great high-wayes, by which means he might the better escape the Enemies Guards: but as he was come hard by Sienna, he was there met by some Soldiers who were going to the warre,The Sieur de Lansac taken prisoner. by them taken and carried to the Marquis, and by him sent away to Florence, where he remained prisoner during all the time of the War, and a good while after. The said Sieur de Lansac was in this ve­ry ill advised, for he might have past well enough, had he known how to carry his busi­ness. Had he come I do certainly believe I had died; for I had then had nothing to do, whereas my mind was so wholly taken up with the care of my business, that I had not leisure to think of my disease. Monsieur de Fourqueva [...]x was wounded, and taken prisoner at this Battail, and Captain Balleron Colonel of the French Foot, with several o­thers, to the number of betwixt four and five thousand. 'Twas said that Monsieur de Strozzy in his own person, behav'd himself like a brave and valiant Leader. And this was the success of this unfortunate Battail.

This History may serve for exemple to such as have a vanity in making retreats in the face of an Enemy, and I should ever advise that they would rather put it to the push of a Battail, than to retire after this manner; for I find nothing in the whole practice of Arms so difficult as a retreat. Of this that of the Constable at St. Quentin gives us more­over sufficient proof; a man who in his time had known both how to shew, and teach o­ther Commanders what they ought to do, though such was his misfortune here, that he could not make use of those precepts himself had at other times give to others. Though I must nevertheless needs say, that had he been well seconded by the Captains of Foot, who were without with him, he might perhaps have made his retreat; for they had only [Page 126] needed to hazard three or four hundred Harquebuzeers with the Mareschal de St. André, who might very well have kept the Count d' Aignemont from seeing the disorder that was amongst the Baggage, which was yet mixt with the horse, and he would never have charg'd the said Mareschal, had he been sustein'd by the Harquebuzeers, forasmuch as the said Count had no foot at all,The Constable defeated at St. Quentin. and the Constable had had above half an hours time wherein to be gaining ground, as he had already begun to do, and had recover'd the wood to save his Infantry, and so had retir'd with all the Cavalry to la Fere, by which means they could have lost no more than the Harquebuzeers, and part of the Mareschal's horse only; which it had been much better to do, than to lose the General, and all, as they did. I have since talkt with several of the Foot Officers, who are yet living, and remon­strated to them what a riddle this business was to all men of understanding, telling them that I at the age of eighteen or nineteen only had very well discover'd in the retreat of Captain Carbon and Monsieur de Grammont, at St. [...]ean de Luz, that a small party was to be hazarded to save all, of which I my self had had experience, as I have writ in the beginning: but they excused themselves upon the Camp-Master, and laid all the blame to him, which was all they had to say for themselves. All these exemples I have set down that they may be of use to others for the time to come, and cannot forbear often to repeat, and much to insist upon the fault committed by these kind of retreats, by reason of the great inconveniencies that ensue upon them, to the loss of a Battail. It were not worth so much repentance, if they were resolv'd upon a Battail, and to fight it out, that every one might do his best: but to be beaten when they have a mind to retire, and apparently decline [...]ighting is intolerable.

You Generals and Lieutenants of Provinces may here see of what importance these errors are; when that of St. Quentin put the whole Kingdom in danger, and was the occasion that we quitted all our Conquests; and this put the King's affairs of Italy in a very ill condition. Be not then asham'd to cover your designs with the shades of night, which is so far from being shameful, that it is on the contrary honorable to fool and deceive your Enemy, that watches an opportunity to do you a mischief; and who when the day appears shall find nothing but the empty nest, and the birds flown and gone: it is a much grea­ter shame and dishonor to you to be beaten turning your backs. If you be so nice of your honor [...]ight in good earnest in God's name; [...]it still in your Fort, if it be a place of the least advantage, and there quietly expect either till your Enemy shall be weary of wait­ing upon you, or that he comes to attaque you in your Camp, and so you shall be sure at least to play your game above board as they say.

Now the Marquis lodg'd the Tertia of C [...]sica at the little Observance, the Tertia of Sicily at the Chartreux,The Marquis de Marignan before Sienna. where he entrencht them so well, that we could by no means come to them, and himself with the residue of his Camp remain'd at Arbeirotte, and part of his Cavalry were quarter'd at Bonconvent. He trusted to the Garrison he had in the Fort St. Mark every night to go the Patrouille, and so scour the road on that side towards Fontebrando, that no provision should enter into Sienna; yet could he not order it so, but that there entred Cows and Buffles for six weeks together. I think the thing that made the Marquis proceed with so much leisure and moderation, was that he waited for my death, and that of Monsieur de Strozzy; making account that we being once dead, and Messieurs de Lansac and de Fourqueva [...]x taken prisoners, our people wanting a French-man to head them would deliberate to retire:The hopes of the Marquis of Marignan. Monsieur de Strozzy nevertheless recover'd, and being told that I was dead (for by reason I had for three dayes been look't upon as a dead man, no one entring into my Chamber but the Priests to take care of my soul, for my Body was given over by the Physicians, they had sent him such word) Mon­sieur de Strozzy, I say, seeing Monsieur de Lansac taken, and me dead, would venture to come from Montalsin, and to put himself into Sienna. According to this resolution then he departed in the beginning of the night from Montalsin, with six Companies of foot and two Troops of horse, one of which was commanded by my Nephew Serillac, who be­fore he set out bethought himself to borrow three or four Trumpets of his Companions, fearing that would fall out which did; for Monsieur de Strozzy could not so secretly de­part,The Sieur de Strozzy goes to relieve Sienna. but that the Marquis had intelligence of his design, and with all his Camp lay in wait for him about Fonte [...]rando, and all along the River Tresse.

Monsieur de Strozzy had placed all his Foot before, and his Cavalry behind, being himself mounted upon a very little horse, and having his leg sustain'd in a Scarfe fastned to the pummel of his Saddle, and with him was the Bishop of Sienna. So soon as our Italian Foot came into the Enemies Ambuscado, they fell upon them with so great fury, and so sudden a terror,Monsieur de Strozzy in very great danger. that without much resistance they betook themselves to flight, and bore Monsieur de Strozzy over and over, who with the Bishop got amongst the ruins [Page 127] of some old houses, where he staid holding his horse in his hand. The noise was so great that it was heard to Sienna, it being not above a mile off at the furthest. The Ene­my follow'd their victory with great execution, when S [...]rillac with his Trumpets charg'd through the middest of them; who hearing so many Trumpets, and seeing the horse fa [...]n in amongst them, faced about in rout and confusion, and ran full drive upon the Mar­quis, who seeing the disorder was constrain'd to retire to Arberiotte. Now those who had given the charge, and who also had receiv'd it,The flight and fright of both Armies. were Spaniards and Italians mixt together, insomuch that our people fl [...]d on the one side, and the Enemy on the other. Two or three hundred Italians of ours recover'd the walls of Sienna, others fled away twelve miles from thence, and old Captains too, whom the Mareschal very much e­steem'd: but the bravest men in the world having once lost their judgment, and giving all for lost, know not where they are. By this you may see how great the dangers of war are, and how infamous a thing it is to run away, without first seeing an apparent danger. During this bustle the day began to appear, when Serillac remaining upon the place, found he had lost no more than three or four of his Troop only, who were also run away with the Foot: but I believe there were not many left of the other Troop, they ha­ving only a Lieutenant to command them. Monsieur de Strozzy hearing now no more noise, with much ado again mounted on horseback, beginning to discover our Cavalry, and was looking if he could find Serillac amongst the dead bodies: when seeing him come to him,Serillac and Monsieur de Strozzy meet. I leave you to judge what joy there was both on the one side and on the o­ther, and so they marcht together straight towards the City. Now I must needs say that Monsieur de Strozzy herein committed one of the greatest follies that any man in his command ever did, as I have told him an hundred times since; for he knew very well, that had he been taken all the world could not have sav'd him from being put to an ig­nominious death by the Duke of Florence, so profest and inveterate a hatred he had con­ceiv'd against him. And although Serillac be my Nephew, I may with truth give him this honor and commendation, that he was the only cause of Monsieur de Strozzy's safety; which I may the better be bold to write, because Monsieur de Strozzy himself told me so. His Troop indeed was a very good one, being for the greatest part Gascons and French; for it was the old Company of Monsieur de Cypierre. Of Captains there came to the Town only Caraffa, who was since Cardinal, and another, as I was told, whose name I have forgot, and two or three hundred Soldiers, whom Monsieur de Strozzy would not suffer to come into the Town, but that night sent them away with the aforesaid Captain, and kept Caraffa with him.

So soon as Monsieur de Strozzy came into the City he presently enquir'd how I did, and was answer'd, that for three or four dayes they had begun to conceive some hopes of my life,Monsieur de Strozzy goes to visit the Sieur de Montluc in Sienna. whereupon he came and alighted at my lodging, the Bishop and the said Gentleman being with him, where he found me so miserably worn away, that my bones had pierc't through my skin in several parts of my body. He comforted me after the best manner he could, and there staid twelve dayes expecting how God would dispose of me; when seeing me from day to day recover strength, and grow into a better posture of health, he resolv'd the thirteenth day in the beginning of the night to depart, without acquainting any one with his intention but my self only. A little before he took horse he and the Bishop came to take their leaves of me, knowing very well that his being there would cause the Marquis to proceed with greater vigour against the Town, and also that being abroad he might find some way or other to relieve me; where at parting I promised and assured him to hold out to the last gasp.

The Mareschal had set Guards upon all the Roads to catch him,Monsieur de Strozzy goes out of Sienna. but he chose to retire by a way, by which of all other the Mareschal never suspected he would attempt to pass; for he went out at the Port Camoglia, from whence he descended on the right hand down into the Valley, leaving the Fort of Camoglia above, and going all along by the Ri­ver towards the Palace of Dian. During his stay in Sienna he perfectly recover'd of his wounds, so that he arm'd, and mounted himself upon a good horse. He met by the way fourty or fifty of the Enemies foot, which gave him some alarm, but he still held on his way, without losing any but some few servants only belonging to some Gentlemen who went out of the City to attend him. It was not however without peril. In a few dayes he escap't three great dangers. A little after his departure I recover'd my health, and caused my self to be carried in a Chair about the Town. The Marquis lo­sing no time, shut us up on every side, and every day we had very handsome skir­mishes: but I knew very well that the Marquis would have me for want of bread; which was the reason that I made this Harangue to the Captains, whom I had assembled together to that effect.

The Sieur de Montluc's Ha­rangue to the Captains of Sie [...]a.

I believe there is none of us who does not desire to come off from this Siege with honor and repute; the thirst of honor has brought us hither. You see we are here shut up for a long time, for we are not to imagine that the Enemy will ever rise from before us, till he have us by one way or another, seeing upon the reducing of this place depends his victory. You see also that the King is at a great distance from us, and that therefore of a long time it will not be possible for him to relieve us, for­asmuch as he must of necessity draw our succours from Germany, and out of his own Kingdom of France, the Italians themselves without the help of others not being suffi­cient to raise the Enemies Siege, who have not only the Forces of Italy, but moreover of almost all other Nations. Now in expectation of this relief we are to have a long pati­ence, in husbanding as much as is possible our provisions; in order whereunto I am to tell you, that I have deliberated to lessen the Size of bread from four and twenty, to twen­ty o [...]nces. I know very well the Soldiers would murmur at this, if you did not remon­strate to them how far we are distant from the King; that his Majesty cannot suddenly-relieve us, and that you will rather die of famine, than that it shall be laid in your dish, that had you had the patience to lessen your diet the Town had not been lost. It would be an infamous reproach to have it said, that you fill'd your bellies to starve your honor; you have not shut your selves up within these walls to occasion the loss and ruine of the City, but to defend and to save it. Represent to them that they are here amongst strange Nations, where they may set a mark of honor upon their own. What glory do men acquire, when they not only obtain honor and esteem for their own particular persons, but moreover for the Nation from whence they come? 'Tis what a generous heart should principally propose to himself for the reward of his do­ing and suffering. You Germans shall return home proud of the hardships you have sustein'd, and the dangers you have undergone, and we Frenchmen also: and as for you who are Italians, you shall acquire this renown, with invincible courages to have [...]ought for the liberty of your Country, a reputation we can none of us obtein, but by a long patience, in giving the King my Master time to relieve us; and believe I beseech you, that his most Christian Majesty will in nothing fail of the friendship he has promised and sworn to you. If you remonstrate all this to your Soldiers, and that they see and know, that you your selves are thus resolv'd, I am assur'd they will follow the same wayes you take. Therefore, Gentlmen, never think to excuse your selves upon them; I have never known a mutiny happen (and yet I have seen many) thorough Soldiers alone, if they were not by their Officers set on, and encourag'd to it, If you lead them the way, there is nothing they will not do, no incommodity they will not suffer. Do it then I beseech you, or resolve betimes to discover the bottom of your hearts, and plain­ly tell us you have no mind to undergo the length and inconveniencies of a Siege, that such as had rather dishonourably spend their time in eating and drinking, than stake their persons upon an account of honor, may depart, and not divert others from nobler resolutions.

Now because the Germans did not understand my Gibberish, I bad the Rhein­croc's Interpreter tell his Master what I said, which he did, and the Rheincroc made an­swer, that both he and his Soldiers would put on the same patience that we our selves did: and that although it was said of the Germans, The Germans answer. that they could not endure without eating and drinking their fill, both he and his upon this occasion would manifest the contrary. I was in plain truth the most afraid of these people, because they love to make good chear more than we. As for the Italian he is more enur'd to hardship and suffering than we are. Thus then every one retir'd to his own Quarters to call their Companies together, to whom they accordingly remonstrated the same things that I had represented to them before.The resolution of the Captains and Soldiers. Which having heard the Soldiers all held up their hands, and swore they would suffer to the last gasp of their lives before they would yield, or do any thing unbecoming men of honor. I then sent to the Senate, entreating them the next morning to assemble all the chief men of the City to the Palace, to hear a remonstrance I had to make to them, that concern'd them and their affairs, which they did, and there in Italian I made them this following Oration.

The Sieur de Montluc's Speech to the Siennois. Sienna.

had Almighty God been pleased sooner to restore to me my health and memory, I had sooner thought of what we are to do for the conservation of your li­berty, and the defence of this City. You have all seen how I have by sickness been re­duc't to the very door of death, and how God at last has rather by miracle than any operation of Nature raised me up again, to do yet more service for this Republick in such and so great a necessity. Now, Gentlemen, I very well see, that the conservation of your City and Liberty consists in nothing but the making your provisions hold out; [Page 129] for should the Marquis attempt to have us by force, we shall I hope give him such an entertainment as shall make him curse the hour that ever he came to besiege Sienna: but I perce he has no mind to go that way to work; on the contrary he intends to reduce us by famine; against which we must if possible provide, and defeat him of that expectation. I yesterday called together the Colonel of the Germans and his Captains, Signior Cornelio here present with his, and Combas also with his French Officers; to whom I remonstrated, that to prolong time, and to give the most Christian King lei­sure to relieve us, it would be necessary to lessen the Soldiers bread, from four and twenty to twenty ounces. Telling them that so soon as all the world should know, and particularly the King, that we are resolv'd to hold out to the last morsel, it will in­cite his Majesty to fall speedily in hand with levying of succours, that so many brave men may not be lost, and that he may not seem to abandon those he has taken into his pro­tection in a time of the greatest necessity and danger. Now, by what I have been told you have, during the time of my extremity, taken account of your provisions, and have only found so much as to last to the fifteenth of November. Of which you have also sent word to his Majesty, a thing that may very well give him occasion to grow cold in sending us relief, considering the great distance betwixt him and us, and that also Winter is drawing on. Armies do not fly, nor ride post. His succours will be worthy a great Prince, suitable to the friendship he bears to you, and sufficient to force the Ene­my from your Walls, and therefore cannot so suddenly be set on foot. Now (Gentlemen) after I had remonstrated thus much to the Captains, I found them all ready to suffer to the last gasp of their lives, and Nation for Nation went to make the same Remonstrance to their Soldiers, whom they found all willing to have patience, and so have both pro­mised and sworn.Order propos'd by the Sieur de Mountluc to the Siennois. See then what you Siennois ought to do, seeing it concerns the loss of your Liberties and Seigneuries, and peradventure of your lives; for you are to ex­pect no good usage, having put your selves under the King's protection. I beseech you therefore, that since we who have nothing here to lose, neither wives nor fires have shew'd you the way, you will consider of it, to regulate the expence, and appoint Commissaries to take an account of all the corn you have in the City, and also of the mouths; and this being done, begin to reduce your bread to fifteen ounces, for it is not possible, but you must have some little conveniency in your houses, that the Soldiers cannot have. And of all this good order I shall advertize the King's Ministers at Rome, and from thence shall cause a Gentleman to go on forwards to the King himself, to the end that his Majesty may judge what time he may have wherein to relieve us, and for the rest rely upon me, who will have no more priviledge than the meanest Citizen. The Fast that we shall keep shall not only be for our [...]ins, but also for the saving of your lives; for the conservation of which I well willingly lay down my own. Crede [...]e Signi­ori, che sin a la morte, io vi gardaro quello che vi o promisso, riposate vi sopradime.

They then return'd me very many thanks for the good advice I had given them, which only tended to their own preservation▪ entreating me to retire to my lodging forasmuch as they would go into the great Hall, where all the most eminent persons of the City were assembled, to whom they would give an account of what I had said to them, and that within two hours by two of their Senators they would return me an answer, and so I departed from them. They were as good as their words, and my Proposition being re­presented in this Assembly, they at last all with one voice resolv'd to eat to their very wives and children rather than not to wait the King's pleasure, upon the confidence they reposed in him of a certain relief, and immediately went about taking of order for the contracting the allowance of-bread, and for the taking an Inventory of both Corn and other provision,Monsieur de L'Escus [...]an sent to the King to acquaint him with the estate of Sienna. which in five or six days was dispatch't. I then sent away Monsieur de L'Escussan, but with very great difficulty, for the Marquis caused strict Guard to be kept to hinder any from bringing us in any provisions, and as many Countrymen as were ta­ken attempting so to do, were immediately hang'd without mercy. L'Escussan went first to Montalsin, there to give Monsieur de Strozzy an account of all proceedings, that he might give notice thereof to the King's Ministers at Rome, and from thence went to his Majesty to represent unto him the miserable condition of the Siennois, as I had given him in charge to do, and this might be about the middle of October.

From this time forward I could do nothing worth speaking of until Christmas Eve, saving that a little after the departure of the said l'Escussan, we again abated the Soldiers bread to eighteen ounces, and that of the City to fourteen, though all the while there were frequent skirmishes, and very handsomely fought on both sides. Upon Christmas Eve, about four of the clock in the afternoon, the Marquis de Marignano by one of his [Page 130] Trumpets sent me half a Stag, six Capons, six Partridges, six Borachio's of excellent wine, and six loaves of white bread, wherewith the next day to keep the Feast. I did nothing, wonder at this courtesie, because in the extremity of my sickness he had [...]ermitted my Physitians to send men throught his Camp to fetch certain Drugs from Florence, and had himself three or four times sent me a very excellent sort of Birds, a little bigger than the Becca [...]icco's that are taken in Provence. He had also suffer'd a Mule to enter the Town laden with Greek wine, which was sent me by the Cardinal of Armagnac, my people having sent the Cardinal word, that in the height of my sickess I talkt of nothing but drinking a little Greek wine. Whereupon he so order'd the business, that the Cardinal de Medici writ to the Marquis his Brother to suffer it to come in to me, it being sent un­der pretence of making me a Bath. The wine came at a time when I was at the last gasp, and so was not deliver'd to me; but the half of it divided amongst the big-bellied wo­men of the Town. Whilest Monsieur de Strozzy was there I gave him three or four bottles of it, the rest I drank as they do Hippocras in the Mornings. All these civili­ties I had receiv'd from the Marquis before, which made me nothing wonder at the Pre­sent he sent me now: Part of which I sent to the Seigneury, part to the Rheincroc, and the rest I reserv'd for Signior Cornelio, the Count de Gayas, and my self, because we com­monly are together. Such little civilities as these are very gentile and commendable, even betwixt the greatest Enemies; if there be no thing particular betwixt them, as there was not betwixt us two. He serv'd his Master, and I serv'd mine: He ar [...]aqu't me for his ho­nor, and I defended my self for mine. He had a mind to acquire reputation, and so had I. 'Tis for Turks and Sarazens to deny an indifferent courte [...]ie even to an Enemy: but then it must not be such a one, or of such importance as to break or endammage your design.

But whilest the Marquis caress'd me with his Presents,The Marquis of Marignam gives a Scalado by night to the Citadel and the Fort of Ca­mog [...]ia. which I only payd back in thanks, he was preparing for me another kind of feast; for the same night about an hour after midnight he with all his Army gave a Scalado to the Cittadel, and to the Fort Ca­m [...]glia. 'Tis a strange thing, that above a month before my mind gave me, and seem'd to presage that the Marquis would give me a Scalado, and the Captain St. Auban would be cause of the loss of the Fort. This was evermore running in my head, and that the Germans also would occasion the loss of the Cittadel, into which an Ensign of that Na­tion every night entred, to keep Guard there; and that was the reason why I plac't an Ensign of Siennois in Guard overagainst the Gate of the Cittadel. Signior Cornelio pre­vail'd so far with the Rheincroc, that he promised him that in case of an Alarm, and that the Enemy should offer an assault to the Cittadel, the German Captain that he plac't there every night upon the Guard should from him have command to let in the Siennois to help to defend it, though I think he that night forgot so to do. Every night I went to see a Company of French Foot mount the Guard in the Fort Camoglia, and another of Sien­nois betwixt the Fort and the Gate of the City, under a great Market-house, which on the two sides was enclosed with a little Trench; but in the front of it, which went di­rectly to the Fort, it was all plain with the pavement, and it might be from this Court of Guard to the Fort threescore or fourscore paces, and as much to the Gate of the City. I plac't this Guard there for two reasons, whereof one was to relieve the Fort if occasion should be, as the other Company of Siennois was to do the Cittadel, and the other to watch that the Enemy did not storm the Wall of the City; forasmuch as on the left hand, at the going out of the Town, the wall was very low, and moreover a part thereof fallen down. I had several times before said to Signior Cornelio, The Sieur de Mo [...]tluc presa­ges some disa [...] ­ter through the default of St. Auban a German Cap­tain. and to the Count de Gayas, seeing Captain St. Auban's Company enter into the Fort, these words. Would you believe that it eter­nally runs in my mind that we shall lose this Fort thorough the default of Captain St. Auban and his Company? I never saw him enter into it, that it did not put me into a [...]it of an Ague, out of the ill conceit I had of him. I could never fancy him in my heart, be­cause he never had twenty men of appearance in his Company, for he valued a Teston more than the bravest man under the Sun, and as to himself he would never stir from his lodging, for any thing either I, or any of his companions could say to him. I could have wisht him far enough off, I had so strange an aversion to him. And these were the rea­sons why I ever fancied that this man would bring upon me some mischief or other.

Our Fort of Camoglia was environ'd with a ditch of a Pikes length in wideness,Description of the Fort Camo­glia. and as much in depth, and not much more on three sides; and in the front of it which but­ted directly upon the Siennois Court of Guard, nothing but a little Rampire of six or se­ven foot high, and no more; and about the middle of the Rampire there was a little len [...]h or half pace, where the Soldiers had so much room only as to sustein themselves upon their knees. The Enemy had another Fort three times as big as ours, and just opposite [Page 131] to it, within an hundred and fifty paces the one of the other. So that neither they nor we durst pop up a head without being hurt from that Quarter; and in ours there was a little Tower exactly overagainst theirs, where for greater security we had evermore thre [...] or four Soldiers which serv'd us for Centinels, and who got up into it by a little hand ladder, as they do into a Pidgeon-house. The said Tower had been broke through on that side towards the Enemies Fort, and we had there plac't barrels fill'd with earth, for the hole had been made by the Artillery from their Fort. Which Fort of theirs Monsieur de Termes had caused to be made; but when he went away it was not wholly finish't: nevertheless when the Duke of Florence broke with the King, the Marquis in one night made a very long march, carrying a great number of Pioneers along with him, and pos­ses [...]ing himself of it (for there was no Guard kept there) immediately put it into de­fence.

Now, as I have said before, at one of the clock in the night the Marquis at once gave me a ScaladoThe Scalado; both to the Cittadel and the Fort Camoglia, where by ill luck the Com­pany of St. Auban was this night upon duty. The Marquis with the Spanish and Ger­man Foot assaulted the Cittadel, where by good fortune they had but three Ladders long enough, and at the very first so overcharg'd those three with men, that one of them broke. Our G [...]rmans defended, and the Sienno [...]s presented themselves at the Gate, as they were appointed to do. But the Captain of the Germans who had the command of the Gate would by no means let them in.The Citadel seaz'd. This dispute lasted for above half an hour, during which five or six of the Enemy entred, and forc't the Germans, who began to turn their backs and fly. They then open'd the Gate to the Siennois, who ran to the head of the Cittadel, where the Enemy began to enter, and met these five or six, who were already entred, whom they cut in pieces, two of them being the Marquis his Kins­men, one whereof did not immediately die; and this cool'd the courage of the rest who were upon the point to enter. At the same time they gave a Scalado to the Fort Camoglia. St. Auban was in the City, in bed at his [...]ase, and his Lieutenant call'd Com­borcy was at the Fort, a young man of no experience; but that I think had he had good men in his Company would have done his duty. They are both of them turn'd Hugo­nots since. So soon as the Enemy presented their Ladders by the three Courtins, all his Company betook them to their heels, and the Enemy consequently entred in; and of the four that were in the Tower, three threw themselves headlong down, and the fourth beat down the barrels from the hole, and drew the Enemy in.The Fort Ca­moglia seaz'd by the Enemy. This Rogue had been taken a few dayes before, and had remain'd above ten dayes prisoner, and I do believe it was upon his account that the Marquis resolv'd upon this Scalado; for he went away with them, and we never saw him after. Now Signior Cornelio and the Count de Gayas were lodg'd near unto the Port Camoglia, who immediately upon the Alarm ran to the Gate, where they found the greatest part of the Company of the Siennois before it, and the rest were firing at the Enemy, who fallyed out of the Fort to fall upon them. Signior Cornelio then left the Count de Gayas at the Gate, and came running to give me the Al­arm, where he met me coming out of my lodging with two Pages, each of them carry­ing two Torches, and whom I immediately sent back, bidding him both he and the Count de Gayas to go out, and of all things to take care that the Siennois did not for­sake their Court of Guard, and to encourage them the best he could, for I would pre­sently come out after him. He did as I bid him, and came in so opportune a season, that he found all abandoned, and gave the Enemy a charge with the Siennois, and beat them back into the Fort they had taken. The Alarm was already throughout the whole City, and some ran to the Cittadel, and others to the Fort of Camoglia. As I arriv'd at the Gate there came to me la Moliere and l' Espine, both on horseback, the one being Muster-Master, and the other Treasurer, whom I commanded, the one to the Port St. Mark, and the other to Port [...] Nuovo, and that by the way as they went they should cry out vi­ctory, the Enemy is repuls't. Which I did, fearing le [...]t some in the Town might have intelligence with the Enemy, who hearing this cry would not dare to discover themselves. In the mean time I was at the Gate of the City,A device to break Intelli­gences. sending out the Captains and French So [...]t [...]iers to succour Signior Cornelio, and when I saw there were enow gone out, I com­manded the Lieutenant of Captain Lussan to stay at the Gate, and to shut the Wicker so soon as ever I was out, and that in case I should be beaten back, he should by no means open it, but rather suffer us all to be killed without, and me in the first place. I then went out with my four Torches, and found Signior Cornelio, the Count de Gayas, and the other Captains I had sent out, who had recovered the Rampire, and had pla­ced the Soldiers upon the little half pace upon their knees, who shot at the Enemy into the Fort, and they again at ours, who could not put up their heads without being disco­vered, [Page 132] and on the other two sides the Enemy assaulted, and ours defended. Now whilst I was putting the men out at the Wicket St. Auban slipt by without my seeing him. The Gate into the Fort which we had lost was contrived after the manner of a hole, having one step forwards, and another one side, waving and winding to and fro, and so straight that one man only could enter a breast, In this Entry I found Captain Bourg, who was Ensign to Captain Charry, Signior Cornelio, and the Count de Gayas close by him. Monsieur de Bassompierre Master of the Ordnance was always with me, and one of his Canoneers. I saw very well that the fight was like to continue, and fearing l [...]st our powder should fail us, bad Monsieur de Bassompierre dispatch away two of his Canoneers to fetch more, which he did, and I dare boldly say, he was as much the cause of our safety as all our fighting, as you shall hear. Those that we fought withal were Italians, for the Spaniards and Germans stormed the Cittadel. I continually ran first to one, and then to another, crying out to them Courage friends, courage camrades, and presently on that side on the right hand of the Gate, where the three forenamed stood, I spyed St: Auban, to whom (running to him, and setting the point of my sword to his throat, I said Rogue! Son of a whore! thou art the cause that we shall lose the City, which notwithst [...]nding then shalt never live to see, for I will at this instant kill thee if thou dost not immediately leap into the Fort: to which (sufficiently terrified) he made answer, Yes Sir, I will leap in, and then called to him Lussan, Blagon, and Combas, who were his Companions, saying to them, Come on Camrades, second me, I pray leap in after me; to which they made answer, Do thou leap, and we will follow; whereupon I said to him, T [...]ke th [...] no care, I will follow thee my self, and we all set foot upon the half pace with him, and immediately after his first step, without any more delaying (for if he had he had died for't) he threw himself desperately in, having a Target upon his arm, and his Companions also, for he was no sooner in the air, but the rest were also with him, and so all four leapt in together, and it was within two steps of the Entry, that le Bourg, Signior Cornelio, and the Count de Gayas disputed. I then immediately made fifteen or twenty Soldiers leap in after the four Captains, and as all these were within, le Bourg, Signior Cornelio, and the Count de Gayas passed and entred into the Fort. I caused the Torches to be set upon the Rampire, that we might see, and not kill one ano­ther, and my self entred by the same way Signior Cornelio had gone before me. Now neither Pikes, Halberts, nor Harquebuzes could serve us for any use here, for we were at it with Swords and Steeletto's, with which we made them leap over the Curtains by the same way they had entred, excepting those who were killed within. There were yet how­ever some remaining in the Tower, when Captain Charry came up to us, though but eight days before he had received an Harquebuz shot in his head, and such a one as that there­upon we had given him for dead, notwithstanding there he was with his Sword and Tar­get, and a Morrion upon his head, ever the Cap that cover'd his wound: a good heart will ever manifest itself; for though he was desperately hurt, yet would he have his share of the fight.The Fort re­cover'd by the French. I was at the foot of the Ladder, and had sent Signior Cornelio and the Count de Gayas out of the Fort, to encourage those who defended the Flanks, bidding them take the one the one side, and the other the other, as they did, and found work enough to do. I then took Captain Charry by the hand, and said, Captain Charry, I have bred you up to die in some brave service for the King, you must mount the first; which said, he (who was certainly a man of as much courage as ever any man had) without any more dispute began to climb the Ladder,The courage of Captain Char­ry. which could not be above ten or twelve staves, and he was to enter by a Trap-door above, as I have said before. I had very good Har­quebuzeers, whom I made continually to shoot at the hole of this Trap-door, and put two of the said Harquebuzeers upon the Ladder to follow after him: I had two Tor­ches with me (for the other two Signior Cornelio and the Count had taken along with them) by the light whereof we saw so clearly, that the Harquebuzeers did not hurt to Captain Charry, who mounted step by step, still giving our Harquebuzeers time to fire, and so soon as he came to thrust up his head into the Trap-door, they fir'd two Harque­buzes, which pierced through his Target and Morrion without touching his head. The Harquebuzeer who followed next after him discharged his Harquebuz under his Target▪ by which means Captain Charry advanced the last step, and so they all three leapt in the one after the other, where they kill'd three of the Enemy, and the rest leapt out at the hole. Those in the Flancks were also beaten off, and so our Fort was regain'd on every side.

Now the Marquis had given order to him that commanded at the Scalado of the Fort, which was the Governor of their Fort of Camoglia, that in case he the Marquis should first enter by the Cittadel, that then he should come away to him with all his Italians▪ [Page 133] and if also he should first gain the Fort, that then he would come with his Spaniards and Germans to relieve him. According to this Agreement, so soon as the Governor of the Fort had gain'd ours, he presently sent to acq [...]aint the Marquis with it; but there being several little valleys betwixt the Cittad [...]l and the Fort Camoglia, the said Marquis could not come so soon as he would, though he had made so good haste, that when we had thought all had been at an end,The Marquis de Marignan comes to re­lieve his men at the Fort Ca­moglia. we saw their whole Camp coming upon us, having above an hundred and fifty torches with them; at which time by good fortune Bassom­pierr's two Canoneers return'd with the powder, which in great haste we divided a­mongst the Harquebuzeers, for they had none left, and turning about, I bad him send them again for more. At the same instant la Moli [...]re and L' Espine returned to me, when I immediately sent back la Moli [...]re to the Standard-bearer of St. Martin to send me two hundred of the best Harquebuzeers he had, and send them by the son of Misser B [...]rnardi [...], a young man that carried a Colours in his Regiment, full of courage, and of Whom I had taken particular notice in several skirmishes, who accordingly came in all haste, and found us at it with the whole Camp. I then left Signi [...]r Cornelio and the Count de Gayas with the other Captains to defend the Fort, and my self, Bassompi [...]rre, and the Muster-M [...]ster went along the Flancks, doing nothing but [...]un up and down from place to place to encourage our people. It might be about three hours after mid­night when we rebegan the [...]ight, and it lasted till the day took them off. They there committed one of the greatest pieces of folly that ever men did; for by the light of so ma­ny torches we saw them more plainly than if it had been broad day, whereas had they ta­ken the advantage of the night,Error of the Marquis. and advanced with few lights, they had put us a great deal more hardly to't than they did. The two hundred Si [...]nnois Harquebuzeers, that the Son of Misser Bernardin brought, did us notable service, as also did the Powder that Bas­sompierre sent for, for we had use for it all before we parted, by reason of the long con­tinuance of the fight, where it was well assaulted, and better defended.

This was the issue of the fight, the greatest, and of the greatest duration without a Battail wherein I have ever been, and where I believe God Almighty did as much assist me, if not more, preserving my judgment allthe while entire, as at any time in my whole life; for had I fail'd in the least particle of command we had all been lost, and the City to boot; for on that side we had not fortified at all, and all our confidence was in this Fort: I prot [...]st to God, that for at least three months after my hair stood an end, so oft as I called to mind the danger we had been in. The Enemy there lost six hundred men killed and wounded, as we were enform'd by prisoners we took, and we lost but an hundred and fifty in all both hurt and slain. That which made them lose so many was the light of the Torches, which gave our men such aim that they could not miss, e­specially being within a Pikes distance or two at the most of the one another, which made a great incongruity in the Marquis, as I said before: for we having but little light, and they so much, we discovered them so plain, as gave us a mighty advantage. So soon as it was fair light day we went to take a view of what dead we had in the Fort amongst theirs, where I found my Valet de Chambre and my Groom, who both leapt in after the Captains; in my life I never had two better servants. Signior Cornelio and the Count d [...] Gayas went likewise to visit the Cittadel, for I was no longer able to stand, being yet so weak with my great sickness, that with a puff one might have blown me down; so that I wonder how I was ever able to take such pains: but God redoubled my forces in time of need; for in truth during all this great and tedious fight I never ceased running and skipping, now here, now there, without ever feeling my self weary, till there appeared no more an Enemy to molest us. They came and gave me an account of all that had past, to be carried to their Lodging, and his wounds dressed.

I will not forget to insert here for an Exemple to others, that if ever man was well se­conded in a time of so great danger, I was, and would for no consideration deprive the Chiefs who were there of their due honor, nor the common Soldiers: for from the time that Signior Cornelio and the Count went out before me and charged the Enemy; neither after I was gone out to them did so much as any one man ever offer to come in again (as Lussan's Lieutenant, whom I had left at the Gate, swore to me) excepting Bossompierr's two Canoncers, who were sent for powder.Loyalty of the Sie [...]ois. All the whole City remain'd in arms during the whole time of the fight, and I will give the Siennois this commendation, with truth (as God is true) that there was no so much as any one man, who staid in the houses, and who did not take arms, both young and old, nor a man that discovered the least affe­ction to the Emperor; which gave me a great assurance of two things, one of their Loy­alty, and the other of their Courage. Three dayes after the Marquis sent me a Trum­pet [Page 134] (the same who had brought me the Present before) to see if any one of those was living who had entred the Cittadel, and that he would not deny to me, but that there were two of his Kinsmen▪ Signior Cornelio then carried him to look upon that who was yet alive, and he prov'd to be one; whereupon the Trumpet immediately returned to the Marquis to acquaint him with it, who at the same instant sent him back again, entreating me to restore him back to him, and that he would be responsible to me for his ransome, which I did in a Litter he had sent to that purpose: but he died three dayes after he came into their Camp.

Methinks you Governors of places ought here to take a fair exemle to present your selves to the fight: For there are some who say, that a Governor, or a Lieutenant of a Province never ought to hazard his own person, arguing that if he chance to miscarry all is lost. I grant them, that he ought not to expose himself at all times, and upon every light occasion, like an ordinary Captain; but when all lies at stake, what is it that you are made Governors and Lieutenants for? what question will be made of your courage? and how will your honor and reputation be brought into dispute? Will it think you ac­quit you to say, I would not hazard my self in the fight, left losing my self I should lose all: especially in the night to relieve a Fort or a Citadel, considering I was how­ever able to defend the Town? This excuse will not serve your turn; and believe me the loss of a Fort is of so great importance, that your Enemy has by that means one foot upon your throat already, you are therefore to die, or to recover what you lost, as I did, having at my going out caused the Wicket to be shu [...], to take from us all hopes of retreat, being resolv'd to die, or to expel the Enemy, and also letting them alone with their Conquest I had been infallibly lost.

And you Captains my Camrades, take notice and exemple by St. Auban, that you may value valiant men above money, for the love of money will lead you to the loss of your lives and reputations, and valiant men about you will defend both one and the other, and preserve you from danger and dishonor. Admire, and follow as near as you you can the great heart of Charry, who although half dead, would yet come to the fight, and presented himself to enter the first, and pass by a Ladder through a hole, than which a more dangerous passage could not possibly be; for in such a place an Enemy has a mighty advantage. No danger nevertheless could deterre this brave Soldier from run­ning the hazard. To conclude, I shall tell you Governors of places, that whenever you entertain an ill opinion of an Officer, you provide against his remisness, cowardise, or in [...]idelity, as I did, by placing the Companies near to the Forts. But I had done better, St. Auban being suspected to me, since I could not totally rid my hands of him, to have employ'd him in some other place. It has since taught me to be wiser, and I have found advantages by it, having never since that time entrusted any man of whom I had a mis­like. There are wayes enow to shake them off, without either offending any other, or disincouraging the party himself.

A little after, as we understood, there came a Gentleman of the Emperor's Bed-Chamber, who brought letters to the Duke of Florence, and to the said Marquis, where­in he writ them word,The Emperor complains of the Marquis his slow Pro­ceeding a­gainst Sienna. that he thought it very strange this War should continue so long, and that he very well knew Sienna was not a place to resist Canon, but that it was the Marquis his custom evermore to spin out a War in length. In answer whereunto the Marquis remonstrated, that he had done all that in him possibly lay, and knew very well that Artillery would not take the Town, for I had valiant men within, and the whole City were resolute to stand to me to the last, speaking more honourably of me than I deserv'd, commending my vigilancy, and the provision I had made for my de­fence, so that he very well knew by the good order I had taken in the City, he should but lose so much time by attempting to batter. Notwithstanding the Gentleman being come from the Emperor to this effect, and having already spoke with the Duke of Flo­rence, they together order'd it so, that they made the Marquis at last resolve upon a Battery. He had before omitted nothing that a good Soldier ought to do, having coop't us close in, without any hopes of relief, and yet he was accused of a design to protract the War: But it is the ordinary reward of a man's endeavour, when things do not suc­ceed according to the appetite of such as talk of things at their cafe. The desires of those we serve and fight for run a great deal faster than we are able to follow.

About the twentith of January we had notice that the Artillery set out of Florence, to the number of six or eight and twenty Canon,The Siennois frighted with the coming of the Artillery. or double Culverine to come to the Camp. The Siennois hearing this news were so curious as to send out a spy, that they might be certain of the truth of this report, who at his return bringing them word back, that the Artillery was already come as far as Lusignano, it put the whole City into some [Page 135] apprehension, and made them resolve the next day to assemble all the Gentry and the chief of the City to the Palace, there to determine amongst themselves, whether they should abide the assault, or surrender upon composition. Now I was not to huffe and vapour with these people, for they were stronger than I: I was therefore necessitated to win them by gentle remonstrances, and civil perswasions, without the least heat or shew of anger, and you may believe it was not without great violence to my own nature, that I proceeded after this manner, contrary to my disposition, and the image the Constable had represented of me to the King, as he had seen me in my younger and more precipi­tous age. A prudent and staid Governor, when he is amongst strange Nations must try as much as in him lies, to conform himself to the humour of the people with whom he has to do.A Governor ought to con­form himself to the humour of the people over whom he is placed. With the Germans and Swiss you must be cholerick and rough: with the Spaniards you must observe their starcht face and formality, and pretend to be a little more religious and devout than you perhaps really are: with the Italians you must be discreet and cir­cumspect, neither to offend them in themselves, nor to court their wives: as for the French man he is for any thing: but so it was that God gave me the grace, who am a Gascon, sudden, cholerick, willful, and forward, so to deport my self with this jealous and mi­strustful Nation, that not so much as any one Citizen could ever complain of me. Now as all the Gentry and the Heads of the Corporation were going to the Palace, Misser Hi [...] ­ronimo Hispano, a Gentleman of Sienna, a principal man in the City, and one of the eight of the Council of War, before he went to the Palace, came in all hast to speak with Sig­nior Cornelio, where he told him that all the chief of the City were summon'd to repair to the Palace, and that it was to determine, whether they ought to stand out a Ba [...]tery, or to enter into Capitulation with the Duke of Florence, and the Ma [...]quis of Marignano, and that he had already heard that the major part of them had voted, that they ought to condition, and not to endure a Battery, and an Assault, for fear they should come by the worse; that he was now going thither to them, wherefore he entreated him to give me notice of it. Hereupon Signior Cornelio came to me, and found me ready to take horse to go view the Guards: but so soon as he had told me the news we both went up into my Chamber, where we long debated by what means we might divert this blow; and whilst we were in this deliberation came Signior Bartolomeo Cavalcano, who told me as much as I had heard before, and moreover, that he thought the resolution was already taken throughout the whole City, and that he only went to the Palace, to cast in his lot, and that after the lots should once be cast it would be too late to speak.

We were all three in a very great straight, they which way to advise me, and I was as much to seek whad advice to take. In the end I resolv'd to go to the Palace, and to take with me the Rhinecroc and his Captains, Signior Cornelio with his Italians, and Captain Combas with the French Officers. Our Germans began to suffer much for want of wine, and their bread was very small, for as for flesh there was no more talk of any, unless of some horse,Great scarcity of all things in Sienna. or some ass, that was exposed to sell in the Butchery, and as for money there was no such thing in nature; for Monsieur de Strozzy had no possible means to send any in to us: all which consider'd, it put us into some fear, lest the Germans should joyn with the City to enter into composition, which was the reason that I desired Signior Cornelio to go to the Rhin [...]roc, and entreat him from me to bear me company to the Palace, and to bring his Captains along with him, and that he would in the mean time leave his Lieu­tenants and Ensigns every one in his own Quarters, to the end there might be no sur­prize about the Walls whilst we should be at the Palace: I wisht him also himself to do the same, and order'd Captain Combas to come likewise, which being done, I sent Bartolo­meo in all haste to the Palace, to try if he could secretly gain any one to his party that might help to break this design: for I had an opinion, that if I could but divert this one blow,The Sieur de Montluc's pra­ctice. I would deal with so many people afterwards, that the blancks should be the greater number in the Lottery, and so they all went out of my Chamber without be­ing further acquainted by me what I intended to do.

I was yet so ex [...]reamly lean, and worn with my late sickness, and the cold was at this time of the year so very great and sharp, that I was constrained to go continually with both my Body and my head so wrapt and muffled up in Furrs, that as they saw me go up and down the streets of the City, no one had any hopes of my recovery, believing that my inwards were decayed and perished, and that I would fall down and die on a sudden. What shall we do said the Ladies and the Citizens Wives, what will become of us if our Governor should die? we shall all be lost; for next after God all our hope is in him; it is not possible he should escape. I do verify believe that the prayers of those good women redeem'd me out of the extremity and languishing weakness I was in, I mean that of my body; for as to the vigour of my mind, and the quickness of my un­nderstanding, [Page 136] I never perceiv'd any decay there. Having then before been accustomed to go so wrapt and mu [...]led, and observing what moan the people made for me, to see me in so lamentable a plight, I call'd for a pair of Breeches of Crimson Velvet, which I had brought from Alba, said over with gold lace, finely cut, and very near, for I had made them at a time when I was forsooth in love. We had there leisure enough for those fol [...]es whilst we lay in Garrison, and having little else to do, it was fit to give the Ladies some part of our time. I put on a Doublet of the same, under which I had a Shirt fine­ly wrought with crimson silk and gold twist very rich: (for in those dayes they wore the neck-bands of their Shirts a good way falling over the collar) I then took a buffe Collar, over which I put on the Gorget of my Arms, which was very finely gilt. I at that time wore gray and white,A pleasant Sal­ly of the Si [...]ur de Montlu [...]. in honor of a fair Lady to whom I was a Servant when I had leisure; I therefore put on a Hat of gray silk of the German fashion, with a great silver Hatband, and a plume of Heron's feathers, thick set with silver spangles; the Hats they wore in those dayes were not so broad as they wear them now: I than put on a short Cassock of gray Velvet garnisht with little plaits of Silver, at two fingers distance from one another, and lin'd with cloth of silver, all open betwixt the plaits, vvhich I vvore in Piedmont over my Arms. Now I had yet two little bottles of Greek wine left of those had been sent me by the Cardinal of Armag [...]ac, vvith vvhich I vvet my hands, and vvith them rubbed my face, till I had brought a little colour into my cheeks, and then drank a small draught with a little bit of bread, after which I look't my self in the Glass. I swear to you I did not know my self, and methought I vvas yet in▪ Pied­mont, and in love as heretofore. At which I could not forbear laughing, for methought I had got on a sudden quite another face.

The first that came to me vvith his Captains vvas Signior Cornelio and the Count de Gayas, Monsieur de Bossompierre and the Count de Bisque, whom I had also sent for; vvho finding me dress'd after this manner, all fell a laughing. I strutted up and down the room before them like fifteen Spaniards, and yet had not strength enough to have kill'd a Chicken, for I vvas so vveak as nothing more. Combas and the French Cap­tains came also, and the vvhole Farce tended to nothing but laughter for all the compa­ny: the last that came vvas the R [...]intcroc and his Captains, vvho seeing me in this po­sture, laught to that excess that he sobb'd again, when pulling him by the arm, I said to him, What Colonel, do you think me to be that Montluc that goes every day dying through the streets? No, no, you are mistaken, that fellow's dead, and I am another Montluc sprung up in his room. His Interpeter told him what I said, which made him laugh still more, and Signior Cornelio had already acquainted him with the reason why I had sent for him, and that it was necessary by one means or another to disposses the Siennois of their fear. Thus then we went all on horseback to the Palace, where so soon as we were got up to the top of the stairs, we found the great Hall full of Gentlmen, and such other Burgers of the City as were of the Council. Within the great Hall on the left hand there is a lesser room, into which none were to enter but the Captains of the people, the twelve Counsellors,Of what the S [...]nare of Sien­na consists. and the Eight of the Council of War, all which are called the Magistracy. Thus then I entred into the great Hall, where I put off my Hat to them, but was known by no body at first; they all believing me to be some Gentleman sent by Monsieur de Stroz­zy into the City to command at the Assault, by reason of my great weakness. I then entred into the little Hall, with all the Colonels and Captains after me, who kept at di­stance by the door whilst I went and sat down by the Captain of the people, in the place vvhere those vvho represented the person of the King vvere used to sit, as I my self upon that account had often done. In going up with my Hat in my hand, I smil'd first upon one, and then upon another, they all vvondring to see me, and tvvo had al­ready deliver'd their opinions, vvhen I began to speak to them in Italian to this effect.

Harangue of the Sieur de Montlue to the Siennois.

I have been told, that since the time you have been certain of the truth of the Enemies bringing up Artillery to your walls, you have entred into some debates which have rather begot amongst you fear and astonishment, than any noble resolution to defend your City and Liberty by Arms. Which I have thought very strange, and grea [...]ly wondred at, not being able to perswade my self to believe any such thing. However in the end I resolv'd with the Colonels and Captains of all the three Nations the King my Master has in this City, to come to you to this place, and to understand from your own mouths the truth of all that has passed. Now I besiech you Gentle­men weigh and consider well what you shall determine in this Council to which you are call'd; for upon this Council, and the resolution that shall be the issue of it, de­pends all your honor, greatness, authority, and the security of your State, your lives [Page 137] and honors, and the conservation of your ancient liberty; and on the contrary, all the shame, dishonor and reproach, with a perpetual infamy to your posterity, and dis­honor to your famous Ancestors, who have left you for inheritance the Grandeur you now posses and uphold, having themselves ever defended and maintain'd it by Battels, with their weapons in their hands, against all those who have attempted to take it from them. And no [...] when you ought to have purchast the occasion that presents it self at the price of half your wealth, that therein you might to all Christendom manifest and approve your selves the true legitimate Sons of those Ancient Warlike Romans, and of those Noble Ancestors, who have so often, and so bravely fought to assert and maintai [...] your liberty, is it possible that so great and so generous hearts as those of the Siennois should enter into astonishment for hearing talk of Canon? will you be afraid for this? I cannot think that this proceeds from you, who have given so many, and so ample testimonies of your valour; neither is it out of any want of friendship to the most Christian King, nor out of any distrust you have in him, that he will not certainly relieve you, neither can it be out of any diffidence you have in one another, by reason of any factions in your City, for I have never observ'd the least division among you: But on the contrary, the greatest unanimity for the con­servation of your liberty and Republick. I have ever seen you resolute to dye with your swords in your hands, rather than suffer it to be ravish'd from you. I have ever seen all men of all conditions move with the same motion, and inspir'd with the same resolution. Neither can it be for want of courage, for I never saw you sally out to skirmish, that some of your young men did not evermore sigualize themselves above our people, though much older Souldiers than they, who in a longer practice of Arms have perform'd acts worthy to be prais'd and esteem'd of all. I cannot then believe that men who do so well, should for the noise of Canon, which brings more terror than harm, enter into astonishment, and resolve to surrender themselves slaves to that inso­lent and insupportable Nation of the Spaniards; or your neighbours, your ancient and professed enenemies. Since then this apprehension cannot proceed from any defect in your selves, it must of necessity proceed from me, who have the honour to be Lieutenant for the King of France your good Friend and Protector. If as to what concerns me, you apprehend, that I shall want health and vigour to undergo that toil and labour that will be necessary, and requir'd at the time when the Enemy shall assault us, by reason of the weakness wherein I now am, through my great sickness; that consideration ought not to beget in you the least distrust, arms and legs do not do all: The great Captain Antonio de Leva, Commendati­on of Antonio de Leva. gouty and impotent as he was, has won more victories in his chair, than any other of our Age has done on horseback. God has ever been pleas'd to preserve my judgement, to preserve you. Have you ever known me fail? Was I then stretch'd at ease in bed when the Enemy gave you the great Camisado, and Scalado? Do but mark I beseech you, Gentlemen, the great grace God was pleas'd to shew me on a sudden, supplying me with as much strength as I had never been sick; by which you may per­ceive, that Almighty God loves us, and that he will not that either you or we perish. I feel my self strong enough now to wear my Arms, you shall no more see me swath'd and furr'd up as before. If perhaps you do it out of fear of my incapacity, or little experi­ence, you do therein a great wrong to the King, that being as much, as to give all the world to understand, that His Majesty has hither sent you a man void of all abili­ty, and poorly experimented to know how to order what should be done for the de­fence of your City? What? do you believe the King has so little kindness for you, as to send me hither, had he not had a great confidence in my capacity, and before hand made sufficient tryal elsewhere both what I am, and what I can do? I shall tell you nothing of my self, it would not become me to be my own Trumpet, something you have seen your selves, and the rest you may have heard from others. You may then well judge, that the King has not singled out me, amongst so many Gentlemen of his King­dom, and has not sent me to you, without having well weigh'd what I am able to do by the long experience he has had, not only of my Politicks in point of Gorvernment, of which you may hitherto have taken some notice: But moreover, of my conduct in matter of Arms, when an Enemy would carry a place by fine force. Do you fear, Gentlemen, my courage will fail me in time of need? what then do all those testimones I have given you since my coming hither being sick avail? You have seen me sally out from the time I have been able to mount to horse, to go to see the skirmishes so near, that my self commanded them. And have you altogether forgot the day, that I en­tred into this City, and the great skirmish I then made? Your people saw it, and had a share in the sight; and upon Christmas Eve yet a greater, where the sight last­ed [Page 138] for fix long hours together? Did I not then [...]ight in my own person? Did you not then see, that I neither wanted judgement to command, nor valour to fight? I am asham'd to say so much of my self; but seeing you all know it to be true, I need not blush to speak it. I will tell you nothing, but what your selves have seen, I am no bragging Spamard, I am a Frenchman, and moreover a Gascon, the most frank and plain dealing of all that Nation. Now methinks, Gentlemen, you have so much ex­perience of your selves, as will render you worthy of a perpetual reproach, should you go less in your resolution, besides the ruine it would infalliby bring upon you. Methinks you ought to know me sufficiently, having been so long amongst you, and that I have omitted nothing of what the King propos'd to himself, I should perform for his service, and yours in the greatest necessity and danger. All this that I have remonstrated to you, as well for what concerns your own particular, as what relates to my self, ought to make you lay aside all apprehension, and to assume the courage and magnanimity that your Predecessors and selves who are now living have ever had. Wherefore I beseech you, that you will unanimously take up such a resolution, as va­liant men, such as you are, ought to take, that is, to dye with your weapons in your hands, rather than to loose your Sovereignty and the liberty you have so long exercis'd and enjoy'd. And for what concerns me, and these Coloness and Captains, whom you see present here, we swear in the presence of God, that we will dye with you, as at this instant we will give you assurance. It is not for our benefit, nor to acquire Riches, neither is it for our [...]afe, for you see we suffer both thirst and hunger: it is only in pur­suance of our duty, and to acquit our selves of our Oath, to the end that it may one day be said, and by you, that it was we who defended the liberty of this City, and that we may be called Conservators of the Liberty of Sienna.

I then rose up, bidding the German Interpreter to remember well all I had said, to repeat it to Rhinecroc, and his Captains, and then directed my speech to the Colo­nels, and said to them, Signori mi & fr [...]talli juriamo tutti & promettiamo inanzi Iddio, che noi moriremo tutti l'arme in mano conessi loro, per adjutar lia deffendere lor sicuressa & liberta: & ogni uno di noi [...] obligi per le soi Soldati, & alsate tutti le vostre mani. Which being said, every one held up his hand, and the Interpreter told it to the Rhine­croc, who also held up his hand,The Oath of the Soldiers, Foreigners. and all the Captains crying, Io, io buerlie, and the other, O [...]y, o [...]y, we promise to do it, every one in his own Language. Whereupon the Cap­tain of the people arose, and all the Council, returning me Infinite thanks; and then turn'd towards the Captains, whom he also very much thank'd, and with great chear­fulness. They then entreated me, that I would retire to my Lodgings, till such time as they had spoken with all the Council, who were in the great Hall without, and given them an account of what I had remonstrated to them▪ which I accordingly did, and at my going out of the little room, I there met with Miss [...]r Bartolomeo Cavalcano, who knew nothing of the Proposition I had made (for he entred not into the Council Cham­ber) who told me in my ear, that he thought they had all taken a resolution, not to en­dure a Battery. I then carried him back with me to my Lodgings, and three hours after, came four of the Magistracy, of which Misser Hieronimo Espano was one, having in charge from all the Signeury in general, to return me infinite thanks; and he told me, that Misser Ambrosi [...] Mitti had made a speech in the accustomed chair, which is in the middle of the great Hall, against the wall, giving them to understand, what a Re­monstrance I had made to them, wherein he forgot nothing (for he was a man of great Eloquence and wisdom) and the Oath that all the Colonels and Captains had taken, final­ly exhorting them to resolve all to fight. I do not remember whether they put it to the That is a ca­sting of Lots by little Balls, in use in most Cities of Itlay. Balotte, or if they held up their hands as we had done: But they all four assur'd us, that they had never seen a greater joy, then what generally appear'd amongst them, after the Proposition of the said Ambrosia Mitti. Telling me moreover, that after I had been in the said Hall, and made an end of the forementioned Harangue, the two Gentlemen, who had deliver'd their opinions before, that they ought to capiculate, and come to a composition with the Enemy, had requested the Senate to do them that favour, as to con­ceal what they had said, and take no notice of it, but give them leave to vote anew; which being accordingly done, they again deliver'd their opinions, that they ought to [...]ight, and enter into no kind of composition,The resolution of the Sienois. but rather dye with their Arms in their hands. I then told Misser Hieronimo Espano, that I would retire my self for all that day, and for all that night, to write down the order of the fight; which having done, I would imme­diately send it to the Germans in their Language, and to the French in theirs.

[Page 139]Governors and Captains, you ought to take some example here, forasmuch as there are some, who say, they have surrendred a place, that the Soldiers would not defend, and moreover, that the Inhabitants of the Town went about to betray them, and by that means compell'd them to Capitulate. These are mere excuses, believe me they are mere[?] excuses. The thing that compels you▪ is your own want of experience. Gentlemen and Camrades, when ever you shall happen to be at such a Wedding, put on your best Clothes, make your selves as fine as you can, wash your faces with Greek wine, and rub a good colour into your checks, and so march bravely thorough the streets, and amongst the Soldiers with your faces erect, having nothing in your months, but that very soon, by Gods help, and the strength of your own Arms, you will in despite of them, have the lives of your enemies, and not they yours; that it is not for them to come to attaque you in your own Fort; that it is the only thing you desire, forasmuch as upon that depends their ruine, and your deliverance. And by carrying your selves after that manner, the very women will take courage, and much more the Souldiers: But if you sneak up and down with a pale face, speaking to no body, sad, melanchollick and pensive, though all the City, and all the Soldiers had the hearts of Ly [...]ns, you will make them as timerous as sheep. Speak often to those of the City in four or five words, and likewise to the Soldiers saying to them, Well friends, are you not in heart? I look upon the victory as our own, and hold the death of our Enemies already for certain: For I have I know not what Pro­phetick spirit, which whenever it comes upon me, I am always certain to overcome, which I have from God, and not from men. Wherefore rely upon me, and resolve all of you to fight, and to go out of this place, with honor and reputation. You can dye but once, and 'tis a thing that is predestin'd, if God has appointed it so, it is in vain for you to fly. Let us then dye honorably; but there is no appearance of danger for us, but rather for our Enemies, over whom we have the greatest advantage imaginable. And who Gover­nors and Captains, would you have dare to say he is afraid, seeing you so bravely resolv'd? Let me tell you, that though they trembled before, they will lay aside their fear, and the most cowardly will become as bold as the most couragious of the Company.All things de­pend upon the Chi [...]f. The Soldier is never astonish'd, so long as he sees the confidence of his Chief continue firm and un­shaken. As the Chief therefore carries away all the honor, and the rest have nothing, but what he shall give them, in his report of their valour to the Prince; so ought he to resolve never to discover the least shadow of fear: For behaving himself after that fearless manner, the Soldiers themselves will be sufficient testimonie for him, so that the reputation he shall have acquir'd, shall remain indisputably his own, without any one being able to contradict it. I do not then advise you any thing, I have not first tryed my self, not only here, but in many other places also; as you will find in this Book, if you have the patience to read it.The design of the Author. Now this is the order I set down for the fight, and for all the whole City, all which particularities I represent to you, without contenting my self to say, that Sienna was besieg'd, where I nine or ten months sustain'd the Seige, and was at last con­strain'd to Capitulatety Famine; for of such a General account as that, a Kings Lieute­nant, a Captain, or a Soldier, can make no benefit. This is the Historians way, and of these kind of Writers, there are but too many: I write of my self, and will instruct others that come after me; for to be born for a mans self only, is in plain English to be born a Beast.

I then order'd in the first place that the City should be divided into eight parts,The order at Sienna for the Fortification[?]. of which the eight of the Council of War should have every one a part; that every one of the Council of Eight should appoint a person for whom he should himself be responsible, to take a List of the Quarter should be assign'd him, how many men, women, and chil­dren there were in that division, from twelve the males to sixty, and the females to fifty years of age, which were to carry Baskets, Barrels, Shovels, Picks, and Mattocks, and that each one of his own Quarter should make Captains of every Trade, without mixing them together: that every one should be commanded upon pain of death, so soon as ever their Captain should send for them to come to the place appointed immediately to haste away, as also the women and children; that every one should forthwith make pro­vision of such things as were proper for his or her employment, and that the Masters of Men-servants and Maids, or their M [...]stresses should be obliged speedily to take order, that their Men and Maids be furnisht with tools and utensils wherewith to labour at the work, for which they shall be appointed, upon pain of two hundred Crowns, and the City to furnish the poor, who have not wherewith to buy them, at the expence of the pub­lick Treasure: that the said Deputies shall make their Catalogues, and shall go from house to house to Register their people; and that so soon as the Captains▪ every one in his own Quarter should cry out Force, Force, every one both men and women should run [Page 140] to their tools, and present themselves at the place to which the Captain should lead, or appoint them to come; and that the Deputies should deliver in the Lists of all both men and women, they shall have found in their respective Precincts to each of the Eight of the Council of War, Quarter for Quarter; that the old men and women above the fore­mentioned Ages shall remain in their Masters houses, to get meat, and to look to the house. That the said Deputies should take a List of all the Masons and Carpenters, who should be found in their Quarter, which List they should also deliver to him of the Eight of the Council of War by whom they shall be deputed. And this was the order for the Laborers and Pioneers.

The order for those who bore arms,Order for the Fight. was, that the the three Standard bearers, namely of St. Martin, of Ciotat, and of Camoglia, should forthwith take a view of all the Com­panies, which were four and twenty, and examine every mans arms, if they were in good order for fight, and if not to make them presently to be repaired: that they should re­ [...]ine all the Powder, and cause great store of Bullet and Match to be made: that the three Standard-bearers should every one keep in his own Q [...]arter without stirring thence, till one of the Eight of War should come to give them order what to do; that the antient Gentlmen who were not able to bear arms, nor to work, should present themselves to sollicit the Pioneers of that Quarter where their houses stood, and to assist the Captains of the said Pioneers. Now I had ever determin'd, that if ever the Enemy should come to assault us with Artillery, to entrench my self at a good distance from the Wall, where the [...] Battery should be made, to let them enter at pleasure, and made account to shut up the two ends of the Trench, and at either end to plant four or five pieces of great Ca­non, loaden with great chains, nails, and pieces of iron. Beh [...]nd theA Trench within the wall of a City to re­tire into in case of an Assault. Retirade I inten­ded to place the Muskets, together with the Harqu [...]buzeers, and so soon as they should be entred in, to cause the Artillery and small shot to fire all at once, and we at the two ends then to run in upon them with Pikes and Hal [...]erts, two banded Swords, short Swords and Targets. This I resolved upon, as seeing it altoget [...]er impossible for the King to send us relief, by reason that he was engaged in so many places, that it would not be possible for him to set on foot Forces sufficient to raise the Siege, neither by sea nor by land; and Monsieur de Strozzy had no means to relieve us, wherefore I would per­mit them to enter, and make little defence at the Breach, to the end that I might give them battail in the Town, after they had past the fury of our Canon and smaller shot: For to have defended the Breach had in my opinion been a very easie matter; but then we could not have done the Enemy so much mischief, as by letting them enter the breach, which we would have pretended to have quit, onely to draw them on to the [...]ight.

For five or six dayes before the Artillery came I every night sent out two PeasantsCentinels per­dues. and a Captain, or a Serjeant, as Centinels perdues, which is a very good thing, and of great safety; but take heed whom you send, for he may do you a very ill turn. So soon as the night came the Captain set a Peasant Centinel at some fifty or sixty paces distant from the Wall, and either in a ditch or behind a hedge, with instructions, that so soon as he should hear any thing he should come back to the Captain at the foot of the Wall, which Captain had in charge from me, that immediately upon the Peasant's speaking to him they should clap down upon all four, and so creep the one after the other to the place where the Peasant had heard the noise, or rather fall down upon their bellies close to the earth, to discover if there were not three or four who came to view that place, and to observe if they did not lay their heads together to confer; for this is a certain sign that they came to view that place in order to the bringing up of Artillery. To do which as it ought to be done, they ought to be no other than the Master of the Ordnance, the Colonel or the Camp-Master of the Infantry, or the Engineer, the Master Carter, and a Captain of Pioneers, to the end that according to what shall be resolved upon by the Master of the Ordnance, the Colonel, and Canoncer; the Master Carter may also take notice which way he may bring up Artillery to the place; and the Canoneer ought to shew the Captain of the Pioneers what is to be done for the Esplanade, or plaining of the way, according to the determination of the rest. And this is the discovery that is to be made by night, after you have discover'd a little at distance by day; for if those within be an Enemy of any spirit, they ought either by skirmi [...]hes, or by their Canon to keep you from coming to discover at hand. The Captain had order to come give me a present account of what he and the Peasants had heard or seen, and to leave the Pea­sants still upon their perdue, and a Soldier in his own place till his return. Three times the Enemy was discover'd after this manner, and immediately upon the notice, having also the List of the Eight Quarters, and of the Eight of War who commanded those [Page 141] Quarters, I suddenly acquainted Signior Cornelio, who could presently tell me both the Quarter against which it was, and the Gentleman of the Eight of War that comman­ded it. I had never discover'd my intention to any one, but to Signior Cornelio onely, who was a man of great wisdom and valour, and in whom I reposed a very great confi­dence; who, so soon as he knew that I meant to give them Battail in the City, we did nothing of one whole day but walk the round both within and without, taking very good observation of all the places where the Enemy could make a Battery, and consequently by that knew where to make our Retirade. And so soon as ever notice was given me by the Captain who stood Centinel without the City, I presently advertized the Com­mander of that Quarter, and he his Deputy, and his Deputy the Captain of the Pio­neers, so that in an hours time you might have seen at least a thousand, or twelve hun­dred persons beginning the Retirade. Now I had order'd the City to make great pro­vision of Torches, so that those who had discover'd were hardly return'd to the Mar­quis, but that they saw all that part within the Town cover'd with torches and people, insomuch that by break of day we had very much advanc't our Trench, and in the morn­ing sent back those to rest, calling in another Quarter to the work till noon, and another from noon till night, and consequenty others till midnight, and so till break of day, by which means in a little time we performed so great a work, that we could by no means be surpriz'd. After this manner I still turn'd the defences of the Town towards the Marquis his attempts,A phrase sig­nifying that a man is non­plust, and knows not what to do, which is pro­pe [...]ly to lie at the house of Guillot the Dreamer. who lodg'd at the house of Guillet the Dreamer, and Signior Fer­nando de Sylva, brother to Signior Rigomez (who commanded on that side towards the little Observance, with whom I had some discourse upon the publick fai [...]h, the Friday before we departed out of the City, betwixt their Quarters and the Fort Camoglia) told me that the Marquis had some jealousie, that some one of their Council betray'd to me all their deliberations, seeing he had no sooner design'd to batter any part, but that we alwayes fortified against that place; for by night the least noise is easily heard, and so great a bustle cannot be concealed; and because he told me that he had compiled a Book of the particularities of the Siege of Sienna. he entreated me to tell him by what means I so continually discover'd their intentions, whereupon I told him the truth.

But to return to our subject,A new Enter­prize upon Sienna. the Marquis in the end came and planted his Artillery upon a little Hill betwixt Port Oville and the great Observance. The choice of this place put me, who thought my self so cunning, almost to a nonplus, forasmuch as at Port O­ville there is a very spatious Antiport, where the houses of the City do almost touch, having nothing but the street between, which made it impossible for me of a long time to make the necessary Retirade, to do which I must be constrain'd to beat down above an hundred houses, which extremely troubled me; for it is to create so many enemies in our entrals, the poor Citizen losing all patience to see his house pulled down before his eyes. I gave to the Count de Bisque the charge of terrassing up this Gate, for which use we took the earth out of the Gardens, and vacant places that lie a little on the left hand. O the rare exemple that is here, which I will commit to writing, that it may serve for a mirror to all those who would conserve their liberty.

All these poor Inhabitants, without discovering the least distaste or sorrow for theThe noble re­solution of the Siennois. ruine of their houses, put themselves their own hands first to the work, every one con­tending who should be most ready to pull down his own. There was never less than four thousand souls at labour, and I was shewed by the Gentlemen of Sienna a great number of Gentlewomen carrying of Baskets of earth upon their heads.The praise of the Ladies of Sienna. It shall never be (you Ladies of Sienna) that I will not immortalize your names so long as the Book of Montluc shall live; for in truth you are worthy of immortal praise, if ever women were. At the beginning of the noble resolution these people took to defend their liberty, all the Ladies of Sienna divided themselves into three Squadrons; the first led by Signiora For­tagu [...]rra, who was her self clad in violet, as also all those of her Train, her attire being cut in the fashion of a Nymph, short, and discovering her Buskins; the second was la Signiora Picolhuomini attir'd in carnatian Sattin, and her Troop in the same Livery; the third was la Signiora Livi [...] Fausta, apparelled all in white, as also her Train, with her white Ensign. In their Ensigns they had very fine devices, which I would give a good deal I could remember. These three Squadrons consisted of three thousand Ladies, Gentlewomen, and Citizens, their Arms were Picks, Shovels, Baskets, and Bavins, and in this Equipage they made their Muster, and went to begin the Fortifications. Monsieur de Termes, who has often told me this story (for I was not then arriv'd at Sienna) has assur'd me, that in his life he never saw so fine a sight. I have since seen their Ensignes, and they had composed a Song to the honor of France, for which I wish I had given the best horse I have that I might insert it here.

[Page 142]And since I am upon the honor of these women,Of a young Mai [...] of Sie [...]na. I will that those who shall come after us admire the courage and virtue of a young Virgin of Sienna, who, though she was a poor mans daughter, deserves notwithstanding to be rank't with those of the no­bl [...]st Families. I had made a Decree at the time when I was Dictator, that no one upon pain of severe punishment should fail to go to the Guard in his turn. This young Maid seeing a Brother of hers who was concern'd to be upon duty, not able to go, she took his Morrion and put it upon her head, his Breeches, and a Collar of Buff, and put them on, and with his Halbert upon her neck, in this equipage mounted the Guard, passing when the List was read by her Brothers name, and stood Centinel in turn, with­out being discover'd, till the morning that it was fair light day, when she was conducted home with great honor. In the afternoon Signior Cornelio shew'd her to me.

But to return to our subject, it was not possible of all that day, nor the night follow­ing for the Count to perfect his Terrass, nor we our Retirade, at which we wrought exceeding hard, leaving about forescore paces to the Marquis, if he had a mind to enter there. We had made a Traverse by the Port Oville, where we had plac't three great Culverins, laden as I have said before, at which place were Signior Cornelio, the Count de Gayas, and three Can [...]neers, who were there left by Monsieur Bassompierre. On the right hand upon an Eminence was the great Observance, betwixt which and the walls we had planted five pieces of Canon ram'd with the same, which the said Bassompi [...]rre com­manded in his own person; yet both the one and the other were so well conceal'd, that the Enemy could discover nothing from the [...]t [...]e hills about us. Well did they perceive, that above at the Observance there were people; for they had evermore a clap at that: but we were all behind a Trench we had cast up betwixt the Observance and the Wall of the City, tapist, and squat, so that we could not be seen. The Soldiers were all before the houses, through which they had pierc't several holes to come, and go under cover. Be­hind the Retirade, which was not much above the height of a man, they were also shel­tred from being seen. Signior Corneli [...] was also under cover, by reason that he lay in a low place, and under the shelter of a very thick wall, which join'd to Port Oville. The order of the fight was thus.

Signior Cornelio had with him one Ensign of Germans, two of French, four of Italians, The order and design of the Fight. and four of Siennois, having also the Count de Gayas to assist him: and with me at the Observance was the Rhinecroc, with three Companies of Germans, two of French, two of Italians, and four Ensigns of Siennois. In all the two Troops both of Signior Cornelio's and mine there was not so much as one Harquebuz, but Pikes, Halberts, and two hand-Swords, (and of those but few) Swords and Targets, all arms proper for close fight, and the most furious and killing weapons of all other; for to stand popping and pelting with those small shot is but so much time lost; a man must close, and grapple collar to collar, if he mean to rid any work, which the Soldier will never do so long as he has his fire arms in his hands, but will be alwaies fighting at distance.

All the night the Enemy were placing Gabions for six and twenty or seven and twen­ty pieces of Ordnance, and by break of day they had planted twelve, as they would in that time have done all the rest, had it not been that they had been necessitated to draw their Canon up to this Mountain by strength of hand. The Wall is good enough, which not long since by one of the two Popes Pius's, who were of the house of Picolhuomini, and of the Order of the people, had caused to be made. At break of day they began their Battery within a foot or two of the bottom of the Walls,The Battery of the Imperial­ists. at the distance of about an hundred paces; which they did to cut the Wall by the bottom, making account the next day with the rest of the Artillery in a short time to beat down the whole wall: but for all that the Count de Bi [...]que ceassed not continually to fill the Antiport, leaving us Flanckers, so that we could see all along the breach. About noon they gave over their Battery below, and began to batter the middle of the wall, when so soon as I saw them begin to let in light, I left Signior Cornelio, who continually went up and down from place to place, and took Monsieur de Bassomp [...]erre, with whom I went to the Fort Camoglia, from whence we could plainly see into the recoyle of their Canon: but I shall leave this dis­conrse to finish the Order.

I left a French Company at the Fort Camoglia, another at the Citadel, there being al­ready two Companies of Siennois at each, more than two Companies of Germans at the place, each a part by themselves; one of Italians at the Port St. Mark, and all along the wall towards Fonde-brando, Siennois, and towards Porto Novo the same, having given the word to the two French Companies, that in case I should stand in need I would send for them, leaving the Siennois still in the Citadel, and in the Fort. The same Instructi­ons I left with the Germans, and had taken order that from six hours to six hours we [Page 143] would change the word, as well by day as by night, to the end that whilst every one lay close at his post, if there should be any Traytor amongst us, he might go to no place where he might have any Intelligence with the Enemy, to draw men from that part to weaken that Post, to carry them to another: but that no one should be believ'd if he did not bring the word, in changing of which it should be carried to the Siennois by two of the Council of Eight, by the one to the one half, and by the other to the other; so that unless those themselves brought the word they were not to stir from their Post. I was ever afraid that the Marquis had some intelligence in the City, which made me take this course to prevent him. The Germans who were at the great place had the same com­mand, and moreover that an Officer, or a Serjeant of the others should come to fetch them: to which end there were six Serjeants chosen out of our Italian and French Companies, who had in charge, that during the time of the Battery, or of an Assault, they should continually be moving along the Curtain of the Wall to the Quarters I had appointed, and never to abandon their Quarter. It was also ordain'd that no one upon pain of death, of what Nation soever, not so much as the Siennois themselves should dare to a­bandon the Retirade, being of the number of those who were there appointed for the fight, and the same was carried quite round the walls of the City. It was also order'd, that o [...] eight of the Council of War, four were continually to remain with me and Signior Cor­nelio, to the end that the two who remain'd with him might go continually on horse­back with the word, to fetch such succours as Signior Cornelio should send for, to relieve him if occasion should be, and my two the like; that is to say of the Captains of the City, and the other four should go to the places where the six Serjeants were appointed to be, to the end that they might joyntly encourage the Soldiers to fight, if necessity should require. And there where there was no business to be done, and that any came to them with the word for succours, they should deliver him the one half, and keep the rest to defend that Post. That the Officers of the King, as Controulers, Commissaries of victu­al, Treasurers, or their Deputies, should ordinarily be, part by day, and part by night, still on horseback, riding up and down the streets of the City, and that from hour to hour one of them should bring me news how all things stood in the body of the City, and about the Walls, bringing us still some token or another that they had spoke with the four of the Council, and the Serjeants who were deputed with them. This was the order I gave, at least as much as I remember, never failing my self every day to visit the Companies, and to encourage the Inhabitants to do well.

I now return to what we did at the Fort Camoglia: Monsieur de Bassompierre ran to fetch a Canon we had in the Ci [...]adel; but as he went out to remove it the Carriage broke, so that instead of it he brought a Demy-Canon, which a Siennois the said Bassompierre had entertein'd in the quality of a Canoneer evermore shot in, and so well that he could hit with it as small a mark as if it had been a Harquebuz. He was assisted by some Italian and French Soldiers of the Citadel to bring it, whilst I was making ready a Platform with the Soldiers of the Fort, till my Company of Pioneers came, which I had sent for in all haste, and in less than an hour and a half we dispatcht it, where I mounted my Demy­Canon. I gave ten Crowns to our Siennois, that he might make some good shots with that Piece here, as he had done several at the Citadel before. The Enemy had plac't Ga­bions on the Flanck of their Battery towards us. Bassompierre and I went a little on the right hand, and observ'd the Bullet in the air like a hat on fire, flying very wide on the right hand, and the second as much on the left, which made me ready to eat my own flesh for rage: Monsieur de Bassompierre always assur'd me, that he would presently take his level right, and still went and came to and fro betwixt him and me. The third shot light upon the bottom of the Gabions, and the fourth playd directly into their Artillery, and there kill'd a great many of their men, whereupon all those that assisted fled behind a little house which was in the rear of their Canon. At which I ran and took him in my arms, and seeing him with his Linstock ready to fire again, said to him, Fradel [...]io da li da seno, per dio facio, ti presente da [...]teri dieci sco [...]di, & d'une biechier de vino Graeco. I then left him the French Captain, who had the Guard of the Fort, to furnish him continually with such things as he stood in need of, and Monsieur Bassompierre and I return'd to our Post. There then advanc't a German Ensign to the Enemies battery, who came along by the other Gabionade with his colours flying, and this might be about four of the clock in the afternoon, we could see him march from behind the Observance, and was no sooner come to the Artillery, but our Piece fir'd and kill'd the Ensign, upon which the Germans immediately fled away, retiring to the place from whence they came. And this Sienuois made so many brave shots, that he dismounted them six pieces of Ca­non, and their Artillery remain'd totally abandon'd till the beginning of the night, with­out [Page 144] playing any more than two pieces of Canon, that were covered with Gabions, and [...]lanckt towards the Fort Camoglia, which our Artillery could not touch, because they shot over by reason of the height of the Gabions, and in the twilight they made seven or eight shots at the Obs [...]rvance where we were, and the houses adjoyning, and of all night after shot no more. We work't exceeding hard all night to finish our Retirade, and the Count de Bisque was no less diligent at the Antiport, so that two hours before day all was perfected, and every one settled in his Post where he was to fight. That which made us make so much haste, was, that we heard a great noise at their Artillery, and thought they were bringing up the rest, which made me put out a man to discover their Battery, who brought us word, that they had cut above fourscore paces of the wall, within a span or two of the bottom, and that he believ'd in a few hours they would have beaten it totally down, which we did not much care for though they did, for we hop'd to sell them their Entry very dear; and about an hour before day they ceased their noise, which made us think that they only expected the break of day to give fire. I then mounted upon the wall, having Captain Charry always with me, who by main force would needs have me down when the day began to break, and soon after I perceiv'd, that at the Windows of the Gabions there was no Artillery,The Marquis draws of his Canon. and that instead of planting more they had drawn off those there were. I then called out to Signior Cornelio, that we were out of danger of an Assault, and that the Enemy had drawn off their Canon; at which news every one began to come upon the wall, where the Siennois sufficiently rated the Enemy in their language, saying, Coioni marrani, venete qua vi metteremo per terra vinti brassi di muri▪ They were constrain'd to stay three days at the foot of the mountain to repair their Carriages, which the Demy-Canon we had brought to Fort Cam [...]glia had broken and spoild them.

Now (as I have already said) the Gentleman of the Emperors Bedchamber had all the while kept a great deal of clutter what Canon would do to the winning of the Town: but after he had been an eye witness of all that has been related, and that the Marquis had remonstrated to him that the Retirade, and those other Fortifications I made within, was to let him enter, and to give him Battail in the City (for if I knew what he did, he was no less enform'd of my proceeding, there being evermore one Traytor or another amongst all people) he then was of the same opinion with the Marquis and the other Captains,The Marquis his resolution. that the Town was never to be taken by force; but that it was to be re­duc't to famine, and therefore thought it convenient that the Artillery should be sent back to Florence. He then return'd back to his Master to give him an account of what he had seen, and that the Marquis could do no more than what he had already done. I do not know whether or no he acquainted the Emperor with the fright he had been in, which the Marquis himself gave me a relation of at my going out of Sienna, as he went along with me above two miles of my way, where he told me, that at the time when their Artillery was forsaken, by reason of the Havock our Demy-Canon made amongst them, he was close by the side of the little house in his Litter, being then very lame of the Gout, where his Litter being set down upon the ground, this Gentleman of the Emperor's was talking to him, having his hands upon the Cover of the Litter,The Marquis his danger and fright. and his head with­in it, whispering with the said Marquis; when our Governor seeing the Artillery aban­doned, and every one retyr'd under the shelter of the little house made a shot at it, with which a part of the wall, which was of brick fell upon the Litter, so that the said Gentle­man was by it beaten down upon the Marquis's Legs, sc astonish't as nothing more, and the Marquis swore to me, that in his life he was himself nev [...]r in so much f [...]ar of being kill'd, as at that time: that they drew the Gentleman out from off his legs, and himself after with much ado, all the Litter being full of the ruine, and covering of the said house. And the said Marquis moreover told me, that at the great fright he was in his Gout left him, for the whole ruine fell at once upon him, and upon the Gentleman, who verify thought himself to be kill'd. I have often heard that the apprehension of death has cur'd many diseases; I know not if the Marquis his Gout be returned since, but he as­sur'd me he had never had it after from that fright, till the time I saw him. If it be re­turn'd or no I leave others to enquire.

This might be about the middle of Ianuary, The Germans can no longer endure the want of bread and wine. and not above eight dayes after we be­gan to perceive that the Germans grew very impatient at the little bread they had, ha­ving no wine, which was the most insupportable of all. The Rhinecroc himself, who was sickly, could no longer endure, there being nothing to be had unless it were a little horse- [...]lesh, or a piece of an Ass. Signior Cornelio and I then began to contrive which way we might get these Germans out of the City, and conceited that if they were gone we could yet keep the Town above two moneths longer, whereas if they staid we should [Page 145] be necessicated to surrender: we therefore concluded to send a man privately to Monsieur de Str [...]zzy to remonstrate all this to him, and to entreat him to send for them after the most plausible manner he could (which I also directed him how to do) and sent to him Captain Cosseil, who is now my Ensign, very well instructed. It was with exceed­ing great difficulty that he was to pass, which that he might do, we were to fight two Courts of Guard, by reason that the Marquis had already cast up a great number of Tren­ches, which came up close to the walls of the City on every side. Of these Captain Charry fought the one, and the Count de Gayas with a Company of Italians the other; so that whilst they were fighting he got over the Trench, and recovered the rear of the Camp with his Guides, and two dayes after return'd in Company with an Italian Gentle­man call'd Captain Flaminio, who brought Letters to the Rhinecroc, and to me also wherein Monsieur de Strozzy writ to me to send the Rhinecroc with his Companies out to him, for that he intended to set on foot a flying Army, having with him great store of Italian horse and foot,A device of the the Sieur de Montluc to be rid of the Ger­mans. and that without some of those Tramontane sinews he should never be able to relieve me, and that he would protest against me if the City was lost. To the Rhin [...]croc likewise he sent very obliging letters, having before-hand made Captain Flaminio very perfect in his Lesson. The Rhinecroc upon the receiving these or­ders broke out into very great complaints, saying that Monsi [...]ur de Strozzy reduc'd him to the greatest extremities, and that it was impossible for him to get away without being defeated: but that he would however speak to his Officers, which he did, and which begot a very great dispute amongst them. At length one of them in whom he reposed the greatest confidence, and who serv'd him in the quality of Camp-Master, remonstra­ted to him, that he had much better hazard with his sword in his hand to make his way through the Mar [...]uis his Camp, than stay to die of famine, or by a Capitulation to sur­render himself to the Enemies discretion, which however in a few dayes he must of ne­cessity do; for there was nothing left to eat, and their Soldiers began to murmur, inso­much that they evermore expected when a great part of them should go give themselves up to the Enemy, which made them resolve to depart. The Rhinecroc was not much to be blam'd for his unwillingness, it being a very perilous Journey, for at the very [...]allying out of the Gate, he was of necessity to fight several Spanish Guards, and half a mile from thence another, at a Trench the Enemy had cast up near unto a certain Mill, which was in his way. Upon their determination to depart, I gave express charge that no one living should speak of this sally, causing the Gates of the City to be close shut, and at the beginning of the night they all came with their Baggage to the great place before Porto Novo.

The Siennois, The Germans go out of Si­ [...]na. who understood nothing of all this, at the seeing the Germans in this marching posture, began in all haste to repair to the Pallace in very great despair. I then caus'd three Companies to sally out, two of French, and one of Italians; the first where­of was led by Captain Charry, the second by Captain Blacon (who since dyed a Hugonot at [...]tonge) and the third by the Count de Gayas. Captain Charry had order to fight the first Court of Guard, which was in a great street of the Suburbs, the second was at the Au­gustins in the same street, and the third at S. Lazaro. They had in command from me, never to give over [...]ill they had fought all the three Courts of Guards, and the Count de Gayas took the way on the outside of the Suburbs on the right hand all along by the houses, still marching softly on to rally our men together, as they should be separated and scatter'd by the fight. The Tertia of Sicily lay at the Charter-house, consisting of very good Soldi­ers, and the Rhinecroc at the going out of the Gate took on the right hand, entring into a valley, and the Count de Gayas remain'd upon the eminence moving still softly on, which produc'd two effects for the relief of our people, the one as has been said, by ga­thering our squandred men together, and the other to succour the Rhinecroc also, if he should stand [...] need; and so we began to open the Gate, it being about one of the clock in the night. Captain Charry marched out first (for it was he who alwayes led the dance) Blacon after him, the Count de Gayas next, and then the Germans, who in a trice put themselves into the Valley.The Fight be­twixt the French and the Imperialists. We immediately heard the fight betwixt our French and the Spaniards: Captain Charry routed the two Courts of Guards, the one after the o­ther, and beat them up as far as that of St. Lazaro; whereupon those of the Charter-house came out to relieve their people, and came to the Augustins (where Blacon had made a halt expecting Captain Charry) and there clapt in betwixt them. Captain Charry having done his business, thought to return (hearing very well that they were fighting with Blacon) and met the Enemy, which redoubled the fight. The Count de Gayas could not come to assist him, by reason that I had expresly forbid him to engage in the fight, till he should first be sure that the Germans were out of danger: but in the end he was constrain'd to do as the rest did, our two French Companies being driven upon him. [Page 146] The Fight continued above a long hour. Signior Cornelio and I were without the Gate by the Portcullis, and nothing was open but the wicket, and there as the Soldiers came one after another, we put them in, when on a sudden we heard the fight coming towards us, some crying France, and others Spain, when at last they all came up pel mel together to the Portcullis. We had torches within the Gates, and through the wicket saw a little light, by wich we drew the Soldiers in. I must needs say, there were very valiant men, both on the one side, and the other; for not so much as either French or Italian, ever once ran furiously upon us, but still fac'd about at the Portcullis, and never retir'd, but step by step, till we pull'd them in. All the three Captains were wounded, and we there lost what slain, and wounded above forty of the best Soldiers we had, both French and Ita­lians, and in the end we got in all the rest of our people. And because before the Sally, the Siennois were astonish'd at the departure of the Germans, I made Signior Cornelio to go about to the several Guards, and to the Forts, to reassure our men, for no one knew that the Germans were to go away, and I my self went to the Palace, where I found all the Senate in a very great distraction, to whom I spoke as followeth:

I see well (Gentlemen) that you have here assembled your selves upon the occasion ofSpeech of Monsieur de Mo [...]tluc to the Siennois. the Germans departure, and that you are enter'd into some apprehension and jealousie, that by that means your City will be lost: But I must tell you, it is the conservation, and not the loss of your City; for those six Ensigns devour'd more, than the twelve of the Italians and French. On the other side, I know you must have heard that the said Ger­mans already began to mutiny, being no longer able to endure. I also discover'd well enough, that even their Captains were not like to govern them, themselves apprehend­ing that they would go over to the Enemy, and you your selves have for five or six days last past heard the Enemy call out to us at the very foot of our walls, that we were lost, and that our Germans would soon be with them. Yet did not this proceed from any de­fault in their Officers, but from the impatience of the common Soldiers, who were no longer able to suffer. Now (Gentlemen) should you appear dejected upon their depar­ture; the world would say, that both your courage and ours, depended only upon theirs, and so we should dishonor our selves, to honor them; to which I shall never give my consent: for you knew all the great fights that have hapned in this siege, have been perform'd by you, and us only, and they have never so much as sallied out of the Town, save once only, that in spite of me the Rhinecroc would send out his people un­der the conduct of his Nephew and his Camp-Master, and would accept of no one of any other Nation, than his own, at which time you saw how soon, and how easily they were beaten back, even into the ditch of the Ravelin of Porto Novo; so that if, by good fortune,The Germans by no means proper for a siege. I had not been there, and had not made the Italian Guard sally out to their rescue, not a man of them had come off alive. I will not disparage them, but they are much more proper for a Battel, than a Siege. Why then (Signiors) should you be con­cern'd at their departure? I will say one thing more to you, that although I had also sent away the t [...]elve Companies that remain with me in this Town, I would yet undertake to defend your City, provided the Captains stay'd behind to relieve me. You must make your Ensigns Captains of the Watch by turns, who shall have two nights of intermissi­on, and ours shall have but one, and we must begin to contract our allowance of bread to fourteen ounces, and you of the City to ten. You must also put the useless mouths out of Town, and appoint six persons to take a lift of their names to morrow, without further delay, and that without regard of persons, and speedily thrust them out of your City, by which expedient we shall make our bread last three months longer, which will be a suf­ficient time for the King wherein to relieve us, especially now that the Spring is drawing on. Cease therefore your apprehensions, and on the contrary approve what I have done in order to your service. If I have done it without pre-acquainting the Senate with my design, it was not out of any dis-respect to them, but to keep this departure secret, which was of very great consequence, as you your selves may have observ'd; I having been constrain'd to put Monsieur de Strozzy upon the business to deliver my self from a people so entirely devoted to their bellies.

The Senate having heard my Remonstrance, desir'd me to go to my repose, and that they would consider of what I had said, rendring me very many thanks for the comfort and good counsel I had given them. In the morning my whole Speech was divulg'd all over the City, and there was no more thought of fear amongst them: But they could not well agree amongst themselves about the unprofitable mo [...]ths,The Sieur de M [...]ntluc choseo Dictator at Sienna for a month. forasmuch as every one was willing to favour his own relations and friends; wherefore by Ballotte they created me their Dictator General for the space of a month, during which time neither the Captain [Page 147] of the people, nor the Mag [...]stracy had any command at all, but I had the absolute autho­rity and dignity, anciently belonging to the old Dictators of Rome. I thereupon created six Commissaries, to take a list of all the useless people, and afterwards deliver'd the roll to a Knight of Malta, accompanied with five and twenty, or thirty Souldiers, to put them out of the Town,The useless mouths thrust out of Sienna. which in three days after I had deliver'd in the List, was performed. A thing, that had I not very good witness of, both of the Siennoi [...], the King's Officers, and the Captains who were then present in Sienna, I should not however have mention'd in this place, lest the world should take me for a lyar: but it is most perfectly true. The List of these useless mouths, I do assure you amounted to Four thousand and four hun­dred people, or more, which of all the miseries and desolations that I have ever seen, was the greatest my eyes ever yet beheld, or that I believe I shall ever see again; for the Master was hereby necessitated to part with his servant, who had serv'd him long, the Mistress with her maid, besides an infinite number of poor people, who only liv'd by the sweat of their brows; which weeping and desolation continued for three days together: and these poor wretches were to go thorow the Enemy, who still beat them back again to­wards the City, the whole Camp continuing night and day in Arms to that only end; so that they drove them up to the very foot of the walls, that they might the sooner con­sume the little bread we had left, and to see if the City out of compassion to those misera­ble Creatures would revolt; but that prevail'd nothing, though they lay eight days in this condition, where they had nothing to eat but herbs and grass, and above the one half of them perish'd, for the Enemy kill'd them, and very few escap'd away. There were a great many Maids and handsome women indeed, who found means to escape, the Spa­niards by night stealing them into their quarters, for their own provision, but it was un­known to the Marquis, for it had otherwise been death; and some strong and vigorous men also forc'd their way, and escap'd by night: But all those did not amount to the fourth part, and all the rest miserably perish'd. These are the effects of War. We must of ne­cessity sometimes be cruel, to frustrate the designs of an Enemy. God had need to be mer­ciful to men of our Trade, who commit so many sins, and are the causers of many mise­ries and mischiefs.

You Captains and Governors of places, if you be not perfect already, learn these Arts and Stratagems: It is not all to be valiant and wise, you must also be circumspect and cunning. Had I entreated the Rhinecroc to depart the City, he would have been dis­pleas'd, and have reproach'd me, that I sent him to the slaughter, but I proceeded more discreetly, serving my self with the authority of Monsi [...]ur de Strozzy, wherein I had no other end, but to gain time to tire out my Enemy, and to give the King leisure to relieve us: But as I have said before, he emplo'd his Forces there where he had the most concern. Nearer is the skin than the skirt. Never f [...]ar to discharge your selves of useless mouths, and bar your cars from all crys of the afflicted: Had I obey'd my own disposition, I had done it three months sooner, which if I had, I might peradventure have sav'd the Town, or at least I had longer held my Enemy in play; and I have a hundred times since repented me, that I did not.

The Marquis seeing that I had put the Germans out of the Town (who were the great­estThe Germans defeate. part of them d [...]feated by the way, and thorough their own great fault, which I shall not however give any further account of, for they were not defeated about Sienna, but elswhere upon their march, where their own fear surpriz'd them, without any great rea­son) and seeing also that I had driven out the useless people, both which would help to prolong the Siege, with the contracting our allowance of bread (which he had also learn'd from those that went out) these things made him to think of some other way,The Marquis his design. to bring us to his bow; fearing l [...]st some [...]now should fall in the Spring (as it often falls out in those parts at that time of the year) which should it so happen, he should then be constraind to raise the Siege, and repa [...] [...] to the Cities to eat, for he was almost in as great necessity 'as we, and the Soldiers of his Camp were fain to [...]at Mallows, and other herbs,The Marquis his sufferings. as well as ours, by reason that oftentimes their provisions could not be brought in due time; for it all came from ab [...]ut Florence, which was thirty miles of [...], and upon little Asses, excepting 100 Mules, and those were to bring sufficient to serve wh [...]lst they could go and come, which was five or six days, and every return some of their beasts of burthen dyed. For about the Camp there was no more, so much as one herb; neither hay, straw, nor grain to be found, and much less any one Inhabitant within ten miles of the Road. And all his Cavalry lay [...]et ten miles beyond Florence, excepting the Company of Signior C [...]bri the Marquis his N [...]phew, which consisted of no more than fifty Horse, and was also eve­ry fifteen days to be reliev'd, by fifty others that were quarter'd at Banconvent. So that had God been pleas'd to send us a little snow, though but for eight days only, his Camp [Page 148] would have been necessitated to rise, and to shift for themselves in the most commodious quarters abroad in the Country. All these things together put the Marquis upon an attempt to shorten the War, wherein his design was one way or anotherto sow division amongst the quarters of the City, seeing us weak, and knowing very well, that although we had yet twelve Companies, there was nevertheless not eighteen hundred men: To which effect by those of the Siennois who were banish'd the City, and were with the Marquis, an inven­tion was found out to gain a Citizen of the Town called Messer Pedro, a man with one eye, and of the order of the people (which was that wherein we most confided, toge­ther with the order of the Reformators) and that by the means of certain little boys, who went with little sacks to gather herbs in the Meadows upon the River Tresse. By whom the Marquis so order'd the business, that he corrupted this man, and made him a Traytor to his People and Countrey; and the form of this practice was,The Marquis his practices in Sienna. that Messer Pedro should receive several blancks, sign'd by the Siennois, who were in the Marquis his Camp, which he himself should write over at his own discretion.

The plot of this design was thus, that Messer Pedro should in his Letters write these words, that they wonder'd they should thus suffer themselves to be so manifestly abus'd by the Seigneur de Montluc; and that a child might discern all the assurances he gave them of relief from the King of France to be no other than gulleries and deceits: That although they had unworthily been thrust out of the City, yet did they nevertheless, with tears in their eyes, infinitely lament to see them so miserably loose themselves, and that if they would send out a man to go so far as Rome, to enquire if the King was raising an Army for their succour, they would then infallibly discover the Cheat: That they begg'd of them not to suffer themselves to be reduc'd to the last morsel, which if they should do, they would not then come off cheaper, than at the price of their heads, the ruine of their estates, their wiv [...]s and chil­dren: That they had yet means to make their peace with the Emperor, by the Mediation of the Marquis, if they would let him into the Town, which was a thing [...]asie enough to do, if they would consult and joyn with some of the City, who had already engag'd themselves to them; and that they might know who were of the intelligence, they were to go into such a street, and where they should see a little whi [...]e Cross under the door, the Master of th [...]t house was one. This one ey'd Dog perform'd his o [...]ce exactly well, and directed his Letters to one of those in whom we repos'd an absolute trust, being very certain, that he would forthwith carry it to the Magistrate, and that the Magistrate would also in the morning send into the street mention'd in the Letter, and would seize upon the Gentleman of the house, at whose door the Cross should be found. However he resolv'd ever to make his Cross at some house of the orders of the Novl, and the Gentlemen, forasmuch as the other two Orders had them in suspicion, and the Marquis thought (knowing the humor of the Siennois, and the hatred they bore to one another) that immediately, so soon as that person should be taken, they would hurry him without any other form of J [...]stice to the Scaffold, by which means those two Orders of the Novi, and of the Gen [...]l [...]men, would enter into so great an animosity and despair, that to save their lives they wou'd be constrain'd to betake themselves to arms, to possess themselves of a Canton of the City near unto the walls, to favour the Enemy, and to help them into the City.

This cursed Rogue then began to forge his first Letter, and by night went and thrust it under the door of the house of one of the Gentlemen, who was unsuspected, and made his little Cross in another street at the house of one of the richest Gentlemen of the Order of the Novi; so that in the morning the Gentleman to whom the Letter was directed, found it in the Entry of his house, presently read it, and careird it to the Magistrates, who so soon as they had look'd upon it, immediately sent it to me by Misser Hieronimo Hispano, sending me word withal, that they had determin'd to go apprehend the said Gentleman, and forthwith to carry him directly to the Scaffold. Whereupon I sent the Signiors Cornelio and Bartolomeo Cavalcano back to them, to entreat them not so pre­cipitously to proceed to blood, for that it might be an invention of the Marquis to set division amongst us: but that they might do well to commit him to prison, which they accordingly did. Two days after there was another Letter found in the same manner, in the house of a Gentleman of the Order of the Novi, a man no more suspected than the other, and the little Cross under the door of one of the Order of the Gentlemen: At which the Senate was so incens'd, that I was fain my self to go to the Pallace, where I had much ado to obtain the favour, that they would defer execution for five days only, to see if in that time God would please to give us further light into this Fact. All the whole City was enrag'd, and talk'd of nothing but cutting off heads. As God help me, it could never sink into my head, that it was any other, than a device of the Marquis, for I knew very well with whom I had to do. I then entreated Messer Bartolom [...]o Cavalcano, [Page 149] that he would never cease day nor night, to go visit the said Gentlemen, and the Citizens of the Orders of the Gentlemen,The Sieur de Montluc's wis­dom. and the Novi, whom the misfortune concern'd, to entreat them not to despair, and to tell them, that I would take order no blood should be shed, and that I gave no credit to those Letters and Crosses. Signior Cornelio also assisted me very much in this affair, who had a very great interest in the City, by reason of the Car­dinal of Ferrara, with whom he had always liv'd during his abode in this City.

Now three or four days after this, thinking the fury to be over, behold another Let­ter, and another Cross found in the same manner as before: At which every boody lost all patience, and would immediately drag all three to execution. I then ran to the pallace, taking Signior Cornelio and Signior Bartolomeo along with me. As I was going it came into my head, that I had no way to divert this blow; but by a colour of devotion, and so soon as I came there, I found the great Hall already almost full of men of the Reforma­tors, and of the Order of the people: when so soon as I enter'd into the Hall of the Ma­gistracy, they all began to cry out, that it was now no longer time to forbear, but that they were to proceed to a speedy execution of Iustice; whereupon having taken my place, I spoke to them in Italian, as at other times, after this manner.

Gentlemen, since the time that I have had the honor to Command in your City,The Sieur de Montluc's Ha­rangue to the Senate of Sien­na. by the appointment of the King my Master, you have never undertaken any thing, whe­ther as to matters of War, or as to the Government of your Corporation, without first communicating to me your intention, and asking my opinion and advice. Wherein, by God's good pleasure, I have been so happy, that I have hitherto never advis'd you to any thing which has not succeeded to your advantage and honor; neither would I do it for the world, my own life and safety not being dearer to me, than your preservation. Seeing then (Gentlemen) I have been so fortunate, as ever to have given you sound and useful counsels; let me beseech you to retain the same opinion of me now, and to give credit to me in an affair of so great importance, as this that presents it self before you, with which your judgements seem to be very much perplex'd. I beg of you with joyn'd hands, and in the name of God, that of all things you take heed of embruing your hands in the blood of your Citizens till the truth shall be fully known; neither can it possibly be long conceal'd: 'tis to much purpose to cover the fire, the smoak will how­ever issue out; in like manner they may endeavour to mask and disguise this practice, but the truth will infallibly appear. All the world (and I beseech you be of my opini­on) cannot make me believe, that this is any other than an Artifice, and a trick of the Marquis, who having found that the Lyon's skin will do him no good, has therefore put on that of the Fox, the better to bring about his design. Which to do, he had no better, nor more subtile way, than by sowing division in the heart of your City. And which way could he better do it, than by making you believe there are Traytors among you, and within your own walls? Knowing very well that that would make you not on­ly to imprison such suspected persons, but also to put them to death, and by that execution to set discord in your City, for true blood cannot lye. The Parents and friends of the sufferers will bear the death of their kindred, though it should be just, with great sorrow and discontent, and will eadeavour to revenge them; by which means behold you have created so many domestick enemies, much more dangerous than those without, and you will be perplexed about the death of your own people, at the time when you meditate that of your open and declared foes. See then (Gentlemen) what joy, what satisfaction and delight you will administer to your enemies when they shall know that you busie your selves about cutting off the heads of your own Citizens, and of those, who I dare say and swear are innocent. However it may prove to be, the expectation of the truth can no ways be prejudicial to you, for you have them in sure hold: you are secure of your prisoners, you have them under safe custody. I will also be vigilant on my part, why then should you make such haste to put them to death? For the honor of God be­lieve me, you will not repent your patience. I have no interest but yours, let us have recourse to God in so great a necessity. Command that all your Clergy to morrow or­dein a general Procession throughout the whole City, and let every one be enjoyn'd to be assisting at it, and let them joyn in prayer, that it may please God to do us that grace as to discover to us the truth of this affair, the treason, if treason there be, and the in­nocency of the Prisoners, if there be none. I assure my self that God will hear us, and you will soon be satisfied of the truth, after which you may proceed to justice against the guilty if cause require: but to do it before, and in heat to embrew your hands in the blood of your Citizens, without having m [...]turely weighed every circumstance, you would in my opinion do very ill, and bring a great mischief upon your City. Gentle­men, [Page 150] the sole affection I have to your service, your safety, and conservation, has made me speak thus freely to you without any other consideration, and I once more most earnestly beseech you to grant me this favour, as for a few dayes to supersede your sen­tence, which in the mean time we will employ in prayers and supplications, that God will please, by manifesting to us the truth, to direct our justice.

I had no sooner ended my Speech, but that a confused murmur arose throughout the whole Hall, some saying I, and others no, for there will be evermore some opposers; but in the end my advice was followed, and presently intimation given to the Churches, and to all the people, to prepare themselves against the next day for a general Procession, to pray unto Almighty God; for as for fasting we had enough of that already.A General Procession. I was my self assisting at the Procession, and all the Captains, together with all the Gentlemen and Ladies of the City, the Kindred of the Prisoners followed weeping; and to be short, all the whole body of the City this day, and the day following were in humiliation and prayer, every one beseeching of God, that he would please to afford us that grace, as to discover the truth of this treason. In the mean time I slept not, for all the night Signior Cornelio and I were in consultation, which way this practice of the Marquis could be set on foot. I consider'd with my self, that the business being gone thus far, he who carried on the de­signe would not rest there, and that the Council of the City would not be kept so secret, that the Marquis would not infallibly have intelligence of what had been concluded, there being evermore some tell-tales in these great Assemblies; and then very well knew that I had committed an error, in so openly declaring that I was assur'd it was a trick of the Marquis, it being to be feared that it would make him enter into some jealousie of his Agent. Now because it was likely he would by his Letters and Tickets give us some new alarm, I thought fit to cause certain men to walk up and down the streets of the City by night, after the most private manner they could, to try if by that means something might not be brought to light, and after this manner caused Centinel to be made two nights together.The prudence of the Sieur de Mo [...]tluc. By day I caused the people to be taken up with Processions in three respective Parishes, and when any of the Signiory came to tell me, that it was so much time lost, and that they must proceed to Justice, I entreated them to have patience, as­suring them that I began to discover some light into the business; for it was necessary to proceed after this manner, to restrain the fury of the people.

Now it hapned that the third night about midnight this M [...]ss [...]r Pedro was seen to pass by, and stopping at a house, put his hand to a Casement, which was low, and hapned to be shut, and one of the three Letters had been found to have been put into a low win­dow as that was. He then kneel'd down, and under the door put in the Letter as far as he could thrust his arm, which having done he went his way along the street. A Gentleman who lay at watch went presently after him, and taking him by the arm said, c [...]e siete voi? to whom the other replyed, Io sono Messer Piedro (I cannot remember the sir-name of this Rascal) the Gentleman then knew him,The Traytor surpriz'd. and said to him dove andate? who made answer me ne vo á la guardia, to which the Gentleman return'd, ad [...]o ad [...]o; which having done he knockt, and made them open the door, where he found the Letter of the same contents with the former. He then immediately went and carried it to the Magistracy, who sent me two of their Council, to give me an account of the whole bu­siness, and those two went and call'd up Signior Cornelio, who came along with them; where amongst us it was concluded, that the Gates should not be open'd in the morn­ing, nor the Guards and Centinels reliev'd, till he was first taken; and in the morning Signior Cornelio went with a hundred men to beset the house both before and behind. Sig­nior Cornelio knew the man, and so soon as he had placed his Soldiers, knockt at the door, where he found him yet in bed, and presently sent me word of his being taken. Whereupon, the time of my Dictatorship being expir'd, I made use of entreaties, as before, requesting the Senate that he might be forthwith put upon the Rack, for he both denied the Letter, and also that he had seen the Gentleman of all that night. As he was upon the Rack he begg'd that they would to [...]ment him no more,Misser Pedro confesses his treason. for he would confess the truth, which he did from point to point, together with the Marquis his practices to set division in the City. Upon which confession they would in the heat have presently hang'd him at the windows of the Palace: but I en [...]reated them not to do it yet, and so he was clapt up in a Dungeon. I then en [...]reated the Captain of the people to deliver to me the three Gentlemen, who were prisoners, for that I had a desire to talk with them at my Lodging; which he accordingly did.

They were brought by Signior Cornelio and Bartolomeo Cavalcano, and so soon as they were come to my Lodging I remonstrated to them, ‘that they ought by no means to [Page 151] stomach their imprisonment, nor to bear the S [...]na [...]e any [...]ll will for se [...]ing of their per­sons, affairs being reduced to such te [...]ms, that the Father [...]ught not to trust his Son, nor the Son his Father, since it concern'd no less than their lives and fortunes; and that therefore I desir'd they would go to the Magistracy to give them hearty thanks that they had not proceeded to speedy execution, but had had patience till such time as God had discover'd the truth.’ They return'd me answer, that I should pardon them, that be­ing a thing they would never do; neither was it they that had saved their lives, but that it was I, and that they would give God thanks and me; but that they had no obliga­tion to them at all. We were all three above a long hour labouring to perswade them, where I remonstrated to them, that not to do the thing I requested of them was to ac­complish the Marquis his designe, and to give him his hear [...]s desire, which was, that they should remain in division and mortal hatred; and whatever else I could contrive to say, that might any way serve to perswade them to go, I represented to their consi­deration to pacifie and appease them. In the end remembring how highly they stood ob­liged to me for the saving their lives, they promised me that they would do it, and Sig­nior Cornelio, and Messer Bartolomeo at my request went along with them, for I was a­fraid they might repent by the way; where so soon as they came before the Magistracy,The Prisoners go to the Se­nate. one of them spake for the rest, remonst [...]ating their innocency, and the wrong that had been done them; which nevertheless they would no more remember, considering the ne­cessity of the time, and the Estate of the City, affectiona [...]ely beseeching them to esteem them for their good Citizens and friends, and loyal to the Common-wealth; and that for the time to come neither they nor their posterity might have any blemish upon their names upon this occasion, they desired they would please to grant them Patents seal'd with the broad Seal for their satisfaction. The Captain of the people then made them a very ample Remonstrance, wherein he entreated they would excuse them, if the publick safety being in question, they had been constrain'd to shut their eyes to particular inte­rests, and by the importance of the affair had been constrain'd to be so severe in their inquisition: but that they did acknowledge and esteem them to be good and loyal Ci­tizens. Whereupon they all descended from their seats and embraced them, and as Mess [...]r Bartolomeo told me, the most of them with tears in their eyes: and so every one retired to his own house.

Now because this one-ey'd Villain was of the Order of the People, which was the greatest party in the Town, and wherein was most Soldiers, I was afraid that should they put him to death, those of his Order might make some s [...]r in the Town, saying, that now it was well enough known of what Order the Traitors were,The Sieur de Mo [...]tluc b [...]g [...] the Tray [...] life. which might occasion some mutiny or sedition, and make them in the end betake themselves to arms, which was the reason that I made a request to the Senate to give me his life, and to banish him for ever, that all things might be husht up, and that the Marquis might not say that any of his policies had succeeded any more than his attempts by arms. And thus were all things discovered and hudled up, for the Senate granted my request.

I have often since wondred how I came to be so discree [...], and so moderate in an affair of this importance, considering how reasonable it was, that an exemple should be made; but it would peradventure have done more hurt than good. We must not alwayes be so severe, and the seeing others so hot upon blood I do believe made me a little more tem­perate. And you (Gentlemen) who have the charge of places, do not suffer your selves to be transported at the first appearance of things, nor upon too light information; consider and weigh the circumstances, and hinder the violence of the people over whom you command by one pretence or another, as I did, amusing them with Processions; nor that that was not nevertheless well done, but I would see if time would make any dis­covery; and had I suffered these men to have been put to death, their kind [...]ed might per­haps have been prompted with some spirit of revenge. Above all things endeavour to preserve un [...]on amongst those over whom you shall happen to command, as I did in this City, where all was accommodated and appeased. Consider also with what enemy you have to do; for you may well imagine that he will leave no stone unremov'd, nor no ar­tifice untri'd, to set division in your City; as I have formerly read in Livie, the great Captain Han [...]ibal did to sow dissension amongst the Romans. Your wisdom and pru­dence (Governors of places) must discern if there be appearance in the thing; whether or no the party accused be a man capable of practice, or have any means whereby to bring his purpose about, and whether or no he have done any thing any wayes tending to such a design. If in apprehending him you discover any confusio