THE EMBASSAYS TO THE EMPEROURS OF JAPAN

Cum. prerelegien

Remarkable Addresses BY WAY OF EMBASSY FROM THE East-India Company OF THE UNITED PROVINCES, TO THE EMPEROR of JAPAN.

CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION OF THEIR SEVERAL Territories, Cities, Temples, and Fortresses; THEIR Religions, Laws, and Customs; THEIR Prodigious VVealth, and Gorgeous Habits; THE Nature of their Soil, Plants, Beasts, Hills, Rivers, and Fountains: WITH The Character of the Ancient and Modern JAPANNERS.

Collected out of their several Writings and Journals BY ARNOLDƲS MONTANƲS,

English'd, and Adorn'd with a Hundred several Sculptures, By JOHN OGILBY Esq His Majesty's Cosmographer, Geographick Printer, and Master of the Revels in the Kingdom of IRELAND.

LONDON, Printed by the Author, and are to be had at his House in White Fryers, M.DC.LXXI.

De LAND REYSE van OSACCA tot IEDO.

  • [...] Groote Steeden.
  • [...] Kleyne Steeden.
  • [...] Casteelen.
  • [...] Dorpen.
  • [...] Vlecken.
  • [...] Heerlyckheeden.
  • [...] Toorene en tempels
  • [...] De Cyffers syn de
  • [...] L [...]t [...] van de Br [...].

De WATER REYSE van NANGASACQUI tot OSACCA.

[...]
De LAND R [...]YSE van OSACCA tot IEDO.
[figure]

A MEMORABLE EMBASSY TO THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN

The Earth and Sea con­stitute a round Globe. FRom the round Shadow which darkens or eclipseth the Moon, the different Rising and Setting of the Cele­stial Luminaries, and the various Elevation of the Zenith, or Vertical Point, infallibly demonstrates, That the Earth and Sea making one Body, presents exactly the Figure of a Globe: Which though the Surface of this mighty Ball be rough and gibbous, ma­ny parts thereof swoln into Rocks and high Moun­tains, others sunk into depressed Valleys, yet make an even and smooth Circumference: for the highest Tops and lowest Descents are nothing in comparison to the Magnitude of this vast Body, but seem less than Warts on the Hand, or small Furrows in a Plough'd Field.

Incircling this our Terrestrial Orb at an unmeasurable distance, sparkle the innumerable Lights, in the immense expansions of the Firmament.

The Description of Hea­ven and Earth.About the Earth, the Air spreading it self into three Regions, dispenseth from the middle, all sorts of Meteors, with their several Effects upon us. The lowest Storie variety of Birds and flying Fowls make their Receptacle; the Sea and Rivers, Fish inhabit: but the Earth and Sea, and all Creatures there residing, the Creator left solely to the gubernation of Man, under whose Command they remain, so inverting the Authority of Power, placed the Mi­crocosmus over the Macrocosme, the little World to Rule the great.

The distribution of the People upon the Earth.But since the Fall of Adam, his Generations persisting, more and more in­creasing their enormous sins, and louder-crying offences, brought Gods just Judgment upon them, who therefore destroy'd the Old World by an Inunda­tion or general Deluge, onely preserving eight Persons, who descending from the Ark, the Waters being ceased, a new World began; in which by degrees [Page 2]their numerous Progeny so multipli'd, that they were forc'd to Plant fresh Colonies, still more and more remote from the Foot of the Mountain where they first settled. But nothing more help'd to the well and equal re-peo­pling of the desolated Universe, than the confusion of Tongues, which hap­pen'd in the Worlds Infancy at Babel, where all the Children of that Genera­tion resolving to settle, not minding farther Discoveries, pitch'd upon the fertile Plains of Shinar; Here must be (say they) the Center of our growing and intended Empire; this our begun, this our stupendious Work, whose aspi­ring Tower looks down already upon the Clouds, and hereafter threatens to scale the Skies, shall be the mighty, and all-commanding Head of our Impe­rial City, which extended over these Plains, we will inhabit, and with our Lives and Fortunes guard and maintain. But they in their vain Design and presumptuous Project, were suddenly baffled by Divine Providence, who in stead of setling, scatter'd them over the face of the Earth: for when they were at the busiest, and in the heighth of their expectation, labouring to finish this marvellous Structure, thus the Almighty disappointed their whole endeavours, all Tasks were suddenly thrown aside, each mistaking, not understanding one another; in which confusion their onely comfort was, to meet with any that spake with them the same Language: These using one Tongue, gathering in a Body, stuck together, and in several Companies fled to strange and unpeopl'd Regions; where Planting they flourish'd, and suddenly grew up to be several great Kingdoms.Since call'd Europe, Asia, and Africa, the then onely known Countrey. So this their total rout, and flying to all the Angles of the Universe, proved for the better, each by this means being sooner suppli'd; so extending by degrees their fresh Colonies to the utmost and Maritime Coast.

Yet however, one Party after this dissolution remaining still upon the Spot, which though they utterly sleighted their begun Tower, leaving it to ruine and decay, yet went on chearfully with their chief City; where Nimrod first taking the Title and supreme Authority upon him, sat in his new erected Throne, first Monarch of the Assyrian Empire. Besides him, many absolute Princes were thus in process of time establish'd in their several Dominions, and the whole World seem'd to be once more totally replenish'd.

When the restless Nature of Man, either unsatisfi'd with what he hath at­chiev'd, or spurr'd on by ambition, or urgent necessity, to enlarge their Bounds for their supernumerary Swarms, gave the beginning to the Iron, or turbu­lent Age, War and Hostility raging every where, in which those prevailing, grew high and mighty, those conquer'd, low and humble, continual vicissi­tudes and fluctuations of People, Kingdoms subverted in Republicks, and Common-wealths, weary of such Government, turn'd again into Monarchies. The weakest Party, put to all extremities, and worst of exigencies by the pur­suing Enemy, were enforc'd, all Land deni'd them, venturing for refuge into the wide Ocean, were soon swallow'd up; some driven they knew not whi­ther, lighted on uninhabited Countreys, there beginning new Plantations, and perhaps, by such Fugitives the new World never heard of by antiquity, became of old to be peopled, and by that means grown since to such vast Empires, as our late Voyagers have discover'd.

Here it will not seem amiss to give you an account, according as all Writers have it, how this our Old World was peopled, viz. Asia and Africa, and who were the Fathers, or chief Captains, giving Denominations to the People, and setling them in their several Plantations, beginning with Holy Scripture.

The Offspring of Japhet. Noah and his three Sons, Japhet being the eldest, his Offspring spread them­selves over Asia and Europe. Moses recounts these to be the Sons of Japhet, Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras: Gomer, as they say, first settled his Colony along the Caspian Sea, where Strabo and Pliny place the Cemerians; the Sons of Gomer being Ashkenaz, Riphat, and Tagorma, Planted other Colonies, Ash­kenaz laying the Foundation of the Kingdom of Media, which others contra­dict, supposing that he settled in the lesser Asia; others, the Countrey of Hessen, or Saxony, but out of what Records we know not; and Eusebius, where ere he hath it, calls Ashkenaz the Father, or first Prince of the Gothes, whil'st the Mo­dern Jews make him the Planter of the Teutonick Nations, or High-Dutch, and the transplanted Seed of Riphat into more Northern Regions, gave Denomina­tion to the Riphean Mountains beyond Scythia, which afterwards took in Pa­phlagonia. From his third Son Togarma, sprang the Togarmians, who sat down on the North-side of Canaan, beyond Cappadocia: but it appears by the Chalde Paraphrase, that Togarma peopled Germany; and the Jews affirm, that the Turco­many, or Turks, are also sprung from the Togarmians, whereupon still the Turkish Emperor is by them call'd Togar. But Magog, Japhets second Son inhabited Coelesyria, Mada, and the Territory of Media. Javan, the third, was Father to the Ionians, who in process of time, growing great with other conjoyn'd Nations, call'd themselves Greeks, their Countrey Grecia. From these the Latines drew their original: whereupon at first, a great part of Italy was call'd Greece; and still several Names of Italian Cities do undeniably shew the Extract of the La­tines from the Greeks, which the antient Writers affirm, by making Javan to be the Bifronted Janus, signifying Father both to the old Greeks, and new Latines, descended from him. The Sons of Javan were four, Elisha, who Planted in the Islands of the Mediterranean Sea; Tarshish, from whom Tarsus in Cilicia bears the Name; and Kittim, a Place in Cyprus, where between the two utmost Points Thro­nus and Dades, in the Entrance formerly stood the City Kittim; and still the Point Dades bears the Name of Cape Chiti. Dedanim, Javans youngest Son, possess'd that part of Eperia, where the City Dodona was renown'd famous for the Oracle of Jupiter Dodoneus, presaging by tinckling Brass Instruments, or Cymbals, and also from the oraculous Oak it self, which (as they say) spake from its hollow womb, giving Responses. From Japhets fifth Son sprang the Tubaleans, afterwards call'd Syrians. Others, according to Josephus, set themselves down in Spain, (so believ'd) because the antient City Setubal in that Kingdom retains Tubals Name. Meshechs Progeny steer'd their Coast towards Arabia. The Antients differ in no thing more, than settling the Habitations of Tiras, Japhets youngest Son: Jose­phus affirms him to be Father of the Thracians, in whose Countrey Pliny and Mela delineate the River Atira: Others transplant him to the European Sarmatia, ac­cording to Ptolomy, sprinkled with the Stream call'd Tyras, and at present Nester: Some make Tiras the Builder of Tyre in Phoenycia; again, some of the Duringi­ans and others, of Thurium, a very antient City in the entrance of Tarentine.

The Progeny of Sh [...]m.Thus far Japhets Successors: next Sems, that is to say, Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram, did overspread Armenia, Persia, India, and the farther Eastern part of Asia: But especially Elam is acknowledg'd to be the Father of the Ela­mites, from whence the Persians proceeded, extinguishing by their firm esta­blishment of their sole Dominion, the first Name of Elamites. Ashur Founded within the built City Nineveh, the Assyrian Power: formerly the Heathen Histo­ries bring these down from Ninus. Concerning Arphaxad, Moses saith thus:Genes. 10. And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the name [Page 4]of one was Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided; and his brothers name was Joktan. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobah: all these were the sons of Joktan. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Shephar, a mount of the east. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. Benedictus Arias Montanus ascribes particularly these Distributions to every one of the Children of Joktan, that is to say, to Almodad, the People of Themeotes, according to Ptolomy and Mela, transplanted into the Asiatick Sarmatia; to Sheleph, the Selebians; to Ha­zarmaveth, the Sarmatians; to Jarka, the Arachosians; to Hadora, the Hircanians; to Uzal, the Oxiaenian Bactrians; to Dikla, the Scythians, within the Mountains of Imaus; to Obal, the Obolites, between the top of Caucasus and Paropanisus; to Abi­mael, the Imaenses, where the renown'd Imaus hath very high Precipices; to Sheba, the famous Saces: yet others think it more advisable to bring the Sabeans to Sheba, bordering on the Persians; Ophir, call'd The Territory of Ophir, whether Solomon every third year set forth a Fleet to fetch Gold from thence. Yet after all the Distributions and Sprinklings of Mankind over the surface of the Earth, much of it confirm'd by many Authors, and also by sacred Writ, our Mo­dern Geographers, and late Travellers, hardly make out scarce two Parts of three of the Terrestrial Globe to be yet inhabited, all the Antartick, and most of the Artick Regions, an unfrequented Desolation, and Africa and Asia full of unpenetrated Desarts, and inaccessible Mountains, and many Isles: Of which several were discover'd by the Antients, and since by our Moderns, not thought worthy the labour of Cultivation, amongst which our Japan lay a long time Fallow, till by a necessitous Calamity a few miserable Exiles, be­ing (as they say) banish'd from their Countrey, were enforc'd to Plant there; which from such poor beginnings, and unwilling undertakers, hath insensi­bly by degrees in few Ages, shot up from nothing, to be a most Potent and formidable Empire.

But before we proceed any farther in this our intended Design, concerning a Description and Relation of Japan, (of which the Hollanders are most able to give the best account) it seems not amiss, raising our selves a little from our Seat, to look round about, and by an easie Prospect take a brief and general Survey, not onely of the new Art of Navigation, but also of those famous Na­vigators, that boldly first adventur'd to unloose (though thought unpossible before) the Virgin Zone of this our Terraqueous Globe; so not onely finding undiscover'd Parts of the East, but also a new Western Indies, abounding in Gold and Silver, as the other in Silk and Spices; besides, giving us a farther account of a third Continent (though yet unknown) equivalent to either of the former.

The Compass by whom found.The Loadstone, or Magnet, whose several Vertues, and wonderful Opera­tions, being well known through many Ages; yet that it was a Terrella, or little Earth, having Poles respecting the North or Southern Points of the Firma­ment, having imaginary Meridians and Parallels, being the greatest wonder, and of most use, was not found untill Flavius Melvius a Neopolitan discover'd it, about two hundred years since, to the great benefit of Mankind, and perfecti­on in Navigation; before which without Compass or Chart, the poor Sea­man, when stressed with Weather, the Sun and Stars, his onely Pilot, Night and Day muffl'd in Clouds, he crept along the Shore, which was the constant practice, or emboldned by the signs of fair Weather, ventur'd farther into [Page 5]the Offin; their condition was most miserable, not knowing where they were, which way to Steer, or from what part of Heaven the Wind then blew: As in Virgil Aene. lib. 3.

After our Ships so far had left the Coast
Till all the World, but Sky and Sea was lost,
A sable Cloud with Night and Tempest rose,
And th' Ocean rough with horrid darkness grows;
Inraged Winds make raging Waves more fierce,
And through vast Floods us every way disperse;
Whil'st Fleeting Tempests muffle up the Day,
All Heaven becomes to Gloomy Night a prey,
Perpetual lightning breaks from broken Clouds.
Drove from our course, we wander through Dark Floods,
Nor Palinurus knows, in such a Sky,
Day from the Night, or whither he should Ply.
Three Sun-less Days, as many nights we were
Wandring through dismal Fogs, without a Star;
But the fourth Dawn, we rising Land behold,
And far off Hills, which misty Clouds infold,
Sails struck, we row, our lusty Seamen sweep
The azure Pavement of the briny Deep.
Postquam altum tenuere rates, nec jam amplius ullae
Apparent terrae, coelum undique, & undique Pontus:
Tum mihi caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber,
Noctem, hiememque ferens, & inhorruit unda te­nebris,
Continuo venti volvunt mare, magnaque surgunt
Aequora: dispersi jactamur gurgite vasto.
Involvere diem nimbi, & nox humida coelum
Abstulit: ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes.
Excutimur cursu, & caecis erramus in undis.
Ipse diem, noctemque negat discernere coelo,
Nec meminisse viae media Palinurus in unda.
Treis adeo incertos caeca caligine Soles
Erramus pelago: totidem sine sidere noctes.
Quarto terra die primum se attollere tandem
Visa, aperire procul monteis, ac volvere fumum.
Vela cadunt; remis insurgimus: haud mora, nautae
Adnixi torquent spumas, & caerula verrunt.

So that now, by the help of the Needle, our Modern Navigators often run safely that in ten days, which Aeneas, Ulisses, and other Antients Navigators, still fearing Shipwrack, made a ten years pudder of.

And lately, by the help of this great additional, the Compass, they were able to say, By your leave, taking a long farewell of Atlas, and the Herculian Pillars, fix­ed, and looked upon as eternal boundaries of the West and South, both to Em­pire and Navigation, and boldly ventur'd to Plow the unmeasurable bosom of vast and unknown Seas; so with a steady Course night and day, dark or light, fair or foul, with an unwearied patience, slighting all dangers, raising new Stars, and setting the old, till they happily finish'd their long Voyages; some of them compassing the World, Girdling the Universe, making the utmost East and West joyn hands together.

Thus they have, in a manner, accurately Surveigh'd the New World, Ame­rica, inspecting it from Coast to Coast, from the East to the Western Ocean; and Magellanica, the last or unknown World, though they have not so penetra­ted as the former, yet by Sailing the skirts of its extended Border, they Cal­culated, by the largeness thereof, to be no less than another third part; so baf­fling the opinion of the Antients with a finis, that were so stupid to sit down contented with the onely knowledge of a third part of the whole world.

How Columbus came to the knowledge of a new World.The first Neptunian Hero, or great Sea-Captain, who had the prime honour of discovering the West-Indies, was Christopher Columbus, a Genoese; who having Marry'd in Portugal, settled in the Maderas: He being ingenious, and naturally much addicted to Novelty, still hearkening after new Projects, as well to sa­tisfie his own Inclination, as to improve his Fortune, by chance in his Travels fell acquainted with Marcus Paulus, a Florentine, not onely a Physician, but a great Naturalist and Student in Philosophy; who finding his humor, highly [Page 6]treated his curious and inquisitive disposition, with then suppos'd imaginary Stories, first discovering to him Antipodes, and making out by rational demon­strations, that the great Celestial Luminaries, where not idle nor hudwink'd up in their absence from us, and our privation of light; nor as the antient Po­ets tell us, that Phoebus when setting, descended into Thetis Lap; so all night, quenching his Horses fiery Fetlocks, swimming under water, till drawing near the East, he with reflected Beams colour'd the Golden Port-holes of the Dawn. But that these great and Resplendant Lights sprinkl'd, and chear'd with fe­cundating Rays, in alternate Day, so blessing other places, that were no less than inhabitable Worlds with happy fertility, making evident, that the Earth was not round and flat like a Trencher, as other old Writers affirm'd, but Or­bicular and hung Self-poysed, surrounded not onely with Air, but the vast expansions of the Sky.

But whilest he ruminated and revolved such Notions in his Working Fancy, so it hapned, that a Vessel Bound for Africa, was driven quite from her inten­ded Course by extremity of Weather, and many days tossed up and down in the wide Ocean, far out of sight from any Land; and at last having spent all their Provision, in a most miserable condition put in to the Haven of Madera, where the Captain and his whole Crue being utterly Famish'd with long Fast­ing, and past all recovery by Refreshment, soon after dy'd. But the Master, whom Columbus had taken to his House, in the time of his Sickness, related unto him wonderful Stories, how he had been driven on strange and altoge­ther unknown Coasts, being by his Calculation Westward, and so far off, that he suppos'd never any European had seen; and withal, bequeath'd to him after his Death his Journal Papers, of that his so much unfortunate Voyage: who soon after Dying, Columbus with great earnestness perusing the Writings, found what confirm'd him, as if he had been there in Person, and also gave him great Instructions of directing his Course to New Countreys not yet discovered.

After this, he rested not long, till he put in Action what might promote his Business, that by the help of a better Purse than his own, he might Purchase Wealth and Honor by this his new and great Design.

Proffers his Service to the King of Portugal, and the King of England.First he address'd himself to the King of Portugal, whose Maritime Countrey being opposite to his intended Discoveries, made him (as he supposed) fittest for the Undertaking; who altogether declining it, he sent his Brother Bartholomew Columbus into England, there to make his Address, and Negotiate with King Hen­ry the Seventh, concerning these Discoveries; who famous for his great Abi­lities and Prudence, he suppos'd the onely Prince in Christendom to imploy him in so great an Enterprise; but such was his Misfortune, that he was taken by Pirats, and kept by them (wanting Ransom) a long time close Prisoner; so that he came too late to the Court of England: For during his Captivity, his Brother Christopher Columbus made Application to Ferdinand and Izabel, Kings of Castile and Aragon, who then in very low condition, turmoyl'd in a great War, against the Granada Moors, did not hearken to his Proposals.

Thus Columbus and his Cause lay seven years quite neglected; but when these Princes, had by their several happy Victories subdu'd their Enemies, he then in the beginning of the Peace, and first halcyon after so long a Storm, re­new'd his Business, and mov'd the Court of Spain once more: The King and Queen then, though low, and their Treasure exhausted with the late Wars, yet began to listen to him, and at last were so much perswaded, that they took up [Page 7]seventeen thousand Duckets upon Interest, with which they Rigg'd and Fur­nish'd him out three handsom Vessels.

With which Columbus well satisfi'd, set Sail Septemb. 1. Anno 1492.Columbus set Sail 1492. first direct­ing his Course to the Canary-Isles; from thence stood full West with a Trading Wind into the great Ocean, where he soon after, met with no ordinary Storms or Huricanes, Winds blowing from all the Points of the Compass, which sad­ly ruffled and shatter'd his Vessels: next falling (which Block prov'd to him worse than Aesop's Stork) into continual Calms; for there his Men growing sick and weary with lying so long at Sea, Mutiny'd, and despairing ever to see Land, nothing would satisfie them but a speedy return to save their Lives whilst their Provisions lasted: He thus put to it, was inforc'd to promise them, that if they discry'd not Land in three days, he would perform their desire.

So it happen'd, that at the appointed time they saw Westward near the Hori­zon, sprinkling Clouds, by which sign he overjoy'd, bidding them be of good comfort, and told them they should soon see Land, which accordingly they did; and soon after came to Anchor on the Coast of Florida, where Landing,Discovers Florida. taking some short refreshment, help'd by the Natives, he took a survey of the neighboring Countrey, and the adjacent Isles; and whilst he barter'd Trifles for Gold, and other rich Commodities, he took possession of the Countrey, by raising of a Fort in his Royal Masters name; in which, leaving forty eight Spaniards, Commanded by Diego Arana, Returns home. he departed thence Fraighted with great Riches, and ten of the Indians.

Soon after arriving in Spain, he was receiv'd with great joy, giving a good account to their Majesties of their success, with which they were so well plea­sed, that they furnish'd him out again; then he discover'd the great Isles Hi­spaniola, Discovers Hispaniola and Cuba, and also Nombea De Dios, and Panama. and Cuba, and the bottom of the great Bay of Mexico.

Thus Christopher Columbus finish'd fourteen years in several Expeditions, disco­vering the West-Indies.

Americus Vesputius, set forth by the King of Portu­gal, to make a farther Dis­covery of the West-Indies.Mean while, the fame of these his grand enterprises stir'd up, invited many other Sea-Captains to raise their Reputation, and better their Fortune in like manner; amongst which, Americus Vesputius a Florentine, was employ'd by Emanuel King of Portugal, who making larger Inspections along the Continent, got the denomination of those vast Territories, the West-Indies, now call'd America, though Christopher Columbus was the first Discoverer.

Henry the Fourth, Son to the King of Portugal, disco­vers new Countreys.But before we go on any farther with the business of Spain, we shall give you a brief account of the Portuguese; who mean while, or rather before took up the Art of Navigation, and became Sea-men, following their new Disco­veries to the South and Oriental parts of the World: Their first Undertaker be­ing the young Prince Henry Duke of Visco, second Son to Henry the first, King of Portugal, the eldest being Heir Apparent, and well provided by Patrimony and due Right of Succession to the Crown of Portugal after his Fathers decease, the younger Brother being of a high and magnanimous Spirit, was ambitious; if so, it might be, the enjoying of his Native Land, Birth-right had deny'd him, to raise his Fortunes at Sea, which who knew, but might prove equivo­lent to his Brothers Kingdom; and also encourag'd to Study the Art of Navi­gation, by several Learn'd Persons, who assur'd him by clear and many de­monstrations, that there was much Land that might prove of great concern, altogether yet unknown, and especially in the South beyond Maretania, which could not be penetrated by Land, by reason of the vast and unpassable Desarts [Page 8]and excessive heat; but finding those Coasts by Navigation, they might make a deeper inspection of the whole African Continent.

His first Voyage was be­yond Mount Atlas.Resolv'd upon this, he put in action what with mature judgement he had design'd; and getting all things ready, furnishing some Ships for that pur­pose, set Sail in the Year 1410, and Steering on, was the first that sunk Mount Atlas lofty Crown under the Horizon, being till that time the Terminary, or Ne plus ultra, of all Southern Navigation, discovering beyond the Mount three­score Leagues off the Coast of Africa, and so return'd, but with mean success.

But not altogether daunted, ten years after having replenish'd his stock, de­sign'd for such Adventures, he fitted out another Fleet, under the Command of Johannes Gonsalvez, a good and expert Sea-man, who first ventur'd to loose sight of Land, and Sail into the Main Ocean, where he, though encountering many Storms, prodigious Tempests, cross Tides, and unbridled Currents, yet bore up couragiously, and fighting his way through all Weathers, and other Incumbrances, reaching four hundred and twenty Leagues beyond Atlas; where weary and over-power'd, at last by such grand Opposers, viz. Winds and Tides, contented himself with the honour of so great a Discovery, return'd.

These names they gave them at the first Discovery.Thus this Prince in forty Years, Discovering the Maderas, the Isle Porto San­cto, Cape de Verd, and the Coast of Guinee; and having the honour of opening the Bosom of the Southern Sea, and making the Portuguese Navigators, being of a great age, he died in 1463.

Alphonso the fifth disco­vers the African Coast.After his Decease, the whole business of Navigation fell, and the Sea lay Fallow, unploughed by the Portuguese twenty years, when Alphonso the fifth, King of Portugal, taking hold of so well begun, and long neglected a business, the second time revived the Art of Navigation (though much against the pre­sent humor of the People) strenuously went on: First Sailing beyond Cape de Verd, finding the Island of St. Catherine, and settled a constant Trade, which came to a good account with the Negro's in Guinee.

He dying, John the second succeeding him, went on with the Work, and set out Jaques Canus, Discovers Congo. a good Sea-Captain, who first discover'd Congo, and Sailing up a River, penetrated much of the In-land thereabouts.

When stirr'd up much by the rumor of Christopher Columbus's Expedition, employ'd by the King of Castile, the fame being spread over all Christendom, am­bitious to match what Spain could do in the West with his Southern Expedi­tion, being so well prepar'd already by their former Voyages, with great Cost and Care,A Voyage of Bartholo­mew Diazio. he set forth Bartholomew Diazio, who Coasting Africa, reach'd at last the great Southern Point, which indeed was the Work, if he had understood it, and made right use thereof; but there being disanimated by mutinous Mari­ners, and stress of Weather, giving a bad Epithet to the great Point, calling it Cabo Buyig, or Cabo Boyie, because there he was stopt, and soon after forc'd to re­turn yet his wiser Master understanding it better,Cape of Good Hope, why so call'd. nam'd it Cabo de Bona Espe­ranca, that is, The Cape of Good Hope.

A strange Voyage of a Franciscan Monk.But whilst Diazio Rid before the great Southern Cape, a Franciscan Monk, call'd Anthonio, his intimate Friend, incited by a strange curiosity, Landed there, and ventur'd alone to seek his Fortune in so vast and unknown a World. I tell this Story, though not so pertinent, because of the wonder, that one Man should be so hardy, to venture his single Person, to travel through Countreys so full of Heat, Drought, and Desarts, and Peopled with such as he could nei­ther [Page 9]understand, nor they him; but thus he went, not onely through all Africa, but a great part of Asia, reaching to Jerusalem, there paying his Devoti­on, he return'd to Lisbon, giving the King an account of his miraculous adven­tures. Upon this the King bethought himself of a less chargeable way than Rig­ging a Fleet, which could onely discover the Coast; to which end he employ'd Pedro de Cavillano, and Alphonso Payva, both skilful in the Arabick, A wonderful Journey of two Portuguese. as private Pil­grims, to make Inspections of those Countreys, which were yet to them un­known. They first came to Naples, then touched at Rhodes, after visited Egypt, and saw Grand Cair, from thence to Jerusalem; here paying due Tears to the ho­ly Sepulchre, they parted, travelling several Ways, Payva for Ethiopia, where he died; and Cavillano to Ormus, so to Calicut in India. Here he receiv'd Messages from the King his Master, not to return till he was able to give him a good ac­count of Africa: Thus commanded he ventur'd into Ethiopia, where the King of that Countrey became his great admirer, much taken with his Person and Parts, inviting him to dwell in his own Court, and offering him, if he would Marry, a Lady of great Fortune, and Noble Extract.

From the Emperors Palace he made means to send a Letter to the King of Portugal, in which he inform'd him at large both of the Asiatick and African Countreys; and amongst the rest, described the City of Calicut, and gave a Character of the Inhabitants, who, he said, were of a swarthy, and of an Ole­vaster Complexion, scarce knowing ought of humanity or civil address, unaf­fable, irreligious, and ignorant of all Moral Vertue: they are proud of going naked from the Middle upwards, onely above their Elbows they wear Arm­lets of Pearl, and a Simiter in a Belt hangs thwart their Shoulders; and about their Middle they wear Skirts, or long Bases of Purple-Silk, richly embroi­der'd with Gold.

Here the Female Sex are allow'd Polygamy, one Woman may Marry as many Husbands as she pleases, and those which enjoy the greatest number, are esteem'd there the most Noble, so there is no priority to their Children by Birth, none knowing well their own Father, but either they are all Co-heirs, or else her Sisters Children Inherit. That the Natives of Ethiopia were all Blacks, and a kind of Christians, but mix'd with an allay of Judaism and Mahumetan; and how the Emperor maintain'd a great standing-Army, to defend his Dignity and Territories, which were very vast.

Emanuel King of Portu­gal is earnest to make far­ther Discoveries of Africa and India.Soon after this Information, King John died in the Year 1495. Emanuel suc­ceeding him, and willing to go on with the Work of Discoveries, advised with his Peerage, what was best to be done in so high a Concern: His Council con­sisting more of private than publick Spirits, who aim at Grandeurs, and the general good, first looking upon the difficulty, danger, and great Charge, then considering as to the Honor and Profit, they had gotten enough by the Disco­veries in Africa already, and it were meer madness to take upon them more than they were able to perform: for sending fresh Ships and new Colonies to Plant remoter Countreys, would weaken the Kingdom, and disable their Navy, neither would these new-found Lands turn to any other account, more than to maintain those that settled there: these and the like they alledged. The publick-spirited Party, which were, and are commonly the fewest in all great Consultations, convinced them in all their Arguments, saying, That they had no cause to complain of the Honor and Profit which the Nation had already gotten in their first Discoveries, but that it should rather encourage them to proceed. The King's Treasure being better suppli'd, and the whole [Page 10]Nation much employ'd, and more enrich'd by this their foreign Trade, and should they neglect what they had so happily begun and undertaken, they would not onely lose their Expence and Pains, but the whole Affair would in time by degrees moulder away to nothing. And if we should wave such hono­rable Enterprises as these, who would attempt (discourag'd by our example) any Business that had the least face of difficulty or danger?

Thus the business being highly debated, the King hearkned onely to those of his Council who advis'd according to his judgment and inclination, and with all diligence speedily set forth four Ships, well appointed with Soldiers, Sea-men, and all other Necessaries, making Vasco de Gama their Admiral, adding his Brother Paulo, and Nicolao Celio for his assistance; who set Sail on the tenth of June, Anno 1497, follow'd with great sorrow, cries and tears of the Adven­turers Wives, Children, and their nearest Relations, being possess'd with a prejudice, that the Voyage was so long and dangerous, that they should never see them again.

Having weigh'd Anchor, first they directed their Course to the Fortunate Isles, from thence to the Hesperides, and having clear'd Cape de Verd, they steer'd more Easterly till he lost all sight of Land, and lay engag'd in the wide and open Sea three Moneths together, when in ten Degrees of Southern Latitude Land appear'd, towards which he made with all possible speed, and soon an­chor'd in the Mouth of a pleasant River, where Landing he found some of the Natives, whose Hair was short and curl'd, and they of a swarthy Com­plexion, were naked, who never knowing what belong'd to Commerce, nor having seen any Strangers before, they made but small Traffick with them, onely trucking Spikes, and several sorts of Nails for Cattel and Fruit. Gama call'd this Place St. Hellens Bay, and the River falling in it, St. James River.

Being thus refresh'd, such was then their Courage, that weighing, they re­solv'd never to touch again, till they were clear beyond Cabo Bona Esperanca; but here they were so vexed and pusl'd with almost never quiet Weather, that they not onely despair'd of performing their Expedition,Are in great danger. but also of their Preservation; the common voice and complaint of the Sea-men was, That they run themselves like blind and mad Men to their utter ruine: This despairing fancy of theirs was more and more fermented by the continuation of still vex­ing Storms,The Sea-men would re­turn. especially having lost all hopes of return to see their Native Countrey, Wives and Children any more. But Gama on the other side labor'd to appease and encourage them, saying, That truly noble Souls slight all dangers, and that whatsoever they had once undertaken they would never let go, nor be baffl'd or deluded with any fear, in what face soever it appear'd: but now the worst was past, the hardship in a manner over, and after a long Race they were now ready to seize the Quarry, so purchasing not onely immortal Fame for the wondrous Atchievement, but also Riches, which would both supply their present necessity, and make them and theirs for ever. But they were deaf to all perswasions; and stubbornness, mix'd with a general conster­nation, had so block'd up their Ears, that they in stead of inclining to the ad­vice and encouragements of their Admiral, seeing he would not hear of any return,Conspire his Death. they conspir'd his death, concluding that it were better for one Man to suffer than so many: This Combination of theirs his Brother Paulo disco­ver'd, and several of the Crew and Masters were brought in question, and se­cur'd, whilst Vasco taking the charge of the Helm himself, and trusting none, Steer'd, though still charged and affronted with stirring Weather, till at last he [Page 11]

SEFALE

doubled the great Southern Cape, not stopping till he ran fifty Leagues beyond, where he found a Bay, which he call'd St. Blasius; Discovers n [...]v Coun­treys. in the middle of which lay an Isle, where Landing they met with some of the Inhabitants, not unlike those where he had touched lately before, onely they cover'd their Privacies with a Shell fitted for that purpose.

From hence, having refresh'd themselves, they Sail'd on, but making little way, being ruffl'd often with foul Weather, hollow Seas, and a contrary Cur­rent, still running Westward: yet at last they reach'd the Confines of Zangue­bar; which he so call'd from the Name of that Saint, and soon after cast An­chor before Sofala, the chief City of that Countrey;They come to Sofala. where he found the Inha­bitants more civiliz'd: who thought themselves very gay in Copper Hoops, or Rings, which they wore as Bracelets and Armlets, and proud of Daggers with Cotton Hilts, using a Language altogether unknown: but one of the Towns-men spake Arabick, by whom they understood, that a white People in Vessels like theirs, had traffick'd with them formerly.

Vasco de Gama had ten Convicts, or condemn'd Persons in his Fleet, sent by the King, who sav'd their lives, to be put ashore where the Admiral thought fit, there to wander and seek their Fortunes, and if they liv'd, to make Obser­vations of the Countrey, and learn the Language, which hereafter might, come to some account: two of these he turn'd ashore, leaving them there for that purpose: Mean while, staying a Moneth at Sofala, a great Sickness hap­pen'd in the Fleet, from the alteration of Diet, which before was scarce and salt, now fresh and plentiful, of which many died.

To Mosambique.The next start he made was to Mosambique, a rich City, famous for Trade and Commerce, situated in a small Isle under fifteen Degrees of Southern La­titude.

Here the Merchants and Citizens went all in Sattin, embroider'd with Gold, and wear great Turbants of fine Linnen, Simiters hanging across their Shoulders, and in their left Hand a Buckler, who being thus Habited, came in [Page 12]small Boats aboard the Admiral, who civilly and kindly treated them; where Discoursing, they told him, That their King was call'd Abraham, and was the sole Monarch of Mosambique, but under him his Xeque, or Lieutenant, Govern'd the City, That he was call'd Zocacia. Gama soon after, conversing and being amongst them, got so much in theirs and the Deputies favor, that he obtain'd two Pilots, who undertook to carry his Fleet safe to the East-Indies; which kind­ness of theirs arose from a mistake, supposing them to be Western Saracens: but afterwards understanding that they were Christians, all this sweetning and good will turn'd to rancor and hatred, the Pilots first repenting, abhorring to do any thing for Unbelievers, leapt over-board, and so swimming to Shore, deserted the whole business. The Portuguese being troubled at this high affront, conceiving their relinquishing of them was influenc'd from the Town it self, brought all their Guns to bear upon them,Fires at the City. which discharging, they hurt and slew several of the Inhabitants, insomuch that Zacocia was forc'd to call a Council; who there resolv'd to send him another Pilot, which had also pri­vate instruction, in stead of carrying them to their designed Port, to betray and deliver them up to the King of Quiloa, making them believe that they were Abyssine Christians, who would kindly receive, and furnish them with all sorts of Provisions. This treachery they willingly undertook, out of malice and detestation they bore to Christianity. Thence weighing Anchor, Gama hasted with a fair Gale to the Port of Quiloa, suspecting nothing, to his utter ruine, which was there decreed, as before mention'd, when Providence, being now ready to enter the Mouth of the Harbor, sent a terrible Storm, but indeed a friendly one, which in spite of all his endeavors, Tacking to get in, drove him at last back into the Offin, and so much to the Leeward, that by his trea­cherous Pilots advice, and they willing to save their lives, steer'd his Coast to Mombaza, a City, or rather a Fortress, being built on a Rock impregna­ble, almost Moated round about by the Sea. Here Gama having no sooner dropt his Anchors, but the Inhabitants, delighting in Novelty, came flocking in great Companies aboard, who entertain'd them with all civility, whilst the Pilots, not forgetting their treacherous Design, inveigl'd the Inhabitants, having the advantage of the Tongue, first telling them that they were Christi­ans, and that they would do God and their Countrey good Service, besides their own private benefit, being able to over-power them, to seize their Ships, and sacrifice those unbelieving Dogs. Thus concluding, they inform'd one another, going from Ship to Ship, as if upon curiosity and pleasure, resolving to put in action what they had thus concluded, when the Decks were more fill'd with the Inhabitants.

This matter was the easier to perform, because one of his Ships he had burnt already, being not able to Man her, losing so many in their last great Sickness. But Gama not liking his Anchorage, being too much within, and too near some Rocks, if he by stress of Weather should chance to drive, sud­denly, upon better consideration, gave order to weigh, and to Anchor, as he suppos'd, in a fitter place to Ride in, and to moore his Vessels.

A Plot against Gama discover'd, and by what means.Now the Saracen Pilots, seeing an unexpected hurry amongst the Sailers, busie to and again about their Tackle, bending to Sea-wards, thought their Plot discover'd, and that they were carrying them clear away, leapt suddenly over-board, muttering they were betray'd, the rest of the Natives, taking the Alarm, as soon follow'd them, Diving under Water like a Flock of Sea-Fowl, not appearing till they were out of Musquet-shot, rejoycing they had so esca­ped. [Page 13]But this Rout was not so sudden, nor were they all so ready in making of their escape, but that he took thirteen Prisoners, and also carry'd away with him two of their Vessels that lay near him;Gama takes two Vessels. amongst which he found an expert and honest Pilot, who first truly inform'd him, that the City Melinde was not far distant from thence, being almost under the Equinox, and that their King was an affable Prince, receiving all Strangers with great civility. The Admiral Gama being thus encourag'd, and believing the Pilots report, follow'd his di­rections, Steering streight on for Melinde, where they found (though a Saracen) his Relation to be true.

The Melindian King having withdrawn himself, being old, from all pub­lick Address and Business, sent a handsom Present, as a token of Amity and true Friendship, by the young Prince his Son; and soon after provided him an excellent Pilot, who conducted his Fleet in twenty days safely to Calicut in the East-Indies.

Description of Calicut.The City Calicut lies on the Coast of Malabar, and though it boasts no Haven, or any safe Harbor, and yearly much troubl'd, especially in the latter end of May, with foul Weather, and overgrown Seas, raging with sudden and often violent Heuricanes, yet by its great Commerce and Trade, is a famous, rich, and well peopled Seat. It happen'd that the Portuguese arriv'd there in the midst of this their turbulent Winter, getting within two Leagues of the City; and soon after, there being a short intermission of Rain and Tempest, the In­habitants being able, came aboard in nimble Skiffs for that purpose, and Gama, hoisting out his Pinnace, went ashore with some chosen Men, carrying ano­ther of the foremention'd condemn'd Persons along with him; who being turn'd loose to seek his Fortune, and distinctly habited from the rest, the People flock'd about him, amongst which happen'd to be two Merchants of Tunis, one of them, whom they call'd Monzaido, being well experienced in the Spanish Tongue, and hospitable, took him to his own House, and afterward proffer'd all service and kindness to the Admiral Gama, himself discovering the Condition of the Countrey, and Inclinations of the Inhabitants. Whereupon Gama sent this Merchant, with two others joyn'd in Commission, as Envoys to their Emperor, or Zamarin, who besought from Gama, that he would per­mit them safe Landing, that so he might present him Letters from his Master, the Great King of Portugal, which contain'd Matters of great consequence for the general good, especially desiring an everlasting League of Amity and Peace.

How Gama was enter­tain'd.The Zamarin, or Emperor, at that time resided in Pandarana, a small City two Leagues from Calicut; where Gama's Ambassadors had Audience, and their Request without any scruple or dilatory demurs presently granted them, ta­king it a great kindness and honour, that he had made his Address on such an amicable purpose. The Emperor also out of meer kindness advis'd them to come to Anchors under Pandarana, there being a safer Harbor to protect them against the sudden violence of the Weather, and that also there he might the better, being so near in Person, establish the Overtures of the King his Master. And presently after he lent his prime Pleasure-Boat, call'd Catuales, from Pan­darana, to fetch Gama in fitting State to his Royal Palace. But Gama, Gama goes to the Em­peror, but not without be­ing very circum [...]p ct. who by late woful experience was grown cautelous, considering the worst of what might happen, chose twelve of his stoutest Sea-men to attend him as a Guard, and some of his own Boats to wait ashore for his return, and left the charge of his Ship to his Brother, with Instructions, that if any mischance should be­fall [Page 14]him, which might detain him there, or otherwise, that he should speedily hoise Sail, and carry the whole Relation to his Master the King of Portugal.

At that time these Indians had neither Horses, nor other Cattel to carry Men or Burthens, so that Gama was convey'd to the Palace in a Sedan. In the Way he was met by some of the Emperors Attendance, all Cloth'd in fine Linnen, who, employ'd for that purpose, march'd orderly before him to the Palace, and then conducting him by the Hand through several Anti-Chambers and Rooms of State,The description of the Zamarin's Palace at Calicut at every Door and Entry standing ten of the Emperors Guard. He entred at last the Presence, which was very large and stately, the Floor co­ver'd with a rich and costly Stuff, interwoven with Silk and Gold, the Walls hung with more rich and curious Tapestry; round about upon ascend­ing Steps, on several Thrones, all Princes, his Privy Council sat. The Empe­ror, or Zamarin himself, clad in white Cotton, embroider'd all over with Golden Roses, ty'd up with handsom Knots, rich with invaluable Oriental Pearl, lay supinely at his ease, leaning upon his Elbow, on a most glorious Couch, wearing a Hat, which rather resembled a Turbant of Massie Gold, deckt with inestimable Jewels, sparkling like Stars; a great part of his Arms and Legs were neatly Hoop'd about with weighty Golden Rings, which being Buckl'd sat close; his Toes and Fingers Were cover'd with Jemald-Rings, and Armlets, set with Diamonds: Near him stood an Officer with a flat Plate cover'd with Betel, an Herb which the Indian Princes continually chew, whose Vertue keeps always a sweet Breath, and better than drinking allays Thirst, correcting Crudities, freeing the Stomach from all Qualms, and the Head from melancholy, disaffecting Vapors. The Zamarin being of a black and swarthy Complexion, his Body, tall and burley, his Limbs large and brawny, (for his Arms and Legs were naked) shew'd enough in Counte­nance and Person, the Majesty of a King.

Gama's Discourse to the Zamarin. Gama being commanded to sit, by an Interpreter declared first the occasion of his Address to his Imperial Majesty, that he was sent from his Royal Master the King of Portugal, in his behalf with Salutations, and to kiss his Hand, who endeavor'd, being a great Prince himself, to make amicable Leagues, and everlasting Friendship, with all other Foreign Monarchs wheresoever, and in the first place with him, hearing of his Majesties many singular Vertues, Magnificence and Fame, spread to the utmost Confines of the Universe, he also commanded a Fleet to be Rigg'd and set forth under his Conduct, who now having spent much time, passing through many dangers, an unmeasurable Way, toss'd with all Winds on a turbulent Sea, at last being happily Landed at this long desired Port, and having receiv'd the extraordinary honor and favor of this his publick Hearing and Address, he in the King of Portugal's Name, humbly proposes what he so much desires, that is, not onely an establishment of a well-grounded Peace, and friendly Correspondency betwixt the Princes, but also that his and your People might drive a constant Trade and Com­merce, which might equivolently redound to the good and profit of both Nations.

Thus saying, with a submiss and comely Posture he deliver'd his Letters, written in Arabick and Portuguese, with several Presents, which though not cost­ly, yet their Novelty was such, that the Emperor was strangely taken with several of them, growing to that kindness thereupon, that he proffer'd him all Friendship,The Zamarin shews Friendship to Gama. promising him of his own accord whatever he desir'd: and then being more inquisitive, entertain'd himself by enquiring of his King, what [Page 15]manner of Person, and the like, then of his Countrey, what, and where it was, and how far distant, desiring to know of his strange Adventures in his so long a Voyage thither: To all these he gave him a brief and handsom account; which no less pleasing, the Emperor caress'd him with a sumptuous Banquet after their manner; both Parties being extremely satisfi'd, Gama departed.

The fame of this Negotiation was next day all the News through the Ci­ty, all sorts of People for the most part well approving of what they heard, onely the Saracen Merchants, who were many, and there residing, drove a great and profitable Trade from thence to other Parts; they hearing of this were strangely surprised, being much troubled, lest the Portuguese should break in upon them, and carry a great part or all of this their rich Traffick into their own Channel; nay, this would not onely be destructive to their Estates, but also to their Religion, which is very catching, by this means introduced, might prove fatal to many of their Souls.

The Saracen Merchants incense the Zamarin against Gama.These upon a double score, love of Profit, and hate of Christianity (to which they bore an inveterate malice) the next morning the primest of them ga­ther'd together, and went to the Palace with a ready Speech prepared, to draw an odium upon the Portuguese; who having ready admittance, their business by their looks and behavior appearing to be serious, and of no small concern, they humbly shew'd to the Zamarin, how that these Strangers, who had in a manner surpris'd his Majesty, having no other information of what they were, or their Condition, but from themselves, were indeed not so, and that they had told him nothing but Lyes, for they were able to make out, that they were a Crew of Roving Pyrats and Robbers, and declar'd by their actions common Enemies to all humane Society; and that their King, if they had one, was a petty Prince, far off in the West, who not able to enlarge his nar­row Territories upon the adjacent Countrey, sent these Hectoring Desperado's through all Seas, to make Booty of what they could either get by Wheedling, down-right Cheating, or the Sword: And if his Imperial Majesty be so plea­sed to grant them a free Trade and Commerce, that then they would, being so enforc'd, leave Calicut, this their settled Staple, and seek Trade elsewhere, which sure would not redound so much to his Majesties benefit, who had so long brought in their Customs and Duties, a certain and great Revenue to the Crown, which they by no possible means, if they deserted the Place, could in many years make the like, or any considerable Return. Thus the business was agitated, and the Emperor inform'd by both Parties.

The Malabars contrive to make away the Partu­guese.When the Malabars, being by Nature fickle and treacherous, not onely per­swaded by the Saracens how dangerous such alterations would be, but also in­fluenc'd and encourag'd from the wavering Court, conspir'd, laying a Plot how to dispose of the Portuguese otherwise, by their utter destruction: which was not so clearly carry'd, but that Monzaido, the Tunis Merchant, and a real Friend to the Strangers Interest, scenting the bottom of their Design, inform'd Gama of the whole Intrigue; who being very sensible of the danger, made his escape sudden and privately from the City, that he might the better save him­self and his Fleet from undoubted Ruine; so setting Sail, he left the treache­rous Harbor for his security, where Cruising at Sea,Their Plot is spovl'd, and Gama falls upon the Malabars. he met with an Indian Vessel, standing in for Pandarana, a safer Port than that of Calicut, where the Emperor had formerly advis'd Gama to, by whom he sent Letters to the Za­marin; wherein he gave an account, that he was enforc'd for his safety to leave his Harbor, and trust the Sea, a Plot being laid, to take away, not onely his [Page 16]Life, but to seize his Ships, and make Prize of all he had; and that some had so poyson'd his Majesties Ear concerning them, gracious to him before, with lying and scandalous Tales, and other false Aspersions, that he would not ven­ture any further Commerce, nor have to do with such a fickle and not to be trusted People; therefore desiring, That such Goods as he had there left ashore, might speedily be sent aboard, and he would not trouble his Majesty nor them any further.

But the Zamarin excusing himself, laid the fault on his corrupt Officers and Attendants, who were already tryed, and condemn'd to suffer, condign Pu­nishment.

But whatever his Excuses were, there was no Restitution, and the Goods lay still as Confiscated for the Emperors Use; at which Gama being justly in­cens'd, resolv'd by Reprisal to make up his Loss: And soon after he seiz'd on a Malabar Vessel, by chance standing into Calicut, in which were six Persons of Prime Quality amongst them: Thus the Emperor being enforc'd to release those Prisoners of so much esteem, deliver'd up all those Goods which Gama laid claim to, sending with them also an Answer to the King of Portugal's Letter.

In the mean time Monzaido the Tunis Merchant (his Kindness towards the Portuguese being discover'd) made his Escape from the City (where he fear'd no less than Death, and Confiscation of all he had) for his Safety, to the Fleet; whom Gama receiving with all Civility, carry'd him after to Lisbon, where he (a Convert) receiv'd Baptism, and lived there, being turn'd a Christian, Ho­norably, and in good State and Condition, many Years.

But the Zamarin looking upon this as a high Affront, to be force'd thus to his dishonor to exchange Goods for Prisoners, and to be brought to Capitula­tions, onely three Ships opposing his Mighty and Absolute Power; would not thus sit down, nor take it so; although his own Navy, by which, nay, with a small part, he might have vindicated his Cause, which were there then, by reason of the Annual Tempests hall'd ashore, and could by no means possible be suddenly Launch'd; yet with wonderful dexterity he Mann'd out sixty Boats, with stout and expert Soldiers, who were so Order'd and Commanded, that they were able to destroy and Swallow them all.

He flying, and they pursuing, and just ready to lay him aboard, twenty to every Ship; so it pleased Providence, to befriend him with a sudden Storm, which parted the Fray; they being routed, and forc'd, not without danger, ingloriously to return; and Gama coming clearly off, loosing the sight of Cali­cut, Steer'd his Course directly home,Gama returns home to Portugal. and in something more than two Years compleating his Voyage, Anno 1499. he Anchor'd in the Haven of Lisbon, where he was receiv'd with great joy; being the first (to his Eternal Fame and Honor) that with an undaunted Courage, passing so many imminent Dangers, found a Way by Water to the so much desir'd East-Indies.

After Gama's Return, of whom the King had receiv'd sufficient Information concerning the Profit and Advantage which might be made by the East-India Expeditions, did so much encourage him, that he fitted out thirteen Ships, Mann'd with 1500 Mariners, and 500 Soldiers, under the Command of Pedro Alvaro Caprales, who had strict Order, That he should endeavour by all means to make a League of Amity and Friendship with the Emperor of Calicut; and to request the Liberty of Raising a Fort there, to the end they might there settle their Staple of Merchandise: Which if the Emperor should refuse, nor [Page 17]would be drawn to by any Perswasions, then to endeavor to force him to it by Arms.

Thus having receiv'd his Instruction and Commission, he departed with his Fleet out of the Haven of Lisbon, and Steer'd the same Course to St. James Island, as Gama had done before. Then he Sail'd more Westerly, and fell at last on an unknown Coast, which he call'd Holy-Cross-Land, since Brafile; where Landing, and finding it a fruitful and rich Soil, he cast up a Fort, and sent Gaspar Lemius back to Portugal, to inform King Emanuel of his New Discovery. And leaving the Charge of the New Work which he made there; to some choice Men that he took put of the Fleet, with all Necessaries to maintain it, he departed, directing his Course towards Calicut.

But in the way he rancountred with such Storms, that he lost four of his Vessels; and glad he came off with no greater damage, Steer'd directly for Cali­cut, where soon after he arriv'd.

Where the Zamarin dealing also treacherously with him, they fell at vari­ance; but Caprales play'd his Game so well, that he forc'd the Zamarin to pay him double the damage of what his Losses came to: So returning with mean Success, he arriv'd in the Haven of Lisbon, Anno 1501.

The same year Emanuel plying his Business, set forth three other Ships, under Johannes Novius; who meeting with Caprales, now in his way homeward, telling him of the fickle and treacherous behavior of the Zamarin of Calicut, quite dis­courag'd, supposing such his Labor would prove in vain, return'd with him: So that that Expedition signified nothing.

Notwithstanding all these Rubs and Discouragements, his being still more and more out of Purse, and all his Endeavors turning to no account, but only feeding as it were vain Hopes; yet not one jot discountenanc'd, he went on strenuously, and set out the year following a second time Vasques de Gama, with ten Ships, conceiving by his well-experienc'd Conduct, he might be more for­tunate, and might at last set a better face upon the whole Affair; yet he re­turn'd with little better Success than the former had done: But howsoever, the King went on, and would not be daunted, setting forth Vincent So­derio, next Stephano Gama, then Alphonso and Francisco Albuquerque, and after Gundissalo Coelio, with several Fleets; all which return'd but small Audits, in lieu of his vast Expences.

But at last, considering the whole weight of this high Concern lay only upon his Shoulders, and some few of the Nobility; his Merchants and Private Traders, and the whole Body of the People, not at all concern'd: Neither seeming willing, then, or at any time, to be ingag'd, either in their Purse, or otherwise; he bethought himself (observing the Nation to be naturally Super­stitious, and much inclin'd to hearken to Prophecies, and such Follies of know­ing Future Events) of a way, a subtile Artifice, to catch the whole People, or at least the Richer sort, with a new Device, or Royal Trepan, which was thus effected.

Hermicus Cajadus, a Learned and Famous Poet of that Time, being not only witty in his Art, but ingenuous, and trusty to carry on a close Design, King Ema­nuel privately employ'd: They contriving together, what the King dictated, the Poet set down, and soon after at his leasure put it in Verse, and with as cleanly Conveyance, got the whole Matter ingraven in ancient Characters, upon three Stones; which done, he buried them on the Sea-shore, near Cape Rocha Decin­tra, which were there to lie till Emanuel gave the Word. The day being ap­pointed [Page 18]for the Discovery, Hermicus, the better to carry on the Kings Business, invited several Friends, Persons of Quality, his Neighbors, who dwelt there­abouts, to a Treatment at his Countrey-Farm; where when they were merry, amidst their chang'd Dishes and turn'd up Bowls, one that he intrusted, brought him strange News, which was, That where he had been digging for Stones to finish his Worships new Wall, they had found three Stones, with Inscriptions upon them,A strange Discovery. which neither he, nor any there present knew one Letter of; and sure must be of some wonderful Signification. At this they all started up from the Table, left their Feasting, and running immediately to the Place, gaz'd upon the Marbles, all admiring the strange Characters, but none understanding a Tittle thereof; reckoning by the worn and almost de­fac'd Letters, That the Stones must have lain there many Ages. Soon the fame of this was spread through all Parts thereabouts, which came at last with great wonder to the Kings Ear; but he shew'd himself more amaz'd and strangelier concern'd than the Relater; and very earnest suddenly to see and know what they might signifie, straight commanded the Marbles to be brought to Court. The King then viewing them with greater astonishment, with much ado a good while after got them to be Read and Copied out, finding them to be a Prophe­cy of Sybilla, to this effect.

Sybilla vaticinium Occiduis decretum:
Volventur Saxa Literis, & ordine rectis.
Cum videas, Occidens, Orientis opes,
Ganges, Indus, Tagus, erit mirabile visu;
Merces commutabit suas uterque sibi,
Soli aeterno ac Lunae Decretum.
Sybil foretells Joy to the Western Shore,
When Stones are found, with Letters graven o're.
O West, when thou the Eastern Wealth shalt see,
Indies and Tagus shall Admirers be;
That all Parts open'd, Traffique entertain,
Where-e'er Suns rise and set, Moons wax and wane.

And order'd them to belaid up in his Treasury, as Holy Reliques, signifying by their Preservation, as the Palladium to Troy, the Safety, Good, and Utility of the Nation; clearly demonstrating, That the Portuguese, being the most West­ern People, should be them, that by their Conquests at last should Command over the remote East-Indies.

The Cheat thereof.This strange Discovery not only spread through Portugal, but was more than Table-talk through all Christendom; and the Inscriptions every where Copied, and Translated into their several Languages, and many Learned Com­mentators glossing, and giving the same Opinion thereupon, That the Portu­guese were onely destin'd for that Business.

Thus by deceiving of his People, they were undeceiv'd, and brought to a right understanding of the Benefit that would accrue both to him and the whole Kingdom, by a vigorous Prosecution of the Grand Design, so lately and well begun by Vasco; in pursuit of which, they might without question make themselves Masters of the vast, and yet unknown Territories of the Ori­ental World.

Thus, and by this Superstitious Means, the Work went forward on all Hands, every one striving to be foremost, and to joyn their Stocks together, to carry on the Design; By which enabled, the Portuguese first conquer'd Goa, and there settling their Staple, from thence penetrating every way, they got seve­ral Footings, making themselves by Conquest Masters of many considerable Places, Conquering whole Kingdoms, bringing from thence a World of Trea­sure, and also drove the first Trade in our Japan.

Now leaving the Portuguese, with their Voyages and Discoveries in the East-Indies; it seems not amiss, nor altogether impertinent, to peruse the remain­ing Navigators, that sought Adventures Westward in America. Next to Ame­ricus, of whom we have formerly spoke, was Vasco Nunno Bolboa, a stout and expert Captain, who adding to Columbus his Discoveries, Anno 1513. first found the Straits of the Bay of Mexico, between Nombre de Dios and Panama; and (pas­sing the Isthmus) the great Southern-Sea, verging both the East and West-Indies.

Hernando Cortis takes Mexico.Next Hernando Cortis, not onely a Voyager, but a Conqueror, with a great Fleet and considerable Army Landed at Mexico; who with a few Spaniards, and the help of the Claxcallans, Natives, and inveterate Enemies to the Mexicans, Conquer'd that vast Empire, Peopled with Millions of Men, for the King of Spain, Anno 1520. and entring the great City Mexico, took their Emperor Monte­zuma Prisoner in his Palace: But the exceeding Glory of this Action, and Ho­nor of this mighty Conquest, he but a short while enjoy'd; for in the height of his Hopes and Bravery, looking out of a Window, about to appease some of his then mutinying Spaniards, a Stone hit him by chance, of which Wound, though not mortal, he soon after died.

Francisco Pisaro conquers Peru.Five Years after, Francisco Pisaro, another Voyager and Conqueror, seiz'd a second Empire, being the large Territory of Peru, in the Name of Charles the Fifth. But of this he was not so soon Master, spending six Years in finishing so great a Work: yet at last he took Prisoner their King Atabalixa, who, though he us'd him not very civilly, brought him the greatest mass of Treasure that ever was heard of in one Booty since the Creation; for all the Utensils of the Court, from the Scullery and the Kitchen-Boards, to the Royal Table, were all of massy Gold; insomuch that the meanest Private Soldier shar'd no less than nine thousand Ducats, besides whatever was embezell'd away.

Gets an invaluable Trea­sure.Here Pisaro's Part was such an infinite Sum, that Arithmetick would scarce find Figures for it; the Revenues of which, improv'd by Good-husbandry at Use, might have made him the richest Person in the Universe; and if he so pleas'd, he might have easily set himself up a new Emperor, had he not been defrauded of the most part of his new acquir'd and vast Riches, by Almagro, one whom he most trusted, and his chief Companion and Confident.

Spaniards kill one ano­ther at Peru.This close Conveyance and grand Cheat of his was not kept so private, but Pisaro had intelligence of the whole Fraud; and from thence the Diffe­rence grew so high betwixt these former Friends, that Love turning to Ha­tred, they as Enemies stood upon their Guard. In this Contrast, and tu­multuous gathering of Parties, Ferdinand Brother to Francis Pisaro laid a Plot, suddenly surprizing Almagro, who being not able to make his Defence, was slain: But Diego, Almagro's Son by an Indian Woman, being hot upon Revenge, like a bold Assassinate stood not to make close Contrivances, but at high Noon entred the House of Francis Pisaro, and amidst his Friends dispatch'd him: And soon after Gonsalves, Pisaro's Brother, slew Diego; who then Command­ing All, deserted the Emperor Charles the Fifth his Master, and assum'd the Go­vernment upon himself; which he not long enjoy'd: For the just Authority of the Emperor being carried on with great Discretion by Peter Gasca, sudden­ly overthrew his ill-grounded Government, real Right prevailing over imagi­nary and usurp'd Regality; such Grandeurs belonging only to Princes: Thus the Usurper being defeated, the Emperor was repossess'd.

Whilest Castile and Portugal were thus busi'd, following their Fortunes, and several new gotten Interests, one in the East, and the other in the West-Indies; [Page 20]enlarging their several Territories, till they at last began to Clash and Inter­fere; and also the Portuguese then looking with an ill eye on the Golden Fleeces, rich and mighty profit that Spain brought from the West; the Spaniard on the other side, as much grugding and repining at their new and great Trade of Spices, which the Portuguese fetch'd from the East, furnishing in a plentiful manner all Christendom, which turn'd to no less account, as they suppos'd, than their Gold, when also a great discontent and no small difference arose, not easie to be reconcil'd.

The Portugal laid his claim to all new Discoveries, being the first that broke the Ice, and open'd the way for such adventures; and withal, challen­ged what ever was found, not onely in the East, but also in the West-Indies, by his Commission and Patent granted him by Pope Eugenius the Fourth, and Sign'd by his whole Consistory.

But Spain on the other side produc'd other Letters, Sign'd by Pope Alexander he Sixth; in which his Holiness expresly Conferr'd upon his Majesty, in con­sideration of the Promulgation of the Gospel, that might be by his means spread into many unknown Countreys, all that lay Westward beyond Cape de Verd, being on the main Land of Africa, the Meridian of the Isles Hesperides; so all on the other side, to the South and East, he Decreed for Portugal, and in­deed not improperly, because so lay their business, and both being possess'd of the same Division before.

Thus the Controversie being setled by the Court at Rome, that Castile might not meddle any further in Eastern; nor Portugal, with Western Discoveries, which both parties agreeing to, observ'd the Orders.

Ferdinand Magellanus Sails about the World.Till Ferdinand Magellanus, one that had serv'd a long time under Alfonso Albu­querque, in the East-Indian Expeditions; for which being not rewarded ac­cording to his Expectation, and as he thought he deserv'd, bearing a private grudge, on this account against King Emanuel, making his Address, proffer'd his Service to Charles the Fifth;How it happen'd. telling the Emperor, that if he were pleas'd to Employ him, he would undertake, without the least breach of his Holiness Commission, by a Western Course, to find the Molucco Islands, and so make him absolute Master of the Spicy, as well as the Golden-World.

He considering the great profit of such a Trade, and also by that means to lessen the Portuguese Commerce, by taking from them such a yearly Revenue, accepted of the proffer; and in the Year Fifteen hundred and nineteen, set him forth with five stout Vessels, all well appointed for a long and new Expediti­on; leaving Sivill, he first directed his course towards Brasiel, from thence Coasting on, till he reach'd 53 degrees Southern Latitude; here he discover'd those Straits, which from his name are call'd Magellan: In the Mouth of these, one of his Ships Founder'd striking on a Rock, another of his Vessels weary, and horribly disgusting the Voyage, Weighing Anchor, stole from thence by night, and ran away directly back to Sivill.

But Magellanus, passing with many difficulties these unknown Straits, open'd at last the great Southern Ocean; where also suffering much by foul weather, he came to the Island Subus, where he, and several of his prime Officers going a Shore, where invited by the Natives farther into the Countrey to a Treat­ment; who having gotten them at such an advantage, suddenly, expected Feasts,Magellane murder'd. turn'd to bloody Banquets, and there amidst their Merriment, by the Salvages, they were all barbarously Murder'd.

Those few that escap'd the Massacre, not able to Man three Ships, were [Page 21]necessitated to burn one of them, being the worst; so they prosecuted their intended Voyage to the Molucco Islands; here Anchoring before Tedor, they took in their Lading of Spice, which they so long had sought for. And from thence Steering homewards, one of them receiving so great a Leak, could not possibly be sav'd by all their endeavors, but that she sunk down-right with her whole Fraight, and so rich a Burthen;Of five Ships, onely one returns home. so that of five Sail that went chearfully forth, return'd (that being so crasie) scarce one; which after three years, and so long expectation, enter'd the Haven of Sivill, with a poor Lading of tain­ted and dammag'd Spices: But however, the name of the Ship and Master that first of all Sailing a Western Course, Girdled the World, deserves to be Registred; the Master John Sebastian Lano a Biscaner, the Ship call'd, The Victory.

But now returning to our intended Japan, concerning whose Plantation from a few Exiles, we have formerly hinted, we will now inlarge.

Who first peopled Japan.The Peopling of Japan, and first Plantation thereof was from China; as by their own Relations about Seven hundred Years since, proceeding first from a Grand Conspiracy and Rebellion.

The time unknown.A great Minister of State, Ally'd and Interessed in a prime Family, though he enjoy'd as much as his Prince, having the whole Government and Dispo­sure of all things at his pleasure; whilst the Emperor follow'd Ease and Lux­ury, thought himself unhappy and dissatisfi'd,A strange accident; by which Japan was peopled. unless he became absolute Ma­ster: This Ambition of his, was for their own Promotions fermented by all his Relations and Kindred, which were very many; So that at last they con­triv'd a Subtle and Execrable Plot, yet very difficult to carry on; not onely the Death and Murder of the Emperor himself, but of all such of his Privy Council, and others in great Authority, that adher'd not to him, or had on several occasions discover'd their aversness against his too much present Power and growing Popularity. This their damned Contrivance, though close and clandestinely carry'd, and not many intrusted with the bottom of their Design; yet how, I know not, taking Air, a part of their horrid business came to light. Thus being disabled to Work any longer privately in their Mine under ground, whereby at one blow, and in one night they might finish the whole Bu­siness, they were forc'd to set a fair Face on their foul Intention, by publick Vin­dication, and wresting the sence of their Black Cause into a better Construction; so first letting loose their Band-Dogs, Fears and Jealousies, recriminating and complaining against evil Councellors, that therefore they were forc'd to stand upon their Guard; and as they call'd it, take up defensive Arms; mean while, the Imperialists being not idle for their safety, aray'd themselves against this their new-raised Militia; So Privy Conspiracy became a Grand Rebellion, and the whole Empire ingag'd in a long Civil War, many great Battels fought with various success; at last the event falling on the right side, the Emperor, by the Victory made more absolute than ever; being stir'd up with just indig­nation, resolv'd to make them Exemplars by their sufferings, to all that dare leap at the Throats of their Soveraign Princes: First, Setting forth a severe Proclamation, prescribing all, who either were Abettors, or had been actu­ally in Arms, where ever Detected; so that the whole Empire became a Sham­bles, blushing with Bloud and Slaughter, by putting in Execution this his se­vere Decree. When a more moderate Party of his Majesties Council, having also of their Relations amongst them that were in imminent danger, ready to suffer under the Persecution, humbly besought the Emperor that he would [Page 22]mitigate his Just Sentence with Mercy, and sparing their Lives, onely to Banish the Rebels his Dominions, and suffer them to spend the remainder of their miserable Lives in the Desolate Isles against Corco; Japanners banish'd from China. which he granting, they were transported thither; and as we said before, from a few poor and Male-contented Exiles, began a small Plantation, which in process of time, growing up, is now become a famous and formidable Empire, standing in competition with that of China, and since call'd Japan.

Inveterate malice of the Japanners against the Chi­nesies, and their different cu­stoms, from whence it pro­ceeds.Whether this Story be true, or not, we are not able to assert, but that they were a Chinesy Colony, may appear by much of their Speech and Character yet remaining amongst them; and that this Tradition either true or false, causes an irreconcilable Difference, with inveterate Malice against the Chineses, as a people that have unjustly thrown them out of their Native Countrey, taking from them their Rights, Lands, and Possessions. Thus this antient Feud con­tinuing to this day, they on all occasions fall on their Coast, entring with Fire and Sword, and all manner of Hostility; and also they so much abhor and loath the Chinesy Customs and Fashions, that rather than they would resemble them in their behavior, they have taught themselves such proposterous actions, that they are not onely unlike them, but all the world beside.

Customs of the Japanners.First, As the Chineses and several Nations uncover their Heads, or bowing in their Salutation, conjoyn right Hands or imbrace, they stand Starch'd like a Statue, stiff without any Motion; and in stead of uncovering their Heads, they in a cross manner, put off their Shooes; and as they and we commonly rise up in Respect to any Person, entering the, Room, they just contrary, in stead of standing, sit down; and as the Chinesy and other Nations, when they walk abroad put on an upper Garment, a Cloak, Coat, or Mantel, they Disrobe themselves and March in Querpo, putting on their loose Vestments when they come in; and whereas we esteem bright colour'd Hair, and white Teeth, they look upon Tresses as black as Jet, and Ebbony Teeth, (both which they artificially make so) as most Ornamental, and the chief marks of Beauty; and what all Nations agree in, making the right Hand the Superior, and place of most honor, either walking or sitting, that Preheminence they give to the left: and to be clad in black, amongst them signifies Triumphs and Joy, which every where else are the Habits of Mourning and Sorrow, onely White amongst them being the Dress of Loss and Disaster: And so amongst their Women, who when they walk abroad, order their Hand-Maids and Daughters to go before them, whereas ours follow their Mistresses; and as other Women, when with Child, expatiate their bodies by unlacing, to give more liberty to their growing Issue, they on the otherside, contract, impri­soning the Infant in a narrower Circle,Strangely different in their nature from all other peo­ple. by pinching and girding closer their swelling Waste, supposing else they should Miscarry with what they go with­al; and when not impregnated, they give their bodies all scope and liberty; when ours, as much straiter, and bind themselves up to recover, if possible, their former shape and slenderness.

They after Delivery, in stead of Swathling and wrapping up the Child in warm Clothes, throw it into cold Water to harden; and in stead of comfort­ing the Mother with some Cordial Broth, they keep them fasting, not suf­fering them, a good while after their Delivery, to receive any considerable nourishment.

Their manner of Diet is also opposite to ours; whereas we delight in Friends and Strangers at our private Tables, or at least admit Relations and [Page 23]Concerns to sit with us, never willing to eat alone; they on the contrary have each their peculiar Boards, where they Dine and Sup by themselves in a churlish manner, and serv'd but meanly, are satisfi'd with a slender pit­tance.

A Drink in Japan call'd Chaa, held in great esteem by them.Their Drink is a Concoction made of Rice, which in strength and rellish resembling Wine, they use as if such, often taking men plentiful Doses, that they become inebriated therewith; but for their mornings Draughts, and closing up of their Stomacks after Meals, they onely following the Chinesy man­ner, drink Chaa, which comforts, and is a great suppressor of Fumes, that rising from the Stomack after great Meals disturb the Head.

It is not known how big Japan is, Linsch [...]t.The Empire or Island of Japan, if it be an Isle, is not onely one, but many; which evidently appears by those parts that border on the Sea, where the Coast discontinued with many In-lets, stands like a broken Wall, and the several falls of fresh Water Brooks and Rivulets, descending from the upper Grounds, with their mixt interweavings, both from Sea and Land, make a numerous croud of petty Isles: from which watery redundancy, arise Cloudy exhalations, that cause variety of stirring weather; as sudden Winds, cold Rain, Hail, Frost and Snow; yet these mixt changes so attemper the Air, that though under a hot Climate, they suffer not by extremity of heat in their Summer Solstice.

This Countrey extendeth it self from 157 degrees to 170½ Longitude, and in North Latitude, from 30 to 38, which makes 810 in length, and 408 English Miles in breadth.

Its Eastern borders onely open to the great Ocean; the South lies towards the South-Sea, where great and many Isles lie scatter'd, and make now a new Archipellago. The West side, the Sea intervening lies opposite to the Empire of China: The North-West, but at vast distance respects Tartary: The North bordering on Pedso, onely separated by an Inlet of the Sea, which runs not up above thirty English Miles, where both Lands continuing, stop the course of the Flood, and make one Continent, which Francis Cairon Embassador to the Emperor of Japan, that travelling from the Territory of Quanto, where the Imperial City Jedo lieth North-East, seven and twenty days journey to the Prominent Point of the Kingdom of Sunguar, here Sailing over a Bay or Gulf of the Sea, they came to the Countrey of Jesso, desolate and Mountainous, but full of precious and costly Furrs. The Japanners have often times ventur'd very far in. Jesso, but could never discover the end. The Emperor himself hath so much endeavour'd the knowledge of it, that he sent Persons a purpose to in­spect and make discoveries how far his Territory extended, and supply'd them with what, not onely might serve their Necessities, but whatsoever might ac­celerate and make more easie so difficult an Expedition.

Teco borders on Japan.Yet after long searching and far travelling through rough and untracted Wilds, sometimes climbing steep Ascents, oft engaged in amazing Precipices, they found their labor in vain, and no end, onely seeing some few Salvages hairy all over with slovenly Beards.

The extent thereof could never be found out by the Inhabitants.These beastial People, rather than humane, could neither give any ac­count of the Countrey Jesso, nor of their own wherein they dwelt; so it evi­dently appears, that Jesso and Japan are one Continent, but how far Jesso extends Northerly; and whether both may make one Isle, none hath yet in­form'd us.

Who first Sail'd to Japan is uncertain.Who of our European Voyagers (a new way being found by doubling the great Southern Cape to the East-Indies) first discover'd this Land is uncertain.

Some relate, That a Portuguese Ship by stress of Weather, not intending any such Course, was accidently driven upon the Coast of Japan, Anno 1539, but neither tell us the Ships Name, Captain, Master, or any other Particulars; so we wave this account as but a story, and not sufficiently Authentick, to have the honor of the first Discovery.

Jo. Petrus Maffeus, and Jacobus Thuanus, Anthonius, Guluamus. Most set down, that it was in Anno 1542.But this seems more credible which Joannes Petrus Maffeus, and Jacobus Thua­amus attest in the Writings of Anthonius Guluamus, how Antonius Mota, Francisco Zeimot, and Antonio Pexot, in their Voyage Sailing from Dodra to China, were forc'd from their intended design, and driven with an unwearied Tempest on the Confines of Japan; the time being more memorable, because that in that Year 1542 the King of Portugal sent Alphonso Soso, impower'd by his Commissi­on, with like authority, as if himself were there present, his first Lieutenant or Vice-Roy, to Raign at Goa. But soon after (of which also we have no certain account) the Portuguese by several Casualties and Adventures, got good foot­ing, and drove a great Trade there, amongst which, this in the first place being of most remark.

By what means the Portu­guese got footing in Japan.A Youth, a Stripling of Japan, being terrifi'd with the hard usage of a cruel Master, expecting upon some occasion a severe punishment, fled; taking San­ctuary in a Monastery of the Bonsi, amongst them the prime Religious Order; where whilest he skulk'd and kept himself in private, to escape his terrible Lord, it happen'd, that a Portuguese Vessel, Commanded by one Alvarius Va­zius, touch'd in that Harbor; who coming a Shore, and curious to see No­velties, viewing this Religious Structure, where whilst he was gazing about, and feeding his fancy, now with this, now with that, the Youth presented himself in a sad Petitioning Posture, signifying to him by signs, that he would be pleas'd to save him a- board his new arrived Vessel from some threatning danger; he taking compassion of him, found out a means to conveigh the Youth from thence, thither that night, where, supposing the Boy not altoge­ther safe, nor himself neither, put him aboard a Merchant that lay close by him, who was to Weigh Anchor that night; who accordingly set Sail, and car­ried him to Malacca, whether he was bound with his Freight: The young Ja­panner in his passage, observing their manners of Worship, and hearing them Chant and Sing at their daily Service, or else mov'd by Divine Inspiration, earnestly desired to become a Christian, as they were; whereupon the Master of the Ship made his desires known to the Fathers, then Residing at Malacca, that he might receive Baptism; but they modestly refus'd, saying, That the honor of it belong'd to the Bishop, Johannes Albuquerken, then Resident at Goa; whereupon he was transported thither, and there with much Ceremony, after Divine Service, he receiv'd in sight of the whole Congregation, Ba­ptism, and changing his Japan Name Auger, was Christen'd Paul of the Holy Belief.

Paul now well instructed in the Portugal Tongue, inform'd Franciscus Xa­verius, Cosmo Turrensis, and Johannes Fernandes Jesuites (Fathers that had ventur'd their Lives in promulgation of the Gospel, and to make Proselites in those parts) of the whole estate of his Countrey; whereupon, being encourag'd, they Embark'd themselves first for Malacca, and from thence intending their course upon the like service for Japan.

Ariving at Malacca, they met with a Chinesy Vessel, with whom they agreed to Transport them to Japan; all which proceedings, Cluverius inform'd in a Letter to some of their Society at Conimbrica, The Contents of Xaverius his Letter, concerning his Voyage to Japan. and also that they were encoura­ged by the information of some Portuguese Merchants in Malacca, that Traded to Japan, How that the Seed of Christianity had been already Sow'd there by some of their own Society, and that in a miraculous and wonderful manner, which in brief they related thus:

Some Fathers, Portuguese, by chance arriving there, but how he knew not, a Japan Prince feigning Civility to them amongst other Entertainments, pro­vided them stately and well-furnish'd Lodgings, where when at night expect­ing to take their repose; the Scene suddenly changing, they were entertain'd with dreadful Apparitions and prodigious Spectrums, horrible Dins and Noise of ratling Chains, Stools, and Cushions flying about their Ears; their Clothes rent and torn off from their Bodies, and themselves fearing in like manner to be pull'd to pieces; which when all their Exorcismes and Prayers not prevail­ing, they bethought themselves of their last refuge, which was Signing them­selves with the Figure of the Holy Cross, and scoring them on the Walls and Posts. which so doing, on a sudden all was hush'd, and those terrible Repre­sentations vanish'd, and all that night after, they , without the least disturb­ance, rested well till the next Morning; which, when divulg'd about the Town, and that they night by night heard nor saw no more of those Diabo­lical Phantomes, the whole people were almost perswaded to Christianity; in token of which, and also to keep away the like evil Spirits from their abodes, you might have seen all the Walls and Posts of their Houses every where mark'd with Crosses: Thus they reported.

Xaverius Voyage to Ja­pan.But to return again to Xaverius, and to conduct him in his Voyage to China: The foremention'd China Ship, stood to and again betwixt the Islands, so lin­gring and loosing time, the Master being never willing to Steer that Course, and besides being very superstitious in his own perswasion, he had his God, a Woodden Idol erected on his Stern, to whom,A Ship-Idol of a Chences. when ever he consulted con­cerning the course of his Voyage, or what else he desir'd to be resolv'd, he humbly Address'd himself with Presents, Perfuming the Image with Aloes, and Frankincense, and lighting many Tapers; Presenting him with several, Dishes, as Birds, and other light Meats for Digestion, which though it would not eat, yet he took signs and tokens from the Statues looks, though immove­able, which wire to him Responces of his good, bad, better, or worse success. This, as in other things that are left to chance, happen'd sometimes right, sometimes wrong; but by this stirr'd up, and still following the seeming counsels of his Woodden God , and his own inclination bending him home­ward: he perswaded Xaverius and the rest of the Fathers so much, that they being weary with lying so long at Sea, consented, and so unanimously agreed, to refresh themselves at China, hoping from thence the better to compleat their intended Voyage: So the Master upon their resolution, Steer'd directly for Canton, but the Wind proving more favorable for Chincher, a Haven further up in the Countrey, and where he dwelt; they condescending, he Steer'd direct­ly thither, all intending to Winter there; So Sailing on till they came near Couchin, where they were inform'd, that the Pirats had taken the Harbor, and the Wind hindring to go back to Canton, he had no other course left, but was necessitated to Harbor that Winter in Japan, whither standing with a fair Gale, they soon arriv'd at Congaxima, the very place where young Paul was born, had [Page 26]dwelt,Xaverius lands in Japan. and fled from his cruel Master two years before: Here Xaverius, and the rest of the Fathers Landed, the 15 of August 1549. where they were kindly receiv'd by the Young-mans Parents and Relations; and he himself, though he had deserted the Heathenish Idolatry of his Native Countrey, yet they looked upon him with great respect, because as they accounted he had been now a great Traveller,A Japauner turn'd Ro­man Catholick, relates what he hath seen in India. and able to render an account of wondrous Novelties, which he had made observation of in Foraign Countreys; every one coming and busie about him, making several enquiries; insomuch, that the whole Town was full of the news; and at last it came to the ear of the King of Saxu­ma, who being inform'd of it as a business of no little concern, the young Tra­veller was commanded to attend, where the Prince himself inquisitive, ex­amin'd him where he had been, and what he had seen, who presently recoun­ted to him with a good confidence, That he had been in India, where the Por­tuguese, a Potent and Warlike Nation, come from a strange Countrey, and the utmost Parts of the Western World, had by their Conquest, subduing several Nations, setled their own people in the heart of India, in great and rich Planta­tions, and were the most formidable, and the onely Terror of the rest of the Oriental Coasts; and that the Countreys about Malacca and God, where they had also setled, either by permission or the Sword, were rich and populous places, whose several Products, by the means of the Portuguese, were become rich Merchandize to the whole Eastern World: Then he demanded of him what persons those were that Landed with him, whereupon he quick and perti­nently answer'd, That they were also Portuguese, but of a Holy and Religious Order, who by their Examples of Meekness, Zeal, and Sincerity, sometimes back'd by wonderful Miracles, Conquer'd Mens Souls, bringing them to their Belief faster, than their Layety subdu'd their Bodies and Countreys by force of Arms.

Whereupon the Fathers were presented to him, who gave at first a fair and indifferent hearing to the Disputation betwixt them and the Bonzy, and others of their Orders: But concerning the Issue thereof, and the Miracles, as they say, wrought by Xaverius, in maintaining the Truth of the Gospel, and there being seconded by many more of their Fraternity; and also the cruel Perse­cutions which both they and their Proselites went under, are at large describ'd in the Jesuites Letters sent from time to time from Japan, and Printed by the Order of their Colledge at Lyons, Loven, Delingen, and Colen; of which more at large hereafter.

But besides those Voyages which the Fathers Xaverius, Cosmus, Turrenfis, and others made to Japan at several times, is also famous the Voyage of Captain Francis Pais, in the Ship de Sancta Cruiz, from the Haven of Macau, in the Year 1588. who gives this account.

A Voyage to Nangesaque, by Francoi [...] Pais.We Sail'd through the Straights of Lanton, in six Fathom Water, and Sandy Ground, but the middle of it much deeper; on the Larboard side of the En­trance, though straight, open'd a Bay, near which the Wind being contrary, blew almost a Storm, yet the strength of the Current so prevail'd, that we made way clearly through.

At day break, We discover'd the Island Branco, well known at a great di­stance by its steep and chalky Cliffs; after that we descry'd the Flat Coast of Loemon, known by its two Promontories on the North-East and South-West end: Then we Steer'd our Coast North-East, where happen'd several great Calms and terrible Thunder and Lightning.

A considerable time we kept in sight of China, about five or six Leagues from the Shore, after that we had Sail'd close by the Islands of The two Sisters, For­mosa, and also by The three Kings; there appear'd, as commonly doth in those parts, before a Storm, the dreadful signs of an ensuing Tempest,Signs of bad weather. About the Cape of Good Hope, appears commonly a small black Cloud before a Tempest. which was here a Rain-Bowe onely of two colours, hoop'd in with two more, the outmost the largest; the Master being thus warn'd, furl'd his Sails, lower'd his Yards, and dropt all his Anchors, and so in a manner moor'd his Vessel, by which time it blew so hard from the North-East , bringing along a high and rough Sea, which oftentimes rak'd over us from Prow to Stern, that all our Ground-Tackle, though very good, seem'd not strong enough to keep her from Driving: Thus we lay plying the Pump, Shipping often so much Water, as was ready to beat down the Decks, so that we every Minute expected death; and that which was worse, the Wind shifting eight Points towards the North-West, furrow'd fresh Billows athwart, which beat over our Broad-side. Thus ha­ving suffer'd four and twenty hours the utmost of the Perils, when utterly de­spairing, not able to hold out any longer, it pleas'd God, that the Weather broke up, and the Storm ceasing, after a short refreshment we joyfully weigh'd Anchor, and proceeded on in our Voyage.

And now being got about an hundred Leagues from the Island of Meaxuma, we saw with admiration a great number of py'd Fowls, black and white, by the Portuguese call'd Allcatrasses, which prey'd there on Fish. Before this Island lieth an obscure Cliff, and the Isle presenting it self in four Cantels, or Divisi­ons, being cut thorow in the manner of a Cross: On the South-West end of it are two round Hills; the other Islands are known by several Rocks, resem­bling Organ-Pipes; Here Sayling two Leagues along this Coast, to the height of one and thirty degrees; from thence Steering our Course to Cabexuma, which is surrounded by many Rocks, we discover'd the Mountain of Amacusa, and the utmost Point of the Island Cavallos, known by the tall Pines that Crown the High-Land. At some distance off from the shore lies a Ridge of Rocks, which as a Bar breaking the violence of the Waves agitated with Wind, make within a smooth and safe Harbor. Then we found the Bay of Nangesaque, by joyning our Land-Marks together, being a Tree, and the Roof of the great Church, where we Anchoring, Hoysed out our long Boat, and so Landed in Japan.

This is our second Discoverer of any note, giving the most exact account of the nearest and best way to Japan.

But two years before the return of Pais from his foremention'd Voyage, John Hugh Luschot setting Sail from the Haven of Maccaw, intending his Voyage for Japan: He relates thus;

Linschot's Voyage to Ja­pan.The 19 of June we Weigh'd Anchor from before the Island des Outcas, lying on the West side of the Entrance towards Maccaw, leaving the great Isle of Thieves to Lee-ward, which hath another longer Island full of Woods to the North­ward of it; and the like shape presents the Isle Tonquiau, being naturally forti­fi'd with ten Cliffs like Bulwarks, but on the North-East side opens a conve­nient and safe Harbor: We wav'd Lamon, standing off to Sea at a great di­stance, because many Pirats lay lurking up and down, shelter'd under those Coasts, their design especially to seize Portuguese Vessels; therefore we Steer'd directly towards the Chabaquon-Head, a High-Land, appearing a far off from the Coast of China; afterwards we Sail'd the length of the Red Stone, Varella, a Rock so call'd , and well known by its colour, which appears above Water, and may be seen beyond Port Chinogoa; Soon after we Stemm'd the Isle Lequeo [Page 28]Puqueno, whose steep Coasts are about sixteen Leagues in length, under twen­ty five degrees North-Latitude, where we Sail'd against a Current of trou­bled white Shells, but after 15 Leagues we found ease: Then rose the Seven Sisters, Isles so call'd, from their so much resembling one another; the first appears with a sharp Spire or rising Point in the middle; and at the foot on the West Angle, a Rock opens like a Column or Pillar; on the North-East, mark'd with a black Cliff. The Seven Sisters out of sight, we rais'd the long Isle Ycoo, full of black or sable Trees; from whence we lay North-East, Sailing betwixt that and Tanaxuma through a Channel, clear from all danger of Rocks and Shelves; At the Mouth of which, appears a Mountain like Vesuvius, or that of Aetna, which vomits upwards hideous Smoke and dreadful Flames, mixt with Stones; the Ruptur'd Bowels of the Mountain, which ejected with no little Fragor, sometimes fills the adjacent Shores, Sea and Land, with terri­ble Affrights, and wonderful Consternations.

But Tenaxuma, an Isle eight Leagues long, hath on the West a good Harbor, fortifi'd naturally with Rocks; the Low-Land full of rising Hillocks, cover'd here and there with black Pines: Eight Leagues Northerly, beyond this ap­pears the Coast of the mighty Empire of Japan, but in the mid-way, Steering to Jebuxy, we lay a good while becalm'd; yet nevertheless, the eleventh day after we set Sail from Macow, we arriv'd in Japan.

But besides all these Voyagers, and the many Discoveries and Plantations of the Portuguese and Spaniards in either Indies, at last the Hollanders being thrust into an exegency of dangerous consequence, and forc'd by an overcoming ne­cessity, also became Navigators, and undertook (to save themselves from utter ruine) that Work, by a business which happen'd thus;

At first, and in the infancy of their Trade, They onely contented themselves with making short Flights, and trafficking to their neighboring Confines, as France, England, Denmark, Norway, and other Places in the Northern Ocean; with which naturally delighted, and tasting the sweetness of Profit, they ven­tur'd farther to Spain and Portugal, then growing more bold, enter'd the Straights, seeking through the Midland Sea, at Legorn, Genoua, and Messina, what by their several Trades might be more beneficial. Here whilst the Portuguese and Spaniards made such wonderful Discoveries, they fixed and well satisfi'd, sat down and went no farther.

The first reasons why the Hollanders undertook the Voyage to the East-Indies, and afterwards to Japan.But after the War was proclaim'd by Spain against the United Provinces, King Philip issuing out strict Commands, that all Goods that heretofore were Export­ed from; his Harbors, or Imported from the Hollanders, whether the Growth of either Countrey, or otherwise, should not onely be confiscated and made seizure of, but great Mulcts, and other Punishments inflicted upon all them that durst, or were so hardy, as to infringe in the least these his special Edicts, supposing by this means sooner to reduce them to his obedience, which hap­pen'd quite contrary: for by this time, prosecuting Magellanus's Discovery, Spain had engross'd in a manner the whole East-India Trade, so that his Ports and Harbors were the Staples of Christendom, for all manner of Drugs, Spices, and all other Oriental Growths: Thus the Hollanders being suddenly block'd up, and cut off from so beneficial Traffick which they made with Spain, send­ing those Commodities which they fetcht from thence through most Parts of Europe, that much astonish'd, looking upon themselves as utterly undone, they began to consider, if any way were possible to be found to deliver them from their imminent destruction; at last, after several Consultations, they be­thought [Page 29]thought themselves of a means; for having furrow'd up much of the Northern Sea, knowing as far as Greenland, they believ'd it not difficult to find a new and shorter Way beyond Russia and Tartarie, through the Straights of Anian to Japan, and from thence to the East-Indies, which by surveying the Terrestrial Globe, could not be above a fourth part of that so long Voyage by the great Southern Cape; which if effected, they cast up, that with a quarter of the Charge they might bring the Indian Products to their Doors, and be able to furnish at so much lower Rates those accustom'd Places which they formerly had suppli'd.

The first Ships of the Netherlanders endeavor to find out a Passage to the East-Indies behind the North, but in vain.In order to which, Anno 1549, they Rigg'd out four Ships, who Sail'd on according to design, till they encountred with huge Floats, and swimming Castles of Ice; and though they were much troubled, incumbred, and in great danger, yet against all this opposition, they reach'd the heighth of Nova Zembla; but there being no longer able to oppose, the Ice increasing, covering almost all the whole Sea, they were forc'd to return; so this their first Expedi­tion prov'd fruitless: Yet not disanimated with their first bad success, they prepar'd that Winter, and towards the latter end of the next Spring, when those Seas might be penetrated, seven Ships more, who after sixteen Weeks, being stopt by the same impediments, return'd with the like account into the Maes. Yet though a little troubled with their unfruitful endeavors, they sat not down so, but ventur'd out two Ships more; but this third Voyage prov'd more unfortunate than either of the former, for they lost one of them, being frozen up, and the Company Wintering there, were forc'd to break up their Vessel to build a Cabbin with it on the Shore, where they several Moneths suffer'd by bitter extremities, and a Sunless Skie: the other being much crased and Weather-beaten, was forc'd to return. Thus where they ex­pected Mare Liberum, or open Sea, they found Mare Clausum, the great Nor­thern Bays, by which they hop'd a Passage, all blockt up with Ice.

Cornelius Houtman the chief promoter of the East-India Expeditions.The usual Way, lately found by the Portuguese, though long and difficult, lay open; upon which, after small consultation, they pitch'd, and lighting on an expert Sea-Captain, Cornelius Houtman, who had been formerly there, and lately for that purpose redeem'd by them from the Turks, they furnish'd out with four Ships, who having in two years and four Moneths made little more than a saving Voyage, anchor'd in the Texel.

Notwithstanding all these disasters, and small account of great endeavors, they set forth another Fleet to Trade the same way; and not onely them, but, the business working of it self, several other Merchants began to venture out Ships, freighted on their own accounts: Those and the first joyning their Stocks together, set out eight Ships under the Command of Jacob van Nek, and growing impatient, two Moneths before their return they sent out three more, under the Conduct of Stephen vander Hagen.

Several Merchants in Amsterdam fit out Ships for the East-Indies, as also in Zealand and Rotterdam.In the mean time this example was every where follow'd, and this new Trade, like a new Fashion, was imitated through all the United Provinces, and none scarce look'd upon, if they were not Venturers to the East-Indies, for by this time they found great profit by it. Yet by the multiplicity of Merchants Trading there, a great inconveniency had like to have happen'd, to the ruine of the whole business; for every one employing his own Stock, and for their quicker dispatch endeavoring to out-buy one another, rais'd the Markets, and soon discover'd what value the Europeans set upon the Indian Goods: which growing mischief to avoid, the States consulted, and order'd, that all Adven­turers [Page 30]to those Parts, should be conjoyn'd and made one Society, and call'd them The East-lndia Company.

The Netherland States to prevent the growing mis­chief, make an East-India CompanyThis being publish'd, and also every one invited that could joyn their Stocks with those that had already put in, and giving great encouragements, they rais'd in short time a Bank of sixty six Tun of Gold:A Tun of Cold 1000 l. Ste [...]ling and those that ventur'd 5000 l. had the honor to be call'd A Prime Partner, and so were cho­sen in order Treasurers for the whole Company, giving annual Accounts to all the rest: which collected Treasures are kept in their respective Places, till the Fleets are ready to set Sail; but the Head of all where they are to adjust their Accounts, and pay in their gather'd Sums, were Amsterdam and Middle­burgh, which is observ'd to this day.

Increasing of the East-India Company.Since which Establishment, this Company hath not onely made prodigious improvements of their Stock, but also brought by their Conquests vast Terri­tories under the Command of the United Provinces; for the Natives, weary of the insupportable behavior of the Spaniards and Portuguese, freely offer'd them­selves in Leagues of Amity, to be under their Protection; and others that were more stubborn, and would persist under the Spanish Command, were sub­du'd by force of Arms: which soon growing so considerable, it was thought fit to settle a new Government there in the most convenient Place.

Staple at Batavia.Great Java, cull'd out as fittest for that purpose, they built their City in, and call'd Batavia; which they fortifi'd so well, that they baffled the Emperor of Java, lying before it with two hundred thousand Men.

Here the States Governor keeps a Princely Court, and hath his Privy Coun­cil, who by an arbitrary Power determines all business of Peace or War; and such his Limits of Dominion by their several Conquests are, that they extend from Japan to Bassora in the Red-Sea, being at least six thousand English Miles.

Thus we have settled the Batavian Plantation, and given a brief account of those Voyagers which happen'd in such an Age, and one juncture of time, which laying the Ocean open, found a way for Traffick to all the Angles of the World.

Embassies sent from Ba­tavia to Japan.But before we go on farther upon our Japan Discourse, and how the Hol­landers first settled their Staple in that Countrey, sending triennial Embassies from Batavia their chief Residence, with great Presents, it will not be unfit to relate one Embassy, which was the onely one that ever we heard of, addressed from thence to any Prince or Potentate whatsoever; for they taking so much State upon them, though they receive all with great Pomp and Civility, never make any return.

The Jesuits did this to make themselvesd famous by Converting the Japanners. Histor. Jesuit. Hosp p. 139. Alexander Valignanus a Jesuit, a Person, besides his Theology, eminent both for Moral Vertues, Mathematical Sciences, and all other Learning, zealous to promulgate the Gospel, and the Faith of Jesus Christ, and altogether to eclipse, if possible, the high estimation the Japanners had of their blind Priests, horrid Rites, and dire Superstition; to which purpose Mencio Ito, Nephew to the King of Fiunga, and Michael Cinga, nearly related to the Kings of Orima and Omura, his Pupils in the European Learning, he not onely perswaded them, but brought in their Royal Unckles, that it would be worth their time to travel into Eu­rope, where being eye-witnesses, and by certain experience to be able to give an account of the glory of the Church of Christ, and the magnificent splendor thereof: So it was, that as he design'd, it happen'd, and the young Princes with Julianus Nacaura, The Embassy from Japan to Spain and Rome. and Martinas Fura their Counsellors, and two Gentleman-Ushers, and their two Fathers the Jesuits, set Sail in the beginning of the year [Page 31]

St. HELENA.

from Nangesaque, and after many dangers Landed at Miaco, and having stay'd there nine Moneths for a Ship, they a second time Embarqued for Malacca, Come to Malacca. where they lost one of their Ships, and were themselves pillag'd by the Mahu­metans, and glad they escaped with their Lives; then reaching Manapur, from thence they travel by Land to Couchin: In this populous City they spent a year,To Couchin. and after hoisted Sail for Goa; To Goa. where they were magnificently entertain'd by the Portuguese Vice-Roy, Franciscus Mascaregnus. From thence Embarquing in a Portugal Ship, the first Place worth mentioning was St. Hellens, To St. Hellens. where they Landed.

Description of the Isle.This Island, so call'd by its first Discoverers the Portuguese, from the Saint on whose Day it was found, being the 21 of May, lies in the Main Ocean, 16 Degrees and 15 Minutes Southern Latitude, about 510 Leagues from the Cape of Good Hope, 350 from Angola, and 510 from Brasile, being the nearest Con­tinent to this Isle, is about seven Leagues in Circumference, appearing high above the Water, defended every where from the violence of the Sea, by steep Rocks like a Wall, with Bulwarks, and is naturally Hilly, but cut quite through with many Valleys; amongst which are two exceeding pleasant, as the Church Valley, so call'd from a small Chappel built there; on the North­side of which is an easie and delightful Ascent to the High-lands: towards the South is the Vale of Orange, so call'd from the great plenty of that Fruit, which besides Lemons, Pomegranates, and the like, grow there in great abun­dance, that they may Lade six or seven Vessels with them yearly. On the West-side of the Chappel is good Anchorage, but they must lie near the Shore to keep them from Driving; for from betwixt the declivings of that Rocky Coast, the Wind comes often down with great violence, and sudden gusts.

The Air.The Air of this Island is very temperate and wholsom, insomuch that the Sick which are brought out of the Ships on Shore there, soon recover their health. The Valleys are not more than moderately hot, the Mountains tem­perately cold, being continually fann'd with cooling Breezes, and the Air is re­frigerated [Page 32]frigerated with five or six Showres in a day, the Sun shining as oft betwixt; and though the Soil be naturally dry and barren, yet it is replenish'd with many Springs of sweet and wholsom Water, especially the Church Valley, through which, descending from the High-lands, glide several pleasant Streams down to the Sea, for the great accommodation of those that Anchor there, and put in forfresh, Water; yet besides this, they have two other, from whence they supply their wants.

This Isle, destitute of Inhabitants, may ascribe its plenty of wild Gattel to a Portuguese Merchant, who in the Year 1512 coming to Anchor here, and ob­serving the pleasant Situation, and the solitariness thereof, which then agreed well with his disposition, being something inclin'd to Melancholly, and ha­ving been formerly much cross'd in his Fortunes, wearied with business, and the cunning practises of those he dealt withall, settled himself in this solitary Place, putting ashore those Sheep, Swine, and Poultrey he had aboard, which increased in a short time to a Miracle, insomuch that they suppli'd whomsoever touch'd there, with plenty of fresh Provision, and especially after King John of Portugal issued out strict Commands, prohibiting all his Subjects from set­ling there.

This Soil, though naturally (as we said before) very dry and thirsty, is much fertiliz'd, being moistned by many Springs and showry Weather, so that it bears variety of Fruits, especially Pease and Beans, of which great store are found growing every where, which when ripe, falling, sowe themselves, ma­king such plenty.

Here are also whole Groves of Orange, Lemon, Pomegranate, and Fig­trees, which are always loaden with ripe, green Fruits, and Blossoms; and great Shades of Ebony and Rose-trees: the Wood is not easie to be wrought, because of its knottiness. The Valleys are like Kitchin-Gardens, full of Parsly-Beds, Porcelin, Sorrel, and several other Herbs good for the Pot, and also for many Distempers, especially the Griping of the Guts, a Disease very incident to such as frequent these Parts.

The Woods and Hills abound with all manner of Beasts, as Goats, Deer, some as big as Stags, and also wild Swine of several colours, but very difficult to be taken. When the Portuguese first discover'd this Countrey, they found not any kind of Beast or Fruit-bearing Trees, all which they transported, Stocking and Planting of them there, which since have so spread themselves, that both the Hills and Dales are satiated with them, without any art of Husbandry.

Here are also Partridges, Pigeons, Peacocks, and Pheasants, which cannot be taken either by Snares or Nets, but onely by Shooting. No Beasts or Birds of Prey, Serpents, Toads, or Frogs, have here their receptacle; but ugly Spiders and Flies, some green like Grashoppers.

The Cliffs on the South-side of this Island entertain thousands of gray and black Sea-Pies, or Mews; also speckled and white Fowls, some with long, and some with short Necks, which lay their Eggs (being of a good relish) in the Rocks. These kind of Fowls the Netherlanders 1608 in a Voyage to the East-Indies, call'd them by Irony, Mad-Pies, being so tame and gentle, that they took them with their Hands, or knockt them down with their Sticks.

Here the Sea-water which beats against the Rocks, remaining in a frothy foam upon them, whitened with the Sun, becomes pure Salt, and Salt-Petre.

Here are also Mountains which produce Bolus, and a fat gray Earth call'd Terra Lemnia, such as comes from Lemnos.

In the South-east part of this Island is a Mountain, whose Earth being of a brightish brown, Dyes a good Red; and also one in the East, which yields a pure mixt colour, being brown above, and white below.

The Sea near this Island abounds in Fish, but must be taken with Hooks, and not with Lines or Nets, because of the foulness of the Ground; Carps, but of another colour than those of Europe; Eels, about the thickness of a Mans Arm, and of a good taste; Crabs, Lobsters, of better r [...]llish than those in England; and also very good Mussles, which stick so fast to the Rocks, that they must cut them off.

This Isle, though thus flourishing, lies still uninhabited, for they say that the King of Portugal would permit none of his People to settle there, or appro­priate to themselves, but to be left free and open, to relieve those that Sail that way.

Here they Landed, and after they had refresh'd themselves, they shew'd the young Princes the Sport of Hunting the wild Boar, with which they were much delighted.

The Japan Ambassa­dors arrive at Lisbon.From thence at last, helpt with fair, and detarded with foul Weather, they Landed at Lisbon, where they were receiv'd magnificently by the Cardinal Albert Austria, Governor and Duke of Bragance. From thence they proceeded through Guadalupe, Talavera, and Toledo, to Madrid, They come to Madrid and Majorca. where Philip King of Spain entertain'd them with much splendor and kindness, and shew'd them his Court, the Escuerial, and also his Treasury, then full, his Plate-Fleet being newly ar­riv'd. Three Moneths they diverted themselves in Castile, after Sailing to Ali­cant, and visiting the Isles Majorca and Minorca: There entring the Haven of Pisa, they found Peter, sent from his Brother Francis Duke of Florence to meet,To Florence. and conduct them to his Palace, where they receiv'd no less welcom, and splendid Entertainments, than formerly at the Spanish Court.

To Rome.Next they progress'd on directly towards Rome, the Pope sending Franciscus Gambara to his Confines, to attend and invite them to his Palace. In the Evening they were met first, and receiv'd with all civility by the Master of the Jesuits Colledge, who Lodg'd and Entertain'd them in a decent manner.Their Entrance into Rome very sumptuous.The next day they made their publick Entry, and were to be presented to Pope Gregory the third, which was perform'd with all the imaginary Grandeur that could be possible: First marched his Holiness's Life-Guard, Riding all alike suited in rich and costly Habits; next the Infantry, his Guard of Switzers; then the Attendants of the Cardinals all Clincant in Gold, and in Carnation Silks; then the Cavalcade, all the Princes and Nobility in or about the City, Riding in Order, with all the splendor that might be, with Trumpets and Kettle-Drums beating and sounding before them; then the Japan Princes well Mount­ed, and richly Clothed after their Countrey manner, being an under Gar­ment, Vest and Tunick, curiously embroider'd with Birds and Flowers, wide and short Sleeves, about their Necks a Scarf, two Scymiters hanging on one side, the Hilts and Scabberds Studded and Imbossed with Pearls and Dia­monds; at last the Magistrates and Gentry of the City made up the Rear; thus attended they marched to the Palace, and entring the Presence where his Ho­liness sat, surrounded with Cardinals and Bishops, all in Pontificalibus, accord­ing to their Degree, with their Myters on, Crosiers in their Hands, Copes and Surplices, which exceeded, as Jacobus Augustus Thuanus affirms,Thuanus Hist. Lib 81. all the pompous [Page 40]Shows that ever were seen there before. Thus attended, they addressed them­selves, and according to the manner, though Princes, in an humble posture kiss'd with joyfulness his Holiness's Feet; then the Royal Letters of the three Kings, which were Translated into Latine, were open'd and publickly Read, the first Indorsement thus:

Remarkable Superscripti­ons of the Japan Kings Let­ters Written to the Pope. To the most zealous Order, and chief Vicar, supplying Christs Place on Earth, the prime and holy Father, prostrated at his Feet, humbly presents These, subscribing thus: Trimus King of Bungo throws himself with all humility under the most blessed Feet of your Holiness. After the same manner were the other two directed.

An Application made by Father Jaspe Gonsalvus to the Pope in behalf of the Japan [...]mbassadors.After the Letters were Read, Jasper Gonsalvus, a Portuguese Jesuit, in the be­half of the young Japan Princes, explain'd in ample manner the meaning of the Address, or Embassy, and at large Commentated upon the Epistles, then made a large Elogium upon the Kings, setting forth their Piety and Zeal to Re­ligion: This done he turn'd towards the Pope, speaking also in his high commendation and praise, whatever in such an Audience was fit to be said.

The Popes Answer by Anthony Buradapulius.After this was done, Anthony Burapadulius made in the Pope's behalf this Answer, which in brief was thus:

That the Kings had done exceeding prudently and religiously, and were highly to be commended for thus sending their nearest Relations in an Embassy so expensive, long, and dangerous, to visit his Holiness at Rome, Gods Vicegerent, and true Successor of Peter the Apostle, the Head of the Catholick Church, and Keeper of the Keys of Heaven, by which means he hopes the whole Nation may be absolutely reduced to the Christian Faith, without which none can be saved; and happy would it be for them, changing for Salvation their abominable and heathenish Superstition, to offer in the Temple of Christ, rather than in their Dayro, or Pantheon, not of Gods, but Devils; and that they ought to give the Almighty thanks for the holy Xaverius, who by his Doctrine and pious Perswasions, brought them first to hearken to everlasting bliss and happiness, and true welfare of their Souls; which saving Faith hath already of late powerfully operated on many Nations, both in the West and East-Indies, who had time out of mind been led in Ignorance, and blinded with the abomination of Idolatry, now following Christs Banner, are profess'd Enemies to the Doctrine of Devils.

Much to this purpose he spake, intimating also, That his Holiness gave them thanks, and took it as a great kindness, that they had made to him thus their Address by such a magnificent Embassy; and so all rising they were dis­missed.The Japanners are no­bly entertain'd in Rome. And some few days after the Pope admitted them to his own Privacy and Apartments, where they were some hours in familiar Communication with his Holiness, enquiring of them concerning the Greatness, Wealth, Man­ners, and Customs of their Countrey, and the like. But whilst they stay'd some Moneths in Rome, and were frequently and magnificently entertain'd by the Cardinals, Officers, and Persons of Quality in the City, and were visited by the Spanish and French Ambassadors,Thuanus. spending their time in daily Caresses, and variety of noble Entertainments, Pope Gregory the thirteenth, being taken after Dinner with an Appoplectick Distemper, departed so suddenly, that they could not administer the Sacrament to him, in the 83 year of his Age; on whose Monument this Inscription is now to be seen.

Inscriptions on the Tomb of Pope Gregory the thir­teenth.Gregory the thirteenth, deserving all love and honour from his Successors, and all Persons of what degree soever, first for his adorning the City of Rome with Churches, and other publick Edifices, for his great Charity to the Poor, for many publick Schools through the Universe, for the promulgation of the Faith of Jesus, his Fatherly love to all Nations, especially for the kind Reception of the Japan Ambassadors, sent from the remotest [Page 35]part of the World; and last of all, for his exact Correction of the Kalendar, or Annual Accounts.

Pope Sextus the fifth gives them many rich Pre­sents. Sextus the sixth succeeding him, shew'd also great kindness and bounty to those Royal Japanners, settling a yearly Revenue of four thousand Crowns, to­wards the Christian Churches in Japan; two thousand for the building of publick Schools for the breeding up of their Youth in the true Belief; and also made a rich Present to the Kings their Unckles, of Swords and Crucifixes, emboss'd with Silver, Gold, Precious Stones, and other costly Curiosities.

They depart from Rome, and return to Japan,So on the thirteenth of June in the Year 1585, having receiv'd these several Bounties, and Benedictions from his Holiness, they departed; and travelling through Italy and other Lands, much toss'd and turmoil'd by Sea, spending five years abroad, they Landed at Nangesaque in Japan, and from thence went directly to the Emperors Court at Meaco.

These, as we said before, were the onely Addressers employ'd in an Em­bassy from thence into Europe, or any other part of the World.

Since which time the Hollanders have Traded to Japan to their great benefit, especially since the Portuguese, upon the account of the Jesuits Conspiracy, were prohibited to Traffick any longer in that Countrey, which in brief was thus:

The Jesuits are banish'd from Japan because of a Plot.¶THe Jesuits having laid a Plot to deliver up the whole Empire of Japan to the King of Portugal, and having well digested the same, sent him in­viting Letters, promising, that if he would send them eight stout Vessels well Mann'd, they no sooner mould be arriv'd, but that several Kings, and many thousands of the People their Converts, should be all at once ready to Declare for him, which would so much overpower the Emperors remaining Party, that if he then prov'd stubborn, and would not yield, they should be able to force him to his subjection: But this being discover'd,The Portuguese age ba­nish'd from Japan. the Portuguese were presently banish'd and excluded for ever from Japan in the Year 1641, the Jesuits and principal Confederates being all put to death, suffering condign punishment.

So the Trade lay in a manner open to the Hollanders, which they being al­most solely employ'd in, made so great an advantage thereof, that they were able every three years to send Gratulatory Embassies, with several rich Pre­sents to the Emperor.

The Hollanders Staple at Firando.The first Staple they settled in that Countrey, was upon Firando, a small Isle, which on the East-side Coasts with Bongo, by some call'd Cikoko; on the North, with Taquixima; on the South faceth Goto, both also wash'd by the Sea; the West respecting the Main Ocean.

The Haven of Firando, better accommodateth Japan Vessels than the Hol­landers, which being of greater Burthen, draw more Water, especially the Mouth of the Haven being narrow, and their Ships large, is very dangerous; but within they lie safe, being Land-lock'd round about, which breaks off all force of Winds and Waves whatsoever; and though it blow to the heighth of a Heuricane, yet they Ride still in smooth Water.

Description of the same.This Port they have also fortifi'd with a double Breast-work. In stead of a Palace, the Governor keeps his Residence in a mean Shed built of Planks clenched together. This Haven till of late was but little frequented; but since the Hollanders East-India Company settled their Staple here, many Mer­chants from the adjacent Isles and other Places, come thither to Traffick with the Netherlanders, which brings much Profit to the Governor yearly, and also a [Page 36]

De Logie op FIRANDO.

great Ground-Rent from the Hollanders; themselves having built at least forty Houses.

The Store-house of the East-India Company there.The Store-house which was first order'd there for the Company, consisted of four Low Rooms, and five Upper Chambers, for the Reception of their Goods; besides Kitchen, Larder, and other Offices; lying close by the Haven, with a Key, and Stairs to the Water; but being built of Wood, which in short time grew dry and rotten, it could not preserve their Merchandise either from Fire, foul Weather, or Thieves: Therefore in Anno 1641. they began to build one more large, of Stone; which the Emperor not rellishing, supposing they might convert it into a Fort of Defiance,The Netherlanders re­move from Firando to Nangesaque. commanded them to desist, and at the same time remov'd them to Nangesaque.

A strange Idol.Near Firando, at an In-let of the Sea, stands an Idol, being nothing but a Chest of Wood, about three Foot high, standing like an Altar; whether ma­ny Women, when they suppose that they have Conceiv'd, go in Pilgrimage, and offering on their Knees Rice, and other Presents, with many Prayers im­ploring, That what they go withal may be a Boy, saying, O give us a Boy, and we will bear him, though a big one.

But before the Hollanders left Firando, they sent their Merchandise in small Vessels to Nangesaque, where they had then a Factory, and there found in the Year 1694. a Hollander call'd Melchior Sandwoord, who Sailing with the Fleet from Mabu, through the Straights of Magellan, losing his Company, had suffer'd Shipwrack on that Coast thirty Years before. Thus the Hollanders being re­mov'd from Firando, keep their Staple ever since at Nangesaque.

Netherland Ambassadors sent from Nangesaque to Jedo.THe Ambassadors that were dispatch'd from Batavia to the Emperor of Ja­pan, June 28. Anno 1641. receiv'd peremptory Orders, to Land only at their ple Nangesaque, and to go from thence to the Imperial Court at Jedo. The Chief in Commission for this Imployment, was his Excellency the Lord Bloc­covius, who had joyn'd to him as an Assistant Andreas Frisius a great Merchant. [Page 37]All things in readiness, and rich Presents prepar'd, they put to Sea, their Fleet consisting of three Ships and one Ketch: The Governor himself, and several others, conducted them aboard, and weighing Anchor from them, falling to Leeward, lay that night before Batavia.

Description of Batavia.This City of old call'd Calappa, since Jacatra, and now Batavia, hath its last Denomination from the Batavians, which were a People driven out of their own Countrey, before the Birth of our Savior, by their Neighbors the Hessens; The Batavians from whence extracted What Tract or Land they formerly inhabited. then known by the Name of Catti, settled in the Lower Countreys, as Germa­ny between the two Hornes, or the Arms of the Rhine, which now happens to be the United Netherlands: So that in Commemoration, and to keep up the Honor and Antiquity of their ancient Name, and first Original, they call this their New City, and Head of their East-Indian Government, Batavia.

Description of Jacatra.When first Cornelius Matcleif Anchor'd at this place, Anno 1607. it was call'd Jacatra, being a mean Village; the Houses being all built after the Javan man­ner, from the Foundation, of Straw; the Town having no other Fence-work, but Ranges of Wooden Pales, like our Parks.Power of the King of Jacatra. The Royal Palace it self was a great Huddle of Deformity, consisting of many Rooms one within another; the whole Materials that built it, being nothing but complicated Reeds, Bul­rushes, Pleated Sedges, of which Work and Contrivance they were then proud. But the King about that time had a Design to Fortifie this his pitiful Metro­polis with a Stone-wall. His Royal Navy consisted of four Galleys, in which, beneath his single Bank of Oars, sat his Soldiers, or Life-Guard, which attended his Commands upon the Decks. This Prince, who drove there the onely Trade in Pepper, (though by his Subjects restrain'd not to dispose of more than 300 Bags Yearly) a Commodity of which the Hollanders knew very well the Advantage, struck a League of Amity with them, annexing Articles of Traffique, to which they both agreed; which the King, being of an in­constant and covetous Nature, observ'd so little, that he rais'd both the Prizes and Customs whenever he pleas'd: So that the Hollanders conceiving them­selves neither certain in their Trade, nor safe in their Persons, rais'd a Fort there, for their better Security of Commerce and Defence.

English and Netherlanders fall at variance before Ja­catra.HEre also at the same time the English drove an equal Trade, not inferior to the Hollanders; who clashing in their Commerce, striving to ingross the Commodities one from the other, there arose an irreconcileable Difference be­tween them, not to be decided but by the Sword, and Force of Arms; where­upon soon after they engag'd all their Forces that were there present, resolving to venture all their Stakes both by Sea and Land.

Strength of the Nether­landers on Java.The Hollanders had erected there two Store, or Block-houses; one whereof they call'd Nassau, Fortifying the South-side of the Harbor; and the other, be­ing last built, was nam'd Fort Maurice. On the North-side, along the Shore, they had rais'd a Platform, with Palisadoes to plant their Cannon on; but the Breast-work not being finish'd, they lay open to the Enemy: Also ano­ther Eastwards, near the City, on which were planted two Great Guns, and three Sakers. The Point of the River that lay North by Fort Maurice, was rais'd two Foot high, and made defensive with Trenches. On this Point also were planted two Great Guns, and five Sakers. The North-West Point to­wards the Sea was of the same height as the Palisado'd Platform, having a Breast-work of Wood, and a Shelter against Rain, with seven Sakers planted upon it. The other side on the West had yet no Out-works, which the Gal­lery [Page 38]of Fort Nassau supply'd, from whence the Soldiers might play with their Muskets: And in these Places they dispos'd of their whole Forces at Land.

Strength of the English and Javanners against the Netherlanders.On the other side, Jacatra had by this time a strong Wall, built of red Stone, and a high Tower planted with Ordnance; which declaring for the English, put it self in a Posture of Defence. The English had onely their Store-house, and a Breast-work at the Point of the Harbor, made up of coyl'd Cables, strengthned with Pyles, and Earth well ramm'd together, to stop the Nether­landers from entring into the Mouth of the Harbor. In this Posture, and all being prepar'd,The Netherlanders fall upon the English. the English first gave Fire; which was presently answer'd by the Hollanders, and so follow'd, that suddenly they fired the English Store-house, and became Masters of the Entry, or Point of the River; the Fort from Jacatra in the mean time playing upon the Hollanders, which were (as they say) but two hundred and forty Men, whereof eighty were Blacks.

English Fleet before Ja­catra.Whilst they were thus busie on the Shore, the English Fleet, consisting of eleven Sail, came up before Jacatra; and the Governor, to perform the Admi­rals part,Valour of Coen. went aboard; they having seven Ships lying there, which were ready Laden, and not altogether fit for such Service yet making a Vertue of Neces­sity, they drew out; but the Wind being contrary, which kept them to the Leeward, were forc'd to ply yet more to the Windward; so making not much way. When they were within Cannon-shot, the English unfurl'd their Red Flag of Defiance, commanding them by Sound of Trumpet to Strike, or else they would force them: So on the first of February 1619. both Fleets drawing up one to another, about twelve a clock at Noon, ingag'd, and were in hot Dispute till late in the Evening, both Sides behaving themselves with great Skill, Courage, and Resolution; till being parted by the Night, they lost sight one of another; the Dutch retreating to Amboyna; and the English, triumphing with their Victory, Sail'd back to Jacatra, where they were rein­forc'd with seven Ships more which had not Ingag'd. So the Hollanders, in a low Condition, were block'd up both by Sea and Land: And also to make their Case more desparate, the Javanners had gotten a thousand Men for their Assistance from Bantam; The Netherlanders be­sieg'd in their Fort before Jacatra. whose Numbers being thus increas'd, they closely be­sieg'd the Hollanders in all their four Fortifications at once. Peter Vander Brook the Governor, Coen being gone to Amboyna with their shatter'd Fleet, had the absolute Command; who set up new Flags of Defiance on each Bulwark, and ply'd the City so smartly with his Cannon, that it struck such a terror in the Inhabitants, and Wydruk Rama the King of Jacatra, that he shew'd him­self willing to accept of Peace;A Peace with the King of Jacatra, which after a short Cessation was agreed up­on, and the Hollanders Articled to pay him for his Losses, Eight thousand Ry­als. But shamefully broken. The Business seeming thus to be decided, the King desired, that there might be a friendly Interview, and to see and speak with their Governor Van­der Brook at his own Court: But the Hollanders distrusting some Plot vail'd under this his kind Proffer, were much troubled, having found him before both fickle and treacherous;The Commander Van­denbrook found treacherous yet at last he ventur'd, and went according as was desir'd, with a slender Train, to his, Palace; where he was no sooner come, but they seiz'd upon him, and us'd him most barbarously, threatning him with the most exquisite Tortures, and Death at last, if he would not sur­render up the Fort; to which end, they immediately haled him, with a Halter about his Neck, under his own Guns, advising him, if he would save his life, to bid them do as the King had instructed him; but he, on the contrary, com­manded the Besieg'd to maintain their Fort by all possible means, and never to [Page] [Page]

Ware affbeeldinge Wegens het Casteel ende Stadt BATAVIA gelegen o [...]it groot Eylant JAVA Anno 1669. Aneract Portratura of the Castle and Citty BATAVIA Lying on the great Ilan [...] JAVA Anno 1669.

[Page] [Page 33]trust to such a false and perfidious Nation-whereupon the Javanners in the same manner haled him back to the Court.

The English demand the Netherlanders Fort.Captain Thomas Dale the English Admiral, shot Arrows into the Hollanders Works, with Letters, expressing, That he himself was no way accessary to the Blood which already had been spilt on both sides; and also advising them not to deliver up their Fort to the Javanners; which being of dangerous conse­quence to either Party, they should do well to assist them with their Additio­nal Defence, and so save both Stakes, in surrendring to them; which if they would not, he should do his best Indeavors to save their Lives and Goods from so merciless an, Enemy, by forcing them to it; to which purpose, he had already planted sixteen Pieces of Ordnance against Fort Maurice, and would suddenly fetch up more from the Fleet. The next day he sent them a second Letter, in the same manner promising them to save their Goods as well as Lives, and give them two Months time to dispose of themselves; and those that thought fit to receive Pay, he would List with his own, and use them with the like Respect and Kindness, as if they were all one Nation: Which if they refus'd, or us'd delay, he was prepar'd immediately to fire his Guns, and at once with a general Assault to Storm them on every side.

Scarcity in the Fort.They had not within the Fort, Amunition sufficient for one day in hot Ser­vice; and the English having a great help by their Auxiliaries the Javanners, and also a Victorious Fleet ready at Sea: The Dutch being continually upon Duty, were weary, weakned, and disheartned, and also a Breach being made in their Works, which could not possibly be made up ere they were Storm'd; and as he threatned, there was no hopes of Coens Return in four Months at least. Upon these Considerations, forc'd by an inevitable Necessity, they thought it best not to refuse the English Proffer:Articles on which the Fort was to be deliver'd to the English. So they agreed to deliver them the Fort, the Guns, and what more belong'd to the Defence thereof; and to the King of Jacatra, all the Merchandise, Money, and Jewels. But the English were to furnish out the Hollanders with a Vessel of two Guns, fifty Mus­kets, one Barrel of Powder, and six Months Provision, that so they might con­vey themselves to Cormandel. In earnest whereof, Admiral Dale receiv'd the Governor Coens Houshold-Plate; the Fort, and all things before-mention'd, were to be deliver'd up, so soon as the Ship was ready to receive them.

¶ BUt just when they were upon Surrendring up the Fort, and going from thence aboard the prepared Vessel, according to the Articles, a won­derful Accident hapned, which gave quite another face to the whole Businefs. A Merchant, one Cornelius Houtebraken, having admittance to Vanderbrook their Prisoner, whom they had so treacherously seiz'd upon,A strange Acciden [...]. perswaded Cornelius to go to the Panagran, or King of Bantam, to intreat him to use what means he could to get him into his Custody, and make him his Prisoner; which if he did, he would nobly requite at their Admiral Coens Return. This Account the Merchant giving him, and he considering that there might be an Advantage, in having such a Pledge as the second Man of the Hollanders in his own Hands, bethought himself of a way to put in Execution his Design, which was thus: Whilst Rama, the English, and the Hollanders were agreed, and Articles of Sur­render ready to be perform'd, he sent Damagon, a Prime Favorite of his, with 2000-Men, to Rama's Court Jacatra; where venturing,Damagon sets upon the King of Jacatra. and securing the Pas­sages sages with his own Soldiers, went and presented the Panagran's Letter to Rama; which whilst he was perusing, he pull'd out a Steeletto, and seizing on him, set­ting [Page 40]the Point to the Kings Breast, said, Either resign thy kingdom to my Master the King of Bantam, or die. Rama being astonish'd, and thus suddenly surpriz'd, willinger to lose his Right and Possession, than his Life, yielded; and at the same instant, having no more warning, took his Wife and eldest Son; and so leaving his Palace, and what else belong'd to him, went like a willing Exile in­to strange Countreys, where after he was driven to that Necessity, that he turn'd Fisher-man, going in a poor Canoo to Sea, to maintain his Wife and Fa­mily.

Bantamers besiege the Netherlanders Fort.The English seeing so great and sudden an Alteration, and the Work carried on so strangely; the Bantamers to and about the Hollanders Fort, and Vander Brook rescu'd, and carried from thence to Bantam, they plainly and evidently perceiv'd, to their no great comfort, That the Hollanders would break their Faith, and Articles concluded and agreed upon, and their Golden Dream of such Acquirements, by their Agreement, would come to nothing. Nor were they deceiv'd in their Judgment; for the Hollanders in the Hurly-burly, and sudden Alteration of Government, thought they had a fit opportunity to Fish while the Waters were troubled; and so taking new Counsel and Courage, Fortified themselves afresh, and repair'd their Breaches; and withal, high in their Hopes, ostentatiously set over the Gates of the Fort in Capitals the fore­mention'd BATAVIA, Vander Brook calls it Ba­tavia. which Name after they gave their City. To back this their haughty Proceedings, done as if in defiance to the English, Coen al­so, little expected, arriv'd with seventeen Sail the 25 of March, gather'd up from the Molucco Islands, and lay before their New Batavia. The next day he set some few Men ashore,Coon takes Jacatra, and ruins it. which broke into Jacatra, pulling down the Wooden Walls, and Straw Houses: Then adding fresh Supplies, they march'd from thence to Bantam, and there demanded of the Panagran, his Prisoner, the Go­vernor Vander Brook, with seventy others taken out of the Ship the Black Lion. The Panagran, Du [...]c Prisoners deliver­ed from Bantum. though unwilling, yet being threatned by them, deliver'd most of the Men that Evenning, and the next Morning the rest, with their Vice-Admiral Vander Brook.

But the English seeing Coen thus arriv'd with such Recruits, and all things falling out cross to their Concern; not able to strive with these unexpected Misfortunes, with all speed getting their Guns that lay on the Shore aboard, they hoysed Sail, directing their Course to the Straights of Sunda.

Peace proclaim'd be­tween the English and Ne­therlanders.When soon after, on the ninth of June, Peace was Proclaim'd there by Or­der from the States of the United Provinces, between the English and the Nether­landers; in which setled Quiet, whilest they imploy'd themselves in a constant and undisturb'd Trade, they not onely improv'd their private Estates, but al­so this their new Plantation, raising what was an inconsiderable Store-house, at first to a sleight and undefensive Platform, then to a petty Fort, and next to a Castle with Redoubts; which in few years after, they so flourishing there, became a strong and almost impregnable City, now famous through the East­ern World, and well known every where by the Name Batavia.

¶ BUt this their growing Metropolis, the Emperor of Java look'd upon with an ill eye, and could not well digest such their Proceedings, to build such Fortifications upon his Ground, scarce asking his leave; and jea­lous of future Events, what a Goad it might be in his Side hereafter, that had already Eclips'd his Authority in his own Ports, by losing his Custom and Traffick; which they had ingross'd, by a new and peculiar way of their Tra­ding [Page 41]with Japan, China, Samutra, Succadanen, Siammos and other Countreys; so his displeasure and jealousie breaking out at last into open Hostility, he be­gan a War , and to vindicate his Cause against those that so had injuriously in­truded upon him; and Anno 1629 drew up against the New City an Army, con­sisting of 150000 Men, and vested round within Pistol Shot of the Walls, which he ply'd with such continual Stormings, that he kept the Besieg'd with fresh Alarms, in such hot service, that they had neither time to eat, drink, nor sleep, or any minute of refreshment; but they so roughly entertain'd him, what with playing their great Guns, throwing Granadoes and Fire-Balls from their Outwork and Platforms, that it cost him daily an incredible number of men, so that at last, their Souldiers filling their Trenches and Outworks with their Bodies, the Besieg'd suffer'd more under the assaulting stench , and noi­some smells of the Dead, than by the charge of their, living Enemy; to ease them of which, they were forc'd themselves to dig Pits, and tumble them in at such times, when they had any respite, or the least breathing while granted by the Retreat of their Foes.

Strange storming of a Fort near Batavia.¶ AMongst many memorable Passages that happen'd in this Siege, that of the most remark, chanc'd to be at Fort Magdalen, the utmost Redoubt of the City, being defended onely by sixteen men, who made such stout resist­ance, placing their Guns with that dexterity, that making Lanes through the Enemy, they lay on heaps one upon another, that they almost floated in their Goar. At last, Powder and Shot failing, and having no time granted, nor any possibility to spare any one of their men to fetch more Ammunition, the Storm being so terrible; these, so great were their Resolutions, that they un­til'd the Roofs, and digg'd up Stones, and whatever else they could find, throwing at the Enemy, and so kept them off a great while. This also at last failing, and that they must be swallow'd up by the fresh assaults of the Javan­ners, they bethought themselves of defensive Weapons, such as never were hear'd of before, nor, as may be suppos'd, never used in the world, throwing upon them Close-stool-pans, Jakes, and what the Common-shore did afford; which Merdurinous Arms, so Painting, and perfuming their naked bodies, was more terrible to them, than Powder and Ball, flying not onely from the ene­my, but even from themselves, such was the loathsome stench; but more espe­cially, when fresh men sally'd out of the City, they betook themselves to their heels in a general rout, crying in their Language, Oseitang Orang Hollanda de Bakalay Sammatay, that is, You Holland Devils fight with T—

The Javans break up their Siege from Batavia.The Javanners courage began to fail, almost quite despairing of ought that could be gotten by the Leager; so Firing their Camp in three places towards Evening, the first of October 1629, they marcht off, and the Hollanders fearing Treachery, kept close within their Works;Private slaughter amongst themselves. but in the morning sent forth a Par­ty of Foot, and Horse to explore the Enemy, and bring an account where they were, and in what condition and posture. These perceiv'd at last, that the Enemy quite deserting the Siege, were dispersed, and fled, leaving eight hundred slaughter'd bodies, many of them desolated, the rest run through; which wondrous news bringing back, every one decsanted upon; but in a few days after, they were inform'd of the cause, which was thus;

PULO TYMON

The Reasons.THe Emperor in the former Siege, which was the year before, had Invested Batavia with, as he suppos'd, an innumerable Army, which having ill success, thousands of his Men were kill'd, baffled, and beaten off by a few sturdy Hollanders, return'd with a great loss, and disparagement.

The Prince of Mandura, an Isle in an Inlet of the Sea, two Miles North­ward from Java, having a Quarrel against the Emperors General, who had the sole Conduct of the former War; and being now return'd with shame and disgrace, cast out words against him to this purpose: That he had behaved him­self indeed well, and Very handsomely, having such a numerous Army to come off so basely, with so much loss and dishonor, which had he the like, he would give the Emperor another manner of account, or never return alive. This the Emperor taking notice of, thought fit to employ such a brisk Undertaker; and raising a second Ar­my, joyn'd him in Commission with his first General, who was a soft man, yet well belov'd of the Souldiers, who when they were thus forc'd to Retreat, as they had been before, and leave their Siege, Rallying up their scatter'd For­ces in the foremention'd Plain, some distance from the City: This Prince coming near the former General, as he and the rest of the Captains were con­sulting how to dispose of their shatter'd Forces, the old General said thus boldly to him; But whatsoever becomes of us, thou shalt be sure to keep the promise which thou madest so bravely to the Emperor, never to return alive from Batavia; and as he spake, ran him through the body; and the rest of the Captains and Officers about him, fell upon his Lifeguard and Followers , leaving eight hundred massacred upon the Spot.

Since this beating of so powerful an Enemy, and such a numerous Ar­my, that in probability the Hollanders would scarce have been a Breakfast for, being by Divine Providence thus totally dispatch'd , they have since enjoy'd such a serene Tranquility, that now Batavia is become the greatest and flou­rishing City of all the European Plantations in the East: From hence, his Ex­cellency [Page 43]Lord Blockhoff, Anno 1649, on the 28 of June, as we said before, began his Voyage, being employ'd Ambassador to the Emperor of Japan; Steering first through the Straights, which washes the Head-Land of Samutra, call'd Suna­para, and the Isle of Banca; and in eight days ran the length of Paulo Tymon, ha­ving that Coast on his Starboard.

Description of Pubo Timon.¶ THe Isle makes out a most delightful Prospect, rising from the Shore like a copped Hill, the ascent interwove with winding Valleys, full of fresh Fountains, vested with several sorts of shady and Fruit-bearing Trees: The North-East Point of this, hath a small adjacent Isle; the Straits betwixt which makes a pleasant Passage, and a safe and convenient Landing-place on Tymon.

Description of the Heth Betel.Here grows wild, and to be gather'd every where, the so much esteem'd Herb Betell, on the vertue of which, the Indians believe their whole Regi­ment of Health depends, so that scarce one is to be found that hath it not in his mouth chawing night and day; which to take off the bitterness, they com­monly commix with Arera and Chalk; the better sort compounded with Cal­phur de Buaneo, Aloes, and Musk, Which they say hath these Operations; first, That it makes the Breath Sweet, keeps White, Fastens, and Consolidates the Teeth; it Corroborates the Stomach, making good Digestion, and chearing the Spirits, adding Strength and Vivacity to the whole Body. They take him to be a very ill-bred and uncivil fellow, that offers to presume, come before, and speak with the Governor, e're he hath perfum'd his Breath with it. This Plant hath most Efficacy, and grows best under a temperate Climate. The Leaves are not unlike that of an Orange, but sharper, runs up, imbracing Poles, like our Hops: Some choose the ripe and golden colour'd Leaves as the best; others, those that are quite wither'd: In the first chawing it renders a reddish Juyce like blood, which they spit out, but what comes af­ter they swallow. If the Leaves be kept close, and not much handled, they will keep their vertue a great while; with which the Javanners load whole Fleets of their small Vessels, transporting it from thence home, to their no lit­tle profit; near the Shore it is cheap, but up in the Countrey being scarcer, is much dearer.

Description of Polu Cecir de Terr.¶ FRom hence they went on in their intended Voyage, and on the twelfth day rais'd Pulo Candor, a small Isle; next Pulo Cecir de Terr, so distinguish'd from Pulo Cecir de Mere, lying Easterly to the Offin; but Cecir de Terr verg'd with a white Sand, lies before the main Continent of Cambodia, The power of the Cambo­dian King. and is much frequen­ted by the Japanners, Portuguese, and Couchicinessers, and Malayers.

The King of this Countrey Cambodia, hath his Residence in a Palace, Fenc'd in stead of Stone, with Woodden Pales, Guarded with sixteen Elephants, who faithfully make good their appointed Stations, all Fortifi'd with twenty four Guns, made prize from several Villages belonging to Goa, and many other pla­ces, that formerly suffer'd Shipwrack on his Coast. They are Painted blue, and stand Mounted on black Carriages.

His Councellors.His Councellors, when ever they meet upon serious Affairs of State, or to decide private Controversies, repair to the Council-Table, each of them with Golden Bags, in which are three Gold Boxes esteem'd pretious, being full of Cardimum, and other rich Essences, and a pair of Siezors to make ready Pynang. They sit before the King, making a Semi-Circle; behind them are plac'd the [Page 44]

[figure]

Tonimmes, or Common-Council, with the like Silver Bags; their Priests shaven like our Friers, sit foremost, facing the King.

How the Embassadors are receiv'd.The publick place of meeting, where the King sits Inthron'd in full State and Glory, is built like an Arch, but signifies his Court and Temple, cover'd and adorn'd with Gilt and Carv'd Work; their Floors all Matted, where stand three great Idols, and three little ones. The Embassadors that make their Addres­ses, coming for Audience, are plac'd amongst the Okina's; five and twenty be­ing sent from the King to receive their Embassy, and make Report to his Ma­jesty; the Embassadors, by an Interpreter, deliver their Message to the Cha­bander, he to one of the Okinars; the Okina with his hands lifted above his head, to the King.

Japanners in Cam [...]odia. The Japanners which were eight Families, driven from their Abode (for what reason we know not) setled in this Countrey, and held in much esteem by the King , because they assisted him in a Grand Rebellion against his Son, who Conspired to depose and destroy his Father, and settle himself in his Throne.

Strange Rock. Leaving Cambodia, they crost over to Chiampa, and four days after they pass'd by St. John de Fix, being a steep Mountain, whose Spiry top resembles a man, large as the Colossus. Hereon, the night following, being the 15 of August, the Embassador himself, Lord Blockhoff, departed this Life, being Inbalm'd, his Bowels inclos'd in an Urn or small Chest, was with all Solemnity and Honor, as if a Funeral, discharging their Guns, and the like, thrown over-board. From thence, with their single Embassador, Andreas Frisius, though sad, they went on; and passing by Pulo Cambier, and Catao, they rais'd in view the Island Aynam, and soon after Macao, where they were cumber'd with abundance of Fishermen, which seem'd to cover the whole Sea.

Description of Macao. The City Macao, or Mavaw, stands scituated on a small Isle, or Isthmus, be­ing joyn'd with a neck of Land to the main Continent of China, lying in twen­ty degrees North-Latitude. The middle of this narrow piece of Land, a great [Page 45]Arch seems to bestride, stopping all passage with shut-up Gates, to go thorow which all Portugueses are prohibited; and whatever Merchandize and other Commodities, carry'd in and out pay Toll and Customs to the Emperor of China; but the Mandariens granted the Portuguese to Plant Henpeoao, and suffer'd them in Myacaco to Erect their City, which they built with strong Walls, and Fortifi'd with three Forts, rais'd on three Hills, being the outmost Angles of the Town. The first and chiefest St. Paulo, stands fortifi'd with thirty Brass Guns, each carrying Balls of 36 pounds weight, and is the Court and Residence of the Governor. The second call'd Nostra Signiora Del­lapenna de Francia; And the third, Nostra Signiora de Guyle, are the Priory of the Cleusenars: These, so soon as they descry any Ships in the Offin, Steering thi­ther from Japan, Manillas, or any other Coast, they give notice by Ringing their Bells.

This City hath also four Redoubts, or strong Bulwarks on the Land side, and three Fronting the Sea: The first of these call'd St. Jago de la Barra, is so great, that it seems a City it self; where two Platforms, with well Mounted Guns make the place impregnable; under whose command the Channel lying, all Vessels must pass, entring the Harbor; Over whose Captain or Commander, being Commission'd by the King himself, the Governor hath no Authority. The second Bulwark, Nostra Signiora del bon Pelta Guardes, the South-West side of the Town, close without the Gates, stands a Powder-Mill, from whence a Wall running in manner of a Cressant, Invirons a Bay or standing Pool, re­plenish'd with a Water to the Bulwark Francisco: Between the two Bulwarks, or Redoubts are many stately Edifices, near which stand their Land-Marks. The third Bulwark, Francisco, hath at its Foot a Platform, on which is always rea­dy Mounted a Culvering that carries a Bullet of 48 pound weight, which when Discharg'd at random height, reaches to the Point of the Island Cavean.

From this runs a Wall towards the Land to St. Johns Bulwark, near the Gate Lazaro; and from thence up Hill, to the Jesuites Colledge, adorn'd with large and handsome Buildings. Within the City, the Jesuites, Dominicans, Fran­ciscans, Augustines, and Cleusenars have their several Cloysters; to which the three first add no small Splendor. The Bishop of this place, is under Diocess and Jurisdiction of the Arch-bishop of Goa.

The Trade of Macaw.This City Macaw drives a great Trade with Tonkyn, Quinam, Champa, Cambodia, Macasser, Solos, Timos, Marillas, and formerly also Japan; to which place none dare set Sail without Commission from their Council: Their Traffick none of the meanest, being Gold, Silver, White Silks, Cloth of Tishew, Rubies, Pearls, Musk, Quick-Silver, Spiljauter, Porcelin, China-Roots, and Rubarb; the City within also abounding with all manner of Artificers.

A great Storm, which drove the Fleet from Japan.After the Fleet lost sight of Macaw, on the fourth of September there hap­pen'd a terrible Storm, and violent Rain, mix'd with dreadful Thunder and Lightning: which foul Weather was sadly guess'd at by a strange Sight, Sirius, or the Dog-Star, the greatest and brightest of all the fixed Stars, whose Body ap­peard darting out fiery Beams, resembling Claws like a Scorpion. Three days they suffer'd under this vehement Tempest, and driving still more to the Lee­ward, they were forc'd to drop Anchor; which coming home, and the Storm rather increasing, they were not able to weigh again, but for present safety cut their Cables, and carrying onely a fore Course they lost nine Leagues more of what they had formerly gain'd; then attempting to put out their main Course, that they might not lose any longer so much of their Way, Peter Davenson, a [Page 46]stout Sea-man, and good Commander, handling the Tackle, was carried over­board, Sail and all: Upon this a Council being presently call'd, to consult of what was best to be done in this exigency, all their Lives lying at stake, they resolv'd to lie upon a close Hale, and bear what Sail they could, if possible so to double the Point of Piscadores, from thence to bring her to their intended Course, if Wind and Weather permitted, which by that time might prove more favorable; but that Night it blew so hard, that they could scarce carry their Sprit-Sail; yet in the Morning growing calmer, they put out their Mizne to keep them from Driving to the Southwards, finding themselves in 22 De­grees Northern-Latitude: but when they hop'd the violence of the Tempest had been spent, at Noon it began afresh, blowing from the East with greater violence than ever, in which they lost their Sprit-Sail, when despairing, and quite out of hope of any possibility of preservation, the Wind all the fore-part of the Night continuing the same fury, then believing themselves at Deaths­door, and ready to be swallow'd up, it pleas'd Divine Providence in mercy to asswage the great violence of the Tempest, and the Wind changing, they lay more Eastward, haling close aboard their main Tackle, so got within a League of the Coast of China; under which being high Land, and shelter'd by the Spoon-Mountain, which broke off the fury of the Weather, they had smoother Water, and at last, being deliver'd from so great a danger, came safe to An­chor at Formosa.

Description of the Island Formosa.¶ THe Formosan Isle, formerly call'd by the China's, Paccande, extends it self in length from the South to the North, and in breadth East and West, being an hundred and thirty Leagues in Circuit: the Prospect shews you much rising Ground, and a Hilly Countrey, which abounds with Deer, great store of wild Goats, Hairs, Coneys, Swine, Tygers, and the Luvasey, whose Flesh hath a delightful and excellent rellish. The Woods also have no want of Phea­sants and Pigeons. The Ground being fruitful, produceth store of Sugar, Gin­ger, Cinamon, Coco-Nuts, and several other Necessaries fit for humane suste­nance; besides, full of populous Villages. They are Govern'd by several Lords, not depending nor acknowledging any Superior, so that each Town being a Republick, they still have Wars and are at difference one with another, Town against Town, Village against Village, insomuch that Peace never set foot in that Isle.

Of their many Villages, the prime and of chiefest note, are Sinkan, Mandauw, Soulang, Backeloang, Taffacan, Tifulucan, Teopan, and Tefurang; the last in a Val­ley near the High-lands, where Fort Selandia stands, formerly call'd Tyovan.

The Inhabitants of Te­furang are very salvage.The Inhabitants of this Village are rude and salvage, robust, and almost of a Gigantick size,Their Customs. not black like the Caffers, and count it no immodesty to go stark naked. Their Women, well built for stowage, short, and inclining to grossness, wearing Apparel; yet twice a day they strip themselves, and are not asham'd to bathe and wash in publick.

These, though a barbarous People, are kind to the Netherlanders, heartily en­tertaining them with their own, though mean, yet wholsome Fare.

Inhabitants of Soulang. Soulang breeds a needy, spiteful, inhospitable, and a bloody People. Not­withstanding the fruitfulness of the Soil they commonly live in want, being extreme lazy, tilling no more than they suppose will supply their necessity; which often falling short, they are so hardly put to it, that when they per­ceive Provision growing scant, they live sparingly many days, or else they [Page 47]might be utterly famish'd; for in such exigencies they never help one ano­ther: nay, they are so supinely slothful, that the Women do all the business of the Field, Plough, Sowe, and Reap, having neither Horses, nor any other Cat­tel to help them; the Drudgery being the more, because they make it Gard­ners work, for onely with Shoes they dig and turn the Glebe; and where their Corn grows thickest, especially Rice, they pluck it out with their Hands, and set it where they find the Blades come up thinner; and in Harvest know­ing neither Scythe nor Sickle, which tries their patience, cropping it with a Tool like a Pruning-Knife Stalk by Stalk, a Span below the Ear; which with­out Threshing they store up in their Houses,How they order their Rice. hanging it in the Evening in small Bundles over the Fire; and early in the Morning the Women rise and Pound so much as will serve them that day for their lazy Lord and Family. Besides Rice and other Grain, they sowe Carrots, Set Water-Melons, Pinang, Quach, Taraum, and Pting.

This Isle is not stor'd with such Wines as other Places in India have, which their Trees produce; but they have another sort of Liquor, that inebriates no less than the Indian, or Juice of the Spanish Grape; which they prepare in this manner: They take a quantity of Rice, which they put in a Vessel made for that purpose, and boyl it; then turning it out, they knead it into little Balls, or Pellets; when they are well chew'd they put it into another Pot, there let­ting it stand till grown sowre; to this they pour a good quantity of Spring-water, which being so put together, works a Moneth or two, for so long it will ferment; which done, it becomes a clear, pleasant, wholsom, and strong Liquor: the longer they keep it, the better it grows,Strange Liquor in For­mosa. for it will hold good thirty years. The top of this Liquor is thin and clear, the bottom, or sede­ment thick like our Pap: the thin makes their Drink with which they often Fuddle; the thick makes their Cawdle to recover, which they eat with Spoons after their Recovery. This they carry with them to the Field, and take a Dose thereof when they think fit: and thus yearly they spend most part of their Rice.

The Women Fish and Till.The Women when their Cultivation, or Land-work is done, then they be­take themselves to the Sea, and Launch out their Boats, which they call Cham­pans, and fall to Fishing, where they catch great store of Crabs, Oysters, and Gurnets, which they Salt without Gutting, and therefore, though Pickled, keep not long, but are apt to putrifie and breed Worms; yet they like it never the worse, but look upon their Dish as the greater Dainty, the rancker the Hogoe.

Their Youths, though strong and of able Bodies, spend their time in idle­ness and sloth; and when forty years old, then they settle themselves to Lazi­ness, as if it were a Trade or Handicraft, spending twenty years in a metho­dical doing of nothing, in a small Hut or Hovel, dandling their Children, or Dalliance with their Wives, seldom or never stirring out of their own Limits, or Patch of Ground, unless invited either to a private or publick Feast, or Hunting-Matches, in which Pleasure they take some pains, using several,Several woys of Hunt­ing. and indeed ingenious ways to catch the Game, sometimes practising deceit, laying Snares and Traps of complicated Rushes and Reeds so artificially, that they look fresh, as if growing and ungather'd, setting them in the Haunts of wild Boars, Lays of Deers, and the like, and so catch them, wondering who made their new Lodges and Beds so soft, and lay Meshes in other inviting places, which if they take not willingly, nor observe such allurements, they drive [Page 48]them in, Where they also make them their Prey; and they trepan them into Pits, digg'd and spread over with a light Swarth, or Turf of Grass, supported with brittle Twigs laid athwart the Holes: here to make them sure from get­ting out, they place a Snare, which suddenly arrests them, taking them Priso­ners by the Neck or Legs, and then they with a shout fall upon the so taken Quarry.

Strange manner of Hunt­ing in Fira [...]d [...].Besides this, they use Hostility and open Arms, whole Villages march out together, nay, two or three Townships, joyning their Forces, taking the Field; where drawn out in a single File, they stretch a Ring, which extends four or five English Miles in compass, every one brandishing in each Hand a Javelin, some carrying three or four: thus all prepar'd, with a rally of Hounds they rouse the Prey, then contracting their wide Circumference by degrees into a narrower and narrower Circuit, closing up at last Man to Man, Shoulder; this done, if any one of their thrown Spears hit and fallen in the Body of the Game, they never lose him, for their Launces being short, not above six Foot long, and Pointed with Iron, having three retorted Hooks, stick so fast, that though flying to shelter amongst the Bushes and Shrubs, will not, when im­peded by intangling Branches, drop out, and also having ty'd at the But-end of the Staff a long String with a Bell, so that if by chance the Beast thus im­parked break the Pail, yet they never lose him, for they follow not onely by the scent, but by the sound, both which seldom fail.

They use also Arrows, especially when they Hunt wild Deer. The remain­der of the slain Venison,Venison how eaten. when they have Feasted themselves, they barter for Clothing and Raiment with the China's, seasoning with Salt the Humbles, to keep for their own private Store; but if by chance they kill a pregnant Doe, they unlace her, and Feasting upon the Slinck, eat up Skin and all.

The Formosan Mens Ex­ercises, and their manner of Fighting.To this their Manly Divertisements, and Exercises of Saiha, pleasing Labor, as pursuing their Game, they have also rougher work, and serious engage­ments, which, when successful, brings no less delight to such a barbarous People, that is, a Civil War, antient Feuds, or fresh Animosities, still upon new occasions fermenting, so that Town against Town, and Village against Village all the Countrey over, are in open Hostility, either publick Slaughter, or private Murder being their Sports, which thus they carry on: First one Town begins, sending the other a bold Defiance; this is follow'd by twenty or thirty in a Party, which Row in their Boats, or Champans, to their Enemies Village, near which they lie as if in Ambuscade till Night, then growing dark, they Landing, march up and down and explore the Fields, culling out private Huts, and such like Houses, where the Graver sort, the Married People, as we said before, at their ease and pleasure dwell: Those that be thus supinely careless they suddenly surprise, and off goes their Heads, Hands, and Feet; some­times more cruelly they slice out their whole Bodies, each one carrying a Col­lup in triumph home, as an evidence that he had no small share in that bloody Slaughter, but, as they suppose, honorable Action: But finding no small Game, or such single Adventures, then they attempt secretly the next Village, where silently breaking into a House or two, they spare none, but salvagely kill Men, Women, and Children, carrying their Heads, Hands, and Feet home, as Trophies of their Victory: But sometimes falling short of their Design, and glad to escape to save themselves; and often, the whole Town so suddenly taking the alarm, they with as little mercy are all cut off: at other times in their flight so few appearing, that the Enemies in hopes of revenge, [Page 49]are trepann'd to their Boats, where in greater and unexpected numbers they Fight so valiantly, that they put them to the Rout; yet these, though seeming Furioso's, receiving the least Wound, basely retreat and quit the Battel.

Their Defensive Arms are Shields, so large,Their Arm [...]: that they cover their whole Bodies; their Offensive, Darts and Faulchions.

It often happens, that two or three Villages joyn against one or more asso­ciated Towns: these have no Commission-Officer, or Commander, but who­soever shews most Men, they make their General, and hath the prime Autho­rity to Rule over the others according to their numbers. Neither are their Warlike Stratagems common, for when they intend to Attaque some Village by a sudden surprisal, for they have no Works to storm, opposite to the way that they appear upon, and ready to enter the Village; on the other side they lie in ambush, which when they charge in, giving a smart alarm, the People struck with a sudden fear, in a confused manner betake themselves to their Heels, and flying from, fall just into the Mouth of the same Enemy, who suddenly starting up, are not sparing, but oftentimes make a general slaughter, whilst the others ransack and pillage the Houses. Sometimes in the Night they break into a House or two, which leaving, their business being done, two of the Party stick fast in their likeliest way to return, so to stop the Pursuer, sharp-pointed Reeds, about half a Yard long, they making their Retreat by another im­probable way. Each Conqueror that shares for his own part a Head; car­ries it through his Village upon a Spear, insulting and singing in praise and glory of his god, to whom he solely ascribes his Victory; thus proudly vapor­ing, they are joyfully receiv'd every where, and entertain'd with the best Li­quor the Town affords.

Formosans have great Churches.Every sixteen Houses have their own Chappel, to which they carry this their bloody Spoil, which afterwards he boyls till the Flesh comes from the Bone, then drying it in the Sun, they pour strong Liquor (a Custom which they never omit) upon the bare Scalp: fourteen days they keep Holy, Feast­ing and Sacrificing to their gods,Keep great Feasts when they are Conquerors. who gave them so great and glorious a Victory.

Of these Heads, who e're enjoys one, looks upon it as his greatest Treasure, prizing them beyond Gold or Silver, or the most precious Jewel, and when any sudden accident of Fire, or the like happen, this they take most care of, how to carry it with them, or leave in safety.

Have no supreme Go­vernor.¶THis Isle, as we said before, hath no King, nor supreme Governor, but every petty Village is a small Republick, Ruling it self under twelve Magistrates, chosen every second year;Strange Counsellors. whose chief Qualification is to be fifty years old: these when going out, in honor and commemoration that they were once prime Rulers, have all their Hair pick'd off from their Temples, and each side of their Heads with Tweasers; which baldness is the well known Badge of their former Authority.Their Authoity. But these Governors Power hath but small Limits, for in every Exigence all the Villages meet in the Temple there, having no Representatives, every Man speaks to the purpose according to his abili­ties, or as he is biassed; which done, the Twelve take into their consideration, and from the general result of their various opinions, give their special Ver­dicts, which the People as they like or dislike, ratifie or refuse. But they have absolute Power to seize the Clothes of whomsoever wears Apparel in that three Moneths, when by their Laws they are commanded to go naked, and [Page 50]Pray to their Idols for Rain, being about that time always a dry Season. This also in part they inflict upon the Women that go too gorgeously in that Quar­ter. This their Court of twelve Aldermen suffer great hardship or Penance, not being allow'd by their Laws to taste any strong Drink, as Pietang, use Sugar, or eat any Fat of their Meat, till such time as their Rice is half ripe, believing that onely preserves the sprouting Blade from the harrase of wild Beasts, as Deers, Swine, and such like.

The Punishment of Cri­minals.Their chief Practise, and special Vertues, are Theft, Murder, and Adultery, at which they are very dextrous, either by Stratagems, or down-right vio­lence, and he that reckons up the most of such dire Actions, appears amongst them the bravest Fellow.

Sh [...]w great respect one to another, and chiefly the Youth to the antient Peo­pleThese People, though they have no superiority amongst them, neither by the honor of Birth, nor their own acquired Riches: yet the Seniors keep the Ju­niors at a greater distance than we in Europe; the old Men exacting a greater Respect from the younger by far, over whom they exercise absolute Authority, and Arbitrary Power, without any limitation, Youth being no better than a Slave to Age; for wheresoever a young Man sees one more aged than himself (though at a great distance) starts suddenly out of the way, as if a Prince were coming with all his Train; and if he chance to call and beckon to him, then sending him of an Errand, he dare not refuse, though to the farthest part of the Isle; neither dare they once offer to come near, or intrude into any Room where Parents are together; so that to be young, is to be a Slave, and when old, a Prince, having no honor of superiority but by their years.

Strange Marriage.¶ THe Males must not Marry before their one and twentieth Year, nor wear long Hair till the seventeenth. Their ceremonious Rites of Matri­mony are onely consummated thus: The Suiter, who by the advice of his Pa­rents or his own Affection, hath cast his Eye upon a Mistress, begins his Court­ship or Gallanting with a Present, which his Mother, or a near Relation, car­ries to her House, there presenting in her Servants Name, with all Complements, and manifestations of his Affection. These Gifts are commonly eight Skirts or Petticoats, as many Wastcoats, or Upper-Bodice, four hundred Armlets of pleited Rush, a dozen Rings for their Fingers, either Copper, or white polish'd Harts-horn, and so many Laces of red Dogs Hair, five Linnen Girdles, twelve Dogs hair Coverlets, thirty Chinesie Pieces of Cloth, a great Box full of Dogs-hair, with which they make a Border, or Love-shade, to beautifie their Fore­head and Temples, which they call Ayam Maniang, and five pair of Hart-skin Stockings. These Presents are sent onely by the Wealthiest; and those that are less able according to their abilities. If what they thus present is receiv'd, the business is concluded, and Marriage presently confirm'd by the Nuptial Bed.

The Formosan Men live [...] with their Women.Notwithstanding the concluding Ceremony, the Husband and Wife dwell not together, but live apart by themselves; but in the Night he is allow'd in a clandestine way to steal to his Enjoyments; whether making his approaches, he is neither allow'd Fire nor Candle, but with all silence and secrecy steals in­to the Bed; neither there must he speak to his Bride, but if he want any thing, that he signifies by Coughing; upon which, guessing what it may be, his Wife administers, and her Houshold-business being done, she comes to Bed; a hard Lodging, where indeed they have no Bed, neither Pillow nor Bolster, but a Buck-skin spread upon the Floor; yet others have a Bedstead spread with Rushes. These hardships, as they suppose, makes them fitter for the encoun­ters [Page 51]of Venus, and more stirs up Loves fervor than warm dalliance in softer ac­commodations: Neither may he linger there, but ere the Dawn visibly ap­pear, thence he must, that so his departing with an appetite, he may be the more earnest for a second fruition: But all this while neither of them are a burthen to one another, but each provide themselves, and follow their own affairs; and if they meet by chance in the Day, they pass by like Strangers, the Husband not daring to speak to his Wife without her License.May not speak to them in the day- [...]ime. The Charge of bringing up of the Children is left to her Care, till they are above one and twenty years of age, then their Father receives and keeps, or disposes of them as he thinks fitting.

¶ BUt the Formosan Women have a barbarous Custom (void of all Motherly affection, and humane reason,) for whoever proves with Child before 37 years of age, when the Fruit of her Womb waxeth ripe and fit for Delivery, they cruelly and in unspeakable manner destroy: for in stead of a Midwife that should assist them in their Labor, or Childbed-throws, they employ a cruel Dame, who laying them in a fit posture on their best and softest Bed,Horrible Murder of their Infants. crushes and kneads the tender Infant in the Womb, till it become like a lump of Dough, which departs from them with more extreme torture, than if they were natu­rally deliver'd.

Georgius Canidius, a Minister of the Gospel, residing in Formosa Anno 1627 re­lates, that he knew a Formosan Woman, who was deliver'd of 16 Children in that horrible manner, her first abortion being in her seventeenth Year; and he being inquisitive to know why she thus made away what would have been her own dear Issue, and to be esteem'd most of all worldly joys by her, recei­ved this answer from her, That her shamefac'dness and modesty forbad her to be a Mother before she was of age of discretion, being accounted amongst them 37 Year.

In what Year the Formo­san Men begin to keep House with their Wives.The Husband (as we said before) in the 40 Year of his age, forsakes his so­litary abode, and lives with his Wife, spending the remainder of their days to­gether in small Huts or Hovels in the Field: but upon the least jangling or fall­ing out, they part; so that sometime they change their old for new Wives once a Moneth. If he can clearly convict her, shewing just reason for this se­paration, he recovers her Dowery, seizing those Gifts which he presented be­fore Marriage; but failing either in his Arguments or Proofs, the divorced Wife preserves her own Estate. Some Marry two Wives, but they are look'd upon as committing Fornication or Adultery; but of late, Custom, and the common practice, makes the offence not altogether so hainous.

¶ THeir Youth and Batchellors have their peculiar Residence; for in every Village, as we said before, 16 Houses have their Chappel,U [...]marry'd People have their Dwelling, apart. in which they have distinct Lodgings, as in a Colledge, where they keep their Batchel­lors Place, though Marry'd, till such time as they go to live with their Wives.

The Formosan Houses are artificial.The Formosan Houses are the handsomest, and exactest built of any after the Indian manner; for in stead of digging deep, they raise a Foundation six Foot high of firm Clay; the Walls of the Fabrick are rais'd onely with Reeds and Rushes, artificially strengthen'd with interweavings, having four Doors opening to the four Winds; but the prime Buildings have eight:Their Houshol-sluff. The Orna­ment without, and Furniture within, are Stags Crested Heads, and wild Boars, Chinesie Raiments, and Deer-skins; and also Assagays, or Javelins, Shields, [Page 52]Swords, Bowes and Arrows, Cattel, Axes, Cans, Pitchers, and Troughs, Ves­sels of Barks of Trees, and Earthen Ware. But they pride most in the Bones, Sculls, and hairy Scalps of Enemies Conquer'd by their own Hands.

They use no private,Feasts. but publick Feasts, to which every sixteen House-Parish repair, being kept in their little Temple, or Chappel, where after their Devotion to their gods, they spend the rest of their time in Feasting, Singing, Dancing, and all manner of Idolatry; and he that appears there in a Dogs-hair Coat, is the bravest Fellow.

Strang ordering of their Dead.¶ THe manner of disposing of their Dead, and Funeral Obsequies, are thus: When any dies, the Corps being Laid out, after 24 hours they elevate it upon a convenient Scaffold, or Stage, four Foot high, Matted with Reeds and Rushes, near which they make a Fire, that so the Corps may by degrees dry: to which Place the Friends of the Deceased daily flock toge­ther, and that they may keep up sorrow the better, bring along with them store of Mans-flesh, and several strong intoxicating Liquors. But before the sick Person departs, being just ready to give up the Ghost, thus they begin their inebriating grief: One beats on a Drum made of a hollow Tree, which gives notice of a Person deceased; at which Summons the Women come from all Parts near, bringing Pots and Vessels of strong Drink with them, and ma­king themselves,Strange Dancing. and the Relations of the Deceased, Drunk. They Dance all Night before the Door after this manner: They take a Trough like a Chest, but longer and broader, and turning the bottom upwards, the Women get up, and two by two, Back to Back, move their Legs and Arms in a Dancing time and measure; which pace, or taboring tread, sends a kind of a murmur­ing, or doleful sound from the hollow Tree; when these mounted Couples are weary, they come down, and others supply the Place: thus the Maudlin-Drunkards Dance nine days together, whilst the Body lies parching by the Fire, sending forth a very noysom stench: then having bathed the Corps▪ nine days over, they wrap it up close in a Mat, and lay it higher than before, so co­vering it with a fitted Canopy from all light, there lying three year, till such time as nothing remains but a Skeleton, all else being consum'd to Dust; then they Interr him in his own House, with all the Ceremony of Feasts, as if lately departed.

How strangely they or­der their Sick.¶ THe ordering of their Sick is no less unnatural and preposterous, for they use them worse than if the Devil were their Doctor; for in stead of Potion or Pill, and the like, they use but one Medicine for all Disea­ses, and that's a dry Halter, especially in the Village Teopan, for as soon as any Person falls sick, and begins to complain, lying down, and not able to walk about and follow his business, they presently prepare a tough Cord in stead of Cordial, so putting the Noose about his Neck, they hoist him up to the top of the House with a Pulley kept for that purpose, then let him suddenly fall with a Jolt, which commonly proves immediate Cure by killing of them; yet some mend upon this choking Medicine, either by the strength of Nature, or their spirits irritated by the fright.

The Religion of the For­mosans.¶ THe Formosans neither Write nor Read, using no Books, Letters, nor Characters: but yet that Law and Religion which they have amongst them, they observe without alteration, delivering it by Tradition [Page 53]from Generation to Generation: for certain young Men are appointed to be in­structed from the elder; and faithful Memories are their onely Registers and Records. First they believe the Universe, Heaven and Earth, to have been without beginning, and shall be without end; next the immortality of the Soul; for which reason they build a little Place, in which they put a Tub of Water with a Dish in it, before the Door of the Deceased, supposing the Spi­rit thereof comes daily thither to bathe or cleanse. The next Article of their Faith is, that there are several Punishments after this life, according to the equality of their Crimes, and Rewards of eternal happiness for those that have, when living, merited by doing well: therefore they dig broad and deep Trenches, filling them with Mud and Slime; over, which they make a floating Bridge of bundled up Rushes, which leads to the most delightfullest and luxu­rious Vales in the Countrey: over these, as they affirm, the Souls of the De­ceased must pass, which the Wicked endeavoring to cross, the unstable Truss, or rowling Bridge, tumbles them over into their Stygian Lake: but the Just and Godly walking in safety over, enjoy there all pleasure in an everlasting Elysium.

What they account sins.Those sins which they account most hainous, are but frivolous toys, built upon Superstition and sleight Observation, as not to go naked (as we said be­fore, at their set and appointed times; to wear Clothes or any thing of Silk; Women to bear Children before their 37th Year; to fetch and eat Oysters not in due season; and to venture to undertake any business, though of little or no consequence, before they have observed good Auguries from the Notes or Language of the Birds: All these are Capital, and as they hold forth, unpar­donable Offences; but Murder, Theft, Lying, and Forswearing, these have their Qualifications, for some may commit them, and some may not, without any scruple; but in general they are look'd upon no more than peccadillo's, and venial Offences.

When they take an Oath, they ratifie it by breaking a Straw. To be a publick and common Drunkard, and to be an Adulterer and debaucher of young Women, if carry'd privately, is no harm.

Though they believe the immortality of the Soul, yet they utterly deny the resurrection of the Body.

Their chiefest Idols.Amongst their several gods which they worship, the chiefest are Tumagisan­hach, who Governs and Inhabits the South, his Celestial Spouse; Taxankpada Agodales, commands the East, where when it happens to Thunder, they be­lieve that she exercises her Tongue, the Females best Arms, scolding so loud at her Husband in the South, because he neglects his Office, not fending Rain when the Earth needs; who being netled with his Wives bitter and sharp ex­pression, not enduring to hear her any longer, opens his Mouth, sending, and dispersing with his Breath abundance of Water.

Another Deity which they worship out of fear, because Tamagisanhach, as they say, creates Men with comely Visage, and well proportion'd Bodies; this being an angry and ill natur'd Power, delighting in mischief, makes it his whole business to, spoil and misshape what Tamagisanhach hath made fair and handsom, disfiguring their Faces with Pox and Blasting, bunch­ing their Backs, withering and crooking their Limbs, and the like, then deriding at their lameness and deformity: so this Sariafing they hold in great veneration, that he would be pleased to spare them, and do them no harm.

Their gods of War.When they take up Arms, and proclaim Hostility, they offer Sacrifices to Talafula and Tapaliape, their two gods of War.

Wemen perform Divine Services.¶THeir Priests, or rather Priestesses, which they call Inibs, are Women, the whole Function of Divine Service, or Worship, belonging to them; for they not onely Pray to their gods, and Preach, but also Sacrifice: their chiefest Offerings are Stags and Boars-heads, presented in a Charger upon boyl'd Rice, Pynang, and other strong Drinks, as a Condiment: this perform'd, two of the Female Order stand up before the Congregation, and make a Ser­mon; in which they set forth the praise and honor of their gods, going on with that vehemency of expressions, and loud declamations, that at last their Hair stands upright,Strange actions. and their Eyes rowling, seem ready to start out of their Heads; then near the conclusion of these their dire Exhortations, they fall down in a Trance, and oftentimes lie so for a whole hour, whilst the Peo­ple gathering near them, tear their Throats, and cleave the Air with hideous shreeks and cries: when coming to themselves in a cold and faint Sweat, their Limbs trembling, their Teeth chattering, strangely discompos'd, they tell the People, that in their Trance the gods appear'd to them, unfolding mysteri­ous things for their good, not yet to be express'd; besides two others of these Women mount the Battlements of the Temple, and standing at the gable ends, they make fresh, loud, and long Supplications to their gods: At last they strip themselves, and thus denuded, crying more earnestly to their gods, and first shaking, then taboring, or clapping with their Hands, raging as in a phanatick distraction. All the Women, following their impudent example, throw off with their Weeds all shame at once,Drunkeness a Vertue and so Tope and Deboush, till they disgorge this their too plentiful excess.

Besides this their publick Worship in the Temple, they Offer in the open Streets, and exercise private and domestick Devotions, performing Family-Duties daily in their own Houses, to which those that please may repair, and joyn with them in this their Idol-Service.

The Office of the Inibs.With these Inibs also they consult concerning fair or foul Weather, when they have any business abroad, also of future Events, which they seem to fore­tell, and if bad, advise how to prevent, or at least to mitigate: They also pro­fess Exorcism, and to drive away evil Spirits, to charm and confine the Devil, and all such deceitful Tempters; which they perform in a Rant, with loud hectoring acclamations, drawing a Japan Faulchion, with which they Fence, Strike, and Thrust, flourishing it in the Air, making them believe, that thus they Fight the Fiend, and slice Satan out in Sippets, forcing him, thus being mangled and cut almost into Atoms, to dive for his better safety into the Sea.

Formosan become Chri­stians.Yet these so salvage People, and blind with an over-grown ignorance, have lately (since the Hollanders East-India Company settled here, and built a Fort for their Defence and conveniency of Trade,) without any great difficulty embraced the Doctrine of the Christian Faith,Why they are easier Converted than other In­dians. which was the easier introduced, the Inhabitants being their own Governors, and under no supreme Authority, who exercising a tyrannical Power, would, as other Persecutors, force them back from Gods true, to their false Idol-Worship, as at that time most part of India was, being either under Heathen or Mahumetan Governors, who with great fury obstructed the Gospel, which else might have flourish'd through the Oriental World: Besides, the Formosans kept no Books, wherein the bounds of Religion were fix'd, and a setled maintain'd Doctrine, which still caus'd [Page 55]great variance and hot Disputes amongst themselves; the whole Con­duct of their Divine Laws being left to a few frantick and ignorant Women, who know nothing but by Tradition. This made it the more easie to reduce them from their Paganism and Idolatry; and finding little in their frenzied Inibs, that might perswade them to persist in their former Superstitions, many of them, with small difficulty, became good Christians.

Trade of the Netherland­ers in Formosa.¶ THEre the Netherlanders drive a great Trade with the Chinese Junks, which come from the River Chincheo, and the City Aymoy. The Merchan­dises which they deal for and Barter, are Transported from thence to Japan, India, and Holland. When the Vessels make a slow Return from Aymoy, lapsing the usual time when they should freight themselves with their Goods for Japan, or Batavia, then the Hollanders Sail thither; where for ten Tails, eve­ry Tail being a French Crown, they buy a Picol of Silk, weighing a hundred and twenty pound.

Why Formosa is of such great concern.¶ THis Island is of great Consequence to the Hollanders, because by this means they obstruct the Spanish Trade both with China and Japan; which Inconvenience the Castilian well observing, to prevent, Anno 1626. going ashore on the North Point of Formosa, cast up a Fort with all speed,The Castilians set upon the Netherlanders in Formo­sa. calling it Kelang. Yet though thus setled, they rested not, but Rigg'd a great Fleet, hoping to drive the Hollanders from Tyovan: But foul Weather frustrated their Design. After that, the Portuguese undertook the like in Macaw; but had the same ill Success. This was also no small Obstacle to the Japanners, who drove a very profitable Trade in Formosa, before the Hollanders built their Fort Zelandia there; for after being much obstructed by this means, and though they complain'd at home, could set no Redress;Japanners complain of the Netherlanders. So whilst the Business was agitated on all sides, the Hollanders losing no time, but making advantage of the Opportunity, took Kelang, and made themselves Masters of the whole Isle.

The Chinese War is the occasion of the loss of For­mosa.¶ BUt whilst they thus setled themselves there, the State of China was turn'd topsie-turvey; and that long and well setled Government, fix'd and confirm'd with all the Ligatures of Strength and Cementing Policy, was utterly subverted, and quite overthrown, by a horrid and grand Rebel­lion. This Combustion first brake out in the Province or Kingdom of Suchu­en; and though but small at first, yet afterwards the whole Empire was in­volv'd in the like Flames, and Publick Calamity; which thus happen'd:

This Countrey hath a Tract of barren and inaccessible Mountains, which formerly were sculking Receptacles for a few guilty Persons that had commit­ted Theft and Murder, and other such hainous Offences;Robbers in China. after it became the Asylum or Sanctuary for all sorts of petty Criminals, such as Cheaters and Bankrupts, who suppos'd the open Air better than a close Prison; then Hector­ing Debouchers made there their Summer-Progress; next, all sorts of Vagabonds, fearing the Whip, flock'd thither; and at last, those that were pinch'd with Poverty, and not inamour'd with Labor, betook themselves also to this kind of idle Life: So growing numerous, they began to draw down in Bodies, Attaquing whole Villages, and carrying away the Booty to their Dens and obscurè Recesses in the Mountains. Thus flesh'd and encourag'd, deserting the Hills, and their former Aboads, they pitch their Camps in open Plains, [Page 56]and spoiling where-ever they came, soon over-run that whole Province, and left nothing to Conquer but the Metropolis Chinghi; not questioning (such was their audacious Resolution) to make themselves Masters of that Rich and Populous City: Which they had done, and without any great difficulty, but that a Woman, a Virago, inspir'd with more than a Masculine Spirit, by her Courage, Care, and Conduct, so baffl'd them in all their Endeavors, giving them Repulse upon Repulse, that at last, with Loss and Dishonor, they were forc'd to quit their Enterprise, which had wholly dissipated their whole Army; when two Commanders of the Imperial Forces, then drawing thither from Queichew, utterly to quell this horrid Insurrection, fell at variance betwixt themselves; and the Difference grew so high, that one of them to be reveng'd of the other, quitted his Loyalty, and carry'd over his whole Brigade to the despairing Rebels; who thus reinforc'd, joyning together, set on the Empe­rors remaining Party; in which Battel, satisfying his Revenge, he not onely slew the General his Antagonist, but they beat the Vice-Roy of Tutang, and rout­ed his whole Army: But yet soon after, he bestirring himself, recruited so his Forces, that though he could not utterly dissipate them, he brought them to Conditions, and to pay him double the Damage of what ever they had gain'd in that Predatory War.

But the Rebels, when thus languishing, having nothing left but the Moun­tains which first foster'd them, retreated thither; when about that time, all things in a manner setled, several of the Northern Provinces of China were in­fested with the destroying Plague of Locusts, which covering the whole Coun­trey, devour'd what ever was fit for Humane Sustenance, bringing an extreme Famine:Great Famine. which the Rich were able to bear out; but the Poor were so driven to the worst of Exigencies, Starving, that they every where, stirr'd up by the Example of those of Suchuen, It makes Robbers. fell to pilfering and stealing; and gathering at last into Parties, to Robbery and Murder; setting, in like manner, upon whole Towns and Villages: And soon after, they form'd eight several Ar­mies, selecting those they thought most likely, and fittest for Valour and Con­duct, to be their Commanders; who growing skilful, (practising dayly Mar­tial Discipline) suddenly brought these great Bodies in good Order and Array.

With these marching, as they had well-design'd, several ways, they made themselves Masters of whole Kingdoms and Provinces, none being able to withstand such an universal Inundation of Arms: And thus making the whole Riches of the several Countreys which they enter'd, their Spoil, they gather'd up an inexpressible Mass of Treasure; by which enabled, as they then thought, to wage War with the whole World, having in their hopes already devour'd the vast Empire of China; all which perhaps might have been done, had they unanimously joyn'd to carry on the Work together;The Robbers in China fall at variance amongst themselves. when their eight Generals, every one of them stirr'd up by Ambition, began to contrive how he might be Lord and Master of all, and either destroy, or make the rest his Inferiors. Upon these Terms they all stood, clashing one at another in their Consultati­ons and Councils; and at last, the Difference increasing, they divided into Factions, and began a Civil War amongst themselves, which was carried on with so much eagerness and blood-shed, that eight Generals were reduc'd to two onely, Lycunghus, and Changienchunghus.

And these also not easily suffering any Equal, but both ambitious to be ab­solute and sole Commanders, not onely of what the remaining Corrival en­joy'd, but also of those Forces which had lost their Leaders in their late Dis­sentions, [Page 57]clandestinely plotted each others Destruction; which failing, they came to a better understanding of their present Condition, from the sad Ex­ample of their six slain Competitors: So coming to Articles of Agreement, That Licunghus should march into, and have for his part the Spoil of the two next Southern Provinces, Xensi, and Honan; and the other General, Changihen-chungus, was contented to Plunder the two Northern Territories, Suchuen, and Huquang; whereupon both seeming well satisfied, dividing their Armies, they parted; Licungzus for Xensi, all which Territory he soon Pillag'd and Con­quer'd; and making his way by force of Arms, broke into the pleasant Coun­trey of Honan, where lying down before Caifung, meeting a rougher Enter­tainment than he expected, their Cannon always thundering from the Walls, though he made furious Assaults, yet he was twice repuls'd, with the Loss of many Men: So finding that Storming would prove in vain, he resolv'd by Starving to force them to a Surrender; to which purpose, he block'd up all the Avenues with a close Leaguer, which brought the Besieg'd to that extreme Necessity and Want, that their Miseries might have been compar'd with the Calamities of any City suffering in that kind: Yet still with an undaunted Courage they held out, expecting to be reliev'd by Zung-chinus the Emperor himself, who accordingly came with his Army near Caifung. This City stands in a Valley, on the South-side of the River Huang, about three Miles distant; whose Waters using to swell very high, after great Rains falling in the Moun­tains, they kept off from damaging the City, with a Wall, built where the Banks were lowest. This Water-fence the Emperor broke down, designing to destroy the Enemy in his Camp, lying near the City; in which he fail'd not: for such was the violence of the sudden Inundation, that Licungzus being surpriz'd, with the loss of many Men, was forc'd to raise his Siege.

Destruction of the City Caifung.But this comfortable Relief, and the Joy of their Delivery from so power­ful an Enemy, was but of a short continuance, a greater Misery soon over­taking them, and indeed their utter Destruction; for the Waters that were friendly at first, swelling to such a height, became their deadly Enemies, scaling their Walls, beating down stately Temples and Houses, and at last (in a general Deluge) swallowing the whole City; where perish'd no less than 300000 Souls.

The Robber Licungzus is Conqueror.But the Rebel Licungzus upon this Accident rallying up his scatter'd Forces the had escap'd the Flood, March'd on, carrying all before him wheresoever he went, bringing at last the Emperor to that straight of Necessity, that ut­terly despairing, he hang'd himself in his own Palace at Peking. The Empe­ror had three Sons; the Eldest escap'd, yet was never heard of; but the other two the Insulting Conqueror Beheaded.

Now being Absolute, and Reigning as Emperor in Zung-chinus stead, looking about, saw nothing that could hinder him to settle the Empire upon himself and his Posterity, but Usanguejus, who with a Standing Army guarded the Walls and Borders, keeping out the Incursive Tartar, whereupon he sent, com­manding him to take the Oath of Allegiance. But he, either scorning to be under a Rebels Subjection, or conceiving that it would be more for his Safety and Advantage to trust a Foreign Prince, that would undoubtedly hearken to such Proposals; and he also having the Opportunity, by guarding the Passa­ges, mov'd the whole Business to the Emperor of Tartary; Ʋsanguejus fetches in the Tartars against Licungzus. who gladly watching all Occasions, accepted of it, and suddenly March'd in with Eighty thousand Men, to try his Fortune against Licungzus, who surpriz'd with the [Page 58]News of this sudden Expedition of the Tartars, and not able to form so great an Army as might withstand him, the Enemy being near at hand, he remov'd his Court farther into the Countrey, to Sigan, making that his Imperial City; and with him convey'd from thence the vast Treasure which former Emperors had been gathering Two hundred and eighty Years.Vast Treasures of the Chinese Emperor. Eight days were spent in carrying away the Wealth through the four Gates of the City, upon Cammels, Horses, and other Beasts of Burthen, which from Sun to Sun went laden with Silver and Gold, and all manner of costly Gems, and Jewels of invaluable Worth: But in the way, this Prize of prodigious Estimation the Tartar seiz'd on. Thus gaining both Wealth and Reputation, he soon became Master of Peking, Tartars become Masters of China. Lycunghus is slain. and presently after defeated Lycunghus, with his whole Army, inso­much that he was never heard of more. Then he Rewarded Usanguejus, who in the great Distraction of the Nation (both Parties setting up several of the Ancient Blood-Royal, deposing and killing one another) stuck to the Tartar, proving so faithful to his Trust, that he made him King of Xensi; and soon after, his Son Xunchi, being a Child, was chosen Emperor.

Pyracy at Sen by Iquon.¶ BUt whilst China was thus shatter'd and harras'd by Land, arose a great Pyrate at Sea, call'd Chinchilung (by Strangers and Foreign Traffickers known by the Name of Iquon) who serv'd first under the Portuguese at Macaw, and afterwards the Hollanders in Formosa: Now setting up for himself, got a Crew of loose,Iquon's strange Rise. debauch'd Chineses, which daily increasing, with their Forces grew not onely Considerable, but so Great, that he made himself Admiral of the Sea, ingrossing the whole Indian Trade to himself; holding Correspon­dence, and driving Commerce with the Spaniards at the Philippines; with the Hollanders, in Formosa and Batavia; and with the Portuguese, at Macaw and Japan. Through his Hands also was all the Chinese Merchandise Transported abroad, and Foreign Commodities Imported thither; by which he got such a Mass of Treasure, (Commanding at least Three thousand Vessels) which rais'd his Ambition so high, that he thought of no less than to be Sole Commander at Land, as well as at Sea. But the Tartar, not a little troubled at such his Greatness and Power, nor being able to redress himself at Sea, having no Fleet of his own; since Strength would not prevail, us'd Policy, promising him, if he would come in, and be as a Friend, to make him King of two Kingdoms, viz. Fokien, and Quantung. Thus allur'd by the Golden Bait of a Crown, little suspecting that under such fair Proffers lay worse Designs, he accepted the Overture, and brought his Fleet into the Haven, before the City Focheu; where going to Treat further concerning the Emperors Gracious Of­fer, the King of Fokien poyson'd him at a Banquet;His death. which his Son and Bro­thers hearing, suddenly made their escape to Sea, revenging their Brothers Death on all whoever happen'd in their way; and whilst their Fury was thus high, they fell upon Formosa.

Coxenga, formerly a Clothier of Putman, afterwards Governor of Tyoan, had now the Command of the Fleet; and having a private grudge at the Hollanders, because they would not assist him against the Tartars, went with six hundred Junks, whereof some carried forty Guns, well Mann'd, and provi­ded with all Necessaries,Coxenga lands in Formosa from China to Formosa, where he Landed several thou­sands of his Men, who made so great a Havock and Slaughter amongst the Inhabitants,His Cruelty there. that neither sparing Young nor Old, they put them all to the Sword. The Women they stripp'd stark naked, driving them through their [Page 59]Army, and Ravishing them. Such as they thought not handsom, they more disfigur'd; putting out their Eyes, cutting off their Noses, and driving them in that lamentable condition to the Fort Zelandia. Others they hew'd in pieces; to which miserable end came also three Dutch Ministers, Anthonius Hambrock, Arnoldus Vinsenus, and Peter Mus. These and the like Cruelties they us'd, and others such as were never heard of by any. The first Assault they made, was upon the Fort Kelang; which being too weak to resist against so powerful an Enemy, the Besieg'd were forc'd to a Surrender. The Chineses being encourag'd by this their good Success, march'd next to Zelandia, which was Fortified with three double Walls, standing upon an Isthmus between Formosa and the Island Baxambaya.

Close by, and under the Command of the Fort, the Netherlanders had setled their Residences. This Plot the Chineses long before had in Design;The Chineses had a De­sign along time against For­mosa. which to effect the better, they brought their Junks into the Haven or Tyoan, a place of Free-Trade for the Chineses, many of them residing there, who against their coming, had furnish'd themselves privately with store of Arms, and cover'd their Houses with Cow-hides, and had all things in such a readiness, that upon a Moments warning, they cast up Breast-works against the Fort Zelandia; whereupon Hans Jurricaen, a Serjeant at Arms, and some of the Besieg'd, went to Coxengo, to understand and take a view of the Enemies Forces. Before the Fort stood a Bulwark, just behind the place of Execution, against which the Chineses cast up a Platform, which did much hurt to the Fort Zelandia; and also took the Bulwark before the Castle, in which a hundred Chineses were blown up into the Air: for the Hollanders, upon their departure from the same, left lighted Matches in their Store-Chamber, where the Powder lay, which took Fire just at that instant when the Chineses enter'd. But this Loss of theirs, cost the Hollanders dear: For though soon after there arriv'd five Ships from Batavia, to the Relief of Zelandia, against the Chineses; yet they had such ill suc­cess in their first Attempt, that going ashore on Baxombaya, to Storm a Fort which the Chineses had newly cast up, they were so roughly entertain'd, that they were forc'd to Retreat,Hollanders are beaten by the Chineses. with the Loss of Three hundred and eighty Men.

Upon this their so great Defeat, Coxengo sent in a Dutch Minister, one of his Prisoners, to Frederick Cojet, who Commanded Zelandia, advising him with all speed to deliver up the Town and Castle; which if he refus'd, and obstinately stood out, he would without Mercy put all his Prisoners immediately to the Sword: But the Governor would not so deliver up All, and such a Charge as he was intrusted with; and so slighting his Threats, sent his Refusal: Upon which, Coxengo finish'd the bloody Massacre which he had begun, putting all the Remainder of the Prisoners to the Sword. Yet Cojet (though much trou­bled at the loss of so many of his Countrey-men) stoutly defended the Fort against all their Forces; till his Men wearied with continual Duty, being daily Storm'd and Assaulted on all sides, tir'd and out of heart, he not being able to hold out longer, Surrender'd.Cojet delivers up Zelan­dia to the Chineses. The Articles were these: That the Besieg'd might in safety go aboard their Ships: That whatever Prisoners were taken since the Massacre on both sides, should be exchang'd; and the Fort Zelandia, with all the Treasure, Ammunition, and whatever else belong'd to it, to be deliver'd. Where Cox­enga found ten Tun of Gold, forty Pieces of Ordnance, and other things of great Value. So accordingly they went aboard their five Ships, and Sail'd back, having sustain'd all these great Losses, to Batavia; where Cojet was call'd [Page 60]in question concerning his delivering up of the Fort Zelandia, the State there being much troubled with the Damage that might follow, by the loss of such a considerable Place,The Japan Trade was molested thereby. from whence their Trade to Japan might be utterly ob­structed by the Chinese Junks. Mean while the Tartar, the new Emperor of China, sent Ambassadors to the Hollanders at Batavia, offering to assist them, and help to revenge their Cause, by driving the Chinese Pyrates out of Formosa.

The Netherland-Fleet proceed on in their Voyage to Japan.¶ IN the Interim, the Ambassadors for Japan, being upon their intended Voyage, came at last to the Island St. Clara, before the Southern Point of Cikako, which is a Rocky and High Land; from whence Steering North and by West, they were incounter'd the second Night with a great Storm; which overcoming, though with great difficulty, they descry'd on the seven­teenth of September, the Fore-land of Nangesaque; of which nevertheless be­ing doubtful, they yet continu'd on their Course, and about Noon, Weather­ing the Point, they got to the Northward. The Land lying low, and they Strangers to the Coast, they were much troubled; and the Pilots seeing more Islands opening near the Mouth of the Bay of Nangesaque, growing more diffident, stood again to the Offin, where they discover'd two Japan-Vessels, Steering Southward; and making towards them, they were forc'd (being over-power'd by the Gale, then growing fresher and fresher) to leave their Design of Intelligence: But soon after they descry'd another Japan-Vessel, to which drawing near, and Hailing, not understanding one another, they lost that Labor also.

When early on the eighteenth day, the Point of Nangesaque appear'd North-North-East, about five Leagues and a half distant; and the Island Goto, North-North-West: By which Position of the Course, they knew they were in the right Channel, which would lead them safely to the Harbor; and by Night they reach'd the Point or Promontory of Nomoo, which extends it self South-West along to the Bay of Arima. Thus they wrought themselves up within four Leagues of Nomoo, lying North and by East, in thirty Degrees Northern-Latitude, from thence plying Easterly onely with their Fore-Sail. The next Morning they enter'd,Come into the Bay of Nangesaque. with all their Sails a-trip, running up mer­rily to the Northern Shore, into the Bosom of the Bay of Nangesaque, behind the Summit of whose opposite Coast rises a Rock resembling a Steeple; be­yond which, seven Leagues to the Southward, stands Nangesaque; passing which, Sailing on to their Harbor, they incounter'd many Isles, and some Rocks; which all opening, seem'd courteously to entertain and give them a Passage: So by Noon they Rode before Nangesaque, having six Fathom and a half Water, and a Clayie Ground; where they found six more of their Friends, Dutch Vessels.

Frisius his Entry into Nangesaque.¶ AT this time Derick Sneck was Consul there for their East-India Company; where also was Philip Shillemans, Governor of Tonking, who as soon as the Fleet arriv'd, went aboard, to wait upon, and conduct with all Cere­mony of State Andreus Frisius, being appointed by the Council at Batavia, to succeed in the Place of the deceas'd Ambassador Bloccovius. With the like For­mality and Honorable Respect, the Embalm'd Corps of Bloccovius was brought ashore and interr'd, to the Wonder and Admiration of the Natives.

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Derick Sneck Sails to Batavia.¶ THe first of October, Derick Sneck went from Nangesaque to Batavia, whose Place Antonius Brekhurst supply'd, who was also added as Colleague to Andreus Frisius, in his Address as Ambassador to Quaeme, then Emperor of Japan, (Residing in his great City of Jedo) concerning the Free-Trade and Commerce between the Hollanders and his Subjects. According to the great Consequence of this Embassy, an answerable Train and Equipage was pre­par'd; but being not well setled, since their coming from Firando to Nange­saque, their Store-houses were as yet out of order; so that there was a confusion in the carrying on of their Procedure: And though Nangesaque is a more Rich and Populous City, and more resorted to than Firando, yet that Island had better Conveniencies, and fitter for the Hollander to Trade upon.

Description of the Castle Firando.¶ THis Countrey produces nothing worthy, nor any thing to show, but the Castle in which Firandano, Brother to the Lord of the Island, in­habits. The Castle stands amidst a pleasant Mead, to which they pass over a Bridge of blue Slate, which leads unto the Base Court, guarded on each side with a File of Musquetiers. The Gate is cover'd with a double Penthouse, one a good distance beneath the other: The opposite Jaumes are adorn'd with the Emperors Arms, and those of their Noble Family. The Castle standing upon a Hill, shews it self in Prospect at a great distance, because its Tower or Spire being seven Stories, tapering in a Pyramidical Form, appears afar off. Upon each side of the Castle open eight Doors, by which, on Steps cut out of the hard Rock, climbing the steep Ascent, they enter through several Doors to the Palace. Below are four Arbours of Pleasure, or Banquetting-houses, standing on square Pillars, built round with Galleries, and a Cupiloe on the top. This is all that Firando boasts.

But they were much troubled, whilest they were preparing to go upon this Embassy, being inform'd, that never any had Audience from his Imperial Ma­jesty, if they did not open their way with rich and costly Presents before­hand.

It seems not here amiss to say something concerning the Description of the Countrey, Customs, and Character of the People; from a good Author, Johan­nes Petrus Maffeus.

¶ THe Countrey,Jon Peter, Maffeus, Histo­riar, lib. 12. Description of Japan. commonly call'd Japan, says he, is not one, but three Islands, whose Skirts or Margents are sprinkled round with many lesser.

The greatest and wealthiest stands divided into three and fifty Provinces, or petty Kingdoms, the chief City call'd Meaco, gives its denomination to that Isle.

The second Island call'd Ximus, divides it self into nine Principalities, whose most eminent Cities are Vosuquim, and Funaium.

The third Division or Isle is Xicocum, Division. and hath onely four Vice-gerents, and famous for the City Tosa; so that the three Isles of Japan number 66 King­doms, all subordinate under one Emperor.

The whole Countrey extends in length almost 200 Leagues;Bigness. the breadth not answerable to the length, for the broadest part not being above thirty Leagues, and the smallest but ten; its circumference is not yet well known: and lying in a manner North and South, extends it self from thirty two, to eight and thirty degrees of Northern Latitude:Borders. The East looks towards Nova Hispania, but at 150 Leagues distance: The North Buts upon Seythia or Tar­tary, and other unknown Countreys: The West views China, but far off, for from Liampo, a City standing on the most Eastern Point of China to Goto, being the most Western Island of Japan, where first the Ships arrive, makes sixty Leagues, and from Amaccen, on the most Western Harbor of the East-side of China, to the foremention'd Isle, is 290 Leagues. The South lies border'd with the wide washing Ocean, at great distance, unknown Territories, whence, they say, a strange People were drove by foul weather on the Coast of Japan, which setling there, never return'd.

The Soil.¶ THis Climate, for the most part, is Snowy and cold, and the Soil not very fruitful; Rice, which is their general Food, and grows most plentiful there; they Reap in September their Harvest, for other sorts of Grain in many places is in May, which they Bake not to make Bread of as in Europe, but eat it soft, being boyl'd to a Pap, or Gruel: They have several warm Springs or Baths, which cure (as they say) many Distempers.

Strange Mountains in Japan.¶ THe Countrey appears more Hilly than Plain, amongst which are two wonderfull Mountains, one of which Vomiting; continual Flames, with terrible smoke and fragors, a horrid Figure; fancy'd by some to resem­ble the Devil, appears standing amidst a Circle of Fire, on the very top. The other call'd Figenoiama, reaches (as some report) several Miles, Perpendi­cular above the Clouds, and middle Region of the Air.

¶ THis Countrey abounds in Mines,Mines. from whence the Inhabitants gather their greatest Riches; whose special care invites foreign Merchants to Trade and Barter with them.

Trees. A wonderfull Tree in Ja­pan.¶ THeir Trees or Plants which they set, either for use or pleasure, resemble ours, unless their Palms, which are of a tender and strange quality, contrary to all Plants whatsoever, for they endure no man­ner of moisture, for if the least wet touch the Roots, they fade and wither im­mediately, being destructive to them as Poyson; which to save and cure, they dig up, and dry the taken up Roots in the Sun, then set it in a new Hole fill'd with dry Sand, where being so Transplanted, it soon recovers, and reflourish­eth in full verdure; those Boughs or Branches that are cut or torn off with Winds, or any other accident, they Nail on, which grows to the Body as well as if Graffed, or Inoculated.

Cedars in Japan very great.Several places abound with Cedar, some of them so tall and large, that the Carpenters use their Limbs or Branches for main Timber, in their stateliest Buildings, and Shipwrights make Masts of them.

Japanners live on Veni­son.¶ THe Japanners neither breed nor keep Sheep, Swine, Geese, nor Poultry, nor eat scarce any other flesh but Venison; the Desarts are full of wilde Cattel, and untamed Steeds, of a good race: The Woods are full of Wolves, Bores, Stags and Conies.

Beasts, and Fishes there.Amongst their several sorts of Fowl, they want not Pheasants, Ducks, wild Pigeons, Turtle-Doves, Quails, and Partridges. Here they have also abun­dance of Fish, amongst which the Eells, and what they call Voom, they most esteem: Butter they know not, nor the use of Sweet Oil, but what they spend is prest out of Whales, which are often driven ashore upon their Coast. The meaner sort of People use neither Tallow nor Wax, but carry up and down to light them Branches of Pine Trees, in stead of Candles and Torches.

Their shape and strength.¶ THey are something tall of Stature, and well Set, and easily endure Watching and other hardships, signs of a strong Constitution. From twelve to sixty years of Age, they are liable to Musters, Impresses, and Mar­tial Affairs. They suffer their Beards to grow something long,Difference in Hair. and use se­veral fashions in Shaving their Heads: Youths keep onely their Foreheads bare, the Rusticks and common sort imploy the Razor but on half their Heads; the Nobles leave onely a Tuft or Lock of Hair near the Nape of their Necks, which if any touch, they look upon as a high affront, and a great dishonor.

The Japanners are a strong People.They much exercise their patience in all manner of sufferings, and are so in­ur'd by Custom, that Hunger, Cold, Heat, and Thirst, Watching and Tra­vel are their Play-Fellows; for as soon as born, though the weather happen to be extream cold and pinching, they carry out the Infants, and wash them in the Running Streams, where whilest they are cleansing, they let them paddle in the Water to save themselves from sinking: So soon as Wean'd, their first Lesson is the Art of Hunting, kept from their Mothers, and all Female Relations; their Schools of Learning, wherein they commence in Hardiness, are wild and unfrequented places, believing, that nothing makes them more ten­der and effeminate, than to be near Women.

Their manner of sleeping and eating.¶ THe Floors of their Houses are Matted all over very curiously; and that they may tread the softer, stuft like a Quilt, which indeed, are rather their Couches or Beds, where laying themselves down, under their head in stead of a Down-Pillow a Log or Stone, whereon they well and quietly Repose.

These Mattings are their Tables also, on which, sitting cross Legg'd, they take their Repast:Are very politick. Yet in their Diet, they are no less curious or dainty than the Chineses, and like them use two Sticks, one in each hand, with which they take up their Hash'd Service, needing neither Knives nor Forks, which they handle so dexterously; and these Tools are so fitted for their purpose, that they never let any thing fall, nor foul their Fingers; entering their Dining-Room, for the more cleanliness they pull off their Shooes. The meaner sort, especially those that live poorly, near the Coast, fare hard, eating onely Rice, Fish, and Sallets; but the Inlanders Feast daily, and feed plentifully like the Chineses.

Rich Feasts.In stead of Table-Clothes and Napkins, their Dishes are serv'd up on little Boards or Tablets, being either Pine or Cedar, curiously Painted after their manner with various colours: Their prepar'd Dishes are heap'd up with va­riety of Meat, like our Bisks or Olapotreeds, trick'd up with Leaf-Gold, the edges stuck about with Cyprus Branches: But when they Treat Noblemen, they gild the Bills, Feet and Leggs all over with Gold: They entertain their Friends and Strangers Chearfully, with hearty Welcome.

During their time of Eating and Drinking, they ha [...]e several Customs which they perform with strange and Mimick Gestures, the whole Nation every where punctually observing the like: The Blood of the Grape is altogether unknown to them, but in stead thereof, they make their Wine of Rice; but above all, they are most delighted with Water heated, mixt with the Powder of Chia.

Their Drink is made after a peculiar manner.In nothing they are more curious and diligent than in making this Com­pound, which the Grandees themselves pride to prepare, when they entertain their Friends; for which purpose, to make this their special Liquor, they have peculiar places in their Houses, where in a kind of Furnace over a gentle Fire, it stands infusing, from whence when they are visited by Strangers, lifting up the lid, they take it up in Dishes, and present it hot, trowling the Cup about one to another.

The Japan Treasures, wherein they consul.Their several Vessels which they use in this Preparation, are a kind of Lim­beck, or Furnace, Tunnel, Stone, Cruses, Spoons, and Pots, in which they keep both the Herb and Powder of Chia.

Their last Complement which they are most proud of, is to shew them their Wealth, boasting their accumulated Treasure: But their foremention'd Drink the Japanners esteem and value, more than we our Precious Stones, and Inesti­mable Jewels.

They also set a strange Rate upon Sword-Hilts, especially when made by some peculiar Masters.

Their Houses and Cloy­sters.Most of them dwell in Houses of clinch'd Wood, cover'd with slit Plankings, because of the frequent Earthquakes which happen there, so with falling, they suffer not much harm, and are soon repair'd; some dwell in Edi­fices built of Stone, no less Costly than Artificial. Their Temples also are most Magnificent, with stately Cloysters, and Inclosures where their men and women are aparted.

The Japanners Tongue is very strange.¶ THe Japanners have one Tongue or Language in common, yet it is so various in Pronounciation, that it seems to be of several and distinct Dialects, for they use no Adjectives to their Substantives, as we do, but by va­riety of words, they understand the matter to be good, bad, or indifferent, or what ever else; nay, more than this, they have several Tones, or Accents in their Speech, which are sharper or flatter like our Musical Notes, by which they distinguish their meaning: But their Princes speak by themselves in a Com­manding manner, or in an Imperative Dialect; the Common People in a low­er Stile; in brief, the Men and Women use not one Mode of Speaking. More­over, Their manner of Writing is far different from their Vulgar Colloque, and they use one Character in their Writing, and another in their Printing, which are so different, that they nothing resemble: Their Books are also numerous, which are either Divine, Moral, or Heroick: Besides,As also their Character. they have one Letter or Character, which signifies a Word, nay, sometimes whole Sentence, not unlike the Chinese, or the Egyptian Hieroglyphicks, from whence the Japan Tongue is most difficult to be learn'd or understood.

Their Arms.¶ THey much delight in War: Their Arms, besides Guns, Bowes, and Arrows, are Faulchions and Daggers, which they begin to wear, and exercise at twelve years of Age; their Faulchions or Scimiters are so well wrought, and excellently temper'd, that they will cut our European Blades asunder, like Flags or Rushes, the edge neither rebated nor notch'd.

They have also Javelins Tipt with Gold or Silver, and their Pikes, which are longer, but lighter than ours, they know how to handle very dexterously.

They often change their Apparel.They change their Clothes and Habits with their Years; when they are past their Puberty, and accounted of full Age, they wear a Coat or Tunick of various Colours, reaching to their Ankles, with which they go loose within doors; but going abroad, they tie it like long Breeches about their Legs, and gird about their middle, over which they wear a short Sleev'd Vest, by the Ja­panners call'd Quimon. This manner of Habit, in Summer they wear very fine, and in the Winter a courser, stuft very curiously, or Quilted.

Their Shooes are without Heels, in manner like Slippers, with a Horn-Ring fasten'd betwixt the great and second Toe. They carry Fans, Imbroider'd with Gold, with which they defend their Faces from the Sun, and cool when hot. Persons of Quality walk in State under an Umbrello or Canopy, but the Common sort of People go Bare-headed Winter and Summer, slighting Heat, Cold, Wind, and Weather.

To be clad in Black or Scarlet, amongst them signifies Triumphs and Joy, but their Mourning for loss of Friends, and other Disasters, is White.

The Customs of the Ja­panners are opposite to the Europeans.¶ IT is scarce to be believ'd, with what (as one would imagine) study'd Op­position they differ from us, both in their Clothing and Diet; and as for the Femelick Sense, or that of Smelling, whatsoever is most sweet, fra­grant, and oderiferous to us of Europe, seems to them as abominable as the stench of Carrion, or what ever else is odious; And that which we account delicate, dainty, or well-season'd Dish, that they spit out, and their stomacks rise at: In like manner, what they highly commend, and seems to have a most delicious gust, that we as much abhor: We in heat of Summer affect cool and pure Spring Water, which they drink hot, liking what is muddy, better than what [Page 66]is clear, and what ever Vocal or Musical Instruments, Singing or Playing, well Compos'd Airs, that are most Ravishing and Grateful to us, grace their Ears so much, that they will stop them with their Fingers, they seeming to them so harsh and dissonant. White, which through all the known world is counted the best Colour of Teeth, and though theirs being naturally Ivory, they disdain so much, that they make them artificially Ebbony, and the black­er, the prouder they are of such a Beauty: And having the Spirit of Contra­diction so much, that as we Mounting on the left side, they get up on the right side of a Horse; and as we vail our Hats when Saluting, they uncover their Feet, putting off their Shooes; As we rise, shewing our respect to Friends, or Persons of Quality, Saluting with Congees and the like Postures of Reverence, they sit down and take State upon them, so receiving the Addresses; and as we set a high Rate and great Value upon Pearls, Jems, and other Precious Stones, they look upon them as Whitings-Eyes, and Pebbles, admiring and gi­ving Rates for old Iron and Earthen Ware; and as we have our Physick well prepar'd, the acerbity or other ill tastes taken off with Correctives, they take them simple in their own likeness, able to kill our Horses; and in stead of nourishing up their Sick with light Meats, fit for digestion, they stuff them up with course Feeding, not sparing to give them any sorts of Fish, either fresh or salt; and whatever the Patients Distemper be, they neither let Blood, not know the saving use of Phlebotomy. They are so grounded in these their con­trary Customs and Manners, and so strongly opiniated in, that if any ask why they do so, they will not onely answer, but dispute very stifly in maintaining their Cause.

The first quality of the Japanners are the Tori.¶ BUt though they differ thus in their common Customs, and other Opi­nions, relating man to man, and equality of Persons, yet when they come into the solid Work of Government and Authority, they build by the same rule and policy, raising by degrees as we do. The first being the Foun­dation or Basis of this Structure, they call Tone, which general Appellative de­nominates several Orders and places, in which they execute Justice, differing as much as our Barons, Earls, Marquesses, Dukes, and Kings, all being subor­dinate, and ending in a sole Monarch, the Emperor. These rule not by the Power of Riches, but by the Number of Men, for when they are chosen Go­vernor, they give all their Lands to this their new Militia, reserving onely a small acknowledgement in Rent of being their Landlord, laying no other Taxes or Duties upon them, but to attend at Court at Festivals, and other seasons of the Year, and in War, to assist him at their own Cost and Charges.

The Power of the Japan Kings, wherein it consists.So it happens, that though he be poor and boast no Treasury, yet he is ho­norably attended in Peace at his Royal Palace; and in time of War, lends in­to the Field a strong and numerous Army. But what is most to be admir'd, these Kings, though but Vice-Roy's, after once Elected, not wanting the suf­frages of the People, Rule so Absolutely, that neither the Extremities of For­tune, nor the Fear of Death, or ought whatsoever, will make them lay down their Title, or forsake the Power with which God, and their good Fortune, had intrusted them with.

Resign up their Domini­ons when grown old.But when grown old, he retires to a private Lodge, or House of Pleasure, beset with Orchards, and Gardens of delight; where whilest he Solaces him­self, and takes comfort in Privacy, fit for his age, he orders his Son, or next Heir to take the Helm of Government, breeding him up to make him fit for that purpose from his Childhood.

The Bonz [...]es, Japan Priests, what they are.Next to the Royal Authority, comes the Sacerdotal Order, or the Priest­hood, Ruling all Ecclesiastical Affairs, Ordering their wicked Rights and abo­minable Superstition. These are Shaven, both their Heads and Chins, and live single, using all the Formality and Gravity, both in their Speech, Looks, and Gesture, of those that are truly Religious: Under which appearance of Sancti­ty, they commit all the Outrages of Lust, Avarice, and Revenge, but the blinded People, believing that they are Miracles of Piety, spare no cost to Maintain these Saint-seeming-Devils. These, amongst their other Functions, take special care in ordering of Obits, and Noble-mens Funerals, not onely as Church-men, but in the manner of Heralds, setting them forth with all Order and Ceremony, and going before the Herse, Singing new Elegies in honor of the Deceased.

These are of several Orders and Societies, but they are all generally call'd Bonzi, most of them being of Noble Extract, and younger Brothers of Hono­rable Families, forc'd by Necessity, take Orders upon them.

In Japan are also several Schools and Colledges for the Education of Youth, on which are setled great Revenues for the Maintenance thereof.

These Religious Persons were formerly in highest Repute amongst them, but since the Preaching of the Gospel, by which Doctrine their Vizards have been taken off, discovering them in their own horrible likeness, they have not onely lost much of their antient Reputation, but are rather abhorr'd and hated by the People, their once so much admirer.

The Citizens are of the third degree amongst the Japanners.The third degre and honor are the Gentry, the Burgers, or Magistrates of Cities.

Tradesmen the fourth.The next are Tradesmen and Artificers, which are exquisite in their man­ner of Work. In the principal Towns are kept many Heralds-Offices, and Printing-Houses.

Husbandmen the last.The lowest degree are Husbandmen, and those that follow Countrey af­fairs; these by reason of their Poverty are subservient to the Rich, which in­deed are very numerous.

These People have several Vertues: First, they are generally good natur'd, of a kind and affable Disposition, of quick Apprehension, have ready Memo­rie, and nimble Fancy, exceeding not onely many of their own Eastern Peo­ple, but our Western, in solid Judgment, and aptness of Learning, insomuch that the Rusticks and their course-bred Children, appear rather like Gentle­men in their courteous and civil behavior, and other deportments, than to be a Race of churlish Clowns.They are quick of Ap­dr [...]ion. They much sooner get the mastery of the Latine Tongue and any other curious Arts, either Mechannick or Speculative, than our Europeans. To be poor is accounted no dishonor,And Patient. nor are they much dif­ferenc'd from others, by contempt, or taking notice of. They keep their House always clean neat; which done, they dress themselves accordingly, then walk abroad and make Visits. They abhor all manner of railing, or using loud and contumelious Language, Theft, vain Swearing, and such like Debaucheries. They fare covetous of good Fame, and fair Reputation,Covetous of Honor. and therefore also bear a Respect beyond belief to their Superiors, and all those under whose Authority they are.Will su [...]er no Reproach. They are impatient in Points of their Ho­nor or Honesty call'd in question, not enduring what tends to their affront or disparagement; and a false Accusation seems as bad to them as if condemn'd for a Criminal: therefore the meanest of them have a care to shew a Respect to one another at their meeting, never speaking ill, or calumniously in their [Page 68]absence. The Nobles spend most of their discourse in praising and extolling each other,Are very faithful. commemorating still their many worthy Acts, and several Vertues: Nay, the meanest Handicraft, or Day-laborer, if any be minded to Hire or Emyloy them in such Drudgery, if they speak not civilly, and with respect to them, they will in a Huff refuse their proffers, and scorn their business. They behave themselves the most warie, and with greatest care, to avoid all Dis­sentions and Quarrels, or the least Dispute; and if they have any antient Grudge, they never express it by their Tongue,Hide their Anger. but by their Looks, shewing onely a sad, or discontented Countenance; and rather than controvert their Cause, whether right or wrong,They never go to Law. and put to Arbitration, they will sooner lose it. They think it becomes not the Grandeur of any Person of Honor to speak much, or be talkative. Upon these accounts it happens, that there is neither Rangling, nor any Quarrels amongst the Common People passing through the Streets, nor the least Dissention betwixt Man and Wife, Parents and Children, Master and Servants; thus ordering their Affairs with all quiet and silence: and if any small Breach chance to happen, Friends make it up, and imme­diately reconcile: And when they punish any Malefactors (which happens seldom) they forbear all opprobrious and foul-mouth'd Language.They never Scold. They have neither Courts of Judicatory, or any other Laws, as we in Europe: They lay up their private Revenges to spend in War against their publick Enemies. When they meet by chance together,Never complain of incon­veniencies. or sitting at their private or publick En­tertainments, none ever complains of his misfortune or trouble, either at home or abroad, nor of his Crosses or Losses in any Concern whatsoever; and have a wonderful faculty, to vail with a glad and cheerful Countenance their pinch­ing griefs, and heart-eating sorrows: Thus they never molest or vex one ano­ther with unnecessary and untimely Complaints, to the disturbance of the whole Company: Nay, if their Friends enquire of them what's the matter? they put it off with a well-feign'd Smile, or give a slender account of the busi­ness, as not worth the mentioning: But if (which seldom happens) any be falsly accus'd, or scandalously reproach'd, whatever they suffer inwardly, they bear it with a setled and unchang'd Countenance,Why they are so patient. as not concern'd in the least tittle thereof. We may judge these Qualications of their springs from a greater prudence, and better temperature of spirits, considering the inconstan­cy and vicissitudes of humane Affairs; for sure oftner than in any other Coun­trey, alternate Fortune setting up, and casting down, raising Beggars to the Throne, and tumbling Kings from thence to the lowest step of poverty, plays her Jokes, now flattering, as soon frowning, by which, being so vers'd and practis'd in, they always remember in their greatest heighth, the lowest con­dition, and stand prepar'd with an untroubled willingness, ready to receive any alteration, as if look'd for long before: But these you would believe not to be acquir'd Vertues by age and experience, but rather natural, which ap­pears by their Children; for they shew by their Looks and Conversation, that they have a magnanimous Soul.

But these their good Qualifications they shew not always, for they stand tax'd with as many Vices, insomuch that all which we have said before, may be thought rather to be a counterfeit and well acted Part as in a Play, than otherwise.

Japan Religion is abo­minable.¶ THeir Religion, or abominable Idolatry and Superstition, by several perswasions inclines them, not onely excellently well to dissemble [Page 69]and cover their ill nature under the Cloak of Zeal, but also help'd by the inspiration of evil Spirits, their gods we may suppose they take delight in cru­elty, bloodshed, and the like; of which their Preachers and Doctors are the Bonzies.

Bonzies Doctrine.These, though differing amongst themselves, yet all agree concerning the Immortality of the Soul. Some hold forth in publick to Congregations; others of the superior Dignity inculcate their Divine Doctrine, and are as Chaplains in Noble-mens Houses, and the Families of Princes; but these Grandees to whom they belong, they little or seldom trouble with punish­ments for Offenders in the World to come; but publick Ministers that openly Preach to the common People, always belabor the Pulpit with terrors of tortures, and eternal damnation in Hell.

Amida and Xaca are two Japan gods.Besides these two Orders, there are others, who always make their Theme the praises of Amida and Xaca: These are their Saviors, on whom they build their Faith, and are to them as Law and Gospel, whom they must always im­plore, not onely in calamity and trouble, but also in their times of Joy and greatest Felicity, That they would graciously be pleas'd by their merits to wash away their sins and offences, that so their Souls may come to ever­lasting Bliss: these and their other supreme gods they call Frotoques. As also the Frotoques. They have also their inferior, or lesser rank, which they follow onely for worldly benefits, Praying for Health, Wealth, Children, and all transitory blessings: these they style Camis. And Camis.

How they make Men gods.Though their gods are numerous, yet still they add, and make more of their Princes: for when any King, famous and much honor'd for his great Exploits and valiant Atchievements, deceases, they also, in the midst of their Funeral Solemnities, Instal, and Register in the Lift of their Deities, paying them ever after Divine Worship, as the antient Greek and Romans did so several of their eminent Hero's, they having gods much resembling these, such as Mars, Bacchus, Venus, Mercury, and others, making them first Examples,Wickedness of the Ja­panners. after call upon them as Protectors in their hainous Debaucheries, as Lust, Drun­kenness, and the like.

Amongst other seeming Vertues, one especial ability they have, their Looks and Gestures still denote them to be the onely practisers of Piety and pure Zeal, when their Bosoms swell with projects of all manner of mischief: and where they bear the greatest, and most inveterate malice, resolving to be se­verely reveng'd, there they Smile and Fawn, and in their Speech, Face, and Gesture, express nothing but their dear respects, love, and honor that they bear them: This is so common amongst them, that whosoever deals plain and honestly, speaks as he thinks, and performs what he promises, becomes a mocking-stock, and their onely May-game.

They murder one ano­ther on small occasions.Revenge is so sweet to them, that the first occasion of having any advantage in the very Streets, where stealing close behind the Person, drawing their Scy­miter, if the first Stroke fail, the second dispatches him; which done the Asas­sinate wipes his Sword, and Sheathing it, walks away unconcern'd, as if a Jest, or nothing done. Nay sometimes, having no Quarrel, in a meer Frol­lick, they will try whether the Edges of their Blades be so tender, as to be bated, or turn upon one anothers Heads.

Their cruelty on those which they Conquer.But those Towns or Villages have a sad destiny, which are taken in War by force of Arms, for they grant no Quarter, no respect of Age, Sex, or Degree, but are all promiscuously, and without mercy put to the Sword, and so left [Page 70]weltring in one mothers Gore. And in like manner, any Party, or Army, when they are defeated in the open Field, of those not one escapes, either they are kill'd upon the Spot valiantly Fighting, or if they flye, are barbarously murder'd by the Countrey People; all one to them, Friend or Foe, for whom­soever they find stragling, they without mercy dispatch, upon no other ac­count but to strip them, and enjoy what they have: Filching and Stealing (as we said before) that they all abhor; but Robbery and Bloodshed they glo­ry in: therefore all the whole Countrey groans under the Murders commit­ted in Robberies by their Highway-men; and the Sea as much molested with Pyrates.

Women with Child mur­der their Infanis.¶ THeir Women also are as strangely merciless to their own Issues, mur­dering without any Motherly compassion their tender Infants, either before their Birth, or if failing, soon after; to which purpose the Bonzies, their good Confessors, teach them a Drink to cause Abortion, which if by strength of Nature overcoming, as soon as born, they, worse than brutish Tygers, tread upon the Infants Neck, and so dispatch it; which they commonly do, either hating the trouble of Nursing them up, and giving Education, or else coun­sell'd by ill advising Poverty, as not being able to maintain them.

Poor and Needy Perish in Japan.¶ FOr Persons that are Sick, Lame, and Infirm, or Travellers, they have no publick Hospital, or other private Reception; but they are forc'd to take up their Lodgings under the cold Canopy of Heaven, fled from, and de­serted of all Men; so that either they must recover of themselves, or else die there in a miserable manner, and when dead, thrown upon the Dunghil as Offal or Carrion.

¶ FOr all Crimes or Offences whatsoever,Punishments. they use but three Punishm­ents, viz. Drubbing on the Soles of their Feet, Banishment, or Death, their Heads being cut off by a Scymiter, which they see not. But in some Places the Robbers being accounted the greatest Offenders, they carry and show them about in Waggons, which done, they Crucifie them and leave them nail'd to their Crosses in the High-ways near the City.

Strarge Punishment for the Robels in Japan.When Persons are suspected for Treason, or Plotting Rebellion, the King sends a Party, which surrounds the House so close, that none can escape, then makes them onely two Proffers, either to kill themselves, or yield to Mercy; which if they accept, they are stigmatizi'd with hot Irons, so to be distinguish'd and known to have been Quondam-Traitors wheresoeuer they go; but if they chuse rather to be Self-Executioners,They cut up their own Bellies. they rip up their own Bellies: some of them with strange courage in a horrible manner open athwart, so that when their Bowels hang out, to be the sooner dispatch'd, they lay down their Heads, to be cut off by one of their Servants, whom they suppose hath most kindness for them: the rest of the Abetters, or Conspirators, scorning to out­live their Captain, divide amongst themselves, making two Parties, bravely fighting, kill one another.

The like they will do in many other Exigencies, and especially in private Quarrels, that concern their good Name and Reputation: Nay, their Chil­dren themselves, when taking Pet against their Parents, or any such like un­kindness, will desperately rip up their own Bowels.The Children rip up their own Bowels

They have no Laws.¶ THey have no Rules or Observations in driving their Trade, or ma­king Bargains, but all is left fast or loose to the will and plea­sure of those that Deal, taking no Cognisance of Promise, or any Signing of Contracts, or Articles of Agreement. And in Cities the antient Burgers have no more Priviledge than the new-come Foreigners. Their Tradesmen and Artificers not being imbodied in Societies, or Companies; no Guilds nor other Courts to Plead in, nor Try'd before a Judge and Jury. No Serjeants or Actions to lay hold on Debtors; but all Controversies are decided by force of Arms, and Judg'd by the arbitrary Power of their King, from whom there is no Appeal.

These Monarchs have absolute Power over their Nobles, commanding and sending, without any farther Trial, when they please for their Heads. The Nobles thus domineer over the Gentry, the Gentry over the Citizens, all of them exercising the like Authority over their own Families.

¶ THeir Kings, though they keep not in Pay Strangers, nor any hir'd Soldiers,Ambassadors of the Ja­pan Kings. onely depending upon the favor and good-liking of their Sub­jects, yet they expect to receive from them the same Honor and Obedience, as if they had all the Countrey in Custodiam, and their whole Militia, Strangers. Either sitting in the Throne, or walking, they are still surrounded with a con­stant Guard, which keep off all Petitioners; and if any with great difficulty are permitted to make their humble Address, the King never answers them but with a Frown or a Nod, or else by Writing.

Are oftentimes remov'd.But for all this Greatness, if the People take a spleen, and rise against them, they are often left destitute, and not able to raise any Assistance. But some­times Subjects are divided, one Party Royalists, standing for the King; the other Commons, in Defensive Arms for the People, which oft joyn Issue in Bat­tel, and according to the success thereof, either he is depos'd, or sits better set­led in his Throne: But when the People get the better, and proceed to a new Election, then there oftentimes happen such Clashings amongst them, in no­minating Competitors, that thence also grows a second War; and now and then after all this pudder, to close up the Breaches, and reconcile all Interest with the Crown and Scepter, for the most part Force carrying all, and deciding by the Sword, they are forc'd to take and receive their former King again: Still the sternest and severest Princes sit fastest in the Throne, and Reign longest. But yet their Registers shew very few that many years have enjoy'd the Crown, and as few succeeding out of one Family.

Japan was first Govern'd by a Dayro, or sole Mo­narch.It is most certain that Japan in former times was Govern'd by a Dynastie of successive Princes; the last of which call'd Vo, or Dairo, Reigning long in Peace, and being observ'd to be of a mild and quiet Disposition, gave occasion to two of his Peers, or Ministers of State, they being of a rough and turbu­lent Nature, to conspire, being indulgent to their own ambition, so to share and assume the Imperial Government to themselves; these from their emi­nent Places were call'd Cubi: so watching, upon the first occasion,Cubi the chiefest Peers. and fit op­portunity, they put this their Design in execution, raising a great Rebellion, and in a moment turn'd the Hinges, and dislocated the Ligaments of Govern­ment, by which a happy and long Peace had been maintain'd, into Uprores, Tumults, and all the hatterings and harrases of Civil War; the success where­of falling on the wrong side, the Emperor onely losing so much of his former [Page 72]Authority: but soon after these Brethren in evil, usurped the absolute Com­mand, Clashing amongst themselves, neither admitting of an Equal, in a se­cond Civil War, one being destroy'd, the other Govern'd all.

The Priviledges of the Dairo.Yet the Dairo retains to this day the Power to be the Fountain of Honor, all Titles and Degrees of Places and Dignity being deriv'd from him, from whom, all being his Substitutes, he receives Annual Tribute; a great part of which he expends in the Magnificence and Splendor of his Palace-Royal and Attendants.

Who is the chief of the Japanners.He that stands foremost, at this time being the most eminent and powerful of the Japan Princes, is Texiba, the Great King of Meaco, and the Territories be­longing thereto, commonly known by the Name Tasa, all which he keeps un­der his Obedience by force of Arms.

This Crown belong'd to King Nubananga, which Taxiba, with some of his Confederates, wrested from him, and in the hard pluck destroy'd him, his Wife, and whole Posterity. Thus much saith Johannes Petrus Maffeus of our Japan.

Relation of Cosmus Tur­rensis concerning Japan.¶ HEre we will also annex the Contents of Father Cosmus Turrensis, a Latine Letter, Dated from Firando Anno 1557, concerning the Customs and Character of the Inhabitants.

The Japanners (saith he) are so capaciously apprehensive, and so tractable, not onely easily yielding to Reason, but Matters of Faith, that when they come to us, are very inquisitive and earnest to be resolv'd in some hard Questions of Religion, when we had first presented them the original and immortality of the Soul, they were soon brought to an un­derstanding and belief thereof: And when we set forth to them, That none could be sav'd, nor Salvation granted by any, but the Father of all things, and Omnipotent Maker of Heaven and Earth; by which Arguments they were so suddenly convinced, and their former Reasons, which led them on in their blind Superstition, so totally routed, that without any farther scruple, or asking time to consider, they abominated their old Idolatry, and were converted to good Christians; which after receiv'd, they never waver'd not stagger'd from, most of them so resolv'd, that they become Champions for Jesus Christ, and were ready to lay down their Lives in maintaining the Truth of the Gospel. Neither are they obtuse, or ignorant in putting their Questions, but will smartly examine, and answer Logically, as if they were, Casuists, concerning deep Mysteries in Divinity; insomuch, that since Xaverius Landed here, which is now five Moneths, he hath been daily visited by the Bonzi and the Laiety, Conferring from Morning till Midnight, asking and disputing several Questions con­cerning our Belief: First, What God is? What his Power? Where he dwells? Why not visible? How it is possible that the Soul hath a beginning, as we affirm, and no end? Furthermore, says he, as the Japanners account themselves most apprehensive, and also full of Fancy, so they believe they are in their serious Affairs not infe­rior to any Nation of the World: upon which account they are so elevated in their own opi­nion, that meeting any Stranger, they give him onely a scornful glance, and with their Hand a go [...]by, as if too mean for their Conversation. They very well distinguish good and evil, which apperas by the Bonzi, who committing all sorts of debauchery in private, yet are so conscious of it, that these Hypocrites, Wolves in Sheeps Clothing, seem to be the onely Saints. Thus far Cosmus Turrensis.

Now leaving Digression, we will go on with our Embassy we mention'd before, that Andreas Frisius, by an Order of the Batavian Council, if ought should happen amiss to Bloccovius, that he should supply his Place. But the chief of the Netherlander resident at Nangesaque found it convenient, upon de­bate [Page]

[Page]
De Logie voor NANGASACKI op t Eylandt Schisma The Lodge before NANG [...]AQUE on the Iland Schisma

[Page] [Page 73]of several weighty Reasons, to joyn with Frisius in the Embassy of An­thonius van Bronkhorst, Deputy-Governor in Derick Snoecks absence. To which purpose all Accommodations were preparing in the Store-houses of the East-India Company at Nangesaque.

Description of the East-India Companies Store-house at Nangesaque.¶ IT will not be amiss in short to describe the chief Staple and Residence of the Netherlanders in Japan near Nangesaque. The Portaguese, when first they were allow'd to setle there, rais'd this Fort, or Building, out of the Wa­ter: but after being driven out of Japan, and the Netherlanders commanded to remove from Firando, they were allow'd to supply the empty and deserted Lodge of the Portuguese.

This Lodge, for by that Name it is known through all Japan, lies on a small Island, divided by a River of forty Foot wide from Nangesaque, which they cross, going over a Draw-Bridge; which by reason of Floods that happen, is an hundred and fifty Steps long.

This Island, or Fortress, is defended each way round from the Water, with a strong wooden Pail: Within, in a convenient Place the Governor hath a stately and well-furnish'd Residence. Near the Gate of the Draw-Bridge stands their Sale-house, or Office, where they Vend their several Commodi­ties. On the other side stands a pleasant Garden, beautifi'd with all sorts of Flowers. Two Streets cross-ways lead through the whole Work; on each side of which are convenient Store-houses, fitted for receiving and Packing thei [...] Merchandise. Near an Inlet of the Sea is the second Gate, where there is a handsom pair of Stairs to carry down, or Land their Bales of Goods. The middle of the Lodge shews a plain and open Court, built round with Houses, whither the Merchants resort, bringing thither to Sell and Barter these follow­ing, viz. White raw Silk, Pansjens, Peelinx, Gielems, Chions, Gasen, Sumongus, Flanels,Merchandise Vended at Nangesaque. colour'd Brokaeden, Sattins, China Fabitas, Damasks, Chiowerens, Hempen-Cloth, Sit-Clothes, Sowing-Silk, Silk-Pee, Namrack, Japan-Wood, black Sugar, Cambo­dia-Nuts, Caiman-skins, red Leather, Aloes, Capox, Wax, white Sugar-Candy, Steel, Cotton, Sublemact, Cassia, Lignum, Spanish-Green, Porcelin-colour, Cam­phire, Calemback, Musk, Chinesie-Wares, Deer-skins, Cow-Hides, Paper, Pep­per, Elephants-Teeth, and Ager-Wood; all these are brought by the Chinesies to Nangesaque: Other Nations bring more variety.

Concerning that Factory of the Netherlander Trade at Nangesaque, the Em­peror sent these his Royal Mandates, Indorsed to the Governors of the City.

Orders Written by the Japan Emperor concern­ing the Trade of Nange­saque.KNow you People, that you shall not suffer any of our Japan Vessels to Freight them­selves to any other Foreign Countrey; or if any such Offenders stealing away be taken by you, kill them, onely reserve the Commander, with the Ship and Goods, till our farther Order: And after this our Edict, whosoever of our Subjects return from abroad, punish them with Death. Make strict enquiry after all Priests that are spreaders of the Christian Faith: whosoever apprehends one of these Seducers, shall have an hundred Boats of Silver; and he that informs where he is, shall also be rewarded. If any Ships of ours coming in shall not obey these Orders, call to your help some of our Garrison at Omera. No Merchandise shall be engross'd to any one, but sold to many. None of our Nobles, or Soldiers, shall deal with any Strangers, but shall buy it at the second hand from the Japan Merchants. The Cargo, or Bill of Lading, shall be shew'd to our Officers before they break Bulk, or nuke Sale of any Parcel thereof. The Market Price shall be setled upon all sorts of raw Silk, and then Proclaim'd in five Cities, before the Vendition thereof: this being per­form'd, [Page 74]

[figure]

all other Merchandise are free to be sold at their pleasure. All Merchants, for whatsoever they Contract, shall tender Payment within twenty days. All Foreign Ships may depart by the twentieth day of the ninth Moneth. Those Ships which come in too late, shall lie fifty days ere they Land any Goods. All Merchants whatsoever shall repair from our five Imperial Cities to Nangesaque, on the fifth day of the seventh Moneth, if not, they are excluded their shares of the Silk-Market: and whatsoever Silk is carry'd to Firando, shall be sold at the same Rate as at Nangesaque. No Goods, as we said before, shall be brought to Market before the Price of Silk be asserted.

This Edict was receiv'd Anno 1665, and Dated thus:

In the twelfth Year of Quane, Emperor of Japan, to our Officers at Nangesaque, Sengok, Gammatane, Camy, and Sackibibare Andano Camy.

This was Sign'd by five of his Privy-Counsellors, Congao Camy, Bongona Camy, Inhano Camy, Sannickino Camy, and Oyemo Camy. But now let us go on with our Embassy.

The Netherland Ambas­sadors go from Nangesaque to the Japan Emperor.¶ THe 25th of October 1649, their Excellencies Andreas Frisius, and Antho­nius van Bronkhorst, set forth after Noon, attended with a Train of twenty Netherlanders, three Bonzies, three Interpreters, and thirty three Japanners, who being equally divided into three Vessels, took their leave of Nangesaque.

This City, by the French and Portuguese call'd Nangesaqui, by the Italians, Nangasachi, stands on the Island Bungo, otherwise Cikoko.

Without the Bay, about six Leagues from Nangesaque, in their Way to Jedo, lies a Fisher-Town call'd Duvos. Description of the Japan Fishers. Those that Fish here, and also in most Places of Japan, wear Boots but to the middle of their Leg, like Buskins; and have Wicker-Baskets in their Boats, whick keeps their taken Fish alive. They have several manners of Fishing, and use a kind of Casting-Net, with a long Line of Twigs at the same.Their manner of Fishing. They have also another way of Fish­ing, and chiefly for Pilchards and Sitang, a Fish which always lies near the Ground; at the bottom of which Nets they lay their Baits. But before we [Page 75]proceed any farther from Nangesaque, let us take a short view of the Situation thereof.

Description of Nange­saque.¶ THis City stands in thirty Degrees Northern-Latitude, near a con­venient Harbor, fitter for the Reception of Merchant-Vessels, than any other Port or Haven in Japan: It is both great and populous, but without Walls or Fortifications, as most Cities in Japan are.

Their Towns and Chur­ches.The Steeples and Turrets, which appear very high above the ordinary Houses, give the Town a stately and delightful Prospect, especially towards the Sea, where they have an open view of the Streets, where are many magni­ficent Buildings.

The City is divided with several Streams, and joyn'd together with as ma­ny Wooden Bridges.

Every Street is parted by a Gate.The Streets are unpav'd, and therefore in rainy Weather very foul and cloggy; every Street hath a great Gate, which is shut every Night, and guarded with a Watch, so that growing late, there is neither Theft, Murder, nor any other Outrages committed.

The Houses of Nange­saque, how built.Their Houses are commonly uniform, but the Materials which they Build withall, differ according to the ability of the Builder. They use commonly Wood: but the poorer sort raise their meaner Habitations with Walls of Rice-Straw, Loam'd over with Clay, which closes so well, that it easily keeps out Rain and Wind; yet the richer sort Plaister their Partitions, raising the Foundation four Foot high from the Ground, with Planks cover'd over with thick Mats curiously sew'd together. They are but sleight built, four-square,Why they build them not high. and for the most part as broad as high; which to prevent the ruine by Earth­quakes, that are frequent in that Countrey, they raise them no higher. Their Roofs are almost flat, but something sloaping; jetting out beyond the Wall four Foot, like a Pent-house; under which is an Entry, or Passage, that leads to their Gardens, which are adorn'd with artificial Rocks,Gardens. and still flourish­ing Trees; which in a pleasant Prospect they view from their Dining-Rooms. The foremention'd Cantilivers defend those that walk the Streets both from the Sun and Rain, like our Pent-houses; these and the whole Roofs are of Planks clinch'd one over another, which carries off the Rain easily. On these stand Troughs and Tubs, fitted to receive the Water, to be ready against accidental Fires. They dwell all in the first, or lower Story, for the second and upper­most is so low, as scarce fit to lay their Lumber in.

The Towns and Cities are very subject to Fire.Their greatest and smallest Villages being being thus built all of Wood, suffer much, and sometimes unvaluable Losses by Fire; therefore the richer sort, and those that are able, build apart Stone Ware-houses, where they lay up those Goods and Commodities they most prize. Whatever Houses are burnt down, they immediately build up again in the same manner of Wood, which the Forrests plentifully supply. They seldom use Stone, because if over-thrown by Earthquake, they become a great heap of Rubbish, which they would not be troubled to remove.

The Noble-mens Build­ings are very stately.The Gentry, or better sort, have large and fairer Houses; where the Hus­band and Wife have their several Apartments, in which they live asunder when they please; and also Rooms for his Employment, and for Address and Entertainment. Their Dining-Rooms are set forth with Cupboards of Plate, Cups and Dishes, that they shew glorious like a Goldsmith's Shop, and Gilded, giving a more various pleasure to the Eye, than our choicest European Pictures. [Page 76]But the Walls of these Halls and Parlors,The Japan Structures, after what manner. in stead of Hangings, are cover'd with Paper Painted with Imagery, the Sheets being so curiously glew'd, that no Man can discern where they are conjoyn'd.Strange Shutters. Some of these Halls have artifi­cial Shutters, which opening, show little Closets, and small Retirements; but these Doors, or Places to be open'd, are so neatly Wrought, that none can per­ceive but it is a firm and perfect Wall: but over the half-Pace, or uppermost part of the Hall, stands a large Picture, done to the Life, under which a Pot al­ways supply'd with sweet-smelling Flowers, gather'd fresh from their own Gardens.The chief Housholdstuff of the Japanners. Along the Walls to sit upon, in stead of Chairs and Stools, they have Chests curiously Varnish'd after their Indian manner, and Dishes which they esteem precious, standing upon them, to drink their beloved Chia in: Besides all this, they hang up upon their Walls their Scymiters, and other Arms, which they use in Battel. This is the best and richest Furniture which they have be­longing to the Grandees, and Persons of most Quality: the poorer sort garnish their meaner Habitations,Japan Houses, how in the out-side. each according to their degree and ability. But the Frontice-pieces of their Houses are but plain and ordinary, yet they are uni­form, and in a direct Line; their Streets being but narrow and short, of which they reckon up eighty eight;How many Streets there are in Nangesaque. reckoning as many Gates, being Lockt up every Night, and at each a strong Guard with Lights attending; where none may pass,None go through the Gates in the Night. unless he bring a Sign'd Warrant from the Governor, without which neither Doctor to his Patient, nor a Widwife to a Woman in Labor, though upon Life and Death, are admitted to go through: Nay more, if any of these Streets happen to be on Fire,In the time of Fire one Street may not help ano­ther. they must not expect any help from others, but save themselves by their own care and diligence, for neither cries nor tears, nor loud complaints of those ready to be destroy'd and con­sum'd to Ashes, prevail'd not in the least, nor move their Neighbors nor Go­vernors to open and bring them assistance in this miserable condition, so that oft it happens, that the whole Ward, Men, Women, and Children, are burnt together in one Funeral Pyle. This sad Fate had like to have happen'd to some Hollanders, lodging in one of these Streets, twenty Houses all burning at once, and many People destroy'd in the Flames before their Eyes; who when they saw no hopes that the Gates would be open'd, and they must sud­denly with the rest endure the fiery trial, brake by force through a back-side, having a Wooden Fence, so escaping that dreadful Conflagration. It often chances, that though their Locks and Keys keep out neighborly assistance, yet they keep not in the Fire, but that breaks through, and many times destroys not the next Ward onely, but the whole City, leaving it prostrate smoaking in its own Ruines; which suddenly, as we said before, they re-build in the same manner, the adjacent Forrest being ready to furnish them with several sorts of Wood and Timber, and the like Materials for that purpose.

Gardens about Nange­saque.This City also lies surrounded with large and pleasant Gardens, so delight­ful, that the Eye seems never enough satisfi'd with viewing; where all manner of Fruit are much improv'd, growing very prosperously, especially the Chinesie Apple transplanted thither, and all sorts of Pears, where they have Walks sha­ded with Cedar,Their Cedars. whose lofty Crowns seem to salute the Skie; the single Bodies of which make Columns for their Temples, and Main Masts for their Ships of the greatest Burthen, or Sovereigns of the Sea.

Temples in Nangesaque.Their Temples also are of Wood, built commonly forty Foot square, with Spires and Steeples, curiously Carv'd and Gilt; of which they have many, and though no larger, yet pleasant and sumptuous with Imagery work: on each [Page 77]

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corner of the Roof stands a Dragon erected, and within the Temple several Figures bigger than the Life, with terrible aspects, resembling Giants: to these, when entring the Temple, the Japanners use short Prayers, then put into an Offering-bason, being small Pieces of Copper-Coyn, by them call'd Casius.

The Inhabitants of Nan­gesaque, their Shape and Apparel.The Inhabitants are whiter than other Indians, but sallow to those of Europe; have strong and well-compacted Bodies, and are healthy of Constitution; their Noses are flat and Camosi'd; their Eyes little, especially the Womens. Both Sexes are almost Habited alike, wearing long Garments, but shorter than the Chinesies; the corners of which Coats they take up before with their Hands, carrying the right Lappet under their left Arms, and the left under the right, which thus they fasten with a Girdle; their Tunick thus ty'd up, the left corner affords them a Pocket in their Bosom, which keeps their Notes and Letters: on the left-side hangs down from their Girdle a long two-handed Scymiter.

Sumptuous Apparel of the Japan Ladies.Their prime Ladies, and high-going Dames, wear stately gorgeous Dresses, their Hair is curiously sleeck'd, and neatly turn'd up; and their Gowns are much fuller, and more flowing in thick and looser Folds than meaner Women, the Stuff not onely rich and costly, but Embroider'd all over with Gold, with a large Silken Scarf about their Necks, which meets athwart over their Bosoms: a Needle-wrought Girdle, rich with Silver and Gold, doth compass and keep in their well-shap'd Bodies: on their left Hand a great Fan, with a long Handle, Painted with several Birds and Flowers, richly Gilt and Varnish'd: under their upper Garment, or Gown, which (as we said before) is so richly Embroider'd, they have seven or eight Silk Petticoats, every one a degree longer than the other, the longest trailing after them upon the Ground: But all these Clothes upon them are neither burthenous, nor trou­blesom, though this be their daily Dress, yet they seldom come abroad, nor appear publick in their Houses; but in the Evenings, if fair Weather, they take the Air a little with their Husbands; by Day, in close Sedans, or else by Water in a Tilted Barge.

But ere we convey the Ambassadors further through Japan, it seems not amiss to take a short Survey, the better to give you a Description of this Large and Potent Empire.

A short and brief Descri­ption of Japan.¶ THis Spacious and Wealthy Isle, by the Natives call'd Nippon, and former­ly by the Spaniards, Argantana; and in the Year of Christ Twelve hundred (according to that Famous Author Paulus Venetus) Chryse, and Zipangry, hath on the East-side California, Its bordering Countreys. and New-Granada; but at a vast distance, an Ocean of a thousand Leagues spreading betwixt. Westward, but far off, it looks upon the Isle of Corca, and Great China: Hugh Linschot reckons the nearest Promontories or Head-lands, stretching from China to Japan, to be eighty Leagues distance. The North opposes the Land of Jesso, and the Straights of Anian; and beyond all, the Coast of America. The South verges on the Philippines, Mindanao, Gilolo, and the Molucco Isles.

And Latitude.It extends from thirty to forty Degrees Northern-Latitude; so that the longest day is fourteen Hours fifteen Minutes, and the shortest nine Hours forty five Minutes. Their highest Sun appears 15 Degrees at Noon short of the Ze­nith. The Air differs not much from the Temperature of the Islands Sardinia, Rhodes, Cyprus, Candia, and Sicilia, and like that of the main Land of Portugal and Spain, and as moderate as Arabia, Syria, Persia, and China.

Division of the same.JApan is divided into five Provinces, Jamaystero, Jetsengo, Jetsesen, Quanto, and Ochio; besides the Isles Saykok, and Chiccock. Maffeus calls Saykok, Xi­mum, making that seven Provinces; but Francis Cairon, being an Eye-Witness, deserves more to be credited: He affirms, That several Kings Govern there, and also in Chiccock, one King, and three Vice-Roys. That part of this Coun­trey that is call'd corruptly Japan, boasts two Metropolitans, Miaco, and Jedo. Maffeus also tells us, That this hath fifty three Kingdoms; amongst which he names Miaco and Amangutium, saying, Miaco consists of twenty three, and Aman­gutium of thirty Kingdoms; but of late all these petty Kingdoms are fallen into the Lap of one Sole Monarch or Emperor, who keeps his Magnificent Court at Jedo.

But Japan also, besides Saykok and Chiccock, lies surrounded with several lesser Isles, as Hiu, Tacaxuma, Iquicuchi, Canga, Firando, Meacxima, Oeno, Cocyque, Beroe, Oqui, Murgan, Avans, Mettogamma, Meho, Mianisinu, Sando, being full of Silver Mines;Vulcans Isle. and Vulcania, often ejecting hideous Flames to the Sky, lying to the West, beyond the Straights of Diemon, which washes the Isles Chiccock and Tacaxuma.

The Territory of Ochio.OChio, the North-East Territory of Japan, borders on the vast Wildes of Jesso: For the Inlet or Bay which divides them, runs not up above forty Leagues, there ending, stopt by the Mountains of Ochio.

Description of the great Countrey Jesso.¶ THe Extent of Jesso, being Mountainous, and abounding with costly Furs, is yet unknown, although the Emperors of Japan were much concern'd, taking great pains about the Discovery thereof, to that purpose im­ploying several Persons at his own Cost and Charges, who made search over Rocks and Mountains, and almost inaccessible Places, explor'd vast and wild Countreys, very far; but found no end, though they diligently inquir'd of the People, who being Salvages, could give them no Account further than [Page 79]where they dwelt. So after long Toyl and Trouble, they were forc'd to re­turn without any Effect of their Design, as we said before.

The Jesuit Lodowick Frojus, in his Letter of the eight and twentieth of Fe­bruary, 1565. to the Indian Fathers, writes thus concerning the Inhabitants of Jesso: Against the Northermost Part of Japan, about three hundred Leagues from Me­aco, is a very large Countrey, full of Salvage People, The Inhabitants of Jesso are horrible People. which are Cloth'd in Skins of Wild Beasts, Hairy all over their Bodies, having exceeding great Beards, and long Whiskers or Mustachioes, which they turn up with Sticks made for that purpose when they drink. They covet, and are very desirous of Wine; also Valiant in War, and therefore much fear'd by the Japanners. If by chance they receive any Hurts in an Encounter, their onely Appli­cation is Salt Water, with which they bathe and wash the Wound, so drying it up. On their Bosoms they wear Looking-Glasses, which serve them as Shields or Breast-plates. Their Swords they tye about their Heads, in such a manner, that the Hilt thereof hangs on their Shoulders. They onely Worship the Moon. Aquita, a great City, stands in the Territory of Genuaen, bordering Jesso: Hither the Natives come in great Numbers to Trade; and also the Aquitans Travel to them, but not in such Multitudes, because they are oftentimes cut off, and murder'd by the Inhabitants.

Error of the Geographers concerning Japan.¶ THe Maps of the World, our Terrestrial Globe, have till of late plac'd nothing beyond Aquita but the Ocean; though long since confuted by Hugh Linschot, proving upon the testimony of the Jesuit Frojus, who deserves to be more credited (as having resided a long time in Japan) than some of our Geographers, who set down by hear-say the Largeness and Ex­tent of Japan, without any Proofs or Testimony; whereas it is made mani­fest, That Japan extends it self much further than commonly drawn: More­over, Francis Cairon, Ambassador to the Emperor of Japan at Jedo, witnesses, That the Largeness of this Countrey is not known to the Inhabitants them­selves.

Mistake of Maffeus and Cluverius.Therefore Maffeus is much mistaken, when he sets down the length of Japan to be two hundred Leagues, and its greatest breadth but thirty. And Cluverius in his Geography reckons the length to be an hundred and fifty Leagues, and the breadth seventy.

Hazarts ignorance con­cerning the Description of Japan.But none more errs in this, than the Jesuit Cornelius Hazart, in his History of the Island of Japan; which that we may the better answer, hear his own Words. Japonien, or (as others call it) Japan, by the Inhabitants, Nippon, is a Territory lying in the farthest Point of the East, being the outmost Borders of Asia; (which to prove, he quotes Isaiah, cap. 18. ver. 2.) For although to the West, to the Frontiers of China,Vide Isaiah. is no more than fifty Leagues, (says he) and to the City Amacoa, two hundred ninety se­ven; and on the South having so vast an Ocean, no known Countrey being beyond, Japan may certainly be call'd The Worlds End: And standing divided into so many small Islands, that a Geographer of our times calls it also A World of Isles; the chiefest of which are, Niphon, Ximus, and Xicocus, consisting of sixty six several Kingdoms. The Isle of Niphon reckons fifty three, boasting also many stately Cities, of which the Metropolis is Meaco. The Island Ximus hath nine, and several handsom Towns, amongst which, Usuquin, Funai, and Cangoxima. The Isle Xicocus accounts no more than four Kingdoms: Which being taken together, Japonien is as big as all Italy.

Though this his Style be ridiculous, yet his Ignorance, and so strangely false Description, is so much more, that he ought rather to be pittied and laugh'd at, as one distracted, than to be answer'd; but that we are bound in Consci­ence [Page 80]to undeceive his believing Readers.Hazart's false Descripti­on Japan contradicted. First, he plants Japan on the West side of China. This is such a blind, nay such a stupid Mistake, that the like was never heard of: For, was there ever any Writer or Geographer, that settled Japan West from China? All agreeing, neither can it be otherwise, being an Isle, but East from China; that Empire being not onely the utmost Borders of Asia Eastward, but of Europe also; being one continu'd Main Continent, Westward to Gads Pillars, and the Atlantick Ocean. Next, admit it were, as he affirms, That Japan lay West from China; yet out of what Chinese Haven did ever any Vessel reach any Port in Japan, measuring but sixty Leagues? Where­as it is notoriously known, That the Distance betwixt these Empires is much greater: And who can shew me in any Map or Journal of his Travels, a City call'd Amiaco, lying at such a distance from Japan, as he gives, without any proof or testimony? Next (which is very strange) he says, That Japan looks on no Countrey Southward, but the Main Ocean; or else, Lands so far off, that they are utterly unknown. What then will become of all these Coun­treys; as, Tanaxima, Lequeio Granda, Formosa, de Philippines, Mindore, Mindanao, Borneo, Celebes, Molucco, and other Realms; besides many other Countreys which are cut off by the Ocean, and lye far and near distant from thence, and daily frequented and Navigated by Strangers, insomuch that all Geographers men­tion the same? Which belongs more especially to you, who have publish'd in­stead of grave Experience, your no want of Ignorance, and utter Deficiency in that Science: For what can be more absurd, than this your Description of the Principal Islands, Niphon, Ximus, and Xicocus, dividing of them into sixty six Kingdoms, and setling them all so handsomly, with a perfect Mistake, on the wrong side; not consulting Francisco Cairon, who being himself upon the Spot, took an exact Survey of Japan, which your Church-History makes truly manifest in several Pages.

Japan is much bigger the Italy.Lastly, Of all Comparisons, this seems the most odious, That Japan, with all it circumjacent Isles, is no larger than Italy: For the same Cairon (whom concerning other Matters you have for the most part copy'd out, and trick'd up this your Japan-History with) tells us in the beginning of his Description thereof, That beyond Quanto, a Territory lying up high in Japan, (from whence the Emperor raises his chiefest Revenue, and keeps his Court in Jedo) it is twenty seven days Journey before you come to the Province of Sunguar, lying in the most Northerly part of Japan. At this rate, how can Italy be compar'd to Japan? Sure Father Hazart you neither know the one, nor the other: For let any one take the Extent of Italy, The Largeness of Italy. which they reckon from the Alps, and the City Aosta, passing through Rome and Capua, to Rhegio, and the Promontory de Army, he shall never make more than two hundred twenty five Leagues: And though the breadth along the Alpine Mountains reacheth a hundred and forty Leagues, yet taken generally, it proves much less; for betwixt Ancona and the Tyber gives the rate of the common breadth, which is no more than thirty four Leagues. How apt then seems this Comparison, when several Writers, Eye­witnesses, tell you, That Miaco, lying almost in the middle of Japan, is three hundred Leagues distant from Jesso, bordering the said Isle.

¶ NOw to what concerns the Extract or Original of the Japanners, the general Opinion thereof we have already related, which was, That they (not unlike the Batavians, who by a Civil War were drove from Hessen, to the Island between the Rhine and Wael) Rebelling against their Emperor in [Page 81] China, were Banish'd to the desolate Isles of Japan: The Extract of the Ja­panners from China. Some are of opinion, that the Tartars have interment themselves with the Chine­ses. From whence this opini­on proceeds. But Father Martinius contradicts this Opinion in his Chinese Atlas, saying, That the Japanners are not onely Extracted from the Chineses, but also from the Tartars; because they still retain some of both their Customs: For they follow the Chinese Religion, as also the same Apparel which at this day is worn in the Chinese Territory call'd Honan. It is no wonder that this Territory could produce People enough to Plant Japan; for it contains above eight great Cities, and at least a hundred Populous Villages. Moreover, the Chinese Book of their Annual Accounts, reckons, that this Province can bring five Millions seven thousand two hun­dred and seventy Men into the Field. But although the Japanners do so much resemble the Chineses in several of their Customs, yet they also imitate the Tar­tars in many of their Fashions; for they not only shave their Heads after their manner, leaving but little Hair; but they use also the Letters D and R, which the Chinese Speech doth not acknowledge.

Martinius opinion con­cerning the Extract of the Japanners. Martinius moreover relates, That the Chinese Memorials make mention of Xio an Emperor, who was deluded by a peculiar Person, telling him, That Japan produc'd an Herb, which if the Emperor could get, would make him Immortal; for which he, to be assur'd thereof, sent several thither, which ne­ver returning, by degrees Planted our Japan.

A Catalogue of the great Persons and inestimable Re­venues of Japan.¶ LAstly, Concerning the Revenues that belong to this vast Empire, it doth manifestly appear by the Sign'd Account of the In-comes of the Japan Princes and Kings, taken by Francis Cairon.

The Revenues are reckon'd, according to the Japan manner, by Cockiens, of which every one makes a French Crown. The nearest to the Emperor, which had the greatest Revenue in the time of Francis Cairon's Residence there, was the King of Canga, Getchiu, and Natta, call'd Cangona Tsiunangou, living in the Castle of Langa: Every Tun of Gold is 10000 l. His Yearly Revenue came seldom to less than a hundred and twenty Tun of Gold.

Surnango Daynongon, King of the Territory of Surnga, Toto, and Micauwa, inha­biting the Fort Faytsiu; and Onwarino Daynaugou, King of the Countreys of Owary and Mino, Resident in the Fortress Mangay, have each seventy thousand Pounds per Annum.

Sendayno Thiunangon, King of Massanine and Ochio, dwelling in the invincible Castle Senday, hath Yearly above sixty four Tun of Gold.640000 l.

Satsumanon Thiunangon, King of Satsuma, Ossina, Fiungo, and Luchio, in the For­tress of Cangasima, treasures Yearly sixty thousand Pound Sterling.

Kinocouny Dayanangon, King of the Countreys of Kino and Iche, commanding the Strong Hold of Wake Jamma, hath Five hundred and fifty thousand Pound Ster­ling Yearly. Near upon the like Sums have the Kings of Catto Fingonocamy of Fin­go in the Fortress Koumamotte, and Matsendeyro Jemnosco of Sunkicen in the Castle Foucasa, and Matsendeyro Inocamy of Jetchesen, keeping the Fortress of Oecde.

These petty Kings Catto Cibo of Osio, Commanding the Fort Ais; and Assai­no Taysima of Bingo in the Burrough of Oky, have each forty thousand Pound Sterling Yearly.

The Kings Matsendeyro Nangato of Sova, living in the Castle of Fangy; and Mittons Thiunango of Fitayts, in the Fort Mit; and Nabissima Sinano of Fisien, com­manding the Castle Logioys; and Matsendeyro Sindairo of Inabafoky, in the For­tress Tackaham, receive Annually Three hundred and ten thousand Pound Ster­ling.

Near upon the like Revenue hath Todo Ishumi King of Ingu Iche, his Royal Fort or Palace being call'd Sou; and Matsendeyro Lonuey of Bisen, commanding the Castle Ossajamma; and Inno Caimon of Totomy, inhabiting the Strong-Hold Sawajamma; and Tosso Cauwa Jetchin King of Boyses, in his Royal Seat Cokera; and Ojesungu Dainsio, King of the great Territory of Jatsengo, Governing and Re­siding in the Fortress Gunysauwa; and Matseddeyro Denico; and also the Lady Jetsengo, Queen of Formando, and there Residing.

Revenues of the Japan Dukes.Next, The Secondary Princes, or Dukes, as we may stile them, are Mansen­deyro Auwa, Commander of the Countrey Auwa, dwelling in Incts; and Matsen­deyro Jutchigonocamy Duke of Conge, the Seat of his Government being Tacato; and Matsendeyro Tsiusio, Prince or Duke of Joo, Residing in his well-fortified Citadel Mats Jamma: Each of these supplies his Exchequer with Fifty three Tun of Gold Yearly.

Arjama Grimba Duke of Tsickingo, Commanding the Castle Courme, falls short of their Revenues ten Tun of Gold.

Revenues of the Japan Earls.Their Third Degree of Princes, which we may call Earls, are to be distin­guish'd by their Name thus: Morino Imasack Earl of Imasacka, his principal Fort being Tsiamma; next Tory Inganocam Governor of Sewano, dwelling in Jamman­gatta; then Matsendeyro Tosa Prince of Tosnacory, Residing in his Strong-Hold Tocosiamma; and Satake Okiou Governor of Wano, keeping his Court in the For­tress Akita; as also Matsendeyro Simosaucamy Lord of Simosa, dwelling in the Castle Tattebays, have each of them Yearly twenty Tun of Gold. But these two Lords (such as we may term Barons) Foriwo Jamaissiro, and Ikouno Jokono­camy, one Governing Inomo, and the other Sanike, are well pleas'd with each sharing yearly Eighteen thousand pound Sterling.

But these, though of lesser Dignity, as Fonda Kaynokamy of Faryma, and Sackay Counay, Ruling in the great Territory Wano, receive each of them Annually Fif­teen Tun of Gold.

Their Knights Revenues.Those which at our Rates we may look upon as no more than Knights, are Tarasauwa Simedo commanding Fisen, Kiongock Wakasa Ruler of Wakasa, Forii Tango in the Countrey Jetchesen, Menfio Fiongo in Bingo, and Sackosbarra Eskibou Gover­nor of Kooske, receive every one yearly Twelve Tun of Gold.

Mansendeyro Tawayts Commander of the Imperial Fort Quana; and Oecken­deyro Imasacka Ruler of Simotske, inhabiting in the Fort Oetsnomico; and Sanada Ins Governor of Sinano, residing in the Castle Koske; and Taytfibanna Finda in the Countrey Sickingo, dwelling in the Strong-Hold Imangouwa, being all Knights: Every one of these boasts no less Means than Ten thousand Pound a Year.

And also the Knights Ongasaura Ouckon of Firima, Indatiu Vontomiu of Gio and Nambou, Sinano of the great Territory Ochio, and Niwa Groseymon likewise of Ochio, receive a thousand Pound less than the former.

Abeno Bitchiou, Governor of the Imperial Castle Watsuky in the mighty Coun­trey Mousayes, hath for his Yearly Revenue Eighty thousand Pound Sterling.

The Knights Kiongock Oenieme of Tanga, dwelling in the Fort Tanabe; and Makino Surnga in the far-spreading Countrey Jethingo; Nackangauwa Nisien in Bongo, Matsendeyro Camba in Sinano, Nayto Samma in Fitayts: These have yearly Seventy thousand Pound.

Revenues of their Lords.The Lords Jockenda Bitchiou, Comander of the Imperial Fort Matsjamma, in the Territory Bitchiou; and Matsara Fisennocamy Lord of Fisen, residing in the Castle of Firando, where formerly the East-India Company held their Factory, [Page 83]

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before they were forc'd to remove to Nangesaque: These receive Annually six Tuns of Gold apiece. The like Sums have the Lords Seugook Fiwo in Sinano, Catta Sewado in the Countrey Gyo, Tosauwa Okiou in the Province Dewano, Matsen­deyro Iwamy in Farima, Teskouwa Tonnomon in Bongo, Tsungaer Jetchiu in Ochio; and Ongasauwara Sinano in Firama.

The Lords Itho Chiutry of Fongo, commanding the Castle Orasy; and Fourta Fiwo of the Countrey Iwamy, ruling the Fort Daysiro; Wakisacka Arbays of Sinano, residing in the Fortress Ino; Touky Nangato in Johe; Toba Arima Seymonoske of Nuko, Outa Fiwo of Jamatta, Matsendeyro Dewado of Jetsesen, Inaba Minbou of Bongo, Croda Caynocamy of Chinano, Matsendeyro Sovodonno of Isumy, Tonda Sammon of Socinnocammu, Stotfianangu Kemmets of Ichie, Fonda Ichenocamy of Micauwa, Mat­sendeyro Jamayssiro of Tamba, Mori Caynocamy of Inga Johe, Tonda Notanocamio of Farima, Ahito Sionoske of Fitaits, Assano Oenime of Chione, Neyto Cinocamy of Chione, Catto's Kibodo of Ochio, Sama Daysiennocaniu also of Ochio, and Commander of the Castle Sama; Fonda Jamatta of Taysima, Ouckob Cangato of Mino, and Neyto Boysen of Dewano: All these Lords have for their yearly Revenue five Tun of Gold apiece.

The Habit of the Japan Lords.¶ THe Habits of these Lords are very Rich: They wear short Coats, with wide Sleeves, curiously stitch'd with Silver and Gold. Un­der their upper Garment they wear a Silk Wastcoat, ty'd close about them with a Girdle, in which they put their Scymiters. Their Breeches are so exceeding wide and long, that they tread upon them as they go; for they hang down over their Heels. Upon the bottom of their Wastcoats, a little above the Waste-band of their Breeches, they have Pourtray'd their Coat of Arms.

Revenues of their mean­er Lords.Moreover, these following Lords, Inawa Aways of Tamba, Camy Dyrik of Iwa­my, Cattayngiri Ismou of Jamatta, Chonda Findanocamy of Jetsesen, have yearly forty thousand Pound Sterling a Man: And Itacoura Sovodonne, Governor for the Em­peror of the mighty City Meaco, receives above the foremention'd Forty thou­sand [Page 84]Pound, four Tun of Gold yearly, from the Countreys of Jamaisico.

The like Revenue the Lords Matsendeyro Bongo, of the Countrey Iwamy; Fondo Nayky of Firima; Matsendeyro Tango of the great Countrey Ochio; Canna Mauris Isoumo of Finda; and Ciongok Chiury of Tango, receive annually.

The following Lords, as Outta Giwe of Mino, Matsendeyro Ouckon of Farima, Minsonoja Ichenocawy of Kooske, Immasacka Kaynocamy of Bitchiou, Matsendeyro Jam­matto of Jetsesen, Inno Fiwo of Costie, Matsendeyro Tonnomon of Mikauwa, Akisuckis Nangako of Nicko, Savo Inaba of Sinano, Foyssimo Fongo likewise of Sinano, Sunga­noma Ouribe of Totowy, Simaes Oemanoska of Nicko, Kinostay Jemon of Bongo, Sono Kussima Governor of the Island Siussima, Koyndo Fimano of Tonga, Fonda Fimosa Commander of the Imperial Fort Nissiwo in the Countrey Micauwa, Gorik Sersnocamy also of Mikauwa, Chinsio Suraga of Fitayts, Secuma Fisen of Sina­no, Todo Toiusima of Mino, Fonda Isumy of Fitayts, Tongauwa Tosa of Bitchiou, and Mansendeyro Tosa of Jetsesen: All these receive yearly three Tun of God apiece.

Revenues of other Lords.Lastly the Lords,

  • Sugifarra Foky of Fitayts
  • Kinostay Counay of Bitchiou
  • Matsendeyro Koysero of Farima
  • Inasacka Tsonnocamy
  • Matsendeyro Kenmots of Tamba
  • Masteysacke of Ochio
  • Omoura Minbou of Fisen
  • Matsendeyro Isumi of Mino
  • Matsendeyro Chinocamy of Tsounocoumy
  • Minsus Faito of Micauwa
  • Nyto Tatewaky of Chiono
  • Ongasawary Wakasa of Simosa
  • Fichicatta Cammon of Chiono
  • Iwaky Sirrosy likewise of Chiono
  • Rikongo Fiongo of Dewano
  • Takanacca Oenieme of Boungo
  • Mourii Ichenocamii and Boungo
  • Wakebe Sackion of Totomy
  • And Isifoys Insnocamy

Commanding

  • Oungoury,
  • Kourosie,
  • Farima,
  • Oscca,
  • Cammejomme,
  • Sanbonmats,
  • Daymats,
  • Iwamoura,
  • Faynctory,
  • Coria,
  • Iwayffowo,
  • Sekyada,
  • Mawaffa,
  • Jedowra,
  • Jurii,
  • Founay,
  • Ounaus,
  • Oumiso,
  • Cosiois,

Receive each of them Twenty thousand Pound Sterling of Yearly Revenue.

Revenues of their lowest Degree of Lords.Their Lowest Degree of Lords, of which some fill their Treasuries with the Revenues of the small Circumjacent Iles, are Sangoro Saffioye, and Fory Min­nasacka; each of them having Twenty thousand Pound Sterling yearly.

Qua Jamma Sammon, Fossacauwa Gemba, Fackina Deysen, Matsendeyra Deysen, Got­tawais Lord of the Island Goto near Firando, Cattayngiry Iwamy, Cassima Jetsingo, Coubery Tomoty, Tackandy Mondo, and Miake Jetsingo, have each One Tun and a half of Gold per Annum.

But Odaura Bisen, Tojamma Giwo, Fira Oucka Giuemon, Oseki Jemon, Fayssien Gou­was Kibon, Outano Tango, Fieno Ouribe, Auby Ceynocamy, Otana Mousoys, Majuda Jam­matta, Taytsibanna Sackon, Cackebe Sayngoro, Mynangauwa Chinamovani, Jaydsio Dew­anocamy, Coungay Inaba, Oictana Caweyts, Niwas Kibon, Fory Arbays, Fosio Mima­sacka, Sayngo Wacksacka, Touda Inaba, Miangy Sinsen, Sannanda Nyki, Iton Tangou, Ikenday Jetseses, and Touda Nayki.

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Emperors Officers Pay.As for the Emperors Chief Officers, their Revenues are as followeth. His Councellor of State, Dayno Idonno, Fifteen Tun of Gold a Year.

  • Sackay Ontadonno Nangay Sinadonne, Ten Tuns of Gold.
  • Sackay Sinadonno, the like Sum.
  • Sackay Sannickodonno, One Tun of Gold less.
  • Audo Ouckiondono, Six Tun of Gold.
  • Inote Cawatsdo, Five.
  • Inabe Tangedonne, Four.
  • Sackan Auwado, and Sackay Jammassirodonno, each have Thirty thousand pound Sterling.
  • Nayta Ingado, Sintsia Winbondonno, Misson Ockiedonno, Matsendeyro Jemondonno, Ja­manguyts Tayssimodonno, and Matsendeyro Juedonno, receive from the Emperors Treasury Two Tun of Gold a piece Yearly.
  • But Ale Boungodonne, Auwe Jamma Ouckerodonne, Ciongok Sinsendonno, Itacoura Nysiendo, Narsy Jucdonno, and Akimonta Maysimaddonno, have each of them Fifteen thousand pound Sterling Yearly.
  • Lastly, Forita Cangadonne, Miura Simaddonne, Maynda Gonoskedonno, Mesiono Jamat­ta, Fory Itsuocamy, Miury Oemenoskedonno, and Fondo Sanjadanno, have every one, One Tun of Gold per annum.

The Emperors expences in house-keeping and guard.¶ THe Emperors House-keeping consisting of several Boards for all his Officers, and his Seraglio of Ladies, amounts to 1400000lib Sterling, Annual Pension. His Life-Guard also cost him ten Tun of Gold more; So that the Pensions for his Lords and several Officers, and the whole maintenance of his Court and Militia, reckons up 28000345 Tun of Gold yearly.

Apparel of the Souldiers.As for the Souldiers which the Emperor keeps in Service, most of them are Noble-men, and wear small Helmets, but exceeding great Breeches; some­times they are Arm'd with short, at other times with long Fire-Locks or Mus­kets, not unlike ours, onely the Cock strikes not from them but towards [Page 86]them. Instead of Powder-Horns, or Cartrage Boxes, they use small square Baskets, made very artificially of Flags or Rushes. In their Girdles they stick one short and one long Scimiter.

The Netherland Ambassa­dors go by water from Nan­gesaque to Osacca.¶ BUt to return again to our Embassadors, Andreus Frisius, and Anthonius Brookhorst, which Sail'd from Nangesaque, the 25 of Septemb. 1649. with three great Barks Laden with rich Presents for the Japan Emperor; twenty Ne­therlander, three Bongies, as guides to direct them in their Journey from Osacca to Jedo, three Interpreters, and thirty four Japanners, besides the beforementi­on'd Ambassadors.

In short time, they got beyond Foveunda, Zotta, and Nanatjamma, and Sail'd Northwardly between Firando, Omodackey, and Oysinocuby, Towns scituate on Bungo; then they reach'd the Islands Auwo, Fimissima, and Ginkai, and left Nan­gago, on the left side of the Coast of Bungo.

Then they brought the Island Aymissima under their Lee, and descry'd the City Assia, The City Asia. twelve Miles North-East from Aymissima.

This City stands on a white Sandy shore, and is seen a great distance off at Sea, by reason of its high Mountains, which seem to touch the Clouds.

After this they discover'd the famous Town Icaminangano-misacco, and the Ci­ty Cocero, lying in an Inlet of the Sea.

The City Cocero Cocero at its first view is very delightful to behold, having two Suburbs, one above the City, and another below towards the Sea.

Here they directed their Course Easterly into the Straits, which in the North washes Japan, and on the South Chiekok, and Tousa. On the left side of Japan stands the City Simonisicci, The City Simonysicci. within which is a small Fort, and opposite to that a strong Castle, built on a high Hill, near which is the Haven Isacka, to which belongs two Villages containing forty houses a piece.

¶ VVIthin the foremention'd Straits they met with many Islands,Islands. several of their names unknown, yet at the hither end lies Mettogamma, and next Mocko, The City Camenosacci. Mianosimi, and Camero; betwixt which, the City Cammenosacci stands on the more of Japan.

In a long Tract from East to West, they saw near the Coast of Japan, the Islands Icowe, Szuwa, Caroto, Cominagari, and Jocosmi, all improv'd with Vil­lages.

Opposite to Caroto, are seen in the middle of this Channel, between Japan and Tonsa, several high Mountains, whose tops are crown'd with various Trees; here they stood due East, and had on their Larboard in the Japan Coast, the Towns Tantonomis, Mewarri, Bignatum, and Binga; On their Starboard, the In­habited Isle Syrais: So Sailing on between Simeia and Samnic, Ousimate and Wota, Icsima and Muro, they met with so strong a Current, that their Rowers had great labor to bring them thorow.

The City Muro.MUro, a Town scituate on Japan, hath a very fine Haven; five Miles be­yond which rises Firmensi, The City Firmensi. a stately City, Fortifi'd with a strong Ca­stle; near which the Sea is often times very rough, which they left on their Larboard, and also Ahos, Takasima, and Swoja, and came to Fiongo. But when they met with Calms and wanted Wind, their Men with a Line hall'd their Barks along the shore.

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Netherland Ambassadors come to Ojacc [...].Sailing from hence, they kept along the Coast of Amanasacci, and came on the thirteenth of January, after nineteen days travel to Osacca, and getting up the River, they came to Anchor before Anissima, the Suburb of Osacca. Soon af­ter, three Pleasure-Boats came thither, for to carry the Ambassadors with their Goods and Retinue.

Fayfena, a Japan Plea­sure-Boat.¶THe Japanners build a kind of Pleasure-Boats or Barges, by them call'd Fayfena, which commonly have forty Oars, built before like an Ele­phants Head, and in the Starn a fine Looking-Glass, Cabbin and Helm, after the Portuguese manner: Some of these Fayfena's have above thirty Rowers in them, which Row with such speed, and make so fresh way, that it is to be admir'd; for commonly they make a Voyage from Osacca to Nangesaque in twelve days time, lying two hundred and twenty Leagues distant from one another.

Art exact description of the situation of the Cities be­tween Nangesaque and O­sacca.¶ FRom Nangesaque, to Fouconda, is two Leagues; from Fouconda to Zitta, eight; thence to Nanatzjamma, three; from thence to Omodakey, two; then to Oysinocubi, five; so to Firando, eight; from Firando to Auwo, six; then to Jobeco, seven; thence to Fimissima, seven; from Fimissima to Ginha, seven; so to Amissima, seven; thence to Jammangan-misacci, fourteen; from hence to Simo­nisicci, seven; thence to Motogama, seven; so to Mocko, eleven; from Mocko to Mianosimi, eight; from hence to Cammenosacci, ten; then to Camro, seven; so to Jowe, three; from Jowe to Szuwa, two; thence to Caroto, three; from Caroto to Cammagari, five; from hence to Tantonomi, ten; so to Jourissiro, five; thence to Bignatum, five; from hence to Syzais, three; from Syzais to Fubi, ten; then to Oussimato, seven; so farther to Wota, four; from Wota to Muro, six; then to Akas, thirteen; so to Fiungo, five; and from Fiungo to the River of Osacca, is thirteen Leagues.

Frisius and Brookhorst are fetch d into Osacca.¶ UPon the first Rumors of the Ambassadors, Frisius and Brookhorst's arri­val at Osacca, both Men and Women, throng'd in great multitudes to meet these strangers; but the greatest croud was on the Bridge, on which they flock'd, that from thence they might satisfie their Curiosity in viewing the Netherlanders; several of these Bridges were scarce sufficient to bear the burthen of such great multitudes, and often cracking so exceedingly, that they not onely threaten'd great danger to those which stood on them, but also those that Row'd under them.

The Inhabitants had almost forgot that ever they had seen a people which dwelt in another part of the world, and come above three thousand Miles in a stately Embassy to their Emperor, which made the chief Citizens and Bur­gesses of Osacco themselves to venture their lives on the foremention'd Woodden Bridges to see these strangers.

Jacob Spex, and Peter Sea [...], on when they came to Osacca.ANno 1611. The Ambassador Jacob Spex and Peter Segerszoon pass'd through Osacco with Presents to the Emperor Goyssio Samma, who at that time kept his Court in the City Soringou, to the end, they might obtain liberty for to Trade there.

Their journey from Fi­rando thither.These Ambassadors went on the 16 of June, Anno 1611. from Firando with one Bark; So Sailing by the Island Aymissima, and the City Assia, and Row'd along the Banks of Cocero, and in the Evening dropt Anchor in sight of the City Ximont­chequi; but the Wind rising and blowing in great gusts, forc'd them to Weigh, and Row back to the Haven Isacky: Where arriving, the Wind soon after ceas'd, and they the second time Weigh'd, and Steer'd their Course to Ximont­chequi; towards the Evening they came to Myands: So leaving Cadmenexequi on the Larboard, about midnight, they drew near Szuwa, under which Isle they came to an Anchor: From Szuwa they proceeded forward, having the Stream with them; but the Wind being against them, they got but sixty Miles in three days time, which was not without great pains and toil of the Rowers; who at last being quite tyr'd out, the Lord Spex was forc'd to put in for Vosimado, where he hired four Japan Vessels, which, by turns were to ease the weary'd Row­ers: But they had the Wind still Easterly, and blowing often very fresh, so that with great difficulty they at last reach'd the Haven Muro, where the Sea went so high, that two of their Vessels sunk before the Harbor; but the Wea­ther growing calmer, they betook themselves again to their Oars, to Row thorow the hollow Waves; but the Tide setting them so hard, they were forc'd to come to an Anchor at Firmensi; From hence Weighing, they pass'd Tackessima to Fiungo, and from thence to Osacca; a great part of their way, the Sea-men were forc'd to hale their Bark along the shore, which put them to great pains.

On the sixth of August, the Ambassador Spex came to the River of Osacca, and Anchor'd before the City Aussima, where he hired several small Vessels, to carry him to Fussiny, because his Vessel drew too much Water for to carry him over the Shoals. In the afternoon he went through Osacca, and towards Evening Row'd up the Stream, which in many places was so shallow, that they were forc'd to put forward their Vessels with great trouble.

Fidery Samma looseth his Crown.At that time there resided in Osacca a Person of Royal Extract, call'd Fidery Samma, a young Prince eighteen years old, who was strangly bereav'd of the Diadem of that Kingdom, and by reason of his great Revenue, and the gene­ral [Page]

[Page][Page][Page]
The Citty OSACCO De St [...]t OSACCO

[Page] [Page 89]affection of Nobles and Commons, stood also fair for the whole Empire; but having lost all, he retir'd thither as a private person.

The journey of Francis Caron, and Henrick Hagena­er from Firandona to Osacca.¶ SInce that time, besides several others, Francis Caron, and Henrick Hagenaer went Anno 1634. the 13 of October in an Embassy to the Emperor of Ja­pan, who Sailing from Firando, harbour'd that night in the Bay of Tascha; the next day Sailing on till the Evening, they were forc'd by a violent showre of Rain to Anchor against the Village Jobokki; next morning proceeding in their Voyage, they pass'd the City Fagatta, and the Island Anesma, and at last came to an Anchor at Chimano Suky, where they were presented with some fresh Pro­visions, by the Agent of the East-India Company residing there.

After a short refreshment, the Ambassador Caron Weighing Anchor, with a fresh Gale from the North West, about Midnight enter'd the Straits of Camono­siky, whose Banks on both sides are continu'd Streets, being full of Houses: here they were forc'd to produce their Pasports, which done, they left this place, and after some time met with such a hollow Sea between several scatter'd Isles, that they were necessitated to get into a small Harbor of a Fish Town. But the Weather growing calmer, they Row'd to Cammangasie, and from thence to Memarry, a handsom City, crown'd with many Spires.The City Mewarry. On the utmost Point to the Sea-ward stands a very fair Temple, whose Steeple being seen at a great di­stance at Sea, serves for a Beacon or Light-House.

Here they left the City Bignatum on their Larboard, and ran East North East by the City Oussimato, and came in the Evening to Muro, where the Bonjoyes of Nangesaque commanded the Netherlanders Interpreter to inform them, who those were that were travelling to the Emperor.

Out of this Harbor, Ambassador Caron set Sail with a Train, besides his own, of above a hundred Japanners, and soon after reach'd the City Akas, where they encounter'd with a loud Storm out of the North East, furrowing up a very hol­low Sea.

The City Akas.AKas, a well fortifi'd City, stands fortifi'd at one side with a Castle of De­fence, surrounded with Stone Walls, rais'd out of the Water; from hence they set forward, and pass'd by Fiungo, and after Noon they spy'd the City Osacca and Saccaio; about Sun-set they got over the Flats, and enter'd the Bay of Osacca; where going a shore, they were receiv'd by, and lodg'd in the house of Grabbidons, President there for the East-India Company.

These were the two onely Embassies that pass'd through Osacca before the Ambassadors Frisius and Brookhurst, who after their arrival ashore in the after­noon, were conducted to a fair Lodging,Frisius and Brookhurst bo­dyed in a Noble mans house in Osacca. with all conveniencies in a stately House, in which the Commanders and Governors of Nangesaque in their tra­velling backward and forward to their Emperor, use to take up their Lodgings. The Fabrick it self was formerly the Habitation of a Japan Priest, but since al­ter'd into a house of Entertainment for Ambassadors and Envoys.

The description of the mighty City Osacca.¶ AS to what concerns Osacca, it is an Imperial City, and the Metropolis of the Territory of Quioo. Near the mouth of the River, an obstruct­ing Rock divides the Channel, making it troublesom and dangerous for those that pass the River, runs up Northerly, branching through the middle of Osac­ca, and also through Meaco, making many Sands and Shoals, and at last looseth it self in a spreading Lake beyond that City.

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On the utmost Point or Promontory of the River stands the King's Custom-House, where all Ships must touch that pass by the same, there paying such Customs as belongs to their Cargo with which they are Freighted: this House rais'd each Story with a several Roof, shews very stately, and is to be seen far into the Sea.

Mountains near Osacca.On each side appear two rising Hills, which hinder the Prospect of the East and West side of the City; onely some of the high Spires appear above.

The Water-Castle of Osac­ca.Opposite to the Custom-house stands the Kings Block-house, surrounded with a strong Wall rais'd out of the River, ready and fully replenish'd for all Occasions with well-mounted Cannon. The Emperor Xogunsama began to build this Fort; but his Son Toxogunsama, succeeding him in his Imperial Throne, Anno 1629. finish'd and Garison'd it in the space of three Years.

Store-houses against Fire.Behind the same are built ten Store-houses, opposite to the Sea, with a broad Street, and a Stone Cause-way. These Ware-houses are exceeding large, and built all of Stone, that they may not suffer Damage by Fire.

Imperial Turrets.There are also several Towers, in which the Emperor keeps his Treasure, collected from the Isles Chiccock, Saycock, and Tonsa.

Besides these foremention'd Buildings,Water-Gate. is also seen the Water-Gate, through which the Custom'd Goods go in and out, having a great and broad pair of Stairs, which descend to the Sea, and a Guard of five hundred Soldiers con­stantly attending the same.

Somewhat further is the Emperors Ship-yard, which is of a great Circum­ference, having many Docks in the same, wherein continually all manner of Vessels are a building, whose Hulls they make generally very broad. The other part of the City stands behind the Hills; but is divided from them by a Rivulet.The Governors House. A little way up the River from the Sea, is the Governors House, curiously built, and within full of costly Rooms, and rises aloft, in manner of a Steeple, with four Roofs.

The Temple of Devils.Between this Edifice and the Block-house appears the lofty Roof of the [Page 91]Temple of Infernals, within which the Japanners worship a horrible Image:Their Idols very horrible. His Head represents that of a Wild Boar, with two great Tusks sticking out of his Jaws; and adorn'd with a stately Crown, full of Diamonds, and other Precious Stones. Over his Breast hangs a Scarf, which is parted in the middle: and that which makes it the more terrible to behold, are four out­spread Arms, of which one of the left stands upwards, holding a Ring on the longest Finger; the other hanging downwards, holds a Flower not unlike a Lilly. The uppermost Right Hand gripes fast a small Dragons Head, spit­ting Fire; the lowermost, a Golden Scepter: trampling with his Feet upon the Belly and Thigh of another Devil, which lies along under him: He ha­ving his Head all hairy, and a pair of Ox Horns graffed thereon, with an Iron Chain about his Neck, a Girdle with great Buttons about his Middle, a long Tail between his Leggs, and broad Garters about his Knees; the Right Arm stretch'd out, and the left bended in to his Side, is as dreadful a Spectacle as the other. These horrid Shapes they nominate Joosie Tiedebak; How they call them. and God they call, contrarily, Joosie Goesar. The Japanners honor and worship these resem­blances of Devils with all manner of Offerings, to the end they might not receive any hurt from them.

The Image of their Devil Vitziputzli.The same Opinion have the Western Indians of their Devil Vitziliputzli, whom they Worship and Reverence with great Zeal. This Vitziliputzli sits on a Silver Foot-stool, which stands upon a Bier, whose four ends have as many Props, with Serpents or Adders Heads fix'd on them. The Forehead of this Idol is painted blue, with two Streaks of the same Colour athwart his Nose, running to each Ear. His Head like a long-Bill'd Bird, is impalled with stately Plume of Feathers, the tip of the Bill of massie Gold. In his Left Hand he holds a white round Box, and five white Plumes, pleited cross-ways over one another; in the middle a Branch, which signifies Victory. On his Side hang four Arrows, which (according to the Opinion of the Mexicans) were sent him from Heaven: His Right Hand rests on a Staff, in manner of a Ser­pent, painted with blue Streaks: Upon his Bosom appears the Face of a Man, with glaring Eyes, a high Nose, and a wide Mouth, opening before or near the Orifice of his Stomach. Thus stood he, for the most part vail'd with a Curtain; his Body almost cover'd with Chains of Pearls, Diamonds, and other Precious Stones, which hung round with various colour'd Plumes, like Labels.

The Devil Tezcatlipuca.They no less fear their Demon Tezcatlipuca, made of black Jet, and cloath'd in a rich Habit: In his mouth he holds a Silver Spike, about a Finger long, in which sometimes stick Green, other times Red Plumes of Feathers; which distinguish'd Colours they wear as Favors at their several Festivals. Between both his Ears hang many Gems of great Value; and about his Neck an Em­rauld, that covers most part of his Breast; also wearing Golden Armlets: On his Navil a costly Topaz; his Left-hand bearing a Fan of Gold, being a Plate so curiously pollish'd, that it well perform'd the Office of a Mirror or Look­ing-glass, by the Mexicans call'd Itlachcaia, wherein they believe Tezcatlipuca sees all the Transactions of the World, by which he Judges, Determines, and Pu­nishes or Prefers every one according to their well or ill doing: Therefore he stands ready with four Darts, to distribute upon those which commit the high­est Offences.

The Tempell of the Idoll Canon TEMPEL VAN DEN AFGODT KANON.

The Watch-house in O­sacca is very stately.¶ BUt return again to the Description of the Imperial City Osacca: Be­hind the Diabollical Temple, spreading it self along the Shore, stands a Watch-Tower, a more than Royal Building, rais'd extraordinary high, in the great Street which leads to the City Saccai.

At some distance from this, next you may behold a large and stately Tem­ple, in which is a wonderful Idol, being fifty Foot high: Its Head all of Sil­ver, presented by the King of Bom, whose Countrey abounds with Mines of that Metal.

Imperial Banquetting-house.On the Left-hand, at the lower end of the City, opens from behind the Hill, a fair Prospect of the Imperial Tower, crown'd with an almost unmea­surable Spire; beyond which, about a League Southward from Osacca, may be seen another Tower, call'd Lords-Castle, where the Noble-men use to meet, both for their Serious Occasions and Divertisements.

The Temple of the Idol Canon.But in the Center or middle of the City stands the much celebrated Tem­ple of the Idol Canon, whom the Japanners believe hath the absolute Power over all sorts of Fish and Fowl that haunt the Water, he being as their Neptune, or Sea-commanding God: A few Steps from which stands the Porters Lodge, with a broad-brimm'd Roof, whose Edges shoot far out before the Walls: Near this lies a Path leading to the Out-wall, which now lies for the most part in its own Ruins; yet this Wall hath one very fair Gate, resembling a Triumphal Arch, through which they walk to a pleasant Plain, full of shady Trees: but this Pleasure is divided from them by a second Quadrangular Wall, Plaister'd with white Loam, every Quarter a pleasant Green belonging to it.

Strange Porch before Canons Temple.But the Temple-Porch belonging to the first Wall, that incloses the Court, is built Orbicular, with six Angles, making a kind of Cupiloe on the top. To this sad Place many wretched People resort, who, weary of their Lives, ei­ther suffering under Poverty, or Chronical Infirmities, or distracted with [Page 93]blind Zeal, in Fits of their Religious Melancholy,Japanners drown them­selves. here expecting to be freed from all their Sorrows, and to enter into present Happiness, by drowning themselves in this their Soul-saving Pool of their Water-God: But first they warily consult Canon himself in the Portal, seeking his Advice; from which, as their fond Fancies dictate, they either return full of Hopes, or desperately throw themselves headlong in, and for a quicker dispatch, greedily swallow the Water.

As did also the ancient Germans, to the Honor of the Goddess Hertha.This kind of dreadful Sedecede, or destroying themselves, is not unlike the ancient Worship of the Teutonick Goddess Hertha, which Tacitus relates thus: That in an Isle lying not far out at Sea, a Priest waited in a Grove consecrated to the God­dess Hertha, in which stood a close Chariot, which was profan'd if touch'd by any but this her Attendant: His Function was to know at what time the Goddess set forth upon her Holy Voyage, to visit the Seats of Joy and Everlasting Happiness; to which purpose, he made ready the Chariot, and Harness'd the Buffles to draw her; which he attended with great Zeal and Religious Diligence: And what Countreys soever she pass'd through, all War turn'd suddenly to Peace. Nor finish'd she her Progress, till the Priest had fully inform'd her, of the several Impieties raging and reigning everywhere; which done, she driving into a Lake, as weary of this World, suddenly vanish'd, never appearing more; and all the Retinue that belong'd to her, following the Chariot, in like manner drown'd themselves: From whence arose that kind of mad Zeal and frantick Desire, of thus ma­king themselves away by Water, that so they might meet with the Pleasures of the other World.

In what place the God­dess Hertha was chiefly wor­shipp'd. Philippus Cluverius, in his History of Germany, affirms, That the Island before­mention'd by Tacitus, is no other but Rugau; where yet to this day, near the Promontory Stubbenkamar, stands a Thicket call'd De Stubenitz, and in the same a Lake of Black Water, so deep, that it is suppos'd to be bottomless; which though it abounds with Fish, yet is not frequented by Fishers; this proceed­ing out of a Reverential awe or fear of this thought to be Sacred Water: Yet some less scrupulous in Points of that nature, undertook lately to leave a Boat in the foremention'd Pool, designing to Fish there the next day; and coming in the Morning, their Boat was gone, which after long search they found fix'd in an Oaken Tree: Whereupon one of the Fishermen cry'd aloud, saying, What! were all the Devils joyn'd together, to cast my Boat in yonder Tree? Strange Relation. Upon which he heard a terrible Voyce replying, All the Devils were not imploy'd, but onely two, I and my Brother Claes. But not only this Pool belonging to the Nymph Hertha, were they Diabollically perswaded to make themselves away in; but many other Places in Germany, where upon the like account Self-murder was committed, by throwing themselves headlong into the Water, raging to follow the same Goddess to the foremention'd Seats of Bliss.

A farther Description of Canons Temple.¶ BUt to return again to the Temple of Canon: The same rises aloft with three peculiar Stories, whose Roofs are six-square, jetting out a great way over the Walls. Every Partition hath three double Windows; on­ly between the second and lowest Story stands a Gallery, supported on twenty eight great Pillars. The Walls painted with all manner of Fishes, adorn much the outside of the Temple.

Description of the Idol Canon.Within stands the Idol Canon, who, according to the Relation of the Bonzi, or Japan Priests, liv'd two thousand Years ago, and created the Sun and Moon. The Image appears from the middle upwards as if rising out of the Jaws of a Fish: On his Forehead sticks a Flower: From each Elbow-joynt come two [Page 94]

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Arms; one erected, with a Ring on the Middle-finger; the other pendent, holding a Flower between his Fingers. That Right-hand which he holds aloft is clinch'd; the lowermost holds a Scepter: About his Arms, Neck, and Middle hang Strings of Pearl: From his Shoulders hang two Scarfs: Before him stands the Figure of a Youth, appearing from the middle upward out of a great Shell; who with Arms erected, prays to Canon; having a Scarf ty'd about his Middle, of which the ends hang over: On the right side stands an Altar, on which are plac'd four Images, in a supplicating posture; out of their Hands, folded together, springs Water, which runs into four round Holes made for their Feet. The Mythologie of these, and the Figure in the Shell, the Bon­zies refus'd to declare.

The Chief Buildings in Osacca.¶ ON the right side of Canon's Temple stands the Admirals House; and somewhat near this City, a stately Cloyster of the Bonzies, rising with two high Roofs or Stories, a great distance one from the other. Next this is the Habitation of the General, known by its double Roofs, and Gable Ends; hard by which stands the Temple with two hundred Images: And no less stately is the Palace belonging to the Lord-Treasurer of Japan.

In the same Street stands a Watch-Tower, which is seen by Land six Leagues from the City; and at Sea, seven. The Church in which the Ima­ges of the old Bonzies are kept as Holy Reliques, is also very curious to behold; part of it may be seen at some distance at Sea, and the other part conceals it self behind the Hills.

How it is within.Moreover Osacca, like most of the other Cities in Japan, hath neither Walls nor Bulwarks; but is divided in the middle by a Current, on both sides of which are stately Buildings, made of Clay; the outsides cover'd with Boards, to keep the Water from soaking through; within full of large Cham­bers. In the time of the Emperor Xogunsama, Anno 1614. seven Ships with Convicts went from the Haven of Osacca to Nangesaque, because they would [Page 95]not desist from the Roman Catholique Religion: At that time also the Jesuits Church in Osacca was pull'd down by Sangamido, who was impower'd by the Emperor to persecute the Romanists; which was perform'd with all manner of Cruelty, all imaginable Tortures being us'd on them.

Osacca is oftentimes ru­in'd in the Japan Civil-Wars.But above all, Osacca suffer'd much by the Civil Wars which the Japanners maintain'd one against another, each striving to obtain the Imperial Crown; insomuch that the City and Castle fell now into the hands of one, and then of the other.

After the Death of the Emperor Taycosama, Anno 1601. Japan was exceeding­ly turmoyl'd in a Civil War; nine Princes joyning against Dayfusama, of whom the Chief Commander was Morindono King of nine Provinces, out of which he rais'd Forty thousand Men, many Great Persons amongst them; and had also the Treasure of the deceas'd Taycosama, and all Necessaries for War: In the interim, some of these Provincials set upon Dayfusama, who en­tertain'd them so roughly, that Eighty thousand Men were either slain by the Sword, ripp'd open their own Bowels, or were taken Prisoners, few of them escaping by Flight.

Conquest of Dayfusama.Hereupon Dayfusama carried his Victorious Army with all speed to Osacca, where Morindono was so much astonish'd at his gotten Victory, that he left the Invincible Castle Osacca, which was provided with double Stores, and strong enough to endure the greatest Siege that could be,Osacca is taken. to Dayfusama; before whose Approach, he with some of his Nobles forsook the Castle, and went to his stately Palace beyond Osacca, resolving to submit himself freely to the Mercy of the Conqueror.

But the King of Sassuma shew'd much more Courage: for he, with Six hun­dred Soldiers, valiantly fought his way through the Conquering Army of Day­fusama, and marching on undiscompos'd towards Osacca, got thither some Hours before Dayfusama, where he furnish'd himself with such Vessels as he found, with which he Sail'd to his own Kingdom Sassuma, distant above two hundred Leagues from Osacca, to the end that he might there Fortifie himself against Dayfusama.

A horrible Earthquake in Osacca.¶ BEsides this their suffering by War, this City before endur'd a far great­er Misery, almost to an utter Desolation, by a sudden Earthquake, happening Anno 1585, the fourth of August, about Midnight; which was so terrible, that they expected nothing less than present Destruction. The first shudder or shake was so vehement, that in less than half an hours space, many hundreds were buried in the Rubbish of their own fallen Houses. The fairest Buildings first failed, coming to ground with horrible cracks; amongst which, that stately Palace, the fairest and largest that ever the Sun shin'd upon, which Taycosama built, with ample Galleries, and such spacious Courts, that therein they say he was able to Exercise a hundred and fifty thousand Men. This stupendious piece of Architect he built on purpose to shew his Power and Magnificence to Ambassadors, that were ready with an Embassy from the Em­peror of China.

The Xetherland Ambas­sadors travel from Osacca.¶ OUr Ambassadors Frisius and Brookhurst, after they had taken a full Survey of the City Osacca, departed from thence the twentieth of January, Anno 1649. Early in the Morning their Goods were sent before, the Carriage requir'd eighty two Horses: And the whole Train consisted of for­ty [Page 96]

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four Netherlanders and Bongois on Horseback, a hundred Bearers, appointed onely to carry and look to the Presents, the Silver Vessel, great Looking-glass, and many other Rarities. The Ambassadors went in several Sedans, being attended in all by three hundred Men, and a hundred twenty eight Horses.

Their Journey to Menco.With this Train the Ambassadors came about Noon to the great Village Fi­raskatta, where they Dined; and about four a clock they travell'd through Jon­da, which is a small City, curiously built, Fortified with a strong Castle, and surrounded with Walls. The Governor of this Place came to meet the Am­bassadors, who having a considerable Train, was carried in a Sedan, and fol­low'd by some of his Guards. All the way which they pass'd was on a high Bank, verg'd with Rice-Fields so far as could be discern'd. At that time it was every where Frozen very hard on the top of this Bank; and in going down the same, they Travell'd through several Villages, and the Way it self was planted on both sides with Trees.

Description of the Japan Cedars.Amongst these the Cedars rais'd their lofty tops above all the others, to an exceeding height. Theophrastus relates, That the Syrians and Phenicians us'd Ce­dars for the Building of their Ships: The same Custom is at this day in Ja­pan, and no marvel, because the Cedar hath a Gummy Moysture, which pre­serves it from rotting; which Secret the Japanners not knowing, oftentimes look upon the Sudor or Sweating of their Cedar Images as a great Wonder: But this is occasion'd by the moist Air, and a South Wind, which generally draws an Oyl out of that Wood. Moreover this Tree grows higher and thicker, according to the several Places it is Planted in. On the Mountains of Syria they grow so large-wasted, that four Men are scarce able to fathom one of them; but these have spiny and slender Bodies, considering their wondrous Height, whose lofty Crowns seem to mingle with the Clouds. Japan also produ­ces Cedars, no ways inferior to those: The Leaves thereof are soft and downy, but prickly at the sharp ends. There is also a small kind of Resemblance be­tween the Cedar and the Juniper-Tree; but the Leaf of the last is longer and [Page 97]smaller, and grows nothing near so high; and the Wood thereof, being cut asunder and us'd, is soon subject to rot: And also the Cedars are of a more fragrant smell, and bear a kind of Cod not unlike the Myrtle, which being open'd, hath four white Corns or Grains, like Rice, inclos'd in them; which when ripe, are of a deep yellow Colour; whereas the Juniper-berry is black, bitterish, and unpleasant to the Palate.

Gum of Cedars, of what Vertue and Use.The Gum which the Cedar produces, preserves the dead Corps from decay­ing; and the Berries have three several tastes: for the innermost of them is of a sharp rellish, the outermost Shell sweet, and the Pulp it self between sweet and sowre. These Trees either have continually Fruits or Blossoms on them: So that whilst one Tree bears Blossoms or Green-fruit, the other Ripen. This Fruit being hot in Operation, helps all Coughs proceeding from cold De­fluxions, the Cramp, opens obstructed Uritories; and the Oyl thereof, if the Body be annointed therewith, defends it from the biting of Venomous Crea­tures. Furthermore, the Cedar always flourisheth, being constantly green; whose stately Branches run up in an exact Line, like the Trees themselves; but if the Branches grow too heavy for them, the Body of the Tree commonly bends, growing crooked under the Burthen: The Cod which incloses the Berries, when it begins to ripen, opens it self, and in time of Rain or Mists, drops off, leaving a round Stalk at the Boughs: This Stalk decays not till two Years after the dropping off of the Cod, which of it self requires a whole Year before it becomes ripe, and this happens chiefly in Winter.

The Ambassadors come to Meaco.Along this Bank, shaded with Trees, verging the River, the Netherland Am­bassadors going through a Town call'd Iondo, came to Meaco, where they were Receiv'd and Lodg'd in the House of a Wealthy Merchant.

¶ THis Imperial City Meaco lies in the Province of Mino, eighteen Leagues beyond Osacca. Along this River (which takes its Original from a great Lake three Hours Walk beyond Meaco, discharging its Waters through Osacca into the Sea) stands the Imperial Blood-Grove; The Imperial Blood Grove near Meaco, why so call'd. which Denomination it receiv'd from the Japan Emperor Nobunanga, who was murder'd there June 22. Anno 1582.

The Emperor Nobunan­ga would be worshipp'd as a God.¶ THis Nobunanga in the time of his Reign had erected a new City, and call'd it Anzuquiama, on a pleasant Hill, raising within it a stately Temple; which to make the more famous, he caus'd to be brought thither the most Ador'd and Venerable Idols in all Japan. Next to this Temple he Found­ed a Sumptuous Chappel, where on a polish'd Marble he had his Imperial Arms Ingraven, and his own Statue delineated to the Life; which so soon as finish'd, he publish'd his Royal Edicts, with strict Commands, That after Proclamation, and the appointed Time, none should dare presume thenceforth to worship any other God, than that his Image in the Temple, within the City Anzuquiama, because he was Created by Heaven and Earth.

Soon after he set forth second Orders, with the like strictness, That on such a day, being our last of February, all Persons, of what Degree soever, should keep holy that Day, being his Imperial Majesties Birth-day; requiring them also to repair to the Chappel at Anzuquiama, and there to worship the new god Xantai: To which he also added Promises, and Threatnings; viz. Those that did according to his Commands, adoring this his own new-erected Sta­tue, should, if they were Poor, grow Rich; and if Wealthy, their Estates [Page 98]

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should be augmented or improv'd, with the enjoyment of a long Life, in great felicity: And those that neglected this Duty, were to expect the contrary.

A great resort of People to Meaco.This being Proclaim'd through all the Empire, the great City Meaco was much too little for so vast a Concourse of People, that in throngs flock'd dai­ly thither: So that several Leagues were taken up round about the City, for the Entertainment of these mighty Multitudes; the Town being first cramm'd up, and many forc'd to ly aboard their Ships.

A new Idol Xantai.On the Day of Celebration, the young Prince, Nobunanga's Son, first be­gan the Ceremony, prostrating himself in a devout manner before the new Image Xantai: After, in order, the Kings, Princes, and Nobles, and other Eminent Persons, in their respective Degrees.

At which time appear'd, to their great amazement, a wonderful Prodigy, a Blazing Comet; and also at Noon-day Fire falling from Heaven; seeming to signifie sudden and sad Misfortunes, all threatning and impending over the Head of Nobunanga. A Temple and Idol at Dubo. About a Mile from Meaco, in the Village Dubo, Nobunanga also built a fair Temple, in which he set up an Image, intended for his own, and to the Life resembling himself. The Idol sits Cross-legg'd in the middle of a Pedestal, rais'd with broad Margins, curiously Ingraven, his Hands lying upon his Belly: About his Neck hangs flying a loose Scarf: Chains of precious Gems and Jewels adorn his Breast and Bosom; and a tripple Chain of Pearl about his Neck, Waste, and Belly. But the greatest Ornament was the Illustrious Crown which impalled his Head, which thus Nobunanga made himself Master on.

Nobunango makes him­self Emperor of Japan. Anno 1564, the Emperor Cubo Govern'd Japan, who kept his Court at Meaco: when Twelve thousand Traytors conspiring against the Emperor, enter'd in­to a Solemn League and Covenant, and at the first appearance surpris'd Meaco, firing the Palace in four Places.The Japan Emperor Cu­bo is murder'd. Cubo being taken thus unprepar'd, not able to put himself in fit posture of Defence, yet made a bold Sally, adventuring with his Sword drawn, follow'd onely with Two hundred Men, to make his [Page] [Page]

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[Page] [Page 99]way through; but there being over-power'd, receiving several Wounds, he was slain, and the rest all cut in pieces. So the Regicides broke into the Pa­lace; where finding the Emperors Mother and Daughter, they made up their bloody Breakfast by such Female Murders: but the Empress her self, conceal'd in a Cloyster of the Bonzi, being discover'd, in cold Blood, acting Rebellion to the heighth, as a Criminal, they beheaded.

Thus they destroy'd the whole Royal Family, onely preserving Cubo his younger Brother, because he had taken the Order of Priesthood; and that they might not suspect him hereafter, they ty'd him with a Sacerdotal Vow, and oblig'd him by the like Religious Promises; but he by this means making his Escape, he secretly convey'd himself to Vatadomo, Governor of Loca, who re­ceiv'd him very courteously, and perswaded to his assistance Nubunanga, King of Boari; who joyning together, brought an Army of sixty thousand Men into the Field against the Emperors Murderers, who finding themselves not able to resist, they freely resign'd (some of the prime Abettors being punish'd) he in stead of putting in the next of Blood, made himself absolute Master of the City and Castle of Meaco, re-edifying the burnt Palace,Meaco taken; and the burut Palace re-built. which for the sudden perfecting he neither spar'd Cost nor Labor, employing fifteen thousand Men daily at Work; and going up and down with a drawn Scymiter, that none might be idle or lose any time, where he cut off a Carpenter's Head, for lifting up the Vail of a Woman, by chance then passing by.

At last Nubunanga went on so victoriously, that in short time he conquer'd and brought under his subjection thirty several Kingdoms; also making him­self Master of Cubo, setting the Imperial Crown upon his Head, as a Trophy of his Victories: and afterwards put the same upon his new Idol in Dubo, which represented him to the life, that so he might, whilst living be worshipp'd as a god: to which end he wanted not store of Sycophant Courtiers, and other City Flatterers, that held him up in this his vanity, making him believe, That nothing could be more just and honorable for a Person that had perform'd such wondrous Acts, and made so many Conquests by his Prudence, sole Conduct, and Valor.

But others resented hainously this his vain Imagination, and proud Design; not but that several Princes they had themselves deifi'd for their worthy Acti­ons after they were deceased, but that his ambition should aspire so high, to be both God and Man at once, and whilst he was yet living, and subject to all mortal frailties, he should blasphemiously presume to take place among the gods, and receive Offerings and Sacrifice, onely fit for Immortals, and the ever blest; unless (said they) we should make him a god for his Cruelty, his Promise-breaking and Perjury: for whatsoever Countreys were surrendred to him, trusting in the Honor of a Prince, his Oaths and Clemency, he put with­out mercy to the Sword, as if he had taken them by Storm, and entred by violence. But more than any, King Aquechi, being a bold and high-spirited Prince, chaf'd and storm'd, and would not sit down tamely, and talk onely of this his prophane arrogance, though he had oblig'd him with many great favors and bounty, making him King of Tango, and General over his whole Army; yet in such a Point as this, the honor of Religion, and the true Wor­ship of their ever just gods, at the stake: therefore converting the Emperors whole Forces against him, he march'd up to Meaco the two and twentieth of June, Anno 1582.The Prince Aquechi flays Nubunanga. Nubunanga being thus suddenly surpris'd and beleaguer'd with his own Forces, had no way to attempt his Escape, but being follow'd close by [Page 100]the Enemy, he was, after some resistance, slain in the Wood near the River of Meaco, which from thence receiv'd the denomination of The Imperial Blood-Grove.

Revenues of the Temple at Dubo.The Temple which he erected in the Village Dubo, hath a Revenue of two hundred thousand Tail of Silver yearly, every Japan Tail reckon'd to be five Shillings Sterling. But now we will return again to Meaco.

Description of the City Meaco.¶ ON the side of this Imperial City is the great Mountain Duboyamma, which runs to Iondo; at whose Foot stands the Village Dubo, adorn'd with the stately Temple, erected there by Nobunanga, whose lofty Roof is seen in some Places above the shading Trees.The Idol Xaca at Dubo. Within stands the great Idol Xaca, taken for the chiefest in Japan; for which cause the Temple is constantly Lockt up, except at one time in the year; when it is open'd with great Cere­mony, and entred first by that Order of Priesthood, call'd Foquexus.

Several Opinions of the Japanners concerning their Religion.¶ THe Japanners differ so much in their Opinions in matters of Religion, that they may be divided into three principal Sects, which branch into many.

The Sect Xenxus.The first call'd Xenxus, acknowledge the Life to come, a Reward for the Good, and Punishment for all Evil doers. The Bonzi are of this Opinion, and chiefly shew great Reverence to their Idol Chamis: The Idol Chamis. for whose honor they have Founded several Temples, and use his Name upon all serious Matters, or when they take the Oath of Allegiance to their Emperor: To him they bring several Offerings, praying him either to remove those troubles which are upon them, or else to grant them a victorious and happy success in all their Enterprises.

Pythagorea [...] Doctrine embraced in Japan.The second Perswasion allow also of the immortality of the Soul; but ac­cording to Pythagoras, That the Soul should be transmigrated, according to their merits, either to worthier or baser Creatures, himself giving out, that he had once been Aethalides, Son of Mercury, who granted him a Boon to ask one fa­vor whatsoever he desir'd, excepting Immortality: whereupon he requested, That he might know and remember what-ever happen'd to him after his death, and not be forc'd to drink Lethe, the River of Oblivion: so after Aethalides his Decease, he was transmigrated into Euphorbus a Trojan Heroe, slain by Menelaus, next Hermotius then Pyrrbus a Fisherman of Delier, and lastly the foremention'd Pythagoras the Philosopher, who broach'd this so much follow'd Doctrine.

The Idol Omyto.This Sect which they style Xenxus, worship the Deity Omyto, commonly call'd Amida. The Fables which the Japanners relate of this Idol are beyond all apprehensions, and above our Faith to believe. It will be enough to relate, how they ascribe Salvation and everlasting happiness to this their god Amida, The Ido Amida. always invoking him with these words, Namu Amida Buth, that is, Save us, Bles­sed Amida, save us; which oft repeated Prayers they number upon Beads, as the Roman Catholicks do their Devotions, the Image holding a String of Beads like theirs.

The Secth Foqueux wor­ship the Idol Xaca.The third of the Grand Sectaries being Foqueux, pay their Devotions to the Idol Xaca, to whom they use commonly thus to Pray, Namu, Mio, Foreo, Qui, Quio, which whosoever speaks best and pronounces best, seems to them so do­ing, to be a good Omen of their future happiness; notwithstanding there is no Japanner, extracted from India, that well understands these words.

These Worshippers of the Idol Xaca are Cambadagies and Cacubo's, both esteem'd very zealous and religious amongst the Japanners.

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Mord des Keisers Kubo. Vermoorde vande Keyser CUBUS. The Murdering of the Emperor CUBUS

Cambadagi teaches Ido­latry. Cambadagi taught them first to offer Sacrifices to the Devil, and use Necro­mantick Arts; the other, Divination and Witchcraft, like the Chinese Priests. Most of these live in Hills and desolate Places, remote from all humane Society.

In the Village Dubo, on the Skirts of the Mountain Dubojamma, a Mile from Meaco, stands a Temple, the Residence of the great Idol Xaca.

The River which near Osacca discharges it self in the Ocean, runs through the City.

The chief Building of Meaco.This City is surrounded by Suburbs, and hath a Bridge, with two Tow­ers on each side of the River; near the Gate, through which runs the Way. that leads to Oets and Jesi, are very strong Watch-houses, both for Horse and Foot, where constantly they keep a strict Guard. Somewhat farther stands the high Tower, from whose top the Emperor may behold the great Lake near Jesi, and the pleasant Hill Pauromama.

Temple of the Bo [...]zi.Next to this is another Tower, which is the Emperors Armory. On the right side of this Structure appears the magnificent Temple, dedicated to the six Orders of Bonzi, where the chief of this Priesthood call'd Xaximofins dwell, and have their Residence.

The Palace of the Gayro.But in the Center, or middle of the City, stands, what out-shines all, the glorious Palace of the Dayro, whom they so much reverence, esteeming his Royal Person to be so sacred, that his Feet are not suffer'd to touch the Earth, nor the Sun to shine on any part of his Body; nor will they allow him to breathe the common or open Air; neither must the Hair of his Beard and Head be Clipt or Shav'd, nor his Nails Par'd: his Table is always plentiful­ly supply'd, and every Course dress'd and serv'd up in new Dishes.

The Emperor's Court.On the right hand is the Emperors Court, built more obscurely under the jetting side of a Mountain, and therefore scarce seen by those which travel from Osacca to Meaco, onely some of the Pinacles appear above the Hills.

Great Costs and Charges did Nobunango bestow in the re-building of this Palace after the burning of the same by the Rebels.

Near this is the Imperial Garden, full of Trees and odoriferous Flowers, which are so curiously Planted, that the Eye which beholds them seems never satisfi'd with so pleasant an Object.

Palaces of the Japan Kings.On both sides of this Garden are the Courts in which the Kings that com­monly attend the Emperor, have their Residence, every one striving to exceed the other in Building; so that end of the City seems all one Palace, being adorn'd with so many sumptuous Edifices.

The left side of the Dayro's Palace is shaded by an exceeding high Turret,Banquetting-Turrets. cover'd with a Golden Plate; below the Court, towards the River, are twelve more large and stately Houses, which make one Seraglio, The Seraglio. in which the Dayro keeps his Concubines.

Besides all other Buildings, the House of the chief Bonsjosen, call'd Eglanmith, that is, The light of understanding, makes a most glorious shew.

Somewhat lower you may see the Wall built by the Emperor Dayfusama; when he extended Meaco four Leagues in circumference.

No less costly is the great square Temple, with three Roofs rais'd very high, which incloseth the gilded Idol Dai Buth: to whose Worship the Japanners re­pair and flock from all Parts both far and near.

The Governors Court of Xoquansie appears also very glorious. The Em­perors Custom-house stands near the Gate which leads to Iondo, through which the Hollanders coming from Osacca made their entrance into this City, [Page 102]

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where all Strangers produce their Letters and Pasports, not till then being permitted to go any farther.

On the left side of the Custom-house a beautiful Temple shews it self, three stately Spires rising from the uppermost Roof, which contains as many gods, or Idols, as there are days in the year. Daily in order they take down an Image, which with great Ceremony they carry to the Chamber of the Eglamnith, where, after staying all Night, the Priests next Morning waiting upon it, carry it with great solemnity to the Temple, affixing it in its former Place.

The Emperors prime Herald, or King at Arms, call'd Honroccou Racclaybono, resides in another fair Court with three Roofs.

Next this a Watch-house, under whose Roof two thousand Men constantly keep Courts of Guard, always ready under Duty.

At the farthermost part of the City stands the Emperors Stables and Store­houses, wherein are kept all the Furniture and Arms belonging to Horse and Man; within whose utmost Bounds they may exercise forty thousand Horse­men.

The Citizens themselves dwell also in little Palaces, with such variety of Rooms, Lodgings and Apartments, as they think fit, which when they please they divide into many more, with Partitions curiously Gilt and Varnish'd af­ter the Indian manner, which they set up and remove with small trouble, so al­tering their whole House upon all occasions for their conveniency.

Meaco flourishes beyond all the Cities in Japan, because all others suffer much and often by Civil Wars, when this being the Seat of the Dayro, after he was degraded of his Imperial Authority, they bearing so much respect and re­verence to his Person, that they never look'd that way, nor drew their Armies near that Place, not so much as once to disturb him.

Father progress of the Netherland Ambassadors. Oets.¶ ONe Night the Hollanders stay'd in this City, and towards Noon on the one and twentieth of January, travell'd to the great Village call'd Oets. The way which directed thither was between high Mountains, on both sides built with Houses, one side appearing a stately Fort, rais'd on the Promontory of a River. In Oets the Ambassadors stay'd some hours to refresh themselves; then going forward, they went through Jesi, a Wall'd City,Jesi. to which leads an even. Path, each side beset with pleasant Trees; at the end of which Lane stands a Village, wash'd by the Water; on whose Promontory the Castle Oets is built.

The Water in this Place makes two Inlets, or Greeks, over the one a small Wooden Bridge, and over the other a Bridge of two hundred and thirty Steps long.

Japan Beggars¶ THis Road is much pester'd with Beggars, as most Ways of Japan are, which commonly have a great many Children with them. These poor People carry a Dish in their Hands, in which they receive and gather Alms. The Women carry a Budget, or Bag, and a Callibash, which hangs before them, and under that their Purse. Oftentimes whole Generations of them banish'd by the Emperor from the Cities, Range all over the Countrey with their Wives and Children. The antient People and Infants they carry in square Baskets, which they make fast to the Horns of two Oxen, one going before, and another behind, the rest lead the way, and follow, Singing Songs and Sonnets of the valiant Acts of the antient Japan Hero's, and so passing by seve­ral Houses, of which the Inhabitants, in reward for their Singing, bountifully bestow Alms upon them.

¶ THe Netherlanders departing from Jesi, came towards the Evening over a steep and scraggy Mountain into the Village Cusatz.

Here grow the best sort of Canes.This Place produces the best sort of Japan Canes or Sticks: The young Sprigs, fill'd with sweet Juice, are tough and full of Joints, each distinguish'd at equal distance by a round Knot, being small at bottom, and thick on the top. These Canes they use in stead of Ropes to tie with;The use and description of them. and also make Cables of them for their greatest Ships, which last longer than those of Hemp. They al­so make all manner of Baskets and Hampers of these Canes, which are much stronger than the Europeans that are Pleited of Twigs: and two Pieces of the said Cane being rubb'd hard together, serve in stead of a Flint and Steel for to strike Fire with.

Fruit-bearing Canes.There is a sort of these Canes which bears a sharp Fruit, the Shell of a Ches­nut colour, thorny, and full of streaks, which grow athwart one another, and is about the bigness of a small Apple, or Crab; on each Bough from the top to the bottom, in stead of Leaves, are small knotted Branches, which being ve­ry tough, are Pleited together like a Rope: The longest of these bears the Fruit which hangs just at the end thereof in a Cluster of six or seven Cods to­gether, each containing a hard Kernel; out of which they press Oyl, of a pe­culiar Vertue for the curing of Wounds, and therefore much us'd by the Slaves to heal those cruel Blows, which oftentimes they receive from their Masters with those Canes till the Blood runs down their Backs. Moreover, there are another sort which grow about Cusatz, shooting up from the Roots of small Trees, which spread themselves Pleited together a great way.

¶ BEfore day-light the Ambassadors proceeded forward in their Journey, and ere the Sun appear'd,Itzibe. they were got to the Village Itzibe. About two Leagues beyond Itzibe they Ferry'd over the River Jocatangauwa; and about ten a Clock they came to Minacutz.

Here a strong Castle stands for the securing of the Road which leads to Meaco.

To Minabutz guides an even Way, on both sides Planted with shading Trees, and border'd with Rice-Fields as far as they could discern.

Japan above all other Countreys abounds in Rice,Japan Rice. and produces much bet­ter than any other Place in India; whose Coasts it not onely supplies, but also all Europe in a plentiful manner: they Mowe it in September, the whitest sort bearing the higest Price: that which is brown, growing in Begu and Sian, is of a far less value.

In Japan, as also in all India, are no Mills to Grind any manner of Corn; wherefore they Bake no Bread after our European manner. Their Rice serves them in stead of Bread, but is boyl'd in Water, and brought to their Tables like Pap or Pudding. The Rice which is not kneaded but in Lumps, is very unwholsom, and occasions the griping in the Bowels, and weak Eyes. They also Roast their Rice after that it is boyl'd, making it in Cakes.

Father Xaverius relates, that travelling through Japan, he sustain'd himself a long time by those Cakes of Rice, which the Japanners call'd Arela, carrying some of them with him in his Sleeves.

The Rice when growing hath a fatty thick Leaf, not unlike those of Hous­leek, but broader, shooting up half a Yard from the Ground, with a Purple-colour'd Flower, and a double Root.

Plinius affirms, that the Indians made Oyl of Rice: but at present, not onely in Japan, but in all India, they make a very strong Liquor of it.

The Mountain Coetseca­jamma.¶ THe Hollanders leaving Minacutz, encountred with that high Moun­tain call'd Coetsecajamma, where they found much trouble in carry­ing over their Goods and Package; yet at last getting through Zintzsamma and Sacca, they came to Sicconoziro, where they rested all Night.

An hour before day-light the next Morning, the Moon shining, the Ways and Rivers also Frozen very hard, they proceeded forward in their Journey, where afar off they espy'd a costly Edifice,Castle Cammiammi. being the Castle Cammiammi, rising aloft with very high Turrets. The Walls built of Free-stone, fortifi'd the Ca­stle in such a manner, that it seem'd able to endure a hard Siege. Beyond this Fortress appears a large Village. About two Leagues farther they entred the Town Isacutz; Note: PLACE="marg"Isacutz. and whilst they were there at Dinner, some Rusticks came and offer'd them Provisions to sell, being Clothed as the ordinary Citizens, or Burgers,Description of the Ja­pan Rusticks. Riding through the Countrey on Buffles, having a Hook in his Nose, which being made fast to a Chain, and coming about his Ears, and between his Horns, serves them for a Bridle.

The Women wear Clogs under their Feet, which have a Knob that sticks between their great and second Toe, to keep them close to their Feet: they wear a kind of short Boots, or Buskins, which they fasten with Strings athwart one another.

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¶ FRom Isacutz the Ambassadors travell'd through Zono, Ojebakitz, Owaka, Isacutz. Jokeitz, and Tonuda, to Quana: The City Quana. In the closing of the Evening they entred the City, which above all Places in Japan is most artificially built, and sur­rounded with strong Walls, on one side fortifi'd with a large Castle all of hewn Stone, whose Turrets are seen at a great distance.

The City Piongo ruin'd by Wars and Earthquakes.¶ ABout half way between Meaco and Quano, stands more Northerly into the Countrey, the famous City Piongo, which in the War that Nobanunga maintain'd after the Emperor Cubus's death, was quite ruin'd: For when Ca­vadonis Vocata, Brother of the deceased Cubus, who was the onely Person that was left alive of that Imperial Family, escaping from his Enemies, and flying to Vantandonus for Aid, which he obtain'd, was not onely nobly treated by him in his Castle, but also endeavor'd by perswasions to stir up his neighboring Kings to take revenge on the Emperor's Murderers; amongst whom Nobanun­ga, King of Voari, willingly embraced this opportunity, to the end, as he pre­tended, to help Vocata to the Crown of his deceased Brother Cubus; but contra­ry, in a Civil War, he embroil'd the whole Countrey: for when Nobanunga had quell'd the Rebels, and made Peace with their chief Commanders, Mioxidoni, and Diondoni, he never so much as thought of establishing Vocata in the Throne, but turn'd his victorious Army against other Japan Kings; of which he brought thirty under his subjection, as is said before: and by these Conquests made himself Master of the whole Empire. Amongst which fluctuating Commoti­ons and Turmoils of an intestine War, Piongo bore no small share; for being taken by force, it had not quite worn out the marks of Nobanunga's cruelties: and soon after, in the Year 1596. was totally ruin'd by a terrible Earthquake, that more than half the City, with Houses, Temples, and People, were swal­low'd up in the Earth, and the remaining part thereof turn'd so topsie-turvie, that it represented nothing but a heap of Ruins and Rubbish, and miserable marks of Divine severity.

Terrible Earthquakes in Trugillo¶ THese Earthquakes in Japan are very common, as also in America; and amongst other Places, Trugillo, a City in Peru, Anno 1619. the fourth of February, was exceedingly shaken by the like Trepidation: a little before Noon the Ground began to move, and in few Minutes ran the space of an hundred and sixty Leagues, continuing very fiercely for fifteen Days; all which time a dreadful Comet hung over their Heads, which added, if possible, more terror to the Inhabitants, expecting their utter destruction, and the end of the World.

Two being struck with a consternation, became dumb.Besides those great numbers that were destroy'd, and had scarce room to lie buried under the ruin'd Buildings, it is worthy our observation, how Peter Flores a Councellor, Johannes Pontinus de Leon, Secretary to the Peruan Bishop, both Spaniards, were struck with such a wonderful consternation, that they be­came dumb, and never spake after.

A strange accident.Amongst others also happen'd another strange Accident, which may serve as a fit pattern of Divine Justice: A publick Notary coming over thither, and being busied about drawing some Articles of Agreement, by which a poor Man suffer'd much injury and great damage, he having false Witnesses ready to Sign the same, one there present discover'd the Cheat, who falling out with the false Witnesses, was by them drove out of the House, and he no soon­er being got in the Street, but the House tumbled down, killing him and his false Witnesses.

Great Earthquakes in Canada.No less terrible was another late Earthquake in Canada. The first of Febru­ary, Anno 1663. there arose a great noise and rumbling like Thunder in the Air; whereupon soon after the Bells fell a Jangling as if they had Rung of them­selves, the Walls rent asunder, great pieces of Timber and Stones fell on the Ground, the Roofs of Houses and the Trees struck and fought one against an­other.

Near the Village call'd The Three Rivers, two great Mountains with Woods were turn'd with the bottoms upwards, Rocks and Mountains thrown into the River, so making several Channels in the same, and the Waters made new In­roads into the Countrey.

In other Places Hills were swallow'd up, whole Woods remov'd, and by Pauwels Village a Mountain was wash'd off by the Floods, and became an Island, and is still to be seen in the River.

But no Countrey in the World suffers so many Calamities, and more almost total Ruines, than this our Japan.

¶ FRom Quano the Ambassadors took Shipping: for between Quano and Mia the Ocean makes a great Bay, so that none can travel by Land but with great Charges, loss of Time, and through bad Ways: for which cause they hir'd sixteen Japan Vessels, in which they Shipp'd their Goods, Hor­ses and Men; so hoising Sail, and having a small Gale of Wind, it was Mid­night before they reach'd Mia, the Bay being about seven Leagues over.

Description of the City Mia.¶ THis City is very curiously built, and adorn'd with many Temples, and fortifi'd towards the Sea with a strong Castle. Here the Hollan­ders stay'd a whole Night.

Sacci Bonzi, Japan Priests.In this place, as generally through all Japan, they met with the Sacci Bonzi, being Japan Priests, which perform their Duties in the Temples, and serve as Chaplains in Noble-mens Houses, as we said; their Hats made of fine Straw, [Page 107]

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with broad round Brims, the Crown like our Scull-caps, fitting just the Mold of their Heads: their Coats, which are very wide, hanging down to their Heels, of several colours, and are Selvidg'd with white: their Girdles, which are broad, and stuff'd full of Cotton, serve them in stead of Pockets for their Books and Memorials; which they use chiefly in their publick Devotions: their Shoes, like Slippers, having a Heel rais'd with three pieces of Leather: In the right Hand they carry a thick Cord, roll'd up like a Spindle; in the left, a Copper Bason, Engraven with Images, representing the Japan Idols: on which Basons they strike with great force with the knotted Rope. But this custom of theirs they use but seldom, unless they make Offerings and Sacrifices in the open Streets: for at other times, when they perform their Services in the Church, they hang the same at the Door, or Entrance of the Temple.

Narromi, Siriomi, and the stately City Occosacci.¶ THe Ambassadors parted from Mia the twenty fourth of January in the foremention'd Year 1646. travelling through the great Village Narromi, and Siriomi, to the stately City Occosacci, full of curious Buildings, and fortifi'd with a strong Castle, which defends it from the sudden Onset of the Enemy.

To this City leads a Bridge of an hundred eighty eight Paces long, over which the Hollanders carry'd their Goods. Here they Din'd, and in the After­noon march'd on through Fintzara to Accasacci. The Road thither is exceed­ing pleasant, in some places of it divided by several Rivulets; others with easie Ascents, and delightful Valleys, but each shaded with Trees.

In Accasacci they rested all Night, and on the five and twentieth of January travell'd through the great Village Goo; and passing over a very long Bridge of Timber, they came to the City Josinda, having a most delightful Situ­ation;The City Josinda. the Hills round about cover'd with a pleasant Shade, and the Ways Planted with Trees in such order, that their tops meet together, making the [Page 108]

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whole Road one artificial Arbor, defending Travellers, not onely from the Heat of the Sun, but the Rain also.

The Retinue of the Lord of Bungien very strange.About ten a Clock they reach'd the Village Ftagawa, where they met with some of the Lord of Bungien's Soldiers, who, according to the Relation of the Interpreter, came with a Commission from the Japan Emperor, residing at Jedo, to take possession of the Castle and Places belonging to Osacca. The first Train was follow'd by the Lord himself, who was carried in a Sedan; after him follow'd his Ammunition and Houshold stuff, guarded both by Foot and Horse, which Rid on stately and well-train'd Steeds, Arm'd with Bowes and Arrows, Launces, two Scymiters, one short, the other long, with a Dagger, and Helmets on their Heads, and Wax-leather Boots: The Foot as well as the Horse march'd very orderly, and in good Martial Discipline, not making the least noise, nor any one Voice heard, notwithstanding they were half an hour passing by in great Companies.

About eleven a Clock the Netherlanders descending a Hill, entred the Village Siraski, Siraski. bordering the Sea, being wash'd by the same on the right side, and the left verg'd by a high Mountain cover'd with Trees.

Leaving Siraski they reach'd to Arei, Arei. where the Sea makes a Bay of a League and a half broad, but is very shallow, which put them to much trouble in car­rying over their Goods, because the Vessels oftentimes ran aground.

On the opposite side of this Bay lies on a Promontory,Meisacca. the Village Meisacca.

From hence Riding on in their Journey they went through several Vil­lages, along a Road on both sides shaded with Trees, which brought them in the close of the Evening to Fannama. Fannama.

The City Mitzke.Before day-light leaving this Village, they cross'd the River Terui, and vi­sited Mitzke, a City curiously built, and fortifi'd with a fair Castle. From hence they reach'd Teucarai; where Dining, they went on through Kakingaw to Nisaca: near which is the Mountain Conay, a League and a half long. The Way that goes over this Mountain is pleasant, being Planted on both sides with Trees.

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The Pallace of the Bousi. on a high Mountain.From the top of this Hill they saw a steep Ascent, which on the left side as they went had a sumptuous Edifice, rais'd and adorn'd with many Turrets and double Roofs, which appear'd Spiring above the shading Trees.

The Japan Interpreters related, That it was one of their chiefest Universities or Schools in Japan, and the Residence for their most Learned Priests which seldom or never come abroad,Bonsi seldom come abroad. being continually busied with instructing and teaching their Youth there; every year on a Set-time repair thither from all parts of the Countrey divers other Priests, for to dispute with those that reside there about Religion and Philosophical matters; which Disputation is very strange, for often one of the Assembly or Priests is wanting on a sudden,One a year lost. whom they say, (if you will believe them) they never hear more of.

Horrid self-murder com­mitted in Japan, to the ho­nor of their Idols.The Japan Interpreters being demanded how it happens, reply'd, That the Devil carry'd them away: Yet others think, that they sacrific'd themselves to the honor of the Idols Amida or Xaca, who they look upon as favorers of Sede­cedes or self-slaughter, upon which account many make themselves away com­monly after this manner.

A few days after they are possess'd with this Frantick Zeal, mad to see their gods, and be where they reside, they go up and down craving Alms, and what they get they put in their wide sleeves, desiring the people to let them know their Commands, and what Commendations they should car­ry from them to their Deities, on whom speedily they were resolv'd to attend; which frenzy the people look upon as true Devotion, and a Religious under­taking. This done, they take with them new whetted Sythes, which they say, must clear the rough and untrodden ways, leading to Everlasting Happiness: Then they enter a Boat, which they prepare for that purpose, tying great stones about their Necks, Arms, Middle, and Legs, and thus they either leap over, or sink down-right, by pulling out a Plug, with the Boat under them; if he leap over, his friends that follow to see the horrid spectacle, presently throw Fire into his Boat, not allowing it to be fit for any Profane or common use after.

Great honor shown to them that drown themselves for their gods.¶ FAther Lodowick Frojus relates, That in his way to Miaco, coming to the Island Heu, in the Village Fore, where six Men and two Women had thus drown'd them­selves, to whom the people had Built and Dedicated a Chappel, near the Shore, in memory of their so great Merits, and Devout destroying of themselves: The Walls of the Chappel with­in were hung round with Clift Sticks, wherein were Verses stuck, with Elogiums, highly extolling the Religious Magnanimity of these miserable Desparadoes, which thus ventur'd by water to visit their God Amida.

This place by Travellers and others is daily frequented, there entring to pay their Devotions to these Water-Saints, and tells us also, That passing another time that way with his Brother Lodowick Almeida, meeting with some antient Women that came out from their Worship, each having a Garland of Roses in their hand, which they seem'd to tell over, muttering Prayers, as we our Beads, fell foul, and railing bitterly at them, as profane, irreligious Fellows (though they might perceive by their Habits they were Stran­gers) that durst presume to pass by, and not entering, pay there their due Devotions.

How they carry themselves before their drowning.Also Gasper Villela, in his Letter from Saccai, dated Anno 1562. relates, that he saw several of these wilful Murders, which he thus sets down:

The Japanners (says he) when they are heated with a frantick Zeal, raging to be delivered from this vale of misery, and be suddenly transplanted to Eternal Happi­ness, which they believe to be in the bottom of the Sea, or else in some Subterranean world, where those gods reside, that dispence eternal rewards and everlasting happiness, for transi­tory merits in this mortal life: First they get up upon a Bench or Form, the better to be heard, where they Preach and Inculcate against the short and uncertain Pleasures of this World, and how the best of Earthly joyes are mingled and imbitter'd always with grief and sorrow, and that so short and uncertain a Life to be taken away oftentimes on a sudden, without any warning, were better to make a resignation of, than to be snatch'd away at pleasure of those that gave it; This being the Theme or Argument which they always insist upon, there they and others keep commiserating people, being in a manner as frantick as they, bestowing great Alms upon them, and have always an audience thronging about them. The last day, for to close up all, they make their Rehearsal of all the Sermons, being a Repetition of what they formerly deliver'd; which done, they drink off a chearing Bowl of lusty Liquor; then dres­sing themselves up in their best Habits, stuffing their wide Sleeves with Stones, and hanging weights of Iron about their Necks, they enter the Boat, in which they lay a sharp Scythe, for to Mow off, as we said before, the Thorns and Briars which grow in the way to Bliss.

I saw (says Villela, in his foremention'd Letter) one that had seven Associates, which did all throw themselves into the Sea, with like joy, as at the Celebration of a Marriage, that I stood astonish'd with admiration.

Jamam-Buxen converse with evil SpiritsMoreover, the Japanners are much inclin'd to Sorcery and Witchcraft, the chiefest pretenders to that Art, they call Jamam-buxen, that is, Souldiers, or Knights of the Round Valley, which they believe have familiarity with Evil Spirits.

These Sectaries, to purchase fame of Zeal and Piety, watch, never letting their Eye-lids close in two, nay, sometimes three days and nights together, ta­king small sustenance, whilest they seem to do wonders, that is, removing in a dexterous manner, by such their Diabolical Arts, Bodies from their Graves, none knowing how,Strange actions. or when they were carry'd thence. Nay, more by confederacy, they will seem to raise the dead, and having some who lye stiff before them, like bodies laid out, that at a certain word in their Imprecations start up alive, and when these by their Disciplining, Fasting, and Watching three Moneths to­gether, have thus Massarated themselves, they invite some of their intima­test Friends with them, so going aboard their Vessel, fitted for that purpose, [Page 111]sink and drown themselves all joyfully and lovingly together.Drown themselves.

Why the Japanners ear no manner of death.But nothing more their Religion prompts them to, than a sleighting scorn of all the Terrors and Pangs of Death, looking upon those that shrink at such fears, as Vulgar and Ignoble Persons, not fit to be convers'd withal, because they all believe, that Death is the certain way to Happiness; which Opinion hath been anciently receiv'd in Japan, and very old in many other places, espe­cially amongst the Gauls, Brittains, and Germanes, and several other Nations, That the Souls of those that fear'd not Death, whether offering themselves for the publick good, or the honor of their gods, should immediately so dying, be translated into Paradice.

Strange self-murder of the Goths, Herod [...]s. lib. 4.HErodotus says, That the Goths, held for the valliantest amongst the Thracians, believe themselves immortal, and that they never die, but leaving this world, they go to their God Zamolxis, upon which account, every fifth year by Lot they choose an Am­bassador, whom they send to this their God-amighty in such manner as followeth; First, Having well instructed him in his Message, and made fit for so honorable an Embassy, then they lift him up by the Arms and Legs, placing under him three Arrows, with the barbs up­wards, which done, they let him drop upon the Points, by which, if he be so well transpierc'd that he dies suddenly, then they believe that they have made a good choice, but if so it happen that the sharps missing the Vitals, he die a lingering death, they judge him to be a vi­cious liver, and not fit for the undertaking; so presently go to a second Choice, giving him the like Instructions.

The Grave Philosopher Seneca also hints thus concerning the Immorta­lity of the Soul, When the time comes that separates the Soul and Body, leaving the Material Substance on the Earth, the Spirit reascends to God the Donor. Then also he makes the Soul thus a Speaker; Now free from Earth, I dwell in the Air, or Ethe­rial Sky. This his Description of Dying and leaving this Mortal Life, sig­nifies his Opinion of a better and Immortal Residence. We must remove, (says he) for death which we fear, destroys us not, but gives us another and a happier Life, which hereafter, we shall assuredly know, and rejoyce at our so blessed a change.

This Doctrine of a second Life, though wanting the pure light of the Gos­pel, most of the antient Heathens believ'd, of which our Western and Eastern World have given notable Testimonies.

Strabo tells us, That one Mandanis a Brachman,Strabo lib. 15 Geograph. being presented to Alexander the Great, and he Courting him with fair Promises, and rich Presents to be as his Com­panion and Councellor, look'd upon him, though he had Conquer'd the whole World, as a con­temptible Fellow, he being fully satisfi'd from their own Principles of future Hopes, Disputes of the old Brach­mans concerning the [...]e, and after death. for his Just and Meritorious Life, to receive the great Rewards of Everlasting Beatitude, said, O Alexander, I despise your Gifts, neither need I any, The saying of Mandanis. to receive them from one that is poorer than he that is in the greatest want; being hungry, and still unsatisfi'd with all the Plunder and Spoil which thou hast got. Neither fear I your threats, since I by dying, already worn out by Age, shall remove to a far better and happier life than thou canst expect in the World which thou hast here unjustly gotten, or in the World to come.

Cicero de D [...]vinat p [...]o. Calamus the Indian burns himself. Cicero also tells of the Indian Calamus, Who making a fire under a Gilded Bed, cover­ing himself over with Straw, kindled the same, and so by degrees felt the extremest of all tortures, burning to death; a brave and noble departure (as he says) out of this World; the day of whose death, Alexander the Great appointed to be kept holy, and not long after he follow'd him.

Next he tells us of Hercules, who with conjesting Trees, which he had him­self torn up by the roots, erected his own Funeral Pyre, where laying himself [Page 112]down, and there consum'd to Ashes the greatest of Hero's, they after his mag­nanimous departure, reckon'd him among the number of Gods.

¶ FUrthermore, as to what was said before by the Japan Interpreter con­cerning the vanishing of one of the Bonzi, which annually meet in the Castle on the Mountain Conay, The Bouzies are often car­ry'd away none know whe­ther. the like happens (as they say) in several other meetings, in which some of them vanish from thence, or are snatch'd away, how and by what means we know not.

Villela relates in his foremention'd Letter, That this Romance, or Hocus-Pocus of conveying bodies, is generally believ'd to be real amongst the Japan­ners, but always lookt upon as a bad Omen: And in his time, he says, there dwelt one of the Bonzi in the City Sacci, who being very rich, liv'd as vicious a life, and being seventy years old, lying on his death-bed, could not endure to hear of death; but one day, at high noon, he was taken away on a sudden in the presence of all his friends, and was never heard of after.

The Netherland Ambassadors leaving the Palace of the Bonzi, Village Cancia. they Rode to­wards the Village Cancia, where they rested that night; in the morning, the Ways being frozen very hard, they went on in their Journey, and in a short time they reach'd the swift Current Oyengauwa, River Oyengauwa. which they crost very easily, be­cause it had not Rain'd there in a long time, for in wet seasons, the Floods are so high, and the Current so strong, that none can pass it but with great trouble.

There the Emperors Faul­koners met the Ambassa­dors.Stepping on the opposite shore, they spy'd three of their Emperors Faul­koners after their Game, the Ambassadors Sedans, in honor to the Emperor, were set down on the ground, the Horsemen alighted, and the whole Train stood still, till the Faulkoners were past by them: Then travelling through the Villages Simanda, Torisjeda, and Ocambe, over several steep Ascents and Decli­vings, they enter'd Mirice.

Surunga, a great City, but ruinous and uninhabi­ted.¶ SOmewhat farther, they came to Surunga, a great City, but desolate, be­cause since the death of the Emperor Toxogunsama, who was Crown'd Anno 1629. the Inhabitants deserted it, resorting to other places for Trade.

The Emperor taking some distastes against his Brother, forc'd him to rip up his own Belly; which cruel Execution they commit in the following manner:

The manner of the Japan­ners ripping up their own bellies.¶ THe Criminals sit according to the Eastern manner, in an open place before a Temple, being bare from the middle upwards; behind him stands one with a Cordial, if he should faint, and six Priests that give him Spiritual Comfort, and take care of his Funeral; before him sits one with the Knife that must perform the cruel Office; on each side at equal distance, stand twelve of his best Friends and nearest Relations; on both sides are great multitudes of Spectators.

This cruel Execution is oftentimes inflicted upon many without any cause; for they judge those liable to the same punishment that have any Re­lation to the Criminal.

Francis Cairon tells us of a passage that happen'd about Jedo, during his resi­dence there.

A Noble Man commanding a Lordship of the Emperor, for­ced his Tenants to pay him more Rent than the Emperor had order'd; by which means he inrich'd himself: But the people not being able to bear the burthen any longer, they joyn'd together and went to the Council, com­plaining of the Lord of their Manor, which they strictly examining he was [Page 121]
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found Guilty, and Condemn'd with all his Family to be their own Execu­tioners, ripping open their own Bellies. He had a Brother a Servant to the King of Fingo, two hundred forty seven Leagues distant to the Westward from Jedo: an Unkle in Satsuma, twenty Miles farther: a Son by King Co­nocoumy: a second Son, who dwelt Eastward from Jedo, one hundred and ten Leagues, serving the King of Massama: his third Son, in the Imperial Ca­stle Inquano: his youngest Son being Marry'd to a wealthy Merchants Daugh­ter in Osacca. Two of his Brothers being of the Emperors Life-Guard. All these were forc'd in one day and hour, for their Brother or Fathers foremen­tion'd offence, in a miserable manner, to rip up their own Bowels.

The manner of cutting their bellies.Which Executioners work is perform'd thus: First, they cast up how ma­ny hours it may be ere the Messenger of Death brings the sad news to their re­motest Relations; which being the utmost time, appointed no Reprieve be­yond, both the nearest and farthest on one day, and just at noon, obeying the strict sentence, they become their own cruel destroyers.

But one of them, a Merchant in Osacco, prevented self-slaughter, being struck with so great a terror, that he dy'd immediately after the tidings; and his one­ly Daughter, who would have made her self away, though not Condemned, had she not been carefully look'd after, starving her self, dy'd on the eleventh day: But how the Women escap'd in these destroyings of Families, he is si­lent in.

CAsper Villela in his Letter from Firando, dated the 13 of October 1557. says thus concerning this manner of punishment:Those that are to be ript open have two choices left them, either to cut their bellies, or fight to death. When the King Condemns any to this Execution, he sends a Messenger to him, who acquaints him with the day on which he must die, the Condemned Person never flinches nor seeks to make an escape, but humbly requests that the King would be so pleas'd, that he himself might perform his Maje­sties Command, which if granted, he takes for the greatest honor which at that time he is ca­pable of. At the appointed hour, he attires himself in his best Rayment, and so rips up his [Page 114]own Bowels; but if the King order his Death by the common Execution, then he puts him­self in a posture of defence, guarding his House with his Children, Friends, and Servants; the King's Officers coming at the expected hour with a strong Party, begin the Assault and Battel, with discharging of Arrows; then drawing nearer, they come to pushing of Pikes, and chosing up with their Swords, entring, (the Kings Party being always too strong) cru­elly massacres him and his whole Family: and the rest of his Relations that were not there, nor engag'd, are all stigmatiz'd with a hot Iron.

This severe Law neither exempts the highest nor the lowest, but Lords and Peasants, Citizens and Soldiers, suffer thus without mercy all alike. This false Witnesses have, or any that are taken in a Lye before a Magistrate, inflicted upon them, insomuch that most Punishments amongst the Japanners are san­guinary. The Kings that are convicted of speaking Treason against the Em­peror, are onely banish'd to Faitsinchina.

Description of the Faitsinchina.¶ THis Faitsinchina is a small Isle, about a League in circumference, ly­ing Easterly from Jedo to the Offin, fourteen Leagues; whose Cliffy Borders are so steep, and the Sea fathomless, that they want Cable to Anchor there; so that no Vessel can come near the Shore safe, but after this manner: When the Weather is calm, and the Water smooth, they venture in small Ves­sels, who drawing near the Rocks, some of the boldest and activ'st of them ty­ing Cords about their Middle, leap from their Vessel, lighting among the Cliffs, not without great danger, and climbing to the top where they have Crains, or the like Engines planted for that purpose; with which they hoist up their Vessels some Fathoms above the Water,A strange contrivance to preserve Ships. so that they impend in the Air, where they seem as at safe Anchor, being free from the beatings of Waves and Weather, which else would immediately bilge them upon the un­hospitable Shore, where many were lost ere this Invention was found.

This spot of Ground is for the most part barren, little of the Isle fit for Cultrature, boasting onely a few Mulberry-Trees.

Banishment of Japan Kings.Here the greatest Persons suffer under Exile, where without all hope of any return, or ever to be redeem'd, they live in a miserable condition; for in every angle of the Isle stands a strong Tower, where Souldiers keep Watch and Ward; which Monethly, if Wind and Weather serve, are reliev'd; nor are they longer to remain, lest by their continuance they may grow acquainted with the Royal Prisoners, and be inveigl'd by Bribes, or otherwise to help, or at least connive at their escape.

These, though Kings, have no Princely Fare, onely a little Rice, Roots of Trees, wild Herbs, and some other unsavory Food, which they cook them­selves: and that which adds more to their misery, is bad Drink, and unwhol­som Water. Their Houses are onely poor Huts, too sleight Defences to keep out Wind and Weather: And also they are set hard Tasks, to Spin and Weave so many Pieces of Silk yearly, the Growth of the Place, their own Silk-worms furnishing them with Materials.

The Emperor's Court was formerly in Surunga.But our Ambassadors stay'd not long in Surunga, where formerly the Japan Emperors used to keep their Court, and afterwards the Emperor's Brother; but since Toxogansama's Brother ript up his own Bowels, they remov'd the Court from thence: which was the chief occasion of the deserting and desola­tion of this City; for most of the Inhabitants went from thence to settle in other Places.

The City is much ruin'd.On one side of the City stands a large Castle, whose Ruines manifest suffici­ently its former greatness and splendor.

The Metherland Ambas­sadors enter Jesare, and find there an antient Man, who told them that Spex had formerly been there.¶ LEaving Surunga, they travell'd to the Village Jesare, where they Lodg'd all Night.

Here they found an old Man, who told them that the Ambassador Jacob Spex, thirty years before their arrival, Lodg'd in his House, passing through that Village in his Journey to Jedo, after he had presented the Emperor Goysssio Samma with several things, and treated with him about permitting the Hollan­ders to Trade in Japan.

Spex's Journey from Meaco to Surungo and Jedo.Ambassador Spex entring Meaco the tenth of August Anno 1611. receiv'd ten of the Emperor's Horses, and a Present from the Governor Itakara Froymondonne; thence Riding on seven Leagues farther, he rested one Night in Cusatz; the next Day Dining in Sutsifama Sutsifamme: in the Evening he arriv'd at Sesqui­noso, travelling from thence the next Morning to Jokeitz; and Ferrying over the Bay which washes Mia, about Sun-set (having that day suffer'd much by the extreme heat of the Sun, insomuch, that one of his Train died thereof by the way) they entred Naromi, where he order'd him to be interr'd: Then Riding through Occosacca to Josinda, they posted to Futsigeda and Merico, and towards Evening came to Surunga.

Makes his arrival known in Surunga.The arrival of the Netherlands Ambassadors, Spex and Peter Segerszoon, was immediately made known to the chief of his Imperial Majesty's Council, being Cosequidonne, and Ikoto Siosabrandonne, with entreaties that they might be permitted, so soon as possible, to the Presence and Audience of the Emperor. The Ambas­sadors receiv'd in answer, That they were heartily welcom from so far a Coun­trey, and troublesom a Way, through which they had travell'd thither; and without all peradventure their arrival would be very acceptable to the Empe­ror: to which end they would prepare all things in readiness against the next Morning for their Audience. Which Cosequidonne perform'd, bringing the Ne­therlanders the next Day to the Imperial Palace, but could not be admitted, the Emperor being busied, receiving and looking over some grand Accounts of his Vice-Roys, so that they were forc'd to stay and wait his leisure.

What happen'd to the Portuguese Ambassador be­fore the Emperor.Where whilst they tarried, they nnderstood something of the business of the Spanish Ambassador, who had been newly dispatch'd from thence before their coming, who had first address'd himself in Person, and afterward in Wri­ting to his Majesties chief Councellor Cosequidonne; and when he was presented to the Emperor, humbly he laid his Presents down before him on his Throne near his Footstool, being ten Pieces of Cloth of Gold Tissue, a Golden Bowl, and a Watch, which the Emperor receiv'd; but the Ambassador (his Majesty not replying a word in answer to his Addresses) was commanded to with­draw: notwithstanding he entred the Court with a stately Train, he himself richly Habited, wearing a Gold Chain about his Neck. His business to the Emperor was to excuse the death of the Japanners, three years before condemn'd to die at Maccau; also to make a Complaint of a great Spanish Carvil burnt at Nangesaque; by which some lost above ten hundred thousand Ducats, laying the whole blame upon the Emperors Officers there.The Emperor's Answer. Soon after the Great Mi­nister of State, Cosequidonne, answer'd him, That the Sea-men, and chiefly the Captain and his Officers, refus'd to take any Cognisance, or give them any an­swer in point of satisfaction concerning the inhumane Murder of his Imperi­al Majesties Subjects in Maccau, which plainly evidenc'd, that where they [Page 117]were able, they minded neither Right nor Justice, but did then, and would here­after when they could, carry all other Transactions before them by force and violence; and that the Captains surly and stubborn answers, so opposite to the Laws of all Nations, shewing such a sleight respect to his Imperial Majesties Demands, without granting the least redress, forc'd his Majesty to take satisfa­ction by retaliation; therefore where the Sword of Justice would not reach, he made up his Audits by Fire, burning their Ship.

Errors committed by the Castilian Ambassador be­fore the Emperor.Many Errors did the Spaniard commit in this his Embassy: first in visiting the young Prince at Jedo before the Emperor; then entring the City Surunga, with forty Musqueteers, and flourishing the Spanish Colours, firing his Musquets, sounding Trumpets, and beating of Drums at the end of every Street: The like folly he committed in his Speech to the Emperor, making these four Propositions: First, That the Castilians should have free liberty, according to their manner, in any or all of his Majesties Ports and Harbors. Secondly, To Trade in all Maritim Parts of his Empire. Thirdly, That the Emperor should absolutely prohibit the Hollanders from trafficking in any of his Dominions; to which purpose his Royal Master, the King of Spain, would be ready with a strong Fleet to joyn in his Assistance, utterly to drive them from his Imperial Territories. Lastly, That the Castilians should not by any of his Subjects be obstructed in their Trade, but to have egress and regress to what Towns and Markets soever, to sell their own, and buy the Countrey Commodities. These were the Proposals he deliver'd first by word of Mouth, and afterwards in Writing, waiting five days in Surunga ere he deliver'd this his Message to the Emperor; and before he went away, the Gifts which he had presented to the Minister of State Cosequidonne, were returne'd.

Spex and Segerszoon are appointed to come before the Emperor.But whilst the Ambassadors, Spex and Segerszoon, attended some hours in the Court; Cosequidonne sent them word, That the Emperor could not give them Audience that day, he being busie about other Dispatches, but to morrow he would use his utmost endeavor to bring them to a Hearing; so the following part of the day the Ambassadors spent in addressing themselves to the High Treasurer Ohoto Sionsabradonne, a Person lookt very much upon, for his great Prudence,Presents given by Spex to the Emperors Privy-Council. Affability, and his endearing Conversation; whom they presented with whole Pieces of Scarlet, fine Damask-Linnen, and seve­ral other Stuffs, with many curious Flasks, a Carbyne and a Powder-horn, which he accepted, shewing great civility and kindness, proffering them his assistance in what ere he could; and the rather, because he had lately heard (as he said,) that a Peace was concluded betwixt the King of Spain and the United Provinces for twelve years; for before, the Hollanders in time of War, lookt more after Spanish Prizes, then full freighting of their Vessels with such Merchandise as was proper for their Countrey, which now he hop'd they would do. Moreover they visited also the chief Minister of State, Cosequi­donne, to whom they presented Gifts no way inferior to the foremention'd, but he modestly refusing told them, That they must needs have had great trouble in bringing them so long and tedious a Voyage.

Spex deals under-hand with Cosequidone.Enquiring of them the Concern of their business to the Emperor, they re­ply'd first, That his Imperial Majesty would be graciously pleas'd to excuse the staying away of their Ships so long from Japan, and also an Answer upon the Emperor's Letter. The Reasons which they alledg'd thereto seem'd of so great consequence to Cosequidonne, that he undertook to deliver them himself to the Emperor, saying, He doubted not but that his Majesty would be very well satisfi'd with them: the Ambassadors answering. That thev did not in [Page 116]the least question it. Cosequidonne also enquir'd of them what business else they came about; which they declaring, said, To entreat his Imperial Majesty, that he would be pleas'd to grant the two Letters Patents, whereby the Nether­land Ships hereafter might be under the protection of the Emperor, and grant them liberty to drive a free Trade in all his Majesties Ports; and that they might unlade their Goods at Firando without Waiters or Overseers; and to shew their Commodities to the Merchants, always preserving such Rarities as the Emperor should fancy for Royal use: all which Cosequidonne, approved of, not doubting but that the Emperor would grant their Desires: At last, dis­coursing with them about some Affairs of the United Netherlands, he took his leave of the Ambassadors, promising them, that after Noon he would bring them to the Emperor's Presence. So having conducted them into the Street, one William Adams, President, and residing in Surunga for the Netherland East-India Company, being with him, was call'd back to take the Presents,Cosequidonne refuses the Ambassadors Presents. and re­turn them with thanks to the Ambassadors, saying, That it was not his custom to receive any Gifts from Strangers. Having also refus'd the Presents made to him by the Spanish and Portuguese Ambassadors, nay all that ever were proffer'd to him by any Foreign Merchants. Moreover saying, The Ambassadors, Spex and Segerszoon need not doubt of his good will, for it would be neither more or less whether he kept the Presents, or return'd them again, onely it was not his custom. Whereupon William Adams reply'd, That it was no Present, but an antient use amongst the Netherlanders, to requite such grand favors as he had been pleas'd to shew them, and therefore humbly desir'd him to accept of them. Then inviting them again into his House he receive'd them, saying, He had done more than ever he had heretofore, it being a thing quite contrary to his Nature.

Here Spex and Segers­zoon appear with their Pre­sents before the Emperor.In the Afternoon, according to Cosequidonne's promise, they were admitted to the Emperor's Presence: where, upon a Table, they laid their Gifts, being several Pieces of Scarlet and Crimson-colour'd Cloth, black Flannel, Crimson-colour'd Kersies, Water'd Camlets, Sattin wrought with Gold, fine Damask Linnen, Nurenburg Carpets, curious Flasks, several Pounds of Lead, a French Fewsie eight Foot long, two hundred Pieces of Steel, two Carbynes, and as ma­ny Powder-horns, and five Elephants Teeth.

His Discourse with them.After they had made their Obeysance before the Emperor, his Imperial Majesty bidding them welcome, askt how many of their Countrey-men, being Soldiers, were in the Molucco Istands? If the Netherlanders Traded to Borneo? If the best Camphire was to be had there, and how it was got? Where the choi­cest Aula and Calamba were to be found? If any sweet-scented Wood grew in Holland? What sort yielded the best Price?

How they were enter­tain'd after the Emperor had discoursed with them.To which Demands the Emperor by means of an Interpreter had respective Answers made him; where upon the Ambassadors withdrawing from the Pre­sence, being led out by Cosequidonne, and Sionsabrondonne, who wish'd them joy of that unusual Honor and Friendliness which the Emperor had shewn them; the like he never did to the greatest of the Japan Kings, though they oftentimes bring Presents to him, to the value of thirty thousand Ducats: and also the Spa­nish and Portuguese Ambassadors were dismissed without hearing the Emperor utter one word. William Adams being call'd back, he saw the Emperor busie in viewing the Presents, saying, I see these Hollanders are Masters both of Arts and Arms.

The whole Negotiation of their Embassy they got translated into the Japan [Page 118]Tongue, leaving the Schedule in the custody of their Patron Cosequidonne, to the end they might be the sooner dispatch'd at their return from Jedo, whether they were advis'd to go and visit the young Prince, the Emperor's eldest Son, which the Spanish Ambassadors (as we said before) had done.

Depart for Jedo.On the eighteenth of August, Anno 1611, they set forward; to which purpose Cosequidonne procur'd them the Emperor's Pass, with ten Horses, and a Manda­tory Letter, to will and require all his good Subjeds to help them with all Necessaries, and ever else they had need of in their Journey; and also Letters to his Son, then waiting upon the Prince at Jedo: But in their first days Journey there happen'd such a Tempest of Thunder, Lightning, and Rain, that they were necessitated to fall short, and, take up their Lodgings in Jesare; being the same Village, and the same House, where the Ambassadors Frisius and Brookhurst, Anno 1649, the twenty seventh of December, were enter­tain'd in. The next morning setting forward, whilst the Wind blew hard and cold, they went through the Village Okis, and a little Grove, and also through Jui, passing over several Streams. The Way from Jui lies along the Shore of a Bay,A strange Rock. near a Mountain; where in one Place going over a steep Rock, the Tract was not above two Foot broad, having an amazing Precipice on one side, and Towry Cliffs on the other; the Sea always roaring, with thundring Billows breaking against it; the Ways beyond also difficult and troublesom, full of Salt-pits,Japan Salt-pits. the more dangerous, being digg'd after their Countrey manner, where the Japanners make their greatest store.

Description of the mise­rable condition of the La­zers in Japan.On both sides of the Ways in some Places, behind the Towns and Villages, appear scatter'd Huts, rais'd up with Pleited Rushes, and Roof'd with clinch'd Planks; in which are confin'd poor Lepers, which live in a miserable conditi­on, their whole Utensils, or Houshold-stuff, being a Bag, or a Basket; yet some have a Bolster, or little Pillow, which is to them a Bed: Before their Door, in stead of a Bell, hangs an old Bason, which they beat upon when Travellers pass by, so craving their Charity and Alms, which falling short, they many times suffer the extremity of Hunger, not being permitted to ap­proach near any Town, Village, or any Place frequented by People, upon pain of Death, because their Leprosie is no less catching than incurable: thus being banish'd from all society but themselves, they linger out their wretched and contemptible Lives.

It seems that this Disease reigns more in the Eastern Countreys than in the Northern.

Herodotus tells us, that the Persians suffer not any Communication with those that are struck with Leprosie, accounting that this infliction falls upon them for some horrid Sin, and foul Impiety; but more especially for some hainous Offence committed against the Majesty of the Sun.

From Jui they pass'd through the Village Cambaro, to the swift Streams of Fusikaw.

Mountain Fusinojamma.Here they saw Mount Fusinojamma, where the Horses were unsadled, and their Goods put into small Vessels: a considerable time they spent thus in crossing the River, so that it was Noon before they reach'd the Village Jussiwarra: where whilst they were at Dinner they were told by the Inhabitants, That the Hill Fusinojamma, which they saw in their Way, rising so high into a Spire, might be discern'd thirty Leagues off, its lofty Crown always cover'd with Snow;Janambuxi, a sort of Japan Priests. and how that some Mountain-Priests, which they call Janambuxi, once a year travel thither, spending eight hours in climbing to the top, and often [Page 119]

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three thousand in a Company; where tarrying sixty Days, they masserated themselves with Fasting, and all manner of Hardships: And whilst they thus afflict themselves in their damn'd Devotion, the Devil, as they say, ap­pears to them in a horrible manner. After this terrible Apparition of their god and Master, in four hours they joyfully descend the Hill, supposing they have perform'd an act of wondrous merit; and soon after they are advan­ced to the Order of the Janambuxi, which they signifie by white Knots hang­ing about their Necks,Their Habit. and a little black Cap onely covering the Crown of their Heads, their Hair beneath being Curl'd. Thus distinguish'd, they range over all the Empire, carrying in their Hands a Copper Bason, which they Tinckle, to intimate their coming. Thus in all Places they Offer their Ser­vice, which is to Conjure for stoln Goods, which thus they perform:

How they find out stoln Goods.They take a Boy that is is but a Stripling, and set him on the bare Ground cross-Legg'd; then they call upon their Master, their black god, the Devil, with distracted mutterings, thundring loud Charms, and horrible Im­precations, That he would be graciously pleas'd to enter and possess the Child, that from thence, as from an Oracle, they might, have a Response to their Question: Whereupon soon after, as they relate, the Youth suddenly begins to froth and foam at the Mouth, rowling and gogling his Eyes, skrew­ing his Neck and Body into hideous Postures, like Convulsion-fits; then by these signs knowing the Boy to be possess'd, he asks where the Goods missing are? Whether lost or stoln? Which way they went? and, Where to be found? Whereupon the Boy answers directly, giving them an account what became of them, and how they shall be recover'd.

The Priests call'd Ja­nambuxi are sent for to the Sick.Besides these Janambuxi, there are another sort of Mountain-Priests, which haunt and frequent solitary Villages and Towns; whose Office is to visit the Sick, when they are sent for, by whose Bed-sides they sit Night and Day, mut­tering strange Words and Incantations, which none there understands; and the harder, because all Expressions belonging to Religion, have a distinct Di­alect [Page 113]by it self, and in Writing, a more difficult Character than any other. Hendrick Hagenaer a Hollander, says, That he hath himself seen several of these Jam­maboos, wearing a long Cord, with white Bobs like Buttons, about their Necks; rolling their Eyes, and distorting their Faces, in a wonderful manner.

A Strange Accident that hapned to a Jammaboos.During the said Hagenaer's Residence there, it hapned that a Sick Person sent for one of these Jammaboos, who according to their manner, spent a consi­derable time in muttering or reading to himself; and whilst he was thus ear­nest in his Devotion, he, and those that were there present, seeing no Mouth open,This is a common trick of those that can speak in their Bellies. nor any Lips stir, heard a Voyce, saying, Why do you molest me? I brought not this Sickness upon the Diseased: I am but a Minister, that am sent from your Enemy with this Distemper: First appease and satisfie him, and I have done, and shall trouble him no more.

The strange Language us'd in the Japan Religion, from whence extracted.That which is said concerning the Jammaboos using a peculiar Dialect in Matters of Religion, to the end they may not be understood by the Common sort of People, it is certainly believ'd, That they have borrow'd the same from the ancient Celtian Druydes, who brought this Practice first from the Gothes, a People inhabiting Ascania (being Swedland, Norway, and Schoonen) who long before, under their Commander Taunasis, to mend their colder Quarters, broke into Aegypt, where they slew the King of that Countrey Vesofis, after that run­ning over a great part of Asia, and fought several Battels with the Persian Mo­narchs Xerxes, Cyrus, and Darius, not fearing to ingage Alexander the Great; so making their way by the Sword to India and China. Thus these Druydes, their Northern Priests, grew familiar with the Indian Brachmans, and they with the Japan Bonzies, Laertius vit a Phil. Studying each others Doctrine. Diogenes Laertius relates, That the Indian Gymnosophists and Druydes always taught in obscure and mysterious Dia­lects, admonishing their People in the first place to honor the Gods, to do nothing that is base and wicked, and to contemn their Life, being call'd to Service of their King and Countrey.

Pomp Mel. In Geogr. Pomponius Mela says, That the Druydes instruct and teach their Disciples their whole Doctrines in private, divulging onely to the Common People the Immortality of the Soul; which Science they are bound by an Oath to keep secret. Seldinius tells in what Words they Swear, which are these: I charge you by the Circle of the Sacred Sun, the un­constant Motions of the Moon, and by the Power and Influence of all other Celestial Lumi­naries, That you never make known to the Vulgar what I shall inform you withal; nor ever forget your Master, nor the Benefits you have receiv'd from him: And in so do­ing, the Gods will not onely defend you, but grant also what-ever you shall desire. But those that break this Sacred Oath, the Gods will cast them out of their Possession, and in stead of Blessings, will overwhelm them with all sorts of Miseries and Misfortunes, and an unhappy end. Xaverius affirms this, saying, That a Brachman Youth and he being alone together, told him, That his Master, before he would instruct them in his Do­ctrine, made them take the foremention'd Oath, binding them never to discover those things which he should teach them.

Moreover, concerning the Druydes manner of Instructing their Youth, Caesar relates thus:Cas Bell. Gall 7. They learn them (says he) divers Verses, which they keep in me­mory, some spending twenty Years in the right understanding and expression thereof; judg­ing it not lawful to write them down, but thus to be preserv'd by Tradition. He says also, That they use a Greek Character.

The Druydes, Brachmans, and Benzi, generally agree.And whereas the Jammaboos use a peculiar Dialect in Matters of Religion, far different from their common Language; the like Custom had the Druydes in former times: For besides their Teutonick, which was the general Tongue of all those Northern Nations, speaking about Divine and Philosophical [Page 121]

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Matters, they us'd the Runian Tongue,Runian Tongue, what kind. strangely different from their Vulgar Language.

Description of the Har­bore-Bonzi.¶ THe Japanners that belong to the Groves, or Forest-Priests, also range all over the Countrey in great Companies. These Itinerary Mini­sters they call Harbore-Bonzi, which ran after the Netherland-Ambassadors, cra­ving Alms: But for the most part they reside in Woods, and dark Recesses under Ground, by which they are so overgrown, and look so strangely shabby with Clotted and Elf-lock'd Hair hanging down over their Shoulders, matted and unkemb'd Beards, that Strangers are often afrighted at the sight. Their Caps, being round, are made of pleited Rushes; on the top they wear a Tuft of a Black Horses Taylor Mane; about their Middle, a Girdle stuff'd with Cotton: Their upper Coat also of Cotton, with short Sleeves: The under Garment, or Vest, of Deer-skins; a Bag hanging by ten Strings at their Girdle: In their Left-hand they carry a large Staff, lopp'd from the Setang, a Tree bearing Fruit like our Medlars: Their Shoes they fasten by tying them round about their Ancles with Leather-Thongs; the Soles have four Nails dri­ven in them, with such broad Heads, that when many walk together, they make a noise like a Troop of Horse. At the thirtieth Year of their Age, they begin to Study Necromancy.

Gengues, or Soothsayers.¶ THe Ambassadors also met with another sort of Juggling Wizards or Fortune-tellers, call'd Gengues, who pretend to discover Thieves and Stoln Goods. These People dwell in small Huts on the tops of Hills. They are scarce to be distinguish'd from one another by their Faces, being so much Weather-beaten, never hiding them from the heat of the Sun, Cold, Hall, Rain, or Wind; but going continually bare. Marriage is permitted amongst them, provided they take one of their own Sect, and Family of the Gengues.

Furthermore, What is written concerning these Conjurers, by Father Lodo­wick [Page 122]Frojus, in his Letter from Meaco, dated February 26. Anno 1565. I shall here recite; but leave the Reader to his choice of believing or rejecting it. The Gengues (says he) have a Horn growing upon their Heads; A strange Relation of the Gengues, by Father Frojus. whom their Master the Devil oftentimes commands to climb to the top of a steep Mountain, where they are to ex­pect him at the appointed time: Thither they flock in great Numbers; and coming to the Place, the Evil Spirit, according to his Promise, appears to them about Noon, but most com­monly towards the Evening, passing oftentimes backward and forward through the whole Assembly of the Gengues; who soon after, inspir'd with mad desire to follow this their wicked Seducer where-ever he goes (though through Fire and Brimstone) where he vanishes they throw themselves after, which is always at the steep Precipices of the Mountain; thus desperately destroying themselves, falling down Headlong: Which thus happen'd to be dis­cover'd.

An Old-Man being thus Possess'd, and mad to follow the Devil, his Son used all means to disswade him; yet he would not hearken, but thither he went, his Son going with him; then both scaling the top of the Mountain, the Spirit appear'd to them, Habited Richly, like some Great Person, whom the Father Worshipp'd, falling on his Knees in a most sub­missive and humble manner; but the Son, drawing his Bow, shot at the Spectrum, which suddenly vanishing, turn'd into a wounded Fox; which running away, he trac'd by the drops of Bloud discolouring the Grass, where on the edge of the Precipice Reynard vanish'd; but he looking down after him, saw abundance of Bones, and Skeletons of Dead-men, which there broke their Necks, so conquering Hell by violence, running headlong to the Devil.

Japan Soothsayings and Conjurings, whence pro­ceeded.But the fore-mention'd Charms and Conjurations, Fortune-telling, and other Diabolical Arts, used by the Japan Janambuxi, Jammaboos, Harbore-Bonzi, and Gengues, have their Original from Asia: The Japanners have learn'd these Ne­cromantick Arts and cunning Delusions from their Ancestors, which brought them from the Places of their first Original. Above two thousand Years ago, the Black-Art was us'd through all the Eastern World, being perform'd after di­vers ways and manners. Who knows not, That in Asia they use, for the per­forming of the foremention'd purposes, Water, Drinking, and Looking-glas­ses, Oyl, Rings, Fire, Children, and Birds?

What was more common to those that would know Future Events, or re­gain Lost or Stoln Goods, than to run to the Conjurers or Fortune-tellers; which Office the Priest generally perform'd?Conjuring with a Bason. Sometimes they us'd a Bason full of Water, in which they threw several Pieces of Gold and Silver, and also Precious Stones, mark'd with peculiar Letters: Then standing over this Ba­son, muttering their Charms and Incantations, calling upon an Infernal Spi­rit, at last asking what they desir'd to know; and according to his Demands, a Voyce, as it were from under the Water, made Responses to his several Questions.

With a Cruse.At other times these Jugglers also use a Cruse, filling it with clear Water, and placing lighted Wax-Candles round about: Then calling upon Satan, they inquir'd of him concerning those things of which they desir'd to be satis­fied: Then standing still, a Child or great-bellied Woman went to the charm'd Cruse, so taking a view of the Shadow which the Water presented, by which Appearance the Spirit answer'd their Desires.

With Glasses.Looking-glasses also serv'd them as Instruments to the performing of their Diabolical Arts,Glasses a known Cheat. wherein, after they had ended their Charmes, they saw such Shadows, by which they were answer'd to their several Demands. The Em­peror Didius Julianus us'd the like Glasses,Julian the Apostate. seeing several things in them that hap­pen'd to him afterwards.

With Fountains.The Greek Writer Pausanius tells us of a Fountain before the Temple of the Goddess Ceres, in which Fountain by a small Cord they us'd to let down a Looking-glass, wherein if those that were Sick did look, and saw a Dead Corps, there was no hopes of their Recovery; but if a live Person, they were certain to live and recover.

With Oyl and Red-lead.When they are desirous to know Future Events, then they take Oyl, with some Red-lead, mixing them both together: Then they take a stripling Youth, painting his Nails therewith, and holding them in the Sun, which makes such Shadows, that by them they know what they desire.

Wit a Gold Ring.They also take a Gold-Ring, and shaking it in the Water, judge by its Mo­tion what they desire to be inform'd of.

With Stones.Sometimes throwing three Stones in standing Water, by the manner and position of the Circles, they answer the Question propounded.

With Water. Varro a Learned Roman, tells of a Youth skill'd in Magick, that in a Re­sponse of a great Question, read fifty Verses out of the Water, foretelling (but in ambiguous sense) the various Successes of the long War betwixt the Romans and Mithridates King of Pontus.

With Wheaten-Cakes.Near the Lacedemonian City Epidamnus, was a Pool sacred to Juno; to which, to be resolv'd of doubtful Matters, they us'd to resort, where they threw in Wheaten Cakes, made for that purpose; which if they sunk, were a good Omen; but if they floated up and down, they look'd thereon as a Sign of ill success.

With a Pot.It was also very common to put a Roll upon their Heads, on which a Pot of Water; then muttering certain Words, if the Water boyl'd over, that sig­nified good; but if it stirr'd not, bad luck.

But discovering of Thieves, finding Lost or Stoln Goods, and the like, which the Japan-Priests, the Janambuxi and Gengues pretend so much to, was common two thousand Years ago through all Asia. Amonst many other of their Experiments, this was most us'd by the Ancients:With an Ax. They strike an Ax in­to a round Post, so deep that it sticks; then amidst their Mutterings, they name the several Persons who are most suspected: but at the first mention of the guilty Person, the Ax trembles, or leaps out of the Post.

With a Sieve.Our Foolery of the Sieve and Shears is also much approv'd amongst them, for a most certain Discovery of a Theft: And as we use for a Charm St. Peter and St. Paul, they repeat these non-sensical Words, Douwima, Touwima, Entimemaus.

With an Asses Head.They also do Wonders, as they believe, with an Asses Head broyl'd upon the Coals: And the like Vanity, concerning Predictions, they observe with a Cock,With a Cock. which thus they perform: In a smooth Floor they lay so many single Letters, cut in Paper, that make up their Response with the Negative and Affirmative, laying on every one of these a Barley-corn, and scattering a few others pro­miscuously betwixt them; then they bring a Cock fresh and fasting, who falls to work, picking up the Corns as his Choice directs him; which done, they gather up the Letters from whence the Corn hath been taken, and of those, by setting and spelling of them several ways, they make a Judgment.

With Mandrakes.What did they not ascribe to the Mandrake-root, by throwing it into the Fire; and Meal-cakes?Vid Virgil, & Hemes. What Observations made not the Augurists out of the Flight and various Voyces of Birds? Others, of Howling of Wolves,With Birds. and Barking of Dogs, Swarming of Bees, Voyces in the Air, Numbers, Lots, and Dreams? Of Spirits, and imaginary Spectrums? Of their certainty of Future Fortunes, by Physiognomy and Palmistry? The appearing of Blazing Comets, and their Astrological Predictions, by the various Configurations of the Cele­stial Bodies.

Who first found out Soothsaying and Conju­ring.The Greeks having all their Learning from the East, say, That Zoroaster was the first of the Magi that studied and brought to light Magical Conclusions, whether Natural or Diabolical: For such and so abstruse were some of their Practices, that not being able to make out the Reason, most Ages have sup­pos'd, That many of them have been perform'd by Demons and Cacademons, Evil Spirits; which after was brought by Osthanes (who follow'd Xerxes won­derful Army) into Europe: Which Juggling Art Democritus describes at large, finding the Original Practices in Phenicia, Apollonica, Captidenes, and Dardanus: So that Antiquity concludes, That the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Persians, and other Eastern Countreys (under which we may reckon China and Tartary) were the first Soothsayers and Magicians: So that we need not wonder, that Japan at this day (continuing still under Idolatry) nurses great store of Sorcerers and Wizards, who without dispute came thither from China, the Place of their first Original.

Netherland Ambassadors proceed in their Journey.¶ BUt the Netherland Ambassadors, Frisius and Brookhurst, having refresh'd themselves with a good Dinner, and delighted in hearing the strange Relation of the Japan-Priests call'd Janambuxi, who ascended the top of Fu­sinojamma, they left the Village Jussiwarra, and rode along a Sandy-way through Farri. The Common Road being very dusty, they cross'd over to a Meadow wash'd by the Sea, which directed them to a great Village call'd Nomatz. Thence going on, they came to Missima, lying at the Foot of Mount Faccone. The Way that led thither was exceeding pleasant, both sides being shaded with Trees.Missima burnt. In this City, which was destroy'd by Fire but eight Months before, and since rebuilt in that time, the Ambassadors lodg'd one Night.

Ambassadors hire fresh Horses.The next Morning they hir'd divers Horses to carry the Netherlanders and their Retinue over the Mountain Faccone: for their other Horses were much tired, and these fresh ones better us'd to Travel the craggy Paths of Faccone, being kept for that purpose. Thus fitted, about seven a clock they ascended the Mountain; and passing through several Villages, not without great trou­ble and danger,The Village Faccone, of what kind. about Noon they enter'd Faccone, scituate near a Navigable River, on a Mountain, and surrounded by many others: The River destitute of Fish, is seventy and eighty Fathom deep, and in some Places ninety and a hundred.

The Gate of Faccone, why so strong Guarded.After Dinner, they rode through a Gate at the end of the Village, which was Fortified by a Castle, where all Persons were stopp'd that were carried in Sedans, or rid on Horseback, except the Japan-Nobility: And on each side the Gate stands a Watch-house, with four Rooms being square and open; the Walls hung with Arms, being Muskets, Pikes, and Scymiters. The Soldiers fit on the Ground cross-legg'd.Description of the Japan Sentme's. They use a Game or Play among them, not unlike our Draughts, which requires great Leisure and Study: In this Exercise they spend much time in their fore-mention'd Watch-houses; or else they smoke Tobacco, exercise their Pikes, Fence with their Swords, or shoot at a Mark. At one end of the Watch-house hangs a great Lanthorn, with fine Painted Linnen, in stead of Glass or Horn: at the other end a Flag, with the Empe­rors Arms, and those of the Governor of the Castle. At each end stands a Sentinel, one being Arm'd with a Musket, and the other with a Pike.

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Strange manner of Notes to be bought for the De­ceas'd.¶ MOreover, along the River, on whose Banks stands the Village Fac­cone, are also three Temples of the Japan-Priests, to which they re­pair from all parts of the Countrey, where for a small piece of Money, about the value of Three-pence, they buy a Ticket, which they stick upon the Stones that lie near the River; by which means, as they imagine, the Souls of their deceas'd Friends have free egress and regress to drink of the Water of the said River.

THey also spend two days in August in Remembrance of Departed Souls, which thus they perform: Towards the Evening they light many Torches, being curiously painted;How the Japanners visit the Souls of the Deceas'd with Dishes of Meat, and other things. with which walking round about the Town or Village (some out of Zeal, and some as Spectators) when grown dark they proceed out of the City, where, as they fancy, and verily believe, they meet with the Departed Souls: Here, though they see nothing, they generally cry aloud, saying, Ah, welcome, welcome: Where have you been this long time? Where have you been? Sit down and refresh your selves; you must needs be weary and tired with such a Journey. Which said, they prepare a light Treatment of Rice, Fruits, and other Provisions; and the meaner sort of People bring warm Water, after they have been there an Hour, as if they had waited on them at their Collation; then making Excuses for their mean Fare, they invite the Deceas'd Souls to their Houses, saying, We will go before, and prepare your Lodgings, and provide better Cheer against your coming. Then two days being past, they all go out of the City with Torches, that so they may light the Souls of the Dead, to the end they should not stumble by the way; and after they have thus conducted them out, every one returns home, throwing Stones against, and chiefly on the tops of their Houses, to the end that none of the Souls may hide themselves; for if they stay longer than two days, they take it as an ill Omen. Moreover, they seem also to be very careful of them, fearing [Page 126]that if they should stay behind, and go alone, they would easily lose their way to Paradise, or be destroy'd by Tempestuous Weather.

Distance of the Japan-Paradise.¶ BEsides this their vain Folly of Entertaining the Dead, they reckon Para­dise exactly to be Eleven hundred thousand Leagues (neither more or less) distant from them; which long Journey, the Souls, that are Aerial Bodies, finish in three Years time: Wherefore they set two days apart, bringing them Provisions, and entertaining them in their Houses, that so they may be re­fresh'd, and the better able to proceed on in their Journey.Cleansing the Graves. At the same time also they make clean all the Graves, in which Office the Bonzis's assist them, but are well paid for their Labor. None, though never so poor, but will en­deavor to get so much Money, as to pay their Priest for the cleansing of the Graves of his Deceas'd Friends and Relations.

A dangerous way for the Netherland-Ambassadors.¶ THe Ambassadors Frisius and Brookhurst, parting from the Village Fac­cone, soon after encounter'd with a steep and craggy Mountain, where getting to the top, they ran exceeding great hazard in descending the same, the Path not being above two Foot broad, and full of Stones, having a steep Hill rising on one side, and a Precepice on the other, that a weak-brain'd Person was not able to look down, without danger of being taken with a Dizziness; for one of the Ambassadors Train looking upon the Descent, was taken suddenly with a Vertigo, and so dropp'd over the Pummel of his Saddle, that he fell from his Horse, where he had miserably perish'd, but that holding fast by the Reyns, his Horse dragg'd him up, where he soon after recover'd;They enter the City Oudauro. and in the Evening they reach'd Oudauro, a stately City, one side thereof being adorn'd with a sumptuous Palace, surrounded with Stone Walls, having also many Spires, which are seen at a great distance. The Japanners re­siding here relate,An Earthquake in Oudauro. That a few Years before a terrible Earthquake had shaken the Countrey exceedingly all thereabouts; besides what damage the People sustain'd by the loss of their Houses, Steeples, and Churches; also swallowing up a strong Castle; the Ground gaping very terribly, so devouring the Fort, and the Hill whereon it was rais'd, which stood in the same place where the new Castle is now built.

It is no wonder in Japan, for whole Cities or Countreys to be swallow'd up; or turn'd topsie-turvey,A Japan City swallow'd up. and shuffled into Ruins and Rubbish. At the Foot of the Mountain Faccone stood formerly a famous City, which in few Hours, both Men, Beasts, and Buildings, was swallow'd up together in one destructi­on; in place whereof, onely a great and almost fathomless Lake appear'd, by which the Netherland-Ambassadors pass'd.

The Opinion of the Ja­panners concerning Earth­quakes.Concerning the Reason of these Earthquakes, or from whence they pro­ceed, the Japanners themselves are of several Opinions. Most of them hold and affirm, That a great Sea-monster or Leviathan beats the Shore with his Tail, every blow of which shakes the Neighboring Countreys.

The Ancient Greek and Latin Philosophers differ also much concerning the Reason of Earthquakes, which are the most terrible of all Humane Afflictions. Concerning which, hear Plato and Seneca, in their own Words; the first in his Athenian Antiquities: Plato in Timeo. A terrible Earthquake hapned, which a Day and a Night mov'd the Ground towards a Brook, which is now call'd the Mediterranean-Sea, in which were all your Ancestors swallow'd up, Sonec Nat. Quest. and also a whole Isle, then call'd Atlantis. Seneca saith, You see whole Countreys remov'd out of their Places; Main Continents divided into scatter'd [Page 127]Isles: So the Sea also parted Calpe from Abile, Barbary from Spain, and likewise Sicily from Italy:As we hold England from France, Ireland [...]om Wales. In our time several whole Countreys and Fields have been so shuf­fled, that the Boundaries and Situations were never found again. This happens (says he) by Winds inclos'd in the Bowels of the Earth, which pen'd up like a Cholick, striving for vent, rumbling up and down, in getting passage, it not onely shakes but tears up the Su­perficies. They say of old, That Ossa and Olympus were but one Mountain; but since divided, as now they stand, by an Earthquake. Moreover Pliny tells us,Plin. Lib. 1. cap. 91, 92. That the steep Mountain Cybotus, with the City Curite, and also the famous Cities Supylum and Tantalis in Magnesia, Galanis and Gamales in Phenicia, the Mountain Phegium in the Moors Countrey, the Cities Pyrha and Antissa in the Lake Meotis, Elice and Bura in the Corinthian Bay, were all drown'd and swallow'd in like manner. Pausa­nius relates, That Elice and Bura sunk thirty seven Years before the Birth of Alexan­der the Great.

The Reasons of Earth­quakes are adjug'd to be several.Also of the Cause of Earthquakes, the Variety and several Manners of its Aguish Fits, Writers differ much. Democritus tells us, That abundance of Rain soaking through the Crannies and Porous parts of the Earth, swelling its Belly like a Drop­sie, rises and recoyls towards the Superficies, to disembogue it self; but wanting vent, beats, seeking a Passage against the upper Ground, which causes that Trepidation.

Thales held, That the Earth being a floating Ball, danc'd upon the then more troubled Waters, the cause of its Shaking. But the more Modern Opinion, which seems most likely, is, That these Shakings of the Earth arise from a Sulphureous and Nitrous Matter, which either by Fermentation, or some other Accident, taking Fire in the Bowels of the Earth, blows up like the springing of a Mine; which sudden Bounce in like manner shakes all Parts about it, and opens the way, that in a Train it explodes other like Combusti­ble Matter: And after, as many times it happens, it makes Breaches, whence Flashes of Fire breaking forth, tear the Surface of the Earth.

The right opinion of Ari­stotle concerning Earth­quakes.The most Learned agree, That these Tremblings rather arise from imprison'd Winds in the vast Caverns of the Earth, whose former Passages being stopp'd by accidental falls of Earth, and Internal Ruins, seek a Vent else-where: Or whether it be that the Winds descending nearer the Center, finding no way back; or whether the thirsty Earth, being in Nature dry, sucks up abundance of Moysture, which either by Subterranean Heat, or the piercing Warmth of the Sun-beams, are rarified into more stirring Vapors, which wanting room for its Activity, breaks through the very Adamantine Dungeons of the Earth; which violent Ruptures shake the Superficies, being also torn and rent in like manner.

Thus holds Aristotle also, demonstrating the same with several Philosophical Arguments, saying, and proving by Experience, That the greatest Earthquakes happen always in serene and calm Weather, which falls out in September and March, when commonly the Air is most turbulent; these Meteors seeming to have left the middle Re­gion of the Air, and got into the middle Bowels of the Earth. Which he makes more apparent, saying, That the Earthquakes never cease, till the Winds break forth through the erupted Earth again: And that those Countreys that have most Excrescencies, being more Mountainous, and nearest the Sea, are oftner troubled with this dire and sad Infliction; whereas the Champaign and Inland Countreys scarce ever hear of a Terrene Trepidation.

The differences of Earth­quakes.Some Philosophers reckon up three sorts of Earthquakes; others seven. The first is, That the Earth tosseth like a Boat upon the Sea, which subvert­ing, quite overthrows so many fair Buildings. The second seems like a Knock­ing, or great strokes under the Ground, which makes the Superficies recoyl and fall, inclos'd Vapors then seeking a Passage. The third, a Ripping and Renting of the Earth into yawning Graves, in which are swallow'd up and buried oftentimes whole Cities. But he that Dedicated his Description of the [Page 128]World to Alexander the Great, reckons four more: The first is a double Trem­bling, that meets and dashes Terrene Billows one against another: The se­cond, a Breaking of the Ground in all parts: The third, onely a Rumbling under Ground: The fourth, shuffling the Earth in a wonderful manner, which turns all things topsie-turvey.

How long they continue.Concerning the continuance of Earthquakes, sad experience hath taught us, that some will last forty days together, without little or any intermission, ac­cording to the easiness or difficulty of the vents which keeps in longer or short­er the shut up Commotions.

The signs before the Earth­quakes.There are also several signs that are fore-runners of these miserable effects; for growing near (as we said before) the Air is generally very calm, because those Vapors that commonly disturb the Air, are confin'd in the close Bowels of the Earth; and if any Cloud appear, it seems like a thin stroke or white Line athwart the Sky, which happens commonly after Sun-set, and in fair Wea­ther.

But the Sea is troubled, swelling very much without any apparent cause of molestation; and the Water that had been fresh in standing Lakes, grows Salt and Brackish.

Pliny H st. 19. Pliny relates, That Pheraecides a Grecian Philosopher, after he had taken such Water out of a Pit, foretold the Lacedemonians of the Destruction of their City, then threatned by an approaching Earthquake; Another sign is, that the Rep­tilia, or all creeping Animals that live under ground, forsake their dark Recesses, and frighted, seek up and down for other abodes; The Sun, no Clouds ap­pearing, grows dark, and shines pale and dim.

The events that follow on an Earthquake.The Earthquakes themselves amaze the beholders in such manner, that they often bereave men of their Senses; for who would not be astonish'd, and for ever after stupifi'd into folly or frenzy,Stange inconveniencies in Japan, occasion'd by Earth­quakes. to see Houses, Towns, Cities, nay whole Kingdoms turn'd into one Sepulchre? great and new Islands, thrown up in an instant in the Sea? Mountains remov'd, and seeming routed to run several ways; the sollid and firm Continent, turn'd into a crue of segregated Isles, and other Lands, the Sea quitting them, are joyn'd to the main Land? Fire, and Streams of burning Sulphur are vomited out of the Earth, and burning Coals, Ashes, and heaps of Rubbish spread over Sea and Land, for the space of many Miles; common Roads turn'd into Rivers; then the sickness and mortality that happens after, falling on-those that escape, from the dire infecti­on of noysome Parbreaks belch'd from the Earth; of which dreadful Calami­ties, no Nation suffer more than the Japanners.

¶ ANd that we may have a better sence of the miserable condition of those that suffer in this worst of extremities, take a brief account from Eye­witnesses of two that happen'd nearer our own doors; The first happen'd about 160 years ago at Bononien; Horrible Earthquakes at Bononien. the second in Ragusa, near Illiria. Philippus Ber­naldus, a learned Person, liv'd Anno 1505. in Bononien, where on the last of Octo­ber, about eleven a Clock at night, a horrible noise awaken'd him, and all the City; soon after, Chimneys and Walls tumbled to the ground, yet in few hours, it beginning to cease, they were a little comforted; but three days after about the same hour in the night, it broke forth with such violence, that the Inhabitants expected nothing but their utter ruine, hideously roaring, and thundering underneath, and rouling like a troubled Sea above the Earth; great and small Buildings falling with dreadful cracks into a heap of Ruines; dark­ness [Page 129]increasing, made the terror the greater. Half of Prince Bontivoly's Palace fell with such force, tumbling down, added so to the Earthquake, that it shook the whole City. The Walls of St. Jaques, St. Peter, and St. Francis Churches were rent from the top to the bottom, the Steeples and Pinnacles, and other Towers coming all down headlong at one blow, not one Chimney in the whole City or Suburbs left standing, yet by degrees, after the great violence abated, eve­ry night, some sudden trepidations gave them new alarms of fresh terror; therefore the Inhabitants forsaking their own houses, liv'd in Tents in the Corn Fields, at least a moneth after; most of whom fell into Burning-Feavers, of which many dy'd.

After the second Earthquake, began a third, which also beginning in the night, lasted forty days, doing great mischief, after the unvaluable damage they had suffer'd before.

Moreover, Boroaldus relates, That his friend Falcus Argelatus was struck with such a Consternation, that loosing his Senses, in a desperate manner cut his own throat, who not performing speedily the work, he frantickly ran up a pair of Stairs, and threw himself headlong out of a Window, and broke his own neck, whereof he dy'd.

An Earthquake at Ragousa:Not long since, Ragousa was in like manner terribly shaken by an Earth­quake. This Trepidation began on the sixth of April 1667. in the morning be­tween eight and nine of the Clock, it being a clear and Sun-shiny day. In the twinkling of an eye, the whole City was shaken, the Legier George Crook, being sent by the States of the United Netherlands to take his Residence at Constantino­ple, had also a house at Ragousa, which tumbling down, kill'd him, his Wife, Minister, Child, and two Servant-Maids. Jacob Van Dam, who was President for the Netherlanders at Smirna, was in the same house, but in a lower Room. He with six others got under a Stone pair of Stairs; he was no sooner out of his Lodging, scarce half Cloth'd, but it tumbled down, with three Stories more, darkness struck them with fresh terror; after which, when growing clear, Van Dam came forth from his shelter, and went to Crook's House, where calling as loud as he could, and hearkening if possible he could to hear any body answer him, he concluded that they lay all swallow'd under the Rubbish and Ruines. Neither durst he tarry long there, seeing the Walls totter, fear­ing he might suffer under the like Calamity, never standing still, till he got quite out of the City; all the way terrifi'd with imminent danger, Stones and pieces of Timber still falling in a terrible manner, both before and behind him, the ground trembling under him, and gaping in several places about him, that hundreds of swallowing Gulfs appear'd in the Streets. Thus he, with six more of his Company, with much trouble and terror scap'd out of Rogousa, lo­sing one by sudden death in the way; but when they had clear'd themselves of the Town, the Countrey prov'd no less difficult and dangerous, great heaps of torn up Rocks and Rubbish, filling the Paths, so that they being put to a stand, could find no way to get farther, whilst looking behind them, they saw the City in several parts of fire, and three Store-houses of Powder (a dreadful thing) when e're they catcht, would utterly destroy the miserable remainder of those yet alive.

Thus for a night and a day this misery lasted, without any intermission, whilst the people that escaped lay in the Fields, without either eating or drink­ing; and few of these that thus escaped, but were either hurt or struck with sickness, and had not a Venetian Ship that lay in the Harbor afforded them [Page 130]Bread, they had perish'd with hunger; which Vessel also ran as dangerous a Risk, for the water forsaking the Haven, left them three times on the bare Sand, and that often times failing, hideously gaping, was ready to swallow them up; then the Sea returning with such violence, that it was a wonder but they had been bilged upon the Shore, besides many others suffer'd that lay there, living in a most sad condition, under beams lighting across amongst the Piles, that were hurt and maim'd, languishing, starv'd to death, no possible help to remove the great heaps of Timber and get them out.

Van Dam at last got aboard of a Ship, where the terror was a little mitigated, a Magazine of Powder being very near, expecting every minute the blowing up; when two days after, on the eight of April, three hundred Turks and Moor-lacks on Horses and Mules, descending from the Mountains, after some small resistance, entred the City, there making havock and bloody slaughter where e're they went; so clearing the way with a great booty gather'd up amongst the Ruines, return'd.

On the sixth day, the Earthquake beginning to abate a little, Van Dam went towards the City, to look after his Goods, and several Presents which the Am­bassador Crook had in custody for the Grand Seignior.

The City was yet in a miserable condition, the Earthquake still continu'd, though not so furiously as before, the Fire also not quench'd, and the Streets full of Theeves and Robbers; the Ways and Paths cover'd with dead bodies, of which some were Burn'd, others lying in their own Blood, which occasi­on'd a horrible stench: Yet Van Dam found at last some Labourers, whom he employ'd to dig out his Goods from under the Rubbish, promising them one half for getting the other. Two days they spent in prosecution of the design, but nothing appearing, they were quite disanimated, and gave over; of six thousand House-keepers, remain'd scarce six hundred alive, sixteen thousand be­ing Burnt and lost by the Subterranean Fires breaking forth.

A farther journey in Ja­pan.¶ BUt now to return to our business, the Netherland Ambassadors stay'd a night in Odauro; and after they had view'd the place, where the old Castle was sunk, and a new one rais'd upon the Walls of the former, they went on in their Journey, being the thirtieth of October, crossing several Rivers, and through many Villages to Hedo, and from thence to Osa; next they Ferry'd over the Rivers Barueuw, and Sanamicauwa; over which being got, they went through Firaski, Banio, Tamra, and Fovissauwa, all fair Villages.

Description of the Temple Toranga.¶ THis way they met with nothing worthy their observation, but a large Temple, dedicated to one of their gods call'd Toranga: On the four corners of the Roof lay four large Oxen, Carv'd to the life, curiously Gilded. The Roof on each side jutting out above six Foot beyond the Walls; the Tem­ple it self built Quadrangular, in each Square stood four Figures, painted ac­cording to the manner of their Antient Hero's, whose several Atchievements are by their poor People sung up and down in the Streets; above which are Windows of pleited Rushes, the upper part fasten'd to the Roof, and the low­er to the Pictures; a white Plaister'd Wall being between the Temple, is sur­rounded with a Stone-Wall, like a Breast-Work, Plaister'd; in the inside, near the Front, joyns the House of one of the Bonzi, whose Cupulo appears in Pro­spect like the Steeple of a Temple.

Tempel int Koninekryck Vaccata Temple in the Kingdome VACCATA

Description of the Idol Toranga.¶ VVIthin stands the Idol Toranga, who had formerly been a great Hun­ter in Corca, and commonly dwelt in the Metropolis Pingjang; some Centuries before the Chinesy King Hiaovus, subdu'd and brought under his subjection half the Island Corca, which had never before tasted the cruelty of the Tartars, nor heard of the Spoils of Sandaracha, with which the Japanners and Chineses furnish their Houses: Otherwise Toranga, the Japanners Mars would have releas'd Corca from those troubles with which they were molested a long time. Toranga finding not work enough in Corca, went over to Japan; at which time there was a grand Rebel that molested many of the Kings, putting all to the Fire and Sword where ever he went; which Toranga understanding, immedi­ately takes up Arms, sending for aid from Corca, then call'd Leaotung.

Every Territory supply'd him with men, and chiefly the Province of Kinks, in which the City Pingjang is scituate, produc'd many stout Souldiers, which they sent over to Japan. The other seven Territories being Hoanchai, Kiangyen, Civen­lo, Kingxan, Changoing, Caociubi, and Pingan, rais'd also many Forces for Toranga; at last he Mustering all his Forces together in Jamam, brought it to a Field-Battel, where he got the day, slew the Rebel, and also eight Kings that were joyn'd with him; alluding to which,How Tonga became a god. their Idol Toranga stands fighting with a Humane Figure, having nine Arms, in each hand a several Weapon, viz. a Sword, Club, Stilletto, Scimeter, Battel-Ax, Bowe and Arrow, setting his right foot on the middle of a Copper-Dragon spitting fire, his left on the Tail; betwixt these two Images, in contest appears more backwards upon a Wall, where his Arms stands Ingraven, a White Steer, and under several Japan Characters, beneath a white Stag, with a Mans Head Crown'd; Both which the Cereans Worship and Adore with great Veneration; all these Images stood on a stately Altar, curiously Carv'd, underneath were several square Seats. This Toranga is taken for one of the first Emperors of Japan, who by his victo­rious Arms, had brought all those several Kingdoms under his own subjection, [Page 132]

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and for his Heroick actions, in process of time, the Japanners have Registred him amongst their gods.

Idol Basanwow.¶ IN like manner, Basanwow was also Worshipp'd formerly as a god, by the Germanes: Trithemius relates, That Basanwow, youngest Son of Diocles King of the Sicambrians, following his Father in the Wars, made many glorious Con­quests, subduing the People of Frier and Meats, and slew the powerful Lord Thaboryn, so making himself Master of his Countrey; and in the Sixteenth year of his Raign, he was so arrogantly ambitious, that he design'd and affected to be honor'd as a God; to which purpose he Summon'd a Parliament, amongst whom taking place in his Imperial Throne, richly Habited in all his Parliament Robes; he on a sudden, as was neatly contriv'd, was drawn up, and the Roof like a chang'd Scene closing again, so he in all his glory vanish'd, none ever knowing after what became of him, so they all voted him (nemo con­tra dicente) ascended into Heaven, and so from that time forward, he was rank'd amongst the Tutonick Deities, and honour'd as a god.

¶ BUt the Ambassadors leaving this Temple of Toranga, proceeded in their Journey from Fovissawa through Toska and Fundage, to Cammagawa, where they rested a night; the next morning being very cold, they Rid along the Sea shore; about Noon they met with a Noble Lady, being the Empe­rors Neece,Great state of the Empe­rors Neece. who was travelling to Meaco, there to Marry with a near Relati­on of the Dayro: Her attendance were very rich in Apparel, several Persons of Honor riding on stately Horses, with Gold Embroyder'd Saddles, their Bri­dles beset with Pearls and Diamonds; her other Servants ran a Foot before in very Costly Liveries; her Guard also were arm'd with Bowes and Arrows, and some with Pikes and Muskets.

Description of the Japan Wagg [...]s.Besides the Men, she had also many Ladies of Honor that attended her, sit­ting in Chariots drawn by Oxen and Horses, which were led by some of their [Page 133]

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Servants, with Reins made of Gilded Chains; the Chariot having two Wheels, near which were steps like a Ladder to enter the Chariot, which as ours hath four, theirs have eight Angles, every corner above adorn'd with a Dragon Couchant; the outside of the Coach curiously Painted and Gilt in several Panes, with a Frame neatly Carv'd, are Pannel'd with several Pictures. This sumptuous Train was above three hours before they all past by the Hollanders, who stood still to see them.

The Ambassadors Frisius and Brockhurst reckon'd up by Leagues from place to place.Then Riding on through the Village Cawasacca, and the City Sinagawa, on the last of October, they entred the Imperial City Jedo; having undergone a long and tedious Journey, since their departure from Osacca, for from Osacca to Firaskatta, is five Leagues; from thence to Jonday, three; so to Fissima, three; then to Meaco, three; from thence to Oets, three; from Oets to Cusatz, three and a half; so to Itzibe, three; then to Minacutz, three and a half; thence to Zint­zamma, three; so to Sacca, two; from Sacca to Sicconosory, two; then to Cammi­ammi, one and a half; thence to Isacutz, two and a half; from hence to Jokeitz, also two and a half; so to Quano, three. Then the Ambassadors cross'd a Bay seven Leagues broad, to Mire; from thence to Narroma, a Mile and a half; then to Siriomi, two Mile and a half; so to Ocosacci, three; then to Fintzawa, one and a half; from hence to Accosacci, two; then to Goi, half a League; from Goi to Josenda, two and a half; so to Ftagawa, one and a half; from thence to Suriski, one and a half; so to Arei, one; then to Meisacca, over a Bay, one and a half; from hence to Fannama, three; so to Foucorais, one and a half; then to Cacingaaw, two; from thence to Nisaca, one and a half; from Nisaca, to Cancia, is the like distance; so to Simanda, one; then to Fovisjeda, two; from hence to Ocambe, one and a half; then to Mirico, two; from Mirico to Surunga, one; so to Jesare, two and a half; then to Okis, one; thence to Jui, two; from hence to Cambaro, one; so to Jussiwarra, two and a half; then to Farry, two; from thence to Nomatz, one and a half; so to Missima, one and a half more; then to Facanne, four; from thence to Odaura, is also four; from Odaura to Oiso, is the [Page 134]like distance; from hence to Fraski, two; so to Fovissaunea, three; then to Tos­ka, two; from Toska to Fundaga, one and a half; thence to Cammagawa, three; so to Cawasacca, two; from hence to Sinagawa, three; from Sinagawa to Jedo, is also three Leagues; so that their whole Journey from Nangesaque to Jedo, was Three hundred forty five Leagues; five and twenty Leagues reckon'd to a de­gree. But Nangesaque and Osacca, How far Nangesaque lies from Jedo. are Two hundred and twenty, and Osacca and Jedo, One hundred thirty five Leagues distant one from another.

Frisius and Brookhurst come to Jedo.No sooner were the Ambassadors enter'd Jedo, and entertain'd in the house where the Agents for the Netherland East-India Company have their Residence: but they sent to the Chief Governor Sickingodonne, and the Masters of the Cere­monies Sabroiseimondonne, to inform them of their Arrival. The Street through which they Rid, when they enter'd the City, before they came to the Inn, was at least four Leagues long, both sides closely Built with Houses, and parted or divided with Fifty three Gates, which are lock'd up every night, for at every Hundred and eighty Paces distance stands a Gate.

Description of the Impe­rial City Jedo.¶ THis City stands in Thirty five Degrees, and Thirty eight Minutes Northern Latitude, near a Bay of the South-Sea; Before it are seve­ral Banks and Shelves, so that none but small Vessels can come near; and though the Water be very shallow in this place, yet it produces great store of Flounders, Gurnets, Plaice, Roaches, Eels, and excellent Oysters, but cannot be bought but at great Rates: As also, all other Provisions are dear, the City being very large, and exceeding populous.

After what manner the houses are built in Jedo.Most of the Houses are built of Clay, the outsides cover'd with Boards, serving as a defence against Rain; besides the innumerable small Buildings: the great Houses of the Nobility adorn the City very much; every one of these large Edifices have several stately Entrances, amongst which one exceeds all the other in Beauty and Art, which is never open except for the Emperor: For when a Noble-man builds a House,Strange gates at Jedo. he makes one Gate or Arch, which is cover'd over with Planks, it being artificially Carv'd with Imagery, all Gilt and Varnish'd after the Indian manner, and are also kept so close cover'd, that none may or can look upon them, but in one Moneth of the Year, which is when the Emperor is pleas'd to Dine in the new Edifice, then they open their ample Gates, through which none but the Emperor passeth, and after that they shut them up again, because none should be so much honor'd as to Tread in the same place where the Emperor had been before, for he never but once makes a Visit.

Streets in Jedo.This City also stands in the Territory of Quanto, and like most Cities in Japan, without Walls. The Streets are generally of a good length, every one being sixty Ikins long, which is One hundred and fifty Paces; at the end of which stands a Gate that is Lock'd and Guarded every night; at every end of the Street is a Gate, which is a Ward within it self, having two Head-boroughs or Constables, that look to keep all things in good Order in these their Precincts, and deliver up an account Weekly of all Accidents in the same to the Chief Warden of the City. This dividing Street from Street, is not onely observ'd in the Cities of Japan, but also in all their Towns and Villages.

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Inhabitants are free from Custom.¶ ALl the Inhabitants here are free from paying of Taxes, onely giving a certain Sum of Money to their Landlords, for the Ground-Rent of their Houses; most of which are built of Wood, and therefore Jedo and all other places are very subject to Fire, often-times whole Cities so being consum'd, yet they still Re-build them of the same Materials: Every Street hath also a large Store-house, built of Stone, which in the Fire time, they preserve all their Richest and most considerable Goods; they all dwell in the lower-most Rooms of their Houses, the upper being scarce big enough to hold their Lumber.

The Mountain Tacajama.As you come from Sea to Jedo, the Mountain Tacajama stands on the left side of the City, rising with its shady top towards the Clouds, from which al­so descends a River, running along under a Woodden Bridge by several Houses into the Sea. On this Rock stands also the chiefest of the Emperors Towers, at whose Foot is a fair Temple, Dedicated to the Emperor;Emperors Temple. for which reason none upon pain of death dare presume to enter the same, but onely his Impe­rial Majesty, his nearest Relations, and the chief of the Bonzies.

Village Tonquarba.¶ THe Village Tonquarba lies in a pleasant Grove, on the right side of the Mountain; somewhat more Easterly, the City Algirham is shaded and surrounded by many tall Cedars, a Castle belonging to it, onely appearing above the Trees; about half way between Tacajama and Tonquarba, flows the River Toncaw through Jedo, into the South-Sea:The River Toncaw. Without the City is a large Stone-Bridge, with nine Arches crossing the foremention'd River. Near this Bridge stands the Palace of Toerodono, Chief Ranger of Quanto.

Palaces and Churches in Jedo.Near the City is another Stone-Bridge which crosses the River, that on one side washes the Village Tonkoujamma; opposite against which stands the Castle of a Noble-Man rising aloft, with four Galleries like a large Turret; Some­what more Westerly stands another stately Building, of one of the Emperors Chief Officers; on the top of whose Frontispiece stands a Square Turret.

At the upper end of the City, close by the River Toncaw, appears an exceeding large Watch-Tower, being Four-hundred fifty eight Foot and a half high, Guarded with twelve hundred Souldiers.

On the East side of this the Emperors Magazine, a large Structure; in the West, rang'd in order, stand several. Temples of their Idol Fotoques, one con­secrated to Camis, and another to their Evil Natur'd god, which we call the Devil: In the middle of the City rises a most delightful Banqueting-House, in which the Emperor Chiongon Toxogunsama us'd to Recreate himself.

The Emperors Garden.Moreover, those that view the West part of Jedo, will first see the Palace of the King of Bungo, to which is joyn'd his Imperial Majesties Garden, which is so exceeding pleasant and delightful, that those famous Orchards of Semira­mis being reckon'd amongst the Seven Wonders of the World, are much inferior to it; Nature and Art striving to out-vye one another.

Next to this, stands the Palaces of the Lords of Chiecow and Firando, His Im­perial Majesties Councellors, Bungono, Nognicono, Vonemo, Ingando, Cambano, Ri­mo, Cuno, and Texinucano: The Camies also Resides in a very sumptuous Build­ing.

Somewhat farther is another fair House, in which Utrandono, the Emperors Groom-Porter dwells; Southward from thence is the Temple of Xaca; close by which stands the Custom-house; near this are several large Buildings for [Page 136]the Emperors Generalissimo; somewhat farther, a Wall'd Plain, where two thousand Horse may be drawn up and Mustred.

The Temple of Xantay, to what end, and by whom built.Amongst other Temples, is also very Beautiful, that which is consecrated to the Idol Xantay, having three Roofs one above another: The Emperor Nobu­nanga, after he had brought thirty Kingdoms under his Subjection, and by that Victory obtain'd the Imperial Crown, spar'd no Cost in the building thereof, that by that means his Name might be ever after kept in memory: He would also have been honor'd as a God, and with more Zeal than any other of the Ja­pan Deities; but being murther'd by the Prince Aqueche, Anno 1582. with his Death the Ceremony of his Service, a Divine Worship was utterly ceas'd, and his Temple consecrated to Xantay.

Temples full of Images.Not far from thence you pass by the Court of the Chief Governor of the South part of the City Jedo, which being built long in Front, hath in the mid­dle a Portall with a square Tower: Farther into the City are two Temples of the Ickoisen, almost touching one another, both full of little Images: Next to these are two more, that belong to the Priests, which they call Bulgru; within these are no manner of Statues found, except one representing the shape of a horrible Monster.

This City hath also several other fair Buildings, in that part which is be­yond the Mountain Tocajamma, for there is a strong Garrison wherein are Quarter'd Three thousand five hundred Souldiers: On one side of which is the Palace of the Mayor, or Chief Governor of that part of the City, to whom all the Inferior Officers are to render an account weekly, of what hath happen'd in that time in their several Wards.

The Watch-Tower which is seen at a great distance, both by Sea and Land, and the Garrison, with the Chief Governors Court, make most ways a Trian­gular Prospect; somewhat farther stands a Temple Dedicated to all sorts of Beasts, with a very high double Roof. On the North side of which appears a large Court, in which four of the prime Bonzies live together, having also three Temples built in a Row.

The Temple of Camis, and Fotoques.¶ AT last appears the Temple Consecrated to the Idol Camis, and Fotoques; which Names are not peculiar for one, or two, but general; for the Japanners call all their gods, to whom they Pray for future Bliss in the world to come, Fotoques; and those from whom they expect Transitory Happiness, as Health, Wealth, and a fair Race of Children, that should enjoy what they are possess'd withal after their Deaths, they call Camis.

The Emperors Seraglio.In the List of Superior Deities, many of their Princes and Emperors, for their great Atchievements, when living, have been Registred by their Subjects, and after departure Worshipp'd as their gods, as the Antient Greeks and Romans heretofore.

But on the other side of the Imperial Garden, stands the Seraglio, for his Wo­men, being in thirty large Divisions, which the Japanners call the Chandran; nearer the Sea are more Palaces belonging to the Kings, Quicougeu, and Date, and beyond those the King of Saxuma, hath his Court much resembling Quicou­geu his Palace, onely the last hath a large Porch, built Arch-wise high, like a Steeple.

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TEMPEL met Duysend BEELDEN.

¶ BUt that which Crowns the City, and appears above all the rest, is the Empresses Magnificent Palace, which they call Miday, rising aloft with three Galleries, or Stories according to their manner, one surmounting the other.

The King of Figens Court makes also a stately show: But on one side of the Empresses Palace are Houses, being large built, all of Stone, wherein lies the Inexhaustable Emperial Treasures, and heap'd-up Mountains of Gold, and Silver, not to be valued within the compass of Arithmetick; the Riches of St. Mark, and the Golden Mines of Potosi, with the whole Revenues of all the European Kings cast up together, would scarce Ballance the unimaginable Audits, and vast Accompts thereof.

Phaiglerodano Cammangon, the Empresses Brother, being the King of Jamay­stero, dwells here also in a sumptuous Palace, near which are three Courts, be­longing to his Unckles, the first being the King's of One way, the second of Mito, the third of Cinocuni, all three Brothers to the Emperor Xogunsama, surnam'd Conbosama; These three Palaces stand very near one another, the largest and fairest, is that in which Cinocuni Resides, having two Roofs one above another. Xogunsama, Son to the Emperor Daifusama succeeded his Father in his Throne, Anno 1616.

Other Palaces in Jedo.Near this place also stands a fair Building, belonging to two Brothers of the King Amanguci. Somewhat farther is the Court of the King of Tacata; and next that the Residences of the Kings of Zanuaquq, Fanga, and Omura. About the middle of the City are five Palaces more, in which reside the Princes Amacusa: Beyond these, the King of Arima hath a large Court: The Temples of the two Emperors are also very beautiful; on the North end is a Light-house of Five hundred ninety four Foot high:A Light-house for ships to steer into the Harbor. Some distance from hence is a fair Cloy­ster for Widows; And near this, the Palace, in which the Chief Governor of the East part of the City resides; Six Streets farther, a Temple Dedicated to the Idol, with four Heads.

But that which exceeds all the Buildings at this end of the City, is a stately Cloyster, whose height, largeness, and magnificence deserves no small won­der; in this Colledge, the second, and third Son of the Emperor have their Education, bred up to several Arts and Eastern Learning: Towards the East end of Jedo appear two fair Temples, both Dedicated to their god Amida. The Temples of Amida. But distinguish'd, by calling the one onely Amida, and the other, The Golden Amida; At the farthest end of the City, opposite to the Village Tonquerba, is the Court of the Emperors Chief Custom, and Collector in the East part of Jedo.

Description of the costly City Amida.¶ THe Temple of The Golden Amida is no small Ornament to this City, the Idol which is terrible to behold, stated on an Altar; in the mid­dle of the Isle the Altar is Plated all over with Silver, on which stand two Gol­den Cups, one before, and another behind the Idol, who sits himself Mounted on a Horse with seven Heads, every Head signifying an hundred thousand of Years, his own like that of a Dog with long ears, in his hands a Golden Hoop, holding the middle in his Mouth betwixt his Teeth; but nothing can be more costly than the Skirts of his Coat, from the middle downward, Stud­ded and Emboss'd with Pearls, Diamonds, and other Pretious Stones: At the bottom of the Altar are many Japan Characters Ingraven, which are the Hiero­glyphicks or Mysteriouss Signification of the several Attributes of this their [Page 138]

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Idol to be esteem'd one of the chiefest of all their Deities, therefore they ac­count it a Blessing, when they have occasion but to name him.

The Empress worships Amida.¶ FAther Lodowick Frojus relates in his Letter from Canga, an Island in Japan, dated Anno 1565. That the Emperor Cuba his Royal Consort, had built a Chappel in her own Palace, Dedicating it to Amida, in which she daily attended with a great Train of Ladies, there paying her Devotions to his Statue representing a comely Youth, Crown'd with Gold, that Reflected Rayes, like Sun-Beams; for when the Emperor Cu­bus was slain by the Rebels Diandono and Mioxindono, and the Empress making her escape took Sanctuary in a Monastery near Miaco, where being discover'd, the Priviledge of the place not protecting, they sent an Executioner to take away her life; she preparing to obey the hard Sentence, call'd for Pen, Ink, and Paper, and Wrighting to her two Daugh­ters which were also Imprison'd in the next House; Informing them, That she was to be un­justly Murder'd, but she rejoyc'd, and would be glad to Imbrace Death, because she doubt­ed not, but that Amida had found this means to bring her to a better Habitation, and the sooner to enjoy that Paradise, where her Dear Husband, so lately Murder'd remains; ex­pecting by her company the full accomplishment of both their Happiness. Then Sealing the Letter, she thank'd the Bonzi for his kind entertaining of her in their Colledge, and draw­ing near to Amida's Altar, where kneeling, she lifted up her Hands, and call'd twice on the god for to forgive her her Sins: Then the Bonzi laid his Hand upon her Head, as a Token, that she had Absolution from all her Offences; then going from thence into a pri­vate Room, she lifted up her hands again to Heaven, and cry'd, Amida, Amida, which said, Was beheaded. she was Beheaded.

Images of Amida, are di­vers.Furthermore, it is to be observed, that there are several Images Represen­ting this god; for whereas he sometimes is made (as we said before) with a Dogs Head, riding on a Seven-Headed Horse, another resembling a Naked Youth, with Holes in his Ears, sitting on a large Rose, Carv'd of Wood, and in a strange Shape, with a Fantastick Cap on his Head, slit before, with two large Buttons on the top, with a comely and youthful Countenance; in his [Page 139]Ears hang two Rings, one within another, about his Neck a Scarf, his Breast cover'd with an Oval Plate curiously Engraven, over his Shoulders and Back hangs a Coat of Feathers neatly Wrought, and joyn'd together, in his Hands a String of Beads, his Breast and Belly exceeding large, sitting on a great Cushion, before him stands several Japan Letters, Engraven on a square Stone.

They also place oftentimes near their god Amida, another Idol with thre [...] Heads, which are cover'd with one flat Cap, or Bonnet, joyn'd close together, their Chins Hairy, about the Neck a Pastboard Band, on each side four Arms and Hands, the Breast and Waste girded with five Strings of Pearl; the Belly appears like the Body of the Sun, darting Rays, with several Chara­cters in the middle; the Walls are all hung with rich and costly Japan Habits, and before them many burning Lamps.

A very stately Temple with a thousand Images near Meaco.But besides these two Temples of Amida in Jedo, there is a most famous Chappel about a League from Meaco, being of more antiquity, erected by some of their antient Emperors, and since by the Modern enlarg'd and beautifi'd, being four hundred and twenty Foot long, having two great Porches, with Portcullises in the middle: where entring you may first see a large Seat, on which sits an Image, bigger than the Life resembling a Giant, with Holes in his Ears, Bald-headed, and shaven after the manner of the Indian Brachmans; over this huge Figure hang several Cups, on both sides divers shapes of Armed Sol­diers, Morisco Dancers, Exotick Wizards, and other dreadful Figures, with an­tick Gestures: Their Wind and Thunder also are personated in terrible Figures. Then they enter the Chappel, ascending on seven Steps, having five hundred Idols on each side fix'd to the Wall, all representing Canon the Son of Amida, with amiable Looks, each having thirty Arms, two of which are of ordinary size, but all the other very small, and in every Hand two Arrows, on their Breasts are engraven seven little Faces, on their Heads Golden Crowns, with Strings of Diamonds. Moreover, not onely the Chains, Bells, and other things belonging to these Images, but also the Statues themselves are all Massie Gold, wrought by the Goldsmith, insomuch that the beholders Eyes dazle at the glory and splendor of Canon's Chappel. To which most People from all Parts of Japan repair to perform their Devotions, and the rather, because there are many more Temples near it, to which they also resort upon the same ac­count.

Description of an Uni­versity in Japan.¶ ABout two Miles from the aforemention'd Chappel is a famous Univer­sity, built at the Foot of a Hill, and divided into several Halls, Col­ledges, Cloisters, surrounded by a pleasant Stream: near which are many Chappels; in some of which they worship a horrible Image, representing, as we suppose, the Devil.

On the top of the Hill appears three great Temples built of Wood, on exceeding large and thick Pillars; the Ground Pav'd with polish'd Marble.

Of the Idol Xaca.In one of these stands a very large Image of their god Xaca, having many lesser Statues plac'd on both sides of him; at his back hangs a Piece of Parch­ment, to which are joyn'd two thousand broad Seals, near which stands forty Representations of two-year-old Children; on each side of the Temple are two foul and horrible Monsters Arm'd with great Clubs. All these Images and Seals are richly Gilt.

In the second Temple, or rather a Theatre, for there they keep all their Commencements, promoting of Students, according to their several Merits, to Places and Dignities, which they perform thus: The Proficient and the Master of this Ceremony are placed in the middle of the Stage, with Penons and Flags hanging over their Heads, where the Graduate in a formal manner beseeches a Prime Doctor to put him in Orders, and prefer him according to his Deserts; which done he takes Place as he is advanced.

The Temple for the Por­cupine.This Edifice is dedicated to the Porcupine, amongst them the Embleme of Learning; but they erect no Altar nor Image for him, as for other gods, but onely hang the dead Animal up in the Roof of the Hall, that when the Stu­dents implore this Deity to fill them with Arts and Sciences, they may lift with their Eyes, their Hearts also to Heaven.

The third exceeds the other two in heighth and beauty.

Palaces for Scholars.Here are other several Halls, adorn'd with large Image, which make up their University; where Scholars Study and have their Residence: in each of them are fair Libraries,Japan Library. stuft with innumerable Catalogues of Books, where with a Skrew, or turning of a Wheel, what Book soever they desire to see, presents it self.

Many Churches in Ja­pan.¶ THe Number, Magnificence, and wonderful Riches of dedicated Places and Temples for Divine Worship, are beyond admiration, and al­most incredible. The greatest have dwelling in them, to perform the Rites and Ceremonies, twenty Priests; the second Rate, fifteen; others, ten; and the least, two.

Make bad use of them.But these Structures, built for religious intentions, and commonly in the most luxurious and pleasantest Situation of the whole Isle, are made by their dissolute and gormandizing Priests, the Academies of all Debaucheries, and especially the Schools of Gluttony, Drunkenness, and Lust; who in their Frol­licks in open view of all their Idols, in a gallanting humor, will not spare to prostitute their wanton Mistresses; and for their more conveniency, lay them at the Feet of their gods, and make them Bolsters for their Adulteries.

Hendrick Hagenaer relates, that he saw six Temples near Osacca, at whose Doors stood large Images of Wood, holding Boxes in their Hands, into which the Japanners throw Pieces of Copper, by them call'd Caxa.

A strange Chappel.There is also a Chappel, through the middle whereof runs a Stream, into which the poor Women throw several Written Papers.

Description of the stately Cobucui.¶ THe manner of building these Japan Temples is very stately. Lodowick Almeida, an Eye-witness, gives a large description of one, call'd Cobucui, in the City Nareau. This Temple (saith he) hath Portico's, behind each a large open Court, surrounded with fair Galleries, supported with Co­lumns; at the first entrance are broad Stone Stairs, with half Paces; on the uppermost stand two great Images, very artificial, each having Keys in their Hands, intimating that they are Porters of the Temple; behind the third Por­tal appears the Temple it self, to which they ascend upon Marble Steps: whose two-Leav'd Doors seems to be guarded by two mighty Lyons, Carv'd to the Life; in the middle Isle, towards the upper end are three Images, bigger than the Life, each ten Foot and a half high, representing the god Xaca, and his Children standing on both sides of them; the Floor is all cover'd with square Marble;Exceding great Pillars in the Temple of Xaca. but especially seventy Pillars of Cedar, neatly Carv'd, [Page 141]

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of an incredible heighth, which so adorn the Temple, that they strangely amaze the beholders: The Accounts of the building this Edifice say, that each of these Pillars cost 5000 Ducats: The Walls Painted with various Images, and several Plants and Flowers, also much illustrate this House for their Divine Worship; the Roof is cover'd with Tyles made of Clay,And also strange Tyles. not temper'd or mix'd with Sand, but beaten very thin, each being two Inches thick, and have upon a Ground of black Paper several Shapes in antick postures, which are so curious, that they exceed one another in art and beauty:An exceeding Roof. The vaulted Roof being Arch-wise, may last five hundred years without the lest Repair; and notwith­standing it is very heavy and large, yet it jets nine Foot over beyond the Walls without Supporters, insomuch that our European Builders would think it impossible, that so great a weight could hang over in that nature without falling.

The Dining-Room where­in the Bonzi eat is very costly.On one side of the Temple stands the Colledge of the Bonzi, which is as glo­rious to behold, and as strong, being an hundred and twenty Foot long, and thir­ty six Foot broad;And also the Places where they sleep. their Lodging-Rooms about the same are reckon'd to be an hundred and eighty; besides many stately Halls, whereof one stands on twenty four Cedar Columns, in which is the Library of the Bonzi, full of the choicest Japan Books. Here are also several fair Stoves in deep Vaults, and provided with all Necessaries. Their Kitchins are very curiously furnish'd, their Kettles made of the best Copper, are two Foot and a half deep, three in circumference, and two Inches in thickness; before these runs a Rivulet of fresh Water. In the Nights they hang up twenty four Lanterns with lighted Candles in their Chambers.

Before this Colledge, or Court of the Bonzi, is a Pool that abounds with all sorts of Fish; of which if any one should adventure to steal, he is without mercy put to death.

This Temple Cobucui, hath been built above seven hundred years: The like Temple is also in Jedo, in which the Idol Xaca, of an exceeding huge stature; may be seen.

This Image was erected formerly by the Widow of the Emperor Taykosame, who caus'd it to be made hollow, pouring it full of melted Copper, and the out-side to be Gilt very costly.

Description of the Idol Xaca.¶ THe Head of this their god Xaca hath the likeness, or Face of a middle­aged Man, with a thin Beard, the Hair of his Head cropt above his Ears, his Cap folded like a Scarf, about his Neck are Chains of Gold, inter­laid with Diamonds, about his Middle a Scarf woven of Gold and Silver, his Hands he holds forth, but a little asunder in a praying posture, about his Wrists are Strings with long Tassels, and sits cross-Legg'd, on a great Golden Plate, before and behind him are two large Vessels, in which they put their Offerings; the Golden Plate whereon he sits, covers a square Altar, on whose Brim hangs twelve Pots by Gold Chains, in which both Night and Day they burn In­cense, which are still supply'd with odoriferous Gums; the Altar being square, stands on a broad Foot, cut with several Japan Characters.

What Xaca was for­merly.But this their god Xaca, whom they worshipp'd when living, was a great Proficient in the Pythagorean Doctrine, which of old was most generall, and a Religion most spread through all the World, and much follow'd by the Greeks and Latines; from whence the Grecian Fables of Transformation took their rise, who (according to Plato) generally believ'd,Plato 17.10. de Legibus. that Orpheus after his death be­came a Swan; Thamyras, a Nightingale; Ajax, a Lyon; Agamemnon turn'd to a Crane.Ambros. Lib. De Bono Mors. Cio. Ambrose relates they also believ'd, That the Souls of their Learned chang'd into Bees or Nightingales, because that whilst living, they had pleas'd the Peoples Ears with their sweet and eloquent Language; but the Souls of the malicoius turn into Serpents; Thieves and Robbers, into Wolves; Cozeners and Cheaters after their Death become Foxes; every one changeth into such Creatures, as best analogizeth with their several Vertues and Vices.

Plato and Pythagoras, according to Herodotus, first taught the Egyptians this Doctrine. Zamolxis spread the same amongst the Northern Goths; for which they worship him as a god. The Druides spread it all over Gaul and Germany: and the West-Indians, I know not how, are much of that belief: And Jose­phus tells us,Joseph. L. 18. Ant. G. 11. that the Pharisees amongst the Jews were much biassed with this Perswasion. Julian fondly imagin'd, That the Soul of Alexander the Great in­form'd and gave life to his Body, and therefore sleighted all dangers.

This their god Xaca, saith Father Kircher, the Indians call'd Rama; the Tunkmensers, Chiaga; by the Chineses, Xen Kian. The Chineses derive him from India, in the Province of Tien Turk Gnoe. Moreover, the Japanners have this Tradition concerning Xaca, The Dream of Xaaca's Mother. That his Mother dream'd, that she saw a white Elephant issuing out of her Mouth, and went into her left Side.

Why the white Elephants are of so great esteem in India.From hence proceeds that great esteem which the Indians, and chiefly those in China, Lai, Tunchim, Siam, and Pegu, have of white Elephants, for they are kept and attended on like Kings, and feed on all variety of high Fare, and in Golden Dishes. The Nobility visit them in humble and submissive postures. No other Quarrel than a white Elephant caus'd a great War, Anno 1576, between the King of Siam and Pegu, in which the Siams were so defeated, that they not onely lost their white Elephant, but were utterly subdu'd, and brought under by the King of Pegu: But this Yoke the succeeding Princes did soon shake off, and were Masters of two white Elephants, which in short time after dying, caus'd great lamentation to the King and People of Siam, judg­ing [Page 143]them to be sent from Heaven, as an evidence and earnest of future bles­sings.

Xaca Murder'd his Mother.But the first piece of divine service which this their god Xaca in his huma­nity perform'd, was offering his Mother, which he himself kill'd, lifting up his right Hand towards Heaven, and his left pointing to the Ground, said with a loud voice, Behold, neither Heaven nor Earth affords a greater and more holier Saint than I! This done, he withdrew to a dark Recess under a Mountain, where he spent his time in Study, Writing many Books, and (as the Chineses say) Instruct­ed eighty thousand Disciples; but out of this number he selected first five thousand five hundred, and out of them drew one hundred, and at last he re­duced that hundred to ten, which he made great Masters of this so much fol­low'd Science: And then dying, he left them a great Legacy,He dies. being all those Books that he had Written in the Cave: and that there should be no dispute hereafter concerning the Contents of these Written Volumns, he Seal'd them, and Indorst with this positive Superscription, Thus I Xaca have Written the Truth.

His Opinion concerting the transmigration of the Soul.Amongst others of the Pythagorean Assertions, he maintains, That the Soul is transmutated eighty thousand times into several Bodies and Shapes, and that under six vile transformations they committed all sorts of wickedness and im­piety, and at last turn'd into a white Elephant, by the Indians call'd Lothan hoe Laenses, then they attain'd to the City of rest, and everlasting happi­ness: but before they come thither they Flye with Birds, Graze with Oxen, Crow with Cocks, Swim with Fishes, Creep with Serpents, and grow with Trees.

Hermias a Learned Chri­stian.Of this their Opinion the Learned Hermias saith thus: When I view my Body I am afraid thereof, for I know not by what Name to call it, whether a Man, a Dog, a Wolf, Stier, Bird, or Serpent, for they say that I exchange into all these several Shapes; which live either on the Earth, or in the Air, and in the Water; neither wild, tame, dumb, prudent, or foolish; I flye in the Air, I creep on the Earth, I run, I sit, and sometimes I am enclos'd a Prisoner in the Bark, of a Tree.

The Japanners and the Chineses, which are of Xaca's Religion, believe that the Soul changes into Trees or Plants.

A strange Story of a Tree that spake. Philip Marimus, in his Japan Voyage relates, That in Cochinchina, Anno 1632, a Tree of an hundred and twenty Foot high, and a proportionable thickness, was by a Storm blown down to the Ground, which a hundred Men could not move; whereupon being conjur'd, as they say, by one of their Exorcists, to know the reason why it could not be stirr'd, it answer'd, I am a Chinse Pince; my Soul having been transmigrated into several Bodies a hundred Years, at last is setled in this Tree, from which as an Oracle I am to tell you of Couchin China, that a woful War is ready to fall upon you, under whose pressure you shall suffer extremely.

This Story, whether fabulous, or an Illusion of the Devil, is believ'd both through all China and Japan, insomuch that ever since they put Dishes of Rice to the Roots of great Trees, that the Souls dwelling within may not languish by long fasting: and therefore they feed Animals and living Creatures also, that they may not suffer by Hunger.

Within Camsana (if we may credit Bollandus) stands a Cloister of the Bonzi, Of a Clovster in Cam­sana Bolland. Vit. San­ctor. A. [...]. L. [...]an. 15. C. 4. near which is a Hill shaded with pleasant Trees, thither one of the Priests car­ry daily at a set time two great Baskets, full of all manner of Food, when drawing near the Hill he Rings his Bell, at the found of which is summon'd all sorts of Creatures, that in an incredible number come flocking from their se­veral [Page 144]Shelters and Recesses, to which he throws his Alms, and so scatters, that they are generally satisfi'd; which done, in the same manner he Rings them back again, and they fairly retreat to their respective Receptacles.

These Animals they believe are animated with the Souls of formerly famous Persons, which reside in several Creatures, analogizing in their different kinds and natures with the humor and disposition of those Hero's when alive.

From whom the Japanners have the Opinion of Trans­migration.It is without contradiction, that this Learning of Transmigration took ori­ginal in Egypt: And from them Plato and Pythagoras receiv'd that Doctrine, which they Preach'd into Greece, the Seminary then of Philosophy; which at last spread through several Angles of the World: The Gothes had it in the North, the Germans and Gauls in the West, and at the same time the Chineses and Japanners in the East, who receiv'd it from the Indian Brachmans.

The Brachmans also affirm, amongst a world of strange Fancies, that some Men for their Crimes, after Death become aerial Spirits, fantastick Shapes, unsubstantial Bodies, wandering up and down so long, till they have suffer'd enough to expiate their Offences.

These Spirits are not permitted to Eat the least Blade of Corn, Herb, Grass, nor any thing whatsoever, but onely what they receive by Alms; to which purpose they throw Meat to Daws and Pies nine days together after their Friends departed Souls, that so the wandring of their deceased Relations may pick up something with them.

These Spirits sometimes also appear in humane Shapes, but are not to be fear'd, because they are harmless.

The Brachmans believe there is a Hell.Moreover, the Brachmans also acknowledge a Hell, by them call'd Jamma Locon, from whence the Souls, after great punishments, are released, and ap­pear again in the World in several Shapes.

But besides their Jamma Locon, they make mention of a deep, dark, and dis­mal Pit, by them call'd Antam Tappes, which (as they say) is full of Thorns, Vultures, and Ravens, with Iron Beaks and Claws; Mastiff-Dogs, Stinging-Wasps, and Hornets, which heavily afflict and torture the Wicked condemn'd to that Dungeon, in a most horrid and petulant manner, without any cessa­tion; and that which is worse, their punishment (as they say) never ends.

And also a Life after this.They also hold two Conditions of such as are Saved, entring into happi­ness, some of them travel to an inferior Heaven, call'd Surgam, where no sins are committed; nor death suffer'd to enter; yet the Dewetas (for so they call those that after death are believ'd to go to Surgam,) when their time of resi­dence there is expir'd, travel from thence, Soul and Body again conjoyn'd; but what becomes of the Body in their return, the Brachmans have not well made out, onely they affirm, That some come back to the World, and are rege­nerated and born again, and those Feast on all manner of Delicacies, and enjoy fair Women, but without Issue. But this they have not well anvill'd out nei­ther; for some, they say, never remove from Surgam, but bear Children there, which they number amongst; the Stars; this they hinted from the antient Astronomers, that often (as we do sometimes) discover new Stars in the Firma­ment.

Their Opinion of Heaven.But those which worship and obey Wistnou, keeping themselves from all Offences, are transported to Weicontam, where God sits on a most glorious Throne: But they say there are two Weicontams, calling one Lela Weicontam, which is a most pleasant and delightful Heaven; but the first onely call'd Weicontam: From thence none return again to this World. Great Disputati­ons [Page 145]one the Brachmans maintain about their Second Heaven, Lela Weicontam: Some affirm, That the Souls remove from thence to another Elizium: Others maintain the contrary.

The Sect Foqueux worship Xaca.Moreover, concerning Xaca, it is well known, That all the Japan Bonzies worship him; but chiefly those they call Foqueux: For as they are of another Sect, so among themselves they are of other Opinions. This Sect is so call'd from a Book written by Xaca, which treats of attaining to Salvation by saying these Words, Namu, Mio, Foren, Qui, Quio; though no Japanners understand the true meaning thereof, being Indian Words.

The manner how the wo­men ourn themselves.¶ THe Funerals in India, if Married People, and the Husband die first, are commonly double; for the Women burn themselves with their Husbands, because they will not live after their deceas'd Lords; so perfecting the Celebrations of the Funerals: Which they willingly expose themselves to, in Honor of their God, whom they call Rama; which they perform thus.

When the Wife promises her departing Husband that she will die with him, then she must lose no time; but the same day, where her Husband lies burning in the Funeral Pyre, she must leap in, and be consum'd with him. This dread­ful Ceremony is strictly observ'd by the Brachmans and Wiensjaes: But the Set­teraes and Soudraes go farther; for there the Women also burn themselves, though their Husbands die in other Countreys, although it be many Years af­ter their Deaths, yet as soon as they receive the sad News, they shrink not from the Fiery Trial of their Affections, but by burning dispatch themselves. Some of the Men also are as mad, who in the Worship of their Xaca, dig a large Pit without the City, in which making a great Fire, they desparately leap thereinto, where they are in short time consum'd to Ashes; whilst the Woman sits on a Stool, dress'd up, and richly clad, before the Door of their House; and if she be extracted from the Settera, or Soudra, she hath in one Hand a Lim­mon, and in the other a Looking-glass, calling continually on the Name of their God, Naraina, or Rama, which is Xaca; sometimes chewing Betel, amongst which they mix an intoxicating Herb, that bereaves her of her Sen­ses; so taking away all manner of fear of what she is to suffer.

But if she belongs to the Brachmans, or Wiensjaes, then they hold red Flowers in their Hands, first dedicated to the Idol, whose Picture they hang about their Necks: Then after she hath taken her Farewel of her Friends, she either goeth out of the City, or is carried in a Sedan, her Countenance being chearful, looking merrily, which she denotes by several Gesticulations of her Hands and Body, crying aloud to the Sound of Trumpets and Drums, Rema, Rama, Saltae; Rama, Rama, Saltae; that is, God Rama, Rama, make me happy. And thus being led through the chief Streets of the City by some of her nearest Friends, and at last approaching near the Place of Execution, where her Husband was burnt, she withdraws to a neighboring Pool; where after having wash'd her self, she puts on a yellow Garment, and gives her richest Apparel and precious Jewels to her chiefest Relations, and to the Brachman-Priest, which makes her Funeral-Sermon, before the Fire, to whom she also makes great Presents: The Pit wherein she is to leap, is like an Oven full of glowing Coals, being hung round about with green Mats, to the end she might not be affrighted at such a horrid Face of Death. At one end thereof lies a Mount, or Heap of Earth, thrown out of a small Hill, on which she takes her last Farewel of her Friends; All which, to perpetrate this dreadful Self-murder, encourage [Page 146]her to be her own Destroyer; whilst she having thrown her beloved Pestle and Mortar, and other Housholdstuff which she us'd daily, into the Fire, they put a Jar of Oyl upon her Head, letting some fall upon her Body. The Mats being remov'd, the Virago leaps in; and after her, her nearest Relations stand­ing round about, contribute to the Flames, each throwing in a Fagot, the soon­er to dispatch their wretched Kinswoman.

Difference in burning wo­men.Thus the Widows end their Lives, that are of the Settrean, Weinjaen, or Sou­draen Families: But the Brachman Women suffer a more cruel Death; for they are laid close by their Husbands, on the Funeral-Pyre; then the People build a Pile of Wood over them, placing about their Heads Oyl, Rozin, and Turpen­tine: This done, the Women standing in order round about, make doleful Ullula's, mix'd with loud Shrieks and Lamentations; during which Clamor, the Brachman-Priest lights the Pile, which kindling by degrees, brings a linger­ing and terrible Death.

Women buried alive.Besides this way of ridding themselves of the old Females, they have ano­ther way of destroying themselves, which they perform thus: They take the Relict, and lead her as it were in Triumph, amongst the Sound of Pipes, Drums, and Trumpets, to a Pit digg'd square like a Cellar, where stands the Body of her departed Husband; to which descending on Earthen Steps, set­ting her self down on a Bank, she takes the dead Body in her Arms, then per­fuming the Corps with Frankincense and Myrrhe; which done, the Mourners begin to throw the Mold into the Pit, which she rakes greedily towards her with her Hands, and so having cover'd her self at last with Earth to the Chin; then hanging a Cloth before the Entry of the Pit, they give her Poyson in a little Dish, and then on a sudden break her Neck backwards.

Die of Hunger for the Honor of Xaca.Thus also the Japanners, both Men and Women, make away themselves, frantick with mad Zeal, in Honor to their God Xaca: For those that are his greatest Admirers, upon no other account than honoring him, dig their own Graves, covering the tops, leaving onely a small breathing-hole; wherein they famish themselves to death. These kind of Self-murderers, or Sedecedes, happen frequently in and about Jedo, and in several other Places of Japan.

¶ BUt to return again to our Ambassadors Frisius and Brookhurst, who had inform'd the Lords Sickingodonne and Sabrosaymondonne of their Arrival on the last of November, and staid till the twenty ninth of the following Month in the House of the Chief President for the East. India Company, be­fore they could be permitted to offer those Presents which they had brought to his Imperial Majesty:Netherlanders are com­manded to come to Court. They had order to prepare themselves against the next Morning, to appear before the Emperor: Whereupon the Japanners went to a Troo (for so they call a Bath) that they might cleanse themselves; for none must presume to approach before the Emperor otherwise.

But when the Netherlanders had got all things in a readiness against the ap­pointed time, [...]e disappointed. they were countermanded, because the Emperor was indispos'd; therefore they could not as then be admitted to Audience: And the Emperor continuing ill for two Months, they were forc'd to dispence with the time, and bear it patiently. On the sixth of April they receiv'd Orders, that the next Morning they should bring their Presents before the Council, and the young Prince; for his Imperial Majesty was not fully recover'd of his Sickness. So about nine of the Clock the next Morning, the Ambassadors were carried in a large Sedan to the Palace, their Attendants following them on Foot. The [Page]

[Page]
s Kysers hof te JEDO. das Schlos zu Jedo. The Emperors Court at JEDO.

[Page] [Page 147]Streets through which they pass'd were exceedingly crowded with People; and coming to the Palace, they went up four Steps,Come to Court. which brought them into a large and spacious Hall, half the Floor neatly rubb'd, the other cover'd with fine Mats, in which some Lords kept a Guard. Through this Hall the Amba­sadors and their Retinue were led into several fair Chambers,How they were receiv'd. divided from one another by Partitions; where waiting an hour and a half, first the Lord Frisius, and then Brookhurst, were admitted the Presence of four of his Imperi­al Majesties Privy-Council, who by Commission were to represent the Empe­ror, as if in Person. Before these the Ambassadors laid down their Pre­sents; and soon after, before the young Prince the Emperors Son: Which be­ing deliver'd, and after some small Discourse,Depart from the Court. they had leave to repair to their Lodgings: Onely a Merchant, one Cornelius May, and a Dutch Goldsmith, staid behind, to inform a Japanner how they should order the Materials that belong'd to the Silver Ship, which was one of the Presents, when they would make it ready to Sail. Two Hours they spent in this Instruction; which done, they also went to their Lodgings.

Description of the Impe­rial Palace at Jedo.¶ THe Residence or Palace of the Emperor deserves no small Admira­tion: Round about the outermost Wall are large Rails, several Foot from the Moat that surrounds the Palace; betwixt which, is a broad Path, al­ways throng'd with People, and thousands of Coaches and Sedans, continu­ally going and coming. The Walls are built of Freeze-stone, very high and thick, with Battlements on the tops: The outermost Wall is surrounded with a broad and dry Trench, and over the same a Bridge, with several Arches: The Gate made strong with thick driven Iron Nails, is built four-square, two Stories high; each Square or Story having a peculiar Roof, jetting several Foot over the Walls; on each side of the upper Square hang two long Flags or Pennons, with the Emperors Arms: The Gate is continually Guarded by a strong Watch. Round about the inside of the Out-wall are an innume­rable company of little Hovels, for the Soldiers: These Huts are built exactly in a Line, and border a second Moat, which is not without several Creeks, because the second Wall juts out in many Places, being a Bulwark, with many Towers, in all which are strong Guards kept, as on the Out-wall. In the second Gate is also a great Watch kept, to which joyns a third Trench,Hath three Moats and Walls. over which leads a fair Stone Bridge, at the end whereof a third Gate opens, between another Stone Wall, very sumptuously built.

Strange Wall of the Pa­lace.This is not a plain straight Wall, but rather a Bulwark; with Redoubts and Out-works, and several Flankers, Towers, and Watch-houses; yet uni­form, answering one another: So that it rather seems a Fortification, than a Wall. When you are past the third Gate, you enter into a spacious Quadran­gle, where before you, but as far as you can discern, appears the Emperors Banquetting-house, with stately Turrets, surrounded with Trees and strong Walls: On the Left-hand it is indented; but on the Right, smooth and even, running along a Hill, on which the Emperor's Temple stands. Nearer the third Gate are several lesser Courts: The first being square, hath many fair Lodgings about the same, supported on twenty eight Cedar Columns, being open underneath like Piazza's; over which Rooms a Roof shoots out sloap­ing, and hath a second Story on the top, Wall'd round about, over whose four Corners jets another Roof. Next this Court, is a second, in which seve­val Lodgings, resting on four Columns, which face the Entry: Behind these is another new stately Building, inclos'd within a Wall.

The Emperors Garden.¶ THese Outward or Base-Courts are more delighful, by the Pospect of the Emperors Garden, which wants not any thing that Nature, Art, and Cost can afford, the Walks Arbour'd with Trees, the Beds of Flowers curiously divided one from the other, borders on the side of a Hill, whose top is crown'd with a Temple, in which the Emperor pays his daily Devotion.

The Palaces of the Em­perors nearest Relations.But on the left-hand of the foremention'd third Gate, are many beautiful Hou­ess; the lowermost Roof of which, adorn'd on all Corners with great Golden Balls, hath on it several Rooms and Balconies, from whence they have a large Prospect of the foremention'd open Court, and the three double Bul­warks. Between this first Palace, and the third Inner-wall, are daily drawn up the Emperor's Guard, being three thousand Men, which keep constant Watch there. Next to this first Palace joyns a second, which exceeds the other in length, but is nothing near so high; the Roof also adorn'd with Golden Balls. Between these two Palaces stands a sumptuous Fabrick, like a Tower: All which Places are the Residences of the Emperor's nearest Relations.

Description of the Em­perors Lodgings.Behind these, appears the most magnificent and stately Residence of the Emperor, adorn'd with three exceeding high Turrets, each being square, rising aloft with nine Stories: Above every Story the Roof jets over so much, that it seems to lessen the Rooms; the middle Turret being the biggest, on whose top glister two large Dolphins, cover'd with a Golden Plate, lifting their Tails up to the Sky: Opposite against which, stands a spacious Hall, on gilded Columns; the Cieling curiously carv'd, and gilded; the Roof also shines like Gold. In this Place his Imperial Majesty always sits, when he gives Audience to Forreign Ambassadors, or any of his Substitute Kings or Princes. On one side of this Hall, the Women belonging to the Court have their several Lodgings.

¶ AFter the Lords Frisius and Brookhurst had had their Audience on the se­venth of April, before four of the Chief Councellors, and repair'd back to their Lodgings,Fresius and Brookhurst come to Court a second time. they were on the next day, by Orders from Sukingodonne, and Sobrosaymondonne, fetch'd again to Court in two Sedans, their Retinue fol­lowing them on Horseback; and entring the Palace, they staid a while in the foremention'd Halls. Frisius was first admitted to come before the Council, and soon after Brookhurst, where at that time they treated on nothing; onely the Council presented the Netherland-Ambassadors with several Silk Habits, which the Emperor had given them in return; and then were Licens'd to depart to Nangesaque.

They visit the council with Presents.But before they left Jedo, they visited (according to an antient Custom) seve­ral of Majesties Privy-Council, propining them all with Rich Presents: So on the sixteenth of April all things were made ready for their Departure. But had they not staid so long for Admittance to the Emperors Presence, they in­tended to have visited the famous Sepulchre of his Majesties Father, which stands four days Journey beyond Jedo, Stately Tomb of the Em­perors. on a pleasant Hill, the Foot of which is surrounded by a Wall, having a large square Portal in the middle, with strong Gates, on each side of which stand two fair Chappels, built against the Wall, each a Story high; the Edges of the upper, deck'd with Golden Balls: On the left side is a broad Passage, Pav'd with Free-Stones, Rail'd in on both sides, which leads to a Pair of Stairs four Steps high, where they [Page 149]

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ascend to the second Gate, which is adorn'd with Gilded Balls: Here the Hill is again surrounded with second Walls, which on the left hand is border'd by a long Temple, and the right side shaded by pleasant Trees. About a Stones cast from the Trees, appears a Chappel; and passing along a crooked Path, a third Gate, flank'd with two Stone Walls, leads to the Entrance behind the Hill, where the Imperial Tomb stands Erected, which indeed is a most glo­rious and Magnificent Piece: Four Towers rise up towards the Sky, joyn'd together by several stately Buildings which are between them: Within the highest Tower lies the Imperial Corps Interr'd, before which four hundred and fifty Lamps burn both Night and Day.

The Emperor visits his Fathers Tomb every year.¶ HIther the Japan Emperor comes, with a great Train of Nobles, to make Offerings to his Deceas'd Father, which he first Consecrates with a long Prayer, in the Chappel before the first Gate, of which, the Front of the lowest Story rests on four square Pillars, half way plaister'd in the Walls, which between the Walls is curiously painted: The Doors double; on both sides of which, and in the middle, stand six Zuilen, two and two together. On the Edges of the broad-brimm'd Roof hang gilded Images: The lower­most Story hath a Second Building, divided into five Rooms.

Copper Candlestick.Within this Chappel hangs a Copper Branch or Candlestick, which the East-India Company presented by Francis Cairon, to the Emperor of Japan, the third of May, Anno 1636. This Candlestick hath thirty Branches, weighing seven hundred ninety six Pounds: And besides this, Cairon presented also to the Emperor two great Persian Alcatives, one Piece of Black Velvet, twelve Fowling-Guns, and fourteen Pieces of all sorts of Cloth. The Privy-Coun­cellors Samuchedonne, Oiendonne, Actwadonne, Cangadonne, Taikimondonne, Jusdonne, Chi­madonne, Bongodonne, Triussima, Bitchioudonne, Okradonne, Neysiendonne, and Deysien­donne, got every one of them peculiar Presents: besides the Inferior Officers at the Emperors Court.

¶ MOreover, The Japanners are exceeding ambitious of perpetuating their Name, sparing no Cost in their Sepulchres. The Funeral-Rites of their Nobles are thus Celebrated.Strange kind of Funerals us'd in Japan. An Hour before the Corps is carried out of the House, the nearest Relations of the Deceased walk before towards the Funeral-Pyre, being all clad in white Silk, which is generally their Mourning Habit: Then the Women follow, both Married and Unmar­ried, covering their Faces with a Vail of several Colours. Men of great Estates are commonly carried in Herses of Cedar, curiously Carv'd.

The Bonzi's Ceremony with the Dead.At a considerable distance follows one of the chiefest Bonzi, the Minister that performs the Funeral-Rites, in a great Coach, which shines, being all Silk and Gold: Thirty Bonzies more run about the Coach; they wear broad-brimm'd Hats; over a fine Linnen Surplice, a Black Cloke, co­ver'd with a gray upper Garment, each carrying a long Torch lighted, made of Pine-Branches, which (they say) lights the Defunct, that he may not mistake or miss the Way. These thirty are follow'd by two hundred more, who call aloud upon that God or Idol which he most Worshipp'd, when alive. They also beat on great Copper Basons, and carry two large Baskets, full of Artificial Paper-Roses, of divers Colours, which they tie at the end of a long Stick, shaking them as they go in such a manner, that the Roses fly out of the Baskets; that being a sign, as they say, That the Soul of the Deceas'd is already gone to the Place of Everlasting Happiness. After these, follow eight Youths, young Bonzies, in two Rows; who trail after them long Canes, with Flags, each Inscrib'd with the Name of his Idol: They also carry eight Lanthorns, with lighted Candles, which in stead of Horn are cover'd with fine Cotton: Near these Lanthorn-carriers walk two Youths, in gray Clothes, which carry also Pine-Torches, which they light when they come out of the City, and with these kindle the Fire that must consume the dead Body.

The remaining Ceremo­ny.Next before the Corps walk a great number of People, all in gray Clothes, their Heads cover'd with little three-corner'd Caps of black shining Leather, on which they pin small Papers, written with the Name of his Idol: And that it may be more conspicuous, a Man follows, which carries in a Frame, in large Characters, the Name of that God he had so much ador'd.

The Corps it self.Then follows the Corps it self, which is carried by four Men, on a Bier, cover'd with a Bed very richly adorn'd, on which sits the dead Body, with his Head bent forward, and his Hands folded together being cloth'd all in white; over which hangs a Paper Coat, being a Book concerning the Mysterious De­votions belonging to his Deity, and full of Prayers, That he would be pleas'd in mercy to save him.

After the Corps, follow the Sons of the Deceas'd, in comely Habits, the youngest Son carrying also a Torch of Pine, to kindle the Funeral-Pyre. Last of all, comes a second Rabble of Common People, suited with black Caps, as the former.

How the dead are burnt in Japan.When coming near the Pyle, they stand in a Ring, and soon after make a hideous Noise, the Bonzies striking with great force on their Copper Basons and Kettles, and all the People calling aloud on the Name of his Idol, which con­tinues a whole Hour; during which they prepare the Pit, being square, and Rail'd about, and hung with Mats: Towards the four Points of Heaven are four Entrances, being the East, West, North, and South. The Pit is cover'd over with Canvas, and on each side of it stands a Table, with all manner of [Page 151]Fruits, near the Table, Pots smoking with Perfumes and Frankincense; no soon­er they approach near the Inclosed place, but they throw a long Rope over the Corps, on which every one lays their hands, and call on the name of their Idol, several times together, then they walk three times about the inclosed place.

At last they set the Bier with the Bed, and Corps on the Funeral-pyre, to which, the Bonzi who Conducted the whole Train, steps forth and Mutters se­veral Words, which none of those that are present can understand, and takes a burning Torch which he Waves three times over the Head of the Dead Body, signifying by those Circles, that the Soul of the Deceased had never beginning, nor shall ever have an end; when done, he throws away the Torch, which two of the nearest Relations to the Deceased, whereof one stands at the East end of the Bier, and the other at the West, as a Ceremony, reaching it over the Corps to one another thrice together; then they throw it on the Pyle, whilest others pour on Sweet Oil; then setting Fire, which kindles so suddenly, and grows to that height, that the Body is consum'd in a moment.

Strange Custom when the body is burnt.In the Interim, his Sons and kindred walk towards the two Tables, where setting Fire to the Pots, with Perfumes, they fall on their Knees, and Worship the Deceased, then, as they believe, to be in Heaven; This finish'd, their Bonzies are rewarded according to their several Services, and the Chief Orderer of the Funeral receives at least twenty Duckets, and the other Officers lesser Sums.

After the departure of the Friends and Bonzies to their several Houses, then the Common People, and those which were Habited in Grey, make merry about the Fire, with such Food, as stands on the Tables. On the next day, the Children and Friends of the Deceased repair again to the Funeral Fire, where they gather the Ashes, Teeth, and Bones in a Gilded Pot or Urn, which they carry home, and covering it over with a Cloth, set it in one of the chief Rooms of the House.

Make repetition Sermon, after what manner.Thither all the Bonzies come, to make a Repetition of the Funeral Sermon; On the seventh day they begin their Visit, and set the Urn with the Relicks on the Ground; others set down a square Stone, on which is Engraven the Name of the Idol: After this, the Sons go daily to their Father's Grave, on which they strow Roses, and place hot Liquor, and set several Dishes of Meat about it, so that their Father's Soul may be refresh'd.

Bon, a dead Fast.But besides these Funerals, which commonly cost those that are able at least three thousand Duckets, and the ordinary Citizens generally two, or three hun­dred: They keep on one day yearly a general Feast through the whole City, which they call Bon, dedicated to all the souls of their deceas'd friends, on which day each hangs a Lanthorn and Candle at his Door, and all visit the Graves of their several Relations, great multitudes carrying out of the City Chargers full of Variety of Cates, with which they Treat (as they believe) their departed Spi­rits, then inviting them home to their Houses; of which we have already spoke at large.

Description of a mourn­ing Japanner.¶ MOreover, it is worthy our Observation, how the Japanners behave them­selves after the Burying of the Inurn'd Relicks; they mourn two year very strictly, abstaining all that while from all manner of Pleasures and De­lights: Their Habits expressing great signs of Sorrow, wearing Caps on their Heads, flat on the top, square before like a Cap, and spreading broad behind, hanging down like a Vail to their Hams; their Coats exceeding wide, which they fold athwart their Breasts, and hold their Hands in a sad Posture within their Sleeves; this Coat may neither be Lac'd nor Embroider'd, but is only ty'd [Page 152]

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about with a broad Girdle; below their Coat, their Breeches appear, hanging over their Feet like a Sack; all their Clothes are made of brown Linnen, with­out being ever Bleach'd.

The corps of poor peo­ple misused.The Funerals of the Poor People are no way to be compar'd to those of the Rich, for not one Bonzi follows their Dead, they having no Money for to sa­tisfie them for their Labor, without which they will not budge one Foot, so that they onely take care for to provide Food for the Departed Souls; and the more, because most of them, either publick or private, are against the Immor­tality of the Soul; therefore the Dead Bodies of the Poor (of which there are very great numbers in Japan) they throw in the night time, in some private place or other, or else upon the nearest Dunghil.

Departure of the Nether­land Ambassadors from Je­do.¶ BUt to return again to our Ambassadors, upon their departure from Jedo, where having found no opportunity nor time to visit the Emperors Tomb in Niko, whose Lustre was made the greater, by the Branch'd Candle­stick given by the East-India Company, to the Japan Emperor, as being Cast of Copper, and brought from Holland, such a long and tedious Voyage.

The Lords, Frisius and Brookhurst taking their leave, from Jedo proceeded on in their Journey to Nangesaque, on the 16 of April, Anno 1650. and having pass'd Sinagawa, Rokna, Cawasacca, Cammagawa, Fundaga, and Moska, they espy'd the fa­mous Temple of Apes; the whole world shows not the like, if you look upon the strangeness of the Building, and the manner of the celebrated Rites, it is notoriously known, that Egypt was full of the like Superstition, and mad Wor­ship, holding for their gods, which they held in great Adoration, all sorts of Beasts and Monsters: All Writers commonly affirm, That their chief gods were Apis, and Osiris, the one, a living black Ox, with a white Head, broad Back, and shaggy Hair, which was to live no longer than the set time limited by the Egyptian Laws; then a general Fast-day was order'd to be kept very strictly, on which the Ox call'd Serapis, Strange dealing with the Ox Apis. was Drowned in a Consecrated Lake; on [Page 153]whose death, as being their god Apis, all Egypt Mourned, both Old and Young Lamenting, with striking on their Breasts, tearing the Hair off their Heads; but when they found another of the same Colour, and shape, the whole Coun­trey rejoyc'd thereat, setting him in the same place; they generally Feasted, but this their dumb god could not answer as the Delphick Oracle, nor the Dodan Oak, nor Jupiter Ammon, but by eating Fodder out of their hands, that was a good Omen to the Inquirer that proffer'd it, but if he refus'd, that they look'd upon as ill Fortune; for which cause, when he refus'd the Food which Caesar Germanicus proffer'd him, he after despair'd, expecting his utter Ruine.

Osiris, what manner of Ox.But their Osiris was a Grey Ox, with a Dogs head, holding in one Foot a Scepter, Emblematically expressing his Omnipotent Power and Godly Au­thority.

The Ancient Egyptian Kings, us'd to offer Men and Women on the Grave of Osiris; yet this cruel Sacrifice in process of time was chang'd, Offering onely a red Ox, by reason it suited best with Typhon's Colour, which they say, slew Osiris.

Of this also hear what Pliny says, In Egypt an Ox is worship'd for a god, Plin. lib. 8. Cab. which they call Apis, who gives Responses of good or bad Fortune, by taking or refusing the Food which the Injur'd presents with his own Hands; who taking a dislike to that which Ger­manicus proffer'd, refusing, would not eat, who soon after unfortunately dy'd: This Apis is continually kept private, but when he appears publickly, he is accompany'd with a great number of Children, singing Elodiums to his praise, which he seems to understand and ac­cept of.

Strabo says thus, In Heliopolis stands a Dedicated Temple to the Sun, and Ox Mne­vis,Strabo Geog. lib. 17. which is fed in an inclos'd corner, and by the People Worshipp'd; as at Memphis is their Ox Apis.

Herodotus tells us, That the Egyptians Worshipp'd a Cat, Herodot. in Euterp. which if she dy'd in their Houses, they Salted and Bury'd her in a stately manner, carrying her to Bubastis, to be Inter'd there in the Holy City: The like Cicero, Diodorus, Siculus, Plutarch, and Juve­nal testifie.

As to what Clemens Romanus, or rather an unknown Writer by his Name,Clem. Rom. l. 5. Retognit. Writes concerning the foremention'd Worship, deserves peculiar Observa­tion: Some Egyptians, says he, have learnt, That an Ox, call'd Apis, must be Wor­shipped and Ador'd; others, a Goat, others Cats, some an Egyptian Bird, call'd Iphis, which feeds on Serpents; others held of a Fish, call'd Ajun, and many other such Ridicu­lous Creatures, that I am asham'd to name, for a God.

Clemens Alexandrinus relates, That the Saitae and Thebans Worshipp'd a Sheep, Clem. Alex. Adm. ad Gent. and the Lycopolitans, a Wolf; that those of Leopolis honor'd a Lion, as being the King of all four footed Beasts; for which reason also the Persians Picture their god Mithra, which presents the Sun, with a Lions Head.

Plutarch tells us the reason why a Lion is Dedicated to the Sun,Plut. lib. 4. Symp. 4, 5. viz. Because Lions, amongst all Beasts with Claws, bears onely one young one; and that they are very watchful, and sleep little, and their eyes shining, being open when they sleep: And at last, because the Leontines when the Sun passes through the Sign of Leo, find all their Fountains and Pits full of Water.

Strabo writes of the Mendesiers, Stran. Goe. l. 17. Aelian de Animal. l. 10. c. 23. That they promoted a Goat and Buck to Religious Honor.

Aelianus relates, How the Coptists eat their tame Goats, but to their wild ones they shew'd great Adoration, because they were a delight to the goddess Isis.

Other Egyptians reckon their Goats amongst the number of their gods, be­cause that according to Diodorus Siculus, it hath Genitals like a man; for which reason the Greeks and Latins honor'd their Priapus.

Herodotus relates,Herodot. In Euterp. That the Mendesiers show'd much sorrow upon the death of a great Goat-heard, in relation to his Imployment, they holding Goats in great Veneration.

The Egyptians and Greeks also Picture their Idol Pan with a Goats Face and Feet, notwithstanding they believ'd, that he was like the other gods.

Women make themselves common with Goats.The same Herodotus relates also, That the Mendesier Women make themselves common with Goats, that so they might obliege them, and be big, and bear Children, by their Sacred Seed.

Strabo witnesseth, That the Athribites held a small Creature brought forth, by a Mouse, Rat, and Weasel, for their god.

Plutarch tells us the reason why these miserable People Worship such a vile Beast as their Creator; Because it is Born in a new Moon, and his Liver decays at the decrease thereof.

Strange things done by the Indian Mfee.The Indian Rat is Dedicated to Latona, and Ilithya, or Lucina, which main­tains a continual War with the Viper and Crocodile, with both which Egypt is much troubled, and therefore the Rats are accounted worthy of Religious ho­nor, because they destroy both. But not all the Egyptians Worship the Indian Mice, for some Adore the Crocodile, and despise the Mice, because they break the Crocodiles Eggs, and also kill them; for when the Crocodiles lie beaking with open mouth in the Sun, the Mouse leaps in, and there gnaws their Bow­els asunder, and makes his way out through their Bellies.

These Worshippers of so opposite a Religion, one Adoring the Rat, the other the Crocodile, are not onely at variance among themselves, which often grows to War, but they prosecute and destroy the Creatures where ever they find them; the Crocodilians destroy all the Rats and Ingnumons where ever they find them; and those that put their trust in Rats, destroy without mercy all Crocodiles.

Besides Strabo, Juvenal. sat. 15. Cicero, Diodorus Siculus, Juvenal, Plutarch, and Aelianus, wit­ness, How the Egyptian Ombits worshipped the Crocodiles with as great Zeal, as the Greeks and Latins did their gods; but the Apolletick Egyptians curs'd their Crocodile, because Tiphon transform'd into a Crocodile, slew Osiris; and also because the Daughter of Psammymitus King of Egypt, was likewise devour'd by a Crocodile.

Moreover he relates,Strab. Geog. lib. 17. How that the Psyli, a People in Cyreen, and the Egyptian Tentyrietes have a private Charm against Serpents, and the other against Crocodiles, which they can both order according to their pleasure. Crocodile by whom ta­ken, without prejudice. The Tentyrietes dive without any fear, to the bottom of deep Lakes and Rivers after the Crocodiles, and kill them with great ease; to which end, when they were to shew this amongst their publick Shows in Rome, they leapt into the Water, and fetch'd them up to the open view of the whole Concourse.

The same Strabo relates also of Arsino, formerly call'd the Crocodile City, That the Priests there feed those Beasts with Cakes, Flesh, and Wine, which was brought as an Offering by strangers, and laid near a Consecrated Lake.

Maximus Tyrius dissert. 31. Miracle of a Crocodile.MAximus Tyrius relates, That an Egyptian Woman feeding and breeding up a young Crocodile, was accounted holy by the Egyptians, because she Nurs'd a Deity, and therefore both she and the Crocodile were daily Worshipp'd by many of the Egyp­tians. This Woman also had a Son, about the same Age as the Crocodile; a long time the Youth and the Serpent agreed playing together, but at last growing old, and fierce with hunger, he prey'd upon the Boy, and eat him up; the Mother being much amaz'd at [Page 155]this sad accident, yet she esteem'd her Son happy, because the Crocodile which she held for a god, had devour'd him.

By this ignorance of the Heathens, appears plainly Gods Wrath and Di­vine Judgements, men Adoring in the presence of a Never-dying and Om­nipotent God, that which is not onely Mortal and Frail, but much Inferior to themselves: But who can give us a better account, and the reason of Wor­shipping of Beasts, than the never-failing School-master of the Heathens? I will here set down the whole words written in the first Epistle to the Romans; Rom. 1. v. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. Be­cause that which may be known of God, is manifest in them, for God hath shew'd it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the Creation of the World are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his Eternal Power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse. Because that when they knew God, they glorifi'd him not as God, nei­ther were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was dark­ned. Professing themselves to be wise, they became Fools: and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God, into an Image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed Beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up to unleanness, through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipp'd and serv'd the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

There is scarce one living Creature either on the Earth, Sea, or Air, which the Heathens do not worship.

Strabo saith thus of the Egyptians, Strab. Geogr. lib. 17. ‘There are some Beasts which they serve joyntly, three of them inhabiting the Earth, as an Ox, a Dog, and a Cat; Of flying Fowls, the Hawk, and the Bird Ibis; Of Fishes, those call'd Lepidotus, and Oxyrinchus; Besides these, there are also other Creatures which they serve; For the Saiten and Thebans, adore a Sheep; the Latopolitans, the Fish Latus, which swims in the River Nyle; the Lycopolitans, a Wolf; the Hermopolitans, the Baboon, whose head is like that of a Dog; the Babylonians, living near Memphis, an Ape; these Apes are like Satyrs, half their bodies like Dogs, the other half resembles a Bear, they are bred in the Moors Countrey. The Thebans Worship a Crane; the Leontines, a Lion; the Mandesiers, a Ram; others Worship other Deities, about which they maintain great and hot Disputations.’

Out of these Testimonies of the Greek and Latin Writers, of which some li­ved before, after, or about the time of our Saviours Birth; and the undisputa­ble Testimonies written by the Apostle St. Paul; we may easily Conjecture, that not onely the Idolatrous Worshipping of Beasts is very Ancient, but chie­fly with ugly and deform'd Baboons, and Monkies, nay there is scarce one Beast which the Heathens worshipp'd more than the Ape.

Not far from Toska through this Village, the Netherland Ambassadors, Frisius, and Brookhurst travell'd. In their return to Nangesaque, on the 18 of Aug. 1650. stands The Temple of Apes, famous through all Japan, the Structure is no less Arti­ficial than Costly.

Description of the Tem­ple of Apes in Japan.¶ IN the middle Isle stands a high Woodden Altar, the undermost part about half a mans heighth is square with two Ledges; on the top of this stands a second Square; but a third part less than the undermost, whose top being broad, with handsome Mouldings, which jet out of each corner; every side of the Altar curiously Carv'd, and a great Copper Bason lies on the lower Square of the Altar; near which stands a Bonzi, which strikes on the [Page 156]

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same with great force, to the end, that by that noise, the Congregation may be stirr'd up to a greater Zeal in their Devotion, who prostrate themselves, lying on their Knees, Elbows, and Fore-heads on the ground; on both sides of the Temple, the Walls of which are full of Neeches, in which sit several living Apes, to which the Japanners make their Oraisons; above the Neeches jet out like Evens, but are square, and stand straight; on the top of which, many Apes Carv'd in several Postures, some lying all along, others sitting, and standing upright, are plac'd: Against the Walls, also several square Pedestals curiously Graven, against which the nethermost seem to be Apes, the rest be­tween each of these Pedestals, are several larger Neeches, in which are other Carv'd Apes; but next to the Bonzi which Plays on the Bason, stand several Inferior Ministers, that help him to perform this his Divine Service: At the farther end of the Temples sit on a broad Ledge, not far from the Roof above all the other, several Figures of Monkies, before which are daily plac'd great Dishes full of variety of Meat.

It deserves no small wonder, that these Temples of Apes were not onely before the Birth of our Savior, for the Hermopolitans, and Babylonians (according to the testimony of Strabo) Worshipp'd Baboons and Monkies, above eighteen hun­dred years since.

The Religion of Apes ve­ry antient, and spread over Asia.¶ ANd how far this shameful Worshipping of Apes is spread over Asia, may hereby appear; for it is not onely usual in Japan and China, but also in the Territory of the Malabaers, and the Wild Countrey, between Macaw and Pegu, and the Island Cylore, where they set up Apes for their gods.

The famous Italian Balbus, relates in his Voyage from Macaw and Pegu, How that amongst the Indian Idols, which they call Pagods, he found that they generally Wor­shipped Apes, and also living Baboons, which they Chain'd in their Varralloes, for so the Indians call the Isles of their Temples.

Who discover'd Ceylon.It is worth observing what the Learned Vossius, hath taken out of Linschot: The Island Ceylon, which the Portuguese Writer, Johannis Barruis affirms, with se­veral pregnant Reasons, to be the antient Taprobana, discover'd by Francois Al­meida his Son, who was to pillage the Saracen Merchants, which Trade along the Maldivian Islands, from the Molluco's to Arabia, but missing of them, set up­on Ceylon: after which the Portuguese General Soarius obtain'd leave of the King of the Western part of Ceylon, that he might raise a Fort there near the Sea-side; but whilst they were busie in building the same, the King being inveigl'd by the Saracen Merchants, that they would be a great hindrance to them in their Cinamon-Trade, he set upon them with some thousands of Men,Wars between the Ceylo­nians and the Portuguese. which pro­ved at first a sharp Assault, because the Portuguese never in the least suspected to be so treacherously surpriz'd. But the General Soarius soon after putting his Men in order, they made such a valiant Resistance, that they forc'd the King to pay for his falshood towards them, an hundred and twenty thousand Pound of Cinamon, twelve Diamond Rings, and six Elephants yearly.

For a defence against the Islanders, the Fort Colombo was well fortifi'd; yet it was not so strongly built, but that it decay'd and fell to the Ground, which made Lupus Brittus to be sent thither with several Workmen to repair the Fort; where arriving, and being busie to prepare Mortar, Stones, and other Neces­saries for the re-building, the Saracens again spurring up the Ceylonians against the Portuguese, they a second time Sally'd out upon them; but first the City Colomba refus'd to sell the Portuguese Provisions, after that they slew all those that they found stragling from the Fort. The Portuguese being thus troubl'd Sally'd out of their Castle, and fell into the City Colomba, upon which the Ci­tizens deserted the same, leaving their Wives and Children in possession, so that Brittus without the least resistance became Master of the City, but strictly forbad all his Men from committing any outrages, onely he caus'd the Wo­men and Children to be ty'd to the Threshold at their Doors; which he did partly to, manifest, that he intended no cruelty to the Ceylonians, and partly, that if possible, by that his kind dealing with them, he might gain their Affecti­ons. This Conquest had almost prov'd the utter ruinie of the Portuguese; for those that fled from Colomba fetch'd all the Forces that they could possibly get together, and being spurr'd on by their Affections towards their Wives and Children, set, like hungry Lyons, upon the City: Thus the Portuguese seeing utter ruine threaten them, they saw no other way to release themselves but by firing the City, which the Townsmen perceiving, left to Storm, and endea­vor'd all of them to quench the Fire, and to unbind their Wives and Children; during which time most of the Portuguese got into their Castle, which else would have been taken by the Natives.

But this business rested not so, for the Ceylonians soon gather'd twenty thou­sand Men together, and besieging them in their Fort, rais'd Works about the Fort, with six hundred Iron Mortar-pieces fix'd on them, in the day-time throwing Darts, which wounded two hundred Paces distance,Remarkable Arms of the Ceylonians. and in the night-time Granado's, which burnt their Huts. The Besieged, though few in number, yet wanted all manner of Necessaries, without which they were not able to subsist a Day, and being driven to the worst of Exigencies, they made a Vertue of Necessity, and Sally'd out with three hundred and fifty Men, which Fought so valiantly, that with small resistance they beat their Enemies from their Works: But the Enemy was not so baffled, but drew up one Company for a Field-Battel, having two hundred and fifty Elephants in the Front, with [Page 158]Wooden Towers, Planted with Cannon on their Backs, their Noses, or Snouts, Arm'd with sharp Scythes, which whisking to and fro, they could Mow down all those which came near them; behind these follow'd the Cingalessers, being the Foot well Arm'd, the right and left Flank Wing'd each with an hun­dred and fifty Horse: At first sight the Portuguese were struck with a general consternation, and even ready to quit the Field, when one of the Enemies Ele­phants being wounded, retreated disorderly, routing those that were next him, so opening a Breach, at which the Portuguese falling in like a Torrent, suddenly dissipated their whole Army, and making great slaughters, became Master of the Fieldl; and at last the Portuguese, recruited with fresh Supplies, took the City Ceylon, destroying all with the Sword and Fire, Anno 1654.

Pico de Adam.¶ ON this Island is one of the highest Mountains in India, call'd Pico de Adam, or Adams Hill; for the Congaleans affirm, that Adam was Created there, the print of whose footsteps hewn in Stone, as they say, are to be seen yet.

On the top of this Mountain stands a magnificent Temple, held then to be full of Treasure and other Rarities of an inestimable value, the hope of which Booty drew the lucrative Portuguese thither, but found nothing according to the report, or their expectation, onely a Golden Cabinet, inchased with Pre­cious Stones and Diamonds, in which lay inclos'd an Apes Tooth.

An Apes Tooth valued at seventy thousand DucatsIn what esteem or adoration the Ceylondians had this Relick, may appear by the trouble, charges, and proffers, which, they made for the redemption thereof; for they in solemn manner sent Ambassadors of special Quality, who made Address to the Portuguese, tendring seventy thousand Ducats to be re-possess'd of the same.

The Portuguese would fain have been nibling, and at sharing of so vast a Sum for so pitiful a trifle: But Gaster the Bishop utterly withstood it, affirm­ing, that nothing could be more impious or contradictory to the true Belie­vers of the Christian Faith, than to uphold by any means, directly or indi­rectly, any thing whatsoever belong'd to the maintenance of false Worship and Superstition of the Heathen, and therefore order'd the Tooth to be burnt, and the Ashes to be thrown into the Sea.

But besides the Congaleans, Strabo Geog. 1.17. the Hemopolitans also (according to Strabo) wor­ship an Ape.

¶ IT deserves no small admiration, that the Japanners, and other Heathens stoop to such vile Creatures, and worship them as their God, being themselves Men, and Aspirers to greater excellencies: Yet we may find, that the Antients, upon seeming good Reasons, held several Beasts, and despicable Creatures in such great adoration, having by long practice made observation, by their Looks and Postures foretelling future Presages, and present Discove­ries, which have oftner hit than otherwise.

Cicero affirming this,Cicero 1.2. de Nat. Deor. saith thus: The Egyptians are falsly aspersed concerning the worshipping of Creatures, for they adore none but upon good accounts, and some benefit or other which they receive from them: as in the first place the Bird Ibis, a great destroyer of Venomous Serpents. I could also say something on the nature of the Indian Mice, Croco­diles, and Cats, but that I am not willing to enlarge this Discourse, yet I will conclude, that the Heathens worship their Beasts for benefits which they receive from them.

Lucan also tells us, That the Egyptians had found out more than the Moretani­ans had done heretofore; for they divided the Heavens with the Stars into [Page 159]twelve Houses, in which Signs are several Constellations, look'd upon by their Learning, or help of Imagination, to personate, as fix'd there, several sorts of Creatures, as Gods, Hero's, Men, Monsters, and several sorts of Fishes. And therefore the Egyptians have divers Worships, for their Soothsayers us'd not onely the Planets, which are as their gods, but make their Responses from the Configuration of the several Signs, which are inferior Creatures. First,Lucianus de Astrol. they worship a Ram which they have from Aries: they touch no Fish which resem­bles the Sign Pisces; neither will they kill a Goat, because of Capricorn; and the Bull, for the sake of Taurus, they hold in the like estimation. The Apes re­quiring a peculiar Worship, the Inhabitants Consecrated a peculiar Prayer.

Lucan saith, That the Lybians worshipp'd the famous Jupiter Ammon, in the manner of a Ram, as being one of the twelve Celestial Signs, to whom the Heathens came from all Parts to know future Events.

Moreover, he saith some of these Worshippers of Beasts did not adore them as gods, but because they were Consecrated to their Deities, and for their good Deeds shewn either to the gods or men; and therefore at Delphis, according to Aelianus, a Wolf was religiously honor'd, because he gave direction of the sa­cred stoln Gold, buried in the Mountain Parnassus.

The Ambraciots worshipp'd a Lyonness, after the Tyrant Phayllus was de­vour'd by one big with Young.

Aristotle tells us, That the Citizens of Troas worshipp'd the Mice,Arist. Rhetor. L. 2. because they gnaw'd their Enemies Bow-strings when they were at War with them.

Moreover, some of the Heathens, and also the Japanners believ'd, That the Souls of Men by death were transmigrated into Beasts, and therefore they wor­ship not the Beast it self, but the Souls of Men which resided in them.

Apollonius Tyancus perswaded the Alexandrians, Philostr. in Vit. Apollon. That a tame Lyon which he had was the Egyptian King Amasis; for which reason the Priests made Offerings to this suppos'd Amasis, adorning the Beast with Golden Armlets, and Collars, and in that manner sent him to the farthermost Parts in Egypt, Singing before him religious Hymns and Praises of their god. In Leontopolis they erected a stately Temple, because Apollonius said, That it was not fitting that the powerful King Amasis, whose Soul was transmigrated into a Lyon, should go a begging from Door to Door for his Food.

But chiefly the Apes seem to afford the best Residences for humane Souls, because they resemble a Man both in outward Shape, and within,Humane Bodies. as Aristotle affirms: wherefore Physicians, when they want humane Bodies, often Anato­mize an Ape.

Galen calls an Ape an imperfect resemblance of a Man,Arist. L. 2. Hist. Anim. Coel. Resp. L. 3. C. 10. as Coelius Rodignius relates of him.

What more resembles Humane Shape,
Than the vile ridiculous Ape?

Tulp's Description of an Ape.¶ THe Lord Nicholas Tulp tells us of a Baboon sent from Angola to Fre­derick Prince of Orange, which was call'd by the Indians, Ourang Outang, was as tall as a Child of three years old, and as big as one of six, neither Fat nor Lean, but well in case, with strong Thighs, Bald before, and over­grown behind with black Hair, his Face also hairy, resembling a Toothless old Woman, the Ears like those of a Man, on his Belly an indented Navel, the Hands and Feet perfect with Fingers and Toes, so that his foremost Parts were altogether Man, who often walkt upright, and would carry a handsom Burthen: when it Drank it lifted up the Lid of the Pot with one Hand, and held the Ear with the other, and when having Drunk, orderly wip'd its Lips: [Page 160]

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when he went to sleep he commonly laid his Head higher than his Body, neat­ly covering himself like a young Maiden in her Bed.

Moreover, the foremention'd Tulp relates, That the King of Sambaces, told Samuel Blomert, that the Baboons in the Island Borneo dare encounter with Arm­ed Men, and will set upon Women; and if by their kindness and courtship they cannot vitiate, they will force them. Therefore by reason of the great resem­blance of Apes and Men, the Japanners are of opinion, and chiefly those that believe the Pythagorean Doctrine concerning Transmigration, That the Souls of deceased Kings and Emperors reside in Apes.

The Bonzies call'd Neu­gori, how they live.¶ THe Netherland Ambassadors left the Temple of Apes near Toska, and came on the eleventh day after their departure from Jedo, on the seven and twentieth of April to Meaco, the chiefest City for Trade in Japan: wherein are erected several Cloysters of the Bonzi, in which the Penitentiaries are Lockt up, that will take their leave of this World: yet account it no sin to com­mit all manner of Vices without the least regret; in which wickedness those exceed, which have promoted Cacubaw to be a god.

The Sect call'd Neugori are divided into three Degrees or Sections, for some of them Pray continually, others study and exercise themselves in Martial Discipline, and the rest make daily a set number of Arrows. And because they acknowledge no Superior, nor chief Commander, they carry on business in great disorder: The oldest give their Votes first, which if any one oppose, the business falls, so that all jangle and disagree: which Consultation the Bonzies break up till the Evening; and when grown dark, they decide their business with the Sword, and often kill one another, though their Religion strictly forbids them to hurt a Mouse, or kill the smallest Flye.

The Netherland Ambas­sadors take a survey of Meaco.¶ FUrthermore, as to what concerns Meaco, it is much adorn'd by the Pala­ces of the Emperor Cubus Taikosama, and also that of the Payro.

In this City the Ambassadors stay'd till the thirtieth of April, and being in­vited [Page 161]on a Day by the Master of the House where they lay, and one of the Bongois, to view some of the chiefest Buildings in the City, they were carry'd with several other Merchants in Sedans, often standing still to admire the cost­liness and magnificence of their several Temples and Towers; after which being scarce satisfi'd with viewing the beauty of the various Edifices, they were carry'd to a Musick-Lecture, where the Master of their Lodgings had provided a handsom Collation for them; which done, they in the dusk of the Evening return'd to their House.

Description of the Em­peror Cubo's Palace.But amongst those famous Buildings which they view'd, none seem'd so rich and stately as the Palace of the Emperor Cubo.

Lodowick Frojus, an eye-witness, relates, That he had not seen the like Fa­brick, neither in Europe, nor all India.

The Gardens which encompass it are surrounded with Cedar, Cypress, Pyne, and Orange-Trees, besides many others, whose Names are to us un­known; which are all Planted in such a decent order, that they represent ma­ny fair Arbors; the Lilies, Roses, and other Flowers which deck the Garden Beds, also amaze the beholders, not onely for their sweet Smells, and various Colours, but also their strange manner of Setting them.

The Governor of Mea­co's Palace.The Governor's Palace of Meaco merits also observation; behind whose Privy-Lodgings is a marvellous Garden, which is not onely artificially adorn'd with Imagery, Trees and Plants, but a River in the middle, cut through Rocks, and runs up above nine thousand Paces. This River, or Lake is shaded on both sides with all manner of delightful Trees; the middle every where sprink­led with Isles; which are all conjoyn'd with Stone-Bridges.

The Cloysters of the Bonzi in a Grove.Not far from the City appears a pleasant Grove, which shadeth fifty large and spacious Cloysters of the Bonzi, where most of the Royal Youth have their Education, sent thither to ease their Parents of the charge of bringing them up; yet all pay great Admittances, which are to be disbursed in the enlarging and beautifying of their Colledges, each striving to outvie one another in greatness, lustre, and conveniency. Lodowick Frojus viewing one of them saith thus:

I went, being led by some that had newly embrac'd the Christian Faith, through a Door curiously varnish'd, into a Cloyster of the Bonzi: behind the fore Gate was an open Court, Pav'd with black square Stone, and surrounded with a large Gallery, the Walls underneath being also Varnish'd, shine very curiously; next to this Court lay a stately Garden, where neither Art nor Cost had been spar'd, several rising Grounds, or Mounts being made in the same of polish'd Marble, neatly joyn'd together: the tops of these Hillocks crown'd with Trees, were all made passable to one another with Stone-Bridges: the Ground underneath being a course and glittering Sand, mix'd with small black Shells, betwixt which were Planted all sorts of Flowers, which grow in such a manner, that not one day in the year but some of them flourish'd in their full beauty; so that there seems to be a continual Spring there, and a per­petual Paradice.

The King of Devils Tem­ple.Within this Wood also stands a Temple dedicated to the Prince of Devils; his Image very terrible to behold, grasping a Scepter in his right Hand, two other horrible Representations standing on each side, that on the left holding a Book, wherein is registred (as they say) all the Transactions of Mankind, the other seems to Read what the former hath Written. The Walls every where are Painted with various and exquisite tortures and torments of Hell, which (as they believe) are inflicted for the manifold sins and offences committed by all sorts of People, of what degree soever.

There is scarce a Temple in Japan which hath greater resort than this, the People bringing great Sums of Money thither to buy Pardons, and purchase Indulgences, to quit Scores, and clear them from the Punishments that they may be condemn'd to for their sins after this mortal Life.

Yet above all the Buildings in Meaco, the Dayro's Palace is the most magni­ficent, and of greatest splendor, excelling most of those Fabricks that in anti­ent times were accounted famous.The fore-Gate of the Dayro; Court. The Portico through which the Dayro goes forth and enters, makes a stately Frontispiece, before which an Arch'd Por­tal, whose Roof jetting beyond the Walls, hath on each Corner a Golden Ball, adding more lustre; near which on each side a large Gallery, and in each of them four ample Apartments with Vaulted Cielings, each Room having nine Windows on every side, serve for Courts of Guard, fitted for a Garrison of Sol­diers: on the outermost Wall, between the upper and lower Story, are curi­ous Imagery, Varnish'd after the Indian manner, and next the Roof of the Gal­lery hangs out a Flag, or Ensign, with the Dayro's Arms.

Description of the Bul­warks.To this joyns the Wall which surrounds the whole Court, being full of Bulwarks and Battlements, hath also many fair Watch-houses, built in the in-side: But within the fore-mention'd first Gate is a large and spacious Court, Pav'd with Free-Stone, which when the Dayro is carry'd through, is always throng'd with a concourse of People; he sits in a large Sedan,The Dayro's Sedan. carry'd by fourteen Men very richly Cloth'd; the Sedan of a long square, rises sloaping from each Corner, and ends in the middle in a small Golden Pyramid; the four sides are Window'd with a thin Silk, through which he may see whomsoever he please, yet cannot be seen by any: This Sedan rests on long Poles, which the Bearers carry on their Shoulders; before him Rides his Life-guard, on each side of him thousands of Japanners pro­strate their Faces, that so in his passing by they may worship him.

His sumptuous Train.Behind the Dayro's Sedan follows a Coach drawn by two Horses, whose Heads are adorn'd with stately Plumes, Caparison'd with Furniture, Embroi­der'd with Pearls and Diamonds, and led by two of his Servants by their Reins; between the Horses and the Coach go two Men, one carrying a large Fan, with which to cool, he continually agitates the Air; the other carrying a great Umbrello.

This Coach (in which the Dayro's Royal Consort sits) is follow'd by above twenty Chariots, each having two wheels, and are drawn by as many Horses, which are led by the Reins of their Bridles: In these the Dayro's Concubines are carry'd: they can see all Passengers through their fine silken Windows, making every angle of the Chariot transparent like the Dayro's; on each side attends in great Trains their Maids and Ladies of Honor, which are also ac­company'd by divers of the Dayro's Attendants , all Cloth'd in rich Apparel, which make a glorious and delightful show.

Moreover, on each side of the foremention'd open Court stand several Pa­laces, built after divers fashions, but all of them so rich and beautiful, that Art seems to have play'd so well her part on them, that they requir'd no less than an Emperor's Revenue for the erecting of them.

H [...]s Kitchins.Behind are the Kitchins of the Dayro, from whence the several Dishes with variety of Meats, which are daily above a hundred, are carry'd between the Seraglio and the Garden, to the Dayro; they are very large, having several Officers belonging thereto, whose Table-expences amount yearly to many Tun of Gold.

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The Dayro's Court in Miaco. das Sehlos des dairo ze Miaco. [...] Hof van den DAYRO le MIAKO

A pleasant Garden.Behind these also is an exceeding pleasant Garden; inclos'd with high Walls; which have in some Places large Towers full of spacious Rooms; and that which makes it the more delightful to behold, is a round Palace, which in the middle of the Garden rises aloft with high Turrets, the Trees all very artifici­ally Planted in rank and file, the Flowers and other Plants stand divided in several Beds; and many other Curiosities in this Place are sufficient testimo­nies, that Nature, Cost, and Art, have joyn'd all their Forces together to exceed that famous Temple in Thessalie, and the Gardens of Adonis, at large describ'd by antient Poets.

Description of the Day­ro's Court.In the midst of all these sumptuous Edifices and delightful Gardens, stands most intimate, the Palace where the Dayro hath his Residence; which rising aloft with several Roofs towards the Sky, is environ'd by a stony Wall, adorn'd with many Images; whose Entrance ascends on fifteen broad Copper Steps, guarded at the bottom on each side with two Watch-houses built uniform, being square, have a large Door, several wide Windows, and the Walls very neatly Painted, the Roof jetting over at the four Angles of the Wall, and ta­pering aloft, is cover'd with gilded Boards, the Ridge alfo adorn'd with golden Balls.

The Garden thereof.Next these Watch-houses lies his private Garden, enclos'd with a peculiar Wall, at whose corners are Banquetting-houses, built with eight Angles; the Roof of which rising Canopy-wise, ends in a sharp Pinnacle. The delight­fulness of this Garden can scarce be express'd.

Very costly fore Cate.Concerning the Palace it self, on the top of the foremention'd Copper Steps appears the Portico, supported on each side with eight stately Columns, cover'd with golden Plates, curiously Engraven; the middle Roof jets out a little over the other; this also adorn'd with Imagery. The Arch is exceeding costly, being richly gilded on each Corner, the Floor cover'd with polish'd Marble, which shines like Glass. Behind this Porch appears a high and spacious Court, which being so exactly Pav'd, and the Stones so closely laid; that it amazes the beholder.

Description of the Front of the Palace.Next this joyns the Palace it self, whose Gable-end jets out beyond all the other Buildings; the Gate thereof being very broad, hath on each side great square Pillars, Carv'd with several Images: the Walls which joyn to the Gate are Grav'd with all manner of Fruitage, and cover'd with a gilded Roof, whose Edges are adorn'd with Golden Balls, and especially at each Corner with two Dragons Couchant. Above the first Roof is a second Story, which resteth on sixteen Columns; on whose Floor are five spacious Halls, each of which hath five double Windows in the Front, the uppermost part of them shelter'd under the Roof which jets over them, on the Corners of which also lie Couching Dragons, all Gilded. Over this a third Story, having in the middle a broad and high Window, and on each side two more, distinguish'd from the middlemost, being made round on the top; the Roof of this Story ends in a square Turret, which is also cover'd with another Roof, the Edges of which jetting over, and curiously Wrought, ends on the top sharp like a turn'd Spire.

Roofs Tyl'd with Gold.But on the right and left side before the Front, are the costly shining Roofs, built before the Palace on ten great Pillars, cover'd with Golden Plates: the Tylings of this Roof are Plates of massie Gold, joyning to the undermost Windows of the second Story, so surrounding the whole Palace.

The Dayro's Halls.Behind these Golden Tops are the lower Halls in which the Dayro resides; [Page]the magnificent splendor of which is too glorious to describe, the Windows are cover'd with the finest of Silks, the Walls Varnish'd after the Indian man­ner, the Floor Pav'd with Marble, over which are Mats spread, no less curi­ous than costly.

Over those Halls on the second Story are several Rooms built after the same manner, whose Roofs not jetting out so far as that which comes over the Front, the Windows are seen very plain. On the right and left side of it the lowermost Roof is adorn'd with many Golden Balls. The upper Stories be­ing several Foot narrower than the other, are cover'd with a flat Roof, under which are many large and convenient Apartments.

In what manner the Ja­pan Emperor comes every sixth year to visit the Dayro.THe Japan Emperor comes every sixth Year a hundred and sixteen Leagues to Meaco to Visit and Complement the Dayro: which Pro­gress is publish'd every where by his Gests through all the adjacent Countreys, that the Ways may be mended, and all other preparations may be ready against the coming of their great Master and his magnificent Train, where are twenty eight Places appointed and prepar'd for his Reception, whereof twenty are Strong-holds; where for the better safety the Emperor takes up his Lodg­ings.

Conraedt Cramer being dispatch'd from the Netherland East-India Company to the Japan Emperor, was present in Meaco upon his Imperial Majesties coming thither, Anno 1626; whose splendid Train and Reception he describes thus.

¶ ALthough the Emperor had been busied before in preparing all things in readiness for his great Progress to Complement the Dayro at Meaco, yet he permitted the Netherland Ambassadors to his Presence, granting them publick Audience; whereas on the contrary, those of Siam and the Portugal Agents were deny'd, and could not obtain that liberty and favor. Whereup­on his Excellency Lord Cramer, after having made his several Addresses to the Emperor and his chief Councel, had Licence to depart, and would have re­turn'd back to Firando, had not the Lord of that Island, and Cacusymondonne, a Courtier of the Emperors, entreated him to stay and see the splendid and mag­nificent Train, and Ceremonies of State us'd at the Emperors coming to the Dayro.

The Ambassador Cramer went in the Evening with his whole Retinue to a House near the Imperial Palace, where he had hir'd a Place to stand in, by which the Emperor and Dayro were to pass the next day, being on the five and twentieth of October, where whilst he stay'd with his Servants treating about Price, the People began to flock in such great Multitudes, and the Crowd still more and more increasing to get Places, that the Ambassador finding it impossible to get home to his Lodgings, was necessitated to stay there all Night: Early in the Morning the Streets swarm'd with an incredible number of People, which between the Emperor's and the Dayro's Court were all strow'd with white Sand, and Rail'd in on both sides, all along Guarded with Soldiers of his Imperial Majesties and the Dayro's,Japan Guards, how Armed. Cloth'd in white Vestments, with Head-pieces Varnish'd with black Wax; and Arm'd each with two Scy­miters and a Pike, by them call'd Nanganet. These Guards were up and down still busied in clearing the Way for Coaches and Horses, through the People, which two days before came flocking from all Corners of Japan in great num­bers, there getting on Scaffolds, and staying all Night under the cold Canopy [Page 165]of Heaven, to see the Emperor pass by the next Day, when all the Windows and Roofs were cover'd and throng'd with Spectators.

Great Ceremony obser [...]'d when the Emperor and Dayro meet.By break of day the Train began to march. The first that pass'd, were several Servants or the Emperor's and Dayro's, with many Palanquino's, or Porters, who carried Gifts, that were to be Presents, in square Wax'd Chests, cover'd with the Dayro's Arms in Gold, unto the Emperor's Court, a strong Guard attending them. After these, follow'd forty six Sedans, of white Wood, about a Fathom high, in-laid with Plates of Copper, and curiously painted, in which the Ladies of Honor belonging to the Dayro's Wives were carried each by four Men. No sooner were these pass'd by, but there follow'd twenty one Sedans more, cover'd with black Wax, and gilded, which were also carried by four, on their Shoulders: These Ladies of Honor, being richly Habi­ted, sate in great State. After them came twenty seven large Sedans, which were carried by a hundred and eight Men: Their Servants that follow'd were alike cloth'd in White Liveries, and of the same number. In these Sedans, fair to the Eye, having gilded Doors and Windows, were some of the Dayro's Nobles, belonging to his Court; but before every one of these, a tall lusty young Man went, holding by a long Pike an Umbrello of white Silk, embroy­der'd with Gold.

The Dayro's Nobles, how habited.Next these, came a Cavalcade of twenty four of the Nobility on Horseback, wearing on their Heads a small black wax'd Cap, with a black Plume; and Coats with wide Sleeves; and their Breeches made of the best Sattin, were long and narrow, of several Colours, richly embroyder'd with Gold and Silver: By their Sides hung gilded Scymiters, Bowes, and Arrows, girt to their Waste with Needle-workt Scarfs, whose Tassel'd Fringes hung over on each side of the Horse; their Boots drawn on straight, being black, were gilt with golden Bars; bravely mounted on gallant Horses, proud of their little Heads, short Ears, and gaunt, yet Well-truss'd Bodies:Stately Horses. Insomuch that the meanest there, seem'd to excell the most generous and bravest Steed that ever Europe boasted or bred: Their Saddles were all wax'd or gilded; the Seats em­broyder'd with Silver and Gold, or else richly spread over with Tygers Skins; their Mayns, like ours, were curiously pleited with Silk, Silver, and Gold Ribbons: Their Caparisons. that cover'd their Breasts and Buttocks, were a kind of Net-work of Crimson Silk, full of Tufts, and dangling with the Motion of the Wind; on their Foreheads a golden Horn, resembling our painted Unicorns: Their Shoes, to take away the noise of trampling, were of interwoven Silk, instead of Iron: Each Steed led by two Grooms: Two great Umbrellos, made of fine Linnen, cover'd over with red Cloth, with a Silk Fringe round about it, being carry'd before, serv'd to cover each Horse; which was farther attended by eight Pages, or Servants, all in white Liveries, and Arm'd according to their manner with two Cutlesses; being thus attended, they Rode on from the Dayro's to the Emperors Palace, without any disturbance in good order.

Unvaluable rich Coaches.After these follow'd three rich Coaches, each drawn by two black Bulls, cover'd. with red Silken Nets, and led by four Footmen in white Liveries; these Coaches were each four Fathom high, two long, and one broad, being adorn'd with Waxen Figures, and Enammell'd with Gold; on each side being three Windows, and two before, which were hung with rich Curtains; the Entry behind open'd like the Gate of a Princes Palace, steps ascending with Turrets on each side, the Windows beneath shaded with black Wax, the [Page 166]Rounds of the Wheels Gilded, the Spokes neatly Turn'd, and Inlaid also with Gold and Mother of Pearl; which moving, call glancing Beams like a Look­ing-Glass reflecting the Sun, a novel and most glorious sight.

These Coaches, or rather Towers, each of them carrying in State the Day­ro's Principal Wives,Each Tail valu'd at an En­glith Crown. are valu'd at seventy thousand Tail apiece. The Train of Pages all cloth'd in White which attended these Ladies was numerous, each of them carrying a Gilded Foot-stool, and a pair of Wax Slippers.

But besides their Attendance of Pages, these three (as we may call them) Empresses, and also a Train of Ladies which follow'd them in twenty three Sedans, made of white Wood, and Plated with Copper, each having an Um­brello, two Pages, and four stout men to carry them.

Dayro's Courtiers.¶ THese being pass'd by, appear'd a second Cavalcade, sixty eight of the Dayro's prime Gentlemen, bravely Mounted, and compleatly Arm'd, their Horses seeming in beauty to out-vie the former; these Marching by two, and two, were attended by a great Train of Servants, Slaves, Pages, and a Guard of Pikes.

Presents.Then follow'd the Presents, being carry'd in great State by several Lords of the Countrey; The first were two Gilded Scymeters, the Pommel, Handle, Hilts, and Chase all Massic Gold; a curious Fire-Lock, much esteem'd with them; a Sun-Dial, imbellish'd with Gold and Pearl, there a great rarity; two stately Golden Candlesticks; two large Pillars of Ebony; three square Pollish'd Tables of the same Wood, the corners Tipt with Gold; three Desks; two mighty Chargers of Massie Gold, attended with a pair of Wax Slip­pers.

Coaches of the old and young Dayro.The second Cavalcade being pass'd, there follow'd two more Coaches of like bigness, but exceeding the former in Riches, having the Emperors Arms on the top, Cast and flourish'd round, in a Plate of Massie1 Gold.

In the first sat Sadosienminamo Tonofindelanda the Emperor himself; and in the other, the Heir Apparent, or young Emperor Oeudesienminamo Tonoynemijtsamma; fourscore Lords march'd two and two on foot before these pair of Coaches, all gallant men, Arm'd with Scymiters and half Pikes, which are the Empe­rors Gentlemen-Pentioners, or Life-Guard, which the Japanners call Sambreys: But just before the Emperors Coach march'd eight men, who with Ebony Staves, and Steel Battoons, like our Whifflers, clearing the way: Two beau­tiful Horses richly Trapp'd were also led before, the Coaches, about which a Guard of eight Archers, Arm'd with Pikes, Bowes, and Arrows.

The Emperors retinue.Next in good Order march their Imperial Majesties Brothers, then all the Princes and Nobles of Japan follow'd on Horseback, to the number of an hun­dred sixty four, Cloth'd and Arm'd like the former, but much richer, accord­ing to their several Births and Qualities: The chiefest and most Eminentest of these Grandees, and those that next follow'd the Emperors, were Owarny, Cam­mysamma, Quijne Deymangon Samma, Massamenemoet, Nocammy Samma, and Myttot­chonango Samma, all the old Emperor's Brethren: Then came Matsendeyro Thuy­quesnocammi Samma, the great Lord of Langa; Matsendeyro Mutsnocammy Samma Lord of Satsuma; Matsendeyro Jondonne; Matsendeyro Symoutsquedonno; Matsendeyro Quonnenochwuchoo; and at last came Turagano Deynangono Cammy Samma, being the young Emperors eldest Son: These ten Lords Rode immediately behind their Imperial Majesties Coaches, each by himself, attended by a numerous Train of Gentlemen, Pages, and Guards of Pikes, &c.

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t Ziedende water van SINGOCK das sicdende wasser zingock. The boyling water of SINGOCK

The rest of the Lords follow'd two in a Rank, the primest of them taking the left hand, which in this Countrey is the upper and chief Place; Ouway­donne, and Wouta-donne, the first the Emperors chief Councellor , and the last his Sons, were their appointed Leaders, which were attended by four hundred in white Liveries.

Sumptuous Train of the Dayro's.Then came six new fair Coaches, though not above half so big as the for­mer, and onely drawn by one Ox, but proportionably beautiful; In these sat some of the Dayro's Inferior Concubines, who were again follow'd by a Caval­cade of sixty eight Gentlemen on horseback, attended with many Servants and Slaves.

There was yet another Coach, wherein the Dayro's Chief Secretary Rode, accompany'd with thirty seven Gentlemen on horseback; then follow'd the Norimans or Sedans, in which were carry'd several of the Dayro's Grandees, whereof fifteen were of Ebbony Inlay'd with Ivory ; thirteen more shining with black Wax and Gold; and eighteen all glistering like Mirrors, with a deep Varnish, of black Wax; these were follow'd by six and forty great Gil­ded Caroches, which with their attendance follow'd the Sedans: No sooner was this Train pass'd by, but there came fifty four disguis'd like Mascurades, being the Dayro's Musicians, Playing on several Instruments, as Pipes, Tabors, Cimbals, Bells, and some strung Instruments, unknown to us.

Description of the Empe­rors Sedan.¶ AFter these Merry Boys, follow'd the Dayro himself, sitting in a great square Edifice, surrounded with drawing Doors or Windows on each corner; on the top stood a Gilded Ball, and a Cock of Massie Gold thereon with wings display'd: This Moving-house being nine foot high, was very beautifully adorn'd on all sides with Carv'd Imagery, each Angle plated with pure Gold, and the Roof of it imitating the Heavens , with Sun, Moon, and Stars. Fifty of the Emperors Nobles Cloath'd in long white Robes, and Waxen Head-pieces carry'd this Ambulatory Palace , supported on long Poles. Forty Gentlemen Accouter'd like the Antient Greeks or Romans, Arm'd with European Head-Pieces, and Pikes Gilded at the ends, carrying in one hand a Shield, stuck full of Arrows, had each of them an Umbrelo carry'd over them, and went before, being the Dayro's Life-Guard: These were again follow'd by thirteen great Waxen Chests, carry'd by the Pallaquin Porters:. And lastly, The whole Procession was clos'd with four hundred Persons all in white Vestments, Marching six in a Rank in very good Order.

Great tumult in Mecae. after the Dayro was past. ¶ BEfore the Dayro's Train were all past by, the Evening came on, and innumerable company of People of all sorts; the Scaffold and Houses which had been fill'd with Spectators, had disgorg'd their burthens into the Streets, so that the multitude was so immensly great, that many disorders happen'd, and several were crowded to death; many were so squeez'd, that they burst asunder, others falling, were sure never to rile, being immediately trampled under Feet; horrible was the general cry of the common People: The Horsemen making their way by force through the Foot, which tumbled down one over .another, in great number on both sides; so lying prostrate, for the Horses to tread o're, the Streets flow'd with blood: Amongst this miserable Croud were also many Thieves and Robbers, which with drawn Scymi­ters made their way through, cutting of Purses, Stealing, Murthering, and Robbing as they wen't, immediately killing without mercy all those that offer­ed [Page 168]the least resistance, so that in many places several fell down dead, and over these tumbled others; and the following multitudes still pressing forward, of­tentimes made a Mountain of Men heap'd one upon another, whereof those that were uppermost were happy, for those which were underneath were sure never to rise; the noise all night was so great, as if the City had been in an up­rore, and the insolencies grew to that height, that many persons of Quality, who could not get out of the throng, or near retiring to their Houses, were set upon, and many of them spoyl'd and Murder'd; among others, the Lord of Firando's Secretary saw his Servant Robb'd, and a rich Cabinet of his taken from him before his Face, whilest he had much ado to defend himself from the violence of these Assaulters.

The Ambassadors escape strangely.¶ THe Ambassador, Conrade Cramer, stood and saw from his Scaffold ma­ny of these Cruelties and Outrages committed; and seeing himself in no safety to stay there all night, but that he and all his Retinue would be sure to perish before next morning, he also ventur'd amongst the Croud; the press being so great, that he was born up by the People most of his way, being but seldom able to put a Foot to the Ground; yet at length, so it pleas'd Pro­vidence, that he and all his Followers got without any considerable loss into their Lodgings.

How the Dayro is treat­ed by both their Majesties. ¶ THe Dayro and his Wives lay there three days and three nights in the Emperors Palace, where they were serv'd by their Majesties, their Brothers, and the greatest Princes of the Court. Those which were plac'd by the Emperors, as Stewards to prepare the several Dishes for the Dayro, was the Lord Chief Justice of the Countrey and City Miaco; and also the Lords Ivocomasamma, Coberytothomysammay Nacamoramokumonsamma, Mannosabroyemonsamma; every Meal consisting of one hundred and forty Services; and for to attend the Dayro's three Principal Wives, were plac'd Ouwandonie, Head Councellor of the old Emperors; and also the Lords of the Councel, Farimadonne, Queniemondonne, Sioyserondonne, and Chirotadonne.

This Feasting being done, the young Emperor gave the Dayro these follow­ing Presents; being three thousand Boats of Silver, each of them four Tails and three Marses; two rich Tables, cover'd with Golden Plates; two hun­dred Japan Gowns; three hundred Pieces of wrought Sattin; twelve thousand Pound of raw Silk; one great piece of Calombac; five great Silver Pots full of Musk; and ten beautiful Horses, with all their Furniture; but those which the old Emperor gave him were much less: Thus ended the glory of that Trium­phal Procession.

Sumptuous Palace of the Emperor Taicosama.MEaco, by the Japanners call'd Cabucoma, is divided into upper and lower Meaco's, the lower spreading towards the Fort Tutzumi, is so costly built, that one Range seeming one House, is at least three Miles in length.

The Dayro hath his Residence in the upper Meaco, where is also seen the most Splendant and Magnificent Palace, Erected by the Emperor Taycosama, Anno 1586. hung round about with a thousand Mats, edg'd with fine Damask wrought with Gold. The Walls of some of the Rooms all over are Plate [...] with Gold; the greatest part of the Palace is built of curious Wood, and cost­ly Marble; before the Palace appears a spacious Court, wherein stands an Im­perial Theatre, where Comedies and Tragedies are Acted.

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Japauners expert in act­ing Plays.At which the Japanners are very exquisite, having no want (as they say) of good Poets, whose Theme being either Divine or Moral, they boast sufficient, and well Written Plots; their Commick punish (like ours) Vice, prefer­ing Vertue; their Tragick, setting forth the great, though unfortunate Acts of former Saints, and antient Hero's. They also adorn their Stages with Scenes , shifted according to their various and chang'd Arguments, and be­twixt every Act appears a full Chorus of Musicians, Singing and Playing like the Antient Greeks and Romans, on several Instruments; but no place else­where in Japan exhibits the like Shews or Presentations of the business concern­ing the Stage, than in this Theatre.

Description of the Japan Races.¶ BEfore this Palace of Taycosama, they have a piece of Ground taken in for a Course, or Race, being a Match betwixt a Man and a Horse; about the Walls stand thousands of Spectators, on a more eminent Seat, Rail'd in, sit cross Legg'd by themselves, several Drummers; on the tops of the Rails hang ready fitted to their hands great Copper Kettles and Basons; some also lying on the ground, on which they Beat and Taber with such force, that the hide­ous din and shrilness of the noise, often deafs the unwilling hearers: At the end of this Lane stand two strong Posts, having a great Rope made fast from one to the other; behind this, at a small distance, stands a square Pillar, on which a Flag or Ensign waves, fast on a Staff; one mans Office is to imbrace this Post with his left hand, and with his right points on the Breast of another, who hath on his Breast hanging about his Neck a square Board, Painted with a Griffin; he also lays his right hand on the top of the Post, and his left on his Scymiter; next to him stands a third, side-ways, which holds a long knotted Whip in his right hand, which gives the Signal to the Racers; behind these three stand others with black Head-Pieces, adorn'd also with a Sable Plume, which are the Judges of the Course:The Prize which they run for is common­ly two pair of Wax'd Boots, made fast to Woodden Clogs, Plated with Silver; [Page 170]he that runs hath a thin Silk Habits, Lac'd close about the middle, their Slceves reaching down to their Elbows, their Breeches being wide, are ty'd up about the middle of their Thighs like Trunk-Hose; on their Legs they wear Bus­kins of Silk; when they are ready, the Drummers beat, and the signal being given, they start, the Race being betwixt a Man and a Horse, they thus per­form; The Man holds the Horse, by a single Rein drawn out, with which he must not straiten, nor hold in the Horse, who runs at his full speed, and the men by him, when drawing near the Goal, the foremention'd Posts and Cord, the Horse and he must leap over at once together; which done, with equal dexterity, he gains the propos'd Reward or Prize, which if he fail, making a feeble or no performance, he not onely looseth the glory of the Victory, but also all manner of Court-Preferment.

¶ BUt as to what concerns the Dayro, he is the onely, true, and lawful Heir of Japan, and was formerly held in such Veneration by the Japanners, that they honor'd him as a god; and by this his great respect, he kept the Empire a long time in Peace and Quietness, till Anno 1550. During the Dayro's Govern­ment, Japan never tasted the inconveniencies of a Civil War, which after his removal from the Throne,Civil Wars were terrible in Japan, the reasons there­of. brake out in that nature, that scarce any Coun­trey in the World was ever a greater Stage or Blood-shed: The salvage cru­elties which they us'd against one another, in that grand Commotion are un­expressable; the Conquerors turn'd their new-gotten Provinces top-si-turvey, killing, not sparing Infants in the Cradle, destroying and burning both Towns and Villages, of which some to this day lie bury'd in their own Rubbish, by which they sufficiently testifie the Destructions which were made by their Ci­vil Wars, in which Japan was turmoil'd above fifty years.

The occasion and beginning was thus; The Dayro, who is accounted so ho­ly, that the Sun must not shine upon him, nor his Feet touch the Earth, nor his Hair or Nails ever suffer'd to be cut; (which Custom hath been in use from many Ages to this day) had a hundred and eighteen years ago two Sons, of which the second, according to an antient Law, supply'd the place of Cap­tain-General, to be ready on all occasions to quell all manner of Insurrecti­ons, either by substitute Kings or Subjects. The eldest expected after his Fa­thers Decease, to possess the Throne, during whose life he held no Command. Their Mother, out of her affections to both, prevail'd so far with the Dayro, that the General-ship should be so divided betwixt both the Brothers, that they might Command their Forces Alternately, each his Trienial. But the youngest, when the time came that he should Resign his Commission to his eldest Brother, refus'd, and privately chose several Princes of Japan for to assist him if need should require; by which means he Fortifi'd himself so strongly, that he car'd for no Forces whatsoever, no, not his Father himself, who im­mediately chose another General, granting him Commission, not onely to subdue, but kill his Rebellious Son.

Soon after, several of his Substitute Kings raising all their Forces, brought a mighty Army together in the Field, with which they went on so successfully, that in short time, they utterly defeated and destroy'd the Rebel, and all his Forces.

Insurrection against the Dayro.This was the first Rebellion and Insurrection that was made against the Dayro; but by the death of his Son, the War was no way finish'd: For the con­quering [Page 171]General, taking that opportunity, as having all the Forces under his Command, after the Decease of the Dayro, made himself Emperor of Japan.

Against him the young Dayro arose, notwithstanding the new Emperor al­low'd him all his former Revenues, and shew'd him the same Respect as had formerly been shown to his Father. At last the Dayro march'd towards the new Emperor, whom by means of a chosen General (by the Japanners call'd Cubo) he defeated and slew.

This Conquering General, not regarding the miserable end of the new-slain Emperor, aim'd also at the Crown, making himself absolute Master of all the Forces.

The Inland Wars in Ja­pan are very cruel.From hence proceeded a bloody War, Kings and Princes dividing the Countrey, appropriating Territories and Provinces to themselves; which was not done without much trouble: for by this means, not onely Countrey against Countrey, and City against City, but also petty Villages had peculiar Wars one with another; those which were Conquer'd, were sure not to find the least mercy: for they neither spar'd Houses nor Temples, nor indeed poor Infants, consuming and destroying all by Sword and Fire, so that in short time whole Cities lay bury'd in Ashes.

Mioxindeu [...] opposeth Cubo.This new Cubo overcoming all, at last setled himself on the Imperial Throne; which was but for a small time: for when he thought himself surest, not thinking of the least Insurrection, Mioxindono, whom he had entrusted with all his Forces, joyn'd in conspiracy with Dajondono, Lord of Nara, who had gotten an Army (as we said before) of twelve thousand Men, which they drew up close to Meaco. Soon after Mioxindono, accompany'd with a strong Life­guard, enter'd the City, under pretence to congratulate the Emperor for some prime favors which he had pleas'd to shew him. And to that purpose, that he might the better bereave the Emperor of his Life privately and without distur­bance, he invited him to a Banquet in the Cloyster of the Bonzi near Meaco, where he intended to put in Execution his bloody Design. But the Emperor Cubo scenting the business, suspected it the more, because he had information that the Army was drawn up near Meaco, made all things in readiness for his escape, who being on the Way was perswaded and call'd back by some of his Council, telling him that they could not perceive any such danger in the busi­ness, accounting it ignoble for an Emperor to flye from a Prince which was his own Subject.

But in the interim Mioxindono entred the City Meaco with all his Forces, and drew up towards the Palace, but before he committed any hostility, he sent to the Emperor Cubo, demanding to send him the Heads of some of his No­bles, whose insupportable Greatness (as he pretended) stood in his way; which if the Emperor would grant, a Peace should immediately be concluded, and he would suddenly withdraw his Forces, and depart from the City. The Herald brought a Letter, in which was written the Names of those Grandees which Mioxindono would have Executed: An antient Courtier being sent from Cubo receiv'd the Paper, which not without many reproaches to the Rebels he tore to pieces; and returning again to the Emperors Presence,One of the Emperors Courtiers stab, himself. drew out a Stilletto, with which he desperately Stabbing himself, fell dead on the Ground at the Emperor's Feet.

The Revenge of a Son ta­ken for his Father.After the same manner six more made away themselves: But the Son of the old Courtier seeing his Father weltring in his own Bloud, on a sudden ran [Page 172]out amongst the Rebels, where having wounded and kill'd several of them, he himself was slain.

Whilst Mioxindono set the Palace on Fire in four places, Cubo rather chusing to fall by the Sword than be consum'd by Fire, clear'd himself from the em­braces of his Mother, and rush'd out with two hundred resolute Men with drawn Scymiters. Cubo being foremost fought valiantly, and receiving three mortal Wounds,The Emperor slain. fell down dead: the remaining part fighting bravely, were soon all cut off, dying upon the Spot, laying themselves in a heap one upon another, after they had shewn a sufficient testimony of their great Resolution and true Valour, not one falling without slaughter of the Enemy.

But most remarkable was the behaviour of a tender Youth, scarce to be call'd a Man, who astonish'd the Foe with his desperate fierceness, having wounded several, and slain many of them, made his way to the Emperor's Corps; which looking upon with great grief and anxiety of spirit, vented his Passion thus: Why should I live, my Master thus Murder'd by accursed Traitors? I have done what I could for my Honor, his dear Love, and my Allegiance: Which as soon as said, he threw away his Sword, and with a Dagger cut his own Throat; notwithstanding which Wound, though mortal, to dispatch himself the sooner, he stabb'd himself to the Heart.

Miexindono takes Cubo's Palace.In the mean while the Enemy, where the Flames had not possess'd, took possession of the Palace; where finding the Emperor's Mother and Daughters, them they cruelly massacred,Horrible Murder. excepting onely two, which kneel'd down igno­miniously, begging Quarter of the Murderers, who secur'd them in a strong Prison near the Palace:Then they broke into the Treasury. The Court-Ladies, most of them being of high Extraction, fled into a Hall not yet touch'd by the Fire; where by their loud shreeks, and lamentable ejaculations, they were dis­cover'd by the Soldiers; who breaking in, stripp'd some of their Clothes, ra­vish'd others, and made an inhumane Massacre of the rest, not sparing any for Tears, Youth, Beauty, or whatsoever is taking in the Female Sex. Others observing the horrible inhumanity of these Butchers, rather deliver'd them­selves to the merciless Flames, than the unmerciful Murderers. But the Em­press with some of her Attendants making her escape, got into a Cloyster of the Bonzi who soon after being discover'd, was in like manner, without the least pity or reluctation, dispatch'd.

Thus the Palace being utterly destroy'd, and most of them that belong'd to it burn'd with it, Mioxindono commanded those two hundred, who made that brave and desperate Sally, and by which he had lost many Men, to be thrown into the Flames, where they were with the Palace consum'd to Ashes.

The Bonzies prevail'd so much with the Conqueror, that they obtain'd leave to bury the Emperor Cubo in a Cloyster of their own.

A strange Action of a Friend of Cubo's. Frojus relates in a Letter from Canga, an Isle in Japan, Dated Anno 1565, that a Favorite of the Emperor's hearing of his miserable misfortune, hasten'd with all speed to Meaco, and viewing the Place where formerly the Palace stood, with bitter Execrations and Curses he cry'd out against those inhumane Trai­tors that had Murder'd his Lord and destroy'd his Palace: From thence go­ing to the Tomb where the Emperor was bury'd, he ript open his own Bow­els, falling athwart the Grave, hoping so to be united with him in everlasting happiness in the other World.

Cubo's Sisters marder themselves.Of Cubo's Royal Family there remain'd onely his two Sisters, and as many Daughters alive, his Sisters having long before betook themselves to a Cloy­ster: [Page 173]These, though they were under the sanctuary of the Bonzi, suffer'd ma­ny great Calamities, which not being able to endure any longer, desperately became their, own Executioners. His two Daughters were Entertain'd by an ordinary Citizen.

Yet besides these, Canadonus Vajacata, youngest Brother to the deceased Em­peror, had also escap'd the cruelty of his bloody Persecutors, who spat'd his Life because he was one of the Religious Order belonging to the Bonzi: but that they shouldnot be in fear of any Insurrection that might happen by his means, theyorder'd him to be kept close Prisoner:The Emperor's youngest Brother being kept Prisou­er breaks forth. from whence breaking forth at last, he went to Vatadono, Governor of Loca, as we have beforemen­tion'd

Vatadono and Nebunun­ga assist the Emperor's Bro­ther.This Vatadono stirr'd up all his neighboring Princes, and chiefly Nobunanga, against the Emperor's Murderers, to the end they might aid Vajacata, as being the next Heir to the Imperial Crown.

This weighty Concern took good effect; for Nobunanga brought an Army of sixty two thousand Men into the Field, and with thefe Forces made so great a progress, that Vojavata obtain'd his desires, and became chief Governor of all Japan.

¶WHen the Rebels (as we said before) were destroy'd, and the decea­sed Cuba's, Brother set on the Throne, Vatadono. went with a great part of the Army to Saccai, and Nobunanga with Vojacata to Meaco. Vatadono be­ing in Saccai, held correspondency with Lodowick Frojus; for whom he got so much Liberty by the new Emperor and Nobunanga, that the banish'd Jesuits might freely return again to Meaco. But this business afterwards prov'd much to his disadvantage and inconvenience: for he had appointed a publick Dis­putation to be held in the presence of Nobunanga, between a famous Bonzi, call'd Nichioxines, and Lodowick Frojus, concerning the Japan Religion, and also about Martial Discipline: Bun Nichioxines fell so much short with his Argu­ments about the Immortality of the Soul, which every one obferving, prov'd to his great disgvace and dishonor; which he seemingly bore with patience, but in his heart conceal'd bitter malice, resolving to take revenge of Vatadono, who soon after fell into a great Sickness: which opportunity the Bonzi ma­king use of, went to Nobunanga, and accus'd Vatadona with many false Aspersi­ons; to which purpose he had corrupted Witnesses, ready to affirm what-ever he said; which Nobunanga believing,Vatadono lost Nobunau­ga's savor by means of a Bonzi. bred an inveterate hatred against his old Friend, which at last broke out so far, that so soon as Vatadono had recover'd his Health, he banish'd him from his Court with shame and disgrace, and abated him twenty thousand Ducats annually of his Revenue. A Whole Year he wandred up and down, despised by all the Bonzies, who bore an irrecon­cilable malice against him.Become friends again. At last being permitted to the Prefence of the Emperor and Nobunanga, ht made his Case so clear, that he was not onely pro­moted to his former Dignity, but also was presented with ten thousand Ducats above the foremention'd twenty which were taken away from him.

Vatadono's Wars with the King of Iquenda.VAtadono enjoy'd these his great Revenues but a small time; for he soon after dy'd by this following Accident: He had built two Forts on the utmost of his Borders, near the Territory Iquenda, which the King of that Countrey could no ways digest, and therefore would have them both to be pull'd down; and because he Govern'd a great number of valiant Men, he [Page 174]was the bolder in that his Command. Vatadono, though he thought himself able to Engage with the other, yet stood amaz'd at his peremptory Command, to pull down that which brought him in so much Revenue yearly. These Orders were sent before, which the King of Iquendo follow'd himself, and lay down before the Forts with a considerable Army; in which at that time Dario Tacajam a resided, who immediately sent information to Vatadono, being then at Fort Tacacuquim, of his present Condition; whereupon he Muster'd up all his Forces which were near him, and with those he march'd to Encounter the Enemy; who had information how in considerable all his Forces were, for he could number of all that he had rais'd not above two thousand Men; but his Son follow'd him with five hundred more. The Enemy, which was ready to take all advantages, hid most of his Men behind a Mountain, and so enticed Vatadono to Battel, by shewing onely a few of his Men, near the Place where the rest lay ambuscado'd; for he feared that else he might have gotten into some Fortification or other, and so have worn out the time till fresh Forces might come to his assistance: This Plot of the Enemies prov'd very successful for Vatadono, who wore a Scarlet Cap, given him by the Portu­guese, as soon as he drew near the Enemy, he lighted from his Horse, and with one of his Companies assaulted the Enemy very fiercely,In the Enceunter Vatado­no was slain whilst on a sudden those that lay in Ambuscade appear'd from behind the Hill, and set upon him with great eagerness on all Corners, yet keeping close together fought very valiantly for a considerable time; but seeing no likelihood of those fresh Sup­plies over which Vatadono's Son was Commander, and how unequal the Match was, return'd back, and took possession of the Fort Tacacuquim.

A Contest between No­bunanga and he Emperor, and the reason.Mean while the Emperor and Nobunanra fell at variance: for the one boast­ing continually his Merits, that by his sole Conduct he had set the Emperor on his Throne: which proud vaunting of his he not being able to bear, Princes especially not enduring the good Deeds that have been done for them to be cast in their Dish, also judging himself to be under Tutorage, and not absolute, whilst he boasted and vain-glory'd that he was an Emperor of his own making.

These Murmurings and Mutterings at last broke forth into open Flames, and Civil War, the Emperor Mustering all the Forces he could possibly get to­gether against Nobunanga, with which he thought to make a sudden end of the business, and the better because Nobtmanga was gone to the Kingdom of Boari: But he hearing of the Emperor's great Preparations, rais'd also (scarce to be believ'd) another as vast an Army; with which he March'd directly to Meaco: and though he sent Messengers daily, with all humility imploring and pro­posing Peace,Nobunanga destroys all. offering Articles of Agreement, yet destroy'd the Imperial Ter­ritories with Fire and Sword where-ever he came; so that in a short time a hundred Villages, and several Cities, lay waste, being bury'd in their Ashes. But the Emperor disdain'd the Proposals, relying solely upon the Forces which were promis'd him, which incensed Nobunanga the more; and therefore he re­solv'd to Storm Meaco, and taking it, to spare neither Woman nor Child: his first Vengeance he design'd should be the upper part of the City, where most of the Nobility resided: which to prevent, and to mollifie his fury, they sent him proffers of great Sums of Money, that so he would be pleas'd in mercy to spare them; all which Nobunanga refus'd: yet he gave strict command through his whole Army, that they should not commit the least outrage in the lower Meaco; but the upper part of the City he gave them free leave to Plunder.

Upper Menco Miserably burnt.But before his Army drew near Meaco, several Conspirarors had already set [Page 175]Fire on many Places of the City, that so they might enrich themselves with Plunder before the Enemy came thither. In one Night almost a third part of the upper Meaco lay in Ashes, whilst Nobunanga came in on the next Day, and destroy'd all what was remaining.

This Fire consum'd at least eight thousand Houses, twenty Cloysters of the Bonzies, and the two famous Temples of Amida and Xaca, besides eighty lesser Temples.

Bonzies burnt.Into one of these, sixty of the poor Bonzies, which gather'd Alms at Meaco, for the re-building, of the decay'd Temple, Consecrated to the Idol Dalbud in the Province of thematis. taking their refuge there, were consum'd by the Fire.

The lower Meaco escaped this destruction, for not one Soldier durst offer to enter there, Nobunanga having on pain of Death charged them all to the con­trary. But whilst one Corner of upper Meaco burnt very fiercely, the Fire drawing near the lower City, in which was the; Temple of Yzum, the Bonzies began to be much concern'd for that Idol, and the more,A strange Idol call'd Yzum. because it was his Of­fice to conduct the Souls of the Deeeased to a place of punishment, from whence after being purifi'd by Fire, he brings them to the place of happiness ptepar'd by Amida. This Image is terrible to behold, holding in its right Hand a Trident. The Bonzies thus highly concern'd for this their Deity, entreated him by Re­sponses to signifie to them, whether the Fire would consume his Temple, and if he would be remov'd to another place: they imagin'd from the Statues fix'd looks, that he would be remov'd, and secur'd from the Fire: Where­upon they immediately prepar'd all things in readiness, the Bonzies with ma­ny others bringing the Image with great State and Ceremony to a pare of the upper Meaco, which lay a great way beyond the Fire: But Nobunanga soon after setting all parts of the upper City on Fire, their god Yzum was also burnt there; and his Temple standing in lower Meaco, though not protected by its Deity, being spared by Nobunanga, was preserv'd.

The Emperor besieg'd by Nobunauga.But the Emperor looking from a high Tower on these horrible outrages, saw with an undaunted courage the richest part of the City involv'd in Flames and utter ruine, whilst he expected daily fresh Forces to relieve him, with whose help he resolv'd to satiate his Revenge: but before any came, Nobunanga had so straitned the Royal Fort with a strict Leaguer, that the Emperor began to hearken to Terms of Peace, Nobunanga threatning, that he would surren­der the Crown to the Dayro, to whom it antiently and justly belong'd.

At last Articles of Agreement were Sign'd,Makes Peace.with no small diminution of Power and Honor to the Emperor. Persons of Quality were sent from both Sides as Pledges to confirm the Agreement: all which, as soon as the Empe­ror's promis'd Assistance came, he broke.

Nobunanga makes him­self Emperor.But this help prov'd his utter ruine, for Nobunanga, highly incens'd the breach of Peace, march'd up again with all his Forces to Meaco, defeating the new-come Party, took Vojocata the Emperor, and soon after assum'd to himself the Imperial Dignity. This absolute Conquest brought him thirty Kingdoms, Anno 1573.

But no sooner setled in the Imperial Throne, but he met with as many, or rather more difficulties and troubles to break through than his Predecessors: for who-ever thought well of him at first, and were helps to his great advance­ment, finding that he took no care of keeping his Promise, but suddenly broke the soletm Oath taken at his Coronation, to protect the People according to [Page 168]the antient Law, and be as a Nursing Father and Mother to them: but in stead thereof he prov'd to be a greedy devourer of his People, tyrannizing by arbitrary Power, making his Will a Law, and grew more hated and detesta­ble by his ambition of aspiring to be a god: to which purpose he set his own Imperial Crown on an Image representing himself, in the Temple at Dubo, as beforemention'd.

Loses the love of all the Poeple because of his per­s [...]cuting the Bonzi.But most of all the People were instigated against this Emperor by the Bonzi, who suffer'd extremely by his means in Vojocata the former Emperor's Reign; of which hear two principal Examples, which were thus:

¶ THe Mountain Frenoiama having very high Precipices, lies two Leagues Eastward from Meaco, eight hundred years since a Japan King built here three thousand eight hundred Temples, and by every one a Cloyster for the Bonzi, and that they might there without any molestation follow their Devotion and Study, he remov'd all the Rustick Inhabitants from thence with their Cattel, lest any noise should disturb them in their Retirements. At the Foot of this Mountain Frenoiama he built two Villages, calling them Upper and Lower Sacomotum, from whence the Bonzi fetch daily their Provisions:They had also a third Part of the Revenue of the Kingdom of Vomis allow'd them.Strange Temple and Cloysters. These Edifices from time to time grew more and more in splendor and magnificence, because that continually some of the Emperor's Relations, or at least a King's Son, was kept there, which made it so famous, that all Matters of consequence were decided by these Monks, and all Disputations concerning their Religion were held in this University, and there, as in the chief Academy, all Scholars Commence.

But in process of time, and chiefly by the Wars, this vast number of Tem­ples which stood on the top of Frenoiama, were reduced to eight hundred; and also the wanton and luxurious lives of the Bonzies, being given over to all De­baucheries, made them break out into all manner of outrages, and dissolute courses, oftentimes throwing away their Books, taking up Arms: and whilst they grew formidable to maintain a War, they made the High-ways, and all Places dangerous by their several Murders and Robberies;The Bonzi become villa­ous Murderers. nay, they grew so impudent at last, that without the least regard to the Dayro, by the Japanners honor'd as a god,Commit great outrages ic Meaco. they set upon, and Storm'd Meaco, in the Year 1535. burning the whole City to Ashes; and not onely slew all those which escap'd the Fire, but tender Infants in the Cradle.

This barbarous piece of Cruelty remain'd unpunish'd a long time; until thirty six years after they receiv'd a. sufficient reward for their bloody inhuma­nities: A great War arising between Nobunanga and the King of Nechier, the Bonzies furnish'd the Nechiers with all manner of Provisions and other Necessa­ries, and blockt up the Passage and Avenues against Nobunanga: which he ta­king very hainously, resolv'd to be reveng'd to the full: and accordingly to put his Design in execution, he return'd to Boari, which he Commanded as being King,Nobunanga crucifies the Bonzi. and there drove all the Bonzies out of their several Abodes, Nailing all he could find on Crosses.

Goes to Erenoiama.But not thus satisfi'd, he rais'd a new Army, with which he march'd to­wards the Mountain Frenoiama. The Bonzies not being able to make resistance, hung down their Heads, sending Commissioners, offering great Sums of Mo­ney for a Pacification: but Nobunanga being incens'd, and full of wrath against them, would by no means accept of their Proffers, but march'd on: Then [Page 177]

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they endeavor'd to perswade him, by telling him of the Sanctity of the Place, and Reverence which was to be shown to the gods, whose Temples and Altars stood upon Frenoiama, which had been kept unviolated many Ages. But Nobu­nanga told them, that he scorn'd their proffer'd Money; neither fear'd he those gods they worshipp'd, that had committed so many inhumane and horrid im­pieties, but by the help of better Powers would deal with them according to their merits. So left utterly out of hope, they desperately prepar'd themselves for resistance, and so fight it out to the last.

¶ On the top, or highest Spire of this Mountain stands a stately Temple, dedicated to Canon, Son of the famous Amida. This Image hath thir­ty Arms, and as many Hands, in each two Arrows, a Face representing a hand­som Youth, on his Breast seven humane Faces, with a Crown of Gold, richly inchas'd with Pearls, Diamonds, and all sorts of Precious Gems.

The Japanners come hither from all Parts of the Countrey, paying there their Devotions, because they believe that he grants them a long and happy life.

A great Fast fet Idol Canon.Every year the Bonzies keep a great Fast to the honor of this their god Canon; which Day draws such a concourse of People that repair thither, that it would seem fabulous to recite.

In Osacca stands also a Temple of Canon; but the Image of the god quite an­other Figure, which is a custom amongst the Japanners, never to make the same Deity alike.

Bonzies fortifie them­selves.The Bonzies chief place of Defence was on the top of the Mountain, near Canon's Temple: Thither they Muster'd all those that were able to bear Arms; and there they fortifi'd themselves as well as they could, whilst Nobunanga burnt the two Villages, the Upper and Lower Sacamotum, from whence they had formerly all their Provision: And as the amazing Flames and Smoke ascend­ed the Sky, he and his Army march'd up the Hill, having before block'd up all [Page 178]the Passages of the Descents with strong Guards, that not one of the Bonzies might escape, then giving a general Storm to their Fort, which they defended aslong as they could; but being over-power'd, they shrinking from their Sta­tions, were as soon possess'd by the Enemy; who falling in like a Deluge, made a speedy Execution:Are all slam. those that escap'd the Sword Were burnt in the Temple, and others that escap'd away by the Declivings of the Hill, were cut off and hunted up and down like wild Beasts by the Guards. Yet this general Massa­cre little appeas'd the wrath of the Enemy: for soon after he also fir'd four hundred Temples, with their Cloysters and Colledges.

Four hundred Temples burnt.We may easily conjecture how terrible the Mountain Frenoiama smoak'd, ha­ving so many Temples and Cloysters, towards the Building of which in. seven hundred years more than the King's Revenues have been from time to time be­stow'd on the same. This destruction is reckon'd to have happen'd Anno 1571.

The Vehisamidono erects a new Order.This done, Nobunanga march'd through towards Meaco, and fifteen Miles beyond the City he set upon the famous Bonzi Taquieno Vehisamidono, who having lately rais'd a new Sect to the honor of Xaca, and to that end put away his Wife, and his Head and Chin, according to their manner, Shaven, having four hundred Scholars under his Tuition; for whose Education at his own Charge he had built a stately Colledge, which got him great applause and affection amongst the People; of which growing proud, he boldly and bitterly in­veighed against Nobunanga in the presence of the Emperor Vojocata, saying, That Nobunanga, though aspir'd to such a heighth, would suddenly fall and drop like a rotten Pear from the Tree: of which Nobunanga had information, and happening to light upon him in his way homewards, though the Emperor much perswa­ded him, yet he utterly destroy'd him and all his Relations, levelling his Cloy­sters, and banishing nis Wife and Children; but all this was not enough to sa­tisfie his revenge.

The famous School Fa­cusangin.He had a long time observ'd the famous School Pacusangin, which the Bon­zies had been Masters of, and possess'd it in peace and quietness six hundred years together. To this School, or University belongs several Cloysters, and a thou­sand Habitations, no less convenient than costly, which also to destroy he wanted some fair pretence, to hide his unsatisfi'd revenge; yet at last he found a way that answer'd his desire.

Some Robbers having pillag'd the Kingdom of Boari, carry'd their Booty to the Facusangin Bonzies; which opportunity he neglected not, for having his Hands at liberty, and a Peace being concluded between him and the Empe­ror, he thought it the best time to satisfie his spleen:Is ruin'd by Nobunanga, and all the Boinzies slain. whereupon he unexpe­edctly fell upon Facusangin, and destroy'd all the Bonnes, setting most of their Houses on fire, Anno 1573, which was the same Year that Nobunanga became Emperor.

These were the occasions that set the Bonzies so much against his being chosen Emperor, by whom stirr'd up, none more oppos'd than Xinguien King of Cainochuno; who having banish'd his Father, and also imprison'd his eldest Brother, set himself on the Throne; and wanting just Claim, he betook him­self to other practices, that might better strengthen and improve his Title; and therefore the Cloak of Religion must be his Royal Robe, seeming Sancti­ty his Scepter, and so shaving his Head and his Chin close, he took the Order of the Bonzi, performing all their Ceremonies and religious Duties, punctual in all the stiff Formalities of well-dissembled Holiness, attended constantly by six hundred Bonzies; the rumor of which spread round the Countrey, the Japan­ners [Page 179]not being accustom'd to see a King play the Priest, and Officiate at Divine Service, and that thrice a day, straight believ'd (so had he gain'd upon their Affections) that he, and onely he, was appointed to re-establish the shaking Church, and restore to its Pristine Glory (now almost utterly defac'd) their Ancient Religion: On which great Multitudes from all Parts resorted to his Palace, he giving out, That he would Re-erect the destroy'd Temples and Cloysters on the Mountain Frenioama, and also the famous Temple Consecrated to Canon.

These Promises and fair Pretences tickl'd the Ears of the Vulgar; for Fre­nioama was always held to be the Supreme University for the Education of their Youth, both in the Mysteries of Religion, Study in Philosophy, and other abstruse Learning. Here also stood Canon's Temple, highly esteem'd, and so venerable amongst the People; to whose Feast yearly great Multitudes, from the several Territories round about, use to resort, invited by the hopes of the propos'd Rewards of Everlasting Bliss, for all such as repair annually thither. He also boasted, That he would out-do, if possible, the Renown'd Xaca himself, in Vindicating and Establishing their pure and ancient Religion, under which their Ancestors liv'd happily, ever since they first Planted in Japan.

His Letter to Nobunan­ga.Thus the Business prepar'd, and a good Ground-plot laid, by this time his Admirers in several Places offer'd themselves and Forts, their Lives and For­tunes, to serve and be under his Conduct: So that suddenly he grew as pow­erful and as great a Prince as the Emperor; of which Nobunanga being sensi­ble, and perceiving his Power daily to encrease; and also not a little sha­ken with a ranting Epistle from the high-flying Xinguen, who subscribed thus: Taindino Taxuxamon Xinguen; that is, Xinguen the King of Kings, and Patriarch of all Religion: The Emperor contrarily subscribing thus; Dainoquin Tennomavon Nobunanga; which is, Nobunanga, the Great Commander of Devils, and Prime Leader of Wandering Spirits.

Besides Xinguen, appear'd also the Prince Aquechi, bred a Soldier, who after slew Nobunanga before Meaco, in the Imperial-Blood-Grove, Nobunanga slain. so call'd (as we said be­fore) from his Death.

Amongst his Captains, was a Prime Leader, of a Noble Aspect, call'd Fax­iba, whose Extract, Life, and Right to the Imperial Crown, we will here relate.

Faxiba, from whence he got that Name.¶ THis Name Faxiba the Emperor Nobunaga had given him, when he led a puissant Army of the Emperors against the King Amanguci; for when he was ready upon his March, he entreated him to give him a new Name; which Nobunanga granting, whereas formerly he had been call'd Toquixiro, he denominated him Faxiba, which is to say, Fly above the Wood; by which the Emperor express'd his hopeful Success: for the King of Amanguci, against whom Faxiba was to fight, bore the Name of Maridono, which two first Syllables signified A Wood, and the last, Lord: By which also Nobunanga would have them to understand, That his new foremention'd Ge­neral should by Conquest of his Enemy, fly like a Bird over the Wood.

Serves a Rustick to cut his Wood.This Faxiba, formerly call'd Toquixiro, was of a very mean Extract, being Servant to a Rustick; his business to cut Wood from a neighboring Hill, and carry it home. This was hard Labor, the Mountain being very steep and craggy; and his Master consum'd daily much Fewel, who on a time had laid on more than he was us'd to do; which Toquixiro observing, took some of the [Page 180]Wood from the Fire, putting the remaining Sticks up in such order, that a few of them cast an exceeding great heat. His Master taking much notice of this his handsome contrivance, to make a greater and better Fire with much less Fewel, judg'd hi [...] Servant was fitter for other Employment, than to be his Slave. Whereupon he not onely commended him, and freed him from his bad Service;How he gets out of his Service, into the Emperors. but giving him Money, bid him seek his Fortunes in the Wars, or elsewhere; not doubting, but the Gods had better things laid up in store for him.

Soon after this, Toquixiro began to have a more elevated opinion of himself, and his swelling Thoughts aiming at something higher, he travel'd big with hopes to Meaco, where at first he got into the Service of a great Merchant, and soon after he was preferr'd to a Noble-man, a Prime Favorite of the Emperor Nobunanga's; who one day happening to go with the Emperor a Hawking, and Toquixiro being amongst the Faulconers, and others of the Court-Retinue, it chanc'd that one of the best Hawks, flying at his Game, hung tangled about the Bough of a high Tree, by the Vervils; and when none of them were able to climb the Tree, Toquixiro's Master bid him see what he could do, which he perform'd so well, and with such comely agility, and taking dexterity, that the like having not been seen before, the Emperor and all his Train admir'd the Man that so much out-did all the rest, especially Nobunanga himself; so that he took him into his Service, and preferring from place to place, he came to great Dignity; insomuch that the rest of the Courtiers that saw him rise before them, and grow more and more in the Emperors favor, spited him extremely, their former Love turning into hatred, and never rested contriving Plots, not onely to bring him down in his Pride and Greatness, but utterly to ruine him: When an Accident hapned pat for their purpose, which they were not negligent to lay hold on; and thus it was. A very rich Scymiter, pla­ted with Gold, which the Emperor highly esteem'd, being stoln from the Court, and much inquiry after, his Enemies insinuating, whisper'd, that no body could steal it but Toquixiro, Is accus'd with Theft. having, as they said, often prais'd, and taken more than common notice of it: This buzz'd about, his Greatness ha­ving left him few Friends to shake off the Aspersion, it was the general Talk, and most of them being willing, believ'd; when an Intimate of his advis'd him to fly; for when once it came to the Emperors Ear, there was no way to avoid an ignominious Death. He being of a quick Apprehension, took his Friends Advice, and absented; but he was no sooner miss'd, than his Enemies taking hold of the Advantage, made the Business no more doubtful, but all were satisfied, that he, and no other, was the Thief; the Emperor sending every where to apprehend him, that he might receive condign Punishment for his so hainous Offence. Whilst he thus absconded, in a miserable condition, fearing every minute to be taken, and so die without mercy, he secretly went up and down amongst the Goldsmiths, inquiring cunningly after such Plates as those that were on the lost Scymiter, as if he would buy such Golden Plates: So by great accident he lighted upon them: Then with a kind of Authority, being a Courtier, he question'd and threatned the Buyer; who frighted, to save his own Life, found the Seller, and so from hand to hand, at last the Thief himself;Manifests innocence. whom bringing to the Court, he was clearly acquitted of all, and had the honor to be Executioner himself;Cuts off the Thieves Head. so cutting off the Malefactors Head, laid it with the recover'd Plates at the Emperors Feet, who straight re­ceiving him into former Favor, still advanc'd him the more, vexing those by that means that had so falsly accus'd him.

Toquixiro at last obtaining to be a Governor,Is made a Governor. manag'd his Affairs with such Moderation and Prudence, that he got the Love, Applause, and Estimation of all that were under his Concern, which straight preferr'd him to a higher Place, and of more Dignity.

¶ THe Impregnable Castle which held out against Nobunanga and all his Power, long after he was chosen Emperor, still sallying out with strong and bold Parties, fetching in Booty, and often doing much damage and mischief round about in several Places, now suppos'd altogether impossible to be taken in; Nobunanga considering the Activity and Subtlity of this his Fa­vorite, he thought once more to Attaque it:Leads an Army into the Field. So making Toquixiro General of the Forces appointed for that purpose, and Commissioning him at large, set him upon the Work, though with small hopes of carrying so considerable a Business: But beyond his expectation, and all others that scoff'd at it, as a ri­diculous Undertaking, he behav'd himself so well, and shew'd himself so great a Master of Arms, that without much ado, what had remain'd a Goad so long in the Emperors side, and had baffl'd him so oft,Takes the Castle of Nan­gafama. he took in.

Thus the Emperor encourag'd with his Success, sent him out against the King of Amanguci, whom with the like good Fortune,Subdues the King of A­manguci. and without any great difficulty, he subdu'd. Thus being one of Nobunanga's Chief Lieutenants, after his Defeat at Meaco, being slain in the Imperial-Blood-Grove, he took upon him the Authority of Protector of his third Son, an Infant of three Years old, whom he kept in a Castle, shewing him all possible Reverence, due to so hope­ful and great a Prince: For Nobunanga's eldest Son was slain with his Father, and the second ran distracted.

The Deceas'd Emperors Wives Brother, call'd Xibatadono, being the nearest of his Relations left alive, stomach'd much at the Proceedings of Toquixiro, and oppos'd him in what he might; whom to remove, being such a Block in his way, he resolv'd, if possible, to destroy, and immediately sat down and vested the Fort wherein he resided with a close Siege. Xibatadono finding him­self thus suddenly surpris'd, and so straightned that there was no means left to escape, call'd a Council of all his Friends, thus saying, You all know our hard Con­dition; and for my part, rather than yield to the cruel Tyrant, I am resolv'd to end this wo­ful Life by Self-slaughter: All my Request is, That after Death, Self-murder committed by Xibatadono, and by all the Besieg'd. you will see my Fune­rals in Fire, and that nothing be left of me for that inhumane Rebel to boast of. As for your selves, make what Agreement you can for the Preservation of your Lives. But there was not one in all the Company, but approving of his Resolution, were resolv'd to follow his Example.

Xibatadono return'd them all Thanks for their Fidelity towards him: But before he took leave of this World, he made them a Funeral-Feast, loading his Tables with all Varieties, the Roofs resounding with Vocal and Instrumental Musique, such as the Place afforded; Bowls of their beloved Chiaw, and Wine still handed about. So after they had Treated to the height, they rose, first fil­ling the Hall with Combustible Matter, as Bavins, Brush-wood, and the like, which firing, and the Flames at last ascending through the Roof, then the bloody Banquet began. Xibatadono first fell upon his Wife and Children, and their Servants, running them through, or otherwise mortally wounding them; who was follow'd by the rest of his Captains and Officers, in like manner dispatching their Relations and Retinue: Then throwing their Bodies into the Flames, and standing upon them, they ripp'd up their own Bowels.

Toquixiro takes Xibatadono's Fort.Mean while Toquixiro seeing the Smoke of the Castle ascending towards the Sky, and thinking that the Fire had hapned accidentally, thought to take hold of that Opportunity, and so presently order'd a general Storm; where find­ing no manner of Preparation, nor Resistance, neither at the Gates, nor on the Walls, entring, he saw onely some Bodies, not yet quite consum'd, broyling on the Coals: Which much represented the Misfortune that hapned to the an­cient City Saguntus.

¶ THis City Hannibal Storm'd in three Places, and chiefly against a low part of the Wall, which he set upon with several Engines for that purpose: But the Besieg'd bestirr'd themselves so valiantly against the Assail­ants, that they made great Slaughter amongst them: Hannibal himself, being wounded in the Thigh with a Pike, was forc'd to Retreat, and the Army rest­ed till their General was cur'd; who then mustering his Forces, afresh Be­sieg'd the City closer than before,Strange destruction of Saguntus. a hundred and fifty thousand being daily in Arms, against whom the Saguntines were forc'd to keep Watch on all Corners.

The Enemies Battering-Engines had by this time made Breaches in the Walls in several Places; three Towers undermin'd, also turn'd topsie-turvey: So that the City lay in a manner open and undefended, and the Soldiers which fill'd the Breaches were naked and without shelter, having neither Battlements nor Breast-works against which Hannibal drew up his whole Army. Hope spurr'd on the Assailants, and Desparation kept the Defendants in their Stati­ons; so the Storm was very fierce, long, and well maintaind: Hannibal, if his Men did their parts, not doubting but to carry the City, made a fierce Assault; the Saguntines making good their Breaches with Throngs of Soldiers, match'd with equal Valour the Carthaginians, in so close a Body, that the Enemies Ar­rows never mist a Mark.

The Saguntines answer'd them with thrown Javelins,Strange Darts. carrying Wild-fire; which were so terrible, and did such Execution, that Hannibal was forc'd to Retreat.

Thus both Parties being tired, there hapned a short Cessation: Onely the Saguntines labour'd day and night, to make up the Breaches of their ruin'd Walls. Soon after Hannibal giving the Plunder of the City to the Soldiers, made a more fierce and general Assault.

Saguntus is divided in the middle.But the Saguntines having divided the Town, rais'd a new Wall with the old Houses. Here they made fresh Resistance against the Enemy, it being then eight Months that they had suffer'd so great a Siege. In the interim, their Wants began daily to increase, and their Hopes of being Reliev'd by the Ro­mans vanish'd; the Enemies never ceasing from Storm: For though Hannibal went with a part of his Army against the Oretans and Carpetans, which he much fear'd; yet Maharbal, Hamilcar's Son, went on so fiercely, that none could ob­serve the Generals absence, pulling down the new Wall in three several Pla­ces, and setting upon them with such fury, that he made himself Master of some of their Fortifications. The Business seeming thus to be finish'd, the Be­sieg'd besought that they might Treat with Hannibal concerning Peace: But the disturb'd General was too much incens'd to give ear thereto; yet by the Entreaties of the Spaniard Alorcus, they obtain'd so much at last, that Hannibal would permit the Saguntines to depart, and inhabit in such Countreys as he should appoint for them; but that they should leave all their Gold, Silver, and other Treasures behind. With these Proposals of Agreement Alorcus went [Page 183]over the Walls into the City; at whose coming, all the Council gather'd: Thither the People also repair'd from all Corners, to hear the News. The chiefest of the Council, without giving any Answer upon the propos'd Arti­cles, departed and went away, bringing their greatest Treasures into the Mar­ket-place; where setting Fire on them, they also stabb'd themselves,The Saguntines burn themselves and their City. and fell in the Flames. This occasion'd a sudden Alteration, which was agitated by a great Cry from the Fortification; for a Tower having been storm'd and shaken a long time, fell to the Ground, which making a great Gap in the Walls, a whole Band of Africans, seeing the Guards fled to the Market-place, throng'd in: Of which Hannibal having sudden notice, immediately enter'd the City, without any resistance, with several thousand Men: But the Citizens, in like manner as Xibatadono, in a moment set Fire on all their Houses, chusing rather to be burnt with their Wives and Children, than to be slain by Hanni­bal's Sword.

Thus Toquixiro having Conquer'd Xibatadono's Castle, he return'd to Meaco, where he not only chang'd his first Name Toquixiro, but also his second, Faxiba, which Nobunanga had given him, calling himself Cambacun­dono, that is, Supreme Lord of Japan; and after that, Anno 1504. took upon him the Name of Taicosama, that is, Mighty Emperor.

Policy of Taicosama.¶ BUt though he had thus brought under his absolute Subjection the whole Island, yet he warily consider'd how to prevent future Inconvenien­ces, and what might happen to his prejudice under his new Acquirements: For several of his Substitute Kings being of Ancient Royal Blood, would not easily submit themselves to an Emperor of so mean an Extract; and that if any of them should but once appear against him, it might shake his new-laid Foundation, and the whole Fabrick of his Government, the rest of the Princes being ready to follow their Examples, which might suddenly cause a general Defection, and so his utter Ruine: To prevent all which, he had need to be very circumspect. Whereupon, after serious consideration, Taicosama thought no way convenienter, than to employ these Princes, and busie them where they might spend their Time, and show their Valour in some Foreign Countrey. Which Design to effect, the neighboring Corea gave him a fit Opportunity.

Description of Corea.¶ THis Countrey is divided into eight Territories, namely, Kinki, Hoan­chai, Kyangyven, Civenlo, Kingxan, Changoing, Kaokiuli, and Pingan. On the North it joyns to Niuche in Tartary; the South respects the Island Fungma; the West is wash'd by the Stream Galo, and the remaining part the Ocean bor­ders. The Chineses call it Chaosie. Its Length extends to two hundred and se­venty German Miles, and its Breadth thirty. The Province Kinke is adorn'd with the Metropolis Pingjang. The whole Countrey is exceeding Populous: The Towns very many; most of them built square, after the Chinese manner, whose Fashions, Language, Letters, Religion, and Government, the Coreans follow; which is no wonder, because the Chinese Emperor Hoavus subdu'd them two hundred Years before.

The Transmigration of the Soul into all manner of Bodies,Their Religion. is firmly be­liev'd amongst them. Their dead Corps are laid in Coffins, curiously adorn'd, and not buried before the third Year after their Death;Strange customs. but to keep in the ill scent which might get through the crevices, they glue the Coffins close up with [Page 184]Lime or Clay, call'd Cie. The Chineses account them barbarous, because they give their Women so much liberty, suffering them walk in the Streets, or come in the company of men when they please; and also, because their Marriages are perform'd without the liking of any of their Friends and Relations, the choice thereof being onely left to the Bride and Bridegroom.

The Soyl of this Countrey being very fruitful, produces Rice, and Tares twice a year; no place affords better Paper and Cie, by some call'd Sandaracha, than this Isle: This Sandaracha is much us'd by the Chineses and Japanners, for they Plaister all their Walls with that Lime.

Great wars in this half Island.¶ MOreover, Corea hath oftentimes been destroy'd and ruin'd, and lately in the Year twenty seven, it suffer'd extremely, both by the hands of their Enemies, and supposed Friends.

The Chinesy General, Maovenlung, had an Army that quarter'd here against the Tartars; his Souldiers being spread over all parts of the Countrey, and lying idle, committed many outrages on the Coreans, which at last grew so unsuffer­able, that they call'd in the Tartars for their Aid, who imbracing this proffer with great eagerness, contriv'd a subtil Plot, which redown'd to their great advantage; for the Tartars Army came marching with a Van-guard of Coreans in the Front, on purpose to surpress Maovenlung, by mistaking them to be all Coreans; which as contriv'd, happen'd, for by this means, the Tartar fell sud­denly into the Chinesi's Quarters, and e're he could rally his Forces lying about, he suffer'd great losses; but after a while gathering, and being drawn up in a Body, he gave them so sharp an Entertainment, which put them to a stand, the event thereof doubtful, on what side the Victory would fall; yet at last, the Tartars press'd so upon them, that Moavenlung lost ground, and retreated so by degrees, that getting near the Sea, he sav'd most of his Men aboard of seve­ral Ships that lay there: This Victory cost the Conqueror dear, and being the more displeas'd, because Moavenlung had thus got off from him; which to re­venge, fell treacherously upon the Coreans.

The four Northern Territories bordering next to Tartary, he had already miserably ruin'd, when the King of Corea rais'd an Army to oppose the Tartars (who then design'd to Besiege the Metropolis Pingjang) chusing a convenient place for Ambuscade, to surprise them in their March, and, as design'd, sud­denly sallied out upon them, suspecting there no Opposition; both Sides fight­ing very fiercely: Yet the Coreans, for all their Advantage, had been utterly defeated,A cruel battel betwixt three enemies. but that Moavenlung accidentally fell into their assistance, being new­ly Landed, galling the Tartars in the Rear; who seeing themselves block'd up, as in a Sack, steep Mountains on each side, before them the Coreans, and behind the Chineses, would not stand still in this exigency or danger, for they saw no way to get out, but what the Sword must make, whereupon they ga­thering fresh courage, a cruel fight began, the like scarce ever heard of by An­tiquity: The Tartars at last made their way through the Chineses, and fled Northerly towards the Kingdom of Niuche, leaving behind him (as they say) on the spot fifty thousand men; neither had the Chineses, nor the Coreans this Victory for nothing, for the first bought it with ninety thousand men, and the other with seventy thousand, insomuch, partly, that neither could boast their victory, or pursue the flying Tartar.

Taicosama sends a mighty Army of Japanners to war against Corea.¶ TO this Peninsula, Anno 1595. Taicosama sent his new-rais'd Army, being minded to free himself from the powerful Kings in his Countrey, which he fear'd might joyn their Forces together, and remove him, being of mean Extract, from the Imperial Throne, he pretended that Japan would be mightily inrich'd, if Corea could be joyn'd to that Crown, and such a weighty matter might easily be performed, being able to raise an Army that should conquer five such places as Corea; Whereupon the Kings which he fear'd most, were sent for to come to the Emperor, who giving them several Commands, Imbark'd them with sixty thousand men for Corea, where Landing, they found more work than they expected, so that the War continu'd a long time;The war lasts seven years. during which, Taicosama sent them friendly Letters, and fresh Supplies, yet it pleas'd them not to be absent so long from their own Countrey, Wives and Children, and to be amongst their Enemies, without seeing any hopes of being releas'd; for none durst return home without the Emperors Licence.

Description of the Phili­pines.¶ DUring the War in Corea, Taicosama's mind was also busi'd with other matters of Consequence; he sent in the beginning of his Reign a Letter to the Governor of the Philipines, who was the King of Spain's Viceroy, and kept his Court within the City Manilla. The Castilians discover'd these Islands, Anno 1564. and made themselves Masters thereof with little trouble; because the Inhabitants belonging formerly to China, deserted that Govern­ment, and since liv'd wildly without any Laws; but though the Chineses lost their Government there, yet for the fruitfulness of the Islands, they still Tra­ded thither, sending yearly twenty Jonks, or more, Bartering Cotton, Silk, Pur­celine, Brimstone, Iron, Copper, Mille, Quicksilver, Gunpowder, and Linnen, for Buffles, Deer-Skins, and Civet Cats.

A Letter of Taicosama to the Governor of the Phili­pines.¶ BUt concerning Taicosama's Letter, the Contents of it were thus: Japan, which hath so long been shaken by a Tempest of War, is now calm and settled in quiet, which ceased not before the gods fix'd him in the Imperial Throne, being the labor of ten years: Now I have leisure, I will fall upon the Chineses, and if you perform your duties, acknowledging me with all humbleness, to be that which I am, your Chief Commander, you shall not receive any damage by the Japan Arms, which else I will send to you, and endeavor to possess the Philipines to your utter destruction.

The Governor of the Philipines stood amaz'd at this strange Letter, very well knowing the Power, Pride, and Ambition of Taicosama, whose Friendship, if he would preserve, he had no other means but to answer him with all respects; for which purpose, he sent Lupo de Liano, with Missives to signifie to the Em­peror, That the Philipines Governor had receiv'd a Letter from his Imperial Majesty, but without being Sign'd by his Royal Hand, therefore he had not the confidence that he could willingly have wish'd for, especially, because the Jesuites in Nangesaque (who held some Correspondency with him) had given him no manner of Intelligence thereof.

This Answer, not onely displeas'd the Japan Emperor, but he was much startled thereat, because no Transactions, nor ought else, private or publick, that was worthy of information could happen,Hazart. Church Hist 5.6.9. but as Father Hazart says in his Church History, the Jesuites gave Intelligence of to their Concerns abroad, which they well observ'd, and left no stone unturn'd, that might improve their in­telligence.

This jealousie of the Emperor was fomented by an Apostate Castilian at Saxuma, who being revolted from his Religion, became a severe Persecutor of the Christian Faith; insinuating to the Emperor, that the Jesuites would never be obedient, longer than needs must, to his Commands; and the whole Design was, to introduce their Doctrine amongst the Japanners, which was no other, but to ferment Sedition to such a Rebellion, that first might tread down all subordinate Authority, and at last supplant the Emperor himself, and so bring the whole Nation under the Subjection of that Catholick Tyrant, the King of Spain.

A second Embassy from the Philipines to Taicosama.Upon which, Taicosama sent another Mandatory Letter to the Governor of the Philipines, which, the Ship being lost by the way, he never saw; but soon af­ter hearing thereof, sent a second Embassy over. The Chief in Commission was Peter Gonsalves, his assistance four Franciscan Monks, Bartholomew Ruiz, Fran­cisco de Sancto Michael, Peter Baptista, and Gonzales Garcia, Anno 1593. they had their Audience before Taicosoma, presenting him with Gifts of great value; which pleas'd the Emperor so well, that his former jealousies being quite blown over,The Franciscans built a Church in Japan. he granted the Friers leave to build a Church and Cloyster near Meaco, provided, that they should not meddle with his Subjects, nor perswade them neither in private or publick concerning matters of Religion, all which they promis'd, and in a years time rais'd a Church, Consecrating it to the Vir­gin Mary of Portiuncula; but however, notwithstanding all this, they busied themselves clandestinely and often in publick, to raise Proselites, which Do­ctrine spread every where in short time amongst the Japanners, who imbrac'd Christianity with such eagerness, and came flocking to them in such multitudes, that these four were not able to perform their Functions at the Ceremony, be­longing to their Conversion and Baptism; for which cause they sent for assi­stance to the Manilla's; from whence soon after came the Franciscans, Augustin, Rodrigo, Marcello Ribadeneyra, and Hieronimo de Jesu, with Letters and Gifts from the Governor of the Philipines to Taicosama, to whom the Presents were ve­ry acceptable; but the Letters unpleasing, seeing they answer'd him not to what he had written.

Franciscans build Cloy­sters in Japan. Peter Baptista, was the chief of the Friers which so spread their Religion, that they built another Cloyster, calling it Bethlehem in Osacca.

Moreover, they obtain'd liberty of the Governor of Meaco to build a third Cloyster at Nangesaque, under pretence of two sick Brothers, Peter Baptista, and Hieronimo de Jesu, which could not agree with the Air about Osacca, so that for their health-sake, they were necessitated to remove: These two went and resided in a Chappel Dedicated to Lazarus, standing near Meaco, between two Alms-houses, which were govern'd by the two Brothers of Mercy. Thither a great number of people flock'd daily from the City to see them perform Mass, and hear their Disputations.

A Japan Nobleman, erects an Order of the Vir­gin Mary.¶ AMongst whom came a Noble Person, call'd Didacus Gonnoi, who soon after imbracing the Roman Religion, was a great Promoter of it in the Territory, near the City Macava; insomuch, that he Indow'd a Brotherhood with Means, and built a Colledge, Dedicating the Society to the Holy Virgin, who also invited the Heathens to the hearing of the Gospel.

Why Taicosania permitted the Friers to be in Japan. Taicosama seem'd to wink at this nestling of the Monks, sent from the Philipines to Japan, because those Islands brought him in yearly a great Revenue; and amongst other Rarities which came from thence, were certain Pots or Cruises, [Page 187]call'd Boioni, which might be had there at a mean Price, but by the Japanners va­lu'd above Gold, because no Vessels whatsoever preserves their Liquor, mixt with the Powder Chia, better than these Cruises: This Drink the Noblest men in the Countrey make with their own hands, in a peculiar place of their Houses, built for that purpose.

Trades in Cruises. Taicosama sent two Persons to the Philipines, to buy up all these Pots, being certain to make vast profit thereof. But these his Factors found in the City Manilla several Japan Christians, which bought up all those Vessels, with inten­tion to dispose of them again in Japan. Taicosama being inform'd thereof, took all those Traders, and seiz'd upon all their Cruises which he could light on, and forbad them upon pain of death, not to bring any more thereof into his Dominions; so they escaping narrowly with their lives, were again re­leased.

Promotes his Brothers Sons to high dignities.¶ BUt before Taicosama began the Wars with the Coreans, he Promoted his Brothers Sons, having no Children of his own, to high Dignities and Honor; the eldest, whom he alotted to be his Successor, he Crown'd King over five Kingdoms; the second over three, lying near Meaco; and to the youngest, he gave two; preserving fifteen for himself, with the Supreme Com­mand over all. The remaining Provinces and Territories were divided amongst his Courtiers, Generals, and nearest Friends, with Proviso's, to pay an Annual Tribute to the Emperor. But those Princes which were not remo­ved, were oppress'd by Taxes, that they were scarce able to rebel, living conti­nually in fear, on one time or other to loose life and all.

His intention about the common War. And indeed it was so design'd, for he had no other intention to make Wars with the Coreans, but that those Kings which he sent thither might be ruin'd there, or at least so much Work to do, that they should not disturb him in his Dominions; or if they should in any time Conquer Corea, then he would give them the Conquer'd Territories in exchange for those in Japan, that so he might be absolute Governor over his own Empire at home.

Pretends to give over his authority.And that none might suspect this his Design, he pretended that he would no longer Administer, but give over his Imperial Authority to his eldest Nephew of twenty five years of age; Whereupon he nominated him the Quabacondono, which name is onely given to those that are Heir-apparent: But this was but dissembled, for though he Nominated him, yet he no ways intended, nor did part with his Authority.

But the Kings and Princes which he imploy'd for Corea, never scented in the least that he had laid this Plot for their destruction, and the enjoying of their Estates, pretending nothing, but the care of theirs and the publick good; so that they went chearfully abroad, with an Army of sixty thousand men,Japan Forces goes to Co­rea. and soon after follow'd a hundred and forty thousand more, which Forces Land­ing in Corea, in a short time carrying all before them, made themselves Masters of the Metropolis Pingjang, and most part of the Island; yet oft they met with repulses and great obstructions for the Chinese Auxiliaries,Chineses assist the Coreans. which still came fresh and fresh, maintaining a doubtful War six years, and drove them at last towards their Landing-place,Beat the Japanners from Corea. where they were sorely gall'd by twelve well man'd Fortresses, that oft Sally'd out upon them; so that they were forc'd to make a dishonorable Peace, the relinquishing of all their Conquest in Corea.

Thus ended the War, which exhausted Taicosama's Treasure, and spent him a hundred thousand men, amongst which, his second Nephew, whose youngest brother dy'd before.

Quabacondono commits great outrages in Japan.The eldest made Quabacondono, was yet living, he being witty and quick of apprehension, yet was most inhumanely cruel, for his greatest delight was Butchering of Men in a humane Shambles, which he had thus contriv'd him­self, in a place near his Palace, in the middle of an open Court, inclos'd with a Wall, and strow'd all over with white Sand, stood a great Table, whereon, when he wanted Criminals, who ever he had a picque against, or had a desire to see how he would die, where laid according to his Fancy, then began his sole Delight and chief Recreation, This he Quarters with great Art and Dexte­rity; which done, rips up his reaking Bowels, yet alive, and when percei­ving with the effusion of Blood and Spirit before his last Gasp, to feast his Cruelty, chops off his Head; That he binds to a Post, so that he may not stir, then takes his Bowes, Arrows, and several Guns, taking aim here and there, where Wounds are not Mortal, and when he perceives him full of Torture with Bullets and Arrows hanging in his Legs and Thighs, then to Crown his pleasure, shoots him in the Breast and Belly, whilest dying, to close up the Tra­gedy, he claps a Brace of Bullets into the Head: But when thus he hath satia­ted his Cruelty upon Men, to renew his delight, he takes a Woman with Child, and in stead of Butchering, Anatomizes alive, viewing the Infant in the Womb, and making inspection through all the Labratories of Nature, concerning the Formation, Production, and the Birth of Mankind; and (as they affirm) what ever infliction hath been exercis'd by the most cruellest Tyrants, he hath so much exceeded, that he may be call'd The Prince of such Bloody Butchers; Phalaris Bull, and many other of the like inventions,Cruelties of Phalaris. Of Atreus. Of Tullia. seeming to this but easie torments; be­sides, he excell'd all those Masters of Cruelty, because he troubled none with the horrid Office, but was their Salvage Executioner himself.

The reasons from whence the malice proceeded be­tween Quabacondono and his Unkle TaicosamaBut this inhumane Monster, not long Raign'd thus, perpetrating such un­heard of Murders, for his Unckle Taicosoma, though he had chosen him his Succes­sor, declaring him Heir-apparent, and already put him in possession of five Kingdoms, suddenly this his sweetning and love towards him turn'd into hate, upon several occasions; for though Quabacondono was Elected by his Unckle, and stil'd Emperor, this his great Name bore but small Command, for he ad­ministred in all Affairs of State himself, keeping the Reins of Government in his own hands, whilst the Favorites and flatteries about the young Emperor weary'd his Ears, insinuating, that he was but a Nominal Prince, and how the People mock'd at his great, but empty Name, which signifi'd just nothing, calling him Emperor without Empire; and that the blindest might see Taicosama's aims, who had twice intended to send him to Corea, where he might ei­ther be dispatch'd, or lingering in such a long War, loose all his Interest at home, but incourag'd him, not onely with the Conquest of that Isle, but that he would enable him with Forces to Conquer the main Land, China, and there make himself an Emperor: But the business of Corea falling unsuccessful, what e're he flattering, pretended, or secretly intended, the whole design fell, and came to nothing.

But concerning the practices of both these Princes, Unckle, and the Nephew, and their Plots of destroying each other, since the Relation stands for an attest­ed truth, we shall at large give you the whole account.

Taicosama hath a son in his old age. QUabacondono's Fears and Jealousies daily increasing on several occasions, but more especially exasperated thus: Taicosama being without any Issue, on which account he made him Heir-apparent, and had Invested him in all his own Regalities, now had a Son, who by Birth and Laws of Nature might possibly sway the Empire after his Father Taicosama's Decease; whose Genethliacon, or Birth-day was kept with all the Joy and Celebration that could be imagined in Festivals, and Thanksgiving to their gods through all the Cities in Japan, that Quabacondono, beyond all expectation, had an Heir in his old Age: This stung him to the heart, being evidently bereav'd of the Empire; but that which more imbitter'd his grief, were his three Sons, the hopes of his Family, which he had already design'd to bear the Chief Com­mands under him in the Empire: His hopes thus vanishing like a Dream, all that he could bethink himself of, for present redress, was to cast out, that this Son was none of his begetting, and that they might well have spar'd their Fe­stival Rejoycing, if the truth were known: The Emperor Taicosama being in­form'd that this Fame was of his Nephew's broaching, stirr'd up private Ani­mosities the more, so that the whole Nation sat as in a Theatre, expecting on the Japan Stage the Bloody Tragedy, either of the Unckle, Nephew, or both.

Strange custom in Japan, when the Emperors give o­ver their Government.¶ DUring these private Grudges, the time came on in which Taicosama, ac­cording to the Japan manner, was to give his Nephew Quabacondono a Visit; for it was an antient Custom, that when the Chief Governor volunta­rily deserts his Authority, investing another, being grown old and retiring to privacy, that not onely he, but all the substitute Kings should address them­selves, and honor him with a Visit; which Confirmation of his Authority, the manner of which being so expensive and Magnificent, it will not be amiss here to relate.

The Emperor preparing for his Progress, and the Nephew to Entertain his expected coming, sent Huntsmen by thousands to ransack the wide Forests for Venison; as many Fishermen searching the Sea, Ponds, Lakes, and Rivers for Scaly Banquets.

How the Japanners keep their feasts.¶ THe Japanners at Meals sit cross Legg'd on the ground one behind an­other, each at a peculiar Table, which being square, are a Foot and a half high, and according to the conditions of the People, more or less, Costly; some made of white shining Wood like Glass; some richly Varnish­ed; other Wax'd, after the Indian manner; and some Inlaid with Gold, ac­cording to the greatness of the Feast, or the number of the Tables; at ordina­ry Dinners, or at the first Course, three Tables set before every one with great Variety, Dish'd up all Gilded: At the last Course, they bring three Tables more full of Salt Meats to rellish their Cups. At the Emperors Feast, a great Golden Bowl call'd Sacansuchi, is carry'd about,Cup call'd Sacansuchi. out of which the Princes are invited to drink.

Quabacondono had prepar'd against this Feast thirty thousand of these Tables, of several fashions, both for Men and Women: The Women sit out of the sight of the Men in a Hall apart.

On the other side, Taicosama was ready for the accustomary Visit to Quabacon­dono, who in like manner was ready to receive him.

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Taicosama puts off his journey.When an eminent Person that had the Emperors Ear privately inform'd him, That these gallant Preparations vail'd a secret Plot for his Ruin; This warn­ing wrought so on Taicosama, that he put off the Journey, which Quabacondono resented very ill, having prepar'd all things in a readiness, which were now lost, and all his Cost and Charge bestow'd in vain; and besides that, he sus­pected some mystery that should thus suddenly retard him, being ready for his intended Progress.

Mean while, he carry'd himself so cunningly, and with such humility, ta­king no notice of his Jealousies or Discontent, that he made him change his Resolution; so that he set forth eight days after the first appointed time on his Progress; for if he had not gone, it would have been look'd upon as ill-na­tur'd, and that he sleighted the company of the several Princes, which were to be also at the Feast.

The Progress was perform'd in the following manner:

Goes to visit Quabacon­dono. Sumptuous train of Man­docorosama, Taicosama his Consort.TAicosama sent his Empress Mandocorosama before him, which then resi­ded in Fissima, three Miles from Meaco: In sumptuous manner she led the way, before her went a great number of Nobles, marching in order, more than an hour passing along; these had several Files of Musqueteers, being their Guard walking before them, their Arms being Varnish'd, glitter'd against the Sun like Gold; behind the Nobles were carry'd three great Wax'd Chests, with the Empress Mandocorosama's Apparel; after these came fifty more that bore Vestments of her Ladies of Honor; these were follow'd by six­teen brave Horses, Loaden with Gold, cover'd with Sumpter-Clothes Im­broyder'd with Pearls, Plumes waving on their Heads, the Richness of which amaz'd the beholders: Which Gold was an accustom'd Present from the Emperor and Empress to the young Emperor. Next, march'd in a Cavalcade bravely Mounted, fifty prime Lords belonging to the Court, each attended by thirty Pages; then came eight Quirosols or Sedans, each carry'd by thirty two [Page 191]men, in these the prime Ladies of Honor sate, which were follow'd by Man­docorosama in a Sedan, carry'd on the shoulders of Persons of great Quality; this Sedan, or rather, Moving-house, was so curiously Wrought with Carv'd Work, that the Artists not onely got great Reputation for their several hands, but an incredible Sum of Money for their Reward of well-doing, from the Empress; in this she sate so private, that she could be seen by none, but her self might see whom she pleas'd, then follow'd a hundred Sedans more, of the same fashion, but of less value, in which sate several Queens and Princesses, gaudily drest, attended by a hundred and fifty Ladies of Honor, all gallantly mounted, with Silken Vails, each of them attended by a great number of Lac­quies, and a Groom waiting, with two led Horses.

And lastly, The whole Procession was clos'd by the several Maids of Ho­nor, carry'd in little two-Wheel'd Chariots, which as the Print represents, are shod at the ends with Plates of Silver and Gilt; the Spokes of Cedar, Carv'd and Gilt, the Fellies of the Wheels shod also with Copper; the Seat in the Stern, fitted to hold one in great State, spread with Tapistry, which hangs down be­twixt the Wheels; the empty part before fashion'd like an Oval, is open, she having a stately Canopy over her, defends her from Rain and the Sun, and when she pleases, she draws her ty'd-up Curtains to keep off the Wind, being driven along by a lusty Man, with two Poles athwart his shoulders: With this Train, Mandocorosama enter'd the Burrough Jurazu, presenting to Quabacondono a great Mass of Gold, and other inestimable Jewels; which kindness of hers was bountifully rewarded by Quabacondono, who was also very liberal in bestow­ing the like rich Presents on her.

Sumptuous train of Tai­cosama, going to Quabacon­dono.The following day, Taicosama came from his Castle, from whence, a little before, most of the Japan Nobility went to Juraru; the ways between Taicosa­ma's Palace and Juraru, were Guarded on both sides by Souldiers, each standing two strides from the other, Arm'd with a naked Scymiter; these belong'd, and were under the Command of the Lord of Mino, Grand-Son of the slain Em­peror Nobunanga, and therefore the just Heir to the Crown: Between these Guards, past first three hundred Persons of prime quality, every one having their several Escutchions, with all their Emblasonings, carry'd before them, with clusters of Pages and Lacquies; after these came several Princes, some of which carry'd the Swords, others the Daggers and other Arms of Taicosama. These were again follow'd by Taicosama, Taicosama's rich Chariot. who sat on a rich and magnificent Chariot, which had cost him several Tun of Gold, for the sides and middle were adorn'd with unexpressable Imagery and Carv'd Work, and also the four Seats cover'd with Massie Gold, were much to be admir'd; with the Axeltree on which the Wheels turn'd, and the Spokes and Fellies were all of Silver. This Chariot was drawn by two black Oxen with Gilded Horns, their bodies spread over with Purple Clothes, Embroyder'd with Precious Stones. Taicosama us'd these Oxen, not for want of Horses, for several thousands serv'd him in this Train; but as a testimony, that he observ'd the Antient Customs, establish'd many Ages before by the Dayro's, which were always drawn by Oxen, when ever they went to any grand Entertainment, still attended by a Guard of Nobles.

Thus attended, Taicosama entred Meaco, where he was met by a thousand, all Persons of Quality, sent from Quabacondono; who as soon as ever they drew near the Emperors Chariot, light from their Steeds, those before Taicosama do­ing the like; these dividing to each side, standing close up, made a Lane for [Page 192]the Chariots to meet. Soon after Quabacondono appear'd in his open Chariot, no way inferior to that of Taicosama, being follow'd by the Cunghi Lords, all related to the Dayro, each attended by their several Trains.

In the most eminent Streets they drew near, making a stop, whilst Quaba­condono dispatch'd the Vice-Roy of Meaco, to congratulate Taicosama's Aggress, who sent the Lord of Tangi, to Complement the Messenger sent from Quaba­condono. Quabacondono meets him. Both meeting and Saluting betwixt the Chariots, and having done their several Congees, the Lord Tangy's Coach return'd; whereupon the Vice-Roy call'd after him, saying, Quabacon vonariscens cu Banazi, that is, Quabacon wishes that your coming to his House may be in the presence of Millions, and last ten thousand Ages; which was answer'd by Taicosama in his Coach with a loud voyce, Sachighe Icatei Icarei, which signifies, Let him drive before, and I will immedi­ately follow.

The whole Train enter the Castle Jurazu.At the end of this Ceremony, the Lords which Guarded one side of the Street, re-mounted their Horses, and follow'd Quabacondono to Jurazu. Taicosama staying some small time, also went on in a good Order: Before the whole Solemnity was past, the Sun had almost finish'd his days Journey.

The Master of the Ceremony, to whom the whole Care and Conduct of this Feast was committed, was Genefoin, Governor of Meaco.

When Taicosama came before the Castle Jurazu, Riding over the Bridge to the inner Court, there being welcom'd by all the Princes, where he deliver'd his Presents to Quabacondono; who seem'd not able to express the high esteem and value thereof: And that he might no way be indebted to his Unckle for these his great Favors, he return'd his kindness by giving him also many rich Gifts.

Sumptuous Entertain­ment there.Three days did this great Reception and Entertainment last, nothing being wanting that either delighted the Eye, Ear, or Palate: the Tables still cover'd, and full of all manner of Varieties, which the Earth, Sky, and Sea could af­ford, Dish'd up with all the skill their Cookery could invent, to invite the Palate, and add fresh appetite; Vocal and Instrumental Musick, according to their manner, every where, and in every Room; each day their Theatre throng'd with the primer sort, where they had several Comedies prepar'd by the Learned, and those who were skilful in Poesie, for the present Entertain­ment,Description of their Tilt­ing. not wanting variety of Scenes according to the Argument; also in run­ning at a Carv'd Head (to which sport came the Emperor and all his Nobi­lity,) some running at it with a Spear, others striking at it with a Bill, and some shooting at it with Bowe and Arrows, or Guns, in manner as appears by the following Sculp.

But whilst these Jollities and continual Feastings were perform'd to the heighth, with all the Pomp and Decorum imaginable, the Emperor Taicosama had but little rellish thereof, still alarm'd with fresh fears and jealousies, which Melancholy and Age made greater and more imminent than they were; and though there were something of reality, yet he startled at as many shadows, which often his troubled Fancy presented, expecting hourly some Bloody Plot should discover it self to the danger of his Life: to prevent which, for his better safety, being very subtile, he set private Guards and Watches of those whom he could trust, who still shifting Places, kept all Passages to the Empe­ror's Lodging, so that none could stir upon any Conspiracy or private Design, but they would as suddenly perceive their Motion, whilst the old Man, a cunning and experienc'd Dissembler, shew'd not the least sign of suspicion, but [Page 193]

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with all complacency and kindness, even to doting, courted and flatter'd his young Nephew, seeming not able to forbear to pour out his dear affection, and how much he lov'd him, which appear'd evidently by what he had done, and should be more manifest by what he would do for him; and also told him, that he did assure himself of the like returns of his affections and kindness to­wards him, since nothing could be more impious and inhumane, than for him to contrive any thing detrimental to his Honor, or dangerous to his Person.

The young Emperor was no way wanting in his Expressions, and soft re­turns to his Unckle, wishing on himself, with many Execrations, some mis­chief might befall him, or any that ever harbor'd the least thought which migh be prejudicial to his dear Unckle and kind Father, who by his adoption had made him Heir to his Empire, and already possess'd him with five weal­thy Kingdoms, and now had confirm'd all this by the honor of his Visit.

Thus both vizarding their intentions, they play'd a hard and wary Game, whilst all the Court and City saw through the young Man's subtile glozings, that he had no less design, when ever opportunity presented, than the utter ruine and destruction of his Unckle; which his intention on the second Night of this great Entertainment, was verily believ'd to have been put in execution, by an accident that then alarm'd the whole City, which was this:

A strange Accident in Jurazn.The Royal Theatre being much too little for so mighty a Concourse as at that time repair'd thither, Noble-men, Princes, nay, Kings themselves, if co­ming late, were forc'd to return back again, the House being cramm'd so full, and many that were within so thrust and crowded, that they rather suffer'd torture, than any delight from the presented Comedy: to remove this incon­venience, that there might be nothing wanting at so high an Enterview, and Meeting of so many Princes, there was immediate order given to erect ano­ther Theatre that Night against the next Day, ample enough to contain so great an Audience: The multitudes of Workmen which were thus suddenly emploi'd, bussling up and down with Lincks and Torches, making every where a con­fus'd [Page 194]hurry and noise, which awaked the Court and all Meaco, every one start­ing from their Beds, believing that what they so much fear'd, was in agitati­on, at least the death of an Emperor: but day-light approaching, the mistake vanish'd, finding that all this stir was onely about a new Theatre.

So this magnificent Feast ended as silently as it began, without any other disturbance than the error of that Night.

A sumptuous Banquet prepar'd by Fidandono.From thence both the Emperors were invited with their whole Retinue, to a Dinner prepar'd by Fidandono, one of the greatest Princes in Japan; which was perform'd with such wonderful abundance and Magnificence, that you may compute the extraordinary Charge by the Leaf-gold, which onely trick'd up their Dishes, amounting to above four thousand Crowns, but the charge of their Potations rose much higher; foreach Draught that he drank to the Emperor, which must be nine, the first costing him by way of Present ten thou­sand Crowns, the second more, so increasing, till the last, doubling the first, came to twenty thousand Crowns; so that the whole Charge of the Treat­ment seems incredible, being scarce to be reckon'd: all this was to keep in, and preserve his favor with the Emperor.

And also by Gietazo.Next day the Emperor Taicosama Progress'd to Gietazo, Governor of eight Provinces, where he was Entertain'd with no less State than by Fidandono.

Taicosama comes to Fis­sima.At last returning to his Court at Fissima, where he invited his Nephew Qua­bacondono to a Feast, who accordingly came at the appointed time; where he got so much praise and applause by his Dancing, and other more manly Exer­cises, that Taicosama grew more jealous at this his rising popularity in his own Court. Amongst other great Men and Princes in his Palace was Gefonio, Nephew to the late Emperor Nobunanga, whom Taicosama privately incited, by commending of his agility in the like Exercises, that so encourag'd he might get the same and praise from his Nephew: But he being more wary than to stir up any displeasure from Quabacondono, whom he suppos'd would succeed in the Imperial Throne, perform'd his Exercises rather worse than better, so keeping in favor with the young Emperor: which Taicosama obser­ving, call'd Gefonio aside, and changing his note, commended now his Pru­dence beyond his Activity, telling him that he was much troubled, that the Son of such a Father, rais'd to that Dignity and Honor which he now enjoy'd, should be sent thus by his Nephew as an Exile, under the pretence of Com­manding an Army, to the utmost Confines of his Empire; but he would for his Unckles sake prefer him on the next opportunity to a nearer Employment, and make him a Governor of more Provinces than one; and for the present, as a testimony of his favors, he desir'd him to accept of ten thousand Bags of Rice.

But Quabacondono being sumptuously entertain'd in Fissima, would no ways be behind in repaying such Favors to Taicosama: And having erected a stately Palace at Fissima, where he prepar'd a rich and costly Banquet, invited his Unckle Taicosama thither; who fearing to deny the Request, yet put it off from day to day, under a pretence of indisposedness. which continu'd so long, that Quabocondono observing it to be onely an excuse,Quabacondono parts dis­contented from Taicosama. return'd much displeas'd to Jurazu: This stirr'd up in him distrusts, and thoughts of self-preservation, and his Unckles destruction; but all this he kept secret, as if he seem'd not to have the least thought thereof, spending much of his time in seeing Sports and Exercises, inviting whoever were famous for Dancing, Fencing, Wrestling, Archery, Martial Discipline, and the like, with several Prizes and Rewards to [Page 195]the Victor, whilst he exercis'd himself in that cruel and bloody sport of Butchery, in publick showing his dexterity and skill in mangling humane Bo­dies as we said before; and also more insinuating himself with flatteries and doing good offices, into the favor of several Japan Princes:Endeavors by Scirabin­go's means to obtain the King's Favorites. To which purpose he employ'd his prime Favorite Scirabingo, whom he sent every where to in­veigle the Princes to take the Oath of Allegiance, and Sign it with their own Hands, and that they would be ready upon the Command of Quabacondono, to raise and bring as many Men into the Field, as his occasions should require: Whereupon Scirabingo dealt first with Achiromar, King of nine Provinces; but he refus'd, saying, Why should I take an Oath of Allegiance, never being suspected in the least that I ever would revolt: Yet several others took the Oath, and deliver'd it Sign'd to Scirabingo. All these Writings were committed to the custody of an antient Matron residing in Quabacondono's Court.

But Achiromar who refus'd the Oath, gave private information to Taicosama concerning the Proposals made to him by Scirabingo, in behalf of his Nephew Quabacondono.

Quabacondono refuses to come to Taicosama.This Plot seem'd to be of great concern to Taicosama, thinking it fit to lose no time, seeing his Life and all he had lay at stake: whereupon desiring Qua­bacondono in a friendly manner to come and speak with him about a business of great consequence; but he subtil and conscious of his own private Designs, mi­strusted some greater matter, and of imminent danger to his Person lay hid, so humbly crav'd his excuse, pretending to be troubled with fits of the Spleen, and overflowing of the Gaul.

Requires Answers on five Demands to his Nephew.But Taicosama would not take it so, but sent five Princes, his Favorites, which then resided at his Court, to Quabacondono, impowering them to demand an Answer to his five Queries, which were these: First, How it could be, that one so infirm, as he gives account of himself, could be able daily to perform ro­bust Exercises, onely fit for healthy Persons in their full strength and vigor? Secondly, How it suited with the honor of an Emperor, to cut and mangle in publick his innocent Subjects? Thirdly, Why he kept so many Soldiers in Arms, thereby disturbing the Empire with fears of some great and sudden alteration? Fourthly, Why he doubled his Life-guard, being Musqueteers, with a thousand Men? Lastly, Why he dealt in private with the Japan Princes, to take the Oath of Allegiance to be faithful to him? Closing with a desire to know if he had any thing to alledge against him.

Mean while Taicosama sent a subtil Negotiating old Lady, well stricken in years, to Quabacondono's Court, to prie into affairs, and gather what she could from the present Humor and Discourse there, but especially concerning their opinions of the five Queries.

Quabacondono's Answer.The Commissioners presenting the Queries to Quabacondono, he not asking long time to answer, told them, That he was much troubled with the rising of the Spleen, and overflowing of the Gaul, and by the advice of his Doctors he was order'd to lay all business aside, and affairs of State, and follow bodily Exercises for his recovery; That playing the Executioners part was prescrib'd also for his Health, and that none suffer'd by his Hand, but such as were noto­rious Malefactors; That his Soldiers and double Life-guard were not to em­broil in War, but to preserve the Peace of the Empire, but more especially to defend his dear Unckle, now grown old, from sudden Insurrections that might arise from the already-murmuring People; and lastly, That the Oath which he requir'd of the Princes, was to keep them in Unity amongst themselves, and better under the subjection of his Imperial Majesty.

Whereupon the Commissioners reply'd, That Taicosama would without all doubt be well satisfi'd with, these his Answers, if he would but be pleas'd to Write and Sign them with his own Hand; which Quabacondono perform'd, and sent with all speed to Taicosama: who as soon as he receiv'd and read the Pa­per, cry'd out aloud, saying,O apparent testimony of my dear Nephew's innocency! how deceitful is this wicked World! who could believe that scandalous and backbiting Tongues, still buzzing Tales, should raise such misapprehensions between me and my always-faithful Quabacondono?

These emphatical Expressions of the old and cunning Dissembler were be­liev'd to be real, and immediately sent in Writing by his Friends to the young Emperor, which so lull'd him asleep, that he dream'd of nothing less than the secret displeasure of his Unckle: which Taicosama did to no other end, but to get time to strengthen his Forces, which were then too weak to encounter with his Nephew, who was in a ready posture of defence; so that he could not do any thing but by fair means,Raises Forces privately. till such time as his Militia (which he privately rais'd through all Japan) were drawn to Fissima. And indeed he carry'd his De­sign so closely, that Quabacondona had not the least information of it, little suspect­ing any thing, because the Princes from all Parts made daily Addresses to him, with joyful Congratulations for the happy and undoubted Reconciliation betwixt him and his Imperial Unckle, whose affections were such, that he would (now growing old) soon establish the sole Government upon his dear Nephew.

During this kind correspondency between both, Taicosama had information, how that the Princes which he had commanded, were marching on in their Way from Vacaza to Fissima. And now the time came which he had so long expected to perfect his Design:Threatens Quabacondo­no exceedingly. whereupon he sent Messengers to Quabacondo­no, with strict Commands to come to Fissima, and there to answer to whatever should be objected against him; which if he refus'd, he would take such a course, that the present World should tremble thereat, and his Successors stand amaz'd when ever related: for first, he would utterly destroy the Castle Ju­razu, and all other Buildings rected by Quabacondono, with Fire; and whoever he found that made the least resistance, should perish without mercy by the Sword; and if possible, utterly eface, and cut off his Memory from the Earth.

Quabacondono saw himself now in the Trap, and that it was then altogether too late to make the least resistance, since Taicosama had gotten so great an Army together, which he was not able by any means to withstand; so no way but pa­tience,Quabacondono surrenders himself to his Unckle, and is by him banish'd to the Cloyster Coja. he with a small Train deliver'd up himself to the mercy of his Unckle: the Ways being all beset with strong Guards, about Noon he came to Fissima, and passing by the Palace he took up his Lodging in a private House; but in the Evening he receiv'd Order from Taicosama to retire to the Cloyster Coja, built on the craggy Mountains in the Kingdom of Chinocuno.

This Coja was the Residence for all banish'd Princes, before the barren Island Faitsintchina, fourteen Leagues at Sea Eastward from Jedo, was made fit for that purpose.

The same Night Quabacondono, being accompany'd with Taicosama's Life­guard, was convey'd to the place of Exile.

The faithfulness of Sa­condono to the banish'd Emperor.Amongst other Nobles belonging to Taicosama was Sacandono, of eighteen years old, Son to the Vice-Roy of Meaco; he being inform'd that Quabacondono was forsaken of every one, and as a banish'd Person was in his Way to Coja, [Page 197]immediately Mounted, and posted after him to proffer his Service to Quoba­condono; but coming amongst the Emperor's Guard, he was stopt, and command­ed to return, if he did intend not to incur his Majesties displeasure: but he nei­ther regarding their advice, nor fear what they threatned from the Emperor, said, Should I leave my Prince, though he be forsaken by every one? No; now is the time for me to manifest my Love, Duty, and Loyalty: There is no Touchstone like Danger to prove a Friend by: Who will not help those that are in Prosperity? and who forsakes not a Friend in Adversity: He is not worthy the name of a Friend, that in his assistance will undergo the worst of Fortunes, and smile at Death it self: which having said, put Spurs to his Horse, and Riding post, by midnight found the young Emperor, who exceedingly rejoyced to see one so kind and faithful to him; but that he might not prejudice so good a Nature, as to bring Sacandono to his utter ruine, which would not ought avail him, he seriously perswaded him to return. But soon Taicosama had information of all this; and had it not been for the good Service of his Father, he had undoubtedly perish'd in his prime.

Quabacondono is shaven, and changes his Name.But Quabacondono since his departure from Fissima Lodg'd one Night in Tama­mizu; where he was forc'd, according to the Japan manner, to have his Beard and Head shaven, and his Name exchang'd for another; for in stead of Quaba­condono, he call'd himself Doi, that is, I will clear my self by Reason: At last co­ming to the Cloyster Coja, he was conducted in by Mocusico, one much esteem'd by the Bonzies.

In his Way thither he met with several of his Retinue disguis'd like Beg­gars, that they might not be known by any of Taicosama's Guard. All these express'd their grief with tears, not daring to utter their minds in words.

Ten of his chief Favorites went him into the Cloyster, where being but meanly Treated, he told them, saying, Not long ago I could have given you Provinces and Kingdoms: my Fall hath been the undoing of many. And now for my self, of all my Pomp and Magnificence I have scarce so much left as to keep you and me alive. O incon­stant Fortune! thou hast rais'd me on purpose to the heighth of Greatness and Glory, that so my Fall might be the greater, and I more wretched.

Is liept close Prisoner.These Complaints he had free liberty to utter in the fatal Cloyster Coja, for no other priviledge was allow'd him, insomuch that he could not speak nor deliver the least Note to any Person whatsoever; and the business was so far gone, that he lost all hopes of ever obtaining his Liberty.

Mocusico Conjures for Quabacondono. Mocusico, the Head of the Monastery, repair'd to his Idols, and with Charms performing peculiar Ceremonies, with great zeal begg'd of the gods, that Quabacondono might once more be restor'd to the Imperial Dignity; but none ever were slower in their assistance than these their deaf deities: for it happen'd that this came to Taicosama's Ears, who the sooner resolv'd on Quabacondono's Death, which fell out on the fifteenth of August, Anno 1595.

It's certain that Quabacondono, being weary'd with his misfortunes, did a long time before resolve to be his own Executioner; but his Friends observing his intention from his discontented Countenance, and strange Carriage, sometimes walking up and down like a Frantick, anon sitting exceeding pensive and me­lancholly, stil when in private muttering to himself, and fetching heavy sighs, then breaking out with strange Expressions, showing the deep sense he had of his present Condition; but they endeavor'd by all means to appease him, and bring his Mind to a more equal temper, to bear his Sufferings like a Man, chear­ing him up with this perswasion, That his Unckle would after a while grow mild, his high displeasure cease; and that it was impossile for him to be so un­kind [Page 198]

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to such a Nephew: He had oftentimes before been displeas'd, and was as easily reconcil'd; what madness would it be for him to bereave himself not one­ly of Life, but of the Imperial Throne? and though he had no hope of it, yet he ought not to despair; and fortune was so unconstant, that oftentimes the meanest were rais'd to high Dignities: and that it behov'd a Prince to have and bear a noble courage in his greatest calamity, and not suffer any sorrow whatsoever to take possession of his heart; and that without dispute Taisacoma could not live long, at whose Decease they doubted not but to be released, and he restor'd to his former Honor. The Japanners were now curb'd and kept in fear, but so soon as they could be freed thereof they would not be so forget­ful, but remember that Taicosama had given the Empire to Quabacondono, to whom it belong'd in his Life-time, and therefore was most justly his after the Emperor's death.

Quabacondono and all his Company are commanded to rip up their own Bowels.Thus chearing him up with future hopes, they kept him a while from lay­ing violent hands on himself, when soon after Taicosama sent a Messenger, to command him and his Company, according to the Japan manner, to rip open their own Bowels. No sooner had they receiv'd their Condemnation, but they all prepar'd themselves to die. The first that cut up his Belly was Quaba­condono's Page, being a Youth of nineteen years of age; who whilst he was struggling with Death, Quabacondono, after he had embraced him, chopp'd off his Head, which he set in a Charger on a Table: The like he perform'd to two more of his Servants. The next that was to do the cruel Office on him­self, was the Bonzi (Biuscirtus, whose Grandmother was sent by Taicosama to Quabacondono's Court as a Spie; and because she had carry'd her self well in that business, her Son Biuscirtus he commanded to be sav'd: but he refus'd the Em­peror's mercy, saying with an undaunted courage to him that brought the Or­der, I scorn to take any thing from that Bloodhound that should deserve my thanks, for I will rather chuse to die with Quabacondono, than to live in slavery under such a grand Tyrant: this said, he desperately stabb'd himself; but suffering much under [Page 199]the agony of a lingring Death, Quabacondono gave him present ease by chop­ping off his Head; which was no sooner done, but with the same Weapon he stabb'd himself. One onely remaining, slew himself with his Masters Scymi­ter. The Execution was no sooner finish'd, but the Bonzies, performing their Office, consum'd them together in one Funeral Fire.

Taicosama destroys all the Confederates of Quaba­condono.But Taicosama rested not thus; but following his Blow, hunted and de­stroy'd all those his Friends and Intimates that had been Abettors with Quaba­condono in this Conspiracy. The first with which he began, were three Per­sons of great Quality, that were fled to a Cloyster of the Bonzies: The next was Scirabingo, who made the Kings to Sign the Oath of Allegiance to Quaba­condono, for which Crime he was judg'd to suffer a cruel Death: But none was more lamented than Chimura, who had done Taicosama great Service, both in War and Peace; but because he had held private Correspondence with Quaba­condono, he was also condemn'd to be his own Destroyer.

Chimura's Son hearing of his Fathers Misfortune, who was then in Saicoure, wrote to him, That a Wise-man might easily look Death in the face, especially if he suf­fer'd innocently; and that it was no trouble to leave this World, for a far more happy Life, which would last for ever: And thither he was resolv'd to accompany him, as his Fa­ther; for he would not live after his Death, of whom he had receiv'd Life. So whilst he expected to hear the sad Tydings, he call'd for a Chest of Scymiters, out of which chusing the best, he girded it about his Waste. In the interim the News of his Fathers Death, and Taicosama came to him together; the Emperor proffering him Life, notwithstanding he was Chimura's Son, who ought, accord­ing to the Japan Laws, for his Fathers Crime, to suffer Death.

But the Youth return'd Taicosama Thanks, telling him, That he was bound in Conscience to take Revenge of the horrible Slaughter committed on his Father Chimura; and seeing no possible Means to effect such his Design, he would rather die than live, want­ing satisfaction for his Fathers Death. Thus said, he immediately deserted the Court, and went to Meaco, where going into the Temple, there offering his Devotions to the Idol Fotoco, ripping up his Belly, he Sacrific'd his Life before the Altar. Not long after, Taicosama particularly order'd Chimura's Consort to be Beheaded in the Temple of Amida.

Cruel Persecution of Tai­cosama against the Wives and Children of Quaba­condono.¶ IN this cruel manner proceeded Taicosama against all Quabacondon's, not on­ly his Ministers of State, or whoever he had a kindness for, but his Wives, Children, and Relations; not leaving to persecute them, till they all suffer'd miserable Ends: In Meaco he brought one and thirty Ladies, partly Noblemens Daughters, partly Persons of Honor belonging to Quabacondono's Consort, and part of them his Concubines, which last he fetch'd from the Ca­stle Jurazu: All these he convey'd in Coaches to the place of Execution, with their Children, whose innocent Shrieks and Tears, mingled with the doleful Lamentations of the Spectators, would have made a Tyger relent: But there was no room for Compassion; for no sooner arriv'd they at the fatal place of their Deaths, but the Executioner first shewing them Quabacondono's Head, to which they ail reverently bow'd, began the Slaughter, first with the Children, that were one by one beheaded; next the Women, thrown to the Ground, were inhumanely slaughter'd, and their Bodies cast into a deep Pit, over which the Tyrant built a Structure, which he call'd The Temple of Beasts.

Murder committed by Scirabingo's Widow.After that he condemn'd the Widow and Children of Scirabingo to suffer Death; but when the Coach that brought her stopp'd before the Palace, the [Page 200]Widow, to free her self from the opprobrious Insultings of the Tyrant, and the Shame of her undeserved Death, first stabb'd her three Sons, and one Daughter, and ere the Fact could be thought of, sheath'd the same Dagger in her own Bosom, and immediately fell breathless on her murder'd Children.

These savage Barbarisms perpetrated on Rational Creatures, he rag'd next upon inanimates, falling upon the Castle of Jurazu, which he pull'd down to the Ground, with three hundred Palaces more, carrying the Timber and Stones to Fissima.

¶ BUt this was not Taicosama's first Persecution of the Christians, having be­gun before, in Anno 1587. if Father Cornelius Hazart may be credited upon this occasion.The first occasion why Taicosama persecuted the Roman Christians. The Commander Domingo Montero came from Portugal into the Haven of Firando, with an exceeding stout Vessel, in the forementi­on'd Year: All the Inhabitants admir'd its Beauty and Largeness, that the Fame of it came to Taicosama's Ear; who being desirous to see it, command­ed the Ship to be brought to Facata, where he then resided; in order whereto, he directed the Governor of the Jesuits to write his Pleasure to Montero; who so soon as he receiv'd the Letter, went with all speed to Facata, telling the Em­peror the danger of the Voyage, by reason of the abundance of blind Rocks, Shoals, and Shelves, that lay in the way between Firando and Facata. This Tai­cosama seem'd to accept as an Excuse; but indeed took it exceeding ill to be thus deny'd his Request, and resolv'd of a speedy Revenge: For on the next day he publish'd Edicts, That all the Jesuits should depart Japan in twenty days, because they endeavor'd to bring a new Religion amongst them, contrary to the Japanners, which had been establish'd there many Ages. The Emperor would have done this long before, but that he staid till he had subdu'd the Kingdom Ximo, in which most of the Christian-Teachers resided.

Five Franciscans and three Jesuits crucifi [...]d.But it rested not here: For Anno 1596. he proceeded cruelly against the Christians, without distinction, commanding Gibonoscio, Governor of Nangesaque, to take five Franciscans, and three Jesuits, and having Crucified, run them through with Spears. Hazart reports, That the Franciscans were Gonsal­ves Garcia, Philip de las Casas, both Mexicans; Peter Baptista, Franciscus de Saint Michael, and Martin de Aguirre, three Spaniards: The Jesuits, Paulus Mi­ki a Japanner; Joannes Goto, and Jacobus Kisai.

¶ AS to what the same Hazart writes concerning the Miracles wrought by these Priests,Hazart, Ch. Hist. l. 6. c. 2. let him believe, who according to St. Augustine, desires and depends upon new Miracles for establishment of Religion, already confirm'd by Wonders:Several Miracles. However take it as related; That Peter Baptista being sent Am­bassador from Manilla to Tauglama, cur'd a Japan Maid of the Leprosie by touching of her; and that at the same time the like Fiery Tongues descended from Heaven, upon the whole Congregation present at the Cure, as formerly fell on the Apostles in the Feast of Pentecost: That Philippo de las Casas, sailing from Manilla to Mexico, and by stress of Weather driven upon the Coast of Japan, by the way saw in the Air a White Cross, which soon after turn'd Red, and at last was cover'd with a black Cloud. This Cross, they say, had the same shape as that on which he was afterwards Crucified. That Franciscus a Saint Michael immediately cur'd a dumb Japan Woman, and afterwards an Indian, mortally wounded by the Sting of an Adder, by signing them with the Cross.

But concerning the Opinion of these Relations,Erasm. Argin. lib. Conf. August. Erasmus says thus: What shall I say of you, which endeavor to delude the Common People, by telling them strange [Page 201]Wonders and Miracles wrought by your Fraternity? Certain I am, some have judg'd, that by these fair Relations and handsom Stories they stirr'd up the People to Zeal and Piety; but I hardly give credit to such Tales.

I will here annex some other Testimonies, extracted from the primest of the Catholicks. That famous Melchior Canus, Bishop of the Canaries, Cani Loc. Theol l. [...] c. 6. one of the Chiefest in the Council of Trent, says, I must needs speak it with sorrow, That the Lives of the Learned Heathens, describ'd by Laertius, is with more Uprightness, than that of the Christian Saints.— Most of our Writers follow their own Imaginations, and relate so many Fictions, that I am asham'd thereof.

Nicholas de Lyra, the younger Brother, who flourish'd about Anno 1320, saith,Lyr. in Dan. ca. 14. In the Church too many Delusions and vain Fantasies are admitted, affirming variety of Wonders, perform'd indeed by the Priests, and their Associates, for Profit sake.

So also Cornelius Agrippa tells us,Agrip. de Vanit. Scient. cap. 97. That the Writers of the Saints Histories seem to surpass one another in Fabling; declaring a new Doctrine, and Teaching the Word of God with too great mixture, onely for Lucre and Profit.

And Josephus Acosta, who had been through most part of the Western Indies, Acost. lib. tit. 4. cap. 12. de Proc. Indor. Sa [...]ute. cries out, saying, What is our Preaching? What is our Faith? We do no Miracles: There are no Wonders of our own that we can producce, to confirm the Words of the Gospel.

Taicosama falls sick of the Bloody Flux.¶ BUt to return: Taicosama, now wearied with murdering, fell sick of the Bloody-Flux, in the latter end of July, Anno 1598; first vomiting up his Gaul, with some Blood; afterwards in his Stools appear'd the Excoriatings of his Guts; at last pieces of corrupted Flesh came from him, with a horrible stench, and great pain. On the fifth of August greater Signs of Death appear'd, he being continually in a cold Sweat; and seeing thus his End to approach, yet seem'd not the least dismay'd, still ordering his Imperial Affairs as when in perfect Health; his chiefest Care being onely for Fideri, to set the Crown on his Head: And after serious consideration, he found it convenient to make use in this weighty Concern of Ongosschio, King of eight Provinces, and in great esteem with the Japanners, whom he sought by all means possible to oblige; and to that end, sending for him to Fisstima, when he came into his Presence, the Emperor now very weak, faintly declar'd his Mind to this effect.

His Speech to Ongosschio. Death sits on my Lips, but I fear it not, since it is incident and common to all Men: The greatest of my trouble is for my Son, but six years old, and therefore not in conditi­on to take present Possession of my Empire: His Age requires a Guardian, one no less Faithful than Prudent, and who will, when he attains to his fifteenth Year, with the usual Ceremonies, according to the Japan manner, establish him in the Throne. I therefore have thought none more fit than your self, by reason of your admir'd Wisdom, to under­take so grand a Concern. And here I leave you my Empire and Son, that you may restore it to him when he is fifteen years old. If those former Favors, which I do not doubt but you acknowledge with Thanks, do not bind you to a faithful performance of this Trust, yet I hope your Care will be the more, when my Son shall marry with your Daugh­ter, by which means the Empire will ever be Commanded by our Race, and both our Succes­sors sway the Japan Scepter.

Here Taicosama's Voice failing, he was necessitated to leave speaking; but soon after recovering his spirits a little, which Ongosschio observing, made this Reply:

Ongosschio's Answer. Most Illustrious Prince, When Nobunanga was slain, I was onely King of the Pro­vince Micaua: but since the Gods have set you on the Throne, you have added se­ven Kingdoms more to my first; all the eight call'd by one Name of Quanto; for which [Page 202]I can return Thanks to none but your Majesty: Besides many other Favors receiv'd, which (considering my own unworthiness) makes me with admiration gratefully to record your ex­ceeding Bounty: The greatest of my Performances can never sufficiently make known how much I own my self oblig'd; nor can my greatest Services declare such suitable Resentments as I would readily upon a fair occasion shew. However, all my Abilities shall be laid out to yours and your Sons Service, in such manner, that had I a thousand Lives, I would freely and with much joy sacrifice them all for the sake of Taicosama and his Seed: And indeed have made it my sole Study, since your Majesties Sickness, to use all Care and Diligence for the promoting of Fideri, before you your self made your Will known to me. But since (most Mighty Prince) you have bestow'd two Favors more upon me, which so much exceed the former, that I am amaz'd thereat, I should be most un­worthy, if I did not spend my Endeavors in the Service of Fideri, over whom you have chosen me as Guardian, not without having the Chief Command over all Japan for a time; and also to be his Father-in-law, by his Marrying of my Daughter.

These Words Ongosschio utter'd with a passionate grief; and having ended his Speech, the young Prince Fideri and Ongosschio's Daughter came before Tai­cosama lying on his Death-bed,Marriage concluded be­tween Fideri and Ongosscio's Daughter. there to be joyn'd in Marriage, according to the Japan-Customs: And notwithstanding the Emperor lay striving with Death, yet their Wedding-Solemnities were perform'd after the ancient manner, onely narrow'd into the compass of one day.

Taicosama takes the Oath of Allegiance of the Kings.After the Feast ended, Taicosama requir'd all the Kings and Vice-Roys to swear Allegiance to Fideri, and that they would establish him in the Throne in his fifteenth year; and mean while give due Obedience to Ongosschio, as being his Guardian till of Age. Ongosschio seal'd this Oath with his own Blood: And Taicosama, to oblige those which had sworn, gave them all, according to their several Qualities, many rich Presents: And this Bounty extended so far, that several of his old Servants got great Riches by it. Besides Ongosschio, he chose four Councellors of State, to assist him in the Government, and present­ly after appointed Asonodangio, a Person highly esteem'd in his Favor, to be Pre­sident of the Council; and in the mean while, to leave all Officers in their respective Places, and to break no manner of Laws or Orders establish'd in his Life-time.

Then he advis'd the Council to be Faithful and Loyal amongst themselves, without which no Government could subsist long: And for the preservation of such a Unity and Peace,Makes Marriages to keep them all in peace. he made several Nuptials upon his Death-bed, joyning those of the Noblest Houses in Marriage together, taking several Kings Daughters, and bestowing them on other Kings Sons.

Why he inlarg'd the Castle of Osacca.He enlarg'd also the Castle of Osacca, and built therein many Palaces, in which the chiefest Lords, with their Families, were to reside: For expediting which Work, thousands of Artificers were imploy'd. And to the end he might obtain his desire, he commanded, that his Death might be kept private for a time; which he did, because Japan upon the Decease of the Emperor being subject to many Civil Wars, the foremention'd Castle should be fully finish'd; and that the Kings which were far from their own Countrey, and without any Forces, might be kept there as in a Prison, till the Council were fully setled in their Authority.

Would be honor'd as a God after his death.¶ BUt long before, Taicosama had taken great care to make himself Immor­tal: For which purpose he in his Life-time built a Temple, reckon'd amongst the stateliest in Japan; in which he erected a Golden Image, represent­ing [Page 203]him to the life, which stood on Marble: His Body he order'd to be put in a Coffin, without burning, according to the common Custom. When he serv'd for a Day-laborer, he was call'd Toquixiro; after that, Faxiba; and at last, coming to the Imperial Throne, Taicosama: But at his Death he desir'd to be made a Came, which is a Supreme Deity, and would be styl'd Xin Fachiman, that is, The new God of War, by reason of his many valiant Exploits. This was his Request when he lay on a Flock-bed, cover'd with Silk Japan Quilts, mise­rably tormented, and consum'd to nothing but Bones.

Is carry'd into a higher Chamber.At length he desir'd to be carried (out of the hearing of any Noise) into an upper Chamber, in the Castle Fissima, that he might lye quietly, without any disturbance: So taking leave of all the Princes, and his Son Fideri, admonish­ing him from that time forwards to call Ongosschio Father, and shew him due Reverence and Respect, being now deliver'd into his Custody, and he chosen as his Guardian: And also gave order, That few Nobles should come in his Chamber, and his Physicians should not stir from his Bed-side; and, if possi­bly they could, to study for some Medicines to preserve his Life.

Causes a great sorrow.Upon this parting, all the Courtiers began exceedingly to lament, seeing their Emperor, by whom every one expected to be preferr'd, carried away, never after to be seen alive. The Noise and Cry was so great within, that it was heard without the Castle, whose Gates were strongly guarded; but this coming to the Peoples Ears, gave supition that Taicosama was dead.

The report of his death occasions great Uproars a­mong the People.The Report of which spread up and down the Countrey like Wild-fire: Whereupon the Thieves sally'd out from their several Recesses, robbing and pillaging whom ever they met; and in some places the People began to Muti­ny, not much unlike the Roman Tumults, whilst the Cardinals are about the Election of a new Pope. But the chief Insurrection here was in Osacca, Mea­co, and Fissima, insomuch that the Great Council were too weak to quell the Re­bellion. This Rumor of Taicosama's Death was credited the more by the Com­mon People, because the Council had guarded the Fort of Fissima round about with new Soldiers, and Listed Forces in all Parts, wheresoever they could get them.

How it is found not to be true.Ten days together this Belief continu'd: But the Emperor in this interim growing somewhat better, sent two of the Council to Osacca, with Orders to get the Castle finish'd, that was to be built there, with all expedition; and also gave to the several Princes design'd to go from Fissima thither, divers Bags of Rice, and great Sums of Money. About the Out-walls of this Castle,The Castle of Osacen a strange Fabrick. containing three Leagues in Circumference, a thousand Men wrought daily, all which were paid off every Night. Within stood above seventeen thousand Merchants and Artificers Houses, which were all pull'd down in three days time, and every one commanded, upon forfeiture of their Goods, to carry away their own Rubbish, and to clear the Ground: Which done, a new Field was alotted them, to build new Houses on, according to a Platform stak'd out by Surveyors; and whosoever was backward in Building, should lose his Ground; where none might raise a House under two Stories high. These Orders once publish'd, the Work went on day and night; insomuch that a new City and Castle appear'd at once. This Building stopp'd the Rumor that went of the Emperor's Death: for every one might well judge, that the Council would not take so great a Work upon them.

Taicosama is trouble for his Son Fidery.¶ MEan time, on the third and fourth of September, Taicosama seem'd more and more to recover; so that he spent his time in the firm Establishing of the Empire on his young Son Fidery: But on the fifth of Sep­tember his Sickness began again to increase;Grows worse. whereupon all the Gates were strongly guarded, to the end the noise of the Emperor's Death might not be spread amongst the Common People. Thenceforward the Distemper in­creas'd daily, till the fourteenth of the same Month, on which day he lay a considerable time without any appearance of Life, so that he was judg'd by all his Attendants to be dead: But at last fetching a deep Sigh, he came to himself;Is distracted. yet in few Hours after lost his Senses, so that he began to talk idly; but they might understand by his distracted Expressions, that the Establish­ment of his Son Fidery did still trouble him, of whom he spoke till his last gasp,Dies. which was Anno 1508, the sixteenth of September, being sixty four years old, and after fifteen years Reign, having succeeded Nobunango, slain before Meaco by the Prince Aquechi.

Aquechi aim'd first at the Crown.This Prince being encourag'd by his many Victories, aim'd at the Crown; but being treacherously slain by a Day-laborer, left the place for Taicosama, who knew exceeding well to take the advantage of such an opportunity. No­bunanga had three Sons: The eldest, Voxequixama, lost with his Father, the Bat­tel, and his Life: The second, Oxiacen Fongedonu, was distracted: And for the youngest Son, being but three years old, Taicosama took upon him the Autho­rity, pretending to be his Guardian, and to rule the Empire in his behalf, and for his advantage, till he attain'd fitting years to Govern; but soon after, tasting the sweetness of Power and Sovereignty, he got so many Forces to­gether, that Nobunanga's Son was forc'd to be contented with the Kingdom of Mino, and deliver up his just Title of the Imperial Crown to Taicosama.

Taicosama's death is kept private.ONgosschio and the Council kept the Emperor's Death very private, binding all those that knew of it by Oath not to divulge it; but a blabbing Courtier forgetting his Oath, accidentally told it, and as a Re­ward for his Garrulity, was immediately Crucified. This his Punishment kept all others so in awe, that every one held his Tongue, and lock'd up the Se­cret; yet not long after it was discover'd.

Ongosschio and the Coun­cil clash.In this small time the Council fell at variance with Ongosschio, whose De­sign of getting the Empire they all observ'd: Whereupon they consulting together against him, decreed, That he should not be Guardian over Fidery any long­er, but should return, and satisfie himself with his eight Kingdoms. The Councel­lors seeing the Government lay too heavy upon them, chose four Eminent Princes more to their Assistance; and being thus strengthned, they seem'd not in the least to fear Ongosschio, who was not idle during their new Election.

It is the Custom among the Japanners, that Noblemen upon several Acci­dents change their Names;Japanners oftentimes change their Names. according to which, Ongosschio was call'd Jyavasu, and Giciasu: but putting off those three, he exchang'd the same for Dai­fusama, which Name we will observe in his following Story.

Taicosama is made a god.¶ ANd now, as if free from fear or danger, they were busie in Creating Taicosama a God. The Temple and his Image being ready for that purpose, his Corps was Interr'd in a Vault, with all Funeral Solemnity, and his Name chang'd into Xin Fachiman, as he had before design'd.

This Exchanging of Names, when Men are Registred amongst the number of the Deities, was formerly very common, both with the Greeks and Romans: For Romulus was call'd Quirinus; Juno, Matuta; Leucothoe, Albunea; Melicerta, Palaemon; Leda, Nemesis; Circe, Marica; Nersilia, Hora; Rhea, Mother of the Gods; Idaeda, Dindymeda; Philena, Pissinuntia; Cibele, Berecynthia.

To Create Princes for Gods, for their Valiant Exploits and Noble Atchieve­ments, took not its Original in Japan, but was a Custom above two thousand Years since; which the ancient Father Lactantius Firmianus witnesses,Lactant. de Fals. Re [...]g. lib. 1. ca. 5. saying, Those whom the ignorant and foolish People call Gods, worshipping them, none can be so weak, as not to imagine them to have been Men. If any shall ask, Why are they believ'd to be Gods? Because they were the Greatest and Powerfullest Kings, and are for Commemo­ration Consecrated, for a Reward of their Valiant Acts, or for their Bounties, or No­ble Arts found and invented by them; and because belov'd by their Subjects.

St. Augustine tells us, That the great Gods, which Cicero calls by peculiar Names, Aug. de Civic. Dei, l 8. c. 5. as Jupiter, Juno, Saturn, Vulcan, Vesta, and several others, which Varro endeavors to make Governors of the World, are all found to have been Men.

Moreover, Diodorus Siculus says,Diod. Sic. H [...]st. lib. 1. That Julius Caesar was for his valiant At­chievements in the Wars call'd a God: His Successor Augustus promoted him above the Stars. Of which,Manil. Astron. lib▪ 4. Marcus Manilius the Latin Poet saith thus:

Himself makes Gods, and a fresh Numen treats:
The Stars admire Hero's should take their Seats
Amongst them; but not we, who understand
Augustus, the Worlds Lord, did so command.

Pliny in his Panegyricks sung before the Emperor Trajan, Plin. Panegyr. Consecrated Hea­ven to his Predecessor Augustus: Nero made Claudius a God, on purpose to mock him: Titus made Vespasian a Deity, and Domitian, Titus; the one to be the Son of a God, as the other a Brother.

Common amongst the Ancients to make Men Gods.It was common amongst the Greeks to Worship deceas'd Heroes for Immor­tal Deities: As the Lacedemonians did Agamemnon, General of the Army that lay ten Years in Siege before Troy; and with him, his Brother Menelaus, the Spar­tan King. The Arcadians reverenc'd Aristaeus, because he taught them first how decay'd Bee-hives might be supply'd with fresh Bees.

Far more strange things did the Lybians, as Arsenius Monembasiensis witnesseth,Monemb. Apophthegon. who worship'd Psaphon for a God, that was a Man of mean Condition, but had a peculiar Art to teach Birds to speak, of which he learn'd some to say,The Birds make a God. Psaphon is a God; which when they could perfectly do, he let them fly one after another: These Words being often heard in the Air, were at last so taken notice of, that many People flock'd together from all parts of the Countrey to hear them. And to win a firm belief to his Design, he spar'd no labor, still teaching fresh Birds the like Words; which having taught them, he let fly.

The Carthaginian General, Hanno, having had private Information thereof, endeavor'd by the same Art to be esteem'd as a God: But he,Aelian. Hist. li. 24. c. 30. as AElian wit­nesses, bestow'd his Labor in vain; for having not taught them perfectly, they in stead of saying, Hanno is a God, when they were let loose, sung their own natural Notes.

The Argives honor'd Perseus as a God, for his Noble Exploits. The Epidaneans worshipp'd Aesculapius, because he had found out many Mysteries for Curing [Page 206]of Distempers; which not long after the Greeks follow'd, and at last also the Romans, which after built him a Temple without Rome.

The Athenians ador'd the Soothsayer Amphilochus, Liv. lib. 45. whose Temple, as Livy re­lates, though very ancient, yet was pleasant to behold, being surrounded by Fountains and Brooks of Fresh-water. Moreover most of the Athenian Kings are Registred among the number of the Gods. In like manner they chose Triptolemus for a Deity, because he first invented Plowing and Sowing; and Euricthonius, because he was swallow'd up by the Earth, with a Chariot and four Horses.Cicer. de Nat. de Or. li. 3. Erechteus they promoted with his Daughters above the Stars, be­cause the Father obey'd the Oracle at Delphos, presaging the Victory to the Athenians against the Thracian Eumolpus, if the King did Sacrifice one of his Daughters; and the Virgin, because she died willingly for her Countreys sake in the Village Hyacinthus, was made a Goddess.

Theseus also, having fought valiantly against Taurus, which was Minos the King of Creta's General, had a Temple erected in the middle of Athens, in which his Bones were worshipp'd.

The same Honor was done to Codrus, because he went in Beggars Weeds into the Peloponnesian Army, there wrangling with the Soldiers, till he was kill'd, that by his Death the Conquest might fall on the Athenians side, as the Delphian Oracle had foretold.Curt. lib. 7. Therefore Augustus says, The Athenians worshipp'd Codrus as a God, because he went and sought his own Death for his Countreys good.

The Thebans ador'd their King Liber, he being the first that press'd Wine out of the Grape: And besides Liber, his beautiful Ino, with her Son Melicerte, because they both leap'd from a high Rock into the Sea. This Custom is still held in use amongst the Japanners; they being taken there for Saints, who for the Honor of Amida, Xaca, or any other of the Japan Gods, hanging great Stones about their Necks, drown themselves, as we have before related.

Furthermore, there were formerly few Kings, and chiefly over Egypt, Per­sia, and India, which if they had us'd no Tyranny, were either in their Life-time, or at least after their Death, worshipp'd as Gods. Cleo, Shield-bearer to Alexander the Great, says thus in Curtius's History; The Persians worship not onely their Kings for Gods with great Zeal, but very circumspectly; for Hercules and Bacchus themselves were not install'd amongst the Gods, before they overcame the Malice of their Maligners.

To Create Kings Gods,Colnitz Comp. Georg. lib. 2. cap. 13. is a present Custom amongst the Tartars. The fourth part of Tartary is Catay, or Kitay, in whose Metropolis Cambula, the Re­sidence of the Great Cham, so great a Trade is driven in Silk, that scarce a day passes, wherein there come not above a thousand Waggons laden there­with, to Market. Kitay is divided into seven Provinces, namely, Caimul, Engimul, Caindu, Tendac, Thebet, where they make use of Coral in stead of Money;Menly in for the women. Carazan, noted for its strange Custom, the Men lying-in forty days after their Women are deliver'd of a Child; and lastly, Tanguth, in which Territory Printing was in use above a thousand years ago. The Jesuit, Father John Gruberus, as Athanasius Kircher tells us in his China-Book, travell'd through Tanguth, where he was kindly receiv'd by the King, whom the Tartars call Deva, Images of the Tartars Han and Deva, by them worshipp'd as Gods. and commanded to Pourtray the Image of Deva, and also of Han, who was formerly King of Tanguth, and Father of fourteen Sons, and for his great Prudence and Justice was worshipp'd by the Inhabitants: Both these are to be seen standing on square Altars. Han is of a sallow Complexi­on, [Page 207]

[figure]

on, a Chesnut-colour'd Beard mix'd with gray Hairs, goggle Eyes, with a Furr'd Cap on his Head. But Deva appears with a young Visage, without a Beard, the Hair of his Head close shaven. Over both their Heads hang three burning Lamps.

Strange Customs us'd by the Romans when they made Gods.The Romans made strange Preparations, when they gave the Heavens to their Deceas'd Emperors. They built a Funeral Pile, like a Tent, adorning it with Gold, Ivory, and costly Pictures; and being sharp on the top, they plac'd a Crane upon it, building it as it were with three Stories, which they stow'd full of rich Gums and sweet Perfumes. Under the lower Story stood a rich and stately Bed of Silk, with Coverings of Purple, embroyder'd with Gold; on which lay the Image of the Emperor. The Consuls, Knights, and other Persons of great Quality, attended the Bier to the Funeral Pyre, singing Eulogies, and shewing great Reverence to the same. The Tent was set round about on Fire, and the Smoke and Flame thereof made the Crane fly up directly into the Air, and thereby was judg'd to carry the Soul to the Gods, whilst the Flame purified the Body from all Corruption. This done, the Senate made a firm Law, That the Emperor from that time forward should be honor'd as a God.

¶ BUt to return from this Digression: Whilst the Council and Dai­fusama were busie to make Taicosama, according to his earnest desire, a Xin Fachima, or God of War, they fell at variance amongst themselves. The Council strengthning their Party, by chusing four more to their assistance; and Daifusama travelling, as we said before, to Quanto. The Difference in short time grew to that height, that it could no ways be decided but by the Sword: Whereupon both Parties rais'd all the Force they could possible.

The Council studied at last to stop all the Ways towards Meaco, and Listed many Soldiers in Isci and Mino, two Kingdoms bordering on Voari, so to get that Kingdom from Daifusama, having already subdu'd three strong Places in Mino.

Here stood also the invincible Castle Guifu, over which Ciunangodono, a young Man about two and twenty years of age, had the chief Command, in the Name of the Council.

The Council intend to subdue the Kingdom of Voari.This Person had information, that Gibunoscio had ready at hand seven thou­sand of Auxiliaries from the Council; with which united Force he intended to fall upon Voari, and there to face Daifusama's Army.

Daifusama subdues the Fort Guifu.But while the Council assembled, whose Results upon Business and Debates before were so slow, losing much time, Daifusama being twenty thousand strong, drew towards Guifu. Before the Fort rais'd a high Mount; behind which lay the greatest strength, as a Reserve: Seven hundred drew close under Guifu, and attaqu'd the Garrison; Ciunangodono, full of resolution, sally'd out of the Fort against the Enemy; who after some opposition made them to re­treat: a while after he fell unawares into the midst of the Rere-guard. The Besieged being too weak for so great a multitude, retreated back towards the Fort; but the Enemy pursuing them so close, that they press'd into the Fort with the Retreaters. Here he made great slaughter and havock amongst them, the Sword sparing none. In this extremity Ciunangadono got into the Tower of the Fort with some others,Ciunangadono taken Pri­soner. where not being able to make any great resi­stance, he was forc'd to yield.

The Conqueror bringing the captive Governor to the Fort Vaori, left a strong Garrison in Guifu, and march'd with his victorious Army towards Gibu­noscio. By the Way two thousand Soldiers fell among Daifusama's Party, and afterwards a thousand more, which were all so routed, that not one was left to carry tidings of the overthrow to Gibunoscio. Daifusama kills three thousand Men.

The business thus standing, the King or Sassuma and Augustine Tzunocamindo­no brought some of their Forces before Gibunoscio; which as soon as Daifusama discover'd, he rally'd his Men, and march'd down along the Shore of the River Jocatangauwa, to hinder their coming over. He discern'd on the other side of the River the new Auxiliary Forces by their Colours, under the Command of two stout Generals, wherefore he remain'd on the other side of the River, fear­ing also that some Ambuscado's might be in the way, for he could not ima­gine that Gibunoscio would else stand against his Army, being full as strong again.

While the Forces on both sides lay in this posture, doing little, watching all opportunities of advantages, Faction having divided all Japan into Parties; first clashing in their Disputes as they were affected, and soon after taking up Arms one against another.

In the Kingdom of Bungo, Quambioiendo gat information from the Army of Daifusama, by a Messenger sent from his Son Cainocamo by Water, of the Victory obtain'd; whereat encourag'd, he fell with eight thousand Men upon Francis­co. This was the Son of the deceased King of Bungo, who had been long kept in hold by the command of Taicosama in Meaco, but was now released by the Council, and sent away with four thousand Men to Bungo, in hopes the Sub­jects there might joyn with him as their lawful King against Quambioiendo; but it fell out quite contrary: for Francisco had scarce set Foot in the Countrey before he was overthrown and taken, not being able to stand against an Army stronger than his own: and within few days by this Rout, the whole King­dom of Bungo assur'd to Daifusama. Thus the Grand Council met every where with oppositions.

Canzviedono overthrew Fingo.¶ THe Kingdom of Fingo being under two Lords, Canzviedono possess'd the one half, and Augustine Tzunocamindono the other; the first was of Daifusama's part, the second of the Council, who lay at that time along the River Jocatangauwa against Daifusama, when Canzviedono fell into his Countrey, and wasted all with Fire and Sword, and closely besieg'd the chiefest Fort Uto.

Dissention among the Council.Furthermore there arose a great Dissention among the Lords of the nine Kingdoms, call'd by one Name Scimo; some declar'd themselves for the Grand Council, others for Daifusama, and many were willing to stand Neuters. The Princes Arimandono, and Omurandono, first joyn'd themselves with their Forces to the Grand Council; but being order'd to march with their Parties nearer to Meaco, they fell off and sided with Daifusama.

The Grand Council had sent several Forces through the Empire to encoun­ter with with those that joyn'd with the King's. The business growing thus to a Head, Forces Mustering from all Places, they were resolv'd to put it upon the Dye, and try their Fortune in the event of a Set-Battel,They joyn their Strength together. designing the Place of Rendezvouz for their best advantage to be in the Plains of the Kingdom of Mino; where not long after their whole Forces were drawn together, being about fourscore thousand Men, much too strong for Daifusama, who had scarce thirty thousand.

The Council miserably perplexed the whole Business and Affair, by tedious Controversies and scrupling Delays, being thirty Days in making ready before they set upon the weak Enemy; who in that time made benefit of their tardi­ness; for Daifusama sent his Son away with a part of the Army towards Con­gueraso, and the rest he carry'd to Oari; to which out of Mino and other Coun­treys he added so many as now made up fifty thousand Men, with which he not onely fac'd, but first engag'd the Council.

The shameful and hor­rible overthrow of the mighty Army of the Coun­cil. The Battel was scarce begun, but Ciunangodono, Nephew to Taicosama's Wife, by whom came the Kingdom of Cicugen, deliver'd out of the Prison in Voari, where he was put when he quitted the Fort Guifu, revolted with his Regi­ment, and went over to Daifusama: after him follow'd three other Regiments with their Princes, who contrary to the Design of the Council, took this op­portunity to do Service to the other Party. Hereupon there arose aloud mur­muring, and a voyce through the Army, crying Treachery, Treachery; and withal a sudden disorder, that the Officers neither could keep them in Rank nor File, deserting their Colours, and crowding, trod one another under foot. The Van-guard thus totally routed, fell into the Main Body, and disorder'd them also, Morindono, who had the left Wing, wheel'd off, not striking one Stroke, and fairly fled away; and the Rear seeing the Van routing the Main Body, fearing they would both fall foul upon them, threw down their Arms, each one shifting for themselves, so that in few hours the Field was clear: but though they ran thus early away, yet they escap'd not so, for most of them pe­rish'd by their own Weapons, or the Enemies, who suddenly pour'd himself in amongst them. Amongst those which were taken by Daifusama, was Gibu­noscio, and Augustine Tzunocamindono: the first acknowledg'd, that he had not the heart to rip himself up; the second refus'd self-murder, being a Christian; but most of the rest that fled, not knowing where to shelter themselves, were their own destroyers.

Daifusama prosecutes his Victory. Daifusama made no small use of this Victory, the Field lying cover'd with [Page 210]threescore thousand Bodies who oppos'd him. Being thus crown'd with suc­cess, he march'd on, and first took all the strong Holds in Mino; and then en­tring with his Army into the Kingdom of Omi, the fame of his Victory came before him to the Castle of Savoiama, belonging to Gibunoscio, whose Brother at that time was Governor there; who much startled at the sad News, and see­ing no possibility to withstand his Forces, he bethought himself of a Delivery by a Happy Dispatch, for so the Japanners call Self-murder; on which having fully resolv'd, he first distributed what Treasure was in the Castle to the Sol­diers, bidding them take that and shift for themselves: next killing his Wife and Children,Horrible Murder with­in the Castle of Savoiama. he set fire on several places of the Castle, and at last was his own Executioner.

Daifusama was afraid of Morindono.The Conqueror finding the Fortress all in flames, suppos'd it no fit place to make a halt, no longer than to look upon it, but that he might loose no time, march'd directly for Morindono, having brought off the left Wing from the last Battel intire; and having re-inforc'd himself with forty thousand more, fear­ing this gather'd Cloud now impending, and ready to break upon his head, therefore he march'd speedily from thence to be further from the danger, since the fortune of War is doubtful; for the Conqueror was sufficiently wary, least any slur, or the least accident should happen or cast a blemish on so signal a Victory.

His great strength.But that which troubled Daifusama more, was the strong Castle of Osacca, not to be parallel'd in all Japan; so that a great Army lying down before it might easily be moulder'd away, e're they could make the least advantage, to hope thereby to obtain the place; and what made it more difficult was, that Morindono kept there the Treasury of the whole Kingdom; there were in custo­dy all the Hostages, even those that held with Daifusama, and Fideri himself, Taicosama 's Son.The strength of the Ca­stle of Osacca. Moreover, there lay within the Castle so much Provision of Victuals, and Ammunition for War, that the Garrison might hold out a Siege of many years, without the least want or distress.

The contrivance of Mo­rindono.Yet notwithstanding all these advantages, Morindono possess'd with a strange Consternation, utterly deserted it without being once summon'd by the Enemy, and retir'd to his Palace near Osacca, from whence at least he might make an escape to his own Kingdom, and set himself at more distance from his Enemies, of whose mercy there was little hope.

Daifusama gets the Ca­stle of Osacca.¶ IT seem'd almost incredible to Daifusama, that he should become Master so easily of such an impregnable Hold, which had it stood out, had stopt the whole Course of his Victory, that lingering there, had probably ruin'd him and his whole design; so with this, whatever could be desir'd fell into his hands, all places striving who should first submit to the Conqueror, who durst not so much as offer, or once think of opposing him, now ready to as­cend the Imperial Throne. Fideri, the onely Block to stop the ambitious As­pirer in his Enterprise, that Rub remov'd by his Death, there was no other obstacle to hinder him from being sole Emperor of Japan: And therewith all Japan. Such was his success, that he sleighted Cangueraso, as if no body, who was yet in Arms, and raising Forces in behalf of the Grand Council, on the utmost borders of Quanto, and also the King of Sassuma, The dexterity of the King of Sassuma. of whose Valor he had sufficient proofs in the last Battel; for being quite out of hope of Rallying his Forces, to give the Enemy another Charge, made his way onely with sixty Men through the main Body of the Army, with which, hasting to Osacca, where with an addition of [Page 211]five hundred Men, he took Shipping, Sailing to Sassuma, a hundred and fifty Leagues from Osacca, where he setled himself, daily Mustering up new Forces, to be able for a second Ingagement, in behalf of the Parliament.

Daifusama spares Morin­dono.But Daifusama sending for the Cowardly Morindono, who appearing in a des­picable manner, looking upon him as no dangerous Foe, gave him his Life, but took from him, for his kindness, nine Kingdoms, and seven inestimable Silver Mines, so that besides his eight Kingdoms of Quanto, and nine from Morindono, he subdu'd all those Territories which Taicosama formerly pos­sessed.

And although Ciunangodono, in the late Battel happening between the Council and Daifusama, revolting, went over to him; by that means throwing so great a Victory into his Lap, yet he was so far from making any kind return, or ac­knowledging in the least so high a benefit, that on the contrary, he dispossess'd him of the Kingdom of Cicugen, and secur'd him in the Cloyster Coja, being a Pri­son for Prime Persons, and kept by the great Master of the Bonzi, where Quaba­condono three years before did Execution upon himself; where also he and many other Persons of Quality suffer'd in like manner.

The Castle of Ʋto defen­ded it self stoutly.¶ WHile Daifusama thus domineer'd every where, nevertheless, Canzviedono fell into a part of Fingo, belonging to Tzunocamindono, and there stor­med the Castle of Uto, yet spent all their labor in vain, for the Garrison behav'd themselves exceeding manfully; their Assaults were repuls'd with great Losses, and their Sallyings forth, daily weaken'd the Besiegers, so that they began to loose their courage: Canzviedono endeavor'd by all ways and means to make known to them, that the Grand Councils Army was overthrown, and the Ca­stle of Osacca taken; that Daifusama Triumph'd victoriously every where, and that their Lord Augustin Tzunocamindono, for whom they fought couragiously, was Executed. But the Garrison in the beginning of the Siege, had sworn to one another, upon pain of Death, not to receive any Letters or Messages from the Enemies; wherefore being mutually agreed, they cast all the Arrows which had written Papers wrapt about them instantly, without reading, into the fire.

The Jesuites were sought to for the delivery up of Ʋto. Canzviedono was amaz'd at this stubbornness, who could not remove his Seige with Honor nor Advantage, and his Power and Policy being spent in vain, he then at length apply'd himself to the Jesuites, (as the Jesuite Valentine Carvaglio, writing from Nangesaque, the five and twentieth of February, in the Year sixteen hundred and one, to Claudius Aquaviea, Chief Governor of the Society of Jesuites makes mention) to whom he sent Letters to Nangesaque to this purpose:

Since it was known to all the world, the downfal of Daifusama's oppressors, and Tzu­nocamindono's Death, which could no ways be made known to the Besieg'd in Uto; by which, their ignorance of that Affair they held out so obstinately, as if their Councils Cause were not ruin'd, and their King slain: Therefore my desire is, that you send a Jesuite to me at my Leaguer, that he may unfold the present State of things to the Garrison, in which are five Jesuites: If they were obedient herein, they should no way find him unthankful for it; else they were to expect Daifusama's displeasure.

They are cast down at this demand. But the Jesuites were amaz'd at this Command, and chiefly, that there should be a change of Government (as Japan was many times subject to such alterati­ons of State) therefore they besought with gentle Intreaties to put it off, saying, They were Spiritual Persons, and taught the way to Heaven, and transitory Affairs was [Page 112]not their concern, especially the business of War; and if they should so do, they might seem rather like mad men, than Councellors.

Canzviedono did no ways accept of this their excuse, but threatned to put the five Fathers in Uto to death; and furthermore, to banish all the rest out of Ja­pan, as being Daifusama's Enemies: So at last the Garrison receiv'd all infor­mation concerning the Transactions between the Emperor and Council; by which they judg'd it better to make an agreement, being not able to stand out alone; so that Canzviedono, after being sufficiently weary'd out, obtain'd his desire.

Ʋto yields. As also the Castle of Gi­atusciro.The Besieg'd delivering up the Castle Uto into his possession; and not long after, according to that example, also the Castle Giatusciro, of which Mimazaca, a grand Favorite of Tzunocamindono's, had the chief Command, who having had certain intelligence, that his King being slain by Daifusama, for whom should he then fight for any longer? All hopes of assistance on their part being utter­ly lost; What then could he effect alone? none being to be found that were in Arms against Daifusama, but the King of Sassuma, who was a hundred and fifty Leagues distance from Giatusciro: For all which reasons, he thought it best to deliver up the Castle to Canzviedono, upon good and honorable Articles; and coming to an Agreement, had liberty to go with fifteen hundred Men by Ship­ping to the Haven of Sassuma; And Gianava. after that, Canzviedono subdu'd the Castle of Gia­nava, by which he got the whole Kingdom of Fingo into his possession, whereas he had onely half of it before.

Daifusama becomes Ma­ster of Japan.DAifusama being thus become Master of all Japan, he Tyraniz'd not af­ter his obtain'd Victory,Rages not after the cu­stom of the Japanners. as other Emperors had done before him, which was, to defile their Conquests with cruel Massacres, without sparing any that had formerly obstructed them, and with razing of Towns, Castles, and Cities, of which sufficient testimonies are to be seen to this day, by many places lying bury'd in their own Ruines, Houses, Churches and other stately Edifices hid in Ashes, being destroy'd by raging War. But Daifusama took a more gen­tler course with his Captive Enemies, which he took in the Field-battel fought between him and his Parliament,He put three eminent per­sons to shameful death. or grand Councel: Onely upon three Emi­nent Persons he took Sanguinary satisfaction; for though he spar'd others, yet he Condemn'd Gibunoscio King of Onu, to die an Ignoble Death, for leading the Grand Councels Army against him; Tzunocamindono, King of half Fingo; and Ancocugio, whom Morindono had us'd for his Councellor; being taken Pri­soners by Cainecamio, were first entertain'd according to their Dignity, but soon after put into the Custody of a cruel Commander, and at last close Prisoners in Osacca, where they receiv'd their Sentence of Death, being set upon lean Mules, and led through the Streets of Osacca in great derision; then they were carry'd in Carts to Meaco, crouded all about with great multitudes of people, some seeming to pitty the disasters of such Noble persons, whilest others laugh'd and mock'd at their misfortunes.Sentence of death was ex­ecuted against the Kings Gi­bunosciro, Tzunocamindono, and Ancacugio. Gibunosci riding in the first Cart, was follow'd by Ancocugio, and on the hindermost sate Tzunocamindono; before each went a Trumpeter, who cry'd aloud, that these Traytors to their Countrey were Condemned to shameful Deaths, because they were found to fall off from the King of Tensa.

The stout courage of Tzu­nocamindono. Tzunocamindono seem'd not the least dismay'd or daunted, but bore up with a Manly Courage under all these Contumelies; but the other two, testifying their Innocency, complain'd against such cursed Authority: Whilst they drew [Page 113]near to the place of Execution, several Bonzies coming from a place not far from thence, not onely admonish'd them, but us'd many ridiculous Ceremo­nies, to purifie them from all their Crimes, that so they might appear in the other Life before Amida, without polluted or unclean Souls; which comforted the Condemned not a little, to be assur'd of an Immortal Life in this Mortal. But Tzunocamindono rejected the Bonzi, and acknowledged himself to be a Chri­stian, who abhorr'd such abomination.

Being upon the Scaffold, the Supreme Bonzies came to them, who is not us'd to go forth, but when great Persons are to suffer, attended with a considerable Train of Japan Priests, and Xaca's Consecrated Book in his hand.

After much juggling, when Gibunoscio and Ancocugio were just ready to die, he offer'd them the Book to kiss; but Tzunocamindono charg'd the Supreme Bon­zi of Blasphemy, declaring his Christianity again; and pull'd out from his Girdle, a small Picture of Jesus, and the Virgin Mary, which the Portugal Queen Catherine, Sister to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, had presented him by the Jesuites.

He kissed a Portraiture with the Image of Jesus, be­headed after the two others, and bury'd by the Jesuites. This Picture he took in both his hands, and looking stedfastly upon it, said his Prayers, then offer'd his Neck to the Executioners Sword, who struck three times before he could cut it off: In the same manner the two others were Exe­cuted, whose Corps were presently burnt; but Tzumocamindono was in Mecao, by the Jesuites, wrapp'd in a long Shroud, Burying him with all the Ceremonies us'd by the present Romish Church.

The horrible Murder of Trunocamindono's Son.Leaving one Son of twelve years old behind, to whom Morindono, to­gether with his Officers, gave free leave to dwell close by Firoscima; but a few days after the Beheading of Tzunocamindono, he sent for the Child to Osacca, where he then was: The Halberdiers that fetch'd him, knowing of Morindono's bloody intent, discover'd it; Nevertheless, though the Child was terrifi'd at that sentence of Death, he desir'd not to live, having nothing in the world to trust to, since his Father was put to so shameful a death: He acknowledg'd a Christ, by whose Death, a door was open'd to Heaven for the Dead; there he should find his Father, when he put off this Body: No sooner came the Youth within Osacca, but Morindono caus'd him secretly to be Beheaded, and sent the Head to Daifusama, to obtain his favor; but he abhorr'd the deed, and would have taken vengeance on him for it, had not Morindono been secretly in­form'd of his displeasure on which he reported, that the Youth had first ripp'd up his own Belly for grief of his Fathers death.

Daifusama spared many of his enemies, as also their Allies and Kindred.Besides these three, since Daifusama's Conquest, he scarce put any to death in cool blood, but went on in a milde way, that thereby he might draw the minds of the people to him, and settle the Empire upon his Son, according to the Laws of the Countrey; Tzunocamindono's Wife and Children should have suf­fer'd death; as also many other Widows and Orphans, whose Fathers and ally­ance were in Arms against him, but he spar'd them all.

The courage of Acascica­mon.¶ NOne more disorder'd, and did more mischief to Diafusama's Army, than Acasicamon, and Sassuma; for Acasicamon retreated not, but rush'd into the midst of them, and made great execution, judging it better to die by the Sword of the Enemy, than to lay violent hands on himself: Where, whilest he was hemm'd in, and no hope of escape,A wonderful accident in the stress of the fight. he broke into a Regiment led by Cainocami, who knew him by his Behavior and Arms, and crying aloud, said, [Page 214] Save him, The Speech of Cainocami. Souldiers, save him, for be shall be my Prisoner; upon this Command, they stood all still, and he going towards Acasicamon, embrac'd him about the neck, and shedding many Tears, said, My dear Friend, how hard have the Fates been to me to make us Enemies? that we should thus, in a lamentable dissention, which shakes the very Foundations of the Empire, Fight one against another, because you led the Parliament Forces, and I the Kings; you have gain'd honor enough, though you are defeated by ma­king your way thus through the Conquering Army. Which said, Acasicami, so soon as he was able to speak, reply'd thus, If you are my true Friend, as I believe, now or never shew it, and presently dispatch me with that Sword, with which you would spare my Life. But Cai­nocami on the contrary, set him upon his own Horse, and assur'd him his life.

Daifusama distributes Kingdoms, and rewards to those that fought for him.¶ FUrthermore, Daifusama thought it convenient to distribute his Bounty and Rewards on those that had fought for him against the Council, gi­ving some great Kingdoms for lesser ones; others had larger or smaller Territories; so that all Japan was in confusion: Some remov'd from their Houses, Cities, and Towns, with their new King and Government, the Inha­bitants going from their antient Habitations to other Countreys, appointed by Daifusama. Nangoioca receiv'd for the small Fort of Tango, the Kingdom of Bungo: Facuscimadono, the Castle Firoscima, and the Countries thereunto be­longing: To some Christians of Noble Extract, Daifusama gave several Livings in the Kingdom of Mimaraca, because they had bore Arms, and fought vali­antly for him: He releas'd also the five Jesuits without Ransom, which were put in Prison by Canzviedono, when the Castle of Uto was rendred up, giving them free Conduct to Nangesaque: To Cainocamio, the Son of Quamboiendono he be­stow'd the Kingdom of Cicugen.

Lives in quiet.Since that time, Daifusama had rest and quiet, and rul'd Japan with Imperial Command, as Guardian of Fideri: He remov'd the Court from Fissima to Su­runga, and chang'd his Name of Daifusama, He chang'd the name of it again. into Goyssio Samma: Anno sixteen hundred and eleven, he was visited by several Ambassadors from Europe and other places. The Portuguese and Castilians behav'd themselves so ill, that Goyssio Samma seem'd to be much displeas'd thereat;Spex and Segerssoon were very acceptable to Daifusa­ma. Jacob Spex, and Peter Segerssoon ha­ving far more free Audience from the Emperor, and their Presents being kind­ly accepted. A Copy of their Embassy written in Japan Language, and left with the Chancellor Cosequidonne, so that they might have a quicker dispatch at their return from Jedo; being instructed, that it would be fitting to Comple­ment the Emperors Son there, which the Castilian Ambassadors had done be­fore them, but committed a great error therein, by visiting the same before their Father.

Their journey to Jedo.On the eighteenth of August, in the foremention'd year, they made their Journey thither: Cosequidonne prepar'd all things necessary for them in that Ex­pedition: But the Netherland Ambassadors going by day-break out of Surin­ga, came by noon to the Village Jesare, where they lay that night, in which happen'd such a dreadful Tempest of Thunder, Lightning, and Showres of Rain, as if the world had been at an end, which constrain'd them to stay till the next day. About thirty years after, the Ambassadors, Frisius and Brookhurst lodg'd there as their Landlord told them: In the morning they departed from thence in foul Weather, and came to Missina, and thence through Fovisauwa and Toska into Jedo.

[...]eir strange adventure [...]do.Here, by means of one William Adams, they made their coming known to Sa­dadonne, President in the Council of the Emperors Son, and excus'd themselves, [Page 215]that for two years (when they had visited the Emperor at Suringa) they had neg­lected to pay their respects to the young Emperor; which was,The Emperors Son is de­sirous to see the Nether­landers. partly because they knew not the way, and partly, for their speedy return, upon which the safety of the Netherlanders Ships depend. At which, Sadadonne seeming to be sa­tisfi'd, said, That the Emperors Son had Information, that there were Ships come out of remote Countries, into the Haven of Firando, two years since, and he desir'd to see those People, whose Warlike Deeds, and rational Managements of Affairs, were known all over India; therefore they need not any way doubt, but they should be welcome: Besides, that they might loose no time, he prepar'd all things, to get them Audience before the Emperors Son. Moreover, proffer'd to do them all the kindness the Hol­landers themselves would require.

The next day the Ambassadors repair'd to the House of Sadadonne, and pre­sented him with five Ells of Crimson Cloth, two Pieces of Black Lute-String, one Piece of Black Damask, five Pieces of White Sattins, three Glass Flasks, one Carbine, and a Powder-Horn. These Presents were thankfully accepted, though with intimation, that it was against their Custom; but being the first time that he had seen the Netherlander Rarities brought so unmeasurable a distance thither, not without great labor and charge, they should be accepted: Further he acquainted them, That last night he had made known their coming to the Emperors Son, who seem'd to be well-pleas'd thereat.

The discourse between Spex and Sadadonne.This their Discourse together continu'd above half an hour, Sadadonne en­quiring of them concerning the State, and the Affairs of the Netherlands, and wondred, that a Countrey of so small a compass should manage such a War against the greatest Prince in Europe, the King of Spain, and compelling him to an Agreement, settle Plantations in many places through the world: During this their Discourse, he Treated the Ambassadors with such Dainties, as the Coun­trey would afford and though he was very feeble with age, and troubled with the Gout, and at that time scarce able to go, yet he led Spex and Segerssoon out at the Gate, promising them in the after-noon to conduct and procure them an Audience in the Castle; which Sadadonne perform'd,The Netherland Ambas­sadors appear before the Emperors Son at Jedo. for at two of the Clock they came before the young Emperor, at whose Feet they laid two Pieces of fine Stammel, one Piece of Carsey of the same colour, fifteen Ells of Green Flower'd Grogarin, nine Ells of Crimson, Flower'd Black, one Piece of Damask, one Piece of Cloth of Gold Tissue, five Norenburg Carpets, one Piece of Sattin Flow­er'd with Roses, one Piece of Lutestring, three Elephants Teeth, an hundred Bars of Steel, one Musket, two Carbines and Powder-Horns, five less Flasks, and some Pounds of shot.

The Emperors Son thank'd the Ambassadors for their Presents, and they were joyful that he had accepted of them, whose favor to obtain, the Hollanders had endeavor'd long before; then bowing his head, the Emperor retiring, or­der'd Spex and Segerssoon to be conducted through the Palace, without the Ca­stle, by Sadadonnes Gentlemen, with a Command for Horses, Letters of Con­duct, Souldiers, two Japan Coats, and several other Presents; both to Spex and Segerssoon, and his Protection wheresoever they went.

Were very lovingly en­tertain'd.Afterwards, the Ambassadors were invited to a Dinner by the Governors Brother of Firando: and while they were resolving to take Shipping to Sail to the Haven of Wormgouw, Sadadonne prepar'd a Galley for them, and a Bark for their Goods: Never any Europeans whatsoever were receiv'd more kind­lier at Jedo than they; for the Spanish Ambassador, though he had a little before [Page 216]made his entrance there with great Pomp, yet waited many days before they were admitted to Audience, where also they met but with a cold Entertainment. The five and twentieth of August, Spex and Segerssoon set Sail in the prepar'd Vessels, and arrived in the Evening in the Haven of Wormgouw, where they lodg'd in William Adam's House, and found a Ship, which Sailing along the wea­ther Shore, had narrowly escap'd a great Storm, which else would certainly have been cast away on the North of Japan.

The Pomp of the Spani­ards in Mexico, to enter­tain the Japanners.This Vessel brought the Japanners back, which some time before Sail'd over with Roderigo de Riduere to New-Spain, where they were so sumptuously enter­tain'd, that it cost the King of Spain above fifty thousand pieces of Eight, bear­ing all their Expences from Acapulco to Mexico, where they were receiv'd in great State.

How New Guinee was discover'd.Two Netherlanders Sailing in the Ship, inform'd them, that the Castilians from Manilla, had discover'd on the unknown South Countrey New-Guinee, lying under a temperate Climate, and Inhabited by civil people, full of all sorts of Provision, besides Nutmegs and Gold; two of the Inhabitants being stoln from the Coun­trey, were carry'd to Madrid, so to learn the Language, and give them further information concerning the discover'd Coast of New-Guinee, which seem'd to be of great importance to the Castilians, who promis'd themselves great advan­tages, in sending Ships from the Manilla's thither, wherefore they left several men ashore to make further inspection into the Countrey, and also in time to People it with their own Nation.

The Captain of the Ship sent three of his Officers to Complement Spex and Segerssoon, and soon after several Messengers to invite them to a Collation; but the Netherland Ambassadors, judging that he ought first to give them a Visit, they excus'd themselves.

The request of the Casti­lians to the Emperor of Ja­pan.They also were informed, that the Spaniards were very earnest with Goyssio Samma Emperor of Japan, to obtain leave for to sound the Japan Havens, be­cause many Ships richly Freighted, Sailing over from Manilla to New-Spain, were oft-times loft at Sea, suffering by stress of Weather, which if they might Harbor upon the Coast of Japan, they would escape the like danger; but they durst not adventure, because they knew not the depth and sounding of the Ha­vens. Lastly, they requested, that they might build Ships in Japan, because Wood and other Materials, nor experienc'd Ship-Wrights were so easily to be had in Manilla and New-Spain, as there.

The description of the habit of a common Citizen of Japan.The Netherland Ambassadors having notice thereof, went on their way through Oiso and Justivarra, and Surunga; about noon, on the nine and twenti­eth of August, they took Horse there amongst a great throng of People. Their Habits, as of all other common Citizens very costly: Their Crowns shaven after the manner of Friers, their Hair ty'd up behind in rowls, with Fillets; when they are Marry'd, one Lock hangs down by the Roll. Their Coats are ty'd with Girdles, broad as our Belts, of several Colours, in which, below the left Breast sticks a Cutting-Knife, by them call'd Siakkin; a two-handed Sword also sticks in their Girdle, thrust under the left Arm, the Handle co­ver'd over with a Shaggerine or Fish-skin: Their Coats are made with very broad Borders, and Embroyder'd with variety of colour'd Flowers, all walk­ing with Canes in their hands; in stead of Shooes they wear Clogs, not unlike the Carmelites in Brabant, made fast with a string about the great Toe, by which they draw it along when they lift up their Foot.

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But Spex and Segerszoon arriving at Mexico, The Netherlands return again to Surunga. made their return from Jedo known by William Adams to Cosequidonne, who also immediately sent one of his Gentlemen to welcome them thither, and to enquire concerning what success they had in their Journey; whereupon they made Answer, They could never be thankful enough to Cosequidonne, for his kindness shew'd them, he being the means, that all things in Jedo happen'd according to their desire. Furthermore, the Japan Emperor, as William Adams understood from Cosequidonne, had enquir'd about the Lading, which the Netherland Ship had brought to Firando; upon which, the Ambassadors rested not, but instantly drew an Inventory of all her Lading, which they sent by William Adams to Cosequidonne, with a request, that he would speedily dispatch the desir'd Letters of License, that the Netherland Ships might Trade without any molestation in Japan: In answer whereof he brought them word, That the Letters of License lay ready, onely they wanted the Imperial Signet, which should be ready on that day, or at farthest, on the morrow.

Where whilst they staid waiting for it, they saw in their Lodging one Jacob a Japan Christian; being Captain of Junck, who formerly had been kept by Wittert, Governor of the Manillies, and complain'd much of the injury done him by the Netherland Mariners, who gave out, That they prejudic'd onely the Ca­stilians and Portuguese, but indeed, they made a prey also of the Japanners, and said, If this misdemeanor should come to the Emperors Ear, it would be bad for the Netherlanders.

Cosequidonne in the mean time, towards the Evening, sent twenty Japan Shifts to Spex, and ten for Segerszoon, to demonstrate (as the Messenger express'd it) his affection towards them. The last of August, Williams Adams receiv'd the two re­quested Letters of License, with the Imperial Seal; instantly, the Ambassadors caus'd them to be Translated out of the Japan Tongue, into Low-Dutch, and found them word for word, which were to this effect:

The contents of the Ja­pan Letters of License. The Holland Ships that Sail'd to Japan, be they Anchor'd in what Haven soever, [Page 218]none under our Command shall any way disturb them, but on the contrary, shew them respect and afford them all manner of assistance.

The Ambassadors were much troubled at the expressions in this License, be­ing not full enough to their desire and intentions, wanting the chief and grand concern, viz. That they should not be molested with Searchers and Cu­stomers, in the Delivery, Lading, and Sale of their Goods, which were vexatious to all Merchants whatsoever, especially as they found, to the Netherlanders, the chiefest being Saphidonne, Saphidonne suppress'd the Netherland trade in Japan. who exacted Fees, Duties, and Customs more than any, being very greedy and troublesome, of which, were the Emperor inform­ed, would cost him his life, though his Sister was one of the Emperors Con­cubines.

The condition of the Ne­therlanders with their Let­ters of License.But it was very difficult to lay the Plot for the destruction of this Saphidonne, who was so eminent a Person; and certain they were, that the Emperor would enquire why the Netherland Ambassadors should insist so particularly upon him, that by vertue of the Letters of License, their Goods should not be stop'd nor seiz'd by his Majesties Officers of the Custom; also they would run no less danger, to request the amending or augmenting of a Letter Grant­ed by the Emperors Favor.

Yet at last they concluded to venture on one of them, whereupon, on the first of September, Spex and William Adams made their Address to Cosequidonne; Spex thanking him for the speedy procuring the Letters of License; who ask'd, if there were not enough inserted in; they answer'd, Yes: onely there wanted the Emperors permission, for the Netherland Ship to deliver and sell the Goods without the disturbance of Waiters and overseers; whereupon, Cosequidonne assur'd them, that none should in the least molest them; wherefore he had sent a Letter to Saphidonne, commanding him not to hinder the Netherlanders in the delivery or sale of their Merchandize, for he had receiv'd certain informati­on, that Saphidonne, according to his own pleasure, and not in such a manner as he ought, seiz'd their Goods, and hinder'd their sale, of which they had never complain'd, but for great reason. Spex requested Cosequidonnes own Hand-wri­ting to make use of, if they should hereafter suffer more injury by Saphidonne; and also, if he found the business of so weighty a concern, to procure from the Emperor his Imperial License, to deliver and sell, without molestation; but Cosequidonne judg'd it to be needless, so long as William Adams staid, in Surunga, to whom he might write over concerning any miscarriage, against which there should speedy order be taken.

The cunning management of Spex with Cosoquidonne.But Spex fear'd much, considering that time run away e're any Order could come from the Court, for if they could, not be fully Laden in nine Moneths time to come away, that then they were necessitated to lie five Moneths at Pa­nama, not without great damage to them. Cosequidonne apprehending the weight of the matter, then promis'd, that if the Ambassadors Journey reequir'd speed, William Adams might stay, to procure of the Emperor the desir'd License of free-delivering and Trading: Spex thank'd Cosequidonne for that singular courtesie, and presently caus'd a Petition to be drawn in the Japan Tongue, to that purpose; which the same Evening, William Adams deliver'd into Cosequidonne's hands, who immediately reading it over, order'd William Adams to wait in the Morning at the Court, and there deliver the Petition himself, that his Im­perial Majesty would be pleas'd out of his special favor to grant them their request.

The Netherlanders ob­tain'd of the Emperor their request, to the admiration of every one.It happen'd just the very next day, that Sicusabrondonne, who especially fa­vor'd the Netherlanders, was present at the business: These two persons talking together, went and found Goysio Samma the Emperor, and finding him in a good humor, deliver'd the Petition; which being Granted, Sign'd, and Seal'd, William Adams presently convey'd it to the Ambassadors, with a com­mand from the Emperor, That the Netherland Ambassadors should go on their Journey without molestation, and next year bring new Merchandize thither. Sicusabrondonne, and Cosequidonne, sent each of them a Nobleman for Spex and Segerszoon, about this Express, which never any Nation before could presume to, commanding them not to stay longer, but come the following year with new Netherland Commodities, else they would perhaps incur the Emperos dis­pleasure.

They were maintain'd freely for their Journey. William Adams was order'd to conduct them down, and to take care for all things in behalf of the Emperor, necessary for their Journey. The Ambassa­dors humbly thanking them for their so great Bounties, assur'd them, that they would never be found ungrateful, or to fall into the Emperors just dis­pleasure: After, having taken their leave, they took Horse, and rode through Cacingam, and by midnight arriv'd at Arei, defended by a Castle.

The City Astanamia.¶ TWo Miles further lieth Astanamia, a fair City, whose Inhabitants drive a great Trade in Timber; all the Streets and Lanes are full of great Wood-yards, their Houses built all behind; by the way lives a Broker, who deals for the Merchants.

The journey of the Am­bassadors.¶ BEtween Mia and Quano, the Sea makes a Bay into the Land, seven Leagues broad, over which Sailing, after having Landed, they refresh'd at Quan­to, a handsome City, also fortifi'd with a strong Castle. In the Evening they ar­rived within Cammiammi; by Day-break, mounting on Horseback, and going on their Journey, they were surpriz'd about Noon near Znitzamma by a Thun­der Shore, but not stopping, though the Weather continu'd foul, in the Evening they came to Vitzibe.

In Oets the Ambassadors parted, for Spex and William Adams travel'd to Meaco, to deliver Cosequidonne's Letters to Itacura Fovimendonne, and once more to present him with four Ells of Crimson Cloth, two Pieces of black Lute-string, one Piece of Strip'd Silk, and some Pounds of Lead: After many Apologies, he took the Presents, rather, because the Netherland Ambassadors otherwise might doubt of his affection to them, than that ever it was accustom'd so to be. Af­ter their departure, Spex took some Wax-Work along with him, which in his Journey thither he had bespoke; and went on to Fissima, where Segerszoon and John Cousins were arrived with their Goods: Here meeting one another,They meet again. they went all aboard of a Bark, in which they Sail'd to the Suburbs of Osacca, where the Wind blew so hard against them, that they were forc'd to Land, not being able to get further.

They travel to Saccai to observe trade.In the mean time they went on to the City Saccai, famous for Trade, being three Leagues from Osacca, to enquire out the manner of their Dealing, and very happily met there with Melchior Zantfoort, who suffering Shipwrack on that Coast, staid in this City, where he had narrowly observ'd all their Cu­stoms, of which he inform'd Spex, who gave them such satisfaction, that they no way repented their Journey thither.

They come to Firando.Thence from Cussima, the Suburb of Osacca, they went on their way, and on the nineteenth of September, Anno sixteen hundred and eleven, they came to an Anchor before Firando, where they were honorably entertain'd by old Foyesam­ma, and the young Governor Donnesumi; and after the reading of the Letters deliver'd, written by the Council in Surunga and Jedo, and especially the Empe­rors, the two Waiters were immediately Commanded from the Netherland Ship, call'd The Brake, then lying in the Harbor.

The Governor of the Countrey of Firando is the cause of the Trade of the Netherlanders in Japan. Foyesamma obliged the East-india Company exceedingly in this Embassy; for he not onely provided Spex and Segerzoon with a Gentleman to recommend them at Court, but also, Anno 1603. fitted out a Jonk at his own Cost and Charge, to carry Quackernaek and Melchior Zantroort (who lost their Ships on the Japan Shore) to Patane, there to declare the benefit of the Japan Trade to the Netherlanders. This Voyage cost Foyesamma about two thousand Pieces of Eight.

Afterwards, Anno 1609. when the first Ships, being the Red Lyon with Ar­rows, and the Griffin, that came from Batavia to Firando, he furnish'd the chief Merchants, which sought for a free Trade by the Emperor with a Galley of fifty six Oars, which was out two Moneths, and return'd so sadly Weather-beaten, that she was soon after broke up.

Mean while the foremention'd Ships left great store of Pepper at Firando, which Foyesamma bought in at the dearest Rate, because Saphedonne, the Emperor's Governor in Nangesaque, should not ingross the Pepper-Trade to himself; so that no other Merchant durst proffer any Price for it: but Foyesamma losing above twelve hundred Pound thereof, the Charges and Damage which he suf­fer'd for, or by the East-India Company was very great: Neither were his Losses repair'd, though he receiv'd the year before out of ten Chinese Jonks, above four thousand weight of Pepper in Presents.

Presents made to the Governor of Firando.The Netherland Council at Firando taking this into consideration, that Foye­samma might not be discourag'd for his great Favors, and his noble Underta­king, they thought it fit to present him with some rich Presents, though their small Cargo could scarce allow of the same; yet they were as bountiful as they could, and gave the old and young Governor and his Unckle such Gifts, that they were all kindly received. And this was the second Embassy which the Netherlanders sent to Daifusama the Emperor of Japan.

Why Daifusama promo­ted the Foreign Trade. Daifusama, first call'd Ongoschio, and at last Goyssio Samma, was exceedingly pleas'd with such foreign Courtesies. He also endeavor'd by means of the Outlandish Trade to enrich and employ his Subjects, and therefore all Stran­gers were protected by the Emperor, and secur'd from all Affronts; yet not long after a bloody Persecution of the Christians began in his Empire.

Persecutes the Roman Christians.The Jesuit Cornelius Hazart mentions several Martyrs, as Johannes Gorosaimon, Simon Giffioje, Magdalena, Agnes, Melchior Bujandono, Damianus, Leo Xiquigemo, Mi­chael and Martha, besides several Children, which were either beheaded, burnt, or Nail'd on Crosses. Moreover, as to what is related concerning Fayaxinda, his Wife Martha, Daughter Magdalena, and his young Son Jacob, besides Adrian Tacafaxi, Joanna, Leo Canyemon, and Paulus Danyemon, I leave to the pleasure of the Reader to believe. Father Hazart relates their Martyrdom thus:

Hazarts Relation of some Martyrs.¶ HAlf a Mile from Arima stands a House in a Valley, built on eight Pil­lars, cover'd with Straw, and the Walls of Wood. On the seven­teenth of October, Anno 1613. they were led out of the City; at which time it [Page 213]was present death to be a Christian, and yet twenty thousand Christians came to­gether, and divided themselves into several Companies, carrying lighted Tor­ches, and wore red Caps, walking six and six in a row, in the same manner as they go in Procession in Rome and Antwerp, strowing the Paths which they pass'd with Coral and Bays, to the honor of all the Saints. The Martyrs went forth from amongst the Company into the foremention'd House, where every one embrac'd a Wooden Pillar; but whilst the Executioner was tying them fast one after another to the Posts, Leo Canyenon, none knew how, got upon the top of the House, and call'd from thence with a loud voyce, saying, Brothers, this day appears the power of Faith in Jesus Christ, whilst we gladly endure the Flames, which can scarce devour our Bodies; but we shall be rais'd out of the Ashes, to be preserv'd at the day of Judgment from everlasting Fire in a most blessed Life: Brothers, be constant to the Law of God, and account him above your lives and fortunes. Thus having finish'd his Discourse he descended, and suffer'd himself to be ty'd to the eighth Pillar. When they were all bound, the Jesuits Commander, Gasper, shew'd them the Picture of Jesus ty'd to a Post, and miserably Whipp'd in the Synagogue; and calling upon them said, Look how much you resemble our Saviour when he suffer'd un­der Pontius Pilate: This is he for whose love you die, who exprest his affections before­hand when he dy'd for you, to live in him that arose alive from death: He will crown you in Heaven with glorious Crowns. The Executioners staid for the finishing of Gas­per's Speech, then setting the Stakes about the Straw-house on fire, the Martyrs standing about three Foot from it, that so they might roast by degrees. Mean while the Strings with which Magdalen, Fayaxinda's Daughter was made fast being burnt, she fled, not from the Fire, but went and took many glowing Coals, placing them on her Head like a Crown. The Cord of Jacob's young Son was also burnt, and he ran to his Mother Martha, who bid him call upon Jesus Maria. Thus much in short of what Hazart relates, with many Circum­stances of Words and Deeds describ'd at large.

Daifusama persecutes the Roman Christians.But it is very well known, that Daifusama did persecute the Christians very severely, and by strict Edicts commanded all his Substitute Kings to prosecute and punish them according to the Laws; so that in the Kingdom of Bungo they were burnt, and in the Province Chicuin hang'd up by the Legs.

And here Orbedono sat in the City Facata representing the King, at the en­trance of one of their Temples, with four Judges, holding a great Book, in­dors'd thus, A Catalogue of the Names of those that deny'd Christ: In which every one were to subscribe that return'd again to their former Faith; and those that would not were sure to suffer intolerable punishments and death. Amongst great numbers were onely Thomas and Joachim that did not apostatize from their Christianity; therefore they were immediately Hang'd on a Tree by the Feet on two Boughs, that the uppermost his Head, touch'd the lowermost his Feet: thus they hung half a Day, and a whole Night, the Japanners deriding them as they pass'd by, looking upon them as Fools that would suffer so cruel a Death for a strange Religion; but they not regarding their Discourse were soon after beheaded.

Cruelties us'd against them in Xiqui and Arima.In the Island Xiqui the Christians were carry'd about naked, Nail'd on Cros­ses, beheaded, and with many other exquisite tortures put to death.

But above all the Apostate King of Arima exceeded them in their tortures, having amongst other things two sharp Pieces of Wood, between which their Legs were put, and after beat close together, which occasion'd such a grievous Pain, that most forsook the Roman Faith.

Hazart Church Hist.The Reasons which stirr'd up Daifusama to this cruelty, and chiefly since the Year 1613. the Jesuit Hazart saith, are chiefly four.

The first Reason why the Japan Emperor persecu­ted the Christians.The first was Daifusama's suspecting the Spanish Forces, which spread daily more and more over India, insomuch that great Islands and vast Provinces did already bow to them. In the West they had subdu'd a whole new World, call'd America; and still not being satisfi'd with so great a Conquest, was come through the unknown South-Sea, and had there made himself Master of seve­ral Territories in the East; the Molucca Islands, the Castle Malacca, and the far-spreading Philippines being all under his subjection, from whence he might, when he pleas'd, send over his Forces to Japan; not that they are so near that the Philippines may be seen from Japan, as Hazart without reason sets down, their nearest Promontories being at least two hundred Dutch Miles distant from each other, but that Japan being already full of Foreigners which were up in Arms, and also well stor'd with Christians; who knew, but that together in a short time they might deliver it up to a Christian Prince?

The second Reason.The second Reason Hazart tells us was this: A Ship lying at Anchor in a Japan Haven, one Yamondono, a Gentleman of that Countrey, desirous to see the same, went Aboard, where he found the Master looking over the Map of the World: Yamondono entreated him to instruct and inform him concerning the Territories, Mountains, Rivers, Cities, and Havens therein. Nothing more amaz'd him, than to see the Spaniards have Command over so great a part of Europe, America, and Asia, and that they still held their Possession. But the Master being examin'd farther, told him, That his Countreymen drove a Trade with all the World, and that no People suffer'd any damage by them, but what wrong any did them they righted by Arms; with which they had subdu'd many Kingdoms. Yamondano desir'd to know if they did not send their Ministers beforehand, to gain the hearts of the Inhabitants by Preaching the Doctrine of Christ, and to stir them up against their Heathen Governors, to the end that when any Insurrection should happen, they might by a con­junction with the male-content Natives, enable themselves to a more easie Conquest: The Master acknowledg'd that was the Design of their Priests: which Yamondono laying up in his mind, soon after sent word thereof to the Emperor; who slept not upon so weighty a Matter, but resolv'd suddenly to free himself of the Popish Clergy, as his Predecessor Taicosama did, Anno 1587. commanding them all in twenty days to depart from Japan.

Fathom the Japan Har­bors.This News of Yamondono was back'd by another casual Information given to Daifusama, That a Spanish Pilot had fathom'd, and with a Plummet sounded the depth of several Japan Harbors, which was suspected to be done for no other end, but that they intended to Land in some of those Places, and to sub­due Japan, as they had done many Provinces both in the East and West.

The third Reason of the Persecution Hazart lays upon the English and Hol­landers.The third Reason of the Persecution, Hazart lays the blame thereof upon the English and Hollanders, who reported that the Spaniards had aim'd along time to make themselves not onely Masters of Europe, but the West part of the World; and to that end, not many years since they had made great slaughter in Peru, Mexico, France, Netherlands, and other Places, that no Age ever heard of so many and so cruel; That they sent their Priests beforehand to prepare the ways, and under a cloak of Religion to draw the People to their humors, ex­torting great Riches from them; and making them believe, that the Pope hath an absolute and unlimited Power, to dispose of all Kingdoms and Provinces, ac­cording to his will and pleasure, and that Subjects therefore are not ty'd to be [Page 223]always obedient to their Heathen Governors, but might release themselves when they saw a convenient opportunity; That the Jesuits crept in every where, and by subtile Plots and Contrivances sought to dethrone Princes, cau­sing many Murders and Uprores where-ever they came; for which cause seve­ral Christian Princes oftentimes, banish'd them from their Courts and Coun­treys. In France stood a long time an Iron Plate, whereon was Engraven all the Villanies for which they were banish'd out of that Countrey. The Sor­bonne in France presented some years past a Writing to the Court, wherein they shew'd, that the World never bred more traiterous and bloody Villains than the Jesuits. The Cities Antwerp, Padua, Bruges, Tholouse, Bourdeaux, Prague, and other Wall'd Places, oftentimes for their horrid and abominable actions have thrust them forth. And had not the wisdom of the Venetian Governors been deluded along time by their dissimulation of Zeal, they had not so long been pester'd with them: But quickly the English, Scots, and several other Kingdoms, had rid their hands of them by banishment. This Hazart, being himself a Jesuit, sets down as the most prevailing Reason and Motive that stirr'd up Dai­fusama against the Roman Christians, and chiefly the Priests.

The fourth Reason.But the last Fast Fault he lays upon the Japan Prince Portasius, who being King of Arima, pretended to be highly in Favor with the Emperor, because his Son had married Daifusama's Niece, and therefore sought no small share of the Province Figen, which by Inheritance he laid claim to: For the obtaining this his desire, he sent Paulus Daifachi, an expert Courtier, and great Favorite of the Emperor's, with many rich and costly Presents, to deliver to Daifusama; which he refusing, were imbezell'd away. Upon notice whereof, and ob­serving the Protractions us'd in his Business, Protasius was displeas'd with Dai­fusama's Dealings, and apprehended some danger therein. The best way for prevention whereof, and to know where the business halted, he resolv'd in Person to go to the Emperor; to which purpose he went accompany'd with his Son Michael and Daughter in Law: But both of them had a wicked design in their Heads to Murder Protasius, because he would not, according to the Japan Custom, being over-grown in years, resign up his Province. Protasius having receiv'd a denial concerning his business, was banish'd, and Daifachi came to a miserable end, being condemn'd with his Wife to Ride on gall'd and sore Horses through the Streets of Surunga; and on the one and twentieth of April, Anno 1612. ty'd to a Stake surrounded with Fire, at three Foot distance from him, and so by degrees was roasted to death: His Wife obtain'd some fa­vor, having with patience view'd her Husbands deplorable end.

This Protasius had been a chief promoter of the Roman Religion in Arima, which was ill resented by Daifusama, and the more because he did not deliver up the Crown, being antient, to his Son, as the Japan Custom was, but kept the Authority in his own hands.

The fifth Reason why Daifusama persecuted the Christians in JapanBesides these Reasons of Hazart, I find a fifth the occasion of the Persecution in Japan, mention'd in the daily Annotations, or Journal of the Embassy of Frisius and Brookhurst, namely the Portuguese Priests (as the Japanners say) had formerly great priviledges allow'd them, insomuch that they Preach'd their Doctrine, and spread their Religion, as if they were Natives of the Countrey, whose Faith was grounded with the peopling of Japan. They built also Churches, Cloysters, and Schools, planting religious Orders, as in one Place, The Society of the holy Virgin, by Didacus Gonnoia, besides many others, as well Franciscans and Dominicans, as Jesuits, had spread themselves all over Japan, and [Page 224]by their Masses, Confessions, Purgatory, and such like, got an incredible sum of Money of the poor innocent People, bringing every year little less than a Tun of Gold out of the Countrey, insomuch that where ever they came, they generally undid all the People; yet notwithstanding they charm'd them in such a nature, that their Word amongst them was a Law. They had now also got­ten a Bishop at Nangesaque, and were Plotting to depose the Heathen Emperor from his Throne, and to set the Crown on the Head of a Christian Prince, un­der whom they might have free liberty of publishing their Doctrine; but the Letter being discover'd, in which the King of Portugal had advice to make him­self Master of Japan, the Emperor was so exceedi