A NARRATIVE OF THE Causes and Events OF CIVIL-WAR BETWEEN Princes and People.

TOGETHER WITH▪ The manner how the People of Rome, and of the Netherlands▪ Rejected and Abjured their King and Kingly Government; with the form of their Oaths of ABJURATION, Extracted out of the Roman and Netherlands History.

AS LIKEWISE, Some Objections now in Contest concerning the taking of the like Oath in this Common-Wealth, examined and Answered, if not for Satisfaction, at least for Information of such as are concerned.

By F. M.

LONDON: Printed for the Authour, 1659.


IN the Alterations that happen sometimes in a State betwixt the Prince and a People that is Free and Priviledged; there are ordinarily two Points which make them to aim at two several ends: The One is, when as the Prince seeks to have a full subjection and Obedience of the People: And the Other, that the People contrariwise require that the Prince should maintain them in their freedoms and liberties [Page 4] which he hath promised and Sworn solemnely unto them before his Reception unto the Government; thereupon Quarrels grow, the Prince will hold a hard hand, and will by force endeavour to be Obeyed according to Will and Pleasure; and the People rising against the Prince often­times (upon success) do reject his Authority, and seek to embrace and maintain their full liberties.

In these first Motions there happens sometimes Con­ferences at the instance of Neighbours or others in the Na­tion, who may have interest therein to quench this fire of Division betwixt the Prince and his Subjects; and then if any one of the parties groweth obstinate and will not yield, although he seem to be most in fault, it followeth of ne­cessity that they must come to more violent Remedies, that is to say, to Arms: The power of the Prince is great when he is supported by other Princes which joyn with him for the consequence of the Example, else its but small:. But that of the People, which is the Body, whereof the Prince is the Head, stirred up by Conscience, especially if the Question of Religion be touched; the Members ordained for their Function doing joyntly their Duties▪ is far great­er; thereupon they Wound, they Kill, they Burn, they Ruine, and grow desparate of each side; but what is the Event, God who is an Enemy to all Tyranny and Disobe­dience judged of their Quarrels, weigheth them in his Ballance of Justice, helping the rightful Cause, and either causeth the Prince for his Rigour, Oppression, and Tyran­ny to be punished and chased away, and deprived of his Estate and Principality; or the People for their Attempt to be punished and brought to Reason, which causeth the al­teration to cease, and procureth a Peace; whereof there are many Examples, both Ancient and Modern, besides this ensuing Narrative of the People of Rome and the Ne­therlands.

Tarquinus Superbus being the 7th and last King of Rome, after he had Reigned twenty five years was banished from thence, together with the whole Kingly Government, which had then lasted 244 years before the People could [Page 5] shake off that Oppressive yoak of their Kings, which they effected in the manner, and for the Causes following.

Sextus Tarquinus, Vide the first Book of Titus Livius, page 41, 42. Son to King Tarquin the Tyrant, being full of Lust and Cruelty, came to Lucretia's House at Cola­tia, a place not far distant from Rome, where he had been before kindly entertained by her Husband Colatinus, who at that time was absent; and being after Supper brought into the Guest-Chamber, and when he thought all sure, and that every body was fast asleep, he steppeth with naked Sword in hand to Lucretia as she lay in a profound sleep; who starting out of her sleep, heard Tarquinus speak in this manner; I am Sextus Tarquinus, I have my drawn Sword in hand, if thou once speak thou shalt surely die; and if thou wilt not yield to me, I will kill thee; and for thy perpetual shame and dishonour, will cut the throat of thy Servant, and lay him naked by thee, that so it may be rumoured abroad that thou hast been kill'd in Adultery: Whereupon by violence and force he had her Company; The next morning Lucretia did send for her Father and Husband, who brought along with them Valerius and Brutus, to whom (when they came) she told that Sextus Tarquinus was the man, who that night past entertained as a Friend, but indeed a very Foe in the highest degree, had by force and violence taken from hence his pleasure; a deadly pleasure I may say to me, and to himself no less, if you be men of Courage.

All of them gave their▪ assured word and comforted her, whereupon she said, Well, what is his due to have, see you to that; as for me, I quit and assoil my self from sin, yet I will not be freed from punishment, and after other words uttered, with a knife hid under her cloaths, stab'd her self; out cryed her Husband and Father thereat, and while they two were in their plaints and moans, Brutus drew forth the knife out of the wound of Lucretia, holding it out all embrewed and dropping with bloud; said, Now I swear by this blood, by this most chaste and pure blood, before the villanny wrought by the Kings Son, and here before the Gods I protest whom I call to witnesse, that I will by Fire and Sword, and with all my might and main, per­secute [Page 6] [...]ree the Countrey of Tarquinus, the proud and his im­perious Wife and the whole brood of his Children, and suffer nei­ther him no [...]ny else for his sake to reig [...] King at Rome; Then gave he the knife to [...]tinus Lucretius, and Valerius who took the same Oath, and leaving their lamentations follow­ed Brutus as their Captain and Leader, to put down and o­verthrow the Government of Kings, and utterly to root out the Race; The dead Corps of Lucretia was brought in the Market-place, and there shewed to the people, who with wondering at such a sight, and so foul and unworthy a fact, they raised much People together, every man for his part was ready to complain of the wickednesse and vi­olence done by the Kings Blood; Brutus who rebuked all vain weeping and foolish moaning, moved and perswaded all that were present, that like men of valour, like true-hearted Romans, they would take Arms against those that demeaned themselves no better, nay worse then ordinary Enemies.

Thereupon all the People Armed themselves, and to­wards Rome they went, where in the Market place he rela­ted to the people then assembled the villany committed up­on Lucretia; And moreover he laid abroad the pride of the King himself, the miseries, the infinite toil and pain of the Commons buried as it were under ground, with clean­sing and casting of Ditches, voiding and farming of the Sinks; saying that the men of Rome who were the Con­querors of all Nations about them, were now of Warriors be­come Quarriors, hewers of Stone, and day-labourers; thus re­hearsing these and other matters, much more grievous and horrible, he so mightily inflamed the multitude, that he caused the King to be deposed and degraded of his Royal State and dignity, yea and to decree and enact, that King Tarquinus and his Wife and Children should be banished for ever, which accordingly was effected; and after all the Armies and people had forsaken him, Brutus being then appointed Consul, and for fear least the Magistrates and people might at any time after be won by entreaty, or moved by gifts on the Kings part, he caused them to swear, that they would never suffer any to be King at Rome, after which [Page 7] the Senate was fil'd with such as took the same Oath,Vide▪ The se­cond Book of Titus Livius, p. 44, 45. in lieu of those that were murthered by the Kings command, to the full number of three hundred▪ so jealous were the people afterwards of their Liberties, that one of their Con­suls name being Tarquinus, without they could have any other thing to say against him but his Name, who they said was dangerous to a Free-State, thereupon was perswaded to retire from the City, and Brutus by an act and decree of the Senate, proposed to the people, That all the Race and Linage of the Tarquin's should be exiled and banished, which was accordingly effected.

No man doubted then, but that the Tarquins were about to take Arms, but seeing that no man feared, the Romans had like by Fraud and Treason at home, to have lost and foregon their freedoms again, and that the Reader may know that the very same thing endeavoured at Rome to re­store the Tarquins, is that which hath several times been, and at present is endeavoured in England; The story is briefly thus;

There were certain Youths of the flower of Rome, de­scended of no low Degree nor Parentage, who in the Kings dayes had lived like young Princes, more loosely and at pleasure as Companions and play-fellows with the young Tarquins the Kings sons,Vide The same Book, page 45, 46, 47. who seeking to enjoy the same li­centious life still in this Equality of state, wherein all o­thers then lived, made moan and Complained one to ano­ther, that the liberty of others turned to their servitude. The King say they, Is a man at whose hand one might ob­tain somewhat as need requireth, were the cause right or were it wrong, where a man might find favour and friend­ship, as who could be displeased and angry, and also for­give and remit a fault, and knew well how to make differ­ence between a friend and a foe; As for Laws they are deaf and inexorable, more wholesome and commodious to the poor then to the rich and mighty, affording no release or pardon, if one chance to trespasse and transgresse, and a ticklish Point it is and perilous for a man amongst so many errors, whereto our frailty is subject, to bear himself onely [Page 8] upon his innocent life; being thus of their own accord al­ready discontent (as it may boldly be averred the young Nobility and others of the loose people of England are at this time upon the like account) suddenly unlookt for came Ambassadors to Rome from King Tarquinus, who without mention at all of return, demanded onely their goods a­gain, and while the businesse was in debate in the Senate, these Ambassadors privately sounded the minds of these young Gentle-men, whom they found ready to conspire with them for the return of the King. The Ambassadors having obtained the restauration of the Kings goods, and ready to depart, had private meetings with those young Gentle-men, who for assurance of their fidelity to the King, signed a Letter which they delivered to the said Am­bassadors, all which was detected by a bond-slave, who had overheard them when they delivered the Letter, pre­sently giving notice thereof to the Consul, who apprehen­ded the said Ambassadors, and found the said letter, and thereupon all the Conspirators were apprehended; And to see how much Pagans made esteem of their Oaths and Pro­testations, Brutus then Consul, having two of his Sons, to wit, Titus and Tiberius, who were in the Conspiracy, himself saw them executed, and being bound at a Stake, the people pittied them not so much for being punished, as for deserving by their fact to be punished, that they could find in their hearts, and once let enter into their thoughts, to betray into the hands of Tarquinus (a proud Prince, and then a cruel enemy and banished Rebel) their Native Coun­trey, lately, and in that very year set free from Captivity, and their Natural Father who set it free. Now for the Kings goods which were ordered to be restored, were flatly afterwards denied by the Senate, who would not con­fiscate and bring them to the Publick Treasury, but were given away amongst the Commons, to the end they ha­ving once touched or seized on the Kings goods, as a booty, might for ever after be past all hope of any peace or favour with them.

Not long afterwards Tarquin obliged King Perceua with a [Page 9] cruel Army to march against Rome, & to endeavour the restoring of him to the Kingdom, and to shew how much it conduceth to the safety of a Commonwealth that the People thereof should engage against the banished Kings, and absolutely to abjure and renounce them and their line for ever, and how far such an Oath doth engage a People to keep them out, take this short story of King Porcena, being with his Army at the very walls of Rome, and in great hope to take it and restore Tar­quin▪ one Cajus Mucius afterwards surnamed Scaevola, together with others of the Romans, to the number of 300. engaged one with another to venture their lives in going to the Camp of Porcena, and to kill him, rather then suffer their Country to be again enslaved.Vide, The second Book of Titus Livius page 49, to 54. It fell to the lot of this Scaevola to go first, and coming into the Camp with a scain hid under his garment, he presseth in the thickest throng to stand near the Kings Tri­bunal; it happened, that then and their the Souldiers were re­ceiving their pay, and the Chancellor or King Porcenas prin­cipal Secretary sate together with the King in like aray; Scaevola fearing to enquire whether of them two were Porcena, least he should discover himself, in lieu of Porcena he killed the Chancellor, and afterwards with his bloody weapon making his way through the fearful multitude, was laid hold on and brought before King Porcena sitting then upon his Throne, to whom he said, I am a Citizen of Rome, and Cajus Mucius is my name, a professed Enemy I confesse, and an Enemy would I have slain, as ready and willing am I to die my self as I was to kill another, for both to do and suffer valiantly is the part of a Noble Roman, and its not I alone that carry this resolution, against thee O King, there is a long train behind of them that seek to win the same praise and honour, make thee ready therefore and arm thy self if thou think good against this danger, and reckon every hour to be in hazard of thy life, and to have alwayes at the very Court gates thy Enemies sword; This kind of War we youths of Rome denounce openly to thee, no battel, no fight else shalt thou need to fear, with thee alone will we all one by one have to do, and with no other. Hereat King Porcena incensed with wrath, and for the danger he stood in affrighted withall, commanded in menacing wise, that he should be fryed at a stake, unless he would presently unfold [Page 10] in plain terms what secret and dangerous practices he meant, and threatned under covert circuit of words and intricate cir­cumstances; Lo, said he again, how little they set by this car­case that aspires to great glory and aim at honour, and with that thrust his right hand into the hearth of fire that was made for the sacrifice, and when he endured the roasting thereof, as if he had been senceless and felt no pain, the King well nigh astonish­ed at this wonderful and miraculous sight, started up from his Royal Seat and Chair of State, commanding the young man to be had from the Altar; Go thy wayes (said he) in peace, thou hast done thy self more mischief then thou hast attempted a­gainst my person, I would say God blesse thee, and worthy hast thou been of honour for thy pro [...]ess, if it were in my ser­vice and in the behalf and defence of my own Country, and now by the Law of War I discharge thee freely and give thee leave to depart without any hurt or abuse offered unto thee. Then Scaevola as it were to requite his courtesie and desert, said, Forasmuch as thou settest so great esteem in valour, and honourest vertue so highly, to the end it may be seen, that thou shalt get at my hands by courtesie that which by cruel threats thou couldct not, these are therefore to let thee understand, that there are 300. of us Noble youths, even the very flower and Knighthood of Rome, that have con­spired and swore thy death, and in this manner to assail thee; my lot it was to be the first, the rest as is shall fall out will be here very shortly and wait every man his turn and time until they hit right up­on thee; Scaevola was no sooner gone back to Rome, but sudden­ly followed after him Ambassadours from Porceua, offering the Romans conditions of Peace, which was agreed, and Porceuae withdrew his Army from Rome. But sometimes after sent other Ambassadours again to Rome to treat about restoring the Tar­quins to the Realm, to whom the Romans answered, that the Senate would send Ambassadours to King Porceus himself, who accordingly were dispatched, and delivered the speech follow­ing, that the chief of their Nobles were sent rather then any dispatch given by word of mouth to his Ambassadours at Rome, not for that they could have shapen them this short an­swer, they will no Kings have, but to this end that for ever af­ter there should be no suite rend [...]ed of that matter; nor in so [Page 11] great mutual benefits and favours passed between them, some discontentment arise on either side while he might be thought to request that which is repugnant and prejudiciall to the liberty of Rome, and the Romans again (unless they would be executors of their own wrongs, and seek their own destructi­on) to make denyal unto him, whom by their good wills they would not seem to deny any thing of the world. But as to the substance of the matter this was the point, namely that the people of Rome were not under the Government of Kings, but were a free State, and fully setled in this purpose, to set open their gates sooner unto Enemies then to Kings, and were generally of this mind and resolution, that when the Freedom of that City had an end, then should the City come to an end also, to conclude therefore they were to entreat him that if he tendred the Weal and safetie of Rome, he would permit them to be free still at their own Liberty; King Porceus over­come with very modestie and much abased himself, answered thus again, Since you are so fully minded and stifly bent (said he) neither will I importune you, nor dull your ears with harping still upon this unpleasing string, and do no good, nor bear the Tarquins any longer in hand, and deceive them of that hope of ayde, which nothing at all is in my power to perform, let them henceforth seek any other place of Exile either for peace or War as they shall think most expedient, that there may be nothing to let and hinder the free course of amity and alli­ance between me and you. Thus Tarquinus seeing all hopes of return cut off, removed to Tuscalum, and afterwards died at Cumes.

Thus Reader thou hast a short Narrative of the Cause and Manner of the Banishment of the Kings of Rome, and what course the Romans took to keep them out from ever returning. Now followeth that of the Netherlands, in freeing themselves from the yoak of Philip the King of Spain, as it is extracted out of the Edict or De­claration of the General Estates of the Nether­lands, dated at the Hague the 26th of Iuly, 1581.

TO all those that these Presents shall see, read or hear, Greeting; As it is well known unto all men,Vide, The General Hi­story of the Netherlands, written by Grimeston and Cross, and Printed in the year 1627. that a Prince and Lord of a Country is ordained by God to be Soveraign & Head over his Sub­jects, and to preserve and defend them from all injuries, force and violence, even as a Shepherd for the defence of his sheep, and that the Subjects are not created by God for the Prince to obey him in all he shall Command, be it with God or against him, reasonable or un­reasonable, nor to serve him as Slaves and Bond men; but rather the Prince is ordained for his Subjects (without which he cannot be a Prince) to Govern them according to Law, Equity and Reason, to take care for them and to love them,Vide, The 12 Book, page 659. to page 666. even as a Father doth his Children, or a Shepherd his Sheep, who putteth both his body and life in danger, to defend and preserve them; If the Prince there­fore faileth herein, and instead of preserving his Subjects, doth out­rage and oppress them, depriveth them of their priviledges and an­tient Customs, commandeth them and would be served of them as of slaves, they are no longer bound to respect him as their Soveraign Prince and Lord, but to esteem of him as of a Tyrant; Neither are the Subjects (according unto Law and Reason) bound to ac­knowledge him as their Prince, so as without any offence being done with Deliberation and Authority of the States of the Countrey, they may freely abandon him, especially, when as the Subjects by humble Suite, Entreaty and Admonitions could never mollifie their Princes heart, nor divert him from his Enterprise and Tyrannous designs, so as they have no other means left them to preserve their antient Liberties, their Wives, [Page 13] Children and Posterity, for the which (according to the Law of Na­ture) they are bound to expose both Life and Goods, as for the like occasion we have seen it to fall out often in divers Countreys, whereof the examples are yet fresh in memory, which ought especially to be of force in these Countreys, who have alwayes been and ought to be Governed according to the Oath taken by their Princes, when they receive them, conformable to their Priviledge and antient Custome, having no power to infringe them; besides, that most part of the said Provinces have alwayes received and admitted their Princes and Lords upon certain Conditions and sworn Contracts, which if the Prince shall violate, he is by Right fallen from the Rule and Superiority of the Countrey, &c.

And after they have made a Recital of his Cruelties, Oppressions and Tyrannies, they further proceed.

THat having duly considered all these things, and being prest by extreme necessity, We have by a General Resolution and Consent, Declared, and do Declare by these Presents, the King of Spain (ipso jure) to be fallen from the Seignory, Principality, Ju­risdiction and Inheritance of these Countreys; and that we are Resolved never to acknowledge him any more in any matter concern­ing the Prince, Jurisdictions or Demean of these Netherlands, nor to use hereafter, neither yet to suffer any other to use his Name as So­veraign Lord thereof, according to which we Declare all Offi­cers, private Noble men, Vassals and other Inhabitants of these Countreys, of what Condition or Quality soever, to be from hence­forth discharged of the Oath which they have made in any manner whatsoever unto the King of Spain, as Lord of these Countries, or of that whereby they may be bound unto him, &c. Enjoyning and Commanding all Judges, Officers and all others to whom it shall appertain, That hereafter they forbear to use any more the Name, Titles, great Seal or Signet of the King of Spain, and have Injoyn­ned and Commanded, and do Injoyn and Command, that all the King of Spain▪ Seals which are at this present within these Ʋnited Provinces, shall be delivered into the Sates hands, and that from henceforth the Name and Armes of the King of Spain, shall not be [Page 13] put nor stampt in any Coyns of these Ʋnited Provinces, but that there shall be such a figure set upon them as shall be appointed, &c. In like sort we Injoyn and Command the Presidents and Lords of the Councel and all other Chancellours, Presidents, Provincial Counsuls, and all Presidents & chief Masters of Accounts & others of all Cham­bers of Accounts, being respectively in these Countreys, and also all other Judges and Officers, as holding them discharged of the Oath which they have made to the King of Spain, according to the Te­nure of the Commissions, that they shall take a New Oath in the hands of the States of the Provinces where they are, or to their De­puties, whereby they shall Swear to be faithful to us against the King of Spain and his Adherents, according to the Form set down by us; which Oath accordingly was taken by the Publick Officers and Magi­strates of every Town and Province, and is as followeth:

I Swear, that hereafter I shall not serve nor yield obedience to Philip King of Spain, nor acknow­ledge him for my Prince and Lord, whom I do Renounce by these Presents, and do hold my self Free from all Oaths and Bands by the which I might be formerly tyed unto him. Whereof find­ing my self presently Freed, I Swear anew, and bind my self to the United Provinces, and namely, to them of Brabandt, Guelder, Hollandt, Zealandt, and their Allies, and to the Soveraign Magistrates that are appointed, to be Faithful and Loyal unto them, to yield them all Obedience, aid and Comfort with all my Power and means, against the King of Spain and his. Adherents, and against all the Enemies of the Countrey, promising as a good Subject of the Countrey to carry my self Faithfully and Loyally, with shew of all Obedience to my Superiors; So, help me the Almighty God.

Many notwithstanding made great difficulty to Abjure the King and to take the New Oath, among others a Councellour [Page 15] of Frieslandt, a man of great Judgement and Experience, called Raa [...]da, hearing the Abjuration propounded in open Councel at Leuwarden, and the renewing of the Oath (whether it were through a sudden amazement, or for the affection which he bare to the King of Spain) was so troubled, as he fell in a Convulsion and died presently.

Now impartial Reader, that you have seen a short and true Narrative extracted out of antient and modern History, where­by you may receive satisfaction of the causes wherefore the Romans and our Neighbours of the Netherlands Rejected and Renounced their Kings and kingly Office, and how they pro­vided against their ever returning to Rule over them; upon the whole matter it may be queried, whether the Parliament and good People of England, after God had so signally and mi­raculously owned their Cause against the late King and Fami­ly, have not had an equivalent or far greater Cause to Free these three Nations of the yoak of Monarchs and Monarchy, then the Romans or the States of the Netherlands had, which any one may easily be convinced of, if he will but take the pains and time to read the History of the Reign of the Kings of Eng­land, Scotland, &c. but especially from the coming of that Bastard brood to the late Tyrant; What murthers, rapines, op­pressions, wars, devastations, cruelties, ravishments and what not have been acted in the three Nations, during that time? I shall onely hint to some few, as first of King John, of whom the History relates, that when he had endeavoured by force of Armes and by other barbarous cruelties to impose his yoak of bondage and slavery over his People, whom he forced to take up Armes for his own defence, and that after they had obtai­ned several victories against him, whereby he was reduced to great extreams, yet would not grant them Peace, till he had made Tryal of all manner of cruel wayes to subdue them by force, one whereof was, that rather then grant to the People their Liberties and Freedoms, he sent to the King of the Moors, and made him an offer that if he would send an Army in England, he would deliver up his right and title to him.

But to come nearer our time, what cruel Murtherer and Ty­rant was Richard the third and Henry the 8th▪ his own Queens [Page 16] and many of his Nobles could not escape his fury, and that for no other crime but to satisfie his cruelty, lust and pleasure; so notorious was he, that to this day the Proverb remaineth resent of him, That he neither spared man in his fury, nor woman in his lust. Queen Mary another fury, how many pretious Souls she caused to be brought to the stake and burned. King James, so little he esteemed the lives of the People (although no man of War) yet (if by accident) any one hindred his sport in Hunting, or not opened a Gate as soon as he comman­ded, he would curse and swear, and give express command that such a one should be hanged; And for his Son, what wars, desolations and miseries hath he been authour of in the 3 Nations, how many thousands killed and ruined, how many millions of Treasure exhausted, what Plots contrived by him and his Queen to subvert Law and Religion in these Na­tions, his inviting of the German Horse in time of Peace, and in time of War pawn the Jewels of the Crown, to bring over whole Regiments of Papists, to kill, destroy, plunder, ravish and barbarously use the Protestant People of this Nation; And moreover of my certain knowledge their sending Sir Kelom Digbys to the Pope for Assistance, &c.

The realty of these unparallel'd actings being seriously cor­sidered, and all by-ends and self-interest laid aside, and one­ly that of the Publick eyed upon, then it must needs be ac­knowledged, that besides those enormities, that many Lu­cretias have been ravished by those Kings and their Interest, and that their wars, devastations and cruelties have far excee­ded either those of the Tarquin's, or Kings of Spain at Rome or in the Netherlands; in Rome the ravishing of one Lucretia (by the Kings son) was the principal occasion of the Peoples banishing and abjuring the whole brood of their Kings; and in the Netherlands the oppression and cruelty of the King of Spain occasioned the States of that Countrey to do the like; Weigh but the one and the other together in the Ballance of Justice and Reason, against the cruelties and licentious wills of our Kings, and you will be sure to find them light and in­considerable; as to what hath been exercised here since the Normans subdued England under their heavy and oppressive [Page 17] yoak; that in reason it must be acknowledged and granted that for the safety of the People, the Parliament of England have (after their so many signal Victories, and their ownings of God for the same) far more and justifiable reasons, to re­nounce and cause to be renounced, the whole Line of the Kings and kingship, or other single Persons pretending any right or title of Chief Magistrates over these Nations, then either the Romans or State of the Netherlands had in renouncing and abjuring their King and kingship; against which Oath it may be Objected,

First, That the Oath of Abjuration taken by the Romans and Netherlands could not be advantagious to them as for the keeping out their Kings from returning, and that (say some) because any wicked man to bring his designs to pass, will make no Difficulty nor Conscience to swallow any manner of Oaths.

To which it may be Answered, that this short Narrative extracted out of the History, is sufficient to remove that Obje­ction; for first, It is not to be doubled, had it not been for the Oath taken by the Romans against the return of their Kings, undoubtedly they had never been kept out.

And secondly for the States of the Netherlands, It was not onely useful to weed out of their Armies and Garrisons all the friends of the King of Spain, and likewise out of the Courts of Justice and other places of eminent trust; and certainly, if the hearing of it read and proposed could have so much power as to kill that Great and Wise Counsellor, how much more dreadful was it to all others of the King of Spains faction and party, who several of them upon refusal of the said Oath were displaced out of their several imployments; and besides it is very remarkable, that after it was imposed upon all Military Officers, there was neither Garrisons nor Forces betrayed to the King of Spain, as formerly before it was daily observed there was; whereupon the King of Spain was forced to make Peace with them.

And thirdly, It is impossible for the rarest Artists of the world to erect any lasting Fabrick upon an old Foundation, unless first the rubish and old ruine thereof be absolutely re­moved and cast out, so likewise and comparatively it is impos­sible [Page 18] of a Monarchical Government to introduce and establish upon a sure basis a Democratical Government, without first casting off and renouncing that old ruinous and rubish Go­vernment of King and kingship, which if it had been effected in the year 1648 when these Nations were declared a Free State, by imposing an Oath of that nature upon those Persons then e­minently intrusted in Civil & Military places, there is sufficient ground to believe that Cromwell nor his Adherents would never have attempted to subvert and usurp the Government as they did, which hath in a manner almost ruined both the Cause and Nation; and for want of taking such an Oath, we see what hopes the Family of the Stuarts and other single Persons have had and have still to return, which will never be removed, until (in imitation of our Neighbours the Netherlands) those back-doors be dammed up by taking such an Oath; and moreover doth not at present the Royal Party dare with bold­ness assert and maintain, laying Wagers to one that the Chief in Parliament and Army will refuse the same, and upon that do openly declare their great hopes, which would be soon o­ver if those Worthies would be but sensible thereof, and put no further delayes in a business of so great concernment to the settlement of the Nation and Commonwealth.

The second Objection which is found in the mouths of ma­ny which are no better then kinglings, but would put it off upon a case of Conscience (viz.) That in case God who is the Omnipotent over all Governments of the world, should in his Providence seem good to bring back some of the Line of the late King to be Ruler over these Nations, then say they, if we should take such an Oath of Abjuration or Renunciation, we should be found to have resisted the Will of God.

For Answer, God is Just and Righteous in all his Dispen­sations and Providences, and for any Person that hath seen and several times returned thanks unto him for his wonderful and miraculous Providences in owning a Cause so much contended for, by giving so many signal and mar­vellous Victories and Deliverances to this Parliament and their Forces, against the late King & Family in several conflicts, and that at such a time when he was very formidable, and his party [Page 19] and Armies consisted of most of the Nobility and Gentry of the three Nations, and yet God by making use of a company of men of low Estate and condition, and not brought up in the Military Art, did in such wonderful manner own and prosper them in that War against the King and his Son, that at length the Father was by his Divine Providence brought to the block, and the Sons endeavours all blasted and brought to nought, I say when men have been eye witnesses of such extra­ordinary Providences, in not onely blasting and disowning Kingship in that Family, but likewise in the late family of the Apostate Cromwells who attempted the same, and that by a Parliamentary way; And besides for such as have made War against Kingship and against that Family, and Voted the King­ly office uselesse, dangerous and chargeable, making it Treason to promote Charles Stuart or any other to be chief Magistrate of England, selling all the support of Kingship and all other Estate belonging to it; And seeing also the Parliament after several interruptions (during which time several endeavours were used to bring kingship again) to be miraculously restored, & to live to see God take vengeance of all those who had been chief Actors in endeavouring to inthrall us under the yoke of the Crom­wells, &c. for such I say again after all this not to be convinced of the lawfulness of renouncing or declaiming that whole line and others pretenders to it, is certainly to doubt of Gods con­stancy and Justice, there being as much conscience or reason to plead the same providence against abjuring, renouncing or declaiming the Popes Supreamacie over these Nations, who for during far longer time had Dominion and Jurisdiction over them, so that upon the whole matter, it cannot be imagined that if the pleasure of God was such as to suffer any of that Family or other, to Rule over these Nations, that it can be to any other end then as a scourge and Plague to the Nations and to those persons in particular who are so incredulous and time­rous, who with many other in the Nation may be compared to those of the Israelites, who (after their wonderful deliverances from under the yoke of King Pharaoh) did murmure while they were in the wilderness, desiring to return to their former State and condition of slavery and bondage, by reason they could [Page 20] not enjoy the Garlick and Onions of Egypt, not minding the Land of Caanan and of plenty, towards which they were go­ing, which is the condition of many murmurers in these Na­tions who cannot or rather will not see nor dive into the Free­dom and plenty to be had and enjoyed under a Democratical or Free-state Government, which is the thing now aimed and laboured hard for, and which without doubt had long since been obtained and enjoyed, but for the endeavours and desires of so many in the Nation to return to their Egyptian bondage and slavery.

Lastly, An expedient is by some learned men, proposed and offered in lieu of taking the Oath of Abjuration, Renuntiation or Declamation of the Race of the Kings, &c. say such a Law may be made whereby it shall be declared to be high Treason for any per­son to propose, help or endeavour the bringing any of that family or others to be chief Magistrates of England, &c.

To which it is answered, that such a Law (without first im­posing such an oath) cannot oblige any person against the return of any of that line, or the introduction of any other single Per­son, and that for these reasons▪

First, Such a Law doth not bind the Consciences and per­sons of any as an Oath doth, which is voluntary and personal­ly obliging.

Secondly, Because of late there hath been a sufficient expe­riment of the same in Cromwell and others, assuming to them­selves the Government of these Nations, although it was here declared high Treason by a known Law so to do.

Thirdly, Because such a Law (although never so strict) may be repealed, which such an Oath can never be.

Fourthly, Because if any one of that family or other should attempt by force to overthrow the Government of these Na­tions, such a law obliges no man to oppose them, which an Oath doth in [...]erminis.

Lastly, Because such a Law cannot discover who that is in the Commonwealth service, that may be an Enemy to it, which an Oath will soon discover, and out all such Kinglings both out of the Courts of Justice, as likewise out of the Army and Garrisons.


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