DETECTING Their necessary Connexion, and de­pendance on each other.

WITHALL A DISCOVERY Of the Frauds of the


  • The Physicians Circuit,
  • The History of Physick;
  • And a Lash for Lex Talionis.
Homine semidocto quid iniquius?

London, Printed, and are to be Sold in Little-Britain. 1670.



TO those whom Nature hath raised out of a refined mould, and are by their Edu­cation sublimed to a higher sphaere, as the Gentry and Literate Persons of England, this Discourse is no wise directed, unless accidentally by a superficial view, they should give themselves the divertisement of admiring the folly, indiscre­tion, and fond passion of the Uulgar, whom moving [Page] erratically in a lower region, is the proper task of these Sheets, to reduce to a more certain and less planetary motion.

As the Art of Physick through its excellency hath ever dignified Physicians to that Degree, as to appear most acceptable to Kings, Princes, and all others of the highest ranck; so likewise have Physicians retributed a just gratitude to their Art, by super adding to it that lustre and splendor, derived from their most succesful Cures and excellent Practice, and particularly from that so famed Aesculapian College of London, and o­ther Doctors of Physick, who by their Study and Experience, through Travel have of right merited that title: These and their Art have of late years been rendred subject to the same fate Religion and the Law not long before, of being subverted by the ignorance and ambiiton of such whose brain is as subject to vapors, as the climat wherein they live, being all manner of wayes ignorant of the delicious fruits of life, that are reaped from a con­stancy in their Church-worship, their subjection to Government, and in their due Veneration of Learning. Their ignorance is discernable in their sensless liberality, of conferring the honour and title of Doctor upon every Quack, Empirick, Surgeon, Apothecary, and almost every one that carries but the scent of Mithridate about him; and [Page] the Ambition of these is no less ridiculous in re­ceiving that mock-title. However since it is their vulgar humour so to do, I have for their better un­derstanding corresponded with it so far, as to con­tinue the same titles of Physician, Doctor, Church­yard and Hackney Physician applied to the same parties, viz. to Quacks, Empiricks, Praescribing Surgeons, and Practising Apothecaries, for the most part meaning no other but such, unless where for distinction the Reader will occur with the ad­dition of Accomplisht. My name I have purpose­ly concealed, because from this small labour I pro­mise my self no other advantage, than a complacen­cy in my own sentiment, of having performed a duty, that Noble Art, and it's most Ingenious Artists, require from all, that have received a benefit from it and them, in defending its honour and e­minency from the abuse and violation of such mean and pitiful animals, as are aboue mentioned.

And among that fry, none arrogate a greater sharp in the practice of Physick, than the praescrib­ing Surgeons, who seem to be enfranchised in it, since now a dayes Physicians take so little inspecti­on into their boutchery, and inhumane practice, which because I shall not much insist upon in the ensuing Discourse; I will insert an instance or two here: One I knew, that against a Diarrhoea or loosness, gave the Patient two drams of Diapalma [Page] Plaster made up in Pills, for several dayes, which through the quantity of lythargir it contain'd, gra­dually poyson'd the party. Another presented his Pa­tient with half an ounce of Mercurius Dulcis a day, for ten dayes together, which absolutely destroyed the tone of the stomach, subverted the temperament of the brain, and at last rendred him paralytick. A third upon the exhibition of red Praecipitate ill praepared & worse applied, after innumerable stools praecipitated the Patient into his Coffin; this and many other disasters were the consequence of a huge Army-Bone-Setter's practice; who for his Propha­nations, and Atheistical opinions is the Monstrum horrendum of all men; & for his extream illitera­ture is the only he, I should admire, that through his impertinent and fastidious boldness did arrive to the least repute, were it not his attendance on a great person had given a seeming appearance of his bungling skill.

After all this, I must in short acquaint you with the remainder of my scope, chiefly ayming to di­stinguish those Praescribing Surgeons, and Practi­sing Apothecaries, by their dangerous and fraudu­lent practice, from skilful Chirurgeons and Honest Apothecaries; for both which I have not only a due respect and esteem, but shall hereby endeavor to convince all accomplisht Physicians of the ne­cessity of their employments, and dependance on [Page] their Art, making it my only request, not to take amis, what may be expressed in Drollery or earnest against those of their fraternity, that are no less injurious to the Noble Practice of Physick, than the necessary Employ of Skilful Surgeons and Ho­nest Apothecaries.

My vulgar Reader I hope will not be offended with my franck humour of having objected their fickle-headed inconstancy, which quality being set aside, it may without partiality be asserted, they are a people, whom for their more than ordinary endow­ments of Mind, singular Valour and address in their Arms, Nature particularly hath distinguisht from all other Nations of the Continent, by seating them in a most beautiful Island, and putting in their hands the Scale of Iustice, to compose or de­cide the Disputes of all Foreign Princes by their invincible Power at Sea and Land.

The Accomplisht Physician, AND The Honest Apothecary.

TO discommend what so many are fond of, is a character no wayes obliging; and therefore disco­vering the familiar cheats and impostures of those, whom our vulgar doth so passionately af­fect, must necessarily prove a work of very slen­der merit. However, since I do not compute the vain applauses of a credulous rabble the just price of my labours, nor dread the venomous darts of those I make the subject of my discourse, but chiefly rendring my self to that vertue, where­by men are spirited to work a publick good to their private disadvantage, shall now open to your sight, the skulls of such as are commonly intrusted with your health, where you may be­hold [Page 2] the wheels of their brain, framing subtil practices, to drain your dropsical purses, and play the fool with your consumptive bodies.

§ But that all this should be transacted with a delight to the Patient, may seem no less than a riddle, though easily resolved; for as in cheat­ing there is a Bonum utile, so in being cheated there is a Bonum jucundum, the Impostor usually impressing an expectation more pleasant than or­dinary on his Patients fancy, which doth not a little tickle his dull spleen. This confirms the truth of the Motto, Vúlgús vúlt decipi, The vul­gar will needs be cheated; a saying that's more applicable to the commonalty of this Horizon, than of any other in Europe. For that once a a Heel-maker, should arrive to an Estate of many thousands, by selling Barley water with a few drops of Spirit of Salt in it, were in no other Ci­ty possible, than on Tower-Wharf in London; or that a rational people should permit their purses to be gelded, and their bodies anatomized alive by a huddle of Empiricks, as that Hatband-ma­ker, once of Moorfields; the Gunsmith in Barba­can; that old doating piece of Nonsense in Southwark; besides many more, not worth the value of my Inck and Paper, can only be report­ed of our English: Or that not long since, a French Mountebank Doctor, (who for many [Page 3] years in his own Countrey, could scarce counter­poise his ordinary expences, with the fruits of his practice,) should in less time than the com­mon life of a Physician, extract a mass of two hun­dred thousand Iacobus's out of the Mines of English Church-yards, is an Argument for other Nations, to accuse us of an extream wantonness in our pockets. But I must praetermit illustrating that Subject, not being embarqued in a design of reproving, but informing my vulgar Reader.

§ The Law looks very grim upon Gipsies for cheating young folks, though of a very small part of their money, by conjecturing at their For­tunes, which possibly may oft correspond with the purpose of their praediction, though other times may vary: But vulgar Physicians, and those of no indifferent report, do not only conje­cture grosly at the Diseases of their Patients, but also most times make a shameful difference be­tween their conjectures, and the state and event of those Diseases, whereby the party is defrauded of a great part of his mony, and like a fool his expe­ctation frustrated.

Here may be demanded, which of these is the greatest cheat; the Gipsie, who for a trifle it may be a Beggers Alms, gives his Auditor a divertise­ment of a pleasant discourse, leaving him withall to a free election of crediting what he pleases, or [Page 4] the vulgar Hackney Physician, who imposes an obligation on his Patient, to believe his imperti­nent sentiment of his infirmity, and for so doing is satisfied with no less than a whole gripe of Half Crowns? Certainly, where there is a due propo [...] ­tion observed between the recompence and the merit, that cannot be comprehended within the circumference of a cheat, and therefore one might justly aver an indemnity in the Gipsies penny, though no small cheat in the vulgar Empiricks Iacobus.

§ But to prevent your censuring me, overba­lanced with a prejudice to those, that so much abuse that noble Profession; I'le conduct you into their usual road and method, of examining their Patients, and making inquiry into their Diseases, wherewith being acquainted, you may (though of never so unpolisht a skull) as readily pronounce a Verdict, as the best Lye-a-bed till noon.

§ This knack doth chiefly consist in three notions, viz. First, that a Patients grievance is either a discernable evident disease, which his own confession makes known to you, what it is; or Secondly an inward pain; or Thirdly, one of these two Endemick Diseases, a Scurvy, or Con­sumption, or a third, the Pox. This is their The­ory, which is so deep engrafted on their Dura [Page 5] Mater, and may be acquired with less industry, than fourteen years study at one of our Universi­ties; for so much time is requisite to make a man grow up to a Doctor, the formality whereof in most places consists in, Accipiamús pecuniam et dimittamús asinúm.

§ Next I'l inform you in the application and uses of these three Notions. If a sick man makes his address to a Vulgar Physician, he demands his complaint; T'other replies, he is troubled either with a Vomiting, Loosness, Want of Sto­mach, Cough, Bad digesture, Difficulty of brea­thing or Phtisick, Faintness, Jaundise, Green­sickness, Dropsie, Gout, Convulsion-fits, Palsie, Dizziness or Swimming in the brain; Vomiting, Coughing, or Spitting of Blood, an Ague, a Con­tinual great heat or Fever. These are all evident Diseases the party himself expresses he is trou­bled with. But his sickness not being an evi­dent Disease, which he himself can explain, the Vulgar Doctor concludes it must be either an inward pain, or an Endemick disease. The Pa­tient then making complaint of an inward pain, to his old trade of guessing t'other goes, inqui­ring-first in what part; if he answers, he feels a pain in the right side under the short Ribs, he tells him it's an Obstruction or stoppage in the Liver; if in the left side in the opposite part, [Page 6] then it's a stoppage of the Spleen; if in the belly, it may be he calls it a Colick, or wind in the Guts; if in the back or loins he perswades him, it's Gravel, Stone, or some other Obstruction in the Kidneyes; if a stitch in the Breast, he terms it a wind, or sometimes a Bastard, or other times a true Pleurisie.

§ Lastly, if the party be reduced to a very poor and lean carcass, by reason of a long taedi­ous Cough, Spitting of blood, or want of sto­mach, or Feebleness, or almost any other disease or pain, then be sure, he tells him, he is in a Con­sumption, or at least falling into one. But being troubled with several diseases and pains at once, as running pains, saintness, want of stomach, change of complexion, so as to look a little yel­lowish, duskish or greenish; then t'other whis­pers him, he is troubled with the Scurvy. If di­seased with ulcers or running sores, red, yellow, blew, or dark spots, pimples, or botches in the face, arms, legs, or any other part of the body, that's determined to be the Scurvy likewise, sup­posing the party to be a sober discreet person; but if appearing inclined to wantonness, by rea­son of his youth or sly countenance, then the forementioned disease is to be called the Pox. In most diseases of women they accuse the Mother. In children their guess seems far more fallible; [Page 7] for a child within the six Months being taken ill, restless, and froward, if there appear no evident disease, he ever affirms it's troubled with gripes; upon which he prognosticates, that not speedily being remedied, the child will fall into Convul­sion fits; but this not hapning according to his praediction, to prevent the forfeiture of his skill and repute, endeavors to possess the Mother and rest of the Gossips, it had inward fits. The child being past six Moneths, and falling indisposed, then instead of gripes, it's discomposed by bree­ding of teeth. But having bred all his teeth, and being surprised with any kind of illness, the vul­gar Doctor avouches, it's troubled with Worms. In short, take away these three words, Obstructi­on, Consumption, and Scurvy, and there will re­main three dumb Doctors, the Hackney-Physici­an, The Prescribing Surgeon, and the Practising Apothecary.

§ Hitherto we have only discovered to you the ordinary Physicians conjecturing compass, whereby he steers his course to arrive to the knowledg of his Patients diseases; there yet re­mains we should unlockt'other ventricle of his Brain, to behold the subtlety of his fancy, in groaping at the causes of diseases, which though the Poet declares, (foelix qui potuit rerum cog­noscere causas,) to be cloathed with the darkest [Page 8] clouds, yet he by vertue of this following prin­ciple, aims at this mark immediately, viz. That most diseasés are caused by Choler, Phlegm, Melan­choly, or Abundance of blood. Of these, two are supposed to be hot, namely Choler and Abun­dance of blood; and the other two cold, to wit Phlegm and Melancholy, and consequently cau­ses of hot and cold diseases. These four univer­sals being reduced to two general Categories under the notion of hot and cold, any one having but the sense of distinguishing Winter from Summer, may in the time of an Hixius Doxius instantly appoint a cause for almost every disease. So that a Patient discovering his trouble, it may be a Want of Stomach, Bad digesture, Fainting, Cough, Difficulty of breathing, Giddiness, Pal­sie, &c. his Vulgar Physician has no more to do, but takes him by the fist, to feel whether he be hot or cold; if he finds him cold, then summons in his cold causes, Phlegm and Melancholy, which ready and quick pronouncing of the cause upon a meer touch doth almost stupefie our Patient through admiration of this Aesculapian Oracle, hitting him in the right vein to a hairs breadth; for quoth he, Indeed Mr. Doctor, I think you understand my distemper exceedingly well, and have infallibly found out the cause, for every Morning assoon as I awake, I spit such a [Page 9] deal of Phlegm, and moreover I must confess my self to be extreamly given to Melancholy. This jumping in Opinions between them, makes Mr. Doctor swell with the expectation of a large fee, which the Patient most freely forces upon him, and so the fool and his mony are soon parted. Now it's two to one but both are disappointed, the one in his unexperienced Judgment, t'other in his fond belief; for state the case, the disease takes its growth from choler or abundance of blood, or any other internal cause, there is scarse one in a hundred of those that are indisposed, who is not subject to hauk and spit in the morn­ing, and being reduced to weakness by reason of his trouble, must necessarily be heavy in the passions of his mind, and incident into Melan­choly thoughts through the memory of his mor­tality, occasioned by this infirmity. So that seldom mirth and chearfulness are housed in in­disposed bodies, because they are deficient of that abundance of light and clear spirits, required to produce 'em. No wonder the vulgar is so opiniater in the affair of their temperament, when belaboured with a disease, since in their healthful state it's impossible for a Physician to ingage their opinions otherwise, then to believe themselves to be Phlegmatick and Melancholy. My self have oft been praesent at the demands [Page 10] of a censure upon the temperament of several, whom some the infallible rules of Art did adjudg Sanguin, others Cholerick, &c. to this they would ever reply, they found themselves Phlegmatick and Melancholly; for every morning they spit­ted up such a great quantity of thick clotted flegm, that they must needs thence infer their bodies to be Phlegmatick; And Melancholy they were assured did possess 'em, for (say they) though for the most part in company they ap­peared chearful and pleasant; yet being alone they were subject to lapse into Melancholy. To this reply was return'd, that all men, especially those that are accustomed to Suppers, were sub­ject to hawk and spit flegm at their awaking, by reason of the vapors, (occasioned through the heat of the Body, drawing inwards to the center, and melting the Phlegmatick and soluble hu­mors of the Body,) the Stomach and Bowels do transmit to the Brain, during their sleep, which as soon as the spirits are Ioosned, (for through sleep they are tyed and lockt up,) and begin to move, are praecipitated and distil down to the Palat, which to the Brain performs the office, the Neck doth to the Head of an Alembick; and in­deed the Brain and its hollownesses being placed a top of the pipes of the Body, is not unlike an Alembick head, for attracting and distilling moist humors.

[Page 11]§ To return to the point of declaring, how the vulgar strives even with violence to be cheat­ed, not in their Purses only, but in their fancy and Opinion; And in this particular our Women are so violently eager, that if the vulgar Physi­cian can but make a true sound upon the Treble of their Fancy, will produce such a harmony, as shall sound his praise through City and Coun­trey; and without these Female Instruments or She Trumpets, it's almost impossible for a Vul­garist to arrive to a famous report, who having once by his Tongue harmony inchanted the women, doth by the same cheat subject the Opi­nions of men to his advantage, women generally usurping and impropriating the affair of their Husbands health to their own management; for if a man chance to be surprized with sickness, he praesently asks his Wife, what Doctor he shall send to, who instantly gives her direction to him, that had her by the Nose last. In this piece of subtilty our Doctor shews himself no less cunning than the Serpent in Genesis, who to cheat Adam thought it expedient first to deceive Eve.

§ Now without any further praeamble, I must tell you the humour, many a sick woman delights to be coaksed in by the ordinary Physician, viz. she loves to be told, she is very Melancholy, [Page 12] though of never so merry a composure, and in that part of the Letany, Mr. Doctor is a perfect Reader: For a Woman making complaint she is troubled with Drowsiness, want of Stomach; Cough, or almost any distemper, he answers her she is in an ill State, and troubled with great and dangerous Diseases, and all engendred by Me­lancholy; and then tells her once over again, she is very Melancholy, and saith he probably oc­casioned by course Treats at home, or some un­kindness of Friends, which makes the poor Heart put finger in her eye, and force a deep sigh or two, and all this possibly for being denyed a Tankerd on Bartholomew Fair, or a new Gown on May Day, which being refresh'd in her me­mory, doth certainly assure her, the impression of that Melancholy to be the original of her trou­ble, though some moneths or years past, espe­cially since her Physician discovers to her as much, and for so doing admires him no less, in­tending withall to give an ample Testimony to the world of her Doctor's great Skil: But this is not all, he pursues his business, looking into her Eyes, where spying a small wrinckle or two in the inward or lesser angle, he tells her, she hath had a child or two, namely a Boy or Girl, according to the place of the foresaid wrinkle in the right or left inward angle; Thence perswades [Page 13] her, that at her last lying in, her Midwife did not perform her office skilfully, or did not lay her well, whereby she received a great deal of praejudice, as Cold, wrenching, or displacing of the Matrix, &c. which instance squaring so exactly with the praemeditated sense & opinion of his she Patient, (most Women though never so well accommodated in their Labour, being prone to call the behaviour of their Midwife in question,) he hath now produced a far greater confidence than before; and last of all to com­pleat his work now at the Exit of his gulled Pa­tient, of rendring her thoughts, opinion, and confidence vassals to his service, fame, and ad­vantage, makes one overture more of a great cause of some of her symptoms, declaring to her, she is much subject to Fits of the Mother, occa­sioning a choaking in her throat; and herein they also jump in their Sentiments, scarce one Woman in a hundred but one time or other is assaulted by those uterin steems, especially upon a tempest of any of her Passions of fright, fret, anger, love, &c.

§ If I have hitherto reproach'd the vulgar Physician for executing his employ with so little Ingenuity, far greater reason may move me to condemn the Water-Gazer, who by the streams of the Urin praetends to gratifie his Patients nice curiosity [Page 14] of being resolved, what was, what is, and what Disease is to come; and what is more, some by their great cunning aiming to discover as much by the Urinal, as the Astrologer by the Globe. The fame unto which the English Do­ctor, still residing at Leyden, had promoted him­self, by his most wonderful sagacity in Urins, is not unworthy of your note, hundreds or rather thousands repairing to this stupendious Oracle, to have the state of their Bodies described by their Urin. But when I relate to you the first means, that gave birth to our Countrey-man's repute, I shall soon remove your passion of admiring him. Upon his arrival at the place forementioned, he had in his company a bold fellow, that haunted the most noted Taverns and Tap-houses, where by way of discourse divulged the good fortune that was hapned to the Town, by the arrival of an English Doctor, whose great Learning and particular Skil in Urins would soon render him famous to all the Inhabitants; this being pro­nounced with a confidence suitable to the sub­ject, occasioned three sick Scholars, (two Hecticks and one Hydropical,) then present, to make tryal of the truth of his words the next morning, agreeing to mix all their Urines in one Urinal, and to commit the carriage of it to him, that was Dropsical. In the interim Mr. Do­ctor [Page 15] is advertis'd of it by his Companion, which made him so skilful, that when the Hydropical Scholar praesented him with the Urinal, to know the state of his diseased Body, he soon gravely replyed, that he observed three Urins in this one Urinal, whereof the two lowermost parts of the Urin appeared to him to be Consumptive, and the third that floated a top Dropsical, with­all that their condition was desperate, and at the expiration of six moneths, they should be all lodged in their graves. This admirable dexte­rity of discerning Diseases by the Urinal, was soon proclaimed by the Scholars themselves, who all having finish'd the course of their lives within the time praefix'd, proved an undoubted argument of his unparalel parts in the Art of Physick, which immediately procured him an incredible concourse of people for many years together.

§ That the effects of confoederacy in promot­ing a Physician to a popular vogue, are as powerful as sinister and dis-ingenious, may evidently be deduced not only from this Narra­tive, but from the common design of vulgar Empiricks, who to raise their fame as high as a Pyramid, send forth several Moúthers, to Moúthe in all publick places, Taverns, Coffee and Ale­houses, their vast abilities, expecting with that [Page 16] bate to hook in as many Patients as will swallow it. Others are no less skilled, in counterfeiting their great practice, by causing their Apothe­cary, or others, to call 'em out of the Church at an Afternoon Sermon, to hasten post to a suborn'd Patient, to the intent, that the world be adver­tis'd of the weighty business this Doctor is con­cern'd in. Neither do I tell you a new thing, that some few years past, a little prating Empi­rick, by insinuating into the speaking men and holders forth of Conventicles, had inticed a far greater imploy, there his real capacity in Phy­sick could praetend to, but being now well mount­ed on Horseback, turns his Tayle to those, that had so long held the Stirrup to him. Others by their Equipage, Eminent houses, and occasion­ing one and the same Patient to repair needlesly to them twenty or thirty times, manifest a decoy even taken notice of by the vulgar. These few most disingenious wayes, I do here purposely bring on the board, omitting many others, to convince the publick, that the onely means for a Physician to advance himself honourably to practice, is by discovering his real abilities, in curing Diseases by quick, certain, and pleasant Medicines, & therefore nothing should render his parts more suspicious, than by attempting their discovery, by such fallacious and ignoble devi­ces; [Page 17] for certainly the conclusion is most So­phistical, that because this Doctor is drawn in his Coach, t'other rides on Horseback, or ano­ther hath a Lacquey at's heels, therefore he must be excellently qualified in his Profession. But Vulgús vúlt decipi.

§ If now I describe by way of advice to those that are entring upon the Study of this Divine Art, the method of attaining to a point of excel­lency in it, that may serve our vulgar for a better rule, to distinguish their attainments by the course they have passed through; first, it's most necessarily requisite, our young Student should be perfectly instructed in the Latin and Greek Tongues, being the universal keys to unlock all those Arts and Sciences, and no less a grace to the future Physician. 'Tis in this particular many of our Embryonated Physicians, that have of late years Transported themselves to Leyden & Utrick, to purchase a degree, have been found very defective, insomuch that I have heard the Professors condemn several of them, for their shameful imperfection in that, which is so great an adornment, and of so absolute an use in the Study of Physick. Neither can less be suspected of some of the more aged vulgar Physicians, making choice to manage their consultations in the vulgar Tongue. Secondly, being thus qua­lified [Page 18] for a Student, he ought to apply himself close to the Study of Philosophy, for which Oxford and Cambridge may justly challenge a praeeminence above other Universities. Here it's our Student learns to speak like a Scholar, and is informed in the principles of Nature, and the constitution of natural bodies, and so receiving a rough draught in his mind, is to be accom­plish'd by that excellent Science of humane Bodies. But because according to the first Aphorism of the first Master Hippocrates, Art is long, and Life is short, he ought to ingage his Diligence, to absolve his Philosophical course in two years at longest, and in the interim for his Recreation and Divertisements enter him­self Scholar to the Gardener of the Physick Garden, to be acquainted with the foetures of Plants; but particularly with those, that are familiarly praescribed by Practitioners, to prae­vent being out-witted by the Herb-women in the Markets, and to enable him to give a better an­swer, than it is storied once a Physician did, who having praescribed Maiden-hair in his Bill, the Apothecary asked him which sort he meant, t'other replyed, some of the Locks of a Virgin. Thirdly, supposing our Student to have made a sufficient progress in Philosophy, may now pass to Leyden, and enter himself into a Collegium [Page 19] Anatomicum, Anatomy being the basis and foundation, whereon that weighty structure of Physick is to be raised; and unless he acquires a more than ordinary knowledge and dexterity in this, will certainly be deceived in the expe­ctation, of ever arriving to the honour, of being justly termed an Accomplish'd Physician. A pro­ficiency in that part fits him for a Collegium Medicum Institutionum, and afterwards for a Collegium Practicum, and then it's requisite he should embrace the opportunity of visiting the Sick in the Hospital, twice a week with the Phy­sick Professor, where he shall hear him examine those Patients, with all the exactness imaginable, and point at every Disease and its Symptoms as it were with his finger, and afterwards propose several cases upon those distempers, demanding from every young Student his Opinion, and his grounds and reasons for it; withall requiring of him, what course of Physick ought to be prae­scribed. This is the only way for a young Phy­sician to attain to a habit of knowing Diseases, when he seeth them, and a confident method of ouring those, that may repair to him, without running the hazzard of being censured by the Apothecaries, or derided by 'em for his Bills, as too many are, that at Oxford and Cambridge have only imbided a part of Senuert's Institu­tions, [Page 20] and overlook'd Riverius his Practice, and thence attaining to an imperfect and unhappy Skill, by enlarging the Church-yards in the Ci­ty or Countrey; but what is more, he shall escape the danger, a young Student I formerly knew in Oxford praecipitated himself into, by imagining every Disease he read, was his own▪ I must likewise advise our Student to take his Lodgings there at an able Apothecaries house, to contract the knowledge of Drugs, and of prae­paring, dispensing, and mixing them into Com­positions, and then by means of his other quali­fications, may boldly praetend to direct, inform, correct, and reprove those Apothecaries, which the chance of his Practice shall conduct him to; for it would be adjudged ridiculous, should a Physician undertake to reprehend, and after­ward bend his force, to suppress and decry Apo­thecaries, privately or publickly, without hav­ing first acquired a particular experience in their Art. Here it is again, the vulgar Physician is wrapt up in a cloud, and the Apothecaries dance round him; he praescribes Medicines he never saw, they praepare them according to their own will and pleasure. Whether you would not at­tribute a great honour to a certain vulgar Physi­cian, whom the Commonalty of this City did embrace as their Minion, for his great abilities [Page 21] in Physick; he entring a Druggist's Shop in Cheap-side, spyed a great piece of a remarkable white light spongy Drug, took it in his hand, and inquired what it was; to whom the Drug­gist said, do you not know it Mr. Doctor? who replyed, No; Why, said the other, it's that you have praescribed a thousand times in your Bills, and you praescribed it to me but the other day; Pray what is't then; said the Doctor? t'other answered him, Sir, it's Agarick; Agarick, quoth the Doctor, is this Agarick? O wonderful?

§ Neither is it over those alone the Physician justly claims a super-intendence, but over Chy­rurgeons likewise; and therefore in this his course of Study, would contribute to his future qualification, in sojourning a year with an ex­perienced Manual Operator, without any hin­derance to his other affair, and there by an Ocular inspection, and handling of all his In­struments, demanding their names, uses, and manner of using, withall by insinuations to visit his Chyrurgical Patients, and see him dress them, would render his Study in Chyrurgery so plain and easie, which otherwise might be thought difficult, that it should enable him to give Laws to Chyrurgeons also, especially to those that ex­ecute their office with that rashness, indiscretion, and dishonesty, as I once was told a Chyrurgeon [Page 22] did, who being met by a friend upon the street, was inquired of, whether he was going in so great hast? T'other made answer, to get a brave Gelding out of a Gentleman's Leg; which being but superficially hurt, he to accomplish his de­sign, did by sharp gnawing Oyntments and Plaisters purposely widen the Wound, until at length by his tampering, a Gangraene happen­ed, and thereupon his Leg was taken off below the knee, which soon after put a period to his life. To this may be subjoyned another gross error, Fabricius Hildanus (if I mistake not) makes mention of, and committed by a Chyrur­geon, that was called to remove a hard tumor in the Belly, which by the application of an Emol­lient Cataplasm, being brought to softness, he judged it ripe and fit for opening, & accordingly made a deep Incision into the Tumor, whereout in stead of Matter, there gush'd some softned Excrements, the whole business being nothing but a stoppage and swelling of the Guts through the Ordure that was hardned; which a Laxative Glyster would have removed in an instant. No less mistake, and in the same case of the stop­page of the Guts, with some small Inflammation, was committed the other day by a French Chy­rurgeon, who learnedly praescribed a Glyster of eight or ten Ounces of Spirits of Wine, with four [Page 23] or five Ounces of Oyl of Turpentine, which render'd the Inflammation Mortal; and so the Brewer, for that was his Vocation, though a young man, was by those fatal hot Liquors that were infused into his Guts, removed out of this world, who in my opinion in the beginning of this accident, did not appear with the least Character that might praesage his death.

§ These two years having given occasion to our Student to acquire a System and a brief com­praehension of the Theory of Physick, and of the Practice likewise; nothing more remains, than to amplifie his commenced Knowledge and Ex­perience by his further Travails, to which end takes his Journey to Paris, to be acquainted with the most famed Physicians, and informed in their way of Practice, by surveying their praescripts at the most frequented Apothecaries, to visit for a year every day the Hospitals of L' Hostel Dieú, and La Charité; in which latter it's customary for any three or four young Phy­sicians, to examine and overlook the new entred Patients, to name their Distempers among them­selves, and propose their Cures, for to compare afterwards their opinions with the Physicians, that are appointed for the Hospital; It is here, where twice a Week he may see Mounsieur Ianot (if living, for it's above sixteen years since I [Page 24] saw him) the most reputed Chyrurgeon of this Age, perform the most difficult Operations of Chyrurgery, as Trypaning, Amputating, Cut­ing of the Stone, Tapping of the Belly and Breast, with the greatest dexterity imaginable. Here he may also observe Wounds and Ulcers cured by vertue of those famed Waters, viz. The White water, and the Yellow water▪ the former being Aqua calcis, the latter the same with an addition of Sublimate.

§ The Art of praeparing Medicines Chymi­cally, having merited a great esteem for its stupendious and admirable effects in the most despair'd Diseases, shews a necessity of being instructed in it, and therefore a Student may for the price of three Pistols, purchase a most exact Skil in it, of one Mounsieur Barlet, if surviving.

§ Having attain'd his Scope in this place, his curiosity ought to direct him to Monpelier, where he will meet with a concourse of the greatests Proficients in Physick of Europe, converse with the Professors and Physicians of the place, and out of 'em all extract choice Observations, Se­crets, and most subtil Opinions upon several Diseases, which design can scarce be compassed in less than another year. Now we must sup­pose our Student to merit the title of an able [Page 25] experienced Physician, and raised far above those vulgar ones, that never felt the cold beyond the Chimneys of their homes. He is now render'd capable of understanding the greatest mysteries, and most acute opinions in Physick, which he is chiefly to expect from those reputed Professors of the Albó at Padua, where he is likewise to continue his diligence in visiting the famed Ho­spital of San Lorenzo, and observe the Italian method, of curing Diseases by alterative Broaths, without Purging or Bleeding, that Climat seldom suffering Plethories in those dry Bodies: he cannot but be wonderfully pleased with the variety and excellent order of the plants of their Physick-garden, by them called Horto di Semplici. Neither will he receive less satisfaction from the curious and most dexterous dissections, performed by the artificial hand of the Anatomy Professor. Having made his abode here six months, may justly aspire to a degree of Doctor in Physick, which the fame of the place should perswade him to take here, being the Imperial University for Physick of all others in the world, and where Physicians do pass a very exact Scru­tiny, and severe Test. Hence may Transport himself to Bolongne, and in three months time add to his improvements, what is possible by the advantage of the Hospital, and the Professors. [Page 26] Last of all in imitation of the diligent Bee, suck­ing Honey out of all sweet Flowers, our Doctor must not neglect to extract something, that his knowledge did not partake of before, out of the Eminentest Practitioners at Rome, examine the chief Apothecaries Files, and still frequent those three renown'd Hospitals of San Spirito in the Vatican, San Giovanni Laterano on the Mount Celio, and that of San Giacomo di Augusta in the Valley Martia, besides many others; as that of San Tomaso, San Ludovico, Santa Maria della Consolatione, Sant' Antonio, Sant' An­drea, &c.

§ As a Picture is raised to the highest point of admiration by the variety of excellent colours; so the Intellectuals of a Physician are incompa­rably adorned with the addition of those various accomplishments, his Travails through several Countreys afford. Wherefore ought not to content himself, with the sole improvement of his profession, for so vast an expense, trouble, and passing through so many dangers, but like an expert Chymist, draw essences of all discourses, the ingenuity of those Travailers from other parts of the world do offer. There should not a particular thing of note in any City escape his view, especially at Rome, where six months is too small a space to examine all those Holy Re­licts, [Page 27] and antiquities, though employed to a full advantage, without losing a day. The same movement should also incite him to visit the re­nown'd City of Naples, and take a Survey of the antiquities and wonders of Nature about Puzzuolo. Having thus in all particulars satisfied his curiosity, may consult about the most advan­tageous way homewards, which is to Embark in a Felouck to Legorn, to observe the excellent contrivance of this so famed Sea port; not omit­ting to admire enough that incomparable piece of Art of the four Slaves in Brass, that are placed at the Fountain near the inner mole. Hence may pass to Pisa to behold the Pendent Steeple, and thence to Lucca, where he cannot but estrange how so small a Common-wealth doth secure it self from the violation of so powerful Neigh­bours. Being return'd the same way to Legorn, takes the opportunity of a Felouk to Genoa, thence by Land to Milan, where he must not forget to see the finest Hospital of the Universe, and the invincible Citadel, which the world hath so much discours'd of. Hence passes the Alps and that stupendious Mount St. Godart to Altorf and Lucern, both Popish Cantons, and thence to Bazil the chief of the Protestant Can­tons, resolving not to leave this City without ad­miring the great Masterpiece of Holbeens Dance [Page 28] of the Dead. Here he is to purchase a Boat for two Crowns to carry him down the River Rhine to Strasburg, where being arrived, gives the Boat to him that guided it thither for his pains; besides the handsomness of this old City, that ini­mitable piece of Clock-work in the great Church, and the height and artifice of the Steeple; there is little else worth your note, except a Monastery, where you may taste Wine of a hundred and fourscore, and another sort of two hundred years old, contained in Hogsheads, that for the truth of the business, have the Magistrates Seal upon them. Hence by Boat or Coach passes to Hey­delberg, the chief Residence of the Prince Ele­ctor Palatin, for his great wisdom, prudence, and conduct the most admired by the whole Empire; neither is it without reason, that so many are by their curiosity conducted hither, to observe the splendor, government, and wonder­ful order of this Court; and to please themselves with the sight of his Highnesses Guards of Caval­ry, who have the repute for the best managers of Horses, and the best Disciplin'd in their Arms beyond any in France; And his Guards of Blew Coats far to out-do the Low-Countrey Souldiers in their Exercises. The English Gen­tlemen ow the greatest honour to this Prince, for that honourable and particular reception they [Page 29] have in his Court. The Castle for its scituation and Structure merits your view, whence you are not like to return, without having tasted of the Liquor, that's drawn out of the great Tun of Heydelberg. Hence by Boat descends the Necker to Manheim, a very compleat little Town, and thence down the Rhine to Worms, the ancientest City of the Empire, and so to Mentz, the Staple for all Rhenish Wines, where the Inhabitants will tell you of a Perpetuum Mobile, a Clock that went exact for seven years together, without be­ing wound or drawn up, which by the Death of the Inventor is left unrepair'd. Thence to Ba­chrach, a Garrison Town rendering obedience to the Prince Palatin, and noted for the production of those small Rhenish Wines, which being ex­alted with an Artificial flavor, (as the vulgar improperly calleth it,) please our English pa­lats, beyond the other sorts, though the least in esteem among the Germans and other exact discerners, because they are fired Wines, (as they term 'em) that is, not being endowed with a sufficient quantity of Spirits, and strength, to put themselves into a Natural fret, (as all other Wines do) are forced into one by kindling a fire round the Vessels that contain them, whereby also are render'd subject to be pall'd in a short time. Rinckhow, Oppenheym, Mosel, Necker, [Page 30] Franckoner, Stinkerd, Bleykerd, and Hochmer Wines, in taste and wholsomness excel all others, and are called Rhenish Wines, not from their growth upon the Borders of the Rhine, but from their Transportation down that River. Cobelents, Andernach, and Collen are the next Towns. Thence by Land to Brussel, Gaunt, Ostend, Nieu­port, Dunkirk, Gravelin, and Calis, and thence to the place his inclinations for his future settle­ment may praefer; where by his vast experience and knowledge being rendred conspicuous in the secure and certain method of his Cures, will soon give occasion to the vulgar, to discern the difference between him & the ordinary Church­yard Physicians, who by their sordid deports, and dangerous practice, make it their business to ease the blind people of the weight in their Pockets, and plunge 'em into worse Diseases; and therefore of all Cities none can esteem it self more happy than this of London, for being graced with so great a number of accomplish'd Physicians, many of whom have contributed their parts to the repute and fame of their Coun­trey, by their accurate and learned Pens, so much admired by other Nations, and their Writ­ings honoured by frequent impressions. It is the singular respect and esteem I ever had for them, that at present hath animated me to render the [Page 31] vulgar sensible of the excellency of their accom­plishments, to whom they one a particular ho­nour for their readiness, in employing what their great Expences, Travails, and indefatigable Study have gained, in the assistance and relief of their languishing Bodies against Death and its causes. Neither is it that onely should give them so great a share in your opinions, but the splen­dor and eminency their Art and Profession is in­vested with, since Princes can for a time wave the important affairs of their Throne, to admire the least part of it, in beholding the wonders of Nature-in Spagyrical praeparations and Chymi­cal transmutations; And what is more! Since the great King of Heaven and Earth, Christ, to promote his glory and honour, assumed the Pro­fession of a Physician, in curing Lunaticks, Blind, Lame, and all other Diseases: Wherefore if hence only the descent of the Nobility of the Art of Physick be derived, it's an invincible argu­ment, that none should dare to assume it, but persons signally qualified, inferring it to be no less sin, than a great crime in those Empiricks and Apothecaries, that praesume & incroach upon it, to the hazzard of peoples lives, and guilt of the punishment, the Law of God and Man imposes upon wilful Murder. But then should all those that have too early been abandon'd to their [Page 32] Graves, return to demand justice for the poy­sonous Pills and infected Potions, what would the survivers in case of a Colick do for such, as Secundum Artem should handle the Glyster­pipe? And should they in earnest for this be summoned before a Bar, they would wittily plead, there can be no Murder without a praeme­ditated malice, which though their Pills were guilty of, their intention was sincere, and there­fore the inditement lyeth only against the Pill, and not the Practising Apothecary; so that only he may kill by Law.

My scope hitherto hath directed me to unde­ceive the Hoodwinckt vulgar; which so far I have performed, as the Theory of Church-yard Phy­sicians tends to, in their gross and groundless conjectures at their Diseases, wherein a mistake threats no less danger than a Pilot is apprehen­sive of upon an erroneous discovery of his port, in which case he may easier escape perishing up­on a Rock or Shelve, than a Patient upon a con­jectural error of his Doctor, and I must tell you, that it is in no wise rare, if his compass of con­jecture exposed to your reading fol. 7. misleads him eleven times in twelve, being far easier to guess at a cast of a Dye, where you have only five to one odds. And as for the Practising Apothe­cary, that lump of confident ignorance, who [Page 33] followeth only the shadow of Physicians, if his gaping conjecture hits but one distemper in twenty, swells in his own conceit, though he sends the remaining nineteen with a Letter to St. Peter. Can you but admire with me here at the wisdom of Nature, refusing to repose that secret treasure of knowledge in such hollow Skuls. But if you could engage your self to an intent mind, to observe with what prudence and discretion, the Accomplisht Physician applyes his profound remarques of Anatomy, and Diag­nostick or discerning Rules of Physick, to the infallible discovery of your Diseases, you will with me conclude the Grounds, Rules, and Maximes of the Art of Physick to be most certain, evident, and demonstrable, beyond the least suspicion of a conjecture in it, and withall attri­bute to it an eminency above all Arts and Sciences, whose subject is lock'd up from our external senses, as the internal constitution of the Body of man is.

§ By the thred of my discourse I am now ar­rived, to display the practical errors, which do more immediately Operate for the benefit of the Clerk and the Grave-maker. It's an ill fate you will say, that attends a man, when he is surpri­zed with a Disease, whose dangerous Symptoms look grinning and daring upon the Hackney [Page 34] Physician, and he standing amazed, and pusill­animous, forsakes Nature in her encounter with the Distemper, where for want of a seasonable relief, is compelled to yield. This was the case, lately a Countrey Gentleman was unfortunate in, who being strong and Plethorick, by riding Post happened to melt the grosser part of his humours, which through obstructing the Nerves that move the Tongue, suddenly deprived him of his Speech, (a Symptom called an Aphonia) and proving an extream amazement to a Vulgar Physician, who not being sufficiently qualified in experience, gave his Opinion, it was a Surfet, which was only to be committed to nature; But the next morning being usher'd in with an universal de­privement of all his senses and motion, termed a Catalepsis, spur'd his Friends to implore the aid of another, who at first sight readily discovering the Disease (which his experience confirmed to him, had few Ounces of Blood been extracted but one day before out of the Jugulars, would certainly have been removed) told them, the error of omission could in no manner be rectify­ed, since death in few hours would be ready to take possession.

§ This preceding error relating to a Disease less frequent, doth not occasion so many deplo­rable effects, as those that are committed in Di­stempers, [Page 35] that are more ordinary, as continual Feavers, which are oft engendred by a Surfet, an ancient Norman word, signifying an over-doing; but particularly implying an over-eating, or over-drinking. This gluttonous English Di­stemper I look upon, to import a greater danger, for being so ill handled by the Hackney Physi­cian, who besides bleeding, omitting to Purge the Bowels and Glanduls about the Guts, of those malignant excrementicious humours, their con­tinual cramming engenders, causes that ebulli­tion of the Blood (which in the beginning was moderate) to exaestuate and fret to that degree of malignity, which through that error praecipitates thousands every year to their Tombs. These hu­mours that thus lurk about the Guts, and kindle so malignant a heat, are not capable of being con­cocted, for they are essentially against Nature, and already separated, and therefore ought espe­cially in the beginning, to be evacuated by such Purgers, as are least inflaming, and least disturb the Blood, whereby they may certainly, if mak­ing choice of a cooling Purgative, praevent a malignity in bodies that are so crammed. Neither can this be performed by Glysters, since their force is limitted by the Valve of the Colon. And yet greater may the error be adjudged, when up­on neglect of a sutable Purge, sweating and [Page 36] drying Powders are praescribed, which force and disperse those malignant and dormant excre­ments into the Vessels, and worst of all is the er­ror, when those poysonous Vesicatories are ap­plyed, to attract malignant Excrements from the center into the Arteries, that escaped the force of the sudorifick Powders. Have I not been an eye-witness, that a Patient in the declination of his Feaver, and in a mending condition, had a Vesicatory applyed to the Nape of the Neck, by the impertinent advice of a Church-yard Physi­cian, which some few hours after, render'd him Phrentick, and not long after Speechless. Bre­vity obliges me to omit many instances of acci­dents, and of death it self, occasioned by those venomous Spanish flyes. Neither can I forget how four Hackney Physicians lately consulted in a slight distemper of a Tradesman, whose com­plaint was a difficulty of Urin and a Vomiting, accompanied with a small heat; this at the begin­ning was taken for a malignant Feaver, and for Cure bleeding and sweating was advised, by which latter his Urin was totally suppressed, through depriving the Blood of its Serum; the Vomiting increased, and the heat in effect turned into a malignant Feaver, with an appearance of red Spots, and at that very instant gave direction for Bleeding, the bad effect whereof was soon [Page 37] discovered by his untimely death. To shew the error of this course, I need only say, I have seen this very Distemper ten and ten times removed at the beginning, with one dose or two at most of Salt of Vitriol.

§ How Bleeding, that noble and great Reme­dy, is abused by our Hackneys, is taken notice of even by the Vulgar, whose experience (for reason in Physick they do not praetend to) tells them, it's death in the Measles and Small Pox in our Climat, especially to great persons.

§ It's a pleasant speculation for those that know better, to observe the practice of the Hack­neys in the Countrey, how they Vomit their Pa­tients with Crocus, and scowr them with Ialap, drench 'em with Water-cresses and Brook lime, and feed 'em with Nettle Pottage to the crop, terming all Diseases, except Feavers and Agues, the Scurvy.

§ But let me not be deficient in mentioning our Groaping Doctors, who praetend it's diffi­cult to discern a Disease in a man without groap­ing his Sides, and 's Belly; and impossible to discover the fits in a Woman without feeling, much less to Cure her; Whick knack is taught 'em by the Physicians of Paris.

§ And was it not a Skilful praescription of a Countrey Doctor, who was sent for forty miles [Page 38] off, to consult with one of the eminentest Physi­cians of London, to praescribe three Drams of Laudanum opiatum, for one Dose, in the ab­sence of the other, who fortunately giving the Patient a visit before the Bill was carried to the Apothecary, modestly to cover the shame of the former, (who was far sent for, and like to have been dear bought,) slipt the Bill into his Pocket, and left another in stead, directing only a just Dose of three Grains, which having for that night eased the patient of his pains by a moderate slumber, and not answered the expectation of the Countrey-man in a deeper sleep; he next morn­ing did not fail giving the Apothecary a check for not obeying his orders, and therefore com­manded him home, to make up a Dose of one Dram and thirty Grains, which was but the half of what he used to ordain for his Patients in the Countrey; but the honest Apothecary had more wit, than to be one of his accessaries, well knowing, such a quantity was enough to cast him and six more into a dead sleep; nothing ever wrought so much upon my curiosity, as to be informed, what number the Burials of March and April amount to in the Parish, where this famous Church-yard-man keeps his residence.

§ This ungrateful task doth more tire me, than had I imployed six times the Paper in recording [Page 39] the excellent methods the Accomplisht Physi­cians praescribe to their Patients, how expertly they take their advantage of the Disease at cer­tain times and seasons, in giving Medicines to conquer it, when the Patient is strongest, and the Disease weakest; How they accommodate to eve­ry particular Distemper, Constitution, Age, and Sex, a particular Remedy; alter, increase, and lessen it according to every emergent occasion; how they praeinform the Patient of every critical and counter natural change, of every danger and of every step the Disease makes, following its tract to the very innermost part of the Body, and never cease pursuing, till they have rescued their Patients from all assaults and dangers of their in­testin enemy.

§ It's time I should pass to the second part of my discourse, where I meet with a subject, which I can intitle nothing but the [...] and froth of Physick, a term the Practising Apothecary will not judge misapplyed, since it's that he offers his Patient in exchange for good metal. But I shall forego my aim, if I proceed on my way, without first halting a little at the Original of the word and meaning of Apothecary, which from [...] & [...] a Box, denotes it to be a word, imposed anciently upon Druggists, whose multitude of Boxes placed in order in their Shops, and con­taining [Page 40] all sorts of Drugs, gave occasion to that denomination, and for that reason is improperly transferred upon such, whose office is only con­versant about praeparing of Drugs and Simples, thence more appositely termed Pharmacopaei, or Makers up of Medicines, and Pharmacopolae, or Sellers of praepared Medicines, whom in their late budding and growth some very accomplisht persons have look'd upon as poysonous Weeds, started up to choak the sweet Flower of their Practice, and consequently so planted into Fami­lies, as not easily to be rooted out by their Mani­festo's, requiring for their further illustration a brief deduction of their first rise, and upon what score those Makers up of Medicines were assumed into the drudgery of Physick.

§ You must note Physick to have had the same beginning with all other vast Arts and Sciences, from confused notions and experiments, which upon their more certain confirmation, were thought fit to be recorded in the Temple of Apollo, whither people in case of sickness took their recourse, to make choice of what came nea­rest to their purpose, but missing of that, necessity obliged them to expose their sick before their houses, to move those that passed by, if any of 'em had been troubled with the same Distemper, to divulge their Remedies, which afterwards [Page 41] were to be added to the forementioned Records. Time having collected a multiplicity of all sorts of Medicines, invited a great number of Philo­sophers to that Temple, whose eminent parts did enable them, to make better use of those obser­vations than the Vulgar, and by degrees digest them into order, and thence framing general rules, soon acquired a habit of knowing and curing most Diseases, which gave occasion to the people, to make use of 'em as Physicians; and such were Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Demo­critus, which latter had the honour of being Ma­ster to Hippocrates, a Disciple who afterwards proved the greatest and only Master in Physick, of all those that had gone before him, or since to this day have come after him. The method then in use to train up youth to this Profession, was, to place them Apprentices with able Physicians, who adjudged it necessary, to take their begin­ning from Chyrurgery, the subject whereof be­ing external Diseases, as Wounds, Swellings, Members out of Joynt, and others that were vi­sible, proved more facil and easie to their imma­ture capacities, and wherein they might suddenly be rendred serviceable to their Masters, in easing them of the trouble of dressing, clensing stink­ing Ulcers, and applying Oyntments and Plai­sters, a nauseous employ, which they ever ende­voured [Page 42] to abandon to their Scholars with what expedition was possible. This as it was the easiest, so it was the first and ancientest part of Physick, and from which those that exercised it, were anciently not called Chyrurgeons, but Phy­sicians, though they attempted no other Diseases, but such as were external, according to which sense Aesculapius, the first Physician or Inventor of Physick, and his Sons Podalyrius & Machaon, are by History asserted, to have undertaken only those, that wanted external help, internal Disea­ses being in those dayes unknown, and by tem­perance in their dyet wholly debarred; and if accidentally an internal Distemper did surprize them, they applyed a general Remedy (know­ing no other) of poysoning or killing them­selves with a Dagger or Sword, thereby choosing rather to dye once and finish their misery, than to survive to be objects of peoples pity, or to en­dure the shock of death by every pain or lan­guor, especially since the sage judgments of that age, did esteem it a signal vertue, to despise and scorn the vain world, by hurrying out of it in a fury, a Maxim most of the Philosophers were very eminent in observing; and was likewise extended to Children, that brought any Diseases, external or internal, with them into the world, their cure being performed immediately, by [Page 43] strangling or drowning them. Neither was this Art of external Physick of a short continuance; Pliny writing, that six hundred years after the building of Rome, the Romans entertained Chy­rurgical Physicians from Peloponesus. Idleness and gluttony at length exchanged their ease into a Disease, which soon put them upon necessity of experimenting such Remedies, as might reesta­blish them into that healthful condition, exercise in War and temperance in Dyet had for so many ages praeserved their Ancestors in.

§ Upon a competent improvement of their Scholars in this external practice of Physick, and their deserving deportment, they thought them worthy of giving them entrance into their Closet, to be instructed in such matters, as the most re­tired places of their Cabinets contained, which were their Remedies and Medicines, and the manner of praeparing them. A jealous lover could not contrive the sole impropriation of his beautiful Mistress with greater study, than they the sole possession of their Medicines, these through their commonness losing as much of their value and esteem, as the other by being known to more than one. Pachius a Roman Phy­sician of great fame in the Reign of Tyberius, (as Scribonius largus libr. de Compos Med. Cap. 23. writeth,) made great gains of his Medicine, named [Page 44] by himself Hiera. Pach. for its frequent successes in the most difficult Diseases, but he whilest he lived, would not impart the composition to any. But af­ter his death he bequeathed it to Tyberius Caesar in a Book written to him, which before could not be drawn from him upon any score, though all means were used to know what it was, for he did praepare it, when he had lock'd himself up, and would not commit it to any of his Servants, for he would cause many more things to be beaten than it contained, purposely to deceive his people. Here is to be observed, that for its great effects he imposed the name of Hiera upon it, or the Holy Medicine, which being once made publick, and the ingredients known, was deserted naked of its vertues, ceasing to perform those wonder­ful Cures, which whilest it was by the Inventor reserved secret it did; as if the Divine Power finding it self abused in its bounty, of having bestowed a secret Treasure on a Physician, did withdraw it self, upon the contempt of impart­ing it to the Vulgar. For, that God is the first and chief Physician, hath been the constant faith of all Ages, and that Physicians were the Sons of the Gods, was commendably asserted by Galen, and therefore it was truly spoken, that Medicines were the hand of God, thence meriting only such names, as related to their Divine Original; thus a [Page 45] certain Antidote was called [...] Aequal to God, another [...] given by God, another Divine; several compositions had the inscription of [...], or Sacred.

§ Upon this so true and undoubted a conside­ration, I need not pry for a cause of those fre­quent and ever constant unfortunate events, that accompany the Medicines of most of our Pra­ctising Apothecaries, unless as they seem to own, the Trivnal Deity should now neglect to punish with shame and disaster, such as with polluted hands do offer to defile those Sacred means, which it hath intended for its glory, the contrary whereof is sufficiently attested by him in the Strand, who with three doses of Mercurius Dulcis, given against the Worms to three Children, did the same day worm 'em all out of their lives: And by him in the—who upon the exhibition of twenty Grains of Extractum Rudij, sent a Gentleman a hundred and nineteen times to his Close Stool, and the next day to his perpetual Mansion; but I am confident, without any prae­meditated malice, since he was extreamly sur­prized, that so small and unproportionate a dose should prove so cruel to his Customers Guts, not having the grace to call to mind, it was the abuse of that excellent Medicine, in misapplying it to the Disease. A farther testimony was given by [Page 46] another in the Old Baily, praesenting his Custo­mer (or Patient as they use to term him, for this intruth was one) with a Collyrium, or Eye-water, to eat away a Pearl in his Eye, which through its gnawing quality occasioning a great pain, did attract such a quantity of humours, as caused a perfect Suffusion, and an incurable blindness in both Eyes, an application that could not pro­miss better success, upon the neglect of Bleeding and Purging, both implying a necessity of being praemised before the use of any painful Medicine, to drayn the body of those humours, which other­wise the smart and pain would attract to the part affected. The error was of no less importance, when in a great loosness or Diarrhaea, an Apo­thecary with Crocus Martis and Opium suddenly putting a stop to the Flux, impelled the Chanal of those hot impetuous humours into the Veins and Arteries, where by moving the Blood into a Tempest, occasioned a mortal malignant Fea­ver in one of his chief Customers. And at this praesent day nothing is more capable of ferment­ing the Choler of a certain wealthy Merchant, than the name of an Apothecary, a practical one having by impertinent repetitions perswaded him, his wife upon the swelling and pitting of her Legs, (a symptom common to Women with Child) and the swelling of her Belly, was cer­tainly [Page 47] Dropsical, which as it was occasioned by a stoppage only particular to Women, was only to be remedied by removing it, and opening the passages; and to that purpose did four times a day ply her with his Electuarium e tribus, as he called it, which was Powder of Steel, Antimony Diaphor. and barren Savin powder'd, all mixt with Honey into an Electuary, the force whereof did in a few dayes answer his intention of open­ing the passages, and expelling an Embryon, or a perfect Conception, upon which the Purgamenta were driven down with so rapid a violence, that the Matrix was left dry, exanguious, thick, and corrugated, without the least hopes of ever Con­ceiving again; you may conjecture, what an in­supportable grief this moved in one, who setting aside the confluence of all external circumstances fortune had heaped upon him, could have no­thing more contributed to his entire felicity in a most beautiful Lady, and her amiable deports, than the addition of issue, of which until then the space of six years had not given the least ap­pearance. Fatal likewise was the miscarriage of a Scrivener, who being discommoded by a very acute pain and inflammation in his Ear, applyed a repellent Medicine of Rags dipped in Aq. Sperm. ran. and Ol. Ros. advised to him by a Practical man, which forcing the Inflammation [Page 48] to the Brain, immediately occasioned a Phrensie, and not long after a Corps. These few Tragical Narratives selected out of a hundred or more, I have here exposed to your view, which may suf­fice for the repraesentation of their dangerous practice; How ineffectual, costly, and defraud­ing their general practise is, I shall in its proper Paragraph give you a breviat of.

§ Time perswades my return to the place whence I deviated, to continuate the ancient manner of educating a young Physician, who though render'd serviceable to his Master, hav­ing acquired the knowledge of his Medicines and their praeparations, yet remain'd as little capa­ble of using them, as the Instrument-Smith a Razor, or Lancet; and therefore bended his en­devours to arrive to the Art of discerning every Disease by its signs, and making observations upon the Prognosticks, all critical and praeter­natural changes, the Dose, Constitution, and all other circumstances of giving those Medicines, which he did gradually accomplish by his sedu­lous attendance on his Master, and his practical Discourses and Lectures from him on every Pa­tient he visited. Lastly, upon his attainment to a degree of perfection in the Art, discovered to his Master by his private examination, all the Physicians and Commonalty of the place were [Page 49] summon'd to be praesent at the taking of his Oath in the publick Physick School, which served in lieu of making him free to Practice, or taking of his degree. The Oath was as followeth.

I Swear by An Egyptian, and the first Inventor of Physick. Apollo the Physician and The Son of Apollo begotten upon Coronis the daughter of Phlegia. Aescula­pius, and by The two eldest daughters of Aescu­lapius. Hygea, and The two eldest daughters of Aescu­lapius. Panacea, and I do call to witness all the Gods, and likewise all the Goddesses, that according to my power and judgment I will intirely keep this Oath and this Covenant. That I will esteem my Master that taught me this Art instead of my Parents, give him his Dyet, and with a thankful Spirit impart to him whatever he wants; and those that are born of him, I will esteem them as my male Brethren, and teach them this Art if they will learn it without hire or agreement. I will make partakers of the teaching, hearing, and of all the whole Discipline my own and my Masters Sons, and the rest of the Disciples, if they were bound before by Writing, and were obliged by the Physicians Oath, no others besides. I will according to my capacity and judgment, praescribe a manner of Dyet sutable to the Sick, free from all hurt and injury. Neither will I through any bodies intercession offer Poyson to any, neither will I give counsel for any such thing. Neither will I give a Woman a Pessarie to destroy her Conception. Moreover I will exercise my Art, and lead the rest of my life chastly and holily. Neither will I cut those that are troubled with the Stone, but give them over to Artists, that profess this Art. And whatever houses I shall come into, I will enter for the benefit of the Sick; and I will abstain from doing any voluntary injury, from all corruption, and chiefly from that which is Venereal, whether I should happen to have in Cure the Bodies either of Women, or of Men, or of Free-born men, or Servants. And whatever I should chance to see or hear in Curing, or to know in the common life of men, if it be better not to utter it, I will conceal, and keep by me as secrets. That as I entirely keep, and do not confound this Oath, it may happen to me to enjoy my Life and my Art happily, and celebrate my glory among all men to all perpetuity; but if transgressing and forswearing, that the contrary may happen.

[Page 50] § Between these bounds of secrecy, veneration, honesty, and gratitude the Art was for many hun­dred years maintained; for in the time of Galen, and many Ages after him, Medicines for their greater secresie were us'd to be praepared, and composed by Physicians, as you may read libr. de virt. Centaur. where it's observable, their men were wont to carry their Physick ready prae­pared in Boxes after them, which they themselves according to the exigency of the case did dis­pense. This custome was continued, until Wars ceasing, people began to be as intent upon the propagation of mankind, as the cruelty of the former Martial ages had been upon its destru­ction, whence the world growing numerous, and through idleness, and want of those diver­sions of their Military Employ, addicting them­selves to Gluttony, Drunkenness, and Whore­dom, did contract so great a number of all in­ward Diseases, that their multiplicity imposed a necessity upon Physicians, (being unable to at­tend them all as formerly) to dismember their Art into three parts, whereof two were servil, namely Chyrurgery, and Pharmacy, and the other Imperial and Applicative, or Methodical. The servil parts being committed to such as are now called Chyrurgeons and Apothecaries, the for­mer were employed in applying external Medi­cines [Page 51] to external Diseases; the latter in praepar­ing all ordinary internal and external Medicines, according to the exactest praescription and dire­ction of the Physicians, whose Servants were ordered to fetch the praescribed Medicines at the Apothecaries, and thence to conveigh them to their Patients, by which means the Apothecary was kept in ignorance, as to the application and use of the said Medicines, not being suffered to be acquainted with the Patients, or their Disea­ses, to praevent their insinuations into their acquaintance, which otherwise might endanger the diverting their said Patients to other Physi­cians, or at least their praesuming themselves to venture at their Distempers. Neither were the Physicians Servants in the least probability of undermining or imitating their Masters in their practice, not knowing the Medicines or Prae­scriptions. Besides all this, those Remedies, from which the chief efficacy and operation against the Disease was expected, still remained secret with the Physicians, who thought it no trouble to praepare them with their own hands. Thus you may remark, the Physicians necessary jealousie of their underlings, and their small pains, proved the sole means of impropriating the practice of their Art to themselves, and yet by the advantage of their Apothecaries and Chy­rurgeons, [Page 52] were capacitated to visit and cure ten times greater number of Sick than before, which in a short time improved their fame & estate to a vast treasure; whence it was well rhimed, Dat Ga­lenus opes, dat Iustinianus honores. But at length their honour & vast riches in the eye of Apothe­caries and Chyrurgeons, proved seeds sown in their minds, that budded into ambition of be­coming Masters, and into covetousness of aequaling them in wealth, both which they thought themselves capable of aspiring to, by an empirical skil, the neglect and sloth of their Masters had given them occasion to attain, since they did begin not to scruple, to make them Porters of their Medicines to their Patients, and to intrust them with the praeparation of their greatest secrets. This trust they soon betrayed, for having insinuated into a familiar acquain­tance with their Masters Patients, it was a task in no wise difficult to perswade them, that those that had made, and dispensed the Medicines, were as able to apply 'em to the like Distempers, as they that had praescribed them, who had either forgot, or were wholly ignorant how to praepare them; so that now they were as good as arrived to a copartnership with their Masters, in repu­tation and title, both being called Doctors alike, and there being no other difference between [Page 53] them; than that the Master Doctor, comes at the Heels of his Man Doctor, to take in hand the work which he or his Brother Doctor, (the Chy­rurgeon) had either spoiled, or could no further go on with it; this is e'en like Tom went to Mar­ket, and Tom met with Tom. A very fine case the Art of Physick and its Professors are reduced to; and that not only of late dayes, but of almost seven hundred years, for before that time Apo­thecaries had scarce a being, only there were those, whom they called Seplasiarij, from their selling of Oyntments on the Market of Capua, named Seplasia; Aromatarij, and Speciarij, or such as sold Drugs and Spices. Though I must confess Apothecaries may offer a just objection, in praetending to a far greater antiquity, since the original and necessity of their employ was derived from the Aegyptian Bird Isis, spouting Sea-water into its Breech for a Glyster.

§ As things in motion pass their seasons of growth, heighth, and declination, so the Art of Physick having passed the two former, is now in its declination exposed to be reduced to the ex­treamest contempt, scorn, and almost a total abolishment by the praesumptuous arrogance of every one, who upon a long course of Physick to remedy his Infirmity, having gained a familia­rity with the use and names of those numerous [Page 54] Medicines, advised to him by some Practical Apothecary, or Praescribing Chyrurgeon, at his recovery concludes himself as capable of pra­ctising as either of them. Upon such an occa­sion as is here instanced, the Heel-maker, the Hatband-maker, the Gunsmith, that doating old piece in Southwark, the Woman at Ham­stead, and many others fell to Quack, and to Practice, and by the addition of some small help of a book of Receits, have advanced themselves in fame and credit, among our capricious Vul­gar, beyond any of their Practical or Praescribing Masters. But all this notwithstanding, since the Art of Physick partakes in vicissitude with those things, that from the lowest ebb have flow'd back to their greatest height, it's an argument she is not seated beyond the hope of being restored to her greatest lustre, and flourishing splendor, as formerly she was, when Physicians were courted and reverenced by multitudes of Sick, and attended with a train of their own Servants, their Apothecaries and Chyrurgeons all dili­gently expecting their commands, to a tittle and every the least circumstance executing their duty, and concurring with the people, in calling them, for the wonders they did, Tutelar Gods. Whence I conclude the Trade of an Apothecary and the Vocation of a Chyrurgeon to be of abso­lute [Page 55] necessity; for its impossible any Physician of moderate practice, can afford himself the time of visiting his Patients, (which in this City do oft happen to live dispersed, and very remote from one another,) and afterwards repair to his Study, and take their particular cases into a more deliberate and serious consideration, than the talking noise of Visiters, Nurse, and others about the Sick will permit; unless as too many are, he is accustomed to make use of the Empi­ricks Conjecturing Compass, and so slubber over the Disease; not being sensible all this while, it is the life of a man hung to a thread, depends on his care, which by the least of his mistakes or neglects will certainly snap in pieces; whereby God is robbed of the Glory, which would have been due to him by his cure, the Prince deprived of one of his Subjects, it may be main a pillar of his Throne, Wife and Children by the loss of Husband and Father reduced to beggery, and possibly to Whoredom or Theft for a livelyhood, Creditors are necessitated to a Bankrupt for the death of their Debtor; all which important and weighty consequences are to be placed to the ac­count of Debet of the Physician. That besides these parts of his duty devouring a very great share of his time, there should be a remainder sufficient for him with his own hands to prae­pare [Page 56] all the Medicines, the Diseases of his Pa­tients shall require, is not to be imagined; for supposing the number of his Patients not to ex­ceed three or four, their Diseases in one or other to be complicated or double, as a Pleurisie com­plicated with any other inflammation, or obstru­ction of the Kidneys, Guts, Bladder, &c. Which former by its self presses for the praeparation of a Julep, a Linctius, a Glyster or two, a Cordial, a Cataplasm, a Sudorifick Antipleuritick, an Hyp­notick, &c. In summa eight or ten taedious Me­dicines are to be made up in one day for one single Patient, it may be as many more for a second, third and fourth; so here are about forty Medicines to be praepared, carried away, and applyed all in one afternoon, a task that more probably ought to employ three or four than one; But what if a Physician receives into cure thirty or forty, as in Spring and Fall many do, to expect from his hands the praeparation of the sixteenth part of the Medicines, were most ab­surd. So that necessarily from this self-praeparing of ordinary Remedies, would issue a neglect and omission of many requisite Medicines, and in want of some proper ones, the substituting of improper, and consequently this reformation must infer a greater number of inconveniences, than the praesent practice is subject to. Moreover [Page 57] that a Physician should consume the better part of his time in this so servil and drudging em­ploy, were to slight the Imperial and Com­manding part of Physick, to lose the honour and respect due to him from those his Underlings and others, and absolutely to turn a pure Empi­rick, by minding the praeparation and applica­tion of his Medicines more, than the Theoretick and Methodical Science of Physick; which ought to be praeserved and improved by his continu­ated Study, wherein he must now be exposed to a perpetual disturbance by the noise of the Mor­tar, and have his spirits dampt by the unpleasant steems of Glysters, Oyntments, and Plaisters, and necessitated to convert his house, which the honour of his Profession requires neat and splen­did, into a Hogsty. How this greasie, stinking Glyster-Pipe and Plaister-Box Doctor can be endured in the praesence of some delicate tender­sented Ladies, that are his Patients, you may justly admire, when upon his feeling of their pulse with his unctuous fist, they shall apprehend themselves to stink of Threacle and Mithridate all the day after. But setting aside the fore-men­tioned reasons, and allowing the necessity and decency of reducing those two parts of praescrib­ing and praeparing Medicines into one body again, the Physician having onely the possession [Page 58] of the better part, must go backwards to learn the worser from the Druggist and Apothecary; to wit from the former, the knowledge, choice, and prices of all his Drugs, wherein he must run the hazard of being cheated by him, in buying Quid pro Quo, a rotten Drug for a sound one, and paying a double rate more than the value of the commodity, which may happen for three or four times at least, until he hath Purchased a competent craft for buying and selling. From the latter his quondam servant the Apothecary, he must be instructed in all the Artifices and dexterous wayes of praeparing Simples, mixing and dispensing them into compositions, of dissolving Gums, expressing of Oyls, and Juyces, praeserving and candying of Flowrs, Herbs, Stalks, and Rinds; powdering and rasping of Woods and Barks; rubbing the posteriora secun­dum artem for to apply Leeches, besides a hun­dred other particularities▪ knacks, and orna­ments, as gilding of Electuaries, Bolusses, and Pills, and standing in a handsom decent posture at the Mortar, and with a Bonne grace to found a March, or Chyme a Tune with the Pestil, as he is pulverising, thereby to awake peoples drow­sie eyes, and make 'em look up to see what Trade lives there; and lastly of tying up Gallipots and Viols, with old Taffety, rangeing of 'em in order [Page 59] on the Stall, to give passers by a nota benè of the great Trading of that Shop; in fine, seven years is no more than a just space, to conquer the diffi­culties of their mysterious Trade, which not considering the loss of time, how much it may contribute to the further adornment of the Accomplisht Physicians, I refer to better conco­cted Judgments.

§ In the next place let's ponder, whether it consists with the Maximes of Policy to extirpate and subvert their Corporation, though suppo­sing the better half of 'em to be such as I have termed Practical men, and to whose ill conduct in their practice the Bills of Mortality may owe the greater half of the number of Burials. At praesent the Countrey being so much depopulated by Plague and Wars, the supposition may merit some consideration, however the advantages their continuance imports to the publick seem to overbalance the Scales. 1. The number of their Trade aequaling, if not exceeding any other, im­plyes so many Families, whose necessities of Vi­ctuals and Clothes occasion a considerable Trade. 2. Druggists, Chymists, Merchants of Drugs, Seamen that Transport the Drugs, Seedsmen, Herb-women, Gardiners, Labourers, and many others having so great a dependance on Apothe­caries, would all by their extirpation sustain a [Page 60] damage of that importance, as should disenable them of contributing so considerably to the com­mon Trade of necessaries, as such a vast number of Families require. 3. By the ruine of all those Trades and Families, it's certain the King would take a share in the damage, losing so valuable a Custom as that of Drugs, and in time of War, and other occasions, by the impair of his Subsidies and Taxes, which the consequence of so great a proportion of Subjects ruinated in their Vocation must necessarily produce. 4. Churches have been lay'd even with their foundation by the late dreadful Fire, and therefore through the zeal of our times it's ordained, they shall be again raised to their former structure by a Revennue from the Fire, coals; but this sufficeing only for the out­side, the inside, as Pews, Benches, and Pulpits, is to be built by the product of purchases of Graves, which if Apothecaries be suppress'd, and practice wholly left to Physicians, will come in but slow, and therefore for the quickning of that great work, they ought to be encouraged. 5. The antiquity of this so necessary Trade compraehending some hundreds of years, pleads strongly for the right of their continuance. 6. Humane policy cannot conceal its jealou­sie in a point so essential as the life of man, and therefore it's but just, it should re­quire [Page 61] some small counterpoise, to balance and justifie the actions of Physicians, when quaestion'd in the death of any, which the Apothecary is ever ready to do, by shewing the praescriptions, and averring the excellency of the Medicines. More­over Physicians are mortal men, and may (and oft have) in a debauch'd humour praescribe im­proper Medicines, and most improportionate Doses, which an Apothecary by the experience of his Trade may discover, and repair for a recti­fication to the Physician next morning, when the cloud is over with him. And what is yet more, the Apothecary may inform the Physician, though praescribing according to the exactest rules of Art, the Dose of his praescription to be too large for the particular constitution of a Pa­tient, which his former experience of him con­firms, that the sixteenth part of it will work most strongly with him; and I must tell you, some lives have been saved by these kind of ad­monitions, and yet no dishonour to the Physi­cian. The onely objection against the inference of these politick reasons, is deduced from the authority of Plato, asserting that it is a sign of an ill govern'd Commonwealth, where there are a great number of Physicians.

§ To rommage into the very bottom of this controversie, let's suppose the praemisses insuf­ficient [Page 62] for an inference, and enquire whether it were possible, to give them a lift out of their Quacking, or rather out of their honester Calling of praeparing Medicines. I say no, for consi­dering their great number, wherein they exceed Physicians; their being more popular among the Vulgar than they; the daily obligation they im­pose upon most Trades, by buying their neces­saries of them, or otherwayes imploying them, all whom the duty of retaliation and gratitude per­swades to make use of Apothecaries in their way; the multitude of their Relations and Kindred, that out of impulse of nature, more than reason, will endeavour to promote their interest; it's an argument to convince me, that the Physicians addresses to the Vulgar by their manifesto's, will prove insignificant, well knowing that Judges so ignorant as they, will rather incline to the ignorant party; and therefore to praevent their putting on Plush Jackets, to appear as like Phy­sicians, as the Monkey did a Lawyer, when he had got's Masters Cap on, and so to Quack openly, it will prove of greater concern to reduce them to their duty, by the course I shall describe anon, than to labour their sup­pression in vain.

§ Hitherto I have entertained my Reader with a discourse of the whole intrigue in the Trade of [Page 63] Apothecaries, my own curiosity I will praefer next, in amusing at the grounds and reasons, why Apothecaries in most Kingdoms do gene­rally Quack and Aemulate Physicians in their practice, rather than subject themselves to the just Laws of Physick, which in most Com­monwealths they are the most inviolable obser­vers of. It is not the Witchcraft of money or promises, can prevail with an Apothecary in Flanders, Holland, or any of the Imperial Cities of Germany, to hazard his reputation, or di­sturb his Conscience, by giving to any the most harmless of Purges, without a Bill from a lawful Physician; whereas in France scarce any Apo­thecary but will praesume to advise Glysters, purging potions, and Ptisan, which latter he hath alwayes ready, and sells it by the quart. The cause of this difference is to be discovered in the people, the Apothecaries, and the Physicians. The Commonalty in a Commonwealth are uni­versally more industrious, saving, and thrifty, giving an undeniable reason for it, that they are obliged so to be, to provide for sickness and poverty; at which time namely of sickness, the meanest Tradesman or Labourer is as willing to shew his gratitude to the Physician, for the prae­servation of his life (which he puts a greater value upon, than to intrust with an Apothecary) [Page 64] as the best of the Magistrates. On the other hand in a Kingdom the popularity is more profuse and Prodigal, by reason there being a great con­course of people and principally of Nobility and Gentry of great Estates, occasioning an universal Trade, extended to the meanest, makes money easier to come by; whence the Vulgar spending it as easie, in case of sickness, find themselves destitute of a capacity to satisfie a Physician ho­norably, and therefore are forced to apply them­selves to Empiricks, or Practising Apothecaries, where they may have advice and Physick at the same charge. The difference between the Physi­cian of a Kingdom, and a Commonwealth, is, that the former respecting the support of his ho­nour and ease, judges his merits by far to exceed the latter, who imagines himself well satisfied with the value of a shilling for each visit, and for that reason is upon the least occasion sent for; whence it happens, his visits sometimes are so multiplyed, that I have known several to have made fourscore and a hundred visits a day.

§ Once more I must disgust your Palat, with the relation of the nauseous, ineffectual, and fraudulent practice of Apothecaries, who with their ends of Latine, choaking terms, and stifling phrases, strive to confound and amaze the sim­ple [Page 65] vulgar. If you are not too melancholy, you may smile at this Story, a Practical Apothecary coming to see his Customer, a Cobler, that lay indisposed of a Colick, observed him to crack a fart, (for so it is expressed in the Original,) upon which saith the Apothecary, Sir, that's nothing but the Tonitruation of flatuosities in your Inte­stines; this was no sooner out of his mouth, but the Cobler crackt another, and replyed to his Doctor, Sir that's nothing but your Hob-gobling notes thundering winds out of my Guts, which litteral return of his terms of Art in plain Eng­lish, though by chance, obliged the Apothecary to this expression, I beg you pardon Sir, I sup­pose you have studied the Art of Physick, as well as my self, and want not my help; and so away went Don Ieronimo di Capo di Bove. After this give me leave to be serious, in examining their general practice in all Diseases. Suppose your self to be troubled with any Distemper, it mat­ters not which, for all is one to him you are to send to; upon his arrival he feels your Pulse, and with a fixt eye on your countenance, tells you, your spirits are low, and therefore it's high time for a Cordial; the next interrogatory he puts gravely to you is, when was you at Stool Sir? If not to day, he promises to send you a Laxative Glyster by and by; and if you complain you [Page 66] have a Loosness, then instead of one Laxa­tive, he will send you two healing Glysters. If besides you intimate a pain in your Stomach, Back and Sides, then responding to each pain you shall have a Stomach Plaister, another for the right side, a third for the left, and a fourth for the Back; and so you are like to be well patch'd, and fortified round your middle. Now before we go farther, let's compute the charge of this first day. Here is a Cordial composed by the direction of some old dusty Bill on his File, out of two or three musty Waters, (especially if it be towards the latter end of the year, and that his Glasses have been stopt with corks) viz. It may be a Citron, a Borrage, and a Baum Water, all very full of Spirits; if River Water may be so accounted; to these is to be added one Ounce of that miraculous Threacle Water, then to be dis­solved a Dram of Confectio Alkermes, and one Ounce of nauseous Syrup of Gillyflowers; this being well shaked in the Viol, you shall spy a great quantity of Gold swiming in leaves up and down, for which your Conscience would be burdened, should you give him less than five shillings; for from the meanest Tradesman he expects without the least abatement, three and six pence, the ordinary and general price of all Cordials, though consisting only of two Ounces [Page 67] of Baume Water, and half an Ounce of Syrup of Gillyflowers. Your Glyster shall be praepared out of two or three handfuls of Mallow leaves, and one Ounce of common Fennil seeds, boyl'd in water to a pint, which strained shall be thick­ned with the Common Electuary Lenitive, Rape Oyle and Brown Sugar, and so seasoned with Salt. This shall be conveighed into your Guts by the young Doctor his man, through an engin he carries commonly about him, and makes him smell so wholsom, for which piece of service, if you praesent your Engeneer below half a Crown, he will think himself worse dealt with than those, who empty your necessary Closets in the night. The Master places to account for the Gut-Medi­cine, (though it were no more than water and salt,) and for the use of his man, which he calls Porteridge, eight Groats; Item, for a Stoma­chick, Hepatick, Splenetick, and a Nephritick Plaister, for each half a Crown. What the total of this dayes Physick amounts to, you may reckon. The next afternoon or evening, returns the Apothecary himself, to give you a visit, (for should he appear in the morning, it would argue he had little to do,) and finding upon examina­tion, you are rather worse than better, by reason those Plaisters caused a melting of the gross hu­mours about the Bowels, and dissolved them [Page 68] into winds and vapours, which fuming to the head, occasion a great Headach, dulness and drowsiness, and part of 'em being dispersed through the Guts and Belly discommode you with a Colick, a swelling of your Belly, and an universal pain or lassitude in all your Limbs; thus you see, one day makes work for another; however he hath the wit to assure you, they are signs of the Operation of yesterdayes means, be­ginning to move and dissolve the humours, which successful work is to be promoted by a Cordial Apozem, the repetition of a Carmina­tive Glyster, another Cordial to take by Spoon­fuls, and because your sleep hath been inter­rupted by the unquietness of swelling humours, he will endeavour to procure you for this next night a Truce with your Disease, by an Hypnotick potion, that shall occasion rest. Neither will he give you other cause than to imagine him a most careful man, and so circumspect, that scarce a Symptom shall escape his particular regard, and therefore to remove your Headach by retracting the humours▪ or rather as you are like to discern best by attracting humours and vapours, he will order his young Mercury to apply a Vesicatory to the nape of your Neck, and with a warm hand to besmear your Belly and all your Joints, with a good comfortable Oyntment, for to ap­pease [Page 69] your pains The Cordial Apozem is a Decoction, that shall derive its vertue from two or three unsavory Roots, as many Herbs and Seeds, with a little Syrup of Gillyflowers, for three or four times taking, which because you shall not undervalue by having it brought to you all in one Glass, you shall have it sent you in so many Viols & Draughts, & for every one of 'em shall be placed three shillings to your account, which is five parts more than the whcle stands him in; for the Cordial potion as much, for the Hypnotick potion the same price, for your Car­minative Glyster no less, and for the Epispastick Plaister a shilling. Thus with the increase of your Disease you may perceive the increase of your Bill, and therefore it's no improper obser­vation, that the Apothecaries Practice follows the course of the Moon. The third day produc­ing an addition of new Symptoms, and an aug­mentation of the old ones, the Patient stands in need of new comfort from his Apothecary, who tells him, that nature begins now to work more strong, and therefore all things goes well, (and never ill;) but because nature requires all possi­ble assistance from Cordials and small evacua­tions, he must expect the same Cordials over again, but with the addition of greater ingre­dients, it may be Magistery of Pearl, or Oriental [Page 70] Bezoar in Powder, the former being oft times but Mother of Pearl dissolved in distilled Vine­gar, the latter a cheat the Armenians put upon the Christians, by ramming Pebbles down a Goats throat, afterwards killing him, and ex­tracting the stones before witness out of his Maw, which they sell for those rare Bezoars, whereof the quantity of fifteen Grains I have known, hath been taken by a Child of a year old, that lay ill of the Small Pox, without the least effect of sweat or any expulsion through the Pores. And besides the repetition of a Glyster, and the renewing of your Plaisters, for the profit of your Physician you must be perswaded, to accept of a comfort­ing Electuary for the Stomach, to promote di­gestion; of a Collution to wash the slime and filth from your Tongue, and to secure your Gums from the Scurvy; of a Melilot Plaister to apply to the Blister was drawn, the night before; of some Spirits of Salt to drop into your Beer at Meals, of three Pills of Ruffi to be swallowed down that night, and three next morning, which possibly may pleasure you with three Stools; but are to be computed as 2 Doses, each at a Shilling; the Spirit of Salt a Crown the Ounce; for the Stomach Electuary as much, for the Glyster as before; for your Cordial in relation to the Pearl and Bezoar, their weight in Gold, which is [Page 71] two pence a Grain, the greatest cheat of my whole discourse; for dressing of your Blister a shilling; for the Plaister as formerly. Here I praesume that candour in you, as not to believe me so disingenious, as to take the advantage of Apothecaries, in producing any other than the best methods of their practice, and that which savours the least of their frauds, for in compa­rison with others, (though these are very palpa­ble, in regard there is not a valuable conside­ration respected, or a proportionable Quid pro Quo,) they are such as may be judged passable, yet when you are to reflect upon the total, that shall arrise out the Arithmetical progression of charge, of a fortnights Physick, modestly com­puted at fifteen Shillings a day, without the in­clusion of what you please to praesent him for his care, trouble, and attendance, I will not har­bour so ill an opinion of him, or give so rigid a censure, as your self shall upon the following Oration, your Glysterpipe-Doctor delivers to you with a Melancholy accent, in these terms; Sir, I have made use of my best Skil and Indea­vours, I have been an Apothecary this twenty years and upwards, and have seen the best Practice of our best London Physicians, my Master was such a one, Mr.—one of the ablest Apothecaries of the City, I have given you the best Cordials that can [Page 72] be praescribed, 'tis at your instance I did it, I can do no more, and indeed it is more properly the work of a Physician, your case is dangerous, and I think if you sent for such a one, Dr—he is a very pretty man; if you please I will get him to come down. Now Sir, how beats your Pulse? the loss of the money your Bill imports, adds to your pains, through the remembrance it is due to one, that hath fooled you out of it, and de­served it no other way, than by adding wings to your gross humours, that before lay dormant, and now fly rampant up and down, raking and raging, which had you not been penny wise and pound foolish, you would have praevented, by sending for a Physician, who for the small merit of a City fee, (for which you might also have expected two visits) would have struck at the root of your Distemper, without tampering at its Symptoms, or Branches, and by ver­tue of one Medicine restor'd you to your former condition of health, from which you are now so remote; being necessitated, considering your doubtful state, to be at the charge of a Physician or two, to whom upon examination of what hath been done before, the Apothecary shall humbly declare, he hath given you nothing but Cor­dials, which word Cordial, he supposes to be a sufficient protection for this erroneous practice; [Page 73] and I must tell you, that had his cordial method been continued in a Feaver, or any other acute Distemper, for eight or ten dayes, your Heirs would have been particularly obliged to him, for giving you a Cordial remove out of your possession, and that through omission of those two great Remedies, Purging and Bleeding, the exact use whereof, in respect of time, quantity, and other circumstances, can onely be deter­mined by Accomplisht Physicians.

§ I should accuse my self of partiality, did I conceal, what may be pleaded for their Pra­ctice. Many a substantial Citizen may have the fortune of a Servant taken Sick in his house, who should he upon every flight accident of that nature fling away (as he calls it) ten shillings on a Physician, might justly be esteemed an ill ma­nager of his concerns, when an Apothecary at a venture by giving a Vomit, Purge, or Glyster, may for the charge of a shilling or eighteen pence remove the Distemper, which that now and then he performs with success, is universally known and taken notice of, and therefore in such cases, is so commonly sent for, or else could not judge any man so little commiserating the condition of his Servant, as to expose his life to a certain danger. Besides the Apothecary finds himself more galiard and confident in this [Page 74] his practice on inferiours; for if they miscarry, he excuses whatsoever error he hath committed, by asserting, he was importuned or rather for­ced to it by their Master. On the other hand, should an Apothecary being thus called in to a sick Servant, or a mean Tradesman, whose con­dition by reason of his charge of Family and Children is little better, refuse this assistance, disobliges the Master, loses the practice of his Family, or turns away his Patient, who shall immediately send to the next, that shall most willingly embrace the employ; whence may be observed, the one necessarily spurs on the other to practice. A third import greater than any of the former is, that Physicians all, or most, being tyed to particular Apothecaries, praescribe their Bills in terms so obscure, that they force all chance Patients to repair to their own Apothe­caries, praetending a particular secret, which onely they have the key to unlock; whereas in effect it's no other than the commonest of Medi­cines, disguised under an unusual name, on de­sign to direct you to an Apothecary, between whom and the Physician there is a private com­pact of going snips, out of the most unreasona­ble rates of the said Medicines, wherein if you seek a redress, by shewing the Bill to the Doctor, he shall most religiously aver, it's the cheapest [Page 75] he ever red. The consequence hereof as to your particular is a double fraud; and as to Apothe­caries in general, their number bearing the pro­portion of at least ten parts to one of noted Phy­sicians, to whom allowing each his Covenant Apothecary, who constituting but one part of the ten, the remaining nine parts of the number are compelled either to sit still, or to Quack for a Livelyhood; at or least eight of'em, for we'll suppose one part of the nine in a possibility, of acquiring competent estates, in a way more honest, than that of the Covenanteers, by their wholesale Trade, of fitting Chyrurgeons Chests for Sea, and supplying Countrey Apothecaries with Compositions. Lastly, all Accomplisht Physicians are likewise exposed to manifest in­juries from those Covenant Apothecaries, who being sent for by Patients, after a short essay of a Cordial, will overpower them by perswasions to call in a Doctor, who shall be no other than his Covenant Physician, by which means the for­mer Physician, that by his extraordinary care and Skil had obliged the Family before, shall be passed by, and lose the practice of that Patient. And should it happen, the sence of gratitude of the forementioned Patient, should engage him to continue the use of his former Physician, yet this Covenant Apothecary shall privately cavil [Page 76] at every Bill, and impute the appearance of eve­ry new small pain or symptom, (which necessa­rily in the course of a Disease will happen) to his ill address in the Art of Physick, and shall not give over, before he hath introduced his Covenanteer, whose authority in the fraud of a Physick Bill, he supposes to be most neces­sary.

§ But since I have omitted nothing, relating to the concern of their practice, I will not be defective in proposing what may tend to the in­terest of their so unreasonable profit, as people judge. The necessity of their Neighborhood to you, to be at hand on all important occasions, is an argument, they pay great Rents in many places, to the satisfaction whereof, and the sup­port of their Families, it is not the profit com­monly allowed over and above what commo­dities stand Retailers in at the Merchants or wholesale men, will plentifully suffice, so that it's no more than reason, they should be consi­dered in the Rates and Prices of their Medicines, for the Mysterie, pains, and Art of praeparing them, and afterwards conveying them to your house, where their time in waiting on you, and answering many of your impertinent quaestions, or running to and fro for you to the Doctors, and oft being called by you out of their beds in [Page 77] the night, ought I judge likewise to be taken no­tice of. Secondly, all Honest Apothecaries at the years end rid their Shops of two thirds of their decayed Compositions, and rotten Simples, which at their seasons they are obliged to prae­pare a fresh, and keep them ready for your use, if unhappily your Disease should require any of 'em; whence it appears the greatest justice, you should be charged for Medicines, that are pur­posely so praepared and reserved for you though never praescribed, in the higher Rates and Prices of such, you at any time have occasion for. Thirdly, An Apothecary being obliged to re­pair to a Physicians Covenant Apothecary, to purchase his Phantastical Nostrum at the unrea­sonable rate he is pleased to value it at, doth not a little inflame the reckoning. Fourthly, The unskilful Physician praescribing an Ounce of Pearl in a Cordial Emulsion, puts the Patients Purse into a Disease, and gives him but little ease. Moreover to praescribe Bees praepared in the Winter, or four or five Ounces of Peach Kernels in the Spring, or to ordain a restorative Electuary out of Parats tongues, and Hawks livers, as a most egregious Physician of our Town did, is an argu­ment, you need not to stair if your Bill amounts to pounds sterling. And when your glorious Phy­sician hath markt you down an Apozem of a [Page 78] yard and half long, I would not have you dispute with your Apothecary, for demanding more than what's usual for one, that contains but a simple or two, which possibly shall operate more effectually, and the Physician will know more certainly, which of the Simples did the feat, whereas in a great composition it's impossible to determinate which of'em contributed most to the Cure. § These defects and abuses in the pra­ctice of Physick in relation to their prices, chiefly depend on the great bulk of the London Dispensatory, being overburdned with at least two thirds, though considering the time it was framed in, might well have vyed with any of its cotemporaries, for excellent and select Com­positions. But the experience of our so wonder­fully improved age declares, most methods of Physick can more commodiously be performed with a less than one third of its Contents. To what purpose so many scores of Syrups, which upon their unavoidable fermentation through the heat of the Summer, undergo a dissipation of the imbibed or infused vertues of Simples, dif­fering afterwards in nothing from nauseous Molasses? so great a number of distilled Waters seems rather intended for pomp, than the abso­lute necessity of such Phlegmatick and insiped Liquors, as most of'em are. Aqua Gilberti, and [Page 79] Cordialis frigida Saxoniae, are through the addi­tion of Coral, Pearl, Bezoar, and precious Stones, considerably advanced in price, but not the least particle in vertue, accusing the Inven­tors of a defect in experimental knowledge, which would have discovered to them, there had been nothing so Volatil or Salin in those forementioned Stones and Pearl, that such weak Menstruums were capable of extracting. And he that revises the Composition of Confectio Ha­mech, will conclude it a very senseless one, for being render'd so adstrictive, by that great pro­portion of Myrobalaas. Mithridate and Threacle if ever they had been causes of those great effects former ages adscribed to them, would certainly be promoted to higher vertues, were they cor­rected by the substracting many of their poyso­nous and hurtful ingredients. Neither could I ever give my self a satisfactory reason, why those ancient and pure Empirical Compositions, whereof Mesues was so diligent a Collector, were recommended by those learned Physicians to their Apothecaries, without reducing their Em­pirical and senseless multitude of ingredients to a less and more rational number, in the Compo­sitions of Species Confect. Liber Pulvis Bezoard. Magistr. Diarrhod. Abbat. and of many others; Likewise the Chymical praeparations described [Page 80] in the latter end of the said Pharmapoea, are as mean, as they are defective; Antimonium Dia­phoreticum is not so much fixt, but oft moves Vomits; the like effect may be imputed to their Bezoardicum Minerale. Their Mercurius vitae proves for the most part Convulsive towards the latter part of the operation; their Oleum Vitrioli too corrosive, and not at all volatil; their Tur­bith Mineral is as churlish, as it is a crude and barren praeparation. The body of the Chalybs praep. not being sufficiently opened by distill'd Vinegar, doth not answer the Physicians expecta­tion in obstinate obstructions. Their Magiste­rium Coral. and Perlar. differ little from chalk in powder, or lime well washt. In fine, nothing is more worthy of the consideration of those so eminently Accomplisht Physicians of the Col­lege, than the reformation of their Pharmacopoea, the correcting of its Compositions, in retrench­ing the number of the ingredients, and reducing the body of the whole into a far less number of Simple Waters, Syrups, Electuaries, Powders, Compound Purgatives, Oyntments and Plaisters, whereby they will singularly pleasure Honest Apothecaries, in detracting so considerably from that needless and almost endless pains and trou­ble, the praesent Dispensatory injoyns, and save them the labour of running to one another [Page 81] to borrow Medicines; and lastly, since by this small determinate number of Simples and Com­pounds little or nothing will remain to be flung away at the years end, they may afford their Medicines two thirds cheaper, and yet be no less Gainers, and for this the publick will in grati­tude become their aequal Debtors with Apothe­caries.

§ To this praeceding Catalogue of clamourous abuses of Practising Apothecaries, I will annex such others, as the immoderate thirst of lucre, and the sweet ease of laziness, do tempt them to; and therefore if in the praeparation of prolix compositions, as of Syr. Arthem. Syr. Chamaepit. Mithridate and others, they omit half a score Simples or more, and supply the defect of 'em by a double proportion of others, you may judg, they intend nothing but the contracting their business, and the humouring their inclination to idleness. And if in the Species of Diamoschu they omit the Mosck, in Pulv. e Chel. Cancror. the Bezoar, in Pulv. Cardiac. Magistr. the Am­bergrise and Leaf Gold, in Pulv. Bez. Mag. the Unicorns horn, and the Pearl, you may imagine they design a double profit; the one by saving those dear Ingredients, and the other, by charging the said Medicines at as high a rate to the Patients Bill, as if they had been added in [Page 82] their full proportion. Secondly, At the Drug­gists there being two sorts of all Drugs, the one good, sound and dear, the other though of the same kind, course, almost rotten and very cheap; we may be jealous, that those who aim at an Aldermanship by a quick step, do for the most part make use of the latter sort of Drugs in all their Compositions, and in the praeparations of the praescripts of Physicians; whose Bills its most certain are by some Apothecaries unfaithfully dispensed, by adding a less quantity of the In­gredients, or such as will prove ineffectual, on design either to protract the course of Physick, or to defame the Physician. Thirdly, the humour of a Tradesman to play the Gentleman is too visible in many Apothecaries, who pass their time either Physician like in visiting Patients, or rendring themselves to the recreations of the times, wherein they are plentifully supported by the revenue of their Shop, which their men manage according to the idleness and negligence Servants are all addicted to in the absence of their Masters; whence supposing a praescription to be erroneously or dangerously praepared, and the Patient upon the taking of it surprized with urgent symptoms, or yeild to his last fate, it shall not be divulged to you, the man that made up the Medicine was a raw Apprentice, or had [Page 83] been drinking Drunk, whil'st the Master was breathing his Nag in Hide-Park, in all which transaction, it's the Physician that must father the ill success.

§ Were you here to pass your sentiment on the praemisses, you would conclude I had spoken for and against the Apothecaries, which how far I seem to have written for them, it's time I should resolve you. First, in answer to what I objected seemingly on the behalf of the reasonableness of their Practice. Our most perfect English Law imposes death upon those who exact money (though out of a necessity for a Livelyhood) from any, by threatning their lives, if so, what can we suppose a greater argument against Apo­thecaries, that exact great Sums in their long Bills for Medicines, which beyond threatning, have artificially taken away their lives? for it's observable our Law is so intent in the praeserving of the life of every (though the meanest) of the Kings Subjects, that if a proof be pursued, that the untimely death of any person was caused by an error in Physick, administred by one that had no legal warrant for it, the crime is severely punish'd with a Rope.

§ But since the condition of inferiour Trades­men and Servants will not admit of great expen­ces in Physicians fees, besides large prices for [Page 84] Medicines, the Honourable College of Physi­cians would singularly acquit their duty to the publick, in praeventing their rash inconsiderate humour of running to Mountebanks, Empiricks, or practising Apothecaries for cheapness (so seeming,) by appointing every three or four years one or two Junior Physicians in every Ward, whose visiting Fee they should be obli­ged by Oath, shall not exceed a shilling, and their Chamber Fee six pence, by which means many lives might be praeserved, the young Phy­sician gain considerably enough by the frequency of Patients and the multitude of Visits, and very much improve his experience. Likewise there ought a Pharmacopoea Pauperum to be annex'd to the other, which consisting in cheap, few, and effectual Medicines, and praepared by two or three Apothecaries, authorized for that pur­pose in every respective Ward, and every Me­dicine reasonably rated by the Physician at the end of his praescription, it would certainly prae­vent the ruine of many mean Families in case of a great Sickness, which oft cannot stand them in less than twenty or thirty pounds, at the rate Phy­sick is practised now.

§ Physicians of late have made some sputter about the dishonesty, stubborness, and incapa­city of Apothecaries in their Trade, but seeking [Page 85] redress among incompetent Judges, the vulgar, mistook their case, and so must begin again. The Carrier in the Fable complaining to Iupiter, his Ass was sullen and wo'd not go the way he wo'd have him; Iupiter return'd no other answer, than that he had given him hands; implying he might make use of'em in taking the Ass by the Haltar, and driving him on with a Battoon. The Moral applyed to this affair can give no offence, since Fables never created exceptions. So then the College of Physicians having the means in their own hands, which their Charter and several acts of Parliament had conferred on them, may without much difficulty arrive to the end of their design, by summoning the chief of their Corpo­ration before them, and offering whether they will accept of an Oath, to be taken every seven years or oftner, (to put them in mind of their duty,) in this form, or any other they shall think fit. They shall swear they will praepare the Medi­cines and Compositions of their Dispensatory faithfully without altering or substituting Quid pro Quo, or omitting or adding any Simples, which they engage shall be the sound and good; and that they will praepare and dispense the praescriptions of Physicians exactly without the least alteration, omission or addition, without cavilling, deriding, or reviling any thing there­in [Page 86] contain'd. That they shall not sell their Me­dicines at higher prices than the College shall think fit to tax or rate them. That they shall not praesume to give a Vomit or Purge, without a Bill from a Legal Physician. That they shall not give a Patient more than one Cordial or Glyster on an urgent occasion, which may satisfie the Pa­tients impatiency, until a Physician be sent for, provided alwayes, that this shall not extend to hinder them from selling Mithridate, Threacle, Simple Waters, Syrups, or any thing else a Custo­mer will buy of 'em. That they shall not feel Pulses, examine Patients, puzzle or fright them to cause them to send for another. That they shall dispense Laudanum, Mercurius vitae, and some other weighty Medicines with their own hands. That they shall give Physicians a due respect and honour, oppose the frauds and insinuations of Empiricks and Practising Apothecaries. That they shall not keep any Medicine in their Shops longer, than the College praescribes a time for their continuing good and sound. That they shall not sell Sublimate, Praecipitate, Arsenick or any other sort of quick poyson to any inferiour or unknown Customer. That they shall conceal the Diseases of Patients, or whatever other secrets are committed to them in the Cure. That they shall likewise keep secret such praescripts of the [Page 87] Physicians as they shall enjoyn them to. That they shall not publickly or privately advise or sell any Medicine that may occasion Women to miscarriages, or kill their Conception. That they shall discover the frauds and errors com­mitted by Practising Apothecaries, if suspected to have caused the untimely death of any. That they shall not let Blood, dress Ulcers, or in­vade any part of the Skilful Chyrurgeons em­ploy. Besides what else is convenient to be added. An Oath being no more than ne­cessary in a Trade, where frauds and abuses are so practicable, I am confident no Honest Apothecary can or will refuse it, since containing no particular, that cuts off from the priviledge or full extent of his Trade. Those whom the honesty of their intentions shall perswade their submission to these rules, may be distinguish'd from others, by being called College Apothecaries, to whom it's like­wise most just, the Physicians shall ingage upon the reputation of their Profession, not to prae­pare any Medicines, but such as are very diffi­cult, requiring art and care, and whereon the weight and principal efficacy of Curing great Diseases doth depend, but that they shall send these also to be dispensed by them, and conse­quently shall leave off praescribing of Nostrums [Page 88] that were used to be praepared by their Covenant Apothecaries. Moreover that they shall not divert any Patient from his Apothecary, or in the least hint at his incapacity, to cause any suspi­cion or praejudice in the Patient; that they shall ever refuse to make use of a Practising or any other than a College Apothecary, but in­deavour the suppression of all such and Empi­ricks, for their mutual interest and advan­tage, and ever be obliged to give a good Character of them in particular. That they will tax and rate their compositions and prae­scriptions conscienciously, and with a particu­lar regard had to their Rents, charge of Servants, loss of time, and all other necessary circumstances. That they shall not Usurp any Authority or Majestical command over them, other than of praescribing, directing, and in­forming what's necessary for the good of the Pa­tient and their Customer, and consequently esteem 'em as free Tradesmen.

§ But if it shall be made to appear, a College Apothecary hath in any particular, broken his Oath, he shall be expelled and extermined as a perjured person, out of the College Practice, without the least hope of ever being received in again. Likewise a Collegiate Physician being found peccant, ought [Page 89] to be degraded of the honour, of being a mem­ber of so honourable a Society.

§ The irregularity of the Practice of Physick being in a great measure to be imputed to the perverse qualities of some of themselves, the Collegiate Physicians ought to pass an ingage­ment, They shall depose all envy and malice, by desisting to decry or depress one another by clandestin sinister reflexions, but on the con­trary, rather aiming at that part of a Gentle­man, to give a generous Character of one ano­ther. That they shall not undertake the Cure of any Patient, who hath made use of another, before the former Physician is dismissed with his due satisfaction. That if two or more are called to a consultation, they shall go out together, and no single one tarry behind, to insinuate into the opinion of the Patient or his Friends. That all consultations shall be made in a room pri­vate to themselves, and all their particular judg­ments shall be left wholly to be approved and de­cided by the Physician that was first called, who ought likewise to praescribe only. That being called, where an Empirick or Practising Apothecary hath by an irregular method brought the Patient into a manifest danger, and an irrecoverable condi­tion, he shall be obliged to acquaint the College with it.


[Page 90]By a line of impartiality I have drawn this tract, not being conscious of any pique I have to any party therein mentioned, and for that reason can assert, I have produced what may be urged for Physician and Apothecary, to the least circumstance, and have likewise annex'd a way for accommodation between 'em, but how well or how ill I leave to the Reader; and so farewell.

Sunt bona mixta malis, sunt mala mixta bonis.

A LASH for LEX TALIONIS; OR, A just Repraehension of the Practising Apothecary.

THis preceding discourse was almost finish'd in the Im­pression, when I chanced to spy somewhat new, prickt up against a post in a Ballad-sellers Stall, at first appearing like some strange News from Tripoly, but upon a nearer approach, observed a very worthy person Dr. Merret named i'th' Title of Lex Talionis, and in the ensuing page▪ Dr. Goddart, both very Accomplisht and Eminently Learned in their Profession; also a third, Dr. Daniel Cox, a person as ingenious as learned. These to whom the generality of judicious men dedicate a character more ample, than my narrow bounds will permit to express, were assaulted in their honour and reputation by a clandestin scurrilous Cabal of four or five Practising Apothe­caries, raking up in the Libel forementioned all the filth and dirt the Sinck of their imagination stunk of, but with no other success than the bespattering of themselves, and defiling their own Nest. The provocation for this was no more than what passers by give to those snarling Animals, that bark at 'em, because they are none of the house; it being the sentiment of those Learned men in their Treatises, that the people were ex­treamly imposed upon by some fraudulent Apothecaries, whom they endeavoured to divert from their impious practice by a [Page 92] threat, they would attempt the praeparation of their own Medi­cines, which the urgent occasion of a sickly season, and many inconveniences attending a private Pharmacy might easily praevail with them, to render back to those, whose establish'd employment it had been for some ages. This was the opinion of all sober and honest Apothecaries, with a censure, that the fore­said Pamphlet was Indited by some Hermaphrodite Apothecary-Doctor to deserve a small piece, or to raise himself by causing a division between Physicians and Apothecaries; these latter de­testing those scandalous reflexions on the whole Corporation of Physicians, and others in particular by inserting their names, a sort of impudence not common in a civilized Government, and what is more, of givng the Lye to a Gentleman, which the Lex Talionis of all Nations recompenses with a Bastonade. But give Diabolus his due, the particular naming of persons being left out, it might pass for a piece of Bouffonerie, the chief Author being fitter sor a———on the little Theatre of a Bartholomew Booth, than—sure he would have bursted had he not gi'n vent to his witty Hogshead, that was thus upon the fret; and when he has been well rackt till the Lees drop into his Breeches, his manners will shew more fine. However I'le pass one hours time to give an essay, how facil it is to retort, but without reverberating heat: (fol. 7. Lex Talionis) That the young Physician must be lodged gra­tis in the Apothecaries house, and attended on by the Servants, and by the Mistriss into the bargain; a filthy Bird that befowls his own nest. Cancaro! What's his meaning? confesses, he holds his Trade by a contented tenure in Capite; or by giving Purges at's house, when the sign is in Capricorn, and for that reason the English Mounsieur comes not thither, without muzling his Nose un­der his Cloak. But the Gentleman has forgot to tell you, his Trade is the onely means the Physician has to shab off his Tym­pany-Cousin to the young Apothecary, in hopes of his Practice for her Portion, urgente necessitate, Po for that. sol. 24. The Apothecaries having a laudable custom once a year (and oftner too) as many as please, to go Herbarizing (don't say Simpling) in Guttur­lane, where any not knowing may be instructed by those, who well un­derstand, and are learned;—O Learned Herbwomen! (fol. 25.) he recites a fictitious story of a Carrot top; A most praegnant invention of his Carrot-pa [...]e imagination. (fol. 2.) for Certes [Page 93] sayes he, an incomparable Gallus, whither his Brother Apothe­cary was carried the last Sessions in the little Coach (fol. 17.) with two Wheels, up Holborn and—such another his Glyster-pipeship may keep in Time, for it would be too pedantick for our age to say the Apothecary goeth to his Countrey house. fol. 17. Of late times there being more (Doctors) Knighted, than known in so short a time. If this be the contest, as many of you shall be exalted to a Knighthood o'th' burning Pestil, with the figure Ch. in the record of your Manual; but that wil spoil your Palmestry I doubt. (fol. 2.) But Domine, was it salva conscientia, (fol. 25.) when for a truth one of your small Brethren in the Margin of's Bill, put down Item for Item and Item of Pulvis ad Anginam, being nothing but Album Graecum, each paper at half a Crown; for forty papers justo five pounds for White Dogs—and what you please besides for Tobith and's little Cur? Hush hush, all comes out; 'tis not forgotten the poor Lady in—march'd off of an Ala mode, she had got by taking some Pills Mr. Nameless had roul'd between's Teeth, to make 'em take gilt the better. Hereafter pray leave off that trick. 'Tseems Mr. Nameless had been basely paid for's Glyster; And how deservedly then the Bon Droll stiles 'em (fol. 19.) a Society, generally (none excepted?) very honest and sober men, Oiboh! Pray do n't go by t' Artichoak Leaden—str. Pils, Potions, and Quack-advice you may have, and after that a long Arithmetical Scrowl, little shorter than a Shentlemans Genealogy: This his Jong Picaro shall humbly present to you, and if you bid 'um send Ursus major, and you will pay his B [...]ll; ex­pect not a Farthing abatement from the favour of a Quantum me­ruit; for here's a plain Assumpsit; if you understand not this Knack, the Iereboams shall make you—Probatum est; for it's on Record more then once in several of the Courts. (fol. 17.) The Battle is to the strong; but they are strong, so [...] they ne'r break; and how can they? three Patients i' th' Spring makes their Pot boil all the year. It's well put in, a word of the battle; for ge­nerally they go armed with the Ivory pocket Pistol, & the Box of gilt Bullets; and Auri sacra fames, the good Old Cause, even it's that they fight for. (Fol. 18.) Their canting and formally praying over their Patients, &c. this is granted was the practice of three noted Physicians, and they got well by it, What then? Hast thou not heard of a Precious Brother of thine, who like a little Stone­horse [Page 94] mounted the great Tub, and with a sence of feeling, how heartily did he recommend his precious Elizir vitae to dis dear Sisters, and so powerfully did press it home to 'em; and at length O how fervently did they embrace it! All had been well, and they had still continued in the same perswasion, had not that wretch Brother Nameless held forth his poysonous Box of Oint­ment, almost to the utter destruction of their sweet enjoyment, and their comfortable fellowship; But how precious an An­tidote was Mercurius Dulcis then, to rebuke that evil spirit Lust and Conven tickling had let in among 'em? Nemo omnibus horis sapit, may as well be verified of this Apothecary as any other, when he bought dryed Eels for Vipers, to make Trochisci, for his Venice Threacle, an Admirable Antidote! (fol. 9.) for doubtless (says he) the discreet Apothecary being learned, may make a far abler Physician than he an Ahothecary; for it's but joyning the Theory of Physick with his Practick, and he may be compleat; what? a compleat Mountebank! conceditur; but quomodo pulvis signior Apo­thecary, the joyning of the Theory with the Practick? possibly the joyning of Culpepper with the Glysterpipe; or Poor Robin's Almanack with the Pestil and Mortar; seriouslr a very compleat Physician. Complamatum est; and from that rule (fol. 12) all Fools or Physiciaus indeed, or both, if he'll accept on't: (fol. 25.) for ex quovis ligno non fit Mercurius, i. e. ex quovis wooden Apo­thecary non fit Medicus. But whence had your Worship all those ends of Latin? sure th'are the parings of some University Cobler; for confident I am the learn'd Author's Gotham as­sistants are scarce guilty of knowing the first letter of the Greek I' th' title, though it proved their neck Verse (fol 25.) the Apo­thecary if he would understand the practice (a contradiction now con­fessing their ignorance i' th' Practick) and Theory of Physick, or any question that can be asked, (what turn Astrologer too!) let him buy Frambesarius, the best piece ever Duns studied to answer's Quodlibets; that's th'use on't. Though when he trug'd to Cambridg for a degree of Blockhead in Physick, Don Quixot falter'd most abominably, being better vers'd in Priscian than Galen. Quot sunt partes Me­dicinae? Answer'd quinque. Primo, to perswade a Customer in health he's sick. Secundo, to give him a Pill that shall make him sick. Tertio, to [...]amp him up with Cordials. Quarto, to make im believe he's well, though now sick indeed. Quinto, [Page 95] to present 'im with a long Bill; if trap be the word go on and prosper. (fol. 26.) he comments on an ingenious book de Fer­mentatione, like an Asinus ad byram; as if the learned Author had not been able to explain's own thoughts, nevertheless runs on mistaking the thing all along. But my friend, when you have thorowly perused the Praxis Riverli (fol. 26.) and Primroses En­chridium, still it will be but Simia est simia, etiamsi aurea gestet in­signia, in English a debauch'd Apothecary. Neither will your Asinary canting on the fermentation (fol. 27.) for a specimen of their wonderful pretended progress in Physick, excuse 'em from being—in print; (fol. 25.) Let but a rational learned Apo­thecary, &c. Guarda la gamba! A rational learned swabber in Phy­sick, a Pot-carry! and why may not a Rational learned Chimney­sweeper add but somewhat of the Theory (verba codicis) to his former observations, be better fitted for practice, and I would sooner engage him than many a Pot-carry. I mar'l tro' your Worship forgets they have travelled too as well as Physicians; 'tis confessed they have; but 'twas on Balaam's Ass, from the Village of Ignorance, through the Town of Cheat'em in Long-bill-shire, till they came to the strong Castle of Impudence. Passe par la stil, but in your Travels, have a care of the little Coach, they make an ugly halt by the way, unless the Coachman will ingage to bring you back, and yet ▪t would be dangerous to take's word. Pray good folks, a word of advice; leave off this rambling, off with your travelling garb, the Plush Jacket, and the broad brim'd Hat, 'tis but Vulpes sub pelle Leonis, and on with your blew Aprons again, the Musick of the Pestil and Mortar will sound pleasanter than the Passing Bell; for Pot-carry is but quasi to the Pit-carry, and your Practicing quasi Prating. Now let's Blazon the Primitive of your derived so eminent Profession, as he call's it. Apothecary Pot-carry, Pot-carry Pit-carry, Pit-carry Picaro. O Picaro, art thou the Father of so eminent a Generation! then may I say with the Author in the farewell of his Prologue; From a Picaro-Pit-carry-Apothecary Libera me Domine.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.