Quae, Natura Sagax, Secretis abdidit Extis
Hac Ope divinaberus disquirit Aruspex.



To Which is added an ACCOUNT of the Measure of a Degree of a great Circle of the Earth, Published by the same ACADEMY, and Englished

By Richard Waller, S. R. S.

LONDON, Printed by Ioseph Streater, and are to be Sold by T. Basset, at the George in Fleet-Street. I. Robinson, at the Golden Lyon in St. Paul's Church-Yard. B. Aylmer, at the Three Pigeons over against the Royal-Exchange. Ioh. Southby, at the Harrow in Cornhil. And by W. Canning, in the Temple. MDCI. XXXVIII.

At a COUNCIL of the Royal Society this Day held, it is ordered that the Translation of the MEMOIRES pour servir al' Histoire des Animaux, (By Alexander Pitfeild Esq. R. S. S.) Be allowed to be Printed.

Tho. Henshaw, Vic. Praes. S. R.






THese Famous Memoir's containing the Anatomical Descriptions of several Animals (and those all Exotic and scarce to be procured) together with very excellent Observations thereon, are some of the first­fruits and accurate performances of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. They were by them some time since so Magnificently, as well as Curiously set forth in two Volumes, that (as they seemed not to be designed for com­mon Sale, so) they became Presents only from the King, or Academy, to Persons of the greatest Quality, and were hereby rendered unattainable by the ordinary Methods for other Books. And altho' by some few, who (through this means) had the opportunity of perusing them, they were found full fraught with very Pertinent, as well as Curious Observations; yet so great was the difficulty in procuring the favour of such a perusal (not only here in England, but even at Paris it self) that the Ingenious Labours of that Illustrious Society were hereby made less Useful and Ineffectual to their great Design; most of the Learned being totally deprived of the singular Advantages that might be obtained therefrom.

For these Reasons it was judged that the exhibiting of this admirable Treatise in an English dress, might prove no unacceptable Present, it be­ing a Work inriched with many Curious Physical, and no less Useful Anatomical Remarks, of great Importance to the Promotion and Improve­ment of Natural Knowledg; especially that part which respects the Con­struction, Fabrick, and Genuine Use of the Parts of Animals, and even of Man: A Knowledge no way better to be obtained than from the Compara­tive Anatomy of divers Animals; that Texture of Parts being discoverable in one Animal, which Nature has conceal'd and made more obscure in a­nother.

These Considerations, backt with the earnest Importunities of several Friends, and the hopes of being serviceable to the Ingenious Inquirers into Nature, so far prevailed upon me, that (in compliance to their desires, and [Page] for the publick Benefit) I undertook this Edition, wherein I have used my utmost endeavours for the rendering a faithful Translation thereof; still keeping as near as I could to the true sense of the French Coppy, and varying as little therefrom as the Nature of the English Language would permit. How far they have herein succeeded, is wholly submitted to the Censure of the Learned, whose kind acceptance of these perform­ances may prove a farther Motive to present them with some other things of this kind, whereby the useful Application of these, and divers others of the like Nature will more evidently appear.

But there was one thing more difficult to be overcome (at least by me) than what I have hitherto mentioned, and that was the presenting you with the Figures and Delineations, which in the French Edition are ex­ceedingly accurate, as well as skillfully Engraven in Copper. And here­in Gratitude oblidges me to acknowledg the great kindness of Mr. Richard Waller, without whose Assistance I should have been at a loss, and this Design would have fall'n to the Ground: But his Zealous endeavours to promote Natural Discoveries soon prevail'd with him to ingage himself in this more difficult Task: And accordingly he proportioned and wrought them after the French Originals, with as much exactness as was pos­sible; and altho' to accommodate them to this Volume, he was neces­sitated to contract and lessen the size, yet has he so well disposed of the Parts of each Plate, that what is most material is very plain and clear­ly Intelligible. Most of the Animals are represented three quarters as bigg as in the Originals, and all the Diffected Parts half as bigg; excepting some few as bigg as the Life, which is expressed in their particular Expli­cations. His great Care in thus nicely contracting the Plates, and allowing to each part its due Symmetry and Proportion are sufficient Testimonies of his Skill in Designing, which with his other Abilities being already well known to the Royal Society, I must (by reason of his Modesty and my near Relation) forbear giving him those Prayses which in Iustice be­long unto him.

To him also I am oblidged for furnishing me with the Translation of the Observations made for Measuring a Degree upon the Earth, which tho' it be a Subject of a differing Nature, yet being one of the most con­siderable Productions of the same Illustrious Academy, and being joyned to one of the Volumes in the French Edition, I conceived it would be as pertinent and proper to accompany them in English.

Thus have I given you a short account of this following undertaking, hop­ing you may hereby receive as great Satisfaction in peruseing, as I have done in tranlateing these Memoir's.


HISTORY, of what Nature soever it be, is written after two Ways: In the one are related all the things which have been at several times collected, and which do belong to the Subject it Treats off. In the other we are confined to the Narrative of some particular Acts, of which the Writer has a certain knowledge. This last way, which the Romans did call Commentaries, and the French, Memoires; although it contains only the Parts, and as it were the Elements which do compose the Body of History, and has not the Majesty found in that which is general, yet claims this Advantage; that Certainty and Truth, which are the most recomendable Quali­ties of History, cannot be wanting in it, provided the Writer be exact and sincere; which is not sufficient for the general Historian, who oftentimes cannot be true, how desirous soever he be after the Truth, and what care soever he imploy's to discover it; because he is allwayes in danger of being deceived by the Memoires on which he builds.

[Page]We have store of Histories of Animals of both these wayes; For besides the great and Magnificent Works which Aristotle, Pliny, Solinus, and Aelian have composed of what they found in other Au­thors, or which they learnt from those who had made some Observa­tions themselves; We have likewise some perticular Relations which Travellers have written, of Abundance of Animals which are found onely in the Countries where they have been: And those who have made the Description of the several Parts of the World, have not forgotten that of the Animals which are there to be found. But it may be said that there is not found any certainty in these Histories, nor in these Relations. Those who have writt the General History of Animals, have thought to render it sufficiently acceptable by the great number of things which they do relate, and by the distribu­tion which they do make of the Animals into their different Species; with their resemblances and differences which are found in their parts of which the various conformation, and all their Natural properties are ranged in some common Classes. For it is in this that they have chiefly imployed their dilligence and industry, the rest not belonging to them, but to those who had made the Description of the Animals on the places, and whose exactness and fidelitie could not be suffi­ciently known to them, to answer for them. So that the Materials, of which these Authors have composed their Works, being for the most part defective and layd on sandy Foundations, it may be truly said that the great Structure which they have afterwards built thereon, with so curious a Symmetry, has no real Solidity.

Therefore the Curious and Learned, who had formerly but little valued the worke of Petrus Gillius, when he undertook to metho­dize what Aelian, had confusedly related of Animals, have been much concerned at the loss of the excellent Remarks which he after­wards made, in the Travels which Francis. I. Caused him to take into Forreign Countries. For he was a very Judicious and perspica­cious Man; who was instructed by reading of all Authors that writt on this Subject, and was purposely sent by the King to make this search, and who applied himselfe thereunto with a particular care; which made him capable of observing whatever was remarkable in Animals.

The want of these Qualifications, in the generality of those which have made particular Relations and Memoires, renders their Labour inconsiderable, and their Testimony very suspitious: It [Page] being scarcely probable, that Merchants and Souldiers are indowed with the Spirit of Philosophy and Patience, which are necessary for the observing all the nice Particularities of so many different Animals, whose extraordinary shape did at first satisfy all their Curoiosity, as being capable of sufficiently enriching their Relations; without judging it necessary to proceed to an exacter Scrutiny. But that which yet more lessens the Esteem for these sorts of Memoires, is the unfaithfulness which Travellers do generally use in their Relations; who almost always add to the things they have seen, those which they might have seen; And least the Narrative of their Travels should seem imperfect, do recite what they have read in Authors, by whom they are first deceived, just as they do afterwards deceive their Readers. This is the Reason why the Protestations which several of these Observers, as Belonius, Piso, Margravius, and some others do make, to say nothing but what they have seen, and the Assu­rances which they do give of having discovered a great many of the falsities which have been writt before them, have scarce any other effect, than to render the sinceritie of all Travellers very suspect, because that these Censurers of the good Credit and exactness of others, do not give sufficient Cautions of their own.

That which is most considerable in our Memoires, is▪ that unble­mishable evidence of a certain and acknowledged Verity. For they are not the Work of one private Person, who may suffer himself to be prevail'd upon by his own Opinion; who can hardly perceive what contradicts his first Conceptions, for which he has all the blindness and fondness, which every one has for his own Children; who is not contradicted in the fredom that he allows himselfe, of uttering what ever he thinks capable of adding luster to his Work; and indeed who less considers the Truth of the Facts, which are not his own Production than that order he gives it, and which he frames to himselfe, of some praticularities which he supposes, or dis­guises, to indeavour to suite them to his own Design: So that he would be in some Measure concerned at the finding out of Truths, and making Experiments which would destroy his fine Speculati­ons. But these Inconveniencies are not to be found in our Memoires, which do contain only Matters of Fact, that have been verified by a whole Society; composed of Men which have Eyes to see these sorts of things, otherwise than the greatest part of the World, even as they have Hands to seek them with more dexterity and success; [Page] who see well what is, and who are not easily to be made to see what is not; who study not so much to find out Novelties, as carefully to examine those pretended to be found; and to whom even the Assu­rance of being deceived in any Observation, brings no less satisfaction than a curious and important discovery: So much the Love of Certainty prevails in their spirit above all other things.

Now this Affection is so much the stronger, as it is not opposed by any other interest, seeing that the Vain-glory, which the success of an ingenious delusion might have gained by surprize, would signifie very little being divided amongst so many persons, who do all contribute to this work: Either by the Propositions which every one makes of the Novelty which he discovers; or by the Light and Illustration which his censure gives to the discovery's of others, by exammining them, as his are done, with a care which a small Punctilio of Aemulation, never fails to excite amongst Philoso­phers. So that it is very probable, that what ever has undergone so severe a Tryal is exempt from all mixture of Falsity and Im­posture.

This Exactness to advance nothing but what has been verified, is that which has made Democritus so greatly extol'd amongst the Ancients, when having collected a great abundance of strange Curiosities, it is reported that in his Collections he marked with his own Seal, those of which he Experimentally knew the Truth, to compose a Volume of them, which he intituled the Book of Choice. Thus after his Example it is that we design that this Collection, be a choice of all that ever has been found and carefully remarkt in the Animals which could be examined.

In this Collection we have particularly insisted on that which be­longs to the structure of the Parts of Animals, rather than that which concerns their Natures, Nourishment, the way of taking them, their Qualities in Physick, and the other uses which are attri­buted to them; of which all Natural Historians have composed their Volumes, and of which we have spoken only Transiently, and according to the Occasion which what we observed in our Subjects, afforded us; But this design of Describing only the Parts, has been restrained to those within; and it is for that Reason, that we do call the Descriptions which we make, Anatomical, altho' they do contain a great many things which may be seen without Dissection.

[Page]Indeed, our chief Aim being to report, and collect all the Re­marks, which we have made on the different particularities of the inside of Animals, we could not omit the other Observations which belong to the exteriour Form, by reason of the Relation that all the parts have each to other. But we stay not long on things which do not directly appertain to this Anatomical Knowledg, because that there is little less, but this exact Description of the in­ternal Parts, wanting to Natural History. We could not (likewise) sometimes avoid digressing out of that strait and narrow Road, which we proposed to follow; and we have thought our selves o­bliged to enter into the Controversies which are amongst Natura­lists, touching the difficulty that there is of knowing, whither some of the Animals which we have, are precisely those which the Anti­ents have spoken of; because that the Descriptions of these Au­thors are generally very Ambiguous, and agree not sufficiently a­mongst themselves, to take away the doubts which may arise, that the Animals to which they do give the same Name, are not some­times different; and that those also which the Vulgar call other­wise than they have, are not the same which they have spoken of. The particular and new Remarks which we have made, have inga­ged us to this Examination: But we pretend not to put a value on our Conjectures, farther than particular Facts can prove them; being ready to retract, when it shall happen, that a great number of contrary Observations shall demonstrate to us, that these first were made upon Subjects, the formation of which, was extraor­dinary; and consequently insufficient and incapable, of establish­ing a general Conclusion: But we have thought, that things of this Nature might be put into Memoires, which are as it were Maga­zines, wherein are lockt up all sorts of things, to be made use of in time of need.

Now altho' we stick only to this Description, and this lively Painting, which we have endeavoured to perform simply, and without any Ornament, and have no other intention, than to disco­ver things such as we have found them, and even as in a Glass, which adds nothing of its own, and which represents onely what has been presented to it: Yet we have not forborn some­times to add Reflexions, when we have thought it necessary, upon particularities that deserved it; and that onely as a Sample, and first Fruits which might be gathered, when by the collecting of all the [Page] Observations which may be made, this Work will be sufficient to afford Matter enough, for the composing an intire and compleat Body thereof. So that it is to be understood, that we design not that the Reflexions which are here preparatorily made, do pass for decisions, but only for Essays of what may be expected from this sort of Work.

There are some who have found fault with that great Work of Aristotle's History of Animals, because they fancy that this Author discourses therein, more like a Philosopher than an Historian; but this is not the Opinion of the most part of the Curious, who think that he has too much confined himself to the Character of a bare Relation; and that it is a great damage that he has not more ex­plain'd himself on all the things which he could discover, by the assistance of the admirable Light which he had in all sorts of Scien­ces: And the Opinion of Hierocles is very probable, who says that the ten Books which we have of Aristotle's History, are only an A­bridgment which Aristophanes Bizantinus made of the Fifty Volumes that Pliny has spoken of, in which was contain'd all that which may belong to the intire and perfect knowledg of Animals.

But as it is impossible to Philosophize without making some ge­neral Propositions, which ought to be grounded on the knowledg of all particular things, whereof Universal Notions are composed; and that we still▪ have a long time to work, before we can be instruct­ed in all the particulars necessary for this End: We believe that there will not be overmuch reliance on the Reasons, which we have intermixt amongst our Experiments, and that it will easily be judged, that we pretend only to answer some Matters of Fact which we advance, and that these Facts are the sole▪ Powers whereby we would prevail against the Authority of the great Persons which have writ before us; seeing that speaking of them with all the Respect which they deserve, we do own that the defects which are seen in their Works, are there only, because it is impossible to find any thing which has acquired the utmost perfection: Altho' these Works do nearly enough approach it to be inimitable, and to make all those who are rational and intelligent, to have a singular Vene­ration for the Excellent Genius's which have produced them: For we do think we render a greater Honour to the Merit of the An­tients, by Demonstrating that we have discovered some small slight Errors in their Works, than if after the manner of those who [Page] distrust their own understanding, and never ground the Judgment which they do make of the value of any thing but on Prejudices; we should esteem them only, because we thought they were done by great Personages, and not by reason of the Knowledg which we have of what they have done well or ill: Because, that as the greatest Encomium, which a hundred blind Persons might give to a Beauty, would not be so advantagious, as the meanest of a single Person who had good Eyes: The approbation likewise, which a general consent of all ages has given to the Works of great Perso­nages, could not be well grounded, if it did not appear that it had been done with Discretion, and consequently with Examination, by which it has been verified, that whatever it may have defective is nothing, in comparison of the vast Number of curious and excellent things which are there found.

We suppose, that such as are capable of these Reflections, will not have the Malignity to make use of the Authority given to a great number of those, who being incapable thereof, would have us like themselves, retain a blind Veneration for the Works and Sen­timents of the Antients; and we do hope, that rational Men will not be so injurious, as to render odious the Liberty which we have assumed, of saying that our Descriptions are exact, because that we propose nothing but what we have seen; and that we do pretend, that they are exacter than those of the Ancients; which are made for the most part on the Reports of others: Seeing that we do not impertinently affect to marke the Errors of these great Men, and that we do only advertise the Reader, that our Observations agree not with theirs. For we think not that this comparison of our Dil­ligence with their Remissness, a vain Ostentation and utterly unprofitable; seeing that it may contribute to an instruction more precise, and which better imprints the Idea's of things, when their true Description is distinguished, and marked by the opposition of that which is false: Or however this demonstrates, supposing both the contrary Observations to be true, that one may conclude, that in consideration of the Particularities wherein we differ, Nature is variable and inconstant.

For which Reason, we have chosen a particular way of making our Descriptions. For whereas the Ancients and generality of the Moderns, do handle the Doctrine of Animals, like that of the Sci­ences, always speaking in general, we only expose things as singu­lar; [Page] and instead of affirming, for instance, that the Bear has Fifty­two Kidnyes on each side, we say only that a Bear which we dis­sected had the Conformation thereof very particular; and in describe­ing it, if we testifie our Admiration that no one has made this re­mark, and that even those who have made the Anatomy of these Animals are silent therein; it is because that we suppose that Na­ture, who rarely sports her self in the conformation of the Princi­pal Parts, has formed the Kidnyes of other Bears after the same Fashion, as we have found them in our Subject.

In the Description of rare Animals, which do come from For­reign Countries, we have have been particularly careful to repre­sent their external Form exactly, and to denote the size and pro­portion of all the Parts seen without the Dissection: Because these are things almost as little known, as what is within the Body. The familiar Animals are otherwise described: For the bigness, form, and situation of their parts, as well exterior as interior are compar­ed to those of Man, whom we do establish as the Rule of the Pro­portion of all the Animals: Not that we do think that he is abso­lutely better proportioned than the most deformed Beast: Because that the Perfection of every thing depends upon the Relation it has to the End for which it is made: And it is true, that the Ears of an Asse, and the Snout of a Hog, are parts as admirably well propor­tioned, for the uses to which Nature has designed them, as all those of Man's Visage are, to give him the Majesty and Dignity of the Lord of all the Creatures: But it is necessary to agree of some one Measure and Module, as is observed in Architecture: And conside­ring the whole Universe as a great and statley Edifice, which has several Apartments of a different structure, the proportions of the most Noble are pitcht upon for the Regulating all the rest. So that when it is said, for Example that a Dog has a long head, little sto­mack, and the legg all of one thickness, it is onely in comparing these parts with those which are found of the same kind in Man. We do likewise describe all the parts of Man's Body, altho' there are not so many new things to speak of, as those of other Animals; it being very difficult to add any thing to the Ancients and Moderns, who have handled this Matter with all the exactness immaginable, and with a success comparable to the Grandure and Dignity of the Subject. To a great number of particular Observations which we have made, we added all the other Remarks which are common to [Page] us with other Authors, and which we do not give for new; but only as being in some sort considerable, by reason of the certainty and credit, which the Testimonies of so many Persons who have con­tributed to these Descriptions, may add to the Facts which we de­clare.

This so precise exactness in relating all the particulars which we observe, is qualified with a like care to draw well the Figures, as well of the intire Animals, as of their external Parts, and of all those which are inwardly concealed. These Parts having been conside­red, and examined with Eyes assisted with Microscopes, when need required, were instantly designed by one of those upon whom the Company had imposed the charge of making the Descriptions; and they were not graved, till all those which were present at the Dissections found that they were wholly conformable to what they had seen. It was thought that it was a thing very advantagious for the perfection of these Figures to be done by a Hand which was guided by other sciences than those of Painting, which are not alone sufficient, because that in this the Importance is not so much to re­present well what is seen, as to see well what should be repre­sented.

Our Memoires being thus composed it is to be hoped that they will afford Matter for a Natural History, which will not be unworthy of the Greatest King that ever has been; and that if in this to equal Alexander, as he equals and surpasses him in all other things, he wants so great a Person as Aristotle, the care which His Majesty has taken to supply this Defect, by the Number of Persons which he has cho­sen for this Employ, and by the Order observed to perform the things with an absolute exactness, will make this Work, which was undertaken by his Command, not inferior perhaps, to that which has been done for Alexander.

The Explication of the Figure of the LYON.

IN the lower Figure he is represented alive, his Head turned on one side, as he sometimes carries it; notwithstanding the stifness of his Neck. The Claws tho' very great are indiscernable, being covered with hair, which is very long at the extremity of the Paws. The Form which the Tail has under the Hair is not seen, by reason of the different length of the Hair, which makes it to appear of equal thickness from the beginning to the end.

In the Parts which the Dissection discovers.
The Crest of the Cranium.
The Zygoma.
The great and little Canini.
The Incisores.
The Apophysis Coronoides of the lower Iaw.
The Molares.
The extremity of the Radius.
The extremity of the Cubitus.
The Bones of the Carpus.
The four Bones of the Meta­carpus.
The four Bones of the first Pha­lanx of the Toes.
The four Bones of the second Phalanx.
The last Bones of the Toes. We have represented one a part, and out of its articulation, which with the two o­thers marked 2, 3, which are likewise separated from the rest of the Paw, makes one of the Toes. You may ob­serve the bending which the Bone mar­ked 3, has at its extremity, which makes a Condylus or Protuberance, to make room for the last Bone, which is articulated to it, to bend upwards.
A part of the Skin of the Tongue, seen with a Microscope.
Little Eminencies, which are near the root of every one of the Points which are upon the Tongue.
The Points which make the Tongue rough.
One of the Points Separated from the Skin▪ to shew its cavity.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Ductus Cholidochus.
The Bladder.
The Prostatae.
The Ligaments, which joyned with the Urethra do compose the Body of the Penis.
The beginning of the Urethra.
The Balanus.
The Humor Crystallinus, which was spoilt.
The other Crystallinus which was sound.
The Tongue.
The Cartilago Thyroides of the Larynx.
The Cartilago Cricoides.
The Cartilago Arythenoides.
The Glottis.
The Epiglottis.
The lowest part of the Stomack.
The Pylorus.
The Oesophagus.
The Aspera Arteria.
The left Auricle of the Heart.
The Heart.
The right subclavian Artery.
The right Carotides.
The left Carotides.
The left subclavian Artery.
Part of the Diaphragme.
The superiour Orifice of the Stomach.
two protuberancies which were at the fore-part of the Stomach. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, The Lobes of the Lungs.

[Page 2]



BEfore the opening of our Lion, we carefully examined all its external Parts, according to the Method which we proposed to our selves, to observe in all the Descriptions of the other Animals. We found that the greatness of the Head, which is remarkable in this Animal, consisted chiefly in the extraordinary abundance of the Flesh which covered it, and in the greatness of the Bones which compose the Jaws. That the Breast likewise, which appeared large, was only by reason of the long and thick Hair which incompassed it, the Sternum being compressed, and much more pointed, than it is in most Horses and Dogs: And that by the same reason, the Tail seemed not to be of equal thickness from one end to the other; but by reason of the inequality of the Hair wherewith it was invironed, which was shorter to­wards the beginning, where the Flesh and Bones are thicker, and which grew longer as these parts grow lesser and lesser, towards the end. And that this long Hair which is about the Neck and Breast, did differ from that of the rest of the Body only in its length, having nothing resembling Man's Hair.

The Claws had no cases, as Pliny reports they have, to keep them from be­ing dulled by their walking; but it appears rather, that these Animals, as Plutarch and Solinus observe, do provide for that by retracting them between their Toes, by the means of the particular Articulation of the last Joynt, which was such, that the last Bone save one, by bending it self outwards, gives place to the last which is articulated to it, and to which the Claw is fastened to bend it self upwards and side-ways, more easily than downwards; being drawn upwards by the means of a tendinous Ligament, which fastens together the two last Bones in their superiour and external part only; and which suffering a violent distention when the Toe is bent inwards, extends this last Articulation, as soon as the Musculi flexores come to slacken, and strengthens the Action of the Musculi xetensores: So that the Bone which is at the end of every Toe, being almost continually bent upward, it is not the end of the Toes which rests upon the ground, but the Node of the Articulati­on of the two last Bones; and thus in walking, the Claws remain elevated, and retracted between the Toe, to witt, all those of the right Paws, towards the right side of every Toe, and all those of the left Paws, towards the left [Page 4] side; The bending of the Toes to walk being caused only by the Tendons of the sublimer Muscles and those of the lower Muscle never moving but when it is necessary to extend the Claws, which do proceed out of the Toes, when the last Joynt is bent downwards. This admirable Structure is not found in the great Toe, whose last joynt bends only downwards, because that this Toe rest's not on the ground being shorter than the rest, and having but two Bones as is usual.

It had fourteen Teeth in each Jaw, viz. four Incisores, four Canini, and six Molares. The Incisores were little, and the Canini very uneven, having two great and two small ones. The great ones which were an inch and half long, like the Tusks of a Boar, are those alone which Aristotle takes for Canini: But each of these great Canini was accompanied with another little one, which was at the side of the Incisores, and which left in the upper Jaw, be­tween it and the great one, as much void space on each side, as was neces­sary to lodg and insert the hook of the great Caninus of the inferior Jaw, in which there was likewise a space between the great Caninus and the first of the Molares designed to lodge the great Caninus of the upper Jaw, but which was much larger, to the end that the lower Jaw might be advanced forward upon occasion. The Molares were likewise very uneven, especially in the upper Jaw, where that which stood next the Caninus was as small as the Inci­sores. The other Molares were very large, having three unequal points, which represented as it were the flower de Lys.

The Neck was very stiffe, as Authors have remark't. But the Dissection has demonstrated to us in our Lyon, that this proceeded not, as Aristotle and Aelian have reported, from its having only one Bone, but rather for that the spinous processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck were very long, and bound with Ligaments so strong and hard, that it seem'd composed of one single Bone. Scaliger says that he had observed the same thing in the Dissection of two Lyons: And it is probable that Aristotle has so understood it, when in his Physiognomie he say's, that the Body of the Lyon is remarkable for the greatness and firmness of its Joynts.

The Tongue was rough and covered with a great many sharp points, of a Substance hard, and like to that of the Nails of Catts, whose bigness they al­so had: These points being hollow at their Basis, and crooked towards the throat. They were almost two lines in length, and towards their Basis had little round Eminencies, made of the fleshy skin of the Tongue.

The Eyes were clear and brisk after death, and through the Foramen of the Vuea was seen the bottom of the Choroides, which was as it were gilt. The Tunica Conjunctiva was black. It is probable that the reason of saying, that Lyons do Sleep with their Eyes open is that without shutting the Eye-lidds, they can cover them with a thick and black Membrane lay'd towards the great Cant'us which raising and stretching out it self towards the lesser, can extend it self over all the Cornea, as is observed in Birds, and especially in Catts, which have so great a conformity with the Lion, that we have found that there was some ground for the fable of the Alcoran, which says that the Cat was first born in the Ark by the sneezing of the Lion. For the particular structure of the Paws, Teeth, Eyes and Tongue, which we have observed in the Lion, is found to be common with the Catt; And the internal parts of these two Animals have the same conformity, altho' Albertus affirms the contrary.

[Page 5]At the first opening, the Skin seemed not to us extraordinary hard, nor impene­trable, as Cardan reports; but it was found strongly connected by a number of hard and nervous Fibres which proceeded from the Muscles and penetrat­ed the Panniculus carnosus.

The Oesophagus was not so large that the Lion could swallow, as some Au­thors tell us, the members of Animals all intire; for it exceeded not an inch and half in breadth, and was drawn together by the Foramen of the Dia­phragme after the usual manner, being not open and dilated, as it is in most Fishes and Serpents, which do easily swallow whatever enters into their Mouth.

The Stomack was eighteen inches long, and six broad, situated from the top to the bottom, inclineing a little to the right side, and rising towards the Pylorus. At the Superiour and Anteriour part there were two unequal Pro­tuberancies.

The Intestines were not very long, comprehending all together but twen­ty five foot, the Colon eighteen inches, and the Appendix of the Caecum three.

The Pancreas was like to that of Catts and Dogs, and the great Glandules of the Mesentery, which are by Asellius called Pancreas, were also like to those of these Animals.

The Liver in which we found seven lobes as in Catts, was of so dark a red, that it inclined to a black: It was also very soft. Its hollow part under the Gall-bladder was filled with choller diffused into it's Substance, and into that of all the Circumjacent parts; which was the sole Circumstance that gave us some suspition of the cause of this Animals death, which we judge to be the Di­sease, to which Pliny alone say's Lions are subject, and which he calls Aegri­tudinem fastidii: For whether this be understood of the mortal trouble which it conceives of its captivitie, as that Author expresses it, or that this signifies the disgust which kills him for want of eating, it is well known that the re­tention of the choller may cause either.

The Gall-bladder was seven inches long and one and a half broad. Its Struc­ture was very particular, being anfractous towards the Meatus Cholidochus, and as it were seperated into several cells: Catts have exactly the like.

The Spleen was a foot long, two inches broad, and half an inch thick. It was not so black as the Liver, notwithstanding that general rule which Ga­len gives of the colour of the Spleen, which he says is always blacker than the Liver, especially in Animals which are of a Temperament hot and dry, and which have sharp Teeth. So that there is great probability that this black­ness of the Liver was extraordinary in this Subject, and not natural. The Kidney was almost round, being three inches and a half in length to two and a half in breadth and thickness: It weighed seven ounces and two drachmes.

The Parts of Generation had this particular, that the Urethra was not crooked, but quite strait from the Bladder to the extremitie of the Penis; and that the beginning of the Ligaments, which with the Urethra do com­pose the body of the Penis, was very remote from the Prostatae, which are at the beginning of the neck of the Bladder: So that the Urethra, which in all contained eleven inches, extended not, being joyned to these Ligaments, the length of three inches and a half: Which made us to doubt of the truth [Page 6] of what Aristotle says concerning the Physiognomie of the Lion, to witt, that he has eminently, and above all other Animals, visible and apparent signes of the strength and perfection of his Sex.

The reason of this Structure appears to us to be founded on the extraordi­nary breadth of the Os pubis, along which the Urethra must descend from the Bladder, the bottom of which must pass over the Bones, to their inferior part, from whence ariseth these Ligaments which do compose the Penis. This Conformation makes the the Lion to piss backwards, and not by lifting up the Legg, like Doggs, as Pliny say's, and that he couples with the Lion­ness after the same manner as Camells, Hares, &c.

In opening the Thorax it was observed, that from all the Cartilages of the Sternum which had been cut, there came out two or three drops of Blood, which demonstrated that these parts are not so solid, as that their cavities should be imperceptible, as some Authors do think, seeing that they are penetrated by some Sanguinary Vessels, as is seen in all Animalls when young.

The Mediastinum was furnished with abundance of great vessels. The Membranes which composed it, and which were perforated like a net, were joyned, and left no space but towards the Diaphragme, on the right side of the Heart, where there was a very large and ample cavity. The same thing is observed in Catts.

The Lungs were found to have six Lobes on the right side, and three on the left. All the Annular cartilages of the Aspera Arteria made an entire cir­cle, excepting two or three under the Larynx, in which besides their great­ness, which was four inches in compass, there was not more than two lines which were not entire. The breadth of this Organ of the voice seem'd to us very capable of making the dreadful noise of its Roaring.

The Ductus lacteus Thoracicus was very small, and joyned to a long fillet of fat, which was extended to the whole length, and at the side of the body of the Vertebrae, it was two lines broad.

The Heart which was found dry and without water in the Pericardium, was in proportion much greater than in any Animal, containing six inches in length, and four in breadth towards the Basis, and ending in a very sharp point. Its Substance appear'd to us very soft, before it was opened; but it was discovered that this proceeded from its being lean, and hollow, its Ven­tricles being so ample, that the left one which descended into the Cuspis, left but two lines of thickness in the flesh which covered it at this place; to­wards the Basis it had but seven, and the Septum had almost as many. The Auricles of the Heart were so small, that the Right, which is the greatest, was not half an inch. The Structure of the Heart of Catts is not so particu­lar, for it is more obtuse at the Cuspis and fleshy than ordinary. The Pro­portion of the Branches which the Ascendent Aorta emitts was such, that the Carotides contained the same thickness as the left Subclavian, and as the re­mainder of the Right from whence they do arise; which is very considera­ble in respect of the smallness of the Brain. The same thing is observed in Catts, excepting that they have a great deal more Brains, in proportion to their Bigness.

The Brain exceeded not two Inches every way. It was included in a [Page 7] Cranium about half an Inch thick in the thinnest place, and almost an Inch in the Fore-head. The Crown was elevated like the Crest of an Helmet, to give rise to the Muscles of the Temples, which do cover the Two sides of the Crown of the Head, and in the middle of the fore-head do leave that Cavitie, which Aristotle in his Physiognomy adjudgeth to be peculiar to Lions. Every of these Muscles was five inches in length, four and a half in breadth, two in thickness, and Twenty Ounces in Weight. This Head thus Garnished with Flesh, and Composed of Bones so firm in their structure and Substance, made us to think that if the Bear, according to Pliny, has a Head so tender and weak that it may be Slain with a slight Blow, it is probable that it would be very difficult to stun a Lion; and that this was well known to Theocritus, who tells Hercules, that all that he could do to the Nemaean Lion with his Club, was to stun him, and that he could not kill him but by Strangleing him with his Hands.

The Bone which is found in Brutes between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum over the Satura Lambdoides, was an Inch and a half long, Ten lines broad, and Two thick, of a squarer Figure than that which is in the Scull of Cats, Doggs, &c,

The Glandula Pinealis was diaphanous, and so small that it exceeded not a line in length, and two Thirds of a line in breadth at its Basis.

The Optick Nerves appeared much thicker after their Conjunction than before: Which proceeded hence that the Foramina thro' which they do enter into the Orbita are not round, but like a slitt; which makes them broader by flattening them. Being past thro' the Foramen of the Orbita, they were extended to the Globe of the Eye, two Inches and a half in length. It was observed that the Cavity of this Orbita was not wholly fenced with a Bone on the inside, but that there was a hole towards the Temples, between the Apophysis of the Os Frontis, and that of the first bone of the Jaw, which were not joyned more than in Cats, Doggs, &c.

The Globe of the Eye was sixteen lines Diameter. The Cornea was a­bout the third part of a line in thickness at the middle, and grew thicker towards its Circumference; till it came to half a line, after the manner of the glasses in Spectacles.

The Iris was of that pale colour, which is called Isabella.

The Tunica Choroides appeared of a Gold-colour, and which had nothing of that Verdure, which most Authors do give to the Eyes of the Lion. The Reverse of the Anterior Vuea in the Place it lyes upon the Crystallinus, was all Black. The Crystallinus was found very flat, and its greatest Convexity, contrary to what is in other Animals, was in its anteriour part; which is also observed in the Eyes of Catts. The Figurs of the Crystallinus was such: that it seemed shrunk up having a Dent in the side, which made the Crystallinus of the left Eye, where this dent was the greatest, like the Forme of an Heart: But one of these Crystallinus's which began to be spoilt by a Glaucoma, made us to suspect that this was Praet ernatural, and particular to our Subject. The Aqucous Humour was found very abundant, so that it almost equal'd the sixth part of the Vitreous Humour. This abundance was Judged to be the cause of the clearness which remained in the Eyes after Death, which are obscured when the Cornea is dryed and contracted for want of this Humour, which keep's it extended.

[Page 8]The last Observation was, that considering the Season which was hot and moist, when this Dissection was made, and the disposition to Putrifaction which must needs be in the body of an Animal Dead of a Disease, and which all Authors report to have a breath so stinking, that it Infects whatever it approaches, to such a degree that other Animals do not touch the remainder of the Flesh whereof he has eaten; yet there appear'd nothing to us which denoted any extraordinary Corruption, its smell being less offensive than that of a Deer, which must be embowelled soon after it is killed: And altho' there were found some Wormes in its Flesh the fourth day, it was judged that they were ingender'd of Flyes, because that a piece of the Tongue wrapt up in Paper was dryed in the space of one night, and was grown very hard without any smell. Which made us conclude, that if the Lion is subject to a Feaver, it is not caused by the Corruption of Humours, and is only an Ephemera, altho' it is said that he has it all his life: This may cause a Belief that Choller is a Balsome in the body of Animals which resists Corruption, and which has this effect, that Lyons, in whom it is praedominant, do live a long time.

There was likewise made another reflection upon the smalness of the Brain of this Animal, of which Natural Historians do relate so many marks of Judgement and Reason; and by comparing it with the abundance of that of a Calfe, it was judged that the littleness of Brain is rather the sign and cause of a savage and cruel Disposition than a want of Judgment. This con­jecture was fortified by an other Observation which was made four dayes be­fore upon a Sea-fox, where was found hardly any Brain, altho' it was thought that the Sagacitie and Subtiltie which it hath, has given it this Name a­mongst Fishes, all the Kinds of which are generally ill provided of Brain, so that they have little disposition to the Society, and Discipline which Ter­restrial Animals are capable of.


THis Lyon was extraordinary large, though very young. It was seven Foot and a half long, from the end of the Nose to the beginning of the Tail, and four Foot and a half high, from the top of the Back to the ground.

Our Observations were almost the same, with those which we have alrea­dy made on the first Lyon, but amongst other things, the straitness and nar­rowness of the Thorax, which we have already remarkt, seem'd to us very considerable in this Subject: For in the inside, from the one side to the other in the largest place, it exceeded not seven Inches, of which the Heart took up four, so that there remained but three for the Lungs, Pericardium, Medi­astinum, and Vessels of the Heart. The Pericardium was likewise without Water, and the Intestines short in Proportion to the Body, containing but Twenty five Foot in length, which was just three times the length of the Body. The Crystallinus was more convex on the outside than the in­side.

What we found different is, that the Liver which was of so dark a Red in the first Lyon that it appeared Black, was so pale in this that it had a Fevil­le-morte Colour.

That the Annular Cartilages of the Larynx, which were intire in the first Lyon which nevertheless was not Old, were found imperfect in this which was Younger. And we were not able to resolve whether we ought to atribute to the difference of Age, that which we observed in the Paws, because that in those of the Young Lyon we found the Skin much less hard, and firm then the other, so that at the extremity of every Toe of the Young one, it was so loose and flaggie, that it might be made to extend and descend to cover half the Nail: Which seems to be the case of which Pliny speaks. But the Truth is that there is no probability that this can preserve its Nails, as this Author Reports, because that they use them only at the Point, which this Skin cover's not.

We likewise observed somthing new, viz. That the Epiploon which was as great and large as its internal Membrane, and which immediatly touched the Intestines, did invelope them, and came round even to the Kidnyes, having only the upper Membrane loose, as the Name of these Membranes [Page 10] signifies. We farther remarked that their Substance was not properly a continued Membrane, but pierced by the light, and like a Texture of very fine Fibres makeing a Gauze.

That the Kidney, which was four inches long and two and a half broad was sprinkled on its External Superficies, with a great many Vessells covered with the Proper Membrane of the Kidney.

That the Lungs were spoilt, dry, pale, and full of Knobs. That in the Eye, the Iris was Visiblly plaited with some circular wrinkles, which were the effect of the dilatation in the Pupilla, happened by the constriction of the Membrane which made the Iris. This folding is a thing which is com­monly supposed, but which is not perceived without difficulty: And it was so much the more strange in this Subject, that the Aqueous Humour being very abundant, this Membrane was not Subject to contract by dryness. The Vitreous Humour was almost as fluid as the Aqueous. The Tapetum of the Vuea was Gilded through the middle as in the other Lyon, but it had a Ver­dure at the Extremities, which we found not in the other, although we thought it was to be there, by Reason that the Ancients did call the Eyes of Lyons [...] that is to say, full of Ornaments, because that they found that green Eyes were most Beautiful.

The Retina was White and Opake enough, to make one think that it would hinder the reception of the Species, if it is True that they do pass farther.

The place where the Sight is commonly made, was crossed by a Vessel filled with Bloud, which passed also into the Optick Nerves, where it made a [...]avitie, and seem'd to form that Pore or Ductus, with which some Authors do think, that the Optick Nerves were pierced, to give passage to the Spirits which are received into the Brain.

The Observation of the Vessels which are Visible and in great abun­dance on the Superficies of the Parenchyma of the Kidney, which is a thing extraordinary, affords us Matter for Two Reflexions; the first of which is, That these Vessels, which are Branches of the Truncks of the Arteriae and Venae Emulgentes, do easily discover to the Eye, a Truth which we have already found in some humane Subjects, by the injection of Milk into the Vasa Emulgentia, after the having taken from the Kidney its proper Membrane. This Truth is that the Branches of the Emulgents do not terminate in the Middle of the Kidneys, as Higmorus, following Vasalius, has thought; But that they are carryed to the external Superficies: For the separation of the Urine which must be done by Filtration, requires that the Blood be carryed thro' the Arteries as far as is possible, to the end that it there find a greater Thickness of the Parenchyma of the Kidneys to penetrate, and consequently more capable of making a more perfect Filtration.

The other reflection is, that those Vessels, which are not generally visible in the Kidney, whose Substance appears Solid and Homogeneous, towards its external Superficies, which was smooth and even, were found very apparent in this Subject. And we thought it probable that this hap­pened by some distemper, and was Praeternatural in this Animal: Either by an Inslammation, or Obstruction, which had caused these Vessels insensibly to dilate; This being easie in a young Animal, where the parts not yet hardened, are more easie to dilate, and the Humours being more agitated [Page 11] are more capable of effecting this dilatation. Glisson who has observed that oftentimes the Branches of some Vessels are bigger than the very Trunck which produces them, says that this may be caused by a distemper: And ex­perience daily demonstrates by the Pulsation which happens in Inflamations, by the Glandes which appear in the Scrofula, and by the Veins which disco­ver themselves in the Eyes by the Opthalmia, that there is a great many things which a Distemper renders visible and sensible, by augmenting them, or changing their Nature, and making them to become hard and dense, from soft and rare as they were. Which we have observed in the Glandes which in some Gazellas, or Antelopes, have seemed to make the Parenchyma of their Liver, which appeared not in others.

We vainly sought in the Stomach and Lungs of our Lyon, some Marks of the cause of its Death, which was told us happeened after the voiding a great deal of Blood thro' the Throat. But we judged by several Circumstances, which have been related, that a Surfeit extraordinary and insupportable to an Animal otherwise weakened, had made him sick: For we know that sometime before his Death, he was several months without going out of his Den, and that it was hard to make him Eat. That for this reason some Remedies were prescribed to him, and amongst others the Eating only the Flesh of young Animals, and those alive. And that those which look't to the Beasts of the Park of Vincennes, to make this Food more delicate did use a method very extraordinary; which was, they flead Lambs alive, and thus they made him to Eat several; which at the first revived him, by createing him an Appetite, and making him brisk. But it is probable that this Food in­gendered too much Blood, and which was too subtile for an Animal to whom Nature had not given the industry of fleaing those which he Eat: It being credible that the Hair, Wooll, Feathers, and Scales which all Animals of Prey do Swallow, are a seasoning, and necessary Corrective, to prevent their greediness from filling them with a too Succuleut Food.

The Explanation of the Figure of the LYONNESS.

THe Posture is such, that it is easie to Remark what is most Particular in this Lyonness. The Head is side-wayes, the better to demonstrate the length of her Chops, which was not short and well-set like the Lyons. It do's likewise more distinctly shew the smallness of the Neck, which made the Head to be shrunk between the Shoulders.

In the Parts which the Dissection discovers.
The Pylorus.
The bottom of Stomach separated from the rest, and making as it were an other Ventricle, such as is in Animals which chew the Cud.
C C.
The Vena Gastrica.
The Spleen.
E E.
The several Eminencies towards the Basis of the Heart, composed of a hard and tenacious Substance, which did not resemble Fat.
The Trunk of the Vena Cava.
G G.
The Trunck of the great Arterie.
H H.
The Vasa Spermatica pr [...]parantia.
I I.
The Testicles.
K K.
Two Appendices, which appear to be the Fringes of the Tuba of the Matrix.
The Matrix.
M M.
The Cornua Uteri.
The Neck of the Matrix.
The Bladder.
P P.
The round Ligaments of the Matrix.
The Membrane which composes the Iris, making several circular foulds.
The place of the Tunica Conjunctiva, which is white.
The place of the Tunica Conjunctiva, which is black.
The Membrane which makes the inward Eye-lid.
V V.
The Claw.
X X X.
The last Bone, to which the Claw is fastened.
A Cartilagineous and Ligamentous Substance, which is between the Bone and the Claw, and which fills the space which is between both.
a b c.
The Matrix of a Woman, in which, a, represents the Fundus Uteri. b c, and
b c.
The Cavity which was in each of the Horns.

[Page 12]



BEsides the particular Character of the Sex of the Lionness, which is to have no long Hair about the Neck, there are observed several others, which are, that she has a longer Nose, a Head flatter at top, and Claws lesser than the Lyon.

This Lyonness was three foot high from the end of the fore Claws, to the ridge of the Back. She was about five foot long, from the extremity of the Nose to the beginning of the Tail, which was two foot and a half long.

The Claws which were at the end, and divided into several Fibres like those of Lyons, have been observed in this Subject with more care and exact­ness than in the others. It is observed that they are composed of a Fibrous and very compact Substance; in respect of each Fibre, but that these Fibres are easily separable one from the other; which happens, as it is easie to Judge, for want of the Moisture which should join, and glue them together; even as it is seen in Fibrous Wood, which cleaves not so easily before it is dry. Indeed this Lyonness, which was extraordinary lean, had Claws much easier to shoot out than the other Lyons which were younger and fatter. Thus the Root of the Claws, and the particular manner whereby we have found them fast­ened to the Bones of the ends of the Paws, has seemed to us to be principally to supply the humour which is necessary to these parts. For the Claw was not immediately fastened to the Bone by its whole Root: But there was a part thereof viz. the inside which was hollow, which was not knitt to the bone. This inside was filled with a competent substance between the Cartilage and liga­ment. This manner of connexion and fastening of these Claws seem'd to us to afford what ever is requisite to their use: For if all the Fibres, whereof these Claws are composed, had taken rise immediately from the Bone, they could not attract humidity enough to make that connection, which renders the Claws solid: And if they had been all fastened to the Bone by means of the Ligaments, they would not have been so strongly joyned, as when they are soddered without any thing between.

The Conformation of the Stomach was particular, and very different in this Subject, from that which we have found in other Lyons which we have dissected, where the Stomach was like to that of Doggs and Catts, having an ample and large Fundus towards the superiour Orifice, which alwayes grew les­ser [Page 14] and lesser towards the Pylorus; but this had the bottom parted in two in a manner like Animals which chew the Cud. This particular form of the Ventricle was found only in one of the four Animals of this kind which we Dis­sected, viz. two Lyons and two Lyonesses: For in the two Lyons, and the o­ther Lyoness, the Stomach was like that of Doggs. It is very true that the Stomach of the first Lyon had two Protuberancies in its upper part; but this was not considerable nor comparable to the division which made this Sto­mach double, and separated into two Cavities.

The Intestines contained in all twenty two foot four inches in length; the Rectum had but four inches, and the Colon two foot.

The Colon had no little cells, but only a straiter part, which divided it as it were into two parts, one of which was a little longer than the other. The Caecum was two inches long, and its Fundus upwards; and Orifice downwards. The Pancreas resembled that of Doggs.

The Mesentery was covered with livid Glands about the bigness of a Pea, all of an oval Figure. The Vessels were very apparent, and greatly dilated, and especially the Veins. There was very distinctly seen the Venae Lacteae, di­vided in different Branches, by which the Trunks were easily carryed to the Pancreas Assellii.

The Peluis of the Kidneys was filled with a reddish Glare, which might have caused a reflux of Serossity, of which there was found a great deal in the lower Venter and Thorax.

The Bladder was so small, that tho' it was extended as much as it was possi­ble by filling it with Air, it was not bigger than one of the Kidnys. Aristo­tle and Aelian do say that Lyons do seldome drink. And Albertus Remarks, that Lyonesses do not long suckle their Whelps, for want of that abundance of moisture, which is necessary to the generation of Milk.

The Liver had seven lobes, six great and one small one. One of the largest which are placed on the right side, was split in two, and dilated as it were to make room for the right Kidney, which was higher than the left, as is usually in Brutes. The Gall-bladder was Anfra [...]tuous, and formed like seve­ral Protuberances, as in the three other Subjects.

The Spleen was long, and like a Crescent. The branches of the Vas breve, which fastened it to the bottom of the Ventricle, were larger and more nume­rous than ordinary.

The Uterus was divided into two long Cornua as in Doggs. These Cornua were tyed and fastened by large Ligaments. At their extremity, adjoyning to and underneath the Testicles, there were some Appendices of an irregular Form, and as it were torn at the end, which were thought to be▪ the parts which modern Anotimists do call the Fringes of the Tuba Uteri in Wo­men: Which seems to justifie and clear the Antients from an Errour where­of they were accused. For this demonstrates that they had some reason to think that the Cornua Uteri in Brutes are the same thing with that called the Tuba in Women. For tho' the Cornua of Brutes be a hollow body, in which the Conception and Nourishment of their Young ones use to be made, and that the Tuba of Women appears solid and without Cavity, so that it is proper to receive the Seed, and make the Transcolation into the Fundus Uteri, by pos­sessing the place of the Prostatae, according to the opinion of Gallen; and that the Conception be generally made in the Fundus Uteri; yet it is very true to [Page 15] say that the structure and use of the Tuba in Women, and the Cornua in Brutes, have nothing essentially different; seeing that as there are some Ex­amples of the Conception made in the Tuba, we have some Observations which do manifest to us, that this Tuba has sometimes also an evident Cavi­ty. We have here put the Figure of the Uterus of a Woman, in which we found two apparent Cavities, which made some windings eight Lines long, and near two broad at their beginning, which from the Fundus Uteri did Pe­netrate into the Tuba.

At the end of each of the Cornua, a little below the Testicle, there was a long Body, of a Nervous Substance, which was taken for the Ligamenta Tere­tia: For it descended into the Groyne, and was there dilated like a Goose's Foot as in Women. Its original was only different in this, that in Women these Ligaments proceeded from the very Body of the Uterus, at the place where the Tuba began, a good distance from the Testicle. Soranus Writes, that he had seen in a Woman this round Ligament, which he calls the Cremaster of the Testicle of Women, which was fastened near the Testicle, even as we have Observed in our Lyonness.

The Mediastine was not pierced like a Net as in the first Lyon; but its Mem­brane was thick and continued.

The Lungs had seven Lobes, three of each side and one in the middle; Those of the right side were larger than those of the left: The whole Paren­chyma of the Lungs was scirrhous. The Vena Coronaria was very large; but the Heart was much less than in the two Lyons which have been dissected. The inside of the left Ventricle was scirrhous towards the mouth of the Ar­tery of the Lungs; and it seemed that the Lungs had communicated this Dis­temper to the Heart. There were two Polypus's, one in each Ventricle of the Heart. All the Basis of the Heart on the out side, was sirrounded with a fli­my Substance; which formed several unequal Protuberancies, instead of the Fat which is commonly found in this place.

The Tongue was armed, as in the Lyons, with great points like Claws; they were lesser, softer, and blunter.

The Ventricles of the Brain were very large; and the Cavity where the Falx enters, and which divides the Cere [...]rum in two, was likewise very deep, containing ten Lines. The Glandula Pinealis was exceeding small, not ex­ceeding a Line.

The Christalline Humour like as in Lyons, was more convex before than be­hind; which was not found in the other Lyonness, where it was flat and more convex behind. The Membrane, which is put into the bottom of the Eye, and laid on the Choroides, which we call the Tapetum, was of an Isabella Colour, intermixt with a brisk Greenish Blew. It was easily separable from the Cho­roides, which remained intire with its ordinary thickness, after that we had taken away the Membrane which forms this Tapetum.

The Optick Nerve was near the Axis of the Eye. In it's middle there was seen to appear a Foramen, which disappear'd when the whole Retina was layd on one side, and that it was not equally extended about the Optick Nerve on the Concavitie of the Choroides.

The Explication of the Figure of the CAMELION.

IT is represented alive, perched on a Tree somewhat crooked towards the side which it ascends, to discover as much as is possible, the top of the Head, and bottom of the Belly.

In The Parts which the Dissection discovers.
The Gall-Bladder.
The left Lo e of the Liver.
C C.
The right.
The Oesophagus.
The Ventricle.
The Pylorus.
The Ductus Cholidocus.
The Vena Porta.
The Vena Cava.
K K K.
The Intestins.
L M.
A Membrane which held all these Parts linkt together and suspended.
The first Bone of the Sternum.
The left Lobe of the Liver.
The upper part of the Lungs blown up, and speckled with red Spots.
Q Q Q.
The rest of the Lungs blown up.
The Aspera Arteria tyed to keep the Lungs blown up.
S S.
The Os Hyoides.
The Cartalaginous Style, to which the Trunk which sustains the Tongue, is fast­ened.
X X.
The Tongue.
The Trunck drawn up.
Z Z.
The Kidneys.
Γ Γ.
The Cornua Uteri.
The Neck of the Uterus.
K K.
The Intestines.
Θ Θ.
The Eyes.
λ λ.
The Optick Nerves.
The Brain.

We did not think that the Skeleton needed any Explication, by reason of the Neatness of the Figure, and the exactness wherewith it is described in the Discourse.

[Page 16]



THere is scarce any Animal more Famous than the Camelion, its admir­able Properties have ever been the Subject as well of Natural as Moral Philosophy. The changing of its Colour, and the particular manner of feeding which is attributed to it, have in all Ages given great Admiration and Exercise to those that do apply themselves to the Knowledg of Nature: And those Wonders which Naturalists have related of this inconsiderable Animal, have made it to be the most Famous Symbole used in Rhetorick and Ethicks, to represent the base compliance of Courtiers and Flatterers, and the Vanity wherewith simple and light Minds do feed themselves. Its very name in Tertullian is the Subject of a Serious Meditation upon False-glory, and he proposes it as the Example of the Impudence of Cheats and Boa­sters.

It is not known truly why the Greeks have bestowed so fine a Name, upon so vile and ugly a Beast, by calling it the Little-Lyon, or Dwarf-Lyon accord­ing to Isid [...]re's Etymology. Gesner says, that it somewhat resembles the Lyon, without mentioning wherein. Panarolus would have it the Tail which is crooked at the end, as he says, like the Lyons: But the Truth is, that neither the Camelion nor the Lyon have a crooked Tail. It would be more probable to place the Resemblance on the Crest, which they both have on the Top of the Head, which makes a kind of Casque: But it appears on the Lyons Head only, when the Fle [...]h of the Musculi Crotophitae is cutt off, Licetus thinks that this Name was given it, because as the▪ Lyon Hunts and Devours other Animals, so the Camelion catches Flies; by the same reason that a little Worm which Hunts and takes Ants, as Albertus hath described, is called Formicaleon; and that a little Lobster, as Pliny and Athenaus report, is named Lyon, because it is of the same Colour.

The Camelion is of the kinde of four-footed Beasts, which do lay Eggs, as the Crocodile, and Lizard, which it sufficiently resembles, save that its Head and Back is not flat like the Lizards, who has likewise much shorter leggs, with which it cr [...]wls very fast along the ground: whereas the Camelion has longer leggs, and goes easily only upon Trees, where it delights it self much more than on the ground; because, that as it is sayd, it fears the Serpents, from which it cannot secure it selfe by flight, and that from thence it spies them, [Page 18] watching the opportunity when they do pass, or Sleep under him, to Kill them with his Foam which he lets fall upon them.

Belonius has observed two Species of Camelions, one whereof is found in Arabia, the other in Aegypt. Faber Lynceus adds a Third, which is in Mexico. That which we describe is the Aegyptian one; which is the greatest of all: For those of Arabia and Mexico, are not ordinarily more then six inches long, and ours which was brought us alive was in all, comprehending the Tail, eleven Inches and a half in length; Pliny is greatly mistaken, when he makes the Camelion as big as the Crocodile, which is the biggest of all Animals: or if he intends to compare it to the Land Crocodile, he deceives his Reader, for that is less known than the Camelion, and whereof no body has spoken but himself, or upon his Report. Salmasius attributes this Fault to the ill Translation which Pliny has made of the Book, which Democritus writ of the Camelion; in which, according to the Ionick Dialect, the Crocodile is called by the Name which commonly signifies the Lizard. The Head of ours was an Inch and ten Lines; from the Head to the beginning of the Tail, it was four Inches and a half; the tail was five; and the Feet were each two Inches and a half long. The Bulk of the Body was found different at several times: For sometimes it was two Inches from the Back unto the under part of the Belly; at other times it was scarce above an Inch, according as it swelled or contract­ed it self; this swelling and this contracting was not only in the Thorax and Belly, but it reached even to its fore and hind-legs, and its Tail. This par­ticular Circumstance, which Aristotle has observed, makes us to think upon what Theophrastes says of the Camelions Lungs, viz. That they do extend thro' the whole Body.

Now these contrary Motions of swelling and contracting are not done as in other Creatures, when to breath they dilate their Breast, and presently contract it successively and orderly; for we have seen it puft up above two Hours, during which time it abated a little, but very impreceptibly, and swelled again a little, but with this difference, that the Dilatation was more suddain and visible, and that by long and unequal intervals. We have like­wise seen it continue unswelled for a long space, and much longer than swelled. In this Condition it appeared so lean, that the Spine was sharp, as if by the extenuation of the Muscles which are without along the Verte­brae, the Skin was fastened upon the spinous and oblique Apophyses; which discovered three Eminencies. The Ribbs might be counted, and the Ten­dons of the fore and hind-legs appeared very distinctly to the Eye; But nei­ther the Vertebrae, like a Saw, which Gesner and Landius, do in Scaliger report were seen on the Back, nor the Pricks which Panarolus saith were placed there by Nature for its defence, appeared to us: how lean soever it grew, its back only remained sharp and keen, without being jagged or having any Points; the Apophyses of the Spine being square at the end, as in the generality of A­nimals. This lankness was known likewise when it turned its Body; for it seemed like an empty Sack that is twisted; which Tertullian, who was of the same Country with our Camelion, had very well observed, when he says, that this Animal was but a living Skin.

This Skin was very cold to the touch; and notwithstanding the great lankness I have been describing, it was impossible to feel the beating of the Heart, which was more secret and obscure than the motion of its Breathing. [Page 19] The Superficies of the Skin was uneven, and raised in little Eminencies like Chagrine, being nevertheless very soft to the touch, because that every Emi­nence was very smooth: These Eminencies or Grains were of a different size; the greatest part were like the head of a middle-sized Pinn, viz. The Grains which covered the fore and hind-leggs, the Belly and Tail: There were others somewhat bigger, of an oval Shape, upon the Shoulders and Head; and some of these large Grains were higher and more pointed, to witt, un­der the Throat, where they made a Row like Beads, which reached from the lower lipp to the Breast: The Grains which were upon the Back and Head, were joyned and heaped together, sometimes to the Number of Seven, some­times Six, Five, Four, Three and Two; leaving between these different heaps, some distances covered with other little Grains almost imperceptible, which were generally of a pale Red, and Yellowish like the bottom of the Skin which appeared between these parcels of Grains. This Ground changed not Colour till the Animal was dead, at which time the little Points grew white­ish, and the Ground whereon they were sowed, changed its Red into a Dark-Gray.

It has been since found, that all these Grains, as well the great as the little ones, were made by the Skin which swelled outward, being hollow on the in­side in the place of every Grain, like plates of Metal which are chaced or stam­ped; in part also thro' several little Pellicles very slender, and lying one upon a­nother, which increased the thickness of every Eminence; which were easily raised, when they were scraped with a Penn-knife. But all this would not make the Skin resemble that of a Crocodile, as Aristotle with most Authors would have it. For the Crocodile has upon its Back, very large thick Scales, proportionable to those under its Belly; and they are ranged one upon ano­ther; whereas the Eminencies of the Camelion's Skin, are spread without Or­der, and little differing in size.

The Colour of all the Eminences of our Camelion when it was at rest in the shade, and had continued a long time untoucht, was a Blewish-Gray, except­ing under the Paws, which was a White inclining to Yellow, and the Inter­val of the Heap of Grains, which was of a Pale and yellowish Red, as aforesaid: And it is probable, that the natural Colour of the Camelion's Skin, which ac­cording to Aristotle is Black, was in ours that Gray which covered the Skin all over when in Repose, and which remained on the inside of the Skin when excoriated: Though the out-side had sometime after its Death preserved, the Spots and different Colours which were there at the Minute it expired, but which were well near all obscured when the Skin was dryed.

Now this Gray which coloured all the Camelion exposed to the Light, changed when in the Sun; and all the places of its Body which were inlightened, in­stead of their Blewish Colour, took up a Brownish Gray, inclining to a Minime. The rest of the Skin which was not illuminated by the Sun, changed its Gray into several brisk shining Colours, which made Spots about half a Finger in bigness, which reached from the Crest of the Spine to the middle of the Back; others appeared likewise upon the Ribbs, fore-leggs and Tail. All these Spots were of an Isabella Colour, through the mixture of a pale Yellow, where­with the Grains were coloured, and of a brisk Red, which is the Colour of the bottom of the Skin which appears amongst the Grains.

[Page 20]The rest of this Skin not enlightened by the Sun, and which was of a Pal­er Gray than ordinary, resembleing Cloth made of Mixt-coloured Wooll: For some of the Grains were seen of a Gray somewhat Greenish, others of a Mini­me Gray, othrs of the common Blewish Gray, the ground remaining as be­fore.

When the Sun did not shine, the first Gray came again by little and little, and spread it self all over the Body, except under the Feet, which continu­ed of the same Colour, but a little Browner. And when being in this state, some of the Company handled it to observe something, there immediately appeared on its Shoulders, and fore-leggs, several very Blackish spotts about the bigness of one's Nail; which happened not when it was handled by those that lookt after it: Sometimes it was marked with Brown Spotts, which in­clined to a Green. We afterwards wrapped it up in a Linnen Cloath, where having been two or three minutes, we took it out Whiteish; but not so White as that of which Aldrovandus speaks, which was not to be seen, by becoming exactly like the Linnen on which it was layed. Ours, which had only changed its ordinary Gray into a very pale one, after having kept this Colour some­time, lost it insensibly.

This Experiment makes us question if it be true, that the Camelion takes all Colours except White, as Theophrastus and Plutrach report: For ours seemed to have such a disposition to receive this Colour, that it waxed pale every night; and when it was dead, it had more White than any other Co­lour. We did not find likewise that it changed Colour all over the Body, as Aristotle reports: For when it takes other Colours than its Gray, and disguis­es it self to go in Masquerade, as Aelian say's pleasantly, it covers only certain parts of its Body therewith.

Lastly, to conclude the Experiment of the Colours which the Camelion can take, it was lay'd on things of various Colours, and wrapped up there in; but it took not them, as it had done the White; and it took that only the first time it was made, although it was several times repeated on different [...].

In makeing these Experiments, we observed that there were a great ma­ny places of its Skin which grew Brown, but very little at any time. To be more certain thereof, we marked with little points of Ink those Graines which to us appeared most White when it waxed Pale; and we always found that when it grew Brownest, and its Skin spotted, those Grains which we had marked were alwayes less Brown than the rest.

Its Head resembled that of a Fish, being very closely joyned to the Breast, and by a very short Neck, which was covered on the sides, with two Car­tilagineous risings, which resembled the Gills of Fish. There was a Crest erect­ed just upon the Crown of the Head, and two other Crests over the Eyes, turned like an S longways. Between these three Crests there were two Ca­vitys along the upper part of the Head.

Its Nose made an obtuse Point; and there were two Edges which reach­ed from the [...]ye-brows to the end of the Nose, and which made it to resem­ble that of a Frogg. Aristotle says that it is like to the Choeropithecus, which is an unknown Animal, the Name whereof shews its derivation to be from an Ap [...] and Hog: But the Nose of our Camelion resembled neither that of the [Page 21] Ape, nor of the Hog: for the lower Jaw stands out farther than the upper, which is quite different from the snout of a Hog.

At the end of the Nose there was a hole on each side like a Nostril. Be­lonius seems to be of opinion that these holes do likewise serve for the Hear­ing; and that so rationally, that Alcmaeon sayd, by the report of Aristotle, that Goats do breath through the Ears, which is a thing Aelian says, ought to be be­lieved only by the Goat-heards, altho' Tulpius in his Observations assures us, that in Man himself there is found a passage which conveys the Air into the Mouth thro' the Ears. The truth is, that our Camelion had no other holes in the Head but these two Nostrils, through which it is probable it breaths, be­cause that its Mouth is commonly so closely shut, that it seems to have none, its two Jaws being joyned by an almost unperceivable Line, altho' Solinus Writes that its Mouth is always open: Which may make us to think that Soli­nus, and the genrality of those which have described the Camelion, never saw one alive; for they do make the Mouth open, which is not usual but [...] it is dead.

These Jaws are furnished with Teeth, or rather with a dentillated or in­dented Bone, which to us appeared not at all serviceable to it in eating; because that it swallowed the Flyes, and other Insects which it catched, without chewing them. Aelian says that it defends it self against the Serpent, by the help of a great Stick which it takes in its Mouth; and its probable that its Teeth may serve to hold it fast; but it is to be understood that it holds it cross-wise, to hinder the Serpent from swallowing him up, as it usually do's Frogs and Li­zards, whole: For there is no possibility of explaining this place of Aelian as Gesner and Aldrovandus do, who think that the Camelion makes use of this Stick as of a Buckler or Sword wherewith it defends it self against the Serpent, as a Fen­cer would do; for it is not nimble enough for that.

The Mouth was slit after a peculiar manner: For whereas other Animals have generally the opening of the Lips, much less than that of the Jaws; the Lips of our Camelion were slit beyond the Jaw the length of two lines, and this continuation of the slit descended obliquely downwards.

The Form, Structure, and Motion of its Eyes had something very pecu­liar. They were very large, containing above five lines in Diameter. They appeared Sphaerical, jutting out full half of their Ball, which was covered with one single Eye-lid made like a Cap pierced with a hole through the mid­dle, this hole not exceeding one line in breadth. Through this little hole the Pupilla which was brisk and clear, and surrounded as it were with a little golden Circle, was easily enough perceived, although Aristotle say's that this Circle cannot be discerned till after that the Eye-lid be taken away by Dissection. This Eye-lid was rough like the rest of the Skin; and when the body variegated it self into several Colours, making spots which were at different times of different Figures, those of the Eye always remained of the same sort; for the barrs or streaks tinged with that Colour which came o­ver the rest of the Body, parted from the hole of the Eye-lidd as from a Cen­ter, and were extended towards the Circumference like rays.

The forepart of the Eye was fastened to the Lid, which neither raised nor shut down it self as in other Creatures, who can give their Eye-lid a different motion from that of the Eye, for that of our Camelion could not remove it self, but the Eye-lidd followed its Motion. Which Pliny seems to express, [Page 22] but very improperly, when he says that the sight or Pupilla of the Camelio stirs not, but that it is the whole Eye which moves; for there is no Creature that stirrs the Prunella when all the rest of the Eye stands still. But what is more extraordinary in this motion, is to see one of the Eyes move whilst the o­ther remains immoveable, and the one to turn forward, at the same time that the other looks behind; the one to look up to the Skie, when the other is fixed on the Ground: And all these motions to be so extream, that they do carry the Pupilla under the Crest which makes the Eye-brow, and so far in­to the Canthi or Corners of the Eye, that the Sight can discer [...] whatever is done justly behind and directly before, without turning the Head which is fastened to the Shoulders. Aristotle, who has described the Camelion more exactly than any other Animal, has omitted this particular circumstance of this extraordinary motion of the Eyes, which in truth is not found in the Mexican Camelion: But it is probable that is not that which Aristotle has de­scribed. He has not also observed that this little hole of the Eye-lidd closes by enlarging it self cross-wise, even to the making one single slitt, which very ex­actly unites the upper part with the lower; for he says that the sides of that hole do never joyn together to close the Eye. Pliny and Solinus do likewise averr the same thing, and almost all Naturalists, who have only seen Camelions in the Books of these Authors.

That part of the Body which is called the Trunck, and which compre­hends the Thorax and Belly, was in our Camelion a Thorax alone, with scarce any Belly; which Aristotle hath better observed than Pliny, who say's that the Camelion's Breast is joyned to its Belly; for that is not peculiar to it, being so in all Animals, which have nothing between the Breast and Belly. But when Aristotle say's, that the Camelion's Breast as in Fish, is joyned to the Hypogas­trium, which is the lower Belly, he clearly shews that the Ribbs do descend as low as the Ilia, whereas other Animals have only the transverse Apophyses of the Loyns, the rest being Bone-less, and therefore by Hippocrates called Void.

Its four Feet were alike. They differed only in this that the fore­most were bent backwards, and the hindmost forwards, and it may be said that these are four Arms which have their four Elbows bending inwards, e­very one consisting as it were of a Humerus, articulated with two Bones like to a Radius and Cubitus. Solinus is mistaken, when he says that the Cameli­on's Feet are Joyned to the Belly; for in ours those behind were articulated with the Os Ischium, and those before were fastened to the Omoplatae.

The four Paws were every one composed of five Claws, and better resem­bled Hands than Feet. They, as well those before as behind, were divided in two; which made as it were two Hands to each Arm, and two Feet to each Leg: For though one of these parts had but two Claws, and the other three, yet they were as large as one another, the Claws, which were two and two being larger than those which were three and three. These Claws were closed together under one skin as in a Mittin, and were divided only in the last Joynt, to which the Nails are fastened. The disposition of these Paws was different, in that those that were before had two Claws outwards and three inwards, contrary to those behind, which had three outwards and two inwards.

With these Paws it caught hold on the little branches of Trees like a Par­rot, [Page 23] which to pearch it self, divides its Claws different from other Birds, who do always put three before and one behind, whereas the Parrot puts two be­hind as well as before.

The Claws which were a little crooked, and very sharp, and of a pale Yel­low, proceeded but half way out of the Skin; the other half was covered and hidden underneath: They were in all two Lines and a half long.

Its Tail well enough resembled that of a Viper, as Pliny observes, or that of a great Rat; which Marmol, who has Writ the History of Africa in Spa­nish, seems to intimate; when he compares this Tail with that of a Mole, be­cause that the small resemblance that there is between the Tail of a Camelion, and that of a Mole, must make us to think that Marmol, according to the Custome of the generality, of those who publish the Relations of what they have seen in Forreign Countries, has without distinction intermixt what he hath Read, with what he hath Seen; and that he has taken what he speaks of the Camelion's Tail, out of some Italian Author, because that Topo which in Spanish signifies a Mole, does in the Italian signify a Rat.

But the Tail of our Camelion was neither like to a Vipers or Rats, save when its swelling made it round; for otherwise it had all along the three E­minencies which are seen upon the Back, as aforesaid, which are the rows of the Spinous, and oblique Apophyses of the Vertebrae: Besides these it had like­wise two other rows made by the Transverse Apophyses. It always wound this Tail about the Branches, and it served him instead of a fifth Hand. When it walked it very rarely suffered it to trail on the ground, but kept it parallel to the places where it went.

Its Pace was slower than that of a Tortoise, and seemed very Ridiculous, in that its Leggs being not short, and incumbred like those of the Tortoise, but very looss and free, it carryed them with a kind of Gravity which seemed affected, because needless. Wherefore Tertullian saith, that one would think that the Camelion rather made as if it would walk than that it really did.

Some do think that this Gate is a Mark of the Timerousness, which is said to be very extream in this Animal. But because it is certain that Fear, when it is not great enough wholly to take away Motion, adds great Strength to that of the Leggs; into which it is beleived that it makes all the Heat and Vigour, which has left the Heart to descend. It is much more probable that this slowness is the effect of a great Praecaution, which makes it to Act circumspectly. For it seems that the Camelion chuses out places where it can best sett its feet; and when it climbs up Trees it trusts not to its Claws, tho' they are much sharper than those of Squirrels which do every where climb up so lightly: But if it cannot grasp the Branches by reason of their bigness, it seeks out the clefts or cracks which are in the Bark, to fasten its Claws therein.

HAving opened our Camelion after it was dead, we found, when the Skin which covered the Thorax and Belly, was pulled off, that there was no­thing underneath but Membranes which joyned the Ribbs together, and which were in the place of the Musculi Intercostales. These Membranes which were so transparent, that the Intrails might be seen through, were died green on the Liver.

The Belly being cut through the Middle up to the Cartilago Xiphoides, the Liver offered it selfe, out of which the Gall Bladder proceeded so as to touch [Page 24] the short Ribs; so we do call the Ribs which are not joyned to the Sternum, and which are after a particular manner in the Camelion, as hereafter shall be explained. We found the Vesicle between the Lobes; though Belonius placeth it in the left Lobe: It was a bout the bigness of a Pea, almost round, of a Dark Green. Its Neck produced the Ductus Cholido [...]us, which was inserted un­derneath the Pylorus.

The Liver which was of a dark Red, and of a pretty firm Parenchyma, in which several Cavities or Passages might easily be discerned, was divided into two Lobes, whereof the Right appeared somewhat Larger than the Left.

The Ventricle lay under the Liver, and seemed to be only the continua­tion of the Oesophagus, which enlarged it selfe a little in the Belly, along which it descended strait enough, and was only a little bended towards the Pylorus, where it was contracted; and there its Membranes were very hard. We wondered how so strait a passage made by so hard a Membrane, could give way to the flyes, which were whole in the Intestines, and our Opinion was, that it must be that the Pylorus was capable of a distention like to that of the internal Orifice of the Uterus. This Ventricle was of the same Substance and Colour as the Oesophagus, both being composed of White, and not Transparent Membranes, as were all the rest that were found in the Belly. The Oesophagus and Ventricle were together three inches and a half long. At the passage out of the Pylorus the Intestine was enlarged, and grew bigger than the Ventricle, making three turnings one on the right side of the Pylorus, the second at the bottom of the Belly, where being descended, it rose again towards the Ventricle, where it made the third winding to re-descend to­wards the Anus. The length of this whole Intestine was seven Inches, and it kept the same bigness to the end. It was very Black all over, and one might see certain Membranes where with it was fastened, which were the Mesentery, in which were likewise observed Vessels full of Blood. There were also White Fi [...]res like the Venae Lacteae; and this Membrane of the Mesentery which was very transparent, had in its middle a piece which grew thick and opake, as it were to make the Pancreas Asellianum, or Receptacu­lum Pecquetianum. Though it was impossible to get together the Branches of the Blood-Vessels spread in this Mesentery, and to trace them to their Trunk, yet there was seen one which was judged to be that of the Vena Por­ta. The Vena Cava was likewise found under the Liver, lying upon the Vertebrae, and full of very Black Blood.

There was no appearance of the Spleen: Which agrees with what Au­thors averr of the Camelion. They do say likewise that it hath no Kidneys: However we found, that our's had two Fleshy parts lying all along the two sides of the Spine, in the region of the Loyns and the Os Sacrum, which we took for the Kidnyes: These fleshy parts were easily seperated from that place on which they were fastened, that they could not be taken for the Mus­culi Psoae; and they were firmly fixed only at the place, where the end of the Intestine joyned it self to the beginning of the Uterus. This particular cir­cumstance made G [...]ssendus to believe that these fleshy parts, whereof he speaks in the life of Mr. Pier [...]sk, who had the curiosity to keep Camelions, might be the Testicles. They were about an Inch long, near two Lines broad about the middle; and they went sloping to the end, making the figure of a Lancet. They were about the thickness of two thirds of a Line. Their [Page 25] Parenchyma was of a pale Red very Solid, and watered within with store of Serositie; which made us to take them rather for the Kidneys than Testi­cles: And that which strengthened and confirmed this Opinion, was a Cavi­ty each of them had in its middle, according to their length, formed of a very hard Membrane, which might pass for the Pelvis of the Kidney. Malpighi­us has observed the like passages in the Kidney's of Birds, which yet Harvey saith are Solid, and without any Cavity.

The Uterus had a passage which came out at the Anus. This Passage or Neck of the Uterus was placed on these Fleshy Parts, which we thought to be the Kidneys, and under the extremity of the Intestine as in Birds, and wholly contrary to what is usual in other Animals, where the Intestine is up­on the Os Sacrum, and the Bladder above the Neck of the Uterus. This Ute­rus was as in Beasts composed of two Horns, which came out of its Neck, and extended three Inches and a half in length, and returned to the same place, making as it were two Anses or Handles when they were drawn from within the region of the Ilia, where they were folded up. They were not above a Line broad, and in several places less, where they contracted them­selves, making as it were knots: But we found no Eggs neither in their Ca­vity, nor in the annexed Membranes, called the Ovarium.

The generality of all these Parts, viz. the Liver, Ventricle, and Intestines, were upheld and suspended by a strong Membrane or Ligament, which like the Mediastinum, descended from the Region of the Cartilago Xiphoides to the lower part of the Belly. There were also such like Membranes, which from the same Cartilage were extended on the right and left side, which were that which Harvey takes for the Diaphragme in Birds, and which Fabricius de­nys to be a Di [...]phragme, because that they are not Musculous. And indeed these Membranes were transparent, having no fleshy substance, they were only double, and [...]oyned to several others differently figured, as it appeared when having blowed into the Aspera Arteria, both the great Vacuities on the right and left side of the Bowels, which hung in the middle, were suddainly filled by the swelling of those Membranes, which were not discerned before it was blown; and this swelling did not only fill these Cavities, but it did thrust out on both sides some productions resembling the Bladder of a Carp; some about the length and bigness of ones Finger, others much less, and from the great ones proceeded other lesser Productions. In the middle of these two great heaps of different productions of Bladders, which represented the right and left Lungs, there likewise arose one single Bladder, which seemed to sup­ply the place of the little Lobe, which in a great many Animals is found in the middle of the Breast, in the Cavity of the Mediastinum. These Mem­branes thus extended by Air were White, and somewhat transparent, and ap­peared very curious; but they were strengthened by Fibres, inter-woven like Nets.

When we ceased to blow, all these Membranes falling down and lying upon one another, caused all these Bladders to disappear, which indeed are nothing else but the Processus of the Lungs.

Gesner saith, that of the Intrails of a Camelion, the Lungs only are visible. But Aristotle has more truly observed, that Quadrupeds which lay Eggs, have Lungs almost invisible▪ if they are not blown into to swell them. Indeed, whatever appeared in the place where the Lungs ought to be was, before it [Page 26] was extended by blowing, but like two little pieces of Rose-coloured Flesh, about the bigness of a Bean, situated on each side the Heart; which made Panarolus to say, that the Camelion has little Lungs. But these little pieces of Flesh were not all the Lungs; they could be taken only for the Membranes of the upper part of the Lungs plaited and heaped together; which in this place were interspersed with small Red Eminences, which when the Wind dilated these Membranes, appeared all over the extent of their Superfices; and when the Membranes subsided these little Red Eeminences approaching one another, caused again this appearance of Flesh, which was no spongious Substance, as Panarolus would have it, but only a heap of contiguous Mem­branes.

The Aspera Arteria was very short, composed, as is usually, of Annulary Cartilages. It had a Larynx at its beginning, made up as it were of two Epi­glottides, which shut the opening or Chink, making a kind of Glottis, which was a transverse slit, and not upright as it is in Animals that have some kind of Voice, of which our Camelion was wholly destitute.

The Heart was very little, not exceeding three Lines in length. Its Point appeared as if it were cut off. The Auricles of the Heart were very large, especially the left, and somewhat Redder than the Heart, which was very pale. The Vessels about the Heart were very full of Blood.

The Brain was found so little, that it was hardly above a Line Diame­ter, and was not twice as large as the Spinal Marrow, which was very White, the Brain being of a Reddish-Gray.

The Optick Nerves were not so short, that the Brain should be continued and fastened to the Eyes, as Aristotle describes them. They were not like­wise as Panarolus represents them, who sayth, that they do proceed separate­ly from the Brain, but do not joyn again; for there were two Eminences in the Brain, which were the Origine and first part of the Optick Nerves; and these Eminencies after joyning, separated into two Strings eight Lines long a piece, and inserted into the Ball of the Eye out of its Axis, as is usual. This Globe was covered with a Tuni [...]a Conjunctiva; underneath which was the Insertion of the Muscles of the Eye, which were not fibrous as Panarolus saith, nor of little pullies, as Johnson would have it; but a true Musculous Flesh.

Over the whole Tunica Conjunctiva, was an Orbicular Muscle which fast­ened the Lidd to the Eye, to which it was so adherent, that it served to give the same Motion to the Lidd as to the Eye. Its particular Action was to close the little round hole of the Lidd: this Muscle being raised, the Iris was seen intire, which Iohnston saith the Camelion wants. It was of an Isabella Co­lour, incompassed at its interior Edge with a little golden Circle, which has already been mentioned. The Cornea was very small, the fore-part of the Sclerotica very thick and hard, and the hinder part very thin. The Choroides Black under the Iris, and Blewish in the bottom; the Retina very thick and somewhat Reddish; the Humours all Aqueous, so that it was impossible to di­distinguish them; the Crystallinus it self seem'd to be confounded with the o­ther Humours.

Near the place through which the Optick Nerves do enter into the Orbitae or Eye-holes, several very fine fibres of Nerves did likewise enter, and passing into the Vacuity which is in the middle of the Orbitae, did penitrate into a [Page 27] great Sinus which was in the upper Iax-Bone where are the holes of the Nostrils. This Sinus was full of hard, fibrous, and very Red Flesh, through which the passages of the Nostrils did go; these passages being made thro' a very hard Yellow Membrane; they were oblique, ascending all the way from the hole of the Nostril into the Sinus, and afterwards they descended into the Palate, which by a very hard membranous production, covered the Extremi­ty of each passage, in which we found nothing that could carry the Air to­wards any Organ for the Sense of Hearing.

Aristotle has observed, that the generality of Fish do hear, though they have no conveyance for the hearing; but we have found neither any passa­ges for sound, nor any Sign in the carriage of our Camelion, which could make us to think that it had the Sense of Hearing: So that it is a true Saying, that it is an Animal, that neither receives nor makes any Noise.

The Nerves which proceed from the Spinal Marrow were easily seen when the Intrails were taken away. They proceeded after the usual manner, from the Vertebrae, and some of those which were d [...]stributed into the fore-leggs came out from the superiour Vertebrae of the Thorax, because that the Vertebrae of the Neck which is very short, could not sufficiently afford them. They en­tered into the Capacity of the Thorax three on each side, which first united, and being afterwards divided, returned towards the Om [...]platae. Those de­signed for the moving of the hind-legs, did after the same manner enter in at the sides of the Os sacrum, were united, and afterwards divided to distri­bute themselves into the Leggs. Between every Rib there was one, which proceeding from the lower part of these Verte [...]rae, at the top whereof the Rib is articulated, went cross-wise obliquely ascending towards the Ribs, and accompanyed them to the end.

Aristotle says that the Camelion hath no Flesh but on the Jaws, and at the beginning of the Tail: Ours had all over the Body, except underneath the Thorax and Belly, where instead of the Musculi intercostales, and those of the Abdomen, there was only transparent Membranes, but double and fibrous, which were thought capable of assisting the Motion which the Ribs ought to have for the Respiration of the Camelion, which is very slow; the prin­cipal Organ of this Motion of the Ribs, being a fleshy part which descended on both sides of the Back-bone, near their Articulation, which might be the Musculus Sacrolumbus. All the Back-bone, Tail, upper part of the Thorax, the fore and hind-legs were furnished with Musculous, Red, fibrous Flesh, whose White and Silver-colour'd Tendons were so visible, that it would have been very easy to have made a Muscular Dissection thereof; all these Muscles being without Fatt, of which we found no appearance in all the Animal, un­less one might take for Fatt, four or five little Grains like to Millet, which were fastened to the Membranes, and filled the Intervals of the Ribs: But the smallness of this Subject, which made it to dry speedily, hindred us from making our Observations so particularly as it deserves.

The last Observation which we made, but which is not the least conside­rable, was upon its Tongue, the make and use of which is very extraordinary. We found that it was composed of a White Flesh very solid, ten Lines long, three broad, round, and a little flattish towards the end: It was hollow and open at the end like a Sack, somewhat like the end of an Elephants Pro [...]oscis. This Tongue was fastened to the Os Hyoides, by the means of a sort of Trunk [Page 28] like a Gut, six Inches long, and a Line broad, having a Membrane without and a Nervous Substance within. The Membrane was covered with Spots all along as if it had been imbued on the inside with a Blackish extravassated Blood, unequally collected in several Places. The Nervous Substance in the middle was Solid and Compact, although very Soft, and was not easily di­vided into Strings like the Nerves which proceed from the Spinal Marrow. This Trunk served to cast out the Tongue which was fastened to it, by ex­tending it, and to draw it back by Contracting it self; and it was our Opi­nion that when it shortened it self, it must be, that the Membrane which covered it had a Stylus of a Cartilagineous Substance, very fine and smooth, inserted into it, to the end of which the Trunck was fastened, and on which its Membrane was plaited like a Silk-Stocking on the Leg: For we could not certainly understand how this Tongue could otherwise be retracted. This Stylus, which was an Inch long, took its Original from the middle of the bas­is of Os Hyoides, as it is found in the Tongue of several Birds.

The Tongue was endowed with store of apparent Vessels, by reason of the Blood which was there in great abundance, as in all the rest of the Body: Which made us wonder why Aristotle said that the Camelion has no Blood but about the Heart and Eyes; and that the generality of the Moderns do place it among those Animals that have little Blood.

It is probable that it was not the small Esteem which the Antients made of the particularities of this Tongue, which hindered them from speaking thereof; and that if they had seen to what purpose the Camelion uses it, they could not think that it liv'd by the Air alone: For this Tongue serves it for the catching of the Animals whereon it lives; and it is a very surprising thing to us to see the Swiftness wherewith it darts this Tongue at a Fly, and with which it draws it back again into its Mouth with the Prey, which it is said that it never fayls to catch by the means of a Natural Glue which its Tongue incessantly Sweats forth, as we have observed, and which gathers together and thickens in its Cavitie, which penetrates not into the Trunk to which this Tongue is fastened: So that to swallow what it has glued at the end of its Tongue, it is necessary that there be a kind of Peristaltick Action perform­ed by the Tongue, whose parts successively joyned and pressed against the Palate, do there cause to run into the Throat whatever it has to Swallow. The abundance of wrinkles which we saw run a cross on the extremitie of this Tongue made us to be of Opinion that it must be so done.

Nevertheless Marmol, who say's that he has seen a great many live Cameli­ons, with a design to explain himself upon this particular use of their Tongue, Asserts that it serves them not to catch Insects, and that whatever he has observed of this Animal could not make him to alter his Opinion, that its only Nourishment is the Air and the Beams of the Sun.

Yet we have found its Ventricle and Intestines filled with Flys and Wormes, having seen it swallow them after the manner aforesaid. We have likewise observed that the Excrements that it voided almost every day were mixed with store of Yellow and Greenish Choler, and such as they are in Animals which do live in something else besides Air: Which Nidermayer, Physitian to the Landgrave of Hessen, who in the Year 1619. brought a live Camelion from Malta into Germany, hath already observed. Our's did many times void Stones about the bigness of a Pea; which it had not swallowed, but [Page 29] which were ingendred in its Intestines, as we discovered after a Curious Ex­amination: For it was found that these Stones were so light, that being put into distilled Vinegar, they rose from the bottom of the Vessel when stirred; that they did there Dissolve, and that one of them which cleft contained in its middle the head of a Fly, about which the Stony matter was amas­sed.

This made us to think that the Lienteria which Panar [...]lus Reports, to be perpetual in the Camelion, was not the Distemper of our's; seeing that re­taining the Useful things, it rejected those only which were Superfluous, and not fit to be kept.

It is true indeed that it voided Flyes. which appeared almost as intire as it had taken them; but it is known that this happens to Serpents, which do Evacuate Animals whole as they have swallowed them: And every body know's that the manner of drawing the Nutritive Juice from the Food, is different in different Creatures; that some must Dissolve what they Eat; and therefore they do first Chew it, and afterwards reduce it into Liquor in their Stomach; that others, who Swallow without Chewing, have a Heat and Spirits powerful enough to Extract the Juice they have need of, with­out breaking that which contains it, even as it is seen that the Juice of the Grapes is drawn as well from the Rape, where the Stones remaine whole, as from a Vat wherein they are bruised.

By these Observations we thought there was not less reason to doubt of the Truth of the Proposition, which the Ancients had started touching the Aerial Nourishment of the Camelion, than we have had to reject that which they had establish't touching the changeing of Colour which they have said happens to it by the touching of the different things which it approaches, af­ter having observed, that except the White which our Camelion took in a Linnen Cloath, all the other Colours, wherewith it was covered, proceed­ed not from the things which it touched. And it is rational to think, that the White which it received in a cold Linnen Cloath where it was kept some time as under a Cloak, was an effect of the Cold which generally made it grow Pale, because that very day was the coldest of all those whereon we ob­served it.

And to the end that Naturalists and those which Study Morality may not be troubled for Curious Subjects to exercise their Philosophy, which they thought to have found in the extraordinary particulars, which the Antients had left in Writing concerning the Wonders of the Camelions Nourishment and change of Colour, we do think that the new Observations of the Moti­on of its Eyes, and that of its Tongue, and the manner of changeing Co­lour according to its Passions, are altogether as capable of imploying their Witt.

For to demonstrate that Flatterers want Sincerity, and that Vain and Ambitious Spirits feed on Chimaera's; it is not necessary to be true that the Camelion takes all Colours but White, and that it lives only on Air: And one may find as much ground, but with more truth, to Moralize on this, that the Camelion, which is without Ears, and almost without Motion in most of its parts, hath Nimbleness only in the Tongue, which lets nothing escape it, and in the Eyes which can see all ways at once.

[Page 30]Naturalists will likewise have a great deal to do, before that they have clearly domonstrated from whence proceeds the necessity which Nature has imposed on all other Animals of Moveing both Eyes together after one manner. For the Camelion shews that it is not the joyning of the Optick Nerves, which causes this necessity, as many were of Opinion. They will also have trouble enough to tell what Power do's so far push out, and almost at the same instant draw back this Tongue, and even to produce instances like it. For the moveing of the Muscles, which is attributed to the different position of their Fibres which makes them contract and extend, is nothing proportionable to the quickness of the Motion of this Tongue, nor to the greatness of the space which it runs through. For when our hand is carry­ed swiftly for the space of seven Inches, which is what we have observed the Camelions Tongue to move, the contracting of the Muscles which gives this Motion to the hand, do's never exceed the length of two lines, that is to say the fortieth part of the contraction of this Tongue, And though, there be some colour to say that it is thrust out, and if I may so say, Spitt out by the Effort of the Wind wherewith the Lungs are swelled, and that it is drawn back by the Nerve which is in the middle of the Trunck, which having been stretcht out by this Effort, makes it to return back to its first state, and sudainly draws in the Tongue. There is yet this difficulty, that this cannot be performed without a great deal of Noise and we have observ­that this darting out of the Tongue causeth not the least.

It is likewise a very difficult thing to imagine, what becomes of this Nervous Substance which fills the middle of the Trunck to which its Tongue is fastened, and where it can dispose it selfe when it is drawn into the Mouth. For when it is there, the Root of the Tongue do's almost touch the extremity of the Cartilaginous Stylus, on which supposing the Mem­brane of the Trunck to be folded and drawn on, as has been said, that Nerve cannot be drawn on after the same manner, by reason that it is too Solid and compact; and this Solidity hinders us also from thinking that it shrinks, and as it were enters into it self to retire from the six Inches in length, which it has when extended, to that of a Line, to which it is reduced being con­tracted.

It cannot be said that it bends like the Neck of a Tortoise, when it draws its Head into its Shell, because that this bending is performed by the assist­ance of Divers Muscles, which do bend this Neck composed of several Vertebrae, and that such Organs are not found in the Camelion's Tongue. The Tongue which the Wood-pecker shoots out a great way beyond its Beak, has Organs also, whose Substance is much fitter for this Action, than that of the Trunk of the Camelion; for there are very long Muscles, bending over the Head, which consisting of fleshy Parts, have an aptitude to extend and con­tract themselves, which in their great length may produce a considerable ex­tension and contraction. So that we may say, that this so strange a Motion of the Camelions Tongue, do's somewhat resemble that of the Horns of a Snail, and that so great a length as this is reduced almost to nothing in this Trunck, by the increase of its thickness, and by a great dilatation, caused by the powerful and suddain rarefaction of the Black and thick Blood, which ap­pears unequally dispersed through the whole length of the Trunck. Yet that do's not sufficiently explain the thing, because that if the rarefaction [Page 31] causeth the dilatation which makes the contraction; it cannot afterwards produce the extension in the same Organe; and it is to be supposed that the extension proceeds from the rarefaction which is made in one of the two parts of which this Trunck is composed, viz. in the Nerve which is in the middle, and that the contraction happens when the Rarefaction is made in the other part viz. In the Membrane which is without it, by means of a different Situation of the Fibres in the one and other of these Parts: So as it is probable that the extending and contracting of the Tongue of other Ani­mals is performed. But the bigness and Fleshy Substance of other Tongues are Dispositions to perform these Actions, which are wholly wanting in that of a Camelion, although this effects them with incomparably more Force; which makes that Motion Marvelous, and difficult to Compre­hend.

But above all the change of Colour will a long time detain the Curious before they will Discover the Cause, and be able to Determine whether it is done by Reflexion, as Solinus thinks; or by Suffusion, as Seneca is of Opini­on; or by the change of the Dispositions of the Particles which do compose its Skin, according to the Doctrine of the Cartesians. Yet it is True that the Suffusion is most easie to comprehend, especially to those who shall have ob­served that the Skin of the Camelion has a Natural Colour, which is a Blew­ish Gray, which was seen on the inside when it was flea'd; that there was easily taken away a great number of little Pellicles from above each of the Eminencies, which are the only Parts of the Skin which do change Colour; and that these thin Skins are separated, or easily separable one from another, whereas those which do compose the rest of the Skin, are exactly fastened together. For these things having been observed, there will be found some probability to think that Choler wherewith this Animal abounds, being conveyed to the Skin by the Motion of the Passions, may creep between these Skins, and that according as the Choler enters under a Pellicle nearer, or more remote from the exteriour Superficies of the Eminencies, it Dy's them Yellow or Green: For it is seen by experience that Yellow mixt with a Blewish Gray makes a kind of Green; so that it is easie to Imagine that the same Cho­ler spread under a very thin Pellicle may make it appear Yellow, and that be­ing under a thicker Skin it mingles its Yellow with the Blewish-gray of this Skin, to produce a Greenish-gray, which with the Yellow are the two Colours that the Camelion takes when it is in the Sun, where it Delights its self: For when it is moved by things which disturb it, it is not strange that the Black, and adust Humour which is in the Blood, being carryed to the Skin, should there produce the Brown Spots which appear on it when is Angry; even as we do see that our Countenance becomes Red, Yellow, or Livid, accord­ing as the Humours, which are Naturally of those different Colours, are carried thither. By the very same reason also, when by a contrary Mo­tion the Humours, wherewith the Skin is Naturally imbued, do return in­to the Vessels, or dissipate themselves, so that others do not succeed in their place, the Skin waxeth White by the separation of the Pellicles, which do compose the little Eminencies; for this Whiteness happens to them as to our Epidermis or Scarf-skin, which being dryed, and separated into little Flakes in the Disease called Pityriasis, the Skin Whitens extraordinarily, and seems to be rub'd over with Meal. Abundance of such probable reasons may be [Page 32] found, before any one shall occurr, whereby the Truth may be demon­strated.

But to conclude our Observations on the Camelion with somthing more Solid than is in this Philosophy of Colours, we will relate the Remarks which we made on its Bones, whereof we do keep the Skeleton, and where­in we have observed a great many considerable particulars.

The Bones which composed the Cranium or Skull seem'd to be made only to sustain the Crotaphitae which filled all the Head, as well without as within with a Whiteish and Fibrous Flesh. The three Crests which were upon the Head mett together in one point towards the Back part. Two of these Crests which covered the Eyes like Eye-brows left great vacuities, each making a kind of Zygoma. The principal cavity of the Skull consisted in the Or [...]itae or Eyeholes; for that wherein the Brain is contained was without com­parison the least. These two Orbitae were open one into the other, so that the Eyes touched on the inside, as is seen in several Birds: Which Pliny has excellently described, when he says that the Camelions Eyes are very large, and little distant one from the other. For this little separation cannot be meant of that which is at the Face between each Eye, because that is very broad in all Camelions; this little distance of the Eye one from the other in the Face being proper to Man only, as the greatest is peculiar to Sheep, accor­ding to Aristotles opinion.

Each half of the lower Jaw was composed of two Bones articulated per Diarthrosin, the Apophysis which goes from the corner of the Jaw to the Condy­lus which is articulated with the Bone of the Temples being a distinct Bone.

The Back-bone, comprehending the Tail, had seventy four Vertebrae, two in the Neck, eighteen in the Thorax, two in the Loynes, two at the Os Sacrum, and fifty in the Tail.

The first of the Neck was the only one which had its Spinous Apophy­sis bent upwards, and which was differently from the rest received on both sides. All the other had in their Body a Cavity in their upper part which received, and in the lower a Head which was received by the Cavity of the next, which made a kind of Ginglymos. All in general had their seven Apophyses, except the Vertebrae of the Tail, which have eight, viz. two Spinous, a large one, and another very small one underneath. with the two transverse and four Oblique ones, by the means of which all the Vertebrae were articulat­ed, the oblique Superiour Apophyses of one Vertebra passing over the lower of the Vertebra next above it.

The Ribbs which Gesner makes sixteen were eighteen of each side, and of three sorts. The two first above reacht not to the Sternum, no more than the three last below. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, were joyned there by Appendices, which were not Cartilaginous, but of the same Substance with the Ribbs; and these two sorts of Ribbs were joyned together by an Angle which they made, the one descending downwards, and the other ascending towards the Sternum. The other nine Ribbs were not fastened to the Ster­num; but each was joyned to its opposite, by the means of a common Ap­pendix, and which went from the right Ribb to the left, being bent in the middle of the Breast and Belly.

[Page 33]The Sternum was composed of four Bones, the first of which was very large, and made like a Trefoyle.

The Ompolatae or Shoulder-blades were so long, that they reached from the Back-bone to the Sternum, to which they were joyned instead of Claviculae. The Ossa innominata were after the usual manner joyned by the Os Pubis; but the Ischium was not firmly articulated to the Sacrum by a Cartilage: For it was the Os Ilium which was there fastened by a looss Ligament: So that it appeared that these Bones, after the same manner as the Omoplatae, have a Structure and connexion altogether different from what is found in all other Animals, where the Omoplatae are fastened to the Trunck of the Body, but by very looss Ligaments, in comparison of the Ossa Innominata: And it has been observed that the Omoplatae in the Camelion are very closely fastened to the Trunk, as has been said; and the Ossa innominata on the contrary are very moveable, even as the Omoplatae are in other Animals.

The Ossa Innominata made a hole forewards on each side, but which was partly formed by the Os Pubis, and partly by the Ischium.

The Humerus which was articulated with the Omoplaae per Ginglymon, as the Femur is generally with the Tibia, had an Apophysis near its Head like to a Trochanter; and the Femur, which was joyned with the Ischium per Enar­throsin had no Trochanter's.

The Leggs as well before as behind were alike, being every one compos­ed of two Bones, which rather resembled a Radius and Cubitus, than a Pero­na and Tibia, because that they were both articulated to the Femur as well as the Humerus, and were both capable of bending upwards and down­wards.

The Feet and Hands, or rather the four Hands, were also alike, and dif­fered only in this, that the Fore-feet had as it were a Carpus composed of twelve little Bones, and those behind had something which rather resembled a Tarsus, because that the Bones were larger than those which seemed to make the Carpus, Yet there was none which jetted out enough behind to make a Talus; which might be one of the Causes which makes the Camelion's Pace so slow. These Bones of the Tarsus were six in Number. There was neither Metacarpus, nor Metatarsus; unless you would so call the two first Phalanges of the Toes, because that they were joyned together as the Bones of the Metacarpus, and Metatarsus commonly are, there being only the last Phalanges which were separated, and appeared like Toes. There was like­wise this difference between the Feet and Hands; for in the Feet the Part which hath three Toes was articulated on the right side of the greatest of the two Bones which do make the Leg; and on the contrary in the Hands, it was set against the least of those whereof the Arm is composed.

After having made these Remarks, we found that the Skeleton and Skin, which was layd up, retain'd for some time a strong Scent, inclining much to that of Fish begining to stink; and that this ill Smell, as these parts grew dryer, was changed into a Sweet and agreable Smell, very like that of the Roots of the Iris and Violett Flowers; and that at last all the Odour Evaporat­ed, when the rest of the Humiditie was consumed.

As for the knowledge of the incredible Virtues which the superstition of the ancients hath attributed to the Camelion and of which Pliny saith that Democritus hath writt a whole Book, they are so Extravagant in the Judg­ment [Page 34] even of Pliny, that we referr our selves to his opinion thereof: And without trying whether we could raise Tempests with its Head, or gain Law-suits with its Tongue, or stop Rivers with its Tail, and do the other Miracles which it is said Democritus hath left in Writeing; we were content­ed to make those Experiments which seemed to have some probabilitie, be­ing founded on Sympathie and Antipathy, such as is that which Solinus Re­ports to be so great between the Crow and the Camelion, that it dyes im­mediately after having Eaten of its Flesh. The truth is that a Crow peckt several times with its Bill on our Camelion, when it was set to it Dead; and we gave it several Parts of it to Eat, and even the Heart it self, which it swallowed without any harm.

The Explication of the Figure of the DROMEDARY.

IT is represented in the lower Figure, so that there may be seen the highth of the Bunch which it has upon the Back, and which is for the most part composed of long Hair, which stands upright. There is also seen the four Kinds of Callosities, which are at the Parts on which it rests it self when it lyes down, viz. The two Callosities of the Fore-leggs, that of the Thigh, and that of the Breast. Its Feet are likewise so raised that they do present a part of the Sole to the Eye.

In the Upper Figure.
The first and greatest of the four Ventricles.
The Oesophagus.
The second Ventricle.
The Third.
The Fourth.
The Pylorus.
F F F.
The second Ventricle cut in four.
The hole which is the passage of the first and great Ventricle into the second.
h h h h.
The holes of the Sacks, which are between the Coats of the second Ventricle.
The Glandula Pinealis.
The Sole of the Foot, which is Solid, and covered with a very soft and delicate Skin.
The upper Part of the Foot, which is a little Cloven.
The Penis.
N O.
The Tongue.
O P.
The Part which is rough from the inside to the end, by reason of an abundance of little pointed Eminencies.
N q.
That which has the greatest Eminencies turned after the same manner as the little ones.
q p.
That which has likewise great Eminencies, but which are turned opposite to the little ones.
The Center of the great Eminencies.

[Page 36]



THis Animal here described we call a Dromedary, altho' the common practise be to give the name of Camel simply to that which like it has but one Bunch on the Back, and of Dromedary to that which hath two according to Soli­nus, but contrary to what Aristotle and Pliny, and the generality of Authors have Writt thereof, who do make two sorts of Camels: whereof one, which retains the Name of the Genus, has two Bunches, and is most commonly found in the Eastern parts of Asia, and is therefore called Bactrianus; it is also bigger and more proper to carry heavy Burdens: The other, which is Lesser, and fitter for the Course, and which for this reason is called Dromedary, has but one Bunch, and is most commonly seen in the Western Parts of Asia, viz. in Syria and Arabia. The Sieur Dipi an Arabian, who was present at our Dissection, informed us that the Camels of his country are like to Ours.

It was seven Foot and a half high from the Crown of the Head to the Feet; five and a half from the highest bending of the Back-bone, which is the Bunch; Six Foot and a half from the Stomach to the Tail, of which all the Knots or Vertebrae were fourteen Inches together; and all the Tail com­prehending the hair, two Foot and a half. The Head was One and Twenty Inches from the hinder-part to the Nose.

The Hair was of a Fawn-Colour inclining a little to an Ash-Colour. It was very soft to the touch, moderately Short, and somewhat shorter than an Oxe's, excepting some places, where it was longer, as on the Head, under the throat and on the fore-part of the Neck. But the longest was on the middle of the Back, where it was near a foot. In this place, although it was very soft and limber, it stood erect, so that it made the greatest part of the Bunch of the Back, which when this hair was pressed down with the hand, hardly appeared more Elevated than a Doggs or Swines, which are Animals that have not the Back Sunk, as Horses, Cows and Staggs generaly have. And indeed there are some Authors which do say, that the Dromedary is engen­dred of the Camel and Hogg. This is very repugnant to Aristotle, who asserts, [Page 38] that there is no Animal which hath the Back bunched like the Camel. Some Authors do say, that this Bunch is a Flesh peculiar to this Animal, which rises upon the Back over the Vertebrae, and which wasts away, when after a long abstinence from Food, it grows extraordinary lean. But we found not any appearance of this Flesh in our Subject, although it was not lean; and without this Flesh, the Bunch which was made only by the Hair, was much raised, as is seen in the Figure.

Besides these two sorts of Hair, viz. The long which was upon the Back, Head, and Neck, and the short which covered the rest of the Body; there was likewise a third sort at the Tail, which differed from the others, as well in bigness as Colour, being Gray and very strong, and altogether like the Hair of a Horse's Tail.

The Head was little in Proportion to the Body; the Nose was cleft like a Hare's, and the Teeth like to those of other Animals which do chew the Cud, having no Dentes Canini nor Incisores in the upper Jaw; although the Head wants the Horns which Nature has given and bestowed on the great­est of those which do chew the Cud. Cardan says that it has recompensed this defect of the Camel, by arming its Feet, which have Hoofs like those of Oxen, according to Pliny: But that is not found, for it has neither Horn nor Hoof on the Feet which can render them dangerous, each Foot being fur­nisht only with two little Nails at the end; and the Sole which is flat and broad, being very fleshy, and covered only with a soft, thick, and somewhat callous Skin, but very fitt and proper to travel in sandy Places, such as are in Asia and Africa. We thought that this Skin was like a living Sole, which wore not with the swiftness nor continuance of the March, for which this Animal is almost indefatigable: For when Aristotle says, that they are some­times forc't to defend, as it were, with Boots the Feet of those which are in the Armies; it seems to be not so much to ease them from the inconveniencies which they do undergo in travelling, as to prevent and keep off the Wounds which they might receive in the Warr. And it may be said that this soft­ness of Foot, which yeilds and fits it self to the ruggedness and unevenness of the Roads, do's render the Feet less capable of being worne, than if they were more solid; although Pliny thinks that it is not possible, that Camels can make long Journies if they are not shod: Its callous Knees are much harder, and do nearer approach the Solidity of the horny Hoof of other Animals.

Aristotle hath remarkt other Particulars in the Foot of the Camel, which we have not found there. He says that it is cleft in two behind, and in four before, and that the interstices are joyned by a Skin like the Feet of a Goose, which was not found in ours, whose Foot was only cleft at top, within four or five Fingers of the end; and this slitt was not joyned by a Skin, but un­derneath this slitt which is shallow and not very deep, the Foot was solid.

The Callosities of the Knees were six in Number, viz. one at each of the Joynts of the fore-leggs, the first and highest being behind, at the Part which is properly the Cubitus; and the second and lower of the two before, upon the Joynt of the Knee which represents the Wrist: Each hind-legg had likewise one on the first and highest Joynt, which is that before, and which is the true Knee.

[Page 39] Aristotle, who has observed but four of these Callosities, which he calls Knees, and who groundlessly reproves an ancient Author, which is Herodotus, for having made six, adds also a thing more strange, which is to say, that the Camel never bends its Leggs but in these four places: For the Truth is, that it bends them in Eight, like other Quadrupeds, and that there are only the two bendings which do supply the place of the Heel in the hind-leggs, which have no Callosities.

Having opened these Callosities, to observe their Substance (which is be­tween Flesh, Fat, and Ligament) we found that in some there was a heap of thick Pus; which made us to think as some Authors do report, that Camels are subject to the Gout; and we conceived that it might be, that our Dromedary had been tainted with this distemper, which was ended by a Suppuration.

Besides these six Callosities, there was a seventh much bigger than the rest, at the bottom of the Breast, firmly joyned to the Sternum, which had an Eminence in this Place. It was eight Inches long, six broad, and two thick. It was likewise very much suppurated, and it was judged that this Part was as susceptible of the Gout as the Articles or Joynts, because that its use being to support the whole Body alone whilst it was loading, couched upon the Ground, that hardship might make this Part capable of the weakness and heat which do attract the humors on the Joynts, and which do hinder that they cannot digest and disperse them. The great Sobriety which is remark­able in the Camel, and the incredible Fatigue which it generally suffers, do de­monstrate that the greatest hardships may produce the Gout, as well as Idle­ness and Debauchery.

Before we opened it to observe the inward Parts, we took notice that the Praeputium, which is very large and loose, covered not only the end of the Penis, but that it turned backwards; which may have given occasion to the Opinion of those, who have thought that the Camel pissed backward, like the Lyon, Castor, Hare, &c. whose Penis bends not forward.

The internal Parts are very like to those of the Horse. The Liver had three Lobes, two very large ones, in the middle and underneath which there was one which was lesser and pointed. The Ligament which held the Liver suspended was not fastened to the Cartilago Xiphoides, but to the center of the Diaphragme on which the Membrane of the Peritonaeum which covered it, had a lustre, which made it appear as it were all over gilded. The Gall was not contained in a Cystis, but spread over the Liver, in its Ductus Cholidochus.

The Ventricle which was very large, and divided in four, as in the other Animals which chew the Cud, had not that different Structure, which is ob­served within the four Ventricles called by Aristotle, [...]. They were only distinguished by some strait­enings, which made that the first Ventricle, which is large and vast, produced another very small one, which was followed with a third, some­what less than the first, but much longer; and this was followed by a fourth like to the second.

At the top of the second Ventricle there were several square holes, which were the Orifices of about twenty Cavities, made like Sacks placed between [Page 40] the two Membranes which do compose the Substance of this Ventricle. The view of these Sacks made us to think that they might well be the Reservatory's where Pliny says that Camels do a long time keep the Water, which they do drink in great Abundance when they do meet with it to supply the wants which they may have thereof in the dry Desarts where they are used to tra­vel, and where it is said that those which do guide them are sometimes forc't by extremity of Thirst, to open their Belly, in which they do find Water. There is likewise some reason to say, that the instinct which Aristotle and Pliny have observed to have been by Nature bestowed on this Animal, of always troubling and muddying with its Feet the Water which it would drink, might rather be to render it heavy, and consequently less fitt to pass speedily, and more capable of being a long time retained in its Stomach.

The Intestines were of four sorts. The first at the enterance of the fourth Ventricle were of a middle-size; they were six Foot long. The second were, as it were ruffled and contracted by several folds, as the Colon usually is by means of a Ligament which tacks it together, and makes it as it were divide into several cells. These were also of a middle-size, and were twenty Foot long: The last which were the smallest were Fifty six Foot long; the whole making eleven Toises; and there would have been found above thirteen, if those had been unfolded which were ruffled and contracted.

The Spleen was layd upon the left Kidney. It was Nine Inches long, four broad, and half an Inch thick.

The Penis, of which it is said, that Bow-strings are made, was Nineteen Inches long. It was very pointed at the end, which was bent, and made as it were a Hook of a cartilaginous Substance, without any appearance of the Balanus. The Extremity of the Ureter was a very small Mem­brane.

The Lungs had but one Lobe on each side. The Heat was of an extraor­dinary bigness, being Nine Inches in length, and seven in breadth: It was very pointed.

The Structure of the Tongue was remarkable, in that contrary to all Tongues which are all over asperated inward, by the means of abundance of little Eminencies which do tend inwards; one part of this Tongue had them from the in-side to the out-side; for the half towards the end which was very small, was rough as usually from the in-side to the out-side; but the other half near the Root which was very thick, had towards the middle a little Circle, like a Center amongst several Eminences, which covered all this se­cond half of the Tongue, and whose Points were all turned from this Cen­ter, making a roughness when we rubed them towards this Center. A­mongst these Eminencies there were others placed in two Rows, in a direct Line, five in each Row, which were Navils, formed by wrinkles folded round after a very delicate and curious Structure. The Figure explains this more clearly than the Discourse.

The whole Brain comprehending the Cerebellum, was but six Inches and a half long, and four broad. The Optick Nerve was pierced, according to its length, with a number of holes full of Blood. The Processus Mamillares were [Page 41] very large and hollow, having each two Ductus's or passages, the one of which appeared round, and the other like a Crescent, by a transverse Secti­on. The Glandula Pinealis was about the bigness of a small Filbert, and as it were composed of three other Glands, which left a dent in the middle.

The Explication of the Figure of the BEAR.

IN the lower Figure the Bear is represented two ways, viz. with its Skin on the one side and without it on the other; the more plainly to discover the Forme and Shape of its body, which is principally remarkable in its Hind-leggs.

In the Upper Figure.
A B C.
The left fore-paw.
A little Toe which is in the place of the Pollux.
A Great Toe in the place of a little one.
A Callosity on the Carpus, which as it were makes a Heel.
D E G.
The left hind-paw.
A little Toe which is in the place of a bigger.
A great Toe in the place of a lesser.
The Heel covered with Hair.
H I.
The Two Ventricles.
The Oesophagus.
The Pylorus.
K L.
The left Kidney.
M M.
The Ureter.
N N.
The Vena Emulgens.
O O.
The Arteria Emulgens.
P Q.
The same Kidney inverted, and from which some of the little Kidneys are Taken away, to discover on the inside the distribution of the Emulgent Vessels and Ureters.
R S T T.
One of the little Kidneys cut through the middle.
The Emulgent Arterie of one of the small Kidneys.
The Emulgent Vein.
T T.
The Ureter of one of the small Kidneys cut in two length-wise.
V V.
The Papillae.
Y Y Y Y.
The halves of the Pelves.
X X.
The little Sinus's which are between the Pelves and Papillae.

[Page 42]



THe bigness and thickness of the Hair, in which the whole Body of the Bear is hid after such a manner, that it seems to be but one lump, which hardly has any appearance of an Animal, has made it to be rightly called by Virgil Informe; but there is no one which do's not find it wholly Difforme, when the Skin being flead off, it's true shape and Figure may be seen, without any hindrance or obstruction. This deformity, just as that of the Ape, which is accounted the ugliest of all Creatures, is founded on the the ill resemblance which they both have, with the handsomest of all Ani­mals, by the general and ever true Rule, that the depravation of things the most perfect is the worst.

That which makes the Body of Man admirable, according to Galen's Opi­nion, is the structure of the Hands and Feet, which distinguishes his Body from that of other Animals, even as Reason makes the difference of Souls. This Structure is altogether extravagant in the Bear, in that having some­thing which in appearance, approaches that which makes the perfection of these Organs; it is found that in Truth, that which is most important in their conformation is depraved, or wholly defective in the Bear. Galen Re­marks two things, which are principally necessary for the conveniency of the use of these Parts, viz. In the Hand, that its five Fingers be generally di­vided into two Parts, having four of them joyned together, which are as it were of one sort, and a fifth Part which is so separated, to serve the princi­pal Action of the Hand which is to take hold; and in the Foot, that it is com­posed of the Heel of one side, and of the five Toes which oppose it on the o­ther, as the four Fingers of the Hand are opposite to the Thumb; to make the Step more sure and firm, by the different application of these two Parts, to the Figure of the things on which we tread.

Pliny, who has spoken of the resemblance which the Paws and Feet of the Bear have with those Parts of Man, has not well understood it, making it to consist in the Position of the Elbows and Knees, which he Reports to be in the Ape and Bear as in Man, and contrary to other Animals, who have [Page 44] the Knees behind and Elbows before: For the Truth is, that all Animals have these Parts turned after the same manner, whatever Aristotle may re­port thereof; and that what is there found different, proceeds from hence, that the Heels in Brutes are taken for the Knees, the Carpus or the Cubitus: Because that the Bone which makes the Heel of Man, is so lengthened in Brutes, that it is taken for the Legg, and that the Wrist, which in Man is composed of a connexion of eight small Bones, almost round, which is called Carpus, has in the generality of Brutes one of these Bones very long, and which is taken for the fore-legg, though it be properly one of the bones of the Carpus. So that the Leggs and Paws of the Bear are in this only as in Man, that they are fleshy, although Aristotle says that there is none but Man which has them so: That the Os calcis or Heel-bone is short, and makes a part of the Sole of the Foot: That there are five joyned together, and op­posed to the Heel, and that its Paw has likewise the Bones of the Carpus al­most even, and united like ours; but in its Paw it has no Thumb seperate from the four other Fingers, and the biggest of the five which do compose the Paw, and which has only that bigness which may make it to pass for a Thumb, is placed quite contrary to Mans, being on the outside, and in the place of the little Finger, even as on the Foot where the greatest Toe is also on the outside. As to the Foot it is not usually rested on the Heel, which by reason hereof is covered with Hair like the Legg, and has no Callosities, nor that kind of particular Skin which defends the Sole of the Foot, and which leaves its Print on the places where it has gone. On the contrary, its Paw has as it were a Heel, that Callosity which is in the palm of the Paw, being in­terrupted by the hairy Skin, to begin another Callosity a little higher. In a word, the Fingers of the Paw are likewise very ill shapen, and unfit for their uses, being great, short, and fastened to each other as in the Feet.

The Substance of these Parts is not less particular, nor less remarkable than their Structure. Pliny and Plutarch do report that it is an excellent Food; and Michael Herus says that in Germany they are even at present reserved for Princes Tables, at which the Paws of the Bear are served up salted and smoa­ked. We observed that this Substance good to eat, was a fatt Ligament, ve­ry white and delicate, about two Fingers thick, which was on the in-side of the Paws and Feet; and it is questionable, whether it be not probable that there may proceed some moisture from this Part, which has occasioned Aelian and Pliny to say, that the Bear Lives Forty Days by licking only its right Foot.

The Claws of the two Bears which we dissected, were fastened to the last Phalanx of the Toes after the same manner as in the Lyon, having by the particular Structure of this Article or Joynt, which we have described in the Lyon, the Faculty of holding its Claws elevated in its March to preserve the Points thereof; but it appeared that our Bears had neglected to use this Fa­culty, because that their Claws were half worne away. They were Black, and much lesser than in the Lyon, as might be judged by what remained. The manner how these Claws were worne, demonstrated that their Sub­stance was very different from that of the Lyon; for in the Lyons which we dissected, the Claws were also somewhat worne on one Paw, but as fibrous Wood would wear; whereas those of the Bear were like Iron: That is to say, that the Claws of the Lyon are composed of separable fibres, by reason that they [Page 45] are of an Heterogeneous Substance, and that the Claws of the Bear are of a more even and more compact Substance.

The Teeth were like to those of the Lyon, save that they were much less. Therefore it is said that it uses only its Paws to break the Netts and rend the Snares of the Hunters, because that the bigness and thickness of its Lipps hinders it from useing its Teeth. These Lipps have also a very extraordinary shape, the lower ones being wrinkled, and cut from the two corners like a Cock's-Combe.

The length of the whole Body, from the end of the Muzzle to the end of the Toes, was eight foot three inches; Five Foot and a half to the begining of the Taile, which was Five inches; and one foot five Inches to the hinder part of the Head, which was flat and made an angle with the bones of the fore-part Direct from the Sutura Lamdoides, at the middle of which abutted a Crest elevated like that of an Helmet, but much less than on the Lyon; and from whence the Crotaphitae, which did Likewise Cover the head, did also take their original, being a great deal less fleshy.

The Thorax was larger than in the Lyon, and also very long, being composed of fourteen Ribbs. The Neck was not Short in proportion to its breadth like a Hoggs, as Authors do report: for it had seven inches in breadth, and Nine in length: the great thickness of the hair which surrounds and inlarges this Neck, is that which makes it to appear short.

The Os Femoris or Thigh-Bone was proportionably longer than it gen­erally is in Brutes, and it was articulated with that of the Legg by means of a Rotula, which some Authors do say is found only in Man.

The Skin which was very hard and very thick on the Back, was found very thin and Delicate under the belly. The Hair was not so harsh and stuborn as in the Lyon and Wild-Boar, in some sort resembling Wool, more Frizled than the Goats, and much less than the Sheeps.

As for the internal parts of the Body, the Epiploon was very large but very lean, like all the rest of the body, which neither on the inside nor the out­side had one scrap of fat: which might be an effect of the distemper where­of it died, the natural constitution of the Animal being to be very fat, and the Winter being the Season in which it grows fattest.

The Liver was vastly great, and divided into seven Lobes, one of which was much less than the rest. The Cystis fellea was not half so big as in the Lyon: yet there was much gall diffused on the membranes of the circumjacent parts.

The Oesophagus which exceeded not fourteen lines in diameter, and inlarged not it self towards the superiour orifice of the Ventricle, was outwardly very fleshy to the Ventricle, which was extreamly small, although Aristotle affirms that the Bear has it very large as well as the hogg. Which he says (perhaps) with all other Authors, because that they have thought that the Bear being a great feeder, must needs have a large Ventricle. In our Subiects it was not a foot in length, and its greatest breadth, which was towards the Top, exceeded not Six Inches, and two and a half towards the middle, where it was contracted to inlarge it self again in a second Ventricle about three inches and a half, which was raised towards the Pylorus. The bottom of each Ventricle was hard and three lines thick, and five towards the Pylorus, which was also harder: Their internal Membrane was even, as it usually is, except that little [Page 46] roughness which we call the Velvet: But it somewhat resembled that of the Ventricle of Animals which Chew the Cud, by reason of several Eminencies which it had, like to those which do make the Reticulum and Echinos; but that these Eminencies had not in their shape the regularity which is observ­ed in those Animals,

As to the Intestines, it may be said that there was but one, because there appeared not the distinction which is observed in the generality of Animals, by the difference of their Colour, Substance, and Bigness. There was not likewise any sign of the Caecum no [...] its Appendix, no more than of the Wrin­kles, or Cells at the Colon. They were in all Forty Foot long: Where as those of the Lyon exceeded not Twenty five. This Uniformity of the In­testines may have been the cause of Theodorus Gazas putting, in the Trans­lation of Aristotles' Book, where he Discourses of the Intestines of the Bear, the Singular Intestinum for the Plural [...]; and it is probable that this particularity was unknown to Scaliger, when he reproved Theodorus for taking this Liberty.

The Spleen was small and thin, being not above six Inches long to two broad, and less than one thick.

The Structure of the Kidneys appeared to us very excellent and particular. Their figure was very long. They were five Inches and a half in length, and two and a half in breadth. The Membrana Adiposa, which was without Fat, being taken away, there appeared another very hard and very thick Membrane, which was not the peculiar one, fastned to the Parenchyma, but a Membrane which like a Sack contained fifty six small Kidneys, for they may be called so many Parenchyma actually separated from one another, covered with their proper Membranes, and joyned together in some places by Fibres and very thin Membranes, which were produced from that which inveloped them like a Sack. This connexion was principally of the little Kidneys which are in the Hollow part of this whole heap of Kidneys; For towards the Gibbous part, they were not linked together.

The figure of each little Kidney represented a large Basis on the out side, and were pressed together towards the inside of the whole Kidney, where they were fastened like a Bunch of Grapes. This Basis was in some Hexagonal, in the most Pentagonal, and in others Four-square. They were also diffe­rent in Size; but in the greatest part it was about the bigness of a middle­ing Chestnut, in some of a small Nutt. This Heap did represent a Pine-Apple, when Ripe.

Each of these little Kidneys was fastned, as it were by a Tail composed of three sorts of Vessels, which are the Branches of the two Emulgents and the Ureter, which entered thro' the Point of the little Kidney, which made a dent to receive them, as an Apple receives its Stalk, after the usual manner of the great Kidneys. These Branches were disposed so as that of the Artery was between that of the Vein and that of the Ureter, as Riolanus has observed, who beleives that these Vessells are thus seated, to the end that the Artery strikeing upon the Ureter, may Incessantly cause the Urine to run by its con­tinual beating.

The Truncks of the Emulgent Vein and Artery, which were not bigger than a Quill, were each divided into two Branches, and afterwards into several others, to Furnish and add one to every little Kidney, though there were sometimes [Page 47] two which seemed to be fastened as it were to one single Tail: But that appear­ed so, by reason that the two Branches which fastened them together did enter into the little Kidney presently after the Division. These Branches pe­netrated a little farther, and lost themselves in the Parenchyma, so that the notable Cavity which the Vessel had when out of the little Kidney quite dis­appeared; whether that happened by the almost infinite, and consequently imperceptible division, which is made in the little Branches, which disperse themselves through the Parenchyma, as Laurentius Bellius thinks it happens to the Emulgents of the Kidneys of Man; or that indeed these Vessels do not pass farther, according to the Opinion of Higmorus, and that the spongious Sub­stance of the Parenchyma presently sucks up and filtrates the Blood of the Ar­tery, to render it to the Vein pure, and separated from its serosity, which runs through the Papillae into the Pelves of the Ureter, like as Whey, when the Cheese curdles, leaves the buttery Part, and passeth through the Cheesy part; and even as the Lye which is poured upon the top of the Copper comes through the hole below, after haveing penetrated the linnen, without any Pipes which do carry and convey it thither.

The Formation of the Ureters was different from that of the Emulgent Vessels: For a little after its enterance into the Membrane, which like a sack shut up all the little Kidneys, it was inlarged, and its bigness which was about the size of a Quill, increased equall to that of a finger. It was after­wards divided into two branches of this same bigness, which produced others lesser, which supplyed a lesser to every little Kidney. This last Branch did ne­vertheless surpass in bigness the Branches of the Emulgent Vein and Arterie, which entered with it into the little Kidney, and it passed forwarder, and near­er to the middle, at which place it was divided into two, and sometimes into three branches. Every of these Branches inlarged it self a little, and at its extremity formed a Pelvis, which was filled with a Caruncle like a Nipple; and at the side of this Caruncle the Pelvis appeared pierced with three or four holes, which were only Sinuosities formed by the Membrane of the Pelvis, which was wrinckled on the in-side, making as it were other lesser Pelves, capable of receiving only the head of a Pin. These Papillae or Nipples, which were no bigger than a Grain of Wheat, exceeded in their Number those of the Papillae of an Ox's Kidney, which are as large as the end of ones Finger, but which are not in Number above Nine or Ten, whereas there was above a Hundred in every one of the Kidneys of our Bear: And it seems that Bar­tholinus had not examined this, when he writt that the Kidney of the Bear was like to that of the Ox, of New-born Infants, and of a Porpoise, which he dissected before the King of Denmark; for these Kidneys of which Bartholinus speaks, and to which he compares those of the Bear, have only slits in their Superficies, which makes them to appear at the first sight like unto those of the Bear, although in truth they have but one simple and continued Parenchy­ma, these slits penetrating not very deep; whereas the Fifty six small Kid­neys of the Bear were actually divided, and had every one all the parts of which the great Kidneys are composed.

It must be also, that those who like Pliny have reported, that the Penis of the Bear, so soon as it is Dead, grows hard like a Horn, have not seriously examined the Matter, and that they have not had either the Courage to in­form themselves, which is the Penis of the Bear when alive, or the curiosity [Page 48] of dissecting one when dead; for they would have found that this hardness is natural to this part in the Bear, as in the Dog, Wolfe, Squirrel, Weasel, and several other Animals, which have a Bone at the end of the Penis, as Aristotle observes. That of our Bears was five Inches and a half long, four Lines broad towards the Os Pubis, from which it was five Inches distant, and a little bended.

The Lungs had five Lobes, three on the right side, and two on the left. The two upper on the right side were very large; the third which was middling, was divided at its extremity into three Points. In one of our Bears, the two Lobes of the left side were exceedingly swelled; the superior which appeared whiteish, was puft up with a great deal of Wind: In the inferiour there was found a strange Body twice as big as ones fist, like to a Spunge steeped in Ink. In the other Bear, which was very young, the Structure of the Mediastinum was very particular, being pierced in several places with a great many holes of a Line and a half in breadth, and being in­terspersed with a great number of Vessels, which were above a Line in thickness, so that it wanted only the Fat to resemble an Epiploon.

The Heart which was six Inches long and four broad, was very solid at its Point, the Flesh whereof was an Inch thick; this Point was blunt and not sharp, as in the Lyon.

The Aspera Arteria had all its rings imperfect, and not intire as in the first of the Lyons which we dissected: But these Rings in our Bears, were much larger than in the Lyon, being above five Inches in the Circum­ference.

The Tongue was broad and thin, as in the Cat and Dog, and furnished at top with its little fleshy Points without any roughness.

The Cranium or Skull was not so brittle as Authors do report; it was found very hard under the Saw. It is very true that it was not above half the thickness of the Lyons; which we found to be six Lines at the thinnest place. The Bone which advanced on the in-side, and which separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum was also thinner, and of a more irregular shape than in the Lyon.

The Brain was in recompence four times as big, being four Inches in length, and as many in depth, to three in breadth; whereas the Lyon had but two every way. The Glandula Pinealis was very little, and almost imperceptible as in the Lyon.

The Eye was covered over with an internal Eyelid, which began at the great Canthus or corner tending somwhat down wards. It was strangely little: Its Ball was not above Five Lines Diameter, and was lesser than that of a Catt. The Chrystallinus was almost spherical; and that of the left Eye of the greatest and oldest of our Bears was spoiled by a Glaucoma which had made it white, and altogether opake, its situation was likewise very extraordinary, not being directly placed over the Aperture of the Uvea but drawn a side out of the Axis of the Eye, so that even before the dessection this was found out by a whiteness which appeared at the bottom of the aperture of the Pupilla in the inside, as if there had been a Cataract couched: and this was caused by the contraction of the Fibres of the Ligamentum Ciliare of one side, and by the extension or relaxation of those of the other; which seem'd to be made to leave a free passage for the usual Species through both the other humours; [Page 49] this distortion of the Crystallinus being probably caused after the same man­ner as it is seen to happen to the eyes of Children, which haveing been a long time couched in one place where they can only discern the light obliquely, do grow a squint by a disposition which the muscles of the eye do contract by use, and which changes that which is naturall to them, by the extension of the fibres of some, and by the contraction of others. This would make us to think that these Fibres of the Ligamentum Ciliare are capable of a contraction and voluntary dilatation, like to that of the Fibres of the muscles; and that this action may augment or diminish the convexitie of the Crystallinus, accord­ing as the need which the different distance of the objects may make it to have on the Eye to see more clearly and distinctly.

The extream leanness of our two Bears, deprived us of the means of making an experiment on their Fat, and of informing our selves of the truth of what Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Pliny do report thereof; that being kept all winter, it manifestly increases in bulk and weight; which being verified would con­firm the current opinion, that the Bear is of all Animals that in which the Facultie of growing is most powerfull; seeing that being at the begining of Life almost the least of all (for according to the report of Aristotle, and Pliny, it is hardly bigger then a Ratt,) yet it grows one of the greatest: and that though it hath been a long time suckled and feed with milk from a damme which eats nothing, (if it be true as Aristotle says, tha [...] the Bear brings forth its Cubbs when it is ready to shut up it self in its Den, where it remains for ty days without eating, and that afterwards the Bear dos annually continue a long space without takeing Nourishment,) it ceaseth not to grow so pow­erfully that according to Albertus, its growth like the Crocodile's lasts the whole course of its life, and continues even after its death, if what the ancients have writt concerning its Fat be true.

The Consideration of these particulars joyned with our Observations, made us to think that the Temperament of the Bear, which according to Aristotle is extreamly Humid, must be understood of an Humidity peculiar to Life, which is that which dos not easily dry, and which is the effect, not of the Crudity, such as is the superfluous Humidity of the Excrements, but of the perfection of the Concoction caused by the goodness of the Constitu­tion of the parts, which are capable of easily Converting all kind of Nourish­ment into good Juice, and of assimilateing and changeing it into their proper Substance, or of dissipating the greatest part thereof by the Imployment which they do advantagiously make of it for the exercise of their Funct­tions.

The Remark's, which our Observations on the Bear have afforded us of this perfection of Temper, are first, that an Animal which Eat's indifferent­ly of all sorts of Meat like the Bear, and which with the same Facility Di­gests raw Meats, Fish, Crabs, Insects, Fruits of Trees, Pulse and Hony, and that in a very small Stomach, and strait Intestines, and amongst which there is found no Caecum, must have a Wonderful Power for the Concoction; seeing that it is capable of supplying by the goodness of the Temper, that which is wanting in the Commodiousness of the Structure, which is found in the Organs which other Animals have to render these functions more perfect, and which to Digest a great deal of Nourishment, do keep it a long time in great Receptacles, and Convey it through a vast many wrinkles and [Page 50] anfractuosities, as we have Observed in the Camel, whose Intestines were al­most as long again as those of the Bear, comprehending above eleven Toises.

Secondly, the small capacity which is found in its Liver and Spleen to receive the Excrements, denotes also that the action of the Natural Heat is so well regulated, that it is not Subject to the Defects or Excesses, through which the Food being either Burnt, or but half Drest, the Bloud which is thereby ingendered hath need of being Purged and Cleared of abundance of parts which are incapable of Nourishing the Body. For as to the great Number of Kidneys, when even Nature had made it to Evacuate a greater quantity of Serosity, the abundance of this Excrement ought not to be Esteem'd a Sign of the weakness of the Heat, and imperfection of the Concoction; but rather an Effect of the little insensible Transpiration which is made in the Bear, by reason of the thickness of the Habitt of its Body, which is not fa­vourable. To which we may likewise add, that this want of Transpiration cannot be a Sign of the want of Heat, and of an Earthy weight; seing that how Masse, and Gross soever the Bear appears, there is scarce any Animal whose agility and vigour is more capable of shewing the abundance and Subtilty of Spirit which the power of Natural Heat is used to produce.

Thirdly, this so Powerful faculty which it has of growing, is the mark of a very perfect Humidity, seing that it renders the parts capable of extend­ing themselves, and s [...] of Augmenting their Grandure, without the least di­minishing of their forces. The Conjectures which we have drawn from our Observations, to make credible this extraordinary smallness reported by Authors of the Bear at its Birth and first Conformation, are grounded upon the littleness of its Eyes, by reason that the Eyes when the Formation is ap­parent, are commonly so bigg in Proportion to the rest of the Body, that each Eye surpasses in bigness all the rest of the Head, like as the Head do's vast­ly Exceed the bigness of the rest of the Body: so that supposing as it is rational, that the Eyes of the Bear were in the first [...] Proportionably as large to the rest of the Body as they have used to be, it is easie to Judge by the littleness which they have when the Bear is arrived at its growth, what was the smallness of its whole Body in the first Formation; or else it would be to suppose a thing incredible, viz. that its Eyes have not grown and increased proportionably to the rest of the Body, as in other Animals.

The Explication of the Figure of the Gazella or Antilope.

That which is discribed in the lower Figure has no Black list, which separates the Fawn-colour of the Back from the White of the Belly, and the Knees of the Fore-leggs are not bare and Hair-less; because that these are Particulars which were wanting in Four of the Gazella's which we dissected. There was one also, which was the Male, whose Horns were more bent towards the Back than they are in this.

In the Upper Figure.
The Oesophagus.
The middle Membrane of the great Ventricle.
The internal Membrane.
This Membrane separated, to discover the part underneath.
The Valve which shuts the second Ventricle.
The first part of the second Ventricle.
The lower part of the second Ventricle.
The Sack of the second Ventricle.
The Pylorus.
K K.
The Gibbous part of the Liver raised up.
L L.
The right Lobe.
M M.
The Left.
A Little Lobe which is in the middle.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Duodenum.
The Pylorus.
The outside of the Ventricle.
The Spleen.
The Two Lymphaticks.
V V.
The Kidneys,
Part of the Membrane B, seen with the Microscope.
Part of the Membrane C, seen with the Microscope.
The last Bone of the Sternum.
The Cartilago Xiphoides.
One of the Feet.

[Page 52]



THe five Gazella's or Antilope's of which we do give the Description, were brought to us at divers times. There was one Male, three Females, and a Fawn, which was likewise a Female. The first which we dissected, which was the largest and oldest, was brought us with its Fawn, from the Park of Versailles, where it was told us, that they had been both killed by a­nother Male Gazella. We found that the left Shoulder of the Damme was all bruised, and that the Fawn had three Leggs broken. This made us to re­flect upon what Belonius says, that the Gazella is the Oryx of the Antients, which Oppian represents as an Animal strangely fierce and cruel: But we found not the other Marks, which according to Authors are peculiar to the Oryx; as to have one single Horn in the middle of the Fore-head, as Aristotle says; to have all the Hair turned towards the Head, according to Pliny; to have a Beard on the Chin, as Albertus; and to be strong enough to Fight Lyons and Tigers, as Oppian relates.

Our Gazella's had a very mild carriage, and it is said that these Animals grow not angry, unless when touched on their Horns. The Arabian Au­thors do call the Gazella Algazel, that is to say, a Goat; and it is most probable the Dorcas, or Lybick Goat, which is no other but the Strepsiceros or Wild-goat of Aegypt; although Scaliger pretends, that the Strepsiceros is a Species of Sheep. Aelian Reports, that the Lybick Dorcas is light of Foot, that its Belly is White, and the rest of the Body of a Fawn-colour; that the White and Fawn-colour along the Flanks is separated with a Black List; that it hath Black Eyes, and huge great Ears. The Strepsiceros, according to Pliny is an African Goat, which hath the Horns elevated on the Head, very pointed, [Page 54] incompast round with several wrinkles, and bended like the Branches of an Harp; or rather as Ioannes Cajus understands it, that they are bent sometimes outwards, and sometimes inwards, so that they do describe the Profile, and wreathing of a Guitterne: But it may be questioned whether the Lyrae of Pliny's Time were of this Form.

All these Marks being found in these five Animals which we dissected, it may be said, that the Strepsiceros, Dorcas, and Gazella are the same thing; for our Gazella is an Animal of Africk, which seems to be a good Runner, if it may be guessed by the length of the Leggs. It was about the bigness and form of a Wild-Goat, with Fawn-coloured Hair, except the Belly and Sto­mach, which were White, the Tail which was blackish, and a List som­what more Black, like as the rest of the Hair from the Eye to the Nose. The Hair better resembled that of a Wild-Goat, than that of a tame one, be­ing very short: Under this Hair the Skin was perfectly Black, and shining in that which was the oldest; in the others it was Grayish; and this Black­ness appeared very plainly in their Ears, which were large and not hairy on the in-side, where the Skin was Black and smooth like Ebeny, having only some streaks of Hair very White, more stubborn and longer than that of the Belly; These streaks or rows proceeded from the bottom of the Ear, and grew larger towards the Edges. The Eyes were large and black; the Horns were likewise Black, radiated cross-wise, fifteen Inches long, ten Lines broad at the Bottom, very pointed, pretty strait, but somewhat turned out­wards towards the middle, and which did afterwards bend inwards again, according to the shape of the Branches of an Harp, such as is seen in some Ancient Sculptures. Those of the Male were a little more bent backwards. In the Four Females they were round, but the Male had them somewhat compressed and flatted, which hindered them from being perfectly round; and it may be said that this roundness of the Horns has given to the Gazella amongst the Ancients the Name of Strepsiceros, which must rather signify Horns wreathed about, than bent as those of all other Goats usually are; this one sort of roundness being peculiar to the Horns of the Gazella, amongst the Goat-kind, (supposing it to be a Species of Goat) because that the other Horns of these Animals are of Angles and Planes, like those of all Sheep, ex­cept that of Candia, which hath round Horns, as Belonius observes, who says, that even in his time it was in the Country called Stripsoceri; which might well be the reason that made Scaliger to say, that the Strepsiceros is a kind of Sheep.

These Horns were hollow half way, and filled with a pointed Bone, which fastened them to the Head by the means of a Pericranium which covered it. This Pericranium was very hard, thick, and moistened with a great deal of Blood, like as the in-side of the Bone, which was spongious like the Diploe: The external Superficies of the Bone being very solid, and streaked with some Furrows according to its length, contrary to the Furrows of the Horns, which were transverse, as hath been declared. At the root of these Horns there was a Tuft of Hair longer than that of the rest of the Body.

The Nose was a little flattish like to the Goats, but yet more in the Male than in the Females, for its Nose was shorter, as it usually is in the gene­rality of Brutes, where the Males have the Head always rounder than the Females. [Page 55] The Palate was covered over with a very hard Skin, like long Scales. The Dentes Incisores, which were wanting in the upper Jaw, because that this Animal chews the Cud, were eight in the lower Jaw, very keen and of an unequal size; the two foremost being as large as the other six whose breadth went taper-wise, and being likewise a great deal larger at either end than towards their Root.

The Tail in the Females had long and Blackish Hair. It was flat at its Origine, and about two Inches large towards its first Knotts, and was con­tracted and reduced to one, at the place where there grew long Hair which hung down to the Hammes. The Tail of the Male had not this long Hair which in all the Females resembled that of a Mans Head; it was only a little longer than that of the rest of the Body and softer than that of the Tail of the Females.

The Fore-leggs upon the bending of the Knee were covered with Hair somewhat longer, and harder than on the rest of the Legg. It was layd and turned half on the right side, and half on the left, like the feather of a Horse; and in this place the Skin was a great deal thicker than elsewhere; which made it a kind of a little Cushion to kneel on, like the Callosities which are on the Knees of the Camel. The Gazella which Fabius Columna describes, better resembled the Camel than ours, for it had this place wholly deprived of Hair.

The Foot, which was a great way Cleft and fortified with two great Hoofs, besides the two little ones at the Heel, like the foot of the Wild-Goat, had this also resembling the feet of the Camel, that it rested half upon the Hoof, which only fortified the forepart, and half on the Skin, which in the hinder-part covered a round, and much thicker Flesh than is on the Feet of Staggs, Wild-Goats, and other Animals which have Cloven Feet. And this Flesh is probably more fitt to walk upon the Sands of Lybia, than on the Lands of other Countrys which are Stony, as we understood by the Feet of one of our Gazella's which was much swelled, for having been hurt in this tender part unprovided of a Hoof.

We Observed also that these Feet are Cleft after a particular manner, because that the two Hoofs, which might be moved a great way from one another, were joyned by a Skin which was very easily extended: Which made us to doubt whether the Gazella might not be the Animal which Aelian reports to be by the Greek Poets called Kemas, to which he gives a great many Marks which are seen in the Gazella, but amongst other things he says that its Feet, which are like to those of a Goat, are so Formed that they do help it to Swim. This Skin was shorter in the Feet of the Male, whose Hoofs opened not so much as in the Feet of the Females.

Our Gazella's had but two Teats, which had each but one Papilla. On the side and underneath the Teats there was in the Inguina or Groins two Cavities like Sacks not very deep, where the Skin was without Hair, as it is about the Papillae; but this Skin was not so sleek, being rough and like a Barley-Corn. These Cavities were filled with a Substance like Wax: Which may have occasioned the mistake of Ioannes Agricola Ammonius, who has taken the Civet-Cat for a Gazella, by reason of the Baggs which the Civet-Cat has to contain its Sweet Smelling Liquor; the Civet-Cat and Gazella being other­wise Animals altogether unlike, and these Cavities or Sacks which are seen [Page 56] in the Gazella, do much more resemble those which Hares have in the same place, than those of the Civet-Cat. The Male had these Cavities or Sacks as well as the Females.

All these Particular Circumstances which we observed in these Females, were only in three of our Gazella's; the fourth differed from the rest, in that it had no Cushion on the Knees, although the others much Younger had it; but it had not this place bare like that of Fabius Columna, which it other­wise resembled, by reason that it had this Black List along each Flanck, which Aelian has observed in the Lybian Dorcas: The Male had also this very List.

AS to the internal Parts, the Epiploon in all the five Gazella's was furnisht with a hard and Redish Fat, which covered and inclosed almost all the Vessells which are in this Part, by following and accompanying them into all their divisions. This Epiploon Swam not upon the Intestines, but Inveloped them behind, except in one of our Subjects in which towards the left side the Ileum, was fastned to the Peritonaeum, by a great Number of Fibres. In the others it descended from the anteriour and middle part of the Ventricle to which it was fastned, and passing into the bottom of the lower Belly, under the greatest part of the Intestines, came to fasten it selfe to the Center of the Mesentery, and Ascending higher, returned to the lower Part of the Ventricle. The Cartilago Xiphoides was four times bigger in Proportion than it is in other Animals, being an Inch and half in Breadth, and spreading out of each side of the Sternum to which it is fastned, and turn­ing it self round to end in a double obtuse Point. The Liver, as to its Figure and Shape, was very like to a Mans, being divided into two great Lobes, besides which, there were two lesser, one whereof, which was the least, was extended to the right Kidney, which it half covered; the other was in the middle upon the Spine. In the hollow part of the Faw [...]'s Liver there were two Lymphatick branches about the bigness of a Line. They appeared as it were very full of knotts, by reason of the inequality which an almost infinite Number of Valves afforded them in the contracting them; so that like little Beads of Chrystall they fastned the Trunck of the Vena Porta to the supriour Orifice of the Ventricle.

The Substance of the Liver appeared to us very particular, being as it were composed of an infinite Number of little Glands, some bigger, and others lesser then Hemp-seed. They were of a much paler Red than that which joyned them together. These Glands seemed every one pierced thro the middle, by reason of a little Red slitt which they had, out of which there came bloud when they were pressed. That which parted them one from the other was of a Red like to that of the small slits, but this part did not bleed. The Glands of the hollow part were much larger then those of the Gibbous.

Dr. Malpighius a Physitian of Messina, who is of opinion that all the Parenchyma's are composed of several Glands, explains not how he ob­served that the Livers, which do generally appear of a continued and Ho­mogeneous Substance, are indeed divided into several parts separated from one another, nor of what bigness they are: for when he says that these Glands do resemble Grapes, upon the bunch, it may be doubted whether these Grapes do signifie the figure or bigness of the Glands, which he neuertheless own's to be Hexagonal in the Liver of Cats, and different in every Animal. [Page 57] We were of opinion that it might be, that the Glands which did compose the Livers of our Gazella's were grown apparent by some Distemper, because that they were much more visible in some than in others, and that there was one of our Gazella's where these Glands appeared not at all, and in which the Liver was found with a Parenchyma even homogeneous, and continued as usually; so that there is ground to believe that these Glands, which when the Animal is in Health, are spongious and imbued with the Blood which is in all the Pa­renchyma of the Liver, do not seem to be separated from one another, as they do appear, when being hardned by the Distemper, and by reason thereof receiving less Blood, their different Substance makes them more distingui­shable, by the diversity of Colour, which in the glandulous Part is whiter for want of Blood, and redder in that which is between the Glands, by reason of the Blood there contained.

But that which confirms Malpighius's Opinion, is the regular Figure which we have observed in these Glands, which is always near the Hexagonal, and the little chincks or slits which all had in their middle: for that demon­strates, that it is not when the Liver is hardned by a Schirrous and preternatu­ral concretion of its Substance, fortuitously amassed into several Lumps, as it happens to Oyl when it is frozen, but that every Gland by condensing has preserved its natural Figure.

The Spleen was oval, very small, all fastened and joyned to the left side of the Ventricle, except about a Fingers breadth of the fore-part, which was separated there-from; so that the Vessels commonly called Vas breve, which are ordinarily the band which fastens the Spleen with the Stomach, appear­ed not, being confounded and hid in the Membranes of one or other of the Viscera. In all the five the Spleen was of a Violet-colour at top, Blew un­derneath, and all over speckled with White Spots, which might be taken for Glands like those of the Liver, were it not that they were of a regular shape.

The Gazella, which is an Animal that chews the Cudd, has but two Ven­tricles, which do appear very distinct and separated from one another by considerable Contractions, such as is seen in other Animals that chew the Cudd. But the truth is, that in our great Gazella, these two Stomachs were more distinguished, than the four are in other Animals; for besides the Con­traction and different qualities of the Membranes, which do generally make the distinction of the four; there was a Valve which separated these two, and in the Membranes which did compose them, we found all the various Figures and particular Substances, which the four used to have.

The first and largest which receives the Nourishment immediately from the Oesophagus, was very ample and large at the top, and its Figure was pointed at the bottom. It was covered on the in-side with two Membranes layd one upon the other, which are those, with which are separately covered the two first Stomachs, which in French are called Pance and Bonnet. These two Membranes were very easily separated one from the other: The exte­riour, which made the internal Superficies, which is that which is pro­per to the Pance or Paunch, called by Aristotle [...], was like a Velvet composed of an infinite number of little Particles, having the form of Papillae, which were three times as long as bigg; and this Bulk exceeded not that of a middle-sized Pin. The other Membranes which were under [Page 58] this first is that which is proper and peculiar to the second Stomach, by Ari­stotle called [...], and by the Latins, Reticulum, by reason that it has some Eminencies which do represent a little Net, which has made this Sto­mach to be called Bonnet, because that this Net resembles the lace Bonnet, in which Women heretofore inclosed their Hair. These Eminencies like a Net were as it were ingrailed, and bordered with little grains.

This great Stomach, which we do reckon but one, because that its two different Membranes were extended equally, and after the same manner one over the other through its whole Capacity, may nevertheless appear double, in that its superiour part, which was much larger than the inferiour, was in some sort separated by a Contraction, but which was very inconsiderable.

At the top of this great Stomach towards the right side, where it contra­cted like a Pylorus, there was an Orifice or Aperture which was the passage to the second; and this Aperture was closed by a Membrane, in form of a great Valve, made like a little Sack, to hinder that which is once got out of the great Stomach from re-entring therein. This second Stomach, from its en­trance to its middle, was like to the third of Oxen and Sheep, by Aristotle called [...] by the Latins Omasum, and in French Millet, because that it is full of leaves disposed lengthwise, which are bordered with little Emiuen­cies like grains of Millet, which appeared rough and full of points to those who have given it its Greek name, which signifies an Hedghog. This rough­ness which went half way decreased insensibly and not all at once. The colour of this first part of the second Stomach was likewise different from the first great Stomach, in that it was of a Red inclining to a Purple, whereas the first was white as usually.

The second part of this Stomach was much larger than the first, and it resembled the fourth of other Animals that chew the Cud, called by Aristo­tle [...], by the Latins Abomasum, and by the French Caillette, because that it is in this Stomach that the Runnet is made which makes the milk to curdle. It had also some inequalities and Eminencies like leaves, but which were smooth and polished. Moreover it formed at its entrance a great Sack, by the means of a fold which it had underneath the first part of the second Stomach; and towards its passage out it was raised upwards and contracted to make the Pylorus. This Structure of the two Stomachs which was found the same in all the Females, was something different in the Male, where the first and great Stomach was not pointed at the bottom; and altho its two Membranes were separable as in the Females, yet the under one had no Net­work folds, nor any Valve at the entrance into the second Stomach, which had an Eminence or Bunch which was wanting in Females.

The Intestines of the Females were disposed in such a manner that the Iejunum and Ileum were plaited very small through several little Cells, and fastened along the Colon, which served them as a band to stay these plaits or folds like a Ruff. The Colon had no Cells: The Ilia or small guts were al­most four lines diameter, and the Colon above six. The Intestines of the Male had their Anfractuosities after another manner; for some were folded as the Colon in a Man, making a great many little Cells: others were doubled long­ways like a Trumpet, each fold being above four Inches long.

[Page 59]The branches of the Venae Mesaraicae were very large, and fastened to the Colon by abundance of little branches which they sent thither; and every great branch passing a little farther did in like manner distribute little bran­ches to the Small Guts.

The Caecum was seven inches in length and one in thickness.

The Kidneys were almost round: The right lay under the little right Lobe of the Liver, and the left under the Point of the Stomach. The situation of those of the Male was very extraordinary; for the left was upon the Aorta, and the right was two Inches higher than the left.

At the Origine of the right Spermatick Artery of the Male, there was a Glandulous Body placed upon the Trunck of the Vena Cava as if it were a Cushion to this Artery.

The Uterus was divided into two Cornua, as in other Brutes. On the in­side it had abundance of Eminencies like Papillae, seven or eight in each Horn; and at the Internal Orifice there was a Caruncle in the inside which covered it.

There were two large Vessels which went to the Duggs. The Vein which was the larger directly tended to the Papillae, alwayes keeping its same bignss, and suddainly disappearing, without casting forth any apparent Bran­ches. The Artery ran down to the Bagg which is near the Papillae, where it was divided into five or six Branches, like a Gooses Foot.

The Lungs had four Lobes on the right side, and two on the left. In one of the Gazella's they were all sticking fast one to the other, and to the Ribb, and Diaphragme, to which the Liver was so fastned, that its Parenchyma was there tied, and would sooner tare than separate.

In this Subject the Vena Azygos was as large as the Vena Cava.

All our Gazella's had the Heart long, and Pointed, that of the largest being four Inches and a half in length, and two and a half in breadth. The Ven­tricles of the Heart of that which Dyed with the blow which had bruised the Shoulder, were almost filled with a hard and Solid Flesh, which was a Body strange, and separated from the Substance of the Heart, and of its Vessels. The Pericardium was imediately Knitt to the Sternum and Diaphragme by two strong Ligaments. The Point of the Heart was turned towards the Cartilago Xiphoides.

The Brain had few Anfractuosity's, and was but lightly slit, and divided in two, at the place of the Falx. The two upper Ventricles were open one in­to the other in the Anteriour part of the Septum Lucidum, by an hole two thirds of a Line in breadth.

The Ball of the Eye which was very large being an Inch Diameter, was covered with an internal Eye-lidd: The Cornea was Oval. The Uvea was of a Greenish pearl Colour, and the Retina was in this place Crossed over by the Branch of a Vein which shot forth several Branches; The whole being full of a Blackish Blood. The Branch was about the bigness of a great Pin, and it was got into the thickness of the Retina.

The Explication of the Figure of the Cat-a-mountain.

IN the lower Figure it may be observed that this Animal is altogether like a Cat, except that it has proportionably a shorter Neck, and the Tail much less. In this it differs also from the Leopard, which has a Neck long and slender, and a very large Tail, as Naturalists do describe it.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
The bottom of the Ventricle.
B B.
The Vena Gastrica.
C C.
The Membrane which holds together the two Orifices of the Ventricle.
The Spleen.
The Trunk of the Vena Cava.
The Trunck of the Aorta.
The upper Mesenterick Artery miscalled the Lower in the Text.
The Veins and Arteries of the Loyns.
K K.
The Ureters.
The Bladder.
A Vessel which may be taken for one of the Deferentia.
n n.
The Prostatae.
O O.
The Kidneys.
The Penis.
Q Q.
The proper Membrane of the Kidney.
R R.
Some Vessels appearing on the outside of the Kidney it self.
S S.
The great Sinus's in the Os Frontis.
T T.
The two other Sinus's in the Os Occipitis.
V V.
The Brain.
The Cerebellum.

[Page 60]



'TIs thought that the Chat-pard or Cat-a-mountain is one of those Animals which are ingendred by the mixture of two different Species, and that it ought to be put in the number of the Novelties which Africk daily produceth; according to the Opinion of Aristotle, who giving the reason of the Fertility which Africk has for Monsters, says that the dryness of its Desarts compels the Savage Beasts to Assemble at places where there is Water: And he supposes that this meeting occasions these different Animals to couple, and ingender a new Species, when it happens that they are equal in size, and the time which they used to bear their young is not very different.

But according to these reasons of Aristotle, the Animal which we speak of seems not possible to be ingendred of a Leopard and a Cat, nor of a Cat and a Panther, which according to the most common Opinion is the Female Leo­pard, for neither the Stature of these Animals nor the times during which they go with Young are alike; the Leopard and Panther being Animals a great deal larger, and of a Species which carries its young much longer than Cats.

Our Chat-pard was but two foot and a half, from the end of its Nose to the beginning of the Tail. It exceeded not one foot and a half in heighth, from the top of the Back to the end of the Fore-claws: The Tail was but eight inches.

There was nothing in all its exteriour Figure which is not in a Cat, save that its Tail was not long enough in Proportion to the rest of the Body, whose Bulk did indeed surpass that of the largest Cats, but was also much inferiour [Page 62] to that of the Leopard and Panther. It had no long and slender Neck like those Animals? It was on the contrary in some sort shorter than the Cats; which we found to proceed in some measure from its extraordinary fatness.

But in this it seemed to us repugnant to the nature of the Leopard, which according to Gallen is the leanest of all Animals, unless it be supposed that our Chat-pard was ingendred of a Leopard and a Cat, and not of a Cat and a Panther; because it is observed that commonly when there is a mixture of Species, that which is thereby ingendred has more resemblance to the Damme than the Sire, especially in that which respects the Form and Habit of the Body.

The grosness of the body of the Hair, was proportionably of the length as it is in Cats, but it was somewhat shorter. The Colour which most pre­vailed all over the Body was of a Fox-red; only the belly and inside of the fore-legs was Isabella, the Throat and bottom of the lower Jaw was white. There were black spots all over, long ones upon the Back, and round ones on the Belly and Feet, at the extremity of which the spots were very small, and thickly seminated; on the Ears there were some very black streaks which crossed them; and in short, they wholly resembled those of a Cat. The Hairs of the Beard were shorter than those in Cats proportionably to the Bo­dy; and there was none on the Eye-brows and Cheeks, where Cats have them.

In opening the Belly there was found an extraordinary quantity of Fat, for all the intervals of the Muscles of the lower Venter were filled therewith; and under the Peritonaeum there was a piece which was bigger than ones Fist, which inclosed the Vena Umbilicalis. The two Skins or Coats of the Epiploon, which were likewise furnished therewith, did joyntly descend as usually, and reached into the Groin; and folding themselves under the Intestines, did em­brace and keep themselves suspended as in a Sack.

The Intestines were almost all of an equal bigness, and had two thirds of an Inch diameter. The Rectum and Colon exceeded the other in bigness only one third of an Inch. These two great Intestines together were twelve Inches long; the others from the Pylorus to the Caecum about seven foot. The Cae­cum was an Inch and a half in length, and two thirds of an Inch in its greatest thickness. It terminated in an obtuse point.

The Stomach, which was very great and large, had in the sinuosity, which is in most Brutes between the superiour and inferiour Orifices, a Membrane greatly loaden with Fat, which▪ joyned these two Orifices together, and which conducted the trunck of the Vena Gastrica to the bottom of the bend­ing, without touching the Membranes of the Stomach; the Vena Gastrica being in this Membrane after the same manner as the Vessels are in the Mesen­tery, and casting its branches into the Stomach as the Vessels of the Mesentery do cast them into the Intestines, or as the Vas breve produces them to insert them at the bottom of the Stomach, and in the Spleen.

The Pancreas was fastened, and run along the Duodenum and Ileum, and advanced not far underneath the Stomach.

The Spleen was four Inches long, and fifteen lines in its greatest breadth. It was of a dark-red colour, and its Figure very well represented that of an Oak leaf, being slit in several places.

[Page 63]The Liver was divided into six great Lobes, three whereof were indented in several places. Its Substance was soft, and seemed to be composed of seve­ral Glands, as we have already remark'd in the Liver of the Gazella. This was found by two different Colours which were seen in this Liver; the bot­tom being black and spotted with a clear and yellowish red. But these spots had not a regular Figure like those which have been observed in the Liver of the Gazella's.

The Gall-Bladder was in the greatest Lobe of those which were again divi­ded in two: its Colour inclined to Yellow. Its size was proportionable to that of the whole Animal, like as the Kidneys, whose proper Membrane was easily separated, altho' the Vessels which were numerously extended on the external Superficies of the Parenchyma▪ and which were very large and swelled, appeared through this Membrane, even as if it had been closely joyned to the Parenchyma: for these Vessels were so visible, that they seemed to appertain to this Membrane, altho indeed they were included in the sub­stance of the Kidney; which has been already remark'd in the young Lion.

As for the Parts of Generation they were very defective and imperfect; for except the Penis, Prostatae, and Caruncula which is in the Urethra, there appeared not the least sign or remain thereof. There was only a Vessel which might be taken for one of the Deferentia; but it was impossible to know certainly whether it was really one, because that there was no ap­pearance of Testicles, and it could not be discovered from whence it came. As to the other Spermatick Vessels, there could none be found, altho sought after with all possible care: for it was doubted whether they were not broken through carelesness, as it is probable Hofmannus did, when he Dissected a Woman in whom these two Spermatick Arteries were not found, although she had had several Children. To clear this doubt, the Vena Cava was pres­fed, and the Blood therein contained made to ascend from the Iliack branches to the Emulgent Veins. The same compression was likewise made on the left Emulgent, without getting out one drop of Blood, which was there very abundant, and free from coagulation. The great Artery was likewise tied a little below the Emulgent; and having blown into the Trunk there went not out any wind. 'Tis true, that having tied the Trunck above the divi­sion of the Iliack Arteries, the wind lost it self through the Superiour Mesen­terick, which was broken: but this branch being tied, the Air found no way out when blown, and when the whole Trunk was swelled up.

This defect of the Spermatick Vessels and other parts which are absolutely necessary for Generation, agreed very well with the abundance of Fat where­of this Animal was full, after the manner of all those which by an external cause have been rendred incapable of Engendring, and in which the remain­der of the nourishment could be imployed only to produce Fat.

This gave us some suspition that our Chat-pard might have been Castrated when young, according to the Custom which the Turks have followed, as much as they could, towards all the Males which they do keep in their Houses, where they do frequently nourish these Chat-pards, especially in Barbary, there being some appearance that the Spermatick Vessels might have been con­sumed and effaced by age, even as the Anastomoses of the Heart are in Ani­mals [Page 64] of a short time after their Birth, when these parts wanting Action and Use, do wax dry and utterly Abolish. But the truth is, that we found not any Cicatrice in the Skin of the Belly; and considering that the Umbilical Vessels do still remain, altho contracted, when they do no more execute the Functi­ons for which they were employed before the Birth; and that the Spermatick Vessels serving for other uses than Generation, have no reason to dry up for want of Imployment, when that, for which they were principally designed comes to cease, seeing that it is ordinarily seen that as they pass they shoot forth several branches for the nourishment of the adjoyning parts; we re­main in our former Opinion, that this defect of such important Organs must proceed from some other part, and that the Sterility which is common to some Animals which have been ingendred by the mixture of two different Species must have a particular cause in our Subject. For that which renders Mules Barren is not the defect of any of the Organs which are necessary to Generation, seeing that the difference which may be found in the Conforma­tion of the Matrix of Mares, and that of She-Asses cannot, as some pretend, be the occasion of Sterility; the Mare, in which something is wanting that is found in the She-Asse, being not deprived of any of the parts which are absolutely necessary to Generation, seeing that she ingenders; and the diffe­rence of the Organs which is between the Species of Horses, and that of Asses, hinder's not the Generation of Mules, which do proceed from the mixture of these two Species.

Therefore Aristotle, according to Empedocles, attributes this defect only to the Temper of these Animals, whose parts have contracted a hardness which renders them incapable of contributing to a new mixture; which this Phi­losopher explains by the comparison of Copper and Tin, which being sepa­rately very Ductile and Malleable to be imployed in different and several works, are no more in a condition of being weilded and receiving a new form, by reason of a brittle hardness and sharpness, which the Mass composed of these two Metals acquires, when they are melted together.

So that if it be true that the Lupi Cervarii or Ounces, which are thought to be engendred of the Wolf and Panther, as Mastives of the Leopard and Bitch, and the greatest part of the other Animals which are born by the mixture of two Species, cease not to be fertile; it must be thought that the Conformati­on of our Chat-pard was particular and accidental to it; and that the defect of the Parts which are wanting, and which made it incapable of Generation, proceeded not from this mixture of Species, which by changing the Confor­mation of the Parts could not corrupt it to the degree of rendring it useless to the Functions, and which is still less capable of making a Mutilation; but which may more easily cause a vice in the Temper, which is a consequence very na­tural from the mixture; and in fine, it is probable that if the Mule be the only Animal which the confusion of Species makes Barren, it must needs be that there is something particular in those which have ingendred it, which is not found in the others. 'Tis that which Aristotle has observed in the Horse and Asse, who hath both much less power for Generation, than all other Animals, seeing that in this Genus, which consists of those which are short-liv'd, and which ought consequently to be more readily engendred, the Females do carry their Conception a great deal longer, and have much more [Page 65] difficulty to give it its last perfection than others, by reason; as this Philo­sopher says, of the hardness of their Uterus, which is like an Earth which Drought and Aridity have made sterile.

For this being so, it is found that the Mule is Barren, not only by the ge­neral reason of the repugnance which is always found in the mixture of dif­ferent Species, but likewise by the particular defect which was in both of the Species which are assembled for Generation, and which have not sur­mounted that repugnancy so powerfully as Leopards, Dogs, and Foxes, which are Animals fertile enough; to transmit to their Posterity the powerful dispo­sitions which they have for Generation, notwithstanding the contrari [...]ty which the mixture of different Species may cause.

The Penis was extraordinary small, containing from the swelling of the Ischium, which is its Origine, to the end, but an Inch and half, and but a Line and half in Diameter. There was found no Bone.

The Diaphragme was very fleshy, and its nervous part very small. The Pericardium, in which there was no water, was exceeding close to the Heart; which happened perhaps by the swelling of this part, which after the man­ner of all things that do congeal, was puffed up: For this Dissection was made the eleventh day of Ianuary 1670. at which time was felt a greater cold than ever was known. The Ventricles of the Heart were filled with great plenty of congealed and hardened blood, which was not in the Veins, per­haps by reason of its little quantity, which easily thaws in the parts which must necessarily be much handled in the Dissection and Preparation thereof. The Heart was rounder and less pointed than in Cats and fierce Beasts, by reason, as it is probable, that the extraordinary distention and enlarging of the Ventricles had made the point to shrink towards the Basis.

The Lungs had eight Lobes, four on the right side, three on the left, and the eighth in the middle, in the cavity of the Mediastinum joyning the Dia­phragme.

The Os Frontis had two very large Sinus's, which were square and long, adjoyning to each other. There were two other Sinus's in the Os Occipitis: they were of a triangular form, and distant from each other, being of the right and left side of the Cerebellum. The Bone which separated these two Brains had two points.

The Brain was divided in two by the Falx which was very large, and which did enter very deep therein. The Anfractuosities were extended in length from the Cerebellum to the fore-part. At the place where the Glandula Pinealis usually is, there was found only a little point about the bigness of a pins point, which was taken for this Gland.

The Orbite of the Eye was whole and bonie all round, the Bones of the Temples and that of the Iaw being joyned: but the internal and upper part was open, insomuch that the Ball of the Eye touched the Muscles of the Temples.

The Ball of the Eye contained eleven Lines in Diameter through the mid­dle; the Cornea had nine. There was an Internal Eye-lid, which was seated in the great Canthus of the Eye, and which advanced towards the little one.

[Page 66]The Aqueous Humour, which was in exceeding great abundance, was not found congealed, although the Vitreous and Crystalline were hard Frozen: which demonstrates that this Humour is improperly called Aqueous, and that its Substance is rather Spirituous and as it were Aetherial; because that Con­gelation peculiarly belongs to Aqueous Liquors; those which are Fat and Oleaginous being capable only of Coagulation, even as those which are Spirituous and Aetherial do suffer neither Congelation nor Coagulation: So that it is probable that this Substance, which is lock'd up in the forepart of the Eye, has nothing of Water but the Transparency and Fluidity, because that it has need of an extraordinary thinness and Subtilty, to serve for the Refraction which must be made in the Crystalline, whose substance is thicker, by establishing the diversity of the Medium, which is necessary to this Ope­ration.

The Choroides was brown, and the Retina white. The Tapetum was also of a blewish white. In the place of the Optick Nerve there was observed a black point. The Nerve entered into the Eye almost directly over the mid­dle of the Tapetum. The Crystalline contained five Lines Diameter, and its Posteriour part was not so Convex as the Anteriour.

The Explication of the Figure of the Sea-Fox.

IN the lower Figure it is laid in such a manner, that there may be seen the two Fins which it has on its Back, Eye, Nostril, and the five A­pertures of the Gills, with the Teeth which are on the right side all of one single Bone, making only one row, and after another manner than on the left side, where they are separated from each other, and disposed in several rows, as is seen in the upper Figure.

In the Upper Figure.
Is the Heart.
B c.
The Right Lobe of the Liver.
The Gall-Bladder, of which but a small part is seen, it being inclosed in the Liver.
D D.
The Left Lobe of the Liver.
The Spleen.
F g.
The Ventricle.
g h.
The Duodenum.
h I.
The great Intestine.
The Auricle of the Heart.
The Aorta Ascendens.
The Cornea sunk and folding over the Crystalline.
M M.
The Edge of the Sclerotica.
The Optick Nerve.
O P Q.
The great Intestine, part of whose coat is taken away to shew the Spiral Membrane that is within it.
The part next the Duodenum.
The beginning of the Rectum.
Q Q Q.
The Srcew-like or Spiral Membrane.

[Page 68]



IN this Fish we found all the marks by which Authors describe that which they do call the Sea-Fox, except some particularities which are pre­tended to have made it so named. For they do say that it has a great deal of resemblance with the Land-Fox, as well in its Tail, as in its Subtilty, Smell, and Tast of its Flesh: but none of the Company observed that it smell't otherwise than the Generality of Sea-fish. Its Flesh was found well tasted, to make it to be taken, (as it has been by some Authors,) for the Accipenser, or at least to make it unlike that of the Fox, which is known to be very ill; and it cannot be believed that this Animal can have a great deal of Subtilty, if it be true that the Brain contributes to it, for there was hardly any found in it. As for the Tail it is indeed very strange, but it nothing resembles that of a Fox.

The Sea-Fox is by Authors put in the unflat Cartilaginous Cetaceous Kind, which are called Galeodi. Their generical differences, are to have two Li­vers, five Bronchiae or Gills of each side, and pendent points at the Finns which are under the Belly, at the sides of the Navel in the Males. These Fishes are of six Species called Canicula, Acantias, Mustelus, Galexias, Asterias, and Alo­pecias, which is our Sea-Fox, whose Specifick difference, as to the Fi­gure, is taken from its Tail, which very perfectly represents a Sythe.

The length of this whole Fish was eight foot and a half, and its greatest breadth directly over the Belly fourteen Inches. Its Figure was such, that from the end of the Nose to about the middle of its whole length, it had the common form of a Fish: for it grew larger toward the Belly, and then it did contract, to the place where the Tail of other Fishes end. But there it is that his began, which was almost as long as all the rest of the Body, and made like a Sythe bent towards the belly. At the place where this Sythe began, there was a single Fin underneath, which Salvian reports to be at the top, [Page 70] where there was only an Eminence, which was an Articulation that made the Spine to bend in this place higher and lower more easily than in all the rest of the Body, where the Flexion was easie only to the right and left.

There were two Fins elevated on the Back, a great one in the middle, and another less towards the Tail, altho Aristotle, according to the report of Athenaeus, says that it has not any Fin on the Back. It had three Fins on each side. The two next the Head were large, and representing the wings of a Bird, which is the reason perhaps that induced Aristotle to say that there is a Fox, which like Batts, hath leather wings. These Fins were fifteen Inches long, and five broad at their Basis. Those which were at the middle of the Belly were of a middle size. They were at the side of the Navel, and had each a pendent point: which is proper to the Males in this sort of Fish, as it has been said. The last near the Tail were very small.

The Skin was sleek and without Scales; the Crests and Fins were hard, and composed of small Spines restrained by the Skin which covered them, the Colour of which was all over alike of a very dark-gray, blewish like Mud, and not white at the Belly, as in Salvian's Fox.

The Opening of the Mouth was five Inches, and armed with two sorts of Teeth. The right side of the upper Iaw, to the place where are the Canini of other Animals, had a row of sharp Teeth, hard and firm, being all of one single bone in the form of a Saw; but this bone was much harder than the other bones which are fastened with a Cartilage in these sorts of Fishes. The other Teeth, which were on the side of this and all the lower Jaw, made six rows throughout, and were moveable and fastned by fleshy Membranes. Their Figure was Triangular somewhat sharp, and their Substance much softer than that of the others which are like a Saw, especially in the inward rows, where they were very brittle and softer than the Cartilage, so that there were some which appeared only like an hardned Membrane.

The Tongue was all firmly fixed to the lower Jaw, and composed of seve­ral Bones strongly articulated to each other by a fibrous Flesh. It was fur­nished with a hard Skin, and covered with little shining points, which made it very rough from the inside outwards, and very sleek and smooth from the outside inwards. These points viewed with a Microscope were transparent as Crystal, and appeared to have three Lines in length, and one and a half at their Basis.

The Throat was very large, and the Oesophagus was not lesser than the Sto­mach, in which Authors do say that this Fish conceals its young when they are afraid, by swallowing them down to vomit them up again; and this is the reason which made Aelian and Plutarch to say, that the Subtilty which this Fish has to quit it self of the Hook which it has swallowed, is to spew it up with its Stomach, which as▪ Aelian reports, it can turn the wrong side outward: which is much more probable than what others do say, viz. that it proceeds to swallow the Line untill it has found a place weak enough to cut it with its Teeth; because it has no Incisores.

This Stomach was about fifteen Inches long, and five broad, terminating at the bottom in a very strait Pylorus, which was like a choaking, making the passage of the Stomach to the Intestine. This Ductus or passage, which ex­ceeded not three Lines in length, and one and a half in Diameter, was very [Page 71] smooth and slippery, even as the Oesophagus, but the inside of the Stomach was rugged, and like to that of Animals which chew the Cud, which is called Reticulum. In the Stomach there was found a branch of the Sea-plant called in French Varec, about five inches long, and a Fish of the same length with­out a Head, Scales, Skin, and Entrails, being all digested, except the Mus­culous Flesh, which was left entire.

After the Pylorus the Intestine was a little enlarged even to contain four Lines Diameter, for the length of five Inches, which may be taken for the Duodenum, which was afterwards dilated for the forming a great Intestine, which was about eighteen inches long, and three broad. Its inferiour part, which was smooth, and seven inches long, was the Rectum. The Superi­our which contained about thirteen Inches, had a very particular structure; for instead of the ordinary Circumvolutions of the Intestines, the Cavity of this was transversly interrupted with several separations composed of the Membranes of the Intestine folded inwards. These separations were near half an Inch distant from each other, and turned round like the shell of a Snail, or of a Stair-case with an open Newel: which is the reason, as it is easie to conjecture, why the nourishment stays, and is a great while in passing, altho the way be very short.

The Liver took up the whole length of the right side of the Belly. It was divided into two Lobes; which has made Authors to say that this Fish hath two Livers. The longest of these Lobes was twenty Inches, the other eigh­teen, each containing only five in breadth: its colour was reddish, and was streaked all along, and across by obscure Lines. The Gall was inclosed at the top of the great Lobe in the substance of the Parenchyma, and was not ga­thered into a Vesicle; but its colour only seemed to appear green through the Tunicle of the Liver. The two Lobes weighed five pounds and a half. The Vesicle had in the inside as it were leaves composed of its Tunicle: The Gall which it contained was found to have more of Acidity than Bitterness.

The Spleen was fastened to the bottom of the Stomach. It was double like the Liver, and terminating in two unequal points, the longest of which was five inches. Its Colour resembled that of the Liver, being only somewhat less dark, and less brown. Near the Spleen there was observed a part fasten­ed to the Intestine, which might be said to be the Pancreas, because that it was as it were Glandulous, but blacker then the Spleen.

Towards the Navel there was found a part shut up in the inside, about two inches long, and pointed at the end, which was judged to be the part which made the Sex, which was already discovered by the two points alrea­dy mentioned, and which Authors report to be found only in the Males.

The Bronchiae or Gills, which are five of each side, had this common amongst them that their Aperture, which is about two inches and a half, was inlarged almost as much again in the inside, to lap over a hole like to their Aperture: That wherein they differed, is that the three middle holes were greater, and provided on the inside with Bronchiae. The two last which are somewhat lesser, especially that which is most distant from the Head, had this particular, that they were smooth, and without those Foliages whereof the Bronchiae or Gills are composed.

[Page 72]The Heart had no Pericardium; but there was a Membrane like to that of the Pericardium which reinvested and inveloped the Aorta. The bigness of the Heart and its Figure resembled a Pullets Egg. Its Ventricle which was single as in most Animals which do not breath, had five valves, three Sigmoi­des at the mouth of the Aorta, and two Tricuspides at that of the Vena Cav [...]. The Heart had likewise one single Auricle very large, and the beginning of the Aorta was girt with a fleshy ring of ten Lines. The Aorta Ascendens ha­ving cast forth some branches for the Brain, was consumed, and near all lost under the Tongue.

The Head was a meer lump of Flesh, being covered with the Muscles of the Temples, which contained four Inches in thickness. The Cranium was not bigger than ones fist; it was near two fingers thick at top. This thick­ness was excavated by cavernous and unequal Sinus's. They were almost all empty, containing only a little mucous matter mixt with Blood. The Brain which was very small, and had but little Anfractuosity, was so soft and flab­by, that no Observation could be made on its Structure.

The Spinalis Medulla, which shot out all along through the Foramina or holes which are between the Vertebrae, Filaments of Nerves about the bigness of a pin, produced at the beginning of its Exit out of the Cranium, three Pair which were about a line and a half in bigness, two whereof divided themselves at the Temporal Muscles, and at those which do move the great fore-Fins; the third Pair run all along the Back-bone, always keeping the same bigness, although it continually cast into the Flesh little branches like those which proceed from the Medulla Spinalis.

The Eyes which were larger than those of an Ox were only demi-spherical, being flat before, and the Sclerotica making as it were a Cup. This Mem­brane was very thin, but so hard that it might rather pass for a Bone than a Membrane. On the contrary, the Cornea was so tender, that it was folded and sunk on the Crystallinus, which was perfectly Spherical, as it is generally found in Fishes; yet in one of the Eyes it was somewhat flatned.

The Anteriour Uvea was not black, nor very obscure in the inside, but only greyish, as it is on the outside, where it makes the Iris. The Choroides was of the same colour, and its ground had that lustre of Mother of Pearl which is in Terrestrial, Animals, and which we do call the Tapetum, but with colours less brisk. The Retina was adorned with Sanguinary Vessels very apparent.

This Fish was very Fleshy, and in several places we found Fat above an inch thick; which very much Fortifies the Opinion of Archestratus, who in Athenaeus averrs that the Sea-Fox is that Fish which those of Syracuse do call Cyna Piona, by reason of the abundance of Fat which it hath? which is con­trary to the Opinion of Epaenetus, who says in the same Author, that Carti­laginous Fishes have none.

The Explication of the Figure of the Lupus Cervarius or Lynx.

THAT which is most Considerable in the lower Figure is the black Hair, which makes the Tuft that each Ear has at the tip, and the roundness of the Head as well as the rest of the shape of the Animal which nothing par­ticipates of that of the Wolfe.

In the Upper Figure.
Is one of the Kidneys as big as the Life.
B C.
The Tongue.
D D.
The Integuments of the lower Belly.
E E.
The Liver.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Ventricle.
The Spleen.
I. I. I.
The Vessels making that, called the Vas-breve.
K. K. K.
The Epiploon.
L. L. L.
The Intestines.

[Page 74]



SOme Authors have thought that this Animal was called Lupus Cervari­us, from its Figure and Colour, supposing that it has the shape of a Wolfe, even as it in some measure resembles the Stagg in the Colour of its Hair. This very Reason hath made others to think that it is the Thos of the Ancients, because Oppian reports that the Thos has the Form of its Sire which is the Wolfe, and Colour of its Damme which is the Leopardess. But the truth is that the Lupus Cervarius or Lynx has nothing which resembles the Wolfe; and the little resemblance which it takes from the Leopard or Stagg is so common to a great many other Animals, that it is more probable, as several Believe, that the Name of Lupus Cervarius is given unto it, be­cause that it hunts Staggs, as the Wolfe devours Sheep.

That which was Dissected had not the Nose long and pointed like the Wolfe, but blunt and short, which made it rather to resemble a Cat. The length of the whole Head was seven Inches, that of the Neck four: The rest of the Body contained twenty four Inches, without comprehending the Tail which had but eight; the whole amounting to three Foot seven Inch­es. The height from the extremitie of the Back to the end of the fore-paws were twenty Inches, and there were twenty three from the Os Sacrum to the extremities of the hind-Feet.

The fore-Paws had five Toes; the hind-ones only four. All these Toes were armed with Claws crooked, pointed, and articulated as in the Lions, Bears, Tigers and Catts which we have Dissected.

The Back was of a Fox-red, marked with Black Spots. The Belly and in­side [Page 76] of the Leggs was of an Ash-colour, speckled also with Black Spots, but differently; for the Spots of the Belly were larger, not so Black, nor so close to each other as those of the Back, Leggs and Paws, whose outside was red like the Back. The greatest part of the Hair, viz. that which appeared red, and that which appeared of an Ash-colour, was indeed of three Colours, having the root of a Dark-Gray, and the extremity White: But this White­ness of the extremity took up so little a portion of the Hair, that it prevent­ed not the seeing its principal Colour, which was that of the middle, and it made the whole Superficies of the Body to appear only as if it were powde­red. The Hair, which made the Black Spots, was but of two Colours, ha­uing no White at the end, and being only less Black towards the root, which nevertheless was Browner than that of the other Hair.

The Dentes Canini, which were four, were eight Lines long in the upper-Jaw; the two of the lower-Jaw but six. Between the Canini there were in each Jaw six Incisores, and those of the upper were likewise longer than those of the lower. There were ten Molares, five in each side, viz. two a­bove, and three below in each Jaw.

The Tongue was four Inches and a half long, and an Inch and a half broad. It was covered with Pricks as in the Lion and Catt. These Points from the tip of the Tongue to the middle were very hard and sharp, and were turned towards the root of the Tongue. Those which were from the root to the middle were turned contrary; and were blunter and soft­er.

The Ears, which greatly resembled those of a Catt, had each on the tip which was pointed, a Tuft of very Black Hair, which seemed to us to be a Character very particular to the Lupus Cervarius, to distinguish it from seve­ral other Animals which are described in the Histories of the Antients, as the Thos, Chaos, and Panther, which modern Authors have taken for the Lupus Cervarius; but in none of which has there been observed this Tuft, which Aelian reports to be at the end of the Ears of the Lynx, after the same man­ner as we found it in our Subject, and in other Lupi Cervarii which are in the Park of Vincennes.

It is very hard to conjecture why modern Authors have taken the Lupus Cervarius for the Thos of the Ancients, of which some, as Theocritus, have only reported it to be a kind of Wolfe; and others, as Homer, that it Eats Staggs: For it is pretended that this Author has in some measure described the Nature of the Thos, by compareing them to a multitude of Trojans, which pressing Ulysses in a Combate are put to Flight by Ajax, who comes to rescue them: But by this Comparison he gives us to understand that the Thos are weak, and Cowardly Animals, seing that being assembled to eat a Stagg which has been wounded by a Hunts-man, they do leave it to a Lion which unexpectedly comes upon them. For this reason they are by the Scholiast in­terpreted Pantheria, which are a kind of weak and timerous Wolfe. Aris­totle and Theocritus do likewise say, that the Thos resembles the Wolfe, that he is swift-footed, and leaps a great way, although he has short Leggs.

But there are other reasons to make us beleive that the Lupus Cervarius is not the Thos, which are much more powerful. For besides our not find­ing our Lupus Cervarius to have short Leggs, the other Marks also which the Antients do attribute to the Thos are wanting in it, having not [Page 77] the Figure of the Wolfe, as Aristotle and Oppian describe it, not being weak and timerous, as Homer represents it, not having another Colour in the Winter than in the Summer, nor being of the kind of Animals which do love Man, which do him no harm, and which do not avoid him: For it is known that these Characters, by which Aristotle and Pliny do represent the Thos, are not found in the Lupus Cervarius; and the greatest part are contrary to what we have observed in that which we Dis [...]ected.

There was only the changeing of the Hair which we at first thought to be so as Aristotle represents it in the Thos; because that the Hair of the Lu­pus Cervarius, which was brought to us towards the end of Autumne, was very different from the Hair of those we had seen in the Summer in the Park of Vincennes; these last having not their Backs Red, nor spotted with Black like ours, but only confusedly intermixt with Black, Gray, and Red: Be­sides that their Hair was short, thick, and course as in a Mas [...]ive, whereas our Lupus Cervarius had it long, soft, and fine like that of a Catt. But we at last found that this diversity in the Colour of Hair proceeded not from the alteration which happens to it according to the Seasons, but from the diffe­rence of the Species of the Lupi Cervari [...]: For there are some whose Back is Red, spotted with Black, which do come from Muscovia, such as was ours; and others which do come from the Levant and Canada, which have no Spots on the Back, such as are those which we have seen at Vincennes.

Therefore Authors do differ amongst themselves, and there are some which do even contradict themselves on this Opinion that the Thos is the Lupus Cervarius. For though Scaliger and Gaza do always interpret the Thos in Aristotle, Lupus Cervarius, which Gesner and Gillius do likewise in Aelian; yet Scaliger when he speaks of the Lupus Cervarius, say's that he thinks it is the Male Lynx, which may make us to think that he takes the Thos, Lynx, and Lupus Cervarius for the same Animal, conformable to the Explication of Petrus Crinitus, who interprets Thoes in Homer Lynces, and to that of Eustathi­us, who says that the Thos is no weak and timerous Animal, because that he judges the Thos to be the Lupus Cervarius, which indeed is strong and cou­ragious.

But Hermolaus on Pliny, says that he cannot sufficiently wonder at the er­rour of those who do take the Lupus Cervarius for the Thos: For the Species of the Wolfe, which is pretended to be the Thos, is a weak and timid Ani­mal, which is by Gesner, Gaza, and Niphus called Lupus Canarius, Lupus Ar­menius, and by the Scholiast of Homer Panther; and Oppian puts the Thos a­mong the little and inconsiderable Beasts, such as are Dormice, Sqvirrels, and Catts; which is confirmed by Hesychius, and seems to be very suitable to the Idea which Homer gives of the Thos.

So that it remains only to see whether our Lupus Cervarius, which has so little relation with the descriptions which the Antients do make of the Thos and Panther, has any more with what they have Writt of the Chaos and Lynx. Hermolaus makes no question that it is the Chaos of Pliny. And in­deed, when this Author speaks of the Lupus Cervarius, he reports the same thing thereof as he said of the Chaos, which is that Pompey shewed some in his Theater at Rome, which were spotted like the Leopard, and which had been sent from the Gaules, that is to say, a Northern Country, where the Lupi Cervarii, which have Hair like that of the Leopard are found in great plenty.

[Page 78]But the difficulty lies in what Pliny says that they had the Shape of the Wolfe; which we found not, as has been said, in our Lupus Cervarius. In­somuch that there remains only the Lynx, of which the Ancients do say no­thing which is repugnant to what we have seen in our Lupus Cervarius, in which we have likewise found all that they report of the Lynx.

For besides the lo [...]k of Black Hair which Aelian Remarks on the tip of the Ears of the Lynx, and which we have observed to be after the same manner in our Subject, which is a very particular Mark, we have likewise found that it has a short Nose like Aelian's Lynx, and it is known that the Lupus Cervarius is very cruelly bent after the hunting of Staggs, which Oppian Reports to be peculiar to the great Lynx; of which he makes a Speci­es different from the little one which Hunts Hares. For as to the Blackish Colour which Pliny gives to the Hair of the Aethiopian Lynx, he mentions it as a thing extraordinary. And in short as for what concerns its sight, which Pliny Reports to be more piercing than in any other Animals, we have Re­markt nothing which may obstruct, or hinder us from believeing our Lupus Cervarius to have had a very pierceing Sight; besides it is not very certain whether that which is reported of the sight of the Lynx must be understood of that of a wild Beast, or of a Man of that Name, who had a Sight so good, as Pliny affirm's, that he saw the Moon when it changed; or of an other, who, as Georgius Agricola explains it, had the repute of seeing thro' the Earth, be­cause that he knew how to discover where the most concealed Metals were.

As for what concerns the Inwards of our Lupus Cervarius, which was a Female, we found that it had a Stomach like to that of Cats, having nothing extraordinary either in its Structure or Bigness, which was proportionable to that of the rest of the Body.

The Spleen which was laid along the left part of the Stomach was of a Red­ish Colour. Its Length was seven Inches, and its Breadth but one. All a­long one of its sides, viz. that which was towards the Stomach, it had an Eminence which made an Angle.

The Epiploon, which covered and inclosed the Intestines, was like a Net­work of Cords of hard and solid Fat, whose void spaces were filled with Membranes pierced with an infinite number of little holes, so that as these Membranes were not capable of retaining Water like those of the Epiploon of Men and several other Animals. These Ropes of Fat did inclose and co­ver almost all the Vessels of the Epiploon.

The Intestines, which were of an equal bigness, contained altogether nine Foot and a half in length: which seem's to have been observed by Pliny, who speaking of Animals which have short Intestines, produces only two exam­ples, which are the Lupus Cervarius and Ducker. Yet we have already Re­markt in the Lyons that we Dissected, that their Intestines were not above three times longer than the whole Body, which is the proportion of the In­testines of the Lupus Cervarius. There was a Caecum, but it had no Appendix.

The Liver had seven Lobes, which were long and straight. The longest was five Inches, and the broadest two and a half towards the Basis. The Gall-bladder contained nine Inches in length, and not exceeding half a one in breadth.

The Pancreas Asellianum was three Inches long, and fifteen Lines in its greatest breadth. It had a Cavitie full of slimie and putrified Serositie, which was the occasion of an Abc [...]ss in the Center of the Mesentery.

[Page 79]The Kidneys were situated at an equal heighth opposite each to other. They were two Inches in length, and one in breadth.

The Matrix resembled that of Bitches and Cats. It contained four Inches and a half from the external Orifice to the Bifurcation of the two Hornes or Ductus's, which from the Bifurcation to their Extremitie where the Testicles were, contained each four Inches and a half in length. The Testicles were six lines long, and four broad: They were composed of several Glands.

The Lungs had seven Lobes like the Liver. They were almost all dryed up and friable through the extraordinary heat of the Blood, which was Blackt by adustion. This Blackness of the Blood had made the Heart livid, and tinged the Water of the Pericardium, so that it was Bloodie. The Heart was two Inches and a half long, and two Inches broad. The Auricles, Ves­sels and Valves were as in a Catt.

The Muscles of the Temples were large and strong, being eight Lines in thickness, and two Inches in breadth. This bigness seemed to us very con­siderable, to make dubious the beliefe which we had that the Lupus Cervarius is the Lynx of the Antients; because that when Galen speaks of the different size of the Muscles of the Temples in various Animals, he gives only three ex­amples of those which have them extraordinary small and feeble, which are Man, the Ape, and Lynx. But it is probable that Galen means the little Lynx of Oppian, which only hunts Hares, and not that which devours Staggs, which is the Lupus Cervarius.

The Sinus's of the Skull were very ample and open. The Bone which se­pertes the Brain from the Cerebellum was like to that which we have found in a Tiger, Fox, Dog, Cat, and a great many other Animals.

At the opening of the Skull the Anfractuosities of the Brain appeared thro' the Dura Mater, which was transparent. The external part and Substance of the Brain, which is called the Cortex, was very white and solid. The Glandula Pinealis was very small.

The Ball of the Eye was an Inch Diameter: It was almost Sph [...]rical, ex­cept the Cornea, which was raised somewhat more pointing.

The thickness of the Cornea, which was half a Line, was every where a­like. It was joyned as usually with the Sclerotica by the mutual Attenuati­on of the extremitie of the two Membranes, which being each in this place made like the Diamond-cut of a Glass, do so joyn themselves that both toge­ther are not thicker than each apart, because that the thinnest place of the one, which is its extremitie, lyes upon the thickest place of the other.

These Sloapeings were each two thirds of a Line broad. The Sclerotica, which was outwardly White, and inwardly somewhat Blackish by the touching of the Uvea, was very thin at the bottom, not being thicker than strong Paper. It was twice as thick at its extremitie towards the Cornea.

At the side of the Cornea there was a Membrane as in the Lyon, which serves for an internal Eye-lid which easily covered all the Pupilla when it was thrust over it. It was of a triangular Form. The two lesser sides were fastened to the Conjunctiva. The third, which was the largest, could slip and advance over the Eye to cover it.

The fore-part of the Iris was of a Yellow-colour mixt with a great many little red Lines, which were broken and of an unequal size. It was Black at the hinder part which lay upon the Crystalline.

[Page 80]The Aqueous Humour was very abundant, but somewhat muddie, being sullied by the dissolution of some part of the Black Substance which is fasten­ed to the Uvea.

The Crystaline was seven Lines diameter, and five thick, three of which made the Anteriour Convexitie, and two the Posteriour.

The Vitreous Humour was very Clear and Transparent.

The Tapetum of the Uvea, which was of a Blewish White, was pierced by the Optick Nerve, not at its extremitie, as it is seen in most Animals, but almost in its Center. The Optick Nerve had in its middle a Red point incline­ing to Black.

The Explication of the Figure of the Castor or Beaver

IT is represented below, with half of the Body, that is the fore part, on the Land, and hind part in the Water; because that it was observed dure­ing the time that it was kept, that it loved frequently to plung its hind-Paws and Tail into the Water.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
The Os Pubis.
The bottom of the Bladder.
C C.
The two first Pouches, which are the largest of those, wherein the Castoreum is prepared and contained.
D D.
The two second, which are less.
E E.
The other Pouches of a third sort, inclosed in the second.
D E.
Several little globular Body's seen upon the second and third sort of Pouches.
The Common Hole to the Intestine and Penis.
The begining of the Penis.
H H.
The Epididymides.
The Testicles.
K K.
The Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia.
L L.
The Deferentia.
M M.
The Cremaster's.
One of the fore-Paws.
O O.
The Colon.
The Caecum.
A Ligament fasten'd to the Caecum, along which are spread several Vessels which loose themselves in the Coat of this Intestine.
R R.
The Brain.
The Sinus of the Dura Mater.
T T T T.
Four other Sinus's proceeding from the other, which divide the Cere­bellum in three.
V V V.
The Cerebellum.
The bone of the Penis.

[Page 82]



IT was so much the more necessary to observe nicely all the Parts of the Castor, because there has not hitherto been made an exact Description thereof; the Ancients having been almost wholly silent concerning this A­nimal, and the Moderns applying themselves more to speak of its Nature, than to examine the Structure of its Body.

That which was dissected at the King's Library was taken in Canada, about the River of St. Lawrence. It resembled an Otter, but was larger and bigger, and weighed above Thirty Pounds. Its length was about three Foot and a half, from the end of the Nose to the tip of the Tail, and its greatest breadth was near twelve Inches.

The Hair which covered its whole Body, except the Tail, was not every where alike; but there were two sorts, which were mingled together, and which differed in length as well as Colour. The bigger was about an Inch and half long, and as thick as the Hair of ones Head. Its Colour was Brown, somewhat inclining to a Minime or Soot-colour, but very bright; and its substance was firm, and so solid, that having cut it cross­wise there could not any Cavity be seen, even with the Microscope. The lesser was about an Inch in length; there was some much shorter than others; it seemed likewise more slender, and was so soft, that the finest down is not softer. The mixture of these two sorts of Hair so different is found in many Animals; but it is most remarkable in the Castor, Otter, and Wild-boar; and it seems that it is likewise more necessary for them: For these [Page 84] Animals being subject to wallow in the Mire, besides the short Hair which Nature has given them to defend them from the Cold, they had need of ano­ther longer Hair to receive the Mudd, and keep it from penetrating to the Skin.

Its Head was five Inches and a half long, from the end of the Nose, to the hinder-part of the Occiput, and five Inches broad at the place of the Bones which do make the Eminency of the Cheeks. This Proportion has made the Castor, to be by Herodotus, put amongst the Animals which he calls Tetra­gonoprosopa, that is to say, with a square Face or Head. Its Ears resembled those of an Otter; they were round and very short, covered with Hair on the out-side, and almost without any within.

It is said that this Animal delights to knaw Trees, and that it cuts them down to make its Damme or Hole withal; and indeed its Teeth were made after a manner very proper for it. At the end of the Nose it had four Incisores, two in each Jaw, like Squirrels, Rats, and other Animals which love to nibble. The lower ones were above an Inch long, but the upper were not above ten Lines, and slipped within the others, not being directly opposite to them. As to their shape, they were half round before, and very sharp at the end, which was cut bevelling on the in-side and out-side. Their Colour was White on the in-side, and on the outside of a brisk Red inclining to Yellow, almost like that of bastard Saffron. They were both about two Lines broad at the going out of the Jaw, and above a Line at their ex­tremity. Besides these Incisores, there were sixteen Molares, that is to say, eight in each side, four below, and four above. They were directly op­posite one to another, and had nothing particular.

As to the Eyes we could not examine them, because that the Rats, or some such Creatures had eat them.

The Structure of the Feet was very extraordinary, and sufficiently de­monstrated, that Nature hath designed this Animal to live in the Water as well as upon Land. For altho' it had four Feet, like terrestrial Animals, yet the hindmost seemed more proper to swim than walk with, the five Toes of which they were composed being joyned together like those of a Goose, by a Membrane which serves this Animal to Swim with. But the fore-ones were made otherwise; for there was no Membrane which held these Toes joyn'd together; and this was requisite for the conveniency of this Animal, which uses them as Hands (like Squirrels) when he eats. The Proportion of these Toes, their Situation, and the Shape of the Palm, do make these Paws wholly like Hands; and when Mathiolus says that they do differ from the Hands of an Ape, he evidently demonstrates that he has confounded the Castor with the Otter, which has the Toes of the fore-feet provided with Skins like those behind; which perhaps he has inferr'd from what Pliny says, that the Castor is altogether like the Otter, except the Tail. The length of the fore-feet was six Inches and a half from the Cubitus to the end of the great Toe; and three Inches from the beginning of the Hand to the extremity of the greatest Finger: those behind were longer, and contained six Inches from the extremity of the Heel to the end of the longest, which was the second Toe. Besides these five Toes, which were all furnished at the end with Nails cut aslope, and hollow in the inside like Pens, there was in the exter­nal Part of each fore and hind-foot, a little Bone which made an eminency, and which might have been taken for a sixth Toe, had it been separate and [Page 85] divided from the Foot; but as it was not, it seemed that it served only to add more strength and firmness to the Foot.

The Tail is that which has principally made the Castor to be reckoned in the number of the Amphibious: For it has not any resemblance with the rest of the Body, and seems to partake more of the Nature of Fish than of Terres­trial Animals. It was covered with an Epidermis composed of Scales, which a Pellicle joyned together. These Scales were about the thickness of Parch­ment, about a Line and half in length, and for the most part of an irregular Hexagonal Figure. Those on the upper part of the Tail were very little dif­ferent from those underneath; save that amongst some of the under ones there grew sometimes one, sometimes two, and sometimes three small Hairs, which were bent downwards, and exceeded not two Lines in length. As to the Colour they were of a Dark-gray inclineing to a Slate-colour; but in the joynts the Epidermis appeared of a Darker Colour. When the Skin of the Castor was flead, the Scales of the Tail fell off, but their Figure remain­ed imprinted thereon; and this part of the Skin, where the Scales were, be­came White, and of a Substance like that of the Skin of Fish as the Porpoise, or Sea-Fox. In dissecting the Tail we also found that the Flesh thereof was very Fat, and had a great deal of resemblance with that of Cetaceous Fishes.

As to the rest, the bulk and shape of the Tail was very remarkable. It was about eleven Inches in length, and at the root it exceeded not four Inches in breadth. From thence it went insensibly increaseing on each side to its mid­dle, where it was five Inches; and afterwards it lessened to the end, where it terminated in an Oval. On the contrary it was thicker towards its root than in all the rest of its length: For in this place it was near two Inches thick, and decreased by little and little towards the other end; so that in its middle it exceeded not an Inch in thickness, and was reduced to five Lines and a half at its extremitie. The edges of its Circumference were round and somewhat thick, altho' they were much thinner than the middle.

The Hole through which this Animal casts its Excrements was situated be­tween the Tail and Os pubis, about two Inches higher than the beginning of the Tail, and three Inches and half lower than these Bones. It was of an Oval Figure, about nine Lines in length and seven in breadth. The Skin a­bout it was Black and without Hair, and was easily contracted and dilated, not by a Sphincter as the Anus of other Animals, but simply like a slitt. This hole was common to the passage of the Urine as well as to that of other Ex­crements: For besides that the Anus or extremitie of the Rectum ended there­in, a little lower, in the Anteriour Part, there was seen to appear the extremi­tie of this Animals Penis.

At the sides of the inside of this common passage we observed two small Ca­vities, one in each side, where we endeavoured to introduce a Stylus; but we could not make it to pass from the inside of the Hole towards the out; and thro' the outmost Skin we perceived two Eminencies, which we afterwards found to be the Baggs or Bladders which do contain the Castoreum: And it being that which is most remarkable in this Animal, we examined it with a particular exactness.

Naturalists have spoken variously thereof. Some do Assert that the Casto­reum [Page 86] is lockt up in the Testicles of the Castor; and Aelian says that this Ani­mal knowing that Men do hunt it only to get this Liquor of so great use in Physick, tears off its Testicles when it sees it self closely pursued by the Hun­ters, and leaves them to them as for its ransom. Others are of Opinion that the Castoreum is not found in the Testicles of the Castor, but in the Bags par­ticularly designed to receive this Liquor.

To inform [...]us of the Truth, we stript our Beaver of its skin; and having taken it away, we discovered in the place where we had observed these Emi­nencies, four great Pouches fixed underneath the Os Pubis. The two first were placed in the middle, and higher than the two other. They both to­gether represented a kind of Heart, the top of which was about an Inch un­der the Os Pubis; and the sides, being circularly extended, did approach to re-unite themselves in the upper part of the common aperture. The greatest breadth of these two Pouches taken together, was a little more than two Inches; and the length from the top of each to the common aperture was likewise about two Inches. They appeared externally of an Ash-colour, streaked with several white Lines of the shape of those which are seen in the Saligot or Water-nut. Their outward Coat was without wrinckle or fold, and appeared clear and transparent, so that its Colour seemed to be borrowed of the Coat which was underneath. And indeed, having opened one of these Pouches, we found that the inward Coat was of an Ash-colour; that moreover it was fleshy, and that it had on the inside several wrinckles like to those of a Sheeps Maw, amongst which we found some remains of a greyish matter, which had a stinking smell, and which was there so strongly fastened that it seemed to be a part thereof. These wrinckles were extended into both these Pouches, which had communication one with the other, by a hole of above an inch, and were separated only at the bottom.

Underneath these first Pouches there were two others, one at the right, and the other at the left side; each of which had the Figure of a Pear somewhat flatted, or of a long green Almond. They were each two inches and a half in length, and ten lines in breadth. Their greatest breadth was towards the end farthest from the common Passage of the Excrements, and ended at the sides of this hole. These two Pouches were so placed, as that they joyntly formed with the said common hole the shape of a very open V, from the inside of which the two first Pouches raised themselves like a Heart, as we have already said.

These two lower Pouches were very streightly joyned with the upper, about the common hole; and it is probable that the matter of the Castoreum having begun to be prepared in the two upper Pouches, passeth into the other two there to be perfected, and to acquire more consistence, more oyli­ness, more smell, and a yellower colour, which appeared very little in the upper Pouches. The structure also of these Pouches were very different. It seemed that the lower ones were composed of Glands, like the Kidneys of young Animals: for in their exteriour surface there was a great number of small round Bodies, a little rising, and of a different size, the largest not ex­ceeding a middleing Lentile. They were all covered over with the Membrane which externally enveloped all the great Pouches, which is nothing else but a Continuation of the common Membrane of the Muscles.

[Page 87]Having opened several of these little Glandulous Bodies, we found that they were composed of a spongie Flesh of a whitish colour inclining to a red, and that they all had a considerable Cavity: so that it seemed as if they were so many little Pouches; but there was no Liquor in them, nor any other re­markable Substance.

We, judging by the Touch that there was some Liquor in the Pouches, of whose surface these little Bodies made a part, opened one at the bottom, keeping that of the other side to save the Liquor. Out of this hole there came a stinking Liquor, yellow as Honey, unctuous as melted Fat, and com­bustible as Turpentine; for it took fire being put to the flame of a wax-candle. We would have seen whether by squeezing there would not be a reflux of this humour into the upper Pouches, or into the common passage of the Ex­crements; but neither the one nor the other fell out.

Having afterwards emptied the Liquor of this second Bag we perceived that in its lower part there was a third Pouch about fourteen lines in length, and six in breadth, which was likewise full of Liquor, and so fastened to the Membrane of the second Pouch, that it could not be separated. It went sloaping to a point on the lateral part of the common hole; but we percei­ved not that there was any passage into the Cavities which we have spoken of in describing this hole; for we could make nothing go out that way. In the external surface of the third Pouch there were little glandulous Bodies like those which we observed in the second. In this third Pouch we found a Juice, yellower, more liquid, and better digested than in the others. It had also a different smell, and greatly resembled the yolk of an Egg, but its co­lour was somewhat paler.

Tho it was proposed in this discourse to speak only of the Observations made in the Dissection of the Castor, it will be no digression to relate what has been since written from Canada touching the Castoreum. It is reported that the Castors do use this Liquor to create themselves an Appetite when they have no Stomach; that they do get it out by squeezing with their Paw the Vesicles which do contain it; and that the Savages do therewith rub the Snares which they lay for these Animals on purpose to entrap them. Rondeletius had well observed that the Castors do frequently lick up this Liquor; but he speaks not of the particular uses which are told us that the Animal and Sa­vages make thereof.

But to return to the Pouches which contain the Castoreum, it is evident by the accurate Description which we have already made thereof, that they are not the Testicles of the Castor, as several Naturalists have imagined, whose Error will likewise more evidently appear, by what we shall after­wards speak of these Testicles.

Sextius, according to the relation of Pliny, derided those who believed that the Castor tears off his Testicles, when closely pursued by the Hunters, and said that it was impossible, because that this Animal hath the Testicles fastened to the Back-bone. But he confutes one error by another. For as Dioscorides has very well observed, the Testicles of the Castor are concealed in the Groins, and not fastened to the Back-bone. Nevertheless Amatus Lusita­nus and Mathiolus, who have both Commented upon Dioscorides, and who say that they have Dissected Castors in the presence of several Phisitians, do [Page 88] averr that they have found these Testicles so fastened to the Back-bone, that they had great difficulty to seperate them with a Launcet. Rondeletius runs into the same error, altho he has examined à little better than other Authors the Pouches from which the Castoreum is taken, but yet very negligently, not to perceive that they are four in number; for he reckons but two. There are some more Modern Authors who have not gone much farther than the other, contenting themselves with knowing that the Testicles are different from these Pouches; and have so ill understood Dioscorides, as to believe that when he says the Testicles of the Castor are hid in the Groins, he took the Pouches for them. But experience hath demonstrated to us that all these Authors are mistaken, if all Castors are like to that which we Dissected: for the Testicles were no more on the inside than the Pouches; they were only a little higher at the external and lateral parts of the Os pubis, in the place of the Groins, where we found them wholly concealed, so that they appeared not outwardly no more than the Penis before that the skin was taken off. Their Figure and Shape was very like to the Stones of Dogs, save that they were longer and lesser in proportion to their length. They were little more than an inch long; their breadth was half an inch, and their thickness some­what less. As to the Epididymis and all the Vessels necessary to Generation, they differed in nothing from those of Dogs.

The Penis appeared more singular to us. In its extremity instead of the Balanus it had a Bone fourteen lines long, and made like a Stylus, which was two lines broad in its basis, and suddainly straitning it self, ended in a point. There was this also remarkable, that whereas the Penis of Dogs re-ascends from the Os pubis towards the Navel, this descended downwards towards the passage of the Excrements, where it ended. It was, as we have said, con­cealed; so that before the skin was taken off we perceived it not, and we could not discern of what Sex this Animal was.

The better to examine these Parts, we opened the lower venter; and ha­ving traced the Spermatick Vessels to their Origine, we found them like to those of Dogs, and other Animals. We observed likewise that the Penis was laid upon the Rectum, and that it passed underneath the two first Pouches of the Castoreum, to which it was closely joyned: that moreover these Baggs received their Veins and Arteries from the Hypogastrick Veins and Arteries, there be­ing no appearance that there were other Vessels which could furnish the mat­ter whereof the Castoreum is formed, unless it be imagined that it is caused by the Uret which is improbable.

As to the other parts of the lower Venter the Muscles of the Abdomen, Peri­tonaeum, Stomach, and Bladder, had nothing remarkable, and their Structure was altogether like that of Dogs.

The Intestines had little considerable, except the Caecum, which was two inches and a half in breadth, and ten in length. It was unusually ranged on the left side underneath the Spleen, from whence it descended to the Cavity of the Ileum, and terminated in a round point, making an Appendix of an inch in length: It was that which made us to distinguish this Intestine from the others. Its Figure was not strait, but a little crooked, like the blade of a Scythe. In the concave part of this bending there was a Ligament, and in the convex another, both like to those which are commonly found in the [Page 89] Colon of Men; and these Ligaments were accompanied with Veins and Arte­ries which came from the Venae Mesentericae, and spread from space to space their branches into the Body of this Intestine.

Two fingers underneath the great end of the Spleen, there lay a little Sphe­rical Body very extraordinary, which appeared of the same Substance as the Spleen, altho it was remote from it; It was three lines Diameter.

The other Intestines were so little different from one another, that we could never distinguish the Colon. They were near twenty eight foot long: Having opened them we found in the inside eight Worms long and round, like to Earth-worms, three whereof were between seven and eight inches long, and the rest about four.

The Spleen was laid along the left side of the Stomach, to which it was fastened by eight Veins, and as many Arteries, which made so many Vas Bre­ve's. Its Colour was very Red: Its length seven inches, and its thickness almost equalled its breadth, which was about ten lines.

We observed nothing particular in the Liver, save that it was divided into five Lobes of the same Colour, as the Lobes of a Dogs Liver.

The Gall-Bladder was hid under the hollow part of the Liver between two of its Lobes. It was two inches and a half in length, and near an inch in breadth. All the lower Venter was overflowed with a diffused Choler, which had perhaps occationed the death of this Animal.

The Pancreas was nothing different from that of Dogs. Its length was ten inches, but it exceeded not two in its greatest breadth.

Though this Castor was very Fat, especially through the Belly and Tail, yet there was found very little in the Tunica adiposa of the Kidneys, and in the Epiploon. Each Kidney was an inch in thickness, near two in length, and as much in breadth at the middle.

The Cartilago Xiphoides was round, and fourteen lines broad; but very thin and pliable.

Having afterwards opened the Thorax we observed little difference between all the parts which were there inclosed, and those of Dogs. The Lungs had six Lobes, three on the right side, two on the left, and another little one which was in the Mediastinum near the Center of the Diaphragme.

That which was most remarkable in the Heart, is that the left Auricle was larger than the right; which is likewise seen in some other Animals, but not in Man, who on the contrary has the right Auricle of the Heart bigger than the left.

We the more carefully sought after the Foramen Ovale, which several Modern Authors have averred to be found in all Amphibious Animals, and even in Men, who do often dive and swim a long time in the water. But what exactness soever we used in the search, we could not discover that hole in the Heart of our Castor. It is true that as it had been several years penn'd up at Versailles, without having the liberty of going into the Water, it might be that this hole was closed up, even as it happens to the Foetus, after it is born, and has breathed sometime. Indeed it seemed that in this place there had formerly been a hole which was since grown up.

Under the Vena Coronaria we found the Valve called Noble, which fills the whole Trunck of the Vena Cava, and which was so disposed, that the Blood [Page 90] might easily be carried from the Liver to the Heart by the Vena Cava, but which is hindred from descending from the Heart towards the Liver through the same Vein.

The Heart was two inches and a half long from the basis to the point, and almost two inches broad.

In the Dissection which we made of the Brain, the Figure of the Sinus of the Dura Mater appeared to us very singular. The upper Sinus which came from the side of the Os Ethmoides divided the Brain into the right and left sides, and advanced in a streight line to the beginning of the Cerebellum, where be­ing arrived it was divided into two great branches almost in the form of a Y, which on the right and left did divide the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum. These two branches produced four others; two on each side, which by returning towards the hinder part of the Head, divided the Cerebellum into three unequal parts; that of the middle, which was the greatest, was ten lines in length, and five in breadth, and was Oval: the two other lateral ones were four lines and a half broad, and six long. The whole extent of the Brain was in its greatest length, from the Nose to the Temples, but an inch and eight lines, and an inch and half in its breadth.

Having raised the whole Body of the Dura Mater by the Anterior part we found no Falx under the great Sinus. There was only a little Cavity which was formed by the roundness of the Sinus, and under the Branches of that Si­nus there was seen to appear some prints of the like Cavities.

The separation of the Brain from the Cerebellum, was distinguishable only by those sorts of prints, which were not deep. The Cerebellum took up all the hindermost part of the Head. The Brain had but very little Anfractuosities; and its external part seemed rather White than Ash-coloured. The rest of the Brain was like to that of other Animals. The Mamillares Processus were very large; but the Optick Nerves were very small at their going out of the substance of the Brain, and they went joyned together after an extraordina­ry manner, by reason of the length of this Conjunction, which was seven lines; they were afterwards divided after the usual manner to go to the Eyes, which for an Orbita had only a bony Circle.

As to the Flesh of the Muscles and of all the rest of the Body, we found nothing particular save that the Flesh of the Tail, as we have already observ'd, was different from that of the other Parts.

The Explication of the Figure of the OTTER.

THat which is remarkable in the lower Figure is the Structure of the Paws, whose Toes are fastened each to other by skins as in the Goose; The Teeth which are sharp and different from those of the Castor; and the Ear which is little as in the Castor, but a great deal lower.

In the Upper Figure.
A B.
The Kidney covered with its Membrana Adiposa.
C C C.
The several little Kidneys discovered, the Membrana Adiposa being ta­ken off.
D D.
The Ureters.
E E.
The Emulgent Vessels.
The Clitoris drawn inwards.
F F.
The Nymphae.
The Anus.
The Clitoris drawn outwards.
The Bone in the Clitoris.

[Page 92]



SOme Authors have confounded the Otter with the Castor, by reason of the great resemblance that is between these two Animals; but the ge­nerality do agree that they are different in several things. We have remar­qued some which we have not as yet heard spoken of; and there are likewise a great many Particularities which are attributed to the Otter, and which are pretended to be common to it with the Castor or Beaver, which we found not in our Subject.

Pliny, Belonius, and almost all the Natural Historians, do say that the Ot­ter and Castor are only different in the Tail, which is covered with Scales in the Castor, and which is Hair in the Otter. Georgius Agricola and Albertus do make the four-Feet of the Otter like those of a Dog. All the other Authors do report that it has them like to those of the Castor: we found neither the one nor the other in our Otter. Herodotus says that the Castor and Otter, even as the other Animals which he calls square-headed, have this in common, that their Testicles are proper to the Distemper of the Mother, and Brasavolus af­firms that they both have the same Virtue against the Epilepsie, Palsie, and all the Maladies of the Nerves: In which it appears that these Authors have made no distinction between the Pouches of the Castor and its Testicles, be­cause that the Pouches are only made use of in the Distempers of the Mother and Nerves. Aristotle has likewise attributed to the Otter a particularity which Pliny reports of the Castor, which he declares to be so inraged against Man, that when he bites him, he never quits his hold until he feels the Bone of the Parts which he has seized to crack under his Teeth.

The Greek word [...], from whence the word Lutra is derived, and which signifies a Bath or Bagnio, seems to distinguish it from the Castor, be­cause that it plunges only into Fresh-water, and never into the Sea, the water whereof is not proper to wash with, nor to make a Bath; and that the Castor goeth indifferently into the Sea and Rivers.

[Page 94]The size of the Otter, and the Proportion of its Parts, did also render it very different from the Castor that we Dissected; for the Castor was three foot and a half long comprehending the Tail; and the Otter had in all but three foot two inches, and its Tail was proportionably much longer; which made the rest of the Body lesser than that of the Castor. The Head of the Castor was five inches and a half from the Nose to the hinder part of the Head, and that of the Otter exceeded not four and a half. The fore-feet of the Castor were six inches and a half from the Cubitus to the end of the Toes, and those of the Otter not above five. The hinder-feet of the Castor were six inches from the Heel to the end of the Toes, and those of the Otter but three and a half.

This does likewise render our Otter very different from that which Belloni­us describes, in which he makes the Leggs to resemble those of a Fox, and on­ly different in this that they are bigger; unless he would be understood to say that they are bigger in proportion to their length: but the truth is, that in proportion to the rest of the Body they are a great deal shorter than a Foxes, being in this like to those of a Weasel, which has a long Body and short Leggs.

The hinder feet wholly resembled those of the Castor, having five long and slender Toes, not close together like those of a Dog, and the intervals had a skin, as in the feet of Geese. The fore ones were like those behind, and very different from the fore-feet of the Castor: For these toes were joyned by Membranes as those behind, excepting that the Membranes held them closer together; but they had not that resemblance which those of the Castor have to a Hand; the five Toes being equal, having each their three Phalanges, and the Pollex not being more separate from the other Toes than the rest are from each other.

The Nose, Eyes, and shape of the whole Head, did hardly render it diffe­rent from the Castor: The Teeth only were unlike, not being sharp, nor so strong as those of the Castor; which made us to think that Aristotle has mi­staken the Otter for the Castor, when he exaggerates, after the manner already shewn, the strange force of its Biting: for our Otter had not those four great and long Incisores which are particular to the Castor, and some other Animals, as the Hare, Squirel, and Rat; all the Teeth being made like those of the Dog or Wolf, and the Canini being, as is usual, longer than the incisores. So that these Teeth made all the resemblance that we found the Otter to have with the Dog, altho Bellonius reports that it has its Head, and Aelian calls it the River-Dog. The Ears which were little, as in the Castor, were lower than the Eyes, and situated near the lower Jaw.

The Hair was not half so long as that of the Castor, containing in that place of the Body where it was longest, but eight lines; whereas that of the Castor was eighteen. Its Colour was in some measure different from that of the Ca­stor, but not after the manner as Authors do express it: for they do report that the Hair of the Castor inclines more to Grey, and we have found the con­trary; our Otter having the Hair underneath its Throat, Stomach, and Belly much Greyer than it was in our Castor. The Hair of the Tail was shorter than upon the Body, but a great deal longer than on the Feet. The rest of the Hair viz. on the Head and Back, was of a Colour resembling that of the Castor, [Page 95] being of a dark Chesnut, and of two sorts, the one longer, Browner, Straiter, and thicker; the other shorter, grayer, more frizled, and softer.

To finish the Description of the outside, it remains to speak of a Particular very remarkeable, and which greatly distinguishes the Otter, not only from the Castor, but even from other Brutes, which is the extraordinary Formation of the exteriour Orifice of the Matrix, where we found the Nymphae and a Clitoris as in Women. The Clitoris, which was situated at the superiour part of the Nymphae, and beyond their junction, was three lines in length. It was composed of Membranes and Ligaments which inclosed a Bone two lines long.

The generality of the Parts which were seen by the Dissection, were yet more different from those of the Castor than the exteriour are. The Liver which contained but five Lobes in the Castor, had six in our Otter. The Spleen, which was Cylindrical in the Castor, and very small, not exceeding ten lines Diameter and seven inches in length, was flat in the Otter, being an inch and half in breadth and four and a half in length. But its Connexion was so particular that it was not only different from that of the Castor, but from almost all other Animals, in which the Spleen is generally fastened to the Stomach; whereas in our Otter it was at the Epiploon.

The Kidneys were three inches long and two broad. In the Castor they were not two in length: but the principal difference was in the Conformation which was so extraordinary, that it resembled that of the Kidneys of a Bear; those of the Otter differing only in the number of little Kidneys, whereof the one and the other are composed: for instead of fifty two little Kidneys which we found in the Bear, there were only ten in the Otter, which were sepera­ted one from the other, each having their Parenchyma, Vena, and Arteria Emul­gens apart, with a third Vessel, which was a branch of the Pelvis, which the dilatation of the Ureter produced, and ten branches of which went to each little Kidney one. These little Kidneys, besides a common Membrane that enveloped them, had store of Fibres which tied and collected them into a heap, which had a Figure somewhat longer than the Kidneys usually have; and there was one of these small Kidneys which was a little more separated from the rest, and which extended this Figure towards the top, so that this little Kidney might be taken for the Capsula Atrabilaria.

The Pancreas was composed of conglomerated Glands like that of the Ca­stor, and generality of other Animals, but they appeared more distinct and separate one from the other than usual.

The Lungs as in the Castor was composed of seven Lobes, six of which was equal in size, and the seventh very small, which seemed only an Appendix of the sixth.

We carefully sought in the Vessels of the Heart that Foramen Ovale which is thought to be in Animals, whilest they do remain without breathing in the Belly of their Damme, for supplying the use which is attributed to Respira­tion, which is, to assist the Circulation of the Blood which is made through the Lungs, by means of the dilatation, and compression of this part. We had formerly made this search in the Castor, because that some have thought that that Animal had need of this conformation of the Vessels of the Heart, to make it able to indure the cessation of Respiration which it undergoes when [Page 96] it plunges and dives a long time under Water; but we found not this Foramen open, nor that there were other Conveyances which might grant passage to the Circulation of the Blood than those which are in the Lungs. Yet the Truth is, that we observed some vestigia of this Aperture, which seemed to demonstrate that it had not been long closed: which appeared to us the more probable, for that we were assured that the Castor had been a long time shut up in his Hutt without having liberty to plunge into the Water, and that it might happen that this Foramen was stopped as it usually is in all Animals a little after their Birth, when the faculty which they have of breathing ren­ders this Foramen useless. But in our Otter we found not any appearance that there ever had been a Foramen which might grant passage to the Blood from the Vena Cava into the Arteria Venosa: and this sufficiently agrees with the Remarques which all Authors have made that the Otter is ever and anon forced to raise it self above the water to Breath; which the Castor does not, having a much greater facility of wanting Respiration for a considerable time.

The other Parts which have been carefully Dissected, have furnished us with nothing considerable, and which deserves to be remark'd.

The Explication of the Figure of the Civet-Cat.

IT is disposed in such a manner that one may see the Situation of the Pouches in which are the Receptacles of the Odoriferous Liquor, and the three Apertures which are peculiar to this Animal, and which are more distinctly represented in the upper Figure.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
Is the End of the Penis forceably drawn outwards.
B B.
The Anus of the Male and Female.
c c.
The External Orifice of the Uterus.
D D..
The place where the Tail is cut off.
An Eminence being a kind of Clitoris.
F F.
The Pouches wherein are the Receptacles for the Odoriferous Liquor, covered with their proper Skin, and in their Natural Situation.
G G.
The same Pouches uncovered and turned downward.
H H.
T [...]e same Pouches yet more uncovered, the Muscles being taken off.
I. I.
The two Apertures of the Sack, or Receptacles of the Odoriferous Liquor.
The Uniteing of the three Muscles of the Pouches, or Scent-bags.
The Sheath in which the Penis lyes concealed.
The Neck of the Uterus.
N. N.
The Testicles of the Male, brought sideways to shew them, their Natural Situ­ation being under the Pouches.
O. O.
The Testicles of the Female.
P. P.
The Cornua Uteri.
Q. Q.
The Cremaster-Muscles.
The Bladder.
S. S.
The Extreamitie of the Cornua Uteri haveing some resemblance to the Tuba.

[Page 98]



AFter haveing made the Dissection of a Castor and Otter, an opportunity offered of joyning thereunto that of two Civet-Catts, which dyed the following Winter in the Parke of Versailles. We were very glad of being able to make the comparison of these two Species of Animals, because that they do agree in some Organs, which are very peculiar to them, which are the Receptacles in which there is collected a Liquor, whose Odour is re­markable, for being extreamly pleasant in the one, and very disagreable in the other.

We at first sought whether there was not some particular Reason of this diversity of Scent, but we found not that there was apparently any other than the diversitie of the Temperament of these Animals; for the one is hot and dry, drinks little, and inhabits hot and dry Countryes; the other lives sometimes in the Water, and sometimes on the Land: and as it has a great deal of humi­ditie, by reason that it participates of the Nature of Fish, it has not Heat enough to Concoct and perfect this humiditie. So that suppose that the good and bad Scent do's proceed from the Concoction or Cruditie which the Natural heat more or less Powerful operates on the Humours, the Castor, whose Natural heat is weakened, and as it were stifled by the abundance of its moisture, can only imperfectly Concoct it, and produce only a very un­pleasant Scent.

The two Civet-Catts of which we made the Dissection, were Male and Femal, but so like in all outward appearance, that there seemed no distincti­on of Sex; it being impossible without Dissection, to judge whether they were not both Females. For the parts which are proper to the Male, were hid and lockt up in the inside; and the Vessel or Receptacle of the Odoriferous Liquor, whose aperture has been taken by most of the Ancients for a mark of the Female, was alike in both the one and the other of our Civet-Catts.

From the Mouth to the begining of the Tail they were Twenty nine [Page 100] Inches long. The Tails of both had been cut. That which was the long­est contained ten Inches. The Feet were very short, especially those before, which from the Belly to the ground exceeded not five Inches. The Paws, as well those before as behind, had each five Toes, the least of which was inward like a Bear's; but this little Toe touched not the ground. Besides these five Toes there was a Spur which was armed with its Nail like the Toes. The Nails were black, strait and very little Pointed. The Sole was furnisht with a Skin very soft to the touch. The Ears resembled the figure and size of those of a Catt; but they were less Pointed, and smaller: The rest of the Head had nothing which participates of this Animal but the Beards, which are common to the generalitie of Carnivorous Animals. For the Head was strait; the Mouth long; the Tongue soft; the Eyes little, Black, troubled and long; the Dentes Canini short, and blunt, so that they did seem to have been broken: and it is probable that this Fierce and Cholerick Ani­mal do's ordinarily break its Teeth by biteing the Iron barrs of its Cage. The Neck was strengthened and fortified by Ligaments, and Muscles extraordina­ry strong. Bartholinus has observed that they are far more numerous in other Animals.

The Hair, which was short on the Head, and Paws, was very long on the rest of the Body, being four Inches and a half on the back, where it is longest. Amongest this long Hair, which was hard, harsh, and strait, was intermixt another shorter, softer, and frizeled like Wool, as in the Castor, but it was not so fine: It was all over of the same Colour, viz. a dark-Gray. The great hair was of three Colours, makeing Spots and Lists, some black, others White, and others Red. There were some of these Hairs which were of two Colours, being Black towards the middle, and White sometimes towards the Root, sometimes towards the other end. The four Feet were Black, as also the Belly and bottom of the Throat, contrary to the Nature of other Animals, which alwayes have the Belly and Throat of a lighter Co­lour than the rest of the Body, when all the Hair is not of the same Colour. The rest of the Body was intermixt with three Colours, amongst which. Black was the cheif. There were two great black Spots at the sides of the Mouth, which incompast the Eyes, and left the rest very white, excepting the Nose which was black. The Crowne of the Head, from the Eyes to the Ears was gray, by the mixture of the white and black which was in every hair, as has been said, all the ground being black, and the extremity white. The Ears which were all Black on the outside, and only Listed with White, were filled in the inside with a long white Hair. The Neck had on each side four Black Lists on a very White ground; and these Lists which began under­neath the Ears, descended obliquely towards the Stomach. The middle of the Back was covered with three Lists; the middle one was Black, and those of the sides Redish. The Shoulders and sides unto the Flanks were marked with a great deal of Black and little Red. The Flanks were equally streaked with Black and White, but these streaks were not so continued as those of the Neck; they were rather the spots which Pliny calls Eyes in the Panther, but few of which were single, the greatest part being joyned to each other. The Tail was Black at top, and mixt with a little White underneath.

The Aperture of the Pouch or Sack which is the Receptacle of the Civet, was underneath the Anus, and not under the Tail, as Aristotle places it in his [Page 101] Hyaena, which we together with Belonius judged to be nothing else but our Civet-Catt; or at least that our Civet-Cat is a Species of Hyaena. And this being so, it is very strange that this great Person, who reprehends Herodotus for being mistaken, when he thought that the Aperture of this Pouch was the part which denoted the Sex of the Female, and who excuses him upon this Account, that it is difficult not to be deceived, if the thing be not care­fully examined, should suffer himself to run into the same mistake, and write in several places, that the Anus and Parts of Generation in both Sexes are be­low the Pouch.

This Pouch was between the Anus and another little Aperture, from which it was two Inches and a half distant; but it was nearer the Anus. This Pouch was two Inches and a half in breadth, and three in length: Its A­perture which was a slit from top to bottom, was two Inches and a half. At the edges and in-side it was covered with a short Hair turned inwards, so that it was rough outward. By parting the two sides of this Aperture, the in-side was seen, the capacity of which would contain a small Pullat's Egg; the bottom thereof was pierced on the right and left side, with two Forami­na capable of receiving the Finger, which did each penetrate into a Sack, sup­ply'd with a White and Rough Skin like that of a Goose. The Eminencies which made this inequality, were pierced with as many Pores, out of which was made to come, when squeezed, the odoriferous Liquor, which the Arabians do call Zibet, which signifies Froth, and from whence is derived the Word Civet.

Indeed, this Liquor was frothy in coming out; which was known by this that sometime after it lost the Whiteness which it had at the first. It pro­ceeded, as far as we could judge, from a great number of Glands which were between the two Tunicles, of which the Sacks were composed.

The little Aperture which appeared underneath the great Pouch, was the entrance of a Ductus, in which the Penis of the Male was concealed; and the Female had such a Ductus, which was the Neck of the Matrix, whose internal Orifice was so strait, and so difficult to dilate, that it was very hard to make a little Probe to enter therein. The external Orifice was covered with two little Eminencies somewhat longish, which were joyned together, and made an Angle, underneath which there was a third Eminence which appeared to be the Clitoris.

At the opening of the Belly there was found under the Skin from the Os Pubis to the Navel, two Eminencies of hard Fat, an Inch broad and thick, and four long. They inclosed the Branches which do pass from the Hypogast­rick Veins and Arteries, into the two Sacks which do make the great Pouch, there to convey the Matter whereof the sweet-smelling Liquor is made, and which is there collected. Bartholi [...]us has very carefully searcht after, tho' not found, the particular Ductus's, which he thought to be necessary for the conveying this Matter: But our Opinion is that there needs no other than the Arteries, just as the Papillae, and Kidneys have no other which do convey to them the Matter of the Milk and Urine; there being a Faculty in the Glands, that are lockt up in the Sacks of the Receptacle of the Civet, which makes them to receive into the Arteries, that which is proper to be converted into odoriferous Liquor, even as the Glands of the Papillae do im­bibe the Matter which they do find in the Blood, proper to receive the Cha­acter of Milk.

[Page 102]These Vessels which went to the Bags of the Receptacle were very great in the Male; but could hardly be perceived in the Female. The Civet of the Male had also a stronger and pleasanter Odour than that of the Female. yet Authors do almost all say the contrary; and Quadramius in his Treatise of Theriaca preferrs the Civet of the Female to that of the Male, which he reports to be nothing worth, if not mixed with that of the Female. We found it not to be true that the Scent or smell of the Civet is perfected, after long keep­ing, nor that being new it had an abominable Scent, as Amatus Lusitanus re­ports; for its smell seemed no better to us after a year, than when we made the Dissection. Plutarch says that not only the Skin, but likewise the Flesh and Bones of the Panther have a good Scent; but we found not that the pleasant smell of the Civet was communicated to the inward parts; for it was the Hair only that had a good smell, and especially in the Male, whose Hair was so per­fumed, that the hand which had touched it did a long time retain a very plea­sant and agreeable smell: which seems to confirm and strengthen the Opinion of Scaliger, Mathi [...]lus, and several others, who do think that the perfume of the Civet-Cat is nothing else but its Sweat; so that it is gathered as Marmol affirms, from the Animals which do produce it, after they have been well chaced in their Cage; and that it is gathered not only from their Pouches, but like­wise from several other places, and especially from about the Neck: there being a probability that tho this Sweat proceeds indifferently from the whole Body, it gathers more abundantly in the Bags, and there grows to greater Perfection.

These Pouches or Bags had some Muscles, which Bartholinus mentions not, altho he has marked them in his Figures. Those which we found were dif­ferent from those which he represents, as well in Number as in Structure. He puts down four, which proceeding from the neighbouring parts, are joyn­ed to the Pouches. Those of our Civet-Cats were but three in number, of which there was one, which taking its Origine at one of the Pouches, went to in­sert it self to the other: the two others took their Origine from the lower part of the Ischium, and each came to be joyned to its Antagonist at the middle of the two Pouches, and was fastened to the Pouch over which it went to make this Conjunction.

It were easie for us to conjecture what ought to be the Action of these Mus­cles by their structure and scituation: for that which is common to the two Pouches, must be for their Constriction, by drawing one to the other; and those which do come from the Bones of the Ischium, do draw the two Pouches together, sometimes on the right side, sometimes on the left, according as one of the Muscles is contracted, whilst its Antagonist is relaxed. The use of these motions is very probably for the pressing and squeezing out the O­dorous Liquor, the retention of which is insupportable to these Animals, when by time it has acquired a picquant Acrimony, which excites them to squeeze it out: for it is observed that Civet-Cats do seem to have a restlesness which agitates and torments them, when they have gathered store of this Liquor, which they are constrained to let out.

The Epiploon was double and square as usually, but very great. It descen­ded to the Os pubis and was composed of rows of Fat which inclosed the Ves­sels. These rows or bands had each three Angles, and were joyned together by a texture of Net-like Fibres.

[Page 103]The Intestines were not very long, but especially the Intestina crassa, which all three together exceeded not six inches. On the contrary, the Spleen was extraordinary long, containing above six inches in length and two in breadth, and a quarter of an inch in thickness. The Colour thereof was livid, incli­ning to a Black.

The Pancreas was fastened to the Duodenum, and extended towards the Spleen. It was an inch in breadth, and four in length.

The Liver had five great Lobes, and a sixth lesser than the rest, situated in the middle of the lower part. Bartholinus reckons seven. The Liver of the Female was much paler than that of the Male, and it was marked with a great many spots of a darker Red.

The Situation of the Kidneys was such, that the right was higher than the left. They were both fastned to the Loins by a Membrane which we took for the Duplicature of the Paeritoneum, which held them together as they are in Men, and in some other Animals. Bartholinus thinks that this Membrane is that which is particular to them, and which immediately invelopes their Pa­renchyma, but he confesses that it was more easily separated than the proper Membrane used to be.

The Penis was situated between the two Pouches in a Ductus, as has been already declared. At its extremity it had a bone six lines long, one and a half broad at the narrowest place, and above two towards its extremity, where it was larger, and divided; so that it had as it were two heads, between which there was a void space like a Gutter, to give passage to the Urethra.

The Matrix was separated into two long Cornua, at the end of which were the Testicles, whose bigness scarce exceeded that of a great Pea, whose Figure they imitated, being almost round. These Cornua produced likewise beyond the Testicles, some Appendices of a fat and Membranous Substance, of an irregular Figure, which might be taken for the Fringes of the Tuba of the Matrix.

The Lungs had seven Lobes, three on one side, and three on the other, and and a lesser than the rest in the middle in the cavity of the Mediastinum near the Diaphragme. The Lungs of the Female was corrupted and filled with Stones.

The Heart was as in Dogs. The mouth of the Aorta was hardened, and as it were Cartilaginous: and there was a Fat which accompanied the Vasa Coronaria even into the substance of the Heart.

The Muscles of the Temples were very thick, and did cover as in the Lion the two upper sides of the Head. In the Os Frontis there were six Cavities or Sinus's separated from each other by Spongious and very thin Bones. The Cerebrum was divided from the Cerebellum by a transverse Bone, as in the ge­nerality of Brutes. Bartholinus has observed in a Civet-Cat a Bone which part­ed the Cerebrum in two, very different from this and all those which are com­monly found in Brutes in the inside of the Cranium; for it lay long-ways accord­ing to the Sutura Sagittalis.

The Glandula Pinealis was very small, and about the bigness of a little pins head.

The Aqueous humour of the Eye was muddied; which hapned as we thought, by the dissolution of the Black, wherewith the reverse of the Iris [Page 104] is besmeared. The Tapetum strongly inclined to White. Naturalists do say, that the Eyes of this Animal do shine in the night like those of Cats. The Crystalline was more convex inward than outward; but that which it had most remarkable, was an extraordinary hardness, which put us in mind of what Pliny says of the Eyes of the Hyaena, viz. that there are thence taken some Precious Stones called Hyaeniae.

This Particularity joyned to a great many others, which are found common to the Hyaena of the Ancients, and to our Civet-Cat, made us rather to incline to the Opinion of Belonius, (who thought that these are not different Ani­mals) than to that of Scaliger, Ruellius, Alexander Benedictus, Matthiolus, Leo Africanus, Busbequius, Aldrovandus, and almost all the Modern Authors, who would have the Civet-Cat to be unknown to the Ancients, and that it was a Species of Cat: for according to our Remarks, the length of the Head and Eyes of the Civet-Cat, the smalness of the Teeth and Feet, the harshness of its Hair, the softness of its Tongue, the blackness and rectitude of its Nails, and the hoarsness which all Authors have observed in its Voice, which ren­ders it more like to that of Dogs than Cats, are Characters wholly different from those which are seen in all the Species of Cats. But on the contrary, all that the Ancients have related of their Hyaena is found in the Civet-Cat, some Incredible and Ridiculous things only excepted; as to make Dogs silent by its Shadow, as Aristotle and Aelian report; to know how to imitate the Voice of Men, whom it calls by their Name, to intice them from their Habitati­ons, and devour them, as Pliny relates; and to have also Humane Feet, and no Vertebrae in the Neck, like the Animal which Busbequius takes for the Hyaena of the Ancients; which are Particularities, which Leo Africanus has not ob­served in the Animal which he proposes for the Hyaena.

For the Description of the Ancients, as to what concerns the exteriour Form, consists in three things, which are to resemble the Wolf by the Head, to have long staring Hair on the Back, and a particular Aperture under the Tail, besides the two which are commonly there in the Females of other A­nimals. The two first marks which we very distinctly discovered in our Civet-Cat, although, common to other Animals, have seemed to us very convincing, being joyned to the third, which is so particular, that it may be said that there is not known any Animal wherein is found the like. For the Aperture which Hares, Gazella's, and several other Animals have in this place, has nothing that resembles the extraordinary Figure of this which is in the Civet-Cat, and which Aristotle has very distinctly observed in the Hyaena which he describes, by saying, that this Foramen is like to the exteriour Orifice of the Matrix of a Woman.

The sole difficulty which occurs is that the Ancients have not spoken of the Scent of the Civet-Cat: which has made Gillius to think, that it was the Panther of the Ancients, and Castellus, that it was an Hyaena of a particular Species. But it must be considered that most Natural Historians have com­posed their Works upon the Report of others, and that there is reason to doubt, whether the Hunters who informed them of the Particularities of Animals, were not too gross and rude, as are the greatest part of the Savages which are addicted to this Exercise, to be capable of knowing the goodness of the Scent of the Civet-Cat, and in this resemble Beasts that distinguish not the [Page 105] differences of Odours, but as they do relate to eating and drinking; seeing that we do know that the smell of Civet is very disagreeable, and offensive to several when it is new, and not mix'd with other Perfumes: but especi­ally Country persons do not think that sweet Odours are pleasant, and do rather chuse the smell of Garlick and Pitch, than that of Incense and Benjamin; whence it is, that the Indians do call the Musk-Rat the stinking Rat. And now in Africa, according to the report of Gregorius a Bolivar, the Negro's which do gather the Liquor which the Civet-Cats have left on Stones and Truncks of Trees, do not know it by the smell, but only by a thick and Oily tenacity, which makes them to scrape the places where they do find it, with a design to extract the Odorous Liquor, which swims upon the water wherein they boyl what they have scraped.

This incapacity of judging of good Odours, whereof we do suspect the Hunters of the Ancients, do's otherwise appear very credible; because that Authors have writ, that of all Animals the Panther only had a good smell: for it is not probable that these Hunters were of this Belief, only because they never met with a Civet-Cat, Martin, Gennet, Musk-Rat, nor any of the Animals, which those who have a subtiler and nicer smell do reckon to have a good scent; but that the reason of this was the defect of their smelling, which was not the Sense they made use of to judge that Panthers had a good Odour, as Ae­lian avows, but only the thoughts that this must be so; this Opinion being founded only on the power which they saw that the Panther had of drawing Animals to it, which was supposed to be no other thing than a smell which was very pleasing and agreeable to them.

The Explication of the Figure of the ELK.

THat which is remarkable in the lower Figure, is the length of the Hair, the greatness of the Ears, and shape of the Eye; the great Canthus or Corner of which is slit a great way, as also the Mouth, which is much wi­der than in the [...], Stagg, and other Animals which have Cloven Feet.

In the Upper Figure.
The first and largest Ventricle.
B B.
A Membrane inclosing that Ventricle, and which might serve for an Epi­ploon.
C C C.
Several Bladders filled with Wind, that were visible in this Membrane.
The beginning of the second Ventricle.
The beginning of the Colon.
The Caecum.
The Cone of the Heart.
One of the Hairs cut crosseways, seen with a Microscope.
The root of that Hair, which is white and transparent,
L L.
The whole Hair magnified, but not so much as the Piece.
One of the Eyes.

[Page 106]



THis Animal, which is by all the Northern Writers called Animal Mag­num; by the Germans, Elland, and by the Modern Naturalists Alces, appeared to us at the first view not to be the Alce, which Caesar mentions in his Commentaries, and which Polybius, Solinus, Pausanias, and Strabo, have likewise described after him, because that our Elk was not found wholly con­formable to the Description which these Authors do give of the Alce. Yet when we consider, that they do not agree, and that the Descriptions which they do make of the Alce, are more different from one another, than that wherein they agree is different from our Elk; we thought that all these con­trarieties, which are found only in some partienlars ill explained, are not ca­pable of hindring our Belief that our Elk, and all the Alces of the Antients are the same thing.

For the Reason of the diversity of these Descriptions of the Antients is, that the Elk lives only in Countries where they had no Commerce. And Pausanias reports, that amongst all Animals, the Alce is the sole one that is unknown to Men, because that he suffers them not to approach him, by rea­son that he scents them at a great distance by the extraordinary subtilty of his smelling. But whether it be by this Reason, or by any other, it appears that Authors have very ill examined the Alce, which they have described. For some have reported, that it has Hair of different Colours, like the generali­ty of Goats; others, that it is all of one Colour, like the Camels; some do make it Horned; others without Horns; some do say that it has no Joynts in the Leggs, and so being unable either to lye down, or rise up, it sleeps lean­ing against a Tree, which the Hunters do saw half through, to make the Elk to tumble down, and to catch him; others, that this is not true of the Elk, but of another Animal called Machlis. All these particulars, how con­trary soever, are found in our Elk: which demonstrates, that these Descrip­tions are not different, because that they are of various Animals; but because that those which made them upon the report of others did not well understand [Page 108] what was told them. For it is true that our Elk had hair like a Camel, that is to say, all of one Colour over all the Body; and it is likewise held that the Hair of all Elks is of divers Colours, but it is at different Seasons of the Year. Indeed our Elk which was dissected in Winter had all the Hair of a Grayish Yellow, which is the Colour of the Camel; and the Northern Historians do say that it changes at Summer, at which time the Hair grows paler, as in Deer, whose Hair is paler in Summer than in Winter; and thus it is probable, that Caesar has reported that the Alce or Elk has Hair of two Colours, upon the relation of those which had seen it in Winter and Summer, and that this diversity having been ill explain'd, he understood it of that which he had re­marked in Goats, the generality of which have at the same time Hair of two Colours.

So when Caesar says that the Alce has no Horns, and which Pausanias at­tributes to it, they have both spoken true, because that it may be that Caesar's Hunters had mett only with Females, which have no Hornes; and that those of Pausanias's time had observed that the Males had Hornes.

As for what concern's the Leggs of the Elk, which are pretended to have no Joynts, altho some Authors report that there are Elk's in Moscovia, whose Leggs are Joyntless, there is great probability that this opinion is founded on what is reported of these Elks of Moscovia, as well as of Caesar's Alce, and Pliny's Machlis, that they have Leggs so stiff and inflexible, that they doe run on Ice witout slipping; which is a way that is reported that they have to save themselves from the Wolves which cannot pursue them; and likewise by reason of the stiffness of the blows which they do give with their Feet, which are so strong, that when they do miss the blow which they do level at some Beast, they do with their hind-feet break the Trees like Mushroom's, as Olaus Magnus reports, and that with their fore-feet they have often run the Hun­ters through.

In fine, that which demonstrates that from this diversitie of Descriptions, which is only in respect of some particulars, it ought not to be concluded that the Elk and Alce are two different sorts of Animals, is that the very Descriptions, which the Moderns do make of the Elk, do not agree together, and are not wholly conformable to what we have observed in our Subject. For some, as Erasmus, Stella, and Sigismundus, do report that the Elk has a Solid Foot like a Horse's, according to Pliny, who makes the Alce wholly to resemble a Horse, except in the Neck and Ears, which are otherwise propor­tioned; Menabenus also, and Ioannes Cajus, do give it a Beard like a Goat, and report that the rest of its Hair is not longer than a Horse's: which is not found in other Authors, nor in our Elk, whose Foot was Cloven, and altoge­ther like that of an Ox. Its Hair was also in every part, not only a great deal longer than in Horses, but it even proportionably surpassed that of Goats without any appearance of a Beard.

We found not that piece of Flesh which Polybius reports, after Strabo, to be under the Chin of the Alce, nor the hairs which some do make on its Neck, and which Gesner averrs to have seen in a figure of an Alce, which was sent to him by Sebastian Munster; but these two particularities being singular to each of these Authors, and no Person haveing spoken thereof save them, they ought not to prejudice the common opinion, which makes no difference be­tween the Alce and the Elk.

[Page 109]But that which more confirms this Opinion, is that all the particulars on which the Antients do agree, are found in our Elk; for they do all consent, that the Alce is an Animal near upon the Stature of the Stagg, which it like­wise resembles by the greatness of the Ears, and littleness of the Tail, as also by the Horns, which are not found in female Elks, nor in Hindes. They do also agree in this, that the Alce differs from the Stag in the length and colour of its Hair, in the greatness of its upper Lip, in the smallness of its Neck, and stiffness of its Legs.

Our Elk exceeded five Foot and a half from the end of the Nose to the be­gining of the Tail, which contained but two Inches in length. It had no Horns, because it was a Female; and the Neck was short, being as broad as long, which was Nine Inches; the Ears were Nine Inches in length and four in breadth; and there is reason to admire, why those who have thought the Alce of the Authors of late Times, which they do take for our Elk, was the Onager, or wild Ass of the Antients, are not grounded upon the resemblance of the Ears, which in their bigness do far surpass those of Staggs, Cows, and Goats, and which have none comparable, save those of Asses, which our Elk did better resemble by these Parts, than by the Hair, or Feet; al­though Scaliger affirms, that the Feet of the Elk are like to those of an Ass, and Stella and Sigismundus report, that there are some Elks whose Feet are solid; but there is ground to believe, if this is true, that it is a thing as singular to some Elks, as it is extraordinary to Horses to have a cloven Foot, and to Hoggs to have it solid, as Pliny reports, that these Animals have in certain Countrys.

As to the Hair, the colour of our Elks differed very little from that of the Asse, the Gray of which sometimes approaches that of the Camel, to which we have in this already compared our Elk; but this Hair was in some places very different from that of the Ass, which is a great deal shorter, and from that of the Camel which is a great deal finer. This Hair was three Inches long; and its bigness equalled that of the coursest Horse Hair. This bigness grew lesser toward the extremity which was pointed; and towards the root it was also staitened, but all at once, making as it were the handle of a Lance. This handle was of another Colour than the rest of the Hair, being diaphanous like the Bristles of a Hog. This transparent Part had at the extremity a little head or rotundity, which was the root; and it seems that this Part, which was finer and more flexible than the rest of the Hair, was so made, to the end that the Hair which was else where very hard, might keep close, and not stand an end. This Hair, cut through the middle, appeared in the Microscope spongy on the inside like a rush; which Gesner explains very ill, when he only says, that it is hollow. This Hair was long as a Bears, but straiter and closer, and all of one sort.

The upper Lip was great, and loosed from the Gums, but not so great as Pliny makes it in the Alce, when he says, that this Beast is forc'd to feed backward, to prevent his Lip from getting between his Teeth. And in the Dissection we observed, that Nature has otherwise provided against this inconveniency, by the means of two great and strong Muscles, which are particularly designed for the raising this upper Lip.

We likewise found the Articulations of the Legs strongly knit together by hard and thick Ligaments. Nevertheless it is true, that if one could believe what is reported of the Elk, that being very subject to the Epilepsie, when [Page 110] it is fallen into a Fit of the Distemper, it is Freed and Cured, by lift­ing one of his Feet unto his Ear, and that the Hoof of this Foot is an infallible Remedy for the Epilepsie. This Animal must have joynts far more supple than those of the Alce have appeared to them that thought it had none, and which we have not found in our Elk, or at least it is necessary that the Convulsions wherewith it is agitated being in this Condition, do make some very strange Efforts on the Ligaments of the joynts, to extend them so far beyond what they ordinarily are. But if Olaus Magnus has writ like an Hi­storian, and if it be not in Raillery that he says that of the two Claws which are at the end of each of the Elk's Feet, that alone which is on the outside of the right Foot, is proper to cure the Epilepsie, there must be supposed a much more admirable Dislocation; and it may be said that the Cure of this Distem­per, by the single touch of the Elk's Claw, when a Ring of it is worn, is not more strange, nor incredible than the Contorsion that must be conceived in this Foot, to make the Claw, (which is on the outside) to be put into the Ear: So that to understand what Olaus means, it is probable that his inten­tion was to deride the imaginary Vertue of the Elk's Foot, and that he has very prudently made use thereof. For being unwilling openly to declare his Opinion, which was contrary to that of the Vulgar, who love Specificks, amongst which the Claw of the Elk's Foot is the most Celebrated; and see­ing that they do not so much esteem the Physitians who do make Profession of using Remedies, as Instruments proper to worke some Cures, as those who do boast of Casting them, if I may so say, in a Mould, by Febrifuges, Anti­pleureticks, Antipodagricks, and Antepilepticks; This great Man explains him­self by a Figure, which leaves those who would be deceived in their Error, without scandalizing them, and which makes others to understand his mean­ing. For the Proverb being that the Eye must be rubbed only with the El­bow when it is sore, to signifie that it must not be touched at all; he has in­timated that there is no Claw of the Elk which infallibly cures the Epilepsie, by saying that there is none but that on the outside of the Foot which the Elk can put into its Ear, that can do it: for he adds this impossible qualifica­tion to a great many others which Authors do mention, and which are very difficult, but absolutely necessary, as it is said, to make this Remedy Operate: as to have been cut off with one blow of an Hatchet, the Animal being alive, on St. Giles's day, from a Male which is at Rut, and has not yet engendred; to manifest that the Impostors which would sell Elks Claws, have added all these difficult qualifications, to the end that those who have experienced the Claw of the Elk, which they made use of, to signifie nothing, may think that it is the want of some one of those Qualifications, which is certainly in that which the Merchant presents them.

Having made these Reflections on the firmness of the Ligaments of the Joynts of the Elk, we observed the Figure of the Eye, the great Canthus or Corner of which was slit downwards, a great deal more then it is in Stags, Fallow-Deer, and wild Goats, but after a fashion very extraordinary, which is, that this slit was not according to the length of the Eye, but made an Angle with the line which goes from one of the corners of the Eye to the other. The Dissecti­on discovered to us that this slit was proportioned to the Glandul [...] Lachrymalis, which was found to contain an inch and a half in length and seven lines in breadth.

[Page 111]The internal parts had something resembling those of an Ox, especially in that which concerns the four Ventricles and Intestines. Nevertheless these Parts had this particular, that the first and greatest Ventricle was partly inclo­sed by a Membrane like a Sack, which having abundance of Vessels might pass for the Epiploon; and that instead of the Glands and Fat, which is usually in this part, there was only towards the top some Bladders full of wind about the bigness of a Chesnut. The Intestines, which were forty eight foot long, had a Caecum without an Appendix, which was thirteen inches long, and five broad. It nearly resembled the Figure of a Man's.

The Liver was small, not exceeding one foot in length and seven inches in breadth. It was whole, without Lobes, and even without any appear­ance of the cleft which is over the Cartilago Xiphoides. It was so joyned to the Diaphragme, that it was impossible to separate it from its convex part without cutting it. It had no Gall-Bladder, and it was all over, and even to the bottom of its Parenchyma, of a gray and livid Colour.

The Spleen was likewise very small, being no more than eight inches long and six broad. The Substance of these two Viscera seemed very smooth and Homogeneous: but the Kidneys were in their external Substance spotted with two different Colours, which made it to appear rough like Chagrin, tho to the touch nothing felt rugged. They were not adherent to the Loyns by the Duplicature of the Peritoneum, but fastned only by their Vessels.

The Lungs were divided into seven Lobes, of which there was three on each side, and one at the middle in the Cavity of the Mediastinum. The in­feriour Lobes were each as big again as the superiour.

The Heart was seven inches long, and five broad. Its Figure was pointed, and from the basis to the point there was an Eminence obliquely turned like a Screw, which Eminence answered to the Separation of the two Ventricles, so that it seemed to be a fold of the external part of the right Ventricle upon the left. This Eminence, which is scarcely visible in the Heart of other Ani­mals, was extraordinarily apparent in this. The Septum and rest of the Pa­renchyma of the Heart, which environed the left Ventricle, had the thickness of an inch. The Rings of the Aspera Art [...]ria were imperfect.

The Brain, comprehending the Cerebell [...]m, was but four inches in length, and two and a half in breadth. The smallness of this part compared with the greatness of the Glandula Lacrymalis, (which, as has been said, was an inch long,) seemed to us as an Argument capable of confirming the Opinion of those who believe that the greatest part of the Glands which are about the Brain do not receive from it the Humidities, wherewith they usually are im­bued; but that they are brought to them by the Arteries, or by the Nerves, from which they do receive the Matter, whereof they do make the Lympha. The Curiosity which we had of exactly seeking out the Ductus's designed to receive and convey these Humours, which must be very visible in a part so extraordinary large, could not be satisfied, by reason of the corruption of our Subject, which had been kept so long, that all the Parts began to dissolve with Putrifaction.

The Substance of the Brain differed not from that of the Cerebellum, both being very white, and firm enough, notwithstanding the Corruption, to make it appear very sound, in an Animal so subject to some Distempers, whose [Page 112] seat is placed in the Brain: which according to Cardan, is colder, moister, and more Phlegmatick in this Animal than in any other.

The Glandula Pinealis was of an extraordinary size, exceeding three lines in length, like that which we found in the Dromedary; but its Figure was Conical as usually, whereas the Glandula of the Dromedary had the form of a Trefoile. This greatness, which to us seemed very considerable, in regard of the smalness of the rest of the Brain, made us to think that those who, following Erasistratus, do attribute to the different Formation of the Organs of the Brain the divers Operations of the interiour Senses, might fortifie them­selves in their Opinion by some such like Observations; considering that Lions, Bears, and other fierce and cruel Beasts, have this part so little, that it is almost imperceptible; and that it is very great in those which are timerous like the Elk, which is held to be so fearful, that it dies with fear, when it has recei­ved the least wound: and it is observable that he never recovers when he sees the smallest drop of his own Blood.

In the Brain we likewise found another part, whose bigness had relation to the smelling, which is more exquisite in the Elk than in any other Animal, according to the Testimony of Pausanias, as has been already declared: For the Processus Mammillares, which are thought to be the Organs of that Sense, were without comparison greater than in any Animal that we have Dissected, being above four lines in Diameter.

The Explication of the Figure of the Coati Mondi.

THe lower Figure represents the different Colours of its Hair, which is lighter under the Belly, and Stomach, than on the Back, and Paws. It is also necessary to be advertized, that the Snout is somewhat more crooked than it was when the Dissection was made, designedly to express the mobi­lity which was there observed, and the great facility which it had to be rai­sed upwards. The Tail is bent downwards, because it was found thus dispo­sed in the dead Animal. Yet Authors do say that the Coati uses to carry his Tail very erect.

In the Upper Figure.
The Dens Caninus, in form of a Tusk.
B B.
The Tongue.
C C.
The Os Penis.
The right hind-foot.
The Spurs of the Heel. All as big as the Life.

[Page 114]



THE Coati is an Animal of Brazile, which is variously described by Na­turalists; and their Descriptions do not exactly agree with what we have observed in ours: which may cause a belief that there are several Spe­cies of them. Deleri in his Voyage of Brazile gives it a Snout a Foot long, round as a stick, and as small at the beginning as towards the end, very like the Proboscis or Trunk of an Elephant, to which Margravius also compares this Snout: but in his Figure he makes it like that of our Coati, which had nothing of an Elephant's. Trunck but its mobility, which is scarce otherwise than that of a Hog. In the Kings Library, amongst a vast number of Ani­mals painted in Miniature with a great deal of exactness, there is the Figure of a Coati which some of the Society saw alive; which though it resembles ours, yet is different in some very considerable particulars, such as are the shape of the Teeth and Feet, which were very extraordinary in our Subject: but notwithstanding it is found to have sufficient resemblance to the Figure which Margravius, Laet, and Deleri have given thereof, and to that which is in the Kings Library, to make it thought to be a kind of Coati.

It was in all thirty five inches and a half; viz. six inches and a half from the end of the Snout to the hinder part of the Head, and sixteen inches from the Occiput to the beginning of the Tail, which was thirteen inches long. From the top of the Back to the extremity of the fore-Feet was ten inches; and there was twelve to the end of the hind-feet. Its Snout was very long, and movable like that of a Hog; but it was straiter and longer in proportion. Its motion was more evident than in the Hog, its Snout easily turning up­wards.

The four Paws had each five Toes, the Claws of which were black, long, crooked, and hollow like those of the Castor. The Toes of the fore-Paws were a little longer than those of the hind-Paws, which were like to those of the Bear, excepting that the whole sole was without Hair, wherewith the Heel [Page 116] of the Bear is covered. The Palms and Soles of these four Paws were cove­red with a soft and tender skin as in the Ape; and this softness of skin was the only thing which our Subject had of the Ape, to which we found it had no other resemblance, although it was given us for a Sagoin, which is a kind of Mon­ky: for its Tail, whose length in some sort resembled the Tail of the Apes, which are called Cercopitheci, was different therefrom in the length of the Hair, which is a great deal shorter in the Tail of Apes proportionably to their Body. The sole of the hinder-paws was long, having a Heel, at the extremity of which there were several Scales a line broad, and five or six long. They grew out behind, heaped together like a Marigold, when it closes it self at Night.

The Hair was short, rough and knotty. It was blackish on the Back, in some places of the Head, and at the end of the Paws and Snout. As for the rest of the Body it was mix'd with Black and Red, yet so that the bot­tom of the Belly and Throat was of a deeper Red in some places than in others. The Tail was covered with a Hair of these two Colours, which formed several Circles, or Knots, the one Black, and the other mix'd with Black and Red.

The Tongue was chop'd with several Fissures or Strokes, which made it to resemble the top of a leaf of a Tree.

The Eyes were very small, like a Pigs. The Ears were round like those of Rats; and covered at the top with a very short hair, but in the inside with a longer, and whiter.

There were six Incisores in each Jaw. The Canini were very large, especially those of the lower Jaw. Their Figure had something more par­ticular, not being round, blunt, and white as in a Dog, Wolf, or Lion, but sharp by the means of three Angles, which at the extremity formed a point sharp like an Aule. They were grayish, and somewhat transparent. The Gula was large, and cleft as a Hogs; and the lower Jaw was also as in a Hog, very much shorter than the upper.

Now there was not found any of these particulars in the Sagoin; and these two Animals having nothing common save the Country wherein they do breed, which is Brazile, we have found no Description in the Authors which have treated of the particular Animals of America Meridionalis, which fuites better to what we have observed in our Subject, than that of the Animal which Margravius and Laet in their Brazilian History do call Coati, which is a Genus whereof they do make two Species; the one has Red Hair all over the Body, and is simply called Coati; the other has only the Belly and Stomach of this Colour, which they do call Coati Mondi.

In the Description which these Authors do make of this Animal, the marks which we have there described, and which we have met with in our Subject, do all occurr except the Teeth and Scales, which are at its Heels, which they have not mentioned, and the Tail, which in their Coati's they do make much longer than the rest of the Body. But Laet reports that these Animals used to bite off their Tail, and that they do live on it some time, which at last they do wholly devour, and then die. It might be that ours so shortned his. They do likewise say that the Coati's have hands made like those of Monkies: which appeared not in our Subject, whose feet were otherwise very like to the Fi­gure which Margravius has inserted in his Book.

[Page 117]By the Dissection we found, that under the Skin, and between the Mus­cles there was a great deal of Fat, white and hard like Tallow. The Penis was hid in a passage an inch deep, and as much broad, whose Aperture was under the Belly, about four Fingers distant from the Anus. This Penis was provided with a Bone, whose length did in proportion exceedingly surpass that of the Bones which are found in the Penis of other Animals which have it. It was thick at both ends, and had a Figure resembling the Bone of a Pullets Thigh. Along the Penis there were two Veins very large▪ and full of Blood, which went to the Balanus. The Testicles were like to those of Dogs.

The Epiploon was very small. It had little Fat, and was a complication of Fibres and Fillets rather than a Membrane. It was not laid upon the In­testines, but tucked upon the Ventricle.

The Spleen was two inches and a half long. It was of a Dark-red at the side of the Stomach in its hollow part, and Blackish at the extremity in its gib­bous part. There was not observed any Vessels in the external Membrane of the Ventricle, except the Coronaria Stomachica, which appeared towards the upper Orifice, and soon disappeared, shooting forth a few Branches.

The Liver was somewhat blackish, and of a Substance very Homogeneous, without any appearance of Glands. It had seven Lobes, two great ones on the left side, and five other small ones on the right side. The Bladder was between the two upper Lobes.

The Pancreas, which was fastned along the Duodenum, inclining more to­wards the right Kidney than towards the Spleen, was very small. The Me­sentery was all filled with a very hard Fat, which inclosed, and almost concealed all its Vessels.

The Intestines contained in all seven foot in length. They were all of one thickness, and had nothing which might distinguish them from each other; there was no Caecum.

The right Kidney was a great deal higher than the left, so that two Lobes of the Liver covered it.

The Lungs had five Lobes; two on the right side, and two on the left, which were somewhat smaller; and a fifth in the Mediastinum.

The Heart, which resembled that of a Dog, had the right Auricle extreme­ly great. In the right Ventricle, and in the right Auricle, there was found a great deal of slimie matter, hardened.

The Musculus Crotophites, passing under the Zygoma, was fastned there. It was extraordinary fleshie, even to its insertion, which is made by a very large tendon, which was inclosed between two pieces of Flesh, much thicker than those which are generally found in this place, and which are thought to be there put to defend and strengthen the tendon of the Muscle of the Temples.

The Orbita was not Bony throughout, but it was supplied in the upper part, by a Crrtilaginous Ligament, which joyned the Apophysis of the Os Frontis to that of the first Bone in the upper Jaw.

The Bone which separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum, was as in Dogs. The Dura Mater was very adherent to the Cranium. The Sinus's of the Os Frontis were full of a matter like a fryable Fat. The Mamillares Processus were very large.

[Page 118]The Globe of the Eye exceeded not four lines and a half in Diameter. The Aperture of the Eye-lids was larger, and the Pupilla it self was not lesser than the whole Globe of the Eye. The Crystalline contained three lines in breadth, and two and a half in thickness, and was more convex inwards than outwards. This thickness of the Crystalline made the two other Humours to be less in quantity. The Choroides was all over of the same colour, viz. of a very brown-red, without any Tapetum, which is hardly ever wanting in the Eyes of other Animals.


[Page 119] The Explication of the Figure of the SEA-CALF.

THE lower Figure shews the difference that there is between the Fore­feet, which are locked up under the skin except the Paws, and hind feet, which are joyned together, having the form of a Fishes Tail. It may be likewise observed that the Ears do seem to have been cut off, having no external Ears.

In the Upper Figure.
The Trunck of the Vena Cava.
The Trunck of the Aorta.
The Venae and Arteriae Adiposae.
Ren Succenturiatus.
The right Kidney strip'd of the Membrana Adiposa, and divided by the Gib­bous part.
Four small particular Pelves.
The Emulgent Vessels of the right Kidney.
The Emulgent Vessels of the left Kidney.
The left Kidney covered with its Membrana Adiposa.
The left Spermatick Vein which generally enters into the Emulgent, but which has three other Branches which do fasten it to the Membrana Adiposa.
The Ventricle, half of which is taken away to represent the Structure of the Internal Membrane, whose wrinckles are undulated and waved in the upper part, and strait in the Lower.
The Liver. N. The Gall-Bladder.
The Heart.
The Vena Cava, which runs along by the Basis of the Heart.
The Auricles of the Heart.
The Aorta making the Cross.
The right Arteria Axillaris.
The left Axillaris.
The Artery of the Lungs.
The Carotides.
The Nervi Recurrentes.
The Vena Cava opened at the place where it is fastned to the Heart.
The hole which penetrates into the right Ventricle.
The Oval hole which penetrates into the Vein of the Lungs.
An edge made by the Interiour Membrane of the Vena Cava.
One of the Hairs of the Beard represented twice as big as the Life.
Part of the Sclerotica, which with the Cornea not represented makes the half of the Eye cut in two.
The Crystalline.
The Vitreous Humour.
The other half of the Eye.
The Extremity of the Optick Nerve, which enters directly at the Axis of the Eye.
Three Branches of Blood-Vessels which do enter into the Eye with the Optick Nerve, and which are ramified in the Retina.
The Tongue.


RONDELETIVS has observ'd that the Sea-Calfe is of two Species, one of which is found in the Mediterranean, and the other in the Ocean. But he makes no other difference between each of these two Species than the habit of the Body, which he reports to be fuller in the Sea-Calfe of the Ocean than in that of the Mediterranean, which is not so thick and short as the other. The Sea-Calfe whose description we make had more resemblance with this second Species than with the first.

It had a long Neck and the Head farther distant from the Shoulders than it is in the Calfe of the Ocean, so as it is represented in the figures we have of it; and the rest of the Body was likewise straiter. The Breast was broad by reason of the situation of the Omoplata, which were forwarder than they are in other Animals, which have the Breast Pointed and narrow when the Omoplata are backwarder. The whole Animal was twenty eight Inches in length from the Nose to the end of the hind-Feet, which according to the disposition that they Naturally have in this Animal, were extended and joyn­ed one to the other; having in this only the forme of a Fish's Tail, according to the Description of Aristotle, which is contrary to that of Rondeletius, who represents the Sea-Calf, as well that of the Ocean as of the Mediterrrnean, without hind-feet, and who reprehends Aristotle for reporting that this Animal has Toes on the hind-feet like to those of the fore-feet; so that it seems that Rondeletius has confounded the true Sea-Calfe or Phoca of the Ancients, with the Sea-Ox of the West-Indies which has no hind-feet, but only a misha­pen Fish-Tail, which it makes use of for Swiming, which it performes with a very great Swiftness, according to Clusius, who says that he saw one which the Hollanders had brought from the Indies.

The Sea-Calfe which we describe had not only two hind-feet, but besides that a Tail of an Inch and a half long, which Aristotle justly compares to the Tail of a Stagg. Tis true that the Toes of these feet were not so shaped nor [Page 121] so distinct as in the fore-feet, and that these two feet thus extended as they were, and joyned one against the other had rather the Forme of a Fishe's Tail, than that of the feet of Animals which have any, and which they commonly bend under the Belly. These feet were like to those of a Ducker, which cannot walk like other Birds, by holding their Body parallel to the ground, but which are forc't to go upright like man.

Aristotle says that the feet of the Sea-Calfe resemble Hands: his meaning is that the fore-feet of this Animal, in stead of the three parts which do com­pose the Arme of a Man, viz. the Arme, Cubitus, and Hand, have only the last correspondent to the hand of Man, so that this Part proceeds immedi­ately from the Breast. The Sea Ox of the Western Islands, which is a kind of Sea-Calf of a prodigious bigness, is there called Manaty; because that accor­ding to Oviedo's remarks, it has only the fore-feet, which by the Spaniards are in all Animals commonly called Hands. In our Subject the Brachium and Cubitus were inclosed and lockt up under the Skin which covered the Breast; and there was only the Paws which came outwards. These Paws thus clo­sed and contracted did not seem to us sufficient to serve the Female to im­brace her Young, as Oppian reports that she do's, when she carry's them to Sea: They did likewise appear, even as the hind-feet, fitter for swiming than walk­ing; altho' in truth, neither the one nor the other of these feet could well serve to walk conveniently. Aelian has observed, that the Females have a great care of carrying and frequently recarrying their Young Ones, some­times into the Sea, and sometimes on Land▪ it is probable, that this is to teach them to Swim, and walk, by a long Exercise, which produces a ha­bit capable of supplying the conveniences which Nature has denyed them. 'Tis likely that Homer calls the Sea-Calves Nepodes, by reason it may be said, that they do Swim with Feet, and walk with Fins, and not because they have no Feet, as Eustathius explains it. These Feet had Claws which were not so necessary for swiming as they are for walking. So that it seems, that Nature, who has made the Sea-Calf to live like the Castor, on Land and in the Water, has given Organs to each of these Animals to go with more or less ease, according as it has designed them to be more generally in the one or o­ther of these Elements; for the Sea-Calf, which is oftner in the Sea, than on Land, walks not with so much ease and facility as the Castor; and the Castor Swims not so easily as the Sea-Calf, because it goes into the Water on­ly to catch Fish, and makes not its common residence there.

For these very Reasons, the Heart and Lungs of the Sea-Calf have a par­ticular conformation, to inable this Animal to continue a long time under Water without breathing, as shall hereafter be explained; but the Castor which stays not long in the Water, has not this particular formation of the Heart; at least we have not found it in the two Castors which we dissected, the one whereof was of Canada, the other of France.

The Head was not short and round, as Rondeletius describes it, and its Nose was long enough to make it resemble the Head of a Calf. But the Eyes were not like those of a Calf, which has them full, and as it were standing out of the Head; for those of our Subject were hid, and as it were sunk into their Orbites, whose upper Edge was not raised, as it is in the Calf. Nevertheless thes [...] Eyes were large, containing fifteen Lines Diameter. There was an in­ternal Eye-lidd to cover the Eye; it was drawn up and hid in the great Can­thus.

[Page 122]Over the Eyes there wanted those long Hairs which Rondeletius and Seve­rinus do there place, and it only had some at the sides of the Nose, which were of a very peculiar Figure, being square and flatted with knots from space to space, and very close to one another, as it is represented in the Fi­gure.

Beyond the Eyes there were holes for the internal Ears as in Birds, and there were no external ones. Aristotle has observed that this is peculi­ar to the Sea-Calf, which among all viviparous Animals, is the sole one that has internal, and no external Ears.

The whole skin was covered with a short Hair, very like to that of the Land-Calf. Silvaticus dos [...]ill compare it to that of the Goat which is very long. Its Colour was between a Gray and Yellow, somewhat fainter towards the Belly than towards the Back, which was chequered with Spots, about the bigness of ones Nail, of a dark-red. Pliny reports that this Hair, a long time after that the Skin has been flead, retains such a simpathy with the Sea, that it follows its motions, and that sometimes it stares, sometimes is smooth, as the Sea swells or is abated by its flux and reflux. Severinus declares that he had seen this Miracle; but he expresses it with such excess, that it is the less credible. He says, that when the North-wind blows, the Hairs which were raised by the South-wind are not only laid, but do wholly disappear. Cardan affirms that this Property, which had passed for Fabulous, was found true in the Indies. Experience has demonstrated to us that this Miracle is never seen at Paris. For having kept and observed this Skin for several Months, we found that the Hair was in all weathers of the same highth and situa­tion.

The Skin was hard and thick. Pliny says that it is impossible to kill the Sea-Calf but by breaking its Head. The Historians of the West-Indies do re­port that the Skin of the Manati being Tanned is above an inch thick, and that thereof is made the Soles of Shooes.

The Teeth which were long and sharp in both the Jaws, were very unlike to those of the Calf, and do better resemble the Teeth of a Wolf. So that the Spaniards and Germans have reason to call this Animal the Sea-Wolf. Besides, the mild and heavie disposition of the Land-Calf has very lit­tle resemblance with that of the Sea-Calf, which Naturalists report to be Crafty, Bold, and Couragious, living on Rapine, having the Industry of As­sembling with its Kind, to attack the greatest Fishes, and strength enough to defend it self on Land against the Bear: which is hardly credible of the Calves of the Stature of ours, and can agree only with those which are ta­ken near England, which according to Gesner are as great as the Bears; or ra­ther with those whereof Gomara Oviedo, Pedro Ciesa, and the last relations of the Ant-Isles do speak, which are of a size so Prodigious, that there are found some twenty foot long and seven thick. But Names are most frequently given to Fish by reason of some resemblances that they have, as it is pretended, to cer­tain things, whether that Similitude be taken from their shape, or dispositions. Thus the Sea-Sheep has this Appellation, because it is white, and has crook­ed Horns like that of the Land; and the Sea-Calf is by some called a Wolf, by reason that it lives on Rapine. Nevertheless by this reason it should be called a Sheep, if compared to the Sea-Sheep; and the Sea-Sheep ought on the [Page 123] contrary to be called a Wolf, because that according to Aelian, the Sea-Sheep hunts the Sea-Calves, and devours them.

The Tongue was very like to that of a Calf, being large, flat, and smooth. It was forked, and cut in two at the end, as Aristotle has remarqued; but not double, round, and small, as in Serpents, and Lizards, as Pliny describes it.

The Larynx had a particular formation, the Epiglottis being proportiona­bly larger than in other Animals; it went half an inch in length beyond the Glottis, to cover it. It is probable that this is done more exactly to close the entrance of the Aspera Arteria, when this Animal eats his Prey at the bottom of the Sea, and to hinder the water from running into its Lungs.

The Ventricle was in form of an Intestine, which was contracted towards its two Orifices. Severinus describes it round like an Ostrich's Egg. The in­teriour Membrane was folded, and made several wrinckles. Severinus de­scribes it without wrinckles. These wrinckles from the Superiour Orifice to the middle of the Ventricle were waved, and from thence unto the Pylorus they were strait. This seems to have some resemblance with the Ventricles of A­nimals which chew the Cud, in which the wrinckles of the lower Ventricle are strait, and according to the length of the Ventricle; whereas in the upper they are transversal and oblique.

In the inside of the Ventricle there was found a round bottom of the Sea-herb called by the Sea-men Wreck, which is a kind of Fucus. This clue or bottom was of the bigness and shape of a Nut. It closed the upper Orifice of the Ventricle, insomuch that it seemed that this round lump had been push'd into this Orifice by the effort of an extraordinary compression, and by the contraction of the Ventricle.

The Liver had six Lobes, two great ones underneath and behind, and four small ones at the top and before. The Gall-bladder was between the great right Lobe behind, and the first of the small ones which are before of the same side. Belonius reports according to Aristotle, that the Sea-Calf has no Gall. Pliny would have it in the Breast; which agrees not with what he re­lates, that this Animal vomits up its Gall when pursued by the Fisher-men, by reason of the knowledge he has that he is taken only for his Gall, which is profitable for the Cure of several Diseases: for it would be impossible for him to vomit up this Gall which is in his Breast, it being incredible that he can un­derstand the intentions of the Fishermen: unless that this Sagacity be pecu­liar to it, and other Amphibia, such as are the Castor, Serpents, and Frogs, which this same Author reports to take care to get rid of the things for which they are sought after; so that the Castor tears off the Pouches wherein is con­tained the Medicinal Liquor of the Castoreum, the Serpents do swallow the precious Skin which they do cast at the Spring, the Frogs do daily vomit up certain Salutiferous Liquors which are ingendred in their Bodies, for fear of being killed for this Liquor.

The Kidneys resembled not those of the Otter, as Rondeletius says, because the Kidneys of the Otter are composed of several small separate ones, which have each their Emulgent Vessels and particular Ureters, as is represented in the Figure of the Kidneys of the Bear. The Kidneys of our Subject were more like to the Kidneys of the Land-Calf, being cleft at top only in their Surface by chops which did not sink very deep: but these chops were much more [Page 124] numerous than in the Land-Calf, and they made this Kidney to seem compo­sed of several Glands joyned together. These Kidneys did likewise differ from those of the Land-Calf, in that besides the great Pelvis which is in the gibbous part of that Kidney, there were several other small ones scattered in several places in the Substance of the Kidney, insomuch that it seemed that every of these small Pelves appertained to each of the little particular Kidneys of which the great one was composed, and that the Parenchyma of every of these particular Kidneys made but one single Mass. The Membra­na Adiposa of the Kidney was all interspersed with very visible Vessels, which made Rondeletius to say that the Emulgents enter not into the Cavity of the Kidney in the Sea-Calf as in other Animals, but that they are distributed over the whole Body of the Kidney. The greatest part of these Vessels in the left Kidney were the Branches, or rather the Roots of the Spermatick Vein, which by reuniting did form three great Branches, which the Trunck of the Spermatick Vein, that proceeds from the Emulgent, did by the way receive. This left Kidney was accompanied with a Succenturiatus, which was about the bigness of a Filbert, and immediately adhering to the Trunck of the Vena Cava.

The Lungs had but one Lobe on each side, which was only a little trans­versly cut through the middle.

The Heart was round and flat. Its Ventricles appeared very large, and its Auricles very small. The Trunck of the Aorta proceeded from the Heart two inches in length before it returned downwards. Underneath the great Aper­ture through which the Trunck of the Vena Cava conveyed the blood into the right Ventricle of the Heart, there was another which penetrated into the Arteria Venosa, and from thence into the left Ventricle, and afterwards into the Aorta. This hole, which is called the Foramen Ovale in the Foetus, makes the Anastomosis by the means of which the blood goes from the Cava into the Aorta without passing through the Lungs; and it is apparently for the same use that this passage is found in the Sea-Calf and Foetus, by reason of the ne­cessity which each have of living without respiration, viz. the Foetus whilst in the Womb of its Mother, and the Sea-Calf whilst under water. Which demonstrates that Respiration is necessary for the Circulation, and that the Blood which the Lungs have received from one of the Ventricles of the Heart by being dilated, is afterwards thrust into the other Ventricle by the compression of the Heart. And it is probable that the facility which the Sea-Calf has of Diving a long time under water, must rather be attributed to this particular formation of the Vessels of the Heart and Lungs, than to the small­ness of the Lungs, which is the reason that Pliny alledges.

Between these two holes which were in the Trunck of the Vena Cava, there was a Membranous separation made by a fold of the interiour Coat of the Vein.

In the Ventricles of the Heart, and in the Lungs, there was found great store of Blood. Pliny reports that these parts in the Sea-Calf do contain less blood than in other Animals. This blood being kept congealed very firmly.

Aristotle and Pliny do affirm that the Bones of the Sea-Calf are Cartilagi­nous: we found that they were real Bones very hard, especially those of the Cranium. The Dura Mater was fastned to the Skull, and redoubled to make [Page 125] the Falx. There was a bone between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum like as in Dogs and other Animals which do live by Rapine, and which do eat Flesh, and not Grass, like the Calf. This Bone was flat and pointed, and not round and massie, so as that which is found in the Head of the Lamantin, which is a kind of Sea-Calf of the West-Indies, and which is held to be a Bone which has a peculiar Vertue for dissolving the Stone of the Kidneys and Bladder.

The Sinuosities and Cavities of the Brain were as in the Calf: but there was more of the Cerebellum proportionably than there is in the head of a Calf; which is unusual in Fishes, which have very little Cerebellum. The Glandula Pinealis was two lines in length and little less in breadth. Natural-lists have observed that this Animal participates nothing of the Stupidity of Fishes, but that it equalls the most subtill Sagacity of Terrestrial Animals. Pliny testifies that there were shewn some at Rome which answered when they were called, and which with voice and gesture saluted the People in the Theatres. Gomara makes mention of a Manati, or Sea-Calf of the Indies of a prodigious size, which being tamed, did come when it was called by its name, and carried ten men upon its Back in a Lake where an Indian Prince kept it. Aldrovandus reports that he saw one which did Sing for the Christi­an Princes and not for the Turks.

The Crystalline was almost Sphaerical after the usual manner of Fishes, and the more convex part was before, contrary to what is usual. The whole Choroides was besmeared with a white and very opake substance. In the Re­tina there were three branches of blood-vessels, which did enter into the Eye with the Optick Nerve, and were spread over the whole Membrane. This Optick Nerve did enter into the middle of the Eye, and its entrance was di­rectly opposite to the Crystalline.

These two Remarks are favourable to the Opinion of those which do hold that the reception of the visual Species is made on the surface of the Retina and not the Choroides; because that the Vessels which being spread into the Retina are laid upon the Choroides, must, by reason of their Opacity, oppose the passage of the visual Species, and hinder them from going to the Choroi­des: which these Vessels do not in regard of the Retina because, that it covers them with its surface which terminates and locks up the Vitreous Humour. The Situation of the Optick Nerve which was found in the Axis of the Eye, and which by consequence did directly receive the visual Species, seems to de­monstrate that it is not the Choroides which receives the Species, see­ing that there is no Choroides at the principal place where the Species do fall; but that it is the Retina which is extended over the Optick Nerve as well as on all the other places on which the Species may fall.

The left Eye was contracted, and a great deal less than the right; and was found to have been hurt, the Humours being half suppurated. In the Eyes of this Subject there was not found the thousand Colours which Natualists report to be there observable.

The Explication of the Figure of the Barbary Cow.

THE lower Figure is to discover the extraordinary length of the Head, the situation of the Eyes which are very high, the winding of the Horns, the length of the Neck, the Bunch which the Shoulders do form on the Back, that which is at the Sternum as in the Camel, the smallness of the Tail, and other particularities which do render the Figure of the Animal dif­ferent from the ordinary Cow.

In the Upper Figure.
Is the great Ventricle.
B B B.
The three other Ventricles.
C C.
The Origine of the Epiploon.
D D.
The Pancreas.
A part of the Aspera Arteria in its natural bigness.
[...]. [...] [...].
The Membranous part of the Aspera Arteria on which the Oesophagus lies, and which is towards the Vertebrae of the Neck.
e e e e.
The Extremities of the half Rings of the Aspera Arteria flatted and in­larged, making as it were the Wings which do cover the Extremitys of the other half Rings which are underneath, and are represented by f f f.
g g.
The hollow and Chanellated part of the half Rings.
F F.
The Liver.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Trunck of the Vena Porta fastned to the Liver.
Half of the Trunck of the Vena Porta loosed from the Liver, to discover its interiour surface.
I I.
The holes of the branches of the Vena Porta which do enter into the Substance of the Liver, with the Valves which do half shut them.
The Head seen in another Aspect than that of the lower Figure, to represent the particular winding of the Horns.
L L L L L.
The five small Lobes of the Lungs.
M M.
The two great Lobes.
The Ligament which fastens the two great Lobes to one another.

[Page 126]



THis Animal was about the size of a Cow. Its Hair was of a Fox-red, paler towards the point than the root. It was a little shorter than it commonly is in Cows, and almost of the same bigness towards the point as the root: which is contrary to the Hair of Animals, which is most frequently bigger towards the root than towards the other end. Yet we have before re­marqued an irregularity opposite to this in the Hair of an Elk, which was a great deal smaller towards the root than towards the middle.

The disposition of the Body, Legs, and Neck made it better to resemble a Stag than a Cow, of which it had only the Hornes, which were in a great ma­ny things different from those of Cows. They were each of them a foot long, and took their rise very near one another, by reason the Head was in this part exceeding narrow. They were very thick, bent backward, black, wreathed like a Screw, and worn before and at top, so that the raised parts which formed the Screw, were there wholly effaced. The Tail was larger at its beginning than towards its end, after the manner of all the cloven foot­ed Quadrupeds of Barbary which we have Dissected. It exceeded not thirteen Inches in length comprehending a tuft of black hair three inches long, which it had at its extremity. The Ears were seated not at top of the Temples, and underneath the Horns as in Cows, but more backward: as for the rest they were like to the Ears of the Gazella, being covered in the inside with a white Hair in some places, the rest being bald, and discovering a skin perfectly black and smooth. The Eyes were so high and so near the Horns, that the Head seemed to have almost no fore-head.

The Teats were very little, very short, and only two in number: which rendred them different from those of Cows. The Shoulders were very high, making a bunch at the beginning of the Back. There was another bunch opposite to this of the Back, viz. at the bottom of the Sternum, like as in the Camel.

[Page 128]We found that all the particulars which are observed in this Animal were seen in the Bubalus which Aldrovandus describes, and the Figure of which was sent him by Horatius Fontana. There is only the bunch of the Sternum which neither Aldrovandus nor Fontana do speak of. It is probable that this Animal ought rather to be taken for the Bubalus of the Ancients, than the lit­tle African Ox which Belonius describes: for Aristotle compares the Bubalus to the Stagg. Aelian reports that it is very nimble footed; Oppian attributes to it Horns bent backward; and Pliny averrs that it altogether resembles a Calf and a Stagg. But there is not found any of these marks in the Animal which Belonius describes, and they all occurr in the Animal which we speak of, as may be easily demonstrated, if reflection be made on all the particulars be­fore remarqued. But it is no wonder that Belonius is deceived in attributing to his little Ox the name of Bubalus, seeing that Pliny testifies that even in his time this word and appellation was very equivocal, and that it was given to Animals which had no similitude with the Bubalus.

As for the inward parts, the Epiploon inclosed and covered the Ventricles. It was Composed of a Membrane very thin, but continued and not pierced. The Vessels were included in a thick Caul. Its Ligatures were fastned to the two last Ventricles, viz. from the Pylorus to the second Ventricle, to the up­per part which touches the Diaphragme, and from thence it extended over the two first, by bending it self towards the left side.

The Ventricles were in number four. The first and greatest was velveted with an infinite number of small Teats, which made the exteriour surface of the internal Membrane of this Ventricle, as it is in the generality of other Ani­mals which chew the Cud: but this Membrane was easily separable from the external as in the Gazella. The second Ventricle had its internal Membrane in form of Net-work; and this Net-work, as in Sheep, was nothing else but the Folds of this Membrane, which was looser than the external; and these folds were of different Figures, some Triangular, others Square, and others Pentagonal. The third, as usual had its internal Membrane much looser than the second, and the folds which it had were more raised, but they were all ranged long-wise, making as it were leaves indented. The Fourth, which alone was greater than the Second and Third together, was likewise filled with Leaves; but they were without indentures, and their Situation was transverse, as it were to stop and retain the Nourishment a longer time. Such a Structure has been observed in the Sea-Fox, where the Cavity of the In­testine was interrupted by Membranes transversly situated, and disposed like a Snail-shell or Newel of a winding Stair-case; and this very transverse Situa­tion of Leaves has been found in the Coecum of Apes, in the Colon of Hares, and Rabits, in the Colons and two Caecums of Ostriches, and in the Iejunum of Man: The Colour of this last Ventricle was very different from that of the others, being of a very darkred.

The Intestines were all together seventy and eight feet. The Caecum was eighteen inches long, and three broad. It had a Nervous Ligament, which nevertheless caused not any Cells.

The Pancreas was fastened along the little Ventricles. The Spleen was ten inches in length and four in breadth. It was half joyned to the Ven­tricle.

[Page 129]The Liver was round and without Lobes, Being only a little cleft before and behind. In the Trunk of the Vena Porta there was observed little Mem­branes in form of Valves, which half covered the holes of the branches which do carry the blood from the Trunck of the Porta into the Substance of the Liver, to hinder it from returning into the Trunck. These Valves which have not been yet seen in the Liver of any Animal, are very favoura­ble to the Pulsation, which Glisson attributes to the branches which the Porta casts into the Liver: for this pulsation, which he thinks to be communicated to them by the Arteries, which are joyned and fastened to them by the assi­stance of a Capsula, which incloses the Vein with the Artery: this Capsula ha­ving a particular motion of constriction, is not easie to conceive without these Valves; it being hard for the blood lock'd up in these Veins to form any pulsation when it is struck by the dilatation of the neighbouring Arteries, if not inclosed and retained by some adjoyning obstacle, such as is that of the Valves; otherwise it will necessarily flow back into the Trunck, and Branches which do convey the blood thither: for the impetuosity of the motion of this blood towards the trunck cannot supply this obstacle, as Glisson pretends, by reason of the weakness of the Tunicle of the Veins, which do bring this blood into the Trunck: for these Veins would have more need of a Capsula to be strengthned, than the branches which are in the Liver, the Parenchyma whereof might be sufficient to strengthen them. So that it seems that for want of these Valves, the beating would be much greater in the Branches which do convey the Blood into the Trunck of the Vena Porta, than in those which do distribute it into the Substance of the Liver; and that this beating must be as contrary to the motion of the blood contained in these branches, as advantagious to that which must be distributed in the Liver.

The Gall-bladder was at the extremity and on the edge of the hollow part on the right side. It was fastned to the Liver by its internal half, and the Membrane which made the outward half was thin, fine, and all folded, be­ing intirely void of Gall.

The Lungs had seven Lobes: the five upper ones were small; the two lower contained nine inches in length and five in breadth. They were fastned to each other towards the middle by a Membranous Ligament half an inch broad, and two thirds of an inch long.

The Rings of the Aspera Arteria which were imperfect, did leave the space of a fingers breadth without a Cartilage at the place towards the Back-bone, and which touches the Oesophagus. These Rings were of such a Figure, and so disposed, that their extremities flatned, and inlarged, did each form as it were two Wings or Auricles, which were laid one upon the other; so that for instance the lower Wings or Auricles of the first Cartilage were covered with the upper Wings of the second, which with its lower wings did like­wise cover the upper wings of the third, which did cover its lower wings with the upper ones of the fourth. This continued after the same manner in all the Cartilages of the Aspera Arteria, as is represented in the Figure, which alone can sufficiently demonstrate this extraordinary Structure. The residue of every Ring, which was the hardest part, was hollow in its middle, and left two eminencies at its sides. This conformation did in this place make the Aspera Arteria more rough than it generally is; because that the in­equality [Page 130] of the two different Substances which compose it, namely, the Mem­brane, and Cartilage which is found in all forts of Asperae Arteriae, this had over and above the inequality which the Cavities or Indentings, that were in each Ring, did make.

The Cornea in the Eye was of an oval Figure, as it usually is in other Cows. The Iris was Yellow, a little inclining to Red. The Crystallinus was more con­vexbehind than before.

The Explication of the Figure of the CORMORANT.

IN the Lower Figure is observable the length of the Head, the smalness of the Eye, and its oblique Situation, the crooked Figure of the Bill, and the extraordinary Structure of the Feet which have the great Toe outwards, and the others inwards, being all four webb'd together by Membranes.

In the Upper Figure.
A B.
Represents the Oesophagus blown up, and tied at the top.
B C.
The Ventricle blown up.
The place where the Oesophagus is straitned to make the upper Orifice of the Ventricle.
D E.
The Aspera Arteria.
A knot made of a Bony Ring at the bottom of the Aspera Arteria.
F F.
Two Musculous Ligaments which do fasten the Aspera Arteria with the Blad­ders of the Lungs.
The Heart.
The right Lobe of the Liver.
The left Lobe.
The third Lobe, which is under the two others.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Pylorus.
A part of the Oesophagus, the inside of which is represented.
The Superiour Orifice of the Ventricle.
A part of the Ventricle which is seen on the inside.
q q.
The Membranes of the Ventricle cut asunder, the interiour of which is compo­sed of an infinite number of longish Glands conglomerated, and whose points do make the internal Superficies of the Ventricle rough like Chagrin.
The Larynx.
The Tongue.
S T.
The right Foot.
The Serrate or toothed Claw which is on the second Toe.

[Page 132]



THis Bird is called a Cormorant, that is to say Crow-Marine, because that it is generally all black, and is an Aquatick Animal. Gesner says that it is for this reason that it is by Albertus Magnus called Carbo aquaticus. Gaza is of Opinion that the Corax of Aristotle is this very Bird, not only by reason of the Greek Name, which signifies Crow, but likewise of the other marks by which this Philosopher designs it, which do perfectly agree with the Cormo­rant that we describe.

It was twenty seven inches from the end of the Bill to the extremity of the Tail, and three foot and a half from one end of the Wings expanded to the other. There are seen a great many larger on the Sea-Shore. Its whole Plumage was Black, or a very dark gray, somewhat greenish on the wings, except the Belly, and under the Neck, which were covered with white Fea­thers, the end of which was blackish: which made these white parts to seem spotted with brown, Gesner reports that in Switzerland these Cormorants which are there called Scharbi, that is to say Coals, have some of them white Bellies.

Under the great plumes which cover the Body, there was a gray down extremely fine and thick, as in Swans. Aldrovandus reports that the Skins of Cormorants are prepared like those of Vultures, and used to cover and warm the Stomach.

The Feathers which did garnish and adorn the Neck were very short, and those which did cover the Head much shorter: but they were very thick and small like Fringe. This demonstrates the Cormorant not to be the Phalocro­corax, which is so called; because it has no Feathers on the Head, and that Pliny is deceived, when he says that the aquatick Crow, which is the Cormo­rant, is naturally bald, and that this particularity has given it the name which it has amongst the Greeks. Bel [...]nius held the same Opinion. These Plumes upon the Head were four lines in length, strait, and staring. This made the Head to appear less flat than indeed it is, although it very much appeared so with these Feathers.

[Page 134]Towards the root, as well of the upper as lower Beak, there was a Skin without Feathers: it was likewise extended round the Eye. This Skin was Red. Aldrovandus reports that it is generally white, and Gesner makes it of a Saffron-Colour. This same Skin was extended under the Beak, upon the Cavity which is generally there. In this place it was of a Pale-yellow.

The Bill at the sides was Gray mix'd with Red, and Black at the top. It was three inches in length, from the opening to its extremity. It was crooked, and very pointed at the end. This Beak served him to catch Fish; but be­cause that he could only swallow them backwards, or sidewise, and could not conveniently swallow the Tail first, by reason of the Fins, Crests, and Scales, which hindred them from entring into his Throat, he used to cast them in the Air, to receive them with the Head first: which he does with so much dexterity that he never misses. This Bird is made use of for Fishing, by putting an Iron Ring at the bottom of its Neck, to the end that the Fish being received into the Oesophagus, which is very large, making a kind of Craw, might not enter into the Ventricle, and they might easily be made to cast them up.

In the Beak there was not any hole for the Nostrils, although in the Palate there was one large enough to permit the Vapours to rise up to the Organs of the Smelling.

The Eyes were small, and situated very near the Bill. Being shut, the line which the Eye-lids made, was somewhat more oblique than it generally is in Birds.

The Feet were short, not exceeding four inches from the Belly to the Ground, and there were seven to the end of the greatest Toe. These Feet were very black, and shining, covered with long, and strait Scales in the inside of the Foot, and on the middle of the Toes. These four Toes were webb'd together by some Membranes, which we have alrea­dy remark'd in a Scotch Goose. These Membranes were speckled like Chagrin. These four Toes, which were all of a row, went lessening from the great to the little one. The great and little one did make a right Angle, the great one being on the outside, and the little one on the inside. The two other Toes were likewise on the inside, between the great and little one; which is unusual in other two-footed Animals, especially Man, whose Foot has the great Toe inwards, and the others outwards: for this is so made to support and more firmly to settle the Body on the Feet, on which the Prominence or Protuberance which the toe has on the outside is necessary, to hinder it from bending on either side; but this prominence is wholly useless on the inside; because that the opposite Leg sufficiently supports the Body on that side. These Toes had sharp and crooked Claws: the greatest exceeded not five lines. Yet there was this remarkable in these Claws, that those of the second toe, which is next to the greatest, were serrate or toothed in each Foot, on the side to­wards the third toe. The great toe, which was three inches long, was composed of five bones or Phalanges, the next of four, the third of three, and the fourth, which is the least, of two. This last was an inch long. A­ristotle reports that the Cormorant is the only Ducker which Perches on Trees, and which makes its Nest there. We have observed that the Feet like those of our Cormorant, are more commodious for Perching than are those of other [Page 135] Duckers, though these feet can clasp the branches only with two of their four toes, namely, with the greatest, and least: but this little one is much larger than in other Palmipedes, which have the little toe behind so short, that it is only as a Spur, absolutely useless to gripe the branches.

The construction of the Foot of our Cormorant appeared to us not only more commodious than it is in other Palmipedes, in regard of the facility which is given it to Perch it self, but is also very advantagious for Swiming: for whereas other Palmipedes have only two Membranes which do joyn the three toes before, our Cormorant had three which webb'd the four toes toge­ther: for which reason these Birds do go under water with an incredible quickness. Gesner reports that the feet do sometimes serve them to catch the Fish, and that they do bring it to the Shore holding it with one foot, and swiming with the other. This particular use, viz. of having occasion to swim with one single foot, may make us to comprehend the reason of the extraordinary Structure of the Cormorant's feet: for if the toes and their Membranes which do form the foot, had been outwards, it would have been impossible for the Bird to go otherwise than by turning round when it swims only with one foot, as it happens to a Boat when rowed but with one Oar; whereas the toes being inwards, it happens that when the Bird swims with one single foot, it strikes the water exactly under the middle of the Belly, and makes not his Body to waddle on the one side or the other. Now this formation was so much the more necessary, as its feet are shorter: for if they had been longer, they would have had a facility which they have not to be turned obliquely under the Belly, to place the foot in the middle, and not to strike on one side more than on the other.

The Oesophagus was seated at the right side of the Aspera Arteria, under which it passed to reach the Ventricle. When it was puffed up by blowing on the inside, it was inlarged to above two inches in Diameter. Being come directly over the Bifurcation of the Aspera Arteria, it was turned on the left side, and was suddenly straitned, leaving for the upper Orifice of the Ven­tricle but one Aperture about the bigness of a quill. This contracting ap­peared not when the Oesophagus and Ventricle were blown up; for then they made only one single Bowel. This Ventricle was fleshy and Musculous to­wards the bottom; but it was Membranous in its upper part, perhaps to in­large and contract itself according to the need that it has for the swallow­ing Fishes, and for the inclosing them afterward in the Ventricle, where the concoction, which is begun in the Oesophagus, must be compleated: for the greatness of the Fish which these Birds are seen to swallow is a very strange and amazing thing.

The Ventricle and Oesophagus did seem of the same Figure and size, being viewed on the outside, after that both had been strongly puffed up by the wind which was forceably made to enter therein: but the Ventricle was nar­rower, and not so capacious on the inside, by reason ofo the thickness of the two Membranes, whereof it was composed, which together did make the thickness of two lines. The Pylorus was not opposite to the Superiour Orifice, as is commonly observed, but it was as it were fixed into the middle of the Ventricle, leaving the lower half hanging like a Sack. This lower part was fleshy, and as it were Musculous, like a Gizard; although [Page 136] this fleshie Membrane had neither the thickness nor hardness which is ordi­narily remarked in the Gizzard of Birds. And it is probable that this part was thus fleshie and Musculous, to serve to squeeze and more easily to make ascend towards the Pylorus that which is descended to the long and narrow bottom of the Ventricle, when the concoction of the aliment is there finished; the hard and Fibrous Flesh of the Gizards being made more strongly to com­press, and as it were to bruise the hard and dry grains which Birds do feed on, and not being necessary for those which do live only upon Flesh, or Fish like the Cormorant.

The external Membrane of the Ventricle was white, and appeared of two substances; its external part being Nervous and hard at top, and fleshie at bottom, as has been declared, and its internal part being quaggie, and mu­cous, so that it seemed that by the means of this internal part the two Mem­branes of the Ventricle were glued together. The internal Membrane, which was somewhat reddish, was Glandulous, and composed of an infinite num­ber of small Glands a line and a half long, and about the thickness of a great pin: these little Glands did touch each other, according to their length, and were fastened, and as it were glued together, by a substance resembling their own, but somewhat less firm, and slimie. Their extremities were more firmly fastend, viz. the lower ones which proceeded from the external Membrane of the Ventricle, and the upper ones which did adhere each to other, and did form the internal Superficies of the Ventricle; so that both the ends of the Glands did render this internal Superficies like Chagrin; which doth very well represent the Velvet of the great Ventricle of Ani­mals, which chew not the Cud, if it be imagined that the little long Teats which do compose this Velvet were joyned to each other, as conglomerated Glands generally are; whereas in Animals which chew the Cud, these little Teats are separated from each other, being only fastned to the inter­nal Membrane of the great Ventricle by their roots. In some Ostriches we have found the internal Membrane of the Gizzard of a Structure wholly like to this.

In the Superiour part of the Ventricle towards the Orifice, there were several Worms eight or ten lines long, and about the thickness of a midling pin. They were white and transparent, and in the middle of their body there was seen as it were a blackish Vein, going from the Head to the Tail which was more pointed than the Head, which was smaller than the mid­dle of the Body. At the bottom of the Ventricle there was a matter like to black blood half curdled. And it is probable that it was in effect from the blood which was fallen into this place, by reason of a blow which the Bird had received upon the head.

The Intestines were seven foot long. They had not those two Appen­dices which do form as it were two Coecums, which Belonius reports to be in all Birds. We found that these sorts of Intestines were likewise want­ing in an Eagle called Haliaetos, and some other Birds. All the Intestines of our Cormorant were of the same bigness, containing two lines diameter. They were inclosed with the Ventricle in an Epiploon, which Pliny averrs, not to be in these Birds. This Epiploon had a great deal of Fat, hard like [Page 137] Tallow. On the Ventricle and Gall-Bladler there was some of this Fat fastened, and separated from the Epiploon, which is a thing very particu­lar.

The Kidneys were lock'd up and separated from the other parts of the lower Belly, by the means of a Membrane which did cover them. They had an extraordinary Figure, not being divided into three Lobes as they generally are in Birds, but toothed like a Cock's Comb in their gibbous part. Aristotle says that Oviparous Animals, like Birds and Fish, have neither Kidneys nor Bladder, except the Sea-Tortois. We have not yet found any Bird that wanted Kidneys or Ureters. As for the Bladder, the truth is they have no other Receptacles for their Urine, but the extremity of the Rectum, which is commonly more dilated in Birds than in terrestrial Animals, and having sometimes a roundness like to a Bladder, as is seen in the Ostrich. The Camelion, which is no Bird, but yet ovi­parous, has likewise Kidneys and Ureters which do convey its Urine into the Pouch of the Rectum, as in Birds.

The Liver which was of a red as clear as Flesh-Colour, was small. It had three Lobes, two before, as is generally seen in other Birds; but the left was not half so large as the right: the third was under the left, al­most of its form and size. The whole Liver was seated on the right side. The Ventricle took up the left. The Gall-Bladder was separated from the Liver, being fastened there only by its Neck, as we have found it in Eagles: this is likewise observed in some other Birds. The bottom of this Bladder touched the Ventricle. It was an inch in length, and three lines lines in breadth.

The Spleen was an inch long, a line and a half thick, of a somewhat darker Colour than the Liver. Its Figure was Semicircular. It touched the left part of the Ventricle, but was not fastened by any apparent Vessels. It was very adherent to the Pancreas, which reached very far, after the usu­al manner of Birds, into the Sinuosity which forms the first fold of the Inte­stines. It was of a whitish Flesh-Colour: several Vessels did fasten it to the hollow part of the Liver near the Origine of the Gall-Bladder. Its in­sertion into the Intestine was near that of the Bladder.

The Aspera Arteria had its Rings intire. At the place where it was di­vided, in the Thorax, there was a great Bony and very hard Ring. There were two Muscles or Fleshie Ligaments, which did tie the Aspera Arteria towards t [...]e place where it enters into the Thorax. These Muscles, which in the generality of Birds do knit the Aspera Arteria to the Sternum, did in this joyn it to the Bladders of the Lungs, when being divided into several ten­dons, these tendons became Membranous and made as it were a Gooses Foot.

The Heart was shut up in a Pericardium where there was a clear and lym­phid water. It was almost round, its point being very blunt. Its Auricles were very little, especially the left: It descended not between the two Lobes of the Liver as in most Birds, the Liver being quite underneath its point.

The Tongue was very small, not exceeding three lines in length: It was double, having two points, one whereof, which was round and fleshie, did bend outwards; the other, which was Membranous and Cartilaginous, did tend toward the Larynx, which was hard and bony.

[Page 138]The Eye was but half an inch Diameter. The Cornea was of a transpa­rent and very brisk red, like to that curious Enamel which the French do call Rouge-clair. It is probable that this red proceeded from the extravasated blood between the two Tunicles, whereof the Cornea was composed: for these Tu­nicles were easily separable, and this Bird had been hit several blows upon the Head. The Crystalline was small, being scarcely a line in Diameter. Its Figure was Sphaerical, as it ordinarily is in Fish, perhaps by reason that this Animal ought to see clear in the water where it goes to catch its Prey. It was a little depressed before.

This Bird was killed at Sceaux, when being brought into the Kitchin of an Inne, he there flew at the Cook, whom he bit. One of his Wings was broken, and his Skull bent in, when brought to us.

The Explication of the Figure of the CHAMOIS or GEMP.

THe lower Figure represents the different Colours of the Hair, the greatness of the Eyes, the turning of the Hornes backward, and after what manner the upper Lip is cleft.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
The right Lobe of the Liuer.
The left Lobe.
The little Lobe.
D D.
The great Ventricle.
E F D.
The Epiploon which covers the first and third Ventricle to which it is fast­ened. E. Is a part of the Epiploon, which is raised to discover the great Ven­tricle.
E F.
The third Ventricle covered with the Epiploon.
The second Ventricle.
The Ball which was found in the third Ventricle.
I I.
The Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia.
K K.
The Branches of the Praeparantia which go to the Bladder.
L I.
The Branches which go to the Neck of the Uterus.
M M.
The Branches which go to the Testicles.
N N.
The Branches which do go to the Cornua Uteri.
O O.
The Testicles.
P P.
The Cornua Uteri.
The Bladder.
A Callous Apophysis at the Point of the Heart.
The Crystalline Cleft in three.
T T.
The Oesophagus.
The Pylorus.

[Page 140]



THe Chamois or Gemp which we describe was somewhat bigger than a Goat. It had longer leggs; the Hair in recompence was shorter. The longest, which adorned the Belly and Thighs, exceeded not four Inches and a half; on the Back it was much shorter. The Hair which did cover the Back and Flanks was of two sorts: For besides the great hair which did appear, there was a small one very short, and fine, hid underneath, about the roots of the greatest, as in the Castor. The Head, Belly, and Leggs had only the great Hair. At the places where this Hair was long, as at the top of the Head, on the Neck, Back, Flanks, and Belly, it was a little frizled, and waved as in Goats.

The Ridge of the Back, the top of the Stomach, the bottom of the Throat, Flanks, the Crown of the Head, and outside of the Ears, was of a dark Minime Colour. From the Ears to the Nostrills there was likewise a list of the same Colour, which surrounded the Eyes. The rest of the Hair was of a foul reddish white.

The Tail exceeded not three Inches in length. The Ears were five. On the inside they were bordered with a white Hair. The rest was smooth and of a dark Chestnut-Colour.

[Page 142]The Eyes were large: They had an internal Eye-lid which was drawn towards the little corner of the Eye: it was red. 'Tis perhaps upon this account that Al [...]ertus affirmes that the Chamois has Red Eyes. The upper Lip was a little Cleft, in the middle, as in the Hare.

The Hornes grew on the fore-part of the brow a little above the Eyes. The Colour thereof was black. They were round and ray'd in Circles and not like a S [...]rew. Oppian calls the Chamois Strepsiceros, that is to say an Animal with turned Hornes. Aldrovandus and Gesner do interpret this Equivocal word, and do upon good grounds believe that Oppian meant that these Horn's are turned and bent backward, and not turned like a Screw as they are in the Sheep of Candia which Belonius calls Strepsiceros. Indeed, the Hornes of our Chamois were turned backwards: but because he was young, they were not crooked as they are in the more Aged, in which they do grow so bending backward, and so Pointed, that it is reported that these Animals do tare their Skin in scratching themselves; and that it sometimes happens that they do there remain so intangled, that they cannot gett them out again; which is the reason that they are Famisht to Death. It is also reported that these hooks do serve to stay them when they do fall from the top of the Rocks on which they do love to run.

It is doubted whether the Chamois is the Animal which Pliny calls Rupicapra, or whither it is the Caprea; for Pliny says that there are two kinds of wild Goats. Ionston thinks that the Caprea of Pliny is the Chevreuil. Scaliger is of Opinion that the Caprea is the Chamois, and that the Chevreuil is the Ca­preolus which Votto explaining Columella distinguishes not from Caprea no more than Aldrovandus, who says that Caprea is in French called Chevreuil: so that Rupicapra, according to Scaliger, is a common Genus to Caprea and Ibex. yet it is probable that the Rupicapra of the Ancients is our Chamois, because Pliny says that the Rupicapra is different from the Dama, in that it has Horns turn­ed backward, and that the Dama, which is another Animal than our Doe, has them turned forward: and he moreover reports that the Caprea has branching Horns, which corresponds to the Chevreuil. Belonius pretends that the Chamois derives its name from the Greek word Kemas: but the description which Aelian gives of the Kemas, makes it appear very different from the Chamois: for amongst other things he says that the Kemas has Horns turned forwards. He likewise affirms that it has the Ears garnished with a very thick Hair, which was not found in our Chamois, as has been already remark­ed. Now Scaliger, who reasonably complains of the little exactness which the Ancients used to describe, and rightly distinguish Animals by their pro­per names, has himself greatly contributed to the confusion which is at pre­sent found in the names of all the Goat-kind, of which this is one. For be­sides the confusion which he makes of Caprea with Rupicapra, he likewise gives Aldrovandus and Gesner occasion to think that the Kemas, which he takes for the Chamois, is in French called Faon; and this Error of Scaliger pro­ceeds from his not making the distinction that there is between Kemas, ac­cording to its common signification, and Kemas, according to that in which the Poets do use it: for according to the first, it in truth signifies our Fawn; Kemas coming from [...], which signifies to sleep, or to be lain down, be­cause that the Fawns of Savage Beasts dare not to go out of the Dens and Ca­verns [Page 143] where they do sleep and are usually-layd: but according to the second signification which is particular to the Poets, as Aelian reports, it signifies an Animal wholly different from the Fawn of the Deer, and other Animals, which in French are called Faon.

Our Chamois had Incisores only in the lower Jaw, like other Animals which chew the Cud. They were eight in number, and uneven; those of the middle being a great deal larger than those which were at the sides, re­sembling those in the Gazella.

The Feet were cloven, and hollow underneath, and not filled with Flesh as in the Gazella; for the flesh was drawn inwards, so that each Claw made a print in the Earth like a Horse's, and the extremity of the horn, which bore upon the ground was very sharp.

The anteriour part of the Epiploon was fastned on the left side to the first Ventricle. In passing to the right side, it was joyned to the third: descend­ing from thence it went underneath the lower part of the first, and by re­ascending behind was fastened to the bottom of this first Ventricle; so that this Epiploon was not laid on the Intestines as it generally is.

There was three Ventricles. The first, which was the greatest, was com­posed of two Membranes, the interiour of which was Velveted, and might be easily separated from the external. The Second, which was the least, had some wrinckles raised on the inside, which did form different Figures, and composed as it were a Net. The Third, which was of a middle size, had dentilated leaves, such as are in the third Ventricle of Oxen. Bartholi­nus has found in the Chamois which he describes, that the two Orifices of the Ventricle, (for he speaks only of one) were very near each other; but in our Subject they were very distant, as the Figure demonstrates. The third Ventricle had a strange body, fastened to its interiour Membrane. This Body was composed of a hard Membrane, in which there was Gravel inclo­sed. Genser says that the Chamois uses to swallow Gravel to clear his Tongue and Throat, which are generally bedaubed with Pituita or Phlegm which takes away their Appetite. Besides this strange Body, which was natural­ly Clammy, there was a Ball, or glewy Bowl, but easily separable: It was of an Oval Figure, containing thirteen lines to ten. One of these ends was as it were cut, and this cut had a slight Cavity through the middle. This Ball was of a dark Olive-Colour. Velschius in his Treatise of the Balls which are found in the Ventricle of the Chamois, calls them German Bezoar. Cardan stiles them Cows-Eggs, by reason perhaps that these Balls are sometimes found in the Ventricles of young Cows, which has been observed by Pliny. Barth linus says that they are frequently found in Denmark in the Bellys of Horses and Sheep. He thinks that these Balls are made, either of the Hair which the Cows do swallow in licking themselves, or from the Wooll which the Sheep do eat from each other, when they do pass away the Winter in Snowie Moun­tains, where they can find no Grass.

The Ball which we found seemed not to be composed of Hairs, but of lig­nous Fibres: which was discovered by the inequality of these Fibres which were not of the same size, nor of an uniform Figure like as are Hairs. It must be likewise considered that these Balls are found in the Bellies of Horses, which are not Animals that do lick themselves, and in which they must be [Page 144] made of something else than Hair. Thus the generality of Authors, and amongst others Camerarius and Gesner, do think that these Balls are compo­sed of the residue of the Plants which the Animals have eaten, the hardest Fibres of which are undigested; and they do say that these Fibres are of the Plant Doronicum which some do judge to be a kind of Aconite: for tho' the leaves of the Doronicum be tender and soft, they have some nervous Fibres, almost like Plantain. Pliny seems to confirm this Opinion, when he averrs that the Chamois do's live on Poison as well as Quails: for tho Botannists are not agreed upon the poyson of the Doronicum, and some do question whether it is poison to Men, yet they do concurr that it is poison to most Beasts. It is thought that the Chamois does eat the Doronicum, to secure it self from the Vertigo, to which they might be subject when they do run upon the points of the high Rocks. Velschius asserts that these Balls are found only in the first, or second Ventricle: that which we found was in the third. Camerarius remarks that it is toward the Month of November that they grow there: our Dissection was made in December.

All the Intestines together, without comprehending the Caecum, were forty foot long. The Caecum was eight inches. The Colon exceeded not a foot.

The Spleen was round and flat like a Cake; it was eight lines thick in that half which adhered to the great Ventricle; the other half, which was not adherent, went lessening its thickness to the end which was very thin.

The Liver had three Lobes, two great ones and a little one. The Gall-Bladder was in the middle of the right Lobe. Amongst the Animals that have no Gall, Pliny ranks the Goat, of which the Chamois is a Species. That which Bartholine Dissected had none.

The Kidneys were two inches long. The Membrana Adiposa was not joy­ned and fastned as usually upon the body of the Kidney, but it left a vacant space between both. The same thing has been observed by Barth line in his Chamois. The top of the Memorana Adiposa of the right Kidney was fastned to the little Lobe of the Liver.

The Cornua Uteri were extraordinary long, and bent with several Folds and Circumvolutions. The Testicles were joyned to the extremity of the Cornua, which are properly the Uterus of Brutes. The Vasa praeparantia did cast forth some Branches, not only into the Testicle and Matrix, but likewise into the Bladder. The round Ligaments took their Origine at the sides of the Matrix or Ductus, and did descend as is usual into the Groin where they were dilated to make that which is called the Goose's foot.

The Lungs had eight Lobes, four on the right side, three on the left, and the eighth on the inside of the duplicature of the Mediastinum.

The Heart was long and pointed. Towards the point there was a callous, white, hard, and round Apophysis: it proceeded out of the heart about the bigness of ones little fingers end.

The Brain was large in proportion to the Body, containing two inches in breadth and three in length, comprehending the Cerebellum, The Anfra­ctuosities were more and more diversified than they commonly are in Brutes. Although the Cerebrum was divided into the right and left, by a long cavity as is usual, yet there was no production of the dura Mater, to make that which is called the Falx: there was only a line very little elevated, which an­swered [Page 145] to the cavity of the Brain. The Choroides was very much dilated by the affluence of the Blood, which had been retained in the Vessels whereof it is composed. The Glandula Pinealis was large, containing a line in Diame­ter. Its Figure was rounder than ordinary.

The Optick Nerve did enter into the Globe of the Eye out of the Axis, a great deal more towards the Brow than towards the Jaw. On the inside of the Globe of the Eye, it entred through the extremity of the Tapetum, which was brown of Colour.

The Crystallinus was more convex on the outside than on the inside. It was naturally divided in three on the Superficies of its interiour part. The Membrana Arachnoides was very thick and hard, so that it was easily separated from the Crystallinus.

The Explanation of the Figure of the Porcupine and Hedgehog.

THE lower Figure represents the difference of these two Species of A­mals, which are unlike not only in their size, but also in their pric­kles, which are all of one sort in the Hedge-hog, and much shorter, in pro­portion to the Body, than in the Porcupine, which has great and hard pric­kles on the Back and Flancks, and which on its Neck, Head, and sides of its Jaws has only long, small, and flexible Bristle.

In the Upper Figure.
The Ventricle of the Porcupine.
The Duodenum, which may pass for a fourth Ventricle.
The great Spleen.
The little Spleen, which is fastned on the Ventricle by its middle, and joyned by its lower end to the Ilium towards E.
E F G.
The Ilium.
The Caecum.
I I.
The Colon.
The external Ear like to that of a Man's.
One of the Porcupines great Teeth, as big as the Life.
M M.
The Parastatae.
N N.
The Testicles of the Male-Por­cupine.
O O.
The Prostatae.
The Bladder.
q q.
The Ligaments which do fasten Testicles, and pass into the Thighs.
The Epididymis naturally sepa­rated from the Testicle.
Q Q.
A piece of the Skin which seem­ed as it were Printed on the inside by reason that it is wrinckled in small Cavities Lozenge-wise. There is likewise one of the Porcupine's pric­kles which was left fastned to this piece of Skin, to shew how little adherent it is, because of the smallness of its root, which penetrates not far into the Skin.
One of the Quills which were upon the Porcupine's Rump.
S S.
The Kidneys.
The right Succenturiatus immedi­ately fastned to the Vena Cava and Emulgens.
The left Succenturiatus immedi­ately fastned to the great Kidney, and by the means of a Vessel to the Emulgent.
X X.
The two Cornua Uteri.
Y Y.
The Testicles of the Female Porcupine.
The Bladder.
Φ Φ.
The broad Ligament of the Ute­rus.
The left Succenturiatus cut in half.
Δ Δ.
The Testicles of the Male-Hedg-Hog. inclosed within the Belly, as they commonly are in the Females of other Animals.
α α.
The Epididymis.
β β.
The Parastatae.
γ γ.
The Prostatae.
ε ε.
Some fleshie Membranes which do serve for Cremasters.
A Transparent Membrane.
The Bladder.
Ω Ω.
Membranes in the Male Hedg-Hog like the broad Ligaments of the Uterus. These Membranes are thick and very different from the Mem­brane ξ, which is Transparent.
Π θ θ.
The Vasa Spermatica praepa­rantia.
Λ Λ.
The Tongue of the Porcupine.

[Page 146]



THE Porcupine and Hedg-Hog, according to the Ancients, are Animals of one Genus, by reason of the Prickles wherewith they are both covered. The name of the Genus is [...], Echinus. The Porcupine is by the Greeks and Latins called Hystrix. The Hedg-hog is by Oppian Stiled [...] in Greek, minor Echinus in Latine, as if the whole distinction of these two Species consisted in only the difference of the size. Yet we have observed that the Animals of these two Species were likewise different in other things more essential, namely, in the Country where they do breed, in their Prickles, and in the Shape of the rest of their Body: for the Porcupine is bred in Afri­ca, the Hedge-hog is common in Europe; the prickles of our Hedge-hogs were shorter in proportion to their Body than those of the Porcupines; and the shape, as well as the use of these prickles, was also very different, even as their Feet, Nose, and all the inward parts.

The greatest of the six Porcupines which we here describe, was eighteen inches from the Nose to the extremity of the hind-feet extended. They all had over the Body a Bristle or great shining Hair, resembling in its grosseness Consistence, Figure, and Colour, the Bristles of a Boar; which has given to this Animal the Appellation of Hystrix, which comes from [...] that is to say Hogs-hair. And indeed this Bristle did better resemble that of the Hogg than of the Boar, in that it was not intermix'd with another shorter Hair, like to the downe which garnishes the root of the Bristle of the Boar; but it was every where of the same length and kind. It was above three inches long all over the Body, except the top of the Neck, where it was a foot [Page 148] long, and three times as big as any where else. These Bristles made as it were a tuft on the Head, of about eight inches, and mustaches about six inches long. The Bristles of this tuft was of a dark Chesnut Colour from the middle to the end.

Besides these Bristles there was likewise on the Back two sorts, of Prickles some stronger, thicker, shorter, and more pointed, the points whereof were keen, with two edges like an awle. Claudian puts these sorts of prickles on the head of the Porcupine, and says that they do supply the place of Horns: which we found not in our Subjects. The other prickles were a great deal longer and more flexible: they were a foot long, their points flatted, and weaker than the others. The shortest and strongest▪ were white toward the root, and of a dark Chesnut Colour at the end. The longest were white at the root and end; and in the middle they were chequered with black and white. All these Hairs and prickles were hard and shining in their surface: the inside was of a Substance white and spongious.

There was likewise another kind of prickles the end of which seemed to have been cut, the res [...] being hollow like a quill; but that which compo­sed this Tube was a great deal thinner than that of any quill. These Tubes or hollow Pipes exceeded a line in Diameter, and were three inches long: they were white and transparent like Pens, and rayed with little wrinckles long-ways. They were twelve in number, and laid upon the extremity of the [...]oecyx, somewhat [...]aised at the top. Their root was very small, not ex­ceeding the bigness of a Pin, although it was above six lines long.

Those prickles which were strongest and shortest, were easie to pluck out of the Skin, not being firmly fixed like the others: these the Animals are used to dart against the Hunters by shaking their Skin as Dogs do when they come out of the water, Claudian says elegantly that the Porcupine is himself the Bow, the Quiver, and the Arrow which he makes use of against the Hun­ters.

The Fore-feet had but four toes; the hind-ones had five, and were formed like those of a Bear, the great toe being outward. The whole Leg and Foot, as also the Belly, was covered with the great Bristles already mentioned, ha­ving only the sole unprovided thereof. These feet resembled not those of a Hog, as Albertus reports they do. We found likewise that the Nose of our Porcupine was not made like the Snout of an Hog, as it is represented by Claudian, to whom nevertheless the Porcupine must be well known, being born in Aegypt, where this Animal is very common. This Nose resembled that of an Hare, the upper Lip being cleft: the lower was likewise pierced, and made as it were a Case, in which were shut up the two Incisores of the lower Jaw. These Teeth as well as those of the upper Jaw were not unlike those of the Castor, being very long, and situated in such a manner that the keen part of the lower ones did not meet the cutting part of the upper ones, like a pair of Pincers, as in most Animals: but these parts did pass over each other like Cissars. The Molares in four of our Subjects were only six in each Jaw; the fifth had eight. They were short, standing not above a line and a half out of the Jaw-bone. They were cut at the top very smooth. By their cutting it appeared that they were not intirely solid, but that the Bone was as it were folded or leaved, having amongst the folds of the Bony Substance [Page 149] another blackish and Spongie one. These Folds were not only in the surface where they appeared, but they were through the whole Tooth, as was found after it was broken.

The Tongue was at its extremity covered over with several little bony Bo­dies like Teeth. The greatest were a line in breadth: their extremity was keen and divided by three rays or cuts, which made as it were four Incis [...]res.

The Ears were thinly covered with a very soft Hair: they resembled those of Man. In one of our Subjects they were found different in the upper part, which was pointed as the Ears of Satyrs are painted.

The Eyes were little as in the Hog, not exceeding four lines from one cor­ner to the other. The Situation of the corners of this Eye was very extra­ordinary, the great Canthus being much higher than the lesser.

Directly over the Os Pubis near the Anus, there was a tumour or swelling about the bigness of an Egg without Hair and Prickles. In the middle of this tumour, and near the Anus, there was a little hole less than that of the Anus. Albertus reports that the Porcupine has two Anus's, by reason perhaps of this second Aperture, which is designed for the Parts of Generation, which are not externally different in the two Sexes, almost as it is in the Ci­vet-Cat and Castor, the Penis of the Male being concealed in the Pouch, which was made to come out through the hole adjoyning to the Anus, when the Pouch was pressed.

The Skin being flead, on its internal surface appeared several wrinckles, Lozenge-wise, about two lines in bigness. The whole skin over the Back, and Flancks, was adherent to the Musculus carnosus, which was strong and fleshie, especially along the Back, at the place where the strong prickles are fastned. This Membranous Muscle had its Origine at the transverse and oblique Apophyses of the Vertebrae of the Neck. From thence it was extend­ed along the Vertebrae of the Back, and inserted it self into the Ossa innomi­nata being by the way fastned to the Vertebrae of the Spine. It was very ad­herent, not only to the skin, as has been already declared, but likewise to the common Membrane of the Muscles. On the internal surface of this Muscle there was a great company of Nerves which were laid and interwoven like a Net. The skin was not only stirred by these Muscles, as it is in the generality of Brutes, but it had likewise four others on each side separately to remove dif­ferent places of the skin, as the great skinnie Muscle is to remove the whole skin. These four Muscles proceeded from the Intercostals, where they had a large basis, which terminated on a little Tendon, like to the treble of a Lute. The Tendons of these four Muscles were inserted into the skin which covers the Ribs and Flanks.

The Cartilago Xiphoides was extraordinary large. The Epiploon which des­cended on the left side to the Groin, was firmly fixed in this place to the Pe­ritonaeum, and did not freely flow over the Intestines as usually. In one of the Subjects it adhered to the Bladder.

The Ventricle was almost round, although divided into three unequal Pouches. The middle one, which was the greatest, descended lower than the others. The superiour Orifice was very strait. It was in the middle, and directly over the great Pouch. The inferiour Orifice was mighti [...]y dila­ted, being an inch and a half broad; so that the Duodenum seemed to be a [Page 150] fourth Ventricle joyned to three Pouches, which did represent three others: but this Intestine was contracted to make the Iejunum, which was very short, and the Ileum yet more. The Coecum was very large: It was seven inches long and two broad towards the Ileum, terminating in a point, and making in its whole length the Figure of a Sythe. It had three Ligaments correspondent to its length, which did contract it, and make Cells as in the Colon of Man. The Ligament that was in the bending which this Intestine made, was very large; 'twas a part of the Mesentery, but was fastened to the Intestine only by one side; the rest was loose. The Colon had likewise some Cells, which were not so well seen as those of the Coecum, although there were two Ligaments to form them. This Intestine was strait: It was forty inches long; It was folded in two, and the two parts were strongly fastned to each other throughout their whole length.

The Liver was suspended and hung upon the Diaphragme, by a very large and Membranous Ligament, which proceeded from the Cartilago Xiphoides, and vertically descending, was inserted from the Fissure of the Liver to the middle of its gibbous part. It had seven Lobes, four great ones, two on each side of the Fissure, and three small ones, one of which was in the middle of the Fissure, fastned by a Membrane to the Vena Cava; the third was under­neath, between the four great ones. The two great Lobes of the left side were joyned together at their extremity by a very strong Membrane.

The Gall-Bladder was small, flat, and almost empty.

The Pancreas was very large being three inches and a half long, and six lines broad at the widest place.

The Spleen was different in our Subjects. There was one in which we found two Spleens. The largest, which was five inches long and ten lines broad, was fastned to the left side of the Ventricle, by the rami Splenici which do make the Vas breve: it was also fastned to the Epiploon. The other Spleen which was three inches in length and eight lines in breadth, was fix­ed to the Ventricle, without the appearance of any Vessels which did unite it. It was likewise joyned to the Epipl [...]on by the upper end, and to the Ileum by the lower end. In the other Subjects, where it was single as is usual, it was seven inches long and ten lines broad. It was immediately fixed by its up­per end to the upper part of the Ventricle, and by its hollow part to the left side of the Ventricle, by the means of the rami Splenici, which shot forth three branches into the Ventricle, and as many into the Spleen. The Ramificati­ons which went to the Ventricle were three inches long: those of the Spleen were only one. In one of our Subjects the Spleen, besides the Ligaments of of the Vas breve, and of the Membranes by which it was held to the Ven­tricle and Epiploon, had also a Ligament which did hang it to the Diaphragme. In all our Subjects the Spleen was of a very dark red, especially in its hollow part which regards the Ventricle, where it was almost black.

The Kidneys were double on each side, having a Succenturiatus a third part as big as the true Kidney. The true Kidney was two inches in length and one in breadth. It was very solid, not having any Cavity for the Pelvis. It had only on the outside a Cavity or depression in its anteriour part. The Parenchyma of the Succ [...]nturiatus was very different from that of the true Kid­ney, being more soft; It was likewise composed of two different Substances [Page 151] viz. the one fleshie and red, as in the true Kidney; the other glandulous and whitish; these two Substances were mixed together, so that this Kidney being cut, did shew as it were several rays which went from the Circumfe­rence to the Center, almost after the same manner as it is seen in the Cerebel­lum of Man. At the Center of this Kidney there was a Cavity capable of containing a midling Bean. The Vasa Emulgentia made an acute Angle with the Truncks of the Cava and Aorta, having their Origines much higher than the Kidneys, which seemed drawn downwards.

The Bladder was very large and thick, being composed of two Coats, which included between them a substance spongious and somewhat fleshie. In one of the Subjects, as it has been already declared, all the back part of it adhered to the inferiour part of the Epiploon, on which it was laid. The fore­part, which touched the Peritonaeum, was less fleshie. It was loose in this place without being joyned to the Peritonaeum.

The Testicles of the Males were long and narrow, containing only four lines in breadth and an inch and half in length. The Vasa Praeparantia were fastned to the inferiour part of the Testicle, and did form an Epididymis sepa­rated from the Testicle. This Epididymis was fastned to a Ligament, which passing into the Thighs, did seem to be made to strengthen the Testicle, and perform the Office attributed to the round Ligament of the Uterus.

The Parastatae were extraordinary great: they were two inches and a half long, and separated into three branches; and in some of our Subjects into five, like branches of Coral. At the end of the Penis there was a bone of an inch long.

In the Females the broad Ligament of the Matrix was strongly fastened to the Kidneys at the bastard-Ribs. The Testicles were of a Glandulous Substance, without any appearance of Bladders or Eggs.

The Nervous Center of the Diaphragme was so thin and transparent, that the Lungs were seen through. There were five principal Lobes, which were each divided into two. The Rings of the Aspera Arteria were not in­tire. The Trunck of the Arteria Venosa and its chief branches were of an extraordinary length. Having tied the Azygos in one of our Subjects, and put a small pipe underneath the Ligature, when it was blown, the Vena Ca­va swelled, beginning to swell through the Iliaca, by reason of the Commu­nication of one branch of the Azygos, which passing beyond the Diaphragme went to make an Anastomosis with one of the the branches of the Iliack.

The Heart was two inches in length from the Basis to the point, and four­teen lines in breadth through its middle between the point and the Basis, be­ing somewhat larger in this place than at the Basis: it was blunt at the end and the flesh of the left Ventricle was firm and hard. It had an Eminence which made it to appear winding like a Screw. The right Auricle seemed to be only a dilatation of the Cava. In one of the Subjects the two Auricles of the Heart were filled with a slimy, white, and very solid Substance, and the Ventricles with a black and congealed blood.

The Brain was almost like that of the Hog. There was no bone between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum.

The Globe of the Eye exceeded not four inches Diameter: it was almost Sphaerical. The Cornea was elevated like a demi-globe on another Globe [Page 152] formed by the Sclerotica. The Crystalline was likewise almost spherical in one of the Subjects, being more convex before than behind. In this same Subject, the Crystalline had as it were a Kernel, its internal part being hard after the manner of a Cartilage, and not less transparent than the rest. This Part thus hardened had not the Figure spherical like the whole Crystalline, but it was flat and lenticular. The optick Nerve entered at the middle of the Globe of the Eye. The Uvea was of a dark red; the Membrane which is applyed to the bottom of the Eye, and which we do call the Tapetum, was whitish, and disseminated with several little red Spots. This whitish Co­lour of the Tapetum made the hole of the Uvea to appear less brown than the Iris.

The two Hedg-hoggs which we dissected were Male and Female, they con­tained eight Inches from the Snowt to the end of the hind-feet extended, which were not above two Inches. The Nose in both was short and round, better resembling the Nose of a Dog, than the Snowt of a Swine; so that they were of that Species of Hedg-hog called by Mathiolus Canina, who makes two, viz. one which partakes of the Dog; and the other of the Hog; and this kind seems to be more common than the other, because that in English, the He­risson is absolutely called Hedg-hog, and in Dutch, Een ysere Verken, that is to say, a Hog covered and armed with Prickles.

They both had the Head, Back, and Flancks covered with Prikles. The Nose, Throat, Belly, and Feet were only interspersed with a very small and very white Hair. Hermolaus says that the Hedg-hog has Prickles all over the Body, except on the Nose and Paws; but we found this false in one of our Subjects, which had no prickls on the belly; but those on the Back and sides when it was heaped round, the Breech and Snowt approaching each other, did intirely cover the Belly.

The whole Animal was of one Colour; the Skin, Hair, and Prickcles being of a dark yellowish Gray. The Prickles were an Inch and a half long, and very different from those of the Porcupine; for they were somewhat flat­tish, and very like to the Prickles of the outward Shells of ChesNuts.

The Paws were composed of five Toes, of which there were three great ones in the middle, and two little ones, one on each side. They had long, pointed and hollow Claws, making the Figure of a Pen.

The Teeth were disposed in such a manner, that below there was only the Molares and Incisores. These last were but two, which were somewhat longer than the Molares. At the top there were no Incisores, but only two Canini, which left a vacancy in which the Incisores of the lower Jaw were lodged. The Canini which were longer than the Incisores, had each also a place to lye in, in the lower Jaw, between the Canini and Incisores, with an Interval for that purpose.

The Female had eight Teats, four on each side, disposed in two ranges along the Belly and Breast, the two highest being seated on the Pectoral Muscle.

Having taken off the Skin, there appeared a Musculus Carnosus, which as in the Porcupine was extended from the Ossa Innominata to the Ear and Nose, running along the Back-bone without being fastned thereunto; which shews that this Muscle serves not the Hedg-hog for the shaking his Skin like the Por­cupine, which darts his Prickles by this Action, but to bring its Head to its [Page 153] Breech, and to gather up the whole Body like a Ball; which the Hedge-Hog uses to do when it cannot save it self by flight: for being in this posture it is all over covered with its Prickles, and the Dogs know not how to take him without being Pricked. Pliny reports that if notwithstanding this Praecaution, he perceives himself in danger, he let's fly his Urine, which he knows to have the quality of vitiating his Skin, and making all his Prickles to fall off, as it were to deprive the Hunters of the Principal Fruit of their Labour, which is this Skin, which the Ancients had in great esteem, by rea­son that it served them for Brushes to clean their Cloaths.

The Liver had seven Lobes, one of which was divided in two. The Gall-Bladder was in the middle of the two upper Lobes, which were the greatest. Its Forme was Ovale. It was eight Lines long, very full and Blewish

The Venae Lacteae were White and very apparent in the Mesentery; and the Receptacle of the Chyle was great, ample, and full.

The Spleen was layd on the Ventricle, to which it was fastned, by twelve branches from the Vas Breve. It was long and cut like a Cock's Comb. The Pancreas to which it was fastned, had the same Forme: It differed ther­from only in Colour, the Pancreas being Whitish, and the Spleen of a Black­ish Red.

The Intestines were all alike in Substance and thickness. There was no Caecum. They contained all together four Feet in length.

The Kidneys were an inch long and eight Lines broad. They were of an Olive Colour, the right being situated higher that the left.

The Bladder was an inch and a half long and an inch broad.

In the Male the Testicles were in the Belly; which, according to Aristotle, is peculiar to the Hedg-Hog, which amongst all Quadrupeds that do ingender a perfect and living Animal, is the only one whose Testicles are inclosed in it, as in Birds. These Testicles had a very larg Epididymis, which received the Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia divided into four Branches, and which were se­parately inserted into them from the basis to the greater half of their length. This Epididymis was not separate from the Testicle, as in the Porcupine, but was therto fastned, all its length. The Vasa Spermatica Deferentia proceeded from the top of the Epididymis. The Testicle and its Vessels were tyed and suspend­ed by a Ligament which might passe for a Cremaster, because that it was a Membrane which appeared somewhat Fleshy near the Testicle. The rest of this Membrane was extended and inlarged after the manner of the broad Ligaments of the Uterus. It had a great many Vessels of which two of the cheif did make a very considerable Anastomosis, by crossing one another in the middle. They proceeded from the Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia, as from their Trunck, and were distributed through this whole Membrane, extended like the Wings of a Batt, as in the Uterus; so that considering the greatness and Number of these Vessels, which were not proportionate to the quantitie of the Nourishment which the Membrane might require, it might be pro­bably thought that the use of this Structure was, that the Arteria Spermatica might send to this Membrane a part of the bloud which it carryes to the Testicle, to be prepared in this great Number of branches; in which the re­mainder that cannot be imployed to the Nourishment of the Membrane seemed to be sometime retained, and perfected by this long retention, to be inabled afterwards to reflow into the Trunck of the Spermatick Artery, and to [Page 154] mingle with the bloud which go's into the Testicle; there being nothing to oppose this reflux, of which it is necessary to suppose the liberty into all the Arteries, which upon this account are destitute of the Valves which are found in the Veins: and the compression that the motion of Respirati­on causes to all the Viscera, b [...]ing a sufficient impulsive cause for this reflux.

On both sides of the Neck of the Bladder there were Pouches of a Substan­ce partly Glandulous, partly Membranous. They were very Yellow: Twas apparently the Parastatae. The Prostatae were a little underneath, of an extra­ordinary size, even as the Parastatae.

In the Female the Uterus was composed of a Neck and two Hornes. The Neck was composed of two Membranes: the external was thick and Fleshy, the internal was thinne, Membranous, and Nervous. The Hornes were unequal, the left being lesser than the right, in which there was a Foetus.

The Lungs had five Lobes, viz. three of a middle size at the right side, and two on the left, one of which was greater and the other lesser than all the rest. This little one, which the Cavitie of the Mediastine inclosed, was forked at the end. The Heart was almost round. The right Auricle was of a Red almost Black. The left was whitish.

The Globe of the Eye exceeded not two lines in diameter: it had an in­ternal Eyelidd. Of the three Humours of the Eye there appeared only the Crystalline, which filled up the whole Globe, without any appearance of the Aq [...]e us or Vitreous Humour. The Retina did immediately touch the Crystalline, and as it were [...]tick to it on that side towards the bottom of the Eye, as the Cornea did cover and touch it before. The Uvea was all over black, with­out the Tapetum; it did not likewise make any fold on the fore-part to forme the Iris; so that the Eye, when the lidds were open, did appear all Black.

The Explication of the Figure of two Sapajous and two other Monkeys.

THe lower Figure showes how the Hands and Feet of the Ape do differ from the Hands and Feet of Man, the thumb of the Hand being small and the great Toe of the Foot very large, and the other Toes extraordinary long. Here is not described the Figure of the fourth Ape, which is the se­cond Sapajou, because that it was wholy like to that which is here represent­ed, except the Nose, which was longer.

In the Upper Figure.
The Umbilical Veine.
B B.
The two right Lobes of the Liver.
C C.
The two left Lobes of the Liver.
The fifth, Cleft and making as it were two Leaves.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Ductus Cysticus.
G G G.
The three Ductus Hepatici.
4. 5. 6.
Three Branches that come out of the first.
The common Ductus.
The Ventricle.
The Spleen.
The Pancreas.
The Caecum.
The end of the Ileum.
The beginning of the Colon.
A Gland fastned to the lower part of the Trunk of the Cava.
Q Q.
Two other Glands fastned to the two Iliack Veines.
R R.
The Testicles.
S S.
The Glandulous Prostates.
The Bladder so turned upside down as to hide the Penis.
T T.
The Brain.
t t.
The back part of the Brain without Anfractuositys.
The Bladder in the Natural situation, and opned to shew the Caruncle Y and the thickness of the Prostates 3. 3.
X X.
The Parastatae Cyrsoides.
The Caruncle at the beginning of the Urethra.
3 3.
The Glandulous Prostates which look but like the thickning of the Neck of the Bladder.

[Page 156]



THe Species of Apes are very numerous. Pliny reduces them under two Genus's, viz. those which have Tails, and those which have none. The Tail-less Ape is by the Latines simply called Simi [...]. Those which have a Tail are of two Species. The Latines have borrowed of the Greeks the names which they do give them: for some are called Cercopitheci, from the name of the Genus, that is to say, Tailed-Apes; others Cynocephali that is to say, which have a head like a D [...]g, by reason of the length of their Nose. The differences of Apes are taken in French, principally from their size; for the great ones are simply called Singes or Apes, whether they have a Tail or no; or whether they have a long Nose like a Dog, or a short one; and the little Apes are called Guenons or Monkeys.

The four Apes which we describe were of the Genus of the Cercopitheci, because that they had Tails. But their smalness permitts them to be ranged only under the Genus of Monkies.

They were but fourteen inches from the Crown of the Head to the begin­ing of the Tail, which was twenty inches; The Arm had four inches; from the Elbow to the end of the fingers, was six inches: the Thigh four and a halfe: the Leg five, and the Foot four, from the Heel to the end of the long­est Toe. They did likewise all agree in several other things, which are common almost to all Apes. viz. 1. That they had Hairs on each Eye-lid, which Aristole has observed to be peculiar to the Ape, among the Quadrupeds. These Haires according to Aristotle's observation, were so fine that it was hard to descern them.

2. That in the lower Jaw there was a Pouch or Sack on each side into [Page 158] which these Animals used to put what they would keep. 3. That the Teeth were very white, and like Man's, except the Canini, which were very long in the upper Jaw, and very strait in the lower Jaw, being without Point and differing from the Incisores, only in their being straiter and longer. 4. That the Feet were almost like the Hands, as they generally are in other Brutes, the Toes of the Feet being as long as those of the Hands; which is not in Man, whose Toes are two thirds shorter than his Fingers. The Feet of our Apes did indeed more resemble the Hands of Man than their own, by rea­son of the conformation of the great Toe, which resembled a Thumb, being long, slender, and a great way parted from the first Finger; whereas in the Hand or Paw, the Thumb was so short, and so close to the first Finger, that it seemed almost useless. 5. That the Parts of generation in three of our Subjects, which were Males, were different from those of Man, there being no Scrotum in two of these Subjects, and the Testicles not appearing by reason that they were hid in the fold of the Groyne. It is true that the third, which was one of the Sapajous, had a Scrotum, but it was so shrunk, that it did not appear. 6. That the Skin stuck close on the Buttocks.

The three Males differed only in Colour of their Hair. The fourth Sub­ject, which was a Female was of the Cynocephali kind; not having a flat Face like the others, but a Nose somewhat long like little Bolonia Dogs. Yet its long Tail did make it to be of the Cercopitheci kind like the others, whose dif­ferences amongst the Ancients were taken from the Colour of the Hair; the Cercopitheci simply called, being those which have but one Colour; and those which have several being called Cepi, that is to say Gardens, by reason of the diversity of Colours wherewith they seem to be flowered and Imbroidered, as [...]lian reports Pythagoras to have sayd.

The first of our Apes was of the first Species of the Cercopitheci, being all of one Colour, viz. of a Red somewhat inclining to a Green. This colour which was predominant, was only a little darker on the Back, and lighter on the Breast and Belly.

The second was of the second Species, because that besides the Greenish-Red colour of the Hair which covered the Back, the Hair which adorned the Belly, Breast, and inside of the Thighs and Arms was Gray.

The third and fourth were likewise more diversified with Colours: This Species is called Sapajou. These two Subjects were different, not only in colour and the various shape of their Spots, but also in the Forme of their Nose, which was long in the one, and flat in the other. The first, which was a Male, was white on the Belly, Stomach, Throat, on the inside of the Armes and Thighs, and on the Buttocks. All the Back from the Ompolatae to the Tail, was of a dark-Red. The Flanks, the outside of the Armes and Thighs, the Leggs and Crown of the Head were Black, and every black Hair had also little Red and White Spots, there being two Red Spots towards the end, and the half towards the root being white. On the Chin there was a white Picked Beard, an inch long. The Hair on the Back was an inch in length; about the Neck an inch and a halfe; it was in this place more Staring than in the rest of the Body, and made as it were a Ruffe. The Brow had a White list, on which a row of Black Hair was elevated like Eye-Brows. The Iris in the Eyes was of a Redish Yellow. The Pupilla was very large. [Page 159] The Head was round, with a kind of a flat Face, resembling the Visage of a Man with a short and Flat Nose.

The other Sapajou, which was a Female, had the Nose long inclining to the Cynocephali. Its Hair was of three colours, viz. Red, Gray, and a dark Chest-Nut. The Belly and Breast were mixt with Red and Gray. The Armes and Leggs were of a dark Chestnutt; the Back had the Chestnut and Red mixt together, so that in some places there was more Red, in others more Chestnut; which made great Spots almost as in Cats. It had neither the White on the Fore-head nor the Beard, as the other Sapajou.

The Ears of the first Sapajou were round and so small, that round the hole they were not extended above a line and a half, being intirely covered with the Hair. The Writers of Physiognomie, have thereon apparently Found­ed the Judgement which they do make of little round Ears, which they do put as a sign of a deceitful and Villanous temper, such as is the Apes.

Authors do not agree touching the internal parts of the Ape. Aristotle, Pliny and Galen do averr that they are wholly like to those of Man. Albertus do's on the contrary affirm, that as much as Apes are like to Man on the outside, so much are they unlike in the inside: So that there is no Animal, as he sayes, which has the intrails so different from Mans as the Ape. The Observations which we have made are repugnant to both these Opinions, which are both too extream. Yet we found that our Apes did more resemble Man in the ex­ternal parts than in the internal, and that there are more Animals which have the inward parts as like to those of Man as our Apes, than there are which do as much resemble Man, as our Apes do, in their exteriour figure.

The Rings or Holes of the Peritonaeum were as in Dogs; the Epiploon was different from that of a Man, in several things. 1st. It was not fastened to the Colon in so many places, having no connexion with the left part of this In­testine. [...]d. It had another Ligature which is not found in Man, viz. to the Muscles of the Abdomen by means of the Peritonaeum, which formed a Liga­ment, which we have observed in the Hinde of Canada. 3d. The Vessels of the Epiploon, which in Man proceed only from the Vena Porta, did neverthe­less in one of our Subjects come from the Cava, having there one of the Bran­ches of the Hypogastrica, which was united to the Branches of the Porta. 4th. In fine the whole Epiploon was without comparison greater than it ge­nerally is in Man, because that it did not only cover all the Intestines, which is rarely seen in Man, whatever Galen says, but it even inveloped them un­derneath, as it do's in several other Brutes; where it is frequently seen that the Epiploon is larger than in Man, especially in Animals which do run, and leap with a great deal of Agility; as if it were so redoubled under the Intest­ines, to defend them, with the rest of the Bowels, against the rude joults which these Parts do receive in running. It is true that the Membranes of the Epiploon were intire and continued as in Man, and not perforated like a Net, as they are in the generality of Brutes.

The Liver which is one of the principal Viscera, was very different from the Liver of Man, having five Lobes as in a Dog, viz. two on the right side, and two on the left, and a fifth layd upon the right part of the Body of the Vertebrae. This last was divided, making as it were two leaves. In one of our Subjects, the Substance of the Liver was speckled with several spots of a dar­ker [Page 160] colour than the rest, and of an Hexagonal Figure; which we have very frequently seen in Brutes, and never in Men. The Bladder was fastened to the first of the two Lobes, which were on the right side. It was an Inch long, and half an Inch broad; it had a great Ductus, which was immediate­ly inserted underneath the Pylorus: This Ductus received three others, which instead of that which in Man is single, and which is called Hepaticus; these three Ductus's had their Branches dispersed like Roots into all the Lobes of the Liver, so that the first had four Roots, viz. one in each of the three right Lobes, and one in the first of the left; the second and third Ductus had both their Roots in the second of the left Lobes; these Branches did run under the Tunicle of the Liver, so that they were apparent, and not hid in the Parenchyma, as they generally are. The Sapagou had this particularity in its Liver, that it was marked with a great many black Spots: which is unusual in other Li­vers that we have found spotted; for they are always of a lighter Colour than the rest of the Substance of the Liver: It is probable, that this blackness proceeded from the spongyness of these Parts, which being imbued with a greater abundance of Blood than the rest of the Parenchyma, did thereby ap­pear more dark.

The Ventricle did likewise differ from a Mans, its inferiour Orifice being ve­ry large and low; for it was not elevated so high as the superiour, as it is in Man; where it is not called inferiour by reason of its situation, but because it is thro' this Passage that the Ventricle is emptyed.

The Intestines were hardly more like the Intestines of Man than the other Parts. In the Sapajous they were in all but five Foot two Inches long, and in the other two Apes eight; they were almost all of the same bigness; the Ileon was in Proportion a great deal bigger than in Man. The Caecum had no Vermiform Appendix; it was very large, containing two Inches and a half in length, and an Inch Diameter at its beginning: It went pointing, and was fortified by three Ligaments like as the Colon is in Man, there to form little Cells: This conformation is wholly different from that of a Man's Cae­cum. The Colon had its Cells as usual, but it was not redoubled like an S, as in Man, being quite strait. It had not the contracting which separates it from the Rectum in Man. Besides the Cells there was observed some leaves on the in­side, like to those which are seen in the Colon of the Ostrich, and which we have lately remarked in the Iejunum of Man. These Leaves were transversely ex­tended, abutting on the Ligaments which are extended along this Intestine. It was thirteen Inches long, and an Inch diameter.

The Spleen was seated along the Ventricle as in Man, but its Figure was different in one of our Subjects, being made as the Heart is represented in Bla­zonry. Its Basis contained an Inch. The Pancreas had only its Figure which made it to resemble that of Man, its connexion and insertion being wholly particular; for it was strongly fastened to the Spleen, and the insertion of its Ductus into the Intestine, which in Man is always near the Porus bilarius, was two Inches distant therfrom.

The Kidneys had a Figure and Situation not less extraordinary. They were round and flat; their situation was more unequal than in Man, the right being much lower, in respect of the left, viz. half its bigness. The Gland called Capsula Atrabilaria was very visible, by reason that the Kidney was without Fat. This Gland was white, and the Kidney of a bright Red; its Figure was Triangular.

[Page 161] Aristotle says, that the generative Parts of the Ape do resemble those of the Dog. In our Subjects we found that they were different therefrom, as well as from those of Man; for in the Males, the Penis had no Bones, as it has in the Dog; and the Testicles, which in some of our Subjects were hid in the Groyn, without any Scrotum, as has been say'd, had a very particular Figure, being long and strait, and but one line in breadth and eight in length. In one of the Sapajous they were found of a Figure quite contrary, and al­most as remote from the Figure of those of Man, being perfectly round; they were shut up in a Scrotum, which joyned them close up to the root of the Pe­nis. The glandulous Prostatae were small; the Parastatae Cyrsoides were in re­quital very large; they contained an Inch in length; their breadth was un­equal, being four Lines towards the Neck of the Bladder, and a Line and a half at the other end, differing herein from those of Man, who has them slenderest near the Neck of the Bladder. They were composed of several little baggs, which opened into one another: the Caruncle of the Urethra was small, but very like to that of Man.

The generative Parts of the Female had also a great many things which rendered them different from those of Bitches, herein resembling those of Women; there were some of them likewise which were as in Bitches, and af­ter another manner than in Woman; for the exteriour Orifice was round and strait, as in Bitches, and the generality of other Brutes, and had neither Nym­phae nor Carunculae. The Neck of the Bladder had its hole otherwise than in Woman, being very far in the Neck of the Matrix, viz. towards the middle, at the place where its roughness began, which were seen only towards the ex­tremitie of the Ductus near the Internal Oriface. The Truncks of the Ma­trix were also different from those of Women, and resembling those of Brutes in that they were proportionably longer, and more redoubled by various turnings. The Clitoris had somthing more conformable to that which is seen in other Brutes that have it, than in that of Women, being proportion­ably greater, and more visible than it is in Women. It was composed of two Nervous and Spongious Ligaments, which proceeding from the lower part of the Os Pubis, and obliquely advanceing to the sides of these Bones, did unite to forme a third Body, which was ten lines in length. It was form­ed by uniting of the two first, which a very strong Membrane joyned to­gether, going from one of the Ligaments to the other, besides a hard and Nervous Membrane which inveloped them. They terminated at a Gland like to that of the Penis of the Male. The little Muscles, which were fastn­ed to these Ligaments, proceeded as usual from the tuberosities of the Ischi­um. These Ligaments were of Substance so thin and Spongious, that the wind penitrated, and made them easily to swell, when blown into the Net­work of the Veins and Arteries which is in this place. This Network was visible in this Subject, being composed of larger Vessells than they propor­tionably are in Women. It was situated as usually under the second pair of Muscles of the Clitoris. Its Figure was Pyramidal, ending from a very large Basis in a point, which run along the third Ligament to its extremity towards the Gland

[Page 162]The rest of the Parts of Generation were like to those of Women. The Neck of the Bladder had its Muscles as in Women: For there were a great Number of fleshy Fibres, which proceeding from the Sphincter of the Anus, were fastned to the sides of the Neck of the Uterus, and other such like Fibres which did come from the Sphincter of the Bladder to insert themseves at the same place. The body of the Uterus, its Membranes, internal Orifice, its Ligaments as well the Round as Broad, and all its Vessells had a conforma­tion intirely like to that, which these same parts have in Women. The Testicles, which were ten lines long and two broad, were as in Women, composed of a great Number of small Bladders, and fastned near the Mem­branes which are at the extremity of the Tubae and which is called their Fringe.

The Duggs resembled those of Women, as well in what respects their situation, which was on the Musculi Pectorales, as in what appartains to their composition, which consisted of a Glandulous Body, and a Teat.

At the place where the Vena Cava is divided to produce th two Iliacks, there was a Gland of the Figure and bigness of a middling Olive, containing five lines in length and three in breadth, Black on the outside, and much more on the inside. It was moistned with a Lymphatick Humour, wherewith its Spongious Substance was filled. In this [...]ame Subject, which was one of the two first Monkeys, there were two other such like Glands, but smaller, towards the Origine of the Crurals, one on each side.

At the opening of the Breast, there was found a great abundance of Water dispersed over its whole capacity. The Thymus was very large. The Lungs had seven Lobes, three on the right side, and as many on the left: the seventh was in the Cavitie of the Mediastine, as in the generality of Brutes. This again makes a Notable difference between the internal parts of the Ape and those of Man, whose Lungs have generally at the most but five Lobes, often­er but four, and sometimes but two. Vesalius affirmes that he never saw in Man this fifth Lobe, which he reports to be in Apes, supposing that they have but five. This great Number of Lobes of the Lungs clearly evinceth that Anatomists haue no reason to say that Brutes have the Lungs divided into more Lobes than Man, by reason that they have the Face and Breast turned towards the Earth, seeing that the Ape has generally the Face and Breast like a Mans.

The Heart was a great deal more Pointed than it usually is in Man: which is likewise a Character of Brutes. Yet in the interiour Superficies of its Ventricles it had that great Number of Fibres and fleshy Columns which are seen in Man.

The Uvula, which is in no other Brutes, was found in our Apes wholly re­sembling that of Man.

The Cranium had a Figure very conformable to a Mans, being round and somewhat flat at the sides, and wanting that Triangular Bone which sepa­rates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum in most Brutes.

The Brain was large in proportion to the Body. It weighed two ounces and a half. The Dura Mater entred very far to Form the Falx. The An­fractuosities of the external part of the Brain were very like those of Man in the Anteriour part; but in the hinder part towards the Cerebellum, there was [Page 163] hardly any: They in requital were much deeper in proportion. The Apo­physes, which are called Mamillares, which are great Nerves that do serve to the Smelling, were not soft as in Man, but hard and Membranous. The Optick Nerves were also of a Substance harder and firmer than ordinary. The Glandula Pinealis was of a Conical figure, and its point was turned to­wards the hinder part of the Head.

There was no Rete mirabile: for the Carotides being entred into the Brain, went by one single Trunck on each side of the edg of the seat of the Sphenoides to pierce the Dura mater, and to be distributed as usually into the Basis of the Brain.

To finish the Description as well of the external as internal parts of the Apes which we dissected, by comparing them with those of Man, we have made an accurate search after all the Muscles of these Animals, which we found for the most part agreable to those of Man: So that we do here relate only those things which we found particular in our Subjects.

The Muscles of the Face, in that which participated of the Cynocephalus had a great deal of similitude with those of Doggs; and in the Apes, which had the Face flat like Man, it had nevertheless some Muscles like to those of Brutes: as amongst others the Masseter's and Crotophitae, which were a great­deal larger in proportion than in Man,

The Muscles of the Os Hyoides, Tongue, Larynx and Pharynx, which do most serve to articulate a word, were wholly like to those of Man, and a great deal more than those of the Hand; which nevertheless the Ape, which speaks not, uses almost with as much perfection as Man: which Demonstrates that speech is an Action more peculiar to Man, and which more distinguish­es him from the Brutes than the Hand; which Anaxagoras, Aristotle and Galen have thought to be the Organ which Nature has given to Man as to the wisest of all Animals, for want perhaps of making this Reflection. For the Ape is found provided by Nature of all these Marvellous Organs of speech with so much exactness, that the very three small Muscles which do take their rise from the Apophysis Styloides, are not wanting, altho this Apo­physis be extreamly small. This particularitie do's likewise shew that there is no reason to think that Agents do performe such and such Actions, be­cause they are found with Organs proper thereunto: For according to these Philosophers Apes should speake, seeing that they have the Instruments ne­cessary for speech.

In the Muscles of the Head and Neck there was nothing particular but the Flexores of the Head, which in Man are inserted into the Apophysis Mastoides: For they were fastned to the lateral and hinder part of the Os Occipitis, because that the Head of the Ape has no Apophysis Mastoides. Amongst the Muscles of the Armes there was only the Palmaris that had any thing remarkable. It was extraordinary large. The great Serratus, which in Man takes its rise only from the Omoplatae, did in our Subjects proceed likewise from the fourth, fifth, and sixth Vertebrae of the Neck.

The Musculus Rectus, which in Man reaches only to the Basis of the Ster­num, did ascend to the top, passing under the Pectoralis and little Serrtaus. It was fleshy only to the half of the Sternum, the rest being but a meer Tendon.

[Page 164]In the Thigh that of the Quadrigemini (which do serve to throw out the Thigh) called Pyriformis, was a great deal smaller than in Man; and in stead of taking its rise from the lower and external part of the Os Sacrum, it pro­ceeded from the Ischium near the Cavitas Cotyloides. The Muscles of the Buttocks had a Figure different from those of Man, being shorter, by reason that the Ossa Iliam Apes are much straiter than in Man. On the [...] Pso [...]e there were two other little Muscles, which are not found in Man. Every of these Muscles having the same Origine as the Psoas, did come by a long Tendon to insert it self into the upper and inward part of the Os Pubis.

Amongst the Muscles of the Leg, that of its Flexores, which is called Bi­ceps, had not a double Origine as in Man. It proceeded intire from the knob of the Ischium, and was inserted into the upper part of the Perona. This single Head was in requital very thick and strong.

The great Toe had Muscles like to those of a Mans Thumb, even as it has the Action thereof: Which is not in the Foot of Man, where the great Toe has Muscles very different from those of his Thumb, because that the Actions of these two parts are in Man very different.

To the History of the Muscles of the Ape might be added the Description of the Pouch, which they have in their Mouth. It was composed of Mem­branes and Glands, and of a great many Musculous and Carnous Fibres. Its situation was on the out side of each Jaw, reaching obliquely from the middle of the Jaw to the under part of its Angle, passing under a part of the Muscle called Latissimus. It was an inch and a half long, and almost as broad towards its bottom. It opened into the Mouth between the bottom of the Jaw and the bottom of the Gumme. Tis into this Pouch that Apes use to put what they would keep; and it is probable that the Musculous, Fibres which it has, do serve to shut and open it, to receive and put our what these Animals do there lay up in Reserve.

The Explication of the Stagg of Canada, and Hinde of Sardinia.

THe lower Figure represents the Disproportion which is between the Stag and Hinde, the Stagg being almost as big again as the Hinde. It dis­covers likewise how the Hornes of the Stagg is covered with a Skin, and how the Hinde has the Back and Flanks marked with several spots of different shapes.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
The Liver.
The great Ventricle of the Stagg.
The little Ventricle.
The extremity of the Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia
The Testicle it self.
The Vasa Spermatica Deferentia.
G H H.
The Epididymis.
The Vterus.
K K.
The Cornua Vteri.
L L.
The round Ligaments of the Uterus.
The Bladder.
One of the Cornua Uteri opened to discover the two leaves O O. which it has on the Inside.
P P.
The Carotides opened to shew the transverse lines which it has on the inside.
Q Q.
The Jugular opened to shew the six rows of Valves which it has, viz. four marked R, where they are three in a row; and two marked S S, where they are two and two.
T T.
A piece of the Jugular represented at large, the more distinctly to discover a row of three Valves marked V V V.
X Y Z Ω.
The end of one of the Brow-Antlers of the Stagg.
Part of the Horn with the Skin taken off, to expose to view Grouves wherewith the Hornes of the Stagg are ordinarily hollowed, to make roome for the Vessels in the Skin which covers them.
The peice of Skin which is cut away, and on the inside of which is represented the Vessells in it.
Z Ω.
The rest of the Brow-Antler covered with the Velvet Skin.

[Page 166]



THe Stagg was very large, being four foot from the top of the back to the Ground. Its Hornes were three foot long, and the Brow-Antlers a foot; there were six on each Horne, which is the greatest number that Staggs do car­ry, according to Aristotle and Pliny; which nevertheless is not true in this Country, where are found Staggs that have them to Twenty two.

The whole Hornes were covered with a very hard Skin, and garnisht with a very thick and short hair, of the same Colour as that which covered the Body: it was turned in several places. Pliny very improperly calls this Hair, Feathers soft as Downe. This whole Skin had a great many Veins and Arteries filled with plenty of Bloud, which swelled them on the inside next the Horne, which was all furrowed to give place to the Vessels, after the same manner as the Cranium or Skull is fluted on the inside, according to the di­stribution of the Vessels of the Dura Mater. Gesner was of opinion that the furrows which are seen in the surface of the Horns of the Stagg, are made by Wormes which do ingender there in the Summer, and which do Eat it; which is altogether improbable. Pliny had not also well examined the Na­ture of the Hornes of the Stagg, when he says that they were like the Plant Ferula and the Reed: For the Stalks of these Plants, which are either hollow, or Pithy, do ill express the Soliditie which is peculiar to the Hornes of the Stagg.

Democritus has better Philosopized on the Generation of these Hornes: for he affirms that in the Stagg, because he abounds with Bloud and grows [Page 168] very Fatt at the beginning of Summer, Nature consumes a part of the Nour­shment where-with it is overcharged, by sending it thro some Vessels, which it has in a great Number and of a considerable thicknesse, to the place where the Hornes do grow. And indeed, it is a very surprizing thing to see the abundance of bloud which we found between the Hornes and the Skin which covered them, when by Fleaing off this Skin, the Tunicks of the Veins being very fine and small were broke in sunder,

This Observation made us to reflect upon the different Generation of the Hornes of Animals, which being of two Natures, namely some hollow, and others solid, have likewise two way's of growing: For those which are solid, and without Cavitie, like those of the Stagg, are immediately fastned to the Os Frontis from which they do seem to grow, this Bone being a great deal more rare and Spongious than in other Animals, as Democritus has observed. But if the first Origine or Germination of the Hornes of the Stagg do's proceed from any substance which comes out of the Bone, its increase depends cheifly on the Skin which covers it, and which affords it a great quantitie of Nour­ishment, thro the great number of Vessels contained in it.

Hollow Hornes like those Oxen are ingendered and do grow after a quite different manner: for they are not immediatly fastned to the Scull, but they have their Cavitie filled by a Bone which is an Appendix of the Os Frontis; and this Appendix even as the rest of the Scull is covered with the Peri­cranium by the means of which these Hornes do joyn to the Scull, and are ingendered and do grow from what they receive from the Vessels of the Pericranium: for on the Pericranium which fastens the Appendix of the Os Frontis there is a Crest, apparently made by the Transudation of a matter contained in the Vessels of this Membrane, which we found in the Cavity of the Hornes of the Gazellas incomparably greater, fuller of Bloud, and more numerous, than they are in the rest of the Pericranium which covers the other Bones of the Head. So that it must be understood that even as Solid Hornes do take their Nourishment and increase by their external Su­perficies, those which are hollow do take it at the internal: for when the first Crust begins to be hardned on the Production of the Pericranium, which covers the Pointed Appendices of the Os Frontis, by hardning almost after the manner as Nails do harden at the ends of the Fingers; between this first Crust and the Pericranium there is ingendered another which glues it selfe to the former and thrusts it forward; and thus there is successively ingendered several Crusts one upon another, almost after the same manner as Snail­shells, and Oyster-shells are ingendered and composed of several Laminae or Plates glued to each other. This is the reason that hollow Hornes are ge­nerally wrinkled and ruffled like shells, and that they are easily separated in­to several Leaves.

Aristotle has given some Idea of this manner of the Generatinn of hollow Hornes, in saying that there enters into their Cavity something hard, which springs from the Scull; which must be understood of the Bone which en­ters into the Cavity of the Hornes: But he speakes not of the Pericranium to which the Horne is immediately fastned, and from whence it is probable that it takes its Origine and Nourishment.

The Generation of hollow Hornes is likewise different from that of solid [Page 169] ones, by the different quality of the matter, which is more aqueous in hol­low Hornes, and more Terrestrial in solid ones. Hollow Hornes do easily sofen before the Fire, as not having their Concretion by the Exiccation and Consumption of the Aqueous parts, but by the Coagulation of a Matter which hath not a consistence so firm, without the cold which does harden it: and solid Hornes are of the Nature of the Bones from which they do proceed, being of a Terrestrial matter, which, according to Aristotle and Pliny, is hard­dened on the Head of Staggs by the heat of the Sun: Aristotle makes also a remark which demonstrates that the matter of Staggs-Hornes is Terrene, dry and of the Nature of Stone; for he sayes that there has been sometimes Staggs taken, on whose Hornes there was found Ivie, which had there taken Root as it do's on S [...]ones: and Naturalists have observed that the Ivie do's frequently grow in places where Staggs Hornes are Buried. This conjecture may be confirmed by the consideration of that excrescence which is peculiar to the Stagg, called Lachryma Cervi; which comes out, as it is said, from the great Canthus or Corner of the Eye, being strongly fastened to the Bone, out of which it grow [...]; according to Scaliger: for this excrescence is so like a Stone, that some do think it really is one, and that it grows not out of the Stagg, being very far from giving credit to what Authors report of its Generation, viz. that it comes out of the Corner of the Eye of the Stagg, when to cure it selfe of the Wormes which it has in its Intestines, it eats Ser­pents, and plunges into the Water up to the very Eyes. The Bone which is found at the Basis of the Staggs Heart, is likewise a Sign that this Animal do's exceedingly abound in a juice capable of being easily converted into a Bonie and as it were Stoney Nature.

The Intestines being taken all together, did measure Ninety six foot in length. The smallest contained sixty six foot, and the great ones without the Caecum twenty. The Caecum was one foot ten inches in length and six inches in breadth towards its Basis. It went lessening towards its Point as usual. This extraordinary length of the Intestines, which is proportiona­ble to the greatness of the Ventricle in Animals which do live on Grass, is not found in those which are fed with flesh; because that Grass, being not so easy to be changed into Bloud, and this Nourishment affording it less matter than flesh, it was necessary to have the Ventricles thus large, to con­tain a great quantity of Grass, and that the Intestines should be proportionably long, to make room for the Natural heat to operate a long time on the Nou­rishment retained and conducted thro long Turnings.

There were two Ventricles, a greater and a smaller, which seemed to be the Duodenum inlarged. The great Ventricle being blown was five foot round. It was composed of several other Ventricles heaped in one, by reason of four or five bunches which it had connected together by a Membrane which did joyn, and make them to forme to this Ventricle several Cells. On this Membrane there was another which did cover and lock up the whole Ventricle. This Membrane was fastened behind to the Ventricle; Be­fore it was joyned to it only at top, the rest being wholy separated, and greatly extended, by a great deal of wind which it shut up with the Ventricle and Intestines, which it also covered like an Epiploon. The upper part which co­vered the Ventricles was thin, and transparent, without Fat, Glands, or apparent [Page 170] Vessels: the part which descended to inclose the Intestines had some Vessels and Fat, but in a very little quantity.

The Spleen was round, thin, and wholly adherent to the great Ventricle. It was six inches Diameter. The Vessels which do make the Vas Breve were utterly imperceptible. The Gibbous and upper part was fastned to the Diaphragme by three strong Ligaments.

The Liver had but one Lobe, and was only Cleft before, and quite whole within. The right side was somewhat more extended that the left, and made a point towards the Kidney. There was no Gall-Bladder.

The Kidney was very large, being five inches long and three broad. There was no Ren Succenturiatus.

The Penis had no bone. The proper Membrane of the Testicle was im­mediately fastened to the Glandulous Substance, so that it was absolutely inseparable therefrom, and more than usual in other Animals. Over this Membrane were an infinite number of Blood-Vessels, some whereof were strait and as big as a Bodkin; others were undulated, and as it were frizled, very small, about the bigness of a Pin. The Glandulous Substance of the body of the Testicle was Yellow; that of the Epididymis of a pale livid Red. The Uniting of the Vasa Praeparantia was wreathed and confounded, and made a Tube about the bigness of ones Finger, which produced the Epididymis, which covered and imbraced the top of the body of the Testicle even as the Cup of an Acorne. This part resembling an Acorne did produce a body about the thickness of ones Finger, which descended along the body of the Testicle, being there fastened, and made towards the bottom a kind of a Teat, from whence it returned along the side opposite to that by which it descend­ed, and formed the Vas Deferens, which was about the thickness of a Swans quill.

The Lungs had seven Lobes, four on the right side and three on the left. The Heart was very large, almost round and soft, because that the Ventricles were very large. There was a Bone as usually in Staggs.

TO the Description of the Stag we do joyn that of the Hinde, to disco­ver wherein these two Animals did agree, and in what they were un­like besides the difference of the Sex.

The highth of this Hinde was two foot eight inches, from the back to the Ground. The Neck was a foot long. The hind-legg, from the Knee to the end of the foot, was two foot, and to the Heel one foot.

The Hair was of four Colours, viz. Fallow, White, Black and Gray. There was some white under the Belly and on the inside of the Thighs and Leggs: On the Back it was of a dark fallow: On the Flancks, of an Isa­bella-fallow: Both the one and the other on the Trunck of the Body was marked with White Spots of different figures: along the Back there were two rows in a direct Line; the rest was confusedly Speckled. Along the Flanks there was on each side a White line. The Neck and Head were Gray. The Tail all White underneath, and Black at Top, the Hair being six inches long.

The Epiploon was fastened to the Peritonaeum directly over the Navel, and inveloped the Intestines underneath. It was composed of very thin Mem­branes, and small Vessels without Fat: It was double.

[Page 171]The Liver was small, and like to that of the Stagg, in that it was not se­parated into several Lobes, having only the fissure, which is generally at top towards the middle, and an other underneath inclining to the right side There was not also any Gall-Bladder.

The four Ventricles were better distinguished and separated each from other than they were in the Stagg, where there was distinctly seen but two. The first and greatest Ventricle had on the inside a Membrane easily separable from that of the outside, as in the Gazella. This internal Membrane was rough by an infinite number of Asperites or Teats, as is generally seen in Animals which chew the Cud. All this great Ventricle was contracted in several places, and separated in different Pouches as in the Stagg: it was filled with Grass, amongst which there was found several pieces of Skin, of shoe-Soles about the bigness of a Crown-piece, some pieces of Lead about the bigness of ones Nail, which seemed worn and fretted, and some Frag­ments of slate. This may make one to think that these sorts of Animals do hastily gather their Food in the Fields, and that they do wait to cull it leisurely when they Chew it. The second, third, and fourth Ventricle were not different from those of Sheep.

The Intestines were very long as in the Stagg, but less in proportion. They measured in all forty foot. There were two sorts: the first which made about a quarter, were Grayish, and plaited in Folds six inches long: the others were of a dark Red, and folded very small in Cells. The Mesentery was com­posed of very fine Membranes.

The Spleen was covered with a hard, thick and whiteish Membrane: Its figure was round; it was like that of the Stagg, strongly knitt to the Ven­tricle and Diaphragme.

The Cornua Uteri were long and bent into several Anfractuosities. Their extremity was applyed to the Testicle which was small, on the inside of each of these Horns there were two folds of the internal Membrane, which did forme some leaves ranged according to the length of the Hornes, almost af­ter the same manner as is seen in the third and fourth Ventricle of Animals which chew the Cudd.

The Heart was extraordinary large and soft: Its Ventricles were extended by a quantity of coagulated bloud which filled them. The Lungs had seven Lobes.

The Truncks of the two Iugulars, as well the internal as external, had each sixteen Valves disposed in six rows, about two inches distant from each other. The four upper rows consisted each of three Valves; the two lower ones had only two, but they were larger than those of the upper rows. The disposition of these Valves was such, that the aperture of the Sacks which they did form was toward the Head, to stop, as it is probable, the too great impetuositie of the Bloud which falls in its returne from the Brain into the Axillary Branches. Those of the Moderns who are ignorant what is the Motion of the bloud in the Veines, have attributed this use to all the Valves of these Vesseles, the situation of which is found to be contrary to the Mo­tion and course of the Bloud, after the Manner as they understand it, and fa­vourable to the course which it efectively has for the Circulation, that is to say for its return towards the Heart. Bartholinus has remarkt two Valves in [Page 172] one of the Iugulars. Riolanus, who first found out these two Valves affirms that they are never found but in the internal Iugular, although we have al­wayes found them in the external as well as Internal: But this situation of the Valves contrary to the Motion of the Bloud towards the Heart, has as yet been seen only by Amatus Lusitanus, who has observed some of this Nature at the beginning of the Azygos, and which he thought to serve to hinder the Bloud of the Azygos from returning into the Trunck of the Cava; but this Conformation is extraordinary, whatever this Author sayes, who averr's himself to have seen it a thousand times; because that all Anatomists, with an unanimous consent, do testifie and avow to have seen the contrary, and never to have found Valves in the Veins, whose Situation favoured not the Motion of the Bloud towards the Heart.

The Carotides having been opened long-ways, it was observed that they had several Rays like transverse Cutts, which interrupted the continuitie of the Fibres, which are according to the length of the internal Membrane of this Artery: which appeared to be made to knitt together these Fibres, and to fortifie them even as it is seen in the Fibres of the right Muscle of the Belly, which are so interrupted by the transverse lines, that they are called Enervations. It was searcht whether the same thing could be found in the Crural Artery, but it was smooth and even, and had not these Cutts.

The Globe of the Eye was an inch and a half in Diameter. The Crystalline was more convex behind than before.

The Explication of the Figure of the Pintado

THe Pintado which is represented in the lower Figure, has no Tuft at the root of the Beak, like that whose Head is represented in the upper Figure. As to other particulars, the Ten which we describe, had all that is remarkable in this viz. the Tail turned downwards as it is in Partridges, the Neck and Leggs longer than Partridges are; the Feet provided with Membranes after the manner of Water-Fowl; the Head covered with a Casque; the top of the Beak garnished with two Appendices; and the whole Plumage black, or dark-gray, Spekled with white Spotts.

In the Upper Figure.
A B.
One of the Feathers of the Wing. A is the part of the Wing which is unco­vered. B is that which is covered by another Feather.
C D.
One of the Feathers of the Belly. C, the part of the Feather which covers the Down marked D.
E F G.
The Head almost as big as the life. E, the Tuft which grows out at the root at the Beak. F. the Casque or Bonnet.
The fleshy Beards.
The hole of the Ear.
H H.
The small Muscles of the Aspera Arteria.
I I.
The Artery of the Lungs divided into two Branches.
K K.
The Carotides, the left of which seems to proceed immediately from the Heart.
The Cross or bending of the Aorta on the right side.
M N.
The Heart.
The Right Auricle.
O O.
The Liver.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Ductus which conveys the Choler into the Intestine.
The Intestine.
The Ventricle or Gizard.
T T.
The Venae Iliacae.
A single Testicle fastened to the Bifurcation of the Iliack Veins.
X X.
The Emulgent Veines.
The continuation of the Trunck of the Aorta beyond the Venae Iliacae.
a a.
The Iliack Arteries which do serve for Emulgents.
b b.
The Kidneys.
c c.
The Ureters.

[Page 174]



THe Birds which we describe are a kind of Hen called Pintado, by reason of the exactness of the Figures which seem as if Painted on its Plumage; these figures not being irregular and as it were accidentally made, as in the generality of other Birds. Upon this very reason some of the Ancients made Choice of the Names which they have given to these Fowl: For by Varro and Pliny they are called Variae, and by Martial Guttatae, by reason of the white Spots wherewith their whole body is diversified and Speckled, as it were with several drops. Their Eggs are likewise Painted, and Chequered with white and black: thus this sort of diversitie is a thing Natural and perpetual to these Birds, which this particularity distinguishes from common Hens, which in the Genus of Birds are almost the sole ones, which have not the Plumage alwayes with the same Colours in their Species; Hens being indifferently white, black, gray, yellow, or mixt with all these colours. O­ther Authors have given to the Pintado's Appellations taken from the Coun­try where they do generally breed (which is Africa) by calling them Hens of Africa, Barbary, Numidia, Guinea, Mauritania, Tunis, Pharos, that is to say Aegypt. Margravius reports that in the Kingdome of Congo it is called Que­sele. Pliny relates that they are also called Meleagrides, because that according to the report of his time, they went annually from Africa into Baeotia, and come to beat themselves near the Tombe of Meleager, whose Story feigns that the Sisters were changed into these Birds. There are some which do think that the Meleagris is the Cocq-d'Inde or Turky-Cock; which shall be exa­mined in the Sequel.

The ten Pintado's whereof we have made the Dissection, were of the size, and almost the shape of an ordinary Hen. Some are of Opinion that they do better resemble the Partridge. But the length of their Neck, and Leggs, [Page 671] which did even surpass that of the Neck and Leggs of Hens, have made us to disapprove this Similitude: We only found that they had the Tail bent down-wards like the Partridg, and not held up like the Hen. But they have no Characteristick more particular of the Hen than the fleshy Ap­pendices which do hang down on both sides of their Jaws, which are not mett-with in any other Bird, and which even in the Pintado have something different from those which are in Hens; as shall hereafter be explained.

Their whole Plumage was only of two colours, viz. White and Black. The White was every where perfectly White: the Black was also in some places perfectly Black, but in the most it was faint, and inclining to a dark-Gray.

The top of the Neck instead of Feathers, was only garnisht with a black Down, which did better resemble Hair than Feathers. These Hairs being about two lines long, were turned upwards, contrary to the ordinary situa­tion of Hair and Feathers. In one of our Subjects, towards the hinder part of the Head, these Hairs were almost an inch long, and made as it were a Tuft. The under part of the Neck had little dark-gray Feathers markt with White. These Feathers went insensibly three inches in length and one in Breadth. The half of these Feathers, towards the root on both sides of the Quill or Stem, was garnished with Beards or branchings like grayish white Down, above half an inch long on each side. Each Down or Beard was dissheivelled, and divided as it were into several fine Locks or threads towards its extremity. Near the Quill or Stem the roots of each beard were joyned together by the Crochets or little Fibres wherewith the Beards or branchings of the feathers which do serve for flight, use to be fastened, and which are described in the Ostrich. The other half of these Feathers was composed of these same sort of Beards or Branchings, which are harder and firmer. They were of a dark-gray intermixt with white round Spots, two lines Diameter at the most. They by an equall order did make three rows on each side with six in each row; so that the sixth of every row, which was common to the opposite rank, whereof it did likewise make the sixth, did meet on the tail of the Quill or Stem. This Quill which was black, did grow white at the place of the mark or Spot, as if on a black Skin there had been thrown some drops of Aqua-Fortis, which had discolour­ed it: Which illustrates the thought of Martial, by whom the Pintado's are called Guttatae.

The Feathers of the Wing's were marked after another manner, have­ing two Sorts of Spots, some of which were round, and others long. These marks were white, an a dark ground of three different Kinds: for at the place where the Feather is covered with another Feather, this ground was simply dark-gray; In the rest of the Feather this ground was absolutely black at the Circle of the white Spot; the rest was mixt with white and black Speks.

Clytus Milesius Aristotle's disciple, who describes the Pintado in Athenaeus with great exactness, principally inlarges upon the particularities of the shape and colour of the Spots of these Feathers, and even to the having ob­served that the black which edges the Spots is reciprocally intermixt with the white in form of a Saw; which is very difficult to comprehend, if one [Page 177] sees not these feathers, or their figure: wherefore we have in our Figure exactly designed them.

The Tail as has been sayd, was a little bent down-wards as in Partridges. The Leggs were covered with little feathers layd, and as it were glued, up­on the Skin; they were of a dark-Gray and spotted with White like all the rest.

The Head had no Feathers; the upper Eye-lidd had only long black hairs, which were raised upwards. At the top of the Head there was a Crest, or kind of Casque, which Modern Authors do compare to the Bonnet of the Doge of Venise. This Crest is by Margravius called Mitella Cutacea. We found that it was only covered over at top with a dry and wrinkled Skin of a dark Fawn Colour, which was extended from the Beak to the hinder part of the Head which it covered, being cutt away over the Eyes. But the inside was of a Spongie Substance, softer than the Bone, and resembling, as say's Clytus, a flesh hardened and dryed like Wood: which may make one to think that D' Alechampius and Casaubon had no reason to correct the ancient ex­emplars of Athenaeus, where it appears that this Crest is [...], by putting [...]. instead of [...]: for altho the colour of this Crest resembles some sort of Wood, yet indeed its substance has more re­semblance with all sorts of Wood than its colour, because that the colours of Woods are much more different amongst themselves, than their Substan­ces. D'Alechampius is perhaps mistaken, when he say's that this Crest is peculiar to the Males; for we have found it in all our Subjects as well Males as Females.

The Eye was large and open; the Poet Sophocles, according to Pliny, averr's that the yellow Amber is made of the Tears which do drop from the Eyes of the Pintados, which are beyond the Indies.

The Beak was like to that of an Hen. In two of our Subjects we found, on the middle of the root of the Beak, a Tuft composed of twelve or four­teen threads four lines in length, and about the bigness of a small Pin, of co­lour and Substance like the Bristles of a Hog. On each side of the Beak a blewish Skin was extended towards the Eye, which it incircled, and grew black there. Belonius positively affirmes that it is White round about the Eye. This Skin made the Eye-lidds, and covered the two Appendices with a Substance half fleshy and half Cartilaginous: they hung down on both sides the Cheeks, being fastened to the upper Jaw, and not to the lower, as they are in Hens, and as Belonius has Painted them in his Pintado. We found them of different shapes in our Subjects: for in some they were Oval, in others square, in others Triangular. They were also of different colours. Margravius simply declares that they are Red. We observed that they were Red in the Females, and Blew in the Males; although all Authers do report that this Bird has not any exteriour Mark which makes the distinction of Sex. On this difference of Colours Columella grounds a distinction be­tween the African or Numidian Hen and the Meleagris, saying that the Afri­can Hen has its Appendices Red, and that the Meleagris has them blue: But there is no probabilitie that such a difference can constitute divers Species, seeing that these Colours may easily change in the very same Individual upon light occasions, as is observable in the Turky-Cock, in whom the Combe Waxes Red when he is Angry, and who has it generally blue.

[Page 178]At the side of these Appendices backward, there is plainly seen the hole of the Ear, which in other Birds is hid by the feathers which do adorn the Head; this hole was extraordinary little, perhaps by reason it is unco­vered.

The Feet, which, as has been say'd, were very high, were of a dark-gray. Some great Scales covered them before; and behind they had only a Skin made rugged by an infinite number of small Eminencies like those of Cha­grin. The three fore-Toes had, even to the third of their length, a Skin which joyned them together as in the Goose. The hind-Toe was short, and the Males had no Spurr behind the Foot.

After having made these remarks on the Pintado, and read what the An­cients have written of the Bird Meleagris, we think it very hard to be of the same Opinion with Turnerus, Belonius, Gesner, Aldrovandus, and all the Au­thors which have writt of these Birds, and which do hold that the Meleagris of the Ancients is the Turky-Cock, and not the African Hen, or Pintado; for it is easie to prove that whatever the Ancients have reported of the Bird Melea­gris is found in the Pintado, and that nothing of all this occurrs in the Turky-Cock, which on the contrary has some things particular which are not in the Meleagris of the Ancients. For the particularities which Clytus attributes to the Bird Meleagris, viz. the Crest of a Lignous Colour and Substance, the Beards or Appendices of the Cheeks, the numerous white Specks almost regularly and with Symmetry placed on the feathers, of the shape and size of a Lentill, the Leggs without Spurrs in the Male, and the perfect resemblance of the Male and Female, are seen in the Pintado and are not found in the Turky-Cock. What Pliny reports of the Bird Meleagris do's very well agree with the Pintado, but not at all with the Turky-Cock: for he say's that the Meleagris is a Bird that lives in Lakes and Rivers: now the Skin which the Pintado has between the Toes of the Feet in found only in Animals which do love and dilight-in Watry places, where it is known that the Turky-Cock takes no pleasure. In fine, in the exact Description which the Ancients have made of the Meleagris it is impossible, if it were the Turky-Cock, that they should omitt the remarkable and particular things which appear in the Turky-Cock, and which are not found in the Pintado, such as are the way of display­ing its Tail, of dragging its Wings against the ground, of extending and suf­fering the Combe on its head to hang, of having the Neck rough and whol­ly void of feathers, and of having a Lock of black Hair at the Breast.

As for what respects the Inward parts, we found the Oesophagus, as in most Birds, ranged on the right side of the Aspera Arteria. It was inlarged before its entrance into the Thorax, and made a Craw of the bigness of a Tennis Ball, when it was blown up; afterwards it was contracted to pass thro the Thorax. This contracted part measured two inches and a half in length. This whole Oesophagus was spread over with a great quantity of Vessels, which were not visible in the passage, which from the dilatation that we have ta­ken for a Craw passed to the Gizard; this passage being of a Substance hard­der, whiter, and more Nervous than the rest. The Gizard was as in the Hen. It was found for the most part filled only with Gravel. Its internal Mem­brane was very much plaited, and easily separable from the fleshy part. Its substance was like to white glue; so that this Membrane being separated from the Gizard, was easily dryed, and waxed hard and brittle like Glass.

[Page 179]The Intestines were three foot long without reckoning the two Caecums, which were each six Inches. The Duodenum was much larger than the o­thers, being above eight Lines. The Caecum's were not of a uniform breadth as in the generality of Birds, but did go inlarging. They were fastned by the Membranes of the Mesentery, and received vessels therefrom like the o­ther Intestines. There was no Pancreas.

The Liver was divided into two Lobes, which at the top had each a Ca­vitie to receive the point of the Heart The Cavity of the right Lobe was greater and deeper than that of the left, because that the point of the Heart was turned towards the right side. The lower extremitie of the Lobes was fastened to the Diaphragme, which descends from the top down­wards, and to the Bladders which the Lungs form in the lower Belly of Birds. In most of our Subjects the Liver was Scirrhous, and filled with a great quantity of hard yellow Grains, some as large as Pease, and others less. We found a Gall-bladder only in two of our Subjects. In the one it was nine Lines in length and six in breadth. It had a Ductus from its bot­tom, which was inserted into the Intestine near the Pylorus. In the other, it was an Inch and half long, and four Lines broad, being fastened to the hollow part of the right Lobe; and the Ductus was from its middle, and not from its lower extremitie, and inserted it self into the Intestine, four Fingers beneath the Pylorus. In the other Subjects which had no Gall-bladder, the ramus Hepaticus was there found very large and visible. It measured five Inches in length, and was inserted into the Intestine six Inches beyond the Pylorus.

Towards the upper part of the Gizard there was a body of an oval Fi­gure nine Lines long, and of a dark red Colour, and a firm Substance. It had connexion with the Trunk of the Vena Porta, with that of the Cava and Aorta, and with the Intestines and Ventricle, by some very visible bran­ches. Some Modern Authors have observed that Birds which have a fleshy Ventricle have no Spleen. Yet we are of Opinion that this body could be no other thing than a Spleen, as well by reason of these Connexions, as of the Sympathie which it seem'd to have with the Liver: because it was found that in all the Subjects where the Liver was Scirrhous, this part was after the same manner; altho' the hard and compact Substance of this body in the subjects where it was Scirrhous, and its Figure so regularly oval, might cause a belief that it was a Testicle: but there were two other round bodies, four Lines Diameter, couched on the Loyns, and fastened to the Trunks of the Vena Cava and Aorta, which were the true Testicles. In one of the Subjects these round bodies were single, and fastened on the place of the di­vision of the Iliacks.

The Air being blown into the Aspera Arteria it made all the Bladders to swell, which received the Air after it had passed thro' the Lungs, and of which there are some that do descend into the lower Belly of Birds; it is ob­served that the Pericardium was likewise blown up. This Remark may be of some Importance to discover the uses of Respiration, and the Advantages which the Air, being by this means introduced into the Thorax, may bring to the Heart, by the Compression it may there cause, by the Impression of its [Page 180] Qualities, by the reception of the Fumes which it incessantly exhales in the continual heat in which it is, &c.

The Membrane of the Pericardium was not just fit and fastened to the Heart as is usual, but was a great deal extended towards the Point, making a sack or Appendix half an Inch long. In one of the Subjects, this Appen­dix was a great deal longer; for descending between the two Lobes of the Liver, it went to be fastened to the Gizzard.

The Aspera Arteria, after having entered the Cavity of the Thorax, had two small Muscles which were knitt to its Anteriour part, and which turn­ing on the one side and the other somewhat downwards, were by seve­ral Fibres united to the Vessels of the Heart. These Muscles were each al­most an Inch long, round like a Cord, and about the thickness of two thirds of a Line. We have found these same Muscles in a great many Birds: in most they do fasten the Aspera Arteria to the Sternum.

The Lungs were of Spongious flesh, perforated with several little holes as bigg as the head of a small Pin, regularly placed as well full as empty, and covered with a very fine Tunicle. They were of a Pale-red inclining to Ash-colour, being two Inches and a half long, and nine Lines broad, and five thick.

The Heart measured an Inch and half in length, and an Inch in breadth towards its Basis; it was very pointed. The Aorta being come out of the left Ventricle, was turned directly forward being still in the Heart, and covered with the right Auricle; so that it seem'd to proceed from the right Uen­tricle, and crossed over in this place, to descend to the right side. For this same reason the left Carotide did likewise appear to come from the Heart, altho' it proceeded from the Trunk. The division of the Trunk of the A­orta which formes the Iliack Branches, was an Inch and half lower than the division of the Iliacks of the Cava. These Branches were a great deal lesser than those of the Cava. They served for Emulgent Branches, the Kidneys being there fastned. The Emulgent Branches of the Cava did likewise come from the Iliack Branches of the Cava; and after being joyned to the Kidneys, did pass forward, like as the Arteries. The same Trunk of the Aorta, after its division into the Iliack Branches, did continue, and descend even to the Anus, casting forth the several Branches to the right and left, to form the Crurals.

The Brain had nothing particular. It is only observed that there was two bony Apophyses about the bigness of a little Pin, and two Lines long, which proceeding from the two sides of the Cranium, did joyn, and make an Angle between the Cerebrum and the Cerebellum.

The Crystalline was more convex within than without the Eye.

The Explication of the Figure of the Eagle.

THe lower Figure represents only one of the Eagles which are here described, because that they were almost all alike. The main and principal difference was in the Feathers of the Neck, which were compos­ed only of a very long and smooth down in the Male; whereas in the Fe­males they were like Scales. It must be likewise observed, that the great­ness of the Claw of the hinder Foot could not be represented such as it would appear, if these Claws were not hid, as they necessarily are by the Bough on which the Eagle is perched.

In the Upper Figure.
The Trunk of the Vena Porta.
The Neck of the Gall-Bladder.
The Ductus Cysticus.
The Ductus Hepaticus.
The Spleen.
The Pancreas.
G G G.
The Branches of the Vena Porta and Caeliaca Arteria, which go to the Spleen and Intestines.
1 2 3.
The three Ductus Pancreatici.
The Aspera Arteria.
The Oesophagus blown up.
A glandulous body fastened to the upper part of the Oesophagus.
The Ventricle.
The Spleen.
The Branches which are distributed to the Spleen and Intestines.
The Pancreas.
The Tongue as bigg as the Life.
The Eyes.
One of the Feathers of the Breast which is composed only of Threads like Down, and which has two Stems like two Branches which proceed from a third, which is as it were the Trunk.
The Medulla Spinalis divided and separated as it were into two Branches which afterwards joyned again.
T T V X.
The same Marrow cut through, to shew how the two parts T T, which divide in two the Trunk of the Marrow on the fore-side, are joyned together at the hinder part X, to form the Cavitie V.
Y Y.
Two small Appendices which supply the place of the Caecum, having on the inside a very small Cavitie.

[Page 182]



THese three Eagles were almost alike in bigness forme, and Plumage. The inward Parts were in some things different, principally because they were of different Sexes. The greatest which was a Female, measured from the Extremity of the Beak to that of the Tail, two Foot nine Inches; from the end of one Wing, to the end of the other, when expanded, seven Foot and a half. The Beak was two Inches and a half long, without com­prehending the bending, which was nine Lines. The whole Head, compre­hending the Beak, was four Inches and a half; the Neck five Inches and a half; the Leg together with the Thigh, to the extremitie of the Talons, fifteen inches. It weighed ten pounds. Its whole Plumage was of a Chest-nut Colour almost black, except the bottom of the Neck before, and of the Belly, which was of a white sullied with a reddish gray. The Feet were small in proportion to the Body, and of a blewish gray. The Beak▪ was all Black.

The two others, one of which was a Male and the other a Female, (and which were somewhat lesser) had the Beak black at the end, yellow towards the beginning, and blewish at the middle. The Feet were yellow, covered with Scales of different sizes; those at top of the Toes being large and square, especially towards the extremitie; the other being very small. The Talons were black, crooked and very great, especially that of the hinder Toe, which was almost as big again as the others.

The Plumage was of three Colours, viz. dark Chest-nut, red, and white. The top of the Head was mixt with Chest-nut and red. The Breast and Belly were mixt with white, red, and Chest-nut: the Wings had a great deal of Chest-nut, little red and less white. The Quills of the great feathers of the Wings were nine lines in compass. The Plumes of the▪ Tail were very brown towards the extremitie, having somthing of white towards their Origine. The Thighs and Leggs even to the beginning of the Toes, were [Page 184] covered with Feathers half white, and half red, each Feather being red at the end, and white towards the beginning.

Naturalists do say that Eagles have the Leggs thus provided with Feathers as well to defend them from the Beak and Claws of Birds, when they catch and take them in their Talons, as to keep them from the cold of the Snow, to which they are exposed on the tops of the Mountains where they gene­rally reside. Belonius, who has described several sorts of Eagles, has described them all without Feathers on their Leggs.

Besides the great Feathers which covered the Body, there was at their root a very white and fine Downe, about an inch long. This Downe serves like­wise to Arm the Eagles against the Cold, of which they are very sensible: which is the reason that Falconers, when they make use of Eagles for high flying, do take from them a part of that Downe and of the other Feathers from their Belly, to the end that they rise not too high, being hindred by the cold of the middle Region of the Air. The other Feathers which co­vered the Back and Belly of our Eagles, were four or five inches long. Those which covered the Thighs on the outside, were six inches, and reached three inches beyond the Heel. Those whereby the Breast and Belly were decked in the Male measured seven inches in length and three in breadth: they were soft, having on both sides only a long Downe, the fibres of which were not clasped together, as they generally are in the strong Feathers which are ranged like Scales. These Feathers were double: for each Quill being come out of the skin about two-lines and a half, did shoot two unequal Stems, the one being as large again as the other. We have observed the same thing in the Feathers of the Neck and Belly of a Parrot▪ and in all the Feathers of a Cassowary. Belonius reports that the Bird which he calls Cock of the Wood, and which he thought to be the Tetrix of Aristotle, has of those sorts of Fea­thers, and that he has not seen any other Bird have the like.

The Eye which was sunk in the orbite, and covered with an Eminence of the os Frontis, which made as it were an advanced Eye-brow, was of a very brisk Isabella colour, with the lustre of a Topaze. The Cornea was raised with a great Convexity upon the Sclerotica, which made an edge elevated round the Cornea. This Border was hard and Bony. The Conjunctiva was of a very lively red. The Eye-lids were large each being capable of co­vering the whole Eye. Besides the upper and lower Eye-lids, there was an Internal one, which was drawn into the great Canthus or corner of the Eye, and which being extended towards the little one, did intirely cover the Cor­nea.

Aristotle and Pliny do make six kinds of Eagles, which are the Pygargus, Morphnois, Percnopteros, Melanactos, Haliaetos, and Chrysaetos; but they do not wholly agree in the Description which they do make of them, chiefly in what concerns their size: in the rest of the description they could not be so different by reason of the names which the Greeks have given them, by which these Species are described, by attributing to them some Marks which distinguish them. These marks have made us also to find out the Species to which we judge that our Eagles must be referred, as well by reason of the Particularities which do make them agree with these Species, as by reason that those of the other Species are wanting in them. Thus we do think that [Page 185] two of our Eagles which were the least, might be ranged under the last Spe­cies, which is the true Eagle, commonly called in French, Royale, by Aristotle Gnesios, and by Aelian Chrysaetos and Asterias; by reason that the red, and as it were gilded Colour of the Plumes, is expressed by the Greek Name Chry­saetos; and that the spots which they have on the Belly and Thighs, do repre­sent the Starrs signified by the Name Asterias, which all Interpreters do report to have been given to this Eagle, only because of these red spots. Moreover these Eagles could be neither the Pygargus, that is to say the white-tail'd Eagle; nor the Morphnos, that is to say the Eagle whose Plumage is of a dark Colour; nor the Melanaetos, that is to say the cole black Eagle; nor the Percnopteros, that is to say the Eagle whose Wings are spotted with black; nor the Haliaetos, that is to say the Eagle which resides near the Sea, that is reported to have blewish Feet: Because that these two Eagles, as ap­pears by the Description, had not the Tail white, nor the whole Plumage of a dark Colour, were not all black, nor had the Wings speckled with black, nor the Feet blue; so that our great Eagle, which had the blueish Feet, might be the Eagle which abides near the Sea called Haliaetos, for this rea­son, besides that it had the Wings very dark, as Ovid describes it in the Me­tamorphosis of King Nisus, who was changed into this Bird; that it had the Brest and Belly white, according to the Description of the Haliaetos, made by an Anonymous Author whom Aldrovandus cites; that its Feet were al­most all covered with square Scales, having a great many less square than in the other Eagles; which Belonius affirms to be peculiar to this kind of Ea­gle, to which Aristotle attributes that which is spoken of all the Eagles, viz. that they do reject those of their young which connot stedfastly behold the Sun.

Some difficulty might arise about the size which was indifferent in our two Royal Eagles, each not exceeding six pounds in weight; whereas the Eagle Chrysaetos, which Aldrovandus describes weighed ten. But it must be considered that our Eagles were young, as appears by the white Feathers which they had upon the Neck, Wings, and Tail, which do change Co­lour in the Eagles when they do wax old, and do grow of a gilded or dark chestnut Colour, as Gesner has observed: Add moreover that it has been said that Aristotle and Pliny agree not upon the size of the Eagles of different Species; Aristotle making that which he calls Gnesios, which is that which Aelian and Pliny do call Chrysaetos, the greatest of all; and Pliny saying that it is only of a middle size, and that that which is called Percnopteros, is the biggest.

Pliny say's that Birds have no Epiploon: yet our two Royal Eagles had Mem­branes, which like a sack did inclose the Intestines, Liver and Ventricle; which Cortesius has likewise observed in making the Dissection of an Eagle: We found such an Epiploon in other Birds. This Membrane proceeded from those which do form the Bladders which are in the lower Belly in Birds, and which do swell by Respiration. It had a great deal of Fat, especially over the Ventricle, which might cause a belief, that this Fat had the same use in this Bird as in Terrestrial Animals, where it is thought that it serves in the Epiploon to foment by its heat that of the Uentricle; at least it is ob­served [Page 186] that Carnivorous Animals have the Epiploon furnished with a great deal of Fat.

The Oesophagus which was on the right side of the Aspera Arteria was ex­tended even to two Inches and a half in Diameter, and six Inches in length when blown up, on the inside. Towards the top there was a glandulous Bo­dy hard and firmly fixed to the Membrane; it was about the bigness of a Pea; it was found only in one of the Subjects. Underneath the place where the Aspera Arteria was divided in two, the Oesophagus was contracted, and did pass underneath, then was enlarged to form the Uentricle which re­sembled it in Size, Figure and Substance: For both the one and the other was composed of Memoranes hard, white, and mixt with several Vessels on the outside. The inside was different; the bottom of the Oesophagus, which formed a Crop or Craw, was composed of small Glands, which towards the bottom were about the bigness of a Rape-seed, and went continually lessen­ing, untill they insensibly became imperceptible. The Uentricle had some wrinkles, which multiplying towards the bottom, did render it thicker than towards the topp. These two Cavities, as well that of the Breast, as that of the Uentricle, were very large, and proportioned to the Uoracity of this Bird, which Naturallists report to be so extraordinary, that it ravages all the adjacent places, which do hardly suffice to furnish it with the Prey necessary for its Nourishment. Thus it is observed that there are not found two Eagles in the same Quarter. Aelian reports that the Eagles not being sa­tisfied with the great Birds that they do take, as Cranes and Geese, they do hunt Rabits, Hares and Kidds, which they take up, and carry away; and that they have even the Craft and Subtilty of killing Bulls, by making them to fall down Precipices, and then eat them, after that they are beaten in pie­ces by their fall.

The Intestines were small, after the manner of Uoracious and Carnivorous Animals, contrary to those which do live only on Grass, and especially those which do chew the Cud, where they are generally four or five times longer and broader than in others. In our two Royal Eagles they were slender and short, and had no Caecum in the Male. The Female had two, each be­ing two Inches in length. In the Eagle Haliaetos, instead of the Caecum, there were two small Bunches hardly visible on the outside, but which had on the inside two Pouches formed by Tunicks like Valves. The Rectum was suddenly contracted near the Anus, and afterwards made a Pouch of the big­ness and shape of an Egg, at the Extremitie of which the Ureter's were in­serted: Underneath this Pouch there was seen the little Purse of Fabricius, the Figure of which is represented in the Plate of the Bustard.

The Spleen in the two Royal Eagles was round on the outside, flat on the inside and towards the Ventricle, to which it was immediately adherent: 'Twas on the right side that it was fastened. It was eight Lines Diameter. Its Colour was a Red much darker than that of the Liver, which was of a very lively Red. Its Vessels which it received from the Porta and Arteria Caeliaca were large and wide. In the Eagle Haliaetos it was seated under the right Lobe of the Liver, and knit to the third fold of the Intestine by the Branches of the Vena Porta and Arteria Caeliaca, as in the other two.

[Page 187]In this same Eagle the Pancreas was situated as in most Birds in the first fold of the Intestine, but it had a Figure altogether extraordinary. It was round at the lower end, making as it were a Head; the rest was flatter and thinner. This Head was perforated to give passage to the Ductus Hepati­cus, which without having any Communication with the Ductus Pancreatici, went to insert it self into the Intestine. The Ductus Pancreatici were in num­ber three: there were two which were inserted into the Intestine between the Ductus Cysticus and Hepaticus; the third was joyned to the top of the He­paticus. The Insertion of these Ductus's had two things particular; the first was that their insertion was made into the Duodenum, whereas in Birds it is commonly into the Extremitie of the first doubling of the Intestines, which belongs to the Iejunum. The second particular is that the Mouth of all these Ductus's was each covered again by a little Teat, whereas generally there is but one Teat for all the Ductus's, as well Pancreatick as Cystick and Hepatick. The Pancreas in the two Royal Eagles, was likewise seated very near the Py­lorus, but it was fastned to the Intestine by a Ductus so small and short, that it was hard to be seen: at the other end it clinged to the Spleen, which was fastened and joyn'd to the upper part, and to the right side of the Ventricle, as has been already declared.

The Liver was a great deal bigger in these two Eagles than in the other: In both the one and the other the left Lobe was the largest. The Gall-Blad­der was likewise very large in all the three, having the bigness and form of a great Chest-nut. It was joyned to the right Lobe of the Liver only by its Neck, which was a passage of a Line and half big. The Ductus Cysti­cus proceeded from the bottom, over against the Neck. This Neck was joyned to the Liver after two different manners: for in the two Royal Ea­gles it hung to the end of the right Lobe which was the shortest, as has been said: This was the reason that the Bladder was quite out of the Li­ver. In the other Eagle, the Neck was fastened to the middle of the hollow part of the right Lobe as usually.

In the two Royal Eagles, the Kidneys were small, being only eight Lines Diameter: They were round and flatt, of a tawny Colour somewhat red­dish. The Eagle Haliaetos had them almost like other Birds, which com­monly have them very great in Proportion to other Animals, and of a parti­cular Figure.

The Testicles in the Male Royal Eagle, were two small glandulous Bodies, shut up in Membranes. They were each of the bigness of a Pea, somewhat flatted, of a flesh Colour inclineing to yellow.

The Females had the Ovarium and its Ductus as usually in Birds, and such almost as is described in the Figure of the Damoiselle of Numidia.

The Tongue was Cartilaginous at the end, and fleshy at the middle, having at its root two hard points▪ like those which are at the bottom of the Beard of an Arrow. It was five Lines broad, an Inch and two thirds long, from the Mouth of the Larynx to the end, which was not pointed as in most Birds which have the Beak strait, but which was square as in the Parrot.

The small Muscles, which fasten the Aspera Arteria, did not take their O­rigine from the second Clavicula as in the generallity of Birds, but from the internal part of the top of the Sternum.

[Page 188]The Globe of the Eye in the Female was in its greatest breadth an Inch an half Diameter. That of the Male was three Lines less. The Cornea had a Convexitie which made it to rise above the rest of the Globe of the Eye, which was flatned before, as it is usual in Birds and Fishes, which have not the Globe of the Eye so Sphaerical as Terrestrial Animals. The Cornea in one of the Eyes of the Male was not transparent but had an opake whiteness. Between the Cornea and Chrystallinus in this Subject the whole Aqueous Humour was found hardned and as it were petrified, about the thickness of two Lines. This Cataract was placed in the Iris, which was of a mi­nime Colour, and which seem'd to have been altered therefrom. The Crystallinus was four Lines and a half broad, and three and a half thick, be­ing more convex on the inside than the outside. In the Female one of the Eyes was likewise spoiled, all the Humours and Membranes of the inside being corrupted, so that the whole was dissolved into a reddish water, with­out any appearance either of the Crystalline, Aqueous, or Uitreous Humour. The hole of the Uvea was closed by a thin, hard, and transparent Membrane. Cortesius who has observed this Membrane in the Eye of an Eagle, reports that it is found only in the Species called Ossifraga, which Aristotle for that reason calls Epargemos, that is to say which has as it were a Cloud over the Eyes. Our Eagle was never the less very different from the Ossifraga, which is not a true Eagle, but a kind of Vultur, whose plumage, according to A­ristotle, is of a whitish Gray; which has not any resemblance with our Eagle.

The Optick Nerve was in this Eye extraordinary soft and tender. The Membrane which is peculiar to Birds, and which proceeds from the Optick Nerve, makeing as it were a Purse which go's to fasten it self at the other end to the Ligamentum Ciliare, was very black, and even more than the Choroides. Altho' we called it a Membrane, because that it appear'd a Membrane plaited, yet it was only a company of great black Fibres, which had some reddish ones in the middle, and which appeared to be Vessels. The Optick Nerve from whence this Membrane did proceed, was flatted, make­ing as it were a cleft three Lines long. The Basis of this Membrane which was of a triangular Figure, had the same breadth, and five Lines from its Basis to its point. The Retina was very thick and Opake, especially all the bottom of the Eye, where it was plaited and wrinkled. In this place there was no Tapetum over the Choroides.

In one of our Subjects a Remark was made upon the structure of the Me­dulla Spinalis, which was at first thought to be peculiar to this Subject, but which was afterwards discovered to be common to other Birds. It was found that towards the middle of the Back the exteriour part of the Marrow was divided and separated in two, and afterwards rejoyned; the interiour part remaining intire, and being only dilated: which makes the Figure of a leaf. This separation of the exteriour part, and this dilatation of the Inte­riour, was an Inch and half long, and eight Lines broad in this Subject, and in other Birds proportionably. We always found in the Cavitie which the two separated parts do leave in the middle, a white and glutinous Humour, which appear'd to be the Lymphatick. Humour condens't.

[Page 189]If the Principal use of the Ventricles of the Brain is to receive their Excre­ments, it may probably be said, that this Cavitie which is peculiar to Birds, is as it were a Ventricle of the Medulla Spinalis, which being included with­in Bones, that have not a free Motion, such as is that of the flexible Spine of other Animals, it wants the means which this Agitation might give it, to disingage it self of these Excrements, and dissipate them; so that it re­quires some Receptacle to receive them. This Conjecture will give us oc­casion to search whether there are any particular Ductus's for the discharge of these Superfluities.

The Explication of the Figure of the Indian Cock.

OF the two Indian Cocks, that is represented in the lower Figure whose Beak had no Bunch, but which had three points at the end; and which had no white Feathers at top of the Tail; because that the other is found figured and described in Aldrovandus.

In the Upper Figure.
Is one of the Feathers of the Crest in its Natural bigness.
Another of the Feathers of the Crest, whose Fibres are half shut up in a Mem­branous Ductus.
The Beak, which has no Bunch at top, of its Natural size, and divided into three at the end.
The Beak which has a Bunch.
The Liver.
The Oval Gall-Bladder.
The Ramus Cysticus.
The two Remi Hepatici.
The single Pancreas.
The Ductus Pancreaticus.
The Aspera Arteria flatted, but less doubled than the other.
The Aspera Arteria most doubled.
M M.
The Kidneys.
N N.
The Aorta,
O P P▪
The Vena Cava, which is divided into the Branches P P, laid on the Kid­neys, to which they are fastened, and do serve for Emulgents.
Q Q.
The Branches of the Aorta which do make the Crural Artery's
R R.
The Ureters.
S T.
The Vasa Deferentia.
X X.
The Testicles.
Y Y.
The Epididymides,
Z Z.
The extremitie of the Rectum▪
The Penis fastened to the Rectum.
The same Penis lifted up, to discover the hole of the Rectum which is between Γ and π, and the Aperture of the sack which is under the Rectum, which o­pening is underneath π.
The Anfractuous Gall-Bladder. having the Figure of a Caecum.
α β.
The Two Ductus Hepatici.
The Ductus Cysticus.
δ δ.
The Two Ductus Pancreatici.
ε ε.
The right Pancreas which is under the Mesentery.
ξ ξ.
The left Pancreas which is layd upon the Mesentery.

[Page 190]



THis Bird we call Indian Cock to distinguish it from that which is very common amongst us, called Cocq d' Inde or Turky-Cock. It was brought from Africa, where we are told that it is called Ano. But because that this Name is not known; that all the Authors which have spoken of this Bird have put it under the Genus of Cocks; and that Gallus Indicus is the name which Longalius, Gesner, and Aldrovandus have given it, Iohnston being the only person that calls it Gallus Persicus; we have called it Indian, according to the opinion of the fore-cited Authors, and after the example of those by whom the Bird which is thought to be the Meleagris of the Ancients, is cal­led Turky-Cock, altho' it comes from Africa: add moreover that according to our conjectures the Bird which we speak of, is found in the West-Indies, where according to Margravius it is called Mitu-poranga, which Benzo in Clusius Re­ports to be a kind of Peacock.

We dissected two which were Males. Aldrovandus describes the Female, and makes it in some thing different from the Male, which he saw only in Painting; and declares not in what state he saw that Female. Longolius saw only the Skin of the Indian Cock which he mentions. The two which we describe, differed from each other only in the Beak. They were about the size of a middling Turkey-hen. Their Plummage was perfectly black on the Head and Neck: all the rest had a greenish Eye mixt with black, ex­cept the Back, whose Plumes towards the Root were of grayish Colour like the wood of a Wall-nut. The lower Venter, the top of the Thighs behind, and the under part of the Tail had white Feathers. Margravius says that the Indian Cock of Brazile is green, perhaps because it is less brown than ours, and that the green inclines to a brown: but the deepness or faintness of Co­lour ought not to change a Species, when it is established by more important Circumstances, such as are the things in which the Indian Cock of Margra­vius and ours do agree.

On the Head from the Beak to the beginning of the hinder part of the Neck, there was a Crest or Plume of black Feathers, two Inches and a half [Page 192] long, two Lines and a half broad, erected, and a little leaning backwards, with their extremitie bent forward. The Neck towards the top was gar­n [...]ed with small Feathers about the breadth of those of the Crest, but a great deal shorter, not exceeding four Lines in length near the Head: They increased in bigness as they approached the bottom of the Neck towards the Breast, even till they were two Inches long, and one broad.

The Feathers of the Tail were mixed, some being black, others white. In one of the Subjects there were white ones only underneath the Tail; in the other there were also white ones mixt with black at the top of the Tail. There were several of these Plumes whose Beards were shut up in a long quill or stem made of a very thin white Membrane, which somtimes incom­past them even to the end, leaving only a small Tuft to be seen. This Quill, where it lockt up the Fibres of the black Feathers, appeared blue, by reason that the Membrane was in some measure transparent. Some of the Fea­thers of the Wings and those which did make the Crest, were included in this Membranous Quill, which is likewise found in the Feathers of the Tail of Turkey-Hens. All the Thighs were covered with Feathers.

The Neck was nine Inches long. From the under part of the Belly to the extremitie of the Feet extended were fourteen Inches. The Feet were great and strong. The Leggs were covered before and behind with large square Scales. At the sides they were small, not exceeding half a Line, of an Hexagonal Figure. The Talons were black, long, and crooked. Be­hind the Legg there wanted that Spurr which is peculiar to Cocks.

The Beak was large, being nine Lines broad at its beginning, and two Inches long. Towards the end it was black, and very hard; the rest was yellow and covered with a Membrane, which was so swelled in one of the Subjects, that it made a round and high Bunch, about the bigness of a small Nutt, and after the manner as Aldrovandus Figures it. That which had not this Bunch had the end of the Beak divided in three, as if it had been three Beaks joyned together.

The Liver in both the Subjects, was of a brisk red Colour, and of a Sub­stance very soft. It was divided into two Lobes: the right was biggest, the l [...]t longest. The Gall-Bladder was almost in the middle of the two Lobes, but more fastened to the left side than the right. In one of the Subjects it was Anfractuous, and of the Figure which is attributed to Tears; which di­vided it into three little Cells. It was joyned at the top to the surface of the Liver, by the means of its exteriour Tunick, which it borrowed from the Capsula, and at the bottom to the Intestine, which supplyes the place of the Iejunum. Its Colour was green, its length an Inch, and its bigness half an Inch.

The Ductus Cysticus in this Subject, proceeded from the upper part of the Bladder, and descended straight downwards, to insert it self into the Posteri­our part of the Intestine: It was about the bigness of a Hens-quill, and about an Inch long. There were two Ductus Hepatici, which in Birds is very rare. They both came out of the side of the Vena Porta. They were of different sizes, the one being as bigg as the Quill of a Hen, and the other [Page 193] scarcely equalling a middle sized pin. They descended in a right Line the length of an Inch, and penetrated the Intestine very near the insertion of the Cysticus.

In the other Subject the Bladder was smaller, of an oval Figure: The Ductus Cysticus proceeded from the middle of the Bladder. There were like­wise two Ductus Hepatici, which were inserted into the Intestine after the same manner as in the other Subject: But all these Ductus bilarii were lesser than in the Subject where the Bladder was Anfractuous.

The Pancreas which was found double in one of the Subjects, was placed as usually in Birds, in the Interval of the first Circumvolution of the Inte­stines, which makes a Sinuosity, at the bottom of which these two Pancreas's took their Origine; and the one, viz. the right, passing under the Mesentery; and the other above, ascended to fasten themselves to the left part of the Liver, and to the Pylorus. From this place they did each send forth a very fine Ductus, six Lines long, which inserted it self near the place of the three Cholidochi. These five holes wherewith the Intestine was in this place pier­ced by the three Cholidochi and two Pancreatici, did all meet under the wrinkle, which the Intestine makes, to form as it were a Caruncle. The glandulous Substance of the Pancreas was of a pale red: they were thin towards their Origine, but very thick at their extremity towards the Liver. The other Subject had but one Pancreas, and one single Ductus.

The Oesophagus, which was very strait, and not exceeding half an Inch in compass, was dilated towards the entrance of the Thorax, to forme a Craw which was four Inches in circuit, and an Inch in length. After its be­ing thus dilated, it was contracted, and passing through the Thorax, was again dilated to form as it were a Ventricle, furnished with Glands which had the Figure and size of a grain of Rye: they were ranged like those which are described in the Bustard. The fleshy Tunicle of this Ventricle was very thin. The Gizzard, which was two Inches and a half in length, and two in breadth, had nothing remarkable, excepting that its fleshey part was very thin, and its Velvet covering very thick, hard, and brittle like Glass. This hardness hapning to this coat of the Gizzard of the Indian Cocks, when being separated from the Gizzard, they are left some time a drying; but in these Subjects, they were found thus hardned at the opening of the Bo­dy, and being still fresh.

The Intestines were of an extraordinary length, viz. twelve Foot; and each Caecum six; but their Cavitie was very strait, not exceeding a Line in Diameter. In the Anus, at the extremitie of the Rectum, there was a hole two Lines broad, which was the mouth of a Sack five Lines in length, and three in breadth. This Sack which was under the Rectum, is described in the Bustard.

The Testicles were seated on the Aorta, at the superiour part of the Kidneys: their Substance was glandulous, of a pale red. They were five Lines long and two broad; and at their lower part there was seen another Gland ab­solutely black, which was strongly fastened to them: 'Twas the Epididymis, which through its lower extremitie sent forth a very fine Ductus, which was the Deferens, which running along the Vena Emulgens, was changed into a very thin Tunicle.

[Page 194]The Penis was placed at the lower part of the Anus, opposite to the Rump. I [...]s Figure was Pyramidical, being four Line [...] long, and three Lines broad towards its Basis. It was composed of two hard and nervous Bodies, clad with several smooth and spongeous Membranes. There was also seen some musculous Flesh, which fastens it self at its Basis.

The Kidneys, which were speckled with several small points, some white, others minime, made us to apprehend that their Substance, consists of a num­ber of conglomerated Glands. They were, as usually in Birds, cut in several deep compartments and divisions, each Kidney being two Inches and a half in length and ten in breadth. The Amulgent Veins and Arteries had their di­stribution as ordinarily, and the Vreters inserted themselves at the extremi­ty of the Rectum, after having run along the exteriour surface of the Kidney.

The Asperae Arteria in one of the Subjects descended in a strait line to the middle of the Craw-Bone, which terminates the top of the Thorax in Birds, where it was dilated and fastened. There turning it self backwards, it made a fold reascending an Inch and half in heigth, and fastening it self by a very strong Membrane to the very place of the Craw-Bone. From thence it de­scended into the Thorax. In the other Subject it made not so great a fold, but it was dilated after the same manner. This dilatation was two Inches and a half in Circumference, being not an Inch in any other part.

The Heart was very small, not being an Inch in length and half an Inch at its Basis: its point was very sharp. The Cavitie of the fleshy Valve which is at the mouth of the Vena Cava in Birds, was a Line in depth.

The Globe of the Eye measured ten Lines in Diameter, and the Cornea five. The Crystalline was more convex behind than before: It was three Lines Di­ameter▪ The Vitrious Humour was: of a very hard Consistance. The Choro­ides was all over black, even over the Tapetum, where were seen none of the Colours which are commonly there. The Iris was of a dark red. The Sclerotica was hard and Cartilaginous at the fore part, according to the nature of Birds and Fishes. The Optick Nerve was side-ways▪ and after having pierced the Sclerotica and Choroides, was inlarged, and formed a Circle, from the Circumference of which there went several black fillets, which were u­nited to form a Membrane that we have found in all Birds, and which is described in several places of these Memoires.

The Explication of the Figure of the Bustard.

THe Six Bustards were not in all things alike. There were some whose Neck was proportionably longer than the Leggs; others had it shorter. Some had the Beak more pointed than it is here described; yet the Generali­ty had it thus. There was one where the Feathers which covered the Ear were somewhat longer than they are here represented.

In the Upper Figure.
The two Lobes of the Liver.
The Gall-Bladder.
The Ductus Cysticus.
The Ductus Hepaticus.
The Ductus Pancreatici.
A fold of the internal Tunicle of the Intestine, forming a Caruncle or Teat, which cover's the four Mouthes of the Cystick, Hepatick, and Pancreatick Branches.
The Pancreas.
The extremity of the Oesophagus where it begins to inlarge it self.
The outward membrane of the Oesophagus which is common with the Oeso­phagus and Ventricle, or Gizzard which it covers.
The Internal Membrane which cover's the Gland's of the lower part of the Oesophagus. This Membrane is also covered with another which makes the Velvet, and which is likewise extended over the Membrane M M. It is not here represented, to avoid Confusion, and because it is easily supply'd by Imagination.
The Internal Membrane of the Gizzard, which is folded and rufled.
The Glands which are at the bottom of the Oesophagus like to the ends of Pipes, and ranged one upon the other.
The Fleshy and Musculous part of the Gizzard, inclosed between the Mem­brane K K K, and the Membrane M M.
One of the Feet represented at large, altho, it exceed not a third part of the Natural bignesse.
One of the Talons cut, to shew that it is not hollow underneath, but round as at top.
The extremity of the Ilium.
R R.
The beginning of the two Caecum's.
S S.
The great Pouch, which is near the Extremity of the Rectum. It is opened, to discover the mouths of the Ureter's and of the third Caecum.
T T.
The Ureters.
The third Caecum commonly called Fabricius, Purse.
The mouth of the third Caecum.
A fold of the internal Membrane of the great Pouch of the Rectum, making a little Sack over the Mouth of the Purse.
Z Z.
The mouths of the Ureters.

[Page 196]



THe greatest of the six Bustards which we dissected, comprehended but three Foot from the extremity of the Beak to that of the hind Feet extended. This size comes not near that which Belonius and Turnerus al­low to the Bustard, which they report to be the largest of all Fowl next the Ostrich. The Cassowary and Griffon which we dissected, were a great deal bigger; and other Authors do not make the Bustard larger than that which which we describe. Aristotle in Athenaeus makes it much less; for he com­pares it, as to its bigness to a great Cock. And it is strange that Belonius and Turnerus, who had seen Bustards should, to follow Pliny speak so of it, that they seem not to have well understood him: For the Bird, which according to Pliny, is the largest next the Ostrich, is the second Species of Tetrao, which is not the Bustard; and Pliny says only that the bigness of the Otis, which is e­vidently our Bustard, approaches that of the Tetrao: But it is not certainly known what the Tetrao is, and what he speaks thereof agrees not at all with the Bustard; this Bird according to Pliny's Description, being black all over the Body, except the Feathers over the Eyes, which are red: which is not found in the Bustard, who has indeed some red and some black, or some brown in its Plumage, but these Colours are there placed after another fashion.

The Neck and Feet were much longer in our Bustards, than in those which Gesner and and Aldrovandus have described: as for the rest they do well enough agree with the Description which these Authors do make there­of. Their Neck was a Foot long, and their Leggs a Foot and half▪ The Wings were hardly longer than the Leggs; so that being extended, they exceeded not four Foot; which has no proportion with the Mass of the rest of their Body. Therefore it is that this Bird fly's with so much difficulty that it may easily be overtaken in its flight. Oppian say's that of all Birds [Page 198] the Bustard only is afraid of Doggs, because that it raises it self so little from the ground, and go's so slowly, that they can easily catch it.

'Tis upon this account that it has been by the Latins called Avis tarda, from whence is derived the word Otarde in French, unless it be taken from its Greek Name, which is Otis; altho the Ancients have spoken very variously of the Otis, to make it doubted whether it is our Bustard. Albertus calls it Bistarda, and gives to that Epithete, ill borrowed from Avis tarda, an Etymo­logie much worse; for he thinks it is so named, because that it generally makes two leaps when it begins to fly.

The Plumage was of six Colours; viz. white, black, ash-colour, brown­gray, and rose-colour. The Belly, Thighs, under-part of the Tail, and Wings were white. It is probable that Belonius, who makes the top of the Wings white in the Bustard is mistaken; because that generally Birds which have any dark Colour in their Plumage, have it ordinarily on the Wings and Back: Which is observed in other Animals, which have the Back also brown­er than the Belly. The fore-part of the Neck, the Head, and middle of the upper part of the Wings were of an ash colour. The hinder part of the Neck, the Back, the upper part of the Wings near the top, and the top of the Tail were red streak't with black, long, unequal, and as it were inter­rupted spots, as in Partridges. This made us to think that Aelian intended to speak of the Bustard, when he say's that in the Indies there are Partriges as bigg as Geese. The extremities of the Wings were of a dark-gray. All the Feathers in general, excepting the great ones, which are at the end of the Wings, had near the skin a down of a very lively red, inclining to a rose­colour. The Quill was also of this same Colour at the end. There were some of the Feathers which, (besides this Down fastened to the bottom of the Quill, had another, which after a very extraordinary manner, pro­ceeded from their extremitie, the middle of the Feather being composed of firm Beards clasped to each other, as they are in Feathers which do serve for flying, and the rest being as it were splitt and divided into an infinite numb­er of very small Fibres.

The Beak was of a somewhat darker-gray than the Plumage of the Head. It was three Inches long from the Eye to its extremitie. It had almost the shape of a Turky-hens Beak, and resembled not, as Gesner reports, the Beak of the Eagle, which is very crooked.

The Leggs and almost half the Thighs were covered with little small Scales of an Hexagonal Figure, the greatest of which exceeded not one Line every way. The Toes of the Eeet were covered at top with square, long and strait Seales. All the Scales were of an ash-colour, covered over again with a small Skin which was raised like the Heckle of a Serpent. The bottom of the Foot was covered with a Skin speckled like Chagrine. The Toes were in number only three. The hinder one was wanting, and in the place thereof, there was a C [...]ll sitie about the bigness of a small Nut. The greatest of the Toes was two Inches nine Lines long. The Talons were large, short, a little crooked, somewhat pointed, and almost like to the Nails of Man, being of an oval Figure: but what they had most remarkable, is that they were convex underneath as well as at top; which rendered their Section Len­ticular. Belonius says that the kind of Eagle called Haliaetos, has its Talons [Page 199] round underneath, as well as at top, contrary to the nature of the Claws of other Animals, which are hollow, or at least underneath.

The Bustard do's not build its Nest on Trees, according to Albertus, be­cause it cannot fly: but it is probable that it is because it cannot stand there, by reason of the extraordinary make and structure of its feet, which is in­commodious for that purpose, having no hind Toe, and the [...]le of the Foot being made round and filled with a great Callosity, which hinders it from be­ing able to Perch.

Aristotle says that the Otis in Scythia, sits not on its Eggs like other Birds, but that it invelops and wrapps them up in a Hares or Foxes Skin, and hides them at the root of a Tree, at the top of which it Perches, to watch for the Fowlers, whom it hinders from approaching, by strikeing them with its Wings, as Eagles do: which demonstrates that the word Otis is very am­biguous amongst the Antients, and that it sometimes signifies our Bustard and sometimes another Bird, which is very different therefrom: for the Bu­stard is incapable either of Perching on a high Tree, or of fighting with the Fowlers.

The hole of the Ear, whose greatness some pretend has given the Name to this Bird, had nothing extraordinary. In some of our Subjects it was covered with Feathers somewhat longer than the rest: but they made not such long Ears as in the Demoiselle of Numidia, which, according to our con­jectures, is the true Otis of the Ancients, and that it is confounded with the Otis, as is shewn in the Description of the Demoiselle of Numidia.

The Liver was very large, the right Lobe in some of our Subject being five Inches; so that it descended to the bottom of the Belly. It was of a firm Substance, and of a Vermilion Colour.

The Gall-Bladder, which was hid under the right Lobe, was fastened to the Liver only by its upper part, which was as it were its Neck: the rest hung down being loosened from the Liver, and adhereing below to the Ie­junum. It was two Inches and a half long, and an Inch broad, being of an oval Figure. The Ductus Cysticus in some of our Subjects was short, be­cause that it proceeded from the bottom of the Bladder, and joyned it self to the upper part of the Iejunum. In others this Ductus was longer, because that it came from the the upper part of the Bladder, near its Neck, and was inserted into the same place as the others which were shorter. The Ductus Hepaticus came out near the Neck of the Bladder, and was also fixed to the Iejunum, two Inches lower than the Cysticus, only in the Subjects where the Cysticus proceeded from the Neck of the Bladder; in others it was im­mediately inserted underneath the Cysticus, as it is commonly in Birds.

The Substance of the Spleen was quaggie, and of a dark red. It was made like the Kidney of Terrestrial Animal: it was only ten Lines long, and six broad.

The Pancreas was placed in the first Circumvolution of the Intestines, in­to which it descended as usually. Its Substance was hard, and of a pale red: it was very thin at one end and very thick at th'other, from whence its Ductus proceeded, which was but five Lines long. In one of our Subjects there was two Ductus Pancreatici, which came from the Pancreas: In ano­ther there were two Pancreas's, which had each their Ductus. These Duc­tus's [Page 200] were all inserted near the Cystici, having each a separate entrance; but they were all covered with an Appendix like a Caruncle, which appeared to be a fold of the Internal Membrane of the Intestine.

Aristotle in Athenaeus, remarks that the Bustard has no Craw. In our Sub­jects the Oesophagus was every where strait: it was inlarged only, and some­what thikned before it joyned with the Gizzard, for about the space of two Inches. In this place there was a great quantity of Glands inclosed be­tween the two Membranes of the Oesophagus. These Glands were ranged like Honey-Combes: each was peirced lengthwise, forming a little Tube or Ductus. The Figure of the whole Gland was Conical, and about the thick­ness of a Line at one end, and of the length of two, terminating in a point. These Glands were laid one upon the other, so that the great end only ap­pcared, where was the mouth of the little Ductus. The internal Mem­brane of the Oesophagus, which was laid upon these small Glands, was so thi [...]n, that they were seen through it, and that when they were pressed, they sent forth a Liquor which like wise passed through the Membrane. This Membrane was also covered with another, which was extended over the whole Cavitie of the Gizard, as well as over that of the enlargement of the Oesophagus where the Glands were. This last Membrane supplyed the place of the Velvet, which generally covers the inside of the Ventricle of Animals.

This Structure of the lower part of the Oesophagus, and this heap of Glands is found in most Birds, but is not commonly seen so plainly and distinctly as in the Bustard. Arantius, who has made the Dissection of a Bustard, calls these Glands of the Oesophagus, Carunculae; and say's that they are round; but it is probable that he saw those Glands only through the Internal Mem­brane, which offers to view only the great end of each Gland, which is round; the rest, which is extended, and makes a point, being hid under the other Glands.

The Gizard was four Inches long, and three broad. Before its opning it appeared very like to the Gizard of Hens, by reason of its hardness, which in Hens proceeds from the thickness of the fleshey part: but in all our Bu­stards, this fleshy part was very thin, not exceeding a Line in thickness; and the whole hardness which was observed in this Gizard before it was o­pned, proceeded solely from the Internal Membrane, which was not only thick and hard, but which had Folds and Ruffs in several manners; each Ruff being frizled and refolded, which took up a great deal of roome.

This folded and ruffled Membrane on the inside of the Gizard, was of a gold Colour, and had no continuity with the Membrane extended over the Glands of the Craw which was white; but it was separated from it like the Seams of a Lining of a Garment sowed together: It was likewise easily sepa­rable from the fleshy part of the Gizard.

This Gizard was filled with Stones and Doubles: There were some Stones about the bigness of a Nut. In one of the Subjects there was found ninety Doubles, worne and polish'd by their mutual rubbing, and by that of the Stones which were mix'd therewith, without any appearance of Corrosion; which it was easie to judge, for that they were worn only in their Gibbous [Page 201] and Eminent parts, the hollow parts remaining intire and without Polishing, because that they could not be touched and rubbed like the others. There was not likewise seen any mark or sign of Corrosion in these parts, being nei­ther rusty, rough, nor uneven. In one of the Subjects the Ventricle was found filled with a great quantity of Hay. Athenaeus say's that Bustards do chew the Cud. In a Parrot, which is a Bird that is observed to Chew o­ver again what it has already swallowed, we have remarked two Ventricles separated one from the other by a long Ductus or Passage; which seems to be made for the use of Rumination: But we have found no such thing in the Bustard.

The Intestines measured four Foot in length, without reckoning the two Caecums, of which the right was a Foot, and the left eleaven Inches; which is no great length for an Animal that eats Hay. The two Caecums proceeded as usually from the place where the Colon is joyned to the Ilium, seaven Inches distant from the Anus. They tended not from the top downwards, as [...] reports he observed it; but from the bottom upwards, as it is found in other Birds. The internal Tunicle of the Ilium was folded length­wise, after the manner of the last Ventricle of Animals which chew the Cud: towards the extremity of this Intestine it had some cross wrinkles which sup­ply'd the place of the Valve of the Colon.

About an Inch distant from the Anus, the Intestine was contracted, and afterwards dilated, making a Pouch capable of containing an Egg. The two Ureters were inserted into this Pouch. Towards its middle there was discovered a little hole, which led into a Sack which was as it were a third Caecum, which is vulgarly called the Purse of Fabritius, from the name of him who first described it. This Purse or Sack was two Inches long, and three Lines broad at its beginning, where it was a little straiter than towards its extremitie. Over the hole, which from the middle of the Pouch penetrat­ed into the third Caecum, there was a fold of the internal Membrane of the Pouch, which served apparently for a Valve capable of hindering the reflux towards the top of the Rectum, and of favouring the entrance into the third Caecum.

This observation of a third Caecum, is contrary to what Aristotle has re­mark'd in the Intestines of the Bustard, which he reports to have less Appen­dices at their lower extremity, than other Birds use to have.

The Kidneys were three Inches long: They were very deeply cut in three Lobes, after the manner of Birds. Their Vessels were likewise disposed as in other Fowl, except the two Crural Arteries, which are generally double, and which commonly pass underneath the Kidneys: For in our Sub­jects there was one which passed over, and another which passed under, to go into the Thigh.

Each Testicle was six Lines long and two broad, being of the shape of a small Almond, of a Substance very firm, and white. The Epididymis, which was perfectly black, and of the same Figure of the Testicle, contained four Lines in length and two in breadth. Besides the two Testicles, in one of our Subjects there was found a Glandulous Body, which seem'd to be a third. It was nine Inches long, and six broad, of an Olive Colour. The Ductus De­ferens, which proceeded from the extremity of the Epididymis of each of the [Page 202] true Testicles, past over the Vena Emulgens, to which it was fastened, and descended upon the Kidney along the Ureter.

At the upper lip of the Anus, there was a little Appendix, which supply­ed the place of the Penis. Amongst so many Subjects of this kind which we have dissected, there was never a Female.

The Tongue was not Bony, as Aristotle describes it in Athenaeus: It was Fleshy on the outside, having on the inside a Cartilage fastened to the Basis of the Os Hyoides, as in the generallity of Birds. Its sides were rough with some prickly parts of a Substance between a Membrane and a Cartilage.

The Rings of the Aspera Arteria were entire▪ In some of the Subjects there was on each side a Caruncle or red Gland, immediately fastened to the Aspe­ra Arteria, and to the Carotides, by the means of a branch about the big­ness of a great Pin; which is very common in Birds.

The Heart was two Inches and a half bigg. The Sack which formes the fleshy Valve, which is commonly found in the right Ventricle of the Heart of Birds, at the entrance of the Vena Cava, was four Lines deep. The flesh of the left Ventricle was four Lines thick towards its Basis, and one towards its Point.

In the Eye, the Sclerotica had a Cartilaginous edge before, about a Line broad, which made as it were a Circle about the Cornea. The Uvea was reddish and overspread with a great number of Arterys, Veins and Nerves. The Iris was of an Isabella Colour. The Crystalline was three Lines Diame­ter; the whole Globe of the Eye nine.

The Optick Nerve having penetrated into the inside of the Eye, was flat­ned, and formed a white edge of an oval, long and strait Figure; from whence proceeded the black Membrane in form of a Purse, which fastened it self to the side, towards the edge of the Crystalline. This Membrane is more particularly described and represented in the Description of the Ostrich.

In the Palate and lower part of the Beak, which is as it were a lower Jaw, there was under the Membrane which covers these parts, several glandulous Bodys, which did open into the Cavity of the Mouth by several very visible Tubes.

The Explication of the Figure of the Demoiselles of Numidia.

THe lower Figure represents what kind of long white Feathers do stand up like Ears on both sides of the Head of this Bird; and how the brown, long, and loose Feathers, do hang down to the bottom of the Neck. But that which is most remarkable, is the Posture, in which it is put, by representing it as if it dansed; because that this Action is proper to it.

In the Upper Figure.
The Trunck of the Aorta.
The Arteria Caeliaca which goes to the Ventricle, Spleen, and Liver.
The Mesenterica, which goes to the Pancreas and Intestines.
D D D.
The Arteriae Emulgentes.
E E.
The Cruralis Superior.
F F.
The Cruralis Inferior.
The extremity of the Aorta which is distributed to the Os Sacrum and the ad­joyning Parts.
The Trunck of the Vena Cava.
The Ramus Iliacus of the Cava.
The Vena Emulgens.
The Vena Cruralis.
The Trunck of the Cruralis which passes under the Kidney, and joyns at N to its fellow.
O O.
The left Kidney.
The Testicle of the Male.
The Epididymis.
R R.
The Vasa Spermatica Deferentia.
The Ureter.
The Testicle of the Female.
The Ovarium.
X Y.
The Oviductus.
The Funnel of the Oviductus.
A Ligament which fastens the Oviduct to the Kidney, like a Mesentery.
Δ Δ.
The bending of the Aspera Arteria.
The Bone of the Sternum, in which the Circumvolution of the Aspera Arteria is held fast.
One of the Rings of the Aspera Arteria having two Notches.
Ξ Ω.
A Piece of the Aspera Arteria which discovers the manner how its Rings are interwoven.
The Part which respects the Vertebrae of the Neck.
The Part which respects the outside of the Neck.

[Page 204]



THis Bird is so called, by reason of certain ways of Acting that it has, wherein it seems to imitate the Gestures of a Woman, who affects a Grace in her Walking, Obeissances, and Dansing. This resemblance must be thought to have some reasonable ground, seeing that for above two Thou­sand Years the Authors which according to our Conjectures, have treated of this Bird, have designed it by this Particularity of the imitation of the Gestures and Behaviours of Man. Aristotle gives to it the Name of Actor or Comedian-Pliny calls it Parasite and Danser. Athenaeus Names it [...], that is to say, having humane Form, by reason that it imitates what it sees Men do, and not because that it imitates the Speech of Man like the Parrot, as Gellius understands it. For Athenaeus relates the manner, which as Xenophon reports it, the Fowlers make use of to take these Birds, which is by rubbing their Eyes in their Presence, with Water put into Vessels which they do carry away, leaving such like Vessels filled with Glue, wherewith these Birds do glue their Feet and Eyes, when they endeavour to imitate what they have seen other done.

It is probable that this Dansing or Buffoon Bird, was rare amongst the An­cients, because Pliny thinks it fabulous, by ranging this Animal, which he calls Satyrick, amongst the Pegasus's, Griffons, and Syren's. It is likewise cre­dible, that till this time it was unknown to the Moderns, seeing that they have not spoke thereof as having seen it, but only as having read in the Wri­tings [Page 206] of the Ancients the Description of a Bird called by the Greeks, Scops and Otus, and by the Latins Asio, to which they had given the Name of Danser, Actor, and Comedian. So that the Matter in Question is to see whether our Demoisells of Numidia may pass for the Scops of the Ancients.

The Description which they have left us of the Otus or Scops consists in three remarkable Particulars, which are seen in the Demoiselle of Numidia, altho' it is not found that any of the Moderns have described it, and that it has rela­tion to any of the Birds whereof the Ancients have spoken. These three Particulars, are the extraordinary Postures which all Authors do attribute unto it, and which have made it to be called Scops, from [...], which according to Athenaeus, sometimes signifies to make Sport, in imitating the Gestures of any one: And the same Author says, that Scops was a kind of Danse so called, by reason of the Bird Scops, which was as it were, the Inven­tor thereof. The second Particularity, by which Aristotle and Pliny have de­signed this Bird, consists in some feathered Eminencies, which they do put on both sides of the Head, in the manner of great Ears. The third is the co­lour of its Plumage, which Alexander Myndienus in Athenaeus, declares to be Blewish, and of a Lead-colour: to which it must also be added, that they do say, that this Bird is of Africk.

There is none of those that have seen the Demoiselles of Numidia, in the Park of Versailles, who have not observed their Gate, Gestures, and Leaps, to have a great deal of Relation to the Bohemian Manner, whose Danse they seem to imitate. And it might be said, that they are mainly pleased to shew their Graceful and handsom Disposition for leaping, and that they do follow People, not to have what is thrown to them to eat, as commonly do Savage Animals when they are tamed, but to be taken Notice of; never failing, when they see that they are lookt upon, to fall a Dansing and Singing.

All that we dissected had the feathered Ears, which have given the Name to the Otus of the Ancients. These were Appendices three Inches and a half long, composed of white Feathers, made of fine long Fibres, after the man­ner of the Feathers that young Herons have on the Back near the Wings. All the rest of the Plumage was of a leaden Gray, such as it is described by Alexander Myndienus in the Otus; except only some great Feathers of the Wings which were of a darker gray, at that part of the Feather which ap­pears, and some Feathers of the Head and Neck: But for all this, the Plumage in general may pass for a lead Colour.

In some of our Subjects, the Head had on its Crown some Plumes erected like a Crest, an Inch and a half long. These Feathers were of this leaden Gray, which was prevalent over all the Body. In all of them, the sides and hinder-part of the Head were garnished with black and shorter Feathers than the rest. From the Canthus or Corner of each Eye, there went a streak of white Feathers, that passed under the Appendex, which formed the great feathered Ears. The fore-part of the Neck was adorned with black Fea­thers, composed of long Fibres, much finer and softer than those of the Criel Heron; they hung down upon the Stomach, about Nine Inches long, with a very great Grace and Decorum.

From the end of the Beak to the extremity of the Leggs extended there were three Foot and a half. The Beak measured two Inches in length; it [Page 207] was strait and pointed. The Neck was fourteen Inches. From the Thigh Bone to the extremity of the greatest Toe, was ten Inches.

The Eyes were large, having the Eye-lids black. The internal Eye-lid was white, interspersed with a great many blood Vessels.

The Leggs were covered on the foreside with great [...]cales, which were five Lines long and four broad: on the inside they were garnished with small Scales of an Hexagonal Figure. The [...]ole of the foot was speckled like Chagrin. The Talons were black, and moderately crooked. The greatest Toe, which was that of the middle, had four Phalanges; the least which was on the outside had five; the middling one that was on the inside, three; that behind but one.

The Liver was so large in one of our Subjects, that it filled almost the whole capacity of the lower Belly. In the rest the right Lobe was only four inches in length, and the left three. In this Lobe which covered the Gizzard, there was a Cavity to receive the Anteriour part thereof, which was sharp, making as it were an edge. In four of our Subjects the Liver was Scirrhous being filled with a great quantity of small yellow grains, like to Millet. This Scirrhous Constitution did in some measure intimate to us that these Livers were composed, as it were, of several small Lobes, each likewise composed by the conglomerating of several Glands. It was also seen after what man­ner the Rami Capillares of the Vena Porta, Cava and Ductus Bilarii, went in­to each of the Lobes; and it might be judged that there were some which were distributed to each of the Glands, because that haying blown into these Ductus's, it was observed that in the Livers, which were not yet quite hardned, the little Lobes, and even the minute Glands, whereof the small Lobes are composed, were sometimes raised together, and sometimes apart. In fine, as the sound Livers seemed to have a Substance homogeneous and continued, by reason of the softness which is equal in all the parts that con­stitute their Parenchyma; they do also appear composed of several distinct and seperate parts, which we call Lobes, composed likewise of Glands, in those that have been hardned by Distemper, by reason that this Induration not equally prevailing over all the parts, shews their distinction: the Inter­stices of the Lobes and Glands being softer, by reason of some remainder of Blood in these Interstices, of which the Glands were destitute. It must be ne­vertheless granted that the Experiment, by which different parts were seen separately to rise upon blowing into the Vessels which are distributed to the different Lobes of the Liver, affords a Conjecture more certain, to conclude that the substance of these Viscera is Glandulous, and that it is not from the dif­ferent Consistence which the Scirrhous disposition causes in the Liver; and tho it frequently happens that the Spleen, when it is Scirrhous, discovers some hardned Graines, like those which are in the Scirrhous Liver, yet it is certain that the Spleen is not Glandulous like the Liver: for this may cause a belief that this Argument is equivocal, and that these Graines may be produ­ced as well by some obstructions which do stop the passages, such as are those of the Spleen, as by the Induration of the Glands, such as are those where­of the Liver is composed.

We found no Gall-Bladder in two of our Subjects; in the other it was small, of an oval Figure, not exceeding five lines in length and four in breadth. [Page 208] It was fastened to the right Lobe by its Neck, the rest being loose and pen­dent. The Ductus Cysticus proceeded near the Neck, and was joyned to the Ie [...]unum being a line in thickness, and four inches four lines in length: the Hepaticus came out of the Liver lower than the Gall-Bladder, and was but two inches long: it was inserted near the Cysticus.

The Spleen was of a Substance very like to that of the Liver, seeming to be composed of Lobes and Glands, and being Scirrhous. Its Figure resem­bled that of the Kidneys of Terrestrial Animals, the Splenatick Vessels entring through its gibbous part, after the same manner as the Emulgents do enter into the Kidneys. It was seated above the left Kidney, and between the two Lobes of the Liver, so that it appeared to be a third Lobe. It was united to the second Ventricle by the means of a Membrane that held the Splenatick Branches.

At the bottom of the Oesophagus, where it began to dilate, there were two Glands, three lines long, of an oval Figure, red, and with a Cavity in their middle: They were fastned to some branches of the Nerves of the sixth pair. The Oesophagus was dilated towards the bottom, to make a Craw about fifteen lines Diameter, and six inches long. Its lower part, which was two inches long, was of a substance different from the superiour, its external Membrane being thicker and more fleshie, and having between this and the internal Membrane several little Glands regularly ranged one by the other, as they are seen in several Birds, and as it is described and Figured in the Bustard.

The Gizzard measured two inches and a half in length, and two in breadth. It was very like to that of a Hen, having a thick and hard Flesh. It was diffe­rent therefrom in its interiour Membrane, which was yellow, hard, and al­most all separated from the fleshie part. This Membrane being dried did break like Glass, as it did in the Indian Cock. In one of our Subjects there was found in the Gizzard several Stones, which seemed to be worn by their mutual rubbing.

The Intestines were six foot long, and two lines broad. Their Coats were extraordinary thin. Each Caecum measured six inches in length. The Rectum was dilated towards its extremity, where it had a very ample Cavity, into which the [...]reters with the Vasa Spermatica Deferentia opened, in the Male: in the Females the Ureters with the Passage called Oviductus, which is their Matrix, had likewise their Mouth in this place.

There were two Pancreas's of unequal length, the right being five inches and the left four. They were fastened to the Mesentery, which afforded them store of very visible Vessels. Their Substance was soft, and so light, that the two together weighed but one Drachme. The Ductus Pancreatici proceed­ed from their upper part. The right Ductus was ten lines; the left but eight. Altho they were inserted in two different places, their mouths were on the inside very near each other, and adjoyning to the mouth of the Ductus Bi­larii, they were closed again with the same Caruncle as usually.

The Testicles measured six lines in length and four in breadth: they were immediately connected to the Trunck of the A [...]rta and Cava, being seated towards the upper part of the Kidneys. They had an Epididymis loose from the Testicle, which hung by one end. It was five lines long, of a green co­lour, the Testicle being of a whitish-yellow. The Ductus Deferens proceeded [Page 209] not from the Epididymis, but from the lower part of the Testicle, from whence descending along the Vena Emulgens, it was fastned to the Ureter, so that the Ureter and Deferens made but one Ductus!

The Females had Testicles like those of the Males, except the Epididymis which was wanting. Immediately underneath the Testicles the Ovarrum was placed. 'Twas a heap of a great number of little Eggs different in size, some being as big as little Pease, others as small as Rape-seed. The passage called Oviductus, that seems to have relation to the Part called Tuba in the Matrix of Terrestrial Animals, was enlarged at the top like a Funnel which embra­ced part of the Eggs. This Funnel which represents the Fringe of the Tuba of Terrestrial Animals, was made of a very fine Membrane; the rest of the Passage, whose Membrane was a little thicker, descended along the left Kidney, to which it was fastned by the means of a Membranous Liga­ment, an inch broad, in form of a Mesentery, which grew along the Vena Emulgens, from which it received several branches, which connected with the branches of the Emulgent Arteries, were dispersed in the Membranes whereof this Ligament was composed, and did likewise pass into the Tunicles of the Passage called Oviductus. This Passage, which was very streight in its upper part, was greatly enlarged towards the bottom, where it opened into the extremity of the Rectum, with a very streight Mouth.

The Kidneys were three inches long and seven or eight Lines broad, being indented in several places after the usual manner of Birds. The Vasa Emul­gentia, viz. the Vein and Artery, were of a Structure very different. The trunck of the Aorta descending directly, without dividing into two other truncks, did plainly shoot forth on the right and left some branches of a mean size. The first, third, and fourth, which were the least, did enter into the Kidney, and made the Emulgents. The second, and fifth, which were bigger, were the Crural Arteries. The sixth and seventh were lost in the lower part of the Belly. The trunck of the Vena Cava having passed a little underneath the beginning of the Kidneys, was divided into two great Branches, each of which was again subdivided into two others: the one of these branches run along the Kidney, and was there fastened by several very short branches, which were the Emulgents. The other Branch was likewise divided into two others, one of which did also make the Vena Cruralis: the other passing underneath the Kidney, joyned itself to the opposite branch; and both made but one branch laid upon the Artery, which was divided like the Vein, and was distributed as the other into the lower parts of the Belly.

The Ureter proceeding from the upper part of the Kidney, went under the branch of the Vena Cava; and running along the Kidney, joyned it self with the Deferens, to make together but one single Vessel, as has been decla­red.

The Larynx was composed of a Cricoides, and Arytaenoides as in the Goose.

The Rings of the Aspera Arteria were intire, of a very hard substance, near that of a Bone. Their Figure was particular, each being notched and indented in two places, and joyned together by this Notch, viz. at the pla­ces which did answer to the two sides of the Neck: the rest, which was not notched, being foreward and backward, so that the notches of one Ring en­tring into the notches of the other, it happened that the rest of the Rings [Page 210] which were not notched, did on the fore-part cover the halves of two Rings, and was covered behind with those very Rings which it covers in the fore­part. This Structure made these Rings to enter into each other, which they could not do very far, being hindred by these Notches, which made one Ring to ride over the other, and made the Artery that it could not bend so easily towards the sides, as forwards and backwards, where there was nothing that might hinder the Rings from entring into each other.

The Figure of the whole Artery was not less strange than its Composition: for after having descended along the Neck in a strait line about the length of a foot, it turned outwards; and instead of entring into the Thorax, it did en­ter into a hollow Cavity in the Bone of the Sternum, where being descended about three inches, it was re-bent towards the place through which it had entred, and from thence descended into the Thorax, where it was divided into its two Branches. The Rings in this whole Circumvolution were so strong­ly fastened to each other, that they were not capable of any Motion: neither have they any need thereof, being thus inclosed within the Sternum. The Rings of the part which was in the Neck were looser, to yield to the motion of the Neck.

At the bottom of the Aspera Arteria, there was a bony knot, having the form of a Larynx, which on the inside was divided in two by a small Tongue, as in the Goose and several other Birds. The Branches which went to the Lungs were likewise, according to the usual manner, composed of Cartilagi­nous Demi-Circles at the top, being garnished underneath only with a very thin Membrane. The round and long Muscles which in several Birds do fa­sten the Aspera Arteria with the Sternum, did take their Rise from that part of the Sternum which is Articulated with the Clavicula or forked bone, and were inserted into the sides of the Aspera Arteria a great deal higher than the place of their Origine, so that their Action was to draw the Aspera Arteria down­wards. They were a line and a half in Diameter, and near two Inches in length.

When the Aspera Arteria was blown into, the Bladders of the Lungs which descended to the bottom of the Belly, did swell and raised up the Liver. At the same time that the Bladders were swelled, the Oesophagus and Craw were likewise observed to swell as in Pigeons; and when the Oesophagus was breathed into, the Bladders did also rise; but the Air did more easily pass from the Aspera Arteria into the Oesophagus, than from the Oesophagus into the Aspera Arteria. The use of this Communication, and the ways by which it is performed, are not as yet well known: we refer the speaking thereof to the Description of the Pigeon.

The Heart was two inches long and an inch broad at its basis: it weighed half an ounce. The Pericardium was fastened to the Heart by several small Fibres. The right Ventricle was, as usually, larger than it is long. Its In­teriour was extraordinary Smooth. The fleshy Valve which Birds have at the mouth of the Vena Cava, was five lines long, and half a line thick. The Arteries of the Heart had their Ualvalae Sigmoides, as usually. The Fleshy Ligament which fastned one of the Partitions of the right Ventricle to the other, was longer and thinner than generally it is.

[Page 211]The Aorta, coming out of the Heart, was divided into three Truncks. The least was the Aorta descendens which made the Crosse, by turning towards the right side as in the Generality of Birds▪ The two other greater Truncks were the Axillares, which hauing cast forth two small Branches, which were the Carotides, were divided into several other great Branches, which were almost all employed and distributed into the Muscles of the Wings.▪ The Carotides a little above their Origine, had each a Gland, which was fastned to them. These Glands were two lines long, and a line thick.

In the lower Beak on both sides of the Tongue, under the inward Tunicle of the Mouth, there was found two Glandulous Bodies, from whence pro­ceeded several Lympheducts which opened into the Mouth, and there dischar­ged, being squeezed, a white and Viscous humour. There were two of them towards the upper part a great deal bigger than the others. The Tongue was fleshie at top, and Cartilaginous underneath as in Hens.

The Tunicle of the Palate was rough, with a great number of little Nip­ples, and of hard and Membranous points. It likewise included a glandu­lous Body, which shot forth two great Ductus's opening into the Mouth. There was discovered a great quantity of other little glands at the sides of the Larynx, which had also some Lympheducts.

The Cranium or Skull was above half a Line thick. The Brain was divi­ded in two, as generally in Birds. Each part was eleven lines long, and se­ven broad. The Cerebellum was eight lines every way. Both together weigh­ed but a Drachme and a half.

The internal Eye-lid was large, and was easily extended over the whole Globe of the Eye.

The Punctum Lachrymale was double, round, and very large. It opened as is usual into the cleft of the hinder part of the Palate. The lower Glan­dula Lachrymalis was coucht under the Globe of the Eye in the great Canthus. It was ten lines long and two broad. Its Ductus was great, and opened be­tween the Eye and internal Eye-Lid. Having Syringed into this Ductus, the Gland swelled very much. The upper Glandula Lachrymalis was very small not exceeding three Lines in length and two in breadth.

The Sclerotica was Cartilaginous before, having as it were a harder Ring than the rest, three lines broad. The Cornea had a border or yellow Circle quite round, joyning the Conjunctiva. The Iris was of a dark red: the Ta­petum of the same colour; the rest of the Choroides was extraordinary black, We found not that other black Membrane like a Sack, which proceeds from the Optick Nerve, and which we have always found in the Birds that we have dissected, without being able to conjecture what its use may be. All that we could surmise is, that this part has an Office like to that of the Choroides, in that the one and the other do, amongst other things, serve to prepare the Nourishment of the Humours of the Eye; which, by reason of the transpa­rent purity that is requisite for them, must have an Aliment very pure, and wholly exempt from the gross and Earthy parts, by which Bodies are ren­dred Opake: for these parts, which may be called the Lees of the Blood, are separated therefrom, and retained in the Choroides and Purse of the Optick Nerve, which are sullied and blackned therewith; this being done almost af­ter the same manner as the Choroides, Placenta, and Membrane of the Uterus [Page 202] are sullied, if I may so say, from the grossest and most impure portion of the Blood which they retain, to the end that the part designed for the Formati­on and Nourishment of the Foetus may be finer and purer. This Conjecture which for these reasons may have some probability, has been likewise confir­med by the particularity that we have remarked in our Subject; where this black Purse not appearing, we found the Choroides a great deal thicker than ordinary; as if the whole dregs of the blood, which in the Eyes of other Birds should be retained in the Choroides and black Purse, had here been collected in­to the Choroides alone.

The Explication of the Figure of the OSTRICH.

IN the lower Figure it may be seen that the Feathers of the Wings and Tail could not be proper for Flying, the parts which do compose these Feathers not being hook'd together as they are in other Birds; that the Eye, which is not obliquely Scituated after the usual manner, has great Eye-lids, The opening of which is long-wise as in Man; that the Neck, Head, and Thighs are destitute and unprovided of Feathers, and that each Foot has but two Toes.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
Represents the Cavity of the middle of the Thorax.
B B D D.
The Cavity of the lower Belly. These two Cavities are formed by two great Diaphragms, and separated one from the other by the transverse Diaphragme which is between A and B, and which is garnished with Fat underneath.
E E E E.
The four Bladders of the right side of the Stomach.
C C C C.
The four Bladders of the left side. These four Bladders are inclosed on each side between the great Diaphragme and Muscle of the Lungs.
G G.
The Lungs, each of which is shut up between the Muscle of the Lungs, and the Ribbs.
A part of the Cartilago Cricoides,
The Cartilago Tyroides.
The Tongue.
L L L.
The hinder part of the Sclerotica, which makes half the Globe of the Eye, the fore-part being taken away.
The Membrane folded like a Purse, which proceeds from the Infundibulum or Funnel N, formed by the extremity of the Optick Nerve, and uniting near the Ligamentum Ciliare.
The Optick Nerve.
The Crystallinus with the Ligamentum Ciliare.
Q Q.
The Cerebrum uncovered.
R R.
The Dura mater raised up and thrown backward, upon the Cerebellum.
The Glandula Pinealis in its place.
T T.
The upper part of the Cerebellum.
V V.
The Sinus Longitudinalis.
X X.
Two Tuberosities or Swellings, making the lateral and inferiour parts of the Cerebellum.
Y Y.
Two Cavities or Ventricles which are in the Swellings of the Cerebellum.
The Cavity which is at the rise of the Medulla Spinalis made like a Pen.
The Vermiforme Apophysis of the Cerebellum,
The Cerebellum raised, and turned backwards-
δ δ,
The Brain divided in two, after having cut the small Fibres which joyn the two parts. [Page 214]
[Page] [Page 215] ε ζ.
The upper Ventricles in which is seen the Lacis Choroides marked ζ.
The Glandula Pinealis bent a little backward out of its place.
λ λ.
Two Swellings Scituated under the Brain. They are the same which are mark­ed X X.
The Cerebellum.
The fourth Sinus.
A piece of the Stem of a Feather viewed with the Microscope.
11. 22.
Two of the Filaments whereof the less Beard of the Feather was compo­sed. Here is represented only the beginning, the rest being cut off: they are gar­nished on each side with a row of Fibres.
Z Z.
The Fibres which are at the side, toward the end of the whole Feather; these Fibres having several small Crotchets or hooks bent downward, which are like a Latch, according to the comparison that is made thereof in the Description.
Θ Θ.
The Fibres which are at the sides towards the hollow of the Feather; these Fi­bres have several little Hooks bent upwards, resembling the Catch to which the Latch is fastned, when it is pushed forward enough to fall into the Catch.
The Explication of the Second Plate of the OSTRICH.
Is the Oesophagus.
The Bottom of the Craw, which descends underneath the Gizzard.
The Gizzard.
The Ductus Hepaticus.
[...] E.
The Pancreas.
The Ductus Pancreaticus, whose Aperture into the Intestine is marked e.
A part of the Colon at large, which is garnished on the inside with Fillets marked i i i.
H H.
The great Pouch which is at the bottom of the Rectum.
The Rectum.
The Extremity of the Rectum, which forms a Swelling in the great Pouch.
k L.
The Penis. Its Origen is marked k: it is folded towards 2. underneath, and suffers the part L to go through the Aperture of the little Pouch marked M M.
N N.
The Ureters.
O O.
The Opening of the Ureters into the great Pouch.
P P.
The two Muscles of the Anus and Penis.
4 4.
The two second Muscles of the Anus and Penis.
3 2 3.
The border of the hole of the great Pouch.
The Liver.
The great Vena porta.
The Origine of the Ductus Hepaticus.
The upper Vena Cava.
The little Vena Porta.
The Aorta descendens.
The lower Vena Cava.
Z Γ, Z Γ.
The Kidneys.
Γ Γ.
The Ureters.
α α.
The Testicles.
β β.
The Crural Arteries.
g g.
The Crural Veins.
γ γ.
A part of the Colon in little, joyned to the double Coecum formed like a Screw, marked δ δ.
ε ε.
The Passage or Matrix called Oviductus, in Birds.
The internal Orifice of the Matrix.
The Extremity of the Oviductus, which makes the Infundibulum or Tunnel.
ψ ψ.
The broad Ligament of the Matrix.
The Testicle of the Male.
The Vasa Spermatica Praeparantia.
The Epididymis.
The Deferens.

[Page 216]



THe Eight Ostriches which we describe, were almost of one size. There were five Males, and three Females; they were seven Foot and a half from the top of the head to the ground; from the Back to the Crown of the Head they were three foot, and as many from the Belly to the ground. The Body, from the Breast to the beginning of the Tail, exceeded not three Foot; the Tail was a Foot long; the Wing, without the Feathers, but a Foot and a half, being extended, and with the Feathers, three Foot.

The Plumage was also in some measure alike; for most of it had black and white, and some Gray Feathers. Scaliger do's upon good Grounds laugh at Cardan, who was of Opinion, that Ostriches had red, blew, and green Feathers, not knowing that they are dyed of these Colours. The greatest Plumes pro­ceeded from the extremities of the Wings and Tail. The great ones were most commonly white; and the next row was composed only of black. There were some of them smaller, being white, others black, which garni­shed the Back and Belly. The Flancks had no Feathers, no more than the Thighs, and under part of the Wings. The bottom of the Neck was half way adorned with Feathers, much smaller than those of the Belly and Back; some of which were black, and others white. They were gray in one of the Males, and in one of the Females.

All these Feathers were of one sort. This is peculiar to the Ostrich; for it has not Feathers of several sorts, like other Birds, which have some soft, and as it were lanuginous, to serve them for Furr; others hard and firm, for flying; some lanuginous only at their beginning, and firmer toward their extremity, which is made like a Scale, to the end that being all ranged one upon the other, and covering some with their extremity, which is fir­mer, the Down which is at the root of the others, they might compose as it were a Vestment, to defend the Birds from the Inconveniencies of the Wind [Page 218] and Water. Now this is not in the Feathers of Ostriches, which are all soft and fibrous like Down, so that they do serve them neither for flying, nor for covering them commodiously enough to defend them from external Injuries. We likewise observed another equality in the Feathers of the Wings of the Ostrich, which is peculiar to them: for the great Feathers of the Wings of other Birds, have one side broader than the other; but those of the Ostrich have the Stem exactly in the middle of the Feather. There is reason to think, that this equality is the ground of the Hieroglyphick of the Aegyptians, who do represent Justice by an Ostrich's Feather.

In the enumeration of the Wonders of Nature which are read in the Book of Iob, those of the Structure of the Wings of Birds is one of the most Considerable. This wonder is expressed by the reflection which God causes Iob to make on the difference that there is between the Feathers of the O­strich, and those of Herons and Faulcons; that is to say, of Birds that have Feathers for flying, and of those which have them not for that use; for there is nothing indeed more admirable, than this Structure of Feathers designed for flight, which consists principally in three things, viz. in the texture of the Threads and Fibres, of which the Beards of the feathers are composed; in the Figure of the whole feather, and in the particular motion of each feather.

To know and examine these particularities, it must be observed; that al­most all sorts of feathers are composed of two parts, viz. of the Tube or Quill from whence the Stem proceeds, always lessening it self to the end of the feather; and of the Beards, which are fastned on each side to the Stem of the Quill, and which do make the breadth of the Feather: that the Threads whereof these Beards are composed, are flat, and plac'd with their flat sides towards each other, to the end that they might easily bend for the approaching each other, and that being harder to bend the other way, they do add more strength to the whole feather: that this strength and firmness is likewise fortified by the manner with which the threads whereof these Beards are composed, are interlaced with one another, this Texture or inter­laceing being made by the means of an infinite Number of Fibres, which the threads do shoot forth on each side, to hook and grapple with each other: that these Fibres are crooked after a different manner; for those which proceed from the Thread, on the side towards the extremity of the feather, are longer, more flexible, and bent down wards; and those which do proceed from the side towards the beginning of the feather or Quilly end, are shorter, firmer, and turned upwards. For it must be conceived that all these Fibres having Springs, those which are longest, most flexible, and bent downwards, do turn upwards at the meeting of the other Fibres, when two threads are forc'd one against the other; and that afterwards when these long Fibres are forced far enough over the others, their crooked parts falls in­to the Cavity made by the crooked parts of those other Fibres, even as the Latch that is fastned to a door, falls when the Door is thrust-to and enters into the Cavity of the Catch fastned to the Door-post, and there hooking it self, fa­stens the Door: for it is properly after this manner that one thread of a feather is fastned to the other.

This admirable Structure of the feathers, which it is easie to see with the Microscope, succeeds so well for the uses to which Nature has designed it, [Page 219] that when one thread has been separated from the other by some external Violence, it is capable of being reclasped with an incredible facility. It may be said that this is not unknown to the Birds; who frequently busie them­selves in putting in order with their Beak the Threads of these Beards, when they have been disordered; for this is sufficient presently to recover and re­duce into their former order those feathers which are so easily ruffled, and as it were broke; and this disposition is much more advantagious to them than if they were hard to ruffle or break, but being once torne or broken, were no more capable of revniting. And it may be said that this Structure has not been known by those who have thought that Birds do carry a kind of glue in their Beak, by the means of which they do again rejoyn their fea­thers when they are torne: for the Wings of Birds are neither mended with size nor glue; or at least they would be spoil'd, otherwise then they are, by the Rain and Waters, in which they are frequently Plunged, if their Fibres were joyned otherwise than by this admirable Texture, of which experience may easily be made, by separating the Threads of the Beards of the feathers, which are seen to rehook of themselves, and without glue, by reapproaching them only.

It must be observed in these second place that these threads are not perfect­ly strait, but a little bent, to make the whole feather hollow underneath; which serves for two things, viz. to make the Beards stronger and less capable of being bent upwards, when the feather suddainly strikes the Air; and to make the Air catch in this Cavity, more to resist the wing which beats it in its de­scent, and cause it also less to resist the same wing when it is raised, by reason of the convexitie of the feather over which the Air glides more easily than it would if it was flat: for it must be considered that for flight two things are necessary; the first that the Air greatly resists the Beating of the wing, to the end that the Bird may bear it self thereon; the second, that the same Air resist as little as is posible the raising up of the wing again; as well to the end that the Bird may not sink asmuch in raising the wing, as it rises in beat­ing it down, as to lessen its force where the wing rises, least the Bird weary it self to no purpose.

In the third place it must be observed that for these very reasons, viz. of making the Air resist the wing striking it, and yield to it when it is raised, Na­ture makes use of two things: the first is that when the wing is raised, it becomes less than when it is beat downwards; which is done sometimes by closeing the feathers, and makeing them to slipp one under the other; so that the half of one covering the half of the other, each feather can strike the Air only with its half: Some times by making them to go from under­neath the others, so that each strikes the Air with its whole breadth. The Birds which have the wings long and pointed, do make use of this means. The other way is for Birds that have shorter wings: for they do make use of an Artifice which Rowers do imitate in the management of their Oars, which is to make the Water to be struck with the flat of the Oar, when they do make it to go downwards, and that it be cut by the edge of the same Oar when they do raise it upwards: for the same thing happens to the feathers of the extremity of the wing, which do strike the Air with their flat, when the wing is lowered, and do cut it when it is raised; which is done by a [Page 220] Motion like to that of the Oars which Watermen do make to turn a little, when they do raise them upwards: For each of the great feathers has this Motion apart, by which it is a little obliquely turned, when the wing is raised, and this feather is reduced into its former Situation when the wing is lower­ed. This Action is very distinctly observed when Birds do for some time hold their wings erected, by an extension like to that which is done in reach­ing; this State affording more leisure to see that▪ winding of the feathers, than when they do strike their wings in flight: for than the wings being thus raised, it is observed that the great feathers, which are the Principal Organs of flight, are all separated from each other, by reason of their obliqui­tie, which seems to open, for the passage of the Air, as many Doors as there are feathers; which are closed when the wing coming to lower it selfe, all these feathers do retake their former Situation, and do beat one upon the o­ther to make of the whole wing one continued surface, capable of overspread­ing a great quantity of Air.

In the fourth place, it must be observed that this oblique Motion of every feather belongs not to those of the Taill, which has different uses from those of the wings. There are two Principal ones; the first is to serve as a Rud­der, and to keep in the whole Bird a strait Motion, when it is kept strait and of turning the body downwards, when it is kept lowered, or [...]ward when it is raised. The other use is to serve to help it forward, w [...] [...] sud­dainly moved by these two successive Motions, which do produce the same effect as the Tail of Fishes.

Now this whole Mechanisme is wanting in the feathers and Wings of the Ostrich: For the threads of the Beards which are at the two sides of the stem of the Quill of the great feathers are never fastned one to the other, but floating and flexible, not being crooked, but strait and even without having any of the Dispositions necessary for the facilitating the interlacing which they have with each other in the feathers of other Birds. Therefore Aristotle say's that the feathers of Ostriches are like the Haire of Terrestial Animals, that is to say that they are more proper to cover their Body's than to fly with.

These Feathers have not likewise that particular motion which renders them some times strait, some times oblique, because that this would be use­less to them, the Beards not being joyned together to make the Texture and Continuity which the other feathers have, to strike all the Air that is met­with under the Wing; so that it may be said that the feathers of the Wings of the Ostrich are more like to the Pendants of Ships than to their Sails; altho' Aelian reports that these Animals do make use thereof as of Sails, when to render their course swifter and lighter, they do extend these feathers to the wind, to the end that it may drive them: For sails are not only servicable in Ships meerly as an Obsticle, which resisting the wind by its bigness only, receives a simple impulse so as the hull of the Vessell does; but they must be considered as an obstacle of a commodious figure and shape, which being managed and governed after a certain manner, may draw a greater advan tage from the agitation of the Air, for the motion of the Vessel, than it would do without this figure and Government. Thus the Plumes of the Ostrich can­not be usefull to it by their figure or Motion, for if they assist them to ad­vance forward by forcing their wings backwards, they would hinder them [Page 221] as much in bringing them forward, and there would happen to them one in­convenience to which the Wings of Batts, Butter-flyes, and Flyes, would be subject, if Nature had not provided against it, by giving the Wings of these Animals the means of being contracted in such a manner, when they are rais­ed, that they do strike a less quantity of Air, than when they are lower'd a­gain. For this Contracting is made in Batts by the means of Bones that they have in their Wings, and which do make as it were the fingers of their hands, the distance between which are garnished with skins which they do contract and alternately extend as need requirs. The Wings of Butter-flyes and Flyes do perform the same Action by the means of certain Fibers, which have an effect like to that of the fingers of the Batt; and the speed and force with which the wings of Flys are removed, and how they are capable of making so great a Noise as is that, not only of the buzzing of Hornets, but even of little Flyes, such as are Gnatts, which is heard to a great distance, imitating the sound of a Trumpet, is a thing very Surprizing.

The Motion of the Wings of the Ostriches, can at the most serve only af­ter the same manner as that of the Tail of other Birds, and those of Fishes, which is in truth a motion proper to make a Progression; but it is certain that the Feathers of the Ostrich cannot have this effect, being like a tuft of looss and floating threads; seeing that to the end that such a Motion may have some effect, it is necessary that the Organ have a Surface, strait, even, and firm, such as it is in a Rudder, in an Oar, in the Sail of a Wind-mill, &c.

It is probable that the Author of the Book of Iob had reflected on all these things, when he Describes the Ostrich, as an Animal to which God has de­ny'd the address which he hath given to other Birds, and which he has not furnished with Organs convenient to exercise the admirable Action of Fly­ing; having scarce any other use of its Wings, than to raise them to receive the Impulse of the Wind, when it is favourable to its Course. Therefore Cardan compares, or rather very much opposes the Ostrich to the Bird of Paradise, which was formerly thought to have no Feet; because that the Bird of Paradise is a Bird, which according to the Opinion of Cardan, never walks nor lights on the ground, even as the Ostrich is one which nei­ther Flyes nor rises into the Air.

Besides the Feathers which we have described, we have observed that the top of the Neck and Head were garnished with a very fine, white, clear Down, shining like the Bristle of a Hog; so that it seemed to partake more of Hair than of Feathers. This Down was heaped together in little Tufts, composed of about twelve Hairs, of but one Line in length, except the Hair in the middle, which was four: All the Hairs of one lock had all together but one Root, which was a little Tube about the bigness of the smallest Pin. This Downe was very clear and very thin in the Neck, and much more on the Head, which was absolutely bald at the top: This Pliny reports to be Natural only to two Birds, viz. the Ostrich and Cormo­rant, for that reason called Phalacrocorax.

At the end of each Wing there was a kind of Spurr, made almost like the Pricks of a Porcupine: They were an Inch long, and a Line and a half thick at the Basis; their Substance was Horny; they were hollow, and in the Ca­vity there was a Cartilage covered with Membranes and Ligaments, with [Page 222] a great quantity of Vessels full of Blood. Aldrovandus confesses that he could never find these Pricks in the Ostrich: Albertus reports that they do serve them for offensive Arms: Iohnston is of opinion that they make use thereof as of a Spurr, with which they excite themselves to speed. There were two on each Wing, the greatest was at the extremity of the last Bone of the Wing, the other was half a Foot lower.

The Neck seemed more slender in proportion than it appears in other Birds, because that it was not decked with Feathers, as was said. The Skin of this Neck was of a livid flesh Colour; Gillius makes it blew. The Head did likewise appear very small, for the same reason of the want of Feathers. Albertus finds it absolutely small. Scaliger has reason to reprehend Cardan, for averring that Birds have commonly the Head little, to the end that its weight may not hinder them from flying; because there are a great many which fly little, as Hens, which have the Head much less in proportion than other Birds which do easily fly: But it is probable that Cardan found that his Theoreme was confirmed by the example of the Ostrich, which flyes not, and whose Head without Feathers is absolutely greater in proportion to its Body, than it is in other Birds.

The Beak was short and pointed: It measured two Inches and a half broad at its beginning; its Figure like that of the rest of the Head, did not in any sort approach the Figure which the Head and Beak of a Goose gene­rally have, as those have ill thought who have called the Ostrich Chaenocame­lus, that is to say Goose-Cammel.

The exteriour form of the Eye did sufficiently resemble that of Man, and was very different from the ordinary form of Birds Eyes, which have the Aperture of the Eye round, and the upper Eye-lidd unmovable, and without hair; and the line which go's from one Corner to the other, always oblique: For our Ostriches had the Aperture of the Eye oval, a great Eye-lidd at the top, which lower'd it selfe as that below was raised, having great Eye-lashes, which, as in man was a great deal longer than those of the In­feriou [...] Eye-lidd; in the line which went from one Corner to the other being strait, according to the direction of the Beak, there was a third Eye-lid on the inlide, as in the generality of Brutes: 'Twas a very thin Membrane, which was hid in the great Corner towards the Beak. Aldrovandus thinks Birds have this Eye-lid, to supply the defect of the upper Eye-lid, which is so short that it cannot lower it selfe to cover the Eye as it does in Man. But it is probable that this internal Eye-lid has another use in Birds, seeing that it is found in the Ostrich, whose upper Eye-lid is large enough to be able easily to lower itselfe; add moreover that the inferiour Eye-lid shuts up in Bird's against the superiour, as exactly as the upper is joyned in man with the lower.

The Tongue was small, adherent as in Fishes, composed of Cartilages, Liga­ments and Membranes intermixt with fleshy Fibres. It was different in our Subjects: In some it was an inch long, very thick at the Aperture of the Larynx; in others it was not half an inch long, but it was above an inch to­wards the b [...]sis, being a little forked at the end. Beyond the slitt of the Palate, towards the Pharynx, there were two great Glands, which furnished the Spittle.

[Page 223]The Thighs were very fleshie, and very big, and without Feathers, cove­red with a white skin somewhat reddish, raved by elevated wrinckles, of the Figure of a Net, whose Mashes could receive the end of ones finger. In one of the Males, there were little Feathers here and there upon the Thighs, almost after the same manner as Gesner has described it in his Figure. Some had neither little Feathers nor Wrinckles. The Legs were covered on the fore-part with great square Scales.

The Foot was cleft, and composed only of two very large Toes, which were covered with Scales like the Leg. These Toes were unequal: the great­est, which was on the inside, measured seven inches, comprehending the Claw, which was nine lines in length, and a little less in breadth; in some resembling the Naile of a Mans great-Toe. The other Toe exceeded not four inches, and had no Naile. This little one touched the ground only at the end. The great one being seen sideways had almost the shape a Mans Foot, with its shoe on: it was only a little thinner and longer. Pliny reports that the Feet of the Ostrich are like to those of the Stagg. Diodorus Siculus, who calls the Ostriches Stagg-Birds, relies upon this false resemblance. Suidas is likewise more mistaken, when he says that the Feet of the Ostrich do resem­ble those of an Asse. Those who have named the Ostrich Strutho-camelus, that is to say, Cock-Camel, according to Scaliger, and according to the Chaldee Paraphrase of the fore-cited place of Iob, have not erred so much: for the length of the Legs of the Ostrich has some similitude with those of the Cock and Camel. Moreover the manner after which the Foot of the Camel is cleft, which is different from all other cloven Feet, and its Claw, which is also quite of another Nature than that of Staggs and Goats, are particularities which are common to it with the Ostrich. Our Ostriches, like the Camel, had a Callosity at the bottom of the Sternum, on which they do rest like the Camel, when they lie down.

Near the Anus, in one of the five Males, there was on each side three holes of a line and half diameter, and two lines in depth.

At the top of the Thorax, under the skin, there was Fat about the thick­ness of two fingers. There was some more especially on the fore-part of the Belly, which was hard like Suet: it was in some places two inch­es and a half thick. This Fat was inclosed between two Membranes as strong as the Peritonaeum. These Membranes, which thus inclosed this Fat, were the Aponeuroses of the Muscles of the lower Venter, which began to be fleshie only towards the Flancks, the whole fore-part of the Belly about the breadth of a foot being without flesh. The Sternum descended not to the bottom of the Belly, because that the Muscles which move the Wings, and which are fastned to the Sternum, have no need of being so great as in other Birds which flye.

The Oesophagus was seated on the Body of the Vertebrae, being fastened to the Aponeuroses of the Muscles of the Lungs; of which more shall be spoken in the sequell. Its Tunicles were very thick, especially that which is fleshie. It was insensibly inlarged, even to six inches in breath near the Uentricle or Gizzard; so that it was difficult to mark the place of the superiour Orifice of the Uentricle: it seemed that the extremity of the Oesophagus did form a Craw which was confounded with a Gizzard, and that these two parts toge­ther [Page 224] did compose one single Uentricle. This Conformation, (which, in gene­ral, is very different from that which is common to Birds, where the Craw is us'd to have a Contraction which separates it from the Gizzard,) was like­wise more strang, by reason of the Situation that it had: for it was not only in the Stomach, but it was lower than the Gizzard, underneath which it des­cended, and towards which it afterwards re-ascended, so that the entrance of the Gizzard was through its bottom; and thus the Orifice, which is com­ [...] called the superiour, was indeed the inferiour.

In some of our Subjects, the Gizzard was separated on the inside into two Cavities by an Eminence formed by its Musculous Flesh, which, towards the middle, was above two inches thicker than any where else. This Eminence contracted the inte [...]nal capacity directly over the middle, and separated it on the left side, where was the inferiour Orifice, called Pylorus. The Figure of these two Cavities did not outwardly appear, the flesh of the Gizzard be­ing equal; and the whole together had the Figure of the Ventricle of Man, making an oval, which was fifteen inches in length and eight in breadth. Aelian seems to give several Ventricles to the Ostrich, as to Animals which chew the Cud, when he says that this Bird digests Stones in the Uentricle called Echinos, which is the second Uentricle of ruminating Animals, which is so called, by reason that its interiour Membrane is filled with wrinckles armed with points like the Hedg-hog, which the Greeks do call Echinos: but this sort of Uentricle was not found in our Subjects. It may only be said that the Uentricle of some of the Ostriches that we dissected is double, and not that they have two Uentricles; seeing that both the parts of the double Uentricle are covered with the same Membrane, and that this Membrane is different in the different Uentricles of Animals which chew the Cud. For the Mem­branes of the Craw were garnished with Glands regularly ranged, and framed like the ends of small Pipes, being round, and pierced through the middle at the part towards the inside of the Craw, and unequal on the other side, be­ing composed of several Graines, after the manner of conglomerated Glands. And in this they differed from the Glands which are found in the Craws of the Demoiselles of Numidia, Geese, Ducks and several other Fowl, where these Glands are seen pierced only as in the Ostrich, but they are single, and of the kind of those called Conglobated.

The Membrane that coated the inside of the Gizzard, and which was ea­sily separable therefrom, was a line and half in thickness in some of our Sub­jects: It was composed of two parts, viz. of a Tunicle which was immedi­ately fastened to the Flesh of the Gizzard, and of a heap of little Glandulons Bodies, which made a kind of Velvet. These small Bodies, in most of the Subjects, were so minute, that they appeared to be rather Fibres than Glands: in some they were about the bigness of a great Pin, and above the length of a Line. They were joyned and glued to each other, as the Fibres are in Wood. There was a great many places where these small Bodies were se­parated, and made several clefts or chincks. The Ventricle of the Cormo­rant was almost of this Structure.

These Ventricles were always found full of Hay, Grass, Barley, Beans, Bones, and Stones, of which there were some as big as a Pullets Egg. There were likewise some Doubles: in one we counted seventy of them. They were [Page 225] most of them worn and consumed about three quarters, being scratch'd by their mutual rubbing, and by that of the Stones, and not by Corrosion caused by any humour or acide Spirit, as we found; because that some of these Doubles, which were hollow on one side, and bossed on the other, were so worn and bright on one side of the Boss, that there remained nothing of the Figure of Money: whereas the side which was hollow, was not at all damaged, its cavity having defended it from the rubbing of the other Doubles. All the rest which was contained in the Uentricle with these Doubles, as well Stones, and Bones, as Pulse and Hay, was green. Wee found the same thing in the Uen­tricle of a Bustard, where there were Ninety Doubles worn by this rubbing: they had likewise given a green Colour to a great deal of Hay which was there.

This made us to think that in Birds, and generally in all Animals, the dissolution of the Nourishment is not performed only by subtile and pene­trating Spirits, but also by the Organical and Mechanical Action of the Ventricle, which compresses and incessantly beats the things which it con­tains; so that in the generality of Animals which do swallow a hard Nourishment without chewing it, (as Birds which live on Grain,) Nature has made their Ventricle Musculous; and has given them the instinct of swal­lowing Stones, by the means of which they may break in their Ventricle what others do bruise with their Teeth. In fine this Affectation which the generallity of Birds have of swallowing Stones, has a more manifest use than that which Eagles and Cranes have of putting Stones into their Nests. Car­dan, and the generallity of other Naturalists, are of Opinion that the Ventri­cle of Birds, and especially of the Ostrich, is fleshy, to afford it more Heat: but it is known that the Musculous and Fibrous flesh acts more by its Mo­tion than by its Temper; and that one of the principal and most important Actions of the Heart, is that of Contraction and Dilatation, which serves not less to the Concoction and alteration of the Blood, than to its distributi­on. It is probable that those who have thought, that the Stones and Iron which Ostriches do devour, are dissolved in their Ventricle by a particular virtue that Nature has given to the Ventricles of different Animals; by which some do digest Poysons, others Bones and raw Flesh; and that the Ostrich was fur­nished with that of digesting Metals and Stones, reflected not on that at­trition of the Peices of Copper which we have observed, and much less on the verdure, with which all that was contain'd in the Ventricle was tinged. For if the Ventricle of the Ostrich had a faculty peculiar for digesting of Me­tals, it would digest them after the same manner as other things are digested: which is to be melted and dissolved, without suffering other change in their Colour, than to become white; which proceeds from the almost infinite lit­tle bubbles which the boyling of the Fermentation there produceth: For this Ebullition gives a white Colour to whatever it Agitates, as is seen in the Froth of Inck, which is white. It is likewise known by Experience that the things which are dissolved in the Ventricle do receive an alteration in their Substance, without changing Colour; as it is remark'd in Craw-Fish, which are found half digested, in the Ventricles of Fishes, with their Natural blackness, and not having that redness which they do acquire, when the Heat of the Fire Boyls and alters them, after a manner, which is very different [Page 226] from the heat of Animals: So that the greeness which happens to Copper in the Ventricle of the Ostrich, cannot proceed from a Dissolvent, that it has to Digest Metals; but there is a probability, that the Dissolution is there made, after the same manner as if it should have been done out of this Ven­tricle, if the Copper had been champed with Herbes, or some acid or saline Liquor, of what Nature soever it were, and which should be very different from this acid or salt; or else from that general Dissolvent (whatever it be,) of all that is capable of affording Nourishment: So that it is credible that the Ostrich being a Voracious Animal, which has need of Swallowing some hard thing, that is requisite, as has been said, to break its Nourishment; it misuses the instinct which Nature has given it for that end, when it Swal­lows Iron, and especially Copper, which is turned into Poison in its Sto­mach, instead of turning into Nourishment. And indeed, we were inform­ed by those who look after these Animals in the Aviary of Versalles, that the Ostriches 'which do Swallow much Iron, or Copper, do all Dye presently after.

The Intestines in our Subjects were different in length, altho' the Animals were almost of the same size. In one they were fifty Foot, in another four­ty two, in a third thirty three, in a fourth twenty nine. The three smaller Intestines, had scarce more length than the Colon and Rectum together. The Caecum was doubled, as in most other Birds: each comprehending two Foot in length, more or less, in proportion to the length of the other Intestines.

The External Surface of the Colon and Caecum were uneven, with some ve­ry regular Bosses, but different in each of these Intestines. These Bosses were formed by some leaf-like Ligaments, which were on the inside, al­most the same as they are seen in the third and fourth Ventricle of Animals which chew the Cud. In the Colon these leaves were transversely situated, each making more than half a Circle, and being alternately placed; so that the ends of two Semicircles, did receive and include the extremity of ano­ther Semi-circle, as if one did put the Teeth of two Combes within one an­other. These Semi-circles were half an Inch distant from each other, and were but three Lines broad in their middle, and went less [...]ing to nothing. All along this Intestine, in the Posteriour Part, there was a Ligament two Lines broad, which being in length a third less than the Intestine, did con­tract it, and make the Interiour and Semi-circular Ligaments to Form the Folds and Bosses, which appeared still more observable, when the Intestine being blow'n up, the whole Membrane, which was not retained and held by the Ligaments, was extended by the impulsion of the Air. All the Vessels entered at the side of this Ligament, to distribute themselves into the Intestine, but particularly into the Leaves. This Structure of Leaves transversely seated in the Colon hath already been observed in the Ape, where mention is made of the discovery that we have made, of such Leaves in the Iejunum of Man; but we deferred to give the Figure thereof till we came to the Ostrich.

The Caecum was likewise furnished with Leaves on the inside, or rather with one single Leaf, which turned like a Screw from one end to the other, almost after the manner described in the Sea-Fox, and as it is in Hares, and Rabits. This Leaf was of the same breadth, viz, five Lines every where: [Page 227] It went only somewhat contracting towards the extremity of the Intestine, proportionally as the Intestine is lessened, which went pointing, as in most Quadruped's, and contrary to the Nature of Birds, where this Intestine keeps the same breadth throughout its whole length, and which somtimes increas­es it self, as we have observ'd in the Pintado, where this enlargement is more considerable, than in any other Bird that we have seen.

At the extremity of the Rectum there was a great Bladder fill'd with U­rine, to the quantity of eight Ounces: It might contain ones two Fists. The Membranes which composed it, were like to those of the Intestines; but they were a little thicker. In one of our Subjects, which was a Female, this Bladder was disseminated on the inside with a great number of Vessels, which came as it were from a Center, and spread over its whole capacity: These Vessels were not visible in the other Subjects. Directly over this Center, was the hole through which the Rectum emptied it self into the Blad­der 'Twas a very straight hole, in the middle of a Tumour of about the bigness of a Nutt, which made as it were a Hen's Arse. At the bottom of this great Bladder there were likewise two holes, which were the Mouthes of the Ureters, which did run betwixt the two Tunicles of the Blad­der, like to that of Terrestrial Animals. Underneath these two holes was an oval Aperture ten Lines in length, which had a Membranous border, by the means of which it might be closed, when it came to be compressed by the weight of the Urine: For then this Membranous border joyned it self to a swelling or round Body, being of about the bigness of ones Fist, of a middle Substance between a Cartilage and a Ligament. This Tuber [...]sitie was cleft in the middle after the manner of an Aprico [...]k, being fastened on the inside to the Os Pubis.

This Oval Aperture gave passage into a second Bladder or Pouch, lesser than the first, and which was not made to containe the Excrements, but on­ly to give them passage, according as its Tunicle did more or less compress, and close the Tuberositie which did fill it, by an Action like to that of the Membranous border of the Oval Aperture.

The Penis in most of our Subjects was composed of two Substances, viz. of white, thick, Nervous, solid Membranes, and of white Ligaments, of the same Substance as the Membranes, but a great deal harder and more so­lid, having neither in the Membranes nor in the Ligaments any Vessels, nor Cavity: They appear'd composed only of transverse Fibres very com­pact. The external Membrane which covered the whole Penis was the thickest: The internal did immediately invelope each of the two Ligaments, which were separated from each other, and were united about two Fingers from the extremity. There was one longer than the rest; the longest was two Inches: They were each four Lines Diameter towards their Basis, go­ing point wise towards the extremity. The Origine of this Penis was at the Cartilaginous swelling which was fastened to the internal part of the joyn­ing of the Os Pubis, of which it is just before spoken; from thence it was reflected turning short downward, entred into the little Pouch, and came out at the external orifice of this little Pouch, which is the Anus. This Aperture was bordered with a Semicircular fold, which embraced the Penis, at the place where it went out. In short this Penis had neither Gland, [Page 228] Praepuce, Ductus, nor Cavity, which might give passage to any Seminal Matter. In one of the Subjects, besides the Membranes and Ligaments which composed the Penis, there was also a third Substance, red, Spongi­ous, and much resembling that of the Cavernous Ligaments of Terrestrial Animals. It was garnished with a great quantity of Vessels.

In the Female, instead of the Penis, there was only the Cartilaginous Swelling, which filled the second Pouch as in the Male; and this Tumour came out of the Anus about the bigness of a small Nutt: It had a little Ap­pendix about three Lines long, thin, and bent back. It is likely that this is the Clitoris.

In this little and second Pouch, there was on the left side a hole into an­other Cavity, in manner of a Passage, which was the Oviductus. This Hole exceeded not four Lines in Diameter: It had wrinkles all round, after the manner of the external Orifice of the Females of Quadruped's. In one of our Subjects the Tunicle of this Ductus were very thick, and its Cavity very large near the entrance: In another it was less; and about five Inches be­yond the entrance, it was contracted to Form another Passage five Lines long, hard and Nervous, which might pass for the internal Orifice of the Matrix. Underneath this Strait Passage, there was a little Bag or Pouch, not perforate, the depth of which was equal to the length of the Passage. In the Subjects where this strait Passage was not found, the Oviductus con­tracted it self, from its first entrance still as it approached the Ovarium; so that at its extremity it exceeded not four Lines in breadth, instead of three Inches and a half, which it had at its middle. In this extremity it formed that Hole which is called the Infundibulum or Tunnel of the Oviauctus, and sent forth, on the right and left side, two Membranous Appendices, which had some similitude with those that are at the extremity of the Tuba of Ter­restrial Animals.

This whole Passage, which is properly the Matrix or Cornua Uteri of Birds, was two Foot and a half long, and capable of receiving ones Fist in its larg­est part. It was fleshy at the beginning, and became insensibly Membra­nous towards its end. After having ascended, by turning on the left side towards the Ventricle it was reflected towards the Back-bone, descending. A double Membrane, in form of a large Ligament, fastened it: It had an Edge the length of two Inches on each side: The hinder part of this Ligament was fastened along the Back-Bone, like a Mesentery: the Anteri­our was loose. Both were intermixt with a great number of Vessels, which were in greater quantity on the Passage of the Oviductus than in the Ligament. These Vessels did come from two great Branches which entered through the extremity of the Oviductus, towards the Ovarium: the one went along the top, the other the bottom; and their Branches had some Anastomoses with each other, viz. those of the lower part with those of the upper.

The whole Passage of the Oviductus was composed of three Membranes. except the extremity, which makes the Infundibulum, which seem'd to be of a single Membrane. The Interiour of these Membranes was mightily wrinkled, or rather as it were leaved, after the manner of the third and fourth Ventricle of Animals that chew the Cud. These Leaves, which filled [Page 229] all the Cavity, went lengthwise, and a very thin Tunicle joyned them to­gether. The second Membrane, which was that of the middle, was fleshy. The third, which was thin and sleek, was nothing but the double Membrane, of which the broad Ligament was composed, which was di­vided in two to embrace the Passage of the Oviductus.

We observed four Muscles, appertaining to the Anus and Penis: There were two on each side. The two first took their Origine from the internal part of the Os Sacrum, and descended along the Pouch of the Rectum, for the space of two Lines: they peirced it near its extremity, and passing under the Sphincter of the Anus, inserted themselves at the Basis of the Penis in the Males, and at that of the Clitoris in the Females. The two others went from the internal part of the Os Ilium, towards the bottom of the Kidney's, and descended at the sides of the Ureters, and also pierceing the Rectum, fast­ened themselves to the sides of the Penis and Clitoris.

The Ovarium was placed at the upper part of the Kidney's against the Ve­na Cava and Aorta, being strongly fastned to the Truncks of these Vessels, and garnished with several Eggs, covered with their skins as in Hens. These Eggs were of a different size, viz. from the bigness of a Pea to that of a Nutt. The Membrane, which included each Egg, and which in French is called le Calice, had as it were a Tail, by which these Eggs are commonly connected alltogether, and do compose that which is called the Ovarium. This Membrane was the thicker the lesser the Eggs were: It had a great quantity of Vessels, and was fastened to the Egg which it inclosed, by an infinity of Fibres, being open towards the place opposite to the Tail, as is the Cup of an Acorne, when the Acorne is round and small, and when it is almost all covered with its Cup. The Egg being separated from the Calice or Cup, was only a very delicate Coat, which contained only the Yolk of the Egg, in those which were not bigger than a Nutt; but in one of our Subjects where it was found about the bigness of two Fists, this Coat was filled with a humour like unto muddy Water, excepting that it was yellow. There is ground to believe that the Natural Heat weakened in this Ani­mal, by the contrariety of the Air of our Climate, had corrupted these Eggs.

One of the Ostriches which are in the Park of Versailles, having lay'd seve­ral Eggs, some were brought to us, on which there was made some Obser­vations and Experiments. For as these Birds do not sit on their Eggs, but expose them to the Ray's of the Sun and the Heat of the Sand, contenting themselves with securing them from the Rain, by laying them on little hillocks of Sand; we resolv'd to try whether by the Heat, as well of the Sun, as of the Fire, and Dung, we might at least procure in them any Altera­tion, that might seem a Disposition to Generation. For this end there was one kept five weeks in the Sun, half buried in Sand, on a Bed of Dung raised three Foot from the Ground, covering it with a Glass Bell during the ill weather. Another was put into an Athanor with a gentle Fire, keeping it also, for the like space of time, in Sand and well covered. We observed several things, viz. That the Eggs diminished a ninth part of their weight; That the yolk and white of that which had been heated in the Fire, were somewhat thickened, without having any ill Scent: That which had been [Page 230] lay'd in the Sun was not thickened, but had contracted a very ill Smell: And that in neither the one nor the other of these Eggs, there was found any appearance of Disposition to Generation.

At the top of the Ovarium there was discovered two Glandulous Bodies fastened to the Aorta, and Vena Cava, whose Substance was like to that of the Testicles of the Males, having in their Superficies a great number of Ves­sels. Their Colour was of a brisk red. Each of these Bodies measured an Inch and half in length, and four Lines in Diameter.

In the Males the Testicles were of a different Size and Figure in the diffe­rent Subjects. In one they were small, being only fifteen Lines in length and five in Diameter. In another they were long and narrow, being an Inch and half long and four Lines only in Diameter. In a third they were four Inches long, and an Inch and half Diameter through the middle. These last had the Figure of a Pullets Egg a little extended, being larger at one end than the other. In all the Subjects they were covered with a Nervous Mem­brane, Sprinkled with so great a quantity of Vessels, that it appeared red. In one of the Subjects we found the Testicle had as it were another little one, fastened to its side. This little one was about a fourth of the great one, and was nothing else but the Epididymis separated from the Testicle, which was joyned to it in two places; viz. by a Branch of the Vas Spermaticum Praepa­rans, which proceeding from the middle of the Testicle, did enter into the middle of the Epididymis; and by the Deferens, which proceeding from the bottom of the Epididymis, was rejoyned to the bottom of the Te­sticle.

The Vasa Praeparantia came out near the Emulgents, and were joyned a little lower to the Testicles, which were laied on the Kidneys, a little more on the left than on the right side: Before their connecting to the Testicle, they were each divided into three Branches, which joyned to each other, and afterwards separating, did thus continue to communicate themselves a­long the Testicle, to which they inserted some Branches at equal Spaces. In this place they were exceedingly invelop'd with Membranes and Fat: But notwithstanding these Impediments, their Structure and Communications were distinctly seen; because that having boiled one Testicle, and all the Fat being melted, the Vessels evidently appeared, and shewed that after being united, they were separated, to rejoyn again. The Deferens descending a­long the Spine to the second Bladder, was there fastened, after being dilated, and changed into a Membrane. This Ductus, as usually, was solid, and without Cavity at its beginning, and at the end it was enlarged, and be­came Membranous.

The Liver was red, of a Substance hard and firm. By its Figure it re­sembled that of a Man, being divided into two great Lobes. The left was parted into two other small ones. There was also another little one, in the middle and at the bottom of the two great ones, which was found but in one of the Subjects. There was no Gall-Bladder, but only a Ductus Hepa­ticus, which proceeded from the middle of the hollow part of the Liver, and inserted it selfe at the Pylorus. The Ductus was formed by the uniting of three great branches, which were distributed into the whole Substance of the Liver. At the extremity of one of these Branches, very near its Inserti­on [Page 231] into the Ductus, there was a Dilatation about the bigness of a great Fil­beard, which did not appear because it was again covered over by the Paren­thyma of the Liver.

The Vena Porta was double, having two separate Truncks, and each their particular roots. The first, which was the bigger, was fastened to the right Lobe, at the place where the Gall-Bladder commonly is in Birds. The se­cond (the lesser) came out from the bottom of the left Lobe. The Vena Cava was joyned along the great Diaphragme▪ right by the side of the Aorta.

The Pancreas was ten inches long, and an inch broad: It was placed be­tween the first fold, which the Intestines do make in forme of a long Sinuosity as in most other Birds. It was of a true flesh-Colour. The Glands where­of it was composed were wholly separated from each other, and joyned on­ly by Membranes. The Ductus Pancreaticus was knitt to the upper part of the Iejunum. It proceeded from the middle of the Pancreas, where the two branches joyned, which it shot forth into each half of the Pancreas, one to­wards the top and the other towards the bottom. It is remarkable that in the Generalitie of Birds, the Ductus Pancreatici are inserted near the Cholidochi; but in our Ostriches the insertion of the Pancreaticus was above three foot di­stant from that of the Hepaticus.

The Spleen was fastned to the Ventricle by a strong Membrane, which conducted and held the Splenatick Vessels. It was Cylindrical, being two inches and a half long, and Eight Lines Diameter; yet it was a little smaller at the bottom than at the top. Its Parenchyma was Solid, and like to that of the Kidneys of Quadrupedes.

The Kidneys comprehended eight inches in length, and two in breadth. In most of our Subjects they were different from the Kidneys of other Birds, not being cut into several Lobes▪ but having a continuity very equal. Their whole Substance, which was quaggy, appear'd moreover very unequal, as being composed of a great quantity of Glands. They had a very fine Mem­brane, that immediatly covered them, which was again covered over with another stronger and thicker, supplying the use of the Membrana Adiposa. The colour of these Glands was of a very brisk dark Red. In some of our Subjects we found the Kidneys were cut in three as usually, the upper and lower part being larger than that of the middle. The Ureter was not, as in o­ther Birds, lay'd upon the Kidneys from top to bottom, but it was included in their Substance, where it was a little larger than outwardly, as it were to form a Pelvis, which was about the length of the Kidney. In this Pelvis there was seen several holes, which were the Mouths of the Branches or Channels which the Pelvis sends into the whole Substance of the Kidney. There was not any appearance of Papillae.

The Rings which composed the Aspera Arteria, were intire, but a little compressed, which gave them an Oval Figure. The Larynx consisted of one Cricoides, and one Arytaenoides. The Cricoides resembled that of a Man, and the Arytaenoides was made of two flat and large Cartilages, articulated with the Cricoides by the means of their Muscles. Between them they left an A­perture of six Lines, which made the Glottis. These two Cartilages were covered over with one Muscle, which plainly serv'd to close the Mouth of the Glottis, by drawing them together.

[Page 232]The Diaphragme was not single, as in terrestrial Animals, where there is but one Partition, which separates the Parts contained in the Thorax from those of the lower Venter: But there were several Diaphragmes, which made a great many separations, by dividing the Cavity of all this part of the Body, which is called the Trunck, into six other Cavities, by the means of five Partitions, which may be taken for as many Diaphragmes.

There were four of these Diaphragmes or Partitions, whose Situation was direct from top to bottom, and a fifth seated a Cross. Of the four strait ones, two were little, and two great; the little ones▪covered the Lungs, which were fastened to the sides, and separated them from the four upper Bladders of the Lungs. The great Diaphragmes which covered these Blad­ders, as the little Ones covered the Lungs, left a great space in the middle where the Heart and Liver were included together. The fifth Diaphragme, which was seated cross-wise, going from the middle of one of the great Dia­phragmes to the middle of the other, separated the Heart and Liver from the Gizzard, the Intestines and other▪ parts of the lower Belly, in which the two inferiour Bladders of the Lungs were likewise held. So that the six Cavi­vities were, a great one of the lower Venter; another great one of the middle of the Thorax, seated over the first; two middling ones at the side of the second, which contained the four upper Bladders; and two little ones at the side of these middling ones, where the right and left Lungs were inclosed.

Each of the little Diaphragmes, (which we call the Muscle of the Lungs, be­cause that it was fleshy, and covered the Lungs,) had its Origine very fleshy, which was divided into six heads fastened towards the extremity of the great Ribbs, near the Angle which they do make with other little Ribbs that fasten them to the Sternum, instead of the Cartilages which knitt them in Terrestrial Animals. These six Heads did altogether produce a large Tendon or Aponeurosis, which being couch'd on the Lungs, went to joyn it self with the Aponeurosis of the other opposite Muscle, on the Vertebrae of the Back, to which it was also strongly connected. The direction of the Fibres of this Muscle was Oblique, inclining a little towards the bottom, so that its Action is to contract the Thorax by closing the Ribbs, and drawing them downwards.

Each of the great Diaphragmes, which was only a Membrane without Mus­culous flesh, and consequently without Action, and serving only for a partiti­on, has seemed to us to meritt rather the name of Diaphragme, than the two lit­tle ones that were Musculous, and also than the Diaphragme of Terrestrial Ani­mals, which serves for other purposes than to separate the upper Belly from the lower; being principally imployed by its Motion in the Respiration which is called free, as are the Muscles of the Thorax for the Respirati­on which is called Violent and forced, the which is performed by the Dilata­tion and Constriction of the Thorax. Each of these Diaphragmes was joyned at the top, and at the fore-side, along each Ribb of the Strnum, which was very broad in our Ostriches, as it commonly is in Birds. At its back-part it joyn­ed to the Aponeurosis of the Muscle of the Lungs, and by the means of this Aponeurosis to the Vertibrae of the Back: At the bottom it was fastened to the transverse Muscle of the lower Venter.

The Transverse Diaphragme was seated a little lower than the bottom of [Page 233] the Sternum. It proceeded from the middle of one of the great Diaphragmes and cle a ving on the forepart to the Transverse Muscles of the lower Belly and on the hind-part to the Aponeuroses of the Muscles of the Lungs, it went to fasten it self to the other great Diaphragme. Underneath it was garnished with Fat about the thickness of ones Finger.

The Lungs, being included between the Ribbs and little Diaphragmes, call­ed by us the Muscles of the Lungs, were composed of two Red and Spongi­ous fleshy parts, as in other Birds. They were each ten inches long and three and a half broad, being an inch and a half thick. Each of the two Branches of the Aspera Arteria, entring into the Lungs, was divided into se­veral branches, which were distributed into its whole Parenchyma, as in Ter­restrial Animals, except that all these Branches were simply Membranous without any Cartilages. The Air passing into these branches, went to the external surface of the Parenchyma which was pierced with an infinite number of little holes, which were seen through a very thin Coat, wherewith the whole Lungs were covered to inclose the Air, and let it out only thro five holes, each about five lines Diameter, and ranked according to the length of the Lungs, some towards the Back-bone, others towards the Sternum. Those holes which were towards the Sternum, piercing the fleshy part of the Mus­cle of the Lungs to penetrate into the Bladders, were oblique; and it seem'd to be thus formed that the Air might be voluntarily retained in these Blad­ders by the Action of the Muscle, which, by contracting it selfe, might lessen this hole, for some uses which may be conjectured, as it shall be explain­ed in the sequel.

The four Bladders which were on each side at the top of the Thorax, were included, as has been said, between the Diaphragme and the Muscle of the Lungs where with they were covered over. The Coat of each Bladder was fastened by the sides of the Diaphragme and Muscle of the Lungs. At the top and bottom it was joyned to the Coats of the Neighbouring Bladders be­tween which it was. The fifth Bladder, which was a great deal larger than the rest, was not included between the Diaphragme and the Muscle of the Lungs, but between the two Diaphragmes with the Intestines and other parts of the lower Belly; and that they toucht the Muscle of the Lungs only at the place where it was Pierced, to give passage to the Air that it received from the Lungs. In Eagles and some other Birds, we found these Bladders fastned by the bottom to a Membrane exceedingly loaded with Fat, which inclosed as in a Sack the Ventricle and Intestines, and which we have taken for an Epiploon.

The parts of this Structure could not be so well observed in other Birds, by reason of the tenderness of the Coats whereof these Bladders are composed, which in the Ostrich are about the thickness of a Hog's Bladder; and we found those of the lower Belly in one of our Subjects four times thicker, be­ing Scirrhous: But in most other Birds it is almost impossible not to cut them in making the Dissection, and they can be well viewed only, by keep­ing them extended by blowing into the Aspera Arteria. This knowledg of this Structure gave the Society an occasion of making several Reflections on the manner of Respiration in general, and on that particular to Birds, [Page 234] to indeavour to arrive at the knowledg of the uses which these Organs must have, which are so different in the one and the other of these Animals.

It was considered that Respiration serves not only to the refreshment of the Heart, and to the Voice, but that it is also useful for the Concoction and Distribution of the Nourishment, by the continual agitation and constriction of the Thorax, which pressing the Lungs fill'd with Air, and by this Means rendered like soft Pillows, makes that they gently squeeze out, not only the Blood contained in their Vessels, and push it into the Heart; but do also compress the other Vessels shut up in the Thorax, to favour the distribution of the blood, as it appears in violent Actions, where the retention of Respir­ation is necessary; for it is observed that it makes the blood to rise up into the Face. But the manner whereby Respiration is accomplisht by Inspiration and Expiration, does evidently demonstrate the verity of this use in terrestri­al Animals; for Inspiration is performed when the Thorax is inlarged by the changing of the situation of the Ribs and Sternum, which renders its capaci­ty more ample; and by the relaxation of the Diaphragme, which likewise diminishes the Capacity, because that it makes it to mount on high, and take up a part of the Thorax. Now this Relaxation, which is a thing passive, is not sufficient for the powerful effort that Expiration requires, be­cause that the Air inclosed and compressed by the Action, which the Pectoral Muscles do cause in Respiration, would be capable of forcing the Diaphrag­me downwards, if not thrust upwards by some power which acts strongly in Expiration. This Power is double; one is that of the Mediastinum, which after having been drawn and extended in the inspiration, when the center of the Diaphragme descends downwards, do's afterwards draw the same Cen­ter upwards, as do's Spring, which after having been forc'd returns to its first State, by an Action which Galen calls Natural, and which is not volen­tary like that of the Muscles; so that he attributes to it the involuntary re­traction which happen's to the parts, by Muscles whose Antagonists have been cut. The other power which makes the Diaphragme to ascend, is that of the muscles of the lower Belly, which may pass for the Antagonists of the Diaphragme, when they do compress whatever is contained under the Dia­phragme: For by this Action making the Liver, Ventricle, and other parts of the lower Belly to rise up, they force the middle of the Diaphragme up­wards; which afterwards descends, when by its proper Action, which is Ex­tension, it again takes the strait and flat figure which the Contraction of the Fibres do give it. This compression of the Muscles of the lower Venter on the Viscera is so powerful, that the Ventricle has been somtimes observed to have been pusht into the capacity of the Thorax, when the Diaphragme had received a great Wound: as Paraeus, Sennertus, and Hildan [...]s do testifie.

By these Actions of the compression of the Muscles on the Viscera making them to ascend, and of that of the Diaphragme making them afterwards to descend, and by the continuity of these alternate Motions, it may be said that Respiration is, in respect of the the Humours contained in the lower Venter, what the Pulsation of the Heart is in regard of the blood contained in its Ventricles; that is to say, that this compression and agitation serves not only to the distribution of the Chyle, as that of the Heart serves to force the blood into the Arteries, but that it is one of the principal causes of the gene­ration [Page 235] of the same Chyle, by the division, attenuation and mixture of the parts of the Food which this continual agitation is capable of produ­cing.

These Actions which are essentially necessary for Life, and which must be porformed in Birds as in terrestrial Animals, are there also perform'd by Res­piration, altho' with different Organs; for tho' the Diaphragme of those Birds that have it musculous, or at least the Muscle of the Lungs in the Ostrich, has some Tension and Relaxation, by the means of which, the Lungs and its Bladders are comprest, it has not that Motion which it has in terrestrial Animals, by which the Viscera are somtimes forc'd upwards, som­times downwards; and the Muscles of the lower Venter, by reason of their smallness, cannot compress them but very feebly, because that almost all the lower Belly is covered with the Sternum, whose size must be exceeding great, as it is, to give rise to the great Muscles which do draw the Wing down­wards; the force of these Muscles being unable to answer the powerful Acti­on of flight, if they were less. So that this weakness of the Museles of the lower Venter and Diaphragme; must be supply'd in Birds by the Bladders of the Lungs, which are alternately filled and emptied in their Respiration: and the manner of their acting is thus.

When the Thorax is dilated by the Action of the Pectoral Muscles, the Air enters into the Lungs, and at the same time from the Lungs into the Blad­ders; but it must be understood that it enters only into those which are in­closed in the Thorax, because that there is nothing which, (by dilating the Bladders contained in the lower Belly, can▪give occasion to the Air to enter in; for on the contrary it is then that they shrink, and that the Air which they contain re-enters into the Lungs. But when afterwards the Thorax is compressed and contracted, the Air lockt up in the Bladders of the Thorax, being thereby squeezed out, one part goes out through the Larynx, the o­ther enters into the Bladders of the lower Belly, and swells them at the same instant that the upper ones are evacuated; and afterwards when the upper Bladders are filled by the dilatation of the Thorax▪ they do receive, not only the outward Air thro' the Larynx, but also that of the Bladders of the lower Belly, which are compressed at the same time that the upper ones are dilated; and this happens to them, as well by reason that their Coats do return into their first state, by the force of their Spring as because that the Vis­cera, which have been forc'd and compressed by the dilatation of the Blad­ders, do in their turn force them, aided by the Muscles of the lower Belly, not­withstanding their smallness. This makes a Reciprocation and Vicissitude of Impulsions, which supplys the potent Action, produced by the great Muscles of the lower Belly, in terrestrial Animals. This Action of the Bladders, which serve for the Respiration of Birds, is plainly seen, when they are dissected alive. We have made the Experiment thereof in great Birds, as Geese and Turkey-Cocks, in which having open'd the lower Belly, without hurting the Bladders which are there; it was remarked that when the Thorax was depres­sed in the Expiration, the lower Bladders did swell▪ and that when it was dilated for Inspiration, they did shrink.

This particular manner which Birds have in their Respiration, may be explain'd by the Bellows of Forges, which seem to have been made after the [Page 236] imitation of the Organs of the Respiration of Birds: For these Bellow's have a double capacity to receive the Air. The first is that underneath, which receives the Air when the Bellows is opened, and this capacity represents the upper Bladders shut up in the Thorax. The second capacity is that a­bove, which represents the Bladders of the lower Belly: For when the infe­riour capacity is contracted by the compression of the Bellows: The Air which it has received enters through a hole with which it is pierced, and passes into the upper capacity; so that the Air forceably thrust, do's enlarge this capacity, by making the upper board to rise; this hole being in the middle board between them, which is as it were a Diaphragme between the two Capacities that compose the Bellows, which are different from those of the Bladders of the Lungs of Birds, in that their situation is diffe­rent; the capacity of the Bladders which do first receive the Air, being in the Superiour part in Birds, and in the Inferiour in the Bellows of Forges. The Society has likewise made on several other Birds some Remarks con­cerning the Respiration of these kinds of Animals, which will be found in their Descriptions.

The Heart was almost round, being six Inches from the Basis to the point, and five in breadth. Birds have it generally longer in proportion. The Auri­cles were small, and the Ventricles great. The Aperture of the Vena Cava was very large, without any Valves: There was only as it were a Sack, whose side (which was a partition between its Cavity and the Mouth of the Vena Cava) did serve for a Valve, which might be called Sigmoides, This Structure is common to the Heart of Birds. The other Valves were in the other Vessels of the Heart as usually.

The Aorta desceded along the right side as in other Birds, being shut up in a Capsula formed by the Aponeurosis of the Muscles of the Lungs.

The Skull was soft: In one of the Subjects we found a Fracture. Natu­rallists have observed that when the Ostrich fears any danger, it thinks it self in safety, when it has hid its Head.

The Cerebrum with the Cerebellum was but two inches and a half long, and twenty Lines broad. The Dura Mater divided not the Brain in two by that large Production called the Falx; but in the Substance of the Brain there was observed only a small Ray somewhat deep, on which the Dura Mater was a little thickned, and applyed to it making as it were a Seame.

The Sinus Longitudinalis went as vsually from the forepart to the hind­part of the Head, to terminate at the meeting of the Sinus Laterales, which were fixed at the place where the Dura Mater separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum. These two Sinus's came out of the Skull through some par­ticular holes of the Occiput, to discharge themselves into the Internal Jugu­lars. The fourth Sinus, which was seated a great deal back warder than in Terrestrial Animals, did obliquely descend downwards, and dividing in­to two Branches, entred into the Ventricles of the Brain.

The Dura Mater being taken away, we found the Glandula Pinealis layd upon the place where the Cerebellum is joyned to the Cerebrum: It was a­bout the bigness of a little Pea: several Branches of the Lacis Choroides inve­lop'd it. The Pia Mater was strewed with a great Number of Vessels. The Surface of the Brain which it covered, was not divided into several Sinuo­sities [Page 237] and Circumvolutions, but smooth and even, as it is commonly in Birds. The whole Anteriour part of the Brain was divided into two parts, which were connected together only by some very slender Fibres. The se­paration of these two parts, which in Terrestrial Animals goes to the Callous Body, was absolutely of the whole Brain, which was united only by the Poste­riour Part, near the Cerebellum. This separation and division of the Brain in­to two Parts is found in most Birds; and it is well known by Quacks and Mountebanks, who gain a Reputation to their Balsome, by curing Hens, af­ter having run a Knife through their Head, which they easily do between these two Parts of the Brain, without killing them. In each of these two Parts there was a Cavity or Ventricle, which was covered over with a white, me­dullary Substance, half a Line thick, which was also extended over the place by which these two parts are joyned together, and where the Anteriour Ven­tricles did meet in a third. In this third there was a cleft terminating at the Infundibulum▪ and Glandula Pituitaria, which exactly shut the end of the Infundibulum [...] Tunnel, being situated as usually on the Os Sphenoides. At the Posteri [...] Part of the two Anteriour Ventricles there was seen the Lacis Choroides formed by a Branch of the Carotide, and a branch of the fourth Sinus. Almost all the Substance of the Brain was of an Ash-colour, and like to the Cortical Part of a Man's Brain, so that in proportion to that which is medullary, it was ten times bigger and thicker.

The ten Pairs of Nerves took their rise, and came out of the Skull after the same manner as in Terrestrial Animals.

The Spinalis Medulla, which took its Origine from the place where the two parts of the Anteriour Brain are joyned together and with the Cerebellum, had at its sides two round Eminencies, about the bigness of a small Nut. They had each a considerable Cavity, and did Form as it were two Ventri­cles, opening themselves into the Inferiour Ductus, which passes under that which is called Sylvius's Bridg, and through which the Serosities of the Ce­rebellum are discharged into the Infundibulum.

In the Cerebellum the Cortical and Medullary Parts were disposed after the same manner as they are seen in Terrestrial Animals; these different Parts appearing on the outside to be ranged by Plates joyned to each other, and distinguished by parallel Lines. There were two Apophyses Vermiformes as in Man. There was also a Ventricle of the shape of a Pen, as in the ge­nerality of Terrestrial Animals, The Cerebellum on the inside was compos­ed as ordinarily of a white Substance, like Branches of Trees, and of another red and livid Sustance,

The Figure of the Eye, like as in other Birds and Fishes, was composed of two Semi-Globes, the greatest of which formed by the Sclerotica had its flat part before; the other, a great deal less, was laid on the flat of the Scle­rotica. This little Semi-Globe was the Cornea, which had all round a raised Circle, making as it were a Border. The Optick Nerve did not enter at the middle, but a little at the side towards the Angle, which the convexity of the Sclerotica makes with the flat part. The Crystalline had no kernel, but its Substance was uniform: It was more convex on the inside than on the out. The Choroides was intirely black, without having in the bottom that [Page 238] various coloured and as it were gilded Membrane, which we call the Tapetum.

The Optick Nerve, having pierced the Sclerotica and Choroides, was dilat­ed, and formed as it were a Tunnel of a Substance like its own. This Tunnel is not ordinarily round in Birds, where we have almost always found the extremity of the Optick Nerve flatted and compressed on the inside of the Eye. From this Tunnel proceeded a folded Membrane, making as it were a Purse, which ended in a point towards the border of the Crystalline, nearest the entrance of the Optick Nerve. This Purse, being six Lines at the bottom, at its coming out of the Optick Nerve, and going pointwise towards the top, was fastened by its point to the border of the Crystalline, by means of the Membrane which covered it on the side of the Vitreous Humour, and which did also cover the whole Purse, that was black, but of another black than is that of the Choroides, which appeared like a Spot of Water Colours, which sticks to the Fingers: For the Colour penetrated the Membrane.

The upper Glandula Lachrymalis, which is commonly hid on the inside of the exteriour Angle of the Orbite, was placed in a cavity sunk into that Part of the Coronalis which goes to make the superiour part of the Orbite: It was eight Lines in length and four in breadth; its Tubes were disposed after the usual manner.

The Explication of the Figure of the CASSOWARY.

THE lower Figure shews that the Head, Neck, and Bunch on the Breast are without Feathers; that the rest of the Body appears rather garnished with Hair than Feathers; that the fleshy Appendices, where­with the lower Beak of Hens is ordinarily deck'd, are in this Bird at the bot­tom of the Neck; that the Head is covered with a Crest like an Helmet; that the Beak is divided at the end; that instead of Feathers, the Wings have only five Quills without Beards; and that the Rump and Feet are extra­ordinary bigg.

In the Upper Figure.
A A.
Represents one of the Feathers, which are for the most part double.
The Tongue with the knot of the Larynx.
The Spleen.
The Splenick Artery.
The Splenick Vein.
The Craw.
The first Ventricle.
The second Ventricle.
An Appendix of the second Ventricle.
The Head of the Appendix which stop'd the Pylorus.
The Gall-Bladder.
L L.
The Ductus Cysticus.
M M.
The Ductus Hepaticus.
The Pancreas.
O Q.
The Internal Eye-lidd extended over the Cornea.
P Q P.
The Internal Eye-lid drawn from over the Cornea, and brought into the great Canthus of the Eye.
P Sr Q.
The great Muscles of the Internal Eye-lid; Q is its Origine; P, its Insertion; S, the Optick Nerve on which the Tendon of the Muscle is folded; r, the Aponeurosis of the little Muscle, which serves as a Pully to the Ten­don of the great one.
R r.
The little Muscle.
T T.
The Glandula Lacrymalis,
V V.
The Vessels of the Glandula Lacrymalis.
X a.
The Ductus Lacrymalis. X, is its Aperture towards the edge of the Inter­nal Eye-lid, through which the Humour is poured on the Cornea.
Y Z.
The great Muscle extended; Z, is its Origine; Y its Insertion.
The Trunck of the lower Vena Cava.
b b.
The Emulgents c c c c. The Kidneys.
d f, d f.
The Epididymis. e e. The Testicles.
d g, d g.
The Deferentia.
g g g g.
The Ureter's.

[Page 240]



BEfore the year 1597 this Bird was never seen in Europe; and no Author of the Ancients, or Modernes, has spoken thereof. The Hollanders brought one at the return of their first Voyage from India. It was given them as a Rarity by a Prince of the Isle of Iava. Six years after they brought two others, but they dyed on the way. That here described was sent to the King in 1671, by the Governour of Madagascar, who had bought it of the Marchants which returned from the Indies. It Lived four years at Ver­sailles.

Clusius say's that in the Indies it is called Eme. We have not yet been a­ble to understand wherefore it is in French called Casuel or Gasuel. This Bird, next the Ostrich, is the greatest, and weightiest of all that we know. That which Clusius describes, which is the first that the Hollanders brought from India, was a fourth less than ours, which measured five foot and a half in length, from the end of the Beak to the extremity of the Tallons. The legs were two foot and a half from the Belly to the end of the Tallons. The Head and Neck were a foot and a half together. The greatest Toe, com­prehending the Nail, was five inches long; the Nail of the little Toe, three inches and a half. The Wing was so little, that it did not appear, being quite hid under the Feathers of the Back. Aldrovandus, who has only seen the description that is given thereof in the Relation of the first Voyage of the Hollanders, reports that this Bird is chiefly admirable in that it has neither Wings nor Tongue. In our Subject we found this a falsitie. This Author might also have added that it has no Feathers, because that indeed, those which do cover it, do better resemble the Hair of a Bear or wild-Boar, than Feathers, or Down; so harsh, long, and thin are the Fibres which do com­pose the Beards of these Plumes.

[Page 242]All these Plumes were of one sort, different from Birds which fly, where there are some feathers for flight, and others only for covering the Skin. Our Cassowar had only of the last sort. They were most double, having two long Tubes or Stem's proceeding from another very short one, which was fastened to the Skin. Clusius say's that they are alwayes double. In our Subject there were a great many single. Those which were double, were alwayes of an unequal length: Some were fourteen inches long. We have already remark'd this kind of feather in an Eagle, and a Parrot: But those of the Cassowar had three Particularities. The first is that the Beards, which did adorn the Stem from the half to the end, were long and harsh like Horse-Hair, without casting out any Fibres, and in this they are different from the Plumes of Heron's, whose long and slender beards are not of single Fibres as they do appear; for they are decked on each side with little Fibres, so short that they are almost imperceptible. The second particularity is, that in this halfe the Stem was not different from the Beards, being neither bigger nor of a different Colour, as is commonly in the Feathers of other Birds. The third particularity is that these Beards were perfectly black, and that those of the other half were of a Grayish Tawney, shorter, softer, and cast­ing forth small Fibres like Downe. Now there was only this part, com­posed of great and black Fibres, that appeared, the other part composed of Down being covered over therewith. The different Hairs wherewith the Skin of Castors, Boars, and other Animals which are Subject to wallow in the Mire is covered, are disposed after this manner for the uses which are ex­plained in the description of the Castor.

The Neck was without feathers as in the Indian-Cock. The Head also had none: It had only some Hairs erected on the Crown, especially towards the hind part and on the Neck. There was no Tail; the feathers which did cover the Rump, which was extraordinary great, not being different from the others nor otherwise disposed.

The Wings, which without the feathers were not three inches in length, were covered with the same sort of Plumes, and did each cast forth five great Tubes or Stems without any Beards. Clusius puts down but four: They were of different length, according to the disposition, and proportion that the Fingers have in the Hand. The longest was eleven inches, being three lines Diameter towards the root, which was only a little bigger than the extremity, which went not pointing but did appear broken, or ragged. Their Colour was of a very shining black. We did not think these wings could serve to assist it to walk, as Clusius imagines; there being greater probability that it might be thereby aided to strike, as with Switches.

The Head appeared little as in the Ostrich, because that it was not enlarged with feathers, as in other Birds. It was covered with a Crest three inches high, like that of a Helmet. This Crest covered not all the Crown of the Head: For it began but a little beyond the Crown, and ended at the be­ginning of the Beak. It was of different Colours, the fore part being black­ish, and the hinder-part and sides of a Wax-Colour. It was every where smooth and shining like Horn. Its Circumference was like an edg, not exceeding three lines in that place; from thence it went enlarging, and to­wards its Basis was about an inch. Its Substance, which was very hard, ap­peared [Page 243] to us like Horne, being composed of several Laminae or Plates like the Hornes of Oxen. Clusius say's that when the Bird molts the Crest falls off with the Feathers: Which seemed to us incredible, considering the substance of the Crest, supposing that it was a Horne: for it was not of the Nature of Deer's Hornes which do shed, and grow again; and we made enquirie, after this Particularity of those which do look after the Animals of Versailles who for the space of four years, have not seen the Crest fallen. We did heartily wish that we had been permitted to examine by the dissection after what manner this Crest was joyned to the Scull; viz. whether the Scull sent forth any bony Production into the Cavity of the Crest, as it is observed that there are such in Hornes which are hollow, or whether it is a solid Body: but there was an express order from the King to preserve the Skin of this Animal, to adorn the Aviary of Versailles.

The upper part of the Beak was very hard, at its two edges and at top. The Interstices on each side had but one Membrane, in which were the holes of the Nostrills, very near the extremity of the Beak. This extremity of the Beak was divided in three, almost as in the Indian-Cock. The end of the lower Beak was slightly indented, being likewise divided in three. The whole Beak was of a dark-gray, except a green mark that the lower Beak had on each side towards the middle.

The Eye was large. Its Iris of a Topaze Colour, almost as in the Lyon. There was an internal Eye-lidd, which was hid in the great Canthus. The inferiour Eye-lidd, which was the largest, was garnished with a row of black Hairs. There were likewise a row of black Hairs like a Demi-circle, at the top of the Eye, raised like an Eye-brow. The hole of the Ear was very great and bare, being only surrounded with black Hairs, like the Eyes. There were of these very Hairs about the root of the Crest▪

The two sides of the Head, round the Eye and Ear, were of a blewish Colour. The Neck was Purple, inclining to a Slate colour. Behind, it was also Red in several places, but especially towards the bottom; and these red places were raised a little higher than the rest, in wrinkles running ob­liquely cross the Neck. Clusius say's that there are Red Plumes towards the bottom of the Neck, which we have not found in our Subject.

At the bottom of the Neck there were two fleshy Appendices, like those which hang down at the lower Beak of Hen's. They were an inch and a half long, and nine lines broad, being rounded at the end. Their colour was like the rest of the Neck, partly red and partly blew.

At the middle of the Breast there was a place without Feathers, about six inches long, of an oval Figure, a little Pointed at the top. This place was a Callosity, on which the Bird did rest, as do's the Camel. It was composed of a dry Skin, fastened to a bonie Ligament, very thin, applyed and fixed on the middle of the Sternum, by Fibres mixt with Fat, so that all this Callo­sity was moveable.

The Thigh's were covered with feathers. The Leggs, which were extraor­dinary great, strong and strait, had some Scales. There were some Hexagonal, Pentagonal, and square. Towards the top and hinder-part of the Leg they were small, towards the bottom and fore-part they contained even an inch: On the Instep they were like plates, two inches long. The Toes were likewise [Page 244] covered with Scales. They were but three in number, having none be­hind: the least was on the inside. The Claws were of a hard and solid sub­stance, black on the outside, and white on the inside. They were half worn away. Clusius say's that this Bird has a prodigious strength in his Feet, with which it strikes, by running backward, in such sort, that it breaks down Truncks of Trees of the bigness of ones thigh. Those that had the care of ours, observed it not to be so strong nor Furious: they have only remarked that it persued after Women with great hatred.

The Oesophagus from the Pharynx to the beginning of the Craw, measured ten inches long: it was an inch and half large. The Tunicles whereof it was composed were thick. Before the entrance into the Stomach, it was inlarged and grew thinner, making a Craw, which, as in Hen's and Pidge­ons, was half on the bottom of the Breast, and half in the Thorax. This Craw was eight inches in length, and four in breadth: At the straitest place it was two. It was succeeded by a second Craw more gross, and compos­ed of Tunicles more thick. This Craw was a foot long, and seven inches broad. It descended underneath the Liver. Its interiour Tunicle was com­posed of Glands, as the extremity of the Oesophagus commonly is in Birds; and these Glands, which are not so large, nor so well formed as in the Bustard, which is the only Bird in which we have found them most distinct, were co­vered over with a yellow Velvet. This particularity makes that this Craw may be taken for the first Ventricle, which was followed by a second com­posed of thinner Tunicles than those of the first. The Internal Tunicle ap­peared thick because that it was plaited. The Velvet which covered it, was a little thicker than in the first Ventricle. These two Ventricles were separa­ted, and distinguished one from the other, not only by their Substance, which was different, and by a Contraction such as is seen in the different Ventricles of Animals which Chew the Cud, but likewise by a Membranous border made like a Valve.

From the middle of the second Ventricle there proceeded, on the inside, an Appendix three inches long, and eight broad; 'twas a Production of the Internal Membrane of the Ventricle. At the end of this Appendix, there was as it were a Head, of the bigness of a Pullets Egg, which drawing the Appendix downwards, descended into the Pylorus, and stopt it. There is ground to doubt whether this formation was Natural, or caused by dis­stemper. We have nevertheless thought that it was not Natural, and that there was formed in the internal Membrane of the Ventricle a Scirrhus, which by its weight having insensibly extended it, had formed this Appendix, whose extremity, great and hard as it was, might have caused the Death of this Animal, which fifteen days before its Decease, had undergone a kind of Vo­miting of whiteish water, even to a Chopine or Parision half Pint a day; which was in appearance its Nourishment, which could not find passage.

'Tis a thing very remarkable that this Animal, which feeds not on Flesh, but Pulse and Bread, had not a fleshy and musculous Gizzard, as all other Birds▪ which feed on that sort of Nourishment use to have; considering al­so that in every thing else it has so much resemblance with the Ostrich, which has a Gizzard: and that like it, it swallows whatever is offered to it, even to burning Coals, according to Clusius; and it must be thought, that Nature [Page 245] has supplyed the defect of the Gizzard, by the multitude of the Ventricles that it has given it, provided with a qualitie particular, and capable of dis­solving the hardest and most solid Aliments. This has seem'd credible to us, considering in what state the two Ventricles and Craw were found: For the Ventricles were quite empty, having only the Craw that had any thing in it: and the Nourishment which it contain'd was more than half digested. Which made us to judge of the strength that these Ventricles must common­ly have, seeing that their Craw had so much thereof in one dying Animal.

The Intestines, were in all four foot eight inches long, and two inches di­ameter. They were all of one breadth and Substance, without leaves on the inside, without Cells and without a Caecum.

The Liver was of a moderate size the right Lobe being only eight inches and the left four. It was every where Scirrhous. The Gall Bladder which was fastened along the right Lobe, and shut up in the Capsula, was seven inches long, and an inch diameter at most. The Ductus Cysticus, which proceeded from the top of the Bladder, measured eight inches in length, and was en­larged towards its insertion, which was towards the beginning of the Duode­num. The Hepaticus was eight inches and a half, and descended from left to right, and the Cysticus from right to left, which made that these two Ductus's increased towards their lower part. The Hepaticus was inserted un­derneath the Cysticus.

The Spleen was three inches long, and an inch and a half broad at its great­est breadth: It had the shape of a Sole-Fish. Its Vessels were distributed as usually.

The Pancreas was little in proportion to the other parts. It was but two inches in length and two lines in breadth. Its Ductus, which was very slen­der was but one line and a half long, and was inserted above the Cysticus.

The Kidneys, as in other Birds, were divided into several Lobes. They measured eight inches in length. The Ureter's were of the bigness of a Goose-Quill, and seven inches long.

The Testicles were an inch in length, and half an inch in breadth. Their Substance was white and hard, and much different from that of the Epididy­mis which was soft and yellowish; but the size was very extraordinary, be­ing three inches long and two lines broad; so that it was raised two inches above the Testicle. The Ductus Deferens descended along the Kidney, be­ing fastened to the Vena Emulgens, and afterwards uniting it selfe to the U­reter. It was eleven inches long, having the bigness of a Quill. The Penis was placed as in the Ostrich. It comprehended two inches in length, an inch in breadth towards its Basis, and two lines towards its point. The Skin which covered it was hard, thick and unequal on the inside, by reason of several folds which were disposed like a Screw. The Body of the Penis con­sisted of two Cartilaginous Ligaments, which gave a Piramidal Figure to the Penis. They were very hard and solid, and strongly connected to each other at the top. They were separated underneath, to give place to a Mem­branous Ductus, with which we could not perceive that the Deferentia or U­reter's had any communication.

The Lungs measured eight inches in length and four in breadth over their middle.

[Page 246]This Bird being the largest that we have dissected next the Ostrich, we applyed our selves to observe some things which do appertain to the Organs of Respiration, which have a particular Structure in Birds, and which we begun to discover in the Ostrich: For it is not easy to perceive well these things in lesser Birds. Amongst other things we examined two Muscles, which we do call the Muscles of the Lungs. These Muscles had their Ori­gine very fleshy, which in each was divided into six Heads, each fastned to a Ribb, at the place where the Ribb, which by one end is articulated with the Vertebrae, is by the other articulated with another Ribb which is joyn­ed to the Sternum. For it must be observed that the Ribbs of Birds are ordi­narily double; and that whereas in Terrestrial Animals, there are some Cartilaginous Appendices which do fasten them to the Sternum, they are in Birds real Bones, which are articulated and not joyned per Symphysin with the Ribbs. Now these six Heads of the Muscle of the Lungs did all toge­ther produce a large Tendon or Aponeurosis which covered the Lungs, and which separated it from the Bladders, into which the Air, after having pe­netrated the Lungs, enters through the holes with which this Aponeurosis is pierced; and these Bladders were again covered over by the Diaphragme, e­ven as the Lungs was by the Aponeurosis: So that the Bladders were shut up between the Aponeurosis and the Ribbs. This Aponeurosis thus lay'd upon the Lungs, went to joyn it self with the Aponeurosis of the opposite Muscle on the Vertebrae, to which it was also strongly connected; leaving neverthe­less upon the middle of the Body of the Vertebrae, a void space for the passage of the descendent Aorta, and Oesophagus. At the same place where these A­poneuroses were connected together, and fastned to the Vertebrae, the Dia­phragmes were also joyned, and united to the Aponeuroses; but towards the left side they gave way to a great branch of the Aorta, which supplyed the place of the Caeliaca and Mesenterica. This Branch was crept between all these Aponeuroses, as well of the Muscles of the Lungs, as of the Diaphragmes, which were joyned together.

The use of these Muscles according to our Conjectures, is twofold. The first is to serve the Motion of the Thorax, by drawing it downwards; because that they do go from the Angle which the Ribbs make, by their mutual ar­ticulation, and do obliquely ascend towards the inferiour Vertebrae of the Back, to which they are fastned. The second use is to retain the Air lockt up in the Pouches or Bladders, and hinder it from going out with the same liberty that it entered in. The use of this Retention is not well known to us, at least in respect of the upper Pouches: For in regard of the lower ones, the use of this Retention has been explained in the Description of the Ostrich, where it was shown, that there is a probability that the Air contained in the lower Pouches serves to compress the Viscera, and make them rise up­wards. Some do think that this Retention of the Air serves Birds to ren­der them lighter in flying, like as the Bladder which is in Fish helps them to Swim. And this Conjecture would have some foundation, if the Air contained in the Bladders of Birds was as light in proportion to the Air in which they Fly, as the Air contained in the Bladders of Fish is in proporti­on to the Water in which they do Swim. But to say something, which hath at least a little more probability, waiting till we have a more certain know­ledge [Page 247] of the Truth and use of this retention of Air, we consider that the Birds generally rising very high, and even to the place where the Air is a great­deal lighter than it is near the Earth, might be deprived of the principal ad­vantages of Rispiration, for want of an Air, whose weight might make on the Heart and Arteries the Compression necessary to the Distribution and Cir­culation of the Blood; if they had not the faculty of containing a long time a portion of Air, which, being rarified by the heat which this Retention produceth therein might, by inlarging it self, supply the defect of the weight, of which the Air that they do breath in the middle Region is desti­tute. For if there are a great many Birds which do never rise very high in­to the Air, whose Lungs have notwithstanding these Bladders in which the Air is retained; there are also a great many that have Wings, which they use not for flying: And it may be observed that there are found some parts in Animals, which have not any use in certain Species, and which are given to the whole Genus, by reason that they have an important use in some of the Species. 'Tis thus that in several kinds of Animals, the Males have Teats like the Females, that Moles have Eyes, Ostriches and Cassowars Wings, and that Land-Tortoises have a particular Formation of the Vessels of the Heart, which agrees only with Water-Tortoises, as it is explained in the De­scription of the Tortoise.

However it be, the structure of the Muscles of the Lungs of Birds gives occasion to believe that they do serve to this Retention, because it is seen that the holes which they have, to give entrance into the Pouches, are most in the fleshy part of the Muscles, which is capable of a voluntary Con­striction and Relaxation. And moreover this Retention of the Air is mani­fest in the Camelion, which hath Lungs of a Structure like that of Birds: For we have remark'd that the Camelion is somtimes swelled, as it was ready to burst, and continues a long time in this posture, altho' the Reciprocation of the Respiration ceases not from going its usual pace; as if by the means of these Muscles of the Lungs, this Animal did retain the Air in some of the Bladders, viz. in those whose Apertures are in the fleshy part of the Muscle; and that in the others it leaves a free Egress and Entrance to the Air for Respiration.

In the middle of the two great Diaphragmes, there was a Membrane, which, like a Mediastinum, descended from top to bottom, and which served for a Ligament, to suspend the Heart, Liver, Ventricle, and the rest of the parts of the lower Venter.

The Bladders of the Lungs were separable from the Diaphragmes and Muscles of the Lungs, each having their particular Tunicle. These Tuni­cles were joyned together, making double and not single partitions. The second Bladder had two holes. The fourth descended not so low as in other Birds, by reason that the Sternum being very small, and consequently the Muscles of the lower Venter greater than ordinary, this Bladder was not so necessary as in Birds which have the Sternum bigger: which confirmes the opinion that we have of the use which we attribute to this fourth Bladder, and which is explained in the Description of the Ostrich. Now the Sternum was proportionably lesser than in the Ostrich, because that the Muscles de­signed [Page 248] for the Motion of the Wings, to which it gives rise, were very small, and proportioned to the Wings.

The Heart was an Inch and half long, and an Inch broad towards its Basis. Its fleshy valve made a Sack, that was but one Line deep,

The Tongue measured an Inch in length and eight Lines in breadth. It was indented all round like a Cocks Combe. Aldrovandus has said that the Cassowar has neither Wings nor Tongue, instead of saying that these parts are of a structure altogether extraordinary in this Bird.

The Globe of the Eye was very bigg, in proportion to the Cornea, being an Inch and half Diameter, and the Cornea but three Lines. The Crystal­line was four. The black Purse which proceeds from the Optick Nerve, was as usually in other Birds.

In this Subject we applyed our selves exactly to remark what belongs to the internal Eye-lid, which we have found in the Eyes of all Birds, and in those of the generality of Terrestrial Animals. The particularities of the admirable structure of this Eye-lid, are such things as do distinctly dis­cover the wisdom of Nature, amongst a thousand others of which we per­ceive not the contrivance, because we understand them only by the Effects, of which we know not the Causes: But we here treat of a Machine, all the parts whereof are visible, and which need only to be lookt upon, to dis­cover the Reasons of its Motion and Action.

This internal Eye-lid in Birds is a Membranous part, which is extended over the Cornea, when it is drawn upon it like a Curtain, by a little Cord or Tendon; and which is drawn back again into the great Corner of the Eye, to uncover the Cornea, by the means of the very strong Ligaments that it has, and which in drawing it back towards their Origine, do fold it up. It made a Triangle when extended, and it had the figure of a Cre­scent when folded up. Its Basis, which is its Origine, was towards the great Corner of the Eye, at the edg of the great Circle which the Scleroti­ca▪ Forms, when it is flatted before, making an Angle with its Anteriour part, which is flat, and on which the Cornea is raised, making a Convexi­tie. This Basis, which is the part immovable, and fastned to the edg of the Sclerotica, did take up more than a third of the Circumference of the great Circle of the Sclerotica. The side of the Triangle, which is towards the little corner of the Eye, and which is moveable, was reinforced with a border, which supplys the place of the Tarsus, and which is black in most Quadruped's. This side of the Eye-lid is that which is drawn back into the Corner of the Eye by the Action of the Fibres of the whole Eye-lid, which parting from its Origine, proceed to joyn themselves to its Tarsus.

To extend this Eye-lid over the Cornea, there were two Muscles that were seen when the six were taken away, which served to the motion of the whole Eye. We found that the greatest of these two Muscles has its Ori­gine at the very edge of the great Circle of the Sclerotica, towards the great corner from whence the Eye-lid takes its original. It is very fleshy in its beginning, which is a large Basis, from whence coming insensibly to con­tract it self by passing under the Globe of the Eye, like as the Eye-lid passes over it, it approaches the Optick Nerve, where it produces a Tendon round and slender, so that it passes thro the Tendon of the other Muscle, which serves [Page 249] for a Pully, and which hinders it from pressing the Optick Nerve, on which it is bent, and makes an Angle, to pass thro' the upper part of the Eye; and coming out from underneath the Eye, to insert it self at the corner of the Membrane which makes the internal Eye-lid. This second Muscle has its Ori­gine at the same circle of the Sclerotica, but opposite to the first, towards the little corner of the Eye; and passing under the Eye like the other, goes to meet it, and imbrace its Tendon, as it has been declared.

The Action of these two Muscles is, in respect to the first, to draw, by means of its Cord or Tendon, the corner of the internal Eye-lid, and to ex­tend it over the Cornea. As to the second Muscle, its Action is, by making its Tendon to approach towards its Origine, to hinder the Cord of the first Muscle, which it imbraces, from hurting the Optick Nerve; but its princi­pal use is to assist the Action of the first Muscle. And 'tis herein that the Mechanisme is marvelous in this Structure, which makes that these two Muscles joyned together, do draw much farther than if it had but one: For the inflexion of the Cord of the first Muscle, which causes it to make an Angle on the Optick Nerve, is made only for this end; and a single Muscle with a strait Tendon, had been sufficient, if it had power to draw far enough. But the Traction which must make the Eye-lid to extend over the whole Cornea being necessarily great, it could not be done but by a very long Mus­cle; and such a Muscle not being able to be lodged in the Eye all its length, there was no better way than to supply the Action of a long Muscle by that of two indifferent ones, and by bending one of them, to give it the greater length in a little space. The inspection of the Figure will serve greatly to the understanding of this Description, which the novelty of the thing renders obscure in it self.

The use of this internal Eye-lid, which till now has been described by no person, is not determined. Our Opinion is that it serves to clean the Cornea, and to hinder that by drying, it grow not less transparent. Man and the Ape, which are the sole Animals where we have not found this Eye-lid, have not wanted this precaution for the cleansing their Eyes, because that they have hands with which they may, by rubbing their Eye-lids, express the hu­midity which they contain, and which they let out through the Ductus La­crymalis: which is known by experience, when the sight is darkened, or when the Eyes suffer any pain, or itching: For these Accidents do cease, when the Eyes are rubbed.

But the Dissection has distinctly discovered to us the Organs which do par­ticularly serve for this use, and which are otherwise in Birds than in Man, where the Ductus passes not beyond the Glandula Lacrymalis. For in Birds it goes beyond; and penetrating above half way on the internal Eye-lid, it is opned underneath upon the Eye; which is evidently done to spread a Liquor over the whole Cornea, when this Eye-lid passes and repasses: as we observed it to do every moment.

The Explication of the Figure of the TORTOISE.

THis Tortoise has several particularities, which do render it different from those that we have in France. Its shell is not flat, but very convex. It has but one Shell to cover its Back and Belly. Its Tail is fur­nished with a Horn at the end. Its Paws are not covered with Scales, but with a Skin wrinkled like Spanish Leather. Its Claws are not sharp, but blunt and half worn away, and its Jaws toothed like a Saw.

In the Upper Figure.
A B C D.
The right side of the Liver.
A little Lobe which covers the Bladder.
The Bladder.
The Trunk of the Vena Porta.
The right Ramus Hepaticus.
E F G.
The left part of the Liver.
The left Ramus Hepaticus.
The Isthmus by which the left and right part of the Liver are joyned together.
The great Lobe of the left part of the Liver.
H H.
The right Vena Cava.
I I.
The left Vena Cava.
The Ductus Cysticus.
The Trunk of the Rami Hepatici.
M M.
The Kidneys.
N N.
The Venae Emulgentes, to which are fastened two Glands.
O O.
The Testicles.
P P.
The Epididymides proceeding from the Kidney, and fastened to the Testi­cles by little Ductus's.
Q Q.
The Ureter's.
R R.
The Bladder opned.
The Neck of the Bladder opned, offering to the sight two Carunculae, which are the extremities of the Ureter's, and two others which are the extremities of the Deferentia.
T T.
Two holes, which are of the Origine at the Spongious Ligaments, compo­sing the body of the Penis.
V V.
A large Muscle, which includes the Rectum and Penis.
X X.
Two other Muscles of the Penis, which are interlaced with two others marked y y.
The extremity of the Glans.
The great circular Appendix.
The little Appendix with its two Buttons.
Φ Φ.
The extremity of the Rectum cut lengthwise, to discover the body if the Penis.
An Aperture between the two Ligaments, on which abutts the Neck of the Bladder. [Page 250]
[Page] [Page 251] φ.
The Penis cut a cross, to discover the Cavities of the two Ligaments marked ω ω, and the Cavity which supplys the place of the Urethra marked π.
Ω Ω Ω Ω.
The great Ductus's of the Lungs.
ξ ξ ξ.
The Bladders opening into the Ductus's.
Λ Λ.
The Auricles of the Heart seen on the side which touches the Back-bone.
The Trunk of the left Vena Cava.
The Trunk of the right Vena Cava.
The Trunk of the Aorta at the going out of the Heart, forming two Crosses.
The left Aorta.
The right Aorta.
The conjunction of the two Aortas.▪
7 7.
The Carotides.
The Artery of the Lungs.
9 9.
The Veins of the Lungs which are discharged into the Axillares.
The Artery which goes to the Stomack.
The Artery which goes to the Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, &c.
The Artery which goes to the Intestines.
The Heart in its Natural Situation.
The Anteriour Ventricle of the Heart.
The Artery of the Lungs opened, to shew its three Valvulae Sigmoides.
16. 16.
The Heart out of its Natural Situation, being raised upwards, and sepa­rated from its Auricles Λ Λ, which are in their place.
17. 18.
The two Posteriour Ventricles of the Heart.
The Aorta proceeding from the right Ventricle. It is opened to represent its three Valvulae Sigmoides.
20, 20, 20.
The three Valvulae Sigmoides, which are at the entrance of the Au­ricles of the Heart.
a b.
Two holes which are the extremities of the Ductus by which the two Posteri­our Ventricles do commnuicate.
c d.
Two other holes which do make the Communication of the Posteriour left Ven­tricle with the Anteriour.
α α.
The Cerebrum.
The Cerebellum.
γ γ.
The Olfactory Nerves.
The Medulla Spinalis.
ε ε.
The Musculi Crotaphitae cut.
θ θ.
The Os Occipitis.
The Cartilaginous Plate o [...] Film which stops the hole of the Ear.
A Ductus which descends into the Palate.
The Plate or Film sustained by the [...]ony Stylus marked [...].


THis Tortoise was brought from the Indies; it was taken on the Coast of Coromandel. It was four Foot and a half long from the extremity of the Mouth to the end of the Tail, and fourteen Inches thick. The Shell contained three Foot in length, and two in breadth. How great soever this Tortoise was, it came not near those of which Elian and Pliny do speak, which were fifteen Cubits, and every one of which was sufficient to cover a large Cabine where several persons might lodg: But our's was a Land-Tortoise, and those that Pliny and Elian do make mention of, were Sea-Tortoises, where Animals do generally grow much larger than those of the same Species which do live upon land. Elian declares that Land-Tortoises are not ordinarily great­er than the large Clods turned up by the Plow when the Land is light. The largest Sea-Tortoises which they do take near the Antilles, according to the re­lations we have had thereof, are not above as bigg again as ours.

The Shell and all the rest of the Animal was of the same Colour, viz. of a very dark Gray. The upper part was composed of several pieces of a diffe­rent Figure, tho' the most part were Pentagonal. All these pieces were fix'd and joyned unto a Bone, which like a Skull, enclosed the Intrails of the Ani­mal, having one Aperture before, to let out the Head, Shoulders and fore-Leggs; and another opposite, thro' which came out the hinder Leggs and Thighs. This Bone on which the Scales were fastned, was a Line and half in the thinnest place; and near an Inch and half in some places. It is gene­rally double, there being one upon the back and another under the belly, which, like two Breast-Plates or Bucklers, are joyned by the sides, and ty­ed [Page 253] together by strong and hard Ligaments, but which do nevertheless grant▪ liberty for any Motion. Elian tells us that Land-Tortoises do cast their Shell, instead of saying their Shells, that is to say, those pieces which are fixed on the Bone made after the manner of a Skull. For there is no probability that a Tortoise should separate it self from this Bone to which all its principal parts are fastned. And it is true that these pieces are of themselves loosened from this Bone, when the Shell has been somtime kept, and the Bone begins to putrify; otherwise, to unloose them you must lay the Bone upon the Fire, the heat of which makes these parts easily to separate from each other.

At the great Aperture before, there was at the top a raised border, to grant more liberty to the Neck and Head for lifting themselves upwards: And this Inflexion of the Neck is of great use to the Tortoise: For it serves them to turn again when they are upon their Back. And their Industry upon this account is very admirable. We have observed in a living Tortoise, that being turned upon his Back, and not being able to make use of his Paws for the turning himself, because that they could bend only towards the Belly, it could help it self only by its Neck and Head, which it turned somtimes on one side, and somtimes on the other, by pushing against the ground to rock it self as in a Cradle, to find out the side, towards which the inequality of the Ground might more easily permit it to roul its Shell, for when it had found it, it made all its endeavours on that side.

The three great pieces of the Shell were upon the Back forwards; they had each in their middle a round Bunch standing up three or four Lines, and an Inch and half broad: The lower part of the Belly was a little hollow; Au­thors have taken notice that this Cavity is peculiar to the Males. Upon the Back there was a wound, occasioned by some blow that it had received when it was taken. This wound which pierc'd only the Shell and part of the Bone which sustained it, without penetrating on the inside, was not healed within more then a year which she lived, after her being taken.

All that proceeded out of the Shell, viz. the Head, Shoulders, fore-Leggs, Tail, Buttocks and hind-Leggs, were all covered with a loose Skin, folded in great wrinkles, and besides that grained like Spanish Leather. This Skin did not enter under the Shell, to cover the parts which are there enclosed, but it was fastned about the edge of each of the two Apertures: The Skin of Sea-Tortoises is covered all along the Leggs with little Scales like Fishes.

Albertus says that great Tortoises have a Shell over their Head in form of a Buckler. The Head of our Tortoise was only covered with a Skin, which was much thinner than that of the other parts. It was seaven Inches in length and five in breadth, and did in some measure resemble the Head of a Serpent. The lower Jaw was near as thick as the upper. There were no Apertures for the Ears. The Nostrels were opened at the end of the Mouth by two little round holes, after a uncouth manner. The Eyes were small and frightfull: But we have observed nothing in respect of the Tortoise, which may make us to comprehend why Gillius and Gesner, in translating the words [...], which Elian makes use of to express the deformity of the Tortoise, have rendered it Crispissima aspectu, instead of Aspectu admodum Torvo: For the Greek signifies both, and the interpretation of the Translators of Elian has nothing of the sense, as the other, which agree with the Description of [Page 254] Pacuvius, who says that the Tortoise is truci aspectu. The Eye had no up­per Eye-lid, being shut only by the means of the lower, which is lifted up to the Eye-brow. Pliny reports that this is common to all oviparous Qua­drupeds.

Towards the extremity of the Jaw-bones, at the place of the Lipps, the Skin was hard as a Horn, and keen as in other Tortoises; but these Lipps were jagged like a Saw, and it wanted not on the inside two rows of real Teeth, although Pliny affirms that Tortoises have neither Teeth nor Tongue.

On each of the fore-Paws it had five Toes, or rather five Nailes; for the Toes were not distinguish'd otherwise than by the Nails, these Paws having at the end but one round Mass, from whence the Nails grew out: The hind­er-Leggs had only four. Both the fore and hind-Leggs were very short. The fore ones contained but 9 Inches in length, from the Top of the shoulder to the End of the Nails, and hinder Leggs eleven, from the Knee to the end of the Nails. The Nails were long, being an Inch and Half. They were rounded away both above and below, their cutt making an Oval figure; they were blunt and worn away. Their Colour was parti-coloured of black and white, in different places, and without any order. We have observed that Sea-Tortoises have Claws or Nails much sharper, because that they do­not wear them in Swiming, as Land-Tortoises do in Crawling: We have found some that had only four Nails on the fore-Feet even as on those be­hind. Albertus tells us, that there are allways five on each Foot. We have remark'd that tho the Tortoise goes slowly, yet the manner of going which is peculiar to it, must wear out its Claws as much as in Animals which run: For it rubs them all against the Earth singly and one after another; so that when it puts down one Paw, it rests at first only upon the hindermost Nail, then on the next, and so passes to the others, even to the fore-Claw by turning its Paw, which is round and bordered with Nails; like a Charriot, which moves its wheels, and imprints the heads of the Nails with which their Circumfe­rence is bordred, and makes them to enter into the Earth one after the other.

The Tail was large, having at its beginning six Inches Diameter. It was fourteen Inches long, and terminated in a point like an Oxe's Horn. Car­dan calls it a Nail, which he likens to the Spurr which is behind a Cock's Foot, and thinks that it is a Callosity engendred at the end of the Tail of Tortoises, which have been formerly cutt off: which is not probable; a Cal­lus not being able to obtain a Figure so Regular, and so exactly rounded as it was in the Tail of our Tortoise. This Tail after the Death of the Tortoise was turned on one side, and so inflexible, that it could never be made strait, what force soever was used. The same inflexibility was found in the Mus­cles of the Jaws, which could not be opened otherwise than by cutting the Muscles. Aristotle has observed that of all Animals, the Tortoise is that which hath most strength in his Jaws: For its Force is such, that it cuts in sunder whatever it lays hold on, even to the hardest Flints. We have taken notice, in a small Tortoise, that its Head, half an hour after its being cut off, did make its Jaws to clack with a Noise like to that of Castanetts: The stif­ness of the Tail, equalling that of the Jaws, makes it evident that the Tor­toise has a great deal of strength in this part to strike with; and that this Horn which it has at the end may serve instead of an offensive Weapon.

[Page 255]After having sawed on both the sides, the Bone which in manner of a Skull, makes the Cavity in which the Entrails are enclosed, as has been said: And after having quite cutt away a Membrane adhering to the part of this Bone which is underneath; and which makes the Belly, (this Membrane sup­plying the place of the Peritonaeum towards the bottom, and of the Pleura to­wards the top) the Internal parts which presented themselves to view, were the Ventricle, Liver and Bladder, whose greatness was such, that it covered the Intestines, and all the other parts of the lower Belly.

The Ventricle was placed underneath the Liver, to which it was fastned by means of several Vessels. It was nine Inches long, and three diameter. Its Tunicles were very thick, its Orifices strait, and the Membrane which makes the Velvet was folded and bearing forms like Leaves extended according to its length. It had the Figure of the Ventricle of a Dog; Severinus attributes to it that of the Ventricle of a Man.

At the end of the Ventricle, the Intestine which one may call the Duode­num, had in its inner side Plaits or Folds like the Ventricle. Their Figure was Reticular; which might give occasion to believe that it was a second Ventricle. The rest of the Intestines were composed of very thick Membranes. The small-Gutts were one Inch diameter, and nine Foot long: The Valve of the Colon was formed by a circular fold of the Internal Membrane of the Ileum. There was not found in the Ileum, nor Colon, the Leaves that we have observed in the generality of Animals. We found no Caecum. Severi­nus attributes two Caecums to the Tortoise, resembling those which are found in Birds. The Rectum, at nine Inches distance from the Anus, had a con­traction like the Rump of a Hen, round which there were three round Appen­dices of a different size, which seem'd formed by the Internal Membrane of the Rectum; and which were covered over with fleshy Fibres extended accord­ing to the length of the Appendices. The rest of the Rectum which reached from the contraction to the Anus, did serve as a Case to the Penis, as is ob­served in the Castor, Civet-Cat, and several other Animals. Among the small Water Tortoises we have dissected; there was found towards the extremity of the Rectum, two Bladders, which had communication with the Intestine, and which swelled when that was blow'n up. These Bladders have not been found in great Tortoises.

The Liver was of a solid Substance, but its colour pale; it was of a consi­derable bigness, and seemed as if it were double, being separated into a right and left part, which were joyned together only by an Isthmus of one Inch broad, and by Membranes which did convey Vessels from the left part to the right. Each of these parts had a Vena Cava proceeding out of the Convexity which faceth the Diaphragme, and each of them a Ramus Hepaticus going out of the hollow part. The left part of the Liver was the greatest, being di­vided into four Lobes. The first and biggest was on the left side: The se­cond, whose bigness was of a middle size, was under the first. The third, which was somwhat lesser, was extended towards the right part, and pro­duced the Isthmus by which the two parts were joyned together. The fourth was lengthened like as the third, over which it was situated, to go joyn it self to the right part, to which it was fastned only by a Membrane and some Vessels, which this Membrane did convey from one part to the other; such [Page 256] a like Membrane did joyn the two last Lobes. The right part of the Liver had but three Lobes. The first and greatest was the highest. The second was under it; 'twas by this Lobe that the left part of the Liver was joyned to the right, by the means of the Isthmus. The third Lobe, which was the least, issued out from the middle of the Cavity of the great Lobe, and did cover over the Vesicula which was fastned in this place, being inclosed in a Si­nus or Cavity, which hindred it from rising without the Liver, as it usually does. It contained an Inch and half in length, to half an Inch in breadth. Its Figure resembling that of the Vesicula of a Man. The Canalis Cysticus, (which as in Man, was the continuation of the Neck of the Vesicula) was seven Inch­es long, and as big as a little writing Pen. It descended without having any Communication with the Hepaticus, and was inserted into the Duodenum, by a particular Aperture. The Hepaticus was double, as has been said. The right had several apparent Branches, which like Roots, were extended into the Lobes of the right part of the Liver. The left had none of the apparent Branches, but it formed a Trunk, which, immediatly issuing out of the Liver, did joyn it self to the Trunk of the right Hepatick, joyntly to making but one Trunk, which went to insert it self into the Duodenum near the Cystic.

The Vena Porta had its Trunk in the right part of the Liver, between the the first and second Lobe. It shot forth a great Branch along the Isthmus, producing several Branches which were distributed into the left part of the Liver.

The Vena Cava, as has been said, had two Trunks, one right and the o­ther left, which did penetrate the Parenchyma of the Liver, with which they were covered over near three Inches in length.

The Spleen was between the Duodenum and the Colon. It had the Figure of a Kidney, and received its Vessels by a depression like that which the Kidney has for the receiving its own. The Arteries did come from the Branch which distributes it self to the Liver and Duodenum. The Veins were Branches of the Mesenterick.

The Pancreas straitly embraced the Duodenum. It was likewise fastned to the Spleen, which it partly covered. It had the Figure of a Triangular Prisme. Its Ductus was opened into the Duodenum.

The Kidneys were four Inches long, and three broad, in the form of a Triangular Prisme, of a brisk red, divided into three or four pieces joyned together by their Vessels, and enclosed by the exteriour Membrane. The emulgent Veins proceeded only from the right Vena Cava, which was quite taken up in two great Branches, the shortest whereof, which exceed­ed not an Inch, did enter into the right Kidney. The longest which had three Inches, passed on to the left; their entrance was towards the lower part of the Kidney. The Ureters issued from the superiour part, and run along the whole Surface, to which they were fastned as in Birds: There was a glandulous Body an Inch long, six Lines broad, and very thin, which was strongly connected to each of the Emulgent Veins. 'Twas in appearance a Glandula Renalis.

The Testicles were layd upon the Reins. They were two Inches and a half in length, and ten Lines in breadth. The Epididymis was of a particular Structure: 'Twas a Ductus folded into so many Circumvolutions, that be­ing [Page 257] unfolded, it contained fourteen Inches, whereas before it had but four. This Ductus did not seem to proceed from the Testicle, but only from the Kid­ney to which it was fastned. Having made an Injection of a coloured Li­quor into this Ductus, a great many other little Ductus's were made to rise, which did not appear before, and which went from the Testicle to the Epidi­dymis: These Ductus's being enclosed in the Membrane which retained the Circumvolutions of the Epididymis, and which fastned it to the Testicle.

The Bladder was of an extraordinary bigness. There was found in it a­bove twelve pounds of clear lympid Urine: Aristotle tells us that the Sea-Tor­toise has the Bladder very large, and the Land-Tortoise very small. Never­theless ours was a Land-Tortoise: And in the Dissection which we have made of several Water-Tortoises, we have always found their Bladder a great deal less in proportion than that which we do Treat of. This makes us to think that there is an Errour in the Text of Aristotle, by the transposition of the words Terrestial and Marine; seeing that the Reason which Aristotle alledges for the greatness of the Bladder of Tortoises, does not well conclude to make us clearly understand that the Terrestial ought to have it less than the others. For he says, that Tortoises not being covered with a Skin, whose Pores can assist in that Transpiration, which in other Animals consumes a part of the Moisture of the Body, and greatly diminishes the matter of the Urine; this Animal must necessarily have a great Receptacle for these Moistures, which the thickness and hardness of the Shell retains and includes; But he say's not that the Shell of Sea-Tortoises is thicker than that of the Land, nor that they do drink more: And according to Aristotle's Reasoning, Fishes which are known to have no Bladder, ought to have one very large.

The Figure of the Bladder of our Tortoise was altogether as extraordinary as its greatness. It was made in the shape of a Gutt, and its Neck was not at one of the ends, but at the middle; which does indifferently well represent the Membrana Alantoides of the Faetus of most Brutes. This Figure is very different from the Figure of the Chestnut which Severinus gives it: It had two Foot in length. Its situation was Transverse, going from one of the Flanks to the other. Its Exteriour Tunicle was Membranous: The Interiour was strengthened by an infinite number of fleshy Fibres embossed, which were crossed and interlaced one within the other, imitating those which are seen on the inside of the Auricles of the Heart: These Fibres had their Origine to­wards the Neck, and dispersed themselves thro' the whole extent of the Blad­der. The use of these Fibres is without doubt like that of the Fibres of the Au­ricles of the Heart, where they do serve to straiten and contract their Cavity, for pressing out what they contain. For the Tortoise not having like other Animals, a Belly flexible, and garnisht with Muscles which might com­press the Bladder, this part ought to have in it self a particular Principal of Compression, by the means of which it might discharge it self of what it contains.

The Neck of the Bladder was an Inch in length and as much in breadth. It was fastned towards the middle of the Rectum, into which the Urine was dis­charged by a little Aperture or Oblique Ductus seven or eight Inches from the Anus. Within this Neck there was four little Teats, the two greatest of which were the Extremities of the Vasa Spermatica Deferentia: They were [Page 258] about a Line in length. The two other lesser were the extremities of the Ureters.

The Penis which was enclosed in the Rectum as in a Case, as has been sayd, contained nine Inches in length, and an Inch and half over. It was compo­sed of two round Ligaments, of a spongious Substance, and covered over with a fine Membrane. They were layd one against the other, and knitt together, not only by their Extremities, viz. near the Glans, and towards the root, which was at the Internal and lower part of the Os Pubis; but likewise by their Superiour part, for all their length, by the means of the Membrane of the Rectum, which was firmly fastned to them in this place, without ad­hering to them in other places, as by the sides and lower part. This Membrane was extraordinary strong at the place where it was joyned, con­taining near two Lines in thickness. The rest was thinner and of a blackish Colour: These Ligaments thus connected, did leave underneath a Cavity in the form of a Gutter, like to that where the Urethra is generally plac'd in other Animals. But in this which had no Urethra, this part was supplyed by a Cavity, which the Ligaments themselves did form with the Tunicle of the Rectum only, at the time of the Evacuations which ought to be made by this Ductus. This did certainly happen by the swelling of the Ligaments, which being constringed by the Tunicle of the Rectum which embrac'd them, left a vacuity in the form of a Ductus, between the Tunicle of the Intestine and the Ligaments: For these Ligaments, tho' constringed, did not cease to keep somthing of their roundness, by reason of their swelling: And this made a triangular Cavity, the two sides of which, formed by the sides of the Ligaments, were Convex, and the third formed by the Tunicle of the In­testine, was strait. Each of the two Ligaments was not only Spongious, as it is ordinarily in other Animals, but they were hollow with a long Cavity in form of a Pipe, which went from the Os Pubis, where was the Origine of the Ligaments, as far as the Glans. The Vessells which were sent into the body of the Penis, had a particular distribution: For whereas the Artery, Vein, and Nerve, do usually all three run upon the Penis, there were but two in our Subject: And the Vein, after having formed a Net work, and several Circumvolutions to­wards the root of the Penis, did penetrate into the Ligament, and producing a Trunk, which running along the Internal and Superiour part of the Cavity, sent forth several Branches, into all the rest of the internal Surface of this Cavity. The Structure of the Glans was yet more Extraordinary than all the rest. Above it terminated in a point, and appeared to be the continua­tion of the Ligaments, not differing therefrom, neither in its Substance nor its Tunicle. Underneath it had two flat and almost circular Append ces, placed one upon the other. The greatest, which was fastned to the Glans underneath, was an Inch and half in diameter: The least, which was fix'd to the middle of the greatest, contained but half an Inch. It had moreover two little Appendices, like two buds about the bigness of a Line: All the Glans was of a Colour like to that of the Inferiour part of the Tunicle of the Rect­um, which serv'd as a Case to the Penis; 'twas of a very dark slate Colour: There were two Muscles serving to draw the Glans inwards. They took their Origine from the Vertetrae Lumbares, and passing along the side of the Rectum, inserted themselves at the upper part of the Penis, near the Glans. [Page 259] Towards the middle, they were interlaced with two other Muscles, appoint­ed for the Motion of the Tail, and which served them as a Pully.

The Heart was seated in the upper part of the Breast, being closed in a very thick Pericardium, and fastned by the lower part of the Membrane which co­vered the Liver. Its Figure differed greatly from that which the Heart ge­nerally has. For instead of being extended from its Basis to its point, its great­est dimension was from one side to the other, being three Inches this way, and an Inch and a half only from the Basis to the point. The two Auricles which proceeded from the Basis, were very loose, and as it were hanging down: The right had two Inches and a half in length, to an Inch and half over: the left was lesser. The Vena Cava, which, as has been said, had two Trunks proceeding, the one from the right part of the Liver, and the other from the left, convey'd the Blood thro' each of these Trunks into each of the Auricles. These Auricles, as usually, opened each into a Ventricle, and at each of the Apertures which gave passage to the Blood from the Auricle in­to the Ventricle, there were three Valvulae Sigmoides; which, contrary to what is usuall in this kind of Valve, hindred the Blood from going out of the Heart to return into the Auricles, performing the Office of the Valvulae Tricuspides▪

Besides these two Ventricles which were in the hinder part of the heart which faceth the Spine, there was a third in the fore-part, inclining a little towards the right side. These three Ventricles were communicated by seve­ral Apertures, their Substance not being solid and continued as in the Hearts of other Animals, but Spongious and composed of Fibres and fleshy Columns, contiguous only to each other, and interwoven together. Besides the strait Apertures which were between these Columns, there were others more ca­pacious, by which the two Posteriour Ventricles had communication together, and with the Anteriour Ventricle.

The two hinder Ventricles, as has been sayd, did recieve the Blood from the two Trunks of the Vena Cava with the Blood of the Pulmonique Veine, which was double, there being one on each side: For these Veins emptying them­selves into each Axillary, did mix the Blood that they had received from the Lungs with that of the Vena Cava, to carry it into the right Ventricle, from which the Aorta did proceed. The Anteriour Ventricle had no other Vessel than the Pulmonique Artery: This Artery, as well as the Aorta, had three Valvulae Sigmoides, the action of which was to hinder the Blood, which is got out of the Heart, from re-entring, when the Ventricles have dilated themselves to re­ceive the Blood of the Vena Cava and the Lungs.

This uncommon Structure of the Ventricles and Vessels of the Heart must have some particular uses, on which we will not declare our Conjectures sup­ported on different Experiments, till after having shewn that the Structure of the Lungs is not less extraordinary: For the one and the other Structure is thus extraordinary in these parts, by reason of the particular Actions that they have in Amphibious Animals, of which kind the Tortoise is.

The Aorta, at the end of the right Ventricle, was divided into two Branches, which formed two Crosses. These Crosses, before they were quite turned downwards, did produce the Axillares and Carotides. Afterwards the left Cross descending along the Vertebrae, did cast forth Branches: The first was distributed to all parts of the Ventricle. The second went to the Liver, Pan­creas, [Page 260] Duodenum, and Spleen. The third furnished Branches to all the In­testines. Afterwards it was united with the Branch of the right Cross, which descended so far without casting forth any Branches, and both formed but one Trunck, which descending along the Body of the Vertebrae, gave Bran­ches to all the parts of the lower Belly.

The Larynx was composed, as in Birds, of an Arytenoides and Cricoides, articulated together. The two Bones, which do each make one of the Horns of the Hyoides, were not articulated the one to the other, but each separately in different places of the Basis of the Hyoides. The Cleft of the Glottis was strait and close, apparently to keep the Air a long time enclosed in the Lungs, for uses which shall be afterwards explained. It may be also believed, that this so exact inclosure is to prevent the Water from entring into the Aspera Arteria, when the Tortoises are under Water: And this particular Conformation of the Glottis may be the Cause of the Snoring of the Sea-Tor­toises, which as Pliny reports, is heard a great way when they do float sleep­ing upon the Surface of the Water. The Sea-Calves, which are likewise re­markable for their Snoring, have also their Glottis and Epiglottis extraordi­nary close, as has been remarked in the Description of this Amphibious An­imal.

The Aspera Arteria, which had its Rings intire, was separated at the en­trance of the Breast into two long Branches of six Inches each. From the entrance of the Lungs these Branches did loose their Cartilages, and produ­ced only Membranous Channels very large and unequal, containing even an Inch and half in some places, and half an Inch only in others. The Mem­brane that formed these Channels was transparent and thinn, but solid and fortified with Ligaments linck'd together after the manner of a Nett, compo­sed of several Mashes, like to those that are seen in the second Ventricle of Animals that ruminate. Each of these Mashes, was the border and entrance of a little Pouch, which opened into a second, and that somtimes into a third. The Branches of the Veins and Arteries of the Lungs did run along the Liga­ments, of which they did accompany all the Divisions, equally distribut­ing the Blood into the whole extent of the Lungs. The Authors that have thought that the Tortoise has no Blood in the Lungs, have grounded this opinion on the whiteness and transparency of the Membranes whereof they are composed, which do make it to appear altogether Membranous when it is swelled; whereas that of other Animals appears fleshy: But the truth is, that the only difference is that of more and less: The Lungs of Man, after the same manner as that of other Animals, being composed of nothing else but small Vesicles heapt one against the other, amongst which the Sanguinary Vessels are interlaced in so great a number, that they do form an appearance of flesh, like little Lobes fastned to the Channels of the Bronchi; and 'tis of these little Lobes that the great Lobes of the Lungs are composed.

Yet this difference, of more and less fill'd with Blood, has seemed to us to pass for essential, and sufficient to establish a Species of Lungs, which is one of three to which we reduce the Lungs of the Animals that we have dissect­ed: For we have found Lungs which did appear absolutly fleshy, others ab­solutly Membranous, and others partly fleshy and partly Membranous. The Lungs of all four footed Terrestrial Animals, which lay no Eggs, and some [Page 261] of the Amphibious, as the Sea-Calf, are of the first Species: And these Lungs do absolutely appear fleshy, because that the Blood is equally dispersed thro' all their Substance, into which it Circulates entirely, making all the Blood to pass thro' the Lungs by its Vessels from one Ventricle of the Heart to the o­ther. The Lungs of Tortoises, Serpents, Frogs, Salamanders, Camelions, &c. are of the second Species; And they appear absolutely membranous, having but very little Blood dispersed into their Substance, viz. only that which is necessary for their particular Nourishment: So that there is no other Circu­lation made in its Vessels but of this Nourishment. The Lungs of Birds are of the third Species, and they do appear partly fleshy, and partly Membra­nous, by reason that the part which is fastned to the Ribbs is filled with a great quantity of Vessels, by which the Circulation is entirely made as in Terrestrial Animals: and the other part, which is divided into eight and somtimes into ten great Bladders, has no Vessels, and the Circulation therein is only for its peculiar Nourishment.

These three Species of the Lungs may be reduced to two, if their differen­ces be taken from the use which the Lungs have, in relation to the entire Cir­culation of the Blood: And in this case the Lungs of Tortoises, and other Am­phibious Animals of that kind, will make a particular Species, their Lungs be­ing useless for the entire Circulation. And the Lungs of Birds, and that of Terrestrial Animals▪ will make another Species, which will be common to those whose Lungs appear absolutely fleshy, and those that appear only in one part. For the establishing these two Species, there may be likewise add­ed another difference taken from the Motion of the Lungs, which in Terrest­rial Animals, even as in Birds, is continual, regular, and periodical: And in the others, as in the Tortoise, Camelion &c. it is interrupted, and so seldom and unequal, that the Camelion is somtimes half a day without ones being able to discern in him any Motion for the Respiration: And somtimes it is per­ceived to swell on a sudden, and to remain a quarter of an hour in this con­dition. The Tortoise does probably use the same manner. We have a long time observed several living and entire, and we have taken notice that indeed they somtimes cast forth a cold Breath thro the Nostrils, but it is by intervals, and without order. In those which were opened alive, we saw that the Lungs remained continually swelled by the exact compression of the Glottis, and that it shrunk entirely and suddenly, when entrance was giv­en to the Air by cutting the Aspera Arteria.

When the Breast of a living Dog is opened, by taking away the Sternum with the Cartilaginous Appendices of the Ribbs, the Lungs are observed suddenly to sink, and afterwards the Circulation of the Blood and Motion of the Heart to cease in a little time, after that the right Ventricle of the Heart, and its Auricle with the Vena Cava are swelled, as if they were ready to burst: So that to prevent the Animals Death, the end of a pair of Bellows is put into the Aspera Arteria, and pushing in the Air to make the Lungs swell, and after­wards withdrawing them to make them sink, they are Artificially made to have the Motion that they Naturally use: and it is observed that the Ventricle and right Auricle of the Heart with the Vena Cava do unswell, and the Heart resumes its ordinary Motion again.

[Page 262]This hapnes not to the Tortoise in which one has laid open the Lungs; for whether they continue swelled, or whether they do shrink, the Circulation and Motion of the Heart do continue so well in their Natural manner, that it was experimented that a Tortoise has lived above four days in this Condi­tion. We have also made another Experiment to know more distinctly the Necessity of the Motion of the Lungs, for the entire Circulation of the Blood in Animals whose Lungs are absolutely Fleshy, and which are not Amphibious. An Injection being made by the right Ventricle of the Heart into the Artery of the Lungs of a dead Dog; it happens that if one continues to make the Lungs rise and sink by the means of Bellows put into the Aspera Arteria, the Li­quor which is pushed into the Lungs does easily pass, and go thro' the Vein into the left Ventricle: And that when one ceases to blow, it passes not but with a great deal of difficulty.

After having veiwed the different Structure of the Ventricles, and Vessels of the Heart of the Dog and Tortoise, it is easy to give some probable Reasons of the Phaenomena of these Experiments: for it may be said that the Lungs of the Dog being sunk after Expiration, the Vessels are compressed after such a manner, that the Blood cannot pass; and that it is necessary that these Vessels are dilated by Inspiration for the receiving the Blood of the right Ventricle of the Heart; and that they be afterwards compressed in the Expi­ration to press it out, and make it pass into the left Ventricle. It may be a­gain Imagined that the Ventricles of the Heart of the Tortoise, and other An­imals whose Lungs are absolutely Membranous, not having their walls solid like those of the Heart of the Dogg, (wherin the Blood has no freer passage from one Ventricle to the other, but cross the Lungs) but that being Porous in all their Substance, and also open one into the other by very large holes, it must not be thought strange, that altho the Lungs remain Immoveable, whe­ther blown up, or sunk, the Circulation is not hindred, and that in these A­nimals it is always performed after the same manner as it is in the Foetus: Because that in the Foetus, as in these Animals, the Lungs receive the Blood only for their Nourishment, and not for the intire Circulation, so that it sends to the Heart only the remainder of what it has not consumed: And in fine as the intire Circulation is not performed but by the Anastomoses of the Heart in the Foetus; it is done also in the other Animals which we treat of, only by particular Apertures which the Ventricles of their Heart have one into the other.

But to be more assured that the Blood Circulates not intirely thro' the Lungs in the Tortoise, the Trunck of the Artery of the Lungs was tyed up: and it was observed that the Motion of the Heart was in no manner altered, and that the Circulation was continued always after the same manner. Now this is easier to be seen in this Animal than in others, by reason that its Heart being whitish, and the Walls of the Ventricles thin before, the Blood was in some sort seen to enter in and go out of the right Ventricle, from which the Aorta proceeds, as has been declared; and this was known by a redness which happens when the point of the Heart approaches its Basis, and which disap­pears when it is remote from it. For it is easy to judg that when the point approaches the Basis, 'tis then that the Heart utter'd the Blood from its Ventricles, because that at this very instant their Walls presing inwards, [Page 263] and compressing the Blood did cause a redness to appear in this place. The Compression being capable of making the Bodys, which their Spongious consistence has rendered Opake to become diaphanous by the diminution of the Intervals, which make them Spongious: In fine, this Circulation thus apparent, & which has continued for four Dayes, the Lungs being opned and cut in several places, has seem'd to us very clearly to Demonstrate that in the Tortoise the Lungs serve not for the Circulation of the Blood, as in the Animals which have fleshy Lungs.

The true use of the Lungs in the Tortoise and other Animals of its Genus, is a thing which has seemed to us obscure enough to excite us to examine it carefully, and to allow us the boldness of promoting thoughts somewhat extraordinary, following the liberty that we thought we might take to our selves in these Memoires, where we do not place things as being compleated, but only as materials which may be employed or rejected, according as they shall be found fitt, or useless or defective, when time by new Experiments or better Argumentations shall better make known their Worth.

We do believe then that there is no appearance that the Lungs of the Tor­toise serve for the intire Circulation of the Blood, for the Reasons which have been alledged: neither is it made for the Voice, the Tortoise being abso­lutely Mute. And it is not conducing to the refreshment of the Internal Parts, nor for the Evacuation of their Vapours, seeing that it wants the con­tinual and regulated Motion which is observed in other Animals, and which is necessary for these purposes. So that there remains only the compression of the Internal Parts, whose uses have been explained in the Descriptions that we have made of Birds; and which are reduced to the preparation and distribution of the Nourishment: But we do search after another use more Important, and which being more particular to the Tortoise and the other A­nimals of its Species, does better answer to the particular Conformation of their Lungs; and we have found that to this part may be attributed the fa­culty that the Tortoise has of raising, and holding it self above the Water, and of sinking to the bottom when it pleases, in so much that it supplys the place of the Air-Bladder, which is found in most Fishes.

There are several conjectures on which we found the probability of this O­pinion, and which do make us to think that this Bladder of Fishes, and the Lungs of the Tortoise being enlarged, do render the Body of these Animals light enough to Swim upon the Water; and that when these parts are con­tracted, and the Air which is capable of compression, taking up less room by reason it is straitned, and so the whole Body being less extended, it de­scends to the bottom, after the same manner as the little hollow Figures of Enamel enclosed in a Pipe of Glass, do sink to the bottom when by pressing on the surface of the Water, the Air is compressed which is enclosed in the Cavity that makes them Swim.

We have frequently observed that as soon as a Tortoise is put into the Wa­ter, it casts forth thro' the Mouth or Nostrils, several bubbles, which are in all likelyhood formed by the overmuch Air that it has in its Lungs, for the keeping it self in a just Equilibrium; which puts it in a condition of being heavy enough to sink to the bottom, at the least compression which its Muscles do make upon its Lungs, just as the little Figure of Enamel descends in the [Page 264] Water, at the smallest effort that is made to compress the Air that it encloses; and it is easy to comprehend that if the Tortoise being at the bottom of the Water, relaxes the Muscles that did compress its Lungs, the Air by the Virtue of its Spring returning into its first State, can give again to its whole Body, the extent which it had when it did Swim upon the Water.

The probability of this Arguing has been confirmed by Experience. A liv­ing Tortoise was lockt up in a Vessel full of Water, on which there was with Wax exactly fastned a cover, from the top of which there went a Glass Pipe. The Vessel being full so as to make the Water appear at the bottom of the Glass pipe, we observed the Water did somtimes ascend into the Pipe, and that somtimes it descended. Now this could be done only by the augmentati­on and dimunition of the Bulk of the Tortoise; and it is probable that when the Tortoise endeavoured to sink to the bottom, the Water fell in the Pipe, be­cause that the Animal lessened its Bulk by the contraction of its Muscles; and that the Water rose by the slackning of the Muscles, which ceasing to compress the Lungs, did permit it to return to its first size, and did render the whole Body of the Tortoise lighter.

The exactness with which the Glottis is closed in this Animal, seems greatly to assist the effect of this compression; even as it is credible that it is for such an use that the Bladders of Fishes are so closed, that what force soever be used for the Compressing them, the Air cannot be got out otherwise than by bursting them: For there is no likelyhood that these Bladders are in Fishes to remain always in one State: They would hurt them as much in hindering them from descending in the Water, as they would assist them by making them to rise towards its Surface, and for this purpose it would have sufficed that their body was of a Substance thin enough to render their bulk proportioned to their weight, such as is the Substance of Wood and other Spongious Bodys which do Swim upon the Water. We have for a long time observed Tortoises floating upon the Water without stirring. Fish­es do likewise keep themselves a long while in one place under Water, som­times near the bottom of the Water, somtimes near its Surface. The little Figures of Enamel do thus stop themselves in different places according to the different Compressions that are made in the Air which they do contain.

Aristotle and Pliny have remarkt that when Tortoises have been a long time upon the Water during a Calm, it happens that their shell being dryed in the Sun, they are easily taken by the Fishermen, by reason that they can­not plung into the Water nimbly enough, being become too light. This shews what equality there ought to be in their Equilibrium, seeing that so little a change as this; which may happen by the sole drying of the Shell, is capable of making it useless. For it is probable that the Tortoise, which is always careful to keep it self in this Equilibrium, so as other Animals are to keep themselves on their Leggs, in this case, by the same instinct, dares not let the Air out of its Lungs, to acquire a weight which might makeit speedily to sink; because it fears that its Shell being wett, it should become so heavy, that it being sunk to the bottom of the Water it might never have power afterwards to re-ascend.

Now the Observation of the unmoveableness of the Lungs, does very well agree with the want of the Organs, which might serve for its Motion; for [Page 265] the Tortoise has not only its Shell, which supplys the place of the Sternum, ab­solutely immoveable, but in it we have found neither Diaphragme, nor o­ther parts which might supply this Motion. The Bone of the Arm called Humerus, which it has enclosed in the Breast, has a very long Apophysis at the place of the Articulation of the Cubitus, which is joyned with an other Bone articulated to the Cubitus: So that these Bones do joyntly form two producti­ons on each side, which approaching forward, are like Claviculae: But these parts are immoveable, and do evidently serve only for a Basis or Origine to the Muscles which do supply the place of Pectorals; and which draw forward the moveable part of the Arm, viz. the Cubitus, Radius, and Hand. There were found Muscles enough that might serve for the Compression of the Lungs; but Muscles alone are not proper to its dilatation; there must be the Ribbs and a Sternum, or somthing Analogus that may be moveable. So that it is apparently necessary to suppose that the Inspiration is made by the Spring of the hard and firm Ligaments which compose the Mash­es that have been described: Insomuch that when the Muscles which may compress the Lungs begin to slacken, these Ligaments are extended, and en­larging the Apertures of all the Bladders, do encrease the capacity of the whole Lungs. Altho' our Tortoise was not of those that live in the Wa­ter, it did not fail, in regard to this particular formation of the Heart and Lungs, to have it like that of the Animals of its Species, as several Birds are observed to have Wings tho' they do not fly.

The Brain was very small: For the size of the Head, which, in pro­portion to the rest of the Body, is very small, consisted principally in the Bones of the Cranium, and in the Flesh of the Crotaphitae Muscles that covered it, and which were thick as in the Lyon: The Bone of the Crown of the Head having a crest after the manner of all Animals that have an extraordi­nary strength in the Jaws. The Cerebrum with the Cerebellum were in all sixteen Lines long and nine Lines broad. The Sea-Tortoises which are taken at the Ant-iles have it three times lesser in proportion: For, according to the Relations which we have of those Countries, the Tortoises which have there a Head as bigg as that of a Calf, have the Brain no bigger than a Bean.

The Membranes of these two parts, their Substance, the Lacis Choroides, the Glandula Pinealis, the Pituitarius, the Infundibulum, and generality of the Nerves were after the same manner as they are seen in Birds: The other parts had somthing particular. The Olfactory Nerves were of an extraordinary grandure, making near the fourth part of the whole Brain. The Optick Nerves took their Origine from the Olfactory. The two Tuberosities that the Cere­bellum has in Birds, instead of being fastned to the lateral parts of the Medulla Spinalis, were in its upper part. The Cerebellum was neither furrowed by parrallel Lines on the out side, nor diversified on the inside by the different Colours of its Substance, which represent the Branches of Trees, and its Ca­vity was advanced very farr into the Medulla Spinalis, going even to the first Vertebra of the Neck.

The Medulla Spinalis was covered with its vsual Membranes and moistned by several Vessels which did accompany it to its End; It filled the whole Cavity of the Vertebrae and sent from one part and the other several pair of Nerves; Those which were distributed to the Arms, leggs, Neck, and Tail, were very large and Numerous.

[Page 266]The Globe of the Eye was an Inch Diameter. The Internal Eye-lidd which we have seen stirr in living Tortoises, had the same Muscles which we have observed in Birds. The Cornea was very thinn. The Aqueous Hu­mour had a Consistence so thick, that it did hardly run: The Iris was of a light-soot-Colour; There were seen several Vessells interlaced. In the lit­tle Tortoises that we have here, which are all water Tortoises, the Iris had four yellow rayes on a ground of light soot-Colour. These rayes were disposed in Crosses round the hole of the Uvea. The Chrystallinus contain'd but one line Diameter. It was flat and lenticular. The Membrane made like a black purse which is found in the Eyes of Birds, was not met with in our Subject. The Tongue, whose Figure was Pyramidal, had an Inch in length and four lines in Bredth. It was thinn, not exceeding a line, the fleshy sub­stance of which made but the half. The Tunicle had over it a great number of little Teats. The Tongue with the Os Hyoides had Ten Muscles, five on each side. The first, which drew the Os Hyoides forward, went from the Symphysis of the lower Jaw to the Basis of the Os Hyoides: The second, which drew it side ways, went from the Interiour part of the Omoplata to the Basis of the Hyoides: The third which drew it upwards, went from one of its Hornes to its Basis. The fourth which drew the Tongue forward, went from the Symphysis of the Chin to the side of the Tongue. The Fifth, which drew the Tongue sideways and towards the Basis, went from one of the Hornes of the Os Hyoides to the Basis of the Tongue.

The Necessity that there was of keeping the Remains of this rare and ex­traordinary subject, for an Ornament of the Aviary of Versailles, have­ing hinder'd us from per [...]uing any farther the Enquiry of the Organs of sense in the Head of our Tortoise, we have supplied this defect by the dis­section of several other Tortoises, where we have observed that the Olfactory Nerves terminated at a delicate Membrane of a black-Colour, which covers the Inside of the nostrills; This Membrane had neither folds nor Ridges that did enter into the holes of the Os Ethmoides: In the Anteriour part of the palate, there was two holes which opened into the Nostrills.

As to the Ears, in our small Tortoises as well as the great, there was no Ex­ternal Aperture, the Bone did appear only sunk at the right side of the Tem­ples; And the skin covering this Sinking was thinner and more delicate than elsewhere, and seemed also some what sunk in this place. After having taken away this skin, there was discovered a round hole of the bigness and forme of that of the hole of the Eye. It was closed by a kind of Cartilaginous thin plate very moveable, being fastned all about to the edge of the round hole by a very thin Membrane. At the side of the hole towards the hinder part of the head, there was a Cartilaginous Ductus, which descended into the palat, where it had a long Aperture making a little cleft. Under the Cartilaginous plate there was found a great Cavity of an Oval figure, very long, contain­ing twice its breadth. This Cavity was pierced at the side, to give passage to a little Stiletto very small, which came obliquely to sustain the Platina by one End, and by the other, having passed thro a second Cavity, which was a little beneath and beside the great one, it stopped a hole by which the second Cavity was opened into a third, which was Anfractuous, and which received the Auditory Nerve; The End of the styletto which closed [Page 267] the Aperture of this third Cavitie went enlarging it self like the end of a Trumpet, and had a delicate membrane which fastned it to the Circumfe­rence of the hole.

Those who have made the Description of the Ant-Isles, which of all in the world has the greatest quantity of Tortoises, do say that they are deaf. We have reason to doubt, considering the Organs that we have just described, whether these Historians may have vsed all the care necessary for the being well instructed in this Particular, it being probable that they contented them selves with the conjecture which may be drawn thereupon from the defect of the Aperture which these Animals have in their Ears: Unless the Ears should be in Tortoises the same as the Eyes are in Moles; that is to say they should have Ears without Hearing, as the Moles have Eyes with which they do not See.

The Observation which we have made upon the Tortoise's stirring its Neck to turn it self when it is on its back, has given us an opportunity of searching out the Muscles which do bend and extend this part. We have first found that this Neck has two kinds of Motion, which are each composed of flexi­on and extention. The first Motion is that by which the Tortoise draws its Neck and Head inwards, or extends it, and makes it to go outwards. The second is that by which the Neck being thrust out and extended, is turned on all Sides. In the first kind of motion the Neck is extended when the Muscles which serve for the different flexions of the Neck do act together and with an Equal force; And it is drawn in with the head by two different flexions and Extentions of the Vertebrae, one of which is at Top and the other at bottom: which gives to the Neck a figure like to that which the Neck of a Swan takes when this bird draws its head towards its back. For this reason, besides the Muscles which do turn the Neck every way when thrust forth, and which are common to all the motions of the Neck, there are five particular ones on each side which springing from the Apophysis lumbaris and from the last ribbs, do ascend a long the Vertebrae of the back, and are in­serted in five different places of the oblique Apophysis of the Vertebrae of the Neck, the longest being fastned near the Head to the body of the first Vertebra. The Muscles which, when they act separately do serve for the flexions of the Neck thrust outward, do spring from the Vertebrae of the Neck, and are likewise inserted to its Vertebrae. Some taking their O­riginal at the body of a Vertebra, are inserted to the Apophyses of others: Others proceeding from the Apophyses are joyned to other Apophyses; Insomuch that when the Muscles of one side do act Separately, the flexion is made on that very side; and when they do act joyntly with an Equall force, the Extension of the whole Neck Ensues, as has been said.

When the Head is drawn inward, it sinks into a fold of the Skin which is upon the shoulders, which formes as it were a Hood. This is done by the means of a very large and thick Muscle adhering to the Skin, and which being fastned to the Spinal Apophyses of the Vertebrae, from whence it seems to rise, is folded underneath, covering and enveloping the Aspera Arteria and the Osophagus. The Different situations of the Fibres of this Muscle, which may make it to passe for an union of several Muscles, do produce the di­vers folds of this Skin made in form of a Hood, when they do act differently.


AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE Of the NAMES of the Several ANIMALS Mentioned in this VOLUME.

  • Accipenser. 69.
  • Alce. 107.
  • Algazel. 53.
  • Alopecias. 69.
  • Anim [...]l Magnum. 107.
  • Ano. 191.
  • Antilope. 53.
  • Ape. 157.
  • Asio. 206.
  • Avis Tarda. 109.
  • Bear. 43.
  • Beaver. 83.
  • Bistarda. 198.
  • Bu [...]alus. 128.
  • Bustard. 197.
  • Sea-Calfe. 120.
  • Camel. 37.
  • Camelion. 17.
  • Caprea. 142.
  • Carbo [...]. 133.
  • Castor. 83.
  • Cassowar. 241.
  • Casuel. 241.
  • Catamountain. 61.
  • Cepus. 158.
  • Cercopythecus. 157.
  • Chamois. 141.
  • Chatpard. 61.
  • Chrysaetos. 184.
  • Civet-Cat. 99.
  • Coati. 115.
  • Indian Cock. 191.
  • Corax. 133.
  • Cormorant. 133.
  • Cow of Barbary. 127.
  • Cynocephalus. 157.
  • Demoiselle of Numidia. 205.
  • Dorcas. 54.
  • Dromedary. 37.
  • Eagle. 183.
  • Echinus. 147.
  • Elk. 107.
  • Eme. 241.
  • Sea-Fox. 69.
  • Gallus Persicus, Gallus Indicus. 191.
  • Gazella. 53.
  • Gazuel. 241.
  • Gemp. 141.
  • Goat of Africk. 53.
  • [Page]Goat of Aegypt. 53.
  • H [...]liaetos. 184.
  • Hedge-hog. 147. 152.
  • Herisson. 152.
  • Hen of Africa, Barbary, Numidia, Guinea, Mauritania, Tunis, and Pha­ros. 175.
  • Hinde of Sardinia. 167. 170.
  • Hyaena. 101.
  • Hystrix. 147.
  • Kemas. 55. 142,
  • Lamantin. 125.
  • Lion. 3. 9.
  • Lionness. 13.
  • Lupus Cervarius. 75.
  • Lynx. 77.
  • Manati. 121.
  • Meleagris. 175.
  • Mituporanga. 191.
  • Mondi. 115.
  • Monkey. 157.
  • Ostrich. 217.
  • Otis. 198.
  • Otter. 93.
  • Otus. 206.
  • Pintado. 175.
  • Phoca. 120.
  • Porcupine. 147.
  • Quesele. 175.
  • Rupicapra. 142.
  • Sapajou. 157.
  • Scharbo, 133.
  • Scops. 206.
  • Stag of Canada. 167.
  • Strepsiceros. 53. 142.
  • Tortoise. 252.
  • Sea-Wolfe. 122.
  • Y Sere Vercken. 152.


P. 5. l. 48. r. measured. p. 13. l. 12. r. splitt at the end. l. 26. r. a Cartilage. p. 20. l. 2. r. resembled. p. 40. l. 28. r. Urethra. l. 30. r. heart. l. 37. dele usually. p. 44. l. 4. r. for. p. 47. l. 36. r. each of the Kidneys. p. 48. l. ult. r. visual. p. 55. l. 41. r. dugs. p. 57. l. 28. r. irregular. l. 33. dele great. p. 62. l. 11. r. in pro­portion to its. p. 70. l. 23. r. left side. p. 71. l. 26. add after Ventricle, on the out side of the Liver. p. 78. l. 33. dele as. p. 8 [...]. l. 37. dele caused. l. 38. r. U­rethra. p. 100. l. 1. for cut, r. knawn. l. 17. add than. p. 101. l. 47. r. out of. p. 110. l. 40. r. seller. p. 11 [...]. l. 36. r. Inch and halfe. p. 114. l. 14. r. left. p. 116. l. 28. for Gula r. Mouth. p. 164. l. 6. r. Ossa ilia in. p. 176. l. 18. r. insensi­bly increasing till they became three, &c. l. 39. r. on. p. 182. l. 7. r. Toe. p. 186. l. 17. r. Craw. p. 192. l. 45. r. on. p. 193. l. 32. r. happens to these Coates. p. 217. l. 29. dele some. p. 231. l. 8. for Diaphragme right r. right Diaphragme. p. 244. l. 5. dele by running. p. 264. l. 7. r. shutt.


  • AE Gritudo fastigii, a Disease pecu­liar to Lyons; what it is ac­cording to Pliny. 5
  • Air's use in respiration. 179
  • Air, why retained in the Bladders of the Lungs in Birds. 246
  • Al [...]e of the Ancients our Elke. 107
  • Amber yellow, thought to be Pinta­do's tears. 177
  • Antilope, Strepsiceros and Dorcas the same Animals. 34
  • Antilope and Hare, have Bags filled with a Substance like Wax in the Groin. 55
  • Anus of the Castor has no Sphincter. 85
  • Aorta in Birds, how divided at its comeing forth of the Heart. 210
  • Aorta descends on the right side in Birds 236
  • Apes, not so like Man inwardly as outwardly. 159
  • Apes, wherein different from Man. ib.
  • Apes provided with all the Organs of Speech. 163
  • Aqueous Humour of the Eye Freezes not. 66
  • Aspera Arteria, In the Lyon consists of intire Rings. 6
    • In the Cametion of intire Rings. 20
    • In the Bear of imperfect ones, but larger than in the Lyon. 48
    • In the Elke of imperfect Rings. 111
    • In the Cormorant of intire Rings. 137
    • In the Porcupine of imperfect Rings. 151
    • In the Bustard of intire ones. 202
    • In the Demoiselle intire and Boney. 209
    • In the Ostrich of intire Rings. 231
    • Enters into the Sternum of the In­dian-Cock, 194
    • And of the Demoiselle. 210
    • Is fastned by round Muscles to the Sternum in Birds generally. 180
    • Being blown into, the Bladders of the Lungs, the Craw, and Oesopha­gus are swelled up. 210
  • Auricle left bigger than the right in the Castor. 89
  • Balls in the Ventricles of Animals, how made. 143
  • Barbary Cow has a small forehead. 127
    • thought to be the Bubalus of the Ancients. 128
  • Beard-Hairs, common to all Carnivo­rous Animals. 100
    • In the Sea-Calfe, of a particular Fi­gure. 122
  • Beak of the Cassowar and Indian-Cock divided into three at the end. 243
  • Bear, most powerful of any Animal in the faculty of growing. 49
    • She Bear after Cubbing eats no­thing for 40 Days. 49
    • Cubbs of the Bear smalest in com­parison of all Creatures. ib
    • Bear very strong of digestion. ib
  • Beaver's inside very much like a Dogg. 89
  • Bezoar's in the Maw of the Chamo­is. 143
  • [Page] Bellows made use of to blow up the Lungs and keep the Animal a­live. 261
  • Birds, have a Membrane like an Epip­loon. 185
    • have a fleshy Valve at the Mouth of the Vena Cava in the Heart. 210
    • After what manner the Aorta is di­vided. 236
    • How they trimm their feathers. 219
    • Bird of Paradise falsly thought footless. 221
  • Bladders, in the lower belly of Birds blown up by the Lungs. 179
    • How fill'd and emptied of wind. 235
  • Bladder Urinary, in the Porcupine has two Coats. 151
    • In the Lyon very small. 14
    • Filled with Urine in the Ostrich. 227
    • In small Water-Tortoises near the Rectum. 257
    • In the Tortoise fibrous like the in­side of the Heart. ib
  • Bone between the Cerebrum and Cere­bellum in Carnivorous Animals. 125
  • Bone in the Staggs Heart. 169
  • Bonnet on the Pintado's Head. 177
  • Brain, in the Bear 4 times as bigg as the Lyons. 46
    • In the Chatpard deeply cut in at the Falx. 65
    • In the Dromedary, six Inches and a half long. 41
    • In the Gazella without Anfractu­ositie [...] 59
    • Of the Lyon 2 inches large. 7. 8
    • In the Camelion not near so bigg as the Globe of the Eye. 26
    • In the Sea-Fox very little, soft and flabby. 72
    • Not easily distinguishable from the Cerebellum in the Castor. 90
    • Large in the Chamois. 144
    • In the Lynx, the Cortical part white and solid. 79
    • In the Porcupine like an Hoggs. 151
    • In Apes like a Mans. 162
    • In the Ostrich small in propor­tion. 236
  • Brain is usually smooth without Si­nuosities in Birds. 237
    • In Birds divided in two, as is well known to Mountebanks. 237
    • In Birds has the Cortical part ten times bigger in proportiont han in Men. ib
  • Branches of the Emulgents terminate at the superficies of the Kidney. 10
  • Bristles and Quills of the Porcupine described. 147
  • Caecum wanting in the Bear. 46. 49
    • In the Gazella 7 Inches long. 59
    • In the Castor on the left side under the Spleen. 88
    • Wanting in the Coati Mondi. 117
    • Without an Appendix in the Linx. 78
    • In the Elk 13 inches long. 111
    • In the Barbary-Cow eighteen inches long. 128
    • Wanting in the Cormorant and Ha­liaetos. 136
    • In the Chamois 8 inches long. 144
    • In the Porcupine very large 150
    • Wanting in the Hedg-hog. 153
    • In the Monkey has no Appendix. 160
    • In the Stag ten Foot long. 169
    • Two in the Pintado. 179
    • Wanting in the Male Eagle, and two small ones in the Female. 186
    • Double in the Bustard, being a Foot long. 201
    • In the Demoiselle 6 inches long. 208
    • In the Ostrich like the Sea-Fox. 226
    • Wanting in the Cassowar. 245
    • Wanting in the Tortoise. 255
  • A third Caecum in the Bustard at Fabri­cius's Purse. 201
  • Callosity's on the Sternum, and joynts of the Dromedary's Legs. 38
  • Callosity's on the Sternum of the Ostrich and Cassowar. 243
  • Camelion, why so called. 17
    • has a peculiar manner of breath­ing. 18
    • Is exceeding lean. 18. 23. 27
    • [Page]has a very short Neck. 20
    • feeds on Flyes. 28
    • has no Organs of Hearing. 21. 27
    • has Lungs like Birds. 247
    • Its body almost all Thorax. 22
  • Canini wanting in the lower Jaw of of the Heag-hog. 152
  • Carotides of the Lyon very large. 6
  • Carotides, with several transverse cut­ings. 172
  • Caruncle usually in Birds fastned to the Aspera Arteria, and to the Ca­rotides. 202
  • Cartilages of the Thorax contain blood Vessels. 6
  • Cassowar, not known in Europe till the Year [...]597. 241
    • has but three toes on a foot. 244
    • hates Women. ib
  • Castor, goes indifferently into salt or fresh Water. 93
    • wherein different from the Otter. ib
  • Castoreum, and its bags, particularly described. 85
  • Cataract in an Eagles Eye. 188
  • Catt and Lyon much alike. 4
  • Cat-a-mountain like the the common Catt. 62
  • Cerebellum of the Sea-Calfe, contrary to the nature of Fish, very large. 125
    • very large in the Demoiselle. 211
  • Circulation of the Blood, favoured by the Valves. 171
    • through the Lungs in a dead Dog. 262
    • performed in the Tortoise as in the faetus. ib
  • Choler resists corruption. 8
  • Civet-cat male and female alike exter­nally. 99
    • why Civet sweet, and Castoreum stinking. ib
    • how made as Muske. 101
    • that of the Male better. 102
    • when long kept troublesome to the Cat. 102
  • Civet-cat more of the Dog than Cat kind. 104
    • sweet all over. 102
  • Claws of the Lyon described. 13
    • how kept sharp. 3
    • In the Bustard solid, not hollow. 198
  • Clitoris, and external orifice of the Uterus, in the Otter like a Womans. 95
    • In the Civet-cat. 101
    • of the Ape described. 161
    • In the Ostrich. 228
  • Colon, in the Castor not to be distin­guisht from the rest of the Intest­ines. 89
    • In the Gazella without folds. 58
    • In the Porcupine 40 inches long. 150
  • Colours of the Camelion. 19. 29. 31
  • Copper swallowed turns to poison. 226
  • Cormorant, the Corax of Aristotle. 133
    • has no hole for the Nostrills. 134
    • how used in fishing. ib
    • has the longest toe on the outside. ib
  • Cornea, in the Eyes of Cows oval. 130
    • very prominent in the Porcupine. 151
    • how joyned with the Sclerotica. 79
    • very prominent in the Eagle. 184 188
    • In Birds has a border round its Edge. 237
  • Cornea Uteri in Brutes, and the Tuba in Women have the same use. 14
    • In the Hinde exceeding long. 171
    • In the Chamois very long. 144
  • Craw, or Ventricle of the Ostrich form­ed after a particular manner. 224
  • Cristalline, in the Camelion confounded with the other Humours. 26
    • more Convex behind in the Civet­cat. 104
    • more Convex behind in the Coati mondi. 117
    • more Convex behind in the Indian Cock. 94
    • more Convex behind in the Ostrich. 237
    • more Convex behind in the Barba­ry Cow. 130
    • [Page]more Convex behind in the Hinde. 172
    • more Convex behind in the Pintado. 180
    • more Convex before in the Lynx. 80
    • more Convex before in the Cat-a-mountain. 66
    • more Convex before in the Cha­mois, and the inside of it was cleft in three. 145
    • more Convex before in the Porcu­pine. 152
    • more Convex before in the Sea-Calf. 125
    • more Convex before in Lyons and Cats. 15
  • Cristalline of the Cormorant Spherical. 137
    • has an hard Nucleus in the Porcupine. 152
    • fills the whole globe of the Hedg­hog's Eye. 154
    • In the Sea-Fox Spherical. 72
  • Crocodile's scales described. 19
  • Deferentia, of the Demoiselle open into the pouch. 208
    • proceed out of the Testicle. 209
  • Demoiselles, how catcht. 205
    • reckoned amongst fabulous Ani­mals. ib
  • Dentes-Canini four in the upper Jaw of the Lupus-Cervarius 76
  • Diaphragme's use in respiration. 232. 234
    • five Diaphragmes in the Ostrich. 232
  • Difference between the Dromedary and Camel. 37
  • Digestion, different in different Ani­mals. 29
    • how performed. 225
  • Doronicum, poison to most Beasts. 144
  • Doubles in the Gizzard of a Bustard. 200
    • and of an Ostrich. 226
  • Down, of what use to Birds. 184
  • Dromedarys inwards like an Horses. 39
  • Ducker, goes erect like Man, and why. 221
  • Duggs of Monkeys like Women. 162
  • Ductus Hepaticus in Birds usually in­serted under the Cysticus. 199
  • Ductus Cisticus inserted near the Duo­denum in the Cassowar. 245
  • Ductus Salivares in the Bustard. 202
  • Duodenum in the Porcupine like a fourth Ventricle. 149
  • Eagles, very Voracious. 186
    • their several Species. 184
  • Ears, of the Sea-Calfe internal as in Birds. 122
    • of the Porcupine like a Mans. 149
  • Eggs, in the Ostrich's Ovarium, de­scribed. 229
  • Elke Claws, good for the Epilepsy. 110
    • breaks Trees with its Feet. 108
    • the Male has Hornes only. ib
  • Elk, has the great Canthus of the Eye very long. 110
    • has a kind of Epiploon encompassing the Stomach. 111
  • Epididymis, separate from the Testicle and made by the Vasa-praeparantia in the Porcupine. 151
    • not separated in the Hedg-hogg. 153
    • In the Indian-Cock black. 193
    • In the Bustard black; and the Testis white. 201
    • In the Ostrich separated from the Testis. 230
    • In the Cassowar larger than the Test­icle. 245
    • In the Tortoise of a peculiar Figure. 256
  • Epiploon of the Bear without fatt. 45
    • In the Gazella incompasses the Guts quite round. 56
    • In the Linx like a net-work of Cords, the spaces being filled with membranes full of holes. 78
    • In the Civet-Cat double and large. 102
    • In the Elke encompasses the Sto­mach. 111
    • In the Coati Mondi very small. 117
    • In the Chamois covers the Ventricles, but not the Gutts. 143
    • [Page]In Apes quite encompasses the Guts. 159
  • Eye, of the Bear no bigger than a Cats, 48
    • In the Elke has the great Canthus long. 110
    • In the Porcupine has the great Canthus highest. 149
    • Exteriour of the Ostrich like a Mans. 222
  • Eye-brow, in the Cassowar. 243
    • of what use the fibres of the Liga­mentum ciliare are in the Eye. 49
  • Eyes in the first formation of a Faetus larger than the whole Head, which also is bigger than the rest of the Body. 50
  • Eyes of the Camelion of an extraordi­nary Structure and Motion. 21. 30
    • Mexican Camelions not so. 22
  • Fat, separated from the Epiploon, on the Ventricle and Gall-Bladder of the Cormorant. 137
  • Feathers, on the Eagle and Parrot double. 184
    • of the Ostrich, described and all alike. 217
    • of the Ostrich, the Hieroglyphic of Justice. 218
    • those for flight described. ib
    • Down of the Ostriche's Neck very peculiar. 221
    • those of a Cassowar like Hogs bristles. 241
  • Feet, of the Camelion like a Parrots. 22
    • of the Civet-Cat, short before with a little Toe on the inside▪ 100
    • of the Cormorant, made to swim with one Foot. 135
    • In the Porcupine four Toes on the fore Feet and five on the hinder. 148
    • of the Ostrich like the Camels. 223
  • Flesh of the Lyon stincks not when dead. 8
  • Fleshy appendices at the bottom of the Cassowar's Neck. 243
  • Flight of Birds how performed. 219
  • Folds in the Iris caused by the enlarg­ing of the Pupilla. 10
  • Foramen Ovale not found in the Otter, nor Castor. 89. 96
    • found in the Sea-Calfe. 124
    • and in the Tortoise. 259
  • Gall of the Dromedary, not contained in a Cystis. 39
    • of a Sea-fox, in the Parenchyma of the Liver. 71
    • of a Sea-fox, more acid than bitter. 71
    • Bladder, not found in the Elke. 111
    • nor in the Canada-Stagg or Hinde. 170. 171
    • In some Pintadoes, not in others. 179
    • wanting in the Ostrich. 230
    • scarce to be found in the Demoiselle. 207
    • In the Castor two Inches ½ long. 89
    • In the Coati-mondi between the two upper lobes of the Liver. 117
    • large in Eagles, differently annected in the different Subjects. 187
    • fastned to the left side in the Indian-Cock. 192
  • Generative parts, in the Civet-cat con­cealed. 101
    • of Male Apes different from Men and Dogs. 161
    • of Female Apes like Women in some particulars. ib
  • Gizzard, wanting in the Cormorant. 136
    • In the Indian-cock covered with a brittle Coat on the inside. 193
    • In the Demoiselle like an Hens. 208
    • wanting in the Cassowar tho' a gra­niverous Animal. 244
    • possibly supplyed by the many Ven­tricles in the Cassowar. 245
  • Glands, in the Eagles Craw. 186
    • In the Indian-cock's Craw. 193
    • In the Bustard's Oesophagus. 200
    • In the Demoiselles Craw. 208
    • discharging a Lympha into the mouth [Page] of the Demoiselle. 211
    • In the Pancreas of the Ostrich quite separated and distinct. 231
    • In the Craw of the Bustard most distinct of any. 244
  • Glandula Lacrymalis, in the Elke an Inch and halfe long. 110
    • swelled by syringing into its Duct­us in the Demoiselle. 211
  • Glandula Pinealis, in the Dromedary composed of three others. 41
    • In the Cha [...]pard no bigger than a Pin. 65
    • In the Lynx very small. 79
    • In the Lyon diaphanous and small. 6
    • In the Civet-cat no bigger than a Pins head. 103
    • In the Elke very big. 112
    • In the Sea-calfe large. 125
    • In the Chamois a Line diameter. 145
    • generally very small in Fierce and Cruel Creatures, and very large in Fearful ones. 112
  • Glottis, in the Camelion transverse. 26
    • In the Tortoise exactly closed. 264
  • Hair, of the Beaver without cavitys. 83
    • of two sorts in some Animals, and why. ib
    • of the Civet-Cat darker on the Bel­ly and Throat, than else where, contrary to other Animals. 100
    • of the Elke spongy and porous like Rushes. 109
    • of the Sea-Calve's Skin not altered by the weather. 122
  • Head, of the Ape has no Apophysis Mas­toides. 163
    • of all Birds proportionably small. 222
    • of a Tortoise being cutt off stirred its Jaws for half an hour. 254
  • Heart, of the Lyon bigger than other Beasts. 6
    • of a Dromedary large. 40
    • of the Castor has the left Auricle bigger than the right, and the Fo­ramen Ovale not discernable. 89
    • of the Elke seaven Inches long and five thick. 111
    • of the Coati like a Dogs the right Ventricle being larger. 117
    • of the Gazella 4½ and 2½ Inches. 59
    • of the Sea-Fox without Pericardi­um, but such a Membrane encom­past the Aorta. 72
    • of the Lynx like a Catts. 79
    • of the Civet-Catt like a Dogs. 103
    • of the Chamois has a Callous Apo­physis. 144
    • of the Stag and Hinde large. 170. 171
    • of the Indian-Cock small. 194
    • of the Tortoise has three Ventricles and is largest from side to side. 259
  • Heart and Lungs, how formed in Am­phibious Animals. ib
  • Heart and Liver of the Ostrich includ­ed together in one Cavity. 232
    • of the Pintado described. 180
  • Heart's motion in the Tortoise. 262
  • Heart of the Sea-Calfe described. 124
    • differs much from the Castors. 121
    • In Birds has no Valves in the Vena Cava. 236
    • In Bruites more pointed than in Men. 162
  • Hedg-hog's Skins used Anciently for Brushes. 153
  • Hens, almost the only Birds that va­ry their Colours. 175
  • Hepatici-ductus, two, as many Pan­creatici and one Cysticus in the Indi­an-Cock. 192. 193
  • Hole of the Ear, wanting in the Came­lion. 21
    • uncovered in Pintados, but small. 178
  • Hornes, of the Antilope and Sheep de­scribed. 54
    • of the Canada-Stag described. 167
    • of Bruites how nourisht. 168
  • Horny Crest on the Cossowar's Head. 243
  • Hyaena of Aristotle our Civet-Cat. 100. 104
  • [Page] Hypogastricks, send Branches to the Scent-Bags in the Civet-Cat. 101
  • Iaws of the Tortoise strongest of all Animals. 254
  • Iejunum and Ileum short in the Por­cupine. 150
  • Internal Eyelids, their structure and use. 248
    • In all Animals but Men and Apes. 249
    • towards the lesser corner in the Cha­mois. 142
  • Intestines of the Dromedary very long. 40
    • In the Elke 48 foot long. 111
    • In the Stag 96 foot long. 169
    • In the Hinde 40 foot long. 171
    • In the Coati-Mondi 7 foot long. 117
    • In the Barbary-Cow 78 foot long. 128
    • In the Chamois 40 foot long. 144
    • In the Civet-Cat short. 103
    • In the Cormorant 7 foot long all of a size. 136
    • of the Indian-Cock 12 foot long. 193
    • of the Bustard 4 foot long. 201
    • In the Demoiselle 6 foot long. 208
    • In the Ostriches of very different lengths. 226
    • longest in Animals that feed on grass. 169
    • In the Bear all of one sort. 46
  • Intestine of a Sea-fox has a spiral mem­brane in its middle. 71
  • Ivy, apt to grow where Stags-Hornes have been buryed. 169
  • Kidneys, of the Bear divided into seve­ral Glands. 46
    • of Birds commonly large. 187
    • In the Canada-Stag large without a Succenturiatus. 170
    • In the Civet-Cat the right higher and fastned by a duplicature of the Peritonaeum as in Man. 103
    • right higher in the Coati-Mondi. 117
    • In the Cormorant toothed like a Cocks-Comb. 137
    • In the Gazella almost round. 59
    • In the Indian-Cock of conglomerated Glands. 194
    • In the Lynx of a longish figure. 79
    • In the Ostrich not cut into three like other fowle. 231
    • In the Otter separated like the Bears. 95
    • Those of the Oviparous Animals described. 137
    • In the Sea-Calfe like the Land-Calf. 123
  • Lachryma Cervi, what 169
  • Lachrymalis ductus, goes farther than the Glands in Birds not in Men. 249
  • Larynx of the Sea-Calfe contrived for eating under Water. 123
  • Leggs of Eagles why feathered. 184
    • of the Tortoise very short. 254
  • Ligamentum Ciliare its use. 49
  • Ligaments in the Elkes Legs very strong. 109
  • Liver, in the Ape consists of five Lobes like a Dog not as in Man. 159
    • and spotted with hexagonal spots, as in Bruits. 160
    • In the Barbarian-Cow without lobes. 129
    • In the Bustard very large. 199
    • In the Canada-Stag and Hinde with­out Lobes. 170
    • In the Castor of five Lobes. 89
    • In the Cat-a-mountain of glands and has 6 Lobes. 63
    • In the Civet-Cat of 5 great and one small Lobe. 103
    • In the Demoiselle very large. 207
    • In the Gazella made up of small glands. 56
    • In the Coati-mondi without any ap­pearance of glands. 117
    • In the Elke without Lobes and joyned to the Diaphragme. 111