The New Art of Gardening, WITH THE Gardener's Almanack: CONTAINING, The true Art of Gardening, in all its Particulars.

  • I. Site of a proper Plat of Ground, for Planting Fruit-trees; with the manner of Planting, Graft­ing, Imbuding, Inoculating, and Ordering all Sorts of Fruit-trees, and Fruits in all Seasons. The Art of making Cyder, Perry, and Wines of divers Sorts of Fruits.
  • II. Of the Kitchen-Garden, and what Things are proper to be done in it, as to Herbs, Plants, Roots, Berries, Fruits, &c.
  • III. Of the Flower-Garden, how to order it, and rear choice Flowers, Slips, Layers, sow Seeds, make off-sets, and Plant them in their proper Earths, Seasons, and due Waterings; with the Names, and Description of the most Material ones.
  • IV. Of Greens, how to Order and Preserve them; with Rules for the Conservatory, and Green-house.

To each Head is added an Almanack, shewing what is to be done every Month in the Year.

By Leonard Meager.

London, Printed for R. Ware, at the Sun and Bible in Amen-corner. And sold by T. Norris, at the Looking-glass on [...]ridge: S. Bates, at the Sun and Bible in Giltspur-street: A. Bet­tesworth at the Red Lion in Pater-noster-Row.

THE Preface to the Reader.

GArdening, and the pleasant Delights of a Curi­ous Orchard, has been the Delight of many great Persons, and Wise Men of all Ages; who have therein contemplated the Wonders of God in Nature, and refreshed their Minds, as well as sollaced their Bodies: There, by the help of Art, the Hand-maid to Nature, are produced such Things as are highly worthy of Admiration, whilst the travelling Sun labours to im­pregnate the Earth with a kindly Heat, and enables her to produce such various kinds of Fruits, Herbs, Plants, Flowers, Shrubs, &c. of different Kinds, Tastes, Colours, Scents, Shapes, and Virtues; ravishing to the Eye, plea­sing to the Taste and Smell, and nourishing to the Body, all which taking with admirable Delight, should incite Men not only to covet them, but to Labour in moderate Exercise for improving and propagating them.

A Method, to do which, I have in this Book laid down, the better to invite the Ingenious and Industrious, to what must needs yield them a great measure of Pleasure and Profit, having laboured in every Thing to advance this Art, as near as may be to its highest Perfection, omitting nothing that can be grateful to my Countrymen, as to what relates to Fruit-trees in all their Particulars; ordering Fruit when ripe, and making curious Liquor, and Wines of them.

Also every Thing that is proper in the Kitchen-Garden, Flower-Garden, and Green-House, not only as to English, but Out-landish Fruits, Herbs, Plants, Flowers, curious, [Page] Per-annual-greens, and others; Oranges and Lemmons, Citrons, Aloes, and every Thing that is proper, for even a Royal Garden, to delight the greatest Princes, as well as Nobles, Gentry, and private Persons; with Monthly Ob­servations upon every Particular, throughout the whole, never so exactly done in any Work yet Extant, taken from long Experience, and upon the Judgment of those that are Practicers in this Art; some for their Pleasure more than Gain, and others, who employ themselves therein for Annual Advantages. Having considered all Things for making a compleat Gardener, either to serve himfelf or others, and be grateful to Gentlemen and La­dies, who are curious in these Matters, worthy of all Per­sons Care, of what Degree soever.

A good Orchard and Garden, by all prudent Physicians are held much to contribute to the Health, as well as Pleasure of those that often frequent them in their refresh­ing Walks and Ʋmbrages. Herein likewise, I have given Directions to make in the newest Method, Knots, Borders, Walks, Green-plats, Arbors, Hot-beds, preparing Ma­nure of all Sorts, and ordering every Thing in a proper Season.

Reader, may the Bookseller have so much Profit in Selling it, and thou the same Pleasure and Profit in Buying it, that has accrued to me by Collecting, and Experience therein; I am thine to serve,

Leonard Meager.


  • THe New Art of Gardening, with the Gardener's Al­manack: In what is necessary for the well order­ing of Orchards and Gardens, &c. Page 1
  • Chap. I. Of the good site of a piece of Ground, intended for an Orchard, &c. 3
  • Chap. II. What soil is most fit for an Orchard, and the ordering it in that kind. 4
  • Chap. III. Quantity of Ground, and shape, manner of Fencing, and other Matters tending to the preservation of your Orchard. 6
  • Chap. IV. Sets, how to be chosen and ordered, either to grow up to Trees, or to be grafted on, &c. 7
  • Chap. V. Proper Times for planting and removing; with the manner of setting the distance, and placing of Trees, &c. 10
  • Chap. VI. General Directions for the right ordering, keeping, and preserving of an Orchard 12
  • Chap. VII. Rules and approved Directions for Grafting after the best and most thriving Method 15
  • Chap. VIII. Times proper for Grafting; how to chuse the best Grafts; the way of keeping and ordering them 17
  • Chap. IX. Other ways relating to grafting, as incising, Packing on, Inoculating, Grafting in Scutcheon, &c. 18
  • Chap. X. Of the Apple-tree, how grafted and ordered, the Advances accruing thereby, &c. 20
  • Chap. XI. Of the Pear-tree, how grafted, ordered and improved, &c. 22
  • Chap. XII. Of the Quince-tree, how ordered, grafted, improved, &c. 23
  • Chap. XIII. Of the Medler and Service-tree, how or­dered, grafted, improved, &c. 25
  • [Page] Chap. XIV. Of the Pomegranate-tree, how it must be ordered, grafted and improved 26
  • Chap. XV. Of the Citron, or Limon-tree; how planted, and improved 27
  • Chap. XVI. Of the Mulberry-tree, how ordered, plan­ted, grafted, and improved 28
  • Chap. XVII. Of the Orchard, Hazelnut, and Philbert-trees, their improvement 30
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the Walnut-tree, and common Nut-tree, how to order them 31
  • Chap. XIX. Of the Chesnut-tree, and Pine-tree 32
  • Chap. XX. How to order and improve Cherry-trees 33
  • Chap. XXI. Of Plum-trees, and how to order them 34
  • Chap. XXII. Of the Peach-tree, and its ordering, &c also of the Apricot-tree 35
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the Date-tree, and how it may be propagated 37
    • Of the Almond-tree. Of the Barberry-tree. Of the Gooseberry, and Currant-trees 38
    • Of the Rasberry-tree. Of the Fig-tree 39
    • Of the Cornelian Cherry-tree, and Orange-tree 40
  • Chap. XXIV. Wall-fruit-trees, how best to order them their Virtues, &c. 41
    • Of the Apricot-tree 42
    • Of the Peach-trees, Nectarins, Malacottoons, &c. 43
    • Of Plumb-trees. Of the Fig-tree 44
    • Of the Currant tree, as Wall-fruit 45
  • Chap. XXV. The well ordering and right dressing of Fruit-trees, for their better thriving ibid
  • Chap. XXVI. Soil proper for remedying Diseases i [...] Fruit-trees, and destroying Vermin and Insects that infec [...] them, &c. 4 [...]
  • Chap. XXVII. Of Nurseries for Stocks, and their improvement 5 [...]
  • Chap. XXVIII. Some farther Observations in trans­planting of Fruit-trees, with the Errors of some therein discovered 53
  • [Page]The Gardener's Almanack; containing what is to be done in, or relating to the Orchard in their proper Seasons throughout the Year, in each particular Month, from 56, to 72
  • The best and safest way to gather Summer and Winter-fruit for keeping, and how to order them for that purpose 73
  • To gather and order other Stone-fruit. To gather Pears the best way 74
  • To gather and order Apples in the best manner 75
  • To gather and secure Quinces from rotting, &c. To ga­ther and keep Medlars and Services 76
  • Of the Fruit-loft, stowing and managing Fruit for keeping 77
  • To make Cyder 78
  • Perry, the best way to make it 79
  • To make Wine of Grapes. To make Wine of Cherries 80
  • To make a good Wine of Currants. To make excellent Gooseberry Wine. To make Rasberry Wine 81
  • To make Mulberry Wine. To make Wine of Services 82
  • Of Gardening; and first of the Kitchen-Garden. What is necessary to be done and observed therein for setting, sowing, rearing, and bringing to perfection, Seeds, Herbs, Plants, Roots, &c. 83
  • Further Directions for the well ordering this kind of Gar­den in many material particulars: In its side and furnish­ing with Herbs, Plants, &c. 86
  • Several growths of Herbs and Plants distinguished, to know the better how to place them 87
  • Sundry sorts of useful Herbs, their encrease, well order­ing, and preserving, &c. 89
  • Rules in general for ordering Herbs, &c. 91
  • Of Roots proper for the Kitchen-Garden, their well order­ing and improvement 92
  • Beans, Pease, Artichoaks, Asparagus, Cabbages, Col­liflowers, Savoys, Lettice, &c. to order and improve 94
  • Hot Beds, how to prepare and fit them for such Things as require to be set in them 99
  • [Page]Watering, the proper time; and what Plants, Herbs &c most require it, and in what seasons 101
  • The several sorts of Strawberries, the manner of set­ting, transplanting and improving them 102
  • The Gardener's Almanack: or, Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden in the several Months of the Year 104, to 120
  • How to know particular Flowers that will alter for the best ibid.
  • Choice Directions for sowing of Seed and setting, &c. 122
  • Things convenient to be considered to the Manner of lay­ing, &c. 123
  • Artificial Sets, how to make them. To change the Co­lour of Flowers when in Blossom, &c. 124
  • A few useful Observations from Astrology ibid.
  • The Gardener's Almanack; directing what to be done i [...] the Flower-Garden, &c. in the several Months throughou [...] the Year, &c. 120, to 136
  • Flowers blowing this Month, or continuing 129
  • Flowers, Shrubs, and choice Plants, enduring several degrees of Cold, how they are to be preserved. Flowers and Plants not dying but by extream Cold 136
  • Flowers and Plants enduring the second degree of Cold Flowers and Plants the least of all enduring Cold 137
  • A further Description of Flowers as to their Shapes and Colours 139, to 148
  • The Gardener's Almanack for what is necessary to be done in the Green-house and Conservatory, in preserving and well ordering choice Shrubs, Plants, Flowers, &c with the Time of Housing, &c. 148, to 15 [...]
  • The Green-house and Conservatory for the preservation o [...] Plants, Shrubs, choice Flowers, &c. from Winds, Frosts or cold Airs that would otherwise chill and destroy them 157, to 160

New ART of GARDENING, WITH THE Gardener's Almanack: In what is necessary for the well Order­ing of Orchards and Gardens, &c.

The Introduction; or an Incitement to the Planting, and well ordering Orchards, and Gardens.

AS Orchards and Gardens are exceeding pleasant, and desirable for Sight and Beauty, when well, and seasonably ordered, so they like­wise bring with them large Advantages, being [...]n extraordinary way o [...] improving Lands to a vast Va­ [...]e, even to Twenty-fould in a few Years, in well Ma­ [...]uring, Cultivating, and other good Management, by [...]hich our Ancestors have inriched Posterity, in leaving [...]ehind them Orchards Planted with stately and regularly [...]lanted Tree, whose Example minds us of Imitation, [...]hat succeeding Ages may know our Industry, by what [...]e leave in this Nature as lasting Monuments behind us.

[Page 2]Kings, Princes, and the wisest Men of all Ages, ha [...] some or other of them, taken singular Delight in th [...] Exercise of Planting, Setting, Sowing, and what el [...] is requisite in the well ordering of Orchards, and Ga [...] dens, and rejoyced to see the Fruits of their Labou [...] Solomon among the many Toyls of State and Affairs [...] his Kingdom, took exceeding delight in it, and to st [...] dy the Works of Nature; so that 'tis said of him, [...] knew the Use and Virtue of all Plants, even from t [...] Shrub to the Cedar; that is, from the smallest to t [...] greatest.

The Planting of Trees for bearing the various Kin [...] of Fruits, is undoubtedly one of the greatest Improv [...] ments that can be made of a considering part of o [...] English Soil, as Worchesteshire, Kent, Gloucestershi [...] Herefordshire, and other places can plentifully testifi [...] and this is more Universal than any other Improveme [...] because most Land will bare one sort other of Fru [...] Trees, Herbs, Plants, Flowers, and such things as Or [...] mentally, or Profitably, as to accommodate Orchar [...] or Gardens, for the Pleasure and Sustenance of Man.

As for the Charge of raising and planting Fruit-Tre [...] considering the Years they must stand, and the contin [...] Encrease, I look upon it as Trivial, considering the R [...] compence they will soon make, besides the abundan [...] of Pleasure it must be to any generous and active Mi [...] to see flourishing Trees of his own Setting, and pea [...] ably enjoy himself in Contemplation, under the co [...] ing Shades of their spreading Branches, to admire a [...] adore the wonderful Goodness of God, in giving su [...] Virtue to the Earth, for the producing rare and vari [...] Kinds of things conducing to the Food and Pleasure Man. And that it must be of singular use on sundry o [...] casions, as appears by God's first placing Man in a G [...] den, which himself had caused to spring up, and b [...] Fruits, as the fittest place for the Reception of him, ev [...] in his State of Innocency; and no doubt, Adam was [...] ceedingly grieved to part with it, when his Disobedien [...] had forfeited the Possession.

[Page 3]These, and many other things I might urge, to pro­ [...]ote this part of Industry, accompanied with so much [...]leasure, and Profit; but designing this only as an In­ [...]oduction to the Practical part, which immediately [...]ollows in all its Generals, and Particulars, so that no­ [...]ing useful, or necessary, being omitted, I shall not [...]etain you longer from entering, as it were into (if I [...]ay so term it) another earthly Paradise, where every [...]ing Smiles, and looks Gay to the Imagination, even in [...]eading. How much more then will it exhilerate the [...]ind, when by Practice it is enjoyed in its Perfection, [...]nd flourishes to gratifie the Sight, Taste, and Smell of [...]e Beholder, with a fair Prospect, pleasant Fruits, and [...]agrant Flowers, wherein Nature is refined by Art.


Of the good Site of a Piece of Ground, intend­ed for an Orchard, &c.

THE Site, or standing of an Orchard, greatly ad­vantages it, that the Sun and free Air may have [...]ower over it, and yet so well defended with Shelter, [...]at Storms and bleak Winds may be in a great Measure [...]ept from the injuring it; and this good Site or standing [...]ill help even a bad Soil.

The best Site I account to be in plain Ground, laying [...]ot so low, as the wet and dampness may too much in­ [...]st it; nor so high as to lye lyable to too much dryness, [...]e injury of Storms, or sharp Air to [...]n [...]p the tender [...]ranches, and Buds; high Grounds are not naturally [...]ertile, and if they be Manured with Dung, the Rains [...] a little time wash down the futness, and leave them [...]or, so that the one part will have overmuch, and [...]e other grow steril for want of it; and it will be [Page 4] convenient it be sheltered with wild Trees round t [...] Verges of a good growth, if possible, that they m [...] break the turbulent Wind, especially the S uth-We [...] and North-West Winds, which are usually violent March, and September, when the Air is free from e [...] tream Heat, or Colds; and a fitter place cannot be ch [...] sen for an Orchard, if it may be done, than on a cu [...] ous Level by a River-side, or some pleasant Brook, [...] too near a Marsh, or Moory Ground, whence frequen [...] Fogs and Mists arise, which hinder the growth of t [...] Plants, and much injure them by ingendering poysono [...] or infectious Air, at certain Seasons.

The Suns long lying on the Trees greatly refresh a [...] enliven them in Winter, as well as Summer; let it [...] therefore so chosen, that it may not be destitute of [...] Morning and Evening Sun at any time when it shin [...] and this appears by such Trees as are placed again [...] Walls, where the refracted Beams give a greater heat make them Blossom, and Leaf very early, and to spre [...] their Branches so Luxurant, that they require very of [...] cutting; or they take up so much Sap, as not only hind [...] the Fruit in growth, but in kindly ripening, as shall more plainly shewed in the Progress of this necessa [...] Work.


Which Soil is most fit for an Orchard, an [...] the ordering it in that Kind.

WHEN you have found a proper and commo [...] ous Site for Planting of Fruit-Trees, then [...] quire into the Nature of the Soil, and though Fru [...] Trees will grow in almost all Soils, yet they will [...] bundantly better thrive in one sort than in another; f [...] Apple, Pear, red and white Plumb, Philberd, Da [...] [Page 5] [...], Bully, Barbery, and the like, require a black, fat, [...]ellow, and clean tempered Soil, wherein they may [...]ther plenty of good Sap.

The Soil may be bettered by digging, breaking and [...]ell melting, being cast up, or laid level, which with [...] little Dung, destroys those Weeds that are Enemies to [...]ants: If the Ground be much over-grown with Weeds, [...] subject to any Incumbrances of the like Nature, than [...]re up the Surface with the Root of them, lay them in [...]aps to dry, with a hollowness underneath like an Oven, [...] Furnace, and when by turning, the Air and Sun have [...]ssed on them, that they are pretty dry, put Fuel a­ [...]ongst them, and burn the Weeds and Earth, then [...]eak the Cumbers, and scatter them with the Ashes o­ [...]r the Ground, and they will prove good Manure; then [...]rinkle a small sprinkling of Sea-cole-ashes, or unslacked [...]me, and when the Rain has pretty well soaked them [...] dig up the Ground, and Trench it with a little Dung, [...]d if it be indifferent good Soil, it will be excellent for [...] Production of Fruit-trees, and if your Orchard be [...]bject to dryness in extream Droughts, it will be very [...]vantagious, if it so lye, that by Sluces you can over­ [...]w it with Water twice in the Summer: and let the [...]ter pass over it twenty four Hours, and then draw it [...]; and fine Grass growing in an Orchard, keeps the [...]ound very moist, but let it not grow thick about the [...]ots of the Trees, lest it breeds Mots, shelter Vermine, [...]in [...]ure them, or they be prejudiced by keeping the heat [...] the Sun from them, for the Sun's coming to the Roots [...]n enlivener of the Tree. It is not proper to dig very [...]r Fruit-trees that are well grown, unless by a careful [...] skilful Hand, for fear of cutting, or wounding the [...]ots that spread in the Ground, which often makes the [...]ees languish, abate of their growth, and yield less Fruit.

The Crust of the Earth tempered with Heat, Cold, [...] Moisture, is a great helper to Trees, for in that [...]y chiefly spread their Roots, especially those parts [...]t mostly suck in, and set up the Sap; and this is in [Page 6] some Soil Eighteen Inches, and in others less; for low the Ground is not so fertile.


Quantity of Ground, and Shape, manner Fencing, and other Matters tending to t [...] preservation of your Orchard.

AS for the quantity of Ground to be employed [...] an Orchard, I account the larger the better, for [...] Trees growing up, fence each other; and if the Verge [...] blasted, the rest are frequently sheltered as well from as the Winds shaking down the Fruit when ripe, [...] hurting the Trees when young, by losening their Ro [...] but the proportion of Ground I cannot limit, beca [...] it must be according to Conveniency, the Planter's A [...] lity, or Pleasure; and in the same Manner I mus [...] general leave the Form to his Discretion, for that wh [...] pleases one, another dislikes; some Round, some Squ [...] some Triangular, others Long; and indeed, Plats [...] Grounds cannot be every where exactly chosen, but [...] must be contrived as they fall out, to the best Adv [...] tage.

As for Fencing, in this you must be diligent, as [...] to preserve your Fruit from Thieves, as Trees fr [...] Spoil, by the breaking in of Cattle, and likewise [...] it may be a good shelter to the young Plants; Sto [...] Walls, where Stone is plenty, may be cheaply rai [...] or those of Brick; but above all, I recommend a g [...] thick and well grown Quickset of white Thorns, [...] thickening Brambles; black Thorn, or dwarf Sh [...] at the bottom, especially where Wall Fruit is not re [...] red; and by skilful Setting, and Continuance, it [...] grow so thick, that it will be a great security, more than Pailes, Railes, or Walls of Earth; and grow [Page 7] high, it may on the top be cut with Shears, in Turfs [...]nd Piramids, and become a pleasant Ornament to the [...]rchard: As for Walks, I shall describe them in that [...]art of this Book, that particularly relates to Gardening; [...]ho' in Orchards, curious green Walks kept short by [...]lowing, and Rowling in Summer, are of good Esteem; [...]nd such may be raised so above the common Surface, [...]hat the Wet may have little influence in staying on [...]hem, even in Winter, after a shower of Rain is past. A [...]ote or large wet Ditch round an Orchard is very ser­ [...]iceable, if it can be conveniently done, and continued with Water: But from these things I proceed to what [...]omes somewhat nearer to my purpose, viz. The get­ [...]ng, ordering, and planting of Sets, &c.


[...]ets, how to be Chosen and Ordered, either to grow up to Trees, or to be Grafted on, &c.

THE best and most usual kind of Sets, are young Plants, which have been brought up in a Nursery, [...]hether of Apples, Pears, Plumbs, or the like, has [...]ing good Roots, for they are more certain than Slips: [...]r such suckers as were taken from the Roots of grown [...]rees; and in removing them, get all the Root [...]ou can out of the Ground, for if a main part of the [...]oot be lost, as some regard it not, then it follows, the Tree cannot thrive so well, though upon the transplant­ [...]ng, some of the Top be taking off; for the Root has a [...]ympathy with the Branches, as to the greatness, [...]r smallness; and when the Sap is straitned, or lessen­ [...]d, then is it that the Tree pines for want of its free [...]urrency and Communication; and when you take up [...]he Root, divest it not, as little as may be, of the Earth [...] grows in; for that, upon the transplanting, will be [Page 8] nourishing to it, till it become better acquainted wi [...] the new Ground. Too much Topping, or Stowing, approve not of, because it very much hinders the growt [...] of the Tree; and when you cut off any Branches, d [...] it upwards, that slanting it may shoot off the Wet, an [...] not any way rive or split; and if Clay, and fine siste [...] Horse Dung, or Cow Dung, were well mixed, and clapped on the Cuts of the Branches, it would be very proper to keep them from the Cold and Wet, till they grow and begin to thrive, unless you intend these Plants fo [...] Grafting, and then you may let the Tops grow till yo [...] cut the Stem for Inoculation, in which you shall here after be instructed, with all that is proper relating to it and set these in Rows by a Line, in such Holes as yo [...] have prepared, laying the Earth then lightly upon them after they are well placed in the Hole; and heap it highe [...] then the Surface, that it may well settle by Degrees, and keep the Tree from the Roots, being much shaken by th [...] Wind; to which end, whilst the Trees are young, yo [...] must also use Stakes, or Poles well fixed in the Ground fastned to the Plants by Hay-bands, and some Moss, o [...] soft thing clapped between, to prevent the fretting tha [...] may accrue by the ratling or shaking of the Wind.

Slips which some use, are not so good by much, to plant, for either many of them miss to take Root, or i [...] they do, the Root being the main Wood, doats and rots i [...] the Ground, when the Tree comes to growth, so that they are but of short continuance, or at least-ways, will bu [...] weakly bare, and those chiefly in Apple-trees; yet a Bur­knot kindly taken from an Apple-Tree, is much better and surer, and this you must cut close at the Roots-end a handful under the Knot, then cut away all the Twigs except the main one, and set it deep in the Ground, tha [...] it may only rise a little above the Surface, and it wil [...] shoot up, and become a good Stock, especially for Grafting on, if you like not the Fruit otherways.

[Page 9]As for large Fruit-trees, there is danger in transplant­ [...]ng them, for many times they do not thrive, by reason [...]f the injury they receive in the Roots; for if some of [...]he lesser Spums take, they generally do not all; so th [...] [...]he Body not having sufficient Nourishment, the Heart [...]rows blackish, or of a yellow colour, and many times [...]ho they bring forth fair Blossoms, they have not strength [...]nough to form their Fruit in the natural Perfection.

It has been Experimented, that a Bough has been taken from a thriving Tree of a good bigness, and grown to be [...] Tree; the manner thus: Take off the Bark in a round Circle, when the Sap is in it, and make a Mortar of Clay, [...]ine Earth, and a little Dung, and clap on the bare place, [...]o the higness of a Foot-ball, and let it lye till the Sap [...]escends to the Root of the Tree, then cut off the Bough [...]anting on the hither side of the Mortar, next to the Tree, [...]nd immediately put it into good Ground, the Mortar [...]nd all, and cover it up close; Water it sometimes, and [...]f this be done in October, it will take Root, and shoot forth in the Spring; and if these stand, they need not [...]e Grafted on, but will bear good Fruit of their own.

You may Sow the Kernels, or Nuts of Trees in Nur­series, and when they come up, shelter and keep them Warm, and in time they will afford you good Stocks, [...]nd Plants, either to bear of themselves, or to Graft on; [...]hough Suckers taken from the Roots of Trees, grow [...]aster than these, till they get a Head; but above all, beware that Cattle come not into your Plantations, or Nurseries, to destroy them.

You may lay young Scions in the Ground, where many sprout from one Master-top, when cut near the Earth; and by keeping them down with Sods, one end being at liberty, and growing upward, they will be apt [...]o take Root, and so you may have four or five out of one in a little time, and this is called a running Plant. As for the buying of Sets ready Grafted, you may main­ly be deceived in them, as having only anothers Word, what manner of Fruit they are, and so you may be at [Page 10] most Cost and Labour about the worst Trees, besides, hinders the Experience you may gain, in raising and o [...] dering them to the many singular Advantages.


Proper times for Planting and Removing with the manner of Setting the distanc [...] and placing of Trees, &c.

WHEN you have made choice of your Sets, t [...] the Ground being ready for Transplanting, th [...] next thing to be considered, is the time this is m [...] Proper to be done in; and this account to be soon aft [...] the Fall of the Leaf, in or about the change of the Moo [...] when the Sap is most quiet, for then it is about turning but upon occasion it may be done all Winter, in op [...] weather, and early in the Spring, when the Buds are ju [...] putting out; though as I have said, the sooner you r [...] move them in Winter it is the better; some indeed [...] remove them before the Sap is at a stand, or about re­turn, that is, in Autumn, before the Leaves are fallin [...] but this I hold not so good; and were it not for the fal [...] of brevity, could give you here many convincing reaso [...] to the contrary.

In setting, make the Holes sufficiently large to [...] ceive the Roots, and more, that they may have n [...] thing at first to contend with, but the tender Mould shake that you have dug out, lightly in, when the Pla [...] is conveniently placed, and in the mean while let an [...] ther move the Plant, that the Earth may fill into th [...] cranies, and settle better about the Root, so press [...] gently down, that the Plant may be well fixed, and [...] a dry Season water it, which being a settlement of th [...] Earth, will make it take the sooner. As for the dist­ance of Trees, you must consider the nature of them [Page 11] as to what greatness in time they may grow, how spread their Branches; as the Apple-tree (or aspire more up­right than the Pear tree) if they be such as you in­tend shall continually stand; for if they too much drop upon one another, or the Boughs are galled by fret­ [...]ing or rubing, then Injury comes thereby, and the un­derling Trees that are overshadowed, will be stunted and spoiled; and therefore according as you conjecture their Growth may be, so place them, and the Sun and free Air coming in among them, will make them thrive the better, and this distance must be as far as you conceive two Trees can spread their Boughs when grown up.

As for the placing them, let Philberts, Damsens, Bulliss, and such like, the lower Trees, stand on the out­side, next the fencing: Your Cherries and choice Plums, for the Sun the sooner to ripen them, may be planted in the openest places; your Apples, Pears, and Quin­ces, in the most substantial place of the Orchard, pos­sessing the best Soil. The Trees of greatest growth may be planted further from the Sun, and those of the lesser, nearer to the S [...]uth, that they may not be a hindrance to one another, but all receive warm alike: As for the War­dens and Winter Pears growing high, they will do very well Northward, because being hard latter Fruit, they ripen leasurely, and the blasts cannot hurt them: As for the Medlers, Services, Pomgranets, Citrons, and such Trees, though they are not often seen in Orchards, yet they are very graceful and pleasant, and must be plant­ed where the Sun has great power, and free from the droping of other Trees: Almond-Trees are hardy, and will bear the Blasts, but not give their Fruit kindly, un­less well sheltered: Set the Wallnut-trees on the highest ground, if it may be without overshadowing others.


General Directions for the right Ordering, Keeping and Preserving of an Orchard.

THE first thing that will be required, as most ne­cessary for an Orchard, will be Dunging and Wa­tering; for the Fruit-trees, a very few of them being on­ly to be excepted, require these; and herein you must also be careful that you do it in the heat of the Sun, and that your Dung be neither too new nor too old; neither must it be laid close to the foot of the Tree, but a little distance off, that the fatness of the Dung may be drunk in of the Root: Pidgeons-dung, and Hogs-dung do also heal the hurts and wounds of Trees: The water where­with we water them, must not be Fountain water, or Well water, if other may be had; but drawn from some muddy Lake, or standing Pool. Moreover, you must be sure that your Trees stand a good distance asunder, that when they are grown up, they may have room e­nough to spread, and that the small and tender be not hurt of the greater, neither by shaddow nor dropping. The nature also of the Soil, is herein much to be regard­ed: for a Hill requireth to have them stand nearer toge­ther; in windy places you must set them the thicker: you must set your Plants in such a manner that the Tops be not hurt, or bruised, or the Bark, or Rind flawed off; for the Bark being taken away round about it, kill­eth any kind of Tree. You must also have a regard of the shadow, what Trees it helpeth, and what Trees it hurteth. The Wallnut-tree, the Pitch-tree, the Firr-tree, whatsoever they shadow, they injure; the Pine-tree with his shadow likewise destroys young Plants, but they do resist the Wind, and therefore good to inclose Vineyards: The Cypress, his shadow is very small, and spreadeth not far, and therefore it may safely enough grow amongst Vines, and so for many others; the drop­ping [Page 13] of all Trees is naught, but worst of all those, [...]hose Branches grow so that the water cannot readily [...]ss through: For the drops of the Pine, the Oak, and [...]e Martholme, are most hurtful, in whose company [...]ou may also take the Wallnut: Moreover pruning and [...]tting is very good and necessary for Trees, whereby [...]e withered Boughs are cut away, and the unprofitable [...]ranches taken off; but to prune them every Year is [...]ught, though the Vine requireth cutting every year; [...] also the Myrtil, the Pomegrancte and the Cherry, [...]hereby they will sooner yield Fruit; the others must [...] seldomer pruned; Cherry-trees may be pruned in the [...]ll of the Leaf, after the setting of the seven Stars: [...]nd first, they must be well dunged, and as a help a­gainst their hurts, you must cut down the old rotten [...]ranches that grow in the midst, and such as grow [...]ick, and are tangled together, and all the water-boughs, [...]nd unprofitable Branches about them: The old ones are [...] be cut close to the stock, from whence the new Springs [...]ill arise: Scarifying also and Launcing, is very whole­ [...]ome for the Trees, when they are screined with their [...]eafs, and dryness of their Barks; at which time use to [...]unce the Bark with a sharp Knife, cutting it strait [...]own in many places; which, what good it doth, ap­ [...]eareth by the opening of the Rhind, which is straitways [...]lled up with the Body underneath; you must also trim [...]nd dress the Roots of your Trees after this manner; you [...]ust open the ground round about them, that they may [...]e comforted with the warmth of the Sun, and the Rain, [...]utting away all the Roots that run upwards: The Trees [...]at you remove may be marked which way they stood [...]t the first: As Virgil expresses.

And in the Bark they set a Sign,
To know which way the Tree did grow;
Which part did to the South incline,
And where the Northern blasts did blow.

[Page 14] Also you must consider well the nature of the Soil, th [...] you remove not out of a dry Ground, into moist, and fr [...] a barren Hill, to a moist Plain, and rather fat, than [...] therwise; The young Plants being thus removed, must [...] the second or third Year be pruned, leaving still about [...]hr [...] or four Branches untouched, so shall they grow the better [...] Thus must you usually do every Year. The old Tree [...] move with the Tops cut off, and the Roots unperishe [...] which must be helped with often Dunging and Watering [...] Apple-trees that Blossom and bear no Fruit, or if it bea [...] they suddenly fall away, you shall remedy it by slitting [...] the Root, and thrusting in of a Stone or wooden Wedge also if you water your Trees with Ʋrine that is old, th [...] helps them very much both for Fruitfulness and pleasan [...] ness of the Fruit; if the Tree decay by reason of the gre [...] heat of the Sun, you must raise the Earth about it, a [...] water the Roots every Night, setting up some defence against the Sun. To cause their Fruit to be quickly Rip [...] you must wet the little Roots with Vinegar and Ʋrine th [...] is old, covering them again with Earth, and often diggin [...] about them. The Ʋrine of Men, if it be kept three or fo [...] Months, doth wonderfully much good to the Plants, and [...] you use it about Vines, or Apple-trees, it doth not on [...] bring you great encrease, but also giveth an excellent Savour, both to the Fruit and Vine: You may also use the M [...] ther of Oil, such as is without Salt, to the same purpose which both must speedily be used in Winter. As Frosts, an [...] Mists also do great harm to Trees, so you must arm you [...] self with a Remedy against them; you must lay up roun [...] about your Orchard, little Faggots made of Stalks o [...] rotten Boughs, or Straw, which, when that the Frosts an [...] Mists arise, may be kindled, the Smoak whereof avoidet [...] the Danger. You must stave also dry Dung amongst you [...] Vines, which when the Frost is great, you may set on Fire [...] the Smoak whereof disperseth the Frost. When you [...] Trees are sick, pour on the Roots the Lees of Wine, mingled with Water, and you may, if you please, so [...] Lupines round about them; the Water also wherein [Page 15] Lupenes have been sod, and poured round about, which is [...]very good for Apple-trees; If your Trees are troubled with Caterpillers or Worms, there are divers Remedies; the [...]uice of Wormwood destroyeth the Caterpillers; the Seeds or Grain that are steeped in the juice of Sengreen, or Housleek, are also excellent Receipts against the Worms: Also Ashes mingled with the Mother of Oil, or the Stale of [...] Ox, mingled with the third part of Vinegar; moreover, [...] Trees that are smoaked with Brimstone, or Lime, are safe from hurtful Vermine: Galbanum likewise burnt up­on the Coals, driveth them away; the Blades also of Gar­lick, the Heads being off, so burnt (as the smoak may pass through the Orchard) doth destroy the Caterpillers; some Soot with the Seeds, and sprinkle them with water.


Rules and approved Directions for Grafting after the best and most thriving Method.

AS for Grafting, it is accounted the nicest piece of Skill belonging to an Arborist or Gardener; but by good Instruction and Practice becomes easie, and is done with much success: The thing signifies the reform­ing the Fruit of one Tree with that of another, by an artificial transposing or transplanting of a Twig or Scion, a Bud or Leaf, commonly called a Graft, taken from one Tree of the same, or some other kind, and placed or put to, or into another Tree, in one time or manner; and of these there are many kinds, but the chief in use, and most certain, are Grafting, Incising, Packing on, Grafting in the Scutcheon, or Inoculat­ing.

[Page 16]As for Grafting, when you undertake it, you mu [...] have a fine, thin, strong and sharp Saw, made and arme [...] for that purpose, to saw the Plant off even without splitting or jagging the Bark; it may be done a foot abov [...] the Ground, or more, as the Plant is capable of yieldin [...] a sufficiency of Sap, and then smoothed with a ver [...] sharp Knife, let it be done where there is no knot, fo [...] that is best; then stay the stock very steady with yo [...] foot and leg, cleave it gently in the middle, with a fi [...] sharp cleaver, by forcing it down with the stroke o [...] a Mallet, then open it with a Wedge of Wood, Bone o [...] Iron, about six Inches, then having your Graft cut a [...] the great end, in a tapering flatness, the Bark left on, [...] the two thin sides of it, thrust it gently, and let the Bar [...] of the Graft, touch the Bark of the Stock, and come even with it, to the outward side, then take out you [...] Wedge gently, and suffer the stock to close and compre [...] the Graft; and having a fine mixture of Clay and Hors [...] Dung, mould them like a Past, into the form of an Egg then divide it in equal Parts, and with both hands press i [...] equally on the wound of the Graft and Stock, closing i [...] firm together, that it may keep them warm, as also keep out the Air and Wet, till they can unite, and th [...] Bark spread to cover the Wound; and thus, on a pretty large stock, you may place three or four Grafts of vari­ous Fruits; though it is proper they be of one kind, Ap­ples with Apples, Pears with Pears, and the like o [...] others.


Times proper for Grafting; how to chuse the best Grafts; the way of keeping and order­ing them.

THE best time for grafting and gathering of Grafts, are proper to be known;

As to the first, of the best time for grafting, from the [...]ne of removing your stock, is the next Spring, for at hinders a second repulse of the Sap, and a second [...]ound in the stock; and if your stock be of a sufficient [...]gness, it may take a Graft as thick as your Thumb, [...]at of larger Grafts I approve not, for they seldom stand, [...] reason they require more Sap than the stock (before [...]ey are well united) can afford them. The best time [...] the year I account, if the Weather be open, is the latter [...]d of February, March, and the beginning of April, [...]d about the change of the Moon, when only the Knots [...]d Buds are seen, without any considerable appearance [...]f the Blossoms, or Leaves; Cherries, Apricocks, Pears, [...]uinces, and Plums, may be grafted sooner than the [...]ter Flowers.

The Grafts are proper to be gathered in the middle of [...]ebruary, the Weather being open, or no hard Frost on [...]em: You may do this some time before you graft, or [...] the same day, for at this time of year they will keep [...]esh a considerable while, if layed with the greater ends [...] good Mould. Grafts from elder Trees must be taken other than these of the younger, for they sooner break [...]d Bud.

Take not, when you make choice, of the proudest [...]rigs, unless your Stocks be answerable to their [...]trengths and Growths; nor out of a much warmer and [...]cher Soil than that your Stock grows in, lest the Sap [...]ot agreeing, or springing up fast enough, the cold Weather pine them: if they be long, cut off a little of [Page 18] the top of it, for that else withering, for want of du [...] Nourishment at first, may injure the lower part, an [...] hinder it from sprouting out; take not any from poo [...] unthriving Trees, nor from the Underlings that seem t [...] dwindle in their Growth, even on their own Trees th [...] produced them, but midling ones that prosper, but no [...] too fast.

If the Clay and Dung about your Graft, be cleft [...] dry weather, close it again with some that is mois [...] lest the Emmets get in and spoil your Graft; take it no [...] for a certain sign, that the Graft has well taken, if [...] quickly put forth in the Spring, for that may procee [...] from the Sap it brought with it, more than from a [...] Nourishment of the Stock; nor can it always be determi [...] ed till after the succeeding Spring, whether it will ta [...] well or not; but when you find it has, you may di [...] burthen it of the Clay, that the Sun may come to Nourish it in all parts the better.


Other ways relating to Grafting, as Incising Packing on, Inoculating, Grafting in Scut­cheon, &c.

ANother way relating to this Mystery, is incising or cutting the Bark of the Bole, Rhind, or Branch, at some bending, or Knee, Shoulder-wise, with two gashes only with a sharp Knife to the Wood; then take sharp ended Wedges to the bigness of your Graft, fla [...] on the one side, agreeing with the Tree, and round o [...] the other side, and with that, being thrust in, raise the Bark, then put in the Graft just fashioned like the Wedge, close it hard with your Hand, and bind about it Clay, and Horse Dung.

[Page 19]For great stocks, you may cleave them cross, and put [...]n a Graft at each corner with little straining them, and close them up with Clay, and Dung, as others; and tho' [...]hey are pretty large, the stock having sap enough to sup­port them, some, or all of them will cut, and growing up faster than on small stocks, will much sooner bear Fruit: And this I have seen tryed on stocks of a good growth, that have borne, had Fruit, and in a few Years the Grafts have shot up, and produceth excellent Fruit.

Packing on, is when you cut sloap-wise, a Twig of the same Magnitude with your Graft, either in, or be­sides the Knot, two Inches long, and make your Graft just agree with the scion, and gashy our Graft, and it, just in the midst of the Wound, length-ways, about a straws breadth deep, and thrust the one into the other, Wound to Wound, so that sap may come to sap, and Bark to Bark, so bind them close with soft strings, and mix Clay and Dung, and cover them over, and this way many times, thrives wonderfully; and this may be done on Branches of Tree, the latter end of Grafting-time, when the sap is risen with good success.

The way of Inoculating is with an Eye or Bud, taken with a pretty large piece of Bark to it, from a thriving Tree, and placed immediately on another Tree, where just the same quantity has been taken off, that it may close with the bare place of the Tree, supplying the Bark that was taken thence, and being bound on with Clay and Dung, strengthened with a little Moss, is in great likelyhood quickly to flourish: This by some, is called Imbuding.

Grafting in Scutcheon is somewhat like unto the for­mer, only differing in this, that you must take an Eye, or Bud, with Leafs (Note, That an Eye is for a scion, and a Bud for Flowers, and Fruit) and place them on another Tree in a Plain, like the Letter H, out with a sharp Knife, and the Bark raise with a Wedge, and then the Eye and Bud must be put in, and so bound up: These I have known to have grown well, but it is some­what a tedious way, and the plainer way of Grafting soonest answers Expectation.

[Page 20]As for the young Grafts, you must be careful to Fenc [...] them about, for the least rudness, or rough handling spoils your Labour, or much impares what you ha [...] done; and this may be done with setting of Roses Gooseberries, or such prickly Trees about them, but no [...] so as to over-shade them, and hinder their growth, a [...] be careful that no Cattle break into your Ground: nay Dogs and Cats, where they are grafted low to the Ground may by running over them, break off the Graft, and s [...] cross you in your Industry: And now from General, [...] proceed to particular Trees, &c.


Of the Apple-Tree, how Grafted and Ordered, the Advantages accruing thereby, &c.

THE Apple is commonly grafted upon the Crab-tree Stocks, or upon the wild Apple-stock, be­ing first planted, and the year after cut off within a foot to the Earth, or more. If your Apple-trees are pestered with Worms, scrape them with a brazen Scra­per, and they will never come again, provided that the place whence you scraped them, be rubbed over with Bullocks Dung: The Urine and Dung of Goats is very good for this purpose, afterwards the Lees of old Wine may be poured upon the Roots of the Trees. The Tree that is sick, or prospereth not, is helped with As­ses Dung, and watering it six days. Apple-trees must be often watered at the setting of the Sun, till the Spring be come, when planted in dry Ground. If you set your Apple-trees too thick, they will never grow well, nor thrive kindly. The Apple declareth its ripe­ness by the blackness of the Kirnels. The Winter Stores are gathered after the fourteenth of September, or there­abouts, according to their Kinds, and not before the [Page 21] Moon be seventeen Days old, in fair Weather, and in the Afternoon: Those that fall from the Trees must be laid by themselves; it is better to pull them, then shake [...]hem, least they be bruised in their falling. The best way to keep them is in fair Lofts, Vaults, or cold pla­ces, with Windows opening towards the North, that [...]hey may receive that Air; the South Wind; must be [...]hut out; they must be laid thin upon Straw, Chaff, or Mats. You must lay every sort by themselves, lest sundry sorts lying together, they should the sooner rot. They are also kept from rotting, if they are laid in Bar­ [...]y, or Wheat. Some, to avoid the hurt of the Frost, [...]se to cover them with wet Linnen Clothes, which be­ [...]ng frozen, the Fruit that lay under them is preserved. Of Apples, besides other Uses, you may with Mills for [...]he purpose, make a curious Drink, called Cyder, and [...] small Drink besides, with Water, and the refuse of the Apples drained; a good Drink to quench and cool the Thirst. A kind of Vinegar also may be made of Crabs, [...]nd sower Apples, called Verjuice, which mashed, and [...]ying in a heap together three or four Days, afterwards put into a Pipe, or Tun, wherewith mingle Spring water, or Rain water, and so suffer them to stand close covered thirty Days, and after taking out what Vinegar the Moisture affords, by drawing off, and let it settle.


Of the Pear-Tree, how Grafted, Ordered an [...] Improved, &c.

THE Pear challengeth the next Place, and is on [...] of the chiefest Beauties of the Orchard. Th [...] Apple-Tree, spreadeth in broad Branches; but the Pear tree riseth in hight, and delighteth in a rich and moi [...] Ground: it doth grow of the Kernel, and of th [...] Scion, but it is a great while before it doth come un [...] any Perfection; and when it is grown, it degenerate [...] from them its old good Nature; and therefore it is be [...] ter to take the wild Plants and set them in your Groun [...] in November, and when that they are well rooted, yo [...] may graft upon them. It is said, that in some Cou [...] tries, it is so prospereth with often digging, and muc [...] Moisture, that it never looseth its Flower: You shall d [...] it a great deal of Good, if every other Year you bestow some Dung upon it. Ox Dung is thought to mak [...] great and massy Pears; some put too a little Ashes t [...] make their taste the pleasanter. They are not onl [...] planted of the Roots, but also of the very little Twig [...] being pluckt, will grow. If you will set young Plants let them be three Years old, or at least two Years old before you set them. Some again take the fairest Branche [...] they find upon the Tree, and set them, as has been directed. The time of Grafting the Pear, is March an [...] April. Pliny saith, That you may graft it when the Blossom is on it, which I myself have have tryed, and foun [...] true. It is grafted upon the Quince, the Pumgrane [...] the Almond, the Apple and the Mulbery-tree: If yo [...] graft it on the Mulbery-tree; your Pear shall be red and if you would have the Fruit pleasant, and the Tre [...] fruitful, you must bore a Hole through the Stock clos [...] by the Ground, and driving in an Oaken, or a Beeche [...] Pin, cover it up with Earth; if the Tree prosper not [Page 23] wash the Roots, and water them with the Lees of old Wine, fifteen Days, so shall it bare the better, and plea­ [...]anter Fruit. It shall never be hurt with Worms, if when you plant it, you anoint it with the Gaul of an Ox: [...]f the Tree (whose Roots have been cut) seem not to [...]rosper, Paludius his Remedy is to pierce the Root thro', [...]nd to drive in a Pin, made either of Oak, or Plum-tree. [...]f your Pears are stony, or choak Pears, dig up the Earth [...]rom the Roots, cleanse them of Stones, and fift in good [...]ew Mould again into the place: Let your Pear-trees [...]and thirty Foot asunder, or little less; your Apple- [...]rees (as I have said) further. You may make use of [...]everal ways to keep your Pears, some dip the Stalks in [...]oyling Pitch, and do afterwards hang them up: others keep them in new boyled Wine, or else in a close Vessel; others in Sand; and some again, covered with Wheat, [...]r Chaff; some are of Opinion, that there is no kind Fruit but may be preserved in Honey; of Pears there is Drink, and Sauce made, the Drink is Perry, made as Cyder, of a most delicious Taste, the Juyce being pressed [...]ut with the Press, &c. In other Countries to have a pretty Dish made of Pears, for their Religious Fasts, called Castimoniale.


Of the Quince-Tree, how Ordered, Grafted, Improved, &c.

NEXT in order, after Apples and Pears, cometh the Quince; they are planted after the same man­ner that Pears and Apples are: Some affirm that the sets that have been set in March, or in February, have taken such Root, as that they have born Fruit the Year after. They grow well in cold and moist Countries, in plain and silly Grounds, in hot and dry Countries you must [Page 24] set them in October. Many set them with the tops a [...] the set, but neither of them both is very good; and b [...] ing set of Scions they soon degenerate. They are be [...] ter grafted in the Stock than in the Bark; and that [...] February or March, they receive into their Stocks, t [...] Grafts (in a sort) of all manner of Trees; the Pomgi [...] net, the Seruise, all the kinds of Apples, and make t [...] Fruit the better. The Quince Tree must be set in th [...] order, that in the shaking of the Wind they drop not o [...] upon another. When it is young or newly plant [...] it is helped with Dung, or better with Ashes; th [...] must be watered as often as the Season is very dry, a [...] digged about continually; in hot Countries, in Octob [...] or November; in cold Countries, in February, or Marc [...] for if you do not often dig about them, they will eith [...] be barren, or bear naughty Fruit; they must be prun [...] cut, and rid of all Superfluities. If the Tree be si [...] and do not prosper well, the root must be watered w [...] the Mother of Oil, mingled with the like quantity of W [...] ter, or unslack'd Lime mingled with Chalk; or Rosi [...] or Tar must be poured upon the Roots; You must gath [...] them in a fair Day, being sound and unspotted, and ve [...] ripe, and in the Wane of the Moon. They are best ke [...] coffened betwixt two hollow Tiles, well closed on eve [...] side with Clay: Some lay them only in dry Places, whe [...] no wind cometh; others heap them in Chaff and Whea [...] some in Wine, which maketh the Wine more pleasan [...] lay them not near any other Fruit, because, with [...] Air, they will corrupt them. There is also made a ki [...] of Wine of Quinces, (being beaten and pressed) and little Honey with Oil put into it; there is also made [...] them a precious Conserve, and Marmalade, red a [...] white, being congealed with long Seething, and boyl [...] with Sugar, Wine, and Spices.


[...]f the Medler and Service-tree, how Or­dered, Grafted, Improved, &c.

THE Medler is accounted to be of the Number of Apple-trees, and Pear-trees: It is Planted in the [...]e Manner as the Quince is: It delighteth in hot Pla­ [...], but well watered, it will do well enough: It is [...]anted of the Scion, in March or November, in a well [...]nged Ground, and mellow, so that both the Ends be [...]bbed over with Dung. It is also set of a Stone, but [...]en it is very long before it cometh to any Thing: It excellently well Grafted in the white Thorn, the Pear, the Apple. The Medlers that you mean to keep, you [...]ust gather before they are Ripe; and being suffered to [...]ow so upon the Tree, they last a great part of the [...]inter: They are preserved in sodden Wine, and Vi­ [...]gar, and Water. Of the Wood of the wild Medler, [...] use to make Spokes for Wheels of Carts, and the [...]wigs of them serve for Carters Whips. Next to the [...]edler, for Neighbourhood sake, I must speak of the [...]rvice, it is a high Tree, with a round Berry, fashioned [...]e an Egg; this Fruit grows in Clusters, as the Grape [...]th: The wild is better than the Garden Fruit to Graft [...]. It delighteth in cold Places, and if you Plant it in [...] Ground, it will wax Barren. It hath no Prickles as [...]e Medler hath, it groweth of the Stone, the Set, the [...]ot, or the Scion, and prospereth in a cold wet Soil: [...]s Planted in February and in March in cold Countries, [...]d in hot in October and November. It is Grafted either its own Stalk, or on the Quince, or Haw-thorn, either the Stock or the Bark.


Of the Pomegranate-tree, how it must Ordered, Grafted, and Improved.

AMongst the strange Fruit, there is none of them co [...] parable to the Pomegranate: The tree is not Hi [...] the Leaf Narrow, and of a very pleasant Green, the Flo [...] er Purple, long like a Coffin; the Apple that is comp [...] ed with a thicker Rind, is full of Grains within [...] Pomegranate is sweet and sower. This Tree only, the Fig and the Vine, the Body being cloven, dieth n [...] the Branches are full of Prickles as the Gorst is: It low both a hot Ground, and a warm Air, and liketh not [...] tery Places. In some hot Countries it groweth wild in [...] Bushes: It is planted in the Spring-time, the Roots be [...] watered with Hogs-dung and Stale. It is Grafted up [...] its own Stock, and also upon other Trees; and likew [...] upon the Scion that grows from the Roots of the Tree. And tho' it may be planted sundry Ways, yet best Way is a Cubit in length, smoothed with your Kn [...] at both Ends, and slope-wise in the Ground, with h [...] its Ends well smothered with Hogs-dung and Stale. [...] much delighteth in the Myrtle, insomuch as the Ro [...] will meet, and entangle together with delight. T [...] Fruit will grow, without Kernels, if Grafted in the V [...] the Peth being taken out, and the Set covered w [...] Earth, and (when it hath taken) let it in the Spring pruned. You shall have them keep a long while, if t [...] be first dipped in scalding Water, and then taken [...] quickly, laid in dry Sand, or else in some Heap [...] Wheat in the Shadow, till they be wrinkled; or els [...] covered with Chaff, as that they touch not the one or [...] other.


Of the Citron, or Limon-tree; how Planted and Improved.

THE Outlandish Citron is here very carefully planted: This Tree doth always bear Fruit, some falling, [...]ome ripe, and some springing: Nature shewing in them [...] wonderful Fertillity. There are several Kinds of them [...]rom whence they have several Names: I shall only name [...]wo Sorts of them; those that are long fashioned like an [...]gg, if they be yellow, are called Citrons; if they be [...]reen, Limons, the Leaf is like the Bay-leaf, saving that [...]here grows Prickles amongst them: The Fruit of them [...] yellow, wrinkled without, sweet in Smell, and sower [...] Taste; the Kernels like the Kernels of a Pear. The [...]ree is planted four manner of Ways; of the Kernel, of [...]e Scion, of the Branch, and of the Stock: If you will [...]t the Kernel, you must dig the Earth two Foot every [...]ay, and mingle it with Ashes: You must make short [...]eds, that they may be watered with Gutters on every side. [...] these Beds you must open the Earth with your Hand, a [...]ands breadth, and set three Kernels together, with the [...]op downwards; and being cover'd, water them every [...]ay; and when they spring, set them diligently in good [...]ellow Furrows, and water them every 4 or 5 Day: And [...]hen they begin to grow, remove them again in the Spring­ [...]me, to a gentle and moist Ground, for it delighteth much [...] wet: If you set the Branch, you must not set it above a [...]oot and a half in the Ground, lest it rot. He that doth [...]tend to cherish this Tree, let him be sure to defend it [...]om the North, and set it towards the South, and in the [...]n; in the Winter it Frails and Baskets. This Tree de­ [...]ghteth to be continually digged about. They are grafted [...] hot Places in April, in cold Countries in May, not un­ [...]er the Bark, but cleaving to the Stock, near the Root: [...]hey may be grafted both on the Pear and Mulberry; [Page 28] But when they are Grafted they must be fenced, eith [...] with a Weather-basket, or some earthen Vessel. S [...] as you mean to keep, and must be gathered in the Nig [...] the Moon being down, and gathered with Branches [...] all, as they hang. When the Fruit burdeneth the T [...] you must pull them off, and leave but few on it, whi [...] will be the pleasanter and the kinder Fruit. If wh [...] they are Young and Little, they are put into Earth Vessels, or Glass, they will grow according to the P [...] portion thereof: So that you may have them fashion [...] either like a Man or Beast, according to your Fancy, [...] you must so order your Moulds that the Air may co [...] to them. They are highly esteemed of by great Perse [...]


Of the Mulberry-tree, how Ordered, Plant [...] Grafted, and Improved.

THE Mulberry of all other Trees, is accounted [...] surest bearer, because it never blossometh til [...] cold Weather be past: So that whensoever you see [...] Mulberry begin to spring, you may be sure the cold W [...] ther is at an end: Yet is Ripe with the first, and budd [...] out its Leafs: They dye the Hands (as Pliny saith) w [...] the juice of the Ripe Berry, and wash it off with the gr [...] Berry: It changeth his Colour thrice, (as Ovid allude [...] his Tragical History of Pyramus and Thisbe) first Wh [...] then Red, and lastly Black: It loveth hot Places and G [...] velly, and delights in Digging and Dunging, but not W [...] tering: It's Root must be opened about October, and [...] Lees of Wine pour'd upon 'em: It is set of the Stones, [...] then it often grows to the Wild: The best planting is [...] Scion, and the Tops a Foot and a half long, smooth [...] both Ends, and rubbed over with Dung. The Place wh [...] you set your Sets, cover with Ashes mingled with Ea [...] but cover it not above four Fingers thick, I wo [...] [Page 29] [...]ve you to set it in March, and to remove it in October [...] November. It is Grafted in the Beech, or the White [...]oplar, either by Grafting in the Stocks, or Inoculation; [...]d so shall the Berries be White It is Grafted also in [...]g and Elm, which in old Time they would not suffer for [...]ar of Corrupting. Of the Mulberry is made a very noble [...]edicine for the Stomach, and for the Gout; they will [...]ngest indure kept in Glasses; the Leafs do serve to feed [...]lk-worms withal, whereof some make a very great gain.

The Cornel is a ruddy coloured Fruit, like a Cherry. [...]his Tree is thought never to exceed twelve Cubits in [...]eight; the Body is sound and thick like Horn; the [...]eaf is like an Almond-leaf, but fatter; the Flower and [...]e Fruit is like the Olive, with many Berries hanging up­ [...] a Stalk, first white, and after red; the Juice of the [...]pe Berries is of a bloody Colour. It loveth both high [...]round and Vallies, and prospereth both in moist Ground [...]d dry: It groweth both of the slip, and of the Seed. [...]ou must be careful that you Plant it not near to your Bees.

The Bay is a most grateful Tree, which chiefly gar­ [...]sheth the House, and useth to stand at the Entrance. [...]to maketh two Kinds thereof, the Delphick and the [...]press; the Delphick equally coloured and greener, with [...]eat Berries, in Colour betwixt green and red, where­ [...]th the Conquerors at Delphos were us'd to be Crown­ [...]. The Cypress-Bay hath a shorter Leaf, and a darker [...]een, gathered (as it were) round about the Edges, [...]hich some (as Pliny saith) suppose to be a wild Kind: [...] groweth always green, and beareth Berries; he shoot, [...] out his Branches from the Side, and therefore wax­ [...] soon old and rotten: It doth not very well always [...]th cold Ground, being hot of Nature: It is planted di­ [...]rs Ways. The Berries being dry'd with the North Wind, [...]e gathered and lay'd abroad very thin, lest they cluster [...]gether; afterwards being wet with Ʋrine they are set [...] Furrows a handful deep, and very near together: In [...]arch they are also planted of the slip, you must set [...]em not passing nine Foot asunder: But so they grow [Page 30] out of Kind. Some think that they may be Grafted [...] another, as also upon the Seruise and Ash. The B [...] ries are to be gathered about the beginning of Decembe [...] and to be set in the beginning of March.


Of Orchard Hazle-nut and Philbert-trees Their Improvement.

NUt-trees are commonly planted of the Nut, as [...] other Shell-Fruits are. Of all Nuts the Almo [...] is esteemed to be the worthiest; they are set in Februa [...] and prosper in a clear and hot Ground, in a fat and mo [...] Ground they will grow Barren; they chiefly set such [...] are Crooked, and the young Plants: They are set bo [...] of the Slips, of the Root, and of the Kernel. The N [...] that you intend to set, must be laid a Day before in s [...] Dung: Others steep them in Water sod with Hone [...] letting them lie therein but only one Night, lest [...] sharpness of the Honey spoil the Plant. The Tops a [...] the sharp Ends you must set downward, for from the [...] cometh the Root; the Edge stands towards the Nort [...] You must set three of them in a Triangle, a Hand [...] one from the other; they must be water'd every [...] Days, till they grow to be great; it is also planted w [...] the Branches, taken from the midst of the Tree. T [...] Philbert is Grafted not near the Top of the Stock, [...] about the midst, upon the Bows that grow out. T [...] Tree doth soon bear Fruit, and flowereth before [...] others, in January or February. Virgil accounts it fo [...] Prognosticator of the Plenty of Corn:

When thick the Nut-tree Flowers, amidst the Wood
Of Trees, that all the Branches bend withal;
And that they prosper well, and come to good,
That Year be sure of Corn shall Plenty fall.

[Page 31] [...]he bitter ones (which are the Wholesomer) are made [...]weet, if round about the Tree, four Fingers from the [...]oot, you make a little Trench, by which he shall sweat [...]ut its Bitterness: or else, if you open the Roots, and our therein either Ʋrine, or Hogs Dung; But no Tree [...]oweth sooner out of Kind, and therefore you must of­ [...]n remove it, or else you must Graft when it is great.


Of the Wall-nut-tree, and common Nut-tree, how to Order them.

WAll-nuts are to be set in the Ground the Seam downward, about the beginning of March; Some [...]ink that they will grow as the Philbert doth, either [...] the Slip, or the Root: It groweth well, and liketh [...] cold and dry Place better than a hot; the Nut that you [...]ean to set, will grow the better, if you suffer it to lie our or five Days before in the Urine of a Boy, [...]nd will also prosper the better if it be often removed: [...]hose Nuts (as it is thought) prosper best, that are let [...]ll by the Crows, and other Birds. If you pierce the [...]ree thro' with an Augur [...], and fill up the Place again [...]ith a Pin of Elm, the Tree shall lose his knotty hard­ [...]ess; neither will he lose his Fruit, if you hang by, ei­ [...]her Mallet, or a piece of Scarlet, from a Dunghill. Wall-nut-trees are properly planted round about on [...]he out-side of an Orchard, because their Shadows are [...]reat, and unwholesome, besides the mischief they do [...]ith their dropping. They suck a great deal of good [...]uice from the Ground: For they are mighty high and [...]all Trees of growth, so as some of them are two [...]r three Fathom about; they take up a great deal of [...]oom with their standing, and beguile the other Trees [...]f their Substance; besides there are certain Trees that [...]hey agree not well withal, and therefore they are set [Page 32] on the outside of an Orchard, as Standards to defe [...] their fellows from tempestuous Weather.

Amongst Nuts is also to be accounted the comm [...] Hazelnuts, a Kind whereof is the Philbert; they a [...] Planted after the manner of the Garden Hazelnut; th [...] delight in clay and waterish Grounds, and upon th [...] highest Ground, being very able to abide the Cold.


Of the Chesnut-tree, and Pine tree.

AMongst the Nuts also the Chesnut challengeth [...] Place, tho' he be rather to be reckoned among [...] Maites, from whence he is called the Nut or Mast [...] Jupiter. This Tree delighteth to grow on Uplands, i [...] cold Countries: It hateth Waters, and desireth a cle [...] and a good Mould: It misliketh not a moist grave [...] Ground, and prospereth in a Shadowy or Northerly Ban [...] it hateth a stiff and red clay Ground: It is Planted bo [...] of the Nut, than of the Set; otherwise the safer w [...] were the Set, whch in 2 Years beareth Fruit. It i [...] Planted when the Sun is in the Aequinoctial, both of th [...] Scion, the Set, the Branch, and Root, as the Olive i [...] The Chesnut that you mean for to Sow, must be ver [...] fair and ripe; the newer they are, the better they grow [...] you must set them with the sharp end upwards, and [...] Foot asunder. The Furrow must be a shaftman deep This Tree being felled after 5 Years, will prosper lik [...] the Willow: And being cut out in Stays, it will last ti [...] the next fe [...]ling. The Chesnut may be Grafted on th [...] Walnut, the Beech, and the Oak: It hath been obse [...] ved, that where they grow two and two together, they prosper the better.

The Pine is planted not much unlike to the Almon [...] the Kernels of the Keit-clocks being set as the Almon [...] [Page 33] [...]; they are gathered in July, before the cunicular Winds, and before the Nuts, the Husks being broken, [...]ll out. The best Time of Sowing them, Paladin reckons [...]o be October and November. This Tree is thought to [...]e a Nourisher of all that is sown under it.


How to Order and Improve Cherry-trees.

THE Cherry-tree is easy to be planted; if the Stones be but cast abroad, they will grow with [...]reat increase: Such is their forwardness in growing, [...]hat the Stays or Supporters of Vines, that are made of [...]herry-tree, are commonly seen to grow to be Trees. They are grafted upon the Plumb-tree, upon his own [...]tock, upon the Palm-tree, and on the Abricot, but [...]est upon the wild Cherry; it joyeth in being Grafted, [...]nd bearing better Fruit. If you Graft them upon the [...]ine, your Tree shall bear in the Spring; the Time of Grafting is either when there is no Gum upon them, [...]r when the Gum has left running. Remove the wild [...]lant either in October or November, and the first of Ja­ [...]uary or February, when it hath taken Root, it may be Grafted upon. You may Graft it on the Stock; but often it prospereth better being Grafted betwixt the Bark and the Wood. It delighteth to be set in deep [...]renches to have Room enough, and to be often digged [...]bout. It loveth to have the withered Boughs conti­ [...]ually cut away: It groweth best in cold Places, and [...]o hateth Dung, that if it be laid about them, they grow [...]o be wild: It is also planted of the Slips; and some [...]ay it will bear its Fruits without Stones, if in the set­ [...]ing of the Set you turned the upper End downward. There are sundry Kinds of Cherries; some that are redde [...] [...]han the rest; others as black as a Cole. Pliny saith, That [...]n the Banks of Rhine, there grows a Cherry, of Colour, [Page 34] betwixt black, red and green, like Juniper-Berries, wh [...] they are almost ripe: For the several invented Names [...] them, as Duke, Heart, &c. for more brevity, I shall pa [...] them by at this time, and say something of them herea [...] ter. The small Cherries are esteemed, that grow up [...] a Bush with short Stalks, round Fruit, and very re [...] soft and full of Liquor. They will bear very early [...] you lay Lime about them: It is good to gather them o [...] ten, that those which you leave may grow the greate [...] There are also found a kind of Cherries growing wi [...] in the Woods, and Hedge-rows, (and may be well Plan [...] ed in Gardens, and much improved) with little Berrie [...] some red, some altogether black.


Of Plumb-trees, and how to Order them.

PLumb-trees are Planted from the Middle of W [...] ter, to the Ides of February; but if you set t [...] Stones soon after the Fall of the Leaf, let it be done [...] November, in a good and mellow Ground, two Handf [...] deep; they may be also set in February, but then th [...] must be steeped in Lye three Days, that they may t [...] sooner spring; they are also Planted from the young S [...] that grow from the Body of the Tree, either in Januar [...] or the beginning of February, the Roots being well c [...] vered with Dung; they prosper best in a rich and mo [...] Ground, and in a cold Country, they are Grafted t [...] wards the End of March, and are better in a clov [...] Stock than the Bark, or else in January, before th [...] Gum begin to drop out; it is Grafted upon his ow [...] Stock, the Peach and the Almond. There are s [...] veral Sorts of Plumbs, whereof the Damsen is not th [...] least esteemed, joying in a dry Ground, and in a h [...] Country; it is Grafted as the other Plumbs are. Ther [...] are divers coloured Plumbs, white, black, purple, an [...] [Page 35] red, Wheat-plumbs, and Horse-plumbs; the Finger-plumbs are most commended, bearing near the Length of a Man's Finger, and blue in Colour, but later. The Damsens may be dryed in the Sun upon Lattises, Leads, or in an Oven; some do dip them before, either in Sea­water, or in Brine, and after dry them.


Of the Peach-tree, and its Ordering, &c. Also of the Apricot-tree.

OF Peach-trees there are four Kinds; but the chiefest are the Duraces, and the Apricots: In November, in hot Countries, and in others in January, the Stones are to be set two Foot asunder in well dressed Grounds, that when the young Trees are sprung up, they may be removed; but in the setting you must set the sharp end downwards, and let them stand two or three Fingers in the Ground: Wheresoever they grow, they rejoyce in watery Grounds, which Ground if you want, look that you water them well, so shall you have great Store of Fruit. Some would have them set in hot Countries, and sandy Ground, whereby they say that their Fruit will longer endure; the better will also the Fruit be, if as soon as you have eaten them, you set the Stone, with some part of the Fruit cleaving to it: It is Grafted either on himself, Almond, or the Plumb-tree. The Apples of Armenia, or Abricot, do far excel the Peach; used as a great dainty amongst the Nobility and Gentry, and much desired of the Sick: They are best Grafted in the Plumb, as the Peach in the Almond-tree: The fairest Grafts that grow next to the body of the Tree, are to be chosen and grafted in Jan. or Feb. in cold Countries, and in November, in hot; for if you take those that grow in the Top, they will either not grow, or if they grow, not long endure. You may inoculate or im­bud [Page 36] them in April or May, the Stock being cut out aloft and many young Buds set in; neither must you suffe [...] them to stand very far from the other, that they may the better defend themselves from the heat of the Sun. The Frenchmen and our Gardeners also, do Graft the Abricot, taking a Graft, (not full a Finger long) o [...] the Bud that is well shot out, with a little of the Rin [...] cut off, and slitting the Rind of a Plum-tree cross­wise, they set them in, binding them strongly about with Hemp or Tow. Some do hold they will be red if they be either Grafted in the Plumb-tree, or have Roses se [...] underneath them; they will be figured, or written in▪ if seven Days after that you have set the Stone, when i [...] begins to open, you take out the Kernel, and with Vermillion, or any other Colour, you may Counterfei [...] what you will; after the Stone is closed up about it, and covered with Clay, or Hogs-dung, you set it in the Ground Again, you shall have them with Stones, if you pierce the Tree thro', and fill it up with a Pin of Willow, o [...] Cornet-tree, the Pith being had out; but these Things [...] will not certify as Truth, but leave them to Experiment, as not having tryed them; The Roots of the Tree mus [...] be cut and dressed in the Fall of the Leaf, and dunged with its own Leaves; you should also at this Time prune them, and rid them of all rotten and dead Boughs. I [...] the Tree prosper not, pour upon the Roots the Lees o [...] old Wine mingled with Water. Against the Heat of the Sun, heap up the Earth about them, water them in the Evening, and shadow them as well as you may. Against the Frosts, lay on Dung enough, or the Lees of Wine mingled with Water; or Water wherein Beans have been sodden: if it be hurt with Worms, or such Ver [...] mine, pour on it the Urine of Oxen mixed with a third part of Vinegar.


Of the Date-tree, and how it may be Propa­gated.

THE Date-tree, it groweth in a mild gravelly Ground, and delighteth in a watery Soil; and tho' it de­ [...]res to have Water all the Year long, yet in a dry Year [...] bears the better; therefore some think that Dung is [...]urtful unto it. About the River Nilus, and in the East [...]arts, it groweth Plenteously, where they use to make [...]oth Wine and Bread of it: This Tree in Europe (for [...]he most part) is Barren, tho' for Novelty sake it hath [...]een Planted of many, as an Adorment to an Or­ [...]hard. The Stones of Dates are to be Planted in Tren­ [...]hes of a Cubit in Depth and Breadth, the Trench fill'd [...]p with any Manner of Dung, except Goats Dung; then [...] the midst of the Heap set your Stones so as the sharper [...]art stand upward; others would have it stand towards [...]he East: And after, when first they have sprinkled [...]hereon a little Salt, they cover them with Earth, well [...]ingled with Dung; and every Day while it Springeth, [...]hey water it; some remove it after a Year's growth, [...]ho' some let it grow till it be great. Moreover, because [...] delighteth in Salt Ground, the Roots must be dress­ [...]d every Year, and Salt thrown upon them; and so will [...] quickly grow to be a great Tree. The Sets are not [...]resently to be put into the Ground, but first to set in [...]arthern Pots; and when they have taken Root, to be [...]emoved Date-trees have such a Delight one in the other, [...]hat they bend themselves to touch together; and if they [...]row alone, they wax Barren. They are planted (as Pliny saith) of the Branches, two Cubits long, growing [...]rom the Top of the Tree; also of the slips and slivers. The same Author affirmeth, that about Babylon, the very [...]eaf (if it be set) groweth.

Of the Almond-Tree.

THE Almond-tree will grow and flourish well in En [...] land, if planted in warm Soil, and exposed to t [...] Sun. It is properly grafted on the Philbert; and wh [...] once it gets a Head, it grows a-pace: In Time, with go [...] Diligence, in dunging the Root of it with Swines dun [...] and Water, beareth considerably. It Flowers early, whi [...] is of a reddish Colour; and if for no other than this, [...] much graces an Orchard; but it has been known to be much Fruit, some bitter, some sweet, according to t [...] Nature of the Tree or Graft.

Of the Barberry-tree.

THE Barberry-tree challenges a Place in an Orchar [...] amongst others, by Reason of the usefulness of [...] Fruit, on sundry Occasions. There are several Sorts [...] these Trees, tho' but one only common, above which that to be preferred, that beareth its Berries without Stone there is likewise another Sort, differing from the common Kind, bearing its Berries twice as big, being t [...] most excellent of all others, for preserving, and ma [...] ing Marmalade. These are best planted on ris [...] Banks, where too much Moisture may not afflict [...] Root.

Of the Gooseberry and Currant-trees.

OF these that grow in Orchards, tho' under Trees [...] Shrubs may well be accounted the Gooseberr [...] and currant-trees, being Fruits that make excelle [...] Wine, comparable to many others.

Of Gooseberries there are many Sorts and Colours; th [...] white Holland or Dutch Gooseberry is of these the faires [...] and the best Bearer of all others; the Berries are whi [...] and transparent, large, smooth and round. There is a So [...] [Page 39] [...]f green Gooseberries, well tasted, and deserving Com­mendation. These Trees propagate with little Cost or [...]abour, and from the beginning of May to the middle of June, their Berries are very useful for Tarts, preserving, making Sauces, to be eaten raw, for Concoction, and cre­ [...]ting of a good Digestion; also to make Wine, as I have said, by clean pressing out of the Juice, clarifying it, and [...]ottling it up, with a little Loaf Sugar to feed on, and [...]ike out the Tartness: A good Spirit may be distilled [...]rom them when ripe, if bruised, and mix'd with Water, coming very near Brandy. There are a red Sort a very plentiful Bearer.

As for the Currants there are the white, red and black. These Trees are propagated with little Charge, growing almost on any Ground, and these with the foregoing, may [...]he planted in Intervals of Orchards: As the red they are accounted the best for Preserving, and being used in Con­fections; moreover, they produce a cool Wine, being or­dered as Gooseberries, more pleasant to the Taste than any French Wine, and held much wholesomer: This, as the Gooseberry, may be set of slips, with little Roots, on rising Ground, where the Sun can come at them, to en­large and ripen the Fruit; The black are mostly to be used in Physical Matters.

Of the Rasberry-tree.

RAsberries claim a place in this Book, for tho' it be but a Shrub, it affords a delicious Fruit, useful on sundry Occasions: It delights in mellow Clay, or loving Ground, mingled with other good Earth, to be set on little rising Hills, or Banks, in the Out-Borders of the Or­chard, by Ditch-sides, but not in too moist Places; for overmuch Wet rots the Root.

Of the Fig-tree.

THE Fig-tree grows upright of itself in Orchards, and bears good Fruit; as the great Blue Fig, which [Page 40] usually comes to Ripeness, and is of a delicious Taste▪ other Sorts there are, but being brought out of hot Coun­tries, and planted here, the cold Weather coming on before their Fruit can well ripen, they mostly cast it so that it comes to nothing. The Fig may be well Grafted on the Mulberry, and then it bears the pleasanter Fruit and Prospers best; and when the Fruit appears we [...] grown, Pluck off many of the shading Leafs, that the Heat of the Sun coming to it, it may better ripen, and eat the kinder.

Of the Cornelian Cherry-tree, and Orange-tree.

COrnelian Cherries much Grace an Orchard, they may be set of the Stones, and will grow up to Plants and Ingrafted on their own Stocks, they bear a pleasan [...] Fruit, and may be kept for Tarts and other Uses, th [...] greater part of the Year, as being much Harder and Firmer than others, but not much planted, but in choice Or­chards, and more for Pleasure than for Profit. These are the principal standing or upright Trees belonging to an Orchard, that grow without Support, that I at presen [...] have accasion to Discourse of, bringing great Advantage to the Industrious Arborist or Gardener; only I shall add to them my Observation on some others, termed Separate and usually called Wall-fruit, or Supported-fruit; as the Vine, and such like, who best prosper where there is a Reflection of the Sun, to make the Heat the stronger, and more powerful to Enliven, Impregnate and Ripen such Fruit, which in shady Places would come to little.

The Orange-trees curiously grace an Orchard, but na­turally growing in hot Countries, are so tender that they must be planted in Pots, Wickers, or Wooden Troughs to be removed into the Green-house in Winter; therefore when I come to speak of that, I shall be larger on thi [...] excellent Tree.


Wall-fruit-trees, how best to Order them, their Virtues, &c.

THE Vine among these is accounted the Queen, pro­ving delicious Clusters, as are not only pleasant to [...]he Taste, but reviving to the Spirits, and healthful to the [...]ody; and it has been more cherished in England, than at [...]resent; many spacious Grounds, tho' now turned into Grass or Cornfields, retaining yet the Name of Vineyards; [...]s that on the backside the Church of Camberwel in Surry, [...]nd many others, from the Vines that have been former­ [...]y Planted there, tho' now totally Eradicated; and no [...]oubt, store of Wines, by well Planting, Manuring, Dres­ [...]ing, and other good Management of Vines, might be [...]ill produced, equally to that brought out of France and Germony; but my purpose is now to speak of Wall-vines.

The Vine is best propagated by Layers of a good bear­ [...]ng Vine, bent and layed in the Earth, staked in about 4 or 5 Inches, with good Mould and Turf upon it, and a­ [...]out half a Yard rising upright, which may be support­ [...]d by a Stick stuck in the Ground, and it will take Root, which being cut short, and set about the beginning of March, will grow very well; but ever observe to set [...]hem to a Wall, Pales, or Houses side, &c. where the Morning, Noon, or Evening Sun, or all of them may [...]ave full Power; for without the Influence of the Sun this Tree beareth not to any purpose, bringing forth small Grapes, which seldom ripen; for the Season advancing, [...]he nipping Frosts come on them, and wither them before [...]hey can do it. Some Eminent Gardeners allow it may [...]e Grafted on the Cherry-tree, or Elm, of these there are many Kinds, but the best Bearer in our Climate, is the Parsly Vine, bringing abundace of Fruit, with good Ma­ [...]agement, to Perfection. The Fox grape is a fair and [...]rge Fruit, bearing pretty well: The Rhenish-grape, [Page 42] Paris Grape, and small Muscadel, are pretty well suite to our Clime. The Currant Grape is the earliest a [...] sweetest, though they are but small.

Great care for the improving of the Vine must be Prune it before the Sap rises, viz. in March, and na [...] them up conveniently, with a Slip of old Bud, or so [...] Leather, that the Branches may spread conveniently t [...] the Sun, and the warm breathing of the South and Western Wind; and lay a little Horse-dung lightly abou [...] the Root, in the Spring, that it may soak in and fart [...] the Root, which must be set out from the Wall a pre [...] distance, that it may have Room enough to spread i [...] without Opposition.

Some pluck off most of the Leaves when the Cluste [...] are well knit, but this, in my Opinion and Experienc [...] rather hinders than advantages their growth, and so [...] Ripening; for the cool Blasts are often abroad in Summer than the hot ones, and they chill and hinder th [...] product, so that it has been seen, that the Grapes sheltered with Leaves, have been kept the warmer by thei [...] sooner Ripening. If the Vine stands against damp Wall [...] the wetness perishes the Clusters that touch it, or th [...] moist heatings musty them; and if you see one in an [...] Cluster perished, take it away, lest it infect the rest.

There is, of those Grapes that come not to such [...] ripeness as Wine may be made of them, a curious Vine­gar nevertheless to be pressed from them. They are also very good Sauce, pickled in Water, Salt, and a lit­tle Vinegar boild together. The same way you may al­so pickle Barberries, Gooseberries, Quinces, and gree [...] Plumbs, that they, with a renewal of Pickle, keep th [...] Year about.

Of the Apricot-Trees.

THE Apricot flourishes and thrives best against [...] kindly Wall, favoured by the heat of the Sun; and of these there are several Kinds, as the Musk Apricot, th [...] Orange, the Great Bearer, the Ordinary, some bring up [Page 43] [...]pe Fruit sooner than others. These Trees delight in free, rich and light Soil; but spreads itself much in [...]ranches, and therefore must be diligently pruned, that [...]e Fruit may grow the larger, there being then more [...]ourishment left in the Stock to feed them. It is much [...]bject to the Canker, therefore to correct that Vice in [...]e Mould, dig a large Pit where you intend to Plant [...]our Tree, and fill it a Foot thick; and within about a [...]ot or eighteen Inches of the Surface, with Marle Chalk, [...] white Earth; then scatter over that fine Mould, about [...]our or five Inches thick, and then Plant the Root upon it, [...]nd this will keep the Root from running too deep, and [...]ake it spread more near the Surface of the Earth, so [...]hat not being over-charged with the too lushious Sap, it will not be subject to the Canker, which is a Disease that [...]estroys many of these Trees in their bearing Prime, and [...]his will also make it put forth fewer Branches, and more [...]ruit.

There is a way to make this a Dwarf-tree, that is, so [...]o keep it under, that it shall grow not above three Foot [...]o the Wall, whereby being under the Wind, and recei­ [...]ing the reflection of the Suns heat, both from the warm­ [...]ess of the Earth and Wall, it bears earlier than others, its Fruit ripens kinder; and this may be done by often Pru­ [...]ing the main Branches, and Planting as before directed; this may be Grafted on the Plumb, or its own Stock.

Of Peach-trees, Nectarins, Malacotoons, &c.

THO' the Peach may properly be a Standard Tree, yet it flourishes, as for bearing Fruit, against a kindly East, South, or West Wall; as also the Nectarins: And of these there are several Kinds; as the Aberge, Small Yellow, Almond Violet, Bourdin, Belle-Chenurense, Elinge-Nectarine, Maudlin, Mignou, Morella Muskviolet, Murry-Nectarine, Red Roman-Nectarine, Nutmeg, Red and White, Man-Peach, Newington, Perisque, Rambulli­ [...]on, Syon, Oleance, Savoy-Mala-cotton, &c. these may be Planted as the Apricot.

[Page 44]The Peach may be Grafted on the white Thorn Beech, or its own Stock: The Peach and Almond joyned together, and Grafted on the Plumb-tree, is hel [...] to produce a Peach with an Almond in the Stone of it [...] but of these Kinds the Nutmeg and Newington Peach an [...] excellent good in Taste, and great Bearers, especially the first, which amends for the smallness of the Frui [...] but the latter is very large, and a gallant Fruit. They may also be well Inoculated on choice Plumb-stocks, a [...] the white Pear plumb stock, or Plants coming of Peach stones.

Of Plumb-trees.

DIvers Sorts of Plumbs, they may also be Standards thrive excellently well against a Wall advantage­ously situated to the Suns warm Beams, as the Nutmeg▪ the Pear-plumb, white and black, the Pearcod, the Prune, De L'Isle-vert, the Damask Violet, Dale-plumb, the C [...] tharine, &c. These must be pruned as the former, an [...] in the Spring the Roots lay'd open, and well dug abou [...] and a little Horse-dung lay'd on the Earth, when th [...] Roots are covered again, which the Rain soaking in wil [...] much cherish and enliven the Roots.

These Trees must be grafted or Inoculated on Plumb-stocks; the white Pear-plumb stocks are accounted the best, and the Damsin-stocks the worst, as being dry Stocks, so that the Graft cannot take, nor thrive upon them. Those Stocks of Plumbs that have large Leafs and full Shoots, I account the best.

Of the Fig-tree.

THE Fig is both a Standard and a Wall-tree prosper­ing best on the latter; and of these there are seve­ral other Kinds as Wall fruit, than what I have named in the Standards; and of all these the Scio, White and Purple, Dwarf Blue, Yellow Dwarf, you must set the Roots pretty deep, and spreading, in a light fertile Mould, [Page 45] and kept under from spreading too much, by often pru­ [...]ing, and nailing close to the Wall: This Tree may be well Grafted on the Mulberry-stocks, but it must not be planted against House Walls, where droppings of Rain fall much on the Root, that will soon rot and destroy it.

Of the Currant Tree, as Wall-Fruit.

CUrrant-trees, tho' they are properly Standards, may be planted against a Wall, which will encrease their Fruit in Largeness, if they are nailed up, and well pruned when the Branches grow Luxuriant. There are yet other Mural-trees, as the Lore-tree, the Virginia Plumb, and the Cornel-tree, that bear Fruit kindly, and may be Planted in good-mellow Ground, setting the Roots some distance from the Wall, that the hardness of its Foundation may not oppose the growing of them; and in dry Seasons they must be watered early in the Morning, or when the Earth is cool, after the Sun's being down, with thick soily Water; and now tho' there may be some other Kinds of Fruits, yet not common, easy to be had, or to bring to Perfection, I think I have given a suffici­ent choice of Standard and Wall-Fruit, and enough I am sure to furnish and beautify any Orchard, and bring it to vast Improvement, with good Management, in a short Time; however, I shall proceed to other Matters, useful to be known, and materially relating to the well Ordering of Orchards, &c.


The well Ordering and right Dressing of Fruit-Trees, for their better thriving.

THE Skilful dressing and pruning Fruit-trees, is one main matter to keep 'em from sundry ill Convenien­cies [Page 46] and disorders, they would be otherwise subject [...] and to preserve them in a good Growth, and to br [...] forth a good Fruit, better and more seasonably; and th [...] consists in Pruning, or cutting away the superfluo [...] Boughs, Branches, and Suckers that waste and destr [...] the Sap unprofitable, hindering the bearing Branch [...] from perfecting the Growth of the Fruit, and seaso [...] ably ripening it; this must be done before Sap rise as in January, February, or the beginning of March; a [...] you must in this case, distinguish the bearing from [...] Leaf-buds; and the bearing ones are known by the [...] being more turgid than the other, fuller and more swe [...] ling. In this Work cut off all the Shoots of August, [...] less the Nakedness of the Tree require you to hold yo [...] Hand; what you Prune from the rest, cut off slant [...] above the Bud, with a sharp Knife, leaving no Rags.

Those Buds in Wall-fruits that put forth between th [...] Stem and the Wall, or opposite to them, rub off as so [...] as they appear, sparing only the colateral Branches.

Keep your Wall and Palisadoe-trees from too hig [...] mounting hastily, so that they may spread, and the be [...] form themselves beautiful, like a Fan close to the Groun [...]

Take the Water-boughs away, which are those on th [...] Standards that are shaded, and dropt upon, remaini [...] smooth and naked without Buds; cut of the unbearin [...] Branches of Wall-fruit-trees smooth and slanting. A [...] for the tender Wall-fruit, the proper Time to Prun [...] them is in February, and the beginning of March.

Where Branches are intangled and thick, that the [...] gall one another, or exclude the free Entrance of the S [...] and Air, thin that Place at Discretion: Trim and N [...] your Wall-fruit and Espallers.

When you find any Moss on the Branches, or at th [...] Roots of the Trees, take it off with a Wooden or Ho [...] Scraper, and rub the Place smooth with a Woollen Clo [...] dipped in Water, wherein Ashes have been well steeped and it will not incumber those Places, at least for a lo [...] Time, and see what Thrive best; open the Roots a lit [...]le [Page 47] of those that seem to drop, and put good Dung or Manure to them, and cover it up with light Earth.

Keep your Trees from mounting too high, if you [...]ould have them good Bearers; for the nearer the Branches are to the Root, the Sap has the more Influence [...]o encrease the Blossoms the stronger to knit them, and [...]nlarge the Fruit: And the moderate height of all spread­ [...]ng Standard-trees, should be something above two Yards [...]yond a Man's reach; and if the middle Branches are [...]piring more than the other, keep them down by Cut­ [...]ing and Pruning, that the Tree may the better spread; [...]nd so they will be smooth-rined, healthful, and long [...]asting Trees, growing low, and consequently safe from [...]he injury of Winds; and by spreading broad, yield much Fruit, not over-shadowing each other, or dropping much upon each others Boughs; and the Bole, by reason [...]f its shortness, will take much Sap, consume little itself, [...]nd so yield a great deal to the better producing the Fruit: For if the Tree aspire, the Sap takes its course so swiftly [...]p, that it has little Intercourse with the lower Boughs; so that they bear but little Fruit.

If you [...]op old Trees, and cut off great Arms, do it close to the Tree, and leave no Snags; then make a Plaister of Tar, Tallow, and a little Pitch, on a course Cloth, and clap it to the Wound, to keep off the cold [...]nd wet, till the Bark recover the Strength: If it be Bark-peel'd, make a Searcloth of Butter, Honey, and Wax, and lay on it, as a good Remedy to recover the Bark, by the other Bark growing and closing up the nak­ed Place.

To effect this, you must be provided with a hand­some light Ladder, a little sharp and well-armed Saw, [...] little sharp Hatchet, a broad-mouth Chizzle, a Mallet, [...]nd a strong and sharp Cleaver, with a Notch (and which is most necessary among young and little Trees) [...] great-hafted and sharp Knife, with a convenient Stool, Pruning-hook, and a Paring Chizzle to smooth the out Places.


Soil proper for remedying Diseases in Frui [...]-trees, and destroying Vermine and Insec [...] that infect them, &c.

WHERE large Trees grow in an Orchard, there th [...] Ground requires every 4 or 5 Years to be we [...] Soiled; for those great Bodies draw a great deal of Mo [...] sture, and consequently the best heart of the Ground And if it be not supply'd the Trees must pine, and w [...] want much of their Fruit. But do not overstock th [...] Root with Dung; rather lay it somewhat near, and [...] Rain wash and soak it to the Roots, especially of you [...] Trees; for too much Dung breeds rankness, and much hurts 'em, especially Apple-trees; according to th [...] Verse.

Manure your Orchard, let it be well laid,
But let it never be too fertile made;
For as a Tree due Nourishment may want,
So too much Soil destroys the tender Plant.

As for the Diseeses and Hurts in Trees, they are m [...] ny; which I shall enumerate in their Order.

If the Trees be greatly subject to Moss, you must co [...] sider what may be the principal cause of it, whether by the over coldness of the Ground, as in a wet clayey Soil or the Barrenness of the Earth naturally.

If coldness, thro' moisture, be the true Cause, the [...] consider how to lay it dryer, by trenching the Ground [...] or if it be Clay-ground, then bring in some warm So [...] to mix with it, as, Ashes, Sand, Sheeps-dung, the Dun [...] of Dove-houses, or Poultry, and the like; and if the So [...] be too Barren, mix it with good fat Soil, especially ne [...] and at the Roots of the Trees; and Moss the Trees we [...] of what is already upon them.

2. Another hindrance of the growth of Fruit-trees, [...] their being Bark-bound, which is known by their pinin [...] [Page 49] [...]en in fertile Ground: This happens when there is but [...]ull and slow Passage up of the Sap, and in small quan­ [...]. Upon this, cut off some of the Superfluous Bran­ [...]es, and score the rest that are any thing great, also the [...]le of the Tree, and the Root, with a sharp Knife, [...]en to the hard Wood, and it will open as if loosened [...]om Bondage, and another Rind will grow, and fill up [...] Space to a good Wideness, according to the bulk of [...] Tree, and still grow with it: So that it will seem rejoyce for his Deliverance, and flourish a great deal [...]uer than before. This is proper to be done in the [...]ring, when the Sap is arising.

3. The Cankar, of which I have hinted before, is a very [...]eat Enemy to Trees, natural to some, accidental to others, [...] Bruises, &c. this hurts many, and utterly spoils some. The Remedy is to cut it out, if it be upon the great [...]ough or Body of the Tree, then a mixture of Horse­ [...]ng and Clay, and cut off the small Branches that are [...]ad, or decaying, and lay the Mixture aforesaid on the [...]ace tainted, binding it on with Rushes, Flags, or soft [...]nds of Hay or Straw; then lay Sea-Cole, or Wood- [...]shes, the Ashes of Fern or Nettles, or the like, to the [...]oots: But if this be a natural Vice, and the Trees grow [...] Gravelly Ground; it will not easily be remedied [...]ithout mending the Soil.

4. In the Spring-time Catterpillars breed, and are a [...]eat pest to Fruit-trees, by destroying the Buds and Blos­ [...]ms, especially in a dry Season, if the Frosts come not to [...]ke'em off; which if they do, they likewise commit much [...]jury by nipping the early Fruit, and rendring it abortive. To destroy these, take wet Hay and Straw, place [...]em when the Wind breaths a moderate fresh Gale, so [...]at being fired with with dry Stuff laid under them, the [...]oke may go among the Trees, for being carried under, will arise in the Boughs: Sprinkle on this, Pitch, Ro­ [...], and Brimstone, and the smothering will make them [...]op off, and dye.

5. Earwigs are another Pest, tho' not so dangerous a [...] former.

[Page 50]To take and destroy these, lay small Kexes at the Ro [...] of your Trees, sprinkled with Water, wherein a little [...] ney has been boiled, and break them in short Pieces, t [...] many of the Hollownessess may be open, and it will dr [...] them from the Tree; and when they have licked up [...] sweet Water; they will crowd themselves for shelter in [...] the hollow Kexes; when you perceive this, you may b [...] them, and so by degrees disincumber your Orchard of e [...]

6. Ants or Emmets much injure Fruit, especially Wa [...] fruit: To destroy them therefore, find out their [...] or chief Haunts, and opening the Top, pour scaldi [...] Water wherein Burdocks have been boiled; or if you ca [...] not find their Haunts, anoint about a Foot next the Ro [...] with Tar or Oyl of Turpentine, and they will not atten [...] to ascend the Tree, or if they do, they will be taken, a [...] stick fast in the gluttenous matter. But some may h [...] object, as for Wall-fruit, they may run up the Wall, a [...] escape it: This I own; but then in such a Case, it ma [...] be prevented, by drawing a Line of the same matter [...] on the Wall, from one end to the other.

7. Shell snails much annoy Wall-fruit: To reme [...] that, take slacked Lime, and strew along on the Ba [...] and dust it on the Leaves and Branches, and where [...] Snail touches it, he will fret and slime to Death: T [...] is effectual likewise to Snails without Shells.

8. Wasps are mischievous when the Fruit begins ripen; and therefore, if you find any Nests of them your Orchard or Gardens, the best way is to destroy the by pouring in hot Water wherein Hemlock as been bo [...] ed; or you may hang Pots with Honey mingled with W [...] ter; drub also the insides of the Pots with Honey, a [...] they having tasted it, repairing further to drink of t [...] Water will drown themselves in great Multitudes.

9. Birds are great destroyers of choice early Fruit, also in the Spring the Buds; espcially the Bulfinch, T [...] mouse, and the like of those of Cherries, Plumbs, Apric [...] &c. these may be taken by Lime-twigs placed in [...] Trees, and then by hanging up dead ones by the He [...] [Page 51] [...] the Trees, the other will be scared away: Also two [...] three Rattle-mills, set up in the Orchard, turned by [...] Wind, will affright them.

10. Winds and nipping Frosts in the Spring, together [...]th Blasts, are Enemies to Fruit-trees: The best way [...] prevent these, is to keep smoking Fires among the [...]anding Trees, and cover the Wall-fruit with bass Mats.


[...]f Nurseries for Stocks; & their Improvement.

TO serve yourself with a sufficient Number of Stocks to Graft on, or Inoculate the several Fruits you in­ [...]end to Propagate and Advance, prepare a Bed of Earth [...]ell dressed from Weeds, proportionable to the Stones or [...]eds you intend to set or sow to raise Stock from: Let [...]em be cover'd with small crumbled light Earth, that [...] the tender puttings forth may the better get thro' it, [...]nd mix with the Earth a moderate sprinkling of Dung, [...] keep it the warmer in Winter. As for the Stones, set [...]hem in Rows, with the sharp end downwards, about the [...]iddle, or latter End of October, the Weather being open, [...]d cover the Beds against the Cold with Straw that has [...]een the Litter of a Stable; which in April, the Weather [...]eing a little warm, remove; and in May, if they pro­ [...]per, they will come up; then keep them clean from Weeds, and thin them by plucking up the Underlings [...]here they grow too thick, that the others may thrive [...]e better; and the third Summer you may mark out in [...]eaving time what you design to remove, and then in the [...]inter following remove them to such Places as you intend [...] Graft or Inoculate on them, or to other Beds, larger, [...]here they may have more room to grow, till such Time [...] your Occasions require their removal to the Place where [...]ou would have them fix'd as Stocks for Grafts.

As for the Seeds of Pears, Apples, and other Fruit not [...]earing Stones, take them out when they Rattle in the [...]ore upon shaking the Fruit, or when the Apple is cut; [Page 52] lay them not by, but instantly sow them very thin, dropping them one by one, in little Rills or Furrows; co [...] them over with fine Mould, and use them in all other r [...] spects as the former. These seed Plants may be likewis [...] set with a setting-stick, and if they are removed whe [...] they are come pretty well up, it will be the better fo [...] their getting good Roots, else they will be apt to shoo [...] one Root only downward, and not spread. Crab stocks and Apple-stocks thus raised, furnish an Orchard bette [...] than those that are taken wild: Trees grafted on the O [...] not moile, or Cyder-stock, preserve better the Gust of th [...] Apple than any other, but on the Crab-stock this is of lo [...] ger lasting, imparting more Juice, of a tart Relish, and s [...] by many preferred before most sort of Apples: However the wild Stock does enliven the dull and phlegmati [...] Apple, and the Stock of the Genetmoile sweetens and improves the Pippin, &c. and abates the tart Taste of othe [...]

The same Rules may be observ'd in Stocks to graft, Pears Plumbs, Cherries, Apricots, and the like upon; and the mo [...] acid the Stock, the more Life it gives to the Fruit [...] the Graft, as the Black-cherry, and the Cherry-tree is th [...] most approved Stock for the delicious Cherry.

Tho' the Fruit generally takes after the Graft, yet it somewhat altered by the Stock, for the better or wor [...] according to its Kind; therefore for your Seminary a [...] Nursery, chuse a place of Ground that may be of an i [...] different Nature, not too Sterile, nor over-much enriched with Dung, it lying warm, with light Mould, th [...] the Stocks may the better thrive.

If you are desirous to raise Dwarfs, trell them: I [...] the Stocks whereon you graft them for Apples, be of th [...] Paradise Apple, of the Quince, for the Pear of the M [...] rello or common English Cheeries for Cherries; and [...] they will be more fit, if you so design them for Wa [...] Trees or Standards, being kept low, as now the use is [...] many good Orchards.

If you would be furnished with good Quince-stoc [...] for your Nursery, the speediest way is to cut down an o [...] [Page 53] Quince-tree in March, about 2 Inches from the Ground, [...]d there will a young number of Suckers arise from the [...]ot, which being taken off, with some of the Root sli­ced with them, and moist Earth about them, as much as may be, are easily planted, and in a little Time will be [...]it to be grafted on for Pears, and raise a good Encrease, and this way also Plumb stocks may be raised, and you may be abundantly furnished of your own, without be­ [...]g beholden to others.


Some further Observations in the Transplant­ing of Fruit-trees; with the Errors of some therein discovered.

I Hold it (tho' upon necessity or Emergency it may be done at other Seasons) the best Time to transplant Trees, is the Autumnal Quarter, especiallly those that [...]ose their Leaves, and are naked all Winter, whether they [...]re young Stocks of new grafted Trees, or of longer [...]tanding; and it is a good Time to do it, when you per­ceive they have done growing in the Branch (which may [...]e known) or Ends of the Branches of the Tops; if [...]hey be closed and shut up, they may be removed with­ [...]ut Danger, tho' in August, but September is a general proper Time, and also in October.

In taking up Plants, great Care and Skill is required [...]y the Remover: See the spreading Roots be left on, [...]ho' you must, according as the Root is, take of so much [...] the Earth may come conveniently to close about the [...]est, and fasten on it every way, that taking good hold, [...] may spread the better; and in removal you will ob­ [...]erve the younger Trees thrive better than the elder, and [...]any Times on an equal Soil over take them in Growth [...]pon a remove of one and the same Time.

[Page 54]Plant not too deep, for the over-turf, is always riche [...] than the next Mould; and in very moist Ground Pl [...] the nearer the Surface, that the Roots spreading m [...] avoid the Spume; for planting too deep in any Ground much injures the growth of the Tree, by reason the hea [...] of the Sun cannot penetrate the Earth to its Root, there by to enliven it, and shooting mostly downward it such in cold damp Spume, which digests not into good Sap [...] whereby the Tree is enfeebled, and not of force to brin [...] forth its Fruit in Proportion; and many Times, in th [...] depth the Roots meet with Chalk or Gravel, whi [...] hinder their Progress.

In transplanting young Trees, as you leave not on [...] the Roots, so neither must all the Branches, takin [...] away the Tops of the Branches of Apples and Pears, b [...] not of Plumbs, Cherries, or Walnuts. It is no smal [...] Check to Plants to be removed out of a warm Soil in a cold one, nor transplant Trees out of a lean Groun [...] into a very fat Soil; for the sudden Alteration will [...] near to destroy them, or much hinder them from prospering; and therefore tho' the Ground must necessarily b [...] better, yet it must be by such Degrees as may be agreeable with the Tree transplanted.

Many plant Fruit-trees unfit for the Country or So [...] wherein they plant them, and their Care is, to ch [...] Grafts of the first Kind, and the fairest plants to loo [...] upon, not considering by the way, that such kinds wi [...] prosper and bear Fruit well in those Climates and place [...] where they plant them: And hence it often is, that man [...] who have fair and goodly Fruit-trees, have little Fr [...] from them.

It is an excellent Rule, to chuse those kinds of Frui [...] which yourself or others find by many Years Expe [...] ce, to be good bearing Trees in those parts nearest [...] your Orchard, altho' the Fruit be not altogether so goo [...] as some others at greater Distance.

There is another Error in desiring the largest and fa [...] est plants, expecting such Trees will soonest impro [...] [Page 55] and yield Encrease; whereas great plants, many of them [...]e, and others, unless rather by Chance than any war­ [...]anted Certainty, live very poorly, whilst smaller plants, well removed, live generally, and often thrive more in two or three Years, than the great ones in six or seven; for the removing great plants is to Nature a very great Check, such as many Times it is not able to recover.

Another Error is, that some unskilful Gardener break [...]f the Buds upon the Stocks grafted on, before the Grafts put forth, insinuating it will receive the more Sap, when those Wounds indeed put a check to the Saps rising, and are more properly taken away when the Graft is united to the Bark of the Stock, and has gathered strength from the Sap, putting out Leaves and small Branches. And some there are, that graft young plants coming of Stones or Seeds where they were sowed or planted, without removing; which is not at all so pro­per for Growth.

THE Gardener's Almanack: Containing what is to be don [...] in, or relating to their Orchard, in the [...] proper Seasons throughout the Year in each particular Month.

Aquarus ♒, or the Skinker. Things proper to be done in the Orchard i [...] the Month of JANUARY.

PRepare such Soil as is suitable to the Nature o [...] the Earth you plant in; make ready the Groun [...] against the Spring, by Trenching, &c. Lay o [...] Dung where there is occasion, as your provide [...] Stores of Horse, Neats, and Sheeps Dung, of two Yea [...] old; mingle with it, in the Lay-stall, some Loam, an [...] under Pasture fine Mould, mingle and stir them with th [...] Dung, and skreen it well when laid on, that it may th [...] easier melt, and soak in by the falling Showers. As fo [...] [Page 57] the Fig tree, the Dung of Pidgeons or Poultry is very nourishing when the first Heat is passed. Let your Horse­ [...]ng, e're laid on, be exceeding rotten, lest it infect the Ground with Knot-grass, which is much offensive.

Apricots and Peaches require little, but rather a natu­ral or improved fat mellow Soil.

Dig Borders, and uncover Tree-roots where you see occasion, as where Ablequation is required; transplant Fruit-trees, set Quicksets for good Fencing, plant Vines; [...]nd make a beginning to prune old Trees, and the Bran­ches of yound Orchard-fruit that are pretty well grown, and that towards the decrease of the Moon; but such as are young and tender disbranch not till the sap begins to stir, that the Wound with the Scars that the Frosts imprint, may be the easier cured; cut away all the Shoots of August, especially from Wall-fruit, and observe in cutting the Fruit-buds from the Leaf-buds, and the former may be known by their being more fuller and swelling, and them you must preserve as much as may be, cut slanting upwards, that no Rags nor Splits be left, and in taking off a whole Limb or Branch, take it close to the Stem, that the Bark may the sooner close over it; rub off the Buds that put forth on Wall-fruit Trees between the Stem and the Wall, or opposite. Keep the Palisado and Wall-trees from too much aspiring, that they may spread the better, and be of a regular beautiful Form, like the spreading of a Fan, and bear the better by being kept the closer to the Ground. Take off Water-boughs from Standards, and the unbearing Branches of Wall-fruit, but do not prune such as are very tender till the next Month: where thick or intangled Branches appear, that may any ways gaul or fret, or keep out the Air and Sun, make them thinner by taking off some, as the Tree will bear it.

Begin to trim and nail your Espaliers and Wall trees; rub off the Moss from Trees, the Weather being open or moist; prepare your Scions for grafting whilst the Buds or Supports are not yet come; and towards the end of [Page 58] this Month, the Weather being open, graft Cherrier, Pears, or Plumbs.

Remove Stocks, proceeding from Kernels, to advan­tageous Places, either in your Nursery, or where you intend they shall stand to be grafted, taking off the part of the Tops and Roots; sharpen and prepare your Tools for the Work of the succeeding Months.

Fruits in their full Virtue, and still continuing. Pears. The Winter Norwich, very good to bake; th [...] Great Surrei [...], the Winter Musk, the Winter Bon Chr [...] flein, and Winter-bergomot, Wall-fruit, &c.

Apples. The Winter Queening, Harvey-apple, Pom [...] ­water, Marrigold, Kentish pippin, Golden-pippin, Russe [...]-pippin, French-pippin, John-apple, Pome-roy, Golde [...] drucet, Reniting, Winter-pearmain, Loons-pearmain, a [...] some others that are with good keeping, well secure [...] from the Violence of the Frost, and exclude all Rotting as the Redstreak, the Puffin, the Wilding, the Gilliflower apple, &c.

Pisces ♓. FEBRUARY.

IN this Month prune Vines, and other Fruit-trees bind, nail, plash and dress, especially Wall-Fruit, suc [...] as are tender, for now the greatest Danger of the Fros [...] hurting them, is in a manner over; and finish this Wor [...] before the Bearers and Buds swell; however in Nect [...] rines, and other choice Fruit, it may be omitted till th [...] next Month, especially if the Weather be very cold Bind the colateral Branches, to put the Wall-trees in [...] good shape, but strain them not too roughly, or unn [...] turally, for that hinders the Sap in its free Motion; an [...] in this, and well pruning, lies one Master-piece of a Ga [...] dener, as to these Particulars.

The Grafts of former Years Grafting, may be now r [...] moved; [Page 59] lay and cut Quick-set, trim up your Espaliers, and the Hedges of your Palisadoes; and hitherto you may set the Vines, and divers Sorts of Shrubs.

Kernels, or Stones of Fruit, are proper now to be set, or sowed. This is a proper Month for the Circumpo­sition, by Baskets, or Tubs of Earth; and such Branches as you would leave to take Root, may be now layed in the Earth.

Moss your Fruit-trees, and apply Remedies for Can­ [...]ers, as cutting them out, and laying on a Plaister of [...]idgeons dung, Tar, and sweet Butter.

Drain your Orchard, and rid it of the Wet that lies sapping at the Roots of the Trees; either Proceeding from Rain, melted Snow, or Springs Cast good Earth [...]out the Roots of the Trees; cover those that were [...]id bare; prune off the Webs of Caterpillars hanging on the Twigs, or Branches. After Rain, pick up Worms and Sug-snails, and destroy them, by putting them into hot Water, or Lime. About the middle, till the latter End of this Month, it may be very proper to graft in the Cleft; and this necessary Work may be held on till the End of March, especially Pears, Plumbs, Apples, Cherries, and it is best done in the New and Old Moon.

Fruits in their full Virtue, and still continuing.

Pears. The Winter Poppering, the Winter Bon-chrestein, the Little Dagobert, the Warden.

Apples. The Reniting, the Lo [...]ns Pearmain, the Ken­ [...]ish Kirton, the Holland Pippin, the Winter Queening, the Harvy-apple, the Golden Doucet, the Pome Roy, the Rus­set-pippin.

Aries, or the Ram. MARCH.

YOU may yet dung your Orchard, and plant Trees that remain yet unset, tho it had been better done [Page 60] in the last Month, unless in moist cold Places, that are very backward.

This whole Month you may Graft, first with Pea [...] in the beginning, and so conclude it with Apples, unless [...] it be in an extraordinary forward Spring, wherein the Trees put very early out, both Leafs and Blossoms.

Nectarines and Peach-trees may successfully be planted▪ but forbear to take off the Top of the Root, as of other Trees is proper, by Reason it will endanger their taking Root at all, or at least hinder their Growth, and Thri­ving. Cut off the Tops of your budded Stocks, an [...] prune Grafts of the last Year. Uncover your Seed, o [...] Kernel-beds, or if the Weather be cold, or much we [...] refrain it till April. Stir the new planted Ground, an [...] well lay and order it.

Cover Tree-roots that have continued bare since Au­tumn, and cut your Quick-sets, trim your Fruit in the Fruit-lofts, but open not the Windows, lest too great [...] Confluence of Air putrifie, and cause them to rot.

Fruits still Lasting, and in their Virtue.

Pears. The Double Blossom Pear, the Bon Chrestien.

Apples. The Winter Pearmain, the Golden Doucet, [...] Loons Pearmain, the Pippin, the Reineting.

Taurus ♉, or the Bull. APRIL.

KEEP your Orchard free from Weeds; water Tree [...] where they are upon a dry Ground; but ever d [...] this at a distance, that the Water may soak leisurely [...] the Roots. Hang well betimes such Borders as yo [...] Wall-fruit stands in, and refresh the Ground with Con [...] post; set no Flowers there, that they may not hinde [...] their stirring the Ground; keep Weeds clear, as als [...] Worms and Snails, only the Outverges you may ado [...] [Page 61] with a Border of Pinks, or any pleasant Thing, that [...]ows low, and will not shadow the Heat of the Sun [...]om the Root of the Tree, and you may sprinkle the [...]st with Salleting; but when they begin to run to Seed, [...] aspire, Pluck them up Roots and all, or as soon as [...]hey are fit for young and tender Salleting. Graft by [...]pproach, Oranges, Lemmons, Pomegranades, &c.

Fruits still Lasting, and in full Virtue.

Pear [...] The Oak-pear, the Bon-Chrestien, the Double Blossom, the Rowling-pear.

Apples. The Deux-ans, Pippins, Flat Leinet, Westbury, Apple, Gilliflower.

Gemini ♊, or the Twins. MAY.

THIS Month, as to Matters in the Affairs of Or­charding in a manner gives the Arborists rest, only be careful to keep under the Weeds, spread and bind down the Branches and Arbours; and clip such Trees as require it, for a Pleasantness and Shape.

Bring the Orange-trees out of the Conservatory, at such Times as you see the Mulberry-tree put sorth, and open its Leafs, let the Weather be what it will, for that is an Infallible Rule for the proper Season, to Tran­splant and remove them, but do it with Care, drawing the Tree out with competent Mould sticking to it, when you have well loosed it from the sides of the case, and so with better ease place it in another, filled with Earth, taking up the first half split, just under the Turf of the richest Pasture Ground, in a place that has been well fothered, and take rotten Cow-dung one part, and mix with this, or at least very mellow Soil, well skreened or sifted; and if this proves too stiff, sift a little Loam in it, or a little Lime, with the small rotten Sticks of Willows; [Page 62] then cut the two extravagant or thick Roots, a little [...] the Bottom, and set the Plant but shallow; rather [...] some of the Root be seen, than it be too deep: If yo [...] cut off any Branch make a Sear-cloth of Rosin, Turpe [...] tine, Bees-wax and Tallow, and place it upon the Woun [...] till it is healed.

As for the Cases they must have such vent at the Bo [...] tom, that the wet may moderately pass out, and not sta [...] in any abundance, to corrupt or rot the Fib [...] of th [...] Roots. Water this kind of Trees, with Water where [...] Sheep and Neats Dung has been digested in the Sun, t [...] or three Days, and that moderately at first, and so m [...] by degrees: Keep the Earth loose about them for t [...] first Fortnight, after they are brought out of your Co [...] servatory, or Green-house, and kept them the while i [...] the shade, and then you may expose them freely to th [...] Sun, but not when it is too scorching, by lying too lo [...] on them, but where sometimes the intermission of shad [...] of Trees may refresh them with coolness.

Give this Month your other housed Plants a little fres [...] Earth to the old, stirring that up lightly with a For [...] not injuring the Roots; enlarge the Cases as the Tree [...] grow bigger, from 16 Inches to near a Yard Diameter.

Brush and cleanse off the Dust, when you take the [...] out of your Houses; and such as you Transplant not, par [...] off above an Inch of the Surface, and lay new Earth, [...] rather Compost of Meats dung, and the ouze of the Bot­tom of the Tanners Pits, both being old; so that the we may wash down the strength of it to the Bottom of th [...] Root; nor need you trim the Roots of any Verdures, un­less much matted, or intangled; but it will be proper [...] change their Cases once in three or four Years.

As for Fruits in Season, Prime, or still Lasting, they are.

Pears. The Winter Born-chrestine, the Great Kareville, the Black Pear of Worcester, the Double Blossom Pears the Surrein.

Apples. The Forward Codling, the Gilliflower-appl [...] [Page 63] [...] Marigold, the Russeting, the Maligar, the Westbury [...]ples, the John Apple, Pippins. The May Cherry, and [...]rawberries.

Cancer ♋, or the Crab. JUNE.

ABout the fourteenth Day of this Month you may be­gin to Inoculate Pears, Apples, Apricots, Peaches, Plumbs, Cherries, &c. Cleanse the Vines of luxuriant Branches and Tenderness; crop them rather than cut 'em, and stop the second joint, directly before the Fruit, and some under Branches that are fruitless; particularly Vines that are young planted, when they but begin to bear, and so forward, binding the rest up to the Props or Stays.

Water Trees lately planted, and cover the Roots (if you can get it) with Fern, almost rotten, about a Foot of the Stem, having first eradicated all Weeds that grow about them.

Place near the Stem a Tub of impregnated Water, [...]ap about it a reasonable length of Woollen-cloth, or Flannel; let one end of it hang in the Water, so that thereupon the moisture ascending, the Bark will draw it in, and much cool it, in this, and the two following scorching Months, thereby preventing the Fruit falling off untimely, by reason of excessive heat that wastes the moisture; and this way will recover the Verdure of a Tree that is fainting and languishing for want of moi­sture, by reason of great droughts, or scorching of the Leafs and smaller Boughs, by the Sun's hot Beams; but do not continue the Water so long that it may sob the Bark, lest it, by over-watering, injure the Tree.

If Trees that used often to be removed, or carried to and fro from your Conservatory, be hurt or languish, you may this Month give them a Milk-diet, viz. delute it with a part of Water, discreetly applied, as you find [Page 64] amendment; or by Planting them in a hot Bed, letti [...] them down into a Pit in the Earth, two or three Fo [...] deeper than they are high, and so covering them with Glass-Frame; which refreshing, often enlivens, and r [...] stores them, according as the young Tree is either wa [...] ting in warmth or Nourishment.

Fruits in Season and Prime.

Cherries. Black, White, and Red, Flanders Hea [...] Duke, Early, Flanders, Lukeware, Spanish, Black, C [...] mon Cherry, Naples, Cherries, &c. Strawberries, R [...] berries, Currants.

Pears. Green Royal, St. Lawrence-pears, the Dagdale [...] the first Ripe of Pears, the Madera.

Apples. The Pippin, the John Apple, the Red, eno [...] the Robillard.

Leo ♌, or the Lyon. JULY.

WAtering young Trees not long Planted, as also La [...] ers, and the like; Re-prune Peaches and Apr [...] cots, save many of the likely young Shoots, to be layed i [...] the Ground, that they may further increase; for no [...] usually the old Berries perish, and are succeeded by ne [...] ones; cut them close and even; well pruning yo [...] Wall-fruit of the Leafs that are superfluous, hinderi [...] the Suns warmth from the Fruit, but bare not the Fr [...] too much, lest it prove injurious, especially to Vines.

When the Fruit requires filling, or is forming, mak [...] Holes, about a Foot and half from your Wall-fruit, without Wounding the Roots, and Pour in Water; you ma [...] let the setting sticks you make them with, stand in the [...] a little loose, so that water may come to the Roots le [...] surely; or this may be done with semi-circle Trenche [...] at a like distance.

[Page 65]Towards the latter End of this Month, visit the Vines [...]in, and stop the Luxuriant Branches, or Shoots at the [...]econd Joint above the Fruit, if you have not finished it [...]efore; but let there be some Umbrage in your exposing [...] to the Sun, that there may not be too much of the heat: Hang Bottles of cool Water near your red Roman Necta­ [...]ines, and other lushious Fruit, to destroy the Wasps that come to eat and spoil them, and also Flies: Set the Hoofs [...] Neats Feet to take Earwigs in, which are equally mis­ [...]evous; and at Noon shake them into Water to de­ [...]roy them. Destroy Ants to preserve your Orange-trees when flowered, by pouring scalding Water, or rather Urine, on their Hills: Pull off the Snails that you will find [...]der the Leaves above the Fruit; but not the Fruit that [...] bitten, for then they will fall to biting afresh. Have [...]n Eye upon Weeds, pull them up where they sprout; begin to hang them as soon as they peep out of the Ground; and by this means you will rid more in a few Hours, than in many when they are grown up.

Lay Lawrels, Mirtles, and other delicate Greens: Wa­ [...]er choice Shrubs, and when ever you shift them, trim the Roots, and give them good store of Compost: Clip Box after gentle Showers of Rain, and in Watering it well thereupon, the Scent will not be Offensive to any thing that grows near it. Graft by approach, Inarch and [...]oculate Oranges, Jesemines, and curious Shrubs, taking off the Surface of the Earth, about the latter End of this Month, put cooling fresh Earth to them, that they [...]ay the better weather the hot Season.

In the dryest Season strow Pot-ashes, or sprinkle Brine, which improve Grafts, and destroy Worms. Wa­ [...]er your Green-walks with Water, wherein Tobacco Stalks have been boiled, and it will kill Worms, and other Insects that infest them.

Fruits in Season, Prime, or yet remaining Good.

Cherries. The Egriot, Brigzsaux, Great Bearer, Mo­rella, Morocco-cherry, and Carnations.

Peaches. The Violet Muscat, Nutmeg Peach, Isabella, Newington, Persian, and Rombovillet.

[Page 66]Plumbs. Lady Elizabeth, Primordial, Damsens, Myrbolans, Blue and Red, and Amber Violet, Violet or Che [...] plumb, the Kings Plumb, Deny Damask, Pear-plumb, [...] namon-plumb, Spanish Morocco-plumb, Tawny, and Abr [...] cot-plumb.

Apples. The Marget-apple, Deaux-ans, Winter Rus [...] ting, Pippins, Andrew-apple, Janeting, Cinamon-app [...] Red and White.

Pears. The Green-chesil, Pearl-pear, the Primat, Ru [...] pear, Summer-pears.

Gooseberries, Currants, Rasberries, Strawberries, [...] lonsa.

Virgo ♍, or the Virgin-Sign. AUGUST.

BEgin not early to Inoculate; gather Buds of th [...] Year, and do it before you remove the Stock [...] Cut away the superfluous Branches, and such Shoots [...] are found of these second Spring, but do not disrobe [...] Fruit of too many Leaves, whereby they may be [...] too open to the scorching of the Sun: Nail up such you leave on to cover the Wall's defects; still take aw [...] the superfluous Branches from the Vines, but not so mi [...] as to expose the Grapes too much to the Sun's heat, [...] they lose their Plumpness, and ripen unkindly. Pluck [...] Suckers.

Release and unbind the Buds you have Inoculated, [...] they have taken; prune and stop them; make Cyd [...] and Summer Perry.

Now is the exact Season for the Orange-tree's B [...] ding, therefore at the commencement of this Month I [...] culate upon Seed-stocks of 4 Springs; and to have th [...] better Buds, cut off the Top of some aged Orange-tre [...] which is of a growing kind, and so get good Shoots.

[Page 67]About Bartholomew-tide lay your choice Greens; as [...]mmons, Oranges, Mirtles, Jesamin, Philareus, Arbutus, [...]eanders, and excellent Shrubs, as the Pomegranates▪ [...]d such as will not endure the Nipping of the Frosts; [...]aking the Branches and Shoots of the Spring, stake them [...]own with little Hook-stakes, in very Fertile Earth, well [...]iled with Soil that is consumed; Water them during [...] hot Weather, on all convenient Times; and when [...] Month returns again, they will be fit to remove: [...]ansplant them into suitable Earth, and place them in [...]e shade, so that they may be kept moderately moist, [...]ut not too wet, for fear of Rotting the Fibres of the [...]oots, and at the End of three Weeks, find out an Airier place to set them in, till the End of fifteen Days.

Fruits in Season, Prime, and yet remaining Sound.

Apples. Sheeps-snout, Kirham-apple, May-flower, Seam­ [...]ng-apple, Cushion-apple; Ladies Longing, Spicing-apple, John-apple, Pippin.

Pears. The Slipper-pear, Burgomot, Red Catharine, So­ [...]ereign, Windsor, Orange, the Prussia-pear, King, Catha­rine, the Deny-pear, Sugar-pear, Summer-poppings, the Lording-pear, &c.

Nectarines. The Cluster-nectarine, the Yellow-nectarine, the Murcy-nectarine, the Tawny Red-roman, the Little Green-nectarine, &c.

Abricots and Peaches. The Savoy Mala-cottoon, the Peach des Pot, the Roman-peach, Quince-peach, Man-peach, Burdeaux-peach, Crown-peach, Rambovillet, Musk-peach, Grand Carnation, Portugal-peach, Lover-peach.

Plumbs. The White Date, Imperial-blew, Black Pear-plumb, Yellow Pear-plumb, Late Pear-plumb, Great An­thony, Turkey-plumb, White Nutmeg, Jane-plumb.

Some other Fruits of this Month, viz. Filberts, Cor­nelians, Cluster-grapes, and Muscadine, Currants, Figs, Melons, &c.

Libra ♎, or the Ballance. SEPTEMBER.

THIS is a proper Month to Gather the ripe W [...] ter-fruit; as Plumbs, Apples, Pears, &c. for if th [...] hang longer, the Winds being boisterous, will shake the [...] off, and spoil them for keeping, by their Fall; obse [...] to gather them always in dry Weather; and if the Sea [...] afford it, when the Sun has sucked up the Dews and [...] sture from the Fruit and Leaves.

Let at liberty the Bud you have Inoculated, espe [...] ally if you perceive them pinch, for in that case it m [...] be done sooner. Lay on your Winter Store of Du [...] spread it finely and thinly, that the Rain may soak it i [...] to fertilize the Ground. Prune Pine and Fir-trees, b [...] tween the ninth and twelfth of this Month, if it w [...] neglected in March, and this will prove the more prosp [...] rous Season. About Michaelmas, House choice Green and the tenderest Plants, in a convenient Conservator [...] a Lemmons, Oranges, Barba, Jovis, Ammonium, Dates, &c ordering them with refreshing Mould, stirring up [...] rest, and so filling up the Cases, that they may keep [...] Roots warm, as consumed and rich Soil to wash in, an [...] nourish the Fibres; keep the Windows open, till th [...] Cold admonish you to shut them.

Set such Plants as agree not to be Housed into th [...] Earth, placing their Pots and Cases lower than the Sur­face of the Bed, and to expose them as much as may be to the South, that the Sun may a little refresh them i [...] the Winter, and the cold Northern Winds skreened off; cloath them with dry and fresh Moss, and then cove [...] them with Glasses, but in open Weather, under the fa­vour of the Sun's warm Beams, or falling of gentle Show­ers, give them Air to revive and exhilerate them, and keep them from the Annoyance of any Creature tha [...] may come to break, bruise, or otherwise spoil them.

[Page 69]Fruits in Season, Prime, and still remaining sound.

Grapes. The Muscadine Grape, the little Blue-Grape, [...]e Verjuice-Grape, excellent for Pickling.

Peaches. The Malacoton, the Liver-Peach, &c.

Pears. The Messieur Jane, Beze d' Hery, Hambden's [...]agomont, Black Worcester, the Rowling Pear, the Green [...] Orange, the Summer bon Christien, Frith-Pear, Hedge­ [...]r, Lewis-Pear, Brunswick Pear, Winter Poppering, Bi­ [...]'s Pear, Bing's Bear, Diego, Emperor's-Pear, Cluster- [...] Balsam-Pear, Enelyn, Norwich-Pear, Arundel-Pear, [...]en fielding.

Apples. The William, the Belle bonne, the Summer [...]ermain, the Red Greening Ribed, Violet Apple, Bloody [...]in, Narvy-Apple, Pear-Apple, Lording-Apple, Quince- [...]ple, and several others of less worth and note.

Scorpio ♏, or the Scorpion. OCTOBER.

NOW is the proper Time for Trenching Ground in order to the well laying it for Orchards, that [...] Winter may Mellow it. Plant your dry Trees, viz. [...]ruit-Trees of all Sorts, Wall-Trees, Standard, or [...]hrubs, such as lose their Leaves, but let those for the [...]all be not above two Years Grafting, smooth, and ve­ [...] sound. Ablequation is now in Season; as for old un­ [...]riving Trees, bear their Roots; and of those that [...]ver hastily blow, stir well the Ground you have newly [...]lanted: Continue in the encrease of the Moon to ga­ [...]her Winter-Fruit that remains, always observing to ga­ [...]er when they are dry, and beware of Pinching or Brui­ [...]ng them with your Fingers, lest they Taint and Rot; [...]ly them in fresh Wheat Straw in your Loft, and cover [...]hem warm.

Plash and make up your Quickset Fences; after the se­ [...]ond Year remove Grafts, unless such as are intended for [Page 70] Dwarf-trees, which may well be let alone till the th [...] Year.

Sow Hard and Stony, and hard Kernel Seeds, as th [...] of the Pear-plumb, Heart-cherries, Black-cherries, M [...] rello's, the Stones of Almonds, Apple, Pear, Crab, Nu [...] &c. Cleanse by Sweeping, your Walks and Allies of t [...] Autumnal Leaves, lest Rotting, they Breed Insects to [...] ny your Ground. Cut away the Hedgy Grass, spre [...] Mole-hills and scrape the Moss from off your Fruit-tree [...]

Fruit in Season, Prime, or still remaining sound.

Pears. The Lambert-Pear, Russel-pear, Green But [...] Pear, Cow-Pear, Saffron-pear, Russet-pear, Petworth-pe [...] Violet-pear, or Winter Windsor-Pear, Thorne-pear, Clo [...] pear, with some of last Months-pears.

Apples. Pear-apple, Pearmain, Parsly-apple, Bell [...] bonne, Honey-meal, Apis-lording, William-costard, &c.

Bullies, and many of the last Months Plumbs, Pi [...] Grapes, Arbutus, &c.

Sagitarius ♐, or the Shooter. NOVEMBER.

NOW get your Compost in readiness in your Orcha [...] to secure the Roots of tender plants from the Co [...] continue planting and setting Trees; observe in Transpla [...] ting, how your Tree stood before, and place it to th [...] same Quarter, and about the same Depth, fixing it w [...] against the Violence of the Wind, especially West an [...] South: set wet, and sow dry, plant young Trees, eithe [...] Wall or Standards, provide in Nurseries stocks to gra [...] on the ensuing Year, and get new stocks in a readin [...] for all sorts of Fruits, for standards, Crab-stocks, & [...] for Dwarf-trees, the stock of Paradise, or sweet-app [...] Kernels, which may be obtained from suckers and Layers, Dwarfs on the Portugal Quince suckers, Pears o [...] [Page 71] [...] Kernel-stock of Pears or Suckers, Standard-cherries the Black-cherry-stone-stock, Dwarfs for Palisadoes or [...]s, &c. on the Black-heart or Morello-stock, or the [...] early Bitter Cherry-stock: Inoculate peaches on [...] plumb-stock, or their own. In budding on the Al­ [...]d, it is proper to do it on a stock that has not been [...]oved; and it is proper it should keep its Situation. [...]ft Nectarines on pear-plumb, or peach-stocks plumbs their stocks, and of those kinds the black and white [...] plumb-stocks are to be preferred, and those grow­ [...] from Damsen-stones, or such as may be advantagiously [...]hered from the Suckers: And about the Middle of [...] Month shut up your choice Trees, and enclose tender [...]ts, that so you may not be oppressed with the vio­ [...] cold of the Winter to over-power their heat and de­ [...] them, and if they become very dry, and it be not [...]ezing Weather, refresh them moderately with Water, [...]rein Cow or Sheeps-dung is dissolved, but give them [...]t too much, nor make it over-rich with Dung, for both [...]ese are injurious, especially to Orange-trees: As for the [...]oes, they require no watering in the Winter, but only freshing abroad in Fair-day, how dry so ever their [...] or Cases may appear to be. To know if your housed [...]ees want Water, is by the Leaves shrinking or shrivel­ [...] up, especially those underneath; and the Paleness or [...] Leaves show they have had too much, which lies sap­ [...]ng at the Root, and endangers destroying them.

This Month you may plant Forest-trees for the gra­ [...]g your Walks or Avenues; Sow stony Seeds, sweep [...]d cleanse your Walks and Alleys of Leaves, &c. and [...]nsplant Trees that are durable against cold, taking up [...] much of the Earth they grow in with the Root as you [...], and immediately set them in a soft Earth that may [...]ntinue moist till the Rain descends to settle it.

Fruit in Season, Prime, and still remaining sound:

Pears. The Dead-mans-pear, Bergomont, Lord-pear, [...]essire Jean, Burnt-cat, Wardon, Lady-pear, Sugar-pear, [...]e-pear, Dove-pear, Winter-bergomont, Bell-pear.

[Page 72]Apples. Pear Apple, Belle-Bon, the William, the Su [...] mer Pearmain, the Lord-Apple, the Winter Chesnut, th [...] Short Start, the Russet Pippin, the Puffin, the Cole App [...] the Pippin, the Pomwater, the Golding, the John Apple. Services, Bullis, Medlars, Arbutus, Wall-nuts, Small-nuts and the like.

Capricorn ♑, or the Goat. DECEMBER.

THIS Month properly Vines may be Planted; pru [...] and fasten Wall-Fruit; thin the over-spreadin [...] Branches of Standard, tho' you may spare them till [...] bruary; prepare good Stocks for Grafting; sow Poma [...] of the Cyder-pressings to raise Nurseries; you may [...] any Sorts of Stones or Kernels; refresh your Autu [...] Fruit, lest it Taint; Seed your weak Stocks, open th [...] Windows of your Fruit-lofts in a fair Day.

This whole Month you may continue to Trench th [...] Ground, and dung it, preparing thereby for Borders [...] set Palisado'd or Wall-Fruit Trees.

In this Month (or you may defer it till January) [...] off or prune well the Vine-shoots to the Root, only s [...] two or three of the best Shoots, with three or four Ey [...] of young Wood: Set up Traps to destroy Vermin, th [...] they destroy not your Nursery Seed, or the Roots [...] your tender Plants.

Keep close the Doors and Windows of your Conse [...] ­vatory so matted, that the Piercing Air cannot enter [...] injure your choice Greens; and if the Weather be [...] tream, you must have a Stove or Charcoal Fire in it, i [...] the manner as shall be directed hereafter; but not frequently use it any more than Necessity requires.

Take Bay-berries that are dropping ripe and set them cover warm the Pipes and Cocks of your Fountains, if yo [...] [Page 73] [...]e any in your Grounds, with much soiled Horse-lit-lest they are flawed and cracked by the Violence of [...], Frost, and put you to much Charge for want of [...]nely care to prevent it.

Fruit in Season, Prime, and still remaining sound.

Pears. The Spindle pear, the Squib-pear, the Stople­ [...]ar, white and red, the French-warden, the Dionery, the [...] Virgin, Gascoin, Bargamont, the Deadmans-pear, the [...]rlet-pear, the Rowling pear.

Apples. The Russeting, Leather-coat, Winter Red, Cats­ [...]ad, Chesnut-apple, Great-belly, Pippin, Pearmain, &c.

[...]e best and safest way to gather Summer and Winter Fruit of keeping; and how to order them for that purpose.

[...]F you design to keep Cherries for sundry uses, especi­ally in preserving, great Care must be taken in Ga­ [...]ing of them.

To do this, it is most proper to have a Ladder with Bearer or Crutch of light Timber, that it may stand it were of itself, without pressing on the Boughs to danger their breaking, or the bruising of the Fruit, [...]ich may conveniently be removed to all Parts; Ga­ [...] by the Stalk, without squeezing the Cherry with [...] part of your Hand, and put them gently into your [...]erry-pot or Basket, hanging by a Hook on some con­ [...]ient Bough well within your reach, taking care to [...]eak no Stalk but what the ripe Fruit hangs on; lay [...]em gently in, and pour them gently into your Re­ [...]er below with as much ease as you can.

This kind of Fruit is best carried in broad Baskets like [...]ves, with a smooth yielding Bottom; if you carry them Water, let not the Sieves be full, lest setting one upon [...]her you bruise and spoil them; but if it in Carts or [Page 74] Horse-back, well line the Bottom or Sides of the Sie [...] with Ferr, or such other cold Vegitables, to keep th [...] from bruising, and likewise to prevent their sweating.

To gather and order other Stone-fruit.

WHEN you are to gather Nectarines, Aprico [...] Peaches, Damsens, Pear-plumbs, Bullis, and [...] like, of several Kinds, and they seem not to be ripe once, on one Tree, stay not for all of them at once, [...] cull out those that are, and wait for, the Ripening of [...] rest, unless you perceive they have received their Substance, and the Trees can properly yield them more; then in a fair Day when the Sun sucketh up Dew, set up your Ladder as before, and gather the with a tender Hand without Squeezing or Bruisin [...] place in your Basket, or broad Pannier, Nettles, and them in gently, and so let them stand covered on Top with Nettles also, and this Weed will be a gr [...] Means to hasten the Ripening of those that are not attained to it.

The best Way to gather Pears.

IN doing this, observe two Things.

1. If you gather them for your own spending, and w [...] have them keep, gather them as soon as they change, [...] are, as some call it, half ripe, and no more; letting rest that are come to this Perfection hang till they ch [...] otherwise; and then gather them; and so they will r [...] the more kindly, and not by many degrees, be subject to so soon as you let them be full ripe on the Tree.

2. If you design to transport them far, either by W [...] or Land, then pluck a Pear, cut it in the Middle, and at the Core you find a large hollow space, then gather rest, and pack them gently in such Baskets or Hamper [...] you design to carry or transport them in, laying d [...] VVheat-straw to secure them from Bruising; for if they gathered too soon, this kind of Fruit will shrink and [...] ther; or being too ripe, unless very hard Pears, they [...] [Page 75] [...] subject to rot sooner than ordinary: Lay them in your [...]oft on VVheat-straw.

To gather and order Apples in the best manner.

TO know when your Summer Apples are hasting to a Ripeness, observe the Birds pecking at them, and with a shake many will fall; or if of those you gather, [...]e Kernels rattle in them, these are Signs of Ripeness.

Gather these in a fair Sun-shiny Day, and use them in [...]l Things as a Pear, for they will not be lasting in keep­ [...]g, yet that they may be fair, and remain a long while, [...]ye a Care of Bruising them in Gathering.

Winter Apples are for a long Duration; gather them [...]a fair Sun-shiny or dry Day, when all the Moisture [...] off from them and the Leaves, for the least wet will [...]bject them to heat, sweat, and rot, when laid in Heaps [...] your Fruit-lost; when you have set up your Ladder, [...] pressing on the Tree, draw those Boughs gently to you that are somewhat out of your Reach with a hook­ed Stick; gather them with a gentle Hand, rather by the Stalks than griping, and put them leisurely into your Basket, hanging on a Ladder, or on a convenient Bough [...]y a Hook; and when you empty, do it not roughly, [...]est Bruises, or their own Stalks pricking them, cause [...]hem to rot: Gather them clean from Leaves or Brunts, [...]ecause the one mingled with them, heats, and subjects the Fruit to rot; and the other hurts the Tree, and [...]nders it much from Breeding the next Year, as being the Buds that would produce new Fruit. As for the Fallings that are shaken down by the Wind, or other Accidents, if upon soft Grass, they may be sorted by [...]hemselves, and laid up; but if much bruised, immedi­ [...]tely make Cyder of them, for they will not keep.

Pack your Apples in Wheat or Rye-straw, in Maunds [...]r Baskets, lined with the same, and so you may fit them for [...]emoving at any time, or preserve them from the Injuries, of the Frost, and make them keep sound a long time. Gather them without the Stalk, because with it they will [Page 76] soonest corrupt and rot at that Place, laying sweet Straw between every Layer of Apples, and between the several sorts of them, if more than one in a Basket or Maund.

To gather and secure Quinces from rotting, &c.

GAther these in a dry Day, when the moisture is of the Trees and Fruit; Pluck them gently from the Stalks, and keep them in clean Wheat-straw, laid o [...] packed as thin as may be: Separate them a good distanc [...] from other Fruit, because their Scent is offensive to it [...] You may pack them in dry Casks, but so as Air m [...] come at them, for it is a great Preserver of them: A [...] dampness makes them mouldly, and rot: When you pac [...] them, lay Layings of Straw between them, and such [...] lie loose in your Fruit-lofts turn them often.

To gather and keep Medlers and Services.

THE Medler must be plucked gently before it b [...] ripe, for it will soon grow ripe of itself when [...] the Tree: Lay them on Heaps in your Fruit-loft on [...] Straw, often turning and shifting them. Let them [...] lie too thick one on another; and if you pack them [...] it be in the Sieves or dry Casks, laying small Shavings [...] dry Straw between them; then cover them with a Wo [...] len Cloth, and lay a Board on them to press them do [...] with Weights; so being brought unto a Ferment, th [...] will ripen kindly; and take those away that ripen first [...] and place them by themselves; for if they be suffered [...] lie with the hard ones till they are ripe, they will gro [...] Mouldy; and so do till they are all ripe.

As for Services, you need no more than gather the [...] before they are ripe, Stalks and all, tie them up in litt [...] Bunches, and hang them on Lines in an Airy, yet war [...] Place, they will kindly ripen.

Of the Fruit-loft, stowing and managing Fruit for keepin [...]

IF you are to carry Fruit far by Land or by Water, do [...] not in hard frosty Weather, nor in the extream heat [...] [Page 77] the Summer, nor in the Month of March when the Winds are sharp and high.

Winter-fruit must neither lie too close nor too open, too hot nor too cold, free from all offensive Smells, for the Fruit will be apt to attract them, and taint.

A low Room and Cellar that is clean and sweet, either paved or boarded, but not too close, I hold best to lay or shift your Winter-fruit into at Christmas if it be open Weather, and so let them continue till March.

Then a Room that is celled over-head, and from the Ground, will do very well from March till May; and [...]om thence till Michaelmas a Cellar is very proper; [...]eep them in all Places from moist or sweating Walls, and from Dust or any other Thing that is offensive.

There are some Sorts of Fruits that rarely can be kept beyond Allhollandtide, and these must be laid by them­selves, then those that will last till Christmas by them­selves, and those that last till Shrovetide by themselves, and Pearmains, Pippins, John Apples and Winter-Russet­ [...]gs, that will last all the Year, by themselves; pick out the speckled or rotten ones, lest they corrupt the rest: You need not turn the most lasting Apples till a Week [...]efore Christmas, unless you have mixed them with o­thers of a riper Kind, or that the Fallings be amongst them, or much of the first Straw left amongst them. The next proper Time to turn them is Shrovetide, and then once a Month till Whitsuntide, and always in turn­ [...]ng lay your Heaps lower and lower, and the Straw very Thin, but handle them at no Time in any great Frost, except they be in a close warm Cellar. All Fruit, at every Thaw, are consequently moist, and must not for some Time be touched, unless such as you take for pre­sent Use; forbear them likewise during great Rains, but at these Times it may be proper to set open your Doors and Windows, to let in the free Air, at Nine in the Fore­ [...]oon in Winter, and at Six in Summer, but not at all in March.

To make Curious, Pleasant, Wholesome Liquors, and Wines of di­vers English Fruits, growing in Orchards and Gardens.

To make Cyder.

TAKE the Apples you best fancy, or the best your Orchard yields, proper to this use, viz. Gol­den Pippins, Pippins, Redstreak, or Pearmain [...] when they are indifferent ripe, which you may try by shaking of the Tree, and their easy Falling thereupon [...] and if you have no Mill to grind them, beat with [...] wooden Beater, very weighty, in a wooden Tub o [...] Trough, well fixed and bedded in the Earth to preven [...] any Hollowness at the Bottom, till they become very small; put in a little Sugar, or new Wort, to make them beat the easier; and when they are mashed suffici­ently, put them into a Hair-bag, filling it about thre [...] quarters full; put it into a Press of equal Wideness, we [...] fixed, and upon it a strong Plank, then bring down th [...] skreen or spindle upon it, directly in the middle, wit [...] an Iron Crow, and press it by turning gradually, till th [...] Apples are squeezed dry, having your Receiver to tak [...] the Liquor as it runs through a Fosset fixed in the Press.

This done, strain it through a course Linnen cloth in [...] a Cask; put to each Gallon an Ounce of Loaf-Suga [...] and bung it up close for twenty four Hours, in which time [...] it will ferment, and be ready to work at that time [...] mix a little fine Flower and Honey together, as big as [...] Pullets Egg; set the Cask on a stand, where you intend it shall continue, and put it in, and then let it work [...] [Page 79] which done and well settled; draw it from the Lees, and drie it up, or for want of Bottles, into another Cask, [...]sed with Water wherein a little sweet Margorum has [...]een boiled, and it will prove excellent Cyder.

You may make a smaller sort, or a good cooling sort [...] Drink, by steeping the Pressings in Water two or [...]ree Days, often stirring them, and then pressing them [...] before.

You may make a good sort of Cyder of Codlings, in [...] same manner, but let them not be over ripe when [...] gather them; Wind-falls (presently used) will do [...] [...]ell as the best.

Pery; the best way to make it.

TAke Pears that are hasting towards ripening, but [...] have not attained to it: of such sorts as best pleases [...] as Windsor Pears, white and red Catharines, O­ [...]e-pears, or such as are pleasant tasted; take off the [...]alks, cut them in four Parts, and pour scalding hot [...]ater to them, wherein some sliced Pears have been [...]oiled; let them steep 24 Hours, then draw the Water [...] and preserve it.

This done, beat the Pears, as you did the Apples, and [...]ess them in your Press, in like manner strain the Li­ [...]or you receive, and put it into a Cask, and into the [...] hang a Bag of mashed Rasins of the Sun, and a lit­ [...] heaten Mace, for five or six Days; and when the [...] has frothed and purged, by putting a little warm [...] Ale-yest on the Top of it, let it settle, and draw it [...] in Bottles, for this sort of Liquor keeps much better [...] than in any Cask; and so when ripe, which will be [...] five or six Weeks, it will prove an exceeding pleasant [...]d wholesome Liquor.

Mix the Pressings with the Water you drew off, and [...]ey will make another good sort of Pery, tho' weaker; [...] not so well to keep long.

To make Wine of Grapes.

WHEN Ripening-time comes, take away the m [...] shading Leaves of the Vines, and let the Sun h [...] full power on the Clusters for two or three Days; the [...] in a dry Day pick off those-Grapes that are the ripes [...] letting the rest hang on the Stalks to ripen kindly; a [...] terwards bruise and press them in a Fat or Press, ma [...] for that purpose, in a fine Canvas-bag, but not so viol [...] hard to break the Stones if you can avoid it, for th [...] will give the Wine a bad Taste; then strain it well, [...] let it settle on the Lees in such a Cask as you may dr [...] it off without disturbing the Bottom or Settling [...] then season a Cask well, and dry it with a lighted R [...] that has been dipped in Brimstone, fastened to the [...] of the Stick, and held in the Cask: Then air it well abro [...] and put the Wine into it, and stop it up close 44 Ho [...] then give it a venting or purging Hole with a Giml [...] and after a Day or two stop that, and let it continue [...] the Cask or Bottle, and it will prove as good in t [...] Months or ten Weeks as any French Wine.

To make Wine of Cherries.

TAKE away the Stalks and Stones of your Cherri [...] and bruise them with a round wooden Ladle or yo [...] Hands very clean wash'd, and when they have stood ab [...] 25 Hours, and fermented, make a Rag of two clean N [...] kins or other fine. Linnen, and holding it over a grea [...] earthen Crock, or a wooden Vessel, pour the pulp an [...] juice into it, and hang the Rag over the Vessel, that [...] much as will may voluntarily drain; pour that out, a [...] then press out the rest and strain it, then let stand [...] while, and scum off what Froth arises; after that, po [...] it off by Inclination, and put it up into your Cask swe [...] and well season'd, adding a quarter of a Pound of L [...] Sugar to a Pottle or two Quarts, and it will deepen th [...] Colour; and when it has fermented, settled, and gro [...] [Page 81] [...], draw it off into Bottles, tying them over with Lea­ [...]er when corked, to keep the Corks tight, and the [...]ngth from flying out, and in 10 or 12 Days it will [...] excellent cooling Wine, but the longer the better.

To make good Wine of Currants.

DIck the Currants, when they are full and ripe, clean from the Stalks, put them into an Earthen Vessel, [...]d pour on them hot Water, a Quart to a Gallon of [...]rrants, bruise them well together, and let them stand [...] ferment; then after covering close above 12 Hours, [...]ain them as the Cherries; put the Liquor up into a Cask, [...] it to a little new Ale-yest, two or three Spoonfuls; [...]d in other Things, in all respects as the Cherry wine; [...]d when it has purg'd and settled bottled it up.

To make excellent Goseberry-wine.

TAke the ripest Gooseberries, deprive them of the Stalk and Blossom, and pour to a Gallon a Quart of hot Water wherein a slic'd Quince has been boil'd and some of the Gooseberries; cover them 24 Hours in a very close Vessel, then bruise them with the Water, and press our the liquid part by degrees, so that the Stones may not be [...]oken; then to a Gallon put a Pound of Loaf-Sugar, [...]d when there is a good Settlement in an earthern Jar [...] other Vessel close stop'd, draw it off into Bottles, and [...] will keep good all the Summer and Winter.

To make Rasberry Wine.

TAke the Rasberries clear from the Stalk, to a Gallon put a Bottle of White-wine, and let them infuse in an earthen Vessel 2 or 3 Days close covered; then bruise the Berries in the Wine, and through a fine Linnen Bag strain, and gently by degrees squeeze out the liquid part; let it gently simper over a very moderate Fire, or place a Stein in which it is, on hot Wood-ashes or Embers, [Page 82] scum off the Froth, or what else arises, strain it again, and with a quarter of a Pound of Loaf-sugar to a Gallon, let it settle; then in half a Pint of White-wine boil about an Ounce of well scented Cinamon, and two or three Blades of Mace, an put the Wine strained from the Spices unto it, and Bottle it up, and so it will prove an excellent Drink and Cordial.

To make Mulberry Wine.

TAKE Mulberries just growing to be ripe, that is, when they are changing from red to black, to a Gallon put a Quart of Rhenish Wine, let them infuse in a close Vessel 44 Hours, and then in all respects use them as the Rasberries; and it will be a great Cooler on no [...] Weather, and a Cordial in hot Diseases. If the Liquid be too thick, or incline to roping at any Time, [...]ver when you drink it, you may add more Wine, vs best suits your Palate, and so you will find it answer you Cost and Labour.

To make Wine of Services.

THIS, tho' not usual, is very pleasant and Cordial; and to make it, Take the Services from the Stalks, when they begin to be soft, bruise them with your Hands that you may not break the Stones, infuse them in warm Sherry, a Gallon of them in 2 Quarts, and as much clear Small-beer, then strain, and press out the li­quid Part, fine it, and put Powder of white Sugar-candy, a quarter of a Pound to a Gallon, and bottle it up for use.

Thus having gone thro' whatever I conceive material to be practised for Advantage and Improvement in as Orchard, &c. I shall proceed to the like in the Delicacies of Gardening, as to what relates to Profit and Pleasure; which will be my succeeding Task in such a degree, that nothing in Print has hitherto come near it by many de­grees.


That is necessary to be done and observed therein, for Setting, Sowing, Rearing, and Bringing to Perfection Seeds, Herbs, Plants, Roots, &c.


Of the Soil, Site, and Form of a Plat of Ground, suitable to be Improved for a Kit­chen Ground.

THE main Thing in this, as in the former, is to find out a fitting Plat of Ground; and if it be not Fertile of itself, so to cultivate and manure it, as it may answer your Expectations, and in this especially, at first there must be a great care taken, or you may bestow much Labour and Cost to little per­pose.

The Soil of an Orchard and Garden may be said only to differ in this, that the Soil of the latter must be some­what [Page 84] dryer than the former, because Herbs and Flower being mostly more tender than Trees, cannot well endure too much moisture or drought in such excessi [...] Measures as Trees will do; and therefore chusing a moderate dry Soil, if drought come, it is easier remedie [...] than to take away wetness that infests the Ground from Springs, or the Lowness of its lying, whereby it receive [...] and keeps long the Rain-water.

The Soil of your Garden must be plain and well levelled at every Square, to be cast into the fittest Form; a [...] the reason is, the Garden-product want such Helps [...] should stay the Water, which an Orchard hath, and th [...] Roots of Herbs being mellow or loose, is soon either washed away, or lose their Vigour by too much washi [...] and moisture.

Again, if a Garden soil be not clear of Weeds, especi­ally of Knot-grass, it will never produce any Thing kind­ly; and as the Richness or Barrenness of the Soil appears to produce, so manure less or more, at first digging it up a full Spit or something more, and trenching in the Dung; so that upon the Falling of Showers it may so [...] indifferently alike to fertilize the whole Mass, or such Plats as your particular Materials require: And to keep down the Weeds, sow Ashes mingled with a little slack'd Lime, which will also destroy Worms and other Insects that infest Walks, Alleys, Borders, devouring the Seed in the Earth, or the tender Roots or Leaves of Plants when sprung up. This must be done in October or November, that all Things may be well prepared against the Spring, having your Tools and Instruments always in a Readi­ness, that no Occasion may be omitted to facilitate the Work in its proper Season.

As for the Site of your Garden, it may be the same with that of your Orchard, seeing they both tend to one main end, of Profit and Pleasure; however, the leveller it lies, the more commodiously it produces. It must not be much exposed to bleak Winds, for there are many tender Herbs, Flowers, and Plants, necessary to be sowed, set, [Page 85] [...] planted, which will not live if that be admitted, and [...] will well prosper; and therefore the Garden-plat [...]st be well Fenced and Secured from the North, and [...]rth east Winds, especially with high Walls or good [...]icksets, well lined and thickned with Shrubs at the [...]tom, not only to keep out the Cold, but Cats, Dogs, [...]res, Conies, and other Things that greatly annoy Gar­ [...]ns, especially in their first Propagating, by Breaking [...] Spoiling the tender Plants of Flowers; as likewise do [...]ultry, which must not be permitted to enter.

Let your Garden-plat be designed; as near as you can, [...] good wholesome Air, not near any Fenny or Marshy [...]ces, or any other whence Damps, Fogs, or Stenches [...]ay arise, or Blasting Infectious Airs, to blite or Poyson [...]he Plants, Herbs, or Flowers.

As for the Form of the whole Plat of Ground, the [...]are is accounted most Commodious; next that the [...], the Oct-angular; but here I can see no general [...]le, because every Ground cannot be accordingly pro­ [...]rtioned, and therefore it must be done as the conveni­ [...]ty will admit; but as for special Forms; in the lesser [...]dens, they are divided into many, and particularly s [...]ares; and of the Knots, and other Fancies, there are [...] many Devices as the Gardener's Invention will admit [...]; for which the Skilful are to be commended in bring­ing with them. Boards nailed to the Stakes driven well in the Ground into various curious Figures, or to do it in na­turally by setting of Box, Aysop, Privet, Marjorum, Lavender, Draff, Rosemary, or the like, in various Circiling, Intwining, or Mazy Forms, so that Herbs, Flowers, and curious greens may grow in their proper order exceeding delightful to the Eye These may be made of green Turf planted with double Dazies or Violets, made up with Brick, Tile, Trotter-bones, or the like; but they are best raised with Boards: And indeed in Knots they are great Varieties, as the Diamond-Squares, or Ground-plat; for Knots, the Cinquefoil, or many Mazy Branches like the Leaves [Page 86] of Cinquefoil; the Cross-bow, or Four bendings from the outsides of the Square, like the Heads or Bending of Cross-bows, with a Diamond and a Square at the midst of it, and other Flourishes to fill up the Vacan­cies of the Angels and Bends: The Interwoven, or Knot [...] flourished Diamond; the Oval, the Maze, or Labyrinth's and many more, which in Words cannot be well expres­sed, but rather require Figures, being far more obviou [...] to the Eye than to the Ear, and of which I shall have more occasion to speak of when I come to Treat of Choice Flowers, &c. and therefore at present I sha [...] proceed to other Matters.

Further Directions for the well ordering this kind of Garden in many material Particulars: in its Sight, and Furnishing it with Herbs, Plants, &c.

AS for the Quantity of a Plat of Ground to make a Suitable Garden, there can be no particular Rules given, but every one may take such a Proportion of Ground as conveniency will admit: But let me caution all, not to undertake more than can be well looked after with Hands enough for the well Management of Things in their proper Seasons; for a small Plat of Ground well ordered, turns to greater Advantage than a large one neglected, or that upon sundry Occasions cannot be so well compassed in due time; for if the Weeds get the Mastery for want of Hands to rid them, it will not be easie to root them out: Also watering a large Garden in droughty Weather, requires much Time and Pains; and therefore my Opinion is, That one of a moderate Quan­tity of good Ground is to be preferred, and may pro­duce a sufficiency of Herbs and Roots for use, and a sup­ply for the Market. But to come nearer to the intended Purpose.

Herbs are of two Sorts, one for Scent and pleasant Prospect; the other for Food; and therefore it is proper they be sowed or planted separate, and not too much [Page 87] mingled together, to hinder each others Growth by the [...]ers over Topping and shadowing the lesser; and before the Garden for Flowers and curious Herbs, [...]t to be separated from the Kitchen-Garden, by some [...]inction, (tho' one Plat of Ground may contain them [...]) because your Garden-flowers will not only suffer grace, but he annoyed, if among them you sow Oni­ [...] Lettice, Carrots, Parsnips, and the like, which [...]wn in their due Season, must moreover leave Rough­ [...] and Deformity on the Earth, and if not set at a con­ [...]ent distance, take up the Roots of the Flowers [...] them, and make a Confusion and Disorder, where [...]er and Comeliness should be: Besides, the Times of [...]ng and ordering them are various, and the Ground [...] much stirred for the Planting the one, injures the [...] other; Cabbages, Colliflowers, Colworts, and the [...]t, making great shadows to keep out the Sun-beams: [...]sparagus, and the like, run its Root much spreading, [...]hich drawing up, brings away with it those lesser [...]ants and Flowers it has undermined or entangled: And [...]o many other Things in their fading Time are to be [...]n, and others planted in their steads. And in the [...]itchen-Garden you need not be at the trouble to raise [...]. Beds so high as in the Summer-Garden, yet it is re­ [...]site you leave Alleys to go between, for the Advantage [...]f Weeding, and gathering what is necessary in due Sea­ [...]n, without treading on or any ways Bruising what re­ [...]ins, for these Kind of Herbs and Roots will go deeper [...] the Ground, as requiring more wet than the other, [...] will better endure it: Yet here you must observe to place your Herbs of the biggest Growth by themselves, [...]at all may have a proportion of the Sun's Heat, and the [...]eeness of the Air, to make them thrive, and come kindly on for use, setting the biggest in the out Parts of [...]quares, or Borders, and the lowest in the middle.

The several Growths of Herbs and Plants distinguished, [...] know the better how to place them.

THO' Garden Herbs, Flowers, &c. are various a [...] very numerous, it in some Measure they may [...] divided into two Sorts: and briefly thus:

Of the Tallest Growth, are

Angelica, Fennel, Tansie, Holly-Hocks, Elecampa [...] Loveage, Succory, Lillies, French Poppy, Endine, Fre [...] Mallows, Clary, and such like.

Of the Middle Growth, are

Alexander, Cardus benedictus, Langdibief, Occu [...] Christi, Aniseeds, Coriander, Featherfew, Wall-flowers Gilliflowers, Bugloss, Parsley, Marigolds, Beets, B [...] rage, Lavender, Camfry, and the like.

Of the Smaller Growth, are,

Tansie, Hearts-ease, Marjorum, Savory, Leeks, Chive [...] Chibals, Liquorice, Strawberries, Hysop; Peniroyal, Scu [...] vy-grass, Time, Wood-sorrel, and many others, too [...] dious here to enumerate, and therefore I have given the [...] as a Taste, and many others will follow in their d [...] Place.

In the most Sunny places of your Garden place the te [...] derest Plants, or such as you would have forward; observing to keep them as warm as their Nature require [...] either with Soil or Covering; when sharp Winds are abroad, the Weather is Nipping, or that Blites or Bla [...] are expected.

[...]ry sorts of useful Herbs, their Encrease, well Or­dering, and Preserving, &c.

[...]T will not be convenient that I give Instructions for the [...] well Ordering and Renewing Herbs, &c. proper for [...] Kitchen-Garden. And of these in Order.

Angelica is renewed, with the Seed which it bears in [...]ty the second Year, and then fades. You may re­ [...]e the Roots the first Year: And then in this man­ [...] you may use Alexanders.

Aniseeds make their Growth the first Year, and bear [...]ch Seed, by which they must be renewed the next; [...] also Coriander.

Borrage and Bugloss are wholesome Pot-herbs, and [...]y Cordial Herbs otherwise used: They are also re­ [...]ewed by Seed.

Camomile will easily grow, being set of divided Roots [...] Banks not too moist; and the more it is pressed, the [...]uer it will thrive.

Chibals, or Chives, part in the Root like Lillies, and [...]st be renewed by transplanting the smaller Roots every [...]d or fourth Year.

Clary is produced of the Seed, and Seeds every second Year.

Coast-root parted may be set in March, and then it will [...]ar the second Year.

Elecampane and Lovage are long lasting; they Seed [...]early, and in transplanting you may divide the Roots.

Endive, Succory, and Fennel, divide the Roots and you [...]ay remove them before they put forth their shanks.

Featherfew encreases by shedding its Seed, without [...]owing.

Hysop may be set by slips or young Roots, and is long [...]asting, growing indifferently in most Grounds.

Leeks seed the second Year unremoved, yet, unless [...]ou then remove them, they die.

[Page 90]Lavender Spike is proper to be removed every Seven [...] Eight Years: Slips twined of these, as also Hysop and Sage, take Root, if set warm, at Michaelmas. White Lavender must be sooner removed or transplanted.

Lettice Seeds the first Year, and dies; yet you may transplant them for Winter-Lettice, and prevent their runni [...] to Seed.

Mallows, French or Jagged, Seed the First or Seco [...] Year. Sow them in March.

Marigolds are usually produced of Seeds, and you m [...] transplant them when two Inches grown.

Occulus Christi Seeds and dies the first Year.

Parsly is sown of Seed the first Year, and Seeds the Secon [...]

Penyroyal or Pudding-Grass lasts long, spreading d [...] new Roots, which may be divided into Multitudes, and removed, and is an excellent Pot-herb.

Rosemary may be improved by Seed, or set in Slips immediately after Lammas-tide, in a moist good Earth.

Rule or Herb of Grace, is an excellent Preserver [...] Health, as also Gardus; this will grow of Slips.

Saffron is proper for this Garden, as being a great C [...] dial at need. Remove the Roots every three Years: [...] Flowers at Michaelmas, when the Chives of Saffron m [...] be gathered.

Sage may be kept from Seeding, by cutting the aspiring Tops; then it will spread, encrease in Leaves and Sprouting

Savory Seeds the first Year and dies.

Sweet Sicily, is either to be sown of Seeds, or the dividing of Roots; and transplanting, it lasts long.

Thyme may be encreased either of Slips, Roots or Seeds [...] and if you let it not run to Seed, which you may prevent by Topping, it will last three or four Years at least.

Sweet Marjorum is produced best by Seeds, but not last­ing; feeding and dying the first Year mostly.

Charvil is improved of Seed, and will continue some time.

Tansy, or Garden-mint, are easily propagated by Seeds, or divided Roots, and will flourish and continue a long time. And tho' there are others I might set down, let th [...] suffice as a sufficient Store for this kind of Garden.

Rule in general for ordering Herbs, &c.

[...]N setting Herbs, ever observe to leave the Tops no more than a Handful above the Ground, and the [...]s a Foot under the Earth.

[...]wine the Roots of the Herbs you set, unless too brit­ [...] Observe always to sow dry, and set moist.

[...]et Slips without Shanks at any time except very hot [...]ther, as about Midsummer, and in hard Frosts: And [...]ent such from Seeding as you would have continue [...] for that weakens and decays the Root by drawing Heat from it.

[...]ther Herbs when the Sap is full in the Top of them. [...]ce Pensroyal, Camomile, Dasies, &c. on Banks.

Artichoaks, Cabbages, Parsnips, Carrots, Saffron, [...]roots, Onions, Colliflowers, Colwort, Savoys, &c. [...]uire whole Plats of Ground for their better thriving; [...] set at Distance, they may be interlined with other [...]ings of low Growth. Gather all your Seeds ripe and [...], and lay not Heaps of Dung to the Roots of Herbs, the Over-rankness burn them up.

[...]et Herbs and Plants distant according to the greatness smallness of them.

Such Herbs as you intend to gather for drying to keep [...] [...]se all the Winter, do it about Lammas-tide; dry [...]em in the Shade, that the Sun draw not out their Vir­ [...], but in a clear Air, and brezy Wind, that no Musti­ [...] may taint them; then on Lines hang the Bundles [...]y thin cross a Room where usually there is a Fire [...]de in the Winter.

Thus far having directed you in what is most material [...] the Furnishing and Ordering the Kitchen-Garden, as Herbs, &c. I shall now shew you what is proper to be [...] relating to Roots and other Things, not, or but very [...]ly, touched on.

Of Roots proper for the Kitchen-Garden, their well Ord [...] ing and Improvement.

ROOTS are one of the main Things to be con [...] dered in a Kitchen-Garden; and the chief of th [...] for Sweetness and good Nourishment is the

Parsnip. This is proper to be sown in the Spring, rich and well stir'd mellow Soil that is deep dug, so th [...] their Roots, with little Interruption, may descend, a [...] grow in compass: And when you perceive they [...] grown to some bigness, tread down the Tops, that Roots may grow the larger. In the Winter Seas [...] when you take them out of the Ground, beware of [...] ting them: Take off the Mould clean; and if you [...] to keep them, you may put them in Sand, which [...] preserve them a long time; the fairest you may let [...] to Seed to supply another Crop, Trenching and Mell [...] ing the Ground in which you sow them, to keep the as much as may be from wet.

The Skirt-Root is a very sweet Root, much nourishi [...] and provocative: It is well raised in a light and [...] Mould, which may be done of Slips planted in Ro [...] or Ranges in the Spring-time, about half a Foot distanc [...] In Winter, when you take up the Roots it will not [...] amiss that you lay the Tops in the Earth till the Spri [...] for your further encrease.

Radishes are easily produced of Seed, yet require good black mellow Mould, that they may grow la [...] and deep, and such Grounds as no Soakings or Spewin [...] of Water are in, to rot or spoil them.

Potatoes, in good fat Garden-Mould thrive a main, an [...] if the Roots be accidentally cut with a Spade, or othe [...] wise, each part of it will grow, and recovering th [...] Wound, turn a perfect Root. And so little Care th [...] require, when once well taken in the Ground, that th [...] can hardly be got out.

Jerusalem-Artichoakes are somewhat of the Nature [...] [Page 93] [...]toes, but more soft and flashy when boiled, and will [...] as Potatoes in any good Mould, and continue with­ [...] renewing for many Years; and to propagate these, them with a Stick, they growing end upward.

[...]aions are necessary for Sallets or (shread with Pot­ [...]s) Broth, Sauces, or divers other Uses. They best [...]ive in a fat warm Soil, and are proper to be sown in [...]rch, or the beginning of April; for if sown sooner, [...] must be covered at first to keep them from the [...]lls of extream Cold; and where they grow very thick, [...] must be drawn whilst Young, for the use of the [...]hen, or be transplanted; and when they are grown [...] reasonable bigness, you may tread down the Spin­ [...] or Stalks, that the Root may yet grow bigger. [...] prosper well when sown with Bay-salt, and are to be drawn the latter end of August in a dry Season; [...] being rubbed clean, tied in Bunches, and hung up in moderate dry Out-House, or laid thin in Straw, that being well dryed they may be made up in Bundles, or [...]es, or disposed of by Measure, as the Custom for [...] is; some of the largest you may let stand for Seed, [...]gain a fresh supply the next Season.

Garlick is a very useful Root in many cases, but most [...]ysical. In any rich Ground it prospers with a little [...]re regard than Sowing or Setting taken of it. It pro­ [...]es in a little time a wonderful encrease, and despises [...]e Injury of Weather above all Roots: And if the Tops [...] kept down, the Roots will grow much the larger.

Turnips, tho' usually grown in the Field, yet pro­ [...]er best in a good Garden Soil, being propagated from [...]e Seed; and when they come up, which may be ear­ [...]r or later, as you sow them, they must be Howed, [...] kept pretty thin, the better to propagate. Sow a [...]e slacked Lime with the seeds, to keep the Insects [...]n destroying them on the Ground, or to prevent Worm-eaten Roots; or if the Caterpillar, Slug, or Snail, [...]ake the new sprung Plant, do the like upon them, and [...] few showers will bring them up apace. When you [...]raw them, leave the largest for seed.

Beans, Pease, Artichoaks, Asparagus, Cabbages, C [...] flowers, Savoys, Lettice, &c. to order and improve [...]

BEans are proper to the Kitchen-Garden: Set th [...] in distant Rows in the utmost Parts of it wit [...] setting Stick. They thrive best in a rich stiff Land, [...] are to be put in, to make them forward and large, ab [...] 5 or 6 Inches in the Ground, between St. Andrew's-D [...] and Christmas, observing to do it at the Wane of [...] Moon, especially in an open Winter; but if the [...] comes hard after your Beans are spired, it will go ne [...] destroy them, or stint their Growth when come up; [...] therefore if you apprehend this Danger, you may de [...] your setting till Candlemas. Set them at an equall [...] stance one from another by a Line, that they may [...] room to grow up without encumbering each other, [...] the Air pass more freely between them; as also the S [...] warm Beams to mature them. Range them for a be [...] conveniency of the Sun, from South or North; and betw [...] the Ranges, for the better improvement of the Grou [...] you may sow Carrots, Lettice, Beats, or the like.

To make Beans grow well, if you sow them in [...] Spring, steep them in Water wherein Cow-dung and [...] Dregs of Oyl have been well mixed: When they first [...] hoe the Earth, or refresh the tender Stalks, and cut the Weeds that incumber them, when they have podd [...] cut off the Tops, which will make an excellent Dish b [...] ed and buttered; besides, the Pods and Beans will [...] the larger, having the more Juice to nourish them fro [...] the Root: Stripe not off those that are first Ripe, [...] that wounds the Stalks, and hinders the Growth of oth [...] Pods, but rather cut them off with a Knife.

Garden Pease, for forwardness, largeness, and swe [...] ness, above those of the Field, are in great Esteem; a [...] of these there are several Sorts that may be sown or s [...] some for Earliness, others for Largeness and Pleasa [...] ness of Taste, others for their Lateness, when the us [...] [Page 95] [...] is out of Season. The Hotspur's become the soonest [...] of all others from their Time of sowing: To these [...]ceed the large white Pease; after them the large [...]e Hastings: and after them the large Rounceval: [...]en later than these comes those called, from their [...]eetness, Sugar-Pease, which in their Pods are much [...]wered by the Birds, and therefore must, as much as [...] be kept from them.

As for the Ground these best thrive in, if you would [...]e them large it must be a rich Mould; but they will [...]e more tender and sweet in a warm ordinary Soil.

As for those you design early, sow them the latter end September, or beginning of October, that so before the [...]st takes them they may get good Sprouting, and some [...]d; and if the Slugs or white Snales come upon them, [...]ter Lime on the Rills, and it will both destroy them keep the Roots warm from the Frost.

[...] you would have a latter Crop of Pease, sow them [...]le before Midsummer-tide, after a Shower is fallen, or [...]e Earth be moist with the Descending of the Dews: Lay [...]m deeper than the former in your Rills, that the Sun [...]ay not too much make away the Moisture of the Earth [...]rom them: When they come up, draw the Earth to [...]em with a Hoe, and keep the Alleys free from Weeds; [...]d so do twice or thrice, till they have got a Head, and [...]vercome the Weeds; and thus they will come to Perfe­ [...]ion, and be fit for the Table in September. As for Roun­ [...]vals, you may set them with a Stick as you do Beans; [...]d if you would have them grow high, crop off the [...]ops, which will make an excellent boil'd Sallet; and set the Bushes or Sticks in the Rows or Intervails, that their [...]ines may take hold on, and the easier raise the weight [...]f the Hawn from the Ground, that the Sun may ripen [...]e Pods the better, and bring the Pease to a larger and [...]er Perfection than otherwise, lying on the Ground, [...]y would be. French, or Kidneys-Beans, are very neces­ [...]ry for furnishing out the Kitchen-Garden with whole­ [...]ome Food in the proper Season. These are to be set in [Page 96] a mellow Ground; set them with Setting-sticks, as oth [...] Beans, and when they spring up, set Wands with S [...] or Branches to twist about, that they may rise and spre [...] more to the Sun for ripening the Pods; if when the [...] grow up in Summer, the Weather be very dry, wa [...] them, or the Stalks will pine for want of Moisture, a [...] not produce the desired Effect. The Snails are great a [...] noyers of these Beans, and therefore whilst they are [...] der they must be looked well after, and cleared of 'em.

Artichoakes are greatly in esteem for their good Tas [...] pleasant Nourishment, and their lasting a long Season, [...] there is difficulty requir'd in raising & bringing 'em to b [...] a full Largeness; but briefly take the following Directio [...]

Prepare the Ground very well you intend to raise th [...] Plants in, mix it very deep with good mellow Du [...] trench it well, and raise a little, laying it pretty light [...] then for Plants take the slips that grow by the sides [...] the Roots of the old Stubs, which plant about the begi [...] ning of April, or sooner if the great Frosts are over: A [...] you must take care to Water them till they are firmly Rooted, when kindly Rains fall, and the Season be ver [...] dry; plant them about four Foot asunder, if in a Ri [...] Ground, that they may spread, and their Heads be th [...] larger: But if you expect not large ones, by reason th [...] Soil will not produce them, you may plant them nearer.

To preserve the Root for sending up new Shouls, whe [...] the Fruit is cut, leave the Stalks about 4 Inches fro [...] the Ground, raise the Earth lightly about them to kee [...] them warm in the Winter, and afterward, covering the [...] with Litter, Straw, or long Dung, yet not too close, to mouldy, or rot them; and when the Winter is past, uncover them by little and little, at three different times with about four Days Interval between, lest the Air coming too suddenly to them, injure them, being as yet tender▪

This done, dress, dig about them, and trim them ver [...] well, taking of the small slips to transplant, not leavin [...] above three of the strongest and most likely thriving to th [...] Foot of each Root for Bearers, and supply the Roots a [...] [Page 97] deep as conveniently as you can, with good fat Mould.

Every fifth Year it is proper to renew the whole Plan­ [...]on, because too long standing in one Place impove­ [...]es the Earth, that it produces but small Choaks; yet [...] good deep mellow Ground you may permit them to [...]ntinue, if you see fit, till eight Years or longer.

Asparagus makes another dainty Dish, and is highly [...]ecessary to be planted in the Kitchen Garden. This is [...]ised of Seed, requiring a good fat Soil, and two Years [...]owth may be transplanted into Beds.

These Beds must be well prepared with Dung, first [...]ging about two Foot deep, and four Foot wide, made [...]el at the Bottom; and so with some of the Mould [...] goodrotten Dung, and fill them up, considering it [...]ill sink; then at about two Foot distance put in the [...]ants; and in such a Bed you may plant three or four [...]ows, and in Time they will extend themselves through­ [...]t the whole Bed.

Let them take good Root before you cut them, that the [...]oots may grow as strong and large and not be stunted [...] stubbed with unseasonable cutting; the small ones you [...]ay leave, that the Roots may grow bigger, permitting [...]ose that spring up at the end of the Season, to run up [...] Seed, which will turn to good Advantage.

At the beginning of the Winter, when you have cut up the [...]alks, cover the Beds 4 or 5 Fingers thick with good [...]ould mixed with good new House-dung, which will [...]eserve the Roots from the Frost, and about the middle [...]f March, if the hard Frosts are over, uncover the Beds, [...]d spread good fresh Mould over them about two Fin­ [...]ers thick, or somewhat more, and lay the Dung in the [...]lleys, or some place near them, that it may rot, and be [...] a Readiness to renew them when Occasion requires it.

If you take the Asparagus Root about the beginning of [...]anuary, and plant them in a hot Bed, with good De­ [...]ces from the Frost, the Weather being open, and the [...]n any thing warm, you may have Asparagus at Candle­ [...]s; when yon cut the Asparagus, remove a little of the [Page 98] Earth from about the Bottom, and cut as near the Roo [...] as you can; but beware you do not cut or wound thos [...] that are peeping up, or not yet appearing above the Earth

Colliflowers take a due Place in this Garden; and o [...] these you may either sow the Seeds in August, and carefully preserve them from the Injuries of Winter, or yo [...] may raise them on your Leaf Beds in the Spring, and remove the young Plants, when they have differe [...] large Leaves, into good Ground prepared for the Pu [...] pose: But the approved way is to dig small Pits, a [...] fill them with good light Mould, and therein plant y [...] Colliflowers, which you must take care to water, espe [...] ally in dry Seasons.

Cabbages are another great Advantage, and these ar [...] of several Colours and Forms; tho' in this Place I sha [...] take Notice of the ordinary Country Cabbage only, an [...] of others elsewhere.

Sow the Seed at any convenient Time between Midsummer and Michaelmas, so that growing up whilst th [...] Weather is warm, it may gain strength to defend itse [...] against the violence of the Winter, which is howeve [...] many times too sharp for them; or you may raise the [...] on hot Beds in the Spring; Transplant them in April [...] to well stirred and good rich Mould; and to have the [...] large, it must be warm and light Soil, and they m [...] daily be watered till they have taken good Root, th [...] ordinary Ground well digged and manured will pr [...] duce Store. The Seed you reserve must be of the be [...] Cabbages, placed during the Winter, low in the Ground to preserve them from the sharp Winds and Frosts, co [...] them with earthen Pots and warm Soil over the Po [...] and when the Spring comes plant them forth.

Savoys are a kind of Cabbages, tho' not coming to t [...] Firmness and Magnitude of the other, yet are swee [...] and earlier than the common Cabbage; and this may planted and raised as the other; also may, the small D [...] Cabbage, and the long loose Cabbage of a Musky Sc [...] are the sweetest of all others.

[Page 99] Pumpions or Pumkins, are very useful in many cases, [...]d to raise them, plant the Seed first in good Mould in warm Place, and when they are fairly risen, transplant [...]m into a Dung-bed made to that End, and now and [...]en water them with Water wherein Pidgeons Dung [...] been steeped, and then about Blossoming-time; take [...]y all the By-shoots, leaving one or two main Vines [...] Runners, and beware not to hurt the Heads of them, [...] this small Weed, as I may term it, will produce [...]it of a prodigious Bigness.

[...]ettice cannot be omitted in this Garden, as being an [...]llent cooling Sallad raw or boiled, and is easily rai­ [...] of the Seed growing in any tollerable good Ground. [...] you have a Desire to have them white, or as the [...]h term it to blanch them, then when they are head­ [...] and begin to Cabbage, bind them about in a fair Day [...]en the Dew is off them with Straws, or raw Hemp, [...]er the Plants with small earthen Pots, and lay some [...] on them, and so they will become white.

Beats are of singular use, being a very wholesome Pot­ [...]b, they must be sowed; and then transplanted into a [...] Soil, they are usually sown in the Spring, and the [...]ots left in the Ground, will produce fresh Leaves any Years.

[...] Beds; how to prepare and fit them for such Things as require to be set in them.

WHere the Ground in Garden-plats is naturally cold, Art must be used to callify or heat it, lest in set­ [...]g or sowing many Plants or Seeds you lose your Labour [...]arges, and what is more vexatious, your Expectation. [...]f the Land be of a light and warm Nature of itself, [...]re is required no more than common House-dung or [...]w-dung to be mixed with the Mould in Trenching and [...]ging, and that will sufficiently enrich it.

But where Mould inclines to a cold Clay, or a Ground [...]'s stubborn or stiff, mingle some light Sand with it, or [Page 100] at least some light and very fertile Mould, and make [...] Laystall of Dung with this Compost in some convenien [...] Place, let it lie and rot, the better to mingle it, a whol [...] Winter, and in the Spring it will prove good warm M [...] nure to cherish and enliven the Roots of your Plants a [...] make warm Beds by mixing it with a good Quantity [...] tho Natural Soil, and the best of this kind is Sheeps dung [...] that of Pidgeons or Poultry.

When you have made a Bed manured with this Du [...] well mixed with the Soil to the depth of a Spades gra [...] or more, rake it over as even as may be with an Iron ra [...] and the Mould and Dung being made fine, you may so [...] your Seeds thereon, as Mellons, Cucumbers, Onions, Lee [...] or the like, but the two former, separate from the latt [...] then take them in as even distance os you can, for of th [...] first two a few Seeds are sufficient, then put fine f [...] Mould in a very wide Sieve, and riddle it over the See [...] about an Inch or more, and the Product willl answer.

If you must chuse a Plat of Ground, necessity so [...] ing, there being no other to be had, where the ble [...] Winds power to beat upon it, notwithstanding all the ca [...] of Fencing, &c. Then lay your Ground up in Ridges [...] Foot or two in height, somewhat upright on the back [...] North-side, and more sloping or shelving to the Sout [...] ward, and it may be laid about three or four Foot bro [...] on that side you sow, especially tender Seeds, and o [...] Bank lying behind another, the Ground that rises will ke [...] off the bleak and nipping Winds, so that they will in [...] great measure fly over the tender Plants new sprouting [...] or when they are somewhat grown, and the Sun will h [...] more force upon them to make them grow up and ripe [...] and this will do well where the Ground is over moist, [...] that Things affecting Moisture may be set low, and Thi [...] of a drier bearance higher.

In February, or earlier, you may make a hot Bed [...] Cucumbers, Mellons, Radishes, Colliflowers, &c. in [...] warmest Place of your Ground, desended from Winds [...] much may, by Pails, Walls, or Reed-fences, about six [...] [Page 101] seven Foot high, of such a distance or capacity as the [...]ccasion requires; then you must raise your Bed about two or three Foot high, and about three or four over, of new [...]ogs dung, or at least, not above six, eight or ten Days old, reading it very hard down on the Top; and the better [...] keep up the sides, if there be occasion, place Boards, [...]y fine rich Mould about three or four Inches thick, and when the extream ferment or heat of the Beds is over, which you may perceive at the end of five or six Days, by [...]rusting in your Find, then set out or sow your Seeds [...] the Magnitude or Nature of them requires.

This done, erect some little forked Sticks four or five [...]ches above the Bed that may support the Frame of [...]icks which must be laid over, and then cover'd with [...]raw, defend the Plants or Seeds from the Wet or Cold, only in a warm Day you may open your Covering [...] Hour before, and after Noon, and when they shoot still earth them up to keep the lower part warm, and when they are pretty well grown, and the Season enables them to bear the Weather, you may transplant them.

Watering; the proper Time; and what Plants, Herbs, &c. most require it; and in what Seasons.

WAtering is one Thing exceeding necessary, and some Plants require it much more than others, or especially in dry Seasons they would be burnt up, they must be mended with Water on their first Removal, at whatsoever Season it be, and therefore not to be neg­lected, though early in the Spring, yet be cautious in Watering the Leafs of the young and tender Plants, ra­ther confine it to the Earth about the Root, lest the Heat mildew and injure them.

When the Plants or Seeds are more hardy, yet you find the Nights very cold, water in the Forenoon, but when the Nights are warm, and the Weather Warm, let [Page 102] it be done in the Evening after Sun-set, you may m [...] your Water with a little fine Mould, to take away th [...] Harshness of it; if it be Spring-water, or be drawn fro [...] some cold Pit or Well, let it stand in the Sun in Tubs [...] heat and air well, but Pond or River-water is more so [...] and natural to Plants or Herbs; and the better to atte [...] it, and render it more acceptable, you may infuse in it He [...] dung, Pidgeons, or Sheeps dung, and it will better even your Plants. For Plants that are, or are to be la [...] Cabbages, Colliflowers, Artichoaks, &c. you may [...] the Ground sink a little like the Indenting of an Oyst [...] shell, that the Winter may the more direct press to [...] Root, yet Excess of Watering is dangerous, for o [...] abundance will be apt to wash the Vigitive fertile S [...] out of the Ground about the Root of the Plant, and i [...] poverish it.

And you had better water seldom, and do it thoroughly well, than often, and do it scanty, for if the Wa [...] comes not to the Bottom of the Root, that the Fibr [...] may suck Moisture, it little avails.

If the Season or Ground be very dry, when you s [...] Seeds, sow them somewhat deeper, but water them [...] till they have been in the Ground several Days, and [...] is well settled about them.

When you transplant, water the Plant in Setting, [...] not superabundantly, lest it chill the Root or Ground to [...] much.

Observe that the Water run not into Puddles, but [...] well and equally distributed with a Watering-pot, [...] other Vessel that has a Sievy Nose, and by that Me [...] it will be sprinkled softly, not for sorcing upon th [...] Earth, but delating and gradually sinking into it to r [...] fresh the Plants, &c.

The several Sorts of Strawberries, the Manner of Setti [...] Transplanting, and Improving them.

STrawberries are very material to be produced, f [...] the furnishing out of Banquets, and many oth [...] [Page 103] Things, and of these there are divers Sorts worthy of a [...]ardener's Care.

The great sort thrive excellent well in new broken [...]eds, or in such Places as they have not before grown, [...]specially on the Sides of mellow Banks, where the Force [...]f the Sun is convenient to nourish them.

As for the ordinary red ones, you may furnish your­ [...]elf with store of their Roots in new fallen Copsis, or in [...]nding Woods, where Vacancies or Avenues lie open to [...]e Sun.

The ordinary red and white Strawberries may be ei­ [...]er planted in Beds, or the Sides of Banks, as your [...]arden gives most conveniency, and will hold there for [...] long Time, but the large ones must be kept stringed [...]nd removed every two or three Years, and they re­quire not so much the Sun-beams as the other; they de­ [...]ight much in a sandy soil, and the best Plants are such as come of the strings, if well planted and ordered.

There are a sort of green Strawberries, tho' not of common use, and but in few Places to be found, and [...]hey lie on the Ground under the slender and tall Leaves, [...]ery green in Colour, and sweet in Taste.

There is yet another sort, a very excellent scarlet Co­ [...]our, such as they call New England, and there abound [...] great Plenty; but here they will grow well, as has [...]een proved in divers curious Gardens, delighting in a mellow fat soil somewhat sandy.

To preserve these several sorts over the Winter, that [...]ay come earlier and prove better, cover them from [...]he Frosts with a little Straw, Peashawm, or such like [...]elter; and if you would have Strawberries in Autumn [...] away the first Blossoms, and being hindered blowing [...] the Spring, they will blow anew much later, and bear [...]n the latter Season.

To make Strawberries very large; when they have [...] one bearing, cut them to the Ground, keep their spires [...]own, strew Cow-dung, or Pidgeon-dung on them, and wa­ [...]er them after it.

THE Gardener's Almanack: OR, Things proper to be done i [...] the Kitchen-Garden, in the se­veral Months of the Year.

Aquarius ♒, or the Skinker. JANUARY,

What is required to be done in the KitchenGarden this Month.

THIS Month prepare Dung for your Garden; an [...] the Dung of Pidgeons or Poultry is excellent [...] Asparagus and Strawberries, &c. when it has passed th [...] first Heat.

Dress your sweet-herb. Beds rather every second Yea [...] with new Mould, then Dung or over-strong or rank Soi [...] dig Borders, set Beans and Pease; sow if you think co [...] venient, for early Colliflowers; sow Lettice, Radishe [...] Charvil, and other more curious Salleting; and if y [...] see it convenient, raise your hot Beds.

[Page 105]Set up Traps for Vermin among bulkous Roots, that will now be in Danger.

Pisces ♓, or the Fishes. FEBRUARY,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this month.

THIS Month sow Beans, Pease, Rouncevals, Mari­golds, Corn, Salleting, Radishes, Parsnips, Anni­seeds, Garlick, Onions, Carrots: Plant forth your Cab­bages, also Potatoes, which may be set in some Corner in the worst of your Ground; sow Parsley, Spinage, and hardy Potherbs that will endure the Weather. Still plant Colliflowers, to have them early; make a begin­ning of your hot Beds for choice Plants, as Cucumbers, Mellons, to be sowed in the Full of the Moon, but rely not altogether on them. Sow Asparagus, &c.

Things of the last Month are yet in Season; and in­deed most Winter Roots and Plants continue the Win­ter-months, except spoiled by excessive Rains, melt­ing of Snow-water, or violent Extremity of Frosts, which however rarely fall out in all Gardens, and may be prevented.

Aries ♈, or the Ram. MARCH,

Things necessary to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this Month.

THIS Month dung and trench well your Ground where it is required; and it is the most proper and chiefest season for raising hot Beds for Gourds, Mellons, Cucumbers, &c. which about the sixth, eighth, or tenth Day, will be in a good liking to receive the Seeds: prick them forth at a distance according to a true Method.

If you design them later, ten or twelve Days after the first begin again, and proceed to the like a third Time, ever remembring to keep your hot Beds, as much as may be from showers, the Dropping of Trees, or Eaves of Houses; for if the Heat be too violent, you may ea­sily cool them, but not ad [...] Heat when once spent, with­out new making up again

Slip and set Lavender, Sage, Thyme, Rosemary, and other lasting Herbs, Shrubs, &c.

Sow in the beginnning of this Month, Endive, Leeks, Radish, Succory, Peets, Chard Beet, Parsnips, Skerrers, the latter in fresh Earth, that is rich and mellow; when pretty moist, place but one Root in a Hole, keeping a Foot distance between them.

You may now sow Sorrel, Parsley, Bugloss, Charvil, Borage, Sallery, Small-age, Alexander, &c. and several of these will continue many Years without renewing, and most of them may be blanched by earthing up, and lay­ing on Litter over them.

Sow like Onions, Garlick, Orach, Purslain, Turnips, (to have early) Monthly, Pease, &c. Transplant Beer-Ghard, [Page 107] sowed in August, and the Chards will be very large.

Sow Cresses, Fennel, Marjorum, Carrots, Cabbages, Basil, &c. But whatever of these sorts you plant or sow, be not very hasty in Watering them, nor too much, by reason it will close and harden the Ground; therefore in Watering, do it not with too great a stream, but ra­ther labour to imitate the Fall of moderate showers.

About the middle of this Month dress up and string the Strawberry-beds, uncover Asparagus, loosning and spreading the Mould about them, the better to give them ease in penetrating: And now you may transplant their Roots to furnish new Beds.

Stake and bind up your weakest Herbs and Plants against the Violence of Winds that usually happen in this Month. Sow Lapins, and such seeds as the spring re­quires to bring forward, and keep all Weeds down as low as may be; see to the Repairing the Banks or Bor­ders in Alleys or Walks, and secure your seeds newly sown, from Birds or Insects.

Taurus ♉, or the Bull. APRIL,

Things necessary to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this Month.

THis Month, about the beginning, sow sweet Marjo­rum, Hysop, Thyme, Scurvy Grass, Basil, Winter-savory, and indeed all tender seeds that are desirous of hot Beds. All sweet Herbs require to be stirred up and new moulded, that they may then well take fresh Root.

Sow Purslane, Colliflowers, Lettice, Radish, and the like: You may sow Carrots and Radish together in one [Page 108] Bed, but so, that one may be drawn before the other is much advanced; also Lettice, Purslane, Parsnip, and Carrots on the Ground, where the Plat is small; then you must consider to take each in its proper Season, so that one may not incumber the other; tho' it wou'd be more advantageous to change the Ground for Parsnips and Carrots now and then.

Plant Artichoak slips, sow Turnips to have them early, and set French-beans.

As yet you may slip Lavender, Sage, Penniroyal, Rose­mary, &c. and the more you clip them, the better they will thrive, and continue the longer without Transplanting, especially Sage so served in Spring and Autumn.

To have very good Salleting all the Year, plant Pur­slane, Lettice, Radish, &c. in Summer, on very rich Ground, and in Winter and Spring in hot Beds well covered; and as soon as their Leaves open to the breadth of your Thumb-nail, draw them up by the Roots, and so continue sowing them Monthly.

About the middle of the Month you may make a Be­ginning to plant forth Mellons, also Cucumbers; and this you may continue to the end of the Month. After a warm spring or summer showers look for Snails and Worms, and, as well as may be, clear your Garden of them. Set Lupins, carpet Walks, and ply Weeding, and speedily take way, hoe, or pull up, lest the Weeds, &c. take Root again and prove injurious to the Ground; for by the Cleanness of a Garden from Weeds and all such like destructive Incumbrances, not only the Indu­stry and Proficiency of the Gardener is proved even to such as make but Visits but also great Commodities arise thereby; for a Garden once well cleared in the Spring, saves much Labour in Summer.

Gemini ♊, or the Twins. MAY,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this month.

THis Month sow Marjorum, Thyme and other hot and Aromatick-herbs, and such as are the most tender: Sow Purslane, Lettice, to have them large-sized and cabbaged, painted Beans, &c.

Now take care of your Mellons; and towards the end of this Month give over to cover them any longer on Ridges with Mattrasses or straw, &c. continue Weeding, and suffer not any to remain and run to seed, that by the scattering of it the Garden may be the more incumbered to your Prejudice and Labour, that might have been sa­ved at once.

You may also now sift fine cooling Mould about the Boots of your hot Plants and Herbs, which will greatly refresh them, but so that it may not be strewed on the Leaves to hinder their growth by soiling them when showers fall, or in your Watering.

As for Watering, as I have said, do it at the Root, some distance, that it may leisurely soak in round about to the Fibres, &c.

Cancer ♋, or the Crab. JUNE,

Things to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this Month.

SOw Charvil, Radish, Lettice, and the like, and oth [...] Things for young and tender Salleting. Gath [...] such sweet-herbs as you intend to dry and keep for you several uses, which may be done for the whole Year by laying them not too thin, but upon moderate heaps which you may move and turn till they are tollerable dry, but not Brittle; and this is to be done with as much Expedition as may be; and for their keeping the natural Colour, it will be well done in the shade; however a little of the Sun is proper, to prevent their being musty. Now Mellons and Strawberries are in sea­son, and some other cooling Things, Nature prudently providing such for the refreshing Mankind, and the [...] kindly preservation of Health in hot Season, while the hotter come seasonably in the colder Months.

Leo ♌, or the Lyon. JULY,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this Month.

THE beginning of this Month sow Lettice, Radish, &c. for young and tender Salleting; also latter Pease, [Page 111] that they may be ripe in October. Let Herbs designed [...]r it run to Seed, and carefully save it for a new sup­ [...]ly.

Long-sided Cabbages planted in May may now be re­ [...]oved, and cut away all rotten and putrified Leaves from them, and be yet diligent in the Weeding and Cleansing part of your Garden, hoeing up the Weeds so [...]on as they begin to appear above Ground; and by this means a great riddance may be made in a ltitle Time, [...]an in a longer when they grow up Root-deep, and [...]rove more cumbersome to the Ground: Destroy Worms [...]nd other Insects, by sprinkling hot Ashes in the places [...]hey most frequent, and it will utterly destroy such as [...]re touched by it when a little Rain descends on it: It [...] also a great Enemy to the Weeds, tho' Grass is im­ [...]roved by it, and it proves an excellent Manure for that purpose; but lay not on too much in hot Weather, un­ [...]ess much Rain falls to dissolve it and moistens the Earth; by which means it may leisurely soak in and disperse it­self.

Virgo ♍, or the Virgin-Sign. AUGUST,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen Garden this month.

THIS Month sow Radishes, particularly the black ones, to prevent going to Seed, pale tender Cab­bages, Colliflowers, for Winter Plants, Lettice, Carrots, Corm, Sallet, Marigold, Spinage, Turnips, Onions, Pars­nips, Angela, curled Endive, Scurvy-grass, &c.

To prevent Plants running up too hastily to Seed, draw the Root a little out of the Ground, lay them slaunting, and cover them again with fresh Mould, and by that means it will be prevented.

[Page 112]To secure Colliflowers to bear good Heads that are a [...] to overspread, or upon Flowers before their Heads c [...] be quite perfected, take them out of the Ground an [...] bury them in some cold place, as a Cellar, and bo [...] Root and stalk to the very Head, and so without bein [...] exposed to the very Sun, they will harden and bear fir [...] Heads.

Now take up your Onions that are well grown, as als [...] Garlick, transplant the Lettice you design shall contin [...] for the Winter.

Gather seeds and clip such Herbs as you design shoo [...] continue well in the Winter before the Full of the Moon▪

And towards the latter end of this Month sow Pu [...] slane, Chard-beet, Charvil, and such like Herbs for use taking the Mould finely over them, and laying th [...] Ground smooth and even, yet so well covered that th [...] Birds cannot see them to destroy them; and if Shower [...] fall and wash them out of the Ground, cover them agai [...] in the same manner.

Libra ♎, or the Ballance. SEPTEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the KitchenGarden this month.

SOw Skirrets, Lettice, Spinage, Radishes, Parsnips &c. Cabbages, Colliflowers, Onions, Anniseeds Scurvey-grass, &c.

It is now proper to transplant Asparagus-roots an [...] Artichoaks.

Sow Herbs for Winter-store, as also Roots get Strawberry plants out of the Copices, or Woods, and plan [...] them in your Garden about a Foot asunder.

[Page 113]Towards the end of the Month, earth up the Sallad- [...]hs, and Winter-plants, set forth such Cabbage and Colliflower-plants as were sowed in August, prepare Com­ [...]ost to be used in trenching and preparing, and lay your Ground well for the approaching Winter, where it is disencumbered, as the occasion requires it, and if the cold season hastily advances, get warm covering for [...]our tender Herbs, either to preserve them well all the Winter, or till such Time as you shall have occasion to [...]pend them.

Scorpio ♏, or the Scorpion. OCTOBER,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this month.

THis Month, that it may lie for Winter-mellowing, trench the Ground.

Sow Genova-Lettice, which will with a little care con­tinue for good Sallading, all the Winter with Glass-bells and straw over them in the hard Frost or Cold, but touch them not presently after a Thaw, lest you break or crack the Glasses.

This Month you may sow Radishes, clear the Alley of all Leafs that have fallen, lest they corrupt and produce, or at least shelter Vermin to annoy your Plants and seeds, and foul your Garden with their Excrements. Prepare covering for tender Herbs and Plants, and be diligent in rectifying what is amiss in every part that your Garden may not only be pleasant and delightful to the Eye, but profitable in encrease, by being disencum­bered of offensive Things.

Sagitarius ♐, or the Archer NOVEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this month.

THIS Month Trench, fit to prepare your Garden Ground for Artichoaks, carry Compost out of yo [...] Mellon-ground, or mingle it by often turning with go [...] Earth, so lay it in Ridges prepared for your Business o [...] the Spring.

Always note to sow moderate dry, and plant moist but what you sow cover not too thick with Earth, and there are many seeds you cannot sow too shallow, so tha [...] they are covered sufficiently to preserve them from the Birds destroying them.

Set and sow early Beans and Pease, which you may con­tinue till Shrovetide.

Cut off the Tops of Asparagus, cover the Roots with Dung, or make Beds that they may be prepared for the spring planting.

Take up Patatoes a sufficiency for the Winter-spend­ing, and if they have been of any continuance, tho' you search narrowly, a sufficiency will escape to repair the Stock.

Lay up your Winter-store of Carrots, Parsnips, Tur­nips, Cabbages, &c. as also seeds.

Capricorn ♑, or the Goat. DECEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the Kitchen-Garden this month.

SOW for early Beans and Pease if a prospect of vio­lent Frosts are not in view.

This Month is proper to Trench your Garden ground, [...]d dung it well, set Traps to destroy Vermin, and lay table-litter over such Herbs or Plants, as can least en­ [...]re the Cold; and what things are requisite to cover them now, for either the Frosts are begun, or very near approaching, no Winter passing without more or less force of them, which leave their marks and scars on most Herbs and Plants, making them drop and languish for want of refreshing Heat to comfort them.

How to know particular Flowers that will alter for the best.

EXperience tell us that those Flowers which differ in Number of Leafs, in colours and shape, their seeds will produce Flowers much different from the or­dinary Flowers, tho' but a Year or two before produced all of one Flower; nay, a particular Flower among many others of one Plant will bring more double ones than 20 others that are not quallified in the same Nature.

As for Example, the Stock-gilliflower that have five leaves or more, or six, or seven, the seeds of such a par­ticular Flower will produce more double ones than those Plants that bring forth but four Leafs, quantity for quan­ty of Seed, and in this it is shown more than in others; for there being in the middle of it no thrum as in many [Page 116] others, it will bring forth a fine double Flower, which when it hath attained to, then it is to come to the bounds of Nature, for it never bears Seed more, but by endea­vouring blows itself to death.

The same Rule may be observed by the curious Flo­rist in several other Flowers that are free from any thrum in the middle, as Auriculas, Zeal flowers, Prim­roses, Campions, and the like.

When in such Flowers you find one Leaf more tha [...] their usual Number, then conclude Nature has prepared for alteration; these Flowers will likewise bear se [...] when double, as the Gilliflower, African, &c. and i [...] sowing the seed of these double seeds, they will bring yo [...] more and better Flowers a hundred to one than the sin­gle ones; and in pursuing, the seeds of such will be accommodated with sundry Varieties, but chiefly tinge [...] with the colour of the Mother Plant, and some of these will proceed as it were beyond the limits of Nature, and then they will have pods in the middle, or break, and never more be capable of seeding.

July-flowers have likewise their signal, which will and which will not bear seed. Those that will do it, i [...] the Weather or other accidents hinder not, have thei [...] Horns placed in the middle of the Flowers; it is also t [...] be observed in the marking of Flowers that the seeds o [...] those that are striped will bring more striped ones, an [...] some of different colours and stripes, their seeds being alike.

Choice Deirections for sowing of seed and setting, &c.

IN sowing of Flower-seed great care must be taken, o [...] at least in setting where you intend your Flowers shall thrive.

Observe then that the Ground bear the best proportio [...] that may be to the places, or the particular Mineral vei [...] or qualit, of the places where, in other Parts, such plan [...] were wont to grow; take care therefore not to set Mountainous plants in moist and low Grounds.

[Page 117]As for Bog-plants, when they are transplanted into a Garden, let it be in a natural or arificial Bog, or near some Water, by which there is great improvement of all [...]orts of Flags, and particularly Calamus Aromaticus, or [...]e spice scented Reed.

You may make an Artificial Bog by digging a Hole [...]n any stiff Clay, or there may be Clay brought if the [...]round afford it not, to bind the Hole or pit, in the [...]loor or Bottom, and so thick on the sides, that the [...]et cannot soak thro', and fill this with Water, then put [...] Earth of the Nature of that where they grew, but [...]omewhat richer, and tempering it with the Water, make your Bog to a proportionable moisture of that from whence they were taken, and planting them therein, they [...]hrive and flourish more than in their Native soil.

Things convenient to be considered in the Manner of Laying, &c.

CUT the Things you intend to lay in its proper season, after the Manner as is usual in cutting July-flowers, and laying them, unless in some Plants that take any way like the Vine, and it is so much the more convenient in Roses, and many Wood-layers, that with an Awl you pierce the stock at the Place laid, as it is done by circumposition, viz. the Mould to be born up to the Bough, which is to be taken off, and then be­fore the sap rises in February, or the beginning of March, it is most properly to be done.

During the Time of drought, frequently water your Layers, that is, every Day, or they will not come to take Regular Roots, but rather a Knob or Button full of fresh sap upon the Tongue of the Cut in the Branch so laid down; yet these Branches cut off, by their well watering in the Summer have grown pretty well in their Trans­plantation.

[Page 118]The seasons most proper for this Business, are in the beginning of the spring, or the declining of the great summer-heat, for in those seasons they more freely en­joy moisture proper for the producing Roots, and are respited from excessive heat and cold.

Artificial Sets, how to make them.

TO do this, bare the Roots of Plants of woody sub­stance, and make a cut in the like manner of that which is made in layings from the plants; and into the cleft put a stone or little plug of Wood to keep it open, that gaping, the part cut may turn upwards; then with light Mould cover the Root three Inches, and the lift so lifted up will sprout into Branches, being nourished by the Root of the old Tree; and when the Branches are grown, cut off this plant with its Roots, and it will go and thrive of itself very well; and if possibly you can leave an eye on the lip of the Root, which after Incision you lift up, and the Branches will the more speedily issue out of the Root so cut, which Method is properly called the starting a Root.

To make off sets of Bulbous-roots, with your Nail cut it lightly on the bottom in the crown of your Root, whence spring the Fibers, and as a healer to the wound, sprinkle some dry dust upon it, and so many wounds as you make, Ferrarius affirms, in so many Off-sets will the Genital virtue dispose itself, but this has not been fre­quently Experimented.

To change the Colour of Flowers when in Bloss m, &c.

BUrn Brimstone under Roses, and it will turn the lips, and the greatest part of the fouldings, while the the smoke of Tobacco will make it a red Rose turn blewish or purple. Vitriol sprinkled or streaked on any Flower that is purple, will turn it to deep scarlet, but this will not long continue, for the Leafs of the growing Flower the next Day will wither.


[Page 121] [...]er Flowers, you must secure from great Frosts and [...]is; likewise the Carnations, or such Seeds as run the [...]ard of being washed out of the Ground, or by ex­ [...]m Frosts chilled or over-frozen; and in this case, [...]ere the snow lies too heavy on them, strike it off and [...]er them, lest they burst and are spoiled; except on [...]t Beds, and then there is no danger of them.

About the end of the Month put Mould about the [...]ots of the Arunculas that have been uncovered by [...]ost, and where your choicest are set in Pots, fill up [...]e Chinks with warm Mould, and so you need not House [...]m, because they will endure the Weather.

Flowers blowing and continuing.

PRaecoce Tulips; Winter Aconite; some sorts of Ane­monies; black Helebore; Winter Cyclamen; Orien­ [...] Jacinthis; Brumal; Hyacinth; Levantian; Narcis­ [...]; Laurustians; Primroses; Mazareno.

However, Note, That these Fruits and Flowers are more [...]ow or hasty according to the Heat or Coldness of the [...]il, as qualified by Accident or Nature, Situation, &c. [...]d that all monthly Flowers are to be understood to continue from their first appearing to their decay.

Pisces ♓, or the Fishes. FEBRUARY,

[...]hings proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

AS the Weather is seasonable, air your housed Carna­tions, particularly in moderate showers, or warm [Page 122] Days, and set them in again at Nights if nipping W [...] or Frosts threaten them, and so you may do by o [...] Flowers that are not very tender: as in this Month, [...] cept extream Cold prevent it, divers will be, as I [...] term it, in prime.

Flowers blowing or continuing.

SIngle Anemonies, Winter Aconite, Hyacynthus, S [...] latus, some double Anemonies, Tulips, Prae [...] Persian Iris, Lucoium Bulbosum, Deus Caninus, b [...] Helebore, Vertrall Crocus, single Hepatica, Vernal [...] clamen, red and white, early Daffodillies, the gi [...] white Arnithogals, Muzereno, the large leafed yel [...] Violets, and some others.

Aries ♈, or the Ram. MARCH,

Things proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this Month.

THis Month place stakes, and bind up your we [...] Flowers, to prevent the violent Winds injur [...] them.

Sow Pinks, Plant-box, and the like; sow Carnatio [...] and Sweet-Williams, from the middle to the End of [...] Month; Alternus, most Perenial Greens, Phillerea, a [...] the like; or these may be done later in the Month, [...] wards the End, as the Season happens warmer or cold [...]

Sow in Pots or Cases with fine mellow Earth, A [...] cula-seeds, let the Earth be a little loamy, and p [...] what you sowed in September in the Shade, sprinkling [Page 123] [...]le Water on them. Plant latter Anemony-roots suc­ [...]sively in Parts of the Countries that are warm. Trans­ [...]nt Ranunculus and Fiberous Roots about the middle [...] the Month, as Primroses, Turbose, Cammomile, Au­ [...]ulas, Gentianela, Matri [...]aria, Helebore, and other [...]mmer-flowers. This is also a proper Time to set Le­ [...]oium, and towards the end of the Month slip Wall- [...]owers, or Keris, Cannolu [...]lus, Lupius, Ordinary or [...]nish Jessamine.

About the middle or latter End or this Month sow [...]ter-flowers on hot Beds, especially such as are the [...]ural growth of hot Countries, for the require much [...]t till the natural Earth be warm enough to supply [...]m by the heat of the Sun, perfecting their Seed, and [...]inging them to a proportionable Stature; and when [...] Amaranthus is grown pretty high, remove it into [...]other Bed, and so you may order African and sensitive [...]ants, particularly these ever keep under Glasses.

About the concluding of this Month, set in the shade [...]unculas Plants or Seedlings, such as being choice you [...]ave reserved in Pots. Carnation-seedlings may be trans­ [...]lanted; also give Earth to the Layers that is fresh and [...]oper for them, placing them about a Week in the shade, [...]en cut off all the infected or drooping Leafs, and the choice ones may now have their Cover removed.

The parting Frost and cold Winds are now prejudi­ [...]ial to your choice Tulips, and therefore cover them [...]ith Mats, or other convenient shelter, and take the [...]e Care of the most esteemed Anemonies, Chema-Iris, [...]ricula's, early Cyclamen, Brunal Jacinths, &c.

Sow Balsamum-mas, Balsamine Doctils, Indian Pha­ [...]ollo, Lentiscus, Datura, Pom [...]m-Amoris, Flos Africa­ [...], Cana Indicum, Casicum Indicum, Flos Passionis, [...]aranthus, and the like These require hot Beds till [...]armer Season, yet Nostratum Indicum, Volabulis, [...]frican Marigolds, &c. may tollerably well subsist on cold [...]eds, tho' not so forward. Your shown Cuprus tops, re­ [...]ire to be wrapped about with Wisps of Straw, Hay, or [Page 124] the like, if the easterly Winds continue sharp, and co [...] with Peashawm, or dry straw, your Evergreens tha [...] Seedlings, such as Pines, Bays, Phillyria, Fir, Cyp [...] till two or three Years be gone over them in the N [...] ry, and are large enough to transplant, lest the sh [...] Winds dry them up and spoil them.

This you may do any Time in the Winter where [...] tremity requires it, but in fair and warm Weather, or [...] termissions from Cold you may uncover them, the s [...] Winds more harming than the Frost or snow.

About the end of the Month, with a moderate c [...] on of the continuing sharp Winds, or fall of the F [...] you may uncover your choicer Plants; but in s [...] Winds neither sow nor transplant, lest by their drying and withering, they frustrate your Expectation.

In the Full of the Moon sow stock Gilliflower se [...] that they may produce double Flowers; and tho' s [...] think they can make this doubling by Art, by using [...] succation, Magnomism or Medicines, yet they will [...] themselves mistaken; or especially it is with gr [...] Certainty done by removing, transplanting, enric [...] the Mold, strewing and hardening the Ground, an [...] for Variation and Change, taking from the Root the [...] Nourishment.

Now let Lentiscus, Oranges, Lemmons, Dates, Ammums, Aloes, and the like, less enduring Plants a [...] Trees in the Portico.

Flowers blowing or continuing.

ARbor Indae; Praecoce Tulips; Rubus Adorat [...] Crown Imperial; Spring Cyclamen; Anemoni [...] Winter Aconite; black and white Helebore; Cro [...] Bellis; single and double Hepticae; Chema-iris; Le [...] coion Eritillaria; Violets; Prim-roses; Puberosus-i [...] Hyrmodictils; Persian-iris; Dutch Mezereon; D [...] yellow Violets. The great white Ornithogalum; D [...] Caninus; Chelidonium; the double Flower'd small S [...] nish Trumpits; or Jaquills; Hyacinth; Zeboin; B [...] mal; Oriental Jaquills; Great Chalciom; and such li [...] Attendants on the Spring.

Taurus ♉, or the Bull. APRIL,

[...]ngs necessary to be done in the Flower-Garden this Month.

[...] the beginning of this Month sow Digitalis, double [...] Marigolds, Definum, Cyanus; of the various Sorts, [...]en Pansy, Tufts, Macipula, Holiocks, Scorpoides, Medica, [...]eous, Belvider, Collumbines, which every four or five [...]s renew to prevent Loss and Decay.

[...]ow continue new and fresh Hot-beds to accommo­ [...] such Plants, as without them will want their perfecti­ [...] till the Earth has contracted a sufficient Warmth to [...] in them Abroad; and those Fibrous Roots as the last [...]th were not transplanted, now transplant them, as [...]roses; Violets; Heptica; Matricaria, &c. and the [...]ing Auriculas set in the shade.

[...]ow Carnations, Pinks, &c. cleanse and trim up the [...]oots from dead and rotten Leafs; sow sweet Willi­ [...] after Rain, that they may Flower the following Year; [...] Lucorum in the Full of the Moon, and set Lupins.

[...]rt the Off-sets from the Indian Tuberoses, but beware [...] break not their Phangs, and these Off-sets in due [...]e will produce Flowers; set them in Pots of Natural [...]h, not such as is forced with a Layer of rich Earth, [...]neath to succour the Fibres, but not touch the Bul­ [...] Roots; set the Pots in Hot-Beds, and water not the [...] till they begin to spring, and set them under a [...]h-wall, and in dry Weather water them much, and [...]gust they will produce curious Flowers.

[Page 126]In this manner order the Garnsey-lilly, or Narcissus o [...] Japan; Sea-sand mingled with the Mould, wonderfull prosper them, especially near the Surface, and order th [...] Protuberant: Fangs of the Yuca in like manner as the T [...] beroses.

About the middle of the Month you may expose or s [...] out your Flos Cordinalis, slip and set Marums Ranun [...] las; water Anemonies and such Plants as are in Cases [...] Pots, as the Dryness of the Season requires it.

Prune or orderly regulate Anemonies, Gilliflowers, C [...] nations, or the like, where they stand too thick, or [...] subject to mat together, and so being thinned they [...] produce the fairer Flowers.

Protect your Ranunculas; Pennash; Tulips; Auri [...] las; Anemonies; from storms of violent Rain, Hail, [...] the too scarching Beams of the Sun, by covering the [...] with Mats supported with Hoops, or bent Wands, Cr [...] [...]ewise.

Bring forth your choice and tender Shrubs in a fai [...] Day, but the Orange-trees may be continued housed [...] the next Month, and when you water them, let it be do [...] with Rain or Pond-water luke-warm, but not too much at a time.

Flowers blowing or continuing.

RAnunculas of Tripoly; white Violets; Anemonies Auricula Ursi; Caprisolum; Crown Imperial [...] Caprisolum Gentianella; Deus Caninus; Bell-flower [...] Tritillaria; Double Hepticas; Starry Jacinth; Florenceiris; Double Dasies; white and tufted Double Narciss [...] Chamae-Iris; Cowslips; Primroses; Pulsatilla; Ladies smock; Tulips; Medias; Radix; Cava Geranium, Pe­ritaria; Lurea; Caltha; Palustries; Persian Lillies; La [...] rea; Caltha; Palustries; Persian Lillies; Lucoicum, P [...] onies; Muscaria Reversed; Double Jonquills; Persia [...] Jessamine; Acanthus; and some others.

Gemini ♊ or the Twins. MAY,

[...]ings proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

[...]Hade your Carnations and Gilliflowers about this Sea­son when the Sun has passed the Meridian, and at the Full Moon plant in Beds your Stock-gilliflowers, tran­ [...]nt forth Aramanthus, and water Ranunculus, so An­mum, or set it, gather such Anemony-seeds as you [...] to be ripe, and preserve it for a new supply, keep it [...] dry to preserve it from moulding or mustying; cut stalks of those Bulbous Flowers that you find dry.

About the latter End of this Month take such Tulips as [...]r-stalks are dried, covering the Roots you find bare, prevent their being scorched by the heat of the Sun, or [...]hed up with sudden Showers, and if any of these Roots [...] take up be Cankered, the best remedy is speedily to [...]ry them in fresh Mould.

Flowers blowing or continuing, &c.

RAnuncula's of all Kinds; the latter set Anemonies; Anapodophylon; Chema-iris; Blattaria; Cirisus; [...]ranthes; Heleborine; Cyclamen; Augustisoi; Cyanus; [...]ellow Lillies; Aspodel; Froxinella; Cullumbines; Bu­ [...]ns-iris; Digitalis; Grranum; Horminum Caiticum; Gla­ [...]us; Double Cotyleden; Caltha Plaustris; Tulips of va­ [...]s sorts and Colours, Jacca Lychnis, Double Bellis, [...]hite and red Millefolium Luteum, Phalangium, Orcliis, [...]panish Pinks, Lillium Convallium, Rosa, common Guil­der, [Page 128] Cinamon and Centifol, &c. Cherrybay; Oleaster; T [...] chellium Hisperis; Cowslips; Anterrhinum Sedums; S [...] ringa's; Veronica, single and double; Musk Violets; Valerian; stock Gilliflowers; Ladies-slipper; Chalcedom, Star-flowers; Ordinary Crowfoot; Red Martagom Campanellas; white and blue Bugloss; Homer's; Maly Persian Lillies; Bee-flower; Purple; Thalictrum; Pan­sis Lucoium; Bulbosum Secotinum; Sysimbrium, singl [...] and double; Sambucus Peonies; Sea Narcissus; and som [...] others.

Cancer ♋, or the Crab. JUNE,

Things to be done in the Flower-Garden this Month.

THis Month gather such ripe Flower-seeds as are va­luable, and proper to be saved, as Narcissus, A [...] ­runculas, Oriental Jacinth, &c. preserving them dry a shade your Carnations from the Afternoon's Sun; trans­plant Autumnal Cyclamen, you design to change for a place more advantageous; take up Iris Chalcedon. Now you may make a beginning to lay Gilliflowers, also take up the best Sort of Ranunculas and Anemonies, after moderate showers of Rain, the stalks dry and wither­ed, and the roots in a good Temper.

Take up the Bulbs of Tulips, cover those presently that lie naked on the Beds, or transplant them to a cooler soil; water dry or parched Beds, as also the pots of Japan Narcissus; prevent some Scabious from running to seed, which now may be done by removing them, and so the following Year they will produce very good Flowers.

Take up the Roots of such Flowers and plants as will [Page 129] endure not to be out of the Ground, and immediately [...]plant them in fresh soil, as Oriental Jacinth; Cy­ [...]men; Frittilania; Iris-crown; Imperial; Deus Cani­ [...]; Muscaris; Bulbous Jacinths, &c.

Flowers blowing or continuing, &c.

DOuble Poppies; Phalangium; Allobrogicum; Ama­zanthus; Asphodell; Hedisarum; Giadiolus; Cla­ [...]antis Panonica; Blataria Millafolium; yellow and [...]ite Martagon; Red and white Gentian; Helebore Ni­ [...]lla; Astrea Atticus; Bulbous-iris; Hedisarum; early [...]rk-heel; Genistia of Spain; Pinks Orinthgalum; Mount [...]lies white and red; with some others.

Leo ♌, or the Lyon. JULY,

[...]ings proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this Month.

[...]ip stocks the beginning of this Month, with other Lignous plants and flowers; lay Carnations and Gil­ [...]owers, not suffering to remain above two or three spin­ [...]s for the Flowers. Take away the superfluous Buds, [...]port those that remain with stays against the Wind; [...]stroy Earwigs, and other Insects that annoy them.

Layers, in a good light loamy Earth, will take Root six Weeks; set as many of them as may conveniently one pot, to save room; in Winter let not too much [...]et come at them; if it prove too wet, lay the pots [...]e-ways, and shade those that blow from the Heat of [...]e Sun in the Afternoons.

[Page 130]Take up early Cyclamen, Bulbs and Tulips, which you may immediately plant, or if Conveniency permi [...] not, you may do it any time; within a Month after trim them and cut off the Fibres, spreading in an early Place very dry, but do not separate the off-sets of Tulips, and the like, till the principal Bulbs be fully dry.

Gather seeded Tulips, and permit the seeds to continue in the Pods, also the seed of early Cyclamen, and immediately sow it pots or cases.

Remove Crocus that are seedlings of the last Septem [...] ber, giving them wide Intervails till they come to Pe [...] fection.

Take up some sorts of Aurunculas, Persian-iris, Cr [...] cus, Crown Imperial, Frettillaria and Colchicums, pla [...] the Iris, and the two last as soon as you have taken the [...] up, if you have conveniency, else in August or September, may do tollerably well; or you may defer their ta­king up till then, and replant Colchicums, remove Deu [...] Canius, &c.

Sift your Beds from the Off-sets of Tulips, toward the latter end of this Month; also for Bulbous-roots Ranunculas, Anemonies, and the like, which will prepar [...] them for setting or plunging, such Things as are in you [...] Pots, and require to be set in the naked Earth till th [...] next Season; some sort of Anemonies may now be sowe [...] in Ground that is temperately moist; cut away the withered stalks that incumber the roots of your Flowers covering the bared Roots with fresh Earth. To destro [...] Worms and other Insects, strew Pot ashes on your Grass plat, and Carpet-walks; and to the same end water you [...] Gravel-walks with Water wherein Tobacco-stalks hav [...] been boiled.

Flowers blowing this Month or continuing.

ASpodes Amaranthus, Phalangium Delphium, Veronic [...] Odoriferous, and Purple Sultan, Connalnusus, Volabilis Thlapse Criticum, Geranius, Triste, Fraxenela, Hedisaurum Corn-flower, Alkengi, Double and White Jacca, Scorpion Grass, Monthly Rose, Jacinths, and some others.

Virgo ♍, or the Virgin-Sign. AUGUST,

Things proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

THis Month take up Bulbous, Iris, sow the Seeds of them, as also of Collumbines, Candy-Tufts, [...]ark-heels, Holyocks, Iron-coloured Fox Gloves, and other Plants that have strength to endure the approach­ [...]ng season.

Plant some Anemony-roots for Winter flowers; take [...]o the last Years seedlings, transplant them for Bearers, also Autumnal Crocus, Deus Caninus, and Colchini­ [...]m's.

Sow-Oriental Jacinths, Narcissus, and replant such [...]oots as will not well abide out of the Earth, as Higa­ [...]nths, Deus Caninus, Lillies, Martagon, Fretarilla, &c. [...] As yet you may slip Gilliflowers, and take up Bulbous- [...]oots: As your Alaternus seed grows black and ripe, [...]ather it daily, spread it to swear, and put it up dry [...]or use; water Balsamin-faem; and other seeds that you and ripe, may now be gathered, especially from Shrubs.

About the middle of this Month, divide the large old Roots of Auricula's, and transplant them in a light moist Earth, Loamy or Sandy, yet fertile, and in the shade; you may now likewise sow the seed of them, also Anemony-seed toward the latter end of this Month. That of Ra­ [...]nculas, &c. place them in light Mould in Cases mode­ [...]ately covered with Earth, frequently refresh them, and [...]tep them in the shade. Likewise Hepatica, Iris, Fraxe­ [...]ella, Jacinths, Cyclamen, Primroses, Tulips, Martagon, Pretillaria, and the like; tho' some of these from the [Page 132] Seed, Flower not in four or five Years, as the Tulip, un­less set so shallow that it cannot sink deep into the Ground; however take care not to disturb their Beds, weed them well, and shade them till the great Heats are past, lest too much Dryness spoil the seed; but as for Primroses and Hepatica there need not be so much care taken of them.

Flowers blowing this Month or lasting, &c.

ANagasis; Nigella; Luchnis; yellow Millefolium; Lucoion; monthly Rose; Thalpsi Creticum; Cy­clamen; Vernum; yellow Mountain; Hearts ease; Col­chicum; Autumnal Hyacinth; Starworth; Holiocks; Elicclerioson; Eringium planum; French Marigolds; Dasies; Pansies; Lark-heels; Catchbly; Lobells; and some other.

Libra ♎, or the Ballance. SEPTEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

THis Month plant a few of the various sorts of Ane­monies, to be the earlier, in naturally rich or improved Earth, particularly the Latifol, do it when the first Rains are over.

And now very properly you may sow Auricula-seeds, placing the Cases in the Sun till April following. You may also plant some Tulips, Colchicum, Daffodils, &c. Likewise Fiberous plants, such as Primroses, Violets, Matricaria, Capillaries, Commomile, Helebore, Heptica, and the like; also transplant Cyclamen and Chalcedon.

If you think fit, you may now sow Phillerea, Alater­nus [Page 133] or you may do it, in the Spring. Likewise Tulips, [...]tagons, Delphinium, Nigella, Poppey, Candy Tufts, own Imperial, and all Annuals that are not impaired the Frost in General.

So the seeds of Primroses, and transplant seedlings [...]gitalis; and early this Month plant Lychnis-slips; [...]d your Tuberoses from the wet in this Season, and serve the Roots out of the Rots in Sand, or wrapped in paper, place them in dry Boxes near the Chimney.

Fasten Autumnal-flowers and plants to sticks, that may [...]ure them from breaking in violent Winds.

Take off Gilliflowers Layers with Earth, and place [...]em in shaded Borders or pots: You may now raise [...]ocus of seeds, and such Flowers or plants as will not [...]osper if housed, set in pots in the Ground three or [...] Inches lower than the surface of Beds you plunge [...]m in, expose them as much as may be to the South; [...]ath them with Glass-bells; but in warm showers, or [...]en the Sun shines pretty warm, you may uncover [...]em, and give them Air, and so you may preserve the [...]ost precious Flowers, as Cistus, Marum-syriacum, [...]os-cardinals, Geranium, Nocteolens, Seedlings, Arbu­ [...], Accacia Aegyptica, Anemonies, Ranuncula's, &c. and [...] order them till April. Guard you Marum-syriacum with Furzes or Bushes, from the Cats, for if they come [...] it, they will eat and destroy it.

Flowers blowing this Month or continuing, &c.

ANagalis of Portugal, Armaranthus, Clamatis, Autum­nal Cyclamen, Lynaria, Cretica, Limonium, Indian [...]illies, Narcissus, Chrysanthemum, Stock-gilliflowers, [...]n flowers, Spinosum, Indicum, Persian, Autumnal, [...]arcissus, Pomum Aurium, Amoris Nasturtium, Indi­ [...]n Gentianella, Anual, Tuberas, Indian Jacinths, yel­ [...]w Millefolium, Virginian Phalangium, and some o­ [...]hers.

Scorpio ♏, or the Scorpion. OCTOBER,

Things proper to be done in the Flowe [...] Garden this month.

THis Month House Turbofe, Narcissus, and keep [...] dry till April; sow seeds as in September; as ye [...] plant Anemonies, particularly the Tenuifolio's in fres [...] sandy-Earth, likewise set Ranuncula's taken from unde [...] the Turff, but let the Bottom of the Bed be rich Mould so that the Fibres of the Root may reach it, but not the main Roots, which only cover with Natural Earth abou [...] two Inches deep, and preserve them from the Frost with straw or Mats, but in the warm Times of the Da [...] give them the free Air. Now plant Vernal Crocus, and Ranunculas of Tripoly, remove Holiocks about this Time you may plant choice Tulips, and they will be sufficiently forward, as also secured from Dangers: mix Natural Earth, somewhat impoverished, white fine sand, and plant them in it, tho' at the Bottom, within the [...] the reach of the Fibres, you must place rich Earth.

Now beware your Carnations be not injured by the Wet, therefore in Excess of Rain, cover them, so that the Air may however come at them, or lay them on the sides, and with fresh Mould trim them up; you may now without Danger bury all sorts of Fulbous Roots, as likewise Iris.

Sow Phillirea and Al [...]ternus seeds, mow Carpet Walks, beat and rowl them, as also Cammomile-beds, and make an end of your last Weeding, cleanse your Walks and Alleys from fallen Leafs, which corrupting will produce Vermin.

Flowers blowing or continuing this Month, &c.

LYmonium, Lychnis, Amaranthus, three coloured Asser Articus, Heliotrops, Tuberos, Jacinths, Mar­ [...]el of Peru, Autumnal Narcissus, Gilliflowers, Virgin [...]halangium, Pomum Amoris, and Aethiop-Garanium [...]riste, Aleppo Narcissus, Pansies, Spherical Narcissus, [...]yclamen, Saffron, Claments, and some others.

Sagitarius ♐, or the Archer NOVEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

COver the Ranuncula's that are coming up, prepare rich Earth made so with about half Dung, sift on [...] some sandy light Mould and Earth gotten out of hol­ [...]w or doated Willow-trees, put it in Cases or Pots in [...]he Sun, and sow in it Auricula-seeds.

If the Weather be open and seasonable, plant the fair­ [...]st Sort of Tulips in Earth not over rich, and let them [...]e under shelter about the middle of the Month; House your tender Plants and Flowers, also set the choicest Carnation under a Pent-house, or some such like shelter under a South Wall, and in sharp; Weather put a cover­ing over them, but not so close as to exclude the Bene­ [...] of the Air; and for shelter of your Seedlings and choice [...]lants, prepare Matresses, Pots, Cases, and Boxes, plant Fi­brous Roots, also Althea-futax, Roses, Cytisus, Cyringas, [...]eonies, and the like; cleanse and sweet the Walks, &c.

Flowers blowing this Month or continuing, &c.

MEadow Saffron, Anomies, Bellis, Stock Gilliflowers, Pancies, Clamatis, double Violets, some kind of Carnations, Anterrhinum, Veronica, Musk-roses, and some others.

Capricorn ♑, or the Goat. DECEMBER,

Things proper to be done in the Flower-Garden this month.

PReserve your Carnations, Ranunculas and Anemonie [...] from excessive Rains, House all tender plants; see [...] out and destroy Insects and Vermine that annoy your Gardens, prepare warm Litter to lay over such choice Things as are to continue abroad; if the Frost comes carry store of Dung, lay it in a readiness in some conve­nient place to rot against the Spring that it may be the fitter for your use, and order other Things as has been directed in January.

How blowing this Month or continuing.

IRis Clusi, some Anemonies, common and Persian Win­ter Cyclamen, black Hellebore, Antirrhinum, Drops or Snow-flowers, single Primroses, Stock-gilliflowers, and some others.

And thus, Reader, have I given you an exact Account of what is most material to be done in the several Months,

Flowers, Shrubs, and choice Plants, enduring several de­grees of Cold, how they are to be preserved.

THe degrees of Cold any choice Flower or plant will bear without danger or destruction, is requisite for a Gardener to know, that so he may order them by a timely care to prevent loss, or being reputed no Pro­ficient in his Employment; and these are commonly di­vided in three degrees,

Flowers and Plants not dying but by extream Cold.

[...]Ingle, Violets, Serapentaria, Trifolium, white and double Narcissus of Constantinople, Agnus, Castus, [...]lva Arb resceris, Persian Jesamine, Mulay, Altha, [...]tax, Orithmum Marinum, Orinthoglon Arabian, Fe­ [...]l Aethiop, Veronica, Teuchriummas Tythymal, Myr­ [...]le, Jacca, Sarsaparilla, Abrotonum, Male and Fe­ [...]le; Adiantum Verum, Aronitae Verum, Bellis Hyspa­ [...] Rosemary, Lavender, Cherry Lawrels, Balbous-Iris, [...]isu, Ma [...]antha, red Lunatus, Cene raria Pomgranets, [...]iettial, Jacinths, double white Lychnis, double Matri­ [...]ria, Pancration, Spinous Poppy Marcoe, Sysynelchi­ [...], Cuccrum, Matthioli, the Eryngium plain, and Ita­ [...] blue, Mountain Pritillaria, Spanish Genista, white [...]wered Olives.

And those, unless in violent or excessive Colds, may [...] last set in the Consorvatory, or Green-House; or you [...]y protect them Abroad in Pots, Cases, or Boxes, and [...]raesses, or thinner covering.

Flowers and Plants enduring the second Degree of Cold.

SUmmer-purple, Cyclamen, Amimum, Plinii, Cit­ton, Digitalis Hyspan, Aspilanthus Creticus, Ja­ [...]obaea Marina, Suza-Iris, Oleanders, Alexandrian Law­ [...]l, Oranges, Lentiscus Myrtles, Lanentine, Tufted Nar­cissus, choicest Cornations and Gilliflowers, Narcissus of [...]pan, red Cytisus, Vernal, Cyclamen, Canna, Indica, double and single Asiatick Ranuncula's, Hedyfarium Cly­ [...]eatum, Virginia Jesamine, Thymis Capitatus Verbe­ [...]nodi, Fles Cretica, Geranium-trifle, Chem-Laea Al­ [...]hestris, Carbo; and some few others of the choicest [...]rt; and therefore when the Frosts approach so that [...]hey seem to set in, they must be hastened into the [...]servatory, &c.

Flowers and Plants the least of all enduring Cold.

ARabian Ornithogalon, Tuberose Narcissus, Acaci [...] Aegyptiaca, Helichryson, Balsamum, Amaranthus, three colours, American Aloes, Aspalathus of Oret, Cha­elaea Tricoccos, Indian Norcissus, Summer sweet Ma [...] jorum, Pistaicos, Dactyls, the great Indian Fig, Lyla [...] with the white Flower, Coultea Odorata, Cistus Rag [...] saeus: with the white Flower, Cretica, Lavendula Mul­tifol. clus. Syrax Arbor, Nastrutium Indicum. Th [...] two Marums of Syria; Capsicum Indicum, Pomu [...] Aethop. Aureum, Spinosum Phaseol, and some few o­thers that are very choice and tender, and therefore a Gardener who undertakes to order them, must have a special care he suffers not the Nipping Prosts or Cold Winds to surprize late abroad, lest they dye, and his Labours and Expectation have thereby an equal Fru­stration.

These of all other tender Flowers or Plants, must first be removed into the Conservatory or Green-House, and carefully tended and ordered according to the Dire­ctions that will follow in the close of this Rook, relating to the well ordering and regulating a Green-House or Conservatory; and if you have not opportunity or con­veniency to remove them so early as necessity requires, then cover them as they stand for a Time with Matres­ses, or thinner covering, according as the Season is Colder or Hotter, or the cold Dews fall, which after Bartholomew-tide fall very cold in the Night, and not great Enemies to choice Plants and Flowers, bringing mostly with them Nipping Morning Frosts, as they are called Mildews, and other Misfortunes, so that a little neglect does a great deal of Mischief, which much Time, Cost, and Labour, cannot renew or recover.

Therefore again, I say be careful in this, and gain Advantage and Credit.

[...] further Description of Flowers, as to their Shapes and Colours.


THIS is an esteemed Flower, of a deep brown Pur­ple whipped very curiously about the edges, dap­ [...]d with Red and Purple, a curious white bottom, and [...]is Purple.

Bacchus Bole.

This Flower is not Tall, yet a very full, large and [...]ad Leafed Flower, being of a sad light Purple and a [...]per White, divided equally, having the three utmost [...]fs edged with a Crimson colour, Blewish bottom, and [...]k Purple and Tamis.


This Flower is of a pale tann'd Leather colour, bright [...]llow and sad Purple, and is for its variety compared [...]th many now in good esteem.

Royal Shuttle-maker.

This Flower has sharp-pointed Leafs, turning a little [...]iously marked with a bright Carnation, pale yellow [...]d deep Scarlet, the bottom Tamis black, and is well im­ [...]oved by off-sets coming out above the lower-most Leaf.


This Flower is properly raised from Seeds of the Di­ [...]a, differing from it in that it hath white Leafs edged [...]d whipped about, and feathered in the middle with a [...]eep brown Purple, and Tamis dark Blue.

Puvion of Rome.

This Flower hath its Leafs very green and large in the [...]lks, raising high, and dividing into several Branches [Page 140] striped, or at least each Leaf of the Flower listed abou [...] with Yellow, the rest deep Scarlet.


This Flower, tho' common, is a great Grace and Orna­ment to the Flower-Garden, it is Male and Female, the first of these are single; and known by the constantly coming of the Leafs whole and undivided; the Roots are roun [...] and long, and the Flower of a Purplish Red; and of the Male there is but one Kind, but of the Females many, some bearing double, others single Flowers, resembling in Sha [...] the common red Rose; and these being usually I nee [...] not Elaborate to describe their Kinds being mostly used for adorning Windows in House-Flower-Pots.

The Bee-Flower.

This grows nor above six Inches high, having three or four narrow Leafs, bearing on the Stalk 3 or 4 Flowers, one above the other; and where there happens to be 4 Leafs, three of them are usually small and sharp pointed, of a Blush colour, turning up towards the Top of the Stalk; the fourth is round, in colour like a Bee that is sucking a Flower, which has deceived many at first sight, who have supposed it to be really so. This has 2 Roots joyned together, and round, and when the Flower fades, usually one of them perishes, and the other remains sound for furthea encrease.

The Bladder Nut.

This grows low if neglected to be pruned up and kept from the Suckers; the Bark is whitish, and the Leafs like Elder-flowers, white and sweet, hanging many on a Stalk, after them greenish Bladders, each containing one Nut, sending up many Suckers, by which it greatly encreases.


This is the great pale Red or Peach-bloom-coloured-Flower-de-luce, being Bulbous-rooted, and is more in [Page 141] [...]eem than the many other Irises, so called from their [...]veral Colours, resembling them in the Rain bow, and adorned with small yellow Spots in each of the three [...]ing Leafs.

The Spanish Yellow-Iris.

This Flower is of a curious Golden colour in all Parts [...] the blowing Leafs; there is yet another of this Kind [...]th a pale yellow Flower, with a deep yellow Spot, and [...] these there are indeed many diversities, some paler, [...]me higger, some lesser, and others of a deeper yellow [...]olour, one with white falling Leafs, except a yellow Spot, [...]hich is usual to all Bulbous Iris, or Flower-de-luces. [...]lso the Spanish party coloured Flower-de-luce, whose [...]eafs are white, that fall, but the Arch'd ones of a Silver [...]our, and the Top-leafs of a bluish Purple, another [...]y-coloured, arched with yellow-falling Leafs, &c.

Hungarian Rose.

This Rose differs from the usual common red, one in [...] Green-shoots, its Flower being of a pailer red, ha­ [...]ng faint Spots spread over the Leafs of the whole dou­ [...]e Flower.

The Double Velvet Rose.

This Rose has its shoots of a saddish red green colour, [...]ttle thorney, the Leafs being of a sadder green than the common red Rose; the Flowers are consistent of two or three rows of Leafs, of a dark red Velvet-colour, having some distinction of lighter red in Velvet-colour, having many Flowers.

The Marble Rose.

This resembles the former in growth, but is larger and more folded, being of a light red, Marbled with a lighter blush grey-deline, and gives a curious scent.

The Virgin Rose.

Is in the Leafs greener than the last, being smoo [...] and without any Thorn, the Flower not very thick [...] standing, but spreading the Leafs, and standing forward [...] from each other; the Leafs, that are of a pale Red, [...] blush colour, are streaked on the Faces, the backsides b [...] ing of a whitish colour, blowing usually fair, and are [...] a very fragrant Scent.

The Evergreen Rose.

This is so called because the Leafs fade not in Winte [...] but remain Green, and continue till new ones come [...] the Spring; the Flowers are cluster'd four or five tog [...] ther at each end of the Branches, which consist but [...] five Lea's single, of a curious white colour having [...] Musky Scent.

The Moley of Hungary.

This Flower is of two Sorts, the first hath three or fou [...] long broad Leafs, which grow up with the Stalk a Foo [...] high, one above the other; and are on the Top beset wit [...] some reddish Bulbs, of a pase Purple; the Root small an [...] fit for encrease; the second is in resemblance of the first only the Stalk bears smaller Leafs, and a greater cluster o [...] dark green Bulbs, the Flowers alike, &c.


Those of Savoy and Italy, of these Kinds are the chiefest in esteem, they are very secure Plants against Weather, and prosper in almost any Soil, especially wher [...] it is moist, bearing a Star-like Flower, white and something inclining to blushing.

This is called the Queens Gilliflower, and by some the close Sciences; there are two Sorts of them, both single, one of a pale Blast, the other white, produ­cing but four Leafs.

The double White Gilliflower.

This is accounted the nobler, having many Branches on Stalk, and many Flowers on a Branch, standing close to­ [...]ether in a long Spike, the Flowers being of a curious [...]hite colour, thick and double, and give their choicest [...]ent in the Evening on the declining of the Sun.

Double Poppies.

These are not to be omitted, tho' they give no fragrant [...]ent, since their Beauties are an Ornament to the Flower- [...]arden; they are of various Colours, tho' of one Kind; [...]ome red, other purple, some white, others scarlet, and [...]me again, white-blush, others party colour; one Leaf [...]alf scarlet, and half white, some striped with the same [...]olour, but those chiefly esteemed are of Gold yellow, [...]ouble flowering, and produce much Seed.

Bastard Britany.

This grows about two Foot high, bearing a reddish [...]lower, having many brownish woody Stalks; and on [...]e lower part of it are winged Leafs seven, nine, or [...]even together, resembling those of a young Ash, tho' [...]mewhat larger, longer, and purpled about the edges, [...]eing of a sad green colour.

Male Cistus.

This has not its growth above a Yard high, small and shrubby, compos'd of many brittle slender woody Bran­ [...]hes, bearing Flowers of a fine reddish purple, like single [...]oses, each having five small round Leafs, many yellow Threads in the middle that soon fall away, &c.

Virgin Silk.

This with one or more round Stalks rises near 4 Foot [...]igh, set wiih two long broad Veins, at several Joynts green and round pointed, and on the Top of the Stalks, out of the skinny Hose, a great tuft of Flowers issue, [Page 144] sometimes thirty or forty hanging down on long Foo [...] stalks, each containing five small hollow Leafs of a Pu [...] ple colour, which fading, are succeeded by long croo [...] ed Cods, standing upwards, which produce flat bro [...] Seed.

Indian Scarlet Jesamine.

This comes up from a large spreading Root with o [...] two or more flexible Branches, which must be suppor [...] ed when they put forth their Tendrills, by fastening [...] any woody Substance, and there will come forth [...] winged Leafs, much like them of Roses, and at the e [...] of the Branches come forth the Flowers, many in Nu [...] ber, long like a Fox-glove, and at the end opening in fine fair broad Leafs, with a stile and small threadin [...] in the middle, of the colour of Saffron; some of the [...] Plants have on the inside the Flower, small and r [...] Leafs, others veined with small yellow lines, the Groun [...] being a deep Scarlet.

The Rose Bay-Tree.

This is of two Sorts, one bringing red, the othe [...] white Flowers, not otherways differing, its Stem growing to the bigness of an Inch and half compass, dividin [...] into three Branches at each Joynt; bearing long, hard thick, and dark Leafs at the end of the Branches; th [...] Flower issues of a white in the one, and deep blush i [...] the other; containing four long narrow Leafs, yet roun [...] pointed, falling away without Seed.

Candy Tufts.

These are small Plants, whitish green Leafs, thei [...] Stalks set with narrow long notches, and at the Top i [...] produced many small single Flowers, placed close together, some white, and others with purple Spots in th [...] middle; others all of a purple colour; they are produ­ced of Seeds, the Roots Yearly perishing.

Flower Gentle of many Colours.

This produces a Flower of a lighter colour, of Purple- [...]arlet, and Gold-colour; Lemmon, Orange, some Straw- [...]olour, and crimson; they have a thick stalk, with ma­ [...]y large green Leafs, of many Branches, &c.

The Shrub Spicara.

This Flower rises a Yard or something more in height, [...]ith divers wooden Stalks set with long green Leafs, [...]cked on the edges; and the top of the Stalk produces [...]any Flowers of a pale Peach-bloom colour, close toge­ [...]er in a long spike, lessening by degrees, like Pyra­ [...]ids; the wooden Root despises the Winter's rage, and [...]ay be propagated by Layers.

The Cloth of Silver coloured Crow-foot.

This produces lesser Flowers than some others of its [...]nd, having its Leafs pointed, six, seven, or eight in [...]umber, of a pale yellowish Blush-colour, striped on [...]e inside, but more on the outside with Crimson, the [...]ot Grumous.

The double yellow Crow-foot.

This is called the Ranuncula of Asia, having its Leafs [...]reading and dividing like a Carrot; from the Root, [...]e many small stalks, each producing a shining yellow [...]all double Flower.

The Ranuncula of Aleppo.

This Flower is of a curious Orange-colour'd tawney, and and very double striped with Yellow.


This Flower is curiously marked and striped with [...]ades of Murry-purple, thro' the several Leafs of it, [...]e at bottom, and Purple Tamis, making a very cu­ [...]ous show.

The Indian Fig.

This springs Leafs one out of another, from one Lea [...] put half into the Earth: Which taking Root, puts ou [...] others, being a Finger thick, flat and round pointed, an [...] of colour a pale green; showing at first brown prickle [...] at the upper end, and at the tops of the Leafs the Flowers break forth, set with two Rows of pale yellow Leafs having a yellow thrum tipped with red in the middle [...] after the Flower fades, the head they stood on, in th [...] middle, grows large, in the form of a Fig, but in thes [...] Countries comes not to perfection; it is a tender Plan [...] and must be set in Pots, so that it may be Housed in th [...] Winter, lest the Frost rot and destroy it.

White Hellebore.

This makes its first appearance with a round larg [...] head, of a green whitish colour, and afterwards opens i [...] many fine green Leafs, signally pleated in every parttaking a compass about each other at the bottom, from whence a Stalk rises about a Yard high, small Leafs extending to the middle of it, which dividing into man [...] Branches bears a considerable Number of Star-like Flowers, small, and so a yellowish green colour.

The double Purple Virgins-Power.

This hath many woody Branches, covered with a thi [...] brown out bark, and green underneath, winding abou [...] what it takes hold on; the Leafs are at the Joints, co [...] sisting of three parts of it, notched on one side, and som [...] on both; the Flowers appear from the Joints on lon [...] Foot-stalks, standing like Crosses, of a sullen dark Red the outward Leafs broad, and in the inward folded lik [...] a Button, so that the outward ones fall off before the inward ones spread themselves, this is proper to be sup­ported against a Wall, and such of the small Branches a [...] in the Winter, prune off in the end of March.

Marum, or Herb Mastick.

This raises about a Foot high with hard stiff stalks, [...]nd the many Branches, into which it divides it self, are [...]r with fine green small Leafs, two at a Joint, at the [...]p of the Branches it sends forth small white Flowers, [...]d among the Tusts downy Threads; all the Plant, as [...]ell as Flowers, being of a curious Scent, and may be [...]proved by Slips set in April.

The Autumn Mountain Crocus.

This is of a pale blue Colour, it stands on short Foot- [...]lks, appearing but little above ground, but soon grows [...]ttle higher, and is prized, because it comes when o­ [...]er Flowers are going out, being of a curious softness.

The Silver cupped Spanish Moley.

This appears with two or three long Rush like Leafs, [...]ling when the Stalk is at its height, that aspiring a [...]rd or more, bearing a considerable Head of Flowers [...]t soon open, grow on long Foot stalks, and spread [...]ch, the Flowers being of the Colour of Silver, with [...]es down them on both sides, the Leafs fashioned small [...]d hollow in the manner of an Encrease-well, with lit­ [...] Trouble.

The great yellow Frutilary.

This has a stalk about two Foot high, the Flower is [...]g, small, and of a pale Yellow, and is well in compo­ [...] of a Garden among May-flowers, whose Number is [...] numerous as various.

As for these last, Reader, I have given you most of [...]em in the English Names; as for the Months Flowers [...]ow in, I have set them down particularly, as you will [...]d in this Book, in the Months adapted to the Flower- [...]arden; so that nothing may be omitted to satisfie the [...]ader in his Curiosity.

THE Gardener's Almanack: For what is necessary to be done in the Green-House and Conser­vatory, in Preserving and wel [...] Ordering choice Shrubs, Plants, Flowers, &c. with the Time of Housing, &c.

GReens, as well as Flowers, are to be considered and care taken of them, because they are n [...] only pleasant to the Site of the Garden, but serve fo [...] many profitable Uses, besides Adornment and Fragrancy Therefore,

In MARCH, What things are proper to be done.

PLant Box in Parterres, sow Bay-seeds, Fir-seeds, Phillyrea, Alaternus, and most Perennial Greens; [...]nd after the Equinox a few Days, prune and Pine Fir­ [...]rees; sow towards the End of the Month Myrtle-berries [...]eeped a while in warm Water.

Wrap with Straw-wisps the Tops of shorn Cyprus; [...]over with Straw, or Pease hawm, your exposed Ever­ [...]reens, as also Bays, Cyprus, Phillyrea, Pine, Fir, &c. [...]hat are Seedlings, till they have continu'd in the Nur­sery about three Years, and are capable of being trans­planted, lest the sharp Winds too much dry and injure [...]hem; and uncover them not till the latter End of the Month, or the tail of the Frost be pretty well over; e­specially the Ever-greens, lest the Wind and Sun con­spire to wither and destroy them; and this you may do a bleak Winds, or sharp Frosts all the Winter.

At the latter End of this Month you may set your Orange trees, Myrtles, Lemmon-trees, Ammammus, Dates, [...]entisci, Olenders, Aloes, and such like Plants, that are [...]ender and impatient of Cold, in the Portico of your Conservatory: And if the Weather be mild and warm, the sharp Frosts and Winds being over, you may open the Windows and Doors, but do it gradually, and not altogether, and trust not the leaving them open a Nights, [...]nless the Season be very well settled; and some hardy Ever-greens may be transplanted, if the Season be warm [...]nd temperate. It is also a proper Time to raise stocks to bud Lemmons and Oranges on; and to do it set the seeds early in the Month, in Pots, half a Dozen of the seeds of Sevil Oranges may be placed in a Pot filled with Earth, viz.

[Page 150]That Earth which is taken the first half spit under th [...] Turf, in rich Pasture-ground, where Cattle have much been fothered, and mix of rotten Cow dung one par [...] with it, and if then it happen to be too stiff, sift mode­rately a little Lime and rotten Wood, or sticks of Willows; and for binding, if occasion requires it, add a little loamy Earth, and plunge the Pots into Hot-beds which may be renewed in May, and so e'er the Winte [...] the shoots will be near a Foot, and in three Years fit t [...] inocculate, which at the end of this Month you may also bud, by placing two Buds opposite one to the other not above an Inch from the Earth.

In APRIL, What Things are proper to be done.

THis Month sow Phyllerea, Pine-kernels, Fir-seeds Alternus, and the most Sorts of Perennial-greens Take your tender and choice Shrubs of the Conservator and air them in a fair Day, and about the middle of th [...] Month, if the Weather be fair and temperate, else le [...] them remain till May; and when you see Occasion to water them, about four Gallons of warm Water, wil [...] serve to do about Trees, but let it be Rain or Pond Water, which will most nourish them.

You may also graft your tender Shrubs, and the like by approach, as Jessamines, Pomgranades, Oranges▪ Lemmons, and the like.

Towards the end of the Month will be a proper Sea­son to remove and transplant Oleanders, Myrtles, Spanish Jessamine, young Orange-plants, Pomgranades, &c. firs [...] suffering them to sprout, placing them about a Fortnigh [...] in the shade; refresh and time them, and also Spanish Jes­samine, within an Inch or two of the Stock, when it be­gins [Page 151] to put out or shoot. If the cold Winds are passed, [...]owards the end of the Month, after gentle showers, &c. Clip Barba-jovis, Box, Cyprus, Myrtle, Phillyrea, Alter­nus; and to prevent Box smelling after it is clipped, water it immediately, and the scent will vanish.

In MAY, What things are proper to be done.

BRing forth your Orange-trees, remove and trans­plant them. See the particular Manner of it in what relates to Orchard-management of Fruit-trees.

Give such housed Shrubs and Plants as you think [...]ot convenient to bring yet Abroad, fresh Earth at the sur­ [...]ice, a handful deep or somewhat more, loosening the [...]est of the Earth with a forked stick, without bruising [...]r wounding the Roots.

Brush and cleanse the Leafs of your Plants from dust [...] some other ill conveniencies they have gathered in the Green-house; and if you neither remove nor transplant [...]hem, take off the surface of the old Earth, and finely [...]ift on some rotten old Cow-dung.

From the several sorts of Greens, except Orange's [...]nd Lemmons, you need not, in taking up, to transplant [...]hem, or trim the Roots much, unless they are very [...]uch intangled or matted; and if they encrease in growth [...]d stature, remove them into large Pots or Cases, and [...]ut lesser into those you remove them out of, and this [...]eed not be done above once in two or three Years.

In JUNE, What things are proper to be done.

NOw Inoculate Roses, Jessamine, and some other choice Shrubs; set Slips of Myrtle in Cold mois [...] Ground, and they will the better take Root. Likewise by slips you may multiply Cytisus Innatus in Ground that is moderately moist, but let them not exceeds handful in length, and be of the same spring; and use this Month neither Seeds nor Layers of them; Water now such Things as require it; trim up your Knots, and put every Thing in order that by defect, aecident or luxuriance have intangled, or put themselves out o [...] decency, or regular form, and proceed to the place th [...] spreading shoots, or tender slips of this Years growth in your Verdent Bowers or Arbours.

In JULY, What things are proper to be done.

YOu may this Month continue to slip Myrtle, Lawrels, and other useful Greens. Water Shrubs newly planted, as also Layers of Granads, Myrtle, Orange-trees, Amomum; which Shrub must be frequently Wa­tered, and cannot well be done too much, requiring likewise very much Compost to support it, as do also th [...] Granads and Myrtles; so that take care when you tri [...] their Roots, or change their Earth, that you give the [...] the fattest and most natural Soil.

[Page 153] Inarch, graft by Approach, and inoculate Oranges, Je­samine, and other curious Shrubs: Take up Autumnal Cyclamen, gather the early Seeds of it, and sow it in Pots.

About the latter end of this Month, lay new Earth on the Surface of the Cases wherein your Orange-Trees are planted, and cool them as much as you can, and plunge your Pots in cool Earth to avoid the excessive heat of the Sun.

In AUGUST, What Things are proper to be done, &c.

THE beginning of this Month is the proper season for Success in Budding of Orange-Trees: There­fore Inoculate seedling Stocks, of about three or four Years growth; and to have good Buds for this purpose, take off the head of an old Orange-Tree that is of a good kind, which will furnish you with the best by making large Shoots.

About the 24th of this Month is a proper and very safe Season to remove and lay your Perennial Greens, Lemmons, Oranges, Myrtles, Oleanpers, Phllyreat, Pom­granates, Monthly Roses, Arbutus, Jesamines, and other choice Shrubs, and such as will endure the Frost; peg the Shoot and Branch of the last Spring in very fertile Earth, water them as you see occasion, during the Sum­mer; and when this Time comes again the next Year, you may transplant or remove them into fit Earth, set in the shade with moderate Moisture, but not too much, lest it rot the young Fibres; and then at three Weeks end place them in a more Airy Station, but not till fif­teen Days after; you ought not to venture them in the Sun, especially [...] hot.

In SEPTEMBER, Things proper to be done, &c.

PLANT Irish-chalchidon, and Cyclamen, cotinue to sow Phillyria and Alternus, and Anuals that are not impaired by the Frost.

Priune Pines and Firr-Trees somewhat after the Equi­noctial, if it was not done in March; for I prefer that Month as a proper Season.

About Michaelmas, later or sooner, as the Weather proves reasonable fair, without Fogs or great Mists, is a proper Time to retire your tender Greens, &c. obser­ving at the same Time that they be dry on the Leafs, &c. as Lemmons, Oranges, Indian, and Spanish Jessamine, Dates, Ledon Clusi, Aloes, Sedums, Oleanders, Babha-Jovis, Citysus, Lunatus, Amomum, Plin, Choemeleatri­cocces; put them into your Conservatory, with fresh Mould stirred amongst that which is on the Top of their Cases and Boxes; then add rich and well con­sumed Soil, for their better nourishment during the Winter, but you need not shut the Doors and Win­dows of the House, till the cold is much more increa­sed, and by its sharpness gives you warning to do it: As for Myrtles they may be left Abroad till the latter end of October.

In OCTOBER, Things proper to be done, &c.

IN this Month you may sow Cyprus, if the Frost be not rise, but do not much clip your Shrubs of any kind; sow Alternus and Philligra-seeds, and look after your Green-House to place all Things in good Order, and clear them of dead or decaying Leafs, or any other An­noyances; and remove such Things as are yet Abroad, according to their Degrees bearing Cold, into shelter; and put Dung to the Roots of such as are yet left Abroad, but not too much, nor too hot, lest it injure them to too much Heat, so that they will be the less abler.

In NOVEMBER. Things proper to be done, &c.

THIS Month cover your young exposed Ever-Greens with Straw or Hawm, if the Winds be very sharp, lest they be dried up and spoiled; and quite enclose your tender Plants, Peranual-greens, and choice Shrubs, if the Frost come on in your Conservatory, excluding particularly the cold Winds; and if they there appear very dry, and not freezing, you may water them with Water qualified with Cow or Sheeps dung, some what warmed.

Plant Roses, Althea-frutex, Citysus, and sow stony Seeds.

[Page]You may now Plantt Forrest trees for Walks, to make a curious green Shade in their proper Seasons, either in Walks or Avenues, and cover your tender Greens in the Nursery, with Mattresses and warm Straw.

In DECEMBER, Things proper to be done, &c.

IN this Month little can be expected to be done as to Gardening, and therefore may be termed to the care­ful Gardener a Month of rest, wherein he ought to take care of himself in providing wholesome, nourishing Diet, warm Cloaths and good Fires; yet let him look after such Things as yet require his Care, especially in the Green-House or Conservatory, which now will prove an easie Task, the main being to keep the Windows and Doors well closed, and lined with Mats or other Conve­niencies, to prevent the piercing Air entering thro' the Crevices; for now the Orange-Trees are most likely to be in danger, and therefore if the Weather be extream, assist them with the kindly Heat of Fire, but not too much, for that does more Harm than Cold.

Set dropping iipe Barberries, and Pine-kernels in a good mellow Mould, and see what else is requisite; and so I conclude the Year with my Wishes, that the honest Gardener's Undertakings may be always successful and prosperous.

For the Preservation of Plants, Shrubs, Choice Flowers, &c. from Winds, Frost, or cold Airs that would otherwise Chill and Destroy them.

GREENS that last all the Year are for the most part not to be kept without great Care, sometimes abroad, and sometimes in the Conser­vatory; and since few Books give any satisfactory Ac­count of, to accommodate the English Gardener: I con­ceived it highly necessary to place such Rules and Dire­ctions, on that Occasions at the latter End of this Work, as cannot chuse but make it more acceptable to the In­genious, than any that have gone before it.

That a Green House or Conservatory to preserve choice Greens and Flowers from the nipping Winds or chilling Frosts, I cannot conceive any that deal this Way are Ig­norant, tho' some are for having it in one Fashion, and others in another; and indeed I shall not undertake to contradict Fancy in this Matter, yet there remains some­thing to be said that many are ignorant of, and being [...]nown and put in practice, may highly conduce to their Advantage.

Consider then that free breathing Air is that which continues the life and grotwh of Plants, as well as Ani­mals, and where they are stifled and kept in too close, tho' with Heat and subterranean Fires, as Stows, &c. in [Page 158] the cold Weather, as many use for want of free Air to breath, they express a Languor by the Parching of the Brims of the Leafs; and sometimes a Decay and Dryness of the whole Leaf, which could they have moderate Heat and Air to pass in and out moderately for their Refresh­ment, would be remedied, and this can be done no better than by Earthen Pipes conveniently placed, some in a Stow set on the Out-side of the House conducting Heat, and others conveniently placed to let out the stagnated or sulphurous Air that sickens the Plants, and let in that which is fresh and pure to revive and refresh them, that they may continue and flourish, at least keep their live­ly Verdure; and 'this is far better than Pans of Charcole, or Stows within, that corrupt and stifle the Air; and such a Stow may be erected with a Chimney or Funnel, a Fire hearth, and an Ash-hole at a moderate Price, and the Expence of much less Fewel than the others; the Pipes to let in Heat need not exceed three, and one or two of them as Occasion requires, may sometimes be stopped, or less or more Heat is requisite, the Season be­ing very sharp or relenting, and so may you order those of the like Number, to let in and out the Air.

In this House you must have your Door and Windows to the South; and the Door that is placed in the side of it requires a Porch, with another Door matted, to keep the Crevices, and shutting close, so that going in or our, one Door may be shut upon you before the other is open­ed, that the cold Air may be kept out, that otherwise would rush in with much Violence.

As for the Windows they must have Wooden-Shutters, as well as Sashes of Glass well framed in, that when the Cold is extream they may be totally shut up; and when there is relentings or Sun-shiny Days, the Wooden-Shut­ters my in the Day-time by degrees be opened to let in the Sun and Air more freely, but not the Glass ones be drawn up, unless it proves very warm and Sun-shiny, and then not too suddenly but with Caution and Discretion, that the Plants may take it kindly; and not find too sud­den [Page 159] an alteration in the change of the Air, which may prove very prejudicial.

So range your Pots and Cases wherein your choice Plants and Flowers stand, and each may receive a Bene­fit of Air, and warmth according to its Degree, but not so near as to interfere or intangle with one another, for then they will keep in the contaminated, thick or gross Air, and there will be no free breathing amongst them; as in this Case there ought to preserve a Vivacity of Liveliness in them.

The Greens require a little watering in the Conserva­tory, or Green-House, and many of them none; as Aloes, and the like; because it makes them sickly and fading, the Air being sufficient ro moisten them, especially in the cold season; and when by the curling and wither­ing of the Leafs you find a necessity to do it, warm the Water, and mix it a little with Pidgeons or Poultry's-Dung; pour it on moderately some distance from the Roots, that it may leisurely soak to them, and not in abundance.

Take off such Leaves as wither or grow dry, and stir the Stalk or Bole of the Plant gently, that the Root may be a little loose to have the freer breathing of Air; open the Mould a little on the top, and sprinkle a fresh Mould on the surface, and over that a small scattering of warm Dung; and if any Weeds or Grass grow up, take them away, smoothing over the place again, keeping such a distance between your Rows of your Pots or Cases placed on Forms, or Stools, Tables, or the like, that you may easily pass between them to do any Office that is required for the Commodity or Advantage.

Spread at the bottom of your Green-House, Wood-Ashes finely sifted, and over them lay dryed Rushes, and they will suck up the Damps apt to arise out of the Earth, and add a considerable warmth to the place.

Let the Ceiling be low to reflect the Heat that pro­ceeds from the Stow, and hang it about with Linsey-wooles-y Baye, or some such course Stuffs which will take [Page] off the Cold that is subject to penetrate the Walls, and [...]vent their Mustiness, often occasioned by sweating [...]ter Frosts, or some relentings of Frosts, foggy Wea­ [...]her, or immoderate Rains, when the Air is thick and gross; and likewise add a considerable warmth for the preservation of such Things as are the most tender: In matters not at which end of your House you erect your Stow, whether East or West, so it be in a convenient place. It may be made of Stone or Brick, to be erected foursquare, of the ordinary size of a single plain Fur­nace, like that of a Chymist, used sn his Laboratory, usu­al there for common Operation, consisting of an Ash­hole and Fire-hearth, which may take up about 2 Foot from out to out: Yet so it must stand that the Grate or Fire-hearth may be about a Yard above the Floor, or Area of the Green-House, that thereby the Heat coming thro' the Pipes conveniently placed, may be the more leveller, and evener dispersed to the middle, bottom, and top of the House, that every part may participate as much as is convenient of it; and in this good order­ing; even in the Cold of Winter, you will perceive ma­ny of your Greens to shoot out and flourish, some Blos­som, and some produce Fruit, many Flowers blow to admiration; as if, by this reviving Heat and good Ma­nagement, an Artificial Spring or Summer was produ­ced, which will much redound to the Credit and Profit of a Gardener, especially such as manage these Affairs for the Nobility and Gentry of the Kingdom, who are curious in them, and take pleasure to see what they can­not reasonably expect at such a Season.

Thus, Reader, I hope I have fulfilled my Underta­king, in omitting nothing that might materially conduce to the well ordering of an Orchard or Garden, pleasant and profitable to the Owners, in all their Particulars and Niceties; so that an indifferent understanding Man may reach and comprehend the Instructions laid down, which being put in practice as the Seasons are specified cannot but render a Gardener acceptable.


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