Ρ'ΑΧΙΤΙΔΟΛΟΓΙΑ OR A …

Ρ'ΑΧΙΤΙΔΟΛΟΓΙΑ OR A Tract of the Disease RHACHITIS Commonly called the RICKETS.

Shewing the Signes, Cause, Symptoms, and Prognosticks: Together with a most accurate and ingenious Method of CURE.

Written originally in Latin, (according to a new-framed Hypothesis) by that most learned Philo­sopher, and Famous Physician, Dr. John May­ow, late Fellow of All-Souls-Coll. in the Aca­demy of OXON.

And now (for the Benefit of his Coun­try-men) faithfully rendred into English.

By W. S.

To which is subjoyn'd a profitable Appendix, touch­ing WEIGHTS and MEASURES us'd in the Composition of Medicines and exhibiti­on of Medicinal Doses.

OXFORD, Printed by L. L. for Th. Fickus. 1685

TO The most Vigilant, Industrious and Expert MIDWIFE Mrs. MARY COOMES, the Translator Wisheth all Happiness.

Worthy Patroness!

IT was an inviolable De­cree among the Aegyp­tians, that every Physitian should have but one Disease for his Province; whereby is meant, that he was to employ his utmost Industry, [Page]in order to improve his Fa­culty for the good of Man­kind: And now adays too, it is so far from being thought an Absurdity so to do, that the best of Professors are not ashamed (but esteem it requisite and highly conduci­ble) to make a particular Scrutiny into the knowledge of some one Distemper, e­minently above others, ac­cording to the Inclination of their natural Genius.

Our learned Author is not herein to be excepted; for albeit he was a person of ex­tensive parts, and was blest [Page]with a more than ordinary Capacity; yet did he signa­lize his Practice by a more particular Enquiry into the true Cause and Cure of the RICKETS, an af­ter long Observation and Experience (that others might reap advantage from his Labours and Study,) published a Tract of this Disease: I having perused the same and well weighed what was written, I was heartily solicitous to com­municate it in our Mother-Tongue, to Posterity, that it might become more ge­nerally [Page]useful, and diffusive to the Intelligence of such as have the Care of Children, and particularly to Mid­wives who ought to be of good Understanding, and to abound with great Noti­on relating to Medicines ex­hibited to Children, touch­ing whose Infirmities it is a most usual thing to have recourse to them.

Now having (by the Di­vine Assistance) compleat­ed this Undertaking, I did after mature Deliberation, think fit to make a Dedica­tion of this small Treatise to [Page]you, having so great esteem for you, that I blush not to acquaint the World in short, that in what you Profess, appertaining either to Wo­men or Children, (before, or in, or after the Birth,) you are so well Experienc'd, Dextrous and truly Judici­ous, that you may be justly styled, the Oxonian LƲ ­CINA, or Compleat Mid­wife, What I have done as to the Appendix of Weights and Measures, I nowise doubt but the same will prove more delightful and satisfactory, than what in the [Page]Writings of any other Eng­lish Author is yet extant. So commiting the same to your Patronage, I subscribe my self

Yours in all Sincerity WILLIAM SƲRY.

TO THE READER.

THose Things wch are truly Glor­ious & highly Divine, do mani­fest this one grand Proof of their Ex­cellency, in that they continue perpe­tually Immutable, not being subject to Alteration. Now whereas this is a very great Perfection, and to enjoy a long and prosperous Life is a superexcellent or surmounting and supreme Good; justly then, and not without cause do those Creatures, which are in a mortal State aspire thereat, and naturally desire to Be, and to Live. But since they cannot wholly and absolutely attain this; [Page]yet thus much have they acquired' viz. to have, in some respect, a Per­petual being; not in Number, but in Species, which abideth ever. For which reason, the Birth and Procreation of Living Creatures are continuated by immutable Eternity, that what cannot be preserved in singular Substance, might at least persevere in Species. For it falls out on necessity, that every Individ­ual, whereas it perceives it self to be mortal and dissoluble, wisheth to reserve something in its own Simili­tude, in its stead; in as much as in some degree it comforteth Languid and Declining Age, and by which as it were growing young and fresh again, it is in a manner perpetuated and made permanent. Hence ari­seth that Lust or Desire of Begetting, which Nature hath imparted to all [Page]Living Creatures, that their Spe­cies might be forever preserved. Which being premised, we come next to consider, that as we want the absolute Perfection (in this hu­mane State) of Immortality; So like­wise we are deprived of the benefit of constant Vigour, Strength and Sanity, which not only Decaying Age gradually supervening, but a numerous Host of Diseases too, (which Sin hath intail'd upon the Race of Adam) sufficiently confirm. If therefore we respect & ponder the Advantage, Force and Faculties of all Arts, none will be found more excellent, more worthy, or more to be wished for by the sons of men, than that of Physick; which (as the learned Fernelius defines) Est Ars ad humani corporis Sanitatem tuendam, profligandosque mor­bos, [Page]comparata. It is an Art or­dained to preserve the Health of mans body, and to profligate Disea­ses. This great gift hath the Infi­nite Being, out of his boundless mercy bestowed on mankind, that, as he hath been pleased to necessitate a continuation of the Species, so also this Temporal Life might not be al­together burthensome; but by a sea­sonable Application of suitable Re­medies, all Diseases and Dolors (from the Cradle to the Crutch) whether Internal or External, might be cured or at least alleviated.

Certainly then whatever is writ­ten on this Subject viz. Medicine, (presupposing it to be rationally de­duced from the Fountains of Lear­ning and Experience) it must on necessity prove acceptable; and that worthy old Adage, Bonū quò com­munius [Page]eò melius, affords us a good and profitable Plea for Trans­lation. For why should any thing that tends to a general Advantage, be hid from Vulgar Apprehensi­on, Knowledge being the most de­lightful and commodious thing in na­ture. Tis undoubtedly great Pity that a Secret should be secured and fettered by the Padlock of a forraign Language, whereas the same being ushered into the World by a Mother-Tongue, might arrive to some wonderful Improvement, and dif­fuse it self to the utmost Limits of Christian Charity. That Author merits but small commendation, who respecting more his proper Praise, than the common Good of Man-kind, emits a Tract into the World, grudg­ing his Works to be read by any o­thers, then such as shall (being [Page]book-learned themselves) admire his Eloquence, and honour him with the Title of a Learned Man. Such a one (in my Opinion) is like to the Sun obnubilated, yielding most Light where there is least need of it. Tho a person of great Learning deems it a kind of Trespass on his Parts, so much to debase himself, as to com­mit his endeavours to publick View in an inferiour Language; yet, if some other is pleased to render the same easy to the Apprehension of a Multitude, which before was cōmodious but to few; it not only not derogates from the Authors Credit, but also may enrich the Ʋnderstand­ing of many a one, whose aspiring Genius, otherwise perhaps might grow Languid, for want of a Re­cruit.

A Judicious Brain is not heredi­tary [Page]to a Graecian or Latinist only. Various Examples of men famous in Physick, the Mathematicks, yea most Arts and Sciences, who never were grounded in any but their Mo­ther-Tongue, may be produced. Not being a Linguist, proves a man to be a meer Ignoramus; no more than the Language of the Beast, infers a good Conclusion to think or say, every one, that knows it, to be a Cicero.

In truth, the Veneration I have always had for Charitable Intenti­ons, was the strongest Motive that urged and inur'd me to this Enter­prize. And we are bound to confess, (whatever praejudicial Spirits dare depose to the contrary) that Man­kind can rarely be obliged with a more acceptable piece of Service, then that of reducing one Language into another.

If therefore this noble Medicinal Art infer so great Commodity and Delectation; if likewise, (as I have made it apparent) from Translati­on so great Improvement accrew to most men, and (as I may boldly say) to all Nations; here mayest thou, Reader! divert thy Apprehension, and improve thy Knowledge, not with a mean, but remarkable and late discovery; viz. An Investiga­tion of a Distemper called the RICKETS, incident to Babes and Infants only, whose Tenderness and Immaturity of Age and Ʋnder­standing, as they impede the Ex­ploration and Disquisition of the Diseases Origine, so likewise add difficulty to to the Cure. The famous Author (when living, much admired for his profound Knowledg, and se­cure Judgment) amongst his most [Page]ingenious Philosophical Tracts, which largly recommend his Worth, hath pitched upon a Scrutiny of this Eisease in all its parts Diagnostick, Prognostick and Therapeutick, as well Pharmaceutical as Chirur­gical. To be brief, this Tract may justly bear the Title of Gemma Me­dica, the Glory of whose Splendour the most Nebulous Aspect of frown­ing Zoilus, connot diminish or obumbrate. His Hypothesis, touching the Crookedness of the Bones is undeniable, and not to be parallel­ed, by the bravest Aesculapius this refined Age can produce.

Accept hereof (kind Reader!) with as much Candour, as I have with Chearfulness Translated it, and in so doing, thou wilt highly recom­pence me for my Pains, and encou­rage me to Publish something else [Page]shortly, which will not be less worthy thy perusal. In the mean time Farewell, and enjoy these Fruits of my Labour, which will tend both to thy Pleasure and Profit.

Thine in all honest Endeavours W. S.

ERRATA.

PAge 26, Line 16. for 1. r. 2. p, 35. l. 17. r. grow not only. p. 35. l. 22. for inflicted, r. inflected. p. 47. l. 15. for to, r. too. p. 64. l. 14. for affect. r. effect. p. 75. l. 13. for half an Ounce, r. half a Dram. p. 76. l. 6. for a Scru­ple, r. half a Scruple, p. 90. l. 14. for efer'd, r. refer'd.

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A Tract of the Disease RHACHITIS, commonly called the RICKETS

The Proeme.

THe Renowned GLIS­SON is the onely man (as far as I know) who hath wrote any thing touching the Rickets: which may seem to be very strange, since a Disease for the most part doth scarcely [Page 2]spread so much as the ill habit of writing concerning it. And truly, so accurate a Treatise of this Disease lately set forth by Dr. Glisson, and the Authority of so great a man, might deter me from writing, did I not be­lieve him to be such an one as would willingly pardon a lover of the Truth, tho now and then dissenting from him. Yet where­as I am making hast along with him to the same Goal, it must needs be that most an end I trace the same Footsteps. Wherefore by leave of so great a Person, I may lawfully repeat, (since it cannot be otherwise,) some things declared by him already.

CHAP. I. Of the time when and Place where the Disease Rhachitis had its first Rise, and who are most sub­ject thereto.

THis Disease had its first rise in the Western parts of England, above Forty years ago: But afterwards (as it is the custome of Diseases and evils to spread themselves further) it in­fested the Cradles of Infants, (but more seldome in the Nor­therne Countries, throughout all England.

Therefore they are Infants who chiefly are sick of this disease; and they are more frequently [Page 4]vexed therewith, from the sixth month after the Birth to the eigh­teenth, and from a year and a half to the end of two years and a half so that for the most part the time of its Invasion, are those two years which presently ensue the age of six months from the Birth.

CHAP. II. Of the Signs or Symptoms of the Disease.

THe Diagnosis or knowledge of this Disease, (as of oth­ers,) doth depend upon the un­derstanding of the Symptoms, which are these that follow.

1. The proportion of the parts [Page 5]is irregular: viz. The Head big­ger than it ought to be.

2. The Face over-fat,

3. The Wit too acute in res­pect of the Age.

4. The external Members, chie­fly the musculous, lean and ex­tenuated.

5. The Skin loose and flagging.

6. The Bones for the most part bowed, and those about the Joynts standing out, and knot­ty.

7. The Spine or Back-bone is varioufly inflected.

8. The Breast is straight or nar­row.

9. The Extremities of the Ribs knotty.

10. The Abdomen somewhat puffed up, and stretched out. These things are outwardly ob­served, [Page 6]but inwardly.

11. The Liver is perceived o­ver-large; as also most of the Parenchymaes, or fleshy substan­ces.

12. The Ventricle and Intest­ines rise into a greater Bulk, than in those who are sound.

13. The Mesenterium is affect­ed with Glandules too great; if not with Srumae or Waddles.

These are the Symptoms with­in the Abdomen; within the breast,

14. The Lungs are discerned stuft and tumid; and the same sometimes purulent, strumous, and very often growing fast to the Pleura.

15. The Jugular Veins, and Ca­rotid Arteries, are sometimes found larger than their just pro­portion; [Page 7]but the Brain is faulty only as to its Proportion and massy Bulk.

16. Lastly, to these is added an Enervation of almost all the Parts; also a certain drowsiness and Impatience of Labour and Exercise: For, the little Children cannot play, except sitting, and with much ado can stand on their feet. And at last in the Pro­gress of the Disease, the burthen of their Head, can hardly be sust­ained by their weak neck.

These are the so many and so great Symptoms of this Malady: In the next place we must search out what may be the fruitful (cause or mischief of so numerous an off-spring.

CHAP. III. Of the Cause of the Disease. That it consisteth not in the naughtiness of the Blood; nor in the depraved constitution of the Parts.

FIrst, We suppose the Cause of this Disease not to consist in the vitiated Influx of the blood, for so the whole mass of blood would be corrupted, which since it is indifferently conveyed to e­very part, the more impure blood would affect all of them more or less; which notwith­standing in this infirmity never happeneth: For the Head, as al­so the Bowels are well disposed only more than usually great; [Page 9]yea, the very Parenchymaes which chiefly consist of affused blood, whereas they are found very much like to those of the Health­ful, they in like manner argue the blood to be good and lauda­ble. For it were absurd to assert I know not what Elective attract­ion, whereby the head and bow­els well disposed, do attract all the good blood, but send away the bad into other parts: For this Attraction, (were there any) would be from all parts alike, since to every part there is a con­gruity and necessity of good blood, which are thought to bring to pass a motion of that kind.

Secondly, we affirm the Foun­dation of that Affect, not to con­sist in the depraved constitution [Page 10]of the parts themselves; as if the parts molested with frigid and moist Intemperature; were un­apt for receiving the Heart's in­flux: For, whence doth arise this so great an Humiditie and Coldness of some parts, in com­parison of the rest, since all of them are irrigated with the like hot blood and spirits alike? For neither do I suppose the frigiditie innate to the parts, but to be preternaturally in them; neither truly must we believe the parts themselves to withstand their own nutrition. For those ope­rate nothing in the Act of nutri­tion; but only receive the nu­triment brought to them by to­leration: So that I certainly be­lieve, there is no other unapt­ness in the parts, whereby they [Page 11]become not nourished, except Obstructions only, by means whereof they cannot take Ali­ment: Wherefore the cause of this Malady, cannot be in the constitution of the parts them selves; nor is it reasonable to judge Humidity the cause of the disease, but rather the Effect.

CHAP. IV. That the Nerves as well as the Blood do help to nourish; and this dis­ease doth peculiarly depend upon the defect of the Nervous Influx.

HOwever whereas the parts are really Cold. and (tho largely supplied with blood good [Page 12]enough) are not nourished; We must altogether conclude that something else besides the blood alone, is requisite to heat and nutrition. Whatsoever this be there is a necessity that it be car­ried through some of the Vessels. The Arteries conveigh the blood, the Veins carry back that which is brought; and the Nerves only remain, which can conveigh the Liquor, or at least nutritious spi­rits.

But, that no man may doubt whether the Nerves carry any thing necessary to nutrition, I shall alleage an Experiment known to every body; to wit, if a Nerve serving to any part be cut off from it, not only the sense of that part, but also all man­ner of nourishment, is utterity [Page 13]lost, insomuch as the same for the time to come shall become as it were withered.

But however, this nervous Li­quor alone doth not perform, the whole duty of nutrition. For be­sides it, ye blood diffus'd through the Arteries obtains not a small part as to nourishing. For­asmuch as the nervous juice be­ing mingled with the blood doth cause a certain Effervescence or Heat, whereupon the matter meet for the nourishing of the parts, is precipitated; and through the de­fect of this nervous liquor's in­flux, tho the blood in this af­fect be pretty laudable, yet wanting its due ferment, it is nei­ther available te excite due heat in the parts, nor to execute the office of Nutrition.

CHAP. V. The Definition, or Description of the Rhachitis, together with the Cause thereof: Wherein is shewed, that it proceeds not from the faultiness of the Brain; but from the obstruction of the spinal Marrow.

FRom what hath been said, we need not be affraid to affirm, that The RHACHITIS is a Disease, arising from the unequal distribution of the Nervous Liquor through the defect or superabundance whereof, some Parts defrauded of Nutriment are attenuated, other parts being over-cloyed [therewith,] grow too bulky.

But this Vice of inequality consists not in the Influx of the Brain; for, from this fountain being vitiated, meet nutriment would accrew to no part at all. and truly, the Head and other parts, which partake of the nerves that have their original from the Brain, do enjoy Nutri­ment laudable enough, tho in too great abudance; yet whereas those Parts which have Nerves springing from the spinalis Medulla, do become lean; it is certainly manifest, that altho in the brain, (as it were the publick store-house, shop, or work-house of the whole body,) an increase or store of vital spi­rits ample enough is elaborated; yet, the Spinalis medulla, as it were the Princely road or high­way [Page 16]tending from that mart or empory is altogether overcharg­ed and incumbred by thick and glutinous humours, whereby the Passage for the nervous nutri­ment is blocked up: whence it cometh to pass, that the Nerves which descend from the Spinal marrow, being destitute of that nutritious liquor, bring no aid at all to the languishing parts which they approach. Hence comes an Atrophy, and very great extenuation of those parts. So at last 'tis reasonable that we de­termine this to be the cause of this malady; and the rather, for that the reason of all the symptoms proper to this disease, may more clearly and easily be deriv'd from this Fountain, as frō what follows shall be manifest.

CHAP. VI. The Reason of the Symptoms, and first of the too great Augmenta­tion of the Head.

IN this affect it falls out, that the head is increased to an unreasonable bigness, which in­deed from our supposition must needs be: For the nutritious li­quor of the brain is wont in a great measure to be discharged on the Spinal Marrow; but that Passage now being stopped the whole is distributed to the nerves descended from the brain. Here­upon, whereas the head doth ac­quire too liberal an increase of nutriment from those nerves tur­gid [Page 18]with nutritious juice, it must on necessity be advanced to an ex­traordinary bigness. From this cause also, the countenance (in respect of the Age) is over-big and the wit too acute: for, as the spirits being exhausted, do render us dull and languid; in like-manner; plenty thereof con­gested in the brain, maketh us wise and witty.

CHAP. VII. Of the swelling or puffing up of the Abdomen.

THe inward Parts of the Ab­domen are wont for the most part to exceed their just pro­portion: there is indeed the like [Page 19]reason or cause for this, as there is for the symptoms of the head; For tis very certain, that these Plexus or foldings of so many nerves, serving to the lower most belly, (as chiefly of the Wandring Pair and Intercostal Nerves,) are the Ofl, spring of those which are descended from the Brain: That now it is no wonder, if the afore­said Viscera, enjoying more plen­tiful nourishment brought unto them by the said nerves, do grow larger. For altho the Intercostal Nerves receive Branches from the spinalis medulla, such as can bring unto them no nutritious Liquor, yet, that too liberal influx of the brain doth abundantly recom­pense for this defect.

As for the Liver, and the rest of the Parenchymaes, which seem [Page 20]principally to consist of affused blood, the nervous juice perhaps is not so necessary for their nu­trition: yet, whereas the Mus­cles of the Abdomen spread over them, have nerves from the Spi­nalis medulla, which certainly can bring no nutriment from that dried fountain, hence it comes to pass that the Viscera or Bowels inwardly surging, do press the Muscles aforesaid, and cause them to be stretched out as not growing with equal pace.

CHAP. VIII. Of strumous Glondules, or hard Kernels.

FUrthermore it happens that the Mesentery is affected with [Page 21]great Kernels, and Strumous Tu­mours. That the cause of this symptome may the better be known, I shall briefly premit the Origine of Glandules. The nervous Liquor being mingled by due fermentation with the Blood, doth pass into a nutriti­ous carnal substance; but, if the Nerve being replete and turgid shall pour forth its liquor (which is very much like unto the white of an Eg,) into the interspaces of the flesh; the matter so effused doth not any more make flesh, through the defect of blood re­quisite hereto, but is congealed ed into a Glandulous body very much like unto it self; which from Observation is manifest: For being about to make an Ex­periment on a Dog, I pricked a [Page 22] nerve, whereupon the dog was afterwards miserably wrested with Convulsions, and about three months after, I found a Glandulous concretion remarka­ble enough, where that wound or Puncture before hand was in­flicted, which seems to arise from the nervous liquor flowing from the Puncture of the Nerve.

These things being premised; whereas so much nervous liquor is transfered from the repleted brain, through the Wandring Pair and Intercostol nerves, into the Abdomen, as cannot be changed into the substance of the Viscera that liquor is deposited into the interspaces of the Membranes, (whereof many occur,) and there procureth strumae or waddles in great number.

Neither only in the Abdomen but wheresoever the nerves springing from the brain, (which grow turgid with that Liquor) do approach, there strumous Tu­mours are to be seen; yet such as vanish away shortly after the Cure of the disease: For, the ner­vous Liquor, which, being effu­sed in so great plenty from the Brain (through the nerves spring­ing from thence) did abound to the Generation of the Strumoe, is now for the greatest part derived into the Spinalis medulla; so that those Strumoe, defrauded of nu­triment, in a short time are dry­ed away.

CHAP. IX. Of the Crookedness of the Bones. Dr. Glissons Opinion touching the same, is set down.

IN this Affect also the Bones are wont to be bowed more or less; especially those of the Cu­bit and Tibia: The joynts also for the most part, bend outward­ly: the Extremities of the Ribs (where they are joyn'd with the Cartilages of the Sternum,) are knotty; The Bones of the joynts protuberant; likewise the whole Spine is variously inflected, partly outwards, partly inwards.

I do not conceive that this crookedness of the bones doth [Page 25]proceed from their Flexibility, sith that Children afflicted with this malady, have rather greater and firmer bones than others, as shall more at large be declared: But since this incurvitie of the benes is so notable, we may be a lit­tle more prolix in the Disquisi­tion thereof; and first I shall produce the Learned Glissons opi­nion, and then my own.

We may compare the Bones (saith the famous man) to which this crookedness useth to hap­pen, to a Pillar; and not un­aptly, seeing that when they are erected, they resemble a Pillar: And from thence we deduce a demonstration that illustrates and makes the mat­ter very plain. Let the Pil­lar therefore consist of three [Page 26]stones a. b. c. placed over one another Fig. 1. We suppose it such a one as is perpendicu­larly erected on every side, and of the same height: If therefore you shall fasten in a wedge on the right side between the stones a. b. through the line f. d. The head of the Pillar, namely the stone a. will of ne­cessity be bended towards d. and will make an Angle in d. and the height of the Pillar on the right side will be higher than on the left, as may be seen in Fig 1. In like manner, if you drive in another wedge through g. e. into the stones b. c. the Pillar will be yet more bow'd, and an Angle will be made in e. Now therefore the Pillar stands bent to the left [Page 27]hand, as you see in the same Figure. But if you build a Pil­lar of more stones, and be­twixt every two, (as hath been said,) a wedge be interposed on one side, it will not resem­ble the Figure of a Pillar, but the proportion of a Bow, as is plainly perceived by the third Figure.

Now that we may accom­modate these things to the pre­sent buisness; if the bones aforesaid be more plentifully nourished, and therefore do grow out more on that, than the opposite side; there is a necessity, that that must grow crooked: For here the over­plentiful nutrition of that side hath the same power, after the same manner, to bow the [Page 28]Bones, as the interposed wedge hath to bow the Pillar; fave that the wedge is fastened only in some places of the side of the Pillar, and the over-plentiful nutrition of the side of the bone is commonly equally made, ac­cording to the whole length thereof, and because of this e­qual nutrition of the bone, the bowing thereof doth exactly represent part of a Circle with­out Angles.

CHAP. X. The Authors opinion. That the Bones in this Disease are suffici­ently nourished; but not the mus­culous Parts, the extenuation [Page 29]whereof is the only Cause that the Bones are bowed; as is illustra­ted by Example. Of the inflex­ion of the Spine. Why the Bones of the Thigh and Shoulder are very seldome bowed.

ACcording to this Hypothe­sis; to wit, the over-plen­tiful Nutrition of one side, the Famous man indeed by an inge­nious Comment doth demon­strate the crookedness of the Bones. But, (by the leave of so great a Person,) how doth that over-plentiful nutrition of one side appear to us, when as the blood wherewith the bones are nourished, is not less equally dis­pensed in this Affect, than it is in such as are healthful? And were there any such inequality, [Page 30]the over-plentiful Aliment would be admitted in by the hinder-part of the Tibia or Shank-bone, as being less exposed to the Cold, and softer; and then the poste­riour and elongated side of the bowed shank would be convex, and the anteriour concave: but it is quite contrary; for the shank in this Affect is wont to stand out forward.

Yea further, we may gather from the very Figure or shape of the bowed bones, that they grow equally on both sides: For the bones are after the manner of the Fourth Figure, which may represent the Tibia, or shank­bone; where the concave part, a. is just as long as the convex part, b. For otherwise, if the Tibia were formed as in the fifth [Page 31]figure, the Thigh-bone, b, plac'd above it, could not be sustained without a manifest Obliquity of the body, as may be seen in the said Figure.

Let us then investigate some other cause of this crookedness; and that the matter may the more clearly appear, the follow­ing things are briefly to be pre­mised.

1. We affirm that in this Dis­ease, the Bones are not to be numbred omong the affected parts, in respect of Nutrition; for they are not nourished, or do they grow less, than in those that are healthy; as we have found by observation: For we find that the blood alone is sufficient for their nutrition, and that there is no need of the nervous Juice, as [Page 32]in the nourishing of the other parts. For since the bones are deemed to have no sense [or feel­ing] as in themselves; it is with­all to be thought that they have little or no commerce with the Nerves.

2. We take it for granted, that in this Affect, the muscu­lous and nervous parts do in no­wise wax bigger, by reason of the defect of the nervous Liquor that is requisite for their nutriti­on.

These things being premised let, a. in the sixth Figure be the Shank-bone; b, the muscles affixt to it behind, and constituting the calf of the Leg. Whereas therefore the Shank-bone doth in­crease and grow longer; yet the same being held down (as it [Page 33]were with a string, (by the mus­cles which grow not with equapace, insomuch that it cannot grow straight; there is a necessi­ty, that that bone should stand bent like a Bow, being stretch'd out by the Fibres of the muscles which are shorter.

Let us illustrate this our Hy­pothesis by Example. If a Cord or String be fasten'd to a young growing Tree, at the top and towards the root; but in such manner as the same be not bent thereby, as in the seventh Figure is described; I no ways doubt but that Tree will become bow'd as it grows, after the manner of the eighth Figure. For this de­monstration doth depend, upon this Mathematical assertion; viz. If a Line [assigned to certain [Page 34]bounds,] be stretched out longer within the same bounds or limits, it must on necessity of a straight line become a crooked one: Which is the very same that happens to the bones in this Affect.

And this may further be con­firmed, in that bowed bones al­ways respect [or bēd towards] the muscle annexed to them on the concave part, as a Bow doth its string; as may be seen in a shank which beareth forward, and is Convex; but, in the hinder part that respects the Muscles it is concave: this same also doth take place in other bones, from a strong Argument, that the bones are not otherwise inflect­ed by the Muscles, than a bow is by its string. From which a rea­son may be sought; why Wo­men-Quacks [Page 35]are wont with suc­cess daily to rub the concave side of the bones, and not the convex: viz. The Muscle sited on the con­cave side of the bone is nourished and increaseth, the nutritious liquor being more plentifully cal­ed forth by this kind of Friction; that now it is no marvel, (the string being stretched out lōger,) if the bone, extended and bowed by it, be withall relaxed, and be­come straighter. And from this cause, they that are cured of this disease, grow [for the most part] very tall in Stature; for the Bones grow not as in others; but also, whilst they become straight of crooked ones, they are much more elongated.

The Spine also is variously in flicted, partly inwards, and part­ly [Page 36]outwards, which ariseth from the various Position of the Mus­cles in divers parts of the Spine; The Spine, to wit, in the Superi­our part, (by the muscles out­wardly affixt,) is bowed inwards, but in the inferiour part, (by the muscles Psoas inwardly an­nexed, and very strong,) it is bent outwards; as in the ninth Figure is shewed, wherein, a. a. is the Spine, b. the Muscles affixt outwardly, and bowing the Spine in the superiour part inwards; and, c. the internal muscles of the Loyns called Psoas, bend­ing the same outwards.

In like manner also I suppose this cause or reason of Crooked­ness takes place, not only in this Affect, but likewise in oth­er cases: For if at any time it [Page 37]falls out, in tender Age, that any muscle through deffect of nutriment be extenuated; the bone to which the same is annex­ed, must needs be bowed there­by.

In the Thighs, and Shoulders, where the Bones are equally re­strained by muscles fastned on e­very side, those (being posited in aequilibrio, or equal poize) are rarely bowed in any part: but since they cannot be stretched out in length, they must (as they do) on necessity grow out in big­ness, and sometimes also become knotty.

CHAP. XI. Why the Breast grows straight or narrow, and accuminated.

MOreover, it happens in this affect, that the Breast becomes straight and accumina­ted; and this Symptome in like manner may easily be illustrated by our Hypothesis: For The Ribs cannot enlarge their Arches, unless the Intercostal muscles be also exten­ded, as may be seen in the tenth Figure, where the Proportions of the Ribs, a. a. a. a. cannot be e­longated, unless the intercostal mus­cles be likewise stretched out or en­larged.

But we take it for granted that [Page 39]the said muscles, (in as much as nerves are imparted to them from the Spinalis Medulla,) cannot be leng­thened through defect of Aliment.

Ergo, neither can the Ribs, nor yet the Breast grow wider.

For, whereas the Ribs are non­rished, yet being stayed by the said muscles, that they cannot be augmented as to longitude; they must needs (as it comes to pass) grow Knotty: But, neither is this Augment suitable to the pro­vision or plenty of Aliment, wherefore the anteriour extremi­ties of the Ribs are yet further lengthened to an edge, for there remains but this one way of in­creasing, as in the eleventh Fi­gure is shewn, wherein let, a, a, be the Ribs, whose extremities, b, b, grow outwardly to an edge; [Page 40]for they cannot be bowed in­wards, since it would be much contrary to their natural Site.

Likewise the Muscles of the Abdomen conduce not a little to the narrowness of the Breast, which, as we said, being extenu­ated and tighted do draw the in­feriour Ribs, to which they are fastned, downwards, and so straighten the Breast.

With the self same reason may be demonstrated the vices of the other bones; to wit, whereas the joynt-bones in the Wrists and Ancles cannot be bow­ed by reason of their brevity, they do bunch forth into knots or nodes.

But let what hath been said, touching the crookedness of the bones suffice.

CHAP. XII. Of the Asthma, Pursiness, or short­ness of Breath, in this Affect.

IT is no wonder, if the Lungs, which have not room to dilate themselves, are stuft with clot­ted blood, (as it falls out) and puft up, by reason of the afore­said straightness of the breast: Hereupon, sometimes they be­come purulent, and for the most part grow fast to the Pleura; and and from this cause the Asthma and difficulty of breathing, do afflict the Patients.

CHAP. XIII. From what Cause the Imbecillity or Feebleness of the Body doth arise.

AS to the very great feeble­ness of the body in this Af­fect, and awkerdness to any mo­tion; altho the extenuation of the Muscles doth in some mea­sure make way for this Symp­tome, yet this alone seems not efficacious enough, since the im­pairing of strength is greater than according to the Extenuati­on of the Muscles: For, the sick cannot stand on their feet, neith­er (in the Progress of the disease) are they able to sustain the weight of their head. Where­fore [Page 43]we must investigate some more remote cause of so great Imbecility, which indeed can be no other than the defect of the Animal Spirits inevitably ensu­ing the said obstruction of the Nerves: For, the Animal sprits are not requisite or necessary for nutrition alone, but also for motion.

And so at length we have, (as it were from a Fountain,) dedu­ced the Symptoms of this disease, from the obstruction of the Spi­nalis medulla.

CHAP. XIV. Why elderly Persons, or those of ri­per years, are not molested with this Disease.

BUt here may arise a Querie: How comes it to pass, that a­dult or Elderly Persons are never in­fested with this Malady; whereas they, as well as Infants, may suffer Obstructions of the Nerves, as it happens in the Palsie, and other the like distempers? I answer; altho perhaps Children are chiefly ob­noxious to this disease; yet those of riper years are sometimes trou­bled with this Affect under a dif­ferent name. Nevertheless, be­cause the aforesaid Symptoms for [Page 45]the greatest part do never befall Elderly People; this doth not arise from the difference of the Disease, but of the Age. For, whereas the massy Bulk of the Head, the crookedness of the Bones, and some other Symp­toms proceed from the enor­mous augmentation of the Parts, it is altogether impossible that adult persons, and such as are grown to the highest Pitch, (to wit such as have attained their full growth) should grow irre­gularly; and for that reason the Bulk of the Head is not augment­ed beyond measure in elderly persons sick of this disease, as it is in Children; because the head is at full growth, which the Laws of Nature it self deny to exceed. But altho the parts cannot be en­ormously [Page 46]augmented in those that are elderly; yet, the disease suf­ficiently discovers it self, by ex­tenuating the same, which one thing in such [viz. adult Persons] it can only do.

CHAP. XV. The Prognostick of this Disease com­prehended in Seaven Aphorisms.

AS to the Prognosis, Praescience, or Prognostication of the Event of this Disease, of it self for the most part it is not mortal: yet sometimes the Symptoms waxing grievous, it degenerates into a Phthisis, Consumption, He­ctick-Feaver, Dropsie of the Lungs, or Ascites; and so at length it [Page 47]proves deadly to the Patient. But a more easy Prognostick may be instituted from the Rules fol­lowing.

1. If this Disease lay hold on the Patient before the Birth, or present­ly after; it is [then] most dange­rous, and for the most part Lethal.

2. By how much the sooner after the Birth this Affect invades [the Infant,] it is so much the more dan­gerous.

3. By how much the more the Symptoms of the Disease grow worse and worse; viz. If there be to great a disproportion of the Parts, and ve­ry great extenuation; so much the more difficult is the Cure.

4. If this Affect have the afore­said Diseases joyned with it, it scarce­ly ever terminates in Health.

5. Whosoever are not cured be­fore the fifth year of their Age, they are sickly all their life time after­wards.

6. The Scab or Itch coming upon this Disease, confers much to the Cure thereof.

7. We need not doubt of their Health, in whom the Symptoms of the Disease are not increased, but rather diminished.

CHAP. XVI. The Method of Curing.

AFter that we have made en­quiry into the Cause and Prognostick of this Disease, it now remains that we come to its Pre­caution, or prevention, and cure.

Whereas then the cause of this Affect doth consist in the obstru­ction of the Spinalis medulla, and the Imbecility of the nerves thence descended; the Principal Indications as well preservatory as curatory are, that the nerves be strengthened, and the Obstru­ctions prevented, or taken away to this end, Medicaments Cathar­tick, Phlebotomy, also Digestives, [Page 50]Diuretics, Diaphoretics, and Spe­cifics may be made use of, whose Forms and manner of Using, we shall set down below.

As to what belongs to the Cure of the Disease, in the In­stitution thereof, we must begin with Purgation; which is so much the more convenient in this Affect, for that Phlegmatic Hu­mors are for the most part con­gested in the lowest Belly in great abundance, and the inward parts of the Abdomen are frequently af­fected with strumous Tumours. Purgation may be ordained by Clysters, Emeticks, or Purging Lenitives.

CHAP. XVII. The use of Clysters, and some Forms thereof.

IF the Belly be Costive, or in­fested with Colical Torments, let Clysters be frequētly made use of, which are not meerly solu­tive, but moreover also, let them be compounded of Alte­rants and Corroboratives. We will describe some forms there­of.

A Laxative, Anodyne, and Car­minative, Clyster.

Take of the Leaves of Mal­lows Mj. the Flowers of Melilot, Cammomil, Elder, of each Pj. An­nis-seds [Page 52]and Fennel seeds bruised of each, half a dram; Boyl them in a sufficient Quantity of new Cow's-milk. To 4.5. or 6. Ounces of the Colature, add Brown Sugar, and Syrup of Violets, or Roses, of each one Ounce, mingle them, make a Clyster to be in­jected Luke-warm, a long while after Meales.

Another.

Take the Root of Marsh mal­low bruised, half an Ounce; the Leaves of Mallows, and Pellitory of the Wall, of eaeh, half a hand­ful; the Flowers of Chammomil, and Elder, of each, a small hand­ful; Carminative Seeds, two drams: boyl them in a sufficient Quantity of Posset-Ale. To 5, [Page 53]or 6, Ounces of the Colature, add of the Lenitive Electuary, or Diacassia, half an Ounce: Fresh Butter six Drams: mingle them: make a Clyster to be in­jected luke-warm.

Corroborant Clysters may be made after this manner.

A Corroborant Clyster.

Take of fresh Stone-horse dung one Ounce and an half; Flowers of Rosemary and Sage, of each, a small handfull; of Juniper ber­ries, two Drams; Annis-seeds and Fennel-Seeds, of each, half a Dram: Digest them warm and close stopt, with a sufficient quantity of Posset Ale. In 4, 5, or 6, Ounces of the Colature, Dissolve of brown Sugar, one Ounce, Fresh butter six Drams. [Page 54]mingle them; make a Clyster: Moreover, six Drams of Cala­brian Manna may be added, if you see cause.

Another.

Take 20, or 30, washed Hog­lice: to which being bruised, pour on 4. or 5. Ounces of Posset­drink made with White-wine. In the Expression dissolve of Brown Sugar, one Ounce; Venetian Tur­pentine dissolv'd in the white of an Egg, one or two Drams. Min­gle them, make a Clyster to be injected luke warm.

CHAP. XVIII. The use of Emeticks or Vomitory Medicines, and some Forms thereof.

IF the Ventricle be loaded with vitious Humours, and they tend upward, let Emeticks be exhibited; nevertheless so as in the Prescription thereof Conside­ration must be had of the tender Age. Let the Vomitories con­sist rather of Salt of Vitriol, and Wine of Squils, than of stibiated medicines; for that it is not so safe to exhibit them to Infants, for fear of Convulsions; albeit in some Cases stibiated Medi­cines may also be made use of.

A Gentle Vomitory.

Take of the wine, or Oxymel of Squils, from half an Ounce to an Ounce; which being taken, half an hour after, let the Patient drink Posset-Ale in great abun­dance; then with a Feather, or Finger, thrust down the Throat, provoke Vomiting, and some­times repeat it.

Another.

Take Oxymel of Squil's, from half an Ounce to an Ounce; If Vo­miting succeed not, half an hour after, give half a Scruple, or fifteen Grains of salt of Vitriol, in a draught of Posset-Ale.

If strength will permit, strong­er [Page 57]Emeticks may be used: As this that follows.

A stronger Vomitory.

Take of the Infusion of Cro­cus Metallorum well depurated by settlement, from one dram to two, according to the Age, and strength of the Patient; Ox­ymel of Squills, three drams, or half an ounce; simple-water of Wall-nuts, or of the lesser Gento­ry, six drams: Mingle them, make a Vomitory.

CHAP. XIX. Some Examples of Cathartics, or Purging Medicines.

A gentle Purgation (some daies after a Vomitory, or [Page 58]else if Vomition be not requisite) may be ordained, and repeated by Intervals.

A Gentle Purging Draught.

Take the Cream of Tartar, from ten Grains to fifteen; Au­gustan Syrup, or Syrup of Suc­cory with Rhubarb, from six drams to one ounce; mingle them: Let it be taken very early in the mor­ning, either by it self, or in a draught of Posset-Ale.

Another.

Take Calabrian Manna, from half an ounce to an ounce; Vitrio­lated Tartar from five Grains to ten; mingle them. Let the mix­ture be taken in the morning, in [Page 59]Broth, or Posset - Ale.

A Purging Syrup.

R. Of the Roots of Polypody of the Oak, sharp-pointed dock, each six drams; Bark of the Roots of Elder, Dwarf-Elder, of each half an ounce; Roots of Osmond­royal, Male-fern, Succory, of each, half an ounce; The Herbs Agrimony, Liver-wort, Speed­well, Hart's-tongue, Ceterach, of each, half a handful: Boyl them in three Pints of Spring­water, to the Consumption of the third part. Let the Liquor be strained into a Matrace, where­unto put of the Leaves of Senna, two ounces, Rhubarb, one ounce, Dodder of Time, yellow Sanders, of each, two drams; of Annis­seeds, [Page 60]Fennel-seeds, of each on? dram; Salt of Worm wood, one dram and a half: Infuse them warm, and close-stopt 12 hours; to the straining cleared by set­tlement, add an equal quantity of Sugar; and by the mere disso­lution of the Sugar, or gentle boyling, make a Syrup according to Art. The Dose is from 1, to 3, spoon-fulls, either by it self, or in some appropriate Liquor.

A Purging Electuary.

To the above-mentioned Purg­ing Infusiō, add of Cassia, and Ta­marinds, extracted with part of the same Infusion, Calabrian Man­na strained or purified, and of the best Sugar, of each I ounce and a half; Evaporate them with a gen­tle [Page 61]Heat to the Consistence of an Electuary. The Dose is, the Quantity of a Wallnut, more or less according to its Operation.

Purgative Pils.

R: Of the Species of Hiera-Pi­cra simplex, one dram; of the best Rhubarb powdered, half a dram; vitriolated Tartar, one scruple, Gū-Ammoniac dissolved in Vine­gar, fifteen Grains: With a suffi­cient quantity of Elixir Proprie­tatis of Paracelsus, let a Pilulary Mass be made, whereof let from half a scruple to a scruple be formed into Pills, and given at the hour of sleep.

A Bochet of Rhubarb, and yel­low Sanders, made in proper distilled Waters, may be made use of.

If the Patient be affected with Worms, or [...]mous Swellings, or there b [...] any suspition of the Ve­nereal Euil, the following Bolus may be exhibited between whiles.

A Purging Bolus.

Take Mercurius dulcis, from six Grains to ten; Conserve of the Flowers of Succory half a dram; mix them, make a Bolus. Let it be given very early in the mor­ning, the Patient drinking im­mediately after it a convenient Dose of the Purging Syrup, or Infusion.

Another.

R. Mercurius dulcis, from six Gr. to ten; Rosin of Jalap or Scam­mony, [Page 63]from two Grains to four; Chymical Oyl of Juniper ber­ries, one drop. Make a Pow­der, which reduce into a Bolus with one dram of the Pulp of a coddled [or roasted] Apple, or with Conserve of Violets. Let the Patient take it early in the morning.

CHAP. XX. Chirurgical Remedies.

AFter gentle Purgation, if the Patient be of a Sanguine Temper, Phlebotomy or Blood­letting takes place. The Empi­ricks of our Nation, are wont to draw Blood in a small quanti­ty [Page 64]by scarifying the hollow part of the Ear, which they perform with a bluntish Knife, rather than with a sharp Pen-knife, and that they repeat twice or thrice, inter­posing the space or interval of a­bout seven daies. Tho Practiti­oners do celebrate much this kind of Scarification, yet I can­not tell but that Leeches profit as much or more. Neither do I suppose that it is to be feared, that Leeches by their sucking would affect a greater Flux of Blood to­wards the Head. For what Blood soever (by reason of their sucti­on) cometh near to the Part which they are applied to, the same is evacuated by the very suction: and as to the greater afflux of Blood, which is caused by the fulness of the Vessels, that [Page 65]also takes place in Phlebotomy.

Moreover, Issues bring very great help in this Affect, and especially a Fontinel excited be­tween the first and second Ver­tebrae of the Neck; for so the same being applied to the Origine of the Disease will be of more efficacy. The use of Fonticles chiefly cousists in that the same conduce to evacuate the super­fluous Serositie of the Brain, and thereby to diminish its irregu­lar magnitude, and also to dry up the too great humidity of the Spinalis Medulla, and consequent­ly to corroborate the Nerves thence descended. A Seton may very well supply the place of a Fontinel.

As for Vesicatories or Blister­plaisters, it is not to be doubted, [Page 66]but that they will bring help, be­ing applied to the Vertebrae of the Neck, and behind the Ears. But their vertue is soon exerted, and the frequent use of them is too troublesome and painful for Chil­dren.

Furthermore, Cupping-Glass­es without Scarification applied according to the whole length of the Spine, seem to be of no small Moment to correct the Cold and moist temper of the Spinalis Me­dulla, and to take away the tor­pour of the Nerves: Yea some­times also I suppose they may be applied near the uppermost Ver­tebrae of the Neck, with Scarifi­cation.

CHAP. XXI. Specific Alterants, [or Remedies peculiar to this Disease, being such as alter and correct the Blood and Humours.]

BEsides Purging and Chirur­gical Remedies, specific alte­rant Medicines may also be used; to which Diaphoretics and Diure­tics are sometimes to be added, some Examples whereof we will set down.

Specific Remedies, which are found most effectual to cure this Malady, are either Simple, or Compound; and indeed among the Simple ones, these following are most approved.

Specific Remedies.

  • The Wood Guaiacum, and its Bark.
  • Sassafras.
  • Wood of the Lentick tree.
  • Rosemary wood.
  • The knotty parts [or tops] of the Fir-tree.
  • Root of China.
  • Sarsaparilla.
  • The three sorts of Sanders.
  • The Root of Osmond-Royal, or rather the Spikes or little Fibres of its Roots.
  • The Roots of Male-Fern, or rather the Buds just bursting forth out of the Earth.
  • Roots of,
    • Grass.
    • Asparagus.
    • Eringo.
    • Succory.
    • Bur-dock.
  • [Page 69]The Capillary Herbs, and es­pecially the English black Maiden­hair.
  • Spleen-wort.
  • Wall Rue or Tent-wort.
  • Harts-tongue.
  • Liver-wort.
  • The Bark of Caper-roots.
  • Male Speed-well.
  • Agrimony.
  • Brook-lime.
  • Water-Cresses.
  • The Leaves and Flow­ers of
    • Sage.
    • Rosemary.
    • Archangel.
    • Betony.
    • Tamarisk.
  • The preparation of Steel, as its Salt or Vitriol.
  • Tartar.
  • Castoreum.
  • [Page 70]The Flowers of Brimstone.
  • Earth-Worms.
  • Hog-lice prepared.
  • And the like.

Whereof Compounds may be formed after this manner.
A Decoction.

R. The Spikes of the Roots of Osmond-Royal, or the Roots of Male-Fern, or the Buds of its Roots scarce yet burst out of the Ground, one handful: Boyl the same in a Pint of Milk, or Spring water to the Consumption of the third part. Let the Colature be edulcorated with Sugar, and taken twice or thrice in a day.

Another.

Take Of the Leaves of Tee. one dram; of the flowers of Sage and [Page 71]of Betony, of each half a dram. Whereupon, the same being put into a fit Vessel, pour of Water, which hath boyled a while, one pint: Infuse them close stop'd, and luke-warm, for about an hour's space. Let the Colature be edulcorated with Sugar, and drank as the other.

A Bochet of the Roots of China Sarsaparilla, and Sassafras, boyled in Spring water, may be made use of.

A Decoction.

Take of the fibres or spikes of the Roots of Osmond-Royal, roots of Bur-dock, Grass-roots, and roots of Succory, of each one ounce; of the Herbs of Male-speedwel, Agrimony, Harts­tongue, [Page 72]Liver-wort, Maiden hair of each half a handful: Of the shavings of Harts horne, and Ivory of each half an ounce; ston­ed Raisons one ounce. Boyl them in four pounds of Spring-water, to the consumption of the third part; add thereto of White-wine or Rhenish, half a pound, and pre­sently strain it into a fit Vessel; to which let there be put of the leaves of Brook-lime, Water­cresses, and of the Tops of the Fir-tree, of each half a handful; of Juniper-berries, half an ounce; make an Infusion Warm and close stopt for about two hours. Keep the Colature in Glasses well clos­ed, and edulcorate it at your pleasure: The Dose is, two or three Ounces at medical hours.

Medicated Ale.

Take of the Wood of the Len­tisk-tree, Rosemary; Roots of Sarsaparilla, of Osmond-royal, or of Male-fern, of each, three oun­ces; Herbs, Agrimony, Maiden­hair, Speedwell, Harts tongue; Sage, Betony, of each Mij. Tops of the Fir-tree, Tamarisk, of each Mj. boyl them in four Gal­lons of Ale to the Consumption of one; let the Colature Fer­ment or Work, and then repose it in a small Vessel, wherein hang a little bag, made of fine Linen and filled with the following things, viz. Hog-lice washed in white-wine, and lightly bruised No. 200. Juniper berries, ℥ij. Nutmegs sliced No. 2 together [Page 74]with a piece of steel or Iron to sink the Bag.

If there be any suspition of the Seurvy, you likewise may put in­to the Vessel, the leaves of Brook­lime, and Water-cresses, of each Mij. Let them remain there about a fortnight; and then let the Li­quor be taken for ordinary drink.

An Electuary.

Take Conserve of the roots of Succory, and of the flowers of Betony, of each one ounce; Con­serve of Rosemary-flowers, of the flowers of Tamarisk, and Rinds of Lemmons, of each half an ounce; preserved Myrobalanes No. 2; of the compound powder of Crabs-claws, one dram; Cream of Tartar, and flowers of Salt. [Page 75]Armoniac, of each half a dram; of yellow Sanders, ℈j. with Syrup of Coral as much as is sufficient make an Electuary: Let the Pa­tient take the quantity of a Nut­meg, in the morning, and at five a clock in the Afternoon, drink­ing thereupon a draught of some proper Liquor.

A Powder.

Take of the Powder of prepar'd Hog-lice, two drams; of Nut­megs half an ounce; of the flow­ers of salt Armoniac, two scru­ples; make a Powder; the Dose is from 8 Gr. to 15, in some A­pozeme, Broth or any other con­venient Liquor.

Pills.

This same Powder may be re­duced into a Pilulary Mass, with a sufficient quantity of Capivius's Balsom, to be formed into lit­tle Pills: The Dose is about a Scruple.

A Powder.

Take of the Roots of Osmond Royal, or of Male-fern, one dram and an half; of the Roots of Male Peony one dram; Wood of Sassafras, yellow Sanders, Seeds of Water-cresses, of each, one Scruple; candied Orange. Peel, two drams; make a Powder. The Dose is from half a Scruple to a Scruple as above.

Lozenges or Tablets.

Of the prescribed Powder you may form Lozenges with Seaven times the weight of white Sugar dissolved in black cherry-water, and boyled to a tabulary consist­ence; each of them being in weight one dram: Let from half a dram, to a dram be taken twice in a day, drinking after it some appropriate Liquor.

A Distilled Water.

Take of the root of Cuckow pint, Male Peony, Osmond-roy­al, or Male-fern, of each four ounces. Leaves of Sage, Betony Rosemary, water-cresses, Brook­lime, Male-speedwell, Liver-wort, [Page 78]tops of the Fir-tree, of each, three handfulls; of green Walnuts half a pound; washed Hog-lice three ounces; cleansed Earth-worms, one pound; of the best Castore­um one dram. To these being cut and bruised pour six pounds [viz. three quarts] of Posset-drink made with white-wine: distill them in a Common Still, let the whole Liquor be mingled: The Dose is from one ounce to two ounces twice in a day, after the taking of some solid Medicine.

CHAP. XXII. Chymical Specifics; Also of Sweat­ing and Bathing.

AMong the Remedies. which are approved in this Affect, [Page 79]that wch was invented by the ho­norable Boyle called by the name of Ens Veneris) is exceeding fa­mous. It is composed of Salt Armoniac, and edulcorated Col­cothar, sublimed twice or thrice together. The Dose is from three Grains to six, in some conveni­ent Liquor, at the hour of sleep: I suppose the efficacy of that Me­dicine chiefly ariseth from the Salt Armoniac, in as much as by rea­son of the very great tenuity of its parts, it is highly useful to take away the Obstructions that do procure this Malady: and it is likewise probable, that the Flow­ers of Salt Armoniac are sublimed together with the Colcothar, a cer­tain narcotick Sulphur of the Colcothar, of an Earthy or Copper­like nature or Quality, doth as­cend [Page 80]together with the Salt Ar­moniac: And that kind of Sulphur seemeth not very meet for this Disease.

A certain Artificial Salt of an Armoniac quality, and of nota­ble vertue, may be composed af­ter this manner.

Take of the Volatile Salt of Harts-Horne, Blood, or Urine, a sufficient quantity; upon which being put into a long Vial, pour rectified Spirit of Salt, or of Sul­phur rectified per campanam, drop by drop, untill Ebullition can no longer be excited; this Salt be­ing resolved, let it be filtered, and by a gentle heat reduced to the dryness of a Salt. The Dose is three or four Grains very ear­ly in the morning, or at the hour of sleep, in some appropriated Li­quor.

Furthermore, those things which consist of Volatile Salt purely saltish, bring notable help in this Disease, in which rank are Spirit of Blood, of Harts Horn, of Salt Armoniac, and the like: But a­bove all, those Spirits being im­pregnated with Amber, or Casto­reum.

Elixir Proprietatis, with the Tincture of Salt of Tartar, or pre­pared after the vulgar manner, may also be made use of, for as much as it is not only a very good Digestive, but the same is like­wise profitable to destroy Worms and to hinder the Corruption of Humours, and gently to subduce the Belly, the Dose is from six Grains to ten, in two Spoonfuls of a convenient Liquor.

If the Lungs are stuft (as they [Page 82]are wont to be) with Viscid Hu­mours, and the Mesentery be affe­cted with Strumous Glandules, the Balsome of Sulphur may be exhi­bited; whereof three or four Drops are to be taken in some convenient Liquor or Syrup.

In some Cases also the use of Steel is necessary, inasmuch as it is endued with a notable opening Quality, and doth not only help Concoction, but also confirms and strengthens the tone of the Bowels, yet it is not to be used without caution; for in the Cough, Plurisie, Obstruction of the Lungs, Hectick, Feavers, and other Diseases of that kind, we must al­together abstain from the use of Steel.

Unto the aforesaid Medicines Diaphoretics, or such as provoke [Page 83]Sweat, may sometimes be added As the Decoction of Guaiacum, and others of that sort, which may be taken in Bed, and Sweat procured suitable to the strength of the Patient.

Hitherto also may be referr'd the use of a natural Bath, such as the Bathonian Wells, which are much commended to provoke Sweat, and to strengthen the Nerves in this affect. And truly I have often found by observation, that the use of the aforesaid Baths doth very much conduce to allay the swelling of the Abdomen, which in this Malady is wont to be very remarkable: Likewise Artificial Baths made of Cephalick Herbs, and Tartar or Nitre boyl'd in Water, may be made use of.

The following Fomentation is [Page 84]much approv'd; to wit, The sick Party being plac'd in a Vessel sufficiently large: Put Mault which has been a while infus'd in boyling Water, (as is usual in the Brewing of Beer, or Ale,) [or fresh Grains] round about him, luke-warm, and let the Pa­tient, almost covered therewith, remain therein to Sweat.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Remedies that correct the Symptoms.

MOreover, consideration must be had of the Symptoms that are consequent to this Dis­ease; of which the most frequent [Page 85]is the Looseness or Flux of the Belly; to the Cure whereof, the more gentle Catharticks, (such as the infusiō of Rhubarb, Tamarinds, and Sanders, or a Bolus compound­ed of them,) do principally con­duce; But sometimes also we must come to Astringents, and O­piates, Purgation nevertheless and Vomiting being now and then pre­mis'd; Forms whereof may be found here and there amongst Authors.

Furthermore, Immoderate Sweat is wont to afflict the Patient in this Affect; which, if it come upon the Fit of a Feaver, may be Critical, and ought not rashly to be restrained, but if the same flow inordinately and without cause, it is a sign that the Body is opprest with Cacochymical Hu­mours; [Page 86]and in such case that kind of Sweat is to be amended by Gentle Purgation administred be­tween whiles. But let Purging be chiefly instituted of Rhubarb: Vomiting also may bring help here; neither are Aperitives, and such as help Concoction to be omitted.

Laborious Dentition, or pain­ful Breeding of Teeth, is familiar to this Disease, and often indu­ceth a Feaver. In which case, make gentle Evacuation, chiefly with Clysters; although some­times Purgation, and Vomiting also, (which being gently pro­vok'd, is much approv'd) may be used. If a Tooth be about to cut the Gum, Nurses are wont to rub the same with a piece of smooth Coral; but the Root of Marsh-mallows, or of Sharp point­ed [Page 87]Dock, may supply it's stead: And sometimes it will be worth your while to make way for the Tooth ready to burst out by Section. Likewise Epispastic or drawing Plaisters applied behind the Ears, bring ease. But if Do­lour and Watchfulness do urge, Hypnoticks, such as Syrup of Pop­pies, to the weight of one or two Drams, may be exhibited.

Besides internal Medicines and Chirurgical Remedies, External likewise are to be used; of which rank are all sorts of Exercise. If strength will bear, let walking be much used; or, at least, let the little Children play sitting, and be exercis'd by tossing them to and fro in the Nurses Arms, and rocking him in the Cradle: For, by Exercise, the Influx of [Page 88]the Blood and Animal Spirits, is promoted to the Musculous Parts, where upon Heat is excited in the same ready to languish. The Mass of Blood too is stir'd up to a swifter Morion by the constricti­on of the Muscles; and the same is work'd up and down in the Lungs by reason of the more ve­hement Respiration caus'd by Ex­ercise, and is impregnated with fermentative Particles; whereas, on the other side, the Blood by continual Rest grows grumous, thick, or as it were clotted, and so becomes more apt to cause Obstructions.

Frictions (or rubbing of the parts) which are perform'd with warm Woollen-Clothes, are of no small moment in the Cure of this Disease. The Parts to be [Page 89]rubb'd are the Back-Bone, (which doth principally suffer, as we have shewn,) and the Musculous Parts; but with this Caution, that you must forbear to rub on that side of the Bones that stands outward, but the concave parts of the Bones may be rubb'd more liberally, the Reason whereof we have assign'd before.

Hitherto also belongs the Con­trectation of the Hypochondria, whereby the Bowels are some­times lifted up, and sometimes de­pressed, by thrusting of the Fing­ers-ends now and then under the False-Ribs: For by this means we prevent the Liver and other Bow­els from their preternatural grow­ing to the Peritoneum, or other­wise, which happens not seldome in this Affect, by reason of the [Page 90]tension of the Hypochondria.

Moreover, Ligatures fitted to the Thigh and Leg upon the Knee, and to the Arms upon the Elbow avail much; but they must be loose enough and foft, so as they may not hinder the incre­ment or thriving of the Part whereunto they are applied: For the Utility of Ligatures consisteth in this; that they help to revel the afflux of Blood from the Head, & to deduce it towards the extenua­ted Parts To this Title may be e­fer'd Fasciatiō, or the Swathing of certain parts; as likewise button'd-Boots, wch help much not only to strengthen the Parts, but further to correct the Crookedness of the Bones, and bending of the Joynts. But in the use of these, care must be taken, that they press down a little the protuberant part of the [Page 91]Bone, but hardly touch the hol­low part.

To erect the Trunk of the Bo­dy, Boddice may be made of two Clothes sewed together, thick beset with Shingles, or Lath-like pieces of Whale-bone, which must be fitted to the Bodies of the In­fants, so as the Spine be held up­right, and the prominent Bones repressed.

Neither must we here omit the Artificial Suspension of the Body by the assistance of a certain pen­dulous Instrument made after such a manner with Swathing­bands, that it crosseth the Breast coming under the Arm-pits, and goeth about the Head, and under the Chin, and then receiveth the Hands with two Handles, where­by the weight of the Body is [Page 92]sustained, partly by the Child's hands, partly by his head, and partly by his Arm-pits.

Now at last let us set down some of those things which are outwardly to be applied.

A Fomentation of any sort of Wine, as also of common Aqua vitae, doth avail much to corro­borate the Nervous parts; apply the same to the debilitated Parts, and especially to the Spine, and then anoint those parts with pro­per Oyl or Unguent, of wch here­after. In lieu of Wine, the follow­ing Decoctiō may be made use of as,

A Fomentation.

Take of the root of Osmond­royal and Male Fern, each three ounces; of the Flowers of Beto­ny, Sage, Rosemary, Marjoram, Water-Cresses, each, one hand­ful; [Page 93]of the Flowers of Chamo­mil, Melilot, and Elder, each a small handful; Bay-berries, Ju­niper-berries, of each, half an ounce. Boyl them in a sufficient quantity of Spring-water, to two pound; put thereto of White­wine, or common Aqua vitae, one pound. Keep the straining for use.

An Oyntment for the debili­tated Parts.

Take of the Leaves of Elder, Bay, Marjoram, Sage, Rosemary, Betony, tops of Lavender, each two handfuls; Bay-berries, Juni­per-berries, of [...]ach, one ounce: Put these being cut and bruised into a convenient Vesiel, with three pound of May-butter, or [Page 94]fresh Butter unsalted, and half a pint of Aqua vitae; boylthem gent lyto the consumption of the Aqua vitae: To the expression being yet hot, add of Oyl of Nutmegs made by expression, half an ounce; of Peruvian Balsom, one dram; mix them, make an Unguent: Instead of May-butter, Beef-mar­row, or Deer's-suet, and Oyl of Earth-worms, or Fox-oyl, of each one pound and a half may be substituted.

Apply Unguents pretty warm, before a clear fire, and rub them on with a hot hand until they be dry; that it may penetrate the more, mix a little of some proper Liquor with the same, in the time of using.

If the Abdomen be stretch'd out, and tumid, apply the following Oyntment.

A Liniment for the Swelling of the Abdomen.

Take of the Oyls of Capers, Wormwood, and Elder, each one ounce; of Ʋng. è succ. aperiti­vis, or the Unguent above pre­scribed, one ounce and a half; of Gum-Ammoniac dissolv'd in Vin­egar, half an ounce: Make a Liniment; wherewith a little portion of the following Liquor may be mingled in the time of using it.

A Decoction to be used with the Liniment.

Take of the Root of White Briony, one ounce; of the Leaves of Worm-wood, Centory, Sage, [Page 96]each, one handful; Flowers of Elder, and Melilot, of each a small handful; of Bay-berries, Juni­per-berries, each two drams: Boyl them in three pounds of Spring-water, to the wasting of half; add thereto of Rhenish­wine half a pint. Keep the strain­ing for your use.

Whilst the Unguents are ap­plied to the Hypochondria, let the Nurse handle the Viscera or Bow­els, as is before directed. Em­plasters also can in this part bring help;

A Plaister for the Hypochondria.

Take of the compound Em­plaster of Melilot, as much as will suffice; spread it on taw'd Leather, and apply it to the Hy­pochondria.

If there be a Tumour near the Region of the Liver; add to one Ounce of the aforesaid Emplaster, of yellow Sanders powdered one dram; of Oyl of Wormwood, and Wax as much as sufficeth to make an Emplaster.

Another.

Take the Juice of Brook­lime, Water-cresses, Elder, and Worm-wood, of each one Ounce; Let the clarified Juices be redu­ced by a gentle heat, to the con­sistence of an Extract; to which add of Gum-Ammoniac dissolved in Vinegar, and boyled to a thick­ness, two ounces; of Venice Turpentine one ounce; of Yel­low Sanders powder'd 2 drams, of Oyl of Capers, and Wax as much [Page 98]as is sufficient: make a Plaister to be applied as before.

If the Lungs be affected, An­oint the Breast with Ʋnguent. Pe­ctorale, or Dialthaea, or both mixt together, wherewith at the time of inunction, you must mix some oyl of Nutmegs made by Expres­sion.

A Pectoral Ʋnguent.

Take of Green Liquorice, four ounces; of fresh unsalted Butter one pound, Bruise them together in a stone Mortar, and macerate them in a Bath four hours, then strain them; repeat this three times with an equal quantity of of fresh Liquorice, Let the Oynt­ment clarified accerding to art, be kept for use: Where with in [Page 99]the time of using, you may mix an equal quantity of Ʋng. Pecto­rale, with a little Oyl of Nutmegs made by expression.

Forasmuch as this Disease doth arise from the obstruction and debilitie of the Spinalis Medulla, corroborating Fomentations, and Unguents, such as are now al­ready prescribed, may be there­to applied, wherewith Balsome of Tolu may be mixt in a small quan­tity; such are Emplastrum Ner­vinum, de Betonicâ, as also that which follows.

An Emplaster for the Spine.

Take of the first prescribed Oyntment, two ounces; Gum Ammoniac dissolv'd in Vinegar, and Burgundy-Pitch, of each half an ounce; Mastich, Frank­incense, [Page 100]and Caranna, of each two drams; of Castoreum, half a dram; of prepar'd Earth-Worms, one dram and a half; of Salt Armo­niac, two drams: Wax enough to make an Emplaster; spread a sufficient quantity of this upon taw'd-Leather, whose Form may be varied; for as the superiour or inferiour Parts are infirm, the Plaister is to be applied to the upper or lower part of the Spine, and sometimes according to the whole length of it: And so much for the Method of Curing the RICKETS.

FINIS.
AN APPENDIX TOUCHING …

AN APPENDIX TOUCHING WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Us'd in the Composition of Medi­cines, and in the Exhibition of Medicinal Doses.

BY W.S.

Gradibus venit Incrementum.

OXFORD, Printed by Leon. Lichfield, Printer to the University, for Tho. Fickus Bookseller. 1684.

An Appendix touching Medi­cal Weights and Measures.

I. Of MEDICAL WEIGHTS.

THE Aestimation or Value of all things is deduc'd from Number, Weight, or Measure. Now, as for Num­ber, there is the same Reason and Accompt universally dis­pers'd throughout all the Regi­ons of the World: But, as to Weight or Measure, it is not so; for there is a vast Variety, every [Page 2]Government vindicating it's pro­per Weight, and it's proper Mea­sure, which beareth the Name or Title of it's peculiar Country. And whereas, above all things, whatsoever is instituted for Me­dicinal use, it ought to be con­fin'd to sure and common Rules; certainly then Weights should be establish'd certain and common to all men, that by a General Law and Custom, there may be a General Consent and Agreement among all Nations; it being a Matter of no small moment, if we rightly consider the Scope we aim at in the use of them: For upon these oftentimes depends the Life, or Death, of the Patient.

Therefore, that a true Know­ledge thereof may be had, we shall describe, First, What kind [Page 3]of Weights Physitians and A­pothecaries do ordinarily use; Secondly, Their Contents or Pon­deration, and their Marks, Notes or Characters; Thirdly, And Lastly, the whole Series shall be comprehended in a formal Scheme or Table adapted to the Memory: The like Method (as near as we can) shall be observed when we come to treat of Measures.

1. In the first place then, you must by the way take notice, that to effect the confirmation of a certain and common Rule as a­foresaid, a Minute, or smallest Weight, (from which, as from a Spring-head, being augmented by continual Addition, the rest do accrew) must be ordained; even as Geometry hath it's Punctum, whence all Lines have their Rise [Page 4]or Beginning; and Arithmetick it's Ʋnity, from which the large Family of Numbers derive their Pedigree.

The smallest Weight made use of in Physical Concerns, is term­ed a Grain, upon which the other Weights do rely, as their Basis; and it is fit and expedient, that the same should be constant, al­lowable and firm: Wherefore it cannot be a Grain of Barley, Wheat, Vetch or Pulse, (as some foolishly imagine) by reason that no Nation produceth them of e­qual Weight; but that Minute Money-weight which Goldsmiths call a Grain, (and in Latine may justly be termed Momentum, as well as Granum,) is rated and accompted the same in all Na­tions throughout the habitable [Page 5]Orb, which the sacred Hunger of Gold, and furious Lust after Riches, doth keep unviolated and uncorrupted, and that too by Marks and Patterns tranferr'd to all Places.

From this Minute Weight, viz, a Grain, do arise the greater, (that is to say) the Scriptule or Scruple, the Drachm or Dram, the Ounce, and the Pound. Even as many Grains of Corn constitute an an Ear, and many Ears create a Crop for the painful Husband-man: So a more certain Addition of Grain-weights make up a Scruple, certain Scruples a Dram, and so forward, as I am about to set down. And no doubt for that reason, the word Granum is me­taphorically attributed to the smallest Weight, from a discreet [Page 6]and gradual augmentation where­of (as from a Fountain) all the rest do flow:

2. Having thus lay'd the Foun­dation of our Work, we (loving method) come next to speak of the Scriptule or Scruple, formerly consisting of twenty four Grains, which the word [...], us'd by the Grecians pro scriptulo, doth plainly denote; and for that rea­son Scriptules or Scruples are called by them [...], because a Scruple then did, and now ought to consist of as many Grains or Minute-weights, as they have Characters or Letters in their Alphabet: But now adays the same retains but Twen­ty Grains. So then 'tis not incredi­ble that the ancient Weight hath been diminished and adulteraetd [Page 7]through the Avarice of Druggists and others who buy their Com­modities by the greatest Weight they can, and vend the same by as light ones as they dare.

Next in order followeth the Drachm or Dram, in which are contained Three Scruples; and so consequently Sixty Grains.

To this we subjoyn the Ounce Weight, wherein are comprehend­ed, Eight Drams, or Twenty four Scruples or Four Hundred and Eighty Grains.

And lastly, the Physical Pound (which is Troy-weight) retains only Twelve Ounces, and by this most aqueous Liquors are measu­red, as shall be shewn hereafter: But the Druggists and Grocers Pound (being Aver dupois-weight) doth consist of Sixteen Ounces; and [Page 8]is indeed generally made use of among the Apothecaries. Where­fore we contract the whole Series of our buisness in this manner.

A Grain is the least Weight usually prescrib'd in Physick, and is thus noted, Gr.

A Scruple hath Twenty Grains, and is mark'd thus, ℈.

A Dram weigheth Three Scru­ples, and hath this Character, ʒ.

An Ounce containing Eight Drams, beareth this Signature, ℥.

A Pound-Troy, (of which we shall take notice in this place, as solely de jure bono appertaining to Medical Ponderation,) contain­eth Twelve Ounces, and is known by this mark, lb.

3. That I may not frustrate the Reader's expectation, it now remains that I present to his view [Page 9]the following Table of Troy-weight, and withal declare the use of it.

The Table of WEIGHTS.
The CharactersʒGr.
1 Pound contains12962885760
1 Ounce contains 824480
1 Dram contains  360
1 Scruple contains   20

This Table needs no Explication; but, as for it's Ʋse or Application, it shall be made manifest by Examples, for the sake of Tyroes and others who may stand in need thereof.

I. Example.

AN Apothecary made up a Pilulary Mass weighing one Pound and a half; he was re­quested by a Physitian living in the Country, to convey the same to him (form'd into Pills) in little Boxes, viz. a Dram in each Box. Now to know how many Boxes are required; or how ma­ny Drams the said Mass will pro­duce. Seek the Denomination or Title I Pound (in words at length) towards the left hand, and this Character ʒ on the top, and at the Angle of meeting you will find 96 the Number of drams contain'd in I Pound; to which if you add 48 the half-number for the Half-pound, the Aggregate will be 144 the Number sought for.

2. Example.

A Physitian prescribed a Speci­fick Powder, whose Compo­sition weighed ℥ij, ʒ iij, and ℈iss. Half a Dram at a time thereof to be taken by the Patient in a pro­per Vehicle: The Quoery is, how many Doses were contain'd in the whole Composition?

Looking into the fore-going Table in manner aforesaid, you will find the matter thus; having respect to the number given, if it transcend Ʋnity.

ij.contain32Doses or Half-Drams.
ʒ iij.6
iss.1

In all 39 Doses.

II. Of MEASƲRES.

HAving discussed all ambiguity as touching Medical Ponde­ration, we shall with the more ease and brevity treat of Meas­ures; so much dependance have they ou the former, that without the knowledge of those, no cer­tain Rule can be given for these.

1. Whereas great and uncer­tain is the variety of them, the Use of many is, not without cause, utterly abolished; and in­stead of those Concave Bodies, wherewith the Ancients were wont to proportionate both Dry and Liquid Substances, the mo­dern [Page 13]Physitians every where u­surp Concave Measures, whose Contents are correspondent to Troy-weights, some whereof are capacious of one Pound-weight, some of two Pounds, others of three or more Pounds; yea, o­thers containing smaller Weights to wit, Ounces, or Ounce, and half-Ounce, to measure aqueous or oleous Liquids withal, refer­ring Arid things to Weight: If lesser Proportion be exacted, a Guess may sometimes serve turn; where it is ineffectual or dange­rous to confide to Conjectures, the same is precisely perform'd by small Weights, all things being duly ballanc'd.

2. As in the Description of Weights, we began with the Grain, or smallest; so treating of Mea­sures [Page 14]for Liquids, (those for Arids being for the most part exploded) we deem it expedient to begin with the greatest, viz. the Wine Gallon; and for brevitie's sake shall set down it's Division, Sub. divisions, and Characters, as fol­loweth.

The Greater Measures.
A GallonMeasure contains2 Pottlesor8 Pounds.
A Pottle2 Quarts4 Pounds.
A Quart2 Pints4 Pounds.
The Smaller Measures.
The Pintmeasure contains1 Pound-Troy, or 12 Ounces.
The ½ Pint6 Ounces.
The ¼ Pint3 Ounces.
The ha. ¼ P.1 Ounce and ½.
The Ounce1 Ounce.
The ½ Ounce½ Ounce.

The said Measures are usually exprest by the Marks or Cha­racters of the Weights to which they are applicable; as by the subsequent Table (which like­wise, as that of Weights preced­ing is sufficiently explanatory in it self,) doth manifestly appear.

3. And so we come gradually to the Mensuration-Table it self; and shall propose one Question, the Resolution whereof will give light enough, as touching the Use of it.

A Table of MEASƲRES for Liquids.
  lb.℥ß
1 Gallonis equiva­lent to896192
1 Pottle44896
1 Quart22448
1 Pint11224
½ Pint0612
¼ Pint036
½ Quarter03
1 Ounce012
½ Ounce0½1

A pretious Liquor drawn off per Alembicum to the quantity of 3 Quarts, 1 Pint, 1 half. Pint, 1 quarter-Pint, was repos'd uncia­tim or Ounce by Ounce for com­mon Sale; now it is demanded, how many Ounce. Bottles were [Page 17]requisite for it's reposition? An­swer 93. For

   
2 Quarts or 1 Pottleis answer­able to48In all 93 Ounces.
1 Quart24
1 Pint12
½ Pint06
¼ Pint03

☞ Note, that Oyl is lighter than Wine by a ninth part; and Honey is weightier than Wine by the half: So that whatever Measure containeth of VVine 9 Ounces, receiveth of Oyl but 8 Ounces, and is capable to hold 13 Ounces and an half of Honey.

POSTSCRIPT.

IT may be expected, that I should add an In­terpretation of the Grecian, Roman, and Ara­bian Weights and Measures, for the better un­derstanding of some ancient Authors; but (they being in these days altogether obsolete,) I shall at present superlede.

FINIS.

The most difficult Terms of Art, belonging to the afore-going Treatise and Appen­dix, Alphabetically Explained.

  • ABdomen. The lowest Cavity of the Body called the Paunch or Belly, se­vered within, from the Breast by the Mid­riff, and bounden above by the Heart-pit, and beneath by the Share-bones.
  • Aliment. Nourishment.
  • Alterants or Alteratives. Medicines that change or alter the Discrasy or evil Disposition of the Blood.
  • Anodyne. That easeth Pains.
  • Aperients or Aperitives. Medicines that open, or take away Obstructions.
  • Aphorisms: Short general Rules.
  • Arteries. Mensbranous Spermatical Ves­sels, which by Pulsation conveigh away the Blood from the Heart to the Veins.
  • Ascites: A kind of Dropsie wherein the Abdomen is swelled like a Bottle, from a watriss humor contained within the Cavity thereof. Dr. Willis.
  • Asthma: It is a difficult & pursie Breath­ing, with a great shaking of the Breast, and for the most part without any Feaver. D. W.
  • Astringents. Binding Medicines.
  • [Page]Atrophy: A Consumption of the Flesh, when the same wasteth away, and the Food taken in doth not nourish.
  • Bolus: So much of an Electuary or other solid Medicine as the Patient may well take at one time in his Mouth.
  • Cacochymical humours. i. e. Evil or vicious humours.
  • Carminative: That expelleth Wind.
  • Carotid Arteries: Two Arteries in the Neck that go up to the Brain.
  • Cartilage: It is a similar Part; Cold, dry and void of sense, flexible; and not so hard as a Bone; called also a Gristle or Tendrel, as of the Ear or Nose.
  • Chirurgical: Belonging to Chirurgery.
  • Colature: It is taken for any Liquor slrained, or separated from its Feculency, Sediment, or more gross Ingredients.
  • Concoction: 'Digestion.
  • Concretion: A gathering together or congealing of any substance.
  • Corroborant or Corroborative: Strength­ening, or confirming.
  • Costive: Bound in Body.
  • Cubit: The two Bones of the Arm; to wit, The lesser above called Radius, [Page]reaching from the Shoulder to the Elbow; and larger below called Ulna, reaching from the Elbow to the Wrist.
  • Dentition: Breeding of Teeth.
  • Diaphoreticks: Medicines that dissolve and send forth Humours by Transpiration or breathing through the Pores; that is to say, such as cause or procure Sweat.
  • Digestives: Medicines that concoct, digest, or prepare the Humours to be correct­ed or evacuated.
  • Diureticks: Medicines that provoke Urine; or cause to piss often.
  • Dolour: Grief, Pain or Ache.
  • Dose: A quantity of Physick to be giv­en at one time.
  • Edulcorated: Sweetned, or made sweet with Sugar, Honey, and the like.
  • Emeticks: Medicines causing a Vomit; called also Vomitories.
  • Empiticks: Quacks, Post-doctors, or Mountebanks.
  • Enervation: A weakning or enfeebling.
  • Epispastic: Attractive, or Drawing.
  • Fasciation: Swathing.
  • Fonticles or Fontinels: Issues.
  • Friction: A rubbing of the Parts.
  • [Page]Glandules: Kernels or soft spungy Sub­stances in the Body appointed to receive ex­crementitious humours.
  • Hypnoticks: Medicines that procure or conciliate Sleep.
  • Hypochondria: That part of the Belly and Sides under the shorts Ribs.
  • Hypothesis: The Cause, Ground, or Supposition, whereon we rely in the framing of an Argument.
  • Intercostal Muscels: Muscles placed between the Ribs, in that form as in Fig. 10.
  • Intercostal Nerves: The ninth or last Pair of Nerves so called because it marches down by the Roots of the Ribs, and betwixt every Rib it receives a Branch from the Spinal Marrow.
  • Jugular Veins: Certain Veins in the Neck so called.
  • Laxative: Loosening.
  • Liniment: A soft Ointment.
  • Ligature: Bandage, or Swathing of any I art.
  • Medicament: A Medicine.
  • Mesenterium: The Mesentery. It is a membranous Part, situate in the mid­dle of the lower Belly, serving not only for conveying some Vessels to the Intestines, and [Page]others from them; but also it ties most of the Guts together so artificially, that for all their manifold Windings they are not entang­led and confounded. The Veins it contains are called the Mesaraick Veins.
  • Muscle: Is a dissimilar Part, [to wit, whose Portions are neither of the same Sub­stance, nor the same Denomination, for it is compos'd of Flesh, Nervous Fibres, and a Tendon;] and the proper Instrument of Voluntary Motion.
  • Nerve: It is a simple Spermatical part, called a Sinew.
  • Nervous Liquor: It is the Nutritious Juice of the Nerves.
  • Nutriment or Nutrition: Nourishment.
  • Opiates: Meaicines wherein Opium is an Ingredient; and is often taken for any Medicine that procureth Sleep.
  • Parenchyma: A fleshly Substance, and chiefly of the Liver, Spleen, and Lights.
  • Peritonaeum: The inmost membranous Coat of the Belly.
  • Phlebotomy: Breathing of a Vein, or Blood-letting.
  • Phthisis or Phthisick: It is properly, a withering away of the whole Body, arising [Page]from an Ulcer, or other ill Formation of the Lungs. Dr. Willis.
  • Pleura: A thin Membrane that invest­eth the Ribs on both sides.
  • Prognostick A fore knowledge, or under­standing of the future State of a Disease, founded on the due consideration of the present State.
  • Psoas: Two great Muscles sited in the inward part of the Loyns.
  • Purulent: Mattery, or foul Corruption.
  • Respiration: An Action whereby the Air is received in, and driven forth of the Lungs, called Breathing.
  • Scarification: A cutting or Lancing.
  • Serositv: Moisture.
  • Specifics: Remedies proper to any one peculiar Disease.
  • Spine: The Back-bone.
  • Spinalis Medulla: The Pith of the Back­bone, called the Spinal Marrow.
  • Sternum: The Breast-bone.
  • Strumae, and Strumous Swellings: Hard Kernels, or Swellings.
  • Tibia: The Bone of the Leg, called the Shank or Shin-bone.
  • Veneral-Evil: The French-Pox, or Modish Disease.
  • [Page]Ventricle: The Stomach.
  • Vertebrae of the Neck. The 7 Bones of the Neck, behind the lowermost whereof is joyned to the uppermost Vertebrae of the Back, which are in number 12.
  • Vesicatories: Medicines that raise Blisters.
  • Viscera: The Bowels, to wit, The Heart, Liver and Lungs.
  • Ung. è Succ. aperitivis: An Oint­ment of Opening Juices.

The Index, or Table of the CONTENTS.

THE Proëme. Pag. 1

CHAP. I.
Of the time when, and place where the Disease Rhachitis had it's first Rise, and who are most subject thereto. Pag. 3
CHAP. II.
Of the Signs or Symptoms of the Dis­ease. Pag. 4
CHAP. III.
Of the Cause of the Disease: That it consisteth not in the naughtiness of the Blood; nor in the deprav'd Constitu­tion of the Parts. Pag. 8
CHAP. IV.
That the Nerves, as well as the Blood do help to nourish, and this Disease doth peculiarly depend upon the Defect of the Nervous Influx. Pag. 11
CHAP. V.
The Definition or Description of the Rha­chitis; together with the Cause thereof: Wherein is shewed, that it proceeds not from the faultiness of the Brain; but from the Obstruction of the Spinalis Medulla. Pag. 14
CHAP. VI.
The Reasons of the Symptoms; and first, of the too great augmentation of the Head. Pag. 17
CHAP. VII.
Of the Swelling, or puffing up of the Ab­domen. Pag. 18
CHAP. VIII.
Of Strumous Glandules, or hard [Page]Kernels. Pag. 20
CHAP. IX.
Of the Crookedness of the Bones. Dr. Glisson's Opinion touching the same is set down. Pag. 24
CHAP. X.
The Author's Opinion &c. Pag. 28
CHAP. XI.
Why the Breast grows straight or nar­row, and acuminated. Pag. 38
CHAP. XII.
Of the Asthma, Pursiness, or shortness of Breath. Pag. 41
CHAP. XIII.
From what Cause the Imbecillity of the Body doth arise. Pag. 42
CHAP. XIV.
Why Elderly Persons are not molested with this Disease. Pag. 44
CHAP. XV.
The Prognostick of the Disease. Pag. 46
CHAP. XVI.
The Method of Curing. Pag. 49
CHAP. XVII.
The Use of Clysters, and some Forms thereof. Pag. 51
CHAP. XVIII.
The Use of Emetics or Vomitory Medi­cines, and Forms thereof. Pag. 55
CHAP. XIX.
Some Examples of Catharticks, or Pur­ging Medicines. Pag. 57
CHAP. XX.
Chirurgical Remedies. Pag. 63
CHAP. XXI.
Specific Alteratives. Pag. 67
CHAP. XXII.
Chymical Specifics; also of Sweating and Bathing. Pag. 78
CHAP. XXIII.
Of Remedies that correct the Symp­toms. Pag. 84
In the Appendix.
  • Of Medical Weights. Pag. 1
  • Of Measures. Pag. 12

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