THE FIGURES OR TYPES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, By which CHRIST and the Heavenly things of the GOSPEL were preached and shadowed to the People of God of old; Explained and improved in sundry SERMONS,

BY Mr. Samuel Mather, sometime Pastor of a Church in Dublin.

Printed in the Year M.DC.LXXXIII.

TO THE READER, ESPECIALLY Those of that CHURCH, to which this AUTHOR was sometime PASTOR.

EVery Church is by the Ordinance of Christ a Pillar of saving truth, holding it forth to be seen and read of all men; the Teach­ings and Ordinances administred in Churches being amongst the chief of the ways whereby the blessed God instructs and enlightens a dark world in the way of eternal Life. These following Dis­courses are part, and but part of those many precious Truths and Teachings held forth by this Servant of Christ, in the course of about fifteen years Ministry, in that Candlestick in which the Lord made him a shining Light. The Prophets do not live for ever, but their Words and Fruit should, yea will live and remain after they are gone to their everlasting Rest. Not long after this Author had gone through this Subject God took him to Heaven, (when he wanted a­bove six months of being six and forty years old) by an Imposthume in his Liver; which; as some that were conversant with him judged, hung upon him when he studied and preached these Sermons; which, perhaps, was the reason, that from the beginning to the finishing of them so long a space ran out. Having no more time to review them, and make any additions unto the Notes that he prepared for Preach­ing, they are less perfect then otherwise they would; and it is not unlike, but that many things studied by him beforehand, and delivered in preaching, especially in the applicatory part (wherein he had an [Page] excellency) are lost, because not written down by himself. Had he lived to have reviewed and prepared these Discourses for the Press, it is like he would have spoken to and cleared up some things more fully, and perhaps, on second thoughts, have in some passages deliver­ed himself somewhat otherwise. It is not expected that every one, much less critical and captious heads, will subscribe to every thing which they may here meet with. In so diffuse and vast, and with­all so obscure a Subject, and so untrodden a path, it is no wonder if every one will not tread in just the same steps with him; for there are some things wherein he departs from the Sentiments of some o­ther learned and judicious persons: His making some of the old legal Ordinances Types of the instituted Church and Ordinances under the New Testament, and our Ordinances the Antitypes of theirs, it may be some may not assent unto, following therein Ames Prol. in Ps. 2. and Mr. Jeans, who (Exam. Exam. p. 241.) cites Chamier tom. 4. l. 9. c. 11. Sect. 13, 15. pag. 515. Tilenus Syntag. Part. ult. Disp. 63. Sect. 12. Ames Bellarm. Enerv. tom. 3. l. 4. c. 7. to which he might have added those words of his tom. 3. lib. 1. cap. 4. thes. 13. and lib. 2. cap. 4. thes. 4. But others there are who go with this our Author. See Beza on 1 Cor. 10.6. and on 1 Pet. 3.21. and Mr. Cotton Holiness of Church Members chap. 2. sect. 12, and 13. Not to mention any of the Schoolmen, or the elder Writers a­mong Christians, who are very frequent and very express to this pur­pose. Nor can it be denied that there is a common Nature wherein their Institutions and ours agree, the one being a shadow or darker adumbration, the other a more lightsome and lively image of the same things. And it is beyond all contradiction, that the Holy Ghost him­self doth frequently instruct us in our Duty with reference to our In­stitutions, from theirs under the old Testament with relation to their typical Ordinances. As for his calling our Institutions the Antitypes to theirs, though there should be a truth in that observation, Theo­logi Graeci Typum & Antitypum promiscuè usurpant pro iisdem, pro re significatâ nunquam. Jodoc. Laren. apud Twiss. Animadv. in Corv. Def. Armin. cont. Tilen. pag. 280. yet there is a strict and proper acceptation of the word, wherein it may be said, that our Institutions are the Antitypes of theirs: vid. Jun. Animadv. in Bell. [Page] Contr. 3. lib. 1. cap. 9. not. 25. and in that sense the Holy Ghost useth it, 1 Pet. 3.21. Nor needs any one stumble at our Authors using it in somewhat a different signification; for usage is the Master and Rule of Language; Loquendum cum vulgo, sentiendum cum doctis. But it is not for the sake of such passages that these Dis­courses are published, but at the instant desires of many, and for the sake of that Gospel-light which shines throughout the whole, and which is therein cast upon so great a part of holy Scripture, which was writ­ten not for their use only who had the worldly Sanctuary, and were to observe those carnal Ordinances: but for ours also, who live in these better times of the New Testament. And though every thing be not so clearly and convincingly made out, as some perhaps will desire; yet that the work is singularly useful will be manifest of it self: nor is any humane Writing without its defects; and those which come out after the Authors death, and were not by their own hand finished for the Press (which in the fate of this) must have allowances beyond others. Besides that this is a Subject which none, or almost none, hath waded through before him. How he was indowed for it, and what he had attained in it, is not for so obscure and incompetent a Pen as writes this, to say. If this work find incouraging acceptance, others of his labours may possibly be published hereafter. For besides this and those three other small Tracts, viz. his Defense of the Protestant Re­ligion against the impotent assaults of a Popish Priest, his Irenicum, or Essay for Union among the reforming Parties in these Nations, and his Two Sermons against the Ceremonies, on 2 King. 18.4. which are already printed, there are some other works of his not un­fit to see the publick Light.

As to you who were sometime his Charge, and used to sit under his Ministry, this Providence should be looked on by you, as that which adds greatly unto your account. If you be not judicious and establish­ed Christians, if you be not living thriving Souls, you will be most inexcusable. God hath made you as a City on an hill, not only by the eminency of place where you sojourn, but also by the lustre of those Stars in his right hand, whom he hath formerly set among you: Those hoary heads, zealous and lively Dr. Winter, that mighty man in Prayer, grave and judicious Mr. Timothy Taylor, and those of [Page] fewer days, in whom yet was the Inspiration of the Almighty to give them understanding, holy, humble Mr. Murcot, and this Author, the clearness and weightiness of whose Preaching some of you have a pre­cious remembrance of, must all of them be accounted for unto God one day by you that sat under their Ministry. Dr. Winter thought the Joy and Glory of Saints in Heaven receives some addition there, as their Works while they were on earth do bring forth fruit here be­low, grounding this his Judgment on Jer. 32.19. and the like Scri­ptures; see his Epistle before Mr. Murcots Sermons. And there are that think godly Ministers shall at the day of Christ have the presenting unto him those that have been converted and savingly wrought upon by their Ministry. The Apostle Paul seems to have an expectation, that he should present the Corinthians unto Christ as a chast Virgin espoused unto the Lord by him, 2 Cor. 11.2. and he look'd on the Thessalonians as his Joy and Crown of glorying before God, not only in this world, 1 Thess. 3.9. but also hereafter in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming, 1 Thess. 2.19, 20. If the affectionate remembrance of your former Teachers, which still lives in your hearts, and ought so to do, shall stir you up to make a fruitful improvement of such monuments of their labours as are yet with you, whatever advantage shall accrue to them who are now a­bove a thankless world and cloudy sky, certainly you will be gainers unspeakably. Those Exhortations of the Apostle do speak unto you. Remember those that have had the Rule over you, and have spoken to you the Word of God, whose Faith follow consider­ing the end of their conversation; Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, to day and for ever: He will be the same to you that he hath been to them. You have not yet resisted unto blood; but how soon you may be called forth unto it, is with him in whose hand are all our times. The Churches of the Hebrews in Judaea had stood when the Apostle so wrote to them much what about the same time that you have been in the fellowship and order of the Gospel. And as they then might and did see a day of National Calamity ap­proaching, Heb. 10.25. so may you discern black & threatning Progno­sticks Wherefore forsake not the assembling of your selves together, as the manner of some is, but exhort & incourage one another to [Page] it, and that so much the more as you see the day approaching, lift up the Hands that hang down, let the feeble Knees be strengthened, and make streight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way, but let it rather be heal­ed. Follow Peace with all men, and Holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord; looking diligently, lest any man fail of the Grace of God, lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled, &c. For ye are not come unto the Mount that might be touched, ye are not under the old dark legal Dispensation, which was full of terror; but you are come to Mount Sion, and to the City of the living God: you are under a far more glorious Gospel Dispensation, and have in these Discourses the Gospel and spiritual Glory of that old Dispensation shining out upon you; the veil being taken off from it by the Ministry of this Servant of Christ for your sakes. For what your Ministers are, they are for you. Epaphras was a faithful Minister of Christ for the Church at Coloss. This Author was inlightned by Christ for you. The influences that the Ministers are the Subjects of, are for their people. If their Consolation abound thrô Christ, it is that they may be able to comfort others with the Comforts wherewith they themselves are comforted of God, 2 Cor. 1.4, 6. If they be enabled to walk exemplarily in Gospel-simplicity, holiness, justness and unblamableness through variety of singular and sore tryals, it is for your sakes, 1 Thess. 1.5. with chap. 2.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10. their Light and Gifts are yours, and for you, 1 Cor. 3.22. These Sermons in the preaching of them were in a peculiar manner for you: so are they now in this making of them yet more publick. So are those that now labour among you in the Word and Doctrine your Servants for Christs sake. The Blessing of Heaven go along with both this Book and their Labours. Amen. And let every one also that reads, say Amen.


BEsides some literal and lesser faults, mispointing, omission or redundancy or transposing of a small word, using the Italick letter for the Roman, a great for a small, or vice versa, which the Reader, who observes, will not be stumbled by; and therefore it would be needless exactness to give a catalogue of: there are these which the Reader may do himself a kindness to correct. Two pages misnumbred, page 327 is printed 307, and pag. 511 is printed 411. pag. 9. the two last lines instead of Objection, that, read Ob­jection, viz. that; p. 32. blot out the last line, p. 39. l. 2. of mind, r. of his mind, p. 43. l. 19, 20. Hebr. 5.10. r. 12. p. 120. l. 18. Soul of r. Soul out of, p. 201. l. 15. unto r. under, p. 280. l. antep. Wheat Quemach r. Wheat, but Quemach, ibid. blot out but, ibid. l. ult. r. bread­corn, p. 308. blot out viz. in l. 10. and put it in l. 11. p. 384. Hamans r. Hemans, p. 421 l. penult. ye in r. ye do in, p. 422. l. 23. to the r. of the, p. 432. l. 5. aforesaid r. aforehand, p. 433 l. 30. yenury r. penury, p. 434. l. 17 blot out in the foundation, p. 445. l. 10. inner, cap. 8. r. inner Court, cap. 8. p. 460. l. 13. perfect r. perfecting, p. 479. l. 26. thou shalt r. thou shalt not, p. 511. l. 26. ark in which r. ark on which, p. 532. l. 21, 22. bring Wheat r. bringing the Wheat, ibid. blot out ing the, p. 445. l. 7. God to get r. God, get, p. 447. l. 7. indeed that this was r. that this was indeed, p. 557. l. 22. saith it r. saith of it. p. 566. l. antep. on the day r. on the tenth day, l. penult. the great r. that great, p. 572. l. 7. have r. having, p. 625. the r. our. p. 639. l. 14. Saints are that r. Saints that are, ibid. l. 21. in­deed r. indowed, p. 668. l. antep. blot out any.

Pag. 204. read lin. 17. before l. 15. p. 573. read the fifth and sixth lines before the third and fourth.

The Date of the Sermons omitted in the former part of the Book may be thus supplyed, pag. 1. March 23. 1666. p. 27. June 27. 1667. p. 43. July 4. p. 56. July 11. p. 65. July 18 p. 79. July 25. p. 90. Aug. 8. p. 115. Aug. 32 and Septemb. 5. p, 123. Sept. 5.

THE TYPES OR FIGURES OF THE OLD-TESTAMENT. BY WHICH Christ and the Heavenly things of the Gospel were preached and shadowed to the People of God of old.

Hebrews 4.2.

For unto us was the Gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it.

THE scope of this Epistle is to perswade them to persevere in their Christian profession, and not to fall off to Judaism, from the Gospel to the Law.

To this end he sets before them the excellency of the Gospel a­bove the Law, the excellency of Christ above Moses. In the prose­cution [Page 2] whereof he inserts many wholesom exhortations and applica­tions of those former truths and dispensations of old to us in Gospel times: And having from Psalm the 95th. spoken of their being shut out of Gods rest, because of their Unbelief, in cap. 3.18. And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that be­lieved not? he applies this cap. 4.1. Let us therefore fear, least a pro­mise being left us of entring into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it: And inforceth this caution by paralelling their state with ours in the words of the Text. For unto us was the Gospel preached as well as unto them:

You see how the Text comes in as an inforcement of that exhor­tation, take heed of falling short of entring into rest, seeing the Gos­pel is preached unto us as it was unto them, and it became unprofi­table unto them, because they did not take heed of that sin which is here dehorted from, even the sin of Unbelief.

In the words are three Propositions.

1. That the Gospel was preached both under the Old and New Testament; to them as well as to us; to us as well as them. The Apostle joins these together, unto us as well as unto them.

2. That there be some, who though they hear the Gospel, yet do not profit by it: they are but high-way ground, stony ground, thorny ground hearers, as Matth. 13.

The word may be preached to many that live under the clear and powerful dispensations of the Gospel, yet they not profit by it. There is but one sort of good ground, of fruitful hearers: many there are to whom the Gospel is preached, but they hear it unfruit­fully and unprofitably.

3. That the main cause of this unprofitableness under the Gospel is because of their Unbelief. The reason of unfruitfulness and bar­renness under the preaching of the Gospel, is for want of Faith in them that hear it. The word did not profit them, not being mixed with faith. Unbelief is the cause of this unprofitableness. Many complain of their own unprofitableness, and many take no notice of the cause of it. It is for want of Faith. It is the first of these three that I design to speak unto, the Lord assisting.

[Page 3] Doctr. 1. That the Gospel was preached to them under the Old Testament, as well as to us under the New. I put it so, as best suit­ing with the scope I intend.

The Apostle here supposeth it as a known and granted truth, that they had the Gospel; and he adds, that we have it too, as well as they: But that they had it, he supposeth it as a thing beyond all question; as a thing received, and believed, and understood amongst them, and that needed no dispute. For unto us was the Gospel preach­ed as well as unto them. As if he should say, no doubt it was preach'd to them, and so it is to us also. Gal. 3.8. And the Scripture foreseeing that God would justifie the Heathen through Faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, in thee shall all Nations be blessed.

The Gospel is the glad tidings of Man's Recovery by Jesus Christ, out of the state of Sin and Death into which he was fallen, into a state of Favour and Communion with God again; into a state of Life and Happiness. Now this was made known to them of old; these glad tidings sounded in their ears, as well as ours. Psal. 89.15. Blessed are the people that hear the joyful sound.

The Reasons for the proof of it may be such as these.

Reas. 1. Because they had the same Gospel blessings and mercies promised, preached, and revealed unto them that we have now, that are revealed and made known unto us; and in the same way, and upon the same account as we have them now.

There be two Branches of this Argument.

  • 1. That they had the same Gospel mercies preached and held forth, and this
  • 2. In the same way, and upon the same account.

1. They had the very same Gospel blessings and mercies that we have in these latter days. This will be easily made out and appear, if we enquire what the good things of the Gospel are, we shall find that they were exhibited unto them, as well as unto us. And what are they?

In general, That God would be their God. How oft is this pro­mise made to them? and so he is to us.

Now this includes three things. 1. Regeneration. 2. Recon­ciliation and Remission of Sins. 3. Everlasting Salvation.

[Page 4]I. Regeneration, or the New Heart, the Heart of Flesh, the writing of Gods Law in the heart. You know most of these are Old Testament phrases. Jer. 31.33. I will put my Law in their in­ward parts, and write it in their hearts, and will be their God, and they shall be my people. This was preached and held forth to them by that Seal of Circumcision. Deut. 30.6. And the Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live: and by all their legal washings and purifications, which sig­nified their cleansing from sin; from the filth and power, as well as from the guilt of it. Ezek. 36.25, 26, 27. Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your Idols will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take a­way the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. This in­cludes the whole frame of Saving Grace, a new disposition in the heart, new principles, new walkings: This succeeds the Old man, corrupt Nature: this is one great Gospel blessing common to them with us.

II. A second great blessing of the Gospel is Reconciliation and Remission of sins. Isai. 1.18. Come now and let us reason together, saith the Lord, though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wooll. Jer. 33.34. I will forgive their iniquities, and I will remember their sins no more. And innumerable more promises they had of this throughout the Old Testament.

This part of the Gospel was preached and shadowed forth to them by all their Sacrifices and Oblations, which are thefore said to make atonement for them: It is a phrase often used in the nine first Chapters of Leviticus, He that sinned, shall bring such or such an Offering: and the Priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him: Levit. 5.6. He shall bring his Trespass-Offering unto the Lord for the sin which he hath sinned, &c. and the Priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin: [Page 5] and ver. 10. He shall offer a Burnt-Offering according to the manner, and the Priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he had sinned, and it shall be forgiven him.

Hence it is that we find the Saints under the Old Testament were so full of confidence and holy boldness in seeking and plead­ing with God for pardon and forgiveness of sin: As we see in the Psalms, and other Scripture-Prayers, what strong and eminent actings of Faith they had this way: Which to expect had been a presumptuous thing, if they had had no promise to ground their Faith upon: But they had very plentiful assurances and promises of it in those times: and that is a second Gospel-blessing revealed and assured to them, as well as to us; the remission of all their sins.

III. Everlasting life and salvation in Heaven. This is not a truth revealed only by the Gospel, but was well known, clearly revealed, and firmly believed by the Saints of old: They had assurance of this that they should live with God for ever in Glory. When I a­wake I shall be satisfied with thy likeness. Psal. 17.15. Thou wilt guide me with thy counsel, and afterwards receive me to glory. Psal. 73.24. In thy presence is fulness of joy, and at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. Psalm 16.11. They looked for ano­ther Country, whereof Canaan was but a Type and Shadow, as the Apostle shews in this Epistle to the Hebrews, cap. 11.16. They knew there was an eternal State of Happiness for the Saints, as well as an eternal State of Misery for the Wicked; they did be­lieve this in those days.

Thus we see they had the same Gospel-blessings preached unto them of old, that we have at this day: and these blessings and good things are demonstrations that it was Gospel, because these blessings are not promised in the Law. It knows no remission, or regeneration of a lost Soul, no salvation of a Sinner. This was the first branch of the Argument; But for a more clear and full eviction of it, the second part of the Argument was this.

2. Because they had these blessings upon the same account, and in the same way as we have them now; I speak as to the princi­pal and internal causes of them. For in the outward way and man­ner [Page 6] of dispensation, there was a difference, but not in this. For upon what account have we these precious benefits and good things of the Gospel? you will find, if you consider it aright, that it was then, as now. We receive all from the meer mercy and free grace of God in Christ; and this was the fountain of their supplies also: If they had received pardon of Sin, and Grace, and Glory, on the account of their own merits and works of Righte­ousness, then it had not been Gospel; But they had it in the same way we have it, as to the internal cause from whence all blessings come; even from the Mercy and Free Grace of God; a very glo­rious Attribute of God, and most abundantly, yea continually held forth throughout the Old Testament: That he is the Lord, the Lord God, gracious and merciful. How many Prayers, and Psalms, and Songs of Praise unto him, for that his mercy endureth for ever: How sweetly, how pathetically do the Prophets teach and preach it to them? this all the Saints of old had recourse unto. David, Psal. 51.1. when seeking pardon, Have mercy, (saith he) upon me, O God, according to thy loving kindness: according to the multitude of thy mercies blot out my transgressions? and Daniel 9.8, 9. when he besought the Lord on behalf of the Jews, O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of fa­ces, &c. because we have sinned against thee: To the Lord our God be­long mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him. We do not present our supplications before thee for our righteousness­es; but for thy great mercies, ver. 18. and for thine own sake, ver. 19. This then was that they had recourse unto, as the Fountain of all the good whereof they stood in need, and of all their supplies, even the infinite mercies of God. Moreover it was the mercies of God in Christ, his mercies through the mediation of Jesus Christ. For only through him is mercy communicated to Sinners, so alone is mercy communicated: Therefore Daniel there prays, Dan. 9.17. Look upon thy Sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lords sake, that is, for the Lord Jesus Christs sake.

Hence they did so often make mention of Abraham, Isaack, and Jacob, (as being the Types of Christ) in their Prayers, and espe­cially of David, For thy servant Davids sake, Psal. 89. not as rest­ing in David litterally; but looking beyond the shadow, unto him [Page 7] that was the truth thereof; for by David they meant Christ: Christ is oft called by that name, because David was so eminent a Type of him.

And what is it in Christ that procures all these blessings in the Gospel for us? It is his Blood and Satisfaction that atones Justice; his Prayers and Intercession that prevails with mercy for us; and so it was of old: both these had an influence into their mercies, as well as ours.

1. The death and blood and satisfaction of Jesus Christ. This all their Sacrifices pointed at. For it was impossible that the blood of Bulls and Goats should take away sins. Heb. 10.4. Yet it sancti­fied to the purifying of the flesh: How much more shall the blood of Christ, &c. Heb. 9.13, 14. See how clearly the Prophet Isaiah preacheth this. Isai. 53. throughout the Chapter, but look especi­ally to ver. 10. When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days: and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. This was the mystery of all the Sa­crifices wherein blood was shed: they were Types and Shadows of the blood of Christ.

2. His Prayers and Intercessions. For, look, as mercy is pur­chased by the merit of his Death, so it is communicated and ap­plied through the vertue of his Intercession: Justice is satisfied by his Death, and mercy intreated in his Intercession, and so both those great Attributes are acknowledged and glorified in Zach. 1.12. Then the Angel of the Lord, that is, Jesus Christ the Angel of the Covenant that appeared, he answered and said, how long wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem, and on the Cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these threescore and ten years! And the Lord answered the Angel that talked with me, with good words and with comfortable words. ver. 13. here the prevailing pow­er of his Intercession is set forth.

And as the merit of his Blood was shadowed by the Sacrifices; so the efficacy of his Intercession was shadowed forth by the Incense and sweet Odours offered up to God under the Law. These re­lated to the Prayers of Jesus Christ; he offers Incense with the Prayers of the Saints. Revel. 8.3, 4. And another Angel came and [Page 8] stood at the Altar, having a Golden Censer; and there was given unto him much Incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all Saints upon the Golden Altar which was before the Throne. And the smoke of the Incense which came with the prayers of the Saints, ascended up be­fore God out of the Angels hand.

They had therefore both the same Gospel-blessings, and upon the same Gospel account, as we, namely, from the meer mercy of God, through the Mediation of Jesus Christ, through his Death and Intercession.

Reas. 2. A second Argument might be taken from an Histori­cal Induction of all those former times, and the several Gospel Discoveries which the Lord vouchsafed to them all along from time to time.

As to Adam in Paradise after his Fall. The Gospel was preach­ed to him in that great and blessed Promise, that the seed of the Woman should break the Serpents head. This was the first Gospel Sermon that ever was preached.

Afterwards to Abraham the Gospel was preached, Gal. 3.8. when it was promised that in thy seed shall all the Nations of the World be blessed— and in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

To Moses, and by Moses to Israel, when the Lord said, I am the Lord thy God that brought thee forth out of the Land of Egypt: For he was a Typical Mediator.

There were yet further Discoveries in Davids time: Christ is the true David.

Thus I might go through the whole Old Testament, and shew you how the Lord from time to time made further and further discoveries of himself to his people in succeeding ages.

Reas. 3. Either the Gospel was preached unto them of old, or else it will follow, that they were all damned, or else that they were saved without Christ; which to imagine were infinitely de­rogatory and dishonorable to the Lord Jesus Christ.

The Fathers before the coming of Christ were saved and went to Heaven.

But without Christ there is no salvation. For there is no other name under heaven &c. Acts 4.12.

[Page 9]It is impossible that any Sinner should be saved without Christ.

Qui salutem cuiquam promittit sine Christo, nescio an ille salutem habere potest in Christo, Austin. He that promiseth any man Sal­vation without Christ, I know not whether he can have Salvation by Christ. By the works of the Law shall no flesh be justified or sa­ved. Rom. 3.20. Gal. 2.16.

Jesus Christ therefore is the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever, Heb. 13.8. that is, in all times and ages: and so we may ap­ply it thus. Yesterday under the Law, to day under the Gospel, and for ever Jesus Christ is the only Saviour. Therefore if the Old Testament Saints were saved, it was by Christ, and if by Christ, they had the Gospel preached to them as well as we.

So we see the Truth of the Doctrine.

Obj. 1. But why do we call it the Old Testament, if it was Gospel?

Answ. This is only in regard of the manner of Dispensation: we do not call the first part of the Bible, or the times wherein it was written, the Old Testament; and the latter part of the Bible, and the the times wherein it was written, the new Testament, as if the former were meer Law, and the latter nothing but Gospel. No, therefore take heed of mistaking here. For there is very much of the Gospel, and the Grace of God in Christ revealed in the Old Testament; many precious Gospel truths in the Old Te­stament: And there is very much of the Law and threatnings thereof declared, written down and left upon Record to us in the New Testament. Yea there is more of Hell and Damnation, there are more dreadful threatnings thereof in the Sermons of our Lord Jesus Christ recorded in the four Evangelists, than is to be found in all the Old Testament: But we call it the Old Testa­ment, because it was the first Dispensation of the Gospel: And the Gospel we call the New Testament, because it is the new Dispensation of the same everlasting Gospel; therefore the reason is only in the way and manner of their Dispensation, and not in the Subjects themselves.

Obj. 2. But there is a second Objection that the Apostle often speaks of, That ancient Dispensation; as if it was Law, and not Go­spel. [Page 10] Some Scriptures call that Old Testament Administration Law, the Ministration of Death. as John 1.17. the Law came by Moses, but Grace and Truth by Jesus Christ. If it was Law, (may some say) then it was not Gospel: so 2 Cor. 3.7. the Ministration of Death.

Answ. We must distinguish between the thing preached, and the manner of Preaching, between the Shell, and the Kernel, the Shadow, and the Substance.

Now the thing preached was the Gospel, though the manner of preaching it was legal; the Kernel was Gospel, though the Shell was Law: The Spirit and Substance, and Mystery of that Dispensation was Evangelical, though it was involved in a legal Shell and outside, and overshadowed with the Shades and Figures of the Law. God never had but one way only to save men by, but it had divers fashions and forms, divers outward discoveries and manifestations; in those times in a more legal manner, but afterwards more like it self, in a more evangelical manner.

This Legality of that Administration appears chiefly in five things, which were the peculiar Properties and Characters of that Dispensation, by which it is distinguished from the Gospel-dispen­sation, as being much inferiour to it. So we shall shew you two things at once, both the differences of the two Administrations, and withal the Preheminence and Excellencies of the New above the Old. It was dark, weak, carnal, burthensome, and terrible.

1. It was dark, but the Gospel is clear: all things were involv­ed in thick and dark Shadows. Though there was a Light in that Mosaical Paedagogy, which did appear and shine forth into the minds of Gods Elect, yet withal there was a cloud of Dark­ness, as to the outward Administration, especially if compared with the Dispensation of the Gospel since the coming of Christ.

There was and is a double use of Types and Parables, and of that whole way of Argument by Similitude and Comparisons: they do both darken and illustrate; if explained and understood, they do exceedingly enlighten and illustrate; but if not explain­ed, they are like a Riddle, they cast a dark mist and cloud upon the thing.

[Page 11]So was the Law of Moses to all those that were not instructed by the Spirit to understand the Mystery of it. The Reason and Meaning of it was hidden to the most of them; hence a Veil is said to be upon their Hearts, that they could not see to the end of that which is abolished, &c. 2 Cor. 3.13, 14, &c. as the Apo­stle there discourseth it at large.

2. It was weak, but the Gospel is powerful, 2 Cor. 3. therefore that is called the Letter, this the Spirit.

3. There was much of external Pomp and Splendor, but little of that Power and Spirituality that is in Gospel-worship, which though very pleasing to the people, yet upon this account partly the Apostle calls them carnal Ordinances Heb. 9.10. and a worldly Sanctuary, ver. 1. because they consisted so much in outward, low, sensible things, so suitable to the relish, and desire, and disposition of a carnal Heart.

Therefore the carnal Jews were very tenacious of these exter­nals of Moses, though desperately averse to the things themselves included and intended in them.

Christ opposeth their local Worship to spiritual Worship, Joh. 4.21, 23. implying that that was not so spiritual as Gospel-wor­ship.

The carnal Jews did turn it into meer Law and Works by their abuse and misunderstanding of it. As the Pharisees; how did they trust in outward Works, and expected Salvation by their own Righteousness? they rested and sate down in the Shell and outside of things, Rom. 9.32. As it were by the Works of the Law. For they had no real legal Perfection in them; but only in their own proud and false conceit they thought the bringing of a Sacrafice was that, that did expiate Sin, and merit and deserve Acceptance with God: They did not look beyond all, to the meer Mercy and free Grace of God in Christ; they did not look to the end of things, to the time of Reformation that was to come, and so they stum­bled at the stumbling stone.

4. It was a burthensome Dispensation, Acts 15.10. a Yoke which neither our Fathers, nor we, were able to bear. They were an in­supportable Yoke, an intolerable Burthen, both as to their num­ber [Page 12] and nature: They had a great number of external Observa­tions, from all which the Gospel hath set us free.

5. The manner of Administration was legal, in regard of the Bondage and Terror of it. It left impressions of terror upon their spirits.

God appeared in such dreadful Majesty unto them on Mount Sinai, as it shook the Mountain, and shook all their Hearts so terrible, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake, Heb. 12.10, 18, 21. so terrible to all the people, that they wished that God would never speak unto them immediately any more: so the Lord gave an Interpreter to reveal and speak the Mind of God unto them; and so it hath been ever since.

Hence was that Speech of Austin. Breuis differentia Legis & Evangelii timor & amor, the difference between Law and Gospel in brief is Fear and Love.

Thus you see the Doctrine cleared up, and so much shall serve for the clearing up this Truth, and removing these Objections against it.

We shall conclude with two or three words of Use.

Ʋse 1. Incouragement to study the Old Testament; and the Types and Shadows of the Law. Is it so that the Gospel was preached to them under the Old Testament, as well as to us un­der the New? We see then the usefulness of the Old Testament to New-Testament Saints: we see what use there is of searching into these ancient Dispensations. Will you search into the My­stery of the Gospel? then consider how God instructed and taught them of old. There are some Gospel Truths more expresly re­vealed and mentioned to them of old, than to us, as that of For­giveness of Sins, &c. Therefore let us search into those ancient Administrations, because there is much Gospel there; though the Shell be hard, yet there is excellent substance in the Kernel.

Ʋse 2. Direction how to attain to the understanding of those Mysteries, study the Gospel. For it was Gospel that was preach­ed to them. Faedus gratiae clavis totius Scripturae.

Ʋse 3. We may here learn another lesson, which wise Agur learned (and it was his wisdom) to know that he wanted Wis­dom, [Page 13] Prov. 3.1, 2. Many, coming to read Chapters in the Levi­tical Law, are apt to think, this is a sealed Book, we are not to bring these Offerings to God now, we know not what use to make of it: many Christians make no more use of them, than of Apocrypha. This may shew us our ignorance. For there is no part of the Scripture but is of use; we might see much of God, and of the Gospel in them, if we had skill to search out the meaning and mystery of them. But we have not the understanding of the holy. Poor, dark, ignorant Creatures we are, the Lord knows. Quantum est quod nescimus!

Ʋse 4. Incouragement to believe and receive the Gospel: for it is the everlasting Gospel. This use is the direct scope of this Text, they had a promise of entring into rest, but came short of it through unbelief. Take we heed therefore of unbelief, least we enter not into rest: For the Gospel is preached to us as well as to them. There is ground of encouragement to believe the Gospel, to embrace and close with it; for it is that which all the Saints of God both under the Old and New Testament have ventured their Souls upon. The Gospel was preached to them as well as to us, and to us, as well as unto them. Thou maist safely venture thy Soul in that way where in so many Saints in all ages are gone to Heaven: Let us take heed lest we fall short by unbelief; for the Gospel was preached to us, as well as unto them; but the Word profited them not, because it was not mixed with Faith in them that heard it. Take heed, having the Promises of entring into rest, lest any of you fall short: take heed of falling short of the good things of the Gospel, of that Rest which the Gospel gives to sinful, guilty, weary Souls. Is such a Gospel preached, and such glad tydings revealed, and wilt not thou close with them, and receive them gladly and thank­fully?

All the Gospel Dispensations in the Book of God will rise up a­gainst thee, if thou art an Unbeliever; all the Saints of old will judge thee, and testifie against thee. They had but a little glim­mering Light, yet they ventured all upon that. But now the Sun appears and shines on the World in Clearness and Glory. They might have objected, that the height of Gospel-light is not disco­vered, [Page 14] which might be great hinderance to them; therefore if God was angry with them then, how much more with us now, how shall we escape, if we neglect so great Salvation? If every word spoken then was stedfast, and was sufficient to bring Souls out of the state of Sin and Death, to Happiness; how much more the Word and Light that we enjoy? For if the Word spoken by An­gels was stedfast, and every Transgression and Disobedience received a just recompence of Reward, Heb. 2.2, 3. how shall we escape, if we neglect so great Salvation? Unbelief is a damning Sin in all ages; but the more clearly the Gospel is preached, the more inexcusable is the Unbelief of sinners that perish in their sins; the more inexcu­sable is their Sin, and the more deep and dreadful will their Dam­nation be. The Apostle calls the Gospel the Word of Truth, Unbelief saith it is a Lye. It gives God the lye, it makes him a Lyer, and makes the Gospel a Fable. If there be a way of reco­very, why shouldst not thou believe and venture thy Soul on that; if there be no such way, then the Gospel is a Lye, and wilt thou say the Gospel is a lye? We have a proverb, as sure as Gos­pel. There is nothing so clear, and sure, and certain, as the Gos­pel. All Happiness depends on the believing of the Gospel. Therefore take heed of, and strive against Unbelief, labour as much against it as against any other Corruption: and the chief help is a clear understanding, a clear insight and understanding in the Mystery of the Gospel, this will help against all thy Unbelief; then all thy Objections will vanish as Darkness before the Sun. It's Ignorance of the Gospel from whence so many Objections arise: Beg of God to give thee clear Gospel-Light, and this will be the best means to overcome and overpower that sin of Unbelief. Did men see the Excellency, the Truth and Goodness of the Gospel; they would receive it gladly and thankfully. The Gospel is both true tydings and glad tydings, it's both true and glad tydings. Now were this believed, it would chear up the Hearts of poor Sinners.

Hebrews 1.1, 2, 3.

God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners spake in time past unto the Fathers by the Prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed Heir of all things, by whom also he made the Worlds, who being the Brightness of his Glory, and the express Image of his Person, and upholding all things by the Word of his Power, when he had by himself purged our Sins sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high.

THat the Gospel was preached to them under the Old Testa­ment, as well as to us under the New, hath been cleared from Heb. 4.2. where the Apostle saith, Ʋnto us was the Gospel preached, as well as unto them. We are next to consider, how it was preached unto them. Now to this the Text answers, that it was done in divers manners, and at sundry times. [...] and [...].

The scope of the words is to compare and prefer the Gospel Discoveries and manifestations of God, before the Legal, which he doth by a most elegant Antithesis between them: Then God spake to the Fathers, now to us; that was by the Prophets, but now by his Son: Those Discoveries were of old, and so are passed away, but the Gospel is in these last days; And finally, then he spake in divers manners, and at sundry times. But now he hath fixed upon this one way, and once for all, to reveal himself by his Son.

We may resolve the Text into four general Propositions or points of Doctrine.

1. That it hath pleased God to speak or reveal Himself, and his Mind, and Will, unto poor lost Man, in order to his Happi­ness and Salvation. For he speaketh here only of the Gospel Discoveries.

2. That there be two grand Discoveries or Dispensations of the [Page 16] Mind of God unto the Sons of Men; the one before, the other since the coming of his Son.

3. That under that former Dispensation God did reveal and speak his Mind of old unto the Fathers by the Prophets in divers manners, and at sundry times.

4. That in this last Dispensation, instead of all those former various Discoveries used of old, he hath spoken his Mind unto us only by his Son.

You see the two last Doctrines do contain and hold forth the Differences and peculiar Characters of each Dispensation.

It is only the third Doctrine that we are now to speak unto, viz. that under the old Dispensation God did reveal and speak his Mind unto the Fathers by the Prophets in divers manners, and at sundry times.

1. It was of old; therefore now passed away, as Heb. 8.13. that which decayeth, and waxeth old, is ready to vanish.

2. To the Fathers, that is, to their Ancestors; for he writes this Epistle to the Hebrews, as the Title of it shews.

3. By the Prophets, all those by whom God revealed his Mind to others, were in that respect Prophets, that is, Discoverers or Revealers of the Mind of God.

4. In divers manners.

5. At sundry times.

It is these two last that I intend a little to insist upon, viz. these divers manners and sundry times.

I shall endeavour to shew,

1. What were these divers manners or ways of Discovery.

2. What were the several times, or the several pieces and par­cels of it. For this is the Importance of the two words, [...] and [...].

1. I shall speak first to the manner, as being first in considera­tion, though last mentioned in the Text.

The Lord was pleased herein to use great variety; he did not limit and confine himself to one way and manner of Discovery; but he spake sometimes in one manner and sometimes in another. It concerns us to enquire into it, so far as we have Scripture-light [Page 17] to guide us. For we are built upon the Foundations of the Prophets and Apostles. Ephes. 2.20. Yet we must do it with Sobriety of Spirit, eschewing and taking heed of vain Curiosity. For they themselves who received those extraordinary Manifestations did not always fully know the manner of them in all circumstances: as the Apostle Paul himself knew not whether in the Body, or out of the Body. 2 Cor. 12.

This is one of the great things God doth, which we cannot comprehend, as Elihu speaks, Job. 37.5.

Yet so far as the Scripture goes before us, we may safely fol­low.

These divers manners therefore of Gods speaking or revealing his Mind of old, may be referred chiefly to these seven Heads.

  • 1. By Visions.
  • 2. By Dreams.
  • 3. By Voices.
  • 4. By inward Inspirations and Impulses of his Spirit.
  • 5. By legal Types and Shadows.
  • 6. By Signs and Wonders.
  • 7. By a special and peculiar kind of Intimacy and Familiarity.

1. The Lord was wonted then to speak by Visions, I mean visible Apparitions and Representations of things to the eye; the person being awake and not asleep. I do not mean things repre­sented meerly to the Mind and inward Thoughts; for this will come in afterwards under another head, namely, that of inward Inspiration and Revelation; but I speak now of such Visions where­in things were really and indeed objected to the outward Senses. Hence the Prophets are called Seers; hence that phrase, the Visi­ons of God, used concerning Prophesies.

And what was it that they saw?

Sometimes they saw God himself, sometimes the Angels, and sometimes other things were represented, and did appear in Visi­on to them.

1. Sometimes the Lord himself did appear in Visions to them: not as though his Essence were corporeal or visible. He dwels in Light unapproachable, 1 Tim. 6.16. whom no man hath seen, nor [Page 18] can see; but created Manifestations and Representations of his Glory he did appear in. So Exod. 20.18. — and 19.18, 19, 20 Jehovah descended symbolically, in regard of the glorious tokens and symbols of his Presence.

But then they saw no similitude, only Fire and Smoke, and the Mountain shaking. Deut. 4.12.

Exod. 24.10, 11. And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet, as it were a paved work of a Saphire stone — al­so they saw God, and did eat and drink.

Exod. 34.5, 6. And the Lord descended in the Cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the Name of the Lord, and the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed &c.

It seemeth by the expressions, Deum humanâ effigie pertranfijsse; that God passed by in an humane shape.

All the three Persons of the Trinity have appeared distinctly in visible Representations.

God the Father and the Son. Dan. 7.9 — 13. I beheld till the Thrones were cast down, and the ancient of days did sit; — I saw in the night Visions; and behold one like the Son of Man came with the Clouds of Heaven to the ancient of days — Revel. 4.1. compared with Chap. 5.7. where we find that the Lamb took the Book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the Throne.

So that here be two of those glorious Persons distinctly ap­pearing.

Ezek. 1.26. Above the Firmament there was the likeness of a Throne, and upon it the likeness as the appearance of a Man about it — It seems to be meant of God the Father, because Ezek. 9.2, 4. He is distinguished from the Man with a Writers Inkhorn by his side, who is thought to be our only High Priest the Lord Je­sus Christ.

The second Person Jesus Christ.

To Moses, Exod. 3.2, 4. For he is called the Angel, which a­grees not so well to the first Person.

And Moses prays for his Good will, Deut. 33.16.

Therefore it was not any created Angel, but Jesus Christ the Angel of the Covenant of Grace; as a praeludium to his Incarna­tion.

[Page 19]So to Isaiah 6.1. he saw the Lord. It is the Lord Jesus Christ, so it is interpreted, John 12.41.

So Gen. 32.24. And Jacob was left alone, and there wrestled a Man with him until the breaking of the day; that is, God in the form of a Man, as the old Geneva Note hath it. The Prophet Hosea saith, it was God, Hos. 12.3, 4. and Jacob wept and made supplication unto him, and there he, or God, spake with us.

The third Person, the Holy Ghost in the shape of a Dove at the Baptism of Jesus Christ. Matth. 3.

2. Sometimes Angels have appeared, sometimes in Bodies of humane shape, provided for them by the Power of God, either created of nothing, and after the Apparition annihilated; or com­pacted of the four Elements, and especially of Air condensed, and then resolved again, after the Appearance was past, into the matter of which they were compounded.

As to Lot, Gen. 19.1, 10. And there came two Angels to Sodom, and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them, and bowed himself with his Face to the ground. These Angels vers. 10. are called Men.

To David, 2. Sam. 24.17. And David spake unto the Lord, when he saw the Angel that smote the People, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done wickedly &c. He saw the Angel. Which is fur­ther explained, 1 Chron. 21.16. And David lift up his eyes, and saw the Angel of the Lord stand between the Earth and the Heaven with a drawn Sword in his hand.

At Christs Resurrection divers Angels appeared in the shapes of Men, Matth. 28.2, 3. An Angel rolled back the Stone from the door of the Sepulchre, and sate upon it, &c. Luke 24.4. Behold two Men stood by them in shining Raiment.

So at his Ascension, Acts 1.10. Behold two Men stood by them in white Apparel.

Sometimes the Angels did appear not only in humane shapes, but with other Representations accompanying them: as Horses and Chariots of Fire, that is, with Riders upon them. 2 Kings 6.17. Behold, the Mountain was full of Horses and Chariots of Fire round about Elisha. Zach. 1.8. Behold a Man riding upon a red Horse, and behind him there were red Horses speckled and white[Page 20] and 6.1. there came four Chariots out from between the two Mountains. ver. 5. These are the four Spirits of the Heavens.

3. Sometimes other things were represented and shewn in Vi­sion to them, to signifie to them the Mind of God: as Jerem. 1.11, 13. The Prophet there seeth the Rod of an Almond tree, and a seething pot, with the face thereof toward the North

So Amos cap. 7. ver. 1, 4, 7, 8. has several things presented in Vision to him.

And this is one of these divers manners of the Lords speaking, viz. by Visions, or Representations to the eye waking.

2. Another manner was by Dreams, that is, by Representati­on of things to the Fancy in sleep: and they had not only things presented, but usually Words spoken, to interpret them.

Sometimes the Lord gave divine Dreams to wicked men; as to Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar, but they knew not what they meant, and so were not Prophets; but the Lord sent the Interpretation by others, who were his faithful Servants. But the Prophets and Servants of God usually had both the Dream, and some further light for the Perception and Interpretation of it.

As to Abraham, Gen. 15.12. And when the Sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and lo, an horrour of great Darkness fell upon him, and he said unto Abram, know of a surety, &c. ver. 13.

And to Jacob, Gen. 28.12, 13. the Dream of the Ladder, ver. 12. is interpreted to him by God in the following verses, and 31.11, 12. The Angel of the Lord appeared to Jacob in a Dream, and speaks unto him: and 46.2. God spake unto Israel in the Visions of the night.

So to Daniel, cap. 7. 1, 7, 13. the divers night Visions he had there are afterwards interpreted to him, ver. 15, &c.

To Joseph, Matth. 1.20. An Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a Dream, saying, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy Wife: and Matth. 2.13, 19. An Angel of the Lord appeareth in a Dream to him, saying, arise, and take the young Child and his Mother, and go into the Land of Israel. This way and manner of speaking seems to have been very frequent and usual in those ancient times: as those words of Elihu intimate, Job. 33.14, 15, 16. For God speaketh [Page 21] once, yea twice, in a Dream, in a Vision of the night, See Aynsworth on Gen. 20.3. and Gen. 37.5. when deep sleep falleth upon Men, in slumbers upon the bed, then he openeth the Ears of Men, &c.

3. A third manner was by Voices, by an audible Voice uttered either by God himself immediately, or the Angels.

And these audible Voices are accompanied sometimes with vi­sible Appearances to the eye; but sometimes the Voice alone without any visible apparition.

To our first Parents, Gen. 3.3. It was the Voice of God, and not of an Angel. For he saith, the Tree which I commanded &c.

But the most famous Instance hereof was at the giving of the Law upon Mount Sinai, Exod 19, and 20. where the Lord spake with an audible Voice from Heaven: chap. 19. 9, 20. so that the People might hear; and chap. 20. 22. and see, that the Lord talk­ed with them from Heaven.

Deut. 5.22, 23, 24. These words the Lord spake unto all your Assembly in the Mount, out of the midst of the Fire, of the Cloud, and of the thick Darkness, with a great Voice.

And when ye heard the Voice

Heb. 12.26. Whose Voice then shook the Earth:

So Matth. 17.5. A Voice out of the Cloud said, this is my be­loved Son

But they saw no similitude, Deut. 4.12.

1 Kings 19.12, 13. A still small Voice.

4. By an inward Instinct; by immediate Inspirations and Im­pulses of the Holy Ghost.

So to David 1 Chron. 28.12, 19. though he had it in Writing also, and left it to his Son — But it was revealed to him by the Spirit of God.

So to Philip, Acts 8.29. The Spirit said unto Philip

To Peter, Acts 10.19. The Spirit said unto him, and Acts. 11, 12. the Spirit bade me go with them

To Paul and Silas, Acts 16.7. Not to go into Bithynia; but the Spirit suffered them not.

5. By legal Types and Shadows: These were speaking things. And what did they speak? They spake forth Gospel Truths and Mysteries.

[Page 22]The Ceremonial Law was the Gospel in Types and Shadows. Heb. 10.1. The Law having a shadow of good things to come. A Type is a legal shadow of Gospel Truths and Mysteries. These were the standing Ordinances and Instructions of those times.

6. By Signs and Wonders. These had a Voice, and did speak the Mind of God: These were attestations to the Truth and Mind of God, and to the Authority of the Messenger.

See Exod. 4.8. If they will not believe thee, nor hearken to the Voice of the first Sign, they will believe the Voice of the latter Sign— Joh. 3.2. We know that thou art a Teacher come from God: For no man can do these Miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.

The Lord may work Miracles now.

But he doth not now send forth any person with a Commission to do it, as he did of old.

7. By a special and peculiar kind of intimacy and familiarity; as it were mouth to mouth, without Parable or Riddle; without Obscurity; with all possible familiarity.

And this was Moses his Priviledg, Numb. 12.8. with him will I speak mouth to mouth; apparently, and not in dark speeches. Exod. 33.11, 23. The Lord spake to him face to face, as a man speaketh to his friend, —thou shalt see my back parts

That phrase of speaking mouth to mouth, notes the clearness, and certainty, and familiarity of it: as when Joseph saith, ye see it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. Gen. 45.12. This was a priviledg peculiar unto Moses. Deut. 34.10. There arose no Prophet like him since, whom the Lord knew face to face.

That that comes nearest to it seems to be the ineffable things that Paul saw and heard in the third heaven. 2 Cor. 12.1, 2, 3, 4— and the Revelation given to the Apostle John in the Isle of Patmos, which is the clearest, and yet withal the deepest and most won­derful of all the Prophesies recorded in the Scripture.

There be two Questions may arise here, which would be briefly spoken to.

Quest. 1. Whether there were not counterfeits of these things, and if there were, how did they discern the Lords voice in these ex­traordinary dispensations from Satans voice in his delusions.

[Page 23] Answ. It is true, there were counterfeits of them; there were Visons, Dreams, seeming Miracles, Impulses from Satan, as well as from God. Diabolus est Dei simia.

Hence that Caution of Moses, Deut. 13.1.

And hence are those complaints of the Prophet Jeremy, cap. 14. 13, 14, 15.

1 Kings 22.22, 23. That famous Instance of a lying Spirit in the mouths of Ahabs Prophets.

Therefore to have a Vision, to dream strange and supernatu­ral Dreams, to have a powerful Impetus and afflatus from a Spirit, are not things simply peculiar to the true Prophets of God.

But though Satan did, partly out of Craft, to deceive thereby the more effectually, and partly out of Blasphemy and Malice, to put an affront as it were upon God, use ways and means of de­ceiving, that had some resemblance of Gods own ways and Or­dinances; yet there were manifest and palpable differences be­tween them. I shall name but these four;

1. The Lord did not usually suffer Satan to transform himself so far into an Angel of Light, as to come in these ways unto his own people, unto such as were truly Godly.

Search the Scriptures, and you will not find, that Satan did ap­pear to give Satanical Dreams and Visions, and the like, to such as were Godly: It is true, he did tempt them, but in a more spiri­tual manner, as he tempted David to number the people.

Or by other outward means: As when the young Prophet that came from Bethel was deceived by the old one.

But when Satan did inspire any with Dreams and Visions, &c. it was done to wicked and ungodly men. As to Saul, when he raised up the Devil, he and and the Witch saw the Gods, that is, Spirits, infernal Spirits ascending up out of the Earth.

And to the false Prophets of Ahab, those four hundred-Idola­ters; they spake as Prophets, and were acted by a Spirit; but it was a lying Spirit, and they were lewd and wicked men: so that there was a great difference in the Person or Subject reci­pient of Divine Revelations, and of Satanical Delusions.

2. In Divine Discoveries there was an holy Elevation of their [Page 24] Minds when they did receive them; but in the Organs and In­struments of Satan, there was only a stupefaction and depression of them.

As when John did receive the Revelation, he was in the Spirit, chap. 1. 10.

Sometimes they were so far elevated, and raised, and acted by the Spirit, that they did not attend to any other thing; but were transported above Sense and sensible things, to attend wholly to the Visions and Revelations of God:

So Peter fell into a Trance, Acts. 10.10.

Paul was [...], Acts 22.17.

Hence oftentimes they fell upon their Faces, being astonish'd at the Majesty and Glory of the Lord; both gratious and natural Fear concurring— Ezek: 1.28. Dan: 10.8, 9. Matth. 17.6, 7.

But this Ravishment of Spirit was not a stupefaction, but an holy Elevation of their Minds, whereby they were taken off and lifted up above all these low things, to the highest exercise of Faith and spiritual Reason, and so better fitted and composed to receive those Divine Irradiations and Manifestations of God:

So Daniel 10.1. He understood the thing, and had understanding of the Vision:

So Balaam, when the Lord was pleased in an extraordinary case to act him after the manner of a true Prophet, Numb. 24.4, 16. falling into a trance, but having his eyes open.

But on the contrary, such as were acted by Satan, they had their extatical Furies, wherein their Minds were so discomposed, that they were not compotes sanae mentis. As some have written of the Sybils, that when after their Prophesyings, they came to themselves again, they had forgotten what they had said, and so could not review and correct what was written from them:

But it was not so with the Prophets of God, John wrote, and had Order to write his Apocalypse: and so the other Prophets.

And when those to whom, and by whom the Devil spake, were not discomposed to such a degree, even to fury and Distraction; yet they were always debased and brought down below them­selves. The Lords Prophets were raised above themselves: These [Page 25] were depressed even below themselves by dealing with Satan.

3. The Prophets and Servants of God had an inward Seal from God of the Truth of what they spake. Not unlike that new Name in the white Stone, which none could read but he that had it. Revel. 2.17. Jer. 11.18. — They believed, and therefore spake. 2 Cor. 4.13. See Isai. 52.6. My people shall know that I am he that doth speak, behold it is I.

The true Prophets were no Scepticks; they were as sure of what they said, that it was the Mind of God, as Ministers are now, when they preach the Gospel. 1. Joh. 1.1, 2.

On the contrary, those by whom Satan spake, either knew that they were acted by the Devil, as the Witch at Endor; Or else were deluded by him to think it was God; or else knew not, but were uncertain in themselves.

4. They had also some of those ordinary Rules of Tryal that we have now. As for instance. If God confute them by the e­vent. Deut. 18.21, 22,— or if it correspond with the event; yet if it be contrary to the Fundamentals of Religion. See Deut. 13.1, 2, 3. Or if they be wicked men on the one side, and the Prophets of the Lord on the other— This gave some glimmer­ings of Light to Jehosaphat. 1 King. 22.7. They were Baalites, pretenders indeed to Jehovah; but superstitious wretches; there­fore he could not acquiesce in what they had said.

Quest. 2. Whether these ways of Discovery be now ceased, yea or no?

Answ. As to that, the Text is plain enough: That instead of all those divers manners used by God of old, he hath now substituted instead thereof this one and only way of revealing himself, viz. in and by his Son.

And his Son speaks by his Word and Ordinances; as also by the Works of his Providence, in all which his Spirit breaths: Therefore there we are to meet with God, and to hear his Voice, and there only to expect it.

These old things are vanished away.

Some think there be some footsteps of them to this day.

See a notable Instance of Information by a Dream in the [Page 26] Life of Zuinglius Melch. Adam. p. 43. And of a Vision in Me­lancthon on Daniel 10.

1, But first such things are altogether extraordinary: the Lord goes out of his ordinary course, when he doth such things; they are not the standing ways that God hath appointed under the Gos­pel; therefore they are not to be expected or trusted to.

2. They are only to be regarded in the way of a Providence, not in the way of an Ordinance, and to be tryed and judged by the Matter of them, as agreeing or disagreeing with the Scripture. As if a man in a Dream have some Duty, some Scripture-truth brought to him, he is to observe and accept the Providence of God in it: Or if he find a strong impulse or motion of the Spirit in his Heart, whereby some Truth or Duty is strongly impress'd and set upon his Heart; Let him examine it by the Scripture, and if the Scripture say, it is a Duty, he is to look at that internal mo­tion and impression, as a motion of the Spirit of God, else not.

Ʋse 1. See the variety of Gods Wisdom and Goodness to his people, that he hath so many ways revealed himself to them.

Ʋse 2. We may see something of the lowness of that legal Dispensation, from this which hath been said, that the Lord spake in such divers manners.

Ʋse 3. Bless God for the days wherein we live, and for the Dispen­sation we are under. It is much clearer and better. For it is by his Son, speaking by his Word, working and breathing by his Spirit. The Light shines much clearer. We see that which many Kings and Prophets and righteous men have desired to see, and have not seen; as Matth. 13.17. Luke 10.24. Christ spake it to his Disci­ples then, but it holds true concerning all the Saints under the New Testament.

It is true; there was a Cloud of Antichristian Darkness did a­rise, which did exceedingly obscure Gospel-light. But that Cloud was never so dark, but that the Elect of God did see through it in some measure.

Moreover the Lord hath begun to dispel and scatter those Clouds of Antichristian Darkness, and will in time scatter them from off the face of the earth.

[Page 27]2. We are now to speak to the second Word, these divers times.

Having shewed the divers Manners of the Lords speaking to his people of old, we are now to shew the divers Times, or sea­sons, wherein he did it. For he spake not only [...], but [...], by piece-meal, not all at once, but here a little, and there a little; first one piece of his Mind was discovered at one time, then another piece at another time; first a little Light brake forth, some darker hints and intimations, then further and clearer Discoveries and Manifestations by degrees.

In the opening of this we shall have occasion to run through some general heads of the History of the Church throughout the Scripture, till the coming of Jesus Christ.

And it is an Inquiry both useful and profitable, and also plea­sant and delightful to an inquisitive Mind; to view the several states of Religion, and of the Church of God in the several ages of the World.

Under every one of which we shall have occasion to take no­tice both of Gods Manifestations, and of mens Departures from the Lord, and from the Truth; That we may see the occasion of every new Discovery; they departed and destroyed themselves; and then the Lord appeared again in recovering Dispensations.

Now these [...], these several pieces and parcels of the Lords Discoveries and Manifestations of himself may be referred to two general heads.

  • 1. Before the Law.
  • 2. Under the Law.

These were the two great pieces of it, and the Scripture takes notice of them both.

Of that Dispensation that was before the Law, from Adam to Moses; as the Apostle speaks, Rom. 5.14. Death reigned from Adam to Moses.

Of the Dispensation under the Law, our Saviour speaks, Matth. 11.13. For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John: again Luk. 16.16. the Law and the Prophets were until John.

The difference between these two lay chiefly in this; that un­der the former Dispensation, the ordinary way of preserving the [Page 28] Knowledg of God, was only by oral Tradition: But from Moses his time, it was committed to Writing.

In both these the Church of God was under years, in a state of Childhood, Gal. 4.1, 3. But in the former, viz. the time before the Law, they were little Children, it was the very Infancy and first and weak beginnings of the Church.

This Period of the Churches Infancy may be subdivided into three particulars.

  • 1. The Dispensation they were under from Adam to Noah.
  • 2. From Noah to Abraham.
  • 3. From Abraham to Moses.

1. Adams Dispensation, I mean, after the Fall. For it is the gradual breakings forth of Gospel-light whereof the Text speaks.

We are to consider how the Lord then spake, and how far he revealed himself in that age and state of Mankind. Besides what was common to all times, viz. the Works of God, and the Light implanted in mans heart: there were several things that were the special Discoveries and Light of that Age, I shall instance in four particulars.

1. The Lord, having convinced them of their Sin, gave them that famous Promise, that the Seed of the Woman should break the Serpents Head, Gen. 3.15.

This was the first Beam of Gospel-Light that ever brake forth unto lost and fallen Man: A comprehensive Promise, which in­cludes the whole Gospel; as you have formerly heard in many particulars upon that Text, Gen. 3.15.

This great and precious Promise they and all the Saints for almost four thousand years did believe and live upon, waiting and longing for the coming of that blessed Seed, that victorious Seed, that should slay the Dragon, and destroy the Works of the Devil; as 1 Joh. 3.8.

It is thought that Eve did hope to have seen him in her days, and that she her self should have been the immediate Mo­ther of the Messiah: And thence she called her first Son Cain, Possession; thinking she had now got the Promise in possession and performance: But afterwards perceiving her mistake and dis­appointment, [Page 29] she called her next Son Abel, Vanity: As it is a common error, that we are apt to run into in the exercise of Faith upon the Promises; we are apt to antedate the time of perfor­mance, which is from a secret mixture and working of unbelief; for he that believeth shall not make haste, Isai. 28.16.

2. To this Promise the Lord added some outward and visible Signs and Tokens for the further help of Faith. In all times ever since God made Man, he hath given him some outward and sen­sible things, to be Signs and Representations of spiritual things, as being suitable to the Nature of such a Creature, Man consist­ing both of Soul and Body.

Even before the Fall there were two Sacramental Trees, the Tree of Life, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil: and now under the Gospel, we have two Sacraments, Baptism and the Lords Supper.

So in these first times after the Fall, they had something of the like nature: The signal instance hereof is, the Sacrifices, or the slaying of clean Beasts, and offering them, and other things up to God to make atonement. For it is expressed that Cain and Abel did it, Gen. 4.3, 4. and Noah afterwards. Which to have done without Order from God, had been detestable and abominable. Therefore there is no doubt, but as they were taught by their Parents; so their Parents were instructed from the Lord about it.

And in Noahs time, we find there was a distinction of Beasts into clean and unclean, Gen. 7.2. that is, clean for Sacrifice. For it doth not appear, that any of them were used for Food before the Flood.

What this aimed at, the Scripture is plain, Heb. 9.22. Without shedding of Blood, there is no Remission of Sins: and Christ is said to offer up himself a Sacrifice for us, Ephes. 5.2. therefore they did look at Christ.

Before Sin there was no need of any Sacrifice for Expiation of Sin.

Hence among the Gentiles they had a custom of sacrificing, from some slender Fame remaining among them of such an Institu­tion: for it was no part of the Light of Nature; though they [Page 30] were ignorant of the true God, the true Object to whom to pre­sent their Sacrifices: Hither also some refer that passage, Gen. 3.21. Ʋnto Adam also, and to his Wife, did the Lord God make Coats of Skins, and clothed them. This is thought to have a further My­stery included and aimed at in it. For there is a spiritual Cloth­ing often spoken of in Scripture.

As they were under a double Nakedness both of Soul and Bo­dy; their Souls divested of Gods Image, and original Righteous­ness, and their Bodies overspread with Shame: so the Lord provi­ded a double Clothing for them: He did not clothe their Bodies, and leave their Souls naked; but he gave them both the upper Gar­ment of Justification, and imputed Righteousness, and the inner Garment of Sanctification and Grace inherent.

This may be considered also under another Notion, as one of the Favours of Providence unto those first times of fallen Man­kind; that now was the Invention of many useful Arts and Sci­ences. Here God himself vouchsafes to teach them how to make Clothes.

We read also in Gen. 4. of sundry other Arts and Occupations, as ver. 20. Jabal was the Father of such as dwell in Tents, and of such as have Cattel. The meaning of it is well explained in the Margent, the first Inventor of Tent making, and of Pastorage and keeping Cattel. And his Brothers Name was Jubal: he was the Father of all such as handle the Harp and Organ, ver. 21. the first Inventor of Musick, I mean Instrumental Musick; For Vocal Mu­sick, Nature it self teacheth that. And ver. 22. The working of Mettals, by Tubal-Cain, an Instructer of every Artificer in Brass and Iron: whence arose the Heathenish mistakes and fables of Vulcan.

These were great Mercies, and gave some further Discoveries of God to those who had Eyes and Hearts to see him in his Works. For all lawful Arts and Sciences, and all the Rules there­of, are Beams of Gods Wisdom, and Gifts, and Operations of his Spirit, Prov. 8.12. I Wisdom dwell with Prudence, and find out Knowledg of witty Inventors.

So Bezaleel and Aholiab, Exod. 31.3. I have filled him with the Spirit of God in Wisdom, and Ʋnderstanding, and in Knowledg, and [Page 31] in all manner of Workmanship: and ver. 6. I have given with him Aholiab.

Those mean Trades and Occupations, Isai. 28. are the Gifts of God — The Lord teacheth the Husbandman how to thresh his Corn, and to beat out the Cummin.

3. There was something also of Church Discipline exercised in those first Ages of the Church.

A signal Instance hereof we have in Gain, Gen. 4.12. A Fugi­tive and a Vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. God himself pro­nounceth Sentence upon him: ver. 16. he is sent forth loaden with the Curse of God from the Fellowship of his people.

This is thought to have been about the hundred and thirtieth year after the Creation of the World. For probably Eves next Son, was the next year after Abels Death, and then Adam was one hundred and thirty years old, Gen. 5.

Moreover it is noted, that in Enos his time there was a Refor­mation of things, Gen. 4.26. then began men to call upon the Name of the Lord; which seems to be meant of a Segregation of the precious from the vile.

1. It cannot be meant, that now men began to prophane the Name of the Lord. For the Apostacy began before in Cain, and his Crew, which was before the Birth of Enos one hundred and six years.

2. Neither can it be meant, that now there was the first Reli­gious Worship of God. For that had been long before by Abel; and by Adam and Eve, and others of the Godly in those times.

3. Therefore it seems clearly to be meant of some new Refor­mation of Religion: the wicked party being grown by this time very numerous; the godly, as it seemeth, withdrew from them; before, when there was but one Cain that had fallen off, Refor­mation might be attained by thrusting him out from among them.

4. But now, so great a number, and perhaps the greater part being corrupted, the Godly might not continue and mingle them­selves with them; nor could they cast them forth. For this, a minor part could not do to the greater part.

[Page 32]5. Therefore they could do no more but withdraw and walk by themselves; and so they came to be called the Sons of God, that is, Professors of the true Religion; who were called by this Name; and the other were but Sons of Men.

From all which, it is matter of admiration, that there should be so much of opposition and aversion in the Minds of some, unto all manner of Church-Government and Discipline at this day, in this height of Gospel-Light: the outward Signs and Ceremonies of Religion having been connected with Discipline in all Ages, from the first Manifestation of the Gospel, even until now.

4. The Lord did in those days inspire, and raise up some to be Prophets and Preachers of Righteousness; besides the Instructions of all the godly Parents to the Children.

There were some persons peculiarly eminent amongst them: as Enoch; he prophesied that there was a day of Judgment com­ing, Jude. 14. which was partly fulfilled in Noahs Flood; but shall be more fully and perfectly at the great Day.

The Name of his Son Methuselah was a Prediction of the Flood. For it signifieth Mortis Gladius, the Dart of Death; or when he is dead, God will send his sword, his Dart and Arrows of Di­vine Wrath and Vengeance against a wicked World.

And lastly Noah himself a Preacher of Righteousness, he lived amongst them six hundred years before the Flood, and he preach­ed and prophesied of the Flood for a hundred and twenty years before it came. Of whom we shall speak further by and by.

Now this first Dispensation of the Lord unto his Church, con­tinued from first to last about sixteen hundred fifty six years. For so long it was from Adam to the Flood: as you will find, if you compute and put together the Lives and Ages of those ten Antediluvian Patriarchs recorded in the fifth Chapter of Genesis.

But there was an Apostacy, a falling away from God under this Dispensation. It began in Cain, and his Unbelief of the Gos­pel. For by Faith Abel offered a more acceptable Sacrifice than he, Heb. 11.4. therefore the others wanting Faith, made his unaccepta­ble: At last he kills his Brother, and being dealt with by God about it, he repented not, Gen. 4. But in time the Apostacy grew [Page 33] about it, he repented not, Gen. 4. But in time, the Apostacy grew to its height; that all Flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth, Gen. 6.12. and there was a general Atheism and Prophaneness, Job. 22.16, 17.

The Apostacy under this Adamical Dispensation of the Gospel (for I know not what fitter term to express it by) consisted chief­ly in three things.

1. Sensuality and brutish Lusts, they took their swinge in their Lusts. This is mentioned in Gen. 6.2. and Matth. 24.38. The Sons of God saw the Daughters of Men, and took them Wives — Hence arose all the Heathenish Fables of the Adulteries and Whore­doms of their Gods. For the old Pagan Gods were indeed no other, but those old Gigantine Rebels and Sinners against the Lord in the first times and ages of the World.

2. Violence and Oppression, Gen. 6.11. The Earth also was corrupt before God, and the Earth was filled with Violence. Being men of great Strength, and many of them no doubt Gyants, they did whatsoever they list.

3. Sinful Mixtures and Confusion between the Church and the World, Gen. 6.2. The Sons of God, that is, the Professors of Reli­gion, married with the Daughters of Men, that is, Professors with such as were prophane. The Sons of God cannot be meant of the Angels, for they were not capable of bodily Lusts, they could not fall in love with Women.

Hereupon the Lord brought in Desolation, and cut them down with a Flood: as Job. 22.16. and so put this Adamical Dispen­sation to an end: but brought in another, and a new Dispensati­on of himself, viz.

2. To Noah and his Posterity. This was the Lords second Dispensation to his People. For the Lord would not yet cast off his Care of wretched Man; but recover him, and set him up again once more.

Now unto all the former Discoveries there were several additi­ons. For that great Gospel-Promise, that a Saviour should come, and that the Seed of the Woman should break the Serpents Head; they had that, and did live upon it still; they had also Sacrifices, [Page 34] and Cloathing, and Church-Discipline; but new Discoveries were added: The Lord spake something more of his Mind unto them. There were some further Beams of Light appearing and shining forth upon them.

1. He saved them by Water in the Ark, the Story whereof you have in the 6, 7, and 8. Chap. of Genesis, remembred 1 Pet. 3. as a Type of Baptism.

And (by the way) this could not but be of great use to all Posterity. For though Nature would teach men the use of Boats, and lesser Vessels, to pass the lesser Brooks and Rivers: yet that they had any great Ships before the Flood is not probable: So that here it seems was the beginning of the Art of Navigation and Shipping.

2. He renews his Covenant With them, with Noah and all his Seed, even all mankind; and gave them the Rainbow for an outward Sign and Pledge thereof, Gen. 9.8, 9, 12. to 18. [...] This is the first instance where the word Co­venant is used concerning the Transactions between God and Men. The Rainbow was the Sign thereof, (the horns downwards, and the back upwards to Heaven, intimating that the Lord will not shoot out of his Bow the Arrow of another Deluge) which, whether it were there before, and now only made a Sign of the Covenant, or that now it had its first Existence is disputable. But it is probable enough, that it might be altoge­ther new: yea, though we suppose the Rainbow to arise from natural causes. For a years Deluge could not but cause a great alteration in all the Elements, and in the Clouds, and in the Air, whereby there might new Phaenomena, new appearances in the Heavens, which never were before.

Moreover it might be produced by a new creating Power of Providence; beyond the force of any natural causes, and also in­stituted for a Sign of the Covenant.

It could not have afforded any great assurance to them, if they had only the seeing and beholding of it, (which was all that was to be done in this Sacrament,) to see nothing but what they had seen before; could yield but small comfort and assurance to that new World.

[Page 35]And that this Covenant had a further Mystery in it, than meerly outward Preservation from another Deluge;See Caryl on Job. 37.15. See Isai. 54.9. For this as the is Waters of Noah unto me— The Covenant of my Peace shall not be removed.

The Rainbow therefore was a Sign of the Covenant of Grace. Hence Revel. 4.3. Behold a Throne was set in Heaven, and one sate on the Throne — and there was a Rainbow round about the Throne. Confer. on Rom. 5.14. of Noah as a personal Type. Revel. 10.1. Christ the Angel of the Covenant is described, as having a Rainbow upon his Head.

3. He inlargeth their provision of Food to eat, by giving them a Commission to eat the Flesh of the Brute creatures, Gen. 9.3. At first there is no mention of any other provision, but the Fruits of the Earth, Gen. 1.29. But there was need of some further supply; because it is probable, that the Vigor of the Earth, and the Virtue of the Herbs and Plants, and Fruits thereof could not but be some­what impaired and decayed by that whole years Winter.

Therefore, for men upon a Religious account to forbid the eat­ing of some Meats, as the Papists forbid Flesh in Lent, it is a su­perstitious Infringement of the Liberty here granted, and given by the Lord unto all the Sons of Noah.

4. The Blood was wholly reserved and excepted, Gen. 9.4. But Flesh with the Life thereof, which is the Blood thereof, shall ye not eat. This seems to be done partly upon a moral, and partly upon a spiritual and Ceremonial account.

Moral, for mans Health, and to prevent that Ferity and Savage­ness which Mankind is so apt to degenerate into: as in some bar­barous Nations, they would drink the living Blood out of the Horse they rode upon, opening a Vein with an Instrument when they were thirsty. This is barbarous and savage, and this Prohibition here given excludes and forbids such a Practice; which those Gy­ants of wickedness before the Flood, it is not improbable, but that to other barbarous and raging sins, they might add the eating of living Creatures alive; therefore the Lord doth so directly and expresly interdict and forbid it.

And it is the Judgment of some very learned men, that the [Page 36] eating of Blood cold, and drest as other Meat, was not at all for­bidden. For the Prohibition lies not directly against Blood, but against the eating of living Flesh, Flesh animated with the living Blood: For the Blood is the Seat and Chariot of the Life and Vi­tal Spirits.

Some think it was done upon a Ceremonial account. The Blood was reserved as a sacred thing unto the Lord, till such time as that precious Blood was shed, which hath put an end to all Types and Shadows. This is expressed Levit. 17.11. I have gi­ven it to you upon the Altar, to make an atonement for your Souls: For it is the Blood that maketh an atonement for the Soul: as the former moral Reason is expressed, v. 14.

It is true, the Ceremonial Law came by Moses; but the meaning is, not that there were no parts at all of it before his time; for there were Sacrifices from the Fall of Man: But the meaning is, that Moses did incorporate and sum them all up together, with many divine enlargements and additions, into that great body of Ceremonial Laws by him established and setled in that Church and People of Israel. Therefore there might be a Ceremonial Prohibition of Blood even from Noahs time.

5. The Lord now gave unto Mankind that great Ordinance of Magistracy, Gen. 9.6. Whoso sheddeth Mans Blood, by Man shall his Blood be shed. Of which Divines say truly, that it is Remedium corruptae Naturae. But yet corrupt Nature, so far as appears out of the sacred History, never had the Use and Benefit of it till now: but rather on the contrary, the Lord secures Cain, as it were, by special Dispensation, Gen. 4.15. The Government of the World before seems to have been only domestical and paternal, which might easily be; Parents then living so long as to see whole Towns and Cities of their own Children and Posterity: But this pater­nal way of Government was so mild, that it was not effectual and sufficient to restrain Vice and Wickedness; but it grew to such Gigantick strength and height, that there was a necessity to cut them down with a Flood.

But therefore now to prevent the like Degeneracy and De­struction, the Lord puts a stronger Bridle of Restraint upon the [Page 37] outragious Wickedness and Corruption of mans Nature, namely this of Magistracy or Civil Government, whereby some are in­trusted with the Power of the Sword, to take away the Lives of others in grosser cases, especially that of Murther.

6. God divided the World amongst them, Gen. 10. which con­sisted of three parts then known, though not by these names, to wit, Asia, Africk, and Europe, whereof Sems Posterity dwelt chief­ly in Asia, Chams in Africk, and to Japhets Posterity Europe fell, known in Scripture by this name, The Isles of the Gentiles, Gen. 10.5. of whose Posterity we our selves are.

And now one would think Mankind was happy, when God thus sets them up again, begins with them upon a new score as it were.

But there were three or four things especially that did ruine all, and brought this Dispensation to an end.

1. The Apostacy of Cham and his Posterity, Gen. 9.22. an un­natural sin, to despise and dishonour his Parents,Calvin a­pud Wal­let in Cor. and himself not a Child when he did this, but above a hun­dred years old, ver. 25. the Curse is thundred forth a­gainst Canaan: so the Punishment answers the Sin. Cham is an ungratious Son to his Father, therefore he hath a cursed Son.

And perhaps Canaan might be present and Partner in his Fathers Sin; or the most delightful of his Children, being the youngest; and so the Cursing him would be most likely to pierce and grieve his Fathers hard Heart: and it may be so express'd for the greater comfort of the Israelites, that the Nation they were to expel, were a Generation of the Curse of God: But certain it is, that Cham himself was intended, and cursed in that Curse. This fell out about forty years (as some reckon) after the Flood.

2. That impious attempt of building the Tower of Babel, Gen. 11.4. whether to secure themselves from another Deluge, through their unbelief and distrust of Gods Promise; or thinking to climb into Heaven, a mad Project, but Sinners act sometimes at a strange rate of Madness, not knowing what they do; or that they were moved and acted by Pride and Vain glory, to get them a Name: This the Text expresseth, being probably [Page 38] the end most generally aimed at by them; though it is like they had various motives and inducements, and those very foolish and wicked.

This Defection was from that of Chams, about sixty two years, as some compute.

3. There was a ruining Judgment came upon them for this sin, viz. the Confusion and Division of Tongues; a just and severe punishment (the Hebrew being retained among the godly Seed of Heber: which was so denominated from him, because his Poste­rity were the chief Preservers of it) which was a punishment that did increase the Apostacy. For it made the Communication and Propagation of the Light and Knowledg of God amongst them more difficult.

4. That provoking sin of Idolatry, I mean that grosser sort of it, worshipping the Creatures and Images. That the rise of this Abomination was in this Period, may appear thus.

If it had been before the Flood, doubtless the Lord would have mentioned it amongst the Causes of that Destruction: he menti­ons other lesser sins, but not this:

Moreover it was amongst Abrahams Ancestors when they dwelt beyond the River Euphrates, Josh. 24.2. The place where this Delusion first arose, seems to be Babylon, which is called the Mother of Fornications, which is meant of Idolatry, and Spiritual Fornica­tions, as well as bodily, Revel. 17.5.

And Chaldea the Land of graven Images, Jer. 50.38. therefore it is likely, the first rise of this sin was at Babel, not long after the buil­ding of the Tower of Babel; it being an usual stratagem of Satan, when his Kingdom hath received some deadly stroke in one form, to find out some new Appearance, some new Device to appear in, to recover his Losses, and to seduce corrupted man again, as Re­vel. 12. when the Dragon was cast down, when Paganish Idolatry was destroyed, then he raiseth up Popish Idolatry, cap. 13. Beast-worship instead of Dragon-worship.

So here Atheistical Prophaneness being testified against by God from Heaven by the Flood, and then again by confounding the Builders of Babel; Satan betakes himself to this stratagem; that [Page 39] if there must be some Religion, and some Worship amongst men; he would deceive them with a false Object, and so seduce them from the Knowledg and Worship of the only true and living God, by presenting a multitude of false Gods.

But thus this second Dispensation was corrupted and lost: whereupon the Lord sets his Church and true Religion, as it were, upon a new bottom in Abraham and his Seed.

This second Dispensation under Noah continued about four hundred twenty seven years, as you will find it, if you compare the Lives of the Patriarchs, Gen. 11.

But you must remember in the computing of it, that Terah was a hundred and thirty years old at Abrahams Birth, as appears out of cap. 11.32. compared with cap. 12.4. For Abraham was but seventy five when his Father Terah died, being two hundred and five. Now if seventy five be deducted out of two hundred and five, there remains one hundred and thirty. In the rest of the Computation and Chronology there is no difficulty.

3. And so we come to the Lords third Dispensation, which was that to Abraham and his Seed. Wherein the Lord spake forth something more of mind, than ever formerly. There were now brighter Beams of Gospel-Light shining forth upon the Church of God than ever before. I shall instance but in four particulars.

1. The Lord calls him forth out of his own Countrey, and from his Fathers House, and so plucks him like a Brand out of the Fire, from the midst of Idols and Idolaters, Gen. 11.31, from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran, and Gen. 12. from Haran into Canaan, Isai. 41.2. who raised up the Righteous man from the East.

2. He promised him a Seed, a blessed Seed; that of him should come that great and blessed Seed so much expected and longed for by all the Saints ever since the first Promulgation of the Gospel to our first Parents in Paradise: that Seed in whom both he and all the Nations of the Earth should be blessed, Ge­nes. 22.18.

Till then we do not find any particular and express mention of what Family the Messiah should come.

[Page 40]But now this Promise of this Seed is renewed and repeated se­ven or eight times over in the History of Abraham in Genesis: and it is a Promise, not only of a numerous Posterity, and a Church-Seed, viz. his Posterity to be the only Church of God on Earth; but which is more, a Promise of that great and bles­sed Seed.

3. He promised him also the Land of Canaan for an Inheri­tance unto his Seed after him, when they had suffered, and been in an unsetled condition as strangers and pilgrims four hundred and thirty years, Gen. 15.13. — 18. which was a typical Land, and did relate unto another and a better Countrey beyond that, as Hebr. 11.

4. The Lord gave him Circumcision as a Seal of this Cove­nant, and of the Righteousness of Faith, Gen. 17.10. This is my Covenant, which ye shall keep between me and you, and thy Seed after thee— Every manchild shall be circumcised. Rom. 4.11. He received the Sign of Circumcision, a Seal of the Righteousness of Faith.

The duration of this Dispensation, under which Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and the twelve Patriarchs and their Posterity continu­ed and enjoyed God, till the Lord provided further Mercies for them by the hand of Moses (of which afterwards) I say, this Pe­riod and State of the Church continued about four hundred and thirty years, Gen. 15.13—

We have now gone through the three first pieces, the three first steps and degrees of the Lords gradual Patefactions and Ma­nifestations of his Mind before the giving of the Law.

Those other pieces of Discovery under the Law, we sall speak to (the Lord assisting) afterwards.

Mean while let us reflect a little upon this that hath been said, in order to some practical Improvement of it, in some practical Inferences and Instructions from it.

Ʋse 1. See the Infant state of the Church and true Religion, how low and weak the first beginnings of it were. Christ com­pares it to a Grain of Mustard Seed Matth. 13.31, 32. in the first beginnings under the New Testament: It is true also of the old times.

[Page 41] Instruct. 2. We may here see how prone Mankind is to dege­nerate, and fall from God: God no sooner sets them up again, but they fall again.

The Church of God had stood but a matter of a hundred and thirty years in Adams Family, which included all Mankind; when Cain falls into open Murther.

Well, he is turned out, and a matter of a hundred years after things are so corrupted, that Seth calls his Son Enos, miserable man.

Well, about three hundred years after, (as some conjecture, for the particular time is not set down in the sacred History, but it may be supposd to be thereabouts from Cains Defection and E­jection,) there is a new Reformation in the time of Enosh. How long this reformed state continued is not certain; but sure it is, that when the World was but sixteen hundred fifty six years old, there was such a general and universal Corruption of things, that the Lord thought it necessary to cut them down with a Flood: That (as some have expressed it) all mankind is sick of the Falling-sickness: Or, as the Lord himself complains, Hos. 11.7. My Peo­ple are bent to backsliding from me: though they called them to the most High; yet none at all would exalt him: though the Prophets called them to repent and turn to the Lord; yet there was none found that would exalt and set up God in his heart and life. There is a backsliding bent upon the Heart, like the Byass upon the Bowl, that turns it aside, a departing disposition of spirit.

3. Behold and see the free Grace of God in so many recover­ing Dispensations, and renewed Discoveries and manifestations of himself. Oh the Love of God to worthless Man! he was loth to give up such a lost Creature. This is that Divine Philanthro­py, whereof the Apostle speaks, Tit. 3.4.

4. These old things being past and vanished away, do not sit down with attainments of such low Dispensations, but labour for such degrees of Light and Grace, and Communion with God, as becometh Saints under the New Testament Administrations.

Beloved, the Dispensation of the Age wherein we live is high and glorious: But it may be thy particular Dispensation is low, thy [Page 42] own personal attainments come very short: Thou art but like a Believer that lived under Adams, under Noahs, under Abrahams, Dispensation.

Signs of a Christian under a low Dispensation.

1. When there is an inordinate affecting, and a lusting after out­ward, and visible, and extraordinary Appearances and Operations, such as they were Wont to have in those childish times: Such may be Christians, and may have the root of the matter in them; but they are Christians of the lowest form. There is a lusting in our hearts, by nature, after such things, after extraordinary Ope­rations, which God is wont to cross, as he did in Naaman, 2 King. 5.11. so when Christians linger much after, and lay much weight upon Dreams, and Visions, and extraordinary Raptures, and Ra­vishments of Spirit: or it may be look'd after Miracles, if they hear of any vain pretender thereunto.

I had rather have a little solid Comfort in that good old plain Scripture way of Faith and Repentance, and labouring with my own Heart to apply the Promises; and I value this more, than if an An­gel should appear to me out of Heaven, to tell me, that I am a Child of God: For if an Angel should appear to me with such a Message, I profess, I should not know whether to believe him or not; but I am sure, that if I walk close with God, if I exercise my self unto Godliness, and unto Communion with him in Faith and Prayer, and in seeking of him, and humbling my self before him daily; I am sure, that in this way I cannot miscarry; if the Gospel be true, I am safe, the Lord keeping me in that way.

I would not advise Believers utterly to reject all Evidences and Comforts, where there is possibly something of Enthusiasm inter­mixt, if there be a suitableness to their condition in the Promises brought to hand in such a way; and if there be a spiritual Savour in the Heart, and a relish of the Gospel, and the Promises and Blessings of it.

I say then, receive them which way soever they be brought to hand, though it be by a Dream.

But I would exhort you not to rest in such a way; but labour for an higher and more solid and spiritual way of Comfort, and Communion with God.

[Page 43]2. Art thou acted by a spirit of Light and Love, or Darkness and fear? hast thou a dark or clear Light?

It may be thy Candle gives but a dim Light, and smokes in the socket, as if it were going out: Thou art dark, as to the Light and Work of this age. This is a sign thou art but low in thy at­tainments. Art thou acted by Fear or Love? If by Fear only, this is low and legal: if by love also, this is Gospel-like.

The Law genders unto Bondage, Gal. 4.24. It was delivered Heb. 12.18. with darkness and tempest: But the spirit of the Gos­pel is a spirit of Faith and Love, not of Fear and terror.

3. Where there is an aptness to backslide and fall off from good beginnings, and to fall again after recovering Dispensations. This is but a weak and infant state; as little Children when first they begin to go, they catch many a fall.

4. Consider of what standing thy Profession is: at first all Be­lievers are but low and weak; but for an old Professor to be so, this is sad.

It may be thou hast made a Profession of Religion ten or twen­ty years. It is time for thee to put away childish things, Heb. 5.10. you might have been for the time setled and established Chri­stians, assured of Gods Love: but you are yet under the power of sinful corruptions of Pride, and Peevishness, and Passion; yet un­der darkness and prevailing doubts about your Interest in God; and this after many years Profession of Religion: This might bet­ter become the Sons of God under those old Dispensations, than one of thy years and standing.

We have briefly gone through the several pieces of Discovery, the several Beams of Gospel-light that shone forth before the Law, during that first Period from Adam to Moses.

The second grand Period is that under the Law, from Moses to the Messiah. This we are now to speak unto: we may call it the Legal or the Mosaical Dispensation.

In this season there were further, and clearer, and more plenti­ful beamings forth of Gospel-light upon the Church, above what had been before. Now might the Spouse say, The Voice of my [Page 44] Beloved, behold he cometh leaping upon the Mountains, skipping upon the Hills, &c. Cant. 2.8, 9.

The Worship of God, and the true Religion and Church of God was now reduced to a better consistence and settlement in the world than ever before.

There were two things especially which were the peculiar ad­vantages of this Dispensation under the Law, wherein it did ex­cel the former, which was before the Law.

1. That now the true Religion was preserved and propagated by Writing to Posterity, which had been done before only or chiefly by Oral Tradition; which might indeed be more easily done,Willet in Gen. 9 28 when men lived so many hundred years. For some have well observed, that three Patriarchs, for the space of two thousand years and more, from the beginning of the World to Isaac, might suffice to propagate true Religion. Adam to Methuselah, who lived with him two hundred forty two years, Methuselah to Sem, who lived almost an hundred years after Sem was born; and then Sem to Isaac; for Sem lived five hundred and two years after the Flood, which reached to the fiftieth year of Isaac. And then all the world had but one Language, whereby they could speak and communicate their thoughts to whomsoever they would; yet as to the generality of mankind the knowledg of God was quite lost and forgotten by some, and by others corrupt­ed with Fables and Superstitions.

Moreover, the Lives of men came now to be much shortened: For before the Flood they lived eight or nine hundred years; af­ter the Flood but four or five hundred years. About the time of Peleg, when the Tower of Babel was built, there was a further decurtation of mens Lives unto two hundred years or therea­bout. And lastly, in Moses his time, unto threescore or therea­bout, and there it hath stood ever since.

Moreover there was a confusion of Languages, which did much increase the Darkness, and obstruct the Communication and Diffu­sion of Light among them.

The way of Oral Tradition is a very insufficient way, and found by experience so to be, as upon other accounts, so upon these occurring at this time.

  • [Page 45]1. In general, Knowledg of God in a manner lost.
  • 2. The Decurtations of mens Lives.
  • 3. Through the Confusion of Tongues.

Upon all which Occurrences the Lord thought it fit to in­trust his Truth no longer with the frail and careless Memories of men; but to leave it upon Record in Writing, a much safer and surer way for the Preservation and the Propagation of it.

There is a threefold advantage of this way.

1. It is an help to the weakness of Memory: For if a thing be written, there it is, and a man may recall it by reading, when he doth not well remember it.

2. For the further Propagation and Diffusion of the Light: for there may be opportunity of writing to persons absent, and and in after times, who may read, when they have not opportu­nity of hearing.

3. To prevent Corruption: In the way of Oral Tradition some may say one thing and some another.

2. A second preheminence and advantage of this Dispensation above the former, was this, that now the Gospel, and the true Religion and Worship of God was settled in a whole Nation and People by divine Promise and Institution: whereas before it seems to have been only in Families and Congregations, formed chiefly according to the Light of Nature, wherein the Ordinances of Worship were celebrated by the Fathers and Heads of Families; but now a whole Nation are made the Testes & Custodes of it, the Witnesses and the Keepers of it, as a Depositum committed to their trust, Rom. 3.2.

As to the Occasions of introducing this new Dispensation, they were partly the defections under the former; but chiefly the Lords own Love and Goodness. For he had engaged himself by his Promise, and by his Oath, wherein he had pawned his Truth and Faithfulness to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, that he would do great things for their Posterity. Therefore he is said to remem­ber that Promise in the things he did for Israel. See Psal. 105.8, 9, 10. he shews that God remembred his Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Then followeth a large Rehearsal of his Dis­pensations [Page 46] towards Israel: And then he concludes again ver. 42, 43. For he remembred his holy Promise, and Abraham his Servant: and he brought forth his People with joy, and his Chosen with glad­ness.

And there was need of some recovering Dispensation, because of those defections that had been from under the Grace and Co­venant made with Abraham.

If you look back a little unto Abrahams Dispensation, you will find, that some of his Seed fell off, viz. Ishmael and Esau.

And the Seed of Jacob, when they were in Egypt, they learn­ed too much of their manners. It is thought their Calf in Exod. 32.Geneva Note on Exod. 32.4. was made in imitation of the Egyptian Idol Apis, which was an Ox: They smelled of the Leaven of E­gypt, where they saw Calves, Oxen and Serpents wor­shipped. See Ezek. 23.8. Neither left she her Whoredoms brought from Egypt: And what is meant by this, is more clearly and ex­presly held forth Ezek. 20.8. neither did they forsake the Idols of Egypt: Josh. 24.14. put away the Gods, which your Fathers served on the other side of the Flood, and in Egypt.

Hereupon it was time for God to work, that he might not lose his People, and to put things into some better way: And so he brought in another great Dispensation, viz. that which was under the Law.

And as we subdivided the former Dispensation before the Law into three lesser pieces and parcels, namely, Adams, Noahs and Abrahams Dispensation: so we must subdivide this also into some lesser pieces.

This whole Dispensation under the Law may be subdivided in­to four particulars, under each of which there were remarkable Changes made by God in the state of Religion, and of his Church and People.

  • 1. The Dispensation of the Tabernacle and the Judges.
  • 2. The Dispensation of the Temple and the Kingdom.
  • 3. That sad Dispensation of Captivity in Babylon.
  • 4. The Dispensation of the second Temple after their Re­turn.

[Page 47]The first these was from Moses to the Temple.

The second from the Temple to the Captivity in Babylon.

The third from the Captivity to the Return.

The fourth from the Return to the Messiah.

1. The first part of the Lords Dispensation to his people under the Law, was from Moses to the building of the Temple, most of which time they were under the Government of Judges.

What the Lord did for them, and how, and what he spake; what further Discoveries of himself he gave them during this Pe­riod, you may see in these five particulars.

1. The Lord, in remembrance of his ancient Promise, delivered them out of Egypt with a high Hand, and with an outstretched Arm, with great Signs and Wonders, and Plagues upon Pharaoh, and all his Host, and all his Land, dividing the Sea before them: the History of all which is recorded in the Book of Exodus, in the first fifteen Chapters of that Book, and so often celebrated with triumphing Praises in the Psalms and Prophets; who often speak of all his Wonders in the Land of Egypt, which it is thought were within two months before their departure: and of his dividing the Sea of Edom, that his redeemed might pass through upon dry ground: All which was a Type of Spiritual Redemption al­so; and therefore it was a Dispensation of much Mystery and Glory.

2. He gave them his Law by Word of Mouth from Heaven, and in Writing in the Tables of Stone, and in the five Books of Moses: Both the Moral, Judicial and Ceremonial Law.

The Moral Law. The Lord came down upon Mount Sinai in much Majesty and Terror, with an Host of Angels; and thundred forth with an audible voice from Heaven those Ten Command­ments. Exod. 19.9. that the people might hear: and cap. 20.22. he talked with you from Heaven: and he wrote them in two Tables of Stone, and in the five Books of Moses.

The Ceremonial and Judicial Laws were delivered in this last way, viz. by Writing, being left upon Record in the Books of Moses.

This is celebrated as a choice Mercy, Psal. 103.7. He made [Page 48] known his ways unto Moses, his Acts unto the Children of Israel: yea as a peculiar and distinguishing Mercy, Psal. 147.2 last v. He sheweth his Word unto Jacob, his Statutes and Judgments unto Israel, he hath not dealt so with any Nation

And now seems to have been the first Invention of the Art of Writing. The first mention we find of it, is in Moses his time. In Jacobs time it may seem they had no knowledg of it; because in the Covenant between him and Laban, instead of any Articles in Writing between them, or signing or sealing of it, they only e­rect an heap of Stones, as Monuments of Remembrance of it. Gen. 31.45. & seq.

And the Invention is so admirable, that it seems to transcend all humane Wit and Industry. The reducing of all audible and articulate Sounds unto visible Marks; and that in so familiar and short a way, by twenty or thirty Letters, without any further load to the Memory; that we may well ascribe it unto God him­self, as the blessed Author and Inventor of it; to help his poor peo­ple to, and in the knowledg of himself: according to that in Prov. 8.12. I Wisdom dwell with Prudence, and find out knowledg of witty Inventions.

3. The Lord accepted the whole Nation to be his own pecu­liar people, erecting a glorious Frame and Fabrick of Church and Common-wealth amongst them; wherein the Lord himself was King, and did immediately preside; and therefore it hath been fitly called a Theocracy: so Gideon Judg. 8.23. The Lord shall rule over you: Isai. 51.16. that I may plant the Heavens, and lay the foundations of the Earth, and say unto Zion, thou art my People.

4. He gave them glorious and visible symbols and tokens of his Presence amongst them, walking before them in a Pillar of Cloud and Fire, Exod. 13.21, 22. which Pillar rested upon the Tabernacle, after that the Tabernacle was built, Exod. ult. ult. which also was a symbol of his Presence with them: and so was the Ark, and the Manna from Heaven, Exod. 16.14, 15. with the Rock that followed them, Exod. 17.6. 1 Cor. 10.4.

5. The Lord himself conducted and led them through the De­sarts of Arabia by the Hand of Moses, and into the Land of Pro­mise [Page 49] by the Hand of Joshuah, drying up Jordan for them, subduing the Inhabitants before them, raising up Judges and Rulers for them; and finally training them up by many instructing Provi­dences to fit them for the further Mercies he had yet in store for them.

One would think all things were now well setled; but there were two or three things, partly defects in this Dispensation it self, and partly some provoking evils on their part under it; by reason whereof the Lord brought in a further and an higher Dispensati­on afterwards.

1. There had been strange Rebellions and Provocations in the Wilderness, which have had an influence into all the sorrows and troubles that have befallen them ever since.

Murmuring against God.

Mutining against Moses and Aaron, which the Lord took very hainously; and therefore destroyed Corah, Dathan and Abiram by miracle. For to disobey the just Commands of a lawful Magi­strate, is to rebel against God himself.

And above all Idolatry, Exod. 32.34, 35 In the day when I visit, I will visit their Sin upon them, and the Lord plagued the people, because they made the Calf which Aaron made. From whence the Jews have a proverb, that in every affliction in every calamity that comes upon them, there be some grains of the Molten Calf in it.

2. There were frequent Degeneracies and Oppressions under the Judges.

3. The Tabernacle was unfixed.

Upon all which accounts the Lord had not yet satisfied himself, in the expressions of his own Love towards them; but his Heart was full, and he was resolved to do yet more for them, and so to try them to the utmost. Therefore he was pleased to put a period unto this Dispensation, which began about the year of the World two thousand five hundred and thirteen, and lasted about four hundred eighty seven or eighty eight years. 1 Kings 6.1.

2. The Lords second Dispensation under the Law was from the Temple to the Captivity in Babylon.

In this Period the Glory of the Legal Dispensation rose up to [Page 50] the greatest height and splendor; and that chiefly in two particu­lars, the Glory of the Kingdom and Temple.

1. The Kingdom was setled in the House of David as the Type and Progenitor of the Messiah.

And in his days and Solomons it extended to the utmost bounds, that God had spoken of to Abraham: though afterwards for their own sins they were cut short; the neighbour Nations shak­ing off the yoke, and the Kingdom it self divided into two parts; two Tribes only left to Solomons Posterity.

The Lord had promised Abraham, that his Seed should possess all the Land to the River Euphrates, Gen. 15.18.

And it was performed in Davids time, and in Solomons, 1 King. 4.21, 24. 2 Chron. 9.26.

And this Kingdom was a Type of the Kingdom of Christ.

2. The other piece of their Glory was the Temple. Before God had dwelt in Tents; but now he had an House built unto his Name. The Lord turned his flitting Tabernacle into a fixed Temple; for which David made plentiful Preparation; Solomon did erect and set it up. He did it in seven or eight years time, or more precisely seven years and an half: for he began it in the second month, and finished it in the eighth, 1 King. 6.1, and ult. and he began it in the fourth year of his Reign, and finished it in the eleventh: moreover he began it in the 480th year after the coming out of Egypt, and dedicated it seven or eight years after, which fell into the year of the World three thousand, or three thousand and one, as you will find, if you take the pains to compute and put all the former Periods together.

And their Kingdom and Temple stood in some degree of out­ward Glory about four hundred years from the finishing and dedi­cating of it, to the beginning of their Bondage under the Yoke of Babylon.

And now one would think they had been setled in such a con­dition as might have stood for ever.

But the Apostacies were very great, which brought this high and prosperous Dispensation to an end, to a sad end. For,

1. The peoples hearts being not so with God as became a people [Page 51] crowned with such Glory, God left them and their Princes, the first and wisest of them, the very Founders of their Kingdom and Temple, unto very great and enormous transgressions.

David committed Adultery and Murther, a very unparallell'd case; for which the Lord threatneth, the Sword should never de­part from his House.

Solomon was left to the toleration of the publick exercise of Idolatry, for which God rent away the Ten Tribes from his Po­sterity: all which came to pass, as for other causes, so for the Sins of the People. As it said in a lesser transgression of David, 2 Sam. 24.1. And the Anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them, to say, Go number Israel and Judah.

2. The ten Tribes under Jeroboam forsook the Temple and the House of David; which, though as to Gods Providence, it was a righteous Judgment; yet on their part it was a grievous sin; it was a complicated Sin, many Sins involved in the bowels of it; for it was both Rebellion, and Schism, and Heresie; Rebellion against their lawful Prince, Schism from the true Church and Worship: yea fundamental Heresie. For as they say, Look to thy House O David: so in rejecting Davids House, they reject the Messiah, who was to come of him, 2 Chron. 10.16.

3. There were continual Backslidings to Idolatry, even in Ju­dah, as well as Israel; yea when they saw the Ten Tribes car­ried away before their eyes for this Sin; yet the other would not take warning and reform. Ezek. 23.10, 11 — Aholah signifies a Tent; this was the House of Israel, who were a corrupt Church: Aholibah signifies, my Tent is in her; this was Judah, which were the true Church of God; but they declined and departed from God so far, that he sent them away to Babylon.

3. And so we come to the third Dispensation under the Law, namely, the time of their Captivity and Bondage under the Yoke of Babylon.

There were three Deportations.

  • 1. Jehoiakims, in whose time Daniel was carried captive.
  • 2. Jechoniahs, in whose time Ezekiel was carried captive.
  • 3. Zedekiahs, in whose time Jeremiah was carried captive.

[Page 52]They had now an experimental knowledg of the truth of all Gods Threatnings.

Yet during the time of this Affliction, the Lord did not cast off his care of them; but gave forth many Evidences of his un­changeable Love and Faithfulness toward them, under this sad Dispensation.

1. In that he did preserve them from utter Destruction; yet not leave them altogether unpunished, not make a full end of them, Jer. 30.10, 11.

He restrained the Enemy from wholly rooting out the Nation, Psal. 106.46— gave them Favour in the sight of them that car­ried them captive.

2. In that he did convince them, and left an everlasting Con­viction in the Heart of that people against the grosser sort of Ido­latry: such an indelible Conviction as hath never been blotted out to this day.

Insomuch, that their great stumbling Block at this day against the Christian Religion is, the Idolatry of the Popish Christians: For the poor blind Jews consider the Christian Religion no other­wise, but as corrupted with those Antichristian Abominations and Idolatries: and therefore their Conversion and Return is not to be expected till Antichrist, that great stumbling Block, be remov­ed out of the way.

Yea, 3. The Lord gave them further and glorious Discoveries, by raising up excellent Prophets to them: as Ezekiel, Daniel, Je­remy, some part of his Prophesies were after the beginning of their Captivity and Bondage to the Babylonians.

This sad afflictive Dispensation continued about seventy years, Jer. 29.10.

4. The fourth and last of all the Old Testament Dispensations is that of the second Temple, from the time of their Return out of Babylon, till the Messiahs coming. And herein there are these remarkable passages.

1. The Lord breaks the Yoke of Babylon, that his people might be delivered by the Hand of Cyrus, prophesied of by name some hundred years before his Birth, Isai. 44.28.

[Page 53]And as they were carried away at several times: so they re­turned also at several times, and by degrees.

First Zerubbabel, Ezra 1. and a great company with him: after­wards Ezra, Ezr. 7.1. after these things

Lastly Nehemiah.

2. They built the Temple and the City of God again, Ezr. 3. Nehem. 1, and 2.

They met with many Difficulties and Obstructions in the Work; but yet at last it was done; both begun and finished by Zerubbabel, Zach. 4. in forty six years, Joh. 2.20. Dan. 9.25. se­ven weeks, that is, forty nine years; viz. from the Edict of Cyrus, after which, we may well allow one year of preparation for their Journy, another year for their Journy, and a third year for prepa­ring Materials for the Temple, wherein David and Solomon spent so many years: And if we deduct three out of forty nine, the remain­der will be but forty six; as Joh. 2.20. It wanted somewhat of its former Glory as to the Structure thereof, the old men wept to see how much Zerubbabels Temple fell short of Solomons Temple, in Ezr. 3.12.

As to the Utensils belonging to it; the Ark was wanting, with the things contained in it, the two Tables of Stone, the Rod of Aaron, the Pot of Manna: also the extraordinary and miraculous tokens of Gods Presence, as Fire from Heaven, &c. The Lord would have them now to be more spiritual, to see his Presence by Faith, when they could not see it with their eyes.

Yet Haggai saith, it had a greater Glory, that is, in regard of the Messiahs bodily presence in it, which Solomons Temple never had.

3. They renewed their Covenant with God, Nehem. 9. ult. and cap. 10. you have the Articles of this solemn League and Covenant.

4. The Lord guides them to the reforming of sundry Corrupti­ons which had crept in amongst them, and raiseth them up to an higher pitch of Reformation than ever. Gross Idolatry, they for­sook that for ever; of which we spake before. The Preaching of the Word was restored and renewed among them, Neh. 8.1-8. [Page 54] strengthened by the prophesying of Haggai and Zachary, Ezr. 5.1.

And the Histories of the Church in those times report also how there was great care to get true and perfect Copies of the Scri­pture, and to review the Copies they had.

And hither (as I suppose) belongs that famous work of the Punctation of the Hebrew Consonants.

Much Dispute there is among learned men about it. That it is of a Divine Original and Authority is unquestionable, if we do but grant the Divine Authority of the Scripture. For other­wise the Sense will be vagus & incertus, wandring and uncertain.

Some think, it was as ancient as the first Invention of Letters, which is referred to Moses.

But if we suppose that Writing (as all other useful Arts are usu­ally) was brought to perfection by degrees; and that the Con­sonants might suffice while it was a Mother tongue of so great a People, and they in such a flourishing condition, not oppressed nor mingled with other People and Languages; yet possibly the Points might be added afterwards. For when they fell under the Yoke of strangers, this help became necessary to be added: The Lord therefore did by Ezra and others, who were divinely inspi­red, now at least add them. For to refer it to an humane O­riginal, is to overthrow the divine Authority of the Scripture.

Yea the Lord raiseth them to an higher pitch of Reformation than ever. Nehem. 9. They kept the Feast of Tabernacles so as it had not been kept from the days of Joshua. Doubtless David and other reforming Kings had kept it; but that part of the Or­dinance, the dwelling in Booths had been, as it may seem, omitted and neglected by them; another Corruption was the mixture of the Church with Heathens by strange Marriages, Ezr. 9, and Ne­hem. 10. and the Samaritans, those Mongrels, would have intrud­ed, but were rejected. Ezra. 4.

Thus they purged and reformed themselves from both these corrupting mixtures in the matter of the Church.

5. And lastly, the Old Tetament was concluded by the Pro­phet Malachy, who was the last of all the Prophets. The Lord would have no Prophet beyond the first times of the second [Page 55] Temple; nor no Writings of men in the age immediately after the Apostles, immediately following the Gospels Promulgation. That it might manifest it self more clearly by its own own Light to be supernatural.

This Period, viz. that of the second Temple, continued four hun­dred and ninety years, Dan. 9.24. seventy, Prophetical weeks is four hundred and ninety solar years.

Now such a people thus delivered and restored; twice delivered out of Bondage, first out of Egypt and then a second time out of Babylon: one would think they would have abiden with the Lord for ever after.

And one thing they did learn, viz. to forsake gross Idolatry, and this was all.

But they grew more rigidly formal, and exquisitely hypocri­tical than ever: and Religion ran out into Sects and Parties and Factions amongst them. There were Pharisees and Sadduces and Galilaeans and Herodians amongst them, Names which the Scri­pture mentions, and Histories speak of another Sect, called the Essenes.

And thus it was with them when our Lord Jesus came in the Flesh: The inward and spiritual part of Godliness, and the Pra­ctice of that which is truly so, was in a very great measure lost amongst them; being eaten out partly by their Sects and Divi­sions, partly by their rigid Formality and Hypocrisie: And thence at last the Lord sending his Son their Messiah, so long promised and longed for by them, they reject and crucifie him: So the Lord having, by all these various Dispensations and turnings of his hand, mended the old House, as it were, seven times over; he resolves now at last to pull it down: for all these legal Dispen­sations were but the mending, as it were, and repairing of the old House: but the Gospel pulls it quite down, and builds a new one.

Thus I have led you thorough the several times and seasons wherein the Lord spake unto them of old: you have seen the gradual progress of the Light and Work of God among them, in those seven pieces of the Old Testament Dispensation which have been briefly run thorough.

[Page 56]That which follows next to be spoken to, is the Reasons of the Point, why the Lord spake and revealed his mind in such di­vers ways and manners, and in these several pieces and parcels; neither in one way only, nor at one time.

Quest. What may be the Reasons of the Point? The Lord could have spoke his whole Mind at once, in one way, and at one time; therefore why did he speak in such divers manners, and in so many several pieces and parcels?

Answ. Although it is a sufficient general account, to say, that this or that is best, because God wills it: For he doth all things well, and his Will is the Rule of Goodness; and it is not for us to call him to an account of what he doth: yet we may humbly and modestly inquire into the reason of things, not to contend him with for doing so; for that were Prophaneness: but to un­derstand something of his Wisdom therein.

The Reasons therefore may be referred to two heads.

  • 1. In regard of our Weakness.
  • 2. For his own greater Glory.

I shall speak briefly unto both these, adding but a little unto what others have said upon this Subject.

Reas. 1. In regard of our Weakness. The Lord herein con­descends, and accommodates himself unto us.

You may see his Condescention in four things.

1. In that we are dull and slow of understanding to appre­hend the Truth. Therefore the Lord illustrates the same things several ways: like the Light shining into the House at several Windows, that in such a plenty of Light, some of all those Beams may shine into our Hearts, Luk. 24.25. we are slow of Heart to believe.

2. We are but narrow-mouth'd Vessels, not able to receive much at once. As we are slow to receive any thing at all: so we are uncapable to receive much at once. Therefore the Lord teacheth us here a little and there a little: a little to Adam, a little more to Noah, and a little more to Abraham, and yet more fully and copiously to Moses; leading them on by degrees, as they were able, that so men in several ages might know what their [Page 57] Fathers did, and something more. Isai. 28.9, 10, 13.Geneva Note in loc. They must have one thing oftentimes told.

3. By this various and gradual proceeding God did prepare and fit his People, by weaker and lower Dispensations, for further and higher Dispensations. As a Child by learning his A. B. C. and his Primmer, is fitted to go into an higher, harder Book: so the Church of God by those immediate Revelations and Visions, &c. so frequent in those first times when they wanted the written Word, was fitted to receive the Scriptures with the more Desire, and Reverence, and Faith. Exod. 19.9. Lo, I come unto thee in a thick Cloud, that the People may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And they did believe him ever after: so Joh. 9.29. We know that God spake unto Moses.

So the Church of God being exercised under the Mosaical Pe­dagogy so long together, they were thereby prepared to welcom the Gospel more gladly when it came.

How gloriously and joyfully was it entertained when they had waited for it about four thousand years! with what Triumph­ings in God! that now they saw that which Kings and Prophets and righteous men have desired to see, but it had not been granted to them. see Luk. 10.23, 24. That which all the Prophets had spoken of since the World began. Luk. 1.70. Act. 3.24. The Mystery that had been hid from Ages and Generations. Col. 1.26.

4. A fourth Condescention of the Lord herein is this. By these varieties of Dispensation the Lord provides to have his Truth set on with all kind of Arguments, yea with Arguments of peculiar concernment and suitableness to take with us.

As Moses to the Jews. The Lord made not this Covenant with our Fathers, but with us, Deut. 5.3. And Manna which thy Fathers knew not, Deut. 8, 16.

So Christ, Joh. 13.34. A new Commandment give I unto you. And the Apostle 1 Joh. 2.8. A new Commandment I write unto you. It was an old Commandment, but set out in a new dress, given forth in a new manner. The Lord adorns his Truths with new Ornaments, as it were, that men may be excited to Inqui­ries and Affections suitable.

[Page 58]Hence in every Age there be in one respect or other new Dis­coveries, or new Dispensations and Dealings of God with his People.

Or if men be taken with Antiquity. 1 Joh. 2.7. I write no new Commandment; but an old Commandment for the substance of things: The good old way of Faith and Holiness remains, which all the Saints of God have gone to Heaven in, Heb. 11. he shews the same Race which he sets before them had been run by all the Saints, from Abel, cap. 12.1. being compassed about with so great a Cloud of Witnesses, let us run our race that is set before us: as if he should say; I exhort you to nothing but what all those Saints of old have done before you: and yet ver. 40. he professeth God hath better things for them, an higher and better Dispensation: and cap. 12.18. Ye are not come to Mount Sinai; but ye are come to Mount Sion, ver. 22. here he fetches an argument from this va­riety of Dispensation, and from the preheminence of that which they wore under above former times.

Reas. 2. For his own greater Glory. And under this head ma­ny things come in to be considered. This various and gradual Dispensation tends to his greater Glory divers ways.

  • 1. That there may be an harmony between this and the other Works of God.
  • 2. To shew the inestimable Worth and Glory of the Mystery of the Gospel of his Son.
  • 3. To manifest the variety of his Wisdom.
  • 4. His absolute Liberty. And,
  • 5. His peculiar Goodness.

1. That there might be an harmony between this and the o­ther Works of God. It is so in other works of God, as well as in his speaking and revealing of his Mind. As in the Creation of the World, he could have made it all at once; but he chose rather to make it in six days: and he made various and several kinds of Creatures. Therefore this variety of Administration in the Discoveries of himself and his Gospel is suitable to all the rest of his Works, wherein he ever delights, with Unity to mix Varie­ty, with Identity Diversity, and Disagreement in some respects, with Consent in other.

[Page 59]So we see in the outward Lineaments of mens Faces: so in the inward abilities and dispositions of their Minds, both in the common and saving, in natural and spiritual endowments; what a wonderful Composition there is, and how great variety: and so indeed in every Creature and Work of God. Though in con­clusion, Omnia fiunt ab uno ad unum. God is the Author and the End of all.

So in the Church, 1 Cor. 12.4, 5, 6. there are diversities of Gifts, differences of Administrations, diversities of Operations, but from the same Author. Calv. in loc. Symmetria Ecclesiae multiplici ut ita loquar unitate constat; the Symmetry of the Church consists, as I may so say, in a manifold Unity.

2. To manifest the inestimable Worth and Glory of the My­stery of the Gospel of his Son; which appears in this, in that it is attended with such a multitude of means of divers kinds for the Dispensation of it.

That so many ordinances, Providences, Persons and things in several ages of the World should all be subservient to the Exhi­bition of this one Mystery of Christ, and Redemption by him: This shews the Glory of it, Col. 1.27.

3. To manifest the variety of his Wisdom, that [...], variegata sapientia. It is like a party coloured Garment, Ephes. 3.10.

As in the works of Creation and Providence: so it is in the Dispensations of his Grace: the Wisdom of God cannot be suffi­ciently manifested in any one, or in a few things; or in one manner of working: And therefore it refracts it self into many parcels, and scatters its Beams every manner of way: that all put together may argue unto Man the inexhaustible depth and infinite largeness thereof: Hence he hath found out many ways and means to convey the same Grace: and every several manner hath some peculiar Beam of Wisdom and Worth in it.

This great variety and change of his Dispensations was not because in process of time God found out a better way, and so relinquish'd the old; as in the work of Creation, he did not profit by Experi­ence, though he made Man last, the most perfect Creature last.

[Page 60]For the Inequalities and Degrees of things came from the Wis­dom of God, as well as the divers kinds of them; and every thing is best in its place, and kind, and proportion to the whole, though not simply and in it self. It is best that in a body there should be a Foot, as well as an Head, though simply, and in it self the Head be more excellent. The Wisdom of God appears not only in the individual natures of things; but in their references and proportions to other things, and to the whole whereof they are parts: so it is better, and the Wisdom of God appears more in that there was both a Legal and a Gospel Dispensation of Christ and his Benefits, though the Gospel Dispensation be in it self far the more excellent.

Therefore this is a third Beam of his Glory that shines forth herein, viz. his manifold Wisdom. As there is infinite Wisdom in every thing God doth: so he would have us see it.

4. This variety of Dispensation manifests the Lords absolute Freedom, and Liberty, and Soveraignty in the use of Means and Instruments, that he is not tyed to any of them: He can work by little or by great means, by few or many. He can dis­pense the same Grace to his Church either in a Family-way, or in a Nation, or in all Nations. For the Church of God was first a Family, then in populo Israelitico, and now in populo Catholico.

He can reveal himself either by ordinary or extraordinary per­sons; either in a more immediate way, or in a mediate way. He hath not limited himself to one way, or time, or manner of speak­ing, lest we should ascribe the Glory to the Means, to the Tools, rather than the blessed Workman and Author. Therefore he is pleased ever and anon to change the Means, to break his Tools, as it were, and throw them away, and make new ones.

Hence, if men begin to think that a Temple at Jerusalem hath any Salvation in it, he will burn it up, and be worshipped in spirit and truth in every Cottage; as Joh. 4. pure Incense every where, Mal. 1.11.

5. The fifth Beam of Divine Glory that shines forth in this va­riety of Administration is this, the Glory of peculiar Goodness, which the Lord will receive by this means from every Saint [Page 61] of his, according to his peculiar dealing with him.

Some will bless him for Multitude and Excellency of Means, others will admire his Power and Grace in working by small and weak means: some will praise him for one kind of Dispensation, others for another kind. As for instance. A New-Testament Saint will praise God that he caused him to live in the Noon-day, and under the highest Meridian of Gospel-Light; when the Earth was full of the Knowledg of the Lord. Oh, what should I have been, if my lot had fallen under former times of Ignorance and Darkness.

But another in those former darker times, (as for instance Abra­ham) he will admire and wonder at Gods Mercy, that when Darkness was round about him; yet the Lord opened his eyes, to spy the Sun of Righteousness peeping up; and caused him then to rejoyce to see Christs Day: that his Fleece was wet, when the rest of the Earth was dry; his Heart drawn after God and Christ, when the means were so scant and small.

One Believer will bless God, that the Lord was known to him by his Name Jehovah: Another will admire that he did enable him to believe on God Almighty.

Some will bless him, that they have seen the Accomplishment of his Promises and Predictions; and not one thing hath failed of all the Good that God hath spoken, as Josh. 23.14.

Another under former Dispensations will admire that his Heart was wrought to embrace the Promises afar off, and that the Lord made Faith to him, to be the substance of things not seen.

Beloved, the Lord makes his Goodness special and peculiar by variety of Dispensations even to Believers living in the same age, and in the same place: that though in general they be all alike made partakers of the same common Salvation; yet such variety there is in the Lords dealings with them, in regard of Circum­stances; that in one respect or other, in regard of one circum­stance or other, every one hath experience of peculiar loving Kind­ness, singular strains of Mercy; that he can say with Paul, ne­ver such a pattern of Mercy; I have more to bless God for, than any other in all the world beside. It is so much more in several [Page 62] ages: so that look as that variety of Wisdom in so many several things before noted, did declare the infiniteness of Gods Wisdom: so in like manner these various kinds and ways of Goodness being all laid together, will yield the lustre of infinite Goodness so far as finite Creatures can contain or conceive it. I say, when all the par­ticulars are computed, and put together in one sum total (as they shall be when that general Assembly of all the Saints and Angels shall meet together at the great Day, when they shall all com­pare Notes as it were.) It will then appear, that there is no chan­nel wherein Mercy hath not run, no expression of loving Kindness that hath been omitted: so manifold have his Dispensations been, that every Age, and every Person shall be able to bring in their se­veral and peculiar portions into the common Treasury of Gods Mercies and Praises; and they shall all say and sing together that Song of Praises in Psal 40.5. Many, O Lord my God, are thy won­derful Works, which thou hast done, and thy Thoughts which are to us-ward: they cannot be reckoned up in order unto thee: if I would declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbred.

I shall conclude, for the present, with three words of Use, both from what hath beeen said to day, and in the last Discourse upon this Subject.

  • 1. We may gather some Chronological Light.
  • 2. We may see the rise of all the old Heathenish Supersti­tions. And,
  • 3. See the Glory of the Mystery of the Gospel.

Ʋse 1. Here is some Instruction and Light may be gathered as to that Question which may easily arise in your thoughts, namely, how long this Old-Testament Administration lasted?

The Answer may be gathered from all that hath been said upon this Subject, that it lasted precisely four thousand years. This will appear, if you compute and put those seven Old-Testament Dis­pensations together, which were formerly spoken to.

The first Dispensation from Adam to Noah was sixteen hundred fifty six years.

The second from Noah to the Promise made to Abraham, was four hundred twenty seven years.

[Page 63]The third from Abraham to the coming out of Egypt, was four hun­dred and thirty years.

The fourth from the coming out of Egypt to the Dedication of the Temple, was four hundred eighty seven years.

The fifth from the Temple to the Captivity, was four hundred years.

The sixth, namely, from the Captivity to the Return, was se­venty years.

The last Old-Testament Dispensation from the Return to the Messiahs Death, was four hundred and ninety years: And from the Death of Christ to the Destruction of the Temple, and City, and Na­tion, whereby the Lord did put all that old Dispensation to a full end was forty years: All which Sums put together amounts exact­ly to four thousand years: so long did that old Testament Dispen­sation last.

Ʋse 2. We may here see the rise of all the old Heathenish Su­perstitions. They were the Corruption of Old-Testament Dis­pensations. As Popery is nothing else but Christianity corrupted by a cursed mixture of Paganism and Judaism with it: so in like manner Turcism is.

Ʋse 3. We may learn from hence to see the Glory of the My­stery, yea the Riches of the Glory of the Mystery of the Gospel; in that it was so long, and with so great variety of Dispensation held forth to the Church of God of old.

Surely it was no small matter which the Lord made use of such various Providences and Dispensations to reveal: for they did all tend to, and aim at this, Col. 1.26. The Mystery which hath been hid from Ages, and from Generations: ver. 27. the Riches of the Glory of this Mystery. Therefore learn to prize the Gospel accor­ding to this worth and this value that God hath put upon it.

To slight it, is to slight all the Glory and glorious Dispensati­ons of God from the beginning of the World to this day.

For this they did all look at.

A man acknowledges the Glory of the Mystery in two things.

1. When he believes it for himself, with application to him­self in particular.

[Page 64]2. When he walks worthy of it.

But to disbelieve the Promises, and to disobey the Commands of it, is to despise the Gospel, 2 Thess. 1.8.

And to do so under such a clear Dispensation of it, as in New Testament times, certainly the deepest place in Hell will be their Portion.

Wo unto thee Chorazin, wo unto thee Bethsaida. For if the mighty Works that have been done in thee, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented in dust and ashes.

May we not say, wo unto thee, O London, wo unto thee, O Dublin. For if the Preaching that hath been in thee, had been in Rome, they would have been convinced, they would have re­pented before this day.

Ʋse 4. Let me repeat a little, and reinculcate these things upon you which have been delivered as Reasons, but might have been handled as Uses of the Point.

I beseech you, give unto God the Glory due unto his Name in all his Dispensations.

Praise him for his Condescention to our Weakness.

Observe the Harmony that is among his Works.

The Glory of the Mystery of the Gospel.

His manifold Wisdom.

His absolute Freedom and Soveraignty.

And lastly, and above all, his peculiar Goodness.

Labour to get your Hearts up to this.

As a man is never humbled enough, till this Conviction pierce his Conscience, that he is the chief of Sinners: so a man is never thankful enough, till he look upon himself as the greatest, strangest Object of free Grace in all the world; till he can say, Never such a pattern of Mercy as my self!

And now, having shewed that the Gospel was preached to them of old, and that in divers manners, and at sundry times (one signal instance whereof is the Types and Ceremonies) I have in these pre­liminary Discourses made way for what I have promised to speak unto, namely, the Types and Shadows of the Old Testament.

That which next remains is, that we speak to them more par­ticularly, [Page 65] which we shall proceed unto hereafter (the Lord assisting.)

Romans 5.14.

Adam, who was the Figure of him that was to come.


THat the Gospel was preached to them under the Old Testa­ment, as well as to us under the New; and that it was re­vealed to them in several ways and manners of Discovery; and in a gradual way, in several pieces and parcels, hath been former­ly shewed. One signal Instance we gave of those divers ways and manners was this, That the Gospel was preached to them of old by legal Types and Ceremonies. Now concerning these (not to insist upon the Analysis of the Chapter) the Text gives you this Doctrine.

Doctr. That the Lord was pleased in his infinite Wisdom to design and ordain certain persons under the Old Testament, to be Types or Figures of the Messiah, that was to come.

It will be requisite here,

  • 1. To explain the Nature of a Type, to shew you what a Type is.
  • 2. The Reasons why the Lord spake in this way. And then,
  • 3. To come to a more particular Distribution and Enumera­tion of them.

1. For the Nature of a Type. For the opening of this, because it is a Subject both difficult and useful to be rightly understood, and will give light to all that follows to be spoken upon the Types; I shall therefore

  • 1. Give you a brief Description of a Type.
  • 2. Some Rules for the better understanding of them.
  • 3. The Differences and Agreements between a Type and other things of like nature.
  • 4. The Names and Phrases by which it is expressed in Scripture.

[Page 66]1. For the Description of a Type, what it is.

I shall content my self with the Apostles Definition of it: That a Type is a Shadow of good things to come. Hebr. 10.1. The Law having a Shadow of good things to come. Col. 2.17. Which are a Shadow of things to come, but the Body is of Christ.

There be three things included in this Description.

  • 1. There is some outward or sensible thing that represents some other higher thing.
  • 2. There is the thing represented thereby, which is good things to come, which we call the Antitype.
  • 3. There is the work of the Type, which is to shadow forth or represent these future good things.

1. There is in a Type some outward or sensible thing that repre­sents an higher spiritual thing, which may be called a Sign or a Resemblance, a Pattern or Figure, or the like.

Here is the general Nature of a Type; it is a Shadow.

It hath been the Goodness and Wisdom of God in all times and ages, to teach Mankind heavenly things by earthly, spiritual and invisible things by outward and visible; as Joh. 3.12.

2. There is the thing shadowed or represented by the Type, And what is that? Things to come, saith the Apostle, Col. 2.17. and good things to come, Heb. 10.1. The good things of the Gospel, Christ and his Benefits; but the Body is of Christ, as Col. 2.17.

This we call the Correlate, or the Antitype; the other is the Shadow, this the Substance: the Type is the Shell, this the Kernel; the Type is the Letter, this the Spirit and Mystery of the Type.

This we are still to look at, and to search into in every Type; we must look beyond the Shadow, to the Substance, to the Truth and Mystery of it: and this is Christ and the Gospel, as future, and hereafter to be exhibited.

This may be called the Prototype, or the Pattern, out of which, and according to which the other is drawn; as Pictures from the Man whose Visage they represent.

3. This Description holds forth the Work of the Type, which is to shadow forth the Antitype.

[Page 67]But what is this shadowing? and how do they shadow it?

It is a metaphorical expression. A Shadow represents the pro­portion of the Body, with its actions and motions; though it doth it but obscurely and darkly.

So the Types had some dark resemblance of Christ and his Benefits, and did some way adumbrate and represent them, and hold them forth unto his People, to enlighten and inform their Understandings, and to strengthen and confirm their Faith in him: The Types had this Voice and Language; Such an One shall the Messiah be, He is thus to act, and thus to suffer for you.

Thus you have the Description of a Type. It is a shadow of good things to come: or if you would have it more at large, you may take it thus,

A Type is some outward or sensible thing ordained of God un­der the Old Testament, to represent and hold forth something of Christ in the New.

It may be otherwise worded. But the Description, if it be true, must be to this effect; as if we say, that a Type is an instituted resemblance of Gospel-Truths and Mysteries; or that it is a Sign holding forth Christ, or something of Christ in the New Testa­ment.

You see it comes all to one scope; and indeed all the Descri­ptions that our Divines have given of it are to this effect, they are all to the same scope with this of the Apostle; a Shadow of good things to come.

2. For Rules for your further understanding of them, take these four.

Rule 1. That God is the only Author of the Types. They belong to the second Commandment, as matters of Institution. Therefore Calvin, excellently and judiciously harmonising the Books of Moses, referreth the Ceremonial Laws to the second Com­mandment.

There is something of Christ stamped and ingraven upon them by Divine Institution: They are not meer natural or arbitrary similitudes; but they were instituted and set apart by God for that end, Heb. 9.8. The Holy Ghost this signifying — &c.

[Page 68]Hence that Sacramental phrase and manner of expression, That Rock was Christ, 1 Cor. 10.4. like that in Exod. 12. The Lamb is the Passover.

As the Church under the New Testament hath not power to make Sacraments to themselves: so they of old could not make Types — Act. 7.43. The Types which you made to worship them, [...]. Amos 5.26. Images which you made to your selves — contra ver. 44 of Act. 7. — the Tabernacle which Moses made, as he had appointed.

And it seems, by the sacred History, that they had something of the notion of a Type, in their heads in that Invention. For they say, Make us Gods that may go before us; and they proclaim an Holy day to Jehovah; therefore they intended the Calf to be an outward and visible Sign to them of his Presence.

Here ariseth a Question. How may we know when a thing is a Type, and that the Lord did ordain and design it to that end and use?

The Answer is. We cannot safely judg of this but by the Scripture.

1. When there is either express Scripture for it. As Adam here in the Text is called a Type of him that was to come: So the whole Ce­remonial Law is said to have a Shadow of the good things to come under the Gospel, Heb. 10.1. The Buildings and holy places of the earthly Temple are said to be Figures of the true, even of Heaven it self, Heb. 9.24. The Land of Canaan, the Country that Abraham, and the Fathers sought for, it is said, they desire a better Country, that is, an heavenly, Heb. 11.16.

2. When there is a permutation of Names between the Type and the Antitype, this is a clear Indication of the Mind of God. As for instance, Christ is called David, Ezek. 34.23. and 37.24. Hos. 3.5. this shews that David was a Type of him, and Christ was the true David.

So Christ is called Adam, the second Adam, 1 Cor. 15.45.

So he is called Israel, Isai. 49.3.

He is called that Lamb of God which taketh away the Sins of the World. Joh. 1.29. and our Passover that is sacrificed for us, 1 Cor. 5.7. this shews that the Paschal Lamb was a Type of him.

He is called the Bread of Life, and the true Bread from Heaven, [Page 69] Joh. 6.32, 35. this shews, that the Manna did relate to him.

So the Church of the New Testament is called Jerusalem, Gal. 4.26. but Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the Mother of us all — Rev. 21.2. I saw the new Jerusalem coming down from God out of Heaven. We may hence conclude that Jerusalem was a Type of the Church.

So it is said, that the Odours or Incense are the Prayers of the Saints. Rev. 5.8. Incense therefore was a Type of Prayer.

The Gospel-Church is called Israel, Gal. 6.16. Peace be on them and Mercy, and upon the Israel of God. Therefore that People were a Type of the Church of God under the New Testament.

Gospel-Ministers are called the Sons of Levi, Mal. 3.3. the Prophet there speaking of the coming of Christ, he saith, He shall purifie the Sons of Levi, that is, raise up a purer Ministry.

There is nothing more frequent in the Scripture, than for the Antitype to be called by the name of the Type, and sometimes on the other side, the Type bears the Names and Titles belonging in­deed and more properly to the Antitype:

So Moses is called a Mediator, Gal. 3.19.

So when a Sheep or a Goat is called a Sacrifice, and said to make attonement, or to expiate Sin: there the Work of the Antitype is ascribed unto the Type For those things could not take away sins, Heb. 10.4. it is not possible, that the Blood of Bulls and Goats should take away sins: they were but a shadow of a Sacrifice of Christ the true Sacrifice.

3. When by comparing several Scriptures together, there doth appear an evident and manifest analogy and parallel between things under the Law, and things under the Gospel, we may con­clude, that such legal Dispensations were intended as Types of those Gospel Mysteries whose Image they bear. In such a case, Res ipsa loquitur. For the Type must be made like the Antitype, as the Apostle speaks of that illustrious Type Melchisedec, Hebr. 7.3. he was made like unto the Son of God.

As the Deliverance out of Egypt and Babylon, if we read the History thereof in the Old Testament, and compare it with the Prophesies in the New Testament, concerning the Churches Deli­verance [Page 70] from Antichristian Bondage, we shall clearly see, that it was a Type thereof; there is such a resemblance, the one answers the other so remarkably.

Hence Divines generally make Sampson a Type of Christ, there is such a fair and full Analogy in sundry particulars of his Life and Death between him and Christ: So likewise Joseph is generally lookt upon as a Type of Christ; though there be no Scripture that doth expresly call him so: but if the History of Joseph in Genesis be compared with the History of Jesus Christ in the four Evange­lists, the Analogy will be very clear and evident.

The Old Testament and the New should be compared toge­ther. The Protasis or Proposition of these sacred similitudes is in the Books of Moses, and in the Old Testament; but the Apodosis, the Reddition or Application is to be found chiefly in the New.

Sometimes the Types are not so explicitly taught, but implyed; and then a thing may be known to be a Type by diligent observ­ing and comparing the Phrase of the Prophets in the Old Testa­ment, and of the Apostles in the New.

Men must not indulge their own Fancies, as the Popish Writers use to do, with their Allegorical Senses, as they call them, ex­cept we have some Scripture ground for it. It is not safe to make any thing a Type meerly upon our own fansies and imaginati­ons; it is Gods Prerogative to make Types. And so much for that first Rule.

Rule 2. The Types were not only Signs, but Seals; not only Signs to represent Gospel Mysteries unto them; but also Seals to assure them of the certain and infallible exhibition thereof in Gods appointed time.

As we say of our Sacraments; Sacramentum est verbum visibile, the Sacrament is a visible Promise, and holds forth the Covenant of Grace to the Eye and other Senses, as the Word to the Ear: so it was with the Types of old. The Types were visible Promises, and not only Signs, but Pledges and Assurances of the good they represented. They did represent those great Mysteries not only by way of resemblance to the understandings, but by way of as­surance to the Faith of Gods People.

[Page 71]Reasons to prove this, that the Types were Seals.

1. The Apostle saith it expresly concerning Circumcision, Rom. 4.11. he received the Sign of Circumcision, a Seal of the Righteous­ness of Faith, And there is a parity of Reason in this respect be­tween Circumcision and other Types.

2. If they were Signs that did certainly foresignifie they were Seals. But the Types were Signs that did certainly foresignifie; therefore they were more than Signs, even Seals also: They did not shew what a one the Messiah might happen to be; but what a one he should certainly be: they were so many Divine Testi­monies to the coming of Christ.

3. If they were not Seals and Pledges to assure, it will fol­low, that it would have been no disappointment to Gods Peo­ple, and no reflection at all upon his Truth and Faithful­ness, if the Messiah had been quite another manner of Person than the Types held forth. But to admit such a supposition, to suppose that the Messiah might have been quite another man­ner of Person, than the Types hold forth, is to take away the Analogy between the Type and the Antitype; and so by conse­quence to deny that they were Types; or else to make them all Lyes and false Images. Therefore if it be but granted, that they were true Signs, it follows even from thence, that they were Seals, or sure and certain Pledges of Christ, and Gospel-Mysteries in him. See Calvin in 1 Cor. 10.3, 11. Beza in Col. 2.17. Erant enim vera & pro ratione ac modo Sacramentorum efficacia [...] ac etiam [...]. They were both Signs and Seals, and true and efficacious Signs and Seals, after that manner of efficacy that is in Sacraments.

Rule 3. The Types relate not only to the Person of Christ; but to his Benefits, and to all Gospel Truths and Mysteries, even to all New-Testament-Dispensations.

I mention this the rather, because I have observed that it doth much darken the thoughts of many, that they study to accommo­date every Type directly to the Person of Christ; because we com­monly call them Types of Christ. But that expression is not meant of his Person exclusively to his Benefits; but of both together, [Page 72] Christ and the good things of Christ: the Types shadowed forth Christ and all the good that comes by him. So the Apostle, Heb. 10.1. they are a shodow of good things, to come; he doth not limit or re­strain them to the Messiahs person only. As the Cherubims were Types, not directly of Christ, but of the Angels that stand before the Lord and minister to him, and to his People.

Hence before the Gospel, there were no Gospel Types; before the first Promulgation of it, Genes. 3. there could be no Types of Gospel Blessings: There were some things extant before, which were made Types afterwards; but they had not that Schesis, that habitude and relation to Christ and the Gospel, till there was a Gospel, or a Promise of Life by Christ, that blessed Seed.

Yea as they had Types of Christs Person, and of his spiritual and saving Benefits: so they had Types even of all New-Testa­ment Dispensations.

Our very Sacraments were shadowed forth by theirs.

As Baptism by Circumcision, and by their passing thorough the Red Sea; and the Lords Supper by their Passover.

Yea they had Types not only of the Blessings and Benefits of Christ, but of our Miseries without him.

As they had their Ceremonial Uncleannesses; as the Leprosie, for instance, was a Type; Of what? Neither of Christ, nor of his Benefits; but of our natural Pollution.

So they had a Type of the Covenant of Works, viz. Hagar and Ishmael.

They had a Type of the Church of Rome, viz. Babylon: So Antiochus may pass for a Type of Antichrist. Doeg and Achito­phel of Judas. Pharaoh for a Type of the Devil. Sodom and Gomorrah for a Type of Hell.

For as the Types look chiefly and principally at Christ and his Benefits, in the clear and full Exhibition and Communication of them under the Gospel: so they represent other things also, though not by way of Primacy and principal intention; but by way of concomitancy and illustration of the Principal.

Therefore these Types of New-Testament-evils, it will not be necessary always to handle them by themselves: For the most [Page 73] of them will come in better under the several Types or Shadows of good things, the further illustration whereof by the contrary was the thing chiefly aimed at in them.

Rule 4. As there is a Similitude, a Resemblance and Analogy between the Type and the Antitype in some things: so there is ever a dissimilitude and a disparity between them in other things. It is so in all similitudes.

It is a Rule in Reason. There is a mixture of Consentaneity and Dissentaneity; or else instead of Similitude, there would be Identity.

So here in these sacred Similies, it is not to be expected that the Type and the Antitype should quadrare per omnia, that they should agree in all things.

Therefore the Apostle, though he makes Adam a Type of Christ, whom he calls the second Adam; yet he shews the disparity also, and that the second Adam did infinitely transcend and excel the first, 1 Cor. 15.47. the first man is of the Earth earthly, the second man is the Lord from Heaven.

So the Priests of old, they were Types of Christ; but Christ did infinitely excel them, and his Priesthood was infinitely more glori­ous, as the Apostle disputes at large in the 7, 8, 9, and 10. of the Hebrews, see particularly chap. 7. v. 23, 24, 27.

There is more in the Antitype, than in the Type. Hom. 61. in Genes. Opor­tet figuram minus habere quam veritatem, Chrysost. For such is the Glory and Excellency of Christ the Antitype, that no Type could reach it.

Hence that Distinction of Types partial, and Types total, must be understood with some limitation thus; That some things or persons were only Types of Christ in some one particular thing, others in many things: but there never was any that did, or could possibly resemble him perfectly in all things.

So Jonas is called a partial Type, because he shadowed forth the Messiah in that one thing, his abiding two or three days in the Grave, and then rising again.

David, some call him a total Type, in regard that the whole Histo­ry of his Life hath so great a shadow and representaton of Christ the true David.

[Page 74]But yet, if we speak rigidly and properly, David himself was but a partial Type. For he was only a Prophet and a King; he was not a Priest; but Christ was both Prophet, Priest and King.

Moses indeed was both a Prophet, a Priest, and a King; but his Priesthood continued only till Aaron was consecrated, then Moses laid it down.

And Moses did mediate between God and the People as a Pro­phet, to interpret the Mind of God to them; and as a King or a Judg to govern them, and as an Intercessor to pray for them; but not by giving himself a Sacrifice unto death for expiation of their sins: He was a Mediator ob interpretandi & docendi officium; but not ob satisfaciendi beneficium, as some express it.

Therefore Moses himself was but a partial Type, a Type only ratione rei in regard of Redemption and Deliverance; but not ra­tione modi; he did not do it by shedding his Blood, and laying down his Life as Christ did.

Hence we must take heed of straining the Types too far, to make them agree in that wherein indeed there is a disparity or disagreement: If the Type go with us one mile, or rather with the Antitype one mile, we must not constrain it to go twain.

3. The third thing propounded to be spoken to, was the Dif­ferences and Agreements between a Type and other things of like nature: that so we may distinguish and discern the things that differ.

I shall instance here only in four things that are partly of the same nature with the Types, but yet not exactly the same.

1. The difference between a Type and a Simile.

A Type doth belong indeed to that Argument or Notion in Logick; but with this difference, this distinction will shew you the difference between them; that there is Typus arbitrarius and Typus fixus & institutus.

An arbitrary Type is a similitude or comparison.

So Marriage is a similitude or comparison, by which the A­postle sets out the mystical union between Christ and the Church, Ephes. 5.

But yet Marriage is not a Type. For then we shall make it a [Page 75] Sacrament, as the Papists do: you know it was instituted for ano­ther end before the Gospel came into the world: It is a Sign, but not a Sacrament. For by that Argument we should have a thou­sand Sacraments.

So Riders on white Horses are resemblances used in Scripture to set out Christ and the Angels; but yet not properly Types of them: And the reason is this, because they were never instituted and designed by God for that end, to represent Christ and the Gospel; they are only occasionally made use of.

There is a wide difference between the occasional use of a thing in the way of a similitude or comparison, and the Design­ment or Institution of it for that end and use.

As if Christ be compared to a Feast of Bread and Wine, as in the Parable of the Marriage-Supper. This is a very true and fit comparison: but for Bread and Wine to be designed and set a­part by the Command of God to represent Christ and his Bene­fits, this is a thing of an higher nature, and puts them into a Sa­cramental nature and relation to him.

2. The difference between a Type and a Parable.

A Parable is nothing else but a sacred Similitude: We com­monly take it as the Scripture doth, for such a similitude wherein not only the Truth and Mind of God is the scope and matter of it; but whereof God himself is the Author. As in the four Evangelists we read of the Parables of Christ. To call them Fa­bles, as Grotius doth, haec Fabula indicat, &c. is a slight and an irreverent expression.

A Parable there is the same with a Similitude, only hath God himself for its Author. But in a Type the Lord doth not only occasionally use such or such a simile; but sets such a thing apart, sets a stamp of Institution upon it, and so makes it an Ordinance to hold forth Christ and his Benefits.

3. What is the difference between a Type and a Ceremony? This is only that which is between the Genus and Species. For all the Ceremonies were Types; but all Types were not Cere­monies: The Pillar of Cloud and Fire was a Type, but not a Ceremony.

[Page 76]A Ceremony was some Law, or external Observation prescrib­ed unto them, to teach and shadow forth some Gospel-Mystery: so that a Type is more general, a Ceremony is one particular kind of Types.

4. What is the difference between a Type and a Sacrament? I answer, they differed in the number and multitude of them, they had many Types, we have but two Sacraments. But there was no difference in the nature of them, further than this, that our Sa­craments are Signs of Christ already come; but their Types were Signs of Christ that was for to come: our Sacraments are Signs Christi exhibiti; their Types Christi exhibendi.

4. As to the Words and Phrases by which it is expressed.

First, we have this very word Type used in the Scripture, not only in its native and proper Sgnification, Joh. 20.25. [...] the print of the Nails: But it is used also in this borrowed and spiritual sense whereof we are treating, in the Text, and 1 Cor. 10.6. these were Types for us. [...] and 1 Cor. 10.11. all these things happened unto them in Types.

So the word [...] answers the Hebrew [...] exemplar figura forma â [...] aedificavit.

They are called Shadows [...]. Col. 2.17. a Shadow of things to come. Heb. 8.5. which serve unto the example and shadow of hea­venly things, Heb. 10.1. a Shadow of good things to come.

They are called Figures or Patterns, [...] Hebr. 8.5. [...], the Example and Shadow, Heb. 9.23. Pat­terns.

They are called Signs [...], Mat. 12.39. the Sign of the Pro­phet Jonas; so is Circumcision, Rom. 4.11. the Sign of Circumcision.

Figures, or to render it more emphatically, parabolical Figures; [...], Heb. 9.9. a parabolical Figure for the time.

This answers to the Hebrew word [...].

And some so understand, Heb. 11.19. from whence also he re­ceived him in a Figure.

They are called Allegories, Galat. 4.24. which things are an Allegory.

[Page 77]They are called Seals, [...], Rom. 4.11. the Seal of the Righteousness of Faith.

Also the Law, 2 Cor. 3.6. the Letter, that is, the Law killeth, but the Spirit, that is, the Gospel quickeneth.

And the Letter, 2 Cor. 3.6. the Letter, that is, the Law killeth, but the Spirit, that is, the Gospel quickeneth.

The Antitipe, or the thing typed and figured, is called in Scri­pture sometimes by this name, the Antitype, 1 Pet. 3.21. the An­titype whereunto even Baptism doth also now save us.

The Type being called a Shadow: the Antitype is called the Bo­dy, Col. 2.17. the Body is of Christ.

The Types are called [...], the Antytype [...], Heb. 10.1. the very Image of the things themselves.

Future good things, Heb. 10.1. a Shadow of good things to come.

Heavenly things, Heb. 9.23. Patterns of things in the Heavens.

True, Heb. 9.24. which are the Figures of the true. Joh. 1.17. the Law was given by Moses: But Grace and Truth came by Jesus Christ.

Lastly, they are called Spirit, and spiritual things, 2 Cor. 3.6. the Letter killeth; but the Spirit giveth life. Revel. 11.8. In the street of the great City, which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt.

There is literal and spiritual Egypt.

Ʋse. We may receive encouragement from all that hath been said, to look into the Types, and to study this Subject. For that they do adumbrate and shadow forth Jesus Christ, and Gospel-Truths and Mysteries exhibited and revealed by him.

It is not good to despise any part of Scripture knowledg, much less such parts as stand in such a direct relation to Jesus Christ. Though there is something of difficulty through our own dark­ness and weakness; yet the fruit will countervail the pains and labour; though they be difficult, yet they are useful to be known.

I have been desired by my Brethren of the Ministry to speak unto them, and I hope to receive assistance from God through your Prayers: and I do much desire the help of your Prayers, that you would re­member me to the Lord, that he would carry me through this work, that he would enlighten and enable me by his Spirit, to speak unto them with clear light; and not only so as may be clear and convincing [Page 78] to my own Conscience and Judgment; but with such evidence of light, as may be satisfying and illuminating to yours also, even in the evi­dence and demonstration of his Spirit.

Some have not unfitly called the Ceremonial Law one of the richest Cabinets of Divinity, full of inestimable Jewels. But many things in their Religion will seem strange, and uncouth, and use­less, if we consider them without their scope and meaning.

All the Ceremonial Law, if a man knows not the meaning of it, looks like an heap of unprofitable Burthens. The Temple appears but like a Shambles, or Butchers Slaughter house; and the Priesthood a vain & useless Occupation: but consider them in their sense and meaning and every thing is full of Light and Glory.

A great part of the Scripture, especially the old Testament, Exodus and Leviticus and other places will be like a Sealed Book unto you, if you have not some insight into the Types. But if the Lord give you a little insight into them, you will read the Old Testament with more profit and spiritual understanding. For the Prophets do comment upon them; yea so do the Apostles also: and indeed the whole New Testament is a large and full Exposition of the Types.

If you ask, how may we so search and look into them, as to un­derstand them, and profit by them?

Take but three Rules for this, and I conclude.

Rule 1. Search the Scriptures, Joh. 5.39. for they are they which testifie of me (saith Christ): the Scripture is the best Inter­preter of it self. We cannot judg of these legal Shadows but by Scripture-light. If either express words, or change of Names, or a clear analogy and proportion do appear; these are Intima­tions of the Mind of God, that such things are Types. Go no further than we see the Scripture going before us.

Rule 2. Study the Covenant of Grace. Faedus gratiae clavis totius Scripturae. Look diligently into the Gospel, get a clear and spiritual insight and understanding into that; this is the best help to the understanding of the Types. For he that well understands the Antitype, will more easily and readily discern the analogy, and see the resemblance it hath with the Type.

[Page 79] Rule 3. As you find the Lord letting in any thing of further light into your minds, be sure you act Faith, and exercise Grace with renewed vigour upon those Truths and Mysteries, as you find any Beams of further Light coming in concerning them.

If a man have all Knowledg, and understood all Mysteries, and hath not Fath and Love, what is he the better for his Light? 1 Cor. 13.12.

When you see things more clearly and fully, you should en­deavour to believe more strongly, and to grow in Grace, as you grow in Light.

Quest. Why the Lord spake so much in this way by Types and Shadows?

Answ. Something may be gathered as to this, out of what was formerly spoken in general concerning the Reasons of the Lords using so great variety of Dispensation, from that Text, Heb. 1.1. therefore I shall but touch upon some few things now, and that very briefly.

R. 1. There is a general suitableness in such a way of speaking unto mans Nature, as a sensitive Creature, consisting of a Body as well as a Soul.

Hence in all times and ages, even before Sin entred, the Lord gave unto mankind some outward and sensible things to be Signs and Representations of spiritual things: Hence were these two Sa­cramental Trees, the Tree of Life, and the Tree of Knowledg of good and evil.

And now much more since the Fall; Man being fallen much lower, hath greater need of such Instructions.

Man is not only a sensitive, but a sense loving Creature.

R. 2. It was particularly suitable to that Infant age and state of the Church: it was suitable to their Nonage, to be taught by such visible and carnal things.

The whole way of Gods Dispensations,See Galv. In­stit. l. 2. c. 11. s. 1, 11. both Gods Blessings and Judgments were much more external and sensible than they are now.

[Page 80]Children must have their A. B. C. weak and rudimental In­structions. These are called Elements, or Rudiments, yea weak and beggarly Rudiments [...]. Gal. 4.9.

Tota legis Oeconomia veluti rudis quaedam erat disciplina rudibus conveniens. Beza in Gal. 4.3. Like a Horn-book to a Child.

R. 3. That they to whom it was not given might not under­stand.

R. 4. That his People might soe and understand the better.

These two Reasons are assigned by Christ himself for his own teaching so much by Parables; and there is some affinity between a Type and a Parable, as you heard the last time, Matth. 13.11, 13. why speakest thou to them in Parables?

Because it is given to you to know the Mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, and — because they seeing see not, &c. Similitudes not understood are Riddles and clouds of Darkness upon the un­derstanding; But if once interpreted and understood, they are like bright Candles, they give a clear light. Comparata etiam ficta arguunt, fidemque faciunt.

It is not a true and sound Rule, that of the Schoolmen, Theo­logia symbolica non est argumentativa.

What! shall we say, that all the Parables of our Saviour did argue nothing? when indeed they did not only argue, but de­monstrate; and that so, as did convince and cut the hearts some­times of his greatest enemies and opposers.

Was not Nathans Parable argumentative, yea demonstrative and convicting unto David?

Their Rule may be true concerning their own allegorical Sen­ses, and mystical Froth, which may be found in their Interpre­tations: but concerning Scripture-Types it is most false.

You have seen the Nature of a Type, what it is, and some short hints of reasons of the Lords speaking this way: we shall now enter into particulars, and go through the Types, and open to you (as the Lord shall enable) something of the Gospel-Truths and Mysteries adumbrated and shadowed forth by them; de­pending upon the help and assistance of him, of whom we are to speak.

[Page 81]Now the first and most general Distribution of them is into Types personal and Types real, holy persons and holy things. The terms of which distinction are so plain, that it needs no further ex­plication; therefore we shall not make any tarrying here: you know the difference between persons and things.

Personal Types are such as Adam, Noah, David, and others.

Real Types are the Temple, the Ark, the Manna, the Sacrifices, and such like, whereof hereafter.

We shall begin with the personal Types: and they may be sub­divided into two sorts.

  • 1. Individual Persons.
  • 2. Typical Ranks and Orders of Persons, which we may call Religious Orders; such as the Priests, the Nazarites, &c.

1. Typical individual Persons. Concerning these there be some previous Rules, that may be of some use, and give some ge­neral Light for your better understanding of them.

1. They were all godly men. No wicked man, individually considered, ever was, or could be a Type of Christ. How could Limbs of the Devil, men in whom Satan dwelt, be Pictures as it were and Looking-glasses, in which to see the Shadow of the most high God, who is Holiness it self.

A man personally wicked may be involved with others in a religious Order. For the Order is holy, though the man be wicked; But if single persons be Types, they must needs be ho­ly men.

2. Whereas these holy men had their failings; They were not Types of Christ in regard of their sinful failings; but only in their Graces and Excellencies. For Sin cannot be a Type of Holiness: Therein they were not like; but unlike to Jesus Christ the An­titype.

3. When Typical persons had real Types belonging to them (as oftentimes they had) we shall speak to both together, at least where they cannot be better and more conveniently referred to some other place.

As for instance, Noahs Ark was a Type, as well as he himself. Therefore we shall speak to that, when we speak of Noah, as be­ing [Page 82] a Circumstance, and a part of his History, which was though a true and real, yet withal a typical History.

4. These typical persons, the highest and most eminent of them, were but partial Types: Therefore together with the Ana­logy between them and the Antitype, we shall sometimes, where we see it needful, note also the disparity and disproportion that was between them. That you may see how far the Shadows fell short of the Substance, and how the Antitype excels the Type.

And we shall not mention all, but only some of the chief and most illustrious.

And because there be divers of them, we shall rank them, for method and memories sake, into two Classes.

  • 1. The personal Types that were before the Law.
  • 2. Under the Law.

1. Before the Law. Here I shall instance only in eight Persons, namely, Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph.

1. Adam. He was the first Type of Christ in the world.

That he was a Type of Christ is clear from express Scriptures.

The Text, Rom 5.14. Who is the Type of him that was to come, and 1 Cor. 15.45. The first man Adam was made a living Soul, the last Adam was made a quickening Spirit.

Now to shew you the Analogy, wherein Adam did resemble and represent the Lord Jesus Christ.

It was chiefly in this. In regard of his Headship and Influence, Adam and Christ both stood instead of all that belonged to them. Adam was the Head of the first Covenant, Jesus Christ is the Head of the second Covenant.

Adam was the Covenant-root and Head of all Mankind, a pub­lick and common person, representing them; yea an undertaker for them.

What they say vainly of the Pope, that he is the Church-Re­presentative, may be truly said of Adam; He was the Represen­tative of the whole World, as a Parliament-man acting in the name of the Town or Country that chose him: He sinning, we sinned in him; he being condemned, we are condemned in him:

[Page 83]So Christ is the Head of the second Covenant, and of his E­lect, who are involved and wrapt up therein: He hath underta­ken for them, and presented them to the Father, Ephes. 2.16. in one body: Therefore when he died we died with him; when Christ was crucified, our Sins were nailed to his Cross, and cruci­fied and buried as it were in his Grave. If he arise, we rise with him, to die no more. His Influence is to all his Seed. For both Adams have a Seed. As Adam: so Christ. Isai. 53.10. He shall see his Seed— He communicates to them what he hath: so doth Christ what he hath.

Adam conveys and communicates Sin and Death: But Christ Righteousness and Life.

Adam brought in these two great Intruders and Usurpers, Sin and Death, into the world.

And as Adam conveys Sin to those that had not sinned actu­ally: so doth Christ convey Righteousness to those that had not wrought Righteousness. As in the Text, Rom. 5.14. with Rom. 9.30, 31. The Gentiles, which followed not after Righteousness, have attained to Righteousness.

As soon as there is an Union between Soul and Body, Adams Sin is imputed to his Seed: so as soon as there is a mystical Union between Christ and the Soul by the Spirit of Faith, so soon is Christs Righteousness imputed.

There be some other Considerations may be added unto these.

2. The Apostle seems to make his Dominion over the Crea­tures a shadow of Christs Dominion and Kingdom, Gen. 2.19, 20. Psal. 8.6. compar'd with Heb. 2.6, 7, 8, 9.

3. His Relation to Eve. She was taken out of his Side while Adam was asleep, and afterwards married to him, Gen. 2.21. so the Church is taken out of Christs Side, while he was in the sleep of Death, and joyned to him as his Spouse by the Covenant of Grace, 2 Cor. 11.2. I have espoused you to one Husband, that I may present you as a chast Virgin to Christ. Ephes. 5.30, [...]1. We are Mem­bers of his Body, of his Flesh, and of his Bones— While Christ dies, his Church receives Life, and she which lives only by him, her hath he espoused to himself in Truth, Mercy and Righteousness, Hos. 2.

[Page 84]The Church is both Effectum & Objectum Redemptionis, the Effect and the Object of Redemption.

The Effect. He died to purchase to himself a Church, a pecu­liar people, Tit. 2.14.

The Object. He gave himself for the Church, Ephes. 5.25.

But yet it follows not, that Marriage is a Sacrament, though Adams Marriage had such a sacramental or typical notion put upon it, he being the common Root of all mankind: But this will not suffice to make Marriage a Sacrament, no more than the annexing a typical use to the Jewish Sabbath, viz. to commemo­rate their Deliverance out of Egypt, will make the fourth Com­mandment ceremonial.

And as Adam was a Type of Christ: so we may carry the parallel a little further.

So Eve may be considered as a Type of the Church. For the Godly are called her Seed, I will put enmity between thy Seed, that is, the Serpents, and her Seed. Gen. 3.15. and Adam calls her the Mother of all living, Gen. 3.20. So Jerusalem which is above, that is, the Church, is the Mother of us all, Gal. 4.26.

4. And lastly, as Adam was a Type himself; so he had seve­ral Types belonging to him.

There were divers real Types belonging to the History of this personal Type.

As Paradise a Type of Heaven. For Heaven is often called by that name, 2 Cor. 12. that which in ver. 2. is called the third Hea­ven, is called in ver. 4. Paradise; so Luk. 23.43. this day shalt thou be with me in Paradise.

Paradise was a Garden of Pleasure. Eden from whence the Greek word [...] Pleasure: and the Heathenish Poems of the Gardens of Adonis: But at thy right hand in Heaven are Pleasures for evermore, Psal. 16.11.

So likewise the Tree of Life in Paradise was a Type of Christ, though it was created upon the third day of the Week; and be­fore the Gospel it could not be a Type of Christ; yet after the Fall, and after the preaching of the Gospel, Gen. 3. it might be designed and ordained to this use.

[Page 85]As God provided Physical Herbs for Man before he fell, or needed them as to that use of Physick: so this Tree of Life be­fore Sin, or the Gospel was known; It seems to be so spoken of Revel. 2.7. and 22.2. The Tree of Life in the midst of Paradise. Christ in the midst of the Church.

Mans Ejection out of Paradise, a Type of his deserved Exclu­sion out of Heaven.

And the Cherubims with flaming Swords, Gen. 3. ult. an out­ward and visible shadow of the Wrath of God; and of the An­gels of God as Executioners of it on Man, who were created to be Ministers to his good, and are so again through Grace: But, as in our natural condition, they are the Lords Hosts to fight a­gainst us.

But there is [...] a much more put upon Christ. His saving Virtue far exceeds that cursed influence of Adam, in sun­dry particulars, amply opened by the Apostle from ver. 12. to the end of the Chapter.

1. The disparity is very great both in their Persons. The first Adam is of the earth earthly; his Name is but Adam, Earth, or Red earth; but the second Adam is the Lord from Heaven, 2 Cor. 15.47

2. In their Headship and Undertaking, the one of a Cove­nant of Works; the other of a better Covenant of Grace.

3. In the Success of their Undertakings. The one failed; the other kept the Covenant; the first Adam was tempted by Satan, and conquered by him; but Christ was tempted, but overcame the Tempter.

4. In their Influences. The first Adam was made a living Soul; the second a quickening Spirit, 1 Cor. 15.45. The one conveys all evil, Sin and Death to his Seed: the other communicates all good, Righteousness and Life to his. There is Righteousness oppo­sed to Sin, and Life to Death, and with a much more, Rom. 5.15, 16, 17, 18. Not as the Offence, so is the free Gift. At the great Day, when Adam shall see his Seed lost and undone, he must own it. I have embrued my hands in the Blood of all these: But Christ shall say, here am I, and the Children which God hath given me, and not one of them is lost.

[Page 86]2. Enoch, the seventh from Adam.

It is true, he is not so expresly mentioned in Scripture for a Type of Christ, as Adam is; but yet by comparing the Scriptures we may discern a clear analogy between Christ and him; how he was made like unto the Son of God in sundry things.

1. He was a most illustrious Type of Christs Ascension into Heaven, and indeed the only Type they had of it before the Law. They had but two in all; Elijah under the Law, and E­noch before the Law: Therefore we cannot well omit him. Gen. 5.24. Enoch walked with God, and he was not: for God took him; and Heb. 11.5. he was translated, that he should not see Death, and was not found, because God had translated him. Some look upon this as a pledg of their Translation that shall be found alive at Christs second coming; of whom the Apostle saith, they shall be changed, or translated, 1 Thess. 4. But it looks first and chiefly at Christ himself, at his Ascension. This I mention first, as being the chief particular: but a further analogy may observed in sun­dry other particulars also; as,

2. There was in Enoch some shadow of Christs Prophetical Office; we read of Enochs Prophesie, Jude 14, 15.

But Christ is the true Prophet, who hath unsealed the whole Book of Gods Counsels, that Liber fatidicus, Rev. 5. he hath o­pened it so far as is fit and needful for his Church to know.

And as Enoch prophesied of the Day of Judgment: so hath Christ very fully and frequently.

3. We may set him among the Types of Christ for his unpa­rallell'd Holiness in the age wherein he lived, which was a corrupt and evil time, all Flesh began to corrupt their way, Gen. 5.22, 24. Enoch walked with God; it is twice repeated, as worthy of special remark: so Christ fulfilled all Righteousness, Matth. 3.15.

4. His pleasing God. For so it is testified of him, Heb. 11.5. so Christ, Matth. 3.17. this is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased — Joh. 8.29. I do always those things that please him. He is pleased so well with him, that he is well pleased with Sinners for his sake, even for his Righteousness sake.

5. His very Name Enoch hath something in it, dedicated unto [Page 87] God. [...] consecratus, from [...] dedicavit, consecravit. From whence some derive the Greek [...] Initio, and [...], the Feast of Dedication, Joh. 10.22.

So was Christ, Luk. 1.35. that holy thing— my Servant whom I have chosen Isai. 42.1. and 49.5. formed me from the Womb to be his Servant.

6. Some have added, in regard of the continuance of his Life. Henochs days were as the days of the Sun. For he lived three hundred sixty five years, Gen. 5.24. as many years as there be days in the year.

And of Christ it is is said, his Throne shall continue for ever, as the Sun before me, Psal. 89.36.

3. The third typical person that we mentioned is Noah. He is made a Type, 1 Pet. 3.20, 21. in regard of his preaching and sav­ing those that believed him in the Ark.

So Christ hath published the Gospel, Matth. 11.27. no man knoweth the Father, but the Son, and he to whom the Son revealeth him — He came and preached Peace, Ephes. 2.17. 1 Pet. 3.19. Christ preached in Noah: he saves them that believe his Doctrine; he saves them in the Ark of his Church, by the Covenant and Water of Baptism.

4. Melchizedek was also a Type of Christ; and most especially in regard of the excellency and eternity of his Person, Priesthood and Kingdom. Psal. 110 4. The Lord hath sworn, and will not re­pent, thou art a Priest for ever after the Order of Melchizedek, with Heb. 7.2, 3, 4. made like unto the Son of God. But there is not time to insist upon these, nor to proceed to the rest of the Types.

I shall therefore for the present conclude with something of Use and practical Improvement; and shall raise the Uses not so much from the Doctrine in general; but rather from that which hath been spoken upon it at this time.

Ʋse 1. Learn and know something more of Jesus Christ by what you have heard; or, if you knew it before, let it be more deeply imprinted upon your hearts.

Let us sum up all together: for they are all but partial Types, and weak and imperfect Shadows of the Messiah: but all put to­gether [Page 88] will give the greater lustre; like the Galaxia, which is said to be a multitude of little Stars.

Adam was a Type of Christ in regard of his Headship and In­fluence; Enoch a Type of his Ascension into Heaven; Noah of his Preaching and saving the Church by the Covenant and Wa­ter of Baptism; Melchizedek was a Shadow of the Excellency and Eternity of his Person, and of his Priesthood and Kingdom. Know these things, meditate and consider them more throughly, and improve Christ in these Discoveries for your spiritual good. Consider him as a common person standing in our stead, as a Pro­phet, Priest and King; as ascended into Heaven, as the Saviour of the Church, which is his Body.

Use 2. Be exhorted to examine your selves, and try which of the two Adams you are under. For there are but two Men in the World, the first and second Adam; thou art a Member of one of them. Adam and Christ divide the whole World.

Quest. How may we know whether we be under the first or the second Adam?

Answ. Take these Tryals.

1. What Birth hast thou? only the natural, or spiritual Gene­ration? Art thou only born, or new born? For they that come only from Adam by natural Generation, belong to him as the first Adam: They that come of Christ by spiritual Regeneration are the Seed of Christ, and belong to him as the second Adam.

What Experience hast thou had of this great work? Nicodemus, though a Doctor in Israel, understood little of it.

2. What Covenant doth thy Soul cleave to, and act under the rule and influence of? Works or Grace?

Works is the first Adams Covenant: but Grace is the Covenant of the second Adam.

To go forth in a mans own Strength, to expect acceptance in his own Worth, this is a first Covenant Spirit; a sign thou grow­est upon the old Stock, upon the root of old Adam: But to live in a continual dependance upon free Grace for every thing, the free Grace of God in Christ: this is the Spirit of the second Co­venant, and becomes the Sons and Branches of the second Adam.

[Page 89]Though a godly man may for a fit turn aside to the old Co­venant, as Abraham did to Hagar; yet it is not his way, it is not his Spirit to do so; and thence he is never at rest, till he return to have his dependance and rest on Christ again: The Spirit of one under the Covenant of Grace is, to have no confidence in the Flesh; but to have his rest and rejoycing in Jesus Christ, Phil. 3.3.

3. What Communications, whose Influences dost thou receive? Every Branch receives from its Root, the Stream from its Foun­tain. Dost thou receive the Communications of the first or of the second Adam? this will shew whose thou art, and to whom thou dost belong.

You have heard what it is that each of them doth communi­cate. That old Tree bears no good Fruit at all. Art thou under the power of Sin and Death? or under the power of Righteous­ness and Life? Sin and Death reigns in the posterity of the first Adam: But Righteousness reigns by Grace unto eternal Life, in the posterity of the second Adam, Rom. 5.21 — 2 Cor. 5.17. if any man be in Christ he is a new Creature.

Ʋse 3. Here is Comfort to the Seed of the second Adam against the present troubles they are under. There be chiefly three com­plaints and troubles of Gods People, under all which here is mat­ter of support and relief.

1. Thou art here upon Earth; Christ the Head in Heaven, but his poor Saints and Members here below: But remember whither Jesus the Forerunner is entred for us. As sure as Enochs Body is in Heaven, or Elijahs, by the virtue of his Ascension, of whom they were Shadows: so sure shall thine and mine ascend thither, if we be his, though we sleep in the dust for a time, as Chirst himself also did.

2. But while in this low valley, the floods of great Waters are ready to overwhelm us; the floods of Persecution, Affliction, De­sertions, the overflowing scourges of common calamities, which puts many of Gods people to some cares and fears: But as to this, consider that true Noah; the Lord provides an Ark of safety for his people, that the floods of great Waters may not overwhelm them, Psal. 32.6— see Psal. 124.1-5. If it had not been the Lord [Page 90] who was on our side— if it had not been the Lord who was on our side, when Men rose up against us: then the Waters had overwhelm­ed us, the Stream had gone over our Soul— then the proud Waters had gone over our Soul.

But 3. Thou art a poor unworthy creature, and God is angry, or appears angry; and how can I expect such Salvation from him, who have sinned against him so as I have done? To this, remember what an High Priest you have, even Jesus, who is made an High Priest for ever, after the Order of Melchizedek: Therefore let us come with boldness to the Throne of Grace. It is the Apostles Inference, Heb. 4.15, 16. the Apostle saith of Melchizedek, Heb. 7.4. consider how great this man was. It may be said much more of Christ, consider how great your High Priest is.

How little soever thou art in thy own eyes, how unworthy so­ever; the Greatness and Glory of your Redeemer is enough to remove all discouragement.

Some entrance (Beloved) hath been made into the personal Types. We are upon the individual persons that were Types before the Law, whereof eight were named, Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchize­dek, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, whereof only two have been spoken to, viz. first Adam, secondly Enoch. We shall now proceed to the rest.

3. The third is Noah, whom we did but touch upon the last time, but shall endeavour now to clear it more fully.

The Story of Noah is written in the 6, 7, 8, and 9. Chapters of Genesis. And so famous it was amongst his Posterity, that the Heathen have some broken Remembrances and Traditions of it; they had heard of a Flood, as well as of the Creation of the World. Ovid speaks of them both in his Metamorphosis: And their Bacchus, the very name with a little alteration of the Letters, comes from Noah Noachus, Boachus, and Janus, from the Hebrew Jajin vinum: somewhat they had heard, as it seemeth, about his planting a Vinyard, and making Wine.

That this History of Noah had a typical respect, you may see in 1 Pet. 3.20, 21.

[Page 91]In what respect was he a Type? In two things chiefly.

  • 1. In regard of his Preaching.
  • 2. His saving his Houshold in the Ark.

1. In regard of his Preaching; he was a Preacher of Righte­ousness, 2 Pet. 2.5. he gave warning to the secure World for a hundred and twenty years together, both by his Word and Acti­ons: Every stroke in the building of the Ark had a voice, and was an alarm to the World every day:

So Christ, who did preach by his Spirit in the Ministry of No­ah, 1 Pet. 3.19, 20. And when he came in the Flesh, he did preach, and bring in everlasting Righteousness, Dan. 9.24. And he hath preached by his Word and Spirit in his Apostles and Ministers ever since.

What Noah did one hundred and twenty years, Christ hath been doing these sixteen hundred years.

And as Noah had no great success in his Ministry: so Christ and all the Servants of Christ have cause to complain, who hath believed our Report, Isai. 53.1.

There were but eight persons saved in the Ark, wherein a few, that is, eight Souls were saved by Water, 1 Pet. 3. And of those eight, all were not saved eternally; there was a Cham, and of him the cursed Canaanites: but all the rest of the world perished in the Flood. Doubtless they despised Noah and all his Preaching, and thought him an old doting Fool to go and build a Ship on dry ground, and expect that the Sea should come up thither to set it afloat; they would not believe one word he said: so men account Preaching Foolishness, 1 Cor. 1. Hence those complaints of Christ and his Messengers, Isai. 49.4. I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought, and in vain— In his own personal Ministry and teaching we read not of very many that were con­verted by him.

To the Apostles he gave more success; but yet the converted ones were but a few in comparison of the unconverted, unbe­lieving world.

2. Noah was a Type of Christ in regard of his saving those that did believe his Preaching, from the common Deluge and De­struction.

[Page 92]Hence the Notation of his Name Noah; it signifies Rest: Christ is Rest, and the only Rest of the Soul, Matth. 11.30. Gen. 5.29. He shall comfott us, because of the Curse laid upon the Earth. Not upon the Earth only, (as the blind Papists dream, and there­fore love the Fish better than the Flesh;) but the Earth is put for the whole Creation. The Earth, the Sea, and all the Elemens, and all that is therein: yea the Sun, Moon and Stars are not ex­cluded out of the general Curse and Bondage of the Creatures: the Apostle saith, the whole Creation suffers and groans, Rom. 8.22.

The ancient Dominion over the Creatures was in part restored, when they came together peaceably in the Ark: the first Blessing of Propagation and Dominion had its Charter renewed and con­firmed, Gen. 9.9. Now Noah was an Instrument to remove this Curse in part, to repair the Ruines of the old World, and restore it to a better state: Some he did save out of the common Ru­ines, 1 Pet. 3.20. so doth Christ restore and save lost and fal­len Mankind, 1 Pet. 3.21. by the Resurrection of Christ.

This being a main thing wherein Noah was a Shadow, let us inquire and search into it more fully: For where the Scripture gives us a general hint, that such a thing was a Type, we may safely inquire; yea, we ought to inquire, and search out the par­ticulars wherein the Analogy lies.

Now this, viz. Noahs typical saving the World includes divers things. There were divers real Types belonging to the History of this personal Type. As,

  • 1. Noahs Ark.
  • 2. The Deluge.
  • 3. The Waters thereof.
  • 4. His acceptable Sacrifice.
  • 5. The Lords Covenant with him; and the Rainbow the Sign thereof. All which had their typical Significations. For,
    • 1. Noahs Ark was a Type of the Church.
    • 2. The Deluge of the day of Judgment, and the everlasting Salvation of some, and Destruction of others.
    • 3. The Waters that bare up the Ark typified the Water of Baptism.
    • [Page 93]4. Noahs Sacrifice was a Type of Christs Sacrifice.
    • 5. His Covenant, with the Rainbow the Sign thereof, a Type of the Covenant of Grace.

1. The Ark was a Type of the Church. Some have accommo­dated the Ark as a Type a little otherwise; but this is the clear­est. The Analogy may be made out in many particulars, which some have done with much ingenuity, which because it seems to be solid as well as ingenious, I shall rehearse it to you: I say the Analogy may appear in these ten particulars.

1. Noah builded the Ark according to the Mind of God, and he was in it himself when it was tossed, and floated upon the Wa­ters, Gen. 6.22. according to all that God commanded, so did he. So Christ buildeth the Church in perfect Faithfulness to his Fa­thers Will, Heb. 3.2, 3. He was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his House: and he is in it, in all the Floods and Troubles of his Church and People to the end of the world, Isai. 43.2. when thou passest through the Waters, I will be with thee. Matth. 28.20. Lo, I am with you alway even to the end of the world. The Church is resembled by a Ship: so Isai. 54.11. O thou tossed with Tempests. Here the Church is com­pared to a Ship in a Storm: and there are many things belong­ing to a Ship, resembling somewhat in the Church.

The Pump Repentance.

The Sails Affections.

Wind the Spirit.

The Rudder the Word—

2. The Workmen and Carpenters that built it, they were drowned themselves: so carnal Ministers may be instrumental for good to others, of saving others, and yet not not saved them­selves.

It is a scruple which some Christians are exercised with, the Minister by whom they have received good to their Soules proves an Apostate; hence they question the Work they have found by his Ministry.

Now I confess, that ordinarily God doth not bless the Labours of wicked Ministers; but yet sometimes he doth: as in the build­ing [Page 94] of Solomons Temple, many had to do with it, who were not truly godly: So it is in spiritual building there was a Judas, a De­mas, Matth. 7.22.23. 1 Cor. 9.27. For the efficacy of the Or­dinances does not depend upon Instrument; but upon the Insti­tution and Blessing of God.

3. The Materials of the Ark; Noah takes many trees out of the Woods, cuts them down, compacts them, joyneth them toge­ther; and they must be bowed and fitted and joynted: So Christ in building his Church; they must be cut off the old tree where they grew before, and fitted, and hewed, and humbled, Hos. 6.5. I have hewed them by the Prophets: and then compacted and uni­ted together in the Faith, Love and Order of the Gospel; and so they become a Church of Christ.

4. There was a Door in the Ark, and but one Door, Gen. 6.16. So in the Church Christ is the Door, Joh. 10.7, 9. by whom alone we enter in to the Father, and find Pasture, that is, full sup­plies according to our wants.

5. The Ark had a Window to let in Light, Gen. 6.16. which resembles the Windows of Solomons Temple, 1 King. 6.4. which were made narrow without, and wide within, to diffuse the Light the better.

This Light is Christ, Joh. 1.9. he is the Light of the World, Luk. 11.34, 35, 36, as a Candle in a Room enlightens the whole Room: So if there be a Light in the supream Faculties of the Soul, that is, true spiritual Wisdom in the heart, it will enlighten the whole man, so as to direct and guide it; the whole body of a mans carriage and conversation will be full of Light: the Light he gives diffuseth it self through the whole man, and has an in­fluence into all his conversation.

6. There were many Rooms or Chambers in the Ark; and so in the Temple; yet all these made up but one Ark: this signifies many particular Churches; yet all the Churches in the world make up but one Church Catholick, which is the mystical body of Christ, 1 Cor. 12.12. as the Body is one, and hath many Mem­bers, and all the Members of that one Body, being many, are one Body: so also is Christ; see Cant. 6.9. My undefiled is but one.

[Page 95]7. There were three Stories in the Ark; it was three Stories high. Gen. 6.16. and so Solomons Temple had three parts, an outer Court, an inner Court, and an Holy of Holies. This holds forth the three degrees of the Church. There is,

  • 1. The visible Church.
  • 2. The mystical Church militant here on Earth.
  • 3. The Church triumphant in Heaven.

The Church in her lowest Story is her visible Members here on Earth, among whom there be many Hypocrites; yet even so, she is more excellent than the Mountains of Prey, Psal. 76.4. Kingdoms are called Mountains of prey, that saying being too often true, that magna Regna are indeed magna Latrocinia: But the Church is more glorious than they.

The invisible Church is the second Story, against whom all the Gates and Powers of Hell shall not prevail, Matth. 16.18. It is true in some sense in general concerning the visible Church; Christ will always have some visible Societies of Christians in the world, that shall make profession of his Name; but it holds chiefly con­cerning the mystical Body of Christ: True Believers cannot fall away.

The third Story is the Church triumphant, which is higher than all these, and more excellent than all the Kingdoms in the world, than all the Churches upon earth.

8. They in the Ark were safe, and there was no safety but in the Ark: so in the Church there is Salvation; but no Salvation out of the Church: Salvation is of the Jews, Joh. 4. extra Eccle­siam nou est Salus. It is always true of the mystical Church; and it is ordinarily true concerning the visible Church.

Yea the Ark was safest when the Waters were highest. Sea-man have an expression; in a Storm they use to wish for Sea-room e­nough: Or we may apply it higher to Christ himself, and to his mystical Body; Without Christ there is no Salvation; but as they were safe in the Ark: So whosoever is in Christ, and a Member of that invisible Society, he is safe, and shall never perish.

9. In the Ark there were both clean and unclean Beasts; yet the Ravenousness of their Natures was restrained for the time, [Page 96] Gen. 7.2. So in the Church there are both Saints and Hypocrites: Hypocrites are unclean Beasts

A Cham in the Ark; a Judas, a Devil in Christs own Family. In the visible Church there be sometimes Wolves within, and Sheep without; though they are Wolves in Sheeps clothing. For profane persons may, and should be kept out, but close Hypo­crites cannot.

For as in the Ark though there were ravenous Beasts; yet their Natures were restrained: so in the Church, such as are Beasts by nature; yet the Corruption of their Natures is restrained, there is restraining Grace upon Hypocrites in the Church, as well as re­newing Grace in the Saints, Isai. 11.6-9. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy Mountain.

10. There issued out of the Ark a Raven and a Dove, whereof the Dove returned again, but the Raven did not, Gen. 8.7, 8, 9. the Raven is an unclean Bird, Levit. 11.15. a Bird of prey, and a Bird of darkness, Isai. 34.11.

The Dove is a Bird of Light: at the Baptism of Christ, the Ho­ly Ghost descended on him in the shape of a Dove, Matth. 3. If a Dove go out from Christ and his Ordinances, it shall find no rest, till it returns again into the Ark, and be taken in by the Hand of Noah, by the Spirit of Christ: But the Raven goes out of the Ark, and returns no more: and how many Ravens are there in the Church that depart and fall off, and return no more? 1 Joh. 2.19. they went out from us, because they were not of us.

You Ravens that are going and coming, and hovering to and fro;Vide the old Geneva Note. as the Raven, she went and came, Gen. 8.7. and might light on the outside of the Ark—

If you do not get into the Ark, into Christ, it shews what you are.

You that are Doves, and gone out, return again, return to your Rest, fly as Doves to the Windows, Isai. 60.9.

The Dove is no ravenous Bird, she cannot fight as the Raven, and she is swift of Wing; pray for the Wings of a Dove— in this sense, Psal. 55.6. make haste to Christ.

Thus you see what a full and plentiful Analogy there is be­tween [Page 97] the Ark and the Church in all these ten particulars.

2. The Deluge was a Shadow of the Day of Judgment, and the everlasting Salvation of some, and Destruction of others at that day. The Apostle Peter parallels them, 2 Pet. 3.6, 7. the World that then was being overflowed with Water perished: But the Heavens and the Earth which are now, are reserved for Fire against the day of Judgment. It was indeed a lesser day of Judg­ment, and magnum futuri Judicii praejudicium. Hence Hell is cal­led the place of the Gyants, Prov. 21.16. The man that wandreth out of the way of understanding shall remain [...] in caetu Gigantum, in the Congregation of the Gyants, Prov. 9.17, 18. but he knoweth not that the Gyants are there, and that her Guests are in the depths of Hell.

The World will be in a like frame drowned again in deep se­curity, Matth. 24.37, 38, 39. though they see all the tokens ap­pearing, and all things fulfilled that have been foretold; yet they will not be awakened: But when they saw the Flood came indeed, Oh the amazement that began to seize upon them! when they saw the Cataracts of Heaven opened from above, and the Fountains of the great Deep broke up from beneath!

So at the Day of Judgment every eye shall mourn, Rev. 1.7. see Heb. 11.7. Noah prepared an Ark to the saving of his House, by which he condemned the World: some saved by Noah, others con­demned by him.

3. The Waters that bore up the Ark are made by the Apostle a shadow of the Water of Baptism, 1 Pet. 3.21.

As that Water bore up the Ark, and saved them from drown­ing: so doth Baptism save us.

For though the Flood was a true and real History; ye there be typical Histories; as you will hear further when we come to the real Types: Therefore that Water had a typical respect to the Wa­ter of Baptism.

4. Noahs Sacrifice when he came out of the Ark, was a manifest Type of the Sacrifice of Jesus Christ. For so indeed were all their Sacrifices, Gen. 8.20, 21, 22.

Hence Christ is called a Sacrifice of a sweet smelling savour, Eph. 5.2.

[Page 98]God was so pleased with Noahs Sacrifice, that he promised to destroy the world by Water no more:

So God is well pleased with Christs Sacrifice; he is so pleas­ed with it, that he will be gratious unto sinners for the sake there­of, so as not to destroy them, but save their Souls.

5. Noahs Covenant, and the Rainbow the sign thereof, was a Type of the Covenant of Grace, Gen. 9.12, 13.

It is a question whether there was any Rainbow before, it may seem not. Because it had been small comfort and assurance to the new World, to see that which they had seen before, and to have such a sign of the Covenant. Therefore some think that the Rain­bow was not from the beginning: but as the Lord gave a new Promise; so he created a new thing for a Sign thereof.

Confer. on Heb. 1.1, 2. of Noah's Dispensation.But how may it appear that the Covenant of Grace was here held forth? See Isai. 54.9, 10. This is unto me as the Waters of Noah, &c. Ezek. 1. ult. As the appearance of the Bow thot is in the Cloud in the day of Rain: so was the appearance of the Brightness round about— Revel. 10.1. and 4.3.

Ʋse. From all that hath been said of Noah. Here is ground of unspeakable Comfort to the Church and People of God in all their troubles. Afflictions are often compared to deep Waters, Psalm 42.7. but God will provide for the safety of his people, Psal. 18.16, 17. he sent from above, he took me, and drew me out of deep Wa­ters. Isai. 43.2. the Waters shall not overflow thee.

The Rainbow appears when there hath been rainy weather, the Rainbow in a Cloud in a day of Rain, Ezek. 1. ult.

So when the Church hath been in Floods of great Waters, Christ appears with a Rainbow, Revel. 10.1.

And as he promised there shall be no more a Flood to destroy the Earth: so there is a time coming, when there shall be no more floods of Persecution to overwhelm his Church: I have sworn I will not be angry with thee, nor rebuke thee any more, Isai. 54.9.

So for particular Souls that have been overflown with the Wrath of God, and the Waters have gone over their Soul, there is a time coming when Christ will appear with a Rainbow about his Head.

[Page 99]To some he gives such an inward Seal and Testimony of their Adoption, that they never loose it, but carry it in their bosoms to their dying day, keep their Assurance all their days. And though I know it is otherwise with some of his Children; yet at last, when they dye and come to Heaven, he will never overflow the soul any more with his Anger.

4. The fourth personal Type we named was Melchizedek; his Story is in Gen. 14.

That he was a Type of Christ is clear from Psal 110.4. where speaking of, and to, the Messiah, he saith, The Lord hath sworn, thou art a Priest for ever after the Order of Melchizedek: as also from that which the Apostle saith, Heb. 7.3. that he was made like unto the Son of God, and abideth a Priest continually. Assimila­tus, or gerens similitudinem. Some Controversie there is, who this Melchizedek was, and different Opinions there are. The Papists have very roving conjectures about it.

He was not Christ himself, because he is said to be made like unto the Son of God, Heb. 7.3. but no man is said to be like him­self. For similitude is between two.

That he was not an Angel, or an appearance of God, but a true and real Man, may be proved by this Argument; because e­very Priest is taken from amongst men, Heb. 5.1. but Melchizedek was a Priest.

And the Scripture speaks of him as a Man: For it mentions the place where he dwelt, viz. at Salem; which must needs be understood historically; because there is no reason to constrain us to run a to metaphorical sense.

And whereas some object, there was no man then superior to Abraham in Faith and Holiness: But Melchizedek was greater than Abraham.

Some answer it thus; Non sanctitate, sed dignitate praefertur A­brahae. For that Abraham was but an inferior person, whereas Melchizedek was King and Priest in Salem.

But we may answer further. That there might, be some more eminent than Abraham, some of his godly Ancestors, who were aged and experienced Saints: as Sem for instance, might towards [Page 100] the end of their lives be more eminent than Abraham was in his youth; of whom it is certain by the Genealogies, Gen. 11. that he was yet living: and he was the greatest person then in the world; yea greater than Abraham, as being one of his Progeni­tors and Ancestors.

Therefore many do conjecture that Sem was this Melchizedek: and indeed the conjecture is not improbable; though for any cer­tain demonstration it is not to be expected, because the Lord hath purposely concealed who he was, to the end, he might be a more illustrious Type of Christ, appearing as it were like a Man fallen down from Heaven, and destinated to that end.

Quest. Wherein was Melchizedek a Type of Christ?

Answ. In regard of the Eternity and Excellency of his Person and Office, both as King and Priest. There be four particulars here included. He was a Type,

1. In regard of his Kingdom He is called Melchizedek, which the Apostle interprets King of Righteousness, Heb. 7.2.

So Christ is King of his Church, and King of Righteousness, Psal. 45.6, 7. King of Salem, which signifies Peace. It is thought to be the same City which was afterward called Jerusalem: so Christ was King of Jerusalem, Zach. 9.9. and King of Peace, Isai. 9.6. My Peace I leave with you, Joh. 14.27. Mic. 5.5. This Man shall be our Peace— Peace that passeth all understanding— and Righteousness first, then Peace; Isai. 32.17. the Fruit of Righteousness shall be Peace. Otherwise, thou shalt have no Peace from Christ; unless he give thee Righteousness first; both imputing his own Righte­ousness for Justification to thee; and infusing the inherent Righte­ousness of Sanctification into thee; He will not create Peace for thee.

2. In regard of his Priesthood. Melchizedek was Priest of the most high God, Gen. 14.18. Heb. 7.1. so is Christ both King and Priest. This was extraordinary in Melchizedek, that he might be the more glorious Type; God did not ordinarily allow it: the House of Aaron had not the Kingdom; the House of David had not the Priesthood, they might not intermeddle in the Priests Office; King Ʋzziah was smitten for it: but Melchizedek was both.

[Page 101]3. In that shadow of Eternity which the Story in Genesis doth cast upon him. He is there brought in as a greater person than Abraham the Father of the faithful: but neither his Birth nor Death mentioned, neither his Father nor Mother, without either beginning or end of days, Heb. 7.3. It is not meant, that he was so really, but only in sacred History, and in a Type or Shadow: For it is impossible for any Creature to be without beginning, that is an essential property of God; Novitas essendi est de Essentia Creaturae.

And that Melchizedek was a Creature, and not God, was prov­ed before; because he was Priest and King of Salem; and every Priest is taken from amongst men, de Ratione Sacerdotis est ut sit ve­rus Homo, it is an essential requisite in a Priest, that he be indeed a Man: Melchizedek therefore was a Man; but yet eternal typi­cally and in a figure.

Christ is called a Priest for ever, Psal. 110.4. and of Melchize­dek the Apostle saith, he abideth a Priest continually, Heb. 7.3. You shall never have cause to say, My Friend, alas my best Friend is dead: For he hath an everlasting Priesthood, and lives for ever to intercede and make mention of you to the Lord, Heb. 7.25.

4. In regard of his Preheminence and Excellency above all other men.Vide My Notes of Christs Priestly Of­fice, wherein grea­ter than Aaron. Behold how great this man was, Heb. 7.4. he was greater than Aaron the Priest of the Lord; yea greater than Abraham the Fore­father of Aaron.

He was greater than Abraham, as in other respects: so in these three.

1. In that he blessed Abraham, Gen. 14.19. Heb. 7.7. and with­out contradiction the less is blessed of the greater: so Christ blesseth us, Luke 24, 50, 51. All our Blessings are through him; he is the Fountain of Blessing.

2. In that Melchizedek did refresh Abraham and his Army, Gen. 14.18. and Melchizedek King of Salem brought forth Bread and Wine, that is, (as the old Note well explains it) for Abraham and his Souldiers Refreshment, and not to offer Sacrifice: So Christ refresheth his Church with the Word and Sacraments, Matth. 11. [Page 102] I will give you rest, or I will refresh you, Ego reficiam vos.

3. In that Melchizedek did receive an homage and acknow­ledgment of Tythes from Abraham, and from Levi and Aaron in his Loins. Thus they paid their Respects to him, Gen. 14.20. Heb. 7.9. whether of his Spoils, or of his Goods, it was the tenth part. Some have gone so far from this, as to infer, that we ought to give unto Christ the Tenth part of our Goods, as well as the Seventh part of our Time.

But to let that pass: Certain it is, that we ought to give some fit proportion of our Estates unto God, for his use and service. And as he was herein greater than Abraham: so likewise greater than Aaron, and the Aaronical Order. Melchizedeks was an high­er Order in many respects, largely opened in that 7th. to the Hebrews.

Ʋse. This that hath been said concerning Melchizedek as a Shadow of Jesus Christ affords the greater encouragement to be­lieve, and comfort to them that do believe in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Encouragement, having such an High Priest, thou maist safely venture thy Soul upon him.

Comfort, that so great a Person is thy Saviour.

True, thou art unworthy; but his Worth and Excellency is e­nough to preponderate and overballance all thine unworthiness.

He is both a King and a Priest for ever after the Order of Mel­chizedek: and if thou dost accept of him as thy King to rule thee, thou maist safely rely and rest upon him as thine High Priest to justifie and reconcile thee to his Father.

Aug: 15. 1667.Of the individual Personal Types that were before the Law, there be four yet remaining to be spoken to.

You have heard of Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, how they were Types and Figures of him that was to come.

It remains, to speak of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph.

1. Abraham; As the Apostle saith of Melchizedek in other re­spects, Heb. 7.4. so we may say of Abraham; Consider how great this [Page 103] Man was, in that so many Patriarchs, so many righteous men, so many Prophets, Priests and Kings, yea Jesus Christ himself, were once in Abrahams Loyns.

I confess he is omitted by divers that have handled this Sub­ject, for what reason I know not, unless it be from an aptness to restrain all the Types to the Person of Christ, wherein perhaps they found the accommodation not so clear in respect of Abra­ham; in whom nevertheless you will see some clearness, I hope, by and by, even as to that; though it is not always necessary in a Type, that it point directly at the Messiahs Person; but it is sufficient if there be an adumbration or shadowing a forth of any Gospel Truth or Mystery any way belonging to him.

But there were many of them shadowed forth in Abraham, and the Scripture owns him for a typical Person, as you will see in the particulars. I shall but instance in five or six things.

1. If we consider him together with Isaac and Jacob, that pro­ceeded from him, we may observe that in these three persons, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, there is a weak and dark shadow of a very great Mystery, even of those three glorious Persons, God the Father, Son and Spirit, in the order of their Subsistence and Influ­ences to our Salvation. For Abraham was the Father and Origi­nal of both the other; and in his Love to God he spared not his only Son Isaac, but offered him up to Death for a Burnt-offering: so God, in his Love to Man, spared not his only begotten Son, but delivered him up for us, Rom. 8.32.

Isaac was sacrificed in a Figure:Vide my Expos. on Gen. 22. so was the Son of God, the second Person of the Trinity, in our Nature slain and sacrificed for us.

And Jacob, you know, came both of Abraham and Isaac, and he is renowned for the Spirit of Prayer, by which he had power with God and prevailed, Gen. 32.28. He did not prevail by his own strength, but by the Power of the Holy Ghost, who did appear in him, and acted him as a Spirit of Prayer and Supplication un­to such invincible wrestlings with the Lord.

From all which you see, that there is some glimpse and shadow of the Fathers Love, of the Sons Death and Sufferings, and of [Page 104] the Spirit his breathings and workings in us. Here is something of a low and weak representation of that glorious Mystery of the Trinity, and the influences thereof to our eternal peace; though it is but a low and weak and dark shadow of it, as all Types are in comparison of the Antitype.

2. If we consider Abraham with his two Wives Hagar and Sa­rah, and their Posterities Ishmael and Isaac.

Here the two Covenants of Works and Grace, legal and evan­gelical Professors are shadowed forth.

For this we have the Apostles Authority, and the Testimony of the Holy Ghost himself, the best Interpreter of his own mean­ing, Gal. 4.22, 23, 24.

1. The Differences and Properties of the two Covenants are here held forth. Hagar by the strength of Nature hath a Child; but Sarah by the Faith in the Promise, Gal. 4.23. So Works and Fruits brought forth in a mans own strength, these are legal: if by Faith in Christ, this is evangelical.

The first Covenant-Spirit is a Spirit of bondage, Gal. 4.24, 25. bondage unto sin and death: the second Covenant-Spirit is a Spi­rit of liberty and freedom; not liberty to sin, but liberty of spirit in and unto Duty.

The first Covenant-Spirit is a Spirit of Persecution, Gal. 4.29. the second Covenant-Spirit is a Spirit of Love.

Let those Professors look to it, and take heed to their Spirits, who have a rigid, a violent, an imposing spirit towards the people of God, the Children of the Promise; take heed least you prove Hagarites, and meer legal Professors.

2. It is true, as Abraham did turn aside unto Hagar: so a Be­liever that is in the Covenant of Grace may possibly turn aside in some particular actings to a Covenant of Works; when through unbelief and neglect of the Promise they act according to the Law, in their own strength, or in a way of violence, not of love to their Brethren.

3. But the Bondwoman and her Seed must be cast out, Gen. 21.10. Gal. 4.30. Away with the Law of Works; we must renounce the old Covenant, and get free from the snares of such a Spirit.

[Page 105]3. If we consider Abraham as the Head of the Covenant to that Church and People: so he is a Type of Christ the Head of the second Covenant.

You know God covenanted with Abraham for his Seed: so he doth with Christ for all his Elect.

Gods Promise to Abraham was to give a Seed to him, and an Inheritance to his Seed, viz. the Land of Canaan, the Land of Promise: so God did promise to Jesus Christ, that he should see his Seed, Isai. 53.10, 11. and to bring them to Heaven, Heb. 2.10— Jesus Christ is the true Head of the second Covenant, he engageth and undertakes for all his Seed: Abraham was but a typical Head thereof.

4. Abraham was a Type of Christ in regard of his absolute Obedience to the Will of God; coming from his own Land, and from his Fathers House, submitting to that painful, and, unto car­nal Reason, shameful and contemptible Ordinance of Circumcisi­on; dismissing Ishmael, a thing grievous to a tender-hearted Pa­rent; yea, which was yet: more, sacrificing and offering up his Isaac, his only Son Isaac: there was nothing so difficult, but if God require it, Abraham will do it; there is not such another Example, there is not an higher instance of Obedience in all the Scripture, than in Abraham, save only in Jesus Christ, who was obedient to his Fathers Will in all things, even unto Death it self, Joh. 6.38— 8.29— 10.18.

As God tryed Abraham in his Isaac: so will he try every Son of Abraham in what is dearest to him.

5. Abrahams Intercession for the Righteous in Sodom, and the efficacy of it with the Lord, is some shadow and resemblance of the Prayers and Intercession of Jesus Christ, and the prevailing efficacy thereof for the Salvation of the Elect, Gen. 18.25. For as Lot was saved by means of Abrahams Prayer from the De­struction of Sodom: so are we for Christs sake from everlasting Damnation. For Sodom was a Type of Hell, which is therefore called a Lake of Fire and Brimstone, Rev. 21.8.

Lastly, That he, who was the Father of the Faithful, should be so great a Souldier, and Conqueror of five Kings (and indeed [Page 106] Abraham is the first godly Warrior we read of in Scripture): It was a good Omen, and a Presage, what Believers, the Sons of A­braham, should do; and especially in the latter days, when the Kingdom of Christ shall prevail, as Dan, 2. and chap. 7.

2. Isaac; the Scripture takes notice of him as a Type of Christ, when it calls both him and Christ the promised Seed, and saith he rose from the dead, and so he dyed also in a Figure, or as a Type. He was therefore a Type of Christ in three re­spects.

  • 1. In his Birth.
  • 2. In his Death and Sufferings.
  • 3. In his Resurrection from the dead.

1. In regard of his Birth, which was extraordinary and incre­dible, not by the power of Nature, but by virtue of the Promise of God. Isaac was the Seed of the Promise made to Abraham, Gal. 4.28. in whom all the Nations of the earth should be blessed: But Christ was indeed the promised Seed, he was chiefly and principally intended in that Promise, see Gal. 3.16. in whom a­lone we are truly blessed, Psal. 72.17.

Isaac was born by virtue of the Promise believed on, against and above the ordinary course of Nature, of Sarahs dead Womb, Rom. 4.19.

So Christ was born of the Womb of the Virgin Mary in a mi­raculous unconceivable manner, not according to the ordinary course of Nature; but by the power of the Holy Ghost overshadow­ing her, Luk. 1.35.

An Angel did reveal the Birth of Isaac to Sarah, and she thought in her self it was impossible, Gen. 18.11, 12. Sarah heard it, and it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of Women, and Sarah laughed within her self, saying, after I am waxed old, shall I have pleasure, my Lord being old also?

So did an Angel reveal to the Virgin Mary, that Christ should be born of her, and she admires and saith, how can this be, seeing I have not known Man? Luk. 1.34.

Isaac's Birth was promised and waited for many years; from the first Promise of a Seed made to Abraham, to the Birth of Isaac [Page 107] was five and twenty years: For he was seventy five years old when he left Haran, Gen. 12.4. and he was an hundred years old when Isaac was born, Gen. 21.5.

So Christ the promised Seed was long expected and waited for; from the first Promise of Christ in Gen. 3.15.Vid. Ainsworth in loc. to his coming in the Flesh was well nigh four thou­sand years.

2. Isaac was an eminent Type of Christ in regard of his Death and Sufferings.

Isaac without resistance, without repining or reply, willingly yields himself to his Father even unto Death: So was Christ obe­dient to his Father even unto Death. So each of them was led away like a Lamb to the slaughter, as is said of Christ, Isai. 53.7. Act. 8.32.

Isaac carried the Wood whereon he was bound to Moriah, Gen. 22.6. so did Christ carry the Cross whereon he was nailed to Gol­gotha, Joh. 19.17. and so the Wood was first laid upon them both, and then they were laid upon the Wood.

Isaac was to be offered alone, the Servants being left behind at the foot of the Hill, Gen. 22.5. So Christ must tread the Wine­press alone, his Disciples being fled and scattered from him, Joh. 16.32.

The place where Isaac was offered was Mount Moriah, Gen. 22.2. and there was the Temple built, a Type of Christs Body: and there also his Body was crucified, upon another part of the same Mountain.

And as to the time, something of analogy may be noted: some accommodated it thus, that as Isaac came the third day to the place of his Immolation: so Christ came to his Sufferings the thirty third year of his age, consisting of three tens and three units. And it was three years after his Entrance upon his publick Ministry, which is three days, putting a day for a year according to the Prophetick stile, Luk. 3.23. he began his Ministry the thirtieth year of his age.

And there be four Passovers mentioned in the Gospel of John, in the sacred Story of his Life and Death.

[Page 108]Or we may apply this circumstance more literally in reference to his Resurrection from the dead, which is the

3. Third thing wherein Isaac was a Type of Christ, thus; that they were both delivered from Death the third day.

Look, as Isaac was reputed among the dead in his Fathers thoughts and purpose for three days, who had given him up unto the Lord; but he received him again as from the dead after three days.

So Christ was in the state of Death three days; but then rose again to dye no more; so that as Isaac in three days was both a­live and dead, and revived in a figure, Christ was so in truth. In this respect the Apostle clearly makes him a Type of Christ, Heb. 11.19. accounting that God was able to raise him up even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a Figure. For Isaac's Death and Resurrection was not a real Death and Resurrection; but a figurative Death, and a figurative Resurrection: The truth of which Figure is in Christ, who both dyed and rose again real­ly and indeed. I am he that liveth and was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore, Amen, and have the Keys of Hell and of Death, Revel. 1.18.

3. Jacob; he also was a Type of Christ, and is intimated in the Scripture so to be, in that Christ is called by his Name, Isai. 49.3. Thou art my Servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified; they are the words of God the Father unto Jesus Christ.

Jacob was a Type of Christ,

  • 1. In his Sojourning.
  • 2. In his Wrestling.

1. In his sojourning and travelling to and fro in an afflicted con­dition almost all his days: For he seems to have been the most afflicted Saint that we read of in Scripture, except Job; He leaves his Fathers House and goes to Haran, and lives there as a Ser­vant for his two Wives, Rachel and Leah, Gen. 28.10. and 29.18, 27.

So Christ left the Bosom of his Father, descended from the highest Heavens, and sojourned here upon earth in the form of a Servant, to purchase to himself a Spouse, a Church of Jews and Gentiles.

[Page 109] Jacob also went down into Egypt by Gods direction, and there Joseph fed him, Gen. 46.3.

So Christ was carried into Egypt by Joseph the Son of another Jacob, being warned so to do by the Lord in a Dream: and was there fed and provided for by Joseph his reputed Father, Matth. 2.13.

And as the Lord brought Jacob back again in his Posterity, who carried his Bones with them, Gen. 46.4. I will surely bring thee up again.

So he brought Christ out of Egypt in his own person.

And that this History had a typical respect to Christ, you may see in Matth. 2.15. Hos. 11.1. when Israel was a Child, then I loved him, and called my Son out of Egypt. It is spoken there histo­rically; but not only so, but prophetically also: For that History of Israels going into Egypt, and returning again, was a typical History, and did represent what was to be done in Christ the true Israel.

2. Jacob was also a Type of Christ in regard of his wrestling and prevailing with the Lord; When he was to meet Esau, he be­takes himself to Prayer that night and prevailed, from whence he got the name of Israel, Gen. 32.28. and he said, thy Name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: For as a Prince thou hast power with God and with men, and hast prevailed: Hos. 12.4. Yea he wept and made supplication unto him.

So Christ often, and particularly the night before his Sufferings, Heb. 5.7. who in the days of his Flesh, when he had offered up Pray­ers and Supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from Death; and was heard in that he feared; for he had that which was equivalent.

You know his Agonies in Prayer that night, when he said, Fa­ther if it be possible, let this Cup pass from me; nevertheless not my Will, but thy Will be done.

Yea he lives for ever to intercede, Heb. 7.25.

4. The fourth and last personal Type that is now to be spoken to, is Joseph. The History of Joseph in the latter end of Genesis is a very admirable and an affecting History. In Poems and Ro­mances [Page 110] to please and affect the Mind, men take liberty to feign; yet they come far short of this which was a real History.

It is true Joseph is not so expresly mentioned in the New Te­stament as a Type of Christ, as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are; but the analogy is so clear and full, that we cannot well omit him.

Joseph multis modis Figuram Christi gestavit, vel potius viva fuit ejus Imago, saith Calvin in Matth. 2. ult.

The Analogy is marvellous clear in sundry particulars; I shall but instance in four things, wherein he was (as the Apostle speaks of another eminent Type) made like unto the Son of God.

  • 1. In his personal qualifications and endowments of Wisdom and Holiness.
  • 2. In his Sufferings.
  • 3. In his Advancement.
  • 4. In his Carriage towards his Brethen.

1. In regard of his personal Qualifications and endowments.

Joseph may be fitly numbred amongst the Types of Christ; for he was very eminent both as to Wisdom and Holiness.

As for Wisdom, he had a Prophetical Light shining in him, from whence Pharaoh gave him that honourable name Zaphnath payaneah, a clear Revealer of Secrets, Gen. 41.45. the Egyptian Language, though not the same with the Hebrew; yet had some affinity with it. The first word Tsopnath Secretum comes from [...] recondidit; The other payaneach is thought to be a compound of two words, from [...] claruit, and [...] duxit placide, Joseph was eminent for leading by the hand into secret hidden mysteries.

It was said of him by Pharaoh, Can we find such a man as this is, in whom the Spirit of God is? Gen. 41.38. and forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art.

So in Christ are hid all the Treasures of Wisdom and Knowledge, Col. 2.3. He received the Spirit without measure, Joh. 3.34. He is the wonderful Counsellor, Isai. 9.6. the wonderful Numberer, Dan. 8.13. the true Palmoni, or numberer of Secrets.

And as for Holiness, Joseph was tempted by his Mistress to bodily Adultery, but he resisted and overcame the temptation: So Christ was tempted to Idolatry (which is spiritual Adultery,) [Page 111] but overcame the Tempter, Matth. 4. And Believers also are vi­ctorious through him. Thanks be to God who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 15.57.

2. In regard of his Sufferings, both from his Brethren, and from Strangers also, his Mistress and other Egyptians. His Suffer­ings were very grievous, the Archers sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him, Gen. 49.3. It is said, the Irons entred into his Soul, Psal. 105.17, 18.

So Christ did suffer grievous things from the Jews, his own Brethren and Countrymen, and from the Romans, those spiritual Egyptians. He came to his own, but his own received him not, Joh. 1.11.See Calvin on Matth. cap. 2. ver. ult. but they delivered him up to the Romans: He was a Nazarite as it were, separate from his Brethren, Gen. 49.26. Deut. 33.16. And what moved them to this? It was, for that of God that was in him. The Patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt, Act. 7.9.

So it is said of Christ, that Pilate knew that for envy they had delivered him, Matth. 27.18.

They hated him especially for that he by divine Visions and Revelations told them, that he should be exalted, Gen. 37.8.

So the Jews sought the more to kill the Lord Jesus Christ, be­cause he not only had broken the Sabbath, as they thought, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God, Joh. 5.18— If we let him alone, you'l see all men go after him, Joh. 11.48.

And when did they do this injury to Joseph? It was when he was shewing kindness, and doing good to them: For his Father had sent him to seek and visit his Brethren in the Wilderness, Gen. 37.13, 14. Then they conspire against him, and call him Dreamer, sell him for twenty pieces of Silver to the Ishmaelites, and they to the Egyptians, where he is falsly accused, condemned and put in Prison.

So Christ is sent from Heaven by his Father into the Wilderness of this world, to visit his Brethren the Sons of Men; but Judas and the Jews conspire against him, call him a Seducer; he is sold for 30 pieces of Silver by one of his own Disciples, he is falsly accused, [Page 112] condemned, and crucified between two Malefactors, like Joseph imprisoned with Pharaohs two Servants.

And as Josephs Brethren, when they were resolved to kill him, and had thrown him into the pit, they thought they had made sure work with him, we will see what will become of his Dreams, Gen. 37.20.

So the Jews thought of Christ, they thought they had him sure enough when they had him upon the Cross, and in the Grave.

But the hand of Providence was in all this, ordering and over­ruling it for good, to another issue than the Instruments intended or expected, Gen. 45.5, 7, 8.

So it is said of Herod, and the Gentiles, and the people of Is­rael, that they were gathered together to do whatsoever thy Hand and thy Counsel determined before to be done, Act 4.28. Act. 2.23. him being delivered by the determinate Counsel and fore­knowledge of God, ye have taken &c.

And you know the end of it was good to his Brethren; for so he calls his Elect, Heb. 2.11. yea saving everlasting good both unto Jews and Gentiles, who both had an hand in his Sufferings; as both Josephs Brethren had, and the Egyptians too in his Suffer­ings, the end and issue whereof was the saving of the Lives of both of them.

3. Come we now to Josephs advancement to all his Glory; here likewise was a shadow of what was done in Christ. For as Joseph was brought first into such a low condition, and then to the greatest height of worldly Glory, from a Prison to a Kingdom, Gen. 49.23, 24. So Christ was first humbled, then exalted.

Who would have thought that had seen Joseph in the Prison, that ever he should come to be a Prince and a Ruler in the Land?

And when the Disciples saw Christ upon the Cross, how little did they think to see him reign? they were giving up their hopes in him, we trusted it had been he, which should have redemed Israel, Luk. 24.21.

Now was Josephs Dream fulfilled, that all their Sheaves would bow to his; now the Sun, Moon and Stars did obeysance to him. For he was made next to Pharaoh, and they cryed before him, bow the knee, Gen. 41.43.

[Page 113] And in the name of Jesus every knee shall bow: For God hath given him a Name above every Name, Phil. 2.10, 11.

Thou shalt be over my House, saith Pharaoh, Gen. 41.40. and he made him Ruler over all the Land of Egypt, ver. 43.

So he hath put all things into the hands and under the feet of Jesus Christ, and hath made him head over all things to the Church, Ephes, 1.22. He is an Head of eminence over all; he is an Head of saving influence to the Church.

And Josephs Brethren, as stout as they were, yet at last came to him for supplies, and did obeysance to him whom they had sold and slighted.

So must Sinners to Jesus Christ, and so shall his Brethren the Jews, though they have stood it out long against him, yet they shall come in at last, and humble themselves before him whom they have pierced, Zach. 12.10.

4. Joseph bare a similitude of the Son of God in his carriage towards his Brethren, which was most heroick and Saint-like, yea Christ-like, in requiting good for evil, forgiving all their injuries, and shewing kindness to them, who had done all the wrong they could to him.

And doth not Christ so to us? he prayed for those that cruci­fied him, he saves us, who have killed him.

This in general was Josephs deportment and carriage towards his Brethren, and you see it was indeed divine and excellent: but let us also look into some particular passages of it which were most remarkable.

1. He knew them, when they knew not him, Gen. 42.8.

So doth Christ know us before we know him: yea when we are tempted to think he takes no notice of us. I saw thee when thou wast under the Fig-tree, Joh. 1.48.

2. He carries it roughly towards them a while at first, to bring them to Repentance, Gen, 42.7-21. and this made them reflect upon their own sins.

So doth Christ to Souls, he first humbles, and then comforts; first he wounds and breaks the heart, and then he heals it and binds it up; he frowns upon them at first, and pierceth their [Page 114] hearts through with godly sorrow, Act. 2.37. and afterwards he pours in the oyl of Joy and Comfort, Isai. 61, 1, 2, 3.

3. Joseph reveals himself to them at last, in the sweetest melting expressions of his Love & Bowels towards them, when they were fit for it, and when his own heart was full, that he could contain no longer. See the Story of it, Gen 45.1, 3, 4, 5.

So doth Jesus Christ reveal himself to the Souls of his people, when they are fit for it; he gives them clear and sweet discove­ries, ravishing and amazing manifestations of his Love; I am Jo­seph your Brother: I am Jesus thy Saviour, who was crucified and pierced for thee, as well as by thee, which thou hast been so long mourning for; but I have seen thy tears, I have heard thy Prayers, and I am now come to comfort thee, and to tell thee, that I am thine, and thou art mine: such words as these they hear, to this effect he speaks, when he causeth them to hear the voice of his Loving Kindness, and sheds abroad his Love in their hearts by the Holy Ghost.

4. Joseph supplies all their wants, makes provision for them e­very way; he gives them their Corn, without taking their Mo­ny; washes them, sets them at his Table, and feeds them, Gen. 43.16, 33, 34. gives them Victuals and Chariots for their Jour­ney, with a Charge not to fall out by the way, chap. 45.19, 24. And finally placeth them in Goshen, in the best of the Land, there to dwell, till they should go to Canaan, the Land of Promise, cap. 47.11.

Jesus Christ doth all this in an higher way. He gives us all the good we need, and that freely, without Mony, or without price: he washeth and cleanseth us inwardly by his Spirit, as well as out­wardly by the Water of Baptism; feeds us at his Table, not only with bodily, but with spiritual Food; gives us his Ordinances as Chariots of Salvation to bring us to himself, and Signs and Seals of his Love to us, and of our Love to him, and to one another. It is his great Commandment to his Disciples, to love one ano­ther: and finally he plants us in Goshen here, in a state of Light and Grace, till we come to the heavenly Canaan, to a state of Glory. Thus doth our true Joseph provide for us.

[Page 115]5. Yet after all this, they had some secret fears and doubtings of his Love; whereupon they seek Pardon of their former Sins; but he gives them renewed assurance of it, to quiet their fears, and settle their doubting thoughts, Gen. 50.15, 21. through the remembrance of their own Guilt, and Sins against him.

So poor Souls, when Christ hath spoken Peace, yet there be oftentimes some secret fears and doubts remaining, or returning upon them again, after all his appearances; when he appeared un­to them again in Gallilee; as Matth. 28.17. it is said, and when they saw him, they worshipped him, but some doubted.

But in such as are the Lords, these fears and doubts set them upon the renewed exercise of Grace, reflecting and searching their own hearts and ways, and seeking Pardon of former Sins: and in this way, the Lord renews his Love, and gives them new and fresh evidences and further assurance of it, and bids them fear not; and so quiets their hearts again, as Joseph did his Brethrens.

‘—Who is the Type or Figure of him that is to come. Rom. 5.14. Aug. 22. Sept. 5. 1667.

THe individual Persons that were Types of Christ have been re­ferred unto two Classes.

  • 1. Such as were before the Law.
  • 2. Such as were under the Law.

The typical Persons that were before the Law have been spoken to. We are now to proceed (as the Lord shall enable) unto typi­cal Persons under the Law, and they were many and divers. I shall not mention all, but only (as in the former sort) some of the chief and most illustrious of them.

And because the nature of the matter will not only bear it; but doth partly lead unto it, none of them giving a full and per­fect Representation of the Messiah; and there being something of Connexion remarkable in the Histories and Actions of divers of them; I shall therefore put them together in pairs, or in several Conjunctions and Constellations, as it were, whereby they will yield the greater lustre, and give a more clear and full Representation [Page 116] of that glorious person whom the Lord ordained and designed them to represent; like the Galaxia in the Heavens, which Philo­sophers conceive to be a Conjunction or Conglobation of many lesser Stars shining together, which gives that lustre, which we call the Via lactea, the milky way in the Heavens. The conjoyning or putting of them thus together will be some help both to your Uerstandings and Memories.

Now there were four eminent Conjunctions or Constellations, as it were (for I know not well what fitter word to express it by) of typical Persons who shone like bright Stars in the night, in those darker times under the Law, before the Sun of Righteousness him­self arose with Light and Healing in his Wings.

The first is Moses and Josuah, whereof the one delivered them out of Egypt, the other brought them into Canaan; a Shadow both of the evil we are saved from, and of the good we are pos­sessed of, by him who is the true Moses and Josuah.

The second Constellation or Conglobation of typical persons is, Sampson, David and Solomon, all which three put together, gives a bright and glorious Representation of Jesus Christ: Sampson in his Death and Sufferings, David in his Victories and Conquests, Solomon in the peace, and quiet establishment of his Kingdom.

The third is Elijah, Elisha and Jonah, three Prophets; the first whereof was an illustrious Type of Christs Ascension, the second of the Continuance of his Presence and Spirit in his Apostles and Ministers ever since (for the Spirit of Elijah did rest upon Elisha,) and the Death of Christ, which was the procuring cause both of his Ascension, and the effusion of his Spirit, is shadowed forth in Jonah.

The fourth and last that I shall speak to, is Zerubbabel and Je­hoshuah; one whereof was the Prince, and the other the High Priest, and both Rebuilders of the Temple, and Restorers of the collapsed estate of the Church of God in those times.

1. First then for Moses and Joshuah, the one (as I said) deliver­ed them out of Egypt, the other brought them into Canaan; and so shadowed forth both our Deliverance from spiritual Bondage and Misery, and the bringing of us into a state of spiritual Rest and [Page 117] Happiness by Jesus Christ. There was a Prefiguration of the for­mer in Moses, and of the latter in Joshuah.

This Moses, the Scripture speaks of him, as the greatest person upon all accounts that ever was in the world, except Jesus Christ. See the three last verses of Deuteronomy; And there arose not a Prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face: In all the signs and wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the Land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and all his Servants, and to all his Land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the fight of all Israel.

As to all humane and divine Excellencies and Accomplishments, and appearances of God in him, there was never his fellow.

Melchizedek indeed was greater in one respect, as to that shadow of Eternity and unchangeable Glory beforementioned: Solomon was greater as to the outward Peace and Splendor of his Kingdom, and as to universal Insight into all the depths, and se­crets, and mysteries of Nature: But neither of them had such continual visible Entercourse and Communion with God in visible appearances to him upon all occasions: Neither of them wrought such Miracles, nor were they instrumental to so great a work of Providence, as the Deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, which, with all the passages and circumstances belonging to it, was the greatest and the highest Dispensation of Providence that ever was, except­ing that of our Redemption by Jesus Christ.

Yea so famous was the History of Moses, that though it was ve­ry antient; yet the Heathen Historians and Poets have said some­thing of it. And he is thought by some to be their Mercurius Tris­megistus, of whom they spake out of some broken remembrances and traditions, though corrupted with fabulous Inventions inter­mix'd; wherein yet some footsteps of the Truth may be discerned. They call their Mercurius, Interpres Divum, and paint him with a Rod twined with Serpents, &c.

Now that Moses was a Type, the Scripture is clear, Deut. 18.18. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their Brethren, like unto thee— Heb. 3.2. Jesus Christ, who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his House.

[Page 118]But how, or wherein was Moses a Type?

The Answer is in two respects: For Moses may be considered two ways.

  • 1. In regard of his Dispensation, and so he was a type of the Law.
  • 2. In regard of his Person, and so he was a Type of Jesus Christ: And so we have two things to inquire into.
    • 1. What of the Law, and
    • 2. What of Jesus Christ was shadowed forth in Moses.

I shall begin with the lower Notion first.

1. Moses was a Type of the Law in regard of the Dispensation wherein the Lord was pleased to use him, and to introduce by his Ministry into the Church. For (as hath been formerly shewed) the Types are not always to be restrained only to the Person of Christ; But there were legal shadows of all other Truths, which are more clearly and fully revealed under the New Testament: And so they had their Types and Shadows even of the Covenant of Works, as was shewed in Abrahams Wives and Children: So likewise Moses his Administration of the Mind of God shadowed forth the same thing.

Hence the Scripture speaks so much of the Law of Moses, un­der the notion of Works. The Law came by Moses, Joh. 1.17. that is, as contradistinguished unto Gospel Grace and Truth, for it fol­lows: but Grace and Truth by Jesus Christ. Not that Moses his Dispensation was indeed a Covenant of Works but a shadow or representation of it. For had it been indeed a Covenant of Works, it would have been their Duty to seek Salvation by their own Merits: but they were saved by Grace as well as we, and not by Works: they were saved by Faith in Christ, and in his Righte­ousness, whereof they had some discoveries; they were under a Dispensation of Grace: but it was like a Covenant of Works, and did very much resemble that legal way in many respects.

Quest. But wherein was the Mosaical Dispensation so like unto the Covenant of Works? what of the Law was shadowed forth in Moses?

Answ. Something was hinted as to this in the first Sermon on Heb. 4.2. But now to speak a little further to it.

[Page 119]1. In regard of the dreadful Majesty, and Terror, and Glo­ry of that Administration. Herein it was like the old Covenant, Heb. 12.18.—21. God acts as a Soveraign Lord in the Cove­nant of Works, and appears in the dreadful Glory of his absolute Soveraignty and Dominion over his Creatures.

2. There was a darkness also in that Dispensation, Heb. 12.18. Ye are not come unto blackness, and darkness, and Tempest.

Hence Moses had a Veil upon his Face, Exod. 34.29, 30, 33. But there was a further mystery in this Veil; it signifieth a spiri­tual Veil, a Covering upon the Heart, 2 Cor. 3.13.14. a Veil upon their Minds, Act. 13.27. the Prophets, they understood them not, though read every Sabbath day.

3. There was a Yoke of Bondage, which neither we nor our Fathers (saith Peter) were able to bear, Act. 15.10. so the Law genders unto Bondage, Gal. 4.24, 25. Such as are under the Law, their Spirits are under continual Bondage: but the Gospel is spi­ritual Liberty.

4. The abiding Strength and Power of the Law to condemn, 1 Cor. 3— the Letter killeth— It is the Ministration of Death: And as Moses his natural Force was not abated, Deut. 34.7. so neither is the Strength of the Law, as to its condemning Power over Sinners.

Hereby the continual force of the Law is signified, the Power whereof decayeth not in the Conscience of Sinners by number of Days or mutitude of Works,Answorth in lec. till God take it away, and abolish it by Grace in Christ.

5. The Weakness of it to save. Moses might not enter into Canaan, though he did much desire it; see Deut. 32.52. And the Reason alledged is his failing in that one point, Numb. 20.12.

What was Moses his error and mistake at that time? There is something of difficulty to discern, and make it out.

Three things the Scripture seemeth to intimate.

  • 1. He smote the Rock twice, Numb. 20.11. when his Instructi­ons were no more, but to speak unto it, v. 8.
  • 2. Something of inordinate Passion seems to be noted, Psal. 106. he spake unadvisedly with his Lips, v. 33.
  • [Page 120]3. His Unbelief is expresly taxed, because ye believed not my Word, Numb. 20.12.

But what was this Unbelief? or how came it to be working in him at this time?

Some have guessed at it thus.

This Occurrence fell out eight and thirty years after their first murmuring for Water: and their was a new Generation now risen up, and they falling into the very same sin, and that at the same place, upon the Borders of Canaan, and upon the same occasion, want of Water, for which the Lord had rejected and excluded their Fathers; Moses was afraid that the Lord would now take advantage against this Generation also, as he did against their Ancestors, causing them to wander forty years; and as indeed he might justly have done against these also: But yet Moses should not have given way to such Fears, unless the Lord had declared it, which as to this Generation he did not: But for this one failing Moses could not enter into Canaan.

So the Law, if but one Sin be admitted, keeps the Soul of Hea­ven: the Law is strong to condemn and destroy Sinners, but it is unable and weak to save them. The Law cannot save, Rom. 8.3.

Yea, 6. The abrogation of it through Grace.

As Moses's Body was buried that it could not be found, Deut. 34.6. and Satan would have brought it forth again; but Michael opposed him, Jud. 9. so he hath buried the Law; though Satan would revive it in the Spirits of Men.

7. Moses did prepare the people for Joshuahs Dispensation: So the Law prepares and sits the Soul for Christ, Gal. 3.24. where­fore the Law was our Schoolmaster, to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by Faith. It doth not put us into Christ, but it prepares us for Christ.

Thus, in regard of the Terror of that Dispensation, and the Darkness and Bondage of it, the Strength to condemn, the Im­potency of it to bring them into Rest, and the Abrogation of it, and that nevertheless it did prepare and fit them for it, Moses did adumbrate and shadow forth the Covenant of Works.

But, 2. We may consider Moses under an higher notion, though [Page 121] in respect of the external Dispensation introduced by him, he sha­dowed forth the Law; yet in other respects, if we consider him in his own Person, he was a Type of Christ.

The Scripture is clear for this also, Deut. 18.15, 18. A Prophet shall the Lord thy God raise up unto thee of thy Brethren like unto me— That this was spoken of Christ, see Act. 3.22. Peter there applies it unto Christ, he was like unto Moses.

There was a Similitude, but yet there was not a Parity. For Christ was far above Moses, Heb. 3.3. For this man was counted wor­thy of more Glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who builded the House hath more Glory than the House: and again ver. 5. Moses verily was faithful as a Servant; but Christ as a Son over his own House, v. 6. You may see it in these particulars.

  • 1. In regard of his Birth.
  • 2. In his personal Qualifications.
  • 3. In the whole course of his Life.
  • 4. In the close of it.

1. Moses was a Type of Christ in regard of his Birth, in that he was born but of mean Parents, in the time of Israels Bondage in Egypt, Exod. 2.1. persecuted in his Infancy by Pharaoh, and won­derfully preserved, Exod. 2.3, 9.

So Christ, Isai. 53.2. He shall grow up as a Root out of a dry ground.

When the House of David was brought very low, and the Glo­ry of it seemingly extinct, they were of the poorest sort of peo­ple, as appears by their Offering, which was but a pair of Turtle Doves, or two young Pigeons, Luk. 2.24. when they taxed all the world, that is when the Jews were under Bondage to the Ro­mans, Luk. 2.1, 4. and you know Rome is spiritually called Egypt; then, and in this condition of Subjection to the Roman Power was Christ born: And as soon as born, he was persecuted by Herod, Matth. 2. who sought his Death; but wonderfully preserved, and by means of his reputed Father, as Moses by the Mother that adopt­ed him; both of them by wonderful Providences saved and de­livered, that they might be Saviours and Deliverers unto others.

2. Moses was a Type of Christ in his personal Qualifications, [Page 122] which were very eminent. He was the most accomplish'd Person that ever was, except Jesus Christ himself.

1. In Learning and Knowledge, Act. 7.22. He was learned in all the Wisdom of the Egyptians.

So Christ, Isai. 11.1, 2, 3. the Spirit of Wisdom and Under­standing, the Spirit of Counsel and of Knowledge rested upon him, to make him of quick Understanding in the Fear of the Lord; insomuch that he disputed with the Doctors at twelve years of age, Luke 2.42, 46, 47. Those Doctors were as too many are now a­days eaten up with mens Traditions, and ignorant of the Scripture. The Jews acknowledged and admired it, Joh. 7.15. And the Jews marvelled, saying, how knoweth this man Learning, having never learned,; and ver. 46. the Officers answered, never man spake like this man.

2. Clear and extraordinary Vision and Sight of God, Numb. 12.6, 7, 8. Face to Face, Mouth to Mouth God spake to Moses, even ap­parently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord did he behold: expressions arguing unparallell'd Clearness in the Lords revealing himself and his Mind to Moses. There was never the like vouchsafed to any other. To others, even Prophets the Lord made known himself in a Vision, or spake to them in Dreams, ver. 6. but to Moses at another rate.

So Christ, Joh. 1.18. no man hath seen God at any time, but the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath de­clared him.

3. There was in Moses an admirable mixture of Meekness and Zeal; eminent in meekness of Spirit, and that seasoned and tem­pered with holy Zeal, Numb. 12.3. forty years he bare their man­ners in the Wilderness, Acts 7.36. with 13.18. though murmuring and rebelling against God and himself, with an invincible Patience.

So Christ, Matth. 11. Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart. When his Disciples tempted him, he would not fetch down Fire from Heaven against his Despisers and Opposers; yet he was angry at the Defilement of the Temple, and whipt them out: And so was Moses at the Golden Calf— Meekness with­out Zeal is nothing else but Lukewarmness and Cowardise. Zeal [Page 123] without Meekness degenerates into sinful Passion. We should be meek in our own Cause; but zealous in the Cause of God.

4. Faithfulness to his Trust; this was eminent in Moses, but more eminent in Christ, Heb. 3.5, 6. Moses was but faithful as a Servant in his Lords House. But Christ as a Son in his own House. He will not lose one Soul of all those that the Father hath committed to him, Joh. 6.39, 40. In his last Prayer he professeth, Joh. 17.12. those that thou givest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the Son of perdition: not the least Believer can or shall miscarry.

If thou sayst, How may I know whether I was committed to the trust and care of Jesus Christ by the Father?

The Answer is, If thou dost commit thy self to him, the Lord hath done it. Thou couldst never trust thy self with him; thou couldst not commit thy Soul to his keeping, if the Lord had not first intrusted thee with him in his eternal Counsel and Covenant of Redemption. But thou hast done it, and it is thy daily work; therefore thou maist safely conclude with Paul, 2 Tim. 1.12. he will keep the thing I have committed to him: He will be faithful to God, and faithful to thee; he never failed any that trusted in him.

3. Moses was a Type of Christ in the whole course of his Life. And here many things come to be considered.

1. His Work and Office.

2. His Sufferings and Conflicts in the Discharge thereof.

3. The Lords owning and bearing witness to him by Miracles and Signs and Wonders; in all which there was a manifest Prefi­guration of the Lord Jesus Christ.

1. In his Work and Office. He was in general a Mediator be­tween God and the People, a typical Mediator. All the good that God was pleased to confer upon that People, it was by his Mini­stry, and Interposition between God and then, Gal. 3.19. the Law was ordained by Angels in the hand of a Mediator— Deut. 5.5. I stood between the Lord and you at that time, to shew you the Word of the Lord; for ye were afraid by reason of the Fire, and went not up into the Mount, Exod, 19.7, 8.

So Christ is the Mediator of the Covenant of Grace, Heb. 9.15. [Page 124] and for this cause he is the Mediator of the New Testament. But he hath the preheminence above Moses, Heb. 8.6. but now hath he obtained a more excellent Ministry, by how much also he is the Medi­ator of a better Covenant.

God was pleased to redeem his people Israel out of their Bon­dage in Egypt by Moses his Ministry: God sent him, and he left his former Employment and Place to do this Work, Exod. 3.10. Come now therefore and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou maist bring forth my people the Children of Israel out of Egypt.

But by Jesus Christ he redeemeth us out of the spiritual Bon­dage of Sin and Satan, which is worse than Egyptian Bondage; and he was sent by his Father, and was content to come down from Heaven, and to leave his Glory to do this great Work; wherein Christ hath the preheminence. For Moses was a Media­tor only of temporal and typical Redemption: but Christ is the Mediator of spiritual and eternal Redemption.

By Moses his Mediation also, the Law was delivered upon Mount Sinai, Gal. 3.19. it was ordained in the hand of a Mediator, or a middle person that stood and transacted between God and the people, Act. 7.38. who received the lively Oracles to give unto us.

But by Jesus Christ the Gospel is published. In this respect he is the Mediator of a better Testament.

Moses gave the moral, judicial and ceremonial Laws.

But Christ reveals the Gospel and Gospel-Worship.

Moses appoints the Passover, Sacrifices, builds the Tabernacle made with hands.

But Christ gives the Lords Supper, a most lively Representa­tion of himself and his own Death, the true Sacrifice: And he is himself also the true Temple and Tabernacle, which the Lord hath pitched, and not Man: so that Christ hath the prehemi­nence in all things, inasmuch as Gospel-worship excels Legal worship, and Truth and Substance excels Figures and Shadows.

Lastly, Moses did mediate between God and the people as an Intercessor by his Prayers and Supplications, and did prevail for them, for the Destruction of Amalek, Exod. 17. And again, when they murmured upon the evil Report of the Spies, Numb. 14.12, [Page 125] 13, 20— and when they made the molten Calf, Exod. 32.10, 11, 14. then with much wrestling he prevailed with the Lord for them, Psal. 106.23. Moses stood in the breach.

So doth Christ intercede, and pleads for us with the Father, when we provoke him by our Sins, 1 Joh. 2.1, 2. yea, he lives for ever to intercede, Heb. 7.25.

2. Moses his Sufferings and Conflicts in the Discharge of his Trust, and Exercise of his Office, had in them a Shadow of the like to be undergone by Christ.

Moses fasted forty days and forty nights in the Mount.

So did Christ in the Wilderness.

He suffered many Contradictions both from his Enemies and from his Friends, professed Enemies, Jannes and Jambres, and the Magicians of Egypt, 2 Tim. 3.8. His Friends, the people to whom he was sent rejected him, Exod. 2.14. often murmured at him, forty years he bore their manners, Acts 13.18. yea his neerest friends sometimes, Aaron and Miriam.

So Christ, he was rejected of the Builders, Psal. 118.22. came to his own, and his own received him not, Joh. 1.11. His own Disciples sometimes thought his Doctrines hard sayings; as when he spake against Divorces, they thought a man had better never be mar­ried, than submit to such a yoke: and all along how weak and wayward were they? But the Scribes and Pharisees, like Jannes and Jambres, openly resisted and opposed his Doctrine and Mi­racles.

3. The Lords owning and bearing witness to him by Miracles, Signs and Wonders, Deut. 34.10, 11, 12.

So to Jesus Christ Acts 2.22. a man approved of God among you, by Miracles, Wonders and Signs— some note in all about five and forty of them recorded by the four Evangelists, and wrought in the three years and an half of his publik Ministry, viz. three in his first year, nineteen in his second year, and thirteen in his third year, and ten in his last half year, before Judas betrayed him; besides those at his Death, and after his Resurrection.

Only there were these two differences between Moses his Mi­racles and Christs.

[Page 126]1. That Moses his Miracles were wrought in Christs Name: but Christs Miracles were wrought in his own Name.

2. That Moses his Miracles had more of Terror and Majesty; Christs more of Love and Sweetness. Christ seldom wrought any Mirales for the hurt of his Enemies in a way of righteous Wrath and Judgment; but ordinarily only for the help both of Friends and Enemies: as for instance, the healing of Malchus his Ear. I remember but two Miracles wrought by Jesus Christ in a way of Wrath and Punishment against his Enemies, the suffering the De­vil to enter into the Gadarenes Swine, and causing his Enemies to fall backward, when they came to apprehend him.

All the rest were Miracles of Mercy and Kindness: But by the Hand of Moses there were no less than ten miraculous Plagues up­on Egypt. There were Thunderings and Lightnings at Mount Sinai. The Earth opened her mouth upon Corah, Dathan and Abiram, and swallowed them up quick, with other such dreadful and ter­rible things in righteousness.

The reason of this difference was, because Moses was the Mi­nister of the Law, which is a voice of Words, and Terror, and Fear, and genders unto Bondage; but Jesus Christ is the Minister and Author of the Gospel, which is Grace and Peace: Therefore these two different kinds of Dispensations were attested with two different kinds of Miracles. But as to the general, the working of Miracles by Moses, and so being owned by the Lord, and born witness to by him, herein there was a resemblance and prefigura­tion of what was done by Jesus Christ.

4. And lastly, Moses was a Type of Christ in the end and close of his Life, viz. in his Death, Resurrection, and Ascention into Heaven. He dyed willingly, he went up to Mount Nebo, which was a part of Mount Abarim, and there surrendred up his Soul.

So Christ, No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of my self, no man taketh it from me: see Joh. 10.18. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. He went to Mount Golgotha, and there gave up his Soul to his Father.

Moses after his Death and Burial rose again; buried he was, Deut. 34.6. and that he rose again, and ascended into Heaven, [Page 127] may be gathered from Matth. 17. For he did appear and talk with Christ at his Transfiguration, together with Elias.

So you know Jesus Christ rose again from the dead, and ascend­ed into Heaven.

Thus Moses was a Type of Christ all along. In his Birth, in his personal Qualifications, in the whole course of his Life, his Office, his Sufferings, his Miracles, and finally in his Death, Resurrecti­on, and Ascension into Heaven.

But yet though there was such a full analogy, and so great a resemblance between them; yet there was a disparity; Christ having the preheminence above Moses, Heb. 3.5, 6. Moses was faithful as a Servant in his Lords House: but Christ as a Son in his own House— Thus much as to Moses

Now for Joshuah, his Successor.

That he was a Type appears, because Christ was called by that name in the Hebrew.

And Joshuah is called Jesus in the Greek, in the New Testament, Acts 7.45. Heb. 4.8. that is, a Saviour; though he be but a tem­poral Saviour: Christ a spiritual Saviour, Author of eternal Re­demption, Heb. 9.

The Analogy appears chiefly in five things.

1. Joshuah brought the people into Canaan after Moses his death, which Moses could not do being alive: He divided the Land a­mong them, assigning to every one his Portion.

So Christ brings us to Heaven, which the Law could not do, Rom. 8.3.

And as Joshuah went in himself before them.

So Christ to Heaven, Joh. 14. I go to prepare a place for you; in my Fathers House are many Mansions, Heb. 6. ult. whither the Forerunner is entred for us.

And as when Joshuah did this, the Cloud and Manna ceased, which had been in Moses his time. Of the Manna it is expressed, and the time when, Josh. 5.12. of the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, that it did cease is evident by many passages afterwards in the sacred History; but the time when is not set down. Probably it might be after they had passed Jordan, being divided by the [Page 128] Ark, and were on shoar on the other side: So shall Ordinances cease when we come to Heaven, Rev. 21. God himself is instead of all.

2. Joshuah was a Type of Christ in regard of the Miracles wrought by him; we read of three.

1. He divided Jordan, Josh. 3.

But herein, as in all things, Christ hath the preheminence; for Christ in the same Jordan divides the Heavens when he was bap­tized, Matth. 3. And he commanded the Winds and Seas, and walk­ed upon the waters, as upon dry ground.

2. Moreover, Joshuah threw down the Walls of Jericho, by the sounding of Rams Horns, a weak and an unlikely means for so great a Work, yea ridiculous and contemptible in the eye of Rea­son, Josh. 6. but it was done by Faith, Heb. 11.30.

So Christ by the Foolishness of Preaching subdueth Souls unto himself, and throws down strong holds, 2 Cor. 10.4, 5.

And as Joshua did it again and again, six days, seven days be­fore the Walls fell.

So it is in the preaching of the Gospel: There must be Assi­duity in that work; Line upon Line, and Precept upon Precept; and at last the strong holds are won, and the Sinner subdued unto the Lord.

3. Joshuah commanded the Sun to stand still, till he had slain his Enemies, Josh. 10.12, 13— ver. 14. and there was no day like that, before it, or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto the voice of a Man.

So Jesus Christ, when fighting with Principalities and Powers upon the Cross, Matth 27.45. when the Sun was ashamed, and the Moon confounded, and all the Angels in Heaven stood agast.

Thus you see how great a Person this Joshuah was, in that all the Creatures, all the Elements obeyed him; the Earth, the Walls of Jericho prostrate themselves and fell before him, the Waters al­so, viz. in Jordan were at his Command, yea the Heavens also, the Sun and Moon obeyed him: thus God magnified him in the sight of all Israel, as it is said, Josh. 4.14.

But behold a greater than Joshuah is here: For it is said of [Page 129] Christ, That God hath given him a Name above every Name, Phil. 2.9. that in the Name of Jesus every knee should bow; of things in Heaven, and things in Earth, and things under the Earth, ver. 10.

3. Joshuah was a Type of Christ in regard of his Conquests and Victories over his Enemies: We read of five Kings at once sub­dued by him, Josh. 10. and he bids his Captains tread upon their Necks, and cap. 12. of one and thirty Kings which he smote; yet notwithstanding there were some few Enemies left, though weak and inconsiderable: but not one that durst or could oppose or di­sturb the publick peace of Gods people; yet they were left for a time, for their good, least the wild Beasts should multiply upon them, Deut. 7.22.

So Christ Jesus is a mighty Conqueror, he subdueth all the e­nemies of his people: see him described, Rev. 6.1, 2. conquering and to conquer, not only five, nor one and thirty, but thousands of them. One man was possest with a Legion of Devils; but they are all cast forth by Jesus Christ.

And as Christ, so his Followers are as Joshuahs, Conquerors with and through him: and he gives Believers to tread upon the necks of their own Lusts, and of the Devils Temptations: yet however there be some Canaanites left in the Land; some Cor­ruptions in the Hearts of Gods people in this Life to exercise their Graces and to keep them humble; which yet, if it be not through their own careless negligence, shall not disturb their Peace with God.

But there were some Enemies that were devoted unto everlast­ing Ruine, and Destruction irrecoverable by Joshuah in the spirit of Prophesie, viz. Jericho, cap 6.26. which Curse did not fall to the ground, but was fulfilled in Hiel the Bethelite, 1 King. 16.34. a shadow of the irreparable Ruines, and everlasting Destruction of all the implacable Enemies of God and his people, and especially Rome and Antichrist, Rev. 18.21. Babylon shall be cast down, like a Milstone into the Sea, never to rise more. The Curse of Christ will fall upon such as endeavour to restore Rome again, and raise up the Ruines that he hath brought upon it. For it is de­voted by our Lord Jesus, the true Joshuah, to irreparable everlast­ing Destruction.

[Page 130]4. Though Joshuah conquered and destroyed resisting Ene­mies; yet he saved those who submitted themselves; as Rahab and the Gibeonites; Rahab cap. 6. the Gibeonites cap. 9. Though they acted very sinfully, they came out of slavish fear, and they dissembled: but yet they did submit themselves.

So Christ resists the proud; but gives Grace to the humble, that yield up themselves unto him; though there be a mixture of much slavish Fear, and sinful Selfishness and Unbelief in their so doing, as Mark 9.24.

5. Joshuah gave them rest, fulfilling and accomplishing all the good promised, cap. 21.45. and 23.14. Joshuah appeals to all their Knowledges and Consciences about it.

So when we come to Heaven, we shall see the Truth and Faith­fulness of God; we shall have all the Promises accomplished through Christ the true Joshuah; and be able to say with Joy un­speakable, not a word hath failed; and all through Christ the true Joshuah: For in him all the Promises are Yea and Amen, 2 Cor. 1.20. and this will be Rest for ever.

As they had Rest; so now Believers enter into an everlasting Rest, Heb. 4.9, 10, 11.

But yet withal there is a great disparity between Christ and Joshuah, and the Rest they bring their Followers into Joshuah brought them but into a state of outward Rest, in the Land of Promise; but this was not the true Rest: But Christ gives us an higher Rest in Heaven, by bringing us into a state of Grace and Glory.

Thus you see how eminently Joshuah was a Type of Jesus Christ.

Sept. 12. 1667.—Who is the Type or Figure of him that is to come, Rom. 5.14.

THe second Conglobation of typical Persons under the Law is Sam­pson, David and Solomon, three famous Rulers amongst the people of God of old. All which three put together gives [...] and glorious Representation of the Messiah. Sampson in [...] and Sufferings, David in his Victories and Conques [...], [...] in the Peace and quiet Establishment of his Kingdom.

[Page 131]1. Sampson, a person whose Story is famous in the Scripture, and some think that the Fame of him went forth amongst the Heathen; and that their Fables of the Strength of Hercules, and Nisus his purple Locks took their rise from the Story of Sampson.

The Grecians commonly turning all into Fables, Graecia Men­dax; and being great pretenders to Antiquity, being as drunk with the Pride of that Pretence though as false) as the Papists are at this day; and therefore making their own Country the Scene and the Stage of every wonderful thing (as some have well ob­served of them); they report of Nisus the King of Megaris in Greece, that he had on his head a purple Hair, on which the Pre­servation of his Life and Kingdom did depend, which Jewel his Daughter Scylla is said to have delivered unto King Minos, her Fathers Enemy, with whom she fell in Love, &c.

Of which Fables it may be said, Fabula fundatur in Historia, these Fables seem to be founded in the History of antient times.

That Sampson was a godly man, it is certain, because he is num­bred amongst those eminent Believers, Heb. 11.

That he was a Type of Christ appears by the clearness of the Analogy between him and the Antitype; and there seemeth to be some intimation of it in Jacobs Prophesie, Gen. 49. of which here­after.

And indeed the Analogy is so clear, that I meet with none that have written of the Types, but takes notice of Sampson for one; so doth also Calvin and Beza on Matth. 2. ult.

He was a Type in regard of his Death and Sufferings; yet not in that only; but chiefly, as being most peculiar and signal to him, both above other Types, and above other respects wherein himself was a Type: For there were other respects also, besides this, which I shall touch upon, and so come to this as the main.

Sampson therefore was a Type of Christ in four respects.

  • 1. In regard of sundry passages and circumstances of his Birth.
  • 2. in some special Actions of his Life.
  • 3. In his Strength and Victories over his Enemies.
  • 4. In his Sufferings, and in the Victoriousness of his Suffer­ings.

[Page 132]1. The first Analogy between Christ and him is, in some passa­ges about his Birth. The time of it, when Israel was under great Oppression by the Philistines, Judges 13.1. then Sampson arose like a little Sun, as his Name imports [...] Soliculus or Sol parvus, from Shemesh, Sol, and gave them some dawnings of the Day, some beginnings of Light and Liberty in that deep night of Darkness and Bondage.

Answerably Jesus Christ appeared when the Jews were under the yoke of the Romans and both they and the whole world un­der the spiritual thraldom of Sin and Satan. The Pagan world overwhelmed in Idolatry and ignorance of God, the Jews dege­nerated into Formality and a spirit of Bondage: then did this true Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his Wings.

His Birth was beyond the ordinary course of Nature. And so was Christs: For Sampsons Mother was barren, the Mother of Christ a Virgin.

It was foretold, together with his Office, to his Mother by an Angel, and confirmed by a Sign.

And so was Christs.

His Office was to begin to deliver Israel from the Philistines, Judg. 13.5.

Christs to save his people from their Sins, Matth. 1.21.

The Sign to Sampsons Mother was the Angels appearing again, and ascending in a flame of Fire, Judg. 13.20.

The Virgin Mary had the Message confirmed also by a Sign, though not so terrible a Sign as this: But the Angels acquainting her with her Cousin Elizabeths Conception, and the Babe leaping in her Womb, and she breaking forth into those blessed expressi­ons; Blessed art thou among Women, and blessed is the Fruit of thy Womb, and whence is this, that the Mother of my Lord should come unto me, Luke 1.36, 42, 43.

Moreover, they were both Nazarites from the Womb.

Sampson by the Law of Nazarites, Numb. 6.2.

Christ by special Sanctity fulfilling that Type; that holy thing that shall be born of thee, Luke 1.35.

As also by the place of his Residence, being born indeed at Beth­lehem, [Page 133] but bred at Nazareth, Matth. 2.1, 5, 23. and thence called a Nazaren, or a Nazarite.

2. There is a second Analogy between Christ and Sampson in some special Actions of his Life.

As in his Marriage with a Philistine, and the Text saith, it was of the Lord; therefore some think that his first Match was not sinful; but that he had a special Dispensation for it, Judg. 14.4.

So Christ took a Spouse unto himself out of the Gentiles, Hos. 2.20.

At his Marriage Sampson put forth his Mind in Parables and Riddles to the Philistines, Judg. 14.12.

And so did Christ to the Pharisees, Matth. 13.34.

3. There is a third Analogy, in their Strength and Victories over their Enemies, especially in this circumstance; That Sampson wrought his Victories alone, by his own personal Strength, his Countrymen would not stand by him, Judg. 15.10, 11, 12,

So Christ trod the Wine-press alone, when all forsook him.

Sampsons first exploit was, the slaying of a Lyon in the Desart, that roared upon him, Judg. 14.6.

So the first Work of Christ at his entrance into his Ministry was, the conquering that roaring Lyon that assaulted and tempted him in the Wilderness, and roared upon him with those three hi­deous Temptations, Matth. 4.

And as upon the Lyon Sampson slew, he gave this Riddle; Out of the Eater came forth Meat, and out of the strong came Sweet­ness.

So ex Corpore Diaboli mystico, out of the Devils Body, being slain, out of the Devils Destruction comes the sweet and blessed tidings of the Gospel; and Flocks, or Churches, or Societies of Christians, like so many Swarms of Bees. The Saints were onco in an unregenerate condition, Children of Wrath, Limbs of Satan; but Satan being slain and conquered, they are transformed; and it is as great a change, as for a Bee to be bred of a dead Carkass.

Some Interpreters have observed,English Annot. on Judg. 14.8. that this was ex­traordinary: For Naturalists observe, that Bees do not use to breed in the Carkass of a Lyon; but rather of [Page 134] an Ox or Bullock. We may apply it to the Dispensations of Providence. God works by unlikely, yea contrary means; Meat out of the Eater. The Canaanites, our Enemies, they are Bread for us, Numb. 14.9. their very Sins, Corruptions, Temptations, the Lord in his unsearchable Wisdom produceth good out of them; Light out of Darkness, yea Life out of Death, out of the Death of the Lord of Life.

Moreover, Sampson slew a thousand men with the Jaw-bone of an Ass, a very weak and unable and unlikely Instrument to effect such a Work by; yet the Spirit of the Lord coming upon him, what slaughter doth he make! Judg. 15.14, 15.

So Christ by the Foolishness of Preaching, through the Power of his Spirit, subdues and overcomes the Souls of men unto him­self, and slays the Enmity.

4. A fourth Analogy between Christ and Sampson is, in his Sufferings, and the Victoriousness thereof against his Enemies, es­pecially his Death; I say Sampson was made like unto the Son of God, in regard of his Sufferings from his Enemies.

Some have summed them up briefly thus.

That they were both sold for Mony, under pretence of Love, apprehended by their Enemies, led away bound, brought forth at a great Feast, blinded, (Christ was blindfolded) scorned, fastned to a Post, offered themselves willingly to death, died amongst wic­ked men, and thereby destroyed the Power of the Churches Ene­mies.

And as there were many circumstances in his Death, which did evidently prefigure what befel the Antitype: so let me desire you to take notice of these three.

1. That it was voluntary: so Christ, no man taketh it from me, Joh. 10.18. I lay it down of my self.

2. That it was by his Enemies, not a natural Death, but vio­lent: so was Christs.

3. That he was victorious in his Death, he did suffer, and con­quer, yea he conquered in and by his Sufferings: he slew more at his Death, than in his Life, Judg. 16.30.

So Christ by his Death gave the most deadly blow to Satans [Page 135] Kingdom, Col. 2. In his Death he spoiled Principalities and Powers. This prophesied of by Jacob, Gen. 49.16, 17, 18.

Sampson was a Serpent, by the way to the Philistines in the Foxes, and in the Jaw-bone of an Ass: and the Pillars of the House are compared by some to the Heels of the Horse whereupon three thousand Philistines rode and fell backwards.

And I have waited for thy Salvation, saith Jacob, that is, for Christ, whom in the Spirit of Prophesie, he saw afar off.

And as Sampson, when he was in Azzah, when the Philistines thought they had him sure enough, he rose at midnight, Judg. 16.3.

So when the Enemies thought they had Christ sure enough, he arose in his might, carried away the Gates and Bars of Death, and broke the Bonds of it, Rom. 1.4. Acts 2.24.

2. David, that he was a Type appears by this, that Christ is called by his Name, Hos. 3.5. Ezek. 34.23, 24. My Servant Da­vid shall reign over them for evermore.

Sampson began, David went on with the Work.

See the Analogy between David and Christ in these four par­ticulars.

1. He was eminently sitted for the Work, to rule, to feed Gods people Israel, though he was the meanest of his Family.

So Christ came when the Family was brought low into obscu­rity.

David was eminent for Holiness, a man after Gods own heart.

So Christ, holy, harmless and undefiled, separate from Sinners.

A person of such worth, that the Story of his Life is more fully and largely recorded in holy Writ, than any other person in all the Old Testament.

So Christ is the person treated of throughout the whole Scri­pture.

David beloved of God.

So Christ, Matth. 3. this is my beloved Son.

2. He had many Enemies both open and secret, Saul, Doeg and Achitophel, treacherous Dealers, Types of Judas, who dealt trea­cherously with him; and for open professed Enemies, the Phi­listines, and the Ammonites, and the Syrians engaged by the [Page 136] Ammonites, see 2 Samuel 10.6. and 2 Samuel 8.

So had Jesus Christ the Scribes and Pharisees, the Jews, the Romans, Men and Devils for his Enemies.

3. His Kingdom had but small and weak beginnings; first a Shepherd, then an Officer in Sauls Army, then an Exile with a matter of six hundred men, afterward King over Judah and Ben­jamin at Hebron, lastly King over all Israel at Jerusalem.

So the Kingdom of Christ grows from small beginnings; it is therefore compared to a grain of Mustard Seed: It is at first like a River breaking forth at the Foot of a Mountain in a little Stream, that you may stride over it: but in its progress it enlarg­eth, and grows to a deep and broad River, and at last ends in the Ocean, as all Rivers do: so doth the Kingdom of Grace in the Ocean of eternal Glory.

4. Glorious Successes, and Victories, and Deliverances, all his Enemies fell before him. He slew the Bear, the Lyon, Goliah, 1 Sam. 17.37. conquered all his Enemies round about, see 2 Sam. 8.12, 14.

Moreover, Saul and his bloody House were rooted out before him: He never fell into his Enemies hands; though in this there is some dissimilitude.

For Christ was content to yield up himself into their hands, to let them try their Strength, and do their worst upon him; there­fore he gave up himself to Death: But he rose again from under the power of Death, and prevailed against them all; and after his Resurrection Death hath no more dominion over him. All his Enemies shall fall and perish sooner or later; but he shall reign for ever and ever.

3. Solomon; I shall but mention a threefold Analogy between Christ and him.

1. In his personal Wisdom, 1 Kings 4.29, 30.

So Christ, Col. 2.3. in him are hid all the treasures of Wisdom and Knowledg.

2. In the glorious Peace and Prosperity of his Kingdom: The Kingdom was peaceably setled in his hand, 1 Chron. 22.9. 1 King. 4.24, 25. And so he fell to the work of building the Temple: [Page 137] as Christ doth the Church; but of that hereafter, when we come to the real Types.

So Christ, Isai. 9.6. he is the Prince of Peace, the great Peace-maker, Ephes. 2.

3. In his Marriage with Pharaohs Daughter.

Some observe, that the Daughter of Pharaoh never seduced him; neither is there any mention made of the Egyptian Idols, 1 Kings 11.5, 7. In his other Outlandish Marriages he did sin; but this is mentioned as by way of special exception, 1 King. 11.1.

He took others besides Pharaohs Daughter. For she was a Proselyte, and so it was no sin to marry her.

And the Love between her and Solomon is made a Type of the Love between Christ and the Church.

Christ hath took us Gentiles to be a Spouse unto him, Psal. 45.

Ʋse 1. Resolution of that great Case of Conscience, whether you do belong to Christ or no.

Is his Kingdom set up in thee? art thou conflicting? art thou conquering?

Ʋse 2. Comfort against the low and weak beginnings of Christs Kingdom. Sampson did but begin to deliver Israel; but David carried the work through: But in Solomons time there was glori­ous Peace.

You see here, as in a Glass, the method and progress of Christs Kingdom: It begins in War, it is carried on in Victory, it ends in Peace.

Ʋse 3. Here is Comfort and Support, as to all the Conflicts and Enemies that God is pleased to exercise his people with, whe­ther particular Saints, or whole Churches.

1. They had so: Christ had so, secret as well as open Enemies, secret Underminers as well as open Opposers.

2. These Conflicts will end in peace and quiet establishment, Psal. 37.37. Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright man, for the end of that man is peace.

This is the difference between Christs Peace and Satans Peace; for they both give Peace to their subjects.: But Satans Peace is a Peace of freedom from trouble, and of sinful security in sin.

[Page 138]Christs Peace is a Peace after and out of trouble, by War and Victory over Sin and spiritual Enemies, Isai. 9.3. His Servants rejoyce as those that divide the spoil after the Victory.

Quest. But how may I know, that Peace will be the end of all my present Conflicts.

Answ. Dost thou get the Victory? then the end will be Peace. Are there any beginnings of Victory? whatever thou dost, do not lay down thy Weapons, but fight still, this is the beginning of Victory, and the end will be Triumph, and Peace, and Joy.

Sept. 19. 1667.—Who is the Type or Figure of him that was to come, Rom. 5.14.

THe third Conjunction or Conglebation of typical Persons under the Law, is those three Prophets, Elijah, Elisha and Jonah, whom I put together, because Elijah was a Type of Christs As­cension into Heaven, and Elisha of the Continuance of his Pre­sence and Spirit in his Apostles and Messengers ever since, and Jonah of his Death and Sufferings the procuring cause of all.

1. For Elijah, that great Prophet. I confess he is omitted by many that have written of the Types, and indeed by all that I have seen. I know not well, how it comes to pass.

But that he was a Type, is certain, because John the Baptist is called by his Name; therefore he was a Type,

  • 1. Of John. Yea,
  • 2. Of Christ himself.

1. He was a Type of the Messiahs Harbinger and Forerunner John the Baptist. For the Types (as hath been often hinted) are not to be restrained always only to the Person of Christ himself; but all the things of Christ were typified to them of old. There were Types of all New Testament Dispensations; therefore John is called Elijah, Mal. 4.2 last v. and Christ himself explains it, Matth. 11.14.

But why is John called Elias?

Not that he was Elijah personally, but mystically; he rose up [Page 139] in the Spirit and Power of Elijah: So Elijah was John in a Type or Figure. John was Elijah in Spirit and Power, as Luk. 1.17. There was something of Analogy in his very outward Garb and Deportment, an hairy man, 2 King. 1.8. that is, in regard of his Ha­bit or Clothing; in a rough hairy Garment: So John, Matth. 3.4. a Girdle of Hair; but chiefly in regard of his Spririt and inward Endowments, and of his Work and Office, to convert and recall a backsliden Generation.

2. Elijah was a Type of Christ himself. And that he was so, will be very evident, if you do consider how great a Person this Elijah was, in three respects.

1. His eminent and heroick Spirit of Holiness, and invincible Courage and Activity for God. His very Name signifies God the Lord, Elijah or Elijahu in the Hebrew, Elias in the Greek in the New Testament.

He abode with God when almost all the world forsook him, 1 King. 19.10. he reduced and brought back the people, cap. 18.39. he was a man mighty in Prayer, Jam. 5.17, 18. a man of an invincible Courage, who feared not to stand himself alone against four hundred Prophets, and against Ahab the King, and Jezabel the Queen, whose Chaplains these false Prophets were: He is brought forth in the sacred History not unlike Melchizedek, with­out Father or Mother, without either Birth or Death, 1 King. 17.

2. The great and wonderful Miracles wrought by him, there be twelve recorded in the History of him in the first and second Books of Kings.

1. His shutting up the Windows of Heaven, that there should be no Rain for three years and an half, 1 King. 17. whence some have called him Fraenum Caeli, the Bridle of Heaven.

2. His being fed by a Raven morning and evening at the Brook Cherith beside Jordan. This was the effect of his Faith and Pray­er, and may be reckoned amongst his Miracles;English Annot. not that it is likely that he did eat raw Flesh, but rather that God by his Providence directed the Ravens to the places where they might have it, as to some rich mens Kitchens, or the like.

[Page 140]3. His miraculous Supply of the Widow of Zarephath, called Sarepta in Luke 4.26. that her Barrel of Meal wasted not, nor did the Cruise of Oyl fail.

4. His raising of her Son from the dead, by stretching himself upon the Child. This was the first person we read of in Scripture that was raised from the dead, and Elijahs fourth Miracle. All these are recorded in 1 King. 17.

5. In fetching down Fire from Heaven upon his Sacrifice, to confound the Priests of Baal.

6. His opening the Windows of Heaven, and fetching down Rain after he had done justice upon the Priests of Baal; these two are in cap. 18. he did this also by Prayer, and by persevering in Prayer, cap. 18. ver. 43.

7. His fasting forty days and forty nights, cap. 19.8. In Mount Horeb, and in his Journey thither and back again, the place where God appeared to Moses, Exod. 3.1, 2. and where he gave the Law to Israel, Deut. 4.10, 14.

Never any man fasted forty days, besides this Elijah and Mo­ses, Exod. 34.28. and Christ, Matth. 4.2.

Herein both Moses and Elijah were manifest Prefigurations of the Lord Jesus Christ. This was Elijahs seventh Miracle.

8. His calling the Prophet Elisha, and causing him to follow him, by casting his Mantle upon him, which had such an influ­ence, that he left all and followed him; therefore this may be put into the Catalogue of his Miracles, cap. 19.

And in the like miraculous influence of the Spirit did Christ call his Apostles to leave all and follow him.

His ninth and tenth Miracles were the Destruction of the two Captains and their Fifties, when Ahaziah sent to take him, 2 King. 1.1. they both perished alike. For like Sins pull down like Judgments.

The 11th was the dividing of Jordan by his Mantle, that he and Elisha might pass over, 2 King. 2.

And the 12. was his Ascension into Heaven in a Chariot of Fire, 2 King. 2.11. a Prerogative that never any man had but himself, and Enoch before the Law, and Moses who gave the Law; but [Page 141] Moses died first, and was translated afterwards, as hath been for­merly shewed. They were all three eminent Types herein of Christ his Ascension into Heaven.

They that are faithful and zealous for God in times of gene­ral Apostacy, the Lord is wont to own them in a special manner, and to put special Honour upon them one way or other.

3. His commissionating Successors after him to carry on the Work of God when he was gone, 1 Kings 19.15, 16. Elisha to be Prophet. Hazael King of Syria, Jehu King of Israel.

So Christ sends forth his Apostles and Ministers, Matth. 28. some that are godly, and sometimes he imploys others that are not godly, but only gifted, and makes some use of them, as he did of Jehu, and of Judas, and Demas for a time.

2. Elisha, called in the New Testament Elizeus, Luk. 4.

He was a Type of Christ in three respects.

1. In that Elisha in respect of Elijah, was, as it were, a Conti­nuation of the same person: For he rose up compleatly in the same Spirit. The Prophets discerned it, 2 Kings 2.15. the Spirit of Elijah did rest upon Elisha.

So when Christ departed and ascended up to Heaven, he left the Comforter in his stead, Joh. 16. and he left the Apostles and Ministers to carry on his Work, and poured forth his Spirit upon them for that end.

Or we may accommodate this with respect to John the Baptist, thus. As Elisha succeeded Elijah; so did Christ come after John the Baptist: and so Elisha was in this respect a Type of Christ himself.

2. In regard of the remarkable Vengeance and Destruction that came upon his wicked Enemies.

The Children that mocked him were devoured by two She-Bears, 2 Kings 2.23, 24.

Gehazi his treacherous Servant smitten with Leprosie, 2 Kings 5.27.

So Despisers of Jesus Christ, and the Gospel, shall be punish­ed with most remarkable and dreadful Destruction; Hear ye De­spisers, and wonder, and perish, Acts 13.41. For I work a Work in [Page 142] your days, a Work which you shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you; incredible Plagues shall the Despisers and Rejecters of Christ, and of the Gospel, be punished with.

And Judas the Traytor, his Servant, you know what dreadful Destruction came upon him, Acts 1.18. his Bowels gushed out, through the horror of his Conscience, and the Fury of the Al­mighty rending his very Body in pieces, as well as his Soul from his Body.

3. In regard of his Miracles.

He and his Predecessor Elijah were the greatest workers of Mi­racles (except Moses) that ever we read of in Scripture, or that e­ver the Lord raised up in his Church. For Moses was to be the Foun­der as it were of that Church-Estate and Worship that was in those days: and Elijah and Elisha were the Preservers and Restorers of it in a most degenerate and corrupted Age.

The Miracles of Elisha were very great and many; they are recorded in the second Book of Kings, in the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7th. Chapters and one more in chap. 13. They were about one and twenty in all. There be three recorded in the second chapter, viz. his dividing Jordan with Elijahs Mantle, his healing the Waters of Jericho, the devouring two and forty scoffing Children of those idolatrous Parents, the people at Bethel, by two She-Bears.

In the third Chapter there is another, viz. the overflowing of the Wilderness of Edom with Water, crp. 3.20. see ver. 8. to the Destruction of the Moabites.

In the fourth Chapter there be five more, which are the Ana­lysis and Contents of that Chapter, viz.

1. His multiplying the Widows Oyl, while she had any empty vessels to fill.

2. His giving a Son to that great and good Woman the Shuna­mite.

3. His raising her Son when dead unto life again: and this is the second person that ever was raised from the dead.

4. His healing the deadly Pottage, which had poysoned the Students in the Colledge at Gilgal.

5. His feeding of an hundred men with twenty Loaves.

[Page 143]In the fifth Chapter there be two more, the curing of Naamans Leprosie, and the smiting of Gehazi with that Disease.

In the sixth Chapter there be six more.

1. His causing Iron to swim.

2. His disclosing the secret Counsels of the King of Syria by the Spirit of Prophesie.

3. An Army of Angels coming down from Heaven for his de­fence at Dothan.

4. The opening of his Servants Eyes to see them.

5. The smiting of the Syrians with Blindness. And

6. The opening their Eyes again.

In the seventh Chapter are three more, the hideous which noise was heard, and caused such a pannick terror in the Camp of the Syrians, that their whole Army fled; and the incredible Plenty in Samaria; with the Death of that unbelieving Nobleman who had questioned whether God could do it.

And then lastly, cap. 13.21. a dead man is restored to life by touching his Bones. And this is the third person that was raised from the dead.

All these Miracles in general were Presignifications of what the Messiah was to do in that kind: and some of them were more particularly fulfilled and answered by the Antitype.

As that of feeding an hundred men with twenty Loaves.

You know Christ did that and more, feeding five thousand with five Loaves and two Fishes, Matth. 14.21.

And at another time four thousand with seven Loaves and a few little Fishes, Matth. 15.38.

His raising the dead to life, whereof we have three instances in the Old Testament, the Widow of Sarepta her Son, the Shu­namites Son, and the Man buried in Elisha's Grave. These were Types and Pledges of what Christ should do in raising the dead.

As in raising Lazarus, Jairus his Daughter, the Widows Son of Naim; and his own blessed Body out of the Grave, and many Saints that arose with him.

And those which the Apostles raised by his Name.

And finally, the raising all his Elect unto eternal Life, and [Page 144] all the Sons of men unto Judgment at the great Day.

There might also be a spiritual application and accommodation of them, as to the quickning of mens Souls, the healing of the Dis­eases of the Soul, feeding them with the Bread of Life, pouring into empty Vessels, empty Souls, the Oyl of Gladness, the Joys and Graces of his Spirit.

3. Jonah, him I connect with Elijah and Elisha, to make the Type more compleat and full.

Some have conjectured that Jonah was the Widows Son of Zarephath, whom Elijah raised from the dead, 1 Kings 17.22, 23. but this is but a conjecture without proof: it is probable enough he might live about their time, or perhaps somewhat after.

That he was a Type of Christ, the Scripture is express, Matth. 12.39. No Sign shall be given them, but the Sign of the Prophet Jonah.

You may see how the Type fits the Antitype in four respects.

1. In his Death; he offered himself willingly unto Death to as­swage the Storm, Jon. 1. and so he is cast into the Sea, and de­voured by the Whale.

So did Christ, to appease the Tempest of Gods Wrath.

And as upon Jonahs being cast into the Sea, the Sea ceased from its raging, cap. 1.15. and the Seamen were saved from drowning.

So upon Christs Death Gods Wrath is pacified, and Believers saved from the Wrath to come.

Jonah had sore conflicts, and inward agonies of Spirit when he was under that shadow of death in the Whales Belly, cap. 2.

So had Christ when he cried, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me! there were unutterable anguishes in his Soul, those [...], unknown, unconceivable sufferings in his Soul.

2. He was a Type of Christ in his Burial. For, look, as Jo­nah was buried in the Belly of the Whale three days and three nights: So was Christ in the Belly of the Earth the same space, Matth. 12.40.

3. In his Resurrection. For, look, as Jonah overcame all the dan­gers [Page 145] he was in, and came forth again alive out of the Whales Belly.

So did Christ out of the Grave within three days: he over­came greater Enemies, even the power of Satan, Death and Hell; and upon this sang Praise to God, cap. 2.

So did Christ triumph; Oh Death, where is thy Sting? Oh Grave, where is thy Victory? Hos. 13.14. and Psal. 22.22, 23, 25. and Psal. 18.48, 49.

4. In his preaching after his Resurrection. For, look, as Jonah after his Resurrection preached Repentance to the Ninevites, and that with great success and efficacy; for they did repent upon his preaching, the whole body of them with an outward Repen­tance; and many of them doubtless with a true and saving Re­pentance: and so were saved both from that present temporal Destruction, and from eternal Damnation: and Jonah did preach to the Israelites also, as well as to the Ninevites, 2 Kings 14.25. but which was first the Scripture doth not express.

So Christ, when risen from the dead, sent his Spirit, and preach­ed by his Spirit in his Apostles and Ministers; and not only to the Jews, but to the Gentiles, such as those Ninevites, to the Conver­sion and Salvation of multitudes of them, as was foretold of him, Psal. 22.22. and to the deeper Condemnation of Unbelievers, Matth 12.41. because a greater than Jonas is here.

4. The fourth and last Conjunction that I shall speak unto, of typi­cal Persons under the Law, is Zerubbabel and Jehoshuah; of whom the one was the chief Magistrate, the other the chief Priest, and both of them Rebuilders of the Temple, and Restorers of the col­lapsed estate of the Church of God in those times: in all which there was an eminent Praefiguration of Jesus Christ.

But what of Christ was shadowed forth by these two?

For I shall put them both together, they being contempora­ries, and joint instruments in the Work and Service of God in that Generation.

There were three things of Christ typed and shadowed forth by them.

1. Both his Offices of King and Priest. Zerubbabel was the Prince of the People of God in those days, and the chief person [Page 146] of the Line of David. And Jehoshuah was at the same time High Priest. And that there was something of peculiar Glory in his Priesthood, relating to Jesus Christ our great High Priest, is not improbable. In Zach. 3. he is presented in Vision to the Prophet, as standing before the Lord, and resisted by Satan, but Satan doth not prevail against him, ver. 1, 2. for he is clothed with change of Raiment, ver. 4 and hath a fair Mitre set on his head, ver. 5.

So Christ, though opposed and resisted by Satan, yet went through with his Work, and had blessed acceptance with God, and success therein.

2. His building the Temple, the Church of God. For these two did build the Temple, Ezra, 4. conjunctly each of them in their several capacities, being stirred up to it by the Prophet Hag­gai, as you may see Hagg. 1.12, 14.

And it is said of Zerubbabel, that as his Hands laid the Foun­dation of the Temple: so his Hands should also finish it, Zach. 4.9. and the building of the Altar is ascribed to them both con­junctly, Ezra 3.2.

So doth Christ spiritually, as the Apostle tells us in that very metaphor of building the House of God, Heb. 3.3, 4.

3. His bringing back the Captivity of his People out of spiri­tual Bondage under Sin and Satan in their natural estate, and out of antichristian Bondage under Rome, which is mystical Babylon.

Thus Zerubbabel and Jehoshuah were the Conductors and Captains of the Salvation of that People from literal Babylon, Ezra 1.5, 8. and 2.2. and 5.14.

But there will be occasion to speak further to these things when we come to the real Types.

Besides the personal Types that have been spoken to, there be divers others also that are noted by learned men; as of the first Classis before the Law: some have noted Abel the Proto-martyr, as also Seth, Methuselah, and Lamech Noaks Father, and Heber the seventh from Enoch, as Enoch was the seventh from Adam. He was a pious man; in his Seed the primitive Language, and the true Religion and Church of God was preserved, when the rest of the world was lost and fell into Idolatry: and from him [Page 147] the Church had their Denomination, Hebrews; as Christians have from Jesus Christ.

And it was prophesied, that Chittim should afflict Heber, Numb. 24.24. Chittim is the Romans, Christ is the chiefest of Heber, whom Italy or Chittim afflicted, as in other respects; so chiefly at his death: for he was crucified under Tiberius the Roman Em­peror.

Judah the Son of Jacob, to whom it was said, Thy Fathers Sons shall bow down unto thee, Gen. 49.8.

Also Job in his Sufferings and Patience, both unparallel'd, and his prevailing Intercessions for his offending Friends, are by some looked on as Types of Christ.

And as to the second Classis, viz. those under the Law, some have added Aaron the Priest of the Lord: but what might be said of him, will come in when we come to handle the Office of the Priesthood.

Also Gideon and Jephtah, Judges of Israel of old.

And Samuel the Prophet, who was a Judge also, and a Nazarite.

Hezekiah and Josiah, those great reforming Kings.

Eliakim, Isai. 22.20. for the like phrase which is there used, ver. 22. of Eliakim, is applyed to Christ, Isai. 9.5. Revel. 3.7.

Some have set Cyrus also among the Types of Christ, the Founder of the Persian Monarchy, who may be thought to have been a godly man, much good and no evil being recorded of him in the Scripture: and he did a very good work (and a great and glorious work it was) the breaking the Yoke of Babylon, and setting the Israel of God at liberty, and rebuild­ing the Temple; and indeed the Elogies and Expressions of the Prophet Isaiah concerning him are very high and excellent, Isai. cap. 45. beginning, and cap. 46.11.

Daniel also a person of extraordinary Eminency in his Gene­ration.

I do not omit these Persons, as concluding they had no typi­cal relation to Jesus Christ: For indeed I think divers of them had: But in some the Analogy is but weak and dark, and in some few particulars: and though in others it is more clear; [Page 148] yet it would have been too large to go thorough every person.

I have thought it sufficient to my intended scope, to instance only in some of the clearest and most eminent, referring the rest to your own Meditations in the Scripture, to observe and improve what you find written concerning them.

Ʋse 1. See the Glory of Jesus Christ the Antitype, in that so many excellent persons do but weakly and imperfectly represent him: as if all the Candles in the world were put together, it would not equalize the Glory of the Sun: But how bright then is the Sun it self, which shines brighter than all the Candles of the world; yea than all the Stars in the Firmament?

So here how glorious is the Messiah, of whom all these were but weak and dark Umbrages? He is indeed the chiefest of ten thousands, Cant. 5.

Ʋse 2. Look whatever Glory was in any of these Persons by way of Prefiguration of Jesus Christ: it is and should be found in every Believer by way of Participation from Christ and Imitation of him.

Therefore in these Examples we see our own Duty; in their Attainments, we see what should be our Endeavours: our Endea­vours did I say? I may say also, through Grace, our Attainments. For tho it is true, we are not yet perfect; neither have we alrea­dy attained; yet there is a time coming, when thou and I, if we be true Believers, shall be more holy than ever Elijah or Elisha were in the days of their pilgrimage here below: when we shall serve God better than Zerubbabel and Jehoshuah did, when they restored and rebuilt his Temple; namely, when we come to Hea­ven. Then there is not the least Saint, but is more holy than ever the most eminent Saint was here upon Earth. For the best of them had a Body of Sin and Death in them: but in Heaven there shall be no Sin at all.

For as these eminent Persons had a typical relation unto Christ: so every true Believer hath a mystical Union and Com­munion with him: and by virtue thereof they do partake of his Spirit and Glory.

So that as we have here a motive unto what we ought to do: [Page 149] so we have also Encouragement and Comfort, as to what we shall attain.

We shall attain it then, when Jesus Christ shall present all his Members to his Father blameless, and spotless, and faultless, Ephes. 5.26, 27. Jude 24. before the presence of his Glory with exceeding Joy.

‘—Who is the Type or Figure of him that was to come, Rom. 5.14. Sept. 26. 1667:

THe personal Types of Christ have been referred unto two sorts. 1. Individual Persons. 2. Religious Orders, or whole ranks and kinds of typical Persons. The former have been spoken to, we shall now proceed to the latter, and so finish the Text.

The difference between individual Types, and religious Orders or kinds and ranks of typical Persons lies chiefly in this, That no wicked man could be an individual Type of Christ; but he may be involved in a religious Order of Types: For the Order is holy, though the Man be wicked: And here it is not directly the Per­son but rather indeed the Order that is the Type, and the Person as involved and invested in such an Order.

Quest. What were these typical Orders and Ranks of Men?

Answ. I shall instance only in these six.

  • 1. That whole Nation and People of Israel.
  • 2. The First-born of that Nation.
  • 3. Their Nazarites.
  • 4. Their Prophets.
  • 5. Their Priests.
  • 6. Their Kings.

1. The whole Nation of the Jews; they were a typical People; their Church-state being very ceremonial and peculiar to those legal times; and therefore now ceased and abolished: and did adumbrate and shadow forth two things.

1. Christ himself; hence Christ is called Israel, Isai. 49.3. By Israel is meant Christ, and all the Faithful, as the Members of him their Head.

[Page 150]2. They were a Type of the Church of God under the New Testament. Hence the Church is called Israel, Gal. 6.16. and Rev. 7. The twelve Tribes of Israel are numbred up by Name to shew forth the Lords particular Care of every one of his Peo­ple in particular. That place is not meant properly of old Israel, because it relates to the times of the Antichristian Locusts. Com­pare cap. 7. with cap. 9.4. the Analogy lies in this, That they were a peculiar people to the Lord, chosen and singled out by him from all the world:

So is Christ the Lords chosen. Behold my Servant whom I have chosen, mine elect in whom my Soul delighteth: So are all the Saints, 1 Pet. 2.9. A royal Nation, a peculiar People, gathered from among all Nations, Rev. 5.9. Hence the Enemies of Israel were typical Enemies; as Egypt and Babylon under the Old Testament, Types of Antichristian Enemies under the New: and the Providences of God towards that People of old, Types and Shadows of his in­tended future Dispensations towards his People under the New; as you will see further when we come to speak of typical Provi­dences.

2. The First-born of that Nation were also a typical sort of persons: therefore Esau in despising his Birthright despised a spi­ritual Priviledge; and therefore justly called a profane person, Heb. 12.16.

And they also typified Christ and the Church.

Christ: For he is the First-born among many Brethren, Rom. 8.29.

The Church: And thence the same Name and Title is given to all the Saints, Heb. 12.23. The general Assembly and Church of the First-born.

The Analogy appears chiefly in two things.

  • 1. In regard of the Lords special Interest and Propriety in them.
  • 2. In regard of their Preheminence and Dignity above others.

1. The Lords Propriety in them as his in a special and pecu­liar manner; The First-born are mine. Because he had redeemed them, when the First-born of Egypt were destroyed, Exod. 13.2.

So Christ hath a special relation to God, as his first begotten, [Page 151] yea his only begotten Son; his Son by Nature, (we are Sons on­ly by Adoption and Grace) Primogenitus ante quem nullus, & uni­genitus post quem nullus— Joh. 1.14.

So the Saints: The Lord hath a special relation and propriety in them, all manner of ways; by Creation, by Redemption, by Regeneration, by his own choice of them, by their consent and choice of him, &c.

2. In regard of their Dignity and Preheminence above others: The First-born had many Priviledges above his Brethren; he was, as it were the second Father of the Family:

So Christ, Isai. 9.6. is called the everlasting Father.

He had the Honour, and the Government; the Priesthood was his, and a double portion of the Estate, Deut. 21.17.

The First-born at first had the Priesthood, Exod. 24.5. Young men sacrificed— Afterward Levi was set apart instead of the First-born, Numb. 8.

Therefore Reuben left the Government to Judah, the Priest­hood to Levi, the double Portion to Joseph, who was divided into two Tribes Ephrahim and Manasseh:

So Christ has the Honour above all Creatures, Heb. 1.6. Let all the Angels of God worship him.

And the Saints which are the Lords First-born in a secondary way, are honourable persons, as being Members of Christ: they are precious in his sight and honourable: therefore he says, I will give Nations and Princes for thy Life, Isai. 43.3, 4.

3. Their Nazarites; the Institution of their religious Order, with all the Rules and Observations belonging to it, you have in the 6th chapter of Numbers. It was an Order of much esteem amongst the People of God in those times, and is reckoned as a great Honour and Glory to that People, Amos 2.11. I raised of your Sons for Prophets, and of your Young men for Nazarites. Her Nazarites, Lam. 4.7. were whiter than Snow.

There were two degrees of it; either for a certain time, or during a mans whole life.

Of Persons that were Nazarites all their days, the Scripture giveth some very great and eminent instances; as Sampson, [Page 152] Judg. 13.5. also Samuel the Prophet, 1 Sam. 1.11. also John the Baptist, Luke 1.15.

Of Persons under the Vow of Nazariteship only for some cer­tain time, we have instance in Paul the Apostle, Acts 18.18. and again Acts 21.23, 24.

How long they were to be under the Vow, the Scripture limits not. The Jewish Writers report, that one month was the short­est time in use amongst them.

This Order shadowed forth sundry things relating,

  • 1. To Christ himself.
  • 2. To the Members of Christ.
  • 3. To the Benefits of Christ.

1. The Nazarites were Types of Christ himself; not that Christ himself was a Nazarite according to the Law, but only in the Spirit and Truth of this Type.

That he was not a Nazarite literally, is clear; because he drank Wine, as at other times, so at his last Supper, which they might not do.

But in him this Type was fulfilled in two respects.

1. In regard of his usual Name and Title, Jesus of Nazareth, or Jesus the Nazarite, Matth. 2. ult. Joh. 19.19.

Thus he was usually called, which the Jews would never have done; but that by the Providence of God he had lived in that place. In which disposal of Providence, altius fuit Dei Consilium; as Calvin in Mat. 2. God had a further Design and Counsel than they were aware of, that from thence called him by that Name: Which, though it was given him upon another occasion by the Jews, namely, from the place of his Residence; yet God in his infinite Wisdom did so contrive and order it, that by this means he should be commonly called by the Name of this religious Order. See Matth. 2. ult. where the Evangelist tells us, that by this means of Christs living in Nazareth, was fulfilled that which was spoken by the Prophets, namely, that he should be called a Nazaren— By the Prophets is meant those Prophets that wrote the Book of Judges; and the place intended, is Judges 13.5. as Calvin from Martin Bucer judgeth.

[Page 153]It is true indeed, the words there are spoken of Sampson literal­ly; but intended mystically of the Messiah, of whom both Samp­son, and all the Nazarites were Types.

It is true, there is some literal difference between Zain and Tsade; and the Syriack Translation (which yet is but a Transla­tion) renders Nazareth by Tsade Notsoreth, whereas the word Nazarite is [...] with Zain. But that the Holy Ghost regard­ed such a literal exactness is not probable.See Buchol­cer Cbronol. p. 285. It may suffice that there is an allusion and affinity in the sound. And though Matthew useth the word Naza­rene, as signifying one of the religious Order of the Nazarites; yet Pilate, Joh. 19.19. useth the same word of him, never dreaming of any thing more, than the place where Christ had dwelt. Some indeed have thought that this passage in Matth. 2.23. refers to Isai. 11.1. where Christ is called Netsor, the Branch, a flourishing Branch. But we do not find that flourish­ing Branches are called Nazarites in the Scripture: so Calvin in Matth. 2. ult.

2. In regard of his peculiar Holiness and Separation unto God, They were ceremonially holy; but he was holy indeed, and af­ter an higher and infinitely more excellent and glorious manner. He is called that holy thing that shall be born of thee, Luk. 1.35. and Dan 9.24. the most holy, or the Holy of holies.

2. The Nazarites were Types of all the Saints and Members of Christ. All Believers, who are an holy people, are spiritual Nazarites separated unto God; I say, all Believers whether male or female. For there were Women Nazarites as well as Men, Num. 6.2. when either Man or Woman shall separate themselves to vow a Vow of a Nazarite. For in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor fe­male, Gal. 3.28.

3. There was in this Order a Ceremonial shadow and adum­bration of the Benefits of Christ which Believers do receive from him; and they are chiefly two; Sanctification and Justi­fication.

1. Sanctification. This was shadowed out in this, that the Nazarites were persons separated and devoted unto God in a [Page 154] special manner by a Vow, Numb. 6.6. As also in the particular Rules and Ceremonies belonging to this Order, which were three.

1. Not to drink Wine, Numb. 6.3, 4. So Sampson.

This was to teach them Temperance and Mortification of fleshly Lusts, which Wine often provokes men to, and takes away their hearts from that which is good, Hos. 4.11. and causes them to err and stumble, Isai. 28.7.

Moreover this Ceremony taught them, instead of Wine, to be filled with the Spirit, Ephes. 5.18. and inebriated as it were with the Joys thereof in the sense of Gods Love, which is better than Wine, Cant. 1.4.

2. Not to cut their Hair, ver. 5.

This is thought to be appointed (as many other ceremonial Laws were) in opposition to the heathenish Idolatry of those times; and to signifie the keeping himself from all uncleanness and im­purity. For when the Nazarite was purged and cleansed from impurity, his Hair was shaved off, ver. 9. and so the Leper, Lev. 14.8, 9. therefore to keep it from shaving seemeth to signifie the keeping themselves from uncleanness: so some expound it.

It shadowed forth also the growth of the Graces of Gods Spi­rit in them, as in Sampson, who with the loss of his Hair, lost the Power of God: and as his Hair grew again, so his Strength in God renewed, Judg. 13 25— and 16. This Strength came not by the growth of the Hair, otherwise than as an outward Sign appointed unto them of God, who sanctifieth to his people what outward Signs himself pleaseth, to signifie and convey Grace; as he sancti­fied the Waters of Jordan to wash away Naamans Leprosie,Ainsworth on Numb. 6.5. which of themselves had no such efficacy, 2 Kings 5.14.

3. Not to defile themselves by the dead, ver. 6, 7, 8.

This refraining from the dead, in whom the Image as it were of Gods Curse for Sin was to be seen. For the Wages of Sin is Death, Ainsworth in loc. Rom. 6.23. figured out abstaining from sinful and dead Works, and from such as live in them, who are dead whilst they live, 1 Tim. 5.6.

It shewed their Constancy in the Rules of their Profession, [Page 155] and their Magnanimity in the loss of dearest Comforts.

2. Justification by Christ alone was shadowed forth in two Rules or Observations belonging to this Order.

1. That legal strictness and severity of Purification in case of accidental Defilement, ver. 9, 10, 11, 12. If a Nazarite chance to be defiled, he is to begin again upon a new score. This shews the absolute Purity and Perfection of the Law of God, which will not admit the least error or failing; but whosoever continueth not in all things, is cursed and condemned by it, Deut. 27.26. Gal. 3.10. If a man keep the whole Law, and fail but in one point, he is guilty of all, James 2.10. and so needs Christ and his Blood to make atonement even for the least Sins, and those which are in some sort involuntary, as the original corruption of Nature is, and ma­ny actual Sins of meer infirmity and frailty.

2. Sacrifices of Atonement, even when they had fulfilled their Vow, ver. 13— to 21.

It taught the secret and unseen Guiltiness, which cleaveth to the most holy men in their best and most perfect works, which, without atonement by the Blood of Christ,Ainsworth in loc. cannot be pure and pleasing in the sight of God. For though a man know nothing by himself; yet is he not thereby justified, 1 Cor. 4.4.

When we have kept our Vows, and done our Duty; yet we need Atonement and Pardon.

4. A fourth religious Order amongst them of old, was their Prophets. These also were Types of Christ and Christians.

Of Christ; For as they taught the will of God: so doth Christ. For he is the great Prophet, Deut 18.15. Acts 3.22. Joh. 1.18. no man knows the Father, but he to whom the Son revealeth him, Matth 11.27.

But though there be a resemblance and analogy; yet there is also a great disparity in this Type. For all the Types (as hath been often observed) fell short of the Antitype in Glory; and so in this; for none teacheth like him, Job 36.22. in regard of the Authority and Efficacy of his teaching.

1. The Authority; For the Prophets speak in the Lords [Page 156] Name; Thus saith the Lord: but Christ in his own Name, and the Fathers; as a Son over his own House, Heb. 3.6.

2. The Efficacy. All the Prophets could not reach the Heart: but Christ, he teacheth inwardly, and effectually: for he sends his Spirit to bring the Truths to remembrance with power and effi­cacy, Joh. 14.26.

And as their Prophets were Types of Christ: so likewise of all Believers; for they are spiritually Prophets, 1 Joh. 2.27. 1 Cor. 2.15. the spiritual man judgeth all things. They are said to pro­phesie as the Lords Witnesses. Rev. 11.

5. A fifth religious Order in those legal times was that of Priesthood. Their Priests, and especially their High Priests were Types of Christ and Christians: Therefore Christ is so often cal­led a Priest, and the High Priest, Heb. 3.1. of our Profession.

The Analogy between Christ and them appears chiefly in two things.

1. That as they offered Sacrifice, and by Sacrifice made atone­ment: so Christ, Ephes. 5.2. gave himself for us, an Offering and a Sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling favour.

2. There was in them the shadow (though but the shadow) of an everlasting Priesthood; because the Office was settled in the House and Family of Aaron: and so though the persons died; yet the Office was never vacant: for the Son succeeded the Father, and was sometimes invested during the Fathers life, as Eleazer, Numb. 20.26.

And though Melchizedeks Priesthood was of an higher Order, and more illustrious than that of Aaron, as the Apostle shews, Heb. 7. yet in this also there was but a shadow of Eternity, as hath been formerly shewed.

But Christ is indeed a Priest for ever: he is often so called in the Epistle to the Hebrews. He was made a Priest not after the Law of a carnal Commandment, but after the Power of everlasting life, Heb. 7.

The Disparity between Christ and these typical Priests was manifold. I shall instance in a few particulars.

1. Theirs was but the shadow: Christ the true Sacrifice, and true Reconciliation with God.

[Page 157]2. They offered Sacrifice first for their own Sins: but Christ had no Sins of his own, to offer for, and to make satisfaction for, Heb. 7.27.

3. All those Priests of old, even Melchizedek himself, they were but Priests; they were not both Priest, Altar and Sacrifice.

But Christ is all three.

He is Priest as God-man.

He is the Altar in regard of his Divine nature: for this is that that sanctifies the Gift, and makes the Sacrifice so infinitely effi­cacious and meritorious.

And Christ himself is also the Sacrifice in regard of his Hu­mane nature: His Humane nature suffered death, and so was of­fered up as a Sacrifice unto God for us.

Thus in all things Christ hath the Preheminence.

I might also shew, how all the Saints are Priests. He hath made us Kings and Priests unto our God, Revel. 1.

But there will be occasion to speak further of the Priesthood when we come to the Temple, and the Temple Ministry.

6. A sixth religious Order was their Kings of the House of David.

It is true, Magistracy is a civil Ordinance belonging to the se­cond Table: But yet, as God was pleased to annex a typical re­spect unto the Sabbath, which is in it self a moral Duty: and unto Adams Marriage with Eve, which was a civil Relation: so he did unto Magistracy or Kingship, as stated and settled amongst that people.

Hence as in the business of Marriage, and of the Sabbath, the things themselves are not abolished, but only the typical respects are taken off: so here Kingship as amongst them was both a civil and a religious Order. Non dubium est, quin caelestis pater in Da­vide ejusque posteris conspici voluerit vivam Christi Imaginem, Cal­vin. Institut. l. 2. cap. 6. sect. 2. & cap. 7. sect. 2. See the Analogy in three things.

1. In their Inauguration; they were anointed with holy Oil, Psal. 89.20. with mine holy Oil have I anointed him. This typi­fied the Gifts and Graces of the Spirit; the Spirit of Government, [Page 158] Acts 10.38. how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, which Christ received above his Fellows. Psal. 45.7. not by measure, but above measure, Joh. 3.34.

2. The Lord settled the Kingdom by an everlasting Covenant in a perpetual Series and Succession of persons in the House of David:

So with Christ, he hath made an everlasting Covenant, that his Kingdom shall endure for ever, Isai. 9.7— of the increase of his Government and Peace, there shall be no end.

3. The moral work and duty of their Office had also a typi­cal use, to shadow forth what Christ doth spiritually in and for his Church.

1. They made Laws for the people of Israel; though they did it still in subordination to, and pursuance of the Laws of God, as all Magistrates ought to do, not in opposition to them:

So Christ is the Law-giver of his Church, Isai. 33.22. the Lord is our Judge, our King, our Law-giver.

2. They subdued the Enemies of Israel: so did David the Philistines, the Moabites, &c.

So doth Christ subdue and tread down the Churches Enemies.

3. It was their work to execute Vengeance upon Rebels; as Solomon, the peaceful King, did on Joab, Adonijah, Shimei.

So doth Christ, the Prince of Peace, on Unbelievers and Hy­pocrites in the Church. This King will say, Bring forth these mine Enemies, and slay them before my face.

Yet there was a great Disparity between Christ and those Kings. His Kingdom is spiritual, his Government infinitely bet­ter than theirs was, 2 Sam. 23.4, 5. some understand and render to this purpose,See ths Bel­gick Annota­tions. There shall be a Ruler o­ver men, a righteous one, ruling in the Fear of God— Although as yet he make him not to spring up.

From the whole,

Ʋse 1. See the Unwarrantableness of reviving religious Orders under the New Testament.

It falls heavy upon the Papists, who have their religious (as they call them, but indeed superstitious) Orders. Their Monks, [Page 159] Nuns, Fryiars, &c. for which they pretend the Jewish Order of Nazarites.

But this was a Type: and therefore to revive it, is inconsistent with the truth of the Gospel; it is as if they should say, there is a Messiah yet to come, who will be just like a Monk or a Friar; but what horrible Blasphemy is this!

Besides there was a Command, an Institution from God for the Order of Nazarites; but there is not so for Popish Orders.

And, which is observable in all the Rules and Ceremonies, and Burdens of those legal times, the Lord never restrained Mar­riage from any; but all sorts, Priests, Prophets, Nazarites were wont to marry, which the Popish Orders vow against, which the Apostle deservedly calls a Doctrine of Devils, 1 Tim. 4.1, 2, 3.

Obj. But some of these Orders are not ceased: For there be First-born in every Nation, and Magistracy or Civil Govern­ment.

Answ. It's true: But therefore some of these Orders were of a mixt nature; there was something moral, and something cere­monial in them, as was shewed before in Davids Kingdom: that which is moral remains, that which is ceremonial is done away: But there were other religious Orders that were wholly ceremo­nial, and these are wholly abolished.

Of this sort was Nazariteship and the Priesthood. These were Orders meerly religious, and so are ceased, and vanished away with the legal Religion of those times. But the Popish Orders of Monkery and Nunnery, &c. are an apish and wicked imitation of that old legal Nazaritism.

Ʋse 2. See the Glory of the Antitype in whom all these meet in one; all the individual personal Types before mentioned, and all these religious Orders now opened. He is the true Israel, and the First-born, he is the true Nazarite; he is our Prophet, Priest, and King. They were but Stars that shone in the night, he is the Sun of Righteousness.

Ʋse. 3. See our own Dignity and Duty; for all the Members of Christ do in their measure partake of the Glory of him their [Page 160] Head: Therefore walk as becomes the Israel of God, as his First-born; do not, with profane Esau, sell your Birthright for a Mess of Pottage, Heb. 12.16.

You are Nazarites separated unto God: therefore be ye not conformed to the world, Rom. 12.1, 2.

You are the Lords Witnesses and Prophets: therefore bear your Testimony to him, and to his Truths and Ways, though thou prophesie in Sackcloth.

You are also Priests unto God, not to make atonement, (that Christ hath done); but as he hath offered the Sacrifice of Atone­ment: so you should offer the Sacrifices of Praise and Thanksgiv­ing to his Name.

And finally, remember you are Kings; for he hath made us Kings unto our God, Revel. 1. Therefore walk and act as Kings, to rule over your own Lusts, and not be underlings to them.

It was Davids Prayer, Psal. 51.12. Ʋphold me with thy free Spirit, that is, thy Kingly, thy Royal Spirit, as some explain it.

And if you reign with him as Kings in Grace here, you shall reign with him in Glory for ever.


1 Cor. 10.11. Octob. 3. 1667. Sept. 26. 1668.

[...], Now all these things happened unto them for Types, and they are written for our Admonition, &c.

THE Types (Beloved) have been distinguished into two sorts, personal and real, typical persons and typical things. This is the first and highest distribution of them: the personal Types have been run thorough. We are now to proceed (the Lord assisting) to the real Types; and these may be subdi­vided into two sorts, occasional and perpetual; for some Types were transient, and some permanent: Some were extraordinary and occasional; as Manna, and the Brazen Serpent, &c. some were perpetual, viz. the whole ceremonial Law, the Ordinances whereof are frequently called everlasting Statutes: so that this Distincti­on is founded both in the nature of the things, and in the Scri­pture [Page 162] expressions about it. We shall clear it further, when we come to the second part of the Distribution.

Concerning the former sort, viz. extraordinary and occasional Types, this Text speaks, and gives you this Doctrine;

That there were divers extraordinary Providences of God towards his people of old, which were intended by him to be Types of Gospel-mysteries, and Instructions to us in Gospel-times.

The Text is plain, and the word in the original is Types, as your Margent reads; Now all these things happened unto them for Types, [...] and before, in ver. 6. [...] and he had before mentioned the Cloud, and the Rock that followed them, their passing through the red Sea; with other famous Dispensations towards Gods people of old. There were not only typical persons, but typical Providences.

For the right understanding of this Doctrine, to prevent mi­stakes; take these two Propositions by way of Caution.

Caut. 1. That there is an historical Verity in all those typical Histories of the Old Testament. They are not bare Allegories, or parabolical Poems, such as is the Song of Solomon, or Jothams Parable, Judg. 9.7. or Nathans Parable to David, 2 Sam. 12. but they are a true Narration of things really existent and acted in the world, and are literally and historically to be understood.

If it be said, that in some of those transactions, as for instance, their Deliverance out of Egypt, and travelling through the Wilder­ness to Canaan, the whole frame of the History all along is so suitable to express spiritual Redemption, as one would think it was an Allegory devised on purpose for that end.

The Answer is, that God had the ordering of his World in his own hands; and therefore could make it suit all his ends at once, so as the same thing might be both an History of tem­poral Redemption; and yet withal and Allegory of spiritual Re­demption also.

Neither indeed is it necessary to the nature of an Allegory that it be always Res sicta: God, who is the Author of all the Arts (for all the true Rules of them are Beams and Rays of his glorious Wisdom) he hath set no such Rule in the Art of Rhetorick, and [Page 163] if any Rhetoricians have done it, it is a mistake: For Abraham and Sarah, and Isaac, and Hagar and Ishmael is a real History; yet the Apostle affirmeth that it is an Allegory, Gal. 4. The turn­ing of all such allegorical and typical Histories and Providences into meer Romances and Fictions, is not unlike the Transubstan­tiation of the Sacramental Elements; as if things could not be real and yet typical too. You will find many Treasures of di­vine Wisdom and Gospel-light in the Scriptures, by attending this Rule of understanding, and of accommodating typical Scri­ptures both to Type and Antitype, not excluding either, they be­ing really meant of both, and most fully of Christ the Antitype, who is the scope and centre of all the Counsels and Dispositions of God.

Caut. 2. That the Lord in these occasional and extraordinary Dispensations whereof we speak, did aim at sundry ends, and in­tended them to be for several uses, namely, to be not only Types, but other ways also to be instructive and useful: and herein his infinite Wisdom appears the more, in causing so many ends to meet at once: and indeed so it is in all the rest of his Dispensa­tions towards his people, and in the world: and so in the Ordi­nances we have at this day, they do not serve for one use only.

Quest. But what are these ends?

Answ. Not to insist upon the general Ends of all the Types; in this sort we are now upon, viz. transient and occasional Types, there were three great Ends.

1. For their outward and temporal good; they had by these things outward supply and deliverance: so the passing through the red Sea, the Manna, the Water out of the Rock were outward Mercies: so the Brazen Serpent gave outward and bodily Heal­ing to them, beside that spiritual and sacramental use it had to adumbrate Jesus Christ.

2. They were Instructions in moral Duties, as indeed all Pro­vidences are: the Lords giving them Water out of the Rock, and Bread from Heaven, were instructing Providences to depend up­on God in straits, and to trust in him at all times.

3. The third End was the typical Adumbration of Christ and [Page 164] Gospel-mysteries, besides all other ends and uses of them; be­sides outward and temporal good and moral Instruction; they did, by the positive Intention of the Spirit of God, point at Christ, and lead to him. For this the Text is express, all these things happened unto them in Types, and ver. 4. that Rock was Christ.

Quest. How may we judge what providential Dispensations had such a typical respect and use?

Answ. This hath been formerly partly spoken to, and this Rule was given, that it is not safe for men to form Allegories out of their own Fancies, unless it be some way hinted in the Scripture, unless it be either expressed, or may be gathered from thence by clear consequence; as when by comparing the Scri­ptures, a manifest analogy doth appear as clear as the Sun at noon day. But for men to set their Fancies a work to extract Allegories out of every Scripture history, as the Popish Interpre­ters use to do, is not safe nor becoming a judicious Interpreter.

Luth. in Gen. 3. fol. 57. Luther called such Allegories Spumam Scripturae, they beat the Scriptures into Froth by allegorizing all things. Allegorias esse vanas speculationes, & tanquam spumam sacrae Scripturae. And fol. 57, 58. Hoc monuisse sit satis, ut qui Allegoriis uti vellent iis utantur quas indicarunt Apostoli, & quae habent fundamentum certum in ipsa litera seu historia alioqui fiet ut aedificemus super fundamentum paleam & stipulas non aurum. Paraeus Pro­togom. in Gen. & in Gal. 4.24. Parce admodum Spiritus sanctus [...] the Holy Ghost is sparing in the business of Alle­gories. He doth not allegorize every Providence, but some he doth.

And so these Providences were also Ordinances: God was pleased to superinduce the nature of an Ordinance upon them.

Quest. What were those typical Providences, which we call oc­casional and extraordinary Types?

Answ. They may be referred and distributed into 2 sorts, things and actions. A distribution that some have made use of in this Subject, who have not well known where to place it; but this I take to be the proper place of it: It is indeed these occasio­nal Types that are best distributed into things and actions.

[Page 165]1. As to occasional typical things, we may instance in seven particulars, and I shall set them down before you according to the order of time wherein the Lord gave them.

  • 1. Jacobs Ladder.
  • 2. Moses his burning Bush.
  • 3. The Pillar of Cloud and Fire.
  • 4. Manna, or the Bread that came from Heaven.
  • 5. The Rock that followed them, and Water out of the Rock.
  • 6. The The Brazen Serpent. And
  • 7. Some have added also those healing Waters of the Pool of Bethesda. These were typical things.

Occasional typical actions are such, as their coming out of Egypt, passing through the red Sea, &c. of which afterward.

We are to speak to these occasional typical things, some where­of were given to particular persons, as that visional Ladder to Jacob; the burning Bush was shewed to Moses— others of them were given to the whole people of Israel, as the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, and all the rest that were enumerated.

1. Jacobs Ladder, which he saw at Bethel. This was but an occasional Type, it was no permanent thing. The History of it is in Gen. 28.12-16.

That it had a typical respect, our Saviour himself seems to in­sinuate, Joh. 1. ult.

It represented Christ as the means of Intercourse between God and Man.

Yet it was not to speak properly a Type, but rather a typical Vision, being not a thing actually existent, but only in a Vision of the night: however because divers that have spoke upon the Types have made mention of it, I shall also speak a word to it.

Yet even this circumstance some have thought of a typical accommodation for it thus. That as Jacob saw this Ladder but in a Vision: so we see Christ here but in a Glass darkly, 1 Cor. 13.12. till the day-light of Glory in Heaven dawn upon us; but then face to face.

But I shall draw the Parallel only in these five things.

1. Here was some dark shadow of the Person, Natures and Of­fice [Page 166] of Christ, thus; In that this Ladder the foot of it stood upon the Earth, and the top of it reached up to Heaven, whereby Heaven and Earth did meet as it were:

So Christ in regard of his human Nature toucheth the Earth; yet in regard of his Deity, he is the God of Heaven.

And as in this Ladder, the top and the foot of it made but one Ladder.

So both the Natures of Christ are but one Person; and by this Union of his two Natures he brings Heaven and Earth toge­ther, unites God and Man, which was the great work for which he came into the world.

2. This visional Ladder shews the way to Heaven.

There is no ascending to Heaven, but by the spiritual Ladder Jesus Christ, no Salvation but by Christ, no comfortable Inter­course and Communion between God and us, but only in and through him.

Men cannot climb to Heaven by their own Works and Merits: though they should heap Mountain to Mountain of Duties one upon another; yet they would fall short. Neither is there Sal­vation in any other; for there is no other Name under Heaven given amongst men whereby we must be saved, Acts 4.12.

3. We have in this typical Ladder an express Figure of the Mi­nistration of Angels through Jesus Christ unto the Saints, which is a Fruit of that great priviledge of Adoption: For they ascend­ed and descended in the Vision by this Ladder.

To wicked men the Angels are Enemies (as if the King frown upon a man, all the Court does so too) and fight against them, as they did against Senacheribs Army, when they slew an hundred eighty five thousand in one night, 2 King. 19.35 — so Psal. 35.5, 6. Let them be as Chaff before the Wind, and let the Angel of the Lord chase them; let their way be dark and slippery, and let the An­gel of the Lord persecute them. The blessed Angels are ever cha­sing and persecuting Reprobates and wicked men.

But through Christ they minister unto us for our good, Zach. 1.9. they appeared behind him, and ver. 10. these are they whom the Lord hath sent forth, and ver. 11. they give up their account t [...] him.

[Page 167]4. Jacob sees God at the top of the Ladder, renewing his Co­venant with him, ver. 13.

So it is through Christ that God enters into Covenant and renews his Covenant with us; through Christ the Promises are Yea and Amen, 2 Cor. 1 20. God could never have spoken words of peace to Sinners, but by the Mediation of Jesus Christ.

5. Where was this Ladder seen? At Bethel, which signifies the House of God, ver. 19. he called the name of the place Be­thel.

So Christ is seen in the Church, Ephes. 3.10. and through the Church made known to Principalities and Powers, &c. If you would have a Vision of Christ, go to Bethel, into the Churches of his Saints and People, Cant. 1.8. if thou know not, go thy way forth by the footsteps of the Flock. There be several steps of this Ladder; some apply it thus, Several degrees of Grace; as many Rounds of the Ladder, so many Graces: The lowest Round is poverty of Spirit, the highest is Perfection.

Thus you see how Jacobs Ladder represented and shadowed forth something of Christ, and of the Gospel, to him and us; and so much for this spiritual Ladder which Jacob saw.

2. A second typical thing in those typical days was the burning Bush which the Lord shewed to Moses, Exod. 3. in the ten first verses: a very memorable Dispensation; therefore largely re­peated by Stephen, Acts 7, 30. to 35.

The Bush burnt, and was not consumed.

A most lively Emblem of the Churches subsisting in the Fire of Persecution through the presence and good will of him that dwelt in the burning Bush. That is the Instruction we should learn out of it. As Israel in the Iron Furnace in Egypt: for it related both ways, both to shew the state of Israel in Egypt, and of the Church of God on earth afterwards.

So the three Children, Dan. 3. in the fiery Furnace were not consumed, no nor hurt by the Fire.

So in the times of Antichrist, Rev. 11.3: the Lord hath his Witnesses prophesying all the thousand two hundred and three­score days: God hath his two Witnesses all the while, though [Page 168] they prophesie in Sackcloth; yet prophesie they do, and bear witness to him: The Lord doth not leave himself without Witness when his Church and Interest is in the lowest and most aflicted condition: and indeed all along under the New Testa­ment this Bush hath been burning in several Fires, and yet not consumed.

There was first the fire of Pagan Persecution during the three first Centuries.

Then the fire of Arrianism, and Contention in the Church, &c. set forth under that prophetical representation of Fire in the first and second Trumpets, Rev. 8.7, 8.

Then the fire of Antichristian Persecution a thousand two hundred and threescore days.

And then lastly the Persecution of three days and an half in the last part of his Reign.

But yet still the burning Bush is not consumed: the Church of God subsists, and lives, and outlives all opposition, it cannot, it shall not be consumed.

They have power over the Fire, Rev. 14.18. It is understood by some Interpreters not unfitly concerning the Martyrs that suffer­ed by Fire, but were not overcome by it; their Faith and Patience was not overcome, but did triumph and conquer through Jesus Christ: and all this through the Presence of God with them. For he that dwelt in the burning Bush, dwells in the midst of his Church, Deut. 33.16. Acts 7.35. The Son of God was in the Furnace. Dan. 3.25. And under the New Testament he walketh in the midst of the seven Golden Candlesticks, Rev. 2.1 — He hath promised, Isai. 43.2. when thou walkest through the Fire, thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the Flame kindle upon thee.

These two typical things were presented to particular persons, namely, the mystical Ladder to Jacob, and the burning Bush to Moses.

The other five were more publick to the whole people of Israel, namely, the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, the Manna, the Rock and Water out of it, the Brazen Serpent, and the Pool of Bethesda.

1. The Pillar of Cloud and Fire, Exod. 13.21, 22.

[Page 169]As to the nature of it, it seems to have been not unlike those things which are called in Scripture Pillars of Smoke, Joel 2.30. which the Apostle renders Vapour of Smoke, Acts 2.19. which the Lord did now create, and in a miraculous way, and by the Mi­nistration of his Angels, who are the Instruments of his Provi­dence, and Ministers to his Church; did carry it, and move it to and fro from place to place.

It is called a Cloud, because it had something of that appear­ance; but it was not an ordinary and natural, but a supernatural and miraculous Cloud; and differed from other ordinary Clouds in many respects.

It was of such an height and bigness as was and might be seen by all the House of Israel, Exod. ult. ult. other Clouds are soon dispersed and dissipated: But this remained firm for the space of forty years together, till they came into the Land of Canaan; the lower part of it rested upon the Tabernacle, after that the Ta­bernacle was erected, and from thence it ascended and went up like a Pillar of Smoke, as we read of Pillars of Smoke, Judg. 20.40. Cant. 3.6. it was one and the same substance, which was a Cloud by day, and Fire by night.

It was not real natural Fire; therefore called the appearance of Fire, Numb. 9.16. It was not Ignis urens, but only Ignis lu­cens; it was no burning, but only shining Fire: For it sate upon the Tabernacle, which was made of boards and other combustible matter. It kept its form, and was not moved by the Wind or by any other ordinary and common Cause, but by the Lord himself: and it moved and walked no faster than the whole Camp could follow.

Out of this Cloud the Lord spake and delivered his Oracles to Moses. And there the Glory of the Lord appeared to the people, Exod. 16.10. and 33.9. and 34.5. Levit. 16.2. Psal. 99.7. Numb. 11.25. and 12.5. Deut. 31.15.

Thus for the History of it.

Now that there was a Mystery in this Pillar of Cloud and Fire, is clear from Isai. 4.5, 6. for there never was a literal Cloud and Fire upon Mount Sion.

[Page 170]This fiery Pillar did cease when they were entred into Cana­an: Isaiah therefore intends a spiritual thing under those expres­sions.

So it is here mentioned by the Apostle in the Context as re­presenting a Gospel-mystery; They were all baptized unto Moses in the Cloud, 1 Cor. 10. ver. 2.

It signified and shadowed forth,

  • 1. Something of Christ himself.
  • 2. The Benefits of Christ.
  • 3. The Ordinances of Christ.

1. Christ himself; some have noted a shadow both of his Dei­ty and Humanity. There was a fiery Brightness in the Cloud, which yet was but a dark shadow of the Glory of his Deity, which was often in Visions so represented: But his divine Nature was veiled and overclouded by his humane; as in this shadow there was a Pillar of Cloud as well as Fire. In Revel. 10.1. Christ is represented as clothed with a Cloud, and his Feet as Pillars of Fire. Expressions notably answering this antient Type and Shadow.

2. It holds forth something of the Benefits of Christ. What Benefits had they from this Pillar of Fire and Cloud?

They had three.

  • 1. Light and Direction.
  • 2. Defence and Protection.
  • 3. Ornament and Glory. All which we have in an higher manner in Christ by the Gospel.

1. Light and Direction in the way that they should go in those Arabian Desarts, where no man dwelt, and which no man passed thorough; where there was neither Path nor Guide: But they had the Lord himself to guide them. So it is said of this Cloud in Exod. 13.21. where it is first mentioned, that it was to lead them the way by day, and by night to give them Light; and more fully and with much emphasis, Numb. 9.17, 18. and to the end of the Chapter.

So doth Christ direct and conduct his people in their travels through the Wilderness of this world to Heaven, the true Canaan: He is the true Light, Joh. 1.9. who coming into the world, enlighten­eth [Page 171] every one that is enlightned. For so that place may be fitly rendred, He is the way the truth and the life, Joh. 14.6.

There is a directing Light: they are under the everlasting con­duct of his Word and Spirit. He doth not leave his people in the dark, as to things absolutely necessary for their Communion with him here in this world, and for their Salvation with him in the world to come: we must follow Christ as they followed the Cloud.

2. A second Benefit they had by this Cloud was Safety and Protection, both from the heat and scorchings of the Sun in those burning Sands and Desarts of Arabia: For the Cloud covered and overshadowed them; therefore it is said of it, Psal. 105.39. he spread the Cloud for a Covering: And likewise from their Egyptian Persecutors and Enemies: For the Cloud went behind them when their Safety so required, Exod. 14.19, 20. as if the Lord should say, You shall not hurt them, till you have stricken thorough me first.

Yea the very same Dispensations which are directing and pro­tecting to his people, are dark and destructive to his Enemies: as here, the same Cloud was light to the Israelites, but darkness to the Egyptians. Ʋpon all the Glory shall be a Defence and a Covert from the Storm, Isai. 4.2 last. There is a protecting pre­sence of God in his Church; we do experience the truth of this at this day in all our solemn Assemblies, there is a wonderful protecting Providence over us.

Every Church of Saints is a spiritual Army of Jesus Christ, and these Armies are terrible, Cantcles 6.10. glorious as the Sun, terrible as an Army with Banners. It is a terrible thing to offend or trouble them: a man had better fight against all the power the great Turk can raise, than oppose or offend one Church of Christ, and there were more hope of Success. For the Lord himself is a Wall of Fire round about them, Zach. 2.5. as well as the Glory in the midst of them. Therefore it is written, Isai. 54.17. no Weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn.

Some allude thus upon these two Benefits they had by the [Page 172] Cloud. That Truth is as a Pillar of Fire to go before us, and Peace as a Pillar of Cloud to overshadow and refresh us.

3. This fiery Pillar was exceeding glorious, it was an honour and glory to them: so in the Church, Christ is the Glory of his Church. See Isai. 4.2.

We would think, if we could see a company of Kings and Princes, and Nobles and great men walking together in the Ways and Ordinances of Christ, this were glorious, but Deus maximus in minimis.

There is a Glory in the meanest of the Assemblies of his Saints, though spiritual, that carnal eyes are not able to discern it. When you come to the meetings and Assemblies of Gods People, you should endeavour to see this divine Glory: you should by Faith discern and see a Pillar of Cloud and Fire over the places where they meet, and a Guard of Angels and fiery Chariots round a­bout them. God is present there, in his Temple doth every one speak of his Glory, Psal. 29.9.

Thus the Pillar of Cloud and Fire did figure and exhibit to them the Benefits of Christ, Light and Direction, Safety and Protection, Ornament and Glory.

3. It figured also the Ordinances of Christ, and his Presence in and with them: For the Ordinances are the outward and vi­sible tokens of Gods Presence with his people; as this fiery Pillar was of old. And therefore when the Tabernacle was made and set up, it rested upon the Tabernacle, Exod. 40.38.

There be some Duties are secret, which the world sees not, nor may see; as Alms-deeds, personal and secret Prayer.

But the Ordinances of Institution are things that ought to be practised with all the publickness that may be. They are outward and visible tokens of Gods Presence; particularly that great Or­dinance of Baptism, as in this Chapter, 1 Cor. 10.2.

The Cloud, it seems, had a refreshing moisture in it, to shade and to refresh and cool them from the burning heat: And they were bedewed with it, as we are with the Water of Baptism; where­by this legal Cloud became a Type of Gospel-Baptism. And so you see how it represented something of Christ himself, and something [Page 173] of his Benefits and something of his Ordinances under the New Testament.

So much for this third typical thing, this Pillar of Cloud and Fire.

1 Cor. 10.11

[...].April 16. 1668.

A Fourth typical thing amongst them of old was their Manna or Bread from Heaven. And a fifth was the Rock that fol­lowed them, and gave them Water. Here was spiritual Meat and spiritual Drink. Of these two, the Lord assisting at this time. They are both mentioned above in the 3, and 4th verses of this Chapter; And they did all eat the same spiritual Meat, and did all drink the same spiritual Drink: For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ.

The fourth, I say was the Manna, or the Bread that came from Heaven; the History whereof we have in Exod. 16.14, 15. Behold upon the face of the Wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost, on the ground— And Moses said unto them, this is the Bread which the Lord hath given you to eat; which, that it was indeed a Type, and that the Truth and Mystery of it was Christ himself, as the Bread of Life, and the Food of our Souls, Christ himself assures us in Joh. 6.32. Verily, verily I say unto you, Moses gave you not that Bread from Heaven, but my Father giveth you the true Bread from Heaven. And ver. 48. I am that Bread of Life. And ver. 51. I am the living Bread which came down from Heaven: and so the Apostle a little before the Text instanceth in this, 1 Cor. 10.3. They did all eat the same spiritual Meat. This then was the general scope of it, to hold forth Christ as the Food of our Souls.

But now to let you see a little more particularly the excellent Correspondence between the Type and the Antitype, the clear and full Analogy that is between the Shadow and the Truth prefigured by it. You may discern it in these five particulars.

1. This Manna was a Portion prepared of God, and given [Page 174] down from Heaven to an unworthy murmuring rebellious peo­ple— When the Children of Israel first saw it, they said one to ano­ther. It is Manna▪ for they wist not what it was, Exod. 16.15. This word Manna your Margent tells you, it may be rendred what is this? or it is a Portion, a prepared or distributed Portion, from the Verb [...] numerare, and in piel [...] praeparavit; because God prepare and distribute it among them, and it was ready to their hand, to be eaten as they found it; though they might also bake it, if they would. The Hebrew word Manna is retained in the New Testament in the Greek, Joh. 6.31. and from thence and in our own and other Languages there is another thing known by the same name, of which Writers say, that it is a Syriack Dew; but it will neither melt with the Sun, nor putrefie in the night; nor is it fit for Food, but for Physick only: so it differs wholly from this Hebrew Manna whereof we speak, which God in a miraculous way did rain down from Heaven: Psal. 78.23, 24. He commanded the Clouds from above, and opened the doors of Heaven, and rained down Manna upon them, and gave them of the Corn of Heaven.

And this without any care or pains, or Industry of theirs; a Food which they neither sowed nor laboured for, but had it for the taking up.

And this he did for an unworthy, murmuring, sinful people, when they were in a most rebellious frame; when they were murmuring, and said, Exod. 16.3. Would to God we had died in the Land of Egypt, when we sate by the Flesh-pots.

Hereupon the Lord promiseth, ver. 4. I will rain Bread from Heaven for them.

So is Christ a Portion, and a Food prepared for every hungry Soul; and he came down from Heaven, and is sent and given of God even to rebellious Sinners: He gave Gifts to men, even to the rebellious, Psal. 68.18.

2. This Manna was outwardly and seemingly despicable and contemptible; yet indeed the choicest Food, and most excellent in all respects, both as to Colour and Figure, Taste and Use.

It was but a little thing in quantity, Exod. 16.14.

[Page 175]It is called Angels Food, Psalm 78.25. men did eat Angels Food.

The Figure of it round, Exod. 16.31. like Coriander Seed, which Philosophers note to be of the best and most perfect Figure.

The Colour white, ibid. and Numb. 11.7. like to the Colour of Bdellium.

The Taste sweet, like fresh Oil, or Wafers baked with Honey, Numb. 11.7.

And it sustained six hundred thousand fighting men, besides Women and Children.

They might eat it either as they found it, or grind and bake it, Numb. 11.8.

Yet the Murmurers loathed it, and grew weary of it, Numb. 11.6. they called it, this light Bread, Numb. 21.5. for which they were destroyed.

In like manner Jesus Christ, as to his outward appearance is despicable and contemptible, and despised by the world, Isai. 53— though in himself most precious and excellent, Cant. 5. ult. 1. Pet. 2.7. to you that believe he is precious. Christ in the Promises and Ordinances is precious to the spiritual Taste, 1 Pet. 2.3. If so be you have tasted that the Lord is gratious— and sweeter than the Honey or Honey-comb, Psal. 119.103.

Their grinding and baking it, some apply to the Sufferings of Christ, whereby he was prepared to be unto us the Bread of Life.

And he fills and satisfies the desires of all Believers, the whole Israel of God.

But as in other Types, there is not only a resemblance in part, but withal a disparity and pre-eminence of the Antitype above the Type: so in this Christ infinitely excels the literal Manna, as the substance doth the shadow: For that did but feed the Bo­dy, but Christ feeds the Soul; that preserved only the natural Life of the Body, and that only for a time, but could not give Life; but Christ preserves spiritual Life, yea gives spiritual and eternal Life to Souls that were dead in sins and trespasses: and as he gives it, so he maintains and preserves it for ever. Your Fa­thers [Page 176] did eat Manna and are dead, Joh. 6.49. but he that eats this true Bread shall never die, ver. 51.58. so that in this (as in all things) Christ hath the pre-eminence.

3. Something of Mystery may be observed in the quantity they were to gather, an Homer full, Exod. 16.22. now an Ho­mer was about two Quarts, or as others express it, three Pints and an half of our measure; God gave them a liberal Allowance.

The Homer was the Vessel which did contain, and wherein they were to put the Manna.

The Vessel that holds Christ is the Heart and Soul; and so to get the Vessel full of Manna, is to get the Heart full of Christ.

And he that gathered had none to spare, Exod. 16.18. for it seems their manner was, when they had gathered it, to distribute to every one the same proportion, quoted by the Apostle, 2 Cor. 8.14, 15. to perswade them to a liberal communication of out­ward supplies to one another.

It might also figure that spiritual Equality that is among Be­lievers, all sorts of Believers having an equal portion in Christ the true Manna, Gal. 3.28, 29. 2 Pet. 1.1. them that have ob­tained like precious Faith with us. We are all one in Christ Jesus as to relative priviledges— Justificatio non suscipit magis & minus. The Virgin Mary her self, though she be Sanctificatior, yet she is not Justificatior quam altera. All Saints are equally justified: and having the same precious Faith, shall be all made partakers of the same common Salvation: every Believer is compleat in Christ, the weak as well as the strong, Col. 2.10.

4. Where did they get this Manna? There were three things chiefly remarkable as to the place, which seem to have something of Mystery in them.

1. It was about the Camp of Israel, and no where else to be found but there.

So is Christ the Bread of Life to be had in the Church, but no where else: Extra Ecclesiam non est Salus. Where two or three are gathered in his name, there is Christ, Matth. 18.

His Parents found him in the Temple, Luke 2.

If you would gather Manna, go to the Camp of Israel. If [Page 177] you would get Christ, go to the Church, and seek him there.

2. It was hidden in the Dew, lapt up (as it were) in two beds of Dew, the one above it, and the other under it. Exod. 16.14. When the Dew was gone up, the Manna appeared on the face of the Earth— Numb. 11.9. When the Dew fell upon the Camp in the night, the Manna fell upon it: So Christ is exhibited in the Word and Ordinances. Dew is often mentioned as an expression of Gods favour. I will be as the dew unto Israel, Hos. 14.5. And the Word is compared to Dew, Deut. 32.2. And it is a hidden word to some. 2. Cor. 4.3, 4. Christ is therefore fitly called the hidden Manna. Rev. 2.17. We should labour to see Christ, to get Christ in the Word, Christ in an Ordinance; to gather Manna out of the Dew.

3. They went and were to go out of their Tents to gather it. Exod. 16.16. So we must go forth out of our selves out of Sin, and self, and the Creature, to get Christ. He that stays within in his own Tent cannot gather Manna; yet it is but stepping out of doors. Oh the sloth and negligence of such as perish for want of it! When Manna falls round about our Tents in the Dispensa­tion of the Gospel, wherein Christ is offered from day to day.

5. The time when they had this Manna. There were many Circumstances in the time, that are very significant and instruct­ing to us.

1. They were to gather it early in the morning, Exod. 16.12. The Quails came at Evening, for naturally they flew in the day time to the Sea, and came to Land towards night. Numb. 11.31. But Manna came in the Morning, because it sell with the Morning Dew.Answorth in Exod. 16.12. And the Quails are not noted in the Scripture to be a spiritual meat, as the Manna is: we should seek after Christ betimes, in the Morning of our Lives, with our first endeavours. Psal. 90.14. Satisfie us in the Morning with thy loving kindness. They that seek me early, shall find me, Prov. 8— This should be our first work, Mat. 6.33. Seek first the Kingdom of God and the Righteousness thereof, and then all other things shall be superadded, and given (as it were) into the bargain.

[Page 178]2. They were to gather it and feed upon it daily, from day to day: if they kept it, it putrified and stank, Exod. 16.19, 20. It wormed Worms, as the phrase is in that emphatical Language, that is, it bred them abundantly, or crawled full of Worms.

A miraculous Judgment for their Unbelief, and Curiosity, and Disobedience; whereby they were taught to depend upon a daily Providence for daily Bread, as we pray in the Lords Pray­er, Give us this day our daily bread— we should be content with the present Supplies that Providence casts in, without inordinate cares and thoughts for to morrow: Let your conversation be with­out Covetousness, and to be content with such things as you have, Heb. 13.5. Take no thought for to morrow, Matth. 6.31, 34.

This passage may have a further reference, and be applied un­to Christ, the Mystery of this Type, thus; that as Manna must be daily gathered, daily fed upon: so must Christ; we must re­ceive him, and believe and feed upon him every day: or else the sweetest Manna will become as rottenness, and a favour of Death unto Death unto carnal and formal Professors, who suffer Manna to lie by them un-eaten, who suffer Christ to lie by them un-imployed and un-improved for spiritual supplies: we must feed upon Christ, and receive fresh supplies from Christ every day.

3. They were to gather a double portion upon the sixth day, and none upon the Sabbath, Exod. 16.23—to 27. By this the Lord taught them to rest upon the Sabbath. This is the second place where the Sabbath is expresly mentioned before the giving of the Law upon Mount Sinai. The first mention of it is be­fore the Fall of Man, Gen. 2.1, 2. which shews the Antiquity of the Sabbath: For that was two thousand five hundred and thir­teen years before this; which would be a very vast and strange Prolepsis, if it were so as the Anti-Sabbatarians weakly and foolish­ly pretend. And here now we have a second mention of the Sabbath before that upon Mount Sinai: And it doth not seem by any circumstance of the History, to be here mentioned as a new thing unto them; but rather as a Duty they formerly knew; but the Observance of it now, anew recommended to them by a ve­ry special Providence.

[Page 179]Moreover, they might here learn, That God dispenseth Christ, the true Manna, to Believers most plentifully towards their later end; as he did to Simeon in his old age, Luke 2. Christians when they grow near the Grave, and near to their eternal Rest, they should gather double Manna.

Yet further we may here learn and see, That after this Life all endeavours are in vain: If you have not gotten Christ before, there is no Manna to be rained down then. There be no offers of Grace, nor means of Grace; then you must pray no more, hear Sermons no more; but an end then of all your former op­portunities. They went out to gather, but they found none, ver. 27. So the foolish Virgins asked the wise for Oil, but it was too late: their time was past. It is the case of many a Soul.

The weekly Sabbath now is a day of spiritual gathering, and getting Food for your Souls: But there will a Sabbath come, a time and state of Rest, when you must live upon the Manna you have got and gathered in this Life, or else you perish.

4. It ceased when they came to Canaan: they had it till then, Exod. 16.35. but then they did eat of the Fruit of the Land of Canaan, Josh. 5.12. The Manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old Corn of the Land: So shall all Means and Ordinances, when we come to Heaven; Word, Sacraments, of­fers of Grace shall be no more; then means of Grace and oppor­tunities shall be no more.

5. Yet nevertheless there was a Golden Pot of it reserved and kept by them for ever, being laid up before the Lord in the Holy of Holies, Exod. 16.33, 34. a Pot; it is called in Heb. 9.4. a Golden Pot.

So shall Christ remain, and all the Dispensations of him in this life, they shall remain in precious remembrance with the Saints in Heaven before the Lord to all eternity; Christ shall be laid up as it were in the Golden memories of the Saints, like Manna in the Golden Pot, for a memorial before the Lord; the Love of Christ and all the Dispensations of himself.

They had likewise Aarons Rod blossoming laid up to the same end and purpose.

[Page 180]The Saints shall remember in Heaven, how the Rod of Aaron budded, how the Ministry was blessed and made fruitful to them when they were in this World.

So much as to the Manna or Bread from Heaven. You see how full it was of Christ and Gospel Mysteries.

A Fifth Typical thing of old was the Rock that followed them with Water issuing forth out of the Rock.

The History of this Type is in the 17th. Chap. Exod. see verse 6. That it was a Type, is expressed by the Apostle a little be­fore the Text, 1 Cor. 10.4— which Rock was Christ. This Rock and the Water issuing out of it, was a Type of Christ and of His Spirit. It was a Dispensation often Celebrated by His people, to the praise of God in after times.

But wherein did the Rock represent Christ? I shall but instance in four Respects.

1. As to strength and firmness, and stability. He is indeed the Rock of Ages, Isai. 26.4. The Rock of eternity; Everlasting strength, as it is not unfitly interpreted by our Translators— Isai. 33.16. His defence is the Munitions of Rocks. Impregnable safety to his people, Their bread shall be given them; Their waters shall not fail— 1 Pet. 2.6. Behold I lay in Sion a chief Corner stone, elect, precious; and he that believeth in him shall not be confounded. The Church is built upon this Rock, Mat. 16.18. Hence a wise Hearer is said to build his house upon a Rock. Mat. 7.

2. As to shadow and refreshment. Isa. 32.2. As the shadow of a great Rock in a weary Land: this World is a weary Land. Psal. 121.6.5, The Sun shall not scorch by day, nor the Moon by night. Those that dwell under the shadow of this Rock; those that are in Christ.

3. He is fitly resembled to a Rock for offence and scandal acci­dentally, not in himself, but only accidentally through the preju­dices and lusts of Men. Hence he is called a Rock of offence, and a stone of stumbling, 1 Pet. 2.8— Rom. 9.33. As it is writen (Isa. 8.14. and 28.16.) Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling stone and Rock of offence; and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

4. He is a Rock as to meanness and unlikelihood of that sup­ply of Water. Who would expect or look for water out of a [Page 181] Rock? Therefore it is so often remembred with admiration, Psal. 78.20.

The Rock was of no great pomp to see to, but only a rude thing standing in a vast Desert.

So in Christ to outward view, there is no beauty that we should desire him, Isa. 53. Neither is there any likelihood of salvation to be had in Christ, if men behold him only in his meanness, and look only at his abasement with an eye of sense and carnal reason, as the Jews of old did.

And as the Rock represented Christ unto them: So 2. the wa­ter out of it represented the Spirit of Christ. Joh. 7.37, 38, 39— Out of his belly shall flow Rivers of living water. This spake he of the Spirit.

There is nothing more frequent in Scripture, then to express the Spirit by water, Isa. 44.3. and that most fitly, because of the cleansing and refreshing vertue of it.

But let us here consider it in reference to the Rock from whence it came: and in this there is a four-fold Analogy observable.

1. As the water issued out of the Rock, So the Spirit proceeds and comes from Christ— The Comforter whom I will send unto you from the Father, Joh. 15.26. To refresh the weary soul when rea­dy to faint away.

2. The water came forth out of the Rock when smitten with the Rod of Moses, Exod. 17.6.

So the Spirit proceeds from Christ, being smitten as it were with Moses his Rod, with the curse of the Law for our sins, Isa. 53— he was smitten of God and afflicted. Had not Christ dyed and suffered, we had never had any refreshing water, never any Rivers of Joy and Consolations from his Spirit.

3. The next time the Rock must be spoken to, Numb. 20.8. It seemeth that God in his unsearchable Wisdom and Providence did so order it, That the Waters did cease at this time, which had followed them Thirty eight Years. Hereupon the people mur­mur, and their murmuring causes Moses himself to stagger at the Promise through unbelief. Though in this Moses did miss it too, for that he smote the Rock in stead of speaking to it.

[Page 182]But this we may learn from it; Christ must be preached, as well as suffer for us; and in and by the speaking and preaching of the Gospel he doth communicate his Spirit: Gal. 3.2. Re­ceived ye the Spirit by the Works of the Law, or by the hearing of Faith

As Christ smitten is the procuring cause of sending the Spirit: so Christ preached is the instrumental cause.

4. There is yet a fourth Analogy in this, that the Rock fol­lowed them; either the Rock it self, or (as others) the Rock in regard of the rivers and streams of water issuing from it.

So doth the Spirit of Christ follow his people in all their changes and travels up and down in the wilderness of this world; when we run from Christ, he follows us. This Water of the Rock, the Spirit of God, pursues and follows them up and down from place to place, and from one condition to another.

I shall close with a threefold Improvement of this Truth.

Ʋse 1. We may here see that they had the Gospel preached unto them, as well as we: For this spiritual Bread was Christ and the Rock that followed them was Christ: If they had not, all that I have preached to day, and ever since I begun upon the Types, it is all false Doctrine; for you know the scope of all hath been to let you see what of Christ, and what of Gospel Grace and Truth was held forth under those legal Types and Shadows.

Ʋse 2. This should render Jesus Christ precious, exceeding precious to us; for that he is every way suitable to our necessi­ties: He is a Rock for support: He is the Bread of Life, and the Water of Life, for Food and Nourishment.

Ʋse 3. Here is Comfort and Direction to poor, weak, hungry, thirsty Souls, whither to go, and to whom to repair for help, and for supply; here is a Rock and sure Foundation for thy weak and weary Soul to rest upon; here is spiritual Bread and spiri­tual Drink: Therefore feed upon Christ by Faith, and this will fill thy Hunger, and quench thy Thirst, and stay and support thy weary Soul.

But thou hast been rebellious, and murmuring, and questioning the Truth and Goodness of the Lord: so was Israel. Moses in­deed [Page 183] stuck at this, and so could not enter into Canaan.

But we should believe that there is Water for Rebels.

1 Cor. 10.11.April 23. 1668.

A Sixth typical thing amongst them of old was the Brazen Serpent, the History whereof we have in Numb. 21.5, 6, 7, 8. The mystery and meaning of it we have by that infallible In­terpreter, our Lord Jesus Christ himself, in Joh. 3.14, 15.

And so the paralleling and laying these two Scriptures together, the one whereof declares the History of the Type, and the other reveals the Mystery intended and aimed at therein, will be a great part of my Discourse at this time.

You see in the History there be two things, the bodily Dis­ease, and the Remedy.

Now this shadows forth the spiritual Disease, and Remedy for the Soul.

I shall speak first to the Disease, which was the deadly stinging of fiery Serpents for their Ingratitude, and Murmurings against the Lord.

In this Disease there was a shadow of the spiritual Sickness of the Souls of men. And let it not seem strange, that they should have a typical representation of spiritual Evils: For it hath been formerly shewed, when we opened the Nature of a Type, from Rom. 5.14. that all the Types are not to be restrained only to the Messiahs person, or to his Benefits; but they had dark and legal Adumbrations under the Old Testament, of all those things and truths which are more clearly revealed under the New.

That this was indeed a Typical Disease, is evident from the coherence that must needs be between the Disease and the Re­medy, I mean thus.

Such as the Remedy was, such was the Disease.

An outward Remedy supposes and implies a bodily Disease: a spiritual Remedy must needs relate to a spiritual Disease: but the Remedy here was spiritual and typical; for this our Saviour is express, Joh. 3.14. therefore so was the Disease.

[Page 184]Now for the Particulars wherein it was so.

Having this general ground and foundation in the Scripture for it, as to the Particulars, we must beg of God Spiritual Wisdom to accommodate and apply things rationally and scripturally, and not in a way of loose and wanton wit and fancy.

In the hope of whose assistance, through the help of your prayers, I shall instance only in 5. Particulars of spiritual Instru­ction out of this Type, as to the diseases of our Souls.

  • 1. That Satan is indeed the Old Serpent.
  • 2. That he is a fiery Serpent.
  • 3. That sin is the sting of this Serpent.
  • 4. This sting of sin is painful and deadly.
  • 5. The Lord suffers those most of all to be tormented and plagued by it, who despise Manna as a light Food.

1. That Satan is indeed the Old Serpent. For this, the Scri­pture is express, Rev. 12.9.

He is so represented in Prophetical and Typical Scriptures, both because that was the first Shape wherein he did appear as a Devil in tempting and destroying our first Parents; and for the subtilty and venome of that Beast, and the curse inflicted upon him in that appearance.

In darker places, as amongst the Pagans of old, and amongst the Americans of late; he hath delighted to appear unto them in that Shape of a Serpent: Therefore the Pagan Temples were wont to be haunted with Serpents, in so much that it grew into a Phrase of Speech amongst them. Sacer anguis.

2. The Devils are fitly called Seraphims or fiery burning Ser­pents. The Serpents wherewith they were stung in that Wilder­ness were such, Deut. 8.15.

The Prophet Isaiah speaks of fiery flying Serpents, Isa. 14.29. and 30.6.

The word in the Text is [...] hane chashim haseraphim, Serpents burners, Numb. 21.6. or burning Serpents. The Root is [...] urere. The name Serapis that Egyptian Idol may be derived from hence.

Some derive from the Hebrew Saraph by Inversion of Letters, [Page 185] the Greek word Praester which signifies a kind of venemous Ser­pent, which is also called Dipsas and Causon, with which he that is bitten is tormented with such a burning heat and thirst, that though he drink never so much,Diascor. l. 6. cap. 38, and 40. apud Aynsw. in loc. his thirst will not be quencht or satisfied: and the bitings of these Serpents were lest off by the most ancient Physici­ans as altogether incurable.

They are also fitly called, fiery Serpents from their Colour. For they had a shining and glistering Skin, as if it had been made of Fire. And we see it in our ordinary Snakes that seem to shine and sparkle against the Sun. So Taylor on the Types, pag. 305. Satan is fitly so called, as being a Serpent of the worst kind, a most terrible and deadly Serpent. Hence he is elsewhere com­pared to a great red Dragon, Rev. 12. upon the same account as here to a fiery Serpent, because he is such a dreadful enemy.

This name Seraphim that is here used, is applyed to the holy Angels, Isa. 6.2. For the spiritual brightness, and burning heat and zeal and love to God that is in those blessed Spirits, those pure flames. He hath made his Angels Spirits, and his Ministers a flame of fire, Heb. 1.

And Satan himself was such a one at first, though now by his fall, he is but a fiery Serpent: He is a Seraphim debased and fallen below himself.

3. The sting of this Serpent is sin, Therefore the temptations of this fiery Serpent are called fiery Darts, Ephes. 6.16. with which he stings the soul to death. He hath thrust his Sting into the na­ture of man, and poysoned it, and made it like himself. And he is continually tempting and thrusting in his Sting: Sin is called a Sting, 1 Cor. 15. The sting of death is sin.

4. Sin the Sting of this Serpent, is painful and deadly poyson: it both torments and kills.

It is true, it is sweet poyson while under the tongue; but with­al it is tormenting and mortal in the Bowels, Job. 20.12, 13, 14. Though sweet in his mouth, it is the poyson of Asps within him; sweet in the commission, but tormenting and destructive after­ward.

[Page 186]Oh the pain it puts the Conscience of a sinner too! Deadly pain and anguish; there is no anguish like it, no poyson so in­flaming, so tormenting to the Body, as Sin is to the Soul.

5. The occasion of all this misery, was their slighting and murmuring against the Manna wherewith the Lord had fed them from Heaven.

There had been many murmurings before upon other occasi­ons: but now they come to slight and despise Manna wherewith the Lord had fed them so miraculously, for about eight and thirty years together: (for so some Interpreters compute the time of this murmuring.) All the while till now, though that Wilder­ness through which they travelled was full of fiery Serpents, and Scorpions, and Drought, as Deut. 8.15. Yet the Lord had not suffered any of them to be stung.

But now he lets loose these fiery Dragons to fly upon them, as Amos 9.3. I will command the Serpent and he shall bite them— and upon occasion of their ungrateful murmurings against the Manna, Numb. 21.5. The Instruction we may learn and see in it is this, That God lets loose those fiery Serpents, Satan and their Lusts, to sting the Consciences and torment the Souls of Men, for con­tempt of Christ and Gospel mercies.

When Manna hath been slighted, when Christ is offered and rejected, then the Serpent stings. Psal. 81.11, 12. Because Israel would none of me; therefore I gave them up to their own hearts lusts.

Have you never felt the truth of this Type by woful experi­ence, how sin hath raged and gotten more strength, when the Gospel hath been slighted, and offers of Grace despised?

So much of the Disease, the deadly sting of these fiery Ser­pents for their murmurings.

Now 2. for the Remedy. The Brazen Serpent. That Christ is this Brazen Serpent, himself declares, Joh. 3.

1. It was made of Brass, and in the shape and form of a Ser­pent, yet not a real Serpent. It was not made of Gold, but on­ly of Brass; which though it be a strong and bright Mettal, yet was contemptible in outward appearance, and most unlikely to have attained such an end, to work such a cure.

[Page 187]So is Christ strong and mighty, and bright and glorious, Rev. 1.15, 16. The brightness of his Fathers glory. Heb. 1.3. Yet a man, and the Son of man; Therefore low and mean in his outward ap­pearance, and despised of the world. Christ crucified is to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the Greeks foolishness; but to them that are saved the wisdom of God and the power of God, 1 Cor. 1.23, 24. Yea he condescended to appear in the similitude of sin­ful flesh, for so the Apostle most accurately expresseth it, Rom. 8.3. He was counted a sinner, but he was indeed without sin, Heb. 4.15. As this brazen Serpent was like a Serpent, yet had neither Ve­nom nor Sting: so Christ appeared like a sinner. He came in the likeness of sinful flesh, and yet knew no sin. 2 Cor. 5.21. But though he was not sinful, yet he was indeed under the curse due to sin, as the Serpent was cursed, Gen. 3. So Christ became a curse for us, Gal. 3.13.

2. This brazen Serpent was a Remedy and a Cure provided of God, in meer Grace and sovereign Mercy for ungrateful and unworthy Rebels, when some of them were stung to death, and ready to perish for their contempt of Manna; and others of them were dead, and gone, and past recovery for the same sin.

It was against the merit of their murmurings, when they spake against him, and against Moses: in like manner doth God give his Son Jesus Christ of free and meer grace, when we were ene­mies, without and against our merit; when so great a part of mankind perisheth without him in their own rebellions, and e­specially for their contempt of the Gospel. Joh. 3.16. God so loved the world, (it was a most intense love) to give his only be­gotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him might not perish, but have eternal life.

3. The Serpent must be lifted up upon a Pole, Numb. 21. That all Israel might see it, whether near or further off: so Christ was lifted up. Joh. 3.14. As Moses lifted up the Serpent in the Wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that is, upon the Cross — Joh. 12.32, 33. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. This he spake, signifying what death he should die.

[Page 188]And in the preaching of the Gospel, in the sight of all men. Gal. 3.1. Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you. Both to those that are near and farr of, Ephes. 2.17.

4. This brazen Serpent must be also looked upon by the Isra­elites when stung, Numb. 21.8. So must Christ by the eye of Faith, Joh. 3.15.

Faith is often expressed unto us by that Metaphor of looking. Look unto me all ye ends of the earth and be saved, Isa. 45.22— Isa. 65.1. I said behold me, behold me. Faith looks with a fixed eye, and with a mourning eye. A mans Spirit is much seen and doth much discover it self by his eye.

5. In this way it gave healing unto those that being stung did look upon it, whom nothing else could heal; Moses and his Law could not do it, Numb. 21.8.

So Christ Mal. 4.2. Ʋnto you that fear my Name, shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing under his wings— Psal. 103— who healeth all thy diseases. And none but he can do it, Act. 4.12. There is no healing of a wounded Conscience, but by Jesus Christ alone, as lifted up upon the Cross, and beheld by the eye of Faith.

The brazen Serpents being lifted up was not enough, but it must be looked upon: so Christ must be believed on, or else the soul cannot be healed.

Ignorant Souls that see not Christ, or that despise him, shall not be saved by him: as if any of the people had said, what vir­tue can there be in such a brazen Serpent to health, and so would not look up to it? Such, they deservedly perish: so do Unbe­lievers and Despisers under the Gospel.

Though they were but weak and dim-eyed, blear-eyed, dim-sighted, &c. yet looking up to the brazen Serpent, they were healed: so, though Faith be weak, yet being sincere it saveth.

Though in the utmost parts of the Camp— some say it took up twelve myles; Yet look unto me all the ends of the earth and be saved, Isa. 45.22.

6. The brazen Serpent retained this virtue, only while insti­tuted [Page 189] by God for that end; and therefore when the sacred Stamp of Institution was taken off, we read no more of any Mi­racles wrought by it: and Hezekiah brake it in pieces, 2. Kings. 18.4.

Now this part of the History cannot be fitly accommodated to Christ himself, but to his Ordinances, thus. That the very same things and actions which are good and useful when God ap­points them, are useless, yea abominable, if there be no stamp of Institution upon them. Thus we may fitly apply it, because the Types (as hath been said) relate to all Gospel Truths: and the same Truth shines forth in all the rest of those ancient Types and Shadows.

The Lord then appointed ministring Garments, for his Priests and Ministers: but for Ministers to use sacred Vestments now, is unlawful and abominable.

The Lord then appointed a kind of legal Hierarchy and spiri­tual Supremacy of the High Priest, over all the rest of the Priests and Levites; they were to act by the appointment of Aaron and his Sons, Numb. 4.19. But for one Gospel Minister to claim a supremacy of Jurisdiction over another Gospel Minister, within his own Charge or Congregation; This is that for which we just­ly call the Pope Antichrist.

The Lord then appointed the Feast of Tabernacles, and the Passover, and Pentecost: But for us to keep these Feasts now, under the names of Christmas, Easter, or Whitsuntide, or the like, as the Pope hath taught us to do, it is a farr greater sin then people do imagine: the retaining of such legal Shadows being an implicite denyal of the Truth of the Gospel: but men consider not the meaning of their own Actions.

7. The last occasional Typical thing which the Lord gave to his People of old, was those healing Waters of the Pool of Bethesda, which indeed are not mentioned in the Old Testament, but in the New, John. 5. It was a Miracle; but yet it had also a symbolical use (as many other Miracles had) to lead them from the consideration of earthly things, unto heavenly things.

Healing Waters are often spoken of in the Scriptvre, with a reference to spiritual healing, as Ezek. 47.1, 8, 9, 11— Rev. 21.1.

[Page 190]So Christ speaks of Rivers of Waters flowing out of the heart of a Believer, Joh. 7.38. which cannot be meant of literal Wa­ter, but is meant of Metaphorical and Spiritual Waters; this in general. But to unfold the Allegory a little more particularly, that we may see more fully what instructions we may learn out of it.

1. Those healing Waters of that Pool of Bethesda, may fitly represent the Ordinances of Christ in the Church; which is in­deed Bethesda, an house of mercy: for so the word may be inter­preted [...] Beth chesda, Domus misericordiae, though others expound it [...] Domus effusionis.

The Church of Christ is indeed a spiritual Hospital, an house of mercy to the Sick, to poor diseased Souls, where there be the choisest Waters, the Waters of Life, and all other Medicines of spiritual help and healing.

2. The healing virtue of the Water, may hold forth to us the spiritual good of Ordinances, the healing of our Souls. This is frequent in the Scripture, (as was said before) for bodily healing to teach and represent spiritual.

3. The motion of the Angel, leads us to take notice of the effectual Operation of the Spirit of Christ, in and by the Ordi­nances in the time of love.

It is not the Means, it is not the Ordinances, but the Angel of the Covenant by his Spirit, moving and working in them, that heals and doth good to souls: the Ordinances are not ef­fectual at all times, but only when and as they are moved and influenced by the Spirit: for it was a place much frequented, as appears by the five Porches, and its neerness to the Temple: and the Text saith many sick lay there. He could have healed all as well as some: Verùm ut miracula suum habent finem, ita & mo­dum habere debent. Calvin in loc.

As when there were so many dead, and but one raised, 2 Kings 4.32— So many Widows, and the Prophet sent but to one, 1 Kings 17.9. Luk. 4.25, 26.

Who would have looked for help and healing from troubled Water? We must follow God against our own reason: the judg­ment [Page 191] of reason is often contrary to the mind of God. 2 King. 5.10. Naaman thought washing in Jordan an unlikely means to re­cover the Leper— Elisha 2 King. 2.20. healeth the Waters by casting in Salt; an unlikely means: for Salt is wont rather to cause barrenness.

The Water here did it not, for then it would have healed all, and at all times, one as well as another. He singles out one whose condition was most deplorable, his disease inveterate, in­curable 38. years. So he that was born blind, and had been so, till he grew up to mans estate. Cap. 9.1— So Lazarus when dead, buried four days, Joh. 11.39. The Woman twelve years, Mat. 9.20. Another eighteen years, Luk. 13.11.

4. These times were unknown and uncertain to the people, they knew not when the Angel would come to move the Waters.

So is the day of grace, and the opportunities of salvation to Souls: because man knoweth not his time, Therefore is he snared in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon him: Eccl. 9.12. Oh that thou hadst known! Luk. 19.41, 42.

Therefore Eccl. 11.6. In the morning sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thine hand: for thou knowst not whether shall prosper, either this or that, or whether they both shall be alike good. Lay hold upon all opportunities.

5. These excellent Waters did not heal all, but only him that was put first into them: which was for our instruction, that we might learn to lay hold betimes upon seasons and opportunities, for our spiritual good: They that seek me early, shall find me. Prov. 8.17. Be at work for God and your Souls betimes, lest you come too late.

Christ asks him vers. 6. Wilt thou be made whole? He prevents him before he expressed any desire to Christ; not as though Christ were ignorant of his desire, but to excite and stirr up de­sire and expectation in him; and to stirr up the attention of those who were providentially present at that time, that they might mind and take notice of the Miracle. Vers. 8. Jesus saith to him, rise, take up thy bed and walk. He could have said, be whole; but he chooses rather to express it by an infallible effect [Page 192] and fruit of it. To the Maid, arise, Mark. 5.42. To Lazarus, come forth, Joh. 11.43. and vers. 44. Let him go. To the Para­lytick. Mat. 9.6. Arise take up thy bed, and go unto thine house.

On the Sabbaoth day, that so it might be the more taken notice of; the people would wonder to see a man carry his bed abroad, and so inquire about it.

There were (beside these we have now handled) some other occasional typical things, as Noahs Ark, but that was spoken to in the History of Noah, and some others may occur afterwards: but these are all I shall speak unto here.

Let me conclude with a few words of use, to help you to a practical improvement of all that hath been said upon these Ty­pical things.

1. We may here see the compleat and perfect fulness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to all the necessities of our Souls.

That spiritual Ladder represents him as the Mediator and means of all the intercourse between Heaven and Earth, be­tween God and us.

The burning Bush shews his presence with, and protection of his Church and People in the Fires of Persecution and Affliction.

The Pillar of Cloud and Fire holds forth that everlasting blessed Conduct and Guidance of his People, by his Word and Spirit, through the Wilderness of this World to their eternal Rest.

The Manna, and Water out of the Rock holds him forth, as our spiritual Food.

And now lastly the Brazen Serpent, and the Pool of Bethesda teacheth us, that here is healing also, so that he is both Meat, and Medicine.

The same thing is held forth also under other Metaphors: Rev. 22.2. The Leaves of the Tree of life are for healing of the Na­tions: so that Christ is all in all.

2. Learn from hence not to despise these Truths concerning the Types, how weakly soever they may be held forth by him that speaks unto you: for you see they are full of Gospel mar­row and mystery. Any thing of Christ should be sweet and precious, and it is so to you that believe.

[Page 193]3. We may here see the glory of Gospel Truths and Myste­ries; and withall how dull and slow of heart we are to appre­hend them, in that the Lord teacheth us and holds them forth in so great variety of spiritual representations, to our weak and narrow understandings.

Here is Light and Safety, and Strength, and Meat and Drink, and Medicine, and all laid up in Christ, and Christ hereby held forth unto us: and all little enough to help us to a true and right Idea of him.

4. Here is very great and sweet encouragement from that which hath been said this day, to diseased Souls, to repair to this Physician; whatever thy diseases be, go to him for help.

And that you may obtain help and healing virtue from him, remember these three Rules and take them along with you.

1. Seek to him in his own Means and Ordinances. If he set his Stamp upon a piece of Copper (as he did of old) do not de­spise it. If he send his Angel into a Pool or Well of Water, do not say with Naaman, are not the Waters of Abana and Pharphar, as good as the Waters of Jordan?

Are not other Pools as good as the Pool of Bethesda? They may be so in themselves, and yet may not have the virtue that meaner Waters have, if the one be appointed of God for this use, and the other not.

2. Do not expect healing from the Means, from the Well, or Waters of it, but by the Angel of the Covenant moving the Waters; not from the Ordinances, but only from the blessing and presence of God in them.

3. Be sure you be found waiting his time and leisure: wait at the Pool of Bethesda, though you do not find help in 38 years; yet wait, and be ever ready, lest you be out of the way, when the Angel moves the Waters.

May 7. & 21. 1668.1 Cor. 10.11.

THe occasional Types (beloved) were referred to two heads.

Things and Actions.

Of Typical things we have spoken.

That which follows next in order is, occasional Typical actions.

Before we enter into them, it may be useful to recal to re­membrance three things formerly delivered.

  • 1. That the Types are not to be restrained only to the Per­son of Christ, but they extend even to all New Testament Dis­pensations.
  • 2. That there is a real historical verity in these typical actions.
  • 3. That they did serve for divers other ends and uses, as well as for this typical use.

I must desire you to remember these three things, and to car­ry them along with you in all that shall be said.

They may be referred to two heads.

  • 1. Typical deliverances to his People.
  • 2. Typical destruction of Enemies. Which, though they might be handled together; yet for the greater clearness and distinctness we may consider them severally.

1. There were typical Mercies, Deliverances, Preservations of his People of old which happened to them in Types, and are written for our Instruction, upon whom the ends of the World are come.

The Lord intended those ancient Dispensations to be Types and Patterns, and Pledges of what he intended to do for his People in the latter days.

There be many signal Instances thereof, in the story of the Old Testament.

I might here instance in the Lords protecting Providence over the Fathers and Ancestors of that People, viz. Abraham Isaac and Jacob, in all their sojournings and journeyings to and fro at the call of God. Psal. 105.12, 13, 14, 15. When few in number, and in the midst of Enemies, He suffered no man to do them harm.

Mentioned as the first great and speaking Example, how the [Page 195] Lord would protect his People in all future times: but to let pass the Presidents given in particular Persons, and to instance only in such Dispensations as befel that whole People.

There were six famous Dispensations of Providence which happened unto them in Types, and are written for our instruction upon whom the Ends of the World are come.

  • 1. Their deliverance out of Egypt.
  • 2. Their passage through the Red Sea.
  • 3. Their marching through the Wilderness.
  • 4. Their passage through the River Jordan under Joshua's conduct.
  • 5. Their entrance into Canaan.
  • 6. Their deliverance out of Babylon.

1. Their deliverance out of Egypt, the History whereof is re­corded in the Book of Exodus.

This History may be typically applied three ways.

1. Unto Christ himself, and so it is expresly in Mat. 2.15— It is quoted out of Hos. 11.1. Those words are spoken by the Pro­phet Hosea, concerning the deliverance of that People out of Egypt: but this being typically done to the Members of Christ, was in the full intent of it accomplisht in Christ, the Head and Antitype: and therefore is so applyed by Matthew.

Look as Israel, in the Infancy of that People went down into Egypt, and God brought them forth again: so Christ in his Infan­cy fled thither, and the Lord called him back again.

2. Here was also a shadow and representation of our spiritual deliverance, out of spiritual bondage and misery under Sin and Satan, and the World in an unregenerate estate, unto the state of Grace and Glory. The Scripture hinteth this unto us, in that it doth expresly apply the Terminus ad quem of their deliverance Mystically and Allegorically: Therefore the Terminus à quo was also Mystical and Allegorical: for there is the same reason of both.

We made use of the like demonstration before, upon the fiery Serpents: so here, such as the Rest was, such was their Bondage: but the State they were brought into, was a State of typical Rest and Peace in Canaan. It is made a Type of another Coun­try, [Page 196] even of Heaven it self, Heb. 11.16. Heb. 4.8, 9. Joshua did not give them Rest: But there remaineth a further rest to the people of God. If their Rest in Canaan was a Type of spiritual and heavenly Rest; Then their Bondage in Egypt was a Type of spi­ritual Bondage.

Sin (as some have well said) is indeed the Egypt of the Soul, upon all accounts: Temptations to it, Actings in it, Troubles for it, are its house of Bondage and Vexation. We are all by nature in a condition of spiritual slavery to Sin and Satan, as Israel was in outward slavery to their Egyptian Task-Masters: and the Lord redeems us spiritually, as he did them literally.

Hence in the Preface to the Ten Commandments which are moral and perpetual, the Lord therein saith to us, and to all his People, as well as to them: I am the Lord thy God which brought thee forth out of the Land of Egypt, out of the House of Bondage. He redeemeth us out of another and worser Egypt.

You may see the Analogy a little more particularly in 4. things.

1. They were under very cruel Bondage. The Egyptians made them to serve with rigor, Exod. 1.14. They must make Bricks: the Monuments whereof are thought by some to be the Pyra­mids. So Josephus reports.

Though some object that the Pyramides are not made of Brick. To which it may be answered, That what manner of Brick that was which the Israelites made, cannot be now determined and found out, no more than what Materials the Pyramides were made of: yea, they must make Bricks without Straw, an unrea­sonable piece of rigor and tyranny: and their Male-Children were to be drowned: a Law the most barbarous and inhumane that ever was then acted amongst men: which how long it stood in force, the Scripture expresseth not. The Jews have a Tradi­tion that it was ten Months: but whether it were a longer or a shorter time, in this blackest time and Midnight of their op­pression Moses was born, who afterwards delivered them. But a most bloody and barbarous Law it was: and which is yet worse, these Egyptian Tyrants would not let them have the li­berty of their Consciences to serve and worship God.

[Page 197]So is the Bondage of Sin and Satan, very sore and hard Bon­dage. The service of a Lust, the bondage of a base Lust, is worse then any Turkish or Egyptian Bondage, to do the Devils drud­gery: Thou hast wearied thy self with the greatness of thy way. Isa. 57.10. Sinners take much pains, endure much labour, and hardship in the satisfying of their lusts.

2. Though they did sigh under their bondage, and they had none to help; yet when help was offered, they had no heart to receive it, and close in with it; but did foolishly and frowardly refuse and reject it. They refused Moses, Exod. 2.14. Act. 7.25, 35. So Sinners in their natural bondage, they will sometimes cry out and complain of their sins, but yet refuse offers of Grace. When the Lord comes to deliver them, they hold fast deceit, and refuse to return. Jer. 8.4, 5.

3. When they began to think of getting free, Pharaoh pursues them with all his might: all the Land is in an uproar, whereas all was quiet before, Exod. 14.5, 9. And they are brought to a desperate strait, the Sea before them, the Mountains on each hand, their Enemies behind them at Baal zephon, Exod. 14. So doth Satan, when the Soul begins to break loose, then Beelze­bub roars; he lets it go on quietly till then, but then pursues it with dreadful temptations. Luk. 11.21. When the strong man armed keeps the house, all is in peace; but when a stronger then he comes to dispossess him, then he rages, and often drives it in­to desperate straits and distress of Spirit.

4. Yet notwithstanding all this opposition, the Lord delivers them, and brings them forth with a mighty hand and with an out-stretched arm, Exod. 14. So he brings forth the Soul in despite of Satan from out of its natural condition, by the outstretched arm, and by the almighty power of the Holy Ghost; convert­ing Grace is irresistible.

3. Israels deliverance out of Egypt of old, was a Type of the New Testament Churches deliverance from the Yokes of Anti­christ. For Egypt is expresly made a Type of Rome, Rev. 11.8.

To be under the yokes of men, under Antichristian bondage, it is worse than Egyptian bondage: for that was chiefly over the [Page 198] bodies, but this over the Souls of men, this is Romes Merchan­dice, Rev. [...]8.

That men must have their Consciences kept in the Pocket of a base Priest at Rome; for him to oppress their Consciences and exercise dominion over their Faith, what fearful slavery is this?

Hence also to make the Parallel yet a little clearer, look as Moses and Israel sang when they came forth out of literal Egypt.

So in like manner when the Churches of the New Testament came forth out of Antichristian bondage, they are said to sing the song of Moses and of the Lamb. Rev. 15.3.

2. Another typical Dispensation of Deliverance and Mercy towards Israel of old, was their Passage through the red Sea, as on dry Land: the Story whereof is recorded, Exod. 14.

A very great and mighty work of Providence, and very often celebrated with triumphing praises to God, in after times. See Isa. 63.12, 13. and Hab. 3.8, 9. and often in the Psalms.

The Sea they passed through is called the Red Sea: the reason of which name is thought to be from Esau, who got the Sirname of Red, and whose Seat and Habitation was bordering upon this Sea. The place where they passed over, I find in Geographers that it was four Myles broad.

The means was by Moses stretching forth his Rod, and the Lord sending an East Wind, vers. 21. The Waters stood as a Wall: not in the shape and figure of a Wall, (for then it is not likely that Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as mad as they were, would have dared to have pursued them) but probably in the ordinary figure that other Waters use to have: but they did serve to the use of the Wall on each side the Camp, to keep off the Egyptians that they could not inclose the Israelites, and compass them about.

That this was a typical Dispensation, the Apostle doth affirm here in the Context, 1 Cor. 10.1, 2. The Mystery of it was this; it represented Baptism, and that both in the outward form, and the inward good of Baptism.

1. Here was a manifest Representation of the outward Ordi­nance: for here was an application of the Element of Water by Moses the Minister of God, unto the whole Church of God, who [Page 199] were six hundred thousand Men, besides Women and Children: These were all baptized by Moses in the Sea: but how was the Water applied to them? The Egyptians were drowned and over­whelmed in it; but there was no contiguous application of it to the Israelites, otherwise than what drops of Water might be blown upon them by the Wind, that strong East-Wind: but they passed through the place of that Element, and so here was [...] fi­gure and a shadow of Baptism.

2. Beside the outward form, the inward good [...] was also represented and lively set forth in this [...] thus: That as Israel when departing out of Egypt, [...] by Pharaoh did pass safely through the Sea, when th [...] [...]yptian Enemies were drowned in it: So when the Israel of God are de­parting and making their escape to the spiritual Rest, they see be­fore them the swelling Waves and Billows of the Wrath of God ready to swallow them up, and the Iniquities of their heels to­gether with the Prince and Powers of Darkness pursuing them: but Jesus Christ drys up these Floods and deep Waters of the Wrath of God for all his People, and is as a Wall of safety to them on each hand, and leads them safely through it.

But he causeth these Floods to overwhelm their Enemies, he triumphs over them in his fury, over Principalities and Powers and all implacable Adversaries; he kills and buries Sins and De­vils, that they can no more rise up to hurt his people, than a drowned Egyptian can to hurt an Israelite.

The Wrath of God is often compared in the Scripture to Floods and deep Waters, Psal. 69.1, 2. God is said to be with his people when they pass through the Waters, Isa. 43.2. And he is said to drown their sins in the depths of the Sea, Micah. 7.19. And as Israel was thus Conducted safe in the morning Watch, Exod. 14.24, 27. So Christ in the morning Watch of his Resurrection, and in the morning of the general Resurrection and last Judgment, triumphs over all the Enemies of his people, Psal. 49.14. Then his Church is fully passed from death to life, eternal life; then may Israel sing the Song of Moses and of the Lamb, and say, the Lord shall reign for ever, and ever. Exod. 15.18.

[Page 200]Much Teaching, and many other Instructions might be learn­ed from all the Circumstances of this Dispensation. The Egyp­tians here, met with a punishment suitable to their sin. They had drowned the Children of Israel; and now fourscore years af­ter, they themselves are drowned in the Red Sea: and from the sore distress that Israel was in, the Sea before them, their Ene­mies behind them, the Mountains on either side; insomuch that they had no other choice, in the eye of reason, but either to be drowned or slain. We may here observe, that the most glorious Deliverances of the Church, are in their greatest straits and most desperate distresses: we may also observe the invincible safety of the Church of God in all Tryals, under all troubles.

The Fire cannot burn them, as you have seen before in the burning Bush, which burnt, and was not consumed: the Sea can­not drown them; you have formerly heard of Noah floating upon the Waves in an Ark of safety, when all the World was Sea; and now you see Israel safe in the bottom of the Sea.

Oh! Trust God and follow the Lord fully, when he leads you into dangers and difficulties, as deep as the bottom of the Sea: 2 Chron. 20.12, We know not what to do, but our eyes are unto thee. It was by Faith that Israel did this, Heb. 11.29. Some make the Red Sea a Type of the blood of Christ, That through his blood we pass to the Land of Promise.

3. Their marching through the Wilderness, those Deserts of Arabia with their God in the head of them, Psal. 68.7. The Wil­derness of an unregenerate Condition: so Burroughs of holy Cou­rage on Heb. 11.27. Cap. 25, and 26. Interprets and applies this their Passage out of Egypt unto Canaan.

Herein was an eminent Prefiguration of three things.

1. Troubles, difficulties, temptations in the way to Heaven, that through many tribulations we must enter into the Kingdom of God, Act. 14.22. This World is but a Wilderness, an howling Wilderness, full of Lyons and Leopards, sins and troubles, Cant. 4.8. full of fiery Serpents, and Scorpions, and Drought: as those Arabian Deserts were.

2. We may here see as in a Glass, the Corruptions of our own hearts.

[Page 201]That this was a great part of the meaning of this Type, the Apostle shews at large in many Verses of the Context, v. 5. to 10.

Look what Israel did, and how they carried it in the Wilder­ness, we are apt to do the like: we are apt to think they were a very murmuring froward People: but if thou hadst been in their Circumstances, thou wouldst have done as bad as they.

3. The perishing and miscarrying of many Souls under some preparative and initial Works, is also here plainly held forth. For many of them perished in the Wilderness while they were in transitu, between Egypt and Canaan.

So doth many a Soul after some beginnings and motions heavenwards. The Apostle applies it thus, Heb. 4.1, 11. lest any man fall short after the same example of unbelief: and here 1 Cor. 10.5. many of them were destroyed in the Wilderness.

4. Their passing through Jordan under Joshua's Conduct, the Priests bearing the Ark, going in before them, and standing in the midst thereof, till all the people were gone over. Joshua 3.13, 17. and 4.10, 18.

The signification of this, was (as the Dispensation it self was) much after the same nature with their Passage through the Red Sea, but accompanied with differing Circumstances.

In general it represented and held forth Christ going before his people, and himself bearing their sorrows that would have sunk them: he wafteth them safely through all their sorrows and miseries, and through death it self over unto their eternal Rest.

It was at this place Bethabara [...] domus trans­itus the house of Passage, from [...] domus and [...] transire. Chytraeus in Josh. 3. & 4. The place that Jesus Christ was baptized at when he entred upon his Ministry, Joh. 1.28.

And as Israel of old did pass over on the tenth day of the first Month, Josh. 4.19.Paulus Eber. Pref. in Ca­lend. Hist. Encamping in Gilgal where they kept the Passover. Josh. 5.10. So it seems that on the same tenth day of the first Month, Christ rode into Jerusalem, where he not only kept the Passover, but presented himself the true Paschal Lamb to be slain for us, and encountring with the [Page 202] swellings of Jordan, the whole Confluence of the Wrath of God, and the sins and sorrows of all his Elect: he hath opened a Pas­sage for them through the midst of Jordan, as it were into the Land of their eternal Rest.

5. And so this brings me to the Fifth typical Dispensation of Providence to them of old, viz. Their Entrance into Canaan un­der the leading and conduct of the same Joshua, who had led them through Jordan. The History whereof is the main Subject of the Book of Joshua.

The Mystery of this Dispensation is plain and obvious. Canaan was a Type of Heaven; it shadowed forth another and a better Country, that is an heavenly, Heb. 11.16. Their Rest in the Promised Land shadowed forth another Rest remaining for the people of God. Heb. 4.8, 9.

These things were partly spoken to, when we were upon the Personal Types, where we spake of Joshua as a Type of Christ, the true Jesus or Joshua,

6. The last typical Deliverance that I shall mention, is their deliverance out of their Captivity in Babylon.

Their Bondage in Babylon was a Type of spiritual bondage: their Deliverance, a Type of spiritual deliverance by Christ, and of his raising up his spiritual Kingdom.

Hence it is observable, that the Prophets, when speaking of that Recovery from Babylon, they pass from that to Christ, and our spiritual Restoration through him: and they spake more magnificently of that, than was fulfilled in the Letter and Histo­ry; and they often intermix Passages that are plainly and unde­niably meant of Christ, and of his spiritual Grace and Kingdom, of which that temporal Deliverance was but a taste and Type. See Jer. 32.36, 37, 40, 41. also Jer. 33.15, 16. and in very many other places,See Calvin in loc. the Prophets still lead the people from that to Christ, in whom all the Promises and Pro­phecies are fully and perfectly accomplisht.

Moreover Babylon was a Type of Rome, and consequently their deliverance out of Babylon, a Type of the Churches delive­rance in the New Testament from under the Yoke of Antichrist: and the Circumstances also agree.

[Page 203]1. That it was a gradual work: for some came back with Zerobabel, others afterwards with Ezra, and others lastly with Nehemiah: So is the Reformation out of Popery. The first Re­formers were not infallible; therefore could not reform all things at once.

2. It met with much opposition, and was carried on through great difficulties: and of all their Enemies, the Samaritans did most obstruct them, of whom you read 2 Kin. 17. that they ser­ved the Lord, and other Gods. and Ezra 4.1, 2. When rejected, then they brake out into open opposition: and again in the New Testament, Joh. 4.9. whereby it appears that they did believe and expect the Messiahs coming, as well as the Jews, Joh. 4.20. and again Rev. 3.9. they are there described. The Sum is, they had a kind of mongrel Religion made up partly of Judaism, and partly of Paganism. So now when the Church of God under the New Testament, is coming forth out of spiritual Babylon: There is a mongrel Generation risen up, whom some have fitly called Calvino Papistas, Calvinian Papists, who are for the Protestant Doctrine, and for Popish Worship.

I refer it to every ones Conscience, to judge whether it may not be fitly applied to our late Innovators, who are for a Linsey-woolsey Religion, a mixture of sound and wholsome Doctrine, with Antichristian popish worship: their Wine is mixt with Wa­ter; the Protestant Faith, with popish Ceremonies and Supersti­tions: they build Hay and Stubble upon the Foundation.

The Foundation of our Church is right, which is Jesus Christ, and Justification by Faith in his blood: but the Superstructure they build upon it, is humane Inventions and Superstitions: which is not Gold and Silver, pure Worship, and wholesome Discipline; but Hay and Stubble, and the day will discover it, 1 Cor. 3.

2. Typical vengeance and destruction upon the Enemies of his people. For as the Jews were a typical people, and did prefigure and represent the whole Church of God under the Gospel: So the neighbour Nations with whom they had to do, were also Typical of Gospel Enemies to the Church; and their Sins and [Page 204] Judgments, did prefigure and shadow forth something Analo­gous under the New Testament.

I shall refer them to 2. sorts. Typical Prefigurations.

  • 1. Of Rome, and
  • 2. Of Hell it self.

1. Types of Rome. There be 5. places and people in the Old Testament, that seem to be Types of Rome and Antichristian abominations.

1. Sodom, Rev. 11.8. for their monstrous Lusts, and unna­tural filthiness and uncleanness.

2. Egypt, for their Idolatry, and cruelty to Gods People: Therefore the Plagues of Rome are described with allusion to the Plagues of Egypt. Rev. 16. Here is noisome boyles, and Rivers of blood, and darkness, and Locusts, &c.

3. Jericho. Hence that Curse of Joshua upon the Rebuilders of it, Josh. 6.26, 27.

This City was the first that stood out against the People of God, which Curse was not in vain, 1 Kin. 16.34. This seems to have had a further meaning, to hold forth the irreparable ru­ines and everlasting destruction of all the implacable Enemies of God and his People, and especially Rome and Antichrist, which is to perish like a Milstone cast into the Sea, never to rise more, Rev. 18.

Vid [...] on Joshua among the per­sonal Types.This Curse of Joshua, will come upon all such as shall attempt to Rebuild Rome and restore Po­pery, when the Lord hath cast it down.

4. Edom and Bozra the chief City thereof, that is, Italy and Rome: therefore the same expressions which belong to Babylon, and are spiritually understood of Rome, Isa. 13.19, 21. are also used concerning Edom. Isa. 34.11 — and vers. 4. The ruine of Idumea is set forth with expressions like unto those, Rev. 6.12, 13. The land shall become burning Pitch, vers. 9, 10. the mean­ing is, dreadful vengeance, hideous indignation. Isa. 63.1. Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed Garments from Bozra? Christ is there set forth as cloathed with Garments, dipt in the blood of his Enemies.

5. Babylon. For this the Scripture is express, Rev. 17.5, and vers. 18.

[Page 205]From all which we should learn, both to know and to take heed of Antichrist, seeing the Lord hath so many ways declared, and foresignified him unto us.

Shall we look back toward Sodom? Remember Lots Wife. Shall we return into Egypt again? Shall we Rebuild Jericho? Would we be found in Bozra or Babylon, in the day of the Lords fury?

2. Types of Hell. For as they had Types of Heaven and spiri­tual Glory; so they had likewise of Hell and spiritual Torment and Misery.

They had all things taught and represented to them, by things outward and visible. And the visible expressions of di­vine vengeance upon Wicked Men of old, led the People of God further to see and take notice of that eternal Wrath that is to come.

I shall instance therefore in 4. Prefigurations of Hell.

1. The Deluge, or destruction of the Old World by Water. The Apostle parallels this and the destruction that shall be by Fire at the great Day together, 2 Pet. 3.6, 7. Hence Hell is called in the Old Testament [...] Quahal rephaim Coetus Gigantum. Prov. 21.16. Prov. 2.18. Isa. 14.9, 10. It stir­reth up the Rephaims for thee.

God that hath overthrown the Gyants of the old World, and cast them upon their backs in Hell; Those men of Renown are now roaring and wailing under the Waters, as the vulgar Latine reads that place Job. 26.5, 6. Gigantes gemunt sub Aquis; he hath conquered those Gigantine Sinners, who were cut down with a Flood, as Job. 22.16. He is able to deal with other Re­bels: Never any hardened himself against God and prospered, Job. 9.4.

2. Sodom. Therefore Hell is called the Lake that burneth with fire and brimstone. Rev. 20.10. and 21.8.

3. Egypt, when under the ten Plagues, especially that of dark­ness, Exod. 10.21, 22. For Hell is a place of utter darkness, Mat. 25.30.

In stead of darkness the Psalmist doth not mention that, but [Page 206] saith, He sent evil Angels amongst them. Psal. 78.49. A lively pre­figuration of Hell, wherein there is utter darkness; but yet light enough to see affrighting apparitions of Devils and evil Angels.

4. Tophet, an horrid and cursed place wherein they were wont to Sacrifice their Children in the fire, to Molech. It was in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom. Hence Hell is called in the New Testament [...], quasi Vallis Hinnom.

This Tophet was a place every way execrable, both for the hideous Wickedness there committed, and for the hideous Plagues and Judgments there executed. There they did Sacrifice their Children to the Devil, with an hideous noise to drown their Crys and Skreetchings.

Vid. my Notes on the Creation. Gen. 1. Mede. Disc. 7.For an external detestation whereof King Josiah polluted it, and made it a place execrable, or­daining it to be the place, where dead Carcasses, Garbage and other unclean things should be cast out; for the consuming whereof to prevent annoyance, a continual Fire was there burning.

Yea the Lord himself as it were Consecrated this place of Execration, by making it the Stage of his Fury, and the Field of his Vengeance in hideous Plagues and Judgments. For here he destroyed Senacherib, with the rest of that blaspheming Ar­my▪ that damning roaring Crew. Here an hundred eighty five Thousand of them were slain miraculously, and their Carcasses (as it seemeth) burnt with Fire, to prevent annoyance and in­fection, and putrefaction of the Air. Isa. 30.31, 33. For Tophet is prepared of old.

And in the same place again in another day of the Lords Fury, when he did let loose the Chaldeans upon them, the Jews were slain in so great numbers, till there was no room left to bury them, see Jer. 7.31, 32, 33. From all which this place came to be the name of Hell, as being a place every way execrable, and having been made by God the Gate of Hell as it were, and the passage to eternal Destruction, by so many remarkable Exe­cutions of his dreadful and direful displeasure in that place. We do not find Gehinnom used in the Old Testament for the name of [Page 207] Hell, as the Learned have observed. But Hell got that name during the time of the second Temple: the forementioned grounds and occasions of the name, being not till about that time in being,Mede. Disc. 7. pag. 41. and accordingly the name is to be found in the Jewish Writers of that time: and was used by our Saviour as a name then vulgarly known among the Jews. You see then what Types of Hell they had under the Old Testament, namely the Deluge, Sodom, Egypt, and Tophet.

You have heard also that they had five Types of Rome, to wit, Sodom, Egypt, Jericho, Edom, and Babylon.

These were typical presignifications of Gospel Enemies and Gospel Vengeance.

And now I have gone through these Occasional Types, whe­ther things or actions, whether typical mercies, or typical ven­geance.

That which next remains, is those perpetual standing Types which the Scripture calls everlasting Statutes. For besides these Occasional Types which were exhibited in a transient way, and did exist but for a time; they had also other Types that were of a more enduring nature, and did continue to the end of that Old Testa­ment Dispensation, namely, the whole Ceremonial Law, whereof we shall speak hereafter, the Lord assisting.


June 4, and 7: 1668. Heb. 10.1.

For the Law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very Image of the things, &c.

SOme entrance and progress hath been made upon the Types. You have heard (Beloved) what a Type is. The nature of it hath been opened from Rom. 5.14.

We have distributed them into two Sorts, Personal and Real: which distribution will carry us through this whole Subject.

The Personal Types we have gone through as briefly as we could, instancing both in several individual Persons both before the Law, and under the Law, and in typical Ranks and Orders of men, which were destined and ordained of God to represent and shadow forth him that was to come. The Real Types we [Page 209] have also begun to speak unto, and we distributed them into two sorts, Occasional and Perpetual. Occasional Types are such as God gave them upon special Occasions, the most of them before the ordinary and perpetual ones were settled. Such as the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, Manna, the Brazen Serpent, their passing through the Red Sea, and other such like occasional and extra­ordinary Dispensations, of which we spoke from 1 Cor. 10.11. All these things happened unto them in Types.

By the perpetual Types we intend such as God by institution settled and stated in that Church, to the end of that Age, of that whole Old Testament Dispensation, till the coming of Christ the Truth Substance and Scope of them.

Of these we are now to speak, as the Lord shall enable us, it is the Scripture Phrase, it calleth them perpetual Statutes or ever­lasting Statutes.

The Phrase is first used, as I remember, in reference to Cir­cumcision, which is called Berith Yolam, a perpetual Covenant. Gen. 17.7, 8.

Afterwards we have it again concerning the Passover, Exod. 12.14, 17. which is there called [...] Statutum saeculi, an everlasting Statute.

See likewise Exod. 27.21. and 28.43. A Statute for ever. and 29.9. A perpetual Statute: so Levit. 3.17. and 24.9. An ever­lasting Statute, Levit. 16 34. And indeed this Phrase of Speech doth occur between twenty and thirty times in the Books of Moses. It shall be a perpetual Statute, or an everlasting Statute, or a Statute for ever throughout your Generations, that is, a standing Type, and not meerly transient and occasional.

Only there hath been some mistake and misunderstanding of this Phrase, which must be cleared before we leave it.

The unbelieving Jews have seemed to interpret and understand it, concerning an absolute Eternity, which hath been one occa­sion or pretence alledged by them, for their stumbling at Christ and at the Gospel, because he hath removed and taken away the Law of Ceremonies.

But besides many other things that might be said, to shew the [Page 210] weakness and folly of their pretence in this matter, I shall but note these two things.

1. That this word, for ever, is often used in Scripture for a limited duration. As for instance, it is used for duration till the year of Jubilee. Exod. 21.6. He shall be a servant for ever, that is, only till the year of Jubilee, in case he lived so long. For then he was to go free by vertue of that Law, Levit. 25.13, 28, 40, 41.

Sometimes it is used for a continuance during life. As 1 Sam. 1.22. that he may appear before the Lord, and there abide for ever. Explained vers. 28. Therefore also I have lent him to the Lord as long as he liveth.

Sometimes it is used for duration, to the end of the Old Testa­ment Dispensation For all the Land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy Seed for ever. Gen. 13.15. The Land given to thy Seed for ever: which cannot be Interpreted concerning an unlimited Eternity, unless they will say, that God hath broke his Promise: for they have been Ejected and cast forth of that Land these sixteen hundred years. 1 King. 8.13. I have surely built thee an house to dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in for ever. Psal. 132.14. This is my rest for ever, here will I dwell, for I have desired it. He doth not dwell, nor manifest his pre­sence there now: but God hath given them up to invincible per­versness and darkness, and prejudice in this particular.

2. There be manifest intimations in the Old Testament, that these Ceremonial Laws were not to continue always, but to cease and be abolished in the fulness of time. Jer. 3. They shall say no more the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord. Jer. 31. Not according to the Covenant that I made with their Fathers, but this shall be the Covenant, I will put my Law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts, &c.

But so much for the explication of this Distinction of the Types, into Occasional, and Perpetual. You see the true sense and meaning of it, and what clear Scripture ground there is for it.

These perpetual Types or everlasting Statutes, are no other but that which we call the Law of Moses, or the Ceremonial Law, whereof this Text speaks, and lays down this Proposition.

[Page 211] Doct. That the Law hath a shadow of future good things, but not the very Image of the things themselves.

The same thing is asserted and held forth, though in other words, but to the same scope and sense in other Scriptures. As Rom. 10.4. Christ is the end of the Law for Righteousness, to eve­ry one that believeth. Joh. 1.17. The Law came by Moses, that is, the Law as opposed to Grace and Truth: but Grace and Truth by Jesus Christ. Truth here is not opposed to falshood, for Moses spake no lyes; but to Shadows and shadowy Promises: and so the truth of them, is the performance or accomplishment of them, in opposition to the bare shadow and typical Promise of them. And this is called Grace, because there is so much of that in the Gospel, and so little of it (but on the contrary much of rigor and terror) in the Law of Moses. So the sense amounts to thus much: That Moses delivered Law, that is, Shadows and Ceremonies, which were but legal, and dark and rigorous: but Christ brought in Grace and Truth, that is, the real and sweet accomplishment and performance, of all the good that Moses had promised in that dark and low and legal way, which is consonant to that we have here in the Text, that the Law hath the sha­dow, but not the very Image of the things themselves.

Here be Four things to be cleared.

  • 1. What is meant by the Law.
  • 2. What by these future good things.
  • 3. What by the Shadow which the Law hath, and the very Image of them which the Law wanted.
  • 4. What are the particular several parts of this Law of Cere­monies, these perpetual or everlasting Statutes.

Quest. 1. What is here meant by the Law?

Ans. A Law, is a rule of Acting given by a Superior, who hath Authority and Power of commanding, to his Inferior: this is the general nature of a Law.

God therefore being the supreme Lord and absolute Sovereign over all his Creatures, is the Great Law-giver. James 4.12: There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save, and to destroy.

All those to whom God commits Power over others, may be [Page 212] said to give Laws to them: except ordinary Officers in the Church whom he hath intrusted no further, but only with the execution of his Laws, promulgated and recorded by himself, by his extraordinary Officers in the written Word.

But Magistrates may be said to be Legislators as to Civil Laws: of whom Moses was the first that delivered Laws in Writing to the People under him, which he received from the Mouth of God.

Now the Laws delivered by Moses, are referred in the Scrip­ture to three Heads. Moral, Ceremonial, and Judicial, which are expressed by three words, Thorah or Mitsvah, Chuquim, and Mishpatim: which words are sometimes used and put together in the Scripture, to signifie these three sorts of Laws, Deut. 6.1. Mitsvah, Chuquim and Mishpatim: the same words Deut. 26.17. see Ezra 7.10— Mal. 4.4. Thorah Asher Tsivithi: the Law which I commanded.

The first sort of Laws, viz. Moral, respects them as Men: the second, as a Church: the third, as a Common-Wealth.

The first sort, viz. the Moral Laws, are still in force and bind­ing unto all men in all Ages.

The third sort, viz. Judicial Laws are of a mixt nature, some being Hedges as it were, and Fences to the Moral Law: and some to the Ceremonial, and so they participate of the na­ture of those Laws to whose defence they serve.

The Judicials that serve to the defence of the Moral Law, have something of moral equity and reason in them, and so are still in force. As that he that sheds mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed: this is a Fence which God hath set about the sixth Com­mandment, and so remains in force in all Nations, to all times and Ages unto this day.

But others of these Judicials are set as Fences about the Cere­monial Law, and so must needs be fallen together with it.

Now the Law of which the Text speaks, it is not the Moral, nor the Judicial as such, but the Ceremonial Law of Moses called Ephes. 2.15. the Law of Commandments contained in Ordinances and Col. 2.14. the Hand writing of Ordinances.

This Text cannot intend the Moral Law, for that had no sha­dow [Page 213] of Gospel benefits: nor the Judicial Law, as such, for part of it was an Appendix to the Moral Law, and the other part was only for the defence of the Ceremonies.

But the Ceremonial Law is here intended: for that was of a shadowy nature, it had a shadow of good things to come.

Quest. 2. What are these future good things?

Ans. It is the good things of the Gospel, which may be said to be future upon a double account.

1. Future, in respect of the Law, and Old Testament times.

2. Future, in respect of this life. So future good things, is eternal good things. Calvin in loc. see 1 Joh. 3.2. It doth not yet appear what we shall be. Though we have the foretastes and beginnings of them already, yet the perfection of them is future, reserved in Heaven for us.

Quest. 3. What is meant by the shadow of these future bene­fits? And what by the very image of the things themselves?

Ans. In a word, a Shadow here, is a dark and weak resemb­lance and representation of things. But the very Image of the things themselves, is a clearer and better representation of them.

The Apostle useth this Metaphor of a shadow, concerning the Mosaical Ceremonies. Col. 2.17. In opposition to Christ the bo­dy and substance thereof.

Here he opposeth [...] and [...]. Alluding (as it seemeth) to the rude draught and first delineation of a Picture by the Painter, and to the full perfection thereof, when drawn forth in all its Lineaments and Colours and whole Proportion. So the Shadow is the first rude Draught.

The Image is a more lively and exact representation. So the dark Shadow is ascribed to the Law. The more lively Image to the Gospel. The things themselves are in Heaven. So some In­terpreters carry it, Vid. Mayer. Calvin in loc. And the Apostle hath some expressions looking that way in other Scriptures: as when he saith, that here we see but in a Glass darkly, that is, the Glass of Gospel Administrations, wherein we see the lively Image and Picture (as it were) of Christ crucified, Gal. 3.1. 2. Cor. 3.18. see as in a Glass. He is there comparing the Law and the [Page 214] Gospel, But in heaven we shall see face to face, see 1 Cor. 13.12.

Under the Law they had no more but the Shadow, but now under the Gospel we have the very Image; we see things as in a Glass, but in Heaven we have the things themselves.

And now to sum up all that hath been said in Explication, the Doctrine amounts to thus much: That the Ceremonial Law hath a shadow, or a dark and weak representation of the good things of that eternal future happiness, the more lively Image and Por­traiture whereof, we have under and by the Gospel.

Quest. 4. What are the several parts of this Law of Shadows and Ceremonies, these perpetual Types or everlasting Statutes?

Ans. This is a large Field. I shall refer them at present to five several Heads, omiting Sub divisions, lest they be troublesome to weak memories.

  • 1. The initiating Seal, to wit, Circumcision.
  • 2. Their Sacrifices and Purifications of sin and of uncleanness.
  • 3. The Temple and Tabernacle, and other holy places.
  • 4. The Priesthood, with the whole legal Ministry.
  • 5. The Festivals or Legal Times and Seasons.

These five general Heads will carry us through this whole Subject of the Types. For the whole Ceremonial Law, and all or most of the Statutes of it, will come in under some of these Heads.

1. The initiating Seal of those times, which was Circumcision, the first Institution whereof we have in Gen. 17.10, 11. This is my Covenant which ye shall keep between me and you, and thy seed after thee: Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be a token of the Covenant betwixt me and you. Which is contracted and epi­tomized into a few words by Stephen, Act. 7.8. And he gave him the Covenant of Circumcision: and so Abraham begat Isaac, and cir­cumcised him the eighth day: and Isaac begat Jacob, and Jacob be­gat the twelve Patriarchs. Wherein he briefly tells us the sub­stance of this Shadow, and the meaning of this Type, namely, that it signified and shadowed forth the Covenant of Grace.

2. Their Sacrifices and Purifications for sin, and for unclean­ness: [Page 215] of which Psal. 40.6. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not de­sire: burnt-offering and sin-offering hast thou not required▪ with Heb. 10.5, 10.

Many things will come in under this Head: for they had both Sacrifices of Expiation for moral sins, and Ceremonies of Purifi­cation for legal uncleanness and impurity.

I put them both together, because they did both aim at one Scope, namely the cleansing and purging away of sin.

They had burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, peace-offerings, sin-offerings, trespass offerings.

They had legal Uncleannesses of several sorts: they had un­clean Meats, unclean Persons, unclean Houses, unclean Gar­ments, unclean Vessels: the saddest of all their ceremonial Un­cleannesses, was the Leprosy, for all which they had Purifications answerable.

The general scope of all which, was to shadow forth Jesus Christ in his purifying cleansing power and virtue, as cleansing us from the guilt of sin by his Blood shed and sacrificed for us, and from the filth and power thereof by his Spirit dwelling and working in us. Therefore he is said to offer up himself a Sacrifice for us. Ephes. 5.2. and to wash us, and cleanse us. vers. 26, 27.

3. The Temple and Tabernacle, and the Utensils thereof, with all their holy places. For they had many and divers of them: the whole Land of Canaan was an holy Land. They had Cities of Refuge.

Jerusalem was an holy City, Mount Sion was an holy Hill, the Temple was an holy House.

And before they had a sixed Temple, they had (which was equivalent in signification, as well as like unto it in outward form) the Tabernacle. Heb. 9.1, to vers. 6.

All which signified and shadowed forth both Christ and the Church: Christ in his humane nature, the Church both as visible, and as militant and mystical, and likewise as triumphant in Heaven.

Therefore the Church of God is called his House, 1 Tim. 3.15.

4. The Priesthood, with all the rest of the Temple Ministry, [Page 216] Heb. 8.2. They had, beside the High-Priest, the other Priests and the Levites, some whereof were Porters, some Singers; And here the Temple Musick comes to be considered: the High-Priest was an eminent Type of Christ, the true and great High-Priest of his Church.

And all this Temple Ministry was a shadow of the true Go­spel Ministry: which though they cannot be called Priests in the Popish sense, yet they may be called Antitypical Priests. The further mysteries of all which legal Ministry, we shall open more particularly afterwards, the Lord enabling us.

5. A Fifth of these perpetual Types, was the Festivals or Holy Times appointed by the Law, whereof they had many: their weekly seventh day Sabbaoths: their New Moons: their year­ly Feasts: That of Tabernacles, Passover and Pentecost: their seventh year: their Jubilee of fifty years, containing the Revo­lution of seven times seven: all which were a shadow of good things to come. Col. 2.16, 17.

Ʋse 1. This Text and Doctrine gives much light for the re­solution of that question, whether the Law of Moses was a Co­venant of Works, or Grace.

The answer is, That the Law hath a shadow of the good things of the Gospel, but not the very Image of the things them­selves. There was a mixture in that Dispensation, you may take the Answer more fully in three Propositions.

1. The thing it self adumbrated and shadowed forth in this Law of Ceremonies, is the future good things of the Gospel: so that it was indeed a Covenant of Grace that they were under.

2. The manner of representation of them was legal, and in the way of a shadow, not of a full and lively Image: so that it was a kind of legal Gospel they had in those times.

Vid. on Heb. 4.2.3. The carnal Jews made it meer Law, by sticking in the shell and shadow, and rejecting the Gospel, or the thing it self that was adumbrated and shadowed forth unto them.

Ʋse 2. See the Justice of God in the rejection of the Jews. For might not Israel have understood? They did not want a [Page 217] competency of outward means, but they wanted hearts, Deut. 29.2, 3, 4.

Ʋse 3. Encouragement in the search we are now upon as to the Types: for it is the Gospel, and the good things of the Go­spel that we look into, when we enquire and search into the Types. The Law having a shadow of them: Vid. on Rom. 5.14. Serm. 1. Ʋse: where there are three Rules for the better under­standing of them. To which let me add this as an Appendix to the first, seek Light from God: Psal. 119.18. Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy Law. You may see wondrous things indeed, Jesus Christ and the Gospel, and many precious mysteries in this part of the Law of God; this Law of Ceremonies, if God open your eyes; but otherwise all will be dark to you.

Ʋse 4. Encouragement to believe and receive the Gospel: for it hath been held forth to the Faith of Gods people all along, and they have rested upon it and found peace.

We have it declared in the clearest way, and indeed every way, for we reap the Fruit of those former Dispensations; therefore how shall we escape, if after so many ways of teaching, we do not receive Instruction: see Heb. 2.3, 4.


October 30. 1666. Acts 7.8.

And he gave him the Covenant of Circumcision, and so Abraham begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day: and Isaac begat Jacob, and Jacob begat the twelve Patriarchs.

THis excellent Sermon and Apology of Stephen, the first Martyr of the New Testament; the Scope of it, is to shew them the variety of Gods Dispensations towards his people, together with the various Rebellions and Oppositions of the Sons of men against him, and so to convince them that the scope and tendency of them all was to lead to Jesus Christ: and that as former Dispensations had been despised, so was this, which was the Glory of all the rest. He goes over the History of the Church, from Abrahams time to the time of Christ, in sundry most eminent and principal Dispensations of God towards his Church. In this Verse he is speaking of the Dispensation of [Page 219] God to Abraham. He had shewed before how he had called Abraham out of his own Country, how he had promised him a Possession, the Land of Canaan; how he had foretold the afflicti­on of his Seed for four hundred years, and their Deliverance af­terward; how the Lord had given him the Covenant of Circum­cision, and how (under the influence of this Covenant) Isaac was born, and Jacob, and the rest of the Patriarchs.

And he gave him the Covenant of Circumcision.

I shall give you no other Doctrine but the words themselves.

Doct. That God gave to Abraham the Covenant of Circumci­sion, that is the Doctrine.

That which I do design and intend, is a little explanation of Circumcision, and of the Covenant thereof, (for that is the Phrase here) and that in reference to our attendance upon God in this Ordinance of the New Testament Circumcision, which we are now to wait upon him in.

To open to you the nature of Circumcision.

You know there is an outward, and an inward part of it, as there is in all other Signs and Sacraments whatsoever.

Something must be spoken.

  • 1. Of the Sign, the nature of the external Ordinance.
  • 2. Of the Covenant that it relates to, and
  • 3. What those respects are wherein it doth relate to that Co­venant.

1. For the external part of this Ordinance of Circumcision.

It was the cutting away the Foreskin of the flesh of Abraham, and his Male seed upon the eighth day.

The first institution of this Ordinance, is recorded Gen. 17.10, 11. This is my Covenant which ye shall keep between me and you, and thy seed after thee, every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, &c.

The Lord did appoint the Seal of this Covenant to be in that part of the body, in his infinite Wisdom and Soveraignty, a thing which carnal Reason would despise.

There seems to be two principal accounts of it.

1. Because those Members of the Body are so much abused to [Page 220] sin, in the way of uncleanness and filthiness; therefore the Lord would now sanctifie them, and separate a Seed and Generation to himself: and usually the greatest Wrath of God to the Souls of men, is expressed by giving them up to abuse those parts of the Body.

The World was grown very degenerate, and the Lord was re­solved to leave a Monument, an everlasting Monument of his Wrath for those sins in all Ages, and therefore destroys Sodom, Gen. 18. and before this Destruction, he appoints this Seal and Ordinance.

2. Another account of it is this, that it might be a sure and a strong Wall of Partition, between the Jewish and Gentle Na­tions of the World. It made the Partition Wall the surer, be­cause carnal Reason could not but despise such an Ordinance.

Those that know not God have no spiritual sense of the thing, therefore we find the Heathens scoff at it: as Horat.

—Curtosque Judaeos. &
—Credat Judaeus Apella.

because by their carnal Reason they could not see the reason of it. Therefore when the Lord would have both united to Jesus Christ in one Body, he abolishes Circumcision.

This Ordinance was dispensed to the Males, the Females were included and comprehended in the Males, and as fully and clear­ly comprehended in them, as the Land and the Trees are said to be Circumcised: so are all the Daughters of Abraham, as they came of circumcised Parents, and married to circumcised Hus­bands: and their Sons were circumcised, so that it was a cir­cumcised Nation and People.

It was to be done upon the eighth day after the Birth of the Child; and so in this Text, He gave him the Covenant of Circum­cision, and so Abraham begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day.

The reason of this limitation might be, partly because of the Infant state of the Church in those times; therefore the Lord teacheth them, and limiteth them even in such small particu­lars, which are now left to be determined only by the general [Page 221] Rule of the Word, even the particular time and season of our Circumcision.

Its thought also this might have some further mystery in it, in reference to the Christian Sabbaoth, which is the eighth day in one respect, the first in other ways of numbering; and to re­spect a new state and life, after that the compleat and full num­ber of the days of this life here are gone through; after the Week is ended, (the Week of this life here) we come to Heaven and Glory, which was one thing intimated in Circumcision, as you will hear afterwards. But so much for the external part of this Ordinance, the cutting off the foreskin of Abraham and his Male seed, and that upon the eighth day.

2. To speak a little to the mystery of this Ordinance, the meaning of it, the spirit of this external Dispensation. For be­sides the Shell, there was a Kernel; besides the letter of the Law of the Ordinance, there was much spiritual mystery intended and aimed at in it. Now then what is the mystery of Circum­cision, the inward part of it, that is the Covenant. And he gave him the Covenant of Circumcision. So that Circumcision is the Co­venant, and it is the same expression where this Ordinance is first instituted: You shall have my Covenant in your flesh, Gen. 17. It is called a Covenant, as other Signs and Sacraments are: it is a sacramental Phrase: the Lamb is called the Passover, the Bread the Body, the Wine the Blood of Christ: so Circumcision is the Covenant of it.

But what Covenant is it that Circumcision doth relate to?

This is the great Question.

You know there be two Covenants, that of Works and Grace.

Now Circumcision was not the Covenant of Works, but the Covenant of Grace.

That it was not a carnal Covenant, and a Covenant of Works; take these five Considerations to make good that ground, be­fore we proceed any further: for if it be the Covenant of Works, it cuts off all that is to be said, as to the spirit and mystery of this Ordinance: all that you will hear afterwards, will be things belonging to the Covenant of Grace; therefore let us prove that [Page 222] it is not a carnal Covenant that Circumcision doth relate to.

Argum. 1. Jesus Christ is not the Covenant of Works, but Christ is the Covenant of Circumcision; and therefore it is not Works, but Grace. He is so called in Isa. 49.8. I will give thee for a Covenant to the people. Now Christ was in Circumcision, he was the Minister of Circumcision, he is the Seed which Circum­cision relates to, I will be the God of thy Seed. This Seed is Christ, Gal. 3.16. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, and to seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ. Christ is the sum and substance of the Co­venant of Grace: now this was the Covenant that God made with Abraham, and sealed in Circumcision, that he would give him a Seed, which Seed is Christ.

2. The Gospel is Grace and not Works. The Covenant of Abraham was the Gospel, and therefore it is Grace, but not Works. It is the Apostles expression that the Gospel was preached to Abraham. Gal. 3.8. The Scripture foreseeing that God would justifie the Heathen through faith, preached the Gospel before to Abraham. There is no Gospel of Works, for Works is Law, and bad tidings: if it be the Gospel, it is the Covenant of Grace.

3. If it was a Covenant of Works, it will follow, that Abraham and all the Old Testament Saints either were not saved, or else were saved without Christ, neither of which can be ad­mited. The truth is, if it were Works, it will follow, they were all damned, for by works shall no flesh be justified and saved. If they were saved, and yet by Works, they were saved without Christ, but without Christ there is no salvation. In him, in this Seed shall all the Nations of the World be blessed, that is, by Jesus Christ: no blessing and salvation without him, and therefore he and his Seed were saved by Christ, for Grace was in this Cove­nant.

4. To be a God to any man, this is not carnal, this is not Works, but Grace. It is true, God was a God to Adam before he fell: but to be a God to Sinners, this is Grace: he was a God to Adam in innocency by virtue of the Covenant of Works, but he is not a God to any Sinner but in a way of free Grace. [Page 223] Now that was the Covenant, I will be a God to thee and thy seed, Gen. 17.7. Abraham was a sinner, and a Child of Wrath by nature, as well as others; yet God was his God truly. For God to be a God to those that never sinned, there may be me­rit: but for God to be a God to those that have sinned, this is Grace indeed. Angels are saved by Works, Sinners cannot be saved but by Grace. That ever the Lord should condescend to engage in such a Relation, as to give a Sinner interest in him, and propriety in him as his God, this is Grace; they that do not think this is Grace, they do not need Arguments, but pity and prayer.

5. Consider that it was the fatal error and miscarriage of the carnal Jews, that they did understand Circumcision and all the rest of those ancient Types and Ceremonies, they did understand them all as a Covenant of Works, and herein they lost Christ and their Souls. It is every where charged upon them as their sin; it is that which all the Prophets and Apostles do endeavour with all their might, to beat them out of those misconstructions of Circumcision, and the Covenant of God in those times.

The Apostle proves it at large in Rom. 4. that it was Grace and not Works, that Abraham was justified by. Now this was the error that all the carnal Jews fell into, that they took it to be a Covenant of Works: as the Pharisees they had a Righteousness of their own, they were all of that Spirit; they took it all as Law, even the Gospel and the Grace that was in the Covenant, and so fell short of the blessings of it: therefore if our New Testament Circumcision be practised by any as the Covenant of Works, as the Jews did when the Apostle preached to them, they will fall short of Heaven. Now if they took it to be a Covenant of Works, shall we justifie their errors and miscarriage against the whole preaching of the Gospel?

This is enough to shew that it is the Covenant of Grace, that Circumcision doth relate to.

Now briefly what is this Covenant of Grace? And what is the Grace of the Covenant that Circumcision doth relate to?

This is a very large Field. There were three parts of this [Page 224] Grace of the Covenant that the Lord made with Abraham and his Seed.

  • 1. To be a God to him.
  • 2. To give him a Seed.
  • 3. To provide an Inheritance both for him and them.

And these three general Heads will comprize and take in the whole mystery of Circumcision.

1. The first part of the Covenant is this, that God would be a God to him and his Seed: and this indeed is most comprehensive, and includes all the rest. I will establish my Covenant, and be a God to thee and thy Children after thee. Gen. 17.7.

And what is it for God to be a God, to be a God to a man? thy God, or a God to thee?

It is, when he gives to a poor Creature a special interest and propriety in himself: so that God in his alsufficiency and effici­ency is ours, and we are his. All his Attributes and Works are ours, for our good. I will be thy God, that is, all my Attributes shall be thine, and for thy good, as really as they are mine for my Glory. The infinite Wisdom of God shall contrive their good, whose God he is; the infinite Power of God shall effect it: the infinite Love of God is theirs; his Mercy, Truth, and all his Attributes are theirs. As his essential Power: so his working Power, or his actual Power. As he will be all to them: so he will work all for them. Now this, as I said, includes and infers all the rest: this is the first and most general.

2. That he would give him a Seed, that was another part of the Covenant. Gen. 17.5, 6. Thou shalt be a Father of many Nations, thy name shall be no more called Abram, but Abraham. I will make Nations of thee. As God did lengthen out his name: so he would lengthen out his Posterity, even to length of time.

But now what is this Seed the Lord promised to Abraham? The question is, whether it be a meer natural Seed, or a spiri­tual Seed?

Certainly it was not meerly a natural Seed; it is true, that is one thing that was the Shell and outside of it; but the Kernel of this promise was a spiritual Seed.

[Page 225]There was a fourfold Seed promised to Abraham above a na­tural Seed, and I shall prove each Particular out of plain Scripture.

1. That great Seed, that was not only the Seed of the Wo­man, but the Son of God: this was the first and chief Seed here intended, Gal 3.16. He saith not as to Seeds, but to thy Seed, which is Christ, such a Seed in whom all Nations are blessed. Now it is in Christ only that all Nations are blessed, therefore he was this promised Seed.

The Lord had not before limited the Seed Messiah to any par­ticular Family, but left it at large (so far as appears) among the whole Race of Mankind. It was said to Adam, the Seed of the Woman, there was then no further limitation till Noahs time, and then in Abrahams time, the Lord limits the Covenant to his Seed.

It was afterwards confined to Judah, one of the twelve Tribes: at last the Lord went further to one Family in Judah, namely, Davids: but here he limits it to Abraham, that of him should come that great and blessed Seed: This was the main thing indeed, as without which all other Promises could never be bestowed and fulfilled; but through him they are Yea and Amen. Abra­ham saw my day and rejoyced, he saw the Messias was to come of his Loyns; this was the Seed in whom he believed, and by which he was saved.

2. There was a Church-seed promised; the meaning is this, That the Church of God should be continued in his Race and Posterity, the true Religion should be setled there.

There were other godly persons before and after: we read of Melchisedech and Job and his Friends, and it is very like there might be others: and when God had setled Salvation to Abra­ham, it was the duty of all others to joyn themselves to that Church. The Lord entailed by Covenant all his Ordinances to Abraham and his Posterity. He gave them his Statutes and Judgments, he chose them to be a peculiar People, a People to the Lord; and that is a Church, a Society intrusted and invest­ed with the Ordinances: and thus he dealt with them, he shewed his Statutes to Israel: this is no small priviledge and mercy to en­joy the Ordinances: this is called the Kingdom of God.

[Page 226]This Christ threatned the Jews, that it should be taken from them and given to other people, Mat. 21.43. that is God would settle his Church among the Gentiles, and give them his Ordinances. And that this is a Priviledge, we see by that ex­pression of the Apostle to the Ephesians, wherein he mentions it as a part of the dreadful misery of the Ephesians, that they were Aliens to the Common Wealth of Israel.

3. There was a third thing intended, and that is a believing Seed, such as should be truly Godly: and of this the Apostle speaks in Gal. 3.7. Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, are the Seed of Abraham: so that all true Believers are his Seed in that sense. He is called the Father of the Faithful, all Believers are his Posterity. There were Multitudes that were truly Godly of Abrahams Seed, and all that are Godly are his Seed; they walk in his steps, they are the Seed of the Covenant, they are spiri­tually related to him. He was the Pattern and typical Head of that Covenant, in which we do all believe, the Pattern of Faith to us: He is called our Father. It is said of him, that he believed against sense and reason, this was not writen for his sake alone, but for us also that we might follow his steps.

4. There was included in this Covenant an ingrafted Seed: it is the Apostles expression in Rom. 11.17. I mean, a Seed not only of the Jews, but of the Gentiles God did not only engage to Abraham that there should be Church of his own natural Seed, and that there should be Saints of his natural Seed, but that the Gentiles should be ingrafted into his Covenant, and so become his Seed. Thou being a wild Olive Tree wert grafted in among them, and partakest of the root and fatness of the Olive Tree.

God did above and beyond the ordinary course of things, in­graft the Gentiles into that Covenant that he had once made with Abraham.

And thus you see what the Seed is which the Lord did promise in the Covenant, whereof Circumcision was the Seal. He did promise to give to Abraham that Seed, firstly and chiefly that Seed, who was the Son of God; and a Church Seed, and a believing Seed, and not only a Seed of the Nation of the Jews, [Page 227] but a Seed ingrafted into that Grace and Covenant from among the Gentiles.

We have gone through two Branches of the Covenant: the third is this.

3. That God would give an Inheritance to him and them; this was the third part of Gods Covenant with him.

It is the greatest desire in nature to have Children, and it is a good desire, it is of God. And what do Parents desire next? a comfortable Inheritance for them: and this did the Lord pro­mise to Abraham. And in that Text which hath been so often alledged, God first promises to make him exceeding Fruitful; and then, I will give to thee and thy Seed after thee, the Land wherein thou art yet a Stranger. The Lord promised an Inheritance, and that Inheritance was the Land of Canaan.

Now the Question is, whether this was a temporal or spiritu­al Inheritance?

Doubtless the Lord did not promise to Abraham Canaan meer­ly as a temporal Inheritance, but as a spiritual Inheritance. Ca­naan was not as other Lands are, a meer outward thing; but it was a typical Land, it was the Land of Emmanuel, it is the Land of Glory. Canaan was a Type of Heaven, and in that respect it was that they did so earnestly prize it, and look upon it as being Heaven in an earthly Shadow, therefore Jacob and Joseph must needs be buried there: therefore the Apostle assures us, they did seek a better Country, they professed themselves Strangers and Pilgrims here upon Earth; They that say such things declare plainly, they seek another Country which is an heavenly one; wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God. It is a heavenly City, whose Builder and Maker is God: so that under that Shadow the Lord did promise Heaven to Abraham, and this was the third part of this Covenant. This Land of Canaan is called the Moun­tain of Holiness: what expression can be higher? Dan. 11. and therefore the Saints did look beyond that to another Country.

You see what the Covenant was, and what were the principal things and Branches of it: That God should be his God, that God should give him a Seed, and that God should give an Inhe­ritance to him and them.

[Page 228]You see what the Covenant is that Circumcision doth relate to.

Now the last thing that was propounded was this, what respect it is that Circumcision hath to this Covenant? He gave him the Covenant of Circumcision. For this, Note these five things.

1. Circumcision respects the Covenant as the Seal or Sacra­ment of Initiation into the Covenant.

The reason of this last question is, because that all the Ordi­nances and Institutions of those times, they did all relate to the same Covenant. Every Ordinance did, but with some peculi­arity, with some special respect, and in a peculiar manner.

Now Circumcision hath this peculiar respect, it was the Sign of Initiation. The Scripture useth all those words, and they are fitly used Rom. 4.11. it is called a Sign and Seal of the Righte­ousness of Faith: and all the fixed Signs of the Covenant of Grace are Seals also; there are no nuda Signa. As they are Signs to represent: so they are Seals to ratify and confirm the Covenant of Grace, and the blessings of it, and also means to exhibit them, as you know the nature of Sacraments is so.

So then Circumcision it was a Seal and a Sacrament, in the way of a Type: it was a typical Sacrament. We have Sacra­ments now, but ours are not typical, are not shadows of good things to come, and of the Gospel and Messias yet to be exhibit­ed, but it is past and done in our times: but Circumcision was such a Sacrament, as was to be a Type of the future exhibition of the Covenant and blessings of it: and it was the Type or Sign, or Seal and Sacrament of Initiation: or of entrance or so­lemn admission into the Covenant: for it was to be the first, pre­ceeding the Passover, as you know it was appointed and ordain­ed in Exod. 12. Circumcision was first to be administred: not that persons were admitted by Circumcision into the Covenant or Church of God; no, they were in the Covenant before, else they were not to be admited to Circumcision; they have no right to the Seals of the Covenant, that are not first in the Covenant.

It is a common mistake in our times, that many think that Baptism doth make a person a Member of the Church of God, it doth seal membership, or else they have no ground to have it administred to them: this is the first.

[Page 229]2. As holding forth the suffering of Jesus Christ: he is the principal Seed whereof the Covenant speaks.

Circumcision was a bloody Sacrament, and the first blood that Jesus Christ shed, was in Circumcision: you know he was circumcised the eighth day, and so it had a respect to that, to shadow forth that, and the whole state of his humiliation: and so it was some part of that attonement and expiation that Christ made for our sins.

It is not only the last act and the last suffering, the separation of his Soul and Body; but all his sorrow he underwent from the Cradle to his Grave: all these were parts of the price paid to Gods Justice for us. Now Circumcision did foreshew this, for it was a Sacrament very painful to the flesh, and a Sacrament wherein some blood was shed in the circumcised part.

3. It did in a special manner, shadow forth the great and glo­rious Righteousness that we do receive by Faith, the Righteous­ness of Jesus Christ for our Justification. The Apostle is express in Rom. 4. He received the Sign of Circumcision, a Seal of the Righteousness of Faith. Circumcision was not a Seal to Abraham before he did believe, that were a strange thing indeed: but in the true nature of the thing, and in the design and intendment of the Ordinance, it was a Sign and Seal of the Righteousness of Faith.

We are justified by Christs Righteousness, and that Righteous­ness we believe in, is imputed to us for our Justification: there­fore the Apostle disputes very clearly and strongly, That Abra­ham did receive Circumcision after that he did first believe unto Righteousness; and so Circumcision was a Seal of that Righte­ousness which he was possest of, before his Circumcision: Rom. 4. for they were all to look to Christ by Faith, by virtue of their Circumcision; and if they did not, it was their great sin, and fol­ly, and error, as indeed the carnal Jews did not: that is the third.

4. Circumcision had a special respect to another great blessing of the Covenant, and that is, Mortification, or the cutting off the superfluity of Naughtiness and Corruption: therefore the Lord promises to Circumcise their hearts, or to cut off the Fore­skin of their hearts, Deut. 30.6. therefore he often blames them, [Page 230] that they were not circumcised in heart. That shews that Cir­cumcision did look at the work of Mortification in the heart: and not only at Mortification, but also at Holiness or Re­generation of the heart, life and whole man: it looks at the cutting off of the superfluity of sinful Corruption, therefore Cor­ruption is exprest in that way of Uncircumcision: the unsancti­fiedness of any part, is in Scripture exprest by the uncircumcised­ness of it. I am a man of uncircumcised lips: you know his com­plaint, that is, corrupt, not so mortified as I should be. Act. 7.51. Ye stiff-necked, and uncircumcised in heart and ears.

This is called the Circumcision made without hands; Col. 2.11. In whom also ye are circumcised with the Circumcision made without hands. What doth he mean by this? but putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, through the Circumcision of Christ: this is the fourth.

5. It had a special respect to shew and shadow forth, the New Testament Ordinance of Circumcision. And what is the Ordi­nance in stead of Circumcision under the New Testament? It is Baptism: therefore the Apostle makes an express parallel between Circumcision and Baptism. Col. 2.12. he makes them to be the same: Buried with him in Baptism, and circumcised with spiritual Circumcision. For look as Circumcision was the initiating Seal then, so Baptism is now.

As in Circumcision there was cutting off the superfluity of the flesh: so in Baptism, there is a washing away of the filth of the body: they both respect Mortification. Thus you see in what particular ways and manners Circumcision doth respect the Co­venant: and so you have seen both what the outward part is, what the inward part is, what the Covenant is, and in what particular manner it doth respect the Covenant: He gave him the Covenant of Circumcision.

And now all that I shall add, shall be this: Look as there was a gross abuse of the Ordinances under the Old Testament, of this Ordinance of Circumcision: so there is of our Gospel-Circumcision: look as this Ordinance of Circumcision might be made of none effect, and might be turned into a nullity, their [Page 231] Circumcision might become Uncircumcision: so it is with many in their Baptism, their Baptism is no Baptism.

It is the Apostles complaint in Rom. 2. If thou art Circumcised, it profits thee, if thou be a keeper of the Law; but if thou be a break­er of it, thy Circumcision is become Ʋncircumcision. Rom. 2.28, 29. For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly, neither is that Cir­cumcision, which is outward in the flesh: but he is a Jew which is one inwardly, and Circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God. The same holds concerning this Ordinance which Circumcision doth hold forth. He is not a Christian which is one outwardly, nei­ther is that Baptism which is outward in the flesh: but he is a Christian that is one inwardly, and Baptism is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God. The Apostles Scope, is to depress the external part of the Ordinance as of no worth and value, separated from, or compared with, the spiritual part: so it is with our Ordinances, that we do enjoy under the New-Testament. What is the wash­ing away of the filth of the body, if the heart be not washed? But it is, as Circumcision was to them, an aggravation of their sin and condemnation. I will punish (saith God Jer. 9.25, 26.) all them which are circumcised together with the uncircumcised. Egypt and Judah and Edom, and the Children of Ammon and Moab, and all that are in the utmost Corners, that dwell in the Wilderness; for all these Nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart.

So God will punish the Baptised with the Unbaptised together. For many people are unbaptised in the flesh, and many of the house of Israel, many professing Christians are not baptised in heart. They have the Circumcision, but not the Covenant of Circumcision; they have the Water, but not the Spirit of Bap­tism. Therefore take heed of separating the outward part from the inward part of the Ordinance, do not rest in the external pri­viledg, but look after the spirit and blessing of every Ordinance: get God to wash thy heart, and the heart of thy Seed. 'Tis not enough to have thy body washed, if thy heart and soul be not washed from its filth.


June 14. 1668. Levit. 7.37, 38.

This is the Law of the Burnt offering, of the Meat offering, and of the Sin offering, and of the Trespass-offering, and of the Consecra­tions, and of the Sacrifice of the Peace offerings, &c.

THe Perpetual Statutes of the Law of Ceremonies, have been referred to Five general Heads.

  • 1. The initiating Seal of Circumcision.
  • 2. The legal Offerings and Sacrifices and Purifications.
  • 3. The Temple.
  • 4. The Priesthood.
  • 5. The Festivals.

Of the initiating Seal of those times, we have formerly spok­en from Act. 7.8.

That which next follows in the method propounded, is the legal Offerings, concerning which the Text lays down two Assertions or Points of Doctrine.

[Page 233]1. That there was a divine Institution and Command of God for the Offerings and Sacrifices that were under the Law.

2. That there were six kinds or sorts of propitiatory Sacrifices under the Law, viz. the Burnt offering, &c. this is the Scope of vers. 37. The former Doctrine is the Scope of the 38: but that which is last mentioned in the words of the Text, is first in or­der of Consideration.

Doct. 1. That there was a divine Institution and Command of God for the Offerings and Sacrifices that were under the Law.

The Text indeed speaks properly of propitiatory Sacrifices: but there is a general truth in the Proposition concerning all their Sacrifices, and all the sorts and kinds of them.

This Book of Leviticus begins thus, And he called Vaikra: that is, the Lord he called by an audible voice from his dwelling Place the Throne of his Glory, which was upon the Mercy Seat between the Cherubims, as he had promised Exod. 25.22. see Numb. 7.89. It is true, it is said Jer. 7.22. concerning Burnt-Offerings or Sacrifices, that God commanded them not, &c. But the sense and meaning is comparative, though the Grammar of the words sound as if it were negative. It cannot be explained better than the Old Note hath done it: shewing, that it was not his chief intent and purpose, that they should offer Sacri­fices, but that they should regard wherefore they were ordain­ed, to wit, to be joyned to the word as Seals and Confirmati­ons of Remission of sins in Christ; for without the word they were vain and unprofitable.

To open this Doctrine a little to you, we must first consider what a Sacrifice or an Offering is.

Now an Offering in general, is any thing presented to the Lord to become peculiarly his, and to be typical of Christ and Gospel Mysteries.

The former part of the Description extends to Anti typical Offerings, as well as typical; to Gospel, as well as legal Offer­ings: for our Souls and Bodies and all our Services are offered and presented to the Lord, but not as Types and Shadows of another Gospel; but they become his in a spiritual and peculiar [Page 234] propriety, as theirs of old did. Their Offerings by being offer­ed became the Lords, they presenting, and the Lord accepting them: therefore they are called Holy, as being separated to the Lord, separated and set apart from common use to holy use.

Hence they are called Gifts, Quorbanim, as being given to the Lord: â Quarab, appropinquavit: so in in the Text, their Obla­tions or their Corbans, see Mark 7.11.

All this holds true of Gospel Offerings under the New Testa­ment: but the Legal Offerings were set apart for God, with re­spect to Christ and his great Sacrifice and Offering of himself up unto God for us: they all had some Relation to this, either as to the thing it self, or the blessed Effects and Fruits of it.

Some have distinguished them into three sorts.

1. Such as were offered at the Brazen Altar, or the Altar of Burnt-Offering: which represented the Death and Sufferings of Jesus Christ.

2. Such as were offered in the Sanctuary, more near to the Holy of Holies, viz. the Shew-bread, and the Incense at the Al­tar of Incense: which had respect to his Intercession for us at the Throne of Grace, in the virtue, and by the merit of that Sa­crifice which he before had shed and offered up to the Justice of God for us.

3. Such as were offered in the Holy of Holies, where the High Priest came upon some extraordinary and special occasi­ons: which did represent the full attainment of the ends of both the former, namely, our full Access unto, and Communion with God through the influence both of the Death and Oblation, as likewise of the Prayers and Intercession of our Lord Jesus Christ for us.

The two latter of these we shall speak unto, when we come to those parts of the Temple where these Services were to be per­formed: but the first sort, viz. the Sacrifices and Offerings at the Brazen Altar we are now to speak unto.

These Sacrifices that were offered at the Brazen Altar, are commonly distributed into two sorts: Propitiatory and Eucha­ristical; [...] & [...] or Sacrifices of Expiation and Sacrifices of Thanksgiving, Psal. 107.22.

[Page 235]It is the former sort whereof the Text speaks; and they are here called Corbans, a Term which (as some affirm) is usually appropriated to this sort of Offerings, though the notation and original signification of it be more general.

For the opening whereof unto you, I shall first give you a short description of them, and then annex some additional Rules for the further enlightning and illustration of them.

And first you may see the nature of them in this short descrip­tion: these propitiatory Sacrifices were Holy of Holinesses, or Offerings most holy to the Lord, for attonement, or for the ap­peasing of his Wrath by the destruction of the Sacrifice, to shadow forth the true atonement and expiation of sin by the death of Jesus, and our Reconciliation to, and Communion with God through him.

1. That they were Holy of Holinesses, or Offerings most Holy to the Lord: it is the Phrase which the Scripture useth concerning them, Lev. 2.3, 10. So are called in the Law those sacred things which ought not to be touched, and those Meats whereof none were to eat, but only the consecrated Priests in the holy Place, near the Altar. Deodat. in loc. quodesh quodeshim: only there is some limitation about the Peace-Offering, of which afterward.

It is a distinction that doth occur in Lev. 21.22. He shall eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy.

The old Note is this, the most Holy, as of the Sacrifice for sin: the Holy, as of the Tenths and First Fruits.

[Deodat. thus, most Holy] as were the Shew-Bread, the Meat-Offerings, the parts of Sin-Offerings, and Trespass Offerings.

[Holy] such as were the First Fruits, Tithes and Offerings of Thanksgiving.

By Holy of Holinesses, is meant most Holy: that Language elegantly expressing the superlative Degree by such a reduplica­tion: as King of Kings, Song of Songs, Heaven of Heavens, that is, the most excellent in their kind: so Holy of Holies, that is, most Holy.

The other sort are but Holy, or holiness of Praises, quodesh [Page 236] hillulim: as the Phrase is in Lev. 19.24. Ye shall count the Fruit thereof as uncircumcised three years, but in the fourth year all the Fruit thereof shall be Holiness of Praises to the Lord.

The ground of this double degree of Holiness seems to be chiefly this: the more immediat and direct Relation they had to the Person, Actions, and Sufferings of the Messiah, the more ho­ly these legal things of old were: therefore these Sacrifices of Expiation, relating directly to the great work of our Redempti­on and Reconciliation unto God by the death of his Son, they were Holy of Holinesses unto the Lord.

2. The end of them was attonement of their sins, or appeas­ing the offended Justice of God: hence they are said to have a sweet smell, Lev. 1.9. Gen. 8.21. This is the Phrase, Lev. 1.4. Lecapper, to make atonement, applyed to Christ Rom. 3.25. 1 Joh. 2.2. and it is a Phrase often used.

Hence ariseth the distinction of Sacrifices, from their ends and uses; some being for Atonement, as these whereof we now speak; and others for Thanksgiving, of which something may be spoken hereafter if the Lord will.

God is angry with Sinners, Justice is provoked and burns like Fire: therefore some satisfaction must be made, that Justice may be satisfied, and God atoned and reconciled to the Sinner.

3. This atonement was made by the death or destruction of the Sacrifice: this is the nature of all propitiatory Sacrifices, nothing can atone God, nothing can appease offended Justice, but Death and Destruction. The Sacrifice must be destroyed, either in whole, or in part; and this was done by Fire.

Hence they are called Fire-Offerings, or Offerings made by Fire: [...] Ignitiones, Fireings: Oblatio ignita.

And if they were living Creatures, they must be slain and killed: hence called Zebachim, in Greek [...], as much as to say, a slaughtered Offering: in which sense Zebach is contra­distinguished unto Mincha, the former being of living Creatures, the latter of Meat and Drink: but in both there was a destructi­on of the thing sacrificed, either by Fire, if it were of Inanimate things: or if it were a living Creature, both by Blood and Fire.

[Page 237]4. The end and design of all this, was to prefigure and repre­sent the death of Jesus Christ, and our Reconciliation unto God thereby: for the Law had threatned Death for Sin, and the blood of Bulls and Goats could not take away sin. Heb. 10.

Some of the very Pagans have had so much glimmerings of Light, as to subscribe to the Truth of this: and thence Satan triumphing over the fallen Sons of men, and abusing and per­verting their convictions, seduced them in the distress and hor­ror of their Consciences, even to Sacrifice men to appease their angry gods: wherein the acted upon this Principle, Quod pro vita hominis nisi vita hominis reddatur, non posse aliter Deorum im­mortalium numen placari arbitrantur. as Caesar de Bell. Gal. lib. 6. reports of the ancient Druids: they thought that unless the life of man were sacrificed for his life, the Deity of the immortal Gods could not otherwise be appeased. Vid Lee Temple pag. 332. Homer also ibid. wherein the old Pagans had more Light than the Apostate Jews have at this day.

Christ therefore is called a Sacrifice Ephes. 5.2. 1 Cor. 5.7. Christ our Paschal Lamb is sacrificed for us.

And as they refer directly unto Christ himself: so the Scrip­ture teacheth us to apply them in a lower way to the Saints al­so, whose souls and bodies and services are living Sacrifices, ac­ceptable unto God through Jesus Christ, Rom. 12.1. Heb. 13. with such Sacrifices God is well pleased.

The Sacrifice of Christ doth placare Deum, appease an incensed God: our Sacrifices do but placere Deo, please an appeased God.

Thus you see the Description made good in these Four things put together, wherein you see the nature of these Legal Offer­ings and Sacrifices, that they were Holy of Holinesses, or Offer­ings most Holy to the Lord, for atonement, or for the appeasing of his Wrath by the destruction of the Sacrifice, to shadow forth the true atonement and expiation of sin, by the death of Jesus Christ: and so much for the nature of them, which was the first Enquiry. For further Rules of illustration which was the second, take these Propositions.

Prop. 1 That the Institution of them, was presently after the [Page 238] Sin and Fall of man: but the renewed Institution and further Direction and Regulation of them, was by Moses unto Israel.

I say the first Institution of them, was presently after the Sin and Fall of man: for there neither was, nor could be any use of them before.

The first Intimation, (though somewhat obscure) that we have of them, is in Gen. 3.21. the Lord made them Coats of Skins and cloathed them, but they could not wear the Skins until the Beasts were slain: and slain they were (it is like) for Sacrifice, there being no need of them for Food at that time, nor any mention of the use of such Food till Noahs time after the Flood, Gen. 9.

But we read of Sacrifices more plainly, Gen. 4.4. where Abel is said to have brought an Offering to the Lord of the firstlings of his Flock, and of the fat thereof, which, being a Godly man, he neither would nor durst have done, had not the Lord appointed it: so likewise Noah Gen. 8.20, 21. builded an Altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean Beast, and of every clean Fowl, and offered Burnt Offerings on the Altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour: so Abraham, Isaac, Jacob.

Gods acceptance of Noahs Sacrifice, and before that of Abels, is a sufficient proof and evidence of his having instituted and ap­pointed them: for Cultus non institutus, non aest acceptus, Worship not commanded is not accepted.

See likewise Exod. 10.25. and 18.12. where they were used among the Jews, before the giving of the Law upon Mount Sinai.

But from this ancient Institution, with some further help from the Jews, the Heathen had a traditional dead knowledg of this Truth: but as they forgat and lost the true Object to whom they should have offered up their Sacrifices, so they had nothing but a dead form of Sacrifices, wholly perverted from their true and right end and use: therefore God by Moses, restores and renews this great institution; therefore the Text saith vers. ult. This is the Law which the Lord commanded Moses, in the day that he commanded the Children of Israel to offer their Oblations unto the Lord.

The Institution was so corrupted, that there was need of some [Page 239] renewed Light and Reformation about it: but being of so great Antiquity before there was any Tabernacle or Temple, or Priest­hood, or Festivals appointed: therefore I put Offerings and Sa­crifices before the rest, the Institution of them being much more ancient.

Prop. 2. In this renewed Institution and Regulation of their Offerings and Sacrifices, there were sundry Adjuncts and Cere­monies, some whereof were required, and some severely forbid­den to be added to them, all which were mystical and signifi­cant. It may be truly said of them which hath been falsly boast­ed concerning humane Ceremonies, that they be neither dark nor dumb, but mystical and significant, and fit to stir up the dull mind of man to the remembrance of his duty towards God, by some special and notable signification, whereby he may be edi­fied. They had their spiritual significations by Gods intend­ment and appointment, (as indeed it is Gods prerogative to ap­point mystical and significant Ceremonies in his Worship.)

That they had so, will appear in the Particulars, both ex na­tura rei, from the very nature of the thing it self, and by confe­rence of sundry other Scriptures, by the Light whereof, we must search and find out the Interpretation.

They may be interpreted and applyed (many of them) to the Church, in a secondary way, in regard of the union and commu­nion it hath with Christ, as well as unto Christ himself primarily and chiefly. The Adjuncts required and annexed to them were many, which will come to be spoken to, when we come to the several sorts and kinds of Sacrifices: only some Generals may be now mentioned, deferring the explication of them, to the places where their Institution is first mentioned. As,

1. They were all tyed and appropriated by divine Institution, to the Brazen Altar at the door of the Tabernacle.

This was a new addition in Moses his Reformation: for they had Sacrifices (as hath been shewed) from the first Promise of the Gospel, after the entrance of Sin: but there was no Taber­nacle, nor one only Altar appointed and instituted, till Moses his time.

[Page 240]2. Another appurtenance of all the Sacrifices was Salt, Levit. 2.13. Mark 9.49. every Sacrifice is salted with Salt.

3. Musick, Temple Musick both Vocal and Instrumental, whereof the former sort indeed was Moral, but the latter, Cere­monial. While the Sacrifices were offering, the Trumpets were sounding, and other musical Instruments.

4. Incense. As soon as they had offered the Sacrifice, and the Musick and Trumpets ceased, the Priest went into the Holy Place to offer Incense, and the people without prayed.

5. Many ceremonious Actions, partly of the Sinner that brought the Sacrifice, but chiefly of the Priests and Levites in ordering and sacrificing of it: and here (amongst the rest) the Ceremonies of Purification from legal and ceremonial Unclean­ness, may come to be considered: such as these, were the Ad­juncts required.

The Adjuncts forbidden, were in general any conformity or complyance with the Pagans in their Rites and Ceremonies; Deut. 12.4, 30.31.32. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it. so Rev. 14.9, 10. complyance with Popish Worship is forbidden, under pain of Gods Wrath.

Particularly two things were severely interdicted and forbid­den in all their Sacrifices, (except some peculiar Cases, of which afterwards) Leaven and Honey, Levit. 2.11. the mysteries of all which, we shall endeavour to open to you by the help of Christ, in our further progress upon this Subject.

Prop. 3. The occasions upon which they were to be offered, were of all sorts; I shall but instance in four Heads of things. As,

Confer ser. of the Burnt-Offering on Levit. 1.1. When under guilt of sin; for this was the direct intent and scope of them all, they were to offer a Sacrifice for Reconciliation.

2. For the obtaining of any needful Mercy, and for the pre­venting and removing of any Judgment or Danger, either im­pending or inflicted: as 1 Sam. 7.9, 10. Samuel offered a Lamb for a Burnt Offering, and it found great acceptance with God, when Israel was fighting against the Philistins.

[Page 241]So the Israelites Judg. 20.26. when seeking unto God by Fasting and Prayer, for Success and Victory in their War against the Benjamites.

So David to remove the Plague, 2. Sam. 24. ult.

The neglect whereof in great Enterprises, hath sometimes caused a good Cause to miscarry, as Judges 20.26. this seems to have been one of the fatal Errors in their management of it the two former times: for we read not that they offered Sacrifice, till their third attempt.

3. To testifie their Joy and Thankfulness for Mercies recei­ved: as Noah when he came out of the Ark, Gen. 8.20. and Solomon when he had obtained Wisdom, 1 King. 3.15.

4. In the instituted seasons of them; for besides Vows and free Will-Offerings, upon such emergencies of Providence as those before mentioned, there were many Cases wherein they were instituted and required: as when a Priest was to be Con­secrated, an unclean Person to be Purified, any Festival or Holy-day to be Celebrated: they had all their respective Sacrifices and Offerings appointed by the Law.

Thus you see the nature of these Legal Sacrifices, as also the first Institution, the adjuncts and occasions of them.

As to the several sorts and kinds of them, the next Doctrine will inform you, viz.

Doct. 2. That the Sacrifices of Propitiation under the Law, may be referred to these six kinds or sorts: namely, the Burnt-Offering, the Meat Offering, the Sin Offering, the Trespass-Offering, the Offering of Consecrations, and the Sacrifice of the Peace-Offerings.

They are, and may be several ways distinguished and distri­buted; but I shall content my self at present with this distribu­tion in the Text, and shall speak unto them (as the Lord shall enable me) in the order wherein the Text hath set them down before us, the Words whereof are a short recapitulation of the general Heads of the seven first Chapters of this Book; all which treat upon these several sorts of Sacrifices and Offerings, with the Rules and Rites appertaining to them; which, having been [Page 242] delivered and laid down at large, the Text concludes and winds up all thus, This is the Law of the Burnt-Offering and of the Meat-Offering, &c.

Quest. Wherein lay the difference between these several kinds and sorts of Sacrifices?

Ans. There were some things wherein they all agreed, name­ly, in all those general things before mentioned, in the descrip­tion and explication of them. As,

1. They were all offered at the Brazen Altar, and so were Offerings of a lower nature also. But,

2. These were all Quodesh Quodeshim most Holy, Holy of Holi­nesses.

3. They were all Ishim, Offerings made by Fire.

4. They were all Propitiatory, they did serve for Expiation and Atonement: therefore they differed not in the general na­ture, or in the general scope and intent of them, which was the same in all; namely, to shadow forth Christ in his death, as the true Sacrifice for our sins, and in other mysteries of his Wis­dom and Grace and Love, in the Gospel of our Salvation.

But the difference consists in three things.

1. Partly in the different matter of them; as an Oxe or a Sheep in some, Flower and Wine in others of them.

2. Partly in the particular Ends and Designs and Occasions of them; some being for sins of Ignorance, as the Sin Offering: some for sins against Knowledg, as Trespass Offerings: some for Consecration of the Priests, &c.

3. Partly, yea principally in the different Ceremonies accom­panying them: some were cut in pieces, as Sheep and Oxen: but some were only slit in the middle, but not cut asunder, as Birds.

And various other Ceremonies there were, as you will see fur­ther when we come to open and explain the several sorts and kinds of Sacrifices. At present I shall conclude with two words of use, from all that hath been said.

Ʋse 1. Let us learn this great Lesson, to keep close to the Rule of divine Institution in matters of Worship.

I beseech you mark the Text, how emphatical the expressi­ons [Page 243] are, This is the Law of all the several sorts of Sacrifices which the Lord commanded Moses, when he commanded the Children of Israel to offer their Oblations, &c. As they did nothing but what the Lord commanded Moses, so we should do nothing, but what Christ hath commanded us. Make that your great enquiry in all things, that concern the Worship of God; hath the Lord commanded it? Is the Command gone forth from Mount Sion for it, Yea or No? The Apostles were limited Mat. 28. ult. in their preaching, to teach only what Christ had commanded them; had they taught their own Inventions, they had exceed­ed their Commission; they had not been faithful to their Trust; but they were faithful in teaching and transmitting to the Church­es, what the Lord himself had taught and commanded them: 1 Cor. 11.23. What I received of the Lord, that I delivered un­to you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread, &c.

When a Minister baptiseth with the sign of the Cross, or any such like superstition, he cannot say, I received this from the Lord. Practise nothing which the Word doth not require; omit nothing that the Word doth require, whatever worldly troubles or dangers you incurr.

Ʋse 2. See the worth and value of the Sacrifice of Jesus Christ, and the necessity of it for the Justification and Salvation of lost Sinners. For what was the meaning of all these Offerings and Sacrifices whereof they had so great a multitude, and so many several sorts and kinds of them under the Law, but to lead us by the hand to Jesus Christ, to the true Sacrifice and Atonement that is in his death and blood: for he is the Propitiation for our sins. 1 Joh. 2.2. This was the scope and design of them all; for it was impossible that such Sacrifices should do the work of mak­ing satisfaction to Divine Justice, and reconciling God and sin­ners; therefore they were not to terminate their thoughts there, but to look beyond them to Jesus Christ, in whom both we and they are reconciled to God. That this was the Scope of them, appears throughout the New Testament; therefore Christ is called a Sacrifice, Ephes. 5.2. and a Propitiation for our sins, 1 Joh. 2.2.

[Page 244]And hence the Apostle so argues; Heb. 9.13, 14. If the blood of Bulls and Goats, and the ashes of an Heiser, sprinkling the un­clean sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself with out spot to God, purge your Conscience from dead works to serve the living God.


June 21, and 28. 1668.Levit. Cap. 1.

Of the Burnt-Offering. Yola.

THe first sort of propitiatory Sacrifices under the Law, is the Burnt Offering; this is set down first in that enumeration of them, Lev. 7.37. and taught first in this Book, as being the chief and of most common and continual use.

I shall speak to it somewhat the more largely, because it will give Light unto the other sorts of Sacrifices that follow, where­in we may be more brief.

The Institution of it being recorded in this place, I know not how to speak to it better than in the way of an Exposition upon this Chapter, borrowing also some further Light out of other Scriptures, and out of other Chapters of this Book, and parti­cularly [Page 245] the 6th. where some things are further explained.

It is called the Burnt-Offering, or the whole Burnt-Offering, because it was to be wholly burned and consumed in the fire, ex­cept only the Skin. In Hebrew [...] from the Root [...] ascendit, because being wholly burnt, it ascended and went up to Heaven in smoak and vapour; in Greek [...] & [...].

The special occasions upon which it was to be offered, were many and various;Confer on Lev. 7.37, 38. of the general occasions of Sacrifices. they may be referred to three Heads.

1. Such as were providential, as upon all emergent occasions, when they had Guilt, or Judgments to be removed or prevent­ed, or Mercies to be bestowed and acknowledged.

Of these, see Lev. 22.18.

2. Such incidental occasions wherein they were required by the Law, as at the Consecration of Priests, Exod. 29.18. And of the Levites; Numb. 8.12. At the Purification of unclean persons, and upon several other occasions.

3. At their stated Festivals and appointed Seasons, which were both dayly, weekly, monthly, and anniversary, of which hereafter. Amongst the rest, there was a constant Burnt-Offer­ing every day, or rather two Burnt-Offerings, the one in the morning, and the other at evening, Exod. 29.38, 42. Numb. 28.3, 4. called the Juge sacrificium. [...] whereof Daniel speaks, how it was profanely interrupted by Antiochus, Dan. 8.11, 12.

The end of it (as of the rest) was atonement, reconciliation and remission of sin; Vers. 9. a Savour of Rest, or a sweet Savour. For as a sweet smell refresheth and quieteth the Senses: so Christs Oblation appeaseth Gods Spirit, Ainsw. in loc. Hence is that Phrase, Ezra 6.9, 10. Sacrifices of Rest, or of sweet Savours to the God of Heaven; so Ephes. 5.2. Christ gave himself for us, an Offering, and a Sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling Savour.

The Laws and Ordinances of the Burnt-Offering were either concerning the matter of it, or the actions to be performed a­bout it; which being different, according to the different matter [Page 246] of it, will come in under the several sorts of matter whereof the Sacrifice was to consist, which was in general clean Creatures.

This Rule was to be observed in all the Sacrifices; and it was very ancient; for we read of this distinction of Beasts into clean and unclean, even in Noahs time, Gen. 7.2. and Gen. 8.20.

There were two sorts of cleannesses of the irrational Crea­tures, clean for Sacrifice, and clean for Food.

Of the cleanness for Food, we read in Lev. 11. which seems to have been then first appointed; for to the Sons of Noah there is no such restriction given, but a large and general Commission to eat any wholesome Flesh. Gen. 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth, shall be Meat for you.

But the cleanness and uncleanness for Sacrifice, seems to have been from the very first Institution of Sacrifices.

The Rule whereof in general is this, that there were no wild Beasts or Fowls, no ravenous carnivorous Beasts or Birds of prey allowed in Sacrifices, but such as were of the milder sort. The reason whereof, is thought to be partly from their Properties, being more harmless and innocent, more useful and profitable, and serviceable Creatures to mans use, and so fittest to signifie the like things in Christ, and in his people: and partly because of mans peculiar possession and propriety in them, being more fully in his power and possession, than the wild Beasts of the Field. Or if no reason for it could be assigned, we must acqui­esce in the supreme Authority of God, so ordaining and appoint­ing: as why not a Hen, as well as a young Pidgeon.

How abominable it was to transgress in the matter of their Sacrifices, you may see by those expressions in Isai. 66.3. He that killeth an Ox, is as if he slew a man: he that sacrificeth a Lamb, as if he cut off a Dogs neck: he that offereth an Oblation, as if he offered Swines blood. In all which, the Lord expresseth the greatest detestation by those Resemblances and Compari­sons.

But in this the Heathen greatly corrupted themselves; for as they forgat and lost the true Object of Worship, offering their Sacrifices to Devils, and not unto God, 1 Cor. 10.20. So they [Page 247] sacrificed all sorts of Creatures, without any difference of clean or unclean, even Swine, wherein the Jews also did corrupt them­selves, at least so far as to the eating of it, as appears out of Isai. 65.4. yea, they proceeded so far as to Sacrifice men; their Sons and Daughters (an horrible thing) which the Lord command­ed not, and which never came into his heart. Jer. 7.31. For as it was not possible that the blood of Bulls and Goats should take away sin: so neither could the blood of man do it, but only of that man who is God also, Act. 20.28.

The matter of the Burnt-Offering which was approved and ap­pointed of God, was of three sorts: Of the Herd, that is, the bigger sort of Cattel; and of the Flocks, that is, the lesser sort of Cattel, and of the Fowls: and so this Chapter divides it self into these three parts.

  • 1. The Burnt-Offering of the Herd, to vers. 10.
  • 2. The Burnt-Offering of the Flock, vers. 10. to vers. 14.
  • 3. The Burnt-Offering of Fowls, vers. 14. to the end.

1. The Burnt-Offering of the Herd; we may here consider the matter of it, and the Actions to be performed about it.

1. The matter of the Offering is a Bullock, a Male without blemish, vers. 3. see this Law repeated and confirmed, Lev. 22.20, to 24. see Mal. 1.7, 8, 14. And being so vehemently in­sisted on, we may well think it is not without some special myste­ry: the Best and most Perfect, is fittest for so great a God.

Moreover this did also figure and represent Jesus Christ his perfection in himself, and ours in him. He was a Male, and without spot or blemish. 1 Pet. 1.19. a Sacrifice of absolute puri­ty, and perfection.

And the like expressions are used concerning Christ mystical, in Ephes. 5.27. without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing, holy, and without blemish: we shall be so perfectly at that day. And in this life (in some degree) there is a perfection of sincerity here; there is a blameless spotless Conversation.

As the Burnt-Offerings of old: so should we and all our Sacri­fices and Offerings to the Lord be. We should serve him with the best we have, the best of our time and strength, the vigor [Page 248] of our spirits, the utmost improvement of all our abilities in his Service, and to his Glory: we should sacrifice all to him.

2. The actions to be performed about it: for the Lord was pleased to ordain and appoint sundry mystical and significant Rites and Ceremonies, to be used about the Burnt-Offering, which were full of Teaching, and spiritual Mystery.

For what hath been vainly and falsly boasted and arrogated to religious Ceremonies of mens devising, it is most true concern­ing these divine Ceremonies: That they be neither dark nor dumb, but mystical and significant, and fit to stir up the dull mind of man to the remembrance of his Duty toward God, by some special and notable signification, whereby he may be edified.

I shall enumerate them with some short hints of Instruction from them, in nine Particulars, as they lie before us in the Text, which mentions at least nine ceremonial Actions about the Burnt-Offering.

  • 1. The Offerer was to bring it to the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, before the Lord.
  • 2. Lay his hand upon it.
  • 3. The Priest must kill it.
  • 4. He must pour out the Blood and sprinkle it round about.
  • 5. Flay and cut it in pieces.
  • 6. The Pieces to be salted.
  • 7. The Leggs and Inwards washed.
  • 8. All must be laid upon the Altar and burnt with Fire. And,
  • 9. The Ashes carried out of the Camp into a clean place.

1. The Offerer was to bring it to the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, before the face of the Lord. vers. 3. Great weight is laid upon this, Lev. 17.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

We may learn three or four things out of this.

1. Here was a voluntary act of the Offerer: for the Priest was not to go to him to fetch it, but the man himself is to bring it vers. 3. of his own voluntary will: so Christ dyed willingly, and offered up himself a Sacrifice and a whole Burnt-Offering unto God for us, Ephes. 5.2. Joh. 10.18. I lay down my life of my self: so should we in all our Services be a willing people; we should come [Page 249] before the Lord with willing minds, when we present our Cor­bans, our Gifts, Services and Oblations to him: God loves a cheerful Giver, 2 Cor. 9.7.

2. This leads us by the hand, and points every way to Jesus Christ as the cause of our acceptance with the Lord: in that they were to bring it to the door of the Tabernacle of the Con­gregation, to be offered upon the Altar which stood there.

For Christ is both the Door and the Tabernacle, and the Al­tar, and the Priest: He is the door of the Sheep. Joh. 10.7. And he is the true Tabernacle and the Sanctuary which the Lord hath pitched, and not man. Heb. 8.2. A greater and more perfect Ta­bernacle not made with hands. Heb. 9.11. And he is the Altar. Heb. 13.10. which sanctifies the Gift, and makes it accepted; Mat. 23.19. And Christ is the Priest also, that presents and offers up our Sacrifices to the Lord: He is often called a Priest, and our great High Priest.

This therefore teacheth us, That all our access unto, and ac­ceptation with the Lord, is only in and through Jesus Christ: it is through him alone that our Services and Sacrifices are ac­cepted: there is no acceptance out of Christ. For he that ne­glected this, was to be cut off. Lev. 17.8, 9.

3. They are to bring it hither before the face of the Lord, or the presence of the Lord: this refers to the holiest of all, where God dwelt, and where his presence did appear.

So the meaning is, that we are to see God in all our Services, and to eye the presence of God, and that he is to be seen there, and there only, even in and by the Lord Jesus Christ. Luk. 1.75. that we might serve him before him— 2 Cor. 4.6. the Light of the Knowledg of the Glory of God, in the face of Jesus Christ.

4. The Tabernacle was a Type of the Church, which is often called the Tabernacle and Temple and House of God. We are to worship God in his Church, in the Assemblies of his people. Heb. 10.25. and 12.22, 23. So much for the first ceremonial Action about the Burnt-Offering.

2. The Sinner that brought the Sacrifice, was to lay his hand upon the head of it. vers. 4. this was not required in the Sacri­fice [Page 250] of Fowls, but only of Beasts, see the like Exod. 29.10

There is some controversy here, whether he was to lay on his right hand or his left hand, or both; but seeing it is in the singular Number, and seeing it is expresly commanded that the Priest should lay on both his hands, Lev. 16.21. that is, both for his own sins and the peoples: therefore it is thought by some not improbably, that when any of the people offered, he laid on but one hand.

But whether the right, or the left? We may suppose that whatsoever was not limited by God, was left at liberty. This Ceremony relates to the confession of sin, and the translation of the guilt of it upon the Sacrifice: the Offerer in this Ceremony disburthening himself of sin, and putting over his own Guilt up­on the Sacrifice; so it is explained Lev. 16.21. He shall lay on his hands, and confess over him the Iniquities of the Children of Israel.

So Christ hath born our sins, and carried our sorrows. Isa. 53.4, 5.

And we are to confess our sins over him by Faith in Christ; and through the blood of his Sacrifice, it shall be forgiven us, 1 Joh. 1.7, 9.

3. The Sacrifice must be killed and slain, and that upon the north side of the Altar. vers. 5. and vers. 11.

It is questioned here, who did this; whether he that brought the Offering, or the Priest? But doubtless it was the Priest; for it is said of him that kills the Offering, that he shall stay it. vers. 5, 6. but that was the Priests work.

And to the killing of the Sacrifice of Beasts, answers the wring­ing off the head of sacrificed Fowls. But this is expresly affirmed to be the Priests work, vers. 15.

Only this we find, that the Levites were added to the Priests to assist them, and help them in the whole work of their Mi­nistry, Numb. 8.19. and we find it often recorded that they did so, 2 Chron. 29.34. Therefore in vers. 22. of that Chap. where the Killers and the Priests are distinguished, it is not to be under­stood concerning the people, as if they had killed the Offerings, but rather the Levites: see likewise 1 Chron. 23.28, 31. and 2 Chron. 35.10, 11.

[Page 251]So much for the literal explication of this Ceremony: now for the mystery and meaning of it.

What might be noted from hence, concerning actions and ad­ministrations properly and peculiarly ministerial, we shall observe when we come to that place, to the legal Priesthood and Ministry.

But it is plain and obvious, that it holds forth the death of Christ, the Messiah was slain and cut off, Dan. 9.26. His Soul was made an Offering for sin. Isa. 53.10.

As to that Circumstance of killing it on the north side of the Altar. vers. 11. the same Rule is given concerning the Sin-Offering, Lev. 6.25. and the Trespass Offering, Lev. 7.1, 2.

There be various applications of this.

Some think there is no further mystery in it, but that the Tabernacle door and the Altar were so situate and placed, that on the north side there was more space for such Acts as required most room, as the killing and dressing of the Sacrifices did: so our own Annotators.

But others conceive this Law was not without something of mystery in it: some note how their greatest Troubles and Suf­ferings were from the North; Jeremiah sees a Seething Pot, and the face thereof was towards the North. Jer. 1.13. and then vers. 14. Out of the North an Evil shall break forth upon all the Inhabitants of the Land. Therefore some conceive, that to restrain the Evils and Judgments of God, the Offerings were slain on the north side of the Altar: also that the situation of the Temple was on the north side of the City: Psal. 48.2. Mount Sion on the sides of the North.

Moreover here is no regard had to the Sun, and to the East, but thither the Ashes were carried forth, as vers. 16. Whereas the Heathen were accustomed to Sacrifice, and to direct their Worship towards the East, and towards the Sun, which they made an Idol of. In opposition to which Idolatry, (as some con­ceive) the Lord appointed his people to sacrifice towards the North.

And lastly, the Gospel hath prevailed more in the northern Hemisphere of the World, (which also is more inhabited) than in the Southern.

[Page 252] Ezekiel in his Vision of the holy City, doth first describe the north Gates of the holy City restored: which some think is not without something of mystery, Ezek. 48.1, 16, 30. Tydings out of the North. Dan. 11. that is (say some) the Reformation in these northern Countries, the Tydings whereof is evil News to Antichrist, and the continual progress of that Work, hath been a continual trouble to him these hundred and fifty years.

But I think we may acquiesce in what was first mentioned: Aynsworth hath this Note on Lev. 6.25. hereby was figured that Christ our Sin-Offering, should be killed by the Priests in Jerusa­lem and Mount Sion, which was on the sides of the North: Psal. 48.2. Crucified on Mount Calvary, which was on the North-West side of Jerusalem: as by the Jews Tradition, the morning Sacrifice was killed at the North West Horn of the Altar.

4. The blood must be poured forth at the foot of the Altar, and sprinkled upon it round about. The former indeed is not expressed in this Chapter, but it is necessarily implyed, and you find it expressed Cap. 8.15. for we must borrow Light from other Scrip­tures; poured forth, Lev. 8.15. sprinkled in this Chapter vers. 5. it was poured forth.

And almost all things in the Law were purged by blood: Heb. 9.22. and without shedding of blood there is no Remission. This was a great mystery; a Type of the blood of Christ; it leads us to the effusion and application of the blood of Christ. First the effusion of it to the satisfaction of divine Justice; Isai. 53.12. He hath poured out his Soul unto death. Mat. 26.28. my blood which is shed for many, for the remission of sins. Jesus Christ did often bleed for us in the day of his Humiliation, under the guilt of our sins.

As at his Circumcision, then were the first drops of that pure and precious blood shed, that Sin-Expiating, that Soul-Saving blood: and in his Agony in the Garden, he did sweat clodded blood: and when he was scourged, then he bled again for us: and when Crowned with Thornes, and in his Death and Cru­cifixion. And finally when they pierced his Side with the Spear, when that sacred Blood and Water issued forth, which John saw [Page 253] and bare record of. Joh. 19.34, 35. One of the Souldiers with a Spear pierced his Side, and forthwith there came out Blood and Water, and he that saw it bare record, and his record is true, and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

Thus was the blood of the Sacrifice poured forth.

And it was also sprinkled: so is Christs blood, and therefore it is called Heb. 12.24. the blood of sprinkling.

Sprinkling is a Ceremony very significant of spiritual things; but where was this blood sprinkled?

The Text saith, It was sprinkled upon the Altar round about. From this expression, we may note the mistake of such as think the setting of the Communion-Table close to the Wall like a Dresser or Side-Table, is to set it Altar-wise.

For it is most clear and certain, that their Altars were ever so situate, as that they might be compassed round about.

This expression doth occur no less than twelve times in this book; of sprinkling upon the Altar round about. so Psal. 26.6. so will I compass thine Altar.

As to that conceit no other account can be given of it, but the profound ignorance of Papists and Prelates.

Now the Altar was a Type of the Deity of Christ, as being that which supported and sanctified the Sacrifice: Mat. 23.19. It is the Altar that sanctifies the Gift. It was the Deity of Christ that gave that infinite value and virtue to his Sufferings: there­fore look as the Altar was a Type of the divine nature of Jesus Christ, and the blood was his Sufferings in the humane nature: so the pouring forth and sprinkling this humane blood upon the divine Altar, may lead our thoughts to consider the conjunction of the humane nature to the divine, and the influence of that Conjunction into all the Sufferings of the humane nature.

Were not the Blood at the bottom of the Altar, and sprinkled round about upon the Altar, it could have no merit, no value nor efficacy, it could have no Soul-Redeeming virtue and effi­cacy and acceptation with the Lord.

But it is the blood of God. Act. 20.28. and therefore infinitely valuable and meritorious, the Offering being sanctified by the Altar of his Deity.

[Page 254]It was sprinkled also upon the Book.

The Scripture and Ordinances must be sprinkled with the blood of Christ, if ever they be made effectual to us for our good.

And upon the people, Heb. 9.19, 20, 21.

This shews the application of it to our Souls and Consciences, 1 Pet. 1.2. Isai. 52.15.

5. The fifth ceremonial Action about the Burnt-Offering was this, the Priest is to flay it and cut it into its pieces. vers. 6. The Skin must be taken off, and the Body of the Sacrifice must be cut asunder, yet not meerly chopt in pieces and mangled, but according to the several joynts and pieces of the Body: for God will have order in the things of his Worship. The Skin was the Priests Portion, see Cap. 7.8.

As to the mystery of this, I would not make too curious an application of it: but there be four things we may observe and learn out of it.

1. It related in general to the Sufferings of Christ, for great Sufferings are set forth by such expressions: Micah 3. 2, 3. Who hate the good and love the evil, who pluck off their Skin from off them, and their Flesh from off their Bones: who also eat the Flesh of my people, and flay their Skin from off them, &c. Psal. 22.15, 16.

2. Something we may note here as to spiritual cloathing: Skins were first used for Apparrel, God clothed Adam with Skins. Gen. 3.21.

And much of our Clothing at this day, is either the Skins of Beasts, or the Hair and Wooll taken from those Skins: as the Sacrifice being dead and slain, did leave a Skin for clothing to the Priest by whose hand he died: so Jesus Christ our true Sa­crifice, who was led as a Sheep to the slaughter for our sins, yet being dead, leaves a Garment of Righteousness to cloth Believers with: therefore we are said to put on Christ as a Garment.

Rom. 13.14. Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ. [...].

Jacob got the Blessing, having his hand and his neck covered with Goat-Skins, and being clothed in the Garments of his El­der Brother.

So Believers are blessed of God, being clothed with the Righte­ousness of Jesus Christ.

[Page 255]3. Whereas the Sacrifice in this Action was laid open, and the inward parts of it discovered to open view: so is Jesus Christ fully and openly discovered in the preaching of the Gospel; Gal. 3.1. before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, cru­cified among you, like a Sacrifice that is flayed and cut asunder.

Moreover God sees the inward part of every Service, of every Sacrifice we present unto him.

The Sacrifice was [...] & [...] flayed and cut up; Heb. 4.12, 13. so all things are [...] & [...] before him with whom we have to do.

The Sword of the Spirit which is the Word of God searcheth the heart, as the sacrificeing Knife did the bowels of the Beast: there is no Skin, no cloke of Hypocrisy that can hide thee from the Lord.

4. The Skin of the Sacrifice went to the Priest: it was part of his Maintenance; see Cap. 7. 8. and the Priest that offereth any mans Burnt Offering, even the Priest shall have to himself, the Skin of the Burnt Offering, which he hath offered. As before the Law the Sacrificer had the Skin, he enjoyed the benefit of that, either to cloth him, as Adam and Eve, Gen. 3.21. the Lord God made them Coats of Skins, and clothed them. Or to buy cloath­ing with, or what else he needed. And under the Law there was hardly any Sacrifice, of which the Priest had not his part.

It teacheth us that they that serve at the Altar, should live of the Altar. 1 Cor. 9.13, 14. from whence the Apostle argues to the care that should be taken for the maintainance of Ministers under the Gospel.

So much for the fifth Ceremony about the Burnt-Offering, namely, the flaying it and cuting it in pieces.

6. The Pieces were to be salted. This indeed is not expressed in Cap: 1. but you will find it in other places: for as I said at first, we must borrow Light from other Scriptures: Lev. 2.13. Every Oblation of thy Meat-Offering shalt thou season with Salt, neither shalt thou suffer the Salt of the Covenant of thy God to be lacking. Ezek. 43.24. the Priests shall cast Salt upon them.

The Rule is general to all Sacrifices, as well Burnt, as Meat-Offerings: [Page 256] Mark 9.49. every Sacrifice shall be salted with Salt.

I find by conference with other Scriptures, a twofold Mystery hinted and aimed at in this.

1. Salt doth preserve things, and keep them from putrifacti­on: this therefore signifies and shadows forth the Perpetuity of the Covenant of Grace. Hence is that emphatical expression in the Text, Lev. 2.13. the Salt of the Covenant of thy God. So Salt is used Numb. 18.19. It is a Covenant of Salt for ever before the Lord unto thee, and to thy Seed with thee: that is, saith the Margin, sure, stable and incorruptible. So 2 Chron. 13.5. Ought ye not to know, that the Lord God of Israel gave the King­dom over Israel to David for ever, even to him and to his Sons by a Covenant of Salt? that is, Perpetual, because the thing that is salted is preserved from Corruption, saith the Geneva Note upon the place.

2. Salt makes things savoury and wholesome, which without Salt would stink and putrify: Col. 4.6. let your Speech be sea­soned with Salt. That is, contrary to that corrupt Communication Ephes. 4.29. wise and savoury and gracious Speech, Mark. 9.49, 50. when there is no Salt, no Savour in a mans words, his Speech stinks and is corrupt: the Sacrifice is unsalted, and so it stinks.

7. The Leggs and Inwards must be washed, Vers. 12. the Feet and the Inwards are the fowlest part of a Beast: washing away the filth, signifies spiritual washing and cleansing.

So the bodies of Believers are said to be washed with pure Wa­ter, and their hearts sprinkled from an evil Conscience. Heb. 10.22. they are made clean both within and without, and their filthi­ness washt away through Jesus Christ.

8. The several parts of the Offering must be laid upon the Altar and burnt with Fire, till it be consumed and burnt to ashes. Seeing the Fire which once fell from Heaven, Lev. 9.24. was to be con­tinually kept and preserved upon the Altar, Lev. 6.12. and the use of all other Fire forbidden in Sacrifices, Lev. 10.1. putting of Fire upon the Altar in this place, can signifie nothing but kind­ling of it, Deodat. in Lev. 1.7. See Lev. 6.9. the Fire burnt all night. The Wrath of God is the Fire, and Sin the Wood or Fu­el that feeds it.

[Page 257]This is the Fire of the Justice and Wrath of God from Heaven, which seized upon Christ; and every part of him (as all the parts of the Offering) was burnt; his Head crowned with Thornes, his Side pierced with the Spear, his Hands and Feet with Nails, his whole body did sweat drops of Blood, yea his Soul was heavy unto the Death, yea burnt to Ashes as it were, brought to the utmost extremity of misery: his Saints also en­dure the fiery tryal, 1 Pet. 4.12.

Though theirs is not a fire of Expiation, as Christs was, Heb. 12.10. but only a fire of Purgation which they pass through in this Life, to prepare and fit them for Heaven: but after this Life, there is no Purgatory as the Papists dream.

9. The Ashes must be carried out of the Camp into a clean place. Lev. 6.10, 11.

The contrary is said of the Rubbish of a leprous house, that the dust and stones thereof, should be poured forth into an unclean place. Lev. 14.40, 41. For they came from a polluted house.

But these from the Lords holy dwelling place, and were the Reliques of an holy thing which the Lord here manifests that he hath a special regard of.

This Ceremony is applied by the Apostle to Christ, Heb. 13.11, 12, 13. Look as the Ashes of the Sacrifice being burnt, sig­nified the dead Body of Christ: so the carrying of the Ashes out of the Camp, signified how his crucified Body should not be bu­ried within the City, but carried into a clean place, into a new Sepulchre where never any man lay before. Joh. 19.41.

So the dead Bodies of all his Saints, when they are spent and consumed to Ashes, they are regarded and preserved in the dust by God, as sacred Reliques; and he will raise them up again un­to eternal Life.

So much for the Burnt Offering of the Herd, and the Ceremo­nies appertaining to it.

There were also some other Actions about it, as that in Psal. 118.27. of binding the Sacrifice with Cords, even unto the Horns of the Altar. But this, as it is not mentioned in this Chapter; so it seems rather to be an Action of natural necessity unto such a [Page 258] work, as the slaying of a Beast, then to have any special myste­ry in it. Therefore let this suffice for the Burnt-Offering of the greater sort of Cattel.

Now the other two sorts that follow, are the Burnt-Offering of the Flock, that is lesser Cattel, Sheep or Goats. vers. 10. And of Fowls, viz. Turtle Doves, and young Pigeons. vers. 14.

Quest. Why the Lord appointed these lesser Sacrifices?

Ans. He did it, that so none might be able to plead excuse to be exempted from his service: for you know men are very apt to make excuses.

If the Lord had only appointed Oxen and Sheep, some might have pretended Poverty, and have said, we would offer Sacri­fice but we are not able. Therefore these lesser Sacrifices were ordained, that so both Rich and Poor might serve the Lord: so that here is no room left for any excuse. If they cannot bring an Ox, the Lord will accept a couple of Turtle Doves, or young Pigeons: the Lord accepteth these smaller Sacrifices from the Poor, as well as greater from the Richer sort of people. See Vers. 17. it is of a sweet savour to the Lord.

This Offering was brought by the Parents of Jesus Christ, Luke 2.24.

As to the building of the Tabernacle, he that could not offer Gold or Silk or Purple, might bring Goats hair. Exod. 35.5, 6. Therefore let not poor people be discouraged; alas, I have no Estate, I have no Parts nor Learning, it may be so: but God ac­cepts of mean services, where there is but mean ability. For if there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not. 2 Cor. 8.12.

I might add, that the Burthen is much easier under the Go­spel: God doth not put us upon such costly service, such a charge­able Religion as theirs was under the Law, especially in these latter days. There is not a Servant in a Family, but may be able to buy a Bible, and so to read the Word of God.

Now for the Particulars; they were of two sorts, lesser Cattel, and Fowls.

Concerning the Offering of the lesser sort of Cattel, there is [Page 259] nothing peculiar in the Rites and Ceremonies thereof, save only that of killing it at the north side of the Altar, which belongs indeed to other Sacrifices also; and was therefore spoken to be­fore, upon the Burnt-Offering of the bigger sort of Cattel.

The third and last part of the Chapter is, concerning the Burnt-Offering of Birds or Fowls, vers. 14, to the end.

We are to note here what Birds they were, and what were the ceremonial Actions about them.

The Birds were not Ravens and Vultures and such like; but Doves and Pigeons and Sparrows, at least in that peculiar case of the Leprosy, Lev. 14.

The Dove is often commended in the Scripture, for innocency and harmlesness; Mat. 10.16. Be ye wise as Serpents, and harmless as Doves. The Spirit appeared as a Dove. Mat. 3.16. So are the Saints; Psal. 74.19. deliver not the Soul of thy Turtle Dove— and often in the Song of Solomon, my Love, my Dove— all the practical application I shall make of it, shall be this; Believers themselves are living Sacrifices unto God: but if thy Sacrifice be accepted, thou must be a Dove, not a Bird of prey, but harm­less as Doves.

The ceremonious Actions about them, aim at the same gene­ral scope with the ceremonious Actions about the Burnt-Offering of Cattel, whereof we spoke before, and divers of them are the same.

There be only three differing Ceremonies in the Burnt Offer­ing of Fowls, whereof we are now to speak.

1. That the Priest shall wring off his head, vers. 15. which the old Geneva Note explains thus—

The Hebrew word signifies to pinch off with the Nail, [...] ungue secuit. It occureth only here, and in Lev. 5.8. where the same Rule is given concerning the Trespass-Offering.

The Rule concerning the Burnt-Offering of Cattel, is only to kill them; that is, with the sacrificing Knife to cut the Throat, and so let out the life and blood of the Beast, and then cut off the head, and cut all the parts asunder, as vers. 5, 8.

The reason of this difference in the outward Ceremony, seems [Page 260] to be from the different matter of the Sacrifice: both aiming at the same general scope, viz. to shadow forth the Sufferings of Jesus Christ, and the violence done to him for and by our sins. For as the blood of the Turtle Dove was wrung out with violence: so was the blood of Jesus Christ, when he made his Soul an Of­fering for sin.

Some note further, that the Head was not to be quite wrung off, as the parts were not to be divided asunder; of which by and by.

2. The Priest was to pluck away his Crop, with his Feathers, and cast it beside the Altar, on the east part by the place of the Ashes. vers. 16.

Why to the East? they had a place on the east side of the Court, to which they carried forth the Ashes.

Because this was the furthest off from the Holy of Holies: for the Temple stood directly West, as you may see Ezek. 8.16. which the Lord did in opposition to the common Idolatry of those times, which were wont to worship towards the East. There was therefore a place eastward from the Tabernacle where they threw the filth of the Sacrifices, as in reverence of the Divine Majesty, as far as might be from the Ark of the Testimony.

We must abandon whatsoever is unclean, when we come into Gods presence; all filthiness must be removed far away out of his sight. As we come to an holy God in an holy duty; so we should come in an holy manner, and with holy hearts: I will wash mine hands in innocency, and so will I compass thine Altar, O Lord. Psal. 26.6.

3. He shall cleave it with the wings, but shall not divide asunder. vers. 17— cleave it, that is, long ways: so as there was a Wing on each side. This Ceremony of not dividing the Fowls, was very ancient: for Abraham used it, Gen. 15.10.

And in reference to the same Scope, it was, that the Head and Body were not quite disjoyned, but only the Neck pinched with the Priests Nail.

Now what is there in Christ the Anti-type, that may answer this? Not a bone was broken. Joh. 19.33, 36.

[Page 261]Moreover the divine and humane nature were never totally separated, notwithstanding all his Sufferings, though his Soul was separated from his Body; yet neither Soul nor Body was se­parated from the Son of God, but incomprehensibly and inef­fably united, when in the Grave, and in the dust of Death.

His Deity as the Head or principal Part, was not divided from his humane nature: nor was he who is the Head of his Church, divided from his mystical Body by all his Sufferings; but remains indissolubly and everlastingly united to them.

So much for the explication of the Burnt-Offering, whether of the Herd, or Flock, or Fowls, with the Ceremonies appertaining to them: now for the use of all.

Ʋse 1. See here the difference between Gods Ceremonies, and mens; between religious Ceremonies of divine Institution, and of humane Invention.

Divine Ceremonies are full of Light, full of Spirit, full of Go­spel Marrow and Mystery.

But humane Ceremonies in the Worship of God, are full of Darkness and Vanity, thick Darkness, there is no Light, no signi­fication in them: as men cannot bless their own Ceremonies, and make them effectual for spiritual ends: so they cannot so much as make them suitable and significant; they are commonly so foolish, so impertinent and ridiculous, that it is hardly sit to name them in a Pulpit, lest they provoke laughter.

As for instance; for I will give you an instance or two, be­cause there is an holy scorn, and an holy laughter.

A man must wear a white Garment in a ridiculous manner like a Shift on the top of his Cloths, to signifie Purity and Ho­liness: a man must bow down like a fool to a thing made of Wood or Stone, call it a Crucifix, or an Altar, or what you please; to signifie I know not what, unless it be that they are Imps of Antichrist, and in heart members of his pretended Mo­narchy that do such things.

But I hope you see, that it is not thus with Gods Ceremonies. If the Lord open our eyes, we may see wondrous things out of his Law. Psal. 119.18.

[Page 262]I suppose the things that have been spoken, may not have the same Light and Evidence with all that have heard me this day, as I hope through grace they have with some: but yet I hope there is Light enough even to the weakest, to see and to discern a difference between Gods Wisdom and mans folly; between divine Ceremonies in Religion, and such as are meerly humane.

Humane Inventions are teaching Signs; but they are Teach­ers of lyes. Hab. 2.18.

But Gods Institutions teach Gospel Truths.

Not to mention all the other evils of them: our Consciences are the Throne of God. But will they needs reign in our Con­sciences, and so sit down in the Throne of God, and pluck the Scepter (as it were) out of Christs hand, and the Crown from his Head? He will speak to them in his Wrath for this, and vex them in his sore displeasure; he will break them with his Rod of Iron, and dash them in pieces like a Potters Vessel.

Ʋse 2. See the fierceness of the Wrath of God against sin, and it may be a word of awakening to secure sinners.

It is nothing but death and blood and slaughter, that will ap­pease offended Justice; God must and will have a Sacrifice, and the Sacrifice must be slain and burnt with fire. Our God is a consum­ing Fire. Heb. 12. ult.

If thou hast not a Burnt-Offering to present him with, to be slain and sacrificed for thee, thou must perish.

It is not enough to see the power and bondage of sin, but thou must see thy self under Guilt; and that there is a necessity of a Sacrifice to expiate thy sins, and make atonement if ever thou art saved.

You need Christ for your Justification to be your Righteous­ness, as well as to be your Sanctification.

If there be no sense of this, if you go on resisting and de­spising such Convictions, if you live so, and dye so; thou art the man, the woman against whom the Lord hath Indignation for ever, and thy sin will not be purged with Sacrifice nor Offering for ever, as the Lord said of Elie's Sons, 1 Sam. 3.14.

Ʋse 3. Direction under the guilt of sin what to do, and what [Page 263] course to take, to make atonement and reconciliation between God and thee: go and bring your Sacrifice to the Priest, and by him unto God. Jesus Christ is both the Sacrifice and the Priest, and the Altar; he is all in all: go with him into the pre­sence of God, and present him to the Lord by Faith: and this Sacrifice that he hath offered shall be accepted for thee, to make atonement for thee, for thy sin whatever it be, and it shall be forgiven thee.

Ʋse 4. Unspeakable consolation unto them who have took this course, and have fled for Refuge thither; here is peace and com­fort under the guilt of sin, of what kind soever.

Two things may quiet any mans Conscience, under the great­est Guilt.

1. Is there not a sufficient Sacrifice? Is there not satisfaction and atonement in the blood of Christ? Is not this a sufficient Sacrifice?

2. Is it not thine? This I know unbelief is apt to stagger at. But therefore do but lay thy hand upon the head of the Sacrifice, confess thy sins over the head of thy Burnt-Offering, lay thy Burthens upon him by Faith, and he is thine, and all that he hath done and suffered was for thee, and shall be as effectual for thy good, as available and effectual with the Lord for thee, as if thou thy self hadst suffered, yea infinitely more. See vers. 4. He shall put his hand upon the head of the Burnt Offering, and it shall be accepted for him, to make atonement for him.

The Apostle saith, we have received the atonement. Rom. 5.11. and he insists upon this notion of receiving Vers. 17. receive abundance of Grace, and the gift of Righteousness.

Now this is done by Faith; and what is the effect of this? Therefore we joy in God. vers. 11. and 17. We reign in life through one Jesus Christ. It puts the Soul into a triumphing frame.


July 5, 12, 19. 1668.Levit. Cap. 2.

2. The Mincha, or Meat-Offering.

THis is mentioned in the second place in that Enumerati­on of the Legal-Offerings, Lev. 7.37. and treated of in the second Chapter of this Book, next after the Burnt-Offering; and therefore comes now to be spoken of out of this Chapter, with help and conference of other Scriptures.

It is called in Hebrew Mincha; concerning the notation or ety­mology of which word, which may give some light to the sense of it, there be divers Conjectures.

Some derive it from Nachah, to bring or Offer; hence Mincha, munus: in like manner as Mizvoh, praeceptum; from Zivah, praecepit.

And though the Rabbins read the Plural Number Menachoth, whence some derive it from a feigned Root Manach, that so [Mem] may be a radical letter; yet the Plural Number is read Minchoth in Psal. 20.3.

It is used in Scripture in three senses.

1. It is often used generally for any thing gift or Present, [Page 265] whether to God or men: which confirms the Etymology before given, as Gen. 32.13, 20— Gen. 43.11— 1 Sam. 10.27.

2. It is used not only for Gifts or Presents to men, but for all sorts of Offerings to God: even such Sacrifices wherein Beasts were slain, as Gen. 4.4. where Abels Sacrifice of the Firstlings of his Flock, is called his Mincha: so it agrees with Qorban, and is of as large extent in signification.

3. It is frequently used in a narrower sense for an Offering of the Fruits of the Earth, as contra distinguished unto Sacrifices of living creatures. So Qorban is the general, and Mincha a species of Qorban: so in this place Lev. 2. Qorban Mincha, and in many other Scriptures.

All propitiatory Sacrifices being referred in Scripture unto these two Heads, Zebach and Mincha: as Dan. 9.6— Psal. 40.6. which the Apostle renders [...], Heb. 10.5. that is, slain Sacrifices of living Creatures, which were offered both by Fire and Slaughter; which are called Zebach [...], hostia victima sacrificium mactatum: and Offerings of Meat and Drink called Mincha, munus sacrum frumentaceum libum, libamen: which being not living Creatures could not be slain, but were offered only by Fire and pouring forth.

Our Translators render it, (and not unfitly) the Meat Offer­ing; from the matter whereof it consisted, and from the Rite and manner of Offering, the greatest part of it being to be eaten for Meat.

Now concerning this Mincha or Meat-Offering, there be these six things to be enquired into.

1. The Materials of it, which were Corn, Oyl, Frankincense and Salt.

2. The Actions to be performed about it; it was to be brought to the Priest, the Memorial of it burnt upon the Altar, and the Residue eaten by the Priest in the holy place.

3. The meaning and signification of it; to be a sweet Savour before the Lord.

4. The Additions prohibited to be annexed to it, which were two, Leaven and Honey.

[Page 266]5. The Appurtenance of Drink-Offerings by divine Instituti­on added to it.

6. The several Seasons and Occasions on which the Meat-Offering was to be offered.

These six things we shall enquire into, (the Lord enabling us) chiefly out of this Chapter, and partly also out of other Scrip­tures, especially in the two last Enquiries, which are not expresly spoken to in this Chapter.

1. The Materials of it, they were these four, Corn, Oyl, Frankincense, and Salt.

1. Bread Corn, Wheat or Barley, 1 Chron. 21.23. Wheat for the Meat Offering. See also Ezek. 45.13, 15. where Wheat and Barley are mentioned for the Meat-Offering.

This was dressed and ordered several ways.

They might offer the Meat-Offering of Wheat.

Either only ground and sifted into Flower, without any further preparation, vers. 1. Soleth, simila, the Flower of Wheat; or dres­sed and cooked into Cakes and Wafers vers. 4. Or baked. vers. 5.6. Or fryed in a frying Pan. vers. 7. Or First Fruits; not so much as grinding it into Meal or Flower, only dryed and beaten. vers. 14.

This Meat-Offering of First Fruits was of Barley, because that was first ripe in that Country: therefore the name of the first Month in the Year was called Abib, Exod. 13.4. quasi mensis spicarum, the Month of Ears of Corn.

Out of all which Corn-matter of the Meat-Offering, I shall mark three things.

1. It must be fine Flower, purged from the Bran.

It shews the pure estate of Christ, and of all Christians, with their services in him, being purged as it were from the Bran of natural Corruption; Aynsw. in loc. Isai. 66.20. it appears their manner was to bring them in a clean Vessel.

We should labour in all our Offerings and Sacrifices to be pure and clean in his sight, and to come with purged and refined Spi­rits. God must have the best, as the Flower must be fine and not course: so in the Burnt-Offering the Beasts were to be with­out blemish: and whatsoever they offered to God must be of [Page 267] the best, all betokening the purity and perfection of him, of whom they were Types, to wit, Jesus Christ, and beseeming the excellency of him to whom they were offered: Engl. Annot. on Numb. 28. ult.

2. There was a Meat-Offering of First Fruits; what this is, the Apostle informs us 1 Cor. 15.20. Christ is the First Fruits by whom the whole Lump is sanctified.

There may be also some further accommodations of it, whereof we may speak further, when we come to the Feast of First Fruits.

3. It must be ground, sifted, baked, fryed, beaten, and the like; some such bruising and contusion of it there must be.

So Christ was bruised for our Iniquities, and beaten with stripes for our sins. Isai. 53.5. wherein his Members are partakers with him. Col. 1.24.

Hence Ignatius sweetly and spiritually, when he was to suffer Martyrdom by being devoured of wild Beasts, he speaks how his body was the Lords Corn, and must be ground by the Teeth of the wild Beasts, to be prepared for the Lord: as in the Meat-Offering, the Corn was to pass under some such preparation.

2. The second Ingredient in the Meat-Offering, was Oyl. vers. 1, 4, 5, 7, 15. The quantity of Oyl is not expressed, but the meaning was, there should be a quantum sufficit, a fit propor­tion of it mingled with the Flower.

Much use of Oyl there was under the Law, and so we shall have occasion to speak further to it.

It signified in general, the Spirit of God in the graces and comforts of it; Isai. 61.1. which Jesus Christ did receive above measure, and from him all Believers in some degree, do partake of his anointing. There is and must be this sacred Oyl in all our Offerings, the influence of the Spirit of God.

3. Frankincense. The use of this was to make a sweet perfume in the Air, when the burning of the other things might have caused an ill scent.

It figured the acceptableness unto God of the persons and ser­vices of his people, through the mediation and intercession of Je­sus Christ: he is set forth by Pillars of smoke, perfumed with Myrrhe [Page 268] and Frankincense, with all Powders of the Merchant. Cant. 3.6. and without him our Offerings are not acceptable, nor our Sacrifices sweet unto God. Jer. 6.20. Hence there was no Oyl nor Frank­incense in the Sin-Offering, Lev. 5.11. nor in the Jealousy-Offer­ings, Numb. 5.15. because though it was for a Memorial, yet it was not to bring the person or his services to remembrance with acceptance before God, but to bring his sin to remembrance.

4. Salt. Vers. 13. which being required in all their Offerings, and so in the Burnt-Offering, there we spoke to it, and shewed that it was to teach them the perpetuity of the Covenant of Grace that God had made with them: and the wholesome and savoury carriage and walking of his people.

Now put all this together, and it spells thus much: That our Meat Offerings, our good Works being anointed with the Spi­rit, and perfumed with the Incense of Christs Mediation, are accepted of God, and that in a Covenant of Salt, through the unchangeable faithfulness of God in the Covenant.

So much for the Materials of the Meat-Offering, Corn, Oyl, Frankincense, and Salt.

2. The Actions to be performed about it, and they were three, vers. 2, 3.

  • 1. It must be brought to the Priest.
  • 2. He is to burn a part of it, the memorial of it before the Lord.
  • 3. The remnant of it must be eaten by the Priest.

1. They were to bring it to the Sons of Aaron the Priests, vers. 2. There was the same Action before in the Burnt-Offering, and there we shewed the meaning of it, that it imports a vo­luntary act of the Offerer, and a making use of Christ for accept­ance, in all our services and approaches unto God.

2. The Priest is to burn the memorial of it upon the Altar, before the Lord. vers. 2, 9, and 16.

[For a memorial] This (as Interpreters well observe) is spoken after the manner of men, to put God in remembrance of the person, or rather of his own love to him, and Covenant with him in Jesus Christ. Psal. 20.3. The Lord remember all thy Offer­ings, and accept thy Burnt-Sacrifice— Act. 10.4. Thy Prayers and [Page 269] thine Almes are come up for a memorial before God. Hence Nehemiah prays Remember me, O my God, concerning this. Neh. 13.14, 22. the meaning is, that the Smoke thereof was to come up before God with acceptance; therefore there was Frankin­cense burnt with it, to make a sweet smell.

3. The Remnant was Aarons and his Sons. vers. 3. and again vers. 10. that is, to eat it in the Sanctuary. see Lev. 6.16, 18. Ex­cept the Meat Offering of the Priests which might not be eaten, but was to be all burnt for a whole Burnt-Offering. Cap. 6. vers. 23.

This may be applied two ways.

1. To the Communion and Participation of Christ, by all Be­lievers; For they are all Priests unto God. Rev. 1.6. A Royal Priest­hood. 1 Pet. 2.9. vers. 5. An holy Priesthood to offer up spiritual Sacrifices. And Christ is our Meat-Offering, he is the Bread of God, the bread of life. Joh. 6.33. So then the Priests eating the Meat-Offering, is Believers feeding upon Christ by Faith.

As the Meat-Offering was partly burnt upon the Altar, and partly eaten by the Priests: so Jesus Christ, having offered up himself once for all, doth always continue a spiritual Meat-Offering, and Food for the hungry Souls of all Believers to feed upon. His flesh is meat indeed, his blood is drink indeed. Joh. 6.

2. This was part of the Priests maintenance. As indeed they had something out of every Offering, see Numb. 18.9, 10.

From whence we see, that they who serve at the Altar, should live of the Altar; they that preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel.

The third thing concerning the Meat-Offering, is the scope and intent of it: this is hinted in vers. 3. To be an Offering made by Fire of a sweet savour unto the Lord.

More particularly, there was a fourfold Mystery shadowed forth by it; I speak now as to the general scope of the whole: for the mysteries of particular Rites and Ceremonies about it, must be spoken to under each particular Rite.

1. It did prefigure and shadow forth the atonement or expia­tion of sin, by the Righteousness of Jesus Christ, both by his Sufferings and Actings, his active and passive Obedience.

[Page 270]That this was one part of the mystery of the Meat-Offering, the Scripture is express: 1 Sam. 3.14. the iniquitie of Elies house shall not be purged or expiated [...] with Sacrifice, or Offering for ever. Neither by slain Sacrifices, nor by Meat Offerings for ever; so 1 Sam. 26.19. if the Lord have stir­red thee up against me, let him accept a Mincha. And Psal. 40.6. speaking of propitiatory Sacrifices, he saith Zebach and Mincha; slain Sacrifices and Meat-Offerings thou wouldst not.

The Apostle applies this to the sufferings of Christ for the ex­piation of our sins, Heb. 10.5, 10. Therefore when Christ was come, he did cause both Zebach and Mincha to cease, Dan. 9.27. both the slain Sacrifices, and the Meat-Offerings.

And it is expresly said of the poor mans Meat-Offering for his Trespass, that it shall make atonement, Lev. 5.11, 13.

This is thought to be some account of the Apostles limitation, Heb. 9.22. where he saith, That under the Law almost all things were purged by blood. For it was not always done by slain Sa­crifices, but sometimes by Meat Offerings.

And as the Scripture is clear for it: so indeed the thing it self speaks. For there was in the Meat-Offerings, an express adum­bration of both the parts of that justifying Righteousness of Jesus Christ, by which we are reconciled to God.

His Sufferings or passive Obedience. For there was a destroy­ing of the Mincha by fire, and pouring it forth; as well as of the Zebachim by fire and blood.

Here was also an adumbration of his active Obedience, or fulfilling all Righteousness, which was his meat and drink. Joh. 4.34. My meat, is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work. I know some have made some question of this, whe­ther the Meat-Offering were Propitiatory, or only Eucharistical? But you see how clear it is, both from the Scripture, and from the Analogy of the thing it self.

2. The Meat-Offering signified also the persons of Believers, who (through Christ) are sanctified and cleansed to be a pure Oblation or Meat-Offering unto God. They are compared in Scripture to a Meat and Drink-Offering; Isai. 66.20. They shall [Page 271] bring their brethren for a Mincha or Meat-Offering unto the Lord. which was fulfilled in the Conversion of the Gentiles, as the Apostle speaks Rom. 15.16. and in the sufferings of the Saints, especially when they suffer unto death and martyrdom in the Cause of Christ. They are a Drink-Offering to the Lord, ex­ceedingly accepted of him; Philip. 2.17. Yea, if I be offered up as a Drink-Offering (si pro libamento offerar Beza) upon the sacri­fice and service of your Faith, I joy and rejoyce with you all. 2 Tim. 4.6. For I am now ready to be offered, [...]. and the time of my departure is at hand. The Note upon it is this, I am ready to be offered for a Drink-Offering; and he alludeth to the pour­ing out of blood or wine, which was used in Sacrifices.

3. The Meat-Offering signified not only their persons, but their services, those fruits of grace and good works that Belie­vers do perform, whether towards God or towards man; which are often compared to fruits, and to meat and drink.

And the Meat-Offering you know, consisted of the Fruits of the Earth, of things to be eat and drunk. Good works are cal­led fruits, Phil. 1.6. and again Philip. 4.17. And meat and drink. Joh 4.32. I have meat to eat that ye know not of, and what was that? See vers. 34. My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work. As the Meat Offering consist­ed of the Fruits of the Earth, things to be eat and drunk.

To instance in particulars.

1. Prayer. Psal. 141.2. Let my prayer be set before thee as In­cense, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening Mincha, or Meat Offering: so when the Lord told the Jews, I will not ac­cept a Mincha or Meat Offering at your hands; he addeth, that in stead of them, Mal. 1.10, 11. From the rising of the Sun to the going down of the same, Incense shall be offered to my Name, and a pure Mincha, a pure Meat-Offering. which is fulfilled when men pray every where lifting up pure hands, &c. 1 Tim. 2.8.

2. Praise and thankful acknowledgment of Gods goodness and soveraignty, and the interest God hath in us, and in all our comforts and enjoyments, which, as they come from him, are thus acknowledged by way of Chief-Rent in Sacrifice. This small [Page 272] Rent (as a Peper corn in some Leases) being an acknowledgment of their Homage, that he is the great Landlord and Owner of all the good they enjoyed: therefore while his Worship was neglected, he blasted them in all their outward comforts, Hag. 1.9, 10, 11. But when they acknowledged him, he remember­ed them; Cap. 2. vers. 19. And left a Meat-Offering and a Drink-Offering in the house of the Lord, as Joel 2.14. This is a second duty taught in the Meat-Offering.

3. Some conceive here was a prefiguration also of the Sacra­ment of the Lords Supper, and indeed something of Analogy doth appear: for the Meat-Offering did consist of Bread and Wine, as the Lords Supper doth. And as the Meat was eaten by the Priests: so is the Bread by Believers, who are Gospel-Priests.

But yet, as in all Similitudes and Types; beside the Analogy, there be also sundry disproportions and disparities, between the Type and the thing typified: so here for the Meat-Offering, was both a Feast and a Sacrifice, part of it being burnt upon the Altar. But the Lords Supper is only a Feast and not a Sacrifice, being wholly eaten by the Priests.

The Meat-Offering did refer to what was future, the Lords Supper to what is past: that was a prefiguration of the true Sa­crifice; the Lords Supper is a commemoration of it.

In the Meat-Offering the Wine was only poured forth before the Lord: but in the Lords Supper, the Communicants are to drink it. Drink ye all of it. Mat. 26.27.

In a word, that was a Type; this a Sacrament.

4. There is a fourth duty which the Sacrifice of the Meat-Offering may refer to, and that is, Almes, bounty and liberali­ty to the Saints, and to the Poor: this is a true Sacrifice, and a Gospel Meat-Offering. The Apostle seems to speak of it un­der such a notion; Heb. 13.16. To do good, and to communicate forget not, for with such Sacrifices God is well pleased. And Philip. 4.17, 18.

4. The Meat-Offering shadowed forth the acceptation of our persons and services with the Lord: so in the places before al­ledged, Philip. 4.17, 18. the Apostle calls what the Philippians [Page 273] sent unto him for his supply, An Odour of a sweet smell, a Sacri­fice acceptable, well pleasing unto God. see Mal. 1.10. God rejects the Jews, but accepts the Gentiles in their stead, together with their prayers and services, vers. 11.

Upon this account, Frankincense was an Ingredient in the Meat-Offering, to make a sweet smell; Hos. 9.4. They shall not offer Wine Offerings to the Lord, neither shall they be pleasing unto him. The Lord hath sometimes given signal evidence and testi­mony of his good acceptance of this Sacrifice, and of his people therein: see 2 King. 3.9, 10, 20.

So that look as our Reconciliation to God, was in a special manner taught and held forth by the Burnt-Offering: so our Sanctification and acceptation with him, is in a peculiar manner taught and shadowed forth in the Meat-Offering: which hath occasioned some to restrain it to this Scope only, though that is a mistake as hath been shewed.

Thus you see the general Mysteries adumbrated and shadowed forth in the Meat-Offering, namely, Jesus Christ his atoning and reconciling us to God: as also Believers, their persons, their ser­vices, the acceptance of both before God.

4. The fourth Enquiry touching the Meat-Offering is, con­cerning the additions forbidden to be annexed to it; which were two, Leaven and Honey. vers. 11.

The reason and intent of this, is worthy to be considered and enquired into.

And first for the literal sense and meaning of the Prohibition, it is concerning Fire-Offerings at the Brazen Altar: Leaven and Honey might not come upon the Altar; but yet Leaven was per­mitted and allowed in Thank Offerings, Lev. 7.13. and in the Offerings of First Fruits, Cap 23.17. So here in this second Chap­ter, Vers. 12. it is thought to be spoken by way of caution; they might offer it leavened, but not sacrificed at the Altar.

Honey also is numbered among the First-Fruits, 2 Chron. 31.5. Though some understand that of Dates, which are as sweet as Honey. This 12. vers. some explain it thus: ye shall offer them to the Lord for a Wave-Offering, but not for an Oblation at the [Page 274] Altar. This is strictly forbidden both in this and in divers other Scriptures as in reference to the Passover, and that very severe­ly under the pain of Extermination or cutting off, Exod. 12.19. And in Amos 4.5. they are sarcastically reproved for it: for that Interpretation agrees best with the Scope.

Now for the Reasons of the Prohibition.

And first for Leaven: Leaven you know hath a sower taste, (it hath its name) one of its names in Hebrew [...] from the sowerness of the taste Vinegar is a Conjugate from the same Root, Numb. 6.3. Chometz Jajin.

And it hath a sowring and a swelling quality and property, and an infecting spreading quality, when it is put into a Batch of Dough, it ceaseth not till it hath made all the rest like unto it self: as our Saviour speaks of it, Mat. 13.33. Leaven which a Woman took and hid in three measures of Meal, till the whole was leavened. And so the Apostle Gal. 5.9. A little Leaven leaven­eth the whole lump.

Aul. Gellius. Lib. 8. Cap. 15.The Heathen did retain by blind Tradition, some footsteps of this Ceremony: for the flamen dialis or Roman Priest, might not by their Canons touch any leavened Meal.

Plut. quest. Rom. apud Aynsw. in Exod. 12.15. Plutarch scanneth the reason of it thus; because Leaven it self proceedeth from corruption, and cor­rupteth also the Meal with which it is mixed.

And therefore by the way that Metaphor of Fermentation so much used by some late Philosophers, it may be doubted whe­ther it be always so congruous, and so full of light to clear up the mysteries of nature, as they suppose who make such conti­nual use of it; for it is but one kind or way of corruption.

But for the spiritual mystery of it.

Leaven argues Corruption, and therefore unleavened, is as much as to say uncorrupted.

I find Leaven applied in Scripture to sin and sinners, and Corruptions of all sorts, and particularly to these four.

1. To false Doctrine, Mat. 16.6, 11, 12. The Leaven of the Pharisees, is the false Doctrine of the Pharisees.

[Page 275]2. To scandalous and wicked practices; 1 Cor. 5.6, 7, 8. Purge out the old Leaven, that ye may be a [...]ein lump as ye are un­leavened— Let us keep the Feast not with old Leaven, neither with the Leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Discontent; Psal. 73.21. thus my heart was grieved Or ac­cording to the Hebrew Metaphor, thus was my heart leaven­ed or sowred: Ki Jithchametze leba [...]i, or rather leavened and sowred it self.

Malice and cruelty, the Leaven of maliciousness; Psal. 71.4. Deliver me O my God, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel man, the leavened person, Chometz. So likewise Pride is fitly compared to Leaven, because it puffs and swells the heart.

3. To Hypocrisy and secret sins; Luk. 12.1, 2. the Leaven of the Pharisees, which is Hypocrisy.

4. To promiscuous Communion and carnal mixtures in Church society; 1 Cor. 5.6. A little Leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

Some are apt to say, their sin will do me no hurt: but you may be deceived in this. I tell thee their sins may infect and damn thee; One Fornicator or profane person must not be allowed in the Church, lest many be defiled. Heb. 12.15, 16.

This is a Truth so clear throughout the whole Scripture, that if I were to choose what Death I would dye, I think I could ne­ver choose to dye in a better cause, than for bearing witness to this Truth. That the Church of God ought not to be made a Den of Thieves, and a Refuge and Receptacle for wicked Livers: there must be no such Leaven in the House of God.

Now put all these together, and put them into the affirma­tive, and you see a fourfold Instruction in this Prohibition of Leaven.

It teacheth us.

  • 1. Soundness in the Faith of Christ.
  • 2. Holiness of life.
  • 3. Sincerity of heart.
  • 4. Purity of Church Communion.

2. Honey was forbidden also; it may seem strange that so [Page 276] sweet and so good a thing should be so severely interdicted. How often is the Land of Canaan commended as a Land flowing with Milk and Honey? But to eat too much of it, is not good. Prov. 25.16, 27. It cloys and loads the Stomach, and turns to choler and bitterness; and if poured upon the Fire, it swells and riseth up in Froth.

Three things we may learn out of this Prohibition of Honey.

1. That God will be worshipped according to his own Institu­tion and Command; his Will is the Rule we must submit unto, though we cannot well see the reason of it.

We must not follow any Invention of our own, though to our carnal thoughts it seem as sweet as Honey, though it seem never so decent; never so orderly: as that is the common pre­tense, it is for decency and orders sake.

But what think you Friends, is not Honey sweet and decent too? But God requires it not: therefore away with it from the Meat-Offerings of the Lord.

2. That holy temperature and equability of spirit, that be­cometh Saints in all the conditions and vicissitudes they pass through; we must take heed of Extremes. There should be neither Leaven nor Honey; neither too much sower, nor too much sweet; neither inordinate sorrow, nor inordinate pleasures in the Meat-Offering of the Saints; they should neither be de­jected nor lifted up, but in an even well composed frame and temper of Spirit, 2 Cor. 12.7, 10. neither leavened and sowred with discontent under worldly troubles, nor surfeited with the sweatness and Honey of carnal pleasure, and delight and con­tentment of the Creature.

3. Some apply it unto Christ himself, thus: That there is in Christ our Meat-Offering, no such sweetness which turns to loathing, no such pleasure whereof a man can take too much; there is no glutting, no satiety, no after sorrows, no such delight as proves bitter in the latter end, as much Honey doth. But on the contrary, the more any man tastes of the sweetness and comfort that is in him, the more he shall long for it, and say, Lord evermore give us of this bread. as Joh. 6.34. more of this [Page 277] bread, more of this comfort, this Communion with God. He is not sweet at first, and bitter afterwards: but his Yoke seems heaviest at first, but lighter afterward: he speaks first of the Cross, then of the Crown of Glory.

These four are all in this Chapter; for the other two additio­nal Enquiries, we shall borrow Light out of other Scriptures fur­ther to illustrate this.

5. The fifth Enquiry concerning the Meat-Offering is, con­cerning the appurtenance of Drink-Offerings by divine Instituti­on, affixed and annexed to the Meat-Offering.

I reckon it as an appurtenance to the Meat-Offering, for two Reasons.

1. Because it is not mentioned as a distinct Species in that Enumeration of the Legal-Offerings, which hath been so often quoted Lev. 7.37. The Drink-Offering is there omited, as being included and understood in the Meat-Offering.

2. Because it was never offered alone under the Law, but al­ways in conjunction with the slain Sacrifices, to compleat the Meat-Offering belonging to them.

It is true, before the Law we read of Drink-Offerings alone; Jacob Gen. 35.14. he set up a Pillar in Bethel, and he poured a Drink Offering thereon, and he poured Oyl thereon.

But after that Regulation and Reformation of the Offerings by Moses, we never read of any Drink Offering alone, but only in Conjunction with Meat Offerings, and Slaughter-Offerings. As Numb. 15.5. And the fourth part of a Hin of Wine for a Drink-Offering shalt thou prepare, with the Burnt-Offering, or Sa­crifice for one Lamb. And vers. 7. For a Ram, thou shalt offer for a Drink-Offering the third part of a Hin. And again vers. 11. For a Bullock. And Numb. 28.7. The Drink Offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an Hin for one Lamb, &c. Lev. 23.18. They shall be for a Burnt Offering unto the Lord, with their Meat-Offerings, and their Drink Offerings.

And in Hezekia's time, when he purged the House of God, it is said 2 Chron. 29.35. The Burnt-Offerings were in abundance with the fat of the Peace-Offerings, and the Drink-Offerings for eve By rurnt Offering.

[Page 278]I shall speak to three things upon the Drink-Offering.

  • 1. The matter of it.
  • 2. The Rite and manner of Oblation.
  • 3. The Mystery of it.

1. First then for the matter of it, it was Wine; Numb. 15.5. Wine for a Drink-Offering shalt thou prepare. Called Shekar in Numb. 28.7. from whence the Greek Sikera, that is, a strong inebriating Wine; our Translators here render it strong Wine.

Hence Hos. 9.4. They shall not offer Wine-Offerings to the Lord.

Hence Judg. 9.13. in Jothams Parable the Vine saith, should I live my Wine which cheereth God and man?

How doth Wine cheer God? It cannot be said to cheer God otherwise, than in Offerings and Sacrifices.

The Heathen fell into an horrible Corruption, as to this; for that they mingled Blood in their idolatrous and superstitious rage in Drink Offerings, whereto the Psalmist alludes, Psal. 16.4. and declares how he abominates such a practise; Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten or give Gifts to another God: their Drink-Offerings of Blood will I not offer. It is not unlike the Health Drinkers of our times, of whom you may have heard of some who (in their raging profanness) have mingled their own Blood with Wine, and so have drunk it in Healths to the Devil, and to the confusion of Sion, and Sions King.

2. The Rite and manner of Oblation was, by pouring of it forth before the Lord: Numb. 28.7. In the holy place shalt thou cause strong Wine to be poured out unto the Lord for a Drink Offer­ing, that is, upon the Altar say some, but not upon the Fire; or as others beside the Altar: for it is likely the Wine of the Drink-Offering was to be poured forth, where the blood of the slaughtered Sacrifices was poured forth: but that was at the bottom of the Altar, as you have formerly heard upon Cap. 1. with Cap. 8.15.

Hence it hath its name in Hebrew Nesek, libamen, a sacred effusion, or a pouring out; from the Verb Nasak, fudit, effudit.

They were not to drink it; that might have been an occasion of intemperance and drunkenness, there being dayly and conti­nual [Page 279] Drink-Offerings; nay there was no piece of legal worship wherein they were commanded to drink Wine.

But there is an express prohibition of any such Rite; Lev. 10.8, 9. And the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, Do not drink Wine or strong drink, thou nor thy Sons with thee, when you go into the Tabernacle of the Congregation, lest you die. Vers. 10. And that you may put difference between holy and unholy, and between un­clean and clean.

3. The spiritual Mystery of it. Doubtless it had much of spi­ritual mystery in it: the Psalmist calls it the Cup of Salvation. Psal. 116.13. I will take the Cup of Salvation and call upon the Name of the Lord, for what other Administration under the Law that expression could relate unto, besides this, I know not: there being no other use of Cups of Wine amongst them in the Wor­ship of God, but only in these Drink-Offerings whereof we speak.

Three things I shall briefly note.

1. Wine in typical and allegorical Scriptures, doth sometimes signify the joys and consolations of the Holy Ghost: for Wine rejoyces and cheers the heart, Psal. 104.15. Wine that maketh glad the heart of man. Therefore the Apostle Ephes. 5.18. so speaks, Be not inebriated with Wine wherein is excess, but be ye filled with the Spirit. The Apostles Antithesis between Wine and the Spirit intimates this; Cant. 1.2. Thy love is better than Wine. And vers. 4. We will be glad and rejoyce in thee, we will re­member thy love more than Wine. And Cant. 2.5. Stay me with Flagons, comfort me with Apples, for I am sick of love. Stay me with Flagons, that is, with Flagons of Wine. Metonymia subjecti continentis pro contento. As in the Supper the Cup is put for the Wine. This Cup is my blood, that is, the Wine in the Cup: so here Stay me with Flagons, she prays for the sense of his Love.

2. We find the Saints pouring out their blood in the Cause of Christ, compared to a Drink-Offering, Phil. 2.27. 2 Tim. 4.6, And so is in an higher, in a much higher sense the blood of Christ represented by Wine in the Sacrament of the Supper, as his Flesh by Bread: and so the Meat and Wine in the Meat-Offering, may also represent his Flesh and Blood.

[Page 280]3. It shadowed forth the Lords acceptance of his people, Shall I leave my Wine wherewith I cheer both God and man? Judg. 9.13. that is, pleasing to God in Sacrifice.

Hence when the Lord declares his rejection and disacceptance of them; Hos. 9.4. he thus expresseth it, they shall not offer Wine Offerings to the Lord, neither shall they be pleasing unto him.

6. The sixth and last Enquiry that was propounded concern­ing the Meat-Offering is, the Seasons and Occasions upon which it was to be offered.

There is the more cause to speak to this, both because the Scripture is Copious in it, and because there hath been some­thing of controversy, and something perhaps of inadvertency and of mistake about it.

You may note this in general: There be some Offerings which were Meat-Offerings as to their matter, which yet did not come under the Rule of the Meat Offering, as it is here laid down in this second Chapter of Leviticus.

There be three Instances of this.

1. The Wave Sheaf. Lev. 23.10, 11.

2. The two Wave Loaves. Lev. 23.17. It is true, these agre­ed in the matter with the Meat-Offering properly so called; for they were of the Fruits of the Earth, that were to be eaten: but yet they did not come under the Rule of the Meat-Offering.

For they were not Ishim Offerings made by Fire, they were not to be burnt, nor were they most holy, to be eaten by the Priests alone in the holy place: and they were to be made with Leaven, which is contrary to the ordinary Rule of Meat-Offer­ings.

But they were Heave-Offerings, which were but singly and not doubly holy.

3. A third Instance is the Jealousy-Offering. Numb. 5. which differs from the Meat Offering, partly in the matter. For the Jealousy-Offering was not fine Flower, nor yet Flower of Wheat, Qemach Sheirim Meal of Barley; [...] some render it the Bran of Barley.

Barley the coursest sort of Bread-Corn and Bran, the coursest [Page 281] part of that Grain: not Wheat, but Barley; not Flower, but Meal and no Oyl nor Frankincense with it.

It differed also and chiefly in the end and use, the Meat-Offering being for expiation, as hath been formerly proved: but the Jealousy-Offering was for exploration and discovery of guilt or innocence. It was for a Memorial, but not for a Memorial of acceptation, but to bring sin to remembrance, Numb. 5.15.

For these Reasons, though there be something of general agree­ment, being of the Fruits of the earth, and so may be called a Meat-Offering in a general sense, and so accordingly is called Mincha, vers. 15. Yet you see how much it differs from the Rule of the Meat-Offering, in this second of Leviticus; therefore it was not properly a Meat Offering.

Quest. But when then was the Meat Offering offered? And what Offerings were there under the Law, that come more fully under that notion?

Ans. They were of two sorts, either separate, or conjoyned with other Offerings. Of separate Meat Offerings there are two signal Instances.

1. The poor mans Trespass Offering, Lev. 5.11, 12. in stead of the Trespass Offering of Cattel, because of his poverty.

2. The Shew Bread, Lev. 24, 7, 9.

It seems to have been a Meat-Offering for the Incense was burnt as a Memorial for the Bread, say some.

Or as others; an handful of the Flower whereof they were made, was burnt for the whole: and the rest was eaten by the Priests, after they had been presented, and had stood for a time before the Lord: so much as to separate Meat Offerings.

Now 2. as to Meat Offerings conjoyned with other Offerings.

The general Rule is this. That they were conjoyned with Burnt Offerings of Cattel, and with Peace Offerings, whether offered as Vows, or as Freewil-Offerings, or at their solemn Feasts, and in sundry other incidental occasions.

But they were not conjoyned with Burnt Offerings of Fowls▪ nor with Sin, or Trespass Offerings▪

This Rule is both affirmative and negative, it is grounded upon Numb. 15.4, 9.

[Page 282]Hence as there was a dayly Burnt-Offering, so there was a dayly Meat-Offering; Numb. 4.16. Numb. 28.4, 5.

And sometimes the Lord gave signal testimonies of his accept­ance of it, as 2 King. 3.9, 10, 20. So at the Consecration of the Priests and Levites, Lev. 8.26, 27. And Lev. 9.4. At the Con­secration of the Levites, Numb. 8.8. At the Expiration of the Nazarites Vow, Numb. 6.17. At the Dedication of the Taber­nacle. there were twelve Meat-Offerings according to the number of the Tribes, Numb. 7.13, 14.

Also the Sheaf of First Fruits, though it self was a Wave-Offering, yet there was a Meat-Offering annexed to them, Lev. 23.18.

So that generally where you have a Burnt-Offering, or a Peace-Offering under the Law, whether under the notion of a Vow or a Freewil-Offering, or at their stated Feasts, and in most incidental occasions, though I cannot say in all, for it is not mentioned in the purification of women after Child-bed, Levit. 12.6. They had a Meat-Offering by divine Institution, annexed and conjoyned with it.

The other part of the Rule is negative, and it is this: we do not find that Meat-Offerings were annexed unto the Burnt-Offerings of Fowls, or to Sin, or Trespass Offerings, or to First-Fruits, or Tythes, or to the Paschal-Lamb, though to the Feast of the Passover they were, Deut. 16.1, 2. And in the cleansing of the Leper, the Meat-Offering seems to be annexed to the Sin-Offering, Lev. 14.10. which is a peculiar Case.

This Rule is drawn from the authority of the Scripture nega­tively, there being no such annecting of it unto these in that place, Numb. 15. where it is annexed unto Burnt-Offerings and Peace-Offerings: but where it was not commanded, where they were not directed to it in the Law, they might not do it.

Ʋse. See the fulness of spiritual Mystery, and the plenty of Gospel Light and Teaching, that is in the Sacrifice of the Meat-Offering.

To recapitulate briefly some Heads of things, which have been more largely opened to you.

[Page 283]It relates both to Christ and Christians, and is full of spiritual mystery as to both.

1. As to Christ, he is the true Meat-Offering, the Food of our Souls: it was to consist of fine Flower, to denote his Clean­ness and Purity.

The baking, frying, drying, beating of it: points us to his Sufferings, and so doth the burning of it upon the Altar.

The pouring forth the Wine belonging to the Meat-Offering, plainly represents the pouring out his Blood.

The Green Ears, represents Christ as the First Fruits, by whom all the rest is sanctified.

The Priests eating it, tells us how Believers feed upon Christ by Faith, as the Bread of Life.

The Oyl, is the Spirit of Christ.

The Incense, his Prayers and Mediation, and the efficacy and acceptance thereof with God for us.

The Salt of the Covenant, is the stability and everlasting faithfulness of God as our God, in a Covenant Relation through Jesus Christ.

The prohibition of Leaven and Honey, frees Christ from all Corruption of life and doctrine, and all such deceiving comfort, which afterwards like Honey turns to bitterness.

2. Apply it to Christ mystical, to the Saints and Members of Christ, for it may be so applied: the Gentiles under the Gospel are presented as an acceptable Meat-Offering to the Lord, Isai. 66.20. Every particular and circumstance of it is full of teaching.

The Fine Flower, teaches us to purge our selves from the Bran of our natural Corruption.

We must be anointed with the Unction of the Spirit.

The Incense, teaches us to be much in prayer, and to expect acceptance with the Lord.

The Salt, instructs us in the safety of our Covenant-Estate and Interest in God: and that our speeches and whole deportment, should be savoury and seasoned with Salt.

The forbidding of Leaven and Honey, calls upon us to purge out the Old Leaven of sinful Corruption, and to take heed of the sweetness and pleasures of sin.

[Page 284]I beseech you brethren do not rest in the notional understand­ing of these Truths, but reduce all to practice.

If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them. Joh. 13.17. But if you know all mysteries, and have not love, 1 Cor. 13.1, 2. it profiteth nothing.

And to press you a little further; you may observe, that the Meat-Offering under the Gospel, is larger than it was under the Law; as you will find if you compare Numb. 28. with Ezek. 46. For in Numb. 28.5. the Meat-Offering is but the tenth part of an Ephah, it is but the fourth part of an Hin of beaten oyl. But in Ezek. 46.13, 14 it is augmented, the Meat-Offering to a sixth part of an Ephah, and the third part of an Hin of oyl.

This speaks a greater degree of fruitfulness and more ample obedience under the Gospel, then was of old under the Law.

That look as the Grace of God in Christ abounds towards us under the Gospel, so should we abound in our Returns of thank­ful and fruitful obedience. 1 Tim. 1.14. And the Grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love, which is in Christ Jesus.

Can you not go along with the Apostle in those expressions? Hath not God abounded towards you in Mercy and free Grace? Have you not sometimes said, never such a Pattern of Mercy, ne­ver the like Riches of free Grace, if the Lord pardoned such sins, and heal such backslidings: therefore be you abundant in the work of the Lord, 1 Cor. 15. ult.

If you know these things, happy are you if you do them.


Lev. 3.July 26. August 6, 9. 1668.

The Peace-Offering. Shelamim.

THe third sort of Sacrifices or Offerings under the Law, is the Peace-Offering.

We had the Burnt-Offering in the first Chapter, the Meat-Offering in the second Chapter; and now follows the Peace-Offering here in the third. Yola. Mincha. Shelamim.

We may open it in this Method, which I hope will be plain and edifying.

  • 1. The name.
  • 2. The ends, occasions and seasons of it.
  • 3. The matter of it.
  • 4. The sacred Rites and Ceremonies, or ceremonious Actions about it.

1. For the name; it is Shelamim which we render the Peace-Offering, and Zebach Shelamim the Sacrifice of the Peace-Offer­ing; from Shalom pax, so called, because it was a Sacrifice of Peace Offering amongst all the parties: God, and the Priests, and the people being all partakers of it, as being all agreed, and therefore sociable partakers of the same thing.

[Page 286]The word may be otherwise rendred; but this Interpretation is most generally received, and suits well with the nature of this Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings.

2. The ends occasions and seasons of the Peace-Offerings (for we may put all these together) First as to their ends, they were of a mixt nature, they were both Hilastical, Eucharistical and Euctical, both for atonement, and for thanksgiving, and for pray­er: they were in general for peace and reconciliation with God.

Some I know have questioned this, which I must confess I have often wondred at, and they have thought it meerly ex­pressive of moral duties, of homage and thankfulness to God, &c. But it was a Fire-Offering upon the Brazen Altar; all the rest of which, were for reconciliation and atonement, and therefore why not this?

It is said to be a savour of rest. vers. 5. which signifies Gods acceptation. The Actions about it, speak forth this end; for it was slain and burnt upon the Altar, the Blood poured forth and sprinkled upon the Altar round about, &c. All pointing to Jesus Christ, who is indeed the true Peace-Offering. Ephes. 2.14. He is our Peace, and he hath made peace by the blood of his Cross; Col. 2.20. Yet this was but the general, and not the special, nor the only end of them.

There be two particular ends mentioned in Cap. 7.

  • 1. Peace enjoyed, to testify their thankfulness.
  • 2. Peace desired and sought after; each of which had their different Rites, of which afterwards.

1. One end was for thanksgiving, by way of Retribution for mercies received. Lev. 7.11, 12. of which Psal. 107.22. And let them sacrifice the Sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare his works with rejoycing. Heb. 13.15. By him therefore let us offer the Sacrifice of praise to God continually, acknowledging Christ in all our mercies.

2. Another end of the Peace-Offerings, was for the impetra­tion or obtaining of mercies wanted, either in the way of a Vow, or a Freewil-Offering, Lev. 7.16— Judg. 20.26. The Tribes in their Fast for obtaining victory against the Benjamites, offered [Page 287] Peace-Offerings in the way of a Freewil-Offering. Psal. 56.12. Thy Vows are upon me O God, I will render praises unto thee. Or I will pay confessions unto thee; that is, he would in a way of praise, offer the Peace-Offerings that he had vowed. So Jonah 2.9. But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving, I will pay that I have vowed: Salvation is of the Lord. Gen. 28.20, 21, 22. The tenth of all that God should give him, Jacob vowed to give to God, that is, as a Peace-Offering.

The difference between a Vow and a Freewil-Offering was only this. That in the Freewil-Offering they did present the thing it self unto the Lord; but in a Vow they did first promise it, being (it may be) not in a capacity to perform it at that time. As Jonah in the Whales belly: and then when the deli­verance was bestowed, and the Prayer heard and granted, they paid their Vows unto the Lord.

Hence some have thus referred and compared these three sorts of Offerings hitherto described, and directed in this Book.

That as the Burnt-Offering Cap. 1. principally figured our Reconciliation to God, by the death of Jesus Christ: and the Meat-Offering Cap. 2. had a special respect to our Sanctification in him before God: so this Peace-Offering, signified both Christs Oblation of himself, whereby he became our Peace and our Sal­vation; and likewise our Oblation of Praise, Thanksgiving and Prayer unto God, in the midst of our troubles, temptations and spiritual conflicts, which we fight by Faith in this world: so that in this Sacrifice, we come boldly to the Throne of Grace, that we may receive Mercy, and find Grace to help in time of need, as Heb. 4.16.

Therefore some have noted, that this Sacrifice of Peace-Offer­ing, was often added under the Law to other sorts of Sacrifices. Because, beside the expiation of sin by the Blood of Christ, there must be an effectual application of the atonement in a way of actual communion with God, in a way of grace and peace through Jesus Christ. Christ doth not only procure peace for us, but Communicate and apply it to us.

Here was an actual Participation, and an exercise of mutual [Page 288] Communion between God and the Priest, and the Offerers feast­ing together.

Quest. What were the times and seasons when they offered and were to offer Peace Offerings?

Ans. They were either Occasional, or more stated.

The Occasional times, were either, 1. in thanksgiving; or 2. as Vows; or 3. as Freewil-Offerings, which were formerly spoken to.

The more stated times are such as these.

1. At the Consecration of the Priests. One of the Rams is cal­led a Peace Offering. Exod. 29.28. And at the first Consecration of Aaron and his Family, Lev. 9.4. Also a Bullock and a Ram for Peace Offerings, to sacrifice before the Lord.

2. At the expiration of a Nazaretical Vow; Numb. 6.14. One Lamb without blemish for a Peace Offering.

3. At the Dedication of the Tabernacle. Each of the twelve Princes of the twelve Tribes of Israel, brought for a Sacrifice of Peace Offerings two Oxen, five Rams, five Hee Goats of the first year. Numb. 7.17.

So at the Dedication of the Temple by Solomon. 1 King. 8.62, 63. Solomon offered a Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings which he of­fered unto the Lord, two and twenty thousand Oxen, and a hundred and twenty thousand Sheep.

4. In the Feast of First Fruits. Two Lambs of the first year for a Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings. Lev. 23.19.

As for the Offerings at the Purification of a Leper; the two Birds. Lev. 14. It differs so much from the ordinary Rule of the Peace-Offerings, that it cannot well be annumerated to them: but it was a peculiar Sacrifice of Purification, of which we shall speak hereafter.

So likewise the Passover Lamb. Exod. 12. though Eucharistical; yet cannot well be reduced to the Peace Offerings, or to any of the six ordinary kinds: but was indeed a peculiar Sacrifice, ha­ving other Rites than what belonged to the Peace Offering.

3. The matter of the Peace Offering: it was either of the Herd, or of the Flock; either of the bigger, or of the lesser sort of Cattel; either Lambs or Goats.

[Page 289]There was no Peace-Offering of Fowls, as there was of Turtle Doves and young Pigeons in the Burnt-Offering.

The reason whereof is thought to be, because this was to be divided amongst so many; to God, and the Priest, and the Of­ferers: but in Birds being so small, this division could not so con­veniently be made.

Moreover it must be without blemish, and this was required before in the Burnt-Offering, and indeed in all their Sacrifices.

And finally the Peace Offering, it might be either Male or Female; which was otherwise in the Law of the Burnt-Offering, that was to be Males only. Cap 1.3.

This Interpreters do apply spiritually to the estate of the Church in Christ, in whom there is neither Male nor Female. Gal. 3.28.

He that accepteth a Female in his Sacrifice, doth not exclude Women from his Service: they are not excluded from his Love, and therefore should not count themselves freed from his Law.

It was a good speech of a Woman that was a Martyr, Jesus Christ suffered as much for the redeeming of our Souls, as he did for Men: and therefore, why should not we have as much cou­rage as they to suffer for him? God is no Respecter of persons.

4. The Rites and Ceremonies of the Peace-Offering, they were of two sorts.

  • 1. Common unto this, with other Offerings.
  • 2. Peculiar to the Peace-Offerings.

As to the former sort, there be five sacred Ceremonies required here, which were mentioned before in the Burnt-Offering Cap. 1. and accordingly were there explained. As,

1. It must be brought to the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation.

2. The Owner must lay his hands upon it.

3. It must be killed.

4. The blood shed and sprinkled upon the Altar round about.

5. Burning it upon the Altar; all which having been explain­ed before when we were upon the Burnt-Offering. We may now proceed to the second sort, viz.

[Page 290]2. Such Rites as are here first mentioned, as having some pe­culiar respect to the Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings.

Now these may be reduced to four Heads.

1. The division of it into three parts, namely between God and the Priest and the people.

2. The limitation of time, for eating the Priests and peoples part, to wit, upon the same day, or the next.

3. The addition of Leaven.

4. The prohibition of fat and blood.

These are the sacred Rites and Ceremonies that were peculiar to the Peace-Offerings; the reasons and mysteries whereof re­quire a little opening.

1. The division of it, &c. 1. It was divided into 3. parts, &c.

1. Some parts of it were to be burnt before the Lord upon the Altar, upon the Burnt-Offering, viz. all the Suet and the Fat of the Inwards, the two Kidneys, the Cawl upon the Liver, or the Midriffe and all their Fat.

This is repeated three times over, viz. concerning the Peace-Offerings of the Herd, vers. 3, 4. And again concerning the Lamb, vers. 9, 10. And again lastly concerning the Goat, vers. 14, 15. Only with this difference, That in the Peace Offering of Lambs, there is added the whole Rump; vers. 9. the fat there­of and the whole Rump, it shall he take off hard by the Back Bone. Whereof some Interpreters give this account, That this in some kind of Sheep is very great and fat, especially in those parts of the world. As Plinie lib. 8. cap. 48.

Therefore it is here commanded to be burnt upon the Altar, with the other Fat and Inwards: so Aynsw. in loc.

Others give this account of it, That there is not the meanest part of the Creature, but God hath a right unto it: and though it be a thing never so contemptible in it self, God can make it honourable and sacred, by applying it to his service.

As the Rump here in the Sacrifice of Peace Offerings.

And so the Foreskin in the Sacrament of Circumcision, Gen. 17.11. Thus our own Annotators in Lev. 3.9.

These parts of the Peace-Offering must be offered: Yal ha yola [Page 291] in holocaustum for a Burnt-Offering, as some render it; that is, these parts were in stead of the whole, and had the use and vir­tue of the whole Burnt-Offering. Here is pars pro toto, a synec­dochical Offering, as we shall meet with many such kind of Ad­ministrations under the Law, wherein a part is equivalent and ac­cepted as in stead of the whole.

Others Interpret it thus, Yal hayola; that is, upon the Burnt-Offering, [...], as being added to it.

The Burnt-Offering was offered first, before any other Oblati­on; and then this and other Offerings, superadded to it.

And so we may learn this out of it, That we are first to be re­conciled unto God by the death of his Son, applyed and received of us by Faith, before any Oblation of ours can be acceptable to him.

This sacrificed part of the Peace-Offering, is called the Bread of the Altar, and the Bread of God. Vers. 11— Numb. 28.2. My Offering and my Bread for my Sacrifices made by Fire, shall ye ob­serve to offer to me

They are called his Bread, because the Fire of the Altar did consume and eat them up: and so the Justice of God devours and feeds upon the sinner.

The fierceness of the Wrath of God against sin and sinners burning as fire, and devouring Souls: and the necessity of satis­faction and atonement by the blood of Christ, in order to our peace with God; are the general Truths held forth and taught in all the Sacrifices, and so in this of Peace-Offerings.

2. God and the Altar being thus fed and satisfied in the first place, the rest of the Peace-Offering was divided between the Priest and the Owner that brought it, to be eaten by them.

The Priests part was the Breast, and the right Shoulder.

The Owner had the rest.

This appears out of the 7. Chapter of this Book: the Breast was to be waved before the Lord for a Wave-Offering, vers. 30.31.

The Shoulder to be heaved or lifted up before him for an Heave-Offering, vers. 32, 33.

The Offerer with his Family was to eat the rest, such of them [Page 292] as were clean, vers. 19, 20, 21. nay the unclean might not so much as touch it, vers. 21. under pain of Extermination; if they did, it made the flesh unclean.

First as to the Priests part, we are here taught again that Go­spel Truth of the maintenance of Ministers.

The Apostle spells out this Lesson to us, 1 Cor. 9.13, 14. They that serve at the Altar, must live of the Altar.

And that the Breast and the Shoulder was for them; some have applyed a little more particularly thus.

That the Priests should be as Breasts and Shoulders; that is, Counsellors and Supporters to the people, preaching to the Ig­norant with the Wisdom of a prudent Breast, and bearing the In­firmities of the Weak, with the strength of a patient Shoulder.

Others thus, (1) he was to have the Shoulder because of his bearing the people, and carrying them and their Sacrifices be­fore God.Lee Temple pag. 346. And (2) the Breast, the seat of the heart; to note his compassion tenderness and bowels to them, bearing them always in his prayers upon his heart be­fore the Lord.

Both which Accommodations are ingenious and spiritual, and taken from the nature of the things: but the safest way, is to observe what hints the Scripture gives: those Senses are solid, and carry the best evidence of light and demonstration with them.

Secondly, as to the Offerer with his Family or Friends par­taking of it: here was an exercise of Communion, as 1 Cor. 10.21. They have communion with Devils that eat of Idols Feasts: so this signified their communion with, and Incorporation into Christ. Here was an holy Feast wherein they did rejoyce be­fore the Lord; Deut. 12.6, 7. And thither shall you bring your Burnt-Offerings, and your Sacrifices, and your Tythes, and Heave-Offerings of your hand, and your Vows, and your Free-Will Offerings, and the Firstlings of your Herd, and of your Flocks, and there you shall eat before the Lord your God, and ye shall rejoyce in all that you put your hand unto, ye and your Housholds wherein the Lord thy God hath blessed thee.

We must learn to enjoy all our Enjoyments in and for the [Page 293] Lord, and to rejoyce in Communion with him, in spiritual feast­ing at his Table.

Eating the Peace-Offering, is feeding upon Christ by Faith, and holy rejoycing in him.

Christ was not offered for the Priests alone, or communicat­ed to them alone, but for the people also.

And that the unclean are so strictly excluded from either eat­ing, or so much as touching it. We see how dangerous a thing it is, for unclean and unworthy persons to participate in the Feasts of the Lord. Hypocrites that partake of the Sacraments in their uncleanness and receive unworthily, they eat and drink their own damnation. 1 Cor. 11.27, 28, 29. The flesh of these Sacrifices being a figure of the flesh of Christ, to be eaten of the Saints by Faith.

This Law signified, that Unbelievers, Hypocrites, and wicked ones that profess the Gospel, and partake of the Signs and Seals of Grace unworthily, do eat and drink Judgment to themselves. Aynsw. in Lev. 7.22.

As no Peace-Offering belongs to the unclean: so there is no peace to the Wicked saith my God. To the Wicked God saith, what hast thou to do to take my Covenant into thy mouth, seeing thou hat­est to be reformed. Psal. 50.

And here comes in that Quoere concerning the Peace-Offerings, whether they were of the Holy of Holies, whether they had the double, or only the single Holiness?

They are not called most holy, as the other five sorts are. The reason whereof is, because that some part of them was eat­en by the people; but yet a part also was burnt upon the Altar, and another part eaten by the Priests, and these parts were most holy, though the whole was not.

Therefore some have called the Peace Offering, Sacrificium va­rium, a divers Sacrifice, as being partly holy, and partly most holy. And the other sorts they call simplex, by a simple Sacri­fice, intending that which was all of it most holy: and the whole, was to shadow out the Sacrifice and satisfaction of Jesus Christ, so Mede. Disc. 49.

[Page 294]2. The second Ceremony of the Peace-Offering, was the li­mitation of time for the eating of it.

The parts belonging to the Priest, and to the Offerer, must be eaten by them the same day, or the next: but if any was left till the third day, it must be burnt with fire. Lev. 7.15, 16, 17.18.

And here there is a distinction in the Rule between the two sorts or occasions of Peace-Offerings, namely, That if it were for Thanksgiving, it must be eaten the same day that it is offer­ed: but if it were for a Vow, or a voluntary Offering, it must be eaten within two days. The former Rule is in vers. 15. The Rule for the latter is in vers. 16.

But how if they did not observe this Rule; see the penalty in vers. 17.18. To eat any of it upon the third day, was very de­testable and abominable; see vers. 17, 18. It is forbidden un­der the penalty of utter Extermination.

There might be something of a natural Reason for this; be­cause the flesh might putrefy in that hot Climate, if kept longer.

But surely this is not all that was intended in such a severe and vehement Prohibition.

Therefore there be also two spiritual Mysteries, that seem to be intended and aimed at by the Spirit of God in this Ceremony.

1. To teach us, that we should make haste and not delay Communion with God, in the exercise of Faith and thankful obe­dience. Do not delay and put off the work of Believing: but receive Christ, and Communicate of him in this our day.

This Instruction is clear and evident out of this Ceremony; for seeing eating signifies our feeding upon Christ by Faith, and to day and to morrow denotes a short time: therefore this in­structs us speedily to lay hold upon the Mercy of God in Christ, and to feed upon this our Peace-Offering while it is called to day, according to that Psal. 95.7, 8— Heb. 3.12, 13, 15.

So for other duties of obedience, we should not delay the ex­pressions of our joy and thankfulness to God. Psal. 119.60. I made haste and delayed not to keep thy Commandments.

They had a like Rule touching the Passover. Exod. 12.10. [Page 295] Ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning, and that which remaineth of it until the morning, ye shall burn with fire.

One scope whereof was, to teach us to lay hold on present opportunities. Do not protract the time; there is a day of Peace after which, when once expired, it is too late: God will not accept thy Peace-Offerings then.

2. It is thought to have respect unto Christs Resurrection, which was upon the third day: therefore he saith Luk. 13.32. Behold I cast out Devils, and I do Cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected. Then he ended his work and state of humiliation for our Redemption, and had no more to do in a way of Sacrifice and Peace-Offering for our sins. In which respect, the number of three was a mystical number under the Law, as well as the number seven: the Scripture often sets a mark upon it. Isaac was offered the third day. Gen. 22.4.

Against the third day they were to be ready to receive the Law upon Mount Sinai. Exod. 19.10, 11. Sanctify the people to day and to morrow, and let them wash their Clothes and be ready against the third day, for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai: so the Ark went before them three days before it rested. Numb. 10.33. And they depart­ed from the Mount of the Lord three days journey, and the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord went before them in the three days journey, to search out a resting place for them: And after three days to pass over Jordan into Canaan. Josh. 1.11.

In the third day the unclean person was to purify himself: but if he purify not himself the third day, then the seventh day he shall not be clean. Numb. 19.12.

In the third day Hezekiah went up into the house of the Lord and recovered from the sentence of death, 2 King. 29.5. Hos. 6.2. After two days he will revive us, in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight. With many other memorable things: all which intimates something of mystery in the third day. And the greatest Dispensation that ever was upon that day, was the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, after he had layn part of three days in the Grave. Then he was perfected [Page 296] and had no more to do in way of Sacrifice and satisfaction for our sins; as after the third day there was no more of the Peace-Offering remaining.

3. A third Ceremony in the Peace-Offering was this, That they were to offer leavened bread with it. Cap. 7. vers. 13.

This is the more remarkable; for that in all their other Sacri­fices, Leaven was usually very strictly and severely forbidden: but here it is required.

Here we may learn first, That it is not the nature of the thing it self, but meerly the will of God, that makes a thing good or evil in his worship.

To put Leaven into any other Offering, it makes the Sacri­fice odious unto God, and like a smoak in his Nostrils all the day; but if it please him to require it in the Peace-Offering, then it must be used.

So for Honey he forbids it in other Sacrifices, Lev 2.11. But in the First Fruits they were to offer Honey; 2 Chron. 31.5. The Children of Israel brought in abundance of the First Fruits of Corn, Wine, Oyl, and Honey, and of all the Increase of the Field. God herein manifesting his Authority, and the supremacy of his Will.

If it had pleased our Lord Jesus Christ to command us to sign men in his Name, with the sign of the Cross, it would have been a duty, and a blessed thing to do it: and if he had not commanded us to wash men with Water in his Name, it would have been a sinful and an unlawful Administration to baptize.

More particularly, Leaven is taken both in a good, and in a bad sense: and I find Interpreters do accommodate and apply it both ways, as to the Sacrifice of the Peace Offerings.

1. In the good sense, thus our Saviour useth it in his Parable, Mat. 13.33. the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto Leaven, which a Woman took and hid in three measures of Meal, till the whole was leavened. And you have the same Parable recorded again by Luke Cap. 13.21.

The Lord makes use of Leaven here, to teach and hold forth unto us the inward and secret working of the Word and Spirit [Page 297] in the heart, sanctifying the heart effectually, but gradually, by imperceptible degrees, as Leaven seasons the Lump.

Thus the joyning of Leaven with the Peace-Offering, may teach us, That we and our services must be seasoned with the new Leaven of Grace; whereby the old Leaven of Corruption is changed and altered, and so the whole man made savoury.

Look as there is an old Leaven which must be purged out; for they that are in the old unsavoury lump of the Flesh, cannot please God: so there is a new Leaven wherewith every ones heart and life should be seasoned; a new principle of Grace, a spirit of Life from God, which in time works out the contrary old principle of sinful Corruption, as an Antidote that works out poyson out of the body.

2. Take Leaven in the bad sense, and so it signifies sinful Corruption. In this sense the Scripture often speaks of it, as 1 Cor. 5.

Hence we may learn that as God accepteth the Peace-Offer­ing, though offered with Leaven: so he accepteth the sincere endeavours and services of his people, though there be a mixture of sinful Corruption in them.

Or if we take Leaven as in that sense of sorrow and grief, as Psal. 73.21. thus my heart was leavened. Their having some sower Leaven amongst their Feasts, may teach us, That in all our rejoycings in this World, there is a mixture of sorrow; there is no prosperity so entire, but hath some sorrow, some affliction with it: as there is no day but hath some Clouds.

Roses have Thornes, Honey hath a Sting, Crowns and Scep­ters have Cares and Troubles.

And it is not only so in natural Joy, but in those better Joys and Consolations of the Almighty.

Spiritual Joy is and ought to be accompanied with godly sor­row, and is too oft accompanied with a mixture of carnal sorrow, and unbelieving doubts and fears. There is some of this Leaven with the Peace Offerings of praise and thanksgiving to the Lord.

4. The fourth Ceremony is this, That they must not eat the fat nor blood, but give it wholly to the Lord, vers. 16, 17.

[Page 298]I number this among the Ceremonies of the Peace-Offering, because it is here first mentioned; and here indeed was the first occasion for it: for there being no part at all of the Burnt-Offer­ing to be eaten, there was no need there to forbid the eating of fat or blood: but in the Peace-Offerings, they were to eat some part; therefore here comes in this exception, respecting the Peace-Offerings in the first place, though extended likewise to all the rest.

The first Prohibition is of Fat.

And here first for the literal sense of the Ceremony, before we come to the mystical signification.

There be two Cautions to prevent mistakes, that the legal Rigor may not seem greater then it was indeed.

1. It is meant only of that Fat that was to be sacrificed, as the Suet and Fat of the Kidneys, &c. For of the other Fat that is diffused through the rest of the flesh, throughout the whole body of the Beast, there is no mention in this Restriction in the Text; and therefore being not restrained and prohibited, we may justly presume, it was allowed and permitted to them, they might lawfully eat of it. Neh. 8.10. eat the Fat, and drink the sweet.

2. It is meant only of the three kinds of Beasts, that were ap­pointed to be used in Sacrifice; for they were permitted to eat the Fat of other clean Beasts. See Levit. 7.23, 25. where this restriction of Fat is clearly explained, and restrained to the Fat of those three kind of Beasts.

Now as to the mystery and spiritual signification of this Ce­remony, that we may learn some wholesome Instruction out of it, the best way will be this: let us consider when the Scripture speaks of Fat in an allegorical or metaphorical sense, how is it meant?

For a Similitude is typus arbitrarius, and a legal Ceremony is no more but typus fixus or destinatus, and differs from an Alle­gory or Metaphor or Similitude, only in the fixation or destina­tion of it by God, unto such an use and end in a stated way.

Now you will find that the Scripture speaks of Fat in such a [Page 299] Metaphorical sense two ways, (as was before noted concerning Leaven) both in a good, and in an evil sense, which will give this Type a double aspect, as that also had.

Nor is there any real absurdity or incongruity, in the accom­modation of a Type, two or three several ways: for they are not so many contrary senses, but only so many several Instructi­ons or spiritual mysteries to be learned out of one of Gods teach­ing Signs: such manifold Instructions being all included in the vast aim and comprehensive wisdom of the Holy Ghost, design­ing and choosing out such things for teaching Signs, as may af­ford and yield plentiful Instruction to his people.

1. Then the Scripture speaks of Fat in a good sense. My soul shall be satisfied a with marrow and fatness, Psal. 63.5. That is, to be filled with the best things.

So Isai. 25.6. In this Mountain shall the Lord of Hosts make un­to all people a Feast of fat things, a Feast of Wine on the Lees, of fat things full of marrow.

So Gen. 45.18. Pharaoh saith to Josephs brethren, ye shall eat the fat of the Land, that is, the best of it.

So all the Fat of the Oyl, and all the Fat of the Wine, and of the Wheat, Numb. 18.12. for so the Margin from the Hebrew reads: it denotes the best Oyl, the best Wine, the best Wheat, as the Translation well explains it.

Hence it is said of Abel by way of Commendation, Gen. 4.4. That he brought and offered unto the Lord of the Firstlings of his Flock, and of the Fat thereof.

Thus the Lords challenging the fat of all the Sacrifices peculi­arly to himself, may instruct and teach us thus much: That we must serve God with the best we have, the best of our time and strength, the vigor of our Spirits, the best of our endeavours should be the Lords.

For men to spend their youth in the service of their lusts, and then at last bring their decrepit old age unto God; this is to give the fat of their Sacrifice to the Devil, and the lean unto God. But with such Sacrifices God will not be well pleased.

And yet when we have brought the Fat, the best we have un­to [Page 300] the Lord, it is accepted not for our own sakes, but through Christ. As the Fat in the Peace-Offerings was burnt upon the Altar upon the Burnt-Offering, for a sweet savour unto the Lord.

2. The Scripture sometimes speaks of Fat in deteriorem partem, in an evil sense: so it is said of wicked men, their heart is as fat as Grease, but I delight in thy Law. Psal. 119.70. So Deut. 32.15. But Jesurun waxed fat and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness. Isai. 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, lest they understand with their heart, and convert and be healed. So it denotes a senseless hard heart, the Fat in the body having little sense.

A Fat heart in this sense, is opposed to a fleshy heart: so it denotes hardness, insensibleness, unbelief.

Now then the Fat being burnt upon the Altar, teacheth us, That our Corruptions must be burnt up by the Spirit of God, as a Spirit of Burning, and of Judgment.

And it is the Fat of the Inward parts, and of the Kidneys, and Liver, which are the seat of Lust and Concupiscence.

We may learn from hence, that even secret sins in the Inward parts must be destroyed and mortified. It is not enough to a­void open and outward sins, but inward heart hypocrisy; secret lusts, they must be burnt before the Lord upon the Altar, de­stroyed and mortified by the Spirit. God trys the Heart, search­eth the Reins, sees into the Inward parts. That fatness of the heart must be consumed, those Inward lustings unto sin, destroy­ed and mortified.

5. The last Ceremony was the forbidding of blood, vers. 10. This Prohibition was more general than the former of Fat: for that was only some kinds of Fat. But all manner of blood is for­bidden, without any restraint or specification of this or that kind.

The first Prohibition of blood that we read of in Scripture, was to Noahs Sons. Gen. 9.4. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof ye shall not eat.

And now again by Moses here, and afterwards in other places. As Cap. 7.26, 27. and Cap. 17. from vers. 10, to the end: very largely and vehemently under the forest pains and penalties, even [Page 301] utter extermination, and cutting off by the immediate hand of God.

But that Prohibition in Noahs time, seems to differ from this by Moses: in that it was living blood which was there forbidden: but here it is all manner of blood. As to the mysteries and rea­sons of it, there be two things expressed in Lev. 17.11.

1. Because the blood is the life of the Beast, vers. 11, 14. That is, it is the Seat and Vehicle of the Spirits, which are the Soul and the Life of it, as Philosophers say. Anima rationalis equitat in sensitivâ, sensitiva equitat in vegetativâ. The sensitive Soul is the Chariot of the rational Soul, and the vegetative of the sensitive: so their Blood is the Chariot of the vegetative and vital Spirits.

The scope seems to be this, to forbid and prevent cruelty: it argues too much greediness, and it tends to make the Spirits of men salvag and barbarous, to drink living blood, or to eat the flesh, if it be not fully killed and cleansed of the blood, 1 Sam. 14.32, 33, 34.

Some report, that it hath been a custom used in some barba­rous Nations, amongst the Old Tartarians: they would open a Vein with an Instrument in the Beast they rode upon, and so quench their thirst by drinking warm blood out of the Veins of a living Creature. This is forbidden to Noahs Sons, Gen. 9. as a salvage cruel thing.

Cruelty is abominable at all times, but especially when you come with your Peace-Offerings before the Lord.

It concerns you then especially, to take heed of harshness to­wards your brethren.

How can men expect Peace from God, when ready to drink the blood of their brethren.

A violent persecuting Spirit, is as black a Mark as any I know. To use violence to their Consciences, this is to eat or drink their blood which God abhors.

2. The second reason there assigned is, because I have given it to you upon the Altar, to make an atonement for your Souls. Lev. 17.11. that is, typically, as representing the blood of Christ.

So that here is a mystical Intimation of reverence to that pre­cious [Page 302] blood, to keep men in a reverend expectation of it: there­fore they must abstain from blood, as sacred to the Lord.

As David refused to drink of the Waters of the Well of Beth­lehem, 2 Sam. 23.17. because it was per equivalentiam, the blood of them that fetcht it with the peril of their Lives.

So here, blood was typically the blood of Christ, and there­fore sacred to the Lord, they must not use it to other common use.

The Lord would hereby teach them a reverential esteem and high valuation, of the blood of Jesus Christ.

Some go a little further, and observe this in it. That look as eating and drinking signifies Communion: so 1 Cor. 10.16. The Cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the Communion of the blood of Christ? And forbidding to eat, is a forbidding Com­munion. Act. 10.13, 14. In Peters Vision, rise, kill and eat. It is meant of exercising Communion with the Gentiles; and Peters objecting, Not so Lord, for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean. His meaning is, he refuseth Communion with them.

So this Prohibition of eating blood, which was given upon the Altar to make atonement for mens Souls; and of Fat, which was given upon the Altar to be consumed there with Fire, and so was the Lords; seemeth to forbid figuratively, all ascribing and assuming unto our selves the work of our Redemption, which is only by the blood of Christ, or the work of our Sanctification to our selves, which Christ by his Spirit performeth in us. Aynsw. in Lev. 3. ult.

To take this work to our selves, is to eat the blood as it were, which the Lord will not endure.

There is a further reason given by some, That the Lord did it, to distinguish his people from the Heathen, who were wont to drink the blood of their sacrifices. Psal. 16.3.

As indeed in all these ancient Institutions, the Lord had a special eye unto that, to keep them off from the heathenish Cu­stoms and Idolatries.

Thus you see the reasons why blood was forbidden under the [Page 303] Law, the chief whereof is, the respect it had to the blood of Christ. From all which, you have a clear resolution of that scruple of Conscience that hath troubled some, concerning that Prohibition of blood under the New Testament by the Synod, in Act. 15.

But the Answer is, That the main reason why blood was for­bidden of old, being because the Lord had given blood to them for atonement, and this use being figurative, which had its end and accomplishment in Christ, who by his death and blood shed­ding, hath caused the Sacrifices and Oblations to cease, Dan. 9.

Therefore now this Law must needs be expired, and not still in force upon the Consciences of Believers.

And as for that Decree of the Council, Act. 15. It is forbidden by them meerly upon the account of love, which is tender and loth to give offense.

The sins there forbidden, may be referred to three Heads or Glasses.

1. Sins against the first Table, eating things offered to Idols.

2. Sins against the second Table, against the seventh Com­mandment, Fornication; because it was a common sin, and wherein the Heathen were very blind, some of them account­ing it but an indifferent thing.

3. Sins against the general Rule of love to our brethren.

Of this sort is the eating of things strangled, and blood, which had formerly been a sin against the second Commandment: be­ing forbidden of old in the way of a perpetual Statute, during the whole legal Aeconomy. Lev. 17.15.

That which dies of it self, includes strangled: for there is no other place in the Law that forbids the eating of things strangled, but only this. And Deut. 14.21. where there is the same ex­pression. But now the same thing is forbidden in a more occa­sional and temporary way, upon the account of scandal to sincere but weak Believers. 1 Cor. 8.13.

And there was a further benefit of this Observation, in that juncture of time: for it did prevent and cut off all appearance and occasion, for that Calumny, and false Aspersion cast forth by [Page 304] the Pagans, in those first times of Christianity. That the Chri­stians were wont to feed upon mans flesh, and to drink blood in their Assemblies. Euseb. Eccles. Hist. lib. 5. cap. 1. Tertull. Apolog. cap. 9.

And though they are called necessary things; yet there be di­vers sorts and ways of necessity.

As some things are necessary in their own nature, upon a mo­ral and perpetual account, as to avoid Idolatry and Fornication: so other things are necessary only pro hic & nunc, in regard of present Circumstances; as to abstain from blood, or from eating flesh. As 1 Cor. 8.13.

And though they are joyned with grosser sins; yet the same penalty and much more the same Prohibition, may be set upon things of a very different nature.

As Death is the penalty of Murther. Gen. 9.6.

And of having Leavened Bread. Exod. 12.15, 19.

It cannot possibly be the sense of the Council, to forbid that kind of Meat as in it self, and morally and perpetually unlaw­ful: because all difference of Meats, is most expresly and clearly taken away under the New Testament. As Mark 7.14, to 20. Act. 10.10. 1 Cor. 8.8. But meat commendeth us not to God, for neither if we eat, are we the better, neither if we eat not, are we the worse. And 1 Cor. 10.25. Whatsoever is sold in the Shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake. Tit. 1.15. To the pure, all things are pure. But in 1 Tim. 4.3, 4, 5. the Apostle thunders against this Error, of making difference of Meats under the Gospel.

Thus you see the nature of the Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings. Something will be expected, as to the practical Improvement of these Truths.

Let me therefore only repeat and reinculcate some few of the general Heads of things, which have been doctrinally cleared and made out, I shall but touch them now in a more applicatory way.

1. Then be perswaded and encouraged, to feed and feast upon Christ our Peace-Offering. Do not say, such and such, may if [Page 305] I had such Parts and such Abilities, and so Eminent as such and such, I durst believe.

This blessed Peace-Offering is not for the Priests only, for Saints of the highest Rank, and greatest Eminency; but for the common people also. Do but draw neer with a pure heart, and then come and welcome: take your share, and eat it with a glad heart, God hath given it you.

2. Do not defer the eating of your Peace Offerings: take heed of a procrastinating Spirit. As many who think to repent and return to God when they are dying, and dropping into hell, whereas they should eat the Peace-Offering, and eat it now.

Do it to day before to morrow, or at least before the third day: for rhen thy Peace Offering will not be accepted.

Come in to God the third hour of the day, or if thou hast lost that season, yet come in at the sixth, the ninth, at least at the eleventh hour of the day. If you stay till the Sun be set, and the day of the Lords patience run out, then your Peace Offerings shall not be accepted, then thy Faith, thy Repentance will not save thee.

Oh! But I will cry God mercy, and trust to Christ then.

Ay but thy Conscience then will say, you should have eaten the Peace-Offering sooner: eating it the third day shall not be accepted: nor will catching at Christ when thou art gone to hell. Oh then that thou hadst known in this thy day, the things belonging to thy Peace! Luk. 19.42.

3. Let all your Peace-Offerings be seasoned with the new Leaven of Grace and Holiness; get this blessed Leaven of the Kingdom of God into your hearts.

4. Give God the fat, the strength, the vigor of your Spirits, the best of your endeavours; do not leave the worst you have to him, the very dregs of time at night, when you are all drowsy and sleepy, for prayer and family duties, when you have spent the strength of your time in your Callings. Reserve some of your good hours for God, and duties of Communion with him. With such drowsy Sacrifices God will not be well pleased.

5. Take heed of accounting the blood of the Peace Offering [Page 306] a common thing. But as the typical blood might not be eaten, but was sacred to the Lord: let the blood of Christ be sacred and precious to you.

It is a dreadful sin to count the blood wherewith you are sanctifi­ed a common thing. Heb. 10.

Oh this contempt of Christ, contempt of the Gospel, of those glad tydings, and of that Soul Redeeming blood! That soul shall be cut off from his people.

To you that believe he is precious; there is a reverential esteem of him, in the hearts of all that are his: they dare not arrogate nor medle with that which is his peculiar Glory, and assume their Salvation to themselves.

The Papists will say they are saved by Christ; but how? Why, through the blood of Christ, but how come they to be made partakers of him? Why God foresees that they will re­pent and believe, and so ordains them to life upon the foresight of what they will do. And thus they do as it were, devour the blood of the Peace-Offering, and destroy the Glory they pre­tend and seem to give to him.


Lev. Cap. 4.August 13.16, 23. 1668.

The Sin-Offering. Chattaah.

THis is the fourth of those six kinds of legal Sacrifices, which are handled and directed in the seven first Chap­ters of this Book.

The first is Yola the Burnt-Offering. Cap. 1.

The second is Mincha the Meat Offering. Cap. 2.

The third is Shelamim the Peace-Offering. Cap. 3.

The fourth is Chattaah the Sin Offering, in this 4. Chapter.

The fifth is Asham the Trespass-Offering. Cap. 5.

The sixth is Milluim, the Offering of Consecrations.

As to this fourth namely the Sin-Offering; many of the Laws and Rites thereof are the same with other Sacrifices, and in par­ticular with the Burnt-Offering, which is the first, and where the common Rites are first mentioned, and accordingly were there explained.

As for Instance, the mater of this, is the same with the for­mer Sacrifices before explained.

The general end and use, is the same, viz. for Atonement and [Page 308] Expiation of sin, which is mentioned and repeated four times o­ver in this Chapter, vers. 20, 26, 31, 35. And the Priest shall make an atonement for him, for the sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

Moreover as to the sacred Rites and Ceremonies, there be many of them which are the same in the Sin-Offering, with what was before ordained in the Burnt-Offering, and in the Peace-Offering: as that it must be brought to the door of the Taber­nacle of the Congregation, the Offerer must lay his hand upon it; [...] it must be killed and burnt, at least in part upon the Altar, those parts of it which were to be so dealt with in the Peace-Offering. The Mysteries of all which have been formerly explain­ed. Therefore all that remains is, that we speak a word to those things which are more special and peculiar to the Sin-Offering, and they are these.

1. The special end of it viz. for sins of infirmity.

2. The various and fourfold appointment of the matter of it, for four sorts of sinners, to wit, the Priest, the body of the people, the civil Ruler, and any private person.

3. The threefold disposal of the blood of it; part to be sprink­led in or towards the Holy of Holies, part to be put upon the Horns of the Altar of Incense, and part to be poured forth at the bottom of the Brazen Altar of Burnt-Offerings.

4. The burning it without the Camp, with the Rites and Ce­remonies thereto belonging.

5. The eating another part in some cases, with the sacred Rites thereof.

1. The special end of it, and so the difference between this and other Sacrifices, especially the Trespass-Offering which comes nearest to it, and hath most affinity with it, vers. 2.

The general end, is atonement or expiation of sin; but the question is for what kind of sin?

I confess there is much difficulty as to this.

I have made some search into divers Authors and Writers about it, and have not met with that clearness and full satisfaction that were to be desired, and which is to be found in other things.

[Page 309]Therefore I shall but tell you my own judgment of it in a few words.

The Sin Offering may be taken either in a larger sense, as in­cluding the Trespass Offering; or in a straiten sense, as contradi­stinguished to it.

Take it in the largest sense, and so it extends to any sin what­soever that is pardonable; and thus the Sin Offering is a genus including two species, namely, the Sin Offering strictly taken, and the Trespass Offering.

Thus it is opposed only to presumptuous sinning, which had no Sacrifice provided for it in the Law: for such persons were to be cut off. And of this sense, and this opposition Numb. 15. speaketh clearly; see vers. 27, 28, 29. compare this with vers. 30. There is a way of sinning for which there is no forgiveness.

Thus [...] and [...] are opposed.

Of the latter the Apostle saith, Heb. 10.26. There remaineth no more Sacrifice for sin.

But there be other sins which though against knowledg, yet are not presumptuous to such an height; but the Soul is carried aside out of ignorance and surprize, and by the violence of temp­tation and of sinful passions and dusts, through inadvertency, carelesness, unadvisedness, &c. For these there is a Sin Offering.

In this sense, even the Trespass-Offering is and may be called a Sin Offering, Cap. 7. vers. 7. See Cap. 5. vers. 6, 11, 12.

But take it in a more narrow sense as contradistinguished unto the Trespass Offering, and here lyes the difficulty, wherein the Sin Offering (whose Rites and Laws are here set down in this 4. Chapter) wherein doth it differ from the Trespass-Offering in the 5. Chapter, as to the special end and use of it?

Some have thought the Sin-Offering refers to sins of Omission, the Trespass-Offering to sins of Commission.

But this Rule will not hold; for the Trespass Offering concern­eth sins of Omission, as well as the other. Cap. 5.1. If he do not utter it, when he ought to do it. Here is an omission, for which a Trespass-Offering is there appointed.

Some have thought that the Sin Offering was for sins against [Page 310] the second Table, and the Trespass-Offering for sins against the first.

But the Text is clear, That the Trespass-Offering relates both to first and second Table sins, such as deceit and violence to his neighbour, as well as perjury against God. Cap. 6.2. If a Soul sin and commit a Trespass against the Lord, and lye unto his neigh­bour, &c.

Others have stated it thus, That there is ignorantia facti, igno­rance of the Fact in the one, and ignorantia juris, ignorance of the Rule in the other.

But this is a notion that hath no footing in the Text.

But the true difference between them consists, as I conceive, in this. That the Sin-Offering was for sins of ignorance and in­firmity: but the Trespass-Offering did extend even to sins against knowledg.

The Reasons for this, are partly from the propriety of the Hebrew words, and partly from some expressions in the Text.

The Hebrew word for the Sin-Offering Chattaah, from chata peccare, which properly signifies to miss the Mark a man shoots at. Proprie est errare, vel aberrare à Scopo. Buxtorf.

So Judg. 20.16. the seven hundred chosen men of Benjamin it is said, they could sling stones at an hair breadth and not miss. Velo jacte nec aberrabat and not sin, that is, miss of the Scope and Mark they intended and proposed to themselves.

Hence God is said to reduce sinners, that is, such as go astray and miss their way, into the way again. Psal. 25.8. Good and upright is the Lord, therefore will he teach sinners in the way.

In the Conjugation Pihel, it signifies to purge and cleanse from sin, by making satisfaction and undergoing the penalty due to it. As Exod. 29.36. and thou shalt cleanse the Altar, ve chit­tetha yal hamisbeach— Lev. 14.52. he shall cleanse the house, vechitte eth habajith. Gen. 31.39. Jacob saith to Laban, that which is torn of Beasts I brought not unto thee, I bare the loss of it. Anoki achattinah, ego expiabam illud. Arias Montanus, I expiated it. Poenas luebam pro eo, so Pagnin. Buxtorf. I suffered for it.

Thus you see the proper importance of the word here used and translated, the Sin-Offering Chattaah.

[Page 311]Moreover the Text saith upon the Sin-Offering. That if a Soul err and miss it thus, Bishgagah through error or ignorance, which further clears up the true sense. Psal. 119.67. Before I was afflicted I went astray; it is the same word ani shogeg, ego errans.

But the word which is used for the Trespass-Offering Asham, though it is used for sin in general, yet it seems to imply in a more special sense sins of an higher nature, such as are commit­ted with more deliberation, or with more consent of will, or a­gainst more light, or with less of temptation, or more of injury unto others, sins of a more grievous and heinous nature: for the same word signifies also desolation and laying waste. Isai. 24.6. therefore hath the Curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate, vajeshmu. And in the same sense is this word used elsewhere, e. g. Psal. 5.10. destroy them O God, desolato eos tanquam reos, Buxtorf.

Moreover there be Instances given here in the Trespass Offer­ing, of gross sins against light and knowledg, conscience-wasting, soul-desolating sins, as lying, cheating, perjury, Cap. 6.2, 3. And we may therefore render Asham piaculum.

The issue then is this, That the Sin Offering relates to those involuntary infirmities which are unavoidable, while there is a body of sin and death dwelling in us, and which are consistent with assurance and sincerity.

But the Trespass-Offering, to those greater conscience wasting and soul-desolating sins, which are inconsistent with assurance and true Communion with God, though it includes some lesser sins, yet it extends to these also.

2. The second Law of the Sin-Offering is this, That there is a various matter of this Offering, for four sorts of persons that sin and miss the way, which indeed are the Analysis of this Chapter.

  • 1. For the anointed Priest a young Bullock, vers. 3.
  • 2. For the whole Congregation a young Bullock, vers. 13.
  • 3. For the Ruler a Kid of the Goats, a Male without blemish, vers. 22.
  • 4. For any particular person a Kid, or else a Lamb, a Female [Page 312] without blemish. vers. 27. And so the Chapter divides it self into these four parts.

1. The Sin Offering for the anointed Priest is a young Bullock, &c. vers. 3, to 13.

There is some difficulty upon this. Who is meant by the anointed Priest? Some restrain it to the High Priest only, because none but he was anointed with material Oyl.

The word in the Text is Hachohen hammashiach, the Priest that is anointed. vers. 3.

But if this be restrained to the High Priest only, the question will be, what shall become of the other inferior Priests? Is there no Sin Offering? Is there no Expiation for their sins and sailings? Doubtless there is.

But we cannot well refer them amongst the common people of the Land, the Priests and people being so continually distinguish­ed every where throughout the Scripture.

Therefore it seems more congruous to conceive (as some do) that all the Priests are here included, and that the word anoint­ed intends no more but dedicated, consecrated, set apart unto that work and office: or that it may refer to that first Consecra­tion of them in Aaron their Fore-father. Exod. 29.7. And thou shalt take the anointing Oyl, and pour it upon his head and anoint him. The Law is, if he shall sin le ashamath hyam according to the sin of the people, as our Translation renders it, that is, like one of the common people. For the Priests were not made in­fallible, or impeccable by their Office; and therefore had need to offer for their own sins, as well as for the peoples. Heb 5.2, 3.

It is not to be restrained only to such sins of his, as wherein he seduceth and draws the people aside to sin with him, or where­by he brings publick Judgments upon them, as some have rendred it, si delinquere fecerit populum; and others, si deliquerit in populi noxam. For then here were no relief for him, as to all his other failings in the discharge and execution of his trust and office in the house of God, and in his own private and personal walkings.

Therefore it must be understood in the largest and most com­prehensive sense, for any sin or failing of weakness in any of the [Page 313] Priests. Let him bring a young Bullock for his Sin Offering.

2. For the whole Congregation a Bullock, vers. 13. the whole body of the people collectively taken: the same that was ap­pointed for the Priest, though with some difference in the Rites. There the Priest, but here the Elders as in the name of the people, being to lay their hands upon the Head of the Sacrifice.

3. For the Ruler a Kid, a Male, vers. 22. Nasi, Princeps, qua­si elatus super alios; from Nasa, exaltavit, tulit, that is, any Ci­vil Ruler that is raised or lifted up above others.

The word is used, not only concerning Kings and chief Magi­strates, as Ezek. 34.24. but concerning inferior Rulers also; Exod. 16.22. And all the Rulers of the Congregation came and told Moses, &c. Numb. 16.2.

4. For any of the common people, their Sin Offering is a Kid, a Female, vers. 27. or else a Lamb, a Female, vers. 32, to the end of the Chapter.

Now from this second Law of the Sin-Offering, namely, this various matter of it for so many sorts of persons that sin: we may learn these Instructions before we proceed to the third Law.

1. That the anointed Priest may err. Therefore the Bishop of Rome if he were an Officer of Christ, he might err and miss his Mark: though being Antichrist, it may be granted to him that he seldom errs from his Scope, it being to promote the Devils Kingdom, and to obstruct the Kingdom, and oppress the Church of Christ.

I must confess I have wondred at this error of Popery, that the Pope cannot err: I wonder, why he may not err in Doctrine, as well as in life? Why may he not deny God in words, as well as in his works?

That he may and doth err in his life, and that his works are evil, themselves have not the impudence to deny: therefore he may err in his Faith, as well as in his life; in his words, as well as in his works.

And if you do but look into a weekly News book, you will ever and anon find mention of the Popes Nephews, what they do, and what preferments he provides for them.

[Page 314]But who are these? It is fit you should know the meaning of it.

The word Nephew, it is an Italian Phrase of Speech for a Ba­stard: and so indeed the Popes Nephewes, is nothing else but the Popes Bastards: this is he that cannot err.

Among the Papists, Priests you know must not marry: and the Pope is not so humble as to own others of his poor Kindred.

But yet we must believe in this unclean Beast, and we must call him his Holiness forsooth, whose Leprosy is written in his Forehead, and who declares his sin as Sodom, and hides it not as Gomorrah. For they are not ashamed of all their uncleannesses and abominations, having their Consciences seared with an hot Iron; and yet this sinful doleful Creature cannot err, when his Bones are full of the sins of his youth, which shall ly down with him in the dust.

2. The second Instruction is this, That there are degrees of sin, and that the sins and errors of an anointed Priest, are of the worst and greatest guilt. This is here taught and held forth both by the Matter of the Sin-Offering, and by the Rites be­longing to it.

As to the Matter, the Priest must have as great a Sacrifice for a Sin Offering, as the whole body of the people collectively con­sidered. A young Bullock is the Sin-Offering for the Priest, and it is no more but a young Bullock for the whole Congregation.

And there is a difference as to the Rites for the several sorts of sinners; for the Sin-Offering for the Priest, and for the body of the people, was to be sprinkled before the Vail, and upon the Altar of Incense.

But that for the Ruler, and for private persons, were not sprinkled before the Vail, nor upon the Incense Altar, but only upon the Altar of Burnt-Offering, vers. 25, 30, 34. For the sins of the Priest and of the whole Congregation, as being more hai­nous, required a more solemn manner of atonement; so our Annotators on Lev. 4.25.

It was an error of the Stoick Philosophers of old, that peccata sunt aequalia, all sins are equal. It is true, sin is a privation, but there are degrees in Privations; there be total and partial priva­tions. [Page 315] As in the Twilight and dim sightedness, every sin deviates and swerves from the rule of Righteousness. But there are de­grees of rectitude and curvity; some crooked lines depart fur­ther off from the strait line, and some come nearer to it: so it is in sins.

The sins of a Minister do receive peculiar aggravations, and are greater in many respects, then the sins of other men. For them to be covetous and greedy after the world, for them to be of an unbrotherly imposing spirit, that is, ambitious and contentious, it is worse then in other men: and that especially in two respects, which are both hinted in the Text.

1. Because of their anointing or separation unto Office, where­by they stand nearer to God than others do, being to minister to him in his holy things.

2. Because their sins and errors, have usually a very pernici­ous influence upon the people, either to seduce or scandalize them. Many will be ready to follow their pernicious ways.

Hence some read and understand the words, vers. 3. If he sin, to cause the people to err, or to bring publick Judgments upon them.

Hence many are so apt to plead; such a Minister thinks it lawful, and such a one does it, and why may not I?

See 1. Sam. 2.17, 24. how the sins of Ministers do scandalize the people, causing them to transgress some of them in like man­ner, and others to abhor and despise the Ordinances of the Lord: and this makes Ministers sins great before the Lord.

But people should consider that an anointed Priest may sin and err, and their Errors oftentimes do much hurt. This is a se­cond Instruction.

3. The whole Church may err, vers. 13.

This is another Assertion of the Papists, That their Church cannot err: a strange and wonderful Assertion. Did not the whole Church err, when they crucified Christ? And they did err fundamentally; yet the Jews were then the only true Church and people of God in the world.

Therefore it is very unsafe to pin your Faith upon the Church­es Sleeve, or upon the Ministers Sleeve either: for both Church and Minister may err.

[Page 316]It is not safe to be led meerly by multitude or by example. Exod. 23.2. Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil, neither shalt thou speak in a Cause to decline after many to wrest Judgment.

Yea, a true Church may in time err so farr, and degenerate so deeply, as that they may cease to be a Church.

As the Church of the Jews for Instance. The Lord hath said unto the house of Israel, as he threatned by the Prophet Hosea, Lo-ruhamah and Lo-ammi. I will not have mercy on you; and you are not my people. Hos. 1.6, 9. And Cap. 2.2. Plead with your Mo­ther, plead: for she is not my Wife, neither am I her Husband.

The Church of the two Tribes also, are now in the same con­dition with the other ten. Zech. 11.10. And I took my Staff, even Beauty, and cut it asunder, that I might break my Covenant which I had made with all the people. The meaning is, that he would discovenant and unchurch them; but yet he will at last re­store them.

But would you see an Instance of a Church which God hath rejected and unchurched, and which shall never be restored any more.

Behold the Church of Rome; it was once a true Church, and the Pastor thereof a true Minister, when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romanes sixteen hundred years ago: but now, so far de­clined from their first estate, and from the primitive and Scrip­ture Pattern, That the Church of Rome is become the Whore of Babylon, and the Bishop of Rome the Head of that Church, is Antichrist. See Rev. 13. They are set forth under the notion of two wild and venemous Beasts; the first Beast in that Chapter which hath ten Horns, &c. is the Church of Rome; the second Beast with two Horns, is the Pope of Rome: the first is Babylon, and the second Antichrist.

The truth is, they have erred so farr, that (except the Church of the Jews, when they crucified Jesus Christ) I think there was never any Church that erred so much, as this Church that pre­tends they cannot err.

4. Instruction. That the Elders and publick persons act, and are to act for the people. For the Elders are to lay their hands [Page 317] upon the peoples Offering. Vers. 15. That is, as their Agents and Representatives.

The people are not to think themselves meerly passive, in what their Elders and Rulers do: no, believe it, you are more concerned then so.

Their act involves the people, which gives a just account of Gods sending publick Calamities upon the people, for the sins of their Rulers: for what the Parliament do, the people do.

The method of Providence is often thus. First the people they sin, and provoke God to anger, then he leaves their Rulers to sin for their sakes, and then comes Wrath. For while there is a Phinehas, a Josiah, they stand in the gap, and stave off publick Judgments it may be all their days: but when they are gone, or if they sin too, this opens a gap for publick Judgments to break in upon the people See 2 Sam. 24.1. And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, go number Israel and Judah.

Observe the method; first God is angry with Israel for their sins, then he moved David their King to sin, and then comes the Plague.

People are very apt when things go amiss, and the publick affairs do not prosper, they are very apt to be discontent with their Rulers and Magistrates, and to say, that it is their fault. But if they do amiss, you should consider why God leaves them to it: it is often for the sins of the people.

It would better become private persons to reflect upon them­selves and upon their own sins; and their own unworthiness, then to work out in discontent against those that God hath set over them.

3. The third Law of the Sin-Offering is, concerning the blood thereof. There is a threefold disposal of it appointed by the Rule in this Chapter, vers. 5, 6, 7.

1. The Priest is to dip his finger in the blood, and to sprinkle it seven times before the Lord.

2. He is to put part of it upon the four Horns of the golden Altar of Incense.

[Page 318]3. He is to pour out the rest of it at the bottom of the Brazen Altar of Burnt-Offering. Of these three Ceremonies, a few words.

1. The Priest is to dip his finger in the blood, and to sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, that is, before the Vail of the Sanctuary towards the Holy of Holies. Upon the great day of Expiation, he was to sprinkle it within the Vail; but because he was not to enter into that Holy place every day, but only once a year; therefore at other times he did but sprinkle it towards the holy place, upon or towards the Vail; see Lev. 16.14. But the signification was the same in both.

It teacheth us three things.

1. That there is no entrance into Heaven, but by the blood of Christ shed and poured forth, and sprinkled and applied effectu­ally. For the place within the Vail, the Holy of Holies was a Type of Heaven, and the Priest entred there not without blood, Heb. 9.11, 12, 24, 25, 26.

Heaven is a Possession purchased by the blood of Christ, Eph. 1.14. Heb. 10.19, 20. We enter into the Holiest by the blood of Jesus. We had never come there, had not the blood of the Sin Offering been sprinkled there for us.

2. There is a full and perfect cleansing in the blood of Christ; for he is to sprinkle it seven times.

Seven is a number of perfection; because in seven days the Creation of the world was finished, and God rested from his works.

Hence seven is a mystical number, often used in Mysteries throughout the Scripture, both in typical, and in prophetical places. Vid. Aynsw. in loc.

As seven times sprinkling the Leper, and seven days for his clean­sing. Lev. 14.7, 9.

Seven days for consecrating the Priests. Lev. 8.35. For purify­ing the unclean. Lev. 12.2. Numb. 19.19.

Seven Priests with seven Trumpets, blew seven days to the over­throwing of the Walls ef Jericho. Josh. 6.

Every seventh day, was a Sabbaoth.

Every seventh year, a year of Rest.

[Page 319]And seven times seven years brought the Jubilee. Lev. 25.3, 4, 8. In the Book of the Revelation, the Lamb that was stain, which is Jesus Christ, is represented with seven Horns, to signify the perfection of his Power; and with seven Eyes, to shew the per­fection of his Wisdom: and the seven Spirits of God, the Holy Ghost in the perfection of all gifts and graces. Rev. 5.6.

There be also seven Candlesticks, seven Churches. And indeed the whole Book doth analyse and divide it self into three sevens: seven Seals, seven Trumpets, and seven Vials.

The seven Seals, holding forth the state of the Church under heathenish persecution, with the issue thereof in the three first Centuries.

The seven Trumpets under Antichrist, and other intestine troubles.

And then finally, seven Vials of Wrath for the ruine of Anti-christ and other enemies, for the Churches prosperity.

From all which, you see that there is something of mystery in the number of seven.

And in this Ceremony, it teacheth us the full and perfect cleansing and atonement we have in the blood of Christ; and that our sins need much cleansing, much purgation. Heb. 9.13, 14. Heb. 10.14. For by one Offering, he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

3. We may learn further, that sprinkling is significative enough of the spiritual cleansing and perfect virtue that is in the blood of Jesus Christ. For the Priest was not to pour out the blood up­on the Vail, nor to wash the Vail in the blood, but only to dip his finger, and so to sprinkle the Vail with it. Isai. 52.15. 1 Pet. 1.2. Heb. 12.24.

2. Another part of the blood was to be put upon the Horns of the Golden Altar of Incense, vers. 7. And again vers. 18.

So in the Sin-Offering upon the great day of Expiation, Lev, 17.18, 19. this was used only in the Sin Offering of Bullocks: but in the Sin-Offering of Kids or Lambs, it was only poured and sprinkled upon the Brazen-Altar, vers. 25, 30, 34.

The mystery of this Ceremony was this, That Christs Inter­cession [Page 320] is founded in his own blood and satisfaction. For the In­cense Altar was a Type of Prayer: he prays in the virtue of his own blood and sufferings, and by the merit thereof, he prevails with God for us.

And it is upon the same account, that our prayers also do pre­vail and find acceptance with the Lord; it is because the Incense Altar is sprinkled with blood. We pray in his Name, and we de­sire nothing in our prayers, but what he hath deserved and pro­cured by his merits. See. Rev. 8.3. There was given him much Incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all Saints upon the Golden Altar. And 9.13. I heard a voice from the four Horns of the Golden Altar. The Golden Altar is the Altar of Incense: a voice is heard from thence as in answer to prayer.

But did ever any Christian pray for the coming in of the Turks upon the Christian world? No, but God answers the prayers of his people oftentimes, by wonderful and terrible things in Righ­teousness, as Psal. 65.5. The most dreadful Revolutions of Pro­vidence, are in answer to prayer: and that which makes pray­er so powerful, is because the Altar of Incense is sprinkled with the blood of the Sin Offering.

3. The rest of the blood, was to be poured forth at the bot­tom of the Altar of Burnt-Offering; vers. 7, 18, 25, 30, 34.

This instructs us, that Christ was consecrated and dedicated unto God in his own blood.

The effusion of the blood of Christ, as a Sin-Offering to the Justice of God for us, for our Salvation, for the purchase of the pardon of our sins, and the relation of that blood to the Altar of his Deity, are here taught. But this was opened before when we were upon the Burnt-Offering. Cap. 1.5.

But consider this, as in conjunction with the former; the blood was sprinkled both upon the holiest of all, and upon the Altar of Incense, and now the rest poured forth by the Altar of Burnt-Offering.

It teacheth us, That the blood of Christ hath an influence in­to all the concernments of our Salvation, from first to last.

Exercise Faith in that blood upon all occasions, and for all the concernments of your Souls.

[Page 321]Would you see your sins forgiven, and atonement made? See and take notice of that blood in the effusion of it, as poured forth at the bottom of the Altar.

Would you see your prayers accepted and answered? See the blood upon the Horns of the Incense-Altar.

Would you see Heaven Gates opened, and way made for you into the Holy of Holies, an abundant entrance opened for you into Heaven? See the blood sprinkled before the Vail.

See the blood of Jesus Christ influencing all the concernments of your Souls.

4. The fourth Law of the Sin-Offering, is concerning the burning of it, vers. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. And again vers. 19, 20, 21.

The inward parts of it were to be burnt upon the Altar, as in the Ordinance of the Peace-Offering.

All the rest; the whole Bullock was to be burnt in a clean place without the Camp.

This Law is peculiar to the Sin-Offering of a Bullock, whe­ther for the Priest, or for the whole Church.

But in the Sin-Offering of Goats or Sheep for the Ruler, and for any individual of the common people, this Ceremony of burning without the Camp was not required.

There is this reason given for burning the whole Sin Offering if it were a Bullock, and not allowing any of it to be eaten; namely, because the blood of it was brought into the Tabernacle of the Congregation, to reconcile withal in the holy place. Lev. 6.30.

You may see the practice of this Ceremony in the Sin Offer­ing, at the Consecration of the Priests. Exod. 29.14.

And as it was burnt without the Camp in their present unfix­ed posture: so when the Temple was fixed at Jerusalem, it was burnt without the Gates of the City.

The Apostle explains it at large, Heb. 13.10, 11, 12, 13, 14. and educeth three great Gospel Truths and Mysteries out of it.

1. That they which serve the Tabernacle, have no right to eat of our Altar under the Gospel, vers. 10. Our New Testa­ment Altar is Christ.

[Page 322]To eat of the Altar, is to partake of the Offerings offered upon it.

They that serve the Tabernacle, that is, the old worldly Ta­bernacle, such as serve that, that is, such as adhere still to legal ways and Observations, have no right to Christ the Altar, and to the Sacrifice he hath offered, and to Salvation by him.

Such as cleave to their own Righteousness, and to their own Wisdom in the things of God, they deprive themselves of Com­munion with Christ.

2. As the Sin Offering was burnt without the Camp where they did cast forth the Ashes: so Christ suffered without the Gates of the City. They carried him out of Jerusalem to Golgotha, to the place of dead mens Sculls. Mat. 27.33. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a Skull, which is called Luk. 23.33. Calvary. That as it is said of the Sin-Offering in the place where they pour out the Ashes, there shall it be burnt, Lev. 4.12. So Christ suffered without the Gate. Heb: 13.12.

3. This Ceremony teacheth also the mystery of our Commu­nion with Christ, in bearing his Reproach. Heb. 13.13.

For it was because sin was upon the Offering, which carries shame along with it, that it was carried forth.

Malefactors were to be put to death without the Camp, so the Blasphemer, Lev. 24.14. so the presumptuous Profaner of the Sabbaoth, Numb. 15.35.

If you cannot be content to bear the disgraces and reproaches of the world, to be accounted a simple Heretick, a Fanatick, no true Son of the Church; but a Schismatick against the Church, and a Rebel against the King, an enemy to Caesar, for so they said of Christ; you refuse to go forth with him out of the Camp, bearing his reproach. The Apostles were accounted the very filth of the world, [...]. 1 Cor. 4.9, to 13. [...] such as by sweeping is gathered together, saith the marginal Note. [...] quod detergere significat. Beza.

Wo unto you when all men shall speak well of you: for so did [Page 323] their Fathers to the false Prophets. Luk. 6.26. To these add,

4. Whereas he that did perform this Ministration about the Sin-Offering, was to be unclean until the Even: so in the Sin-Offering of the yearly Feast of Expiation. Lev. 16.27, 28.

The same Law we find concerning the red Heifer, whereof they made the water of separation. Numb. 18.9 And he that burneth her, shall wash his Cloaths in water, and bath his Flesh in water, and shall be unclean until the Even.

Hereby was shadowed forth, not only the imperfection of the legal Priesthood and Ministrations, in that the Priests themselves which prepared the Means of Sanctification for the Church, were themselves polluted in the preparing and doing of them: so Ainsw. in Numb. 19.8, 9.

But it may instruct us also in a more general Truth, concern­ing the Iniquity of our holy Offerings, our best duties and services.

There is something of secret spiritual defilement cleaving to them, even when we are making our Peace with God; when we are atoneing, or receiving the Atonement, and acting about it. Lava lachrymas meas Domine; Lord, wash even my tears.

5. The last Law of the Sin-Offering, is concerning the eating of it: of this see Cap. 6. vers. 24, to the end.

This did not concern those Sin Offerings, whose blood was brought into the holy place, and whose flesh was burnt without the Camp, but only the Sin-Offerings of the Ruler and private persons: as Lev. 6.30.

There be three Ceremonial Laws and Ordinances about this.

1. The Priests are to eat it in the holy place, vers. 26.

Moses expostulates with Aaron for the neglect of this, Lev. 10.19, 20. And he there hinteth at some part of the mystery of it, vers 17.

The Priest by eating the Sinners Offering, did typically bear the iniquity of the Sinner, and so abolish it as in a figure. It holds forth our Communion with Christ our Sin-Offering, as the Food of our Souls, whom by Faith we eat and feed upon. Joh. 6.56.

2. Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy. vers. 27.

[Page 324]This Rite was peculiar to the Sin-Offering: and seeing the Sin-Offering was a Type of Christ who was made sin for us: This teacheth us the holiness that should be in them, who have any thing to do with Christ.

God reproves the Priests, as Hos. 4.8. they eat up the sin, or the Sin Offering, Chattaah, of my people.

The old Note is this, the Priests seek to eat the peoples Of­ferings, and flatter them in their sins.

Every one of us should know how to possess our Vessels in holi­ness and honour. 1 Thess. 4.4.

3. The Vessel wherein it is boyled, must be cleansed by rinsing with Water, or by breaking it in pieces. Vers. 27, 28. The like Levit. 11.32, 33. and 15.12.

The earthen Vessels were to be broken, in regard of the cheap­ness of them, the loss would not be great: the more costly to be scoured and rinsed. The Apostle speaks of those (Heb. 9.10.) divers Washings and carnal Ordinances, imposed on them till the time of Reformation.

The Pharisees in such Observations as these, went beyond the Rule, (as Superstition is apt to do:) but Christ severely rebukes them for their high strains of superstitious Devotion. Mark. 7.4, 8.

But out of Gods Institution here, we may spell this lesson of spiritual Instruction, namely, the strange defilement and deep contagion and pollution that is in sin, that there is so much ado for the cleansing of it: and what care there should be to purge and cleanse our selves from it. Heb. 10.19, 22— 2 Cor. 7.1.

And to make it out a little more particularly.

If you would find out the meaning of a Type, it is a good Rule to observe the Scripture use of the same word, in the way of a Metaphor and allusion.

Now we find both wicked men and good men compared to earthen Vessels. It is a Metaphor concerning wicked men, and the breaking is the destroying them. Jer. 19.11. Psal. 2.9. Jer. 48.38. God will break wicked men and unclean persons with utter destruction, as Vessels wherein is no pleasure.

But good men also are called earthen Vessels, and so the Type [Page 325] must be accommodated a little otherwise. 2 Cor. 4.7. We have this Treasure in earthen Vessels. And so the cleansing these Ves­sels by washing with water, points to the spiritual cleansing, by the Spirit of Christ, Ezek. 36.25. and by his blood. Heb. 9.13, 14.

And breaking, signifies the utter abolishing of all sin and un­cleanness by death. We are not fully cleansed till the Vessel be broken, but then there is no more defilement in the Vessel.

And God will make it up again in the Resurrection, as pure and holy as if it had never been defiled with sin at all.

Thus we have gone through the special Laws of the Sin-Offering, in these five Heads: for they do either concern the end, or the matter, or the blood of it, or the burning, or lastly the eating of it.

I shall conclude all that hath been said upon the Sin-Offering, with some general Instructions from the whole.

1. We may here learn and be instructed, that even sins of In­firmity they do contract a guilt upon the Soul, yea, such a guilt as needs Atonement and Expiation in the blood of Jesus Christ.

There are no venial sins, the least sin is death. You must bring your Sin Offering, if you expect to be forgiven. Do not slight sins of Infirmity, for then they become more than meer Infirmities.

2. Here is relief unto Faith against those usual complaints of dayly Infirmities, which many gracious Souls do so much com­plain of, and mourn under.

Alas I can do nothing well; if I pray, my thoughts wander; when I hear the Word, I understand little, and remember less; I am easily overtaken and carried aside dayly, I sin in all I do.

But you see here is a Sin Offering provided.

There is not a just man upon earth that doth good, and sinneth not. Eccles. 7.20. In many things we offend all. James. 3.2. There­fore the Lord ordained this Sin-Offering, which, as it served for a legal Expiation and purging of their sins under that Dispensati­on: so it did prefigure to them the blood of Jesus Christ, which cleanseth us from all our sins.

3. Here is great encouragement to engage in the service and [Page 326] work of God, notwithstanding our own Infirmities and disabili­ties; yet do not withdraw when called, though conscious to thy self of much unworthiness and unfitness: for the Lord hath pro­vided a Sin-Offering for us; he will accept our sincere, though weak endeavours, and pardon our failings.

4. See and take notice what continual Obligations of love, are upon us to Jesus Christ, we have such continual need of him.

Behold and wonder at his love, in that he was content to be made a Sin Offering for us, and so procures our pardon for such continual sins and failings. He that knew no sin, was made sin for us, that is, he was made a Sin Offering for us 2 Cor. 5.21. Hence we have pardon; and not only pardon, but power also against sin. Rom. 8.3. and for sin condemned sin in the flesh.

[And for sin] that is, God sent Christ for a Sin Offering: as you have the same word so rendred, Heb 10.6. [...] in Sacrifices for sin, thou hadst no pleasure.

Object. But my sins are worse then meer Infirmities of Saints, they are sins of a grosser nature.

Ans. There is relief for such in the Trespass Offering, if they do not sin presumptuously and obstinately. For God will wound the hairy Scalp of him that goeth on in his Trespasses. Psal. 68.21. But if you repent of it, and bring your Trespass-Offering to the Lord, there is hope in Israel even concerning such kinds of sin also: of which, the Lord assisting, we shall speak the next time.


Lev. Cap. 5. and Cap. 6. to vers. 7.August 27, and September 6. 1668

The Trespass-Offering. Asham.

THis is the fifth sort of legal Sacrifices.

The difference between this and the Sin-Offering, as to the special end of them being in this, That the Sin-Offering seems to carry some limitation to sins of weakness and ignorance: but this extends further, even to sins against know­ledg.

This points at Christ as the Sin Offering, and all the rest did: therefore Christ is called Asham, Isai. 53.

The method which the Holy Ghost is pleased to use upon the Trespass Offering, is this. He proposeth 1. the Case, and 2. the Remedy: and in this method he goes over a four-fold Case, and a Cure and Remedy for them.

The sacred Rites and Ceremonies here required, differ little from other Offerings before handled, and therefore we may be the briefer.

The first Case is three-fold, I mean there be three Cases put together.

[Page 328]1. Concealment of mans knowledg, when called to testify up­on Oath. Vers. 1. If a Soul sin, and hear the voice of Swearing, and is a Witness, whether he hath seen or known of it, if he do not utter it, then, &c.

[A Soul] that is, a person, the Soul the more noble part, be­ing synecdochically put for the whole man.

The temptation seems to ly here; if the persons for Rank and Quality in the world be great, so that a Witness is afraid to speak and utter his knowledg.

[Hear a voice of Swearing] that is, either of the Judge adju­ring, or calling him forth to speak upon Oath.

Or of sinners Swearing, Cursing, Blaspheming.

You have an Instance of the former in the High Priest. Mat. 26.63. I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be Christ the Son of the living God.

Unto which Adjuration or voice of Swearing, our Lord Jesus Christ made answer, and did declare the truth, though before he held his peace. For it was Casus Confessionis, a case wherein con­fession of the Truth was called for.

Of the latter we have an Instance in Lev. 24.10, 11. They that heard the man blaspheme, made complaint to Authority.

A man may contract upon himself the guilt of other mens sins, by concealing them, if he be called to reveal them.

This presupposeth a Magistrate that is not given to swearing, and cursing and damning himself: for if God give up his people unto the hands of such Magistrates, in such a case they have none to complain to.

2. The second Instance, is ceremonial uncleanness, vers. 2, and 3. whereof you read in the 11. Chapter of this Book, and so forward to the 16. wherein the several sorts of legal or ceremo­nial uncleanness are treated of at large.

But do these things defile the Conscience, and contract a guilt upon the Soul?

They do not under the Gospel; but yet they did under the Law, because then God had forbidden it.

But suppose it were unknown and involuntary; is the Consci­ence defiled by Casualties?

[Page 329]No, but yet they must seek atonement, and bring their Tres­pass-Offering. Doubtless this was to teach them and us to seek pardon for unknown and secret sins; I mean unknown to our selves, as well as to others Psal. 19.12. Who can understand his errors? Cleanse thou me from secret faults.

[When he knoweth] As soon as God convinceth the Consci­ence of any sin, any defilement that we have contracted, there is no delaying, but we must make hast to make our peace with him: but as soon as the sin is known, by the knowledg of the Rule that enjoyns duty and forbids disobedience, men must look out for pardon.

3. The third Case is, swearing to do an unlawful thing, as David did. 1 Sam. 25.22.

Herods Oath, Mark. 6.23. was such an one: and so was theirs that sware to kill Paul. Act. 23.21.

Of this sort was Jepthahs Vow, Judg. 11.30, 31. it was a rash Vow. What if a Dog or a Swine had met him first? Or some other Beast that was unclean for Sacrifice?

Here was ground for a Trespass-Offering.

Now the Remedy provided is in general, confessing his sin with a Trespass-Offering. vers. 5, 6.

It is in particular threefold.

1. A Lamb or a Kid, a Female. vers. 6.

2. If he be not able to compass this. Two Turtle Doves, or two young Pigeons, the one for a Sin-Offering, the other for a Burnt-Offering: whose Rites and Ordinances are set down, vers. 7, 8, 9, 10.

The Lord graciously condescends and provides for the pover­ty and necessities of his people.

[Vers. 10. According to the manner] According to the Instituti­on. Cap. 1.

The Sin-Offering was for that peculiar sin that burdened his Conscience. The Burnt Offering, for all his sins in general.

The particular sin was to be first expiated, as that the guilt whereof was most pressing upon the Conscience, and which pro­voked God most.

[Page 330]3. In case he be not able to compass this. Then the tenth part of an Ephah of fine flower. vers. 11, 12, 13.

The second Case is, trespassing ignorantly against the holy things of the Lord. Vers. 15. compare it with Cap. 22.14, 15, 16.

The holy things of the Lord is things dedicated to him, where­of there were many, and of many sorts under the Law.

As for Instance, They were not to eat within their private Gates the Tyth of their Corn, Wine, Oyl, &c. Deut. 12.17, 18. They were to sanctify all the Firstling Males. Deut. 15.19.

To this sort may be referred the sin of Ananias and Sapphira, they did rob God of his holy things, Act. 5.1, 2. though they did it knowingly, and so it was worse than this case, which sup­poseth ignorance.

The Remedy provided and appointed in this case is,

  • 1. A Ram for a Trespass-Offering.
  • 2. Restitution with the addition of a fifth part. vers. 15, 16.

The same proportion was added in the case of things redeem­ed by the Owner. Lev. 27.13, 15, 16.

[With thy estimation] the Speech is directed to Moses, and so in him to the Priests that were to suceeed; see Cap. 27.12. And the Priest shall value it whether it be good or evil. According to thy estimation O Priest, so shall it be.

[The Priest shall make atonement] For though the Trespasser do restore; yet atonement could not be made, but by the Priest and the Sacrifice appointed, which leads us to Christ and to his death, to seek atonement with God there. There is no expiati­on of sin in our amendment or reformation, but in the blood of Christ.

3. The third Case is general concerning sins unknown, and of weakness, vers. 17, 18, 19.

And the Remedy provided is a Ram. Though he wist it not, yet he is guilty and shall bring a Ram. That is, when it comes to his knowledg.

The former Cases vers. 4. and 15. speak also of ignorance.

But some state the difference thus, That this is for sins never known certainly, but in a doubt and suspense. There is to be a doubtful Trespass-Offering, vid. Ainsw. in loc.

[Page 331]4. The fourth Case is in Cap. 6. to vers 8. wherein there is a bundle of grievous sins put together, all against light and knowledg.

  • 1. Injustice and theft.
  • 2. Force and violence.
  • 3. Lying fraud and deceit.
  • 4. Perjury or swearing falsly about it.

[If a Soul sin and commit a Trespass against the Lord, and lye a­gainst his neighbour] For sins against our neighbour, are also sins against God.

Psal. 51.4. Against thee only; that is, thee chiefly. For he had sinned against Ʋriah and against Bathshebah, and had done them both irreparable wrong. But that which lay heaviest upon him, was the injury done to God: I have sinned Luk. 15.18. against Heaven, that is, against the God of Heaven.

The Remedy appointed is threefold; the two former are not for satisfaction to God, but to the party injured, without which there can be no effectual application of the atonement to thy Conscience.

1. Restitution. Vers. 4. This is the ground of that saying, non remittitur furtum, nisi restituatur ablatum: the theft is not forgi­ven, without restitution.

2. Addition of a fifth part. vers. 5. This is when the sinner out of the conviction of his own Conscience, doth it of his own accord. For if he were convicted by the Magistracy and pub­lick Justice of the Land, he must restore fourfold in some cases, and double in other cases: see Exod. 22.1, to 4.

3. A Ram for a Trespass Offering. vers. 6.

Some general Instructions from the whole.

1. We may here learn and see in the Trespass Offering, and the Laws and Ordinances thereof, how much there is of the will of God in the matters of his worship: for there are divers things in this, as well as in the other Offerings and Sacrifices, whereof there can no account be given, but the divine will and good plea­sure of the Almighty.

As that the Trespass Offering, which mentions greater sins, such as stealing, lying, perjury, should have a lesser Sacrifice to [Page 332] expiate the guilt thereof, than was appointed in the Sin-Offering for a Ram is the highest Sacrifice here required.

But the Sin-Offering, which is for ignorances and infirmities, requires no less than a young Bullock for some kind of persons. And why a young Bullock for the Priest, and no more but a Goat, a Male for the Civil Ruler?

Reason would say, this should be as great, if not greater then the Priests; Magistracy being as great, and as high a power as Ministry. Who is able to give any necessary reason for these things? One Reason indeed might be to lead them from the sha­dow to the substance, that they might not dwell and rest in the outward Type and Ceremony, but look further to what was fi­gured by them.

For if the atonement had lain in the Type, there must have been other proportions set down between sin and sin: but the will of the Lawgiver is enough, and this we must acquiesce in, where no other reason doth appear.

You have formerly heard, how the Lord saith upon the Meat-Offering, I will have no Leaven nor Honey; but in the Peace-Offering he saith, I will have Leaven. In all the Fire-Offerings he saith, I will not have Honey; but in the First Fruits he will have Honey.

His Will is our Rule, his Will as revealed in his Word.

Ʋse 2. See the sovereign virtue of the blood of Christ: for he is our Trespass-Offering, as well as our Sin Offering.

Therefore Isai. 53.10. its said, When thou shalt make his Soul an Offering for sin. The word is the same with this, Asham naph­sho his Soul a Trespass-Offering.

Here are sins against knowledg mentioned: thieving, lying, perjury; sins which do amount to a very stupendious guilt.

Ʋse 3. Hence thirdly here is encouragement to the greatest sinners, to have recourse to him and to his blood, and to make use of him for atonement. There is atonement in the blood of Christ our Trespass-Offering, even for Thieves, Oppressors, Ly­ars, and perjured persons.

Let me speak particularly to these sins mentioned in the Text, and that in this method.

  • [Page 333]1. To shew the greatness of these sins. And then,
  • 2. That yet there is atonement for them in the blood of Je­sus Christ.

1. Theft and unjust dealing. That this is a very grievous sin appears by this, because it is so contrary to the very light of na­ture, and to that golden Rule of equity, to do as you would be done to, and is destructive to humane Society.

That it is against light appears, because they labour to hide it, and are ashamed of it, if it come to be known. Jer. 2.26. As a Thief is ashamed when he is found.

And this further shews the greatness of it, That God insists upon restitution and satisfaction to the party injured. Consider this all you that are Tradesmen, and have much dealing in the world, and you that are Apprentices and Servants. If you steal and pilfer from your Masters, though it be but a Groat or Six-pence, if you do not restore it, God will never pardon you.

But what if a man be not able, and have not wherewith to restore? That is a sad case; but in such a case God may accept the will for the deed.

But suppose the persons may be dead and gone?

The answer that Casuists give in such a case is, that then you must restore it to God, by giving it to the poor, or to some good use; restore you must, one way or other.

For without restitution there is no remission; and the Reason is clear. Because the detaining of unjust gotten Goods, is a con­tinuation of the sin: the taking possession of them was theft, the keeping that unjust possession, is a continuation of that theft. Zach. 5.4. The curse of God shall enter into the house of the Thief, and remain in it, and consume it, with the timber and stones of it. The curse of God will be upon thee in all thy comforts, in all thy concernments.

But yet there is atonement. We have two Instances in the Scripture, of Thieves that were converted and saved.

Zacheus, Luk. 19.8, 9, 10. but he made restitution, vers. 8. And the Thief on the Cross.

2. Violence; here is a sin against the sixth Commandment ad­ded [Page 334] to a sin against the eighth: for Violence belongs to the sixth Commandment. Thou shalt not murther: they are beginnings of blood, they have a tendency to it, and blood is a sin that crys.

There are many threatnings against this sin. Psal. 104.11. Evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him.

This is against light, for no man would be so used himself.

Yet there is atonement for this; you have Instance in vio­lence of the worst sort, proceeding even unto blood, and that in a way of persecution for Righteousness sake, in Manasseh and Paul, who had been men of much violence, and yet were con­verted and saved. Manasseh 2 King. 21. with 2 Chron. 33.12, 13. And Paul 1 Tim. 1.13, 14.

It is like the Thief on the Cross was such a one: an High­way man, a violent thief, or else by their Law they could not have put him to death; but yet the Lord shewed mercy to his Soul.

3. Lying; a grievous sin, and against a double light and knowledg; both knowledg of the Rule, and of the Fact, which riseth up in the mind against a Lyar when he speaks a lye.

It is usually one of the first actual sins that breaks forth in Children. Psal. 58.3. The wicked are estranged from the womb, they go astray as soon as they be born, speaking lyes. And there be dreadful threatnings against it, see Rev. 21.8. you that are Pa­rents may do well to teach your Children that Scripture.

Yet there is atonement for this sin also.

David sometimes told lyes to save his life: but yet he was deeply humbled for it, his Soul cleaved to the dust about it, and melted for heaviness. Psal. 119.25, 28, 29.

4. Perjury and false swearing; a most horrible sin, for a man to invoke the God of Truth to joyn with him in a lye, and to co-attest and bear witness with him to a lye: and this sin seldom escapes unpunished, even in this life.

God usually sets some visible mark and token of his vengeance and wrath upon them, even in this life. Jer. 34.15— 18. Ezek. 17.15— 18, 19.

Yet we have an Instance, and but one that I remember in all [Page 335] the Bible, of a man that found mercy for this sin, and that is Peter, who denyed Christ with swearing and cursing: but he went out and wept bitterly, and when his broken bones were set again, as in nature they grow stronger there than in another place: so Peter grew very bold in preaching and confes­sing Christ, whom before he had so fearfully denyed.

Obj. 1. But there be divers sins which are not here specified.

Ans. Yet they are included, and understood by a parity of reason: and there might be some reasons given, why it might not be convenient to mention some sins particularly, which yet were included, and for which there was atonement.

As if a man be overtaken in drink, or lust, or passion, rash anger, &c. these and all other pardonable sins, are included ei­ther in the Trespass Offering by a parity of reason, with the In­stances mentioned in the Text, or else under the Sin-Offering, or the Burnt-Offering.

Obj. 2. But some sins were not intended to be included in any of the Sacrifices of the Law: but they had no atonement, no Sacrifice provided for them, as Murther and Whoredom.

Ans. This was for a special reason, because there was a civil penalty appointed in such Cases, and for such sins extending even unto death. And it had been incongruous to that legal and ex­ternal dispensation they were under, to appoint a Sacrifice to make atonement for Capital sins, for which the sinner was to be cut off.

This made David cry, Sacrifice thou wouldst not, Psal. 51. else would I give it, he was at a loss what to do. There was no pro­vision made by the Law for atonement in that case of his: but as God by prerogative and special dispensation spared his life, so he did also forgive his sin, and taught him upon this occasion the imperfection of all the legal Sacrifices: but yet there is an atonement and a Trespass Offering provided under the Gospel, even for such sins. There is a spiritual Sacrifice, Jesus Christ and his blood: therefore such notorious sinners should not despair: see 1 Cor. 6.11. Such were some of you, foul enough and bad enough, but ye are washed, but ye are justified.

[Page 336] Obj. 3. But there be some sins even under the Gospel, for which the Apostle saith, there remaineth no more Sacrifice for sin, Heb. 10. but fiery indignation and fearful looking for of Judgment.

Ans. This is only the sin against the Holy Ghost, which, be­cause many when in trouble of Conscience, are apt to fear they have committed this sin; I shall therefore open a little to you the nature of it, to prevent mistakes and discouragements: I shall endeavour to shew you both wherein it doth not, and wherein it doth consist.

And first wherein it doth not consist.

1. It is not every error in fundamentals that amounts to this sin: for some Hereticks have been renewed by repentance, have been converted and reclaimed from the error of their way, which they that sin against the Holy Ghost cannot be.

Yea 2. suppose a man do not only err in fundamental truths, but speak reproachful piercing words against it, as the Quakers use to do when they scoff against a Christ without us, and against the Bible, calling it a dead letter.

This is blasphemy; but yet it is not impossible even for such a one, to repent and be forgiven: for Mat. 12.30, 32. every Blasphemy against the Son, that is, every kind or sort of Blasphe­my, may be forgiven.

3. Yet further, that sin which of all other doth in some re­spects come nearest to the sin against the Holy Ghost, is Perse­cution. For here is malice; yet some, even of these also, have obtained mercy; as Paul the Apostle, who before his Conversi­on was a Persecutor, he was both a fundamental Heretick, and a Blasphemer, and a Persecutor.

4. Some have thought it doth consist in universal Apostacy; but these are rather Circumstances that may accompany it, but are not of the essence of it.

Apostasie is not essential to it, much less universal Apostasie. It is true, those in Heb. 10. and Heb. 6. were Apostates that fell away from their former profession: therefore Apostasie is some­times found in this sin, but not always. For the Pharisees had never professed Christ; yet they did sin against the Holy Ghost. Mat. 12.32, 33.

[Page 337]Moreover Apostates in some cases may be recovered. Hos. 14.4. Rev. 2.5. and 3.18.

And as to that of universal apostacy, the Pharisees did not cast off all profession of God and of the truth, they were not u­niversal Apostates. Therefore a man may pretend to Religion and be a Professor of it in some degree, and yet a Pharisee, doing de­spite unto the Spirit of Grace.

Thus you see negatively, concerning this impardonable sin, what it is not. There may be fundamental error, yea Blasphemy, Persecution, yet not unpardonable: moreover a man may sin this sin, and yet not be an universal Apostate, as the Pharisees. But if all this be not the sin against the Holy Ghost, what is it, and wherein doth it consist?

Ans. There be two Ingredients that do concur to this sin.

1. Inward conviction by the Holy Ghost.

2. Malice; This is that the Apostle intends by [...] if we sin wilfully. Heb. 10. Hence our Saviour calls it Blasphemy a­gainst the Spirit. Mat. 12. That is, against the inward illumina­tion and conviction of the Spirit in a mans Conscience.

If there be not a conjunction of both these, both inward con­viction and malicious opposition, if there be only one of these, without the other, it is not the sin against the Holy Ghost.

Peter in his denying Christ, and swearing falsly about it, he sinned against Light and inward Conviction; but this was not the sin against the Holy Ghost, because he did it not in malice, but only out of fear to save his life.

Paul before his Conversion, did sin and persecute out of ma­lice; but yet he did not commit this sin, because he wanted Light and inward Conviction: himself gives us this account of it, 1 Tim. 1.13. but I obtained mercy because I did it ignorantly.

But can this be known concerning others?

Yes it may be known; therefore 1 Joh. 5.16. pray not for such.

It will further clear up the nature of the sin, to name some In­stances of such as have committed it.

There be some Instances and Examples of it in the Scripture: and there have been some since the Scriptures were written.

[Page 338]The Scripture mentions the Pharisees, Mat. 12.

The Apostle Paul instanceth in the Convicted, and yet apo­state Jews in his Epistle to the Hebrews.

Since the Scriptures were written.

Julian the Apostate is thought to have sinned this sin: for he had Light enough, he was a Christian, and an high Professor of Christianity, before his Apostasie.

He did profess Religion to such a degree, that he was wont to read in the Church in the publick Assemblies; he did not disdain to read the Bible to them in the Church Assemblies, though he was of the blood Royal: but after he was setled in the Empire, he fell away to Paganism; and not only so, but to most malici­ous and crafty Persecution.

Some have observed of him, that he did not put forth such Edicts for the putting Christians to death, as some former Per­secutors had been wont to do. He did forbear to do it out of craft and malice, because he had observed the truth of that Speech, sanguis Martyrum semen Ecclesiae, the blood of Martyrs is the Seed of the Church: he saw that such a course would propagate Christianity the more, and increase the Church rather than di­minish it.

Therefore he chose rather to lay snares for their Consciences, by way of subtilty to draw them from the Truth, and so to wash his hands in the blood of their Souls (a sweeter victory to him) then of their bodies; and to triumph over them in their falls, rather then in their deaths, denying them the use of Books or Schools to get Learning, suffering none to bear Office in War or Peace: and when he dyed, being shot with an Arrow in a Battle, and feeling himself mortally wounded, he pluckt out the Arrow and threw it up with his own Bowels, with these words, vicisti, Galilaee vicisti.

In these latter times, of all the Persecutors in Queen Marys time, there is none that seems to have sinned and shed the blood of Saints against Light, more than Stephen Gardner; of whom there is this Story in the Book of Martyrs and others, that write of those times: That having invited sundry persons of Quality, [Page 339] the Duke of Norfolk and others to dine with him at his house. he would not sit down to Dinner, till he had news brought him by his servant, of the death of two Martyrs Ridley and Latimer, who suffered at Oxford, and so made his Friends and Guests stay, and wait upon his cruelty and blood thirstiness till four a clock in the Afternoon: and then being informed, that fire was most certainly set to them, he said, now let us go to Dinner; and he began to eat, but was taken ill and carried sick from his Table, and so lay fifteen days in most intollerable torments, having no ease or voidance of any thing in his body by Urine or otherwise, his body being miserably inflamed thereby, and thrusting his tongue out of his mouth swollen and black: and while he lay in this condition, uttering sometimes words of despair and blasphe­my, when Dr. Day Bishop of Chichester came to him, and began to comfort him with the Promises of the Gospel, and free Ju­stification in the blood of Christ; what, my Lord (saith he) will you open that Gap now? Nay then farewell all together: such words may be fit for one in my condition; but if once you open that Gap to the people, then farewel altogether. And when he was put in remembrance of Peters denying his Master, he said, that he had denyed with Peter, but had never repented with Peter.

Acts and Monuments vol. 3. pag. 527. and pag. 957.

Here was Light and inward Conviction, that this was indeed the right way; and yet malice even unto blood.

Open that Gap to the people, and then farewel all together: just as the Pharisees said, they feared the people would go after Christ.

Some have Instanced also in some of the last killers of the Wit­nesses of Christ: Rev. 11. of whom it is said, fire proceedeth out of their mouths and devours their Adversaries. vers. 5. which they parallel with that expression of the Apostle, Heb. 10.27. a cer­tain fearful looking for of Judgment, and fiery Indignation that shall devour the Adversaries. [...] A receiving of Judg­ment, that is, in their own Consciences, God sealing up with some flashes of his Wrath, their eternal damnation: they have some sparks of Hell fire spit into their Consciences, from the lives [Page 340] and doctrine of the Witnesses. It is spoken in Rev. 11. in allusi­on to Moses, by whom those Rebels (Corah and his Company, as also Nadab and Abihu) were burnt with fire.

There be two things which are sure signes a man hath not committed it.

1. When the Soul is afraid of it, least they have committed this sin; here is no malice against the Spirit of Grace: for on the contrary, here is a fear least they have sinned against him this great sin.

2. If there be but common meltings and relentings of heart, yea though without any true and saving brokenness and softness of heart; yet even this common work is evidence enough, that this sin hath not been committed: for the sin against the Holy Ghost, is the highest degree of wickedness and hardness of heart: but where there are any common meltings, there is not the high­est degree of hardness; therefore there is not the sin against the Holy Ghost. In such there is a perfect fixation of the will in evil, like the very Devils and the damned in Hell.

Therefore let the greatest sinners know, if God hath but kept them from this unpardonable sin, that there is hope and help in the Gospel for them: there is atonement in the blood of Christ for all that come unto God by him, God hath not excluded thee, do not thou exclude thy self.

'Tis true, there is atonement; but how are we to apply this a­tonement? How may we so improve and apply that precious blood of Christ, as to get peace by it, and sense of pardon and reconciliation with God?

1. Turn your eyes and thoughts from all other things but the blood of Jesus Christ alone for reconciliation: a man may set his mark upon his Sheep, but it is his money that bought them.

Other things may be Evidences of Justification; but it is the Redemption that is in Jesus Christ that purchases it, Phil. 3.7, 8. Never think to make God amends, or content his Justice, or ap­pease his Wrath by any thing that you can do.

2. Get a thorough conviction in thy Conscience, of the ful­ness of the atonement, and the Soul-redeeming virtue that is in [Page 341] the blood of Jesus Christ, that it cleanseth from all sin. 1 Joh. 1.7. The redeeming power of the blood of Christ, is greater then the condemning power of sin. This excellency it hath from the ex­cellency and dignity of his person, (for it is the blood of God Act. 20.28.) which makes his obedience and suffering give more glory to God, then our sufferings in Hell would have done. De­sire the Lord to make a clear discovery of this mystery to thy soul.

3. Consider how freely this blood is held forth and offered in the Gospel, to be rested on by sinners, Rom. 3.25. and 16.26. God has revealed it, that it may be rested on.

4. Be not afraid of receiving the Atonement, Rom. 5.11.17. but rather be afraid to reject it, Heb. 4.1. We should not be a­fraid of believing, but of not believing: for the Gospel is not tendred unto men, that they should have notions in their heads, but that they should believe, Rom. 4.23, 24.

5. Let your acting of Faith upon Jesus Christ, be always ac­companied with repentance, Ezek. 16. last. This obviates that Objection about fear of presuming: if thy Faith be accompanied with repentance, thou dost not presume.


September 10. 1668.Lev. 7.37.

INtending at this time (my brethren) to wind up this Subject of the Legal Offerings and Sacrifices; I have therefore now resumed this Text, from which you may remember two Do­ctrins have been formerly observed.

1. That there was a divine Institution and command of God, for the Offerings and Sacrifices that were under the Law.

2. That there were six kinds or sorts of propitiatory Sacrifices under the Law, namely, the Burnt-Offering, the Meat Offering, the Peace-Offering, the Sin-Offering, the Trespass-Offering, and the Offering of Consecrations, in Serm. 1. of Doct. 1. on this Text pag. 232, 233.

Doct. 2. That the propitiatory Sacrifices under the Law, may be referred to these six kinds or sorts, viz. &c

In the prosecution of this Doctrine, we have gone through ma­ny of the Offerings and Sacrifices of the old Law, in the way of Exposition upon the former Chapters of this Book, to vers. 7. of Cap. 6.

The five first sort of Sacrifices have been spoken to at large.

As to the sixth, the Offering of Consecrations, there will be oc­casion to speak something of it, when we come to the Priesthood: neither is it handled at large in these first Chapters of Leviticus, [Page 343] but only some of the Laws of it briefly toucht upon; therefore I shall refer what I shall speak of it, to that other place.

As to what remains of the 6. and 7. Chapters of this Book, they containing some additional Laws to the Offerings before treated of, they were spoken to under the Offerings to which they belong.

I shall therefore now proceed unto two or three Questions that remain to be considered, before we leave this point.

Quest. 1. The first is, whether the legal Sacrifices may not be otherwise distributed, and what other distributions there be of them?

Ans. The answer is, That the Scripture gives other distributi­ons also, as well as this in the Text; but I chose to handle them in this, as the plainest for weak memories.

They are sometimes thus divided into Zebach and Mincha; that is, slaughtered Offerings and Meat-Offerings. Dan. 9.27. He shall cause the Sacrifice and Oblation to cease. The word is, the Slaughter Offering and the Meat Offering to cease; Zebach and Mincha, and in many other Scriptures.

The Meat Offerings, were of Inanimate things offered up to God by fire upon the Altar.

But the Slaughtered Offerings were of living Creatures, and these were offered up both by fire and blood, the Beast being first slain, and then burnt with fire.

Some have distinguished these two, in respect of their ends and uses, thus; That the slain Sacrifices respected chiefly the sufferings, and passive obedience of Christ, as making satisfacti­on for our sins, by his death and blood: and that the Meat-Offering related chiefly to his active obedience, whereby he ful­filled the Law for us, by his holy and blessed life, good works being as it were meat and drink to an holy heart.

In the Meat-Offering therefore (say they) was shadowed by the burning and ascending of Inanimate things, the obedience and merits of Christ to come: but it is not to be restrained to his active obedience only; for the burning and destroying the Meat-Offering by fire, did plainly represent the sufferings of Christ for [Page 344] the satisfaction of divine Justice, as was formerly shewed more fully in the Exposition of the Meat Offering.

Moreover the slaughtered Offerings may be subdivided from their ends and uses, thus: That they were either simply for atone­ment and pardon of sin, or for other occasions also.

Those for atonement of sin, were either for all sins in general, or with special respect to some particulars.

For all sins in general, was the Burnt-Offering, which there­fore was offered every day. There was holocaustum juge, for those peccata jugia, a dayly Burnt-Offering for those continual dayly sins, and sinfulness of our hearts and natures. Numb. 28.10. This is the Burnt-Offering of every Sabbath, besides the continual Burnt-Offering, and its Drink Offering: which was offered every day at morning and at evening, saith the Geneva Note: of which Daniel saith of Antiochus, that by him the dayly Sacrifice was tak­en away. Dan. 8.11.

As to particular sins, they being of two sorts either lesser or greater; there were two sorts of Sacrifices provided for them. For sins committed through ignorance and infirmity, the Sin-Offering: but the Trespass-Offering, extended even to sins com­mitted against light and knowledg. These were the Sacrifices meerly for atonement and expiation of sin.

As to other occasions also, there were two Sacrifices appoint­ed and ordained of old.

1. As to assurance of peace, and of the love of God; the Peace-Offering, which was a Sacrifice both of atonement and of thanks­giving.

2. As to acceptance and entrance into Office in the Church, the Milluim, or the Offering of Consecration, wherein, besides atonement of sin, this was superadded, the Investiture of the per­son into trust and office in the house of God.

Quest. 2. A second Enquiry may be this; whether there were not other Sacrifices, besides what are comprehended under these distributions.

Ans. There were some others, but they were peculiar Sacri­fices; these were the ordinary sort of them.

[Page 345]As for the rest, either they may be some way reduced and re­ferred to some of these, or else they will come in and may be fitly handled in other places. As for Instance; the two Sparrows in the cleansing of the Leper [...], were a peculiar kind of Sacrifice, Lev. 14. And they will come in among the Laws and Ceremonies of Purification, when we spirit of ceremonial cleanness and un­cleanness: so will also the Sacrifice of the red Heifer and the holy Water, or water of Purification made of the Ashes, of that Sacri­fice. Numb. 19.

The Paschal Lamb also was a peculiar Sacrifice, but it will fitly come in to be handled in the Feast of the Passover, when we come to the Festivals: and there also the Sacrifices of the yearly Feast of Expiation, on the tenth day of the seventh month will come to be considered: one part whereof is the Scape Goat. Levit. 16. But the ordinary Sacrifices, were these that have been handled.

Quest. 3. The third Quaere may be this; These six here enume­rated in the Text, being the ordinary sorts of propitiatory Sacri­fices; what other Sacrifices had they, besides these of propitia­tion or atonement?

I answer as to that; when I entred first upon the Subject, you may remember I distributed the Offerings at the Brazen Altar into two sorts: Holiness of Holiness, and Holiness of Praises; or Sacrifices of Atonement, and of Thanksgiving.

You find this distinction of double Holiness and single Holi­ness, in Lev. 21.22. he shall eat the Bread of his God, that is, of the Sacrifices, both of the most Holy, and of the Holy: so the Fruit of the Land after it was Circumcised, is said to be Holiness of Praises to the Lord, Lev. 19.24. Quodesh Hillulim, is contradi­stinguished unto Quodesh quodeshim.

The former sort of Sacrifices, namely those that were Holy of Holinesses for atonement, were made by fire: but the latter sort, viz. such as were meerly Sacrifices of Thanksgiving, or Ho­liness of Praises, were not offered up to God in the fire, but by other Ceremonies.

Of these there were two sorts, the Heave-Offering, and the Wave Offering; of both which we shall speak a word briefly, [Page 346] both concerning the matter, the manner, and the signification of them.

The first mention we have of them, is in Exod. 29.24, 26, 27. in the Offering of Consecration.

The Shoulder is an Heave Offering, and the Brest a Wave-Offering. Again in Lev. 7. the right Shoulder and the Brest, is reserved out of all the Peace-Offerings for a Wave Offering, and an Heave-Offering to the Lord for the Priests, see vers. 34.

Again in Lev. 23.10, 11. we read of a Wave-Sheaf of the First Fruit of your Harvest unto the Priest. And ye shall wave the Sheaf before the Lord, to be accepted for you. This was to be done the morrow after the Sabbath of the Passover, and fifty days after, at the Feast of Pentecost, they were to offer two Wave-Loaves, vers. 17, 20.

Thus you see the matter of these Offerings.

The Rite and Ceremony with which they were offered, was Waveing and Heaveing, from whence they have their names of Wave-Offering and Heave-Offering.

Waveing, that is, moving it to and fro round about towards the East, West, South, and North. Tenuphah agitatio, from the Verb Nuph, which in Hiphil is agitavit, ventilavit.

Heaveing, that is, lifting it up towards Heaven. Terumah, from Rum elevari, extolli.

These were Gestures (some may think) somewhat strange, and hardly grave enough in the Worship of God.

But what was the mystery and meaning of them?

You will find that clearly expressed, in Numb. 8.11. And Aaron shall offer the Levites before the Lord, for an Offering of the Children of Israel, that they may execute the service of the Lord.

The Hebrew reads it (as your Margin tells you) thus, and Aaron shall wave the Levites befor the Lord for a Wave-Offering of the Children of Israel.

This then was the end and the meaning of these Gestures, to present and dedicate the thing to the Lord, who, if he will have it done by such or such a Gesture, who, or what is vain man, that he should controle or find fault with the unsearchable Wis­dom [Page 347] and sovereign Authority of the Lord God Almighty.

These words are used generally concerning all things given or dedicated to God; as Exod. 35.22. And every one that offered, offered an Offering of Gold unto the Lord Heniph Tenuphath, agi­tavit agitationem: he waved a Wave-Offering of Gold unto the Lord: even Land it self, Ezek. 48.8, 9, 10, 20.

Persons also are said to be waved as a Wave-Offering, when dedicated to the Lord. Numb. 8.11.

For Wave, the Greek translateth separate; which word Paul useth, speaking of his Designation to the Ministry. Rom. 1.1.

Some have observed something more in these Gestures, especi­ally that of waveing to and fro round about.

The original word is sometimes used for sifting in a Sieve, Isai. 30.28. That signifies Tryals and Afflictions, Luk. 22.31. And so the Prophets apply this word unto Troubles, Isai. 10.32. and 13.2. and 30.28.

The sense then will amount to thus much, That the Saints and Ministers are spiritual Priests, are consecrated to the Lord through sufferings. As it is said of Christ the Captain of our Salvation, Heb. 2.10. so the Saints 2 Cor. 6.4, 10. As the Wave-Offering was tost and waved to and fro, and thereby dedicated to the Lord.

There is some Controversy upon these,Mede Disc. 49. pag. 384. started by a learned man, and one of much Light in other things, however he mist it in this, there being ali­quid humanum in the best of men: and humanum est errare, no man but is subject to error and mistakes.

The Question is, whether they were Ceremonial and ceased, or Moral and Perpetual.

But the case is clear and easy concerning them both; both the Heave-Offerings and the Wave-Offerings, they were Ceremoni­al, and they are abolished.

Object. They were not Types of Christ.

Ans. If they were Types or legal adumbrations of Christian duties, or of any of the Benefits of Christ, this sufficeth, and is enough to make them Ceremonial, and consequently abolished. For the Types (as hath been often said and proved, and must be [Page 348] now again repeated) do not relate only to the person of Christ, but to all Gospel Truths and Mysteries.

Object. They might be eaten by others besides the Priests, and in other places, not in the holy place only: therefore could not be typical, unless all the people and every Corner of the Land were typical.

Ans. So might the Peace-Offerings in this Chapter, Lev. 7.15, 16. The Offerer had a share in them, and yet they were Ce­remonial, and not Moral.

Moreover, not only the Temple and the Priests there, but the whole Land of Canaan and the people of Israel, were a typical Land, and a typical people: and (as hath been formerly and shall be further shewed) all the Fruits of the Land had a typical Holiness; the First Fruits being virtually the whole, they were a typical dedication of the whole.

Object. The Scripture expresly rejects other Sacrifices and Of­ferings, and doth not mention these.

Ans. Yet these are included by a parity of reason; if the chief be rejected, much more the lesser and inferior.

Object. But Christians under the New Testament, are bound to give part of their substance to the Lord, and to his use and service: therefore these are Moral.

Ans. I answer, it follows not; for this is a moral duty to give part of our substance to the Lord: but yet the Heave-Offerings and Wave Offerings are ceased, that is, the Ceremony is ceased: but the substance or thing signified remains.

The formalis ratio of these Offerings, did not consist (as some have thought) in prayer and thanksgiving: for there was pray­er and thanksgiving in other Offerings also, as well as these, yea in all their Offerings.

Are they not commanded to lay their hands upon the Sacrifice of Atonement, by way of prayer and confession? Cap. 1.4.

But the formalis ratio of this and other Offerings, doth consist chiefly in the Ceremonies ordained to be used about them, which is a great part of that which distinguisheth one Offering from ano­ther, as you have formerly heard: therefore if Waveing and [Page 349] Heaving be not to be used under the Gospel, as sacred and signi­ficant Ceremonies in the presenting and dedicating of our sub­stance to the Lord, the Wave, and the Heave Offering are ceased.

But the Gestures of waving and heaving are not to be used, as sacred and significant Ceremonies under the Gospel: there­fore the Wave and Heave Offering are ceased.

Ʋse 1. Remember those great Gospel Mysteries which are the scope of all Sacrifices, which (as you have heard) are chiefly these two, Atonement and Thanksgiving.

1. Atonement and Reconciliation; this was the great Myste­ry taught and held forth in all the propitiatory Sacrifices, that we are reconciled unto God, by the death and sufferings of his Son: and that they had so great a multitude and variety of Sa­crifices, plainly taught them two things.

1. The imperfection of all those legal Sacrifices; it taught them to look beyond these, for a more perfect Sacrifice then any of these, which might serve once for all.

The Apostle expresly spells out this Lesson to us, from the multitude and iteration of the Sacrifices. Heb. 10.1, 2.

2. This great variety of Sacrifices, taught them also the vari­ous and manifold Benefits of Christ, and of his death and blood. Though Christ be one, and dyed once for all; yet the Benefits that come by him are many: no one thing alone was sufficient to represent the fulness that is in Christ.

2. The second great thing held forth by their legal Offerings, is Praise and Thankfulness: This was the intent of the holy Of­ferings, as Atonement was of the most Holy.

This was the meaning of the Heave-Offering and the Wave-Offering; a thankful frame of spirit, to dedicate and give up our selves unto the Lord, to be owning God, acknowledging and admiring God in every thing, receiving it as from his hand, and returning it to him again, by using it to his Glory.

Ʋse 2. We see here the rise, and withal the sinfulness of di­vers of the Popish Superstitions; they borrow many of them from the Jews, and from the Ceremonial Law.

As when they talk of a Sacrifice, a propitiatory Sacrifice in the [Page 350] Mass for Quick and Dead: and so to call the Communion-Table an Altar.

It is true, we have an Altar and a Sacrifice under the Gospel: but this Altar is the Deity of Jesus Christ: this Sacrifice is the blood of Christ: this is the true Atonement between God and sinners, whereof the blood of Bulls and Goats, was but a weak and low and shady representation.

So the Priest his lifting up the Host over his head, as if it were an Heave-Offering: and that late Abomination, that they must do it on the north side of the Communion Table or Altar, as they love to have it called.

To reintroduce these old legal Ceremonies, and to talk of li­teral Sacrifices under the Gospel, is to dig Moses out of his Grave, and to deny Jesus Christ: there is more evil in such things, then many do imagine or will believe.

Ʋse 3. Exhortation to keep close to the Command of God, in all the matters of his Worship. Consider the 38 Verse of this Chapter: This is the Law of the Burnt-Offering, and of the Meat-Offering, (and so of all the rest of their Offerings) which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the Children of Israel to offer their Oblations to the Lord, in the Wilderness of Sinai.

The manner of Worship is under a Command, as well as the matter: the Mode of Worship hath a Law, which must be at­tended and observed and kept close unto.

Let me press this Exhortation, that you would in all your Worship keep close unto the Rule of the Word, with these four Motives.

1. It hath been the great design of Satan in all times and Ages, to defile and corrupt the Worship of God: if he cannot perswade men to be downright Atheists, and to say, there is no God; he labours then to drive them into the other extream of Idolatry and Superstition, and to impose upon them with an Image, with an Idol, in stead of God; and the hearts of men are like Tinder, to the fire of these temptations.

The Stratagem hath been I think, as successful and as advan­tageous [Page 351] to the Devils Kingdom, as any that ever came into that Old Serpents head.

When, or how soon this delusion came into the world, I need not here dispute. Certain it is, it was very early; for we have express mention made of it amongst Abraham's Ancestors, Josh. 24.2. Now the Call of Abraham, was but four hundred twenty-seven years after the Flood, or thereabout; as you will find, if you compute and put together the Ages of those ten Patriarchs, recorded Gen. 11, with Gen. 12.5. So that mankind having been cut down with a Flood but a little before, for Atheistical profane­ness and wickedness; they were lost again, and the whole world in a manner overwhelmed, and drowned (as it were) with ano­ther and worser Deluge of Idolatry, within that short space of four hundred years or thereabouts: for unto that Period as I con­ceive, the Rise of Idolatry must be referred. And what was the great sin amongst the Jews? Was it not this? And amongst the old Heathens and Pagans, and amongst the Papists, and other superstitious Christians at this day? What is the great Design and Work of Christ in this Age, the work of this Generation, but to bring forth his Worship into purity, that the new Jerusa­lem may come down from Heaven? This therefore Satan studies chiefly to oppose, and so to countermine the Lord Jesus in his great Work. And will you take part with him, and be on his side against the Lord?

2. It will be varnished over with fair colours and plausible pre­tenses; departing from the Will of God, revealed in his Word, in the matter of his Worship, hath ever been so. The Image that fell down from Jupiter, (cryed they Act. 19.35.) this was given out for that Ephesian Diana: so the Whore of Babylon, gives the Wine of her Fornication in a golden Cup. Rev. 17.4. And as the Light increaseth: so the Crafts and Methods of Satan are more refined, and more subtile and spiritual. In the first times of the New Testament, he did appear almost like himself in the shape of a great Red Dragon in the Roman Pagan Emperors: but when Michael and his Angels overcame and overthrew him in this appearance, Rev. 12. Then he puts on a new Vizard, and ap­pears [Page 352] in another shape of two wild Beasts, Rev. 13. but still pur­sues the same design, though under new pretences, and by other Instruments, viz. by the Church and Pope of Rome. For he hath made it his business ever since the time of Constantine the Great, to revive the old Heathenish Idolatry under other names, that the world might not be said Idola relinquere, but simulacra mutasse; that whereas before they worshipped the Devil under the names of Jupiter, Diana and Apollo, &c. now they commit the same Idolatry, and worship the same Devil still; but under the names of popish Saints. Now it is not Jupiter and Diana any more, but St. Francis, and St. Becket, and the Vicar of Christ, and the holy Catholick Church of Rome; thus doth that Harlot paint her face: so the prelatick Superstitions at this day, those Reliques of Pope­ry are painted over with those glozing pretences of Antiquity, Fathers, Councils, Order, Decency, Edification, the Peace of the Church, and such like.

3. If once you leave the Rule of the Word, the will of God revealed there, and begin in a way of Superstition, you will ne­ver know where to stop or stay, nor where to make an end; but you will multiply your Idols, and increase your Idolatries, and grow worse and worse.

As in those sensual lusts of drunkenness and uncleanness, the poor Creature saith, I will seek it yet again: so in these spiritual lusts they are unsatiable, Ezek. 16.28. because thou wast unsati­able. It is an endless sin.

If you do but wear a Surplice for peace sake, why not as well admit the Sign of the Cross in Baptisme, or bow to an Altar? And then within a little while, the same reason is as strong for bowing to an Image, to a Crucifix; and why not as well say Mass too, for the peace of the Church? And then at last, swal­low down every thing, submit your Consciences to the Pope, worship the Beast, and so be damned and go to Hell, and all for the peace of the Church. O there is no end here, but like a man that is tumbling down a steep Hill, that cannot stop till he come to the bottom.

Popery came in by degrees; the first four Trumpets made [Page 353] way for the perfection of that Apostasie that came in by the fifth.

Among the Idolatrous Kings of Israel, those in succeeding times were worse then their wicked Predecessors.

Jeroboam was bad enough; but he only sets up the two Calves at Dan and Bethel: but Omri went beyond him, for it is said, he did worse then all that went before him. 1 King. 16.25. We read of the Statutes of Omri. Mic. 6.16. Idolatrous and persecuting Laws. But his Son Ahab was worse then he. For, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam, he did set up the Worship of Baal, and did more to provoke the God of Israel to anger, then all the Kings of Israel that went before him. 1 King. 16.31, 32, 33. So that you see it is an increasing and an endless sin.

4. All the honour men do, or think they do to God by wor­ship of their own invention, doth redound indeed, and in truth to the honour of the Devil, which is a fearful thing to consider.

Superstition is a sin directly against the means of worship; but it is ultimately against the Object of worship. Strange worship sets up a strange God:Ames Med. Theol. lib. 2. cap. 13. Thes. 14, 15, 42. for it necessarily supposeth and feigneth to it self, such an Object of wor­ship as is well pleased with such manner of wor­ship, as Superstition offers up: and to whose will soever we sub­mit our Consciences, as the Rule of our religious worship, him we set up as our God. Though it be not so in mens intentions; yet it is so indeed, and in Gods Interpretation. The Lord so in­terprets false worship, that a new God is devised for the Object of it: so of the Heathenish Idolatry, the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to Devils, and not to God. 1 Cor. 10.20. And so the Lord interprets the Jewish Idolatry; Jeroboam ordain­ed Priests for the Devils which he had made. 2 Chron. 11.15. Lev. 17.7. Deut. 32.17.

And he puts the same construction upon the Popish Idolatry, they repented not of worshipping Devils. Rev. 9.20. And their Fa­ctors and Emissaries are called Spirits of Devils. Rev. 16.14. they think they worship St. Peter and the Virgin Mary, yea God himself and Jesus Christ; but it is indeed and in Gods account, the Devil whom they worship.

[Page 354]It is true, you cannot honour God too much, his Name is above and beyond all praise: but you may mistake and honour the Devil, when you think you honour God. A fearful mistake indeed it is; but yet it is that which all those fall into, who in their worship, depart from the will of God revealed in his Word, and turn aside to any of the Inventions of men.


September 13, 20. 1668. Heb. 9.13, 14.

For if the blood of Bulls and of Goats, and the ashes of an Heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: How much more shall the blood of Christ, &c.

IN the distribution I formerly gave of the Ceremonial Law, you may remember, I did put the Legal Sacrifices and Puri­fications together under one Head, as partaking in the same general nature; both of them tending to the purging away of sin, and of uncleanness; Moral uncleanness being taken away by Sacrifice; Ceremonial uncleanness by Ceremonial Purificati­ons, whereof we are now to speak as the Lord shall enable us, from this Text, which speaks very fully and most divinely to this Point.

There be two things in the Text.

  • [Page 355]1. The Type, vers. 13. For if the blood of Bulls & of Goats, &c.
  • 2. The Antitype, vers. 14. How much more shall the blood of Christ, &c.

Under each of which, there be three particulars which are here set by the Apostle, in a way of opposite correspondency the one to the other.

1. He speaks of uncleanness in the Type. To which answers dead works, as the thing figured by it.

2. He mentions Ceremonial cleansing to the purifying of the flesh. To which answers the purging of the Conscience from dead Works, to serve the living God.

3. The Means of the one, answers to the Means of the other: The blood of Bulls and Goats, and the ashes of an Heifer sprinkling the unclean, which is the Means of legal cleansing. To this an­swers the blood of Christ, who by the eternal Spirit, offered up him­self without spot unto God, which is the Means of spiritual cleansing.

Though withall the Apostle shews, that these two answer not each other in a way of equal Analogy, there being indeed a pre­eminent excellency of the one above the other, of the Antitype above the Type: therefore he expresseth it with an how much more.

If those legal Purifications, attain the end of legal cleansing for which they were appointed; how much more shall the blood of Christ cleanse the Conscience? It hath a greater efficacy, and is a Truth of clearer and higher Evidence.

These particulars of the Analogy between the Type and the Antitype, we may cast them into three doctrinal Propositions thus.

1. That they had a Ceremonial uncleanness under the Law, which figured the Moral uncleanness of dead works.

2. That they had also Ceremonial cleansings or purifyings of the flesh, which signified the purging our Consciences from dead works, to serve the living God.

3. That the Means of Ceremonial putification by the blood of Bulls and Goats, and by the ashes of an Heiser sprinkling the unclean, signified the blood of Christ, who by the eternal Spirit, offered up himself without spot unto God.

[Page 356]1. For the first, namely, that they had a Ceremonial unclean­ness under the Law, which did figure out the Moral uncleanness of dead works: therefore he sets them one against the other: so that those uncleannesses did signify dead works: and what is meant by dead works, we may see Heb. 6.1. not laying again the foundation of Repentance from dead works.

What do we repent of? We repent of our sins. These are therefore the dead works here spoken of, and sin is called a dead work, because it proceeds from death, and is a part of spiritual death, and tends to eternal death. As good Actions tend to life, so sin tends to death: so then Ceremonial uncleanness, signifies Moral uncleanness of sin and dead works.

There were two or three sorts of Ceremonial uncleanness.

1. Unclean Touchings. 2. Unclean Issues. 3. That unclean Disease of the Leprosy.

1. They had unclean Touchings and Tastings: here was un­cleanness from without.

2. They had unclean Issues: here was uncleanness from with­in a mans self.

3. That Disease of the Leprosy, was a Disease of Ceremonial uncleanness: and here was both an inward and an outward un­cleanness.

1. There was a Ceremonial uncleanness by eating or touching any unclean thing, Lev. 11. In that Chapter it is treated of: which Chapter, shews what Beasts, what Fishes, what Fowls, and what creeping things might, and what might not be eaten. And it is said of those that might not be eaten, Whosoever touch­eth the Carcase of them, shall be unclean. Vers. 24.

And this was a thing of so great weight, that the Lord uses those vehement expressions about it. Ye shall not make your selves abominable with any of those unclean things and creeping things, &c. 43. verse of that Chapter. For I am the Lord your God; you shall therefore sanctify your selves. It did make the person abominable, who did defile himself with those things.

We read of two kinds of uncleanness of Beasts under the Law.

1. There was an Uncleanness of Beasts for Sacrifice, and an Uncleanness of Beasts for Food.

[Page 357]That distinction of Clean and Unclean referred to Sacrifices, that was from the first entrance of Sin into the World. There­fore in Noah's time, there were so many Clean and so many Un­clean Beasts with him in the Ark.

2. The uncleanness of the Beasts for Meat seems now to be appointed by God, there having been a more general liberty in the time of Noah, and ever since, to eat of any wholesom living Creature; God now laid a restraint upon it by Moses.

Quest. But why such a difference? Is not every Creature of God good?

Answ. They are good in themselves. It is not any natural Uncleanness, but an instituted Uncleanness; that Uncleanness that is in them by virtue of the Ceremonial Law.

And the Reason is, The absolute supream authority and do­minion of God over all his Creatures.

He would have all men know, That whatsoever they eat it is by his allowance, and they must forbear so far as he restrains them.

And this further account may be given of it: That it did make up and strengthen that Partition Wall between Jew and Gentile, which the Lord thought good to set up in those times. The Gentiles being unconvinced of any such things, and the Jews being strictly trained up to it.

Quest. What Creatures be they that were Clean? and what were Unclean?

Answ. They be set down at large in Levit. 11.

And there be three Rules observable about the Beasts which were Clean and which were Unclean; which might be eaten and touched and which might not; and they were known thus.

  • 1. By the parting the Hoof.
  • 2. By chewing the Cud.
  • 3. By the properties and dispositions of them.

1. Such as parted the Hoof were Clean. Levit. 11.3. Whatso­ever parteth the Hoof, and is cloven footed among the Beasts, that shall ye eat. And they that did not were Unclean.

This plainly notes a right distinguishment of things that God requires of his people.

[Page 358]That we should walk in them with a right foot, distinguishing of things that differ. Phil. 1.9, 10. And this I pray, that your love may abound more and more in knowledge and in all judgment, that ye may approve things that are excellent. The Margin ren­ders it thus. That you may discern of things that differ. For many things there are of a different nature which a Christian should distinguish; as the difference between the Law and the Gospel; between our general and particular Callings; that there be not an intrenching of the one upon the other. This is one property, the parting of the Hoof.

2. The second is the chewing of the Cud, which intimates Meditation, ruminating on the things of God, digesting Spiritu­al Food; for the Word is compared to Food. Amos 8.12. I will send a Famin in the Land; not a Famin of Bread, nor a thirst for Water, but of hearing the Words of the Lord. The Word of God is Spiritual, and it must be chewed and ruminated upon by deep and serious Meditation. Psal. 1. Blessed is the Man that medita­teth in Gods Law day and night. Luk. 2.19. It is spoken in the praise of Mary, that she pondered on those things, and laid them up in her heart. It is the misery of Sinners and unclean Creatures; that they cannot ponder the path of Life. Prov. 5.6. Her feet go down to death, her steps take hold on hell, lest thou shouldst pon­der the path of life.

The want of a meditating considering frame of heart undoes poor sinners, they cannot consider what they do, they are not serious in meditating and ruminating on the word of God.

3. There is a third difference and character between the Clean and the Unclean, and that is, in the properties of each. Some had good properties, and some bad. As the Swine, which wick­ed men are compared unto, for that fowl and dirty disposition and property of wallowing in the Mire. 2 Pet. 2.22. The Dog is turned to his vomit, and the Sow that is washed, to her wallow­ing in the mire.

So that as the Dog licks up his vomit again; so many a poor Sinner that hath been washed and made clean, and hath confes­sed his sins, and vomited up his filthiness, he licks it up again, [Page 359] and returns to the same sin he had vomited up by confession, like the Dog and Swine.

This uncleanness of the Beasts did intimate two things.

  • 1. A distinction of persons.
  • 2. The necessity of forbearing Communion with some kind of persons.

1. That there is a difference of persons, clean and unclean Men, which is intimated by clean and unclean Beasts.

It is common in Scripture to speak of men under such resem­blances, and especially wicked men, to compare them to un­clean Beasts. We see it in Peters Vision. Acts 10. He saw all manner of four-footed Beasts and creeping things, &c. vers. 15. What God hath cleansed, call not thou common nor unclean. And so here­upon when Peter was meditating on this Vision, the Spirit said unto him, go down with these men, doubting nothing, for I have sent thee. And he had incouragement to go and preach to the Gentiles by that Vision.

This Sheet let down with unclean Beasts signifies the Gentile people.

There is a great distinction in the Godly themselves, and much more in Wicked and Ungodly Men.

Daniel represented the four Monarchies by four Beasts. The Lyon of Babylon, the Bear of Persia, the Leopard of Greece, and the Roman Monster.

This speaks thus much: That some persons are clean, and some are unclean, godly and ungodly, clean and unclean.

2. It bespeaks a restraint of Communion with wicked men.

Eating is an action of Communion, and not eating implies a restraint of Communion. Therefore when it is said to Peter, kill and eat, the meaning is, go and communicate with the Gentiles.

Our Communion with Christ is set forth by eating and drink­ing; eating his flesh, and drinking his blood, having inward Com­munion with him thereby.

So to eat, or not to eat of such and such Beasts is to have Communion, or not to have Communion with such or such Per­sons. [Page 360] Some men must be abstained from as unclean, that is wicked and ungodly men, the neglect whereof God often re­proves. Ezek. 44.7. He reproves them, that they had let in stran­gers into his Sanctuary. And vers. 23. They shall teach my people the difference between the Holy and Profane, and cause them to dis­cern between the unclean and the clean. Men of unclean and cor­rupt Lives, are unclean as to spiritual Communion: but men of sound Judgments and good Lives, are persons fit to converse with.

Under the Law they had unclean and clean Meats, and they contracted uncleanness or not, by touching or not touching.

2. The second sort of Uncleanness, was the unclean Issues.

3. There was also the unclean Disease of Leprosy; as in Lev. 13. and the cleansing of it, Cap 14.

See the Advertise­ment to the Read­er, before the next following Text.This indeed of the Leprosy, was the worst of all the Ceremonial uncleannesses, an [...] hath been spoken to, from Lev. 13. concerning the Leper, and the signs of a leprous Soul▪

All that we shall do now, is to conclude with some general Uses by way of Inference from all that hath been said, referring the further explication and prosecution thereof, until the next opportunity: and now for the Improvement of these things.

Ʋse 1. Here is a further discovery of some of the popish Su­perstitions: you may here observe both the Rise and the evil of them.

Three things there be that are still retained amongst them, and other superstitious Christians that retain some remnants of Baal, popish Superstitions in the worship of God.

1. The difference of Meats: not to eat such and such Meats, at least not at such or such times. They borrowed this from the Ceremonial Law: some things might be eaten, some not.

2. They have their Holy Water: and this they had from the Water of Separation spoken of here, the ashes of an Heifer sprink­ling the Unclean, mentioned Numb. 19. which Water, was a Water of separation made of the ashes of an Heifer, and with this they sprinkled the Unclean, which sanctified them when they had eaten or touched any unclean thing, which the Scrip­ture calls Holy Water. Numb. 5.17.

[Page 361]Now this device of Holy Water they had from thence, a fool­ish and ridiculous device it is in them, being wholly without any warrant from the word of God in New Testament times.

3. The third is the Purification, or Churching of Women after Child birth. An apish Imitation of that old legal Ordinance of God, in Lev. 12. for the Purification of Women.

In the Book of Common Prayer, they have omitted some gross things, but retain the Title, Churching of Women, and order the Woman to speak in the Church, and say the 116, or 127. Psalm, wherein too they leave the good and sound Translation which we have in our Bibles, and follow a corrupt one, where­in they make the Woman talk of giving a reward unto the Lord: and moreover they appoint absurd broken Responds and tossings of their Prayers like Tennis Balls, as is common with them also in other of their Offices.

The Rise of these Superstitions is, they are borrowed from those things which were once Ordinances, but now are Super­stitions, because the Stamp of God is taken from them.

That Command is not now in force, but is abrogated by send­ing the Substance Jesus Christ which is now come.

And as you see the Rise of them: so also the abolishment of them under the Gospel. For if they were Types and Shadows of spiritual uncleanness, and spiritual cleansing by the blood of Christ (as you see the Apostle here interprets them) they must needs be ceased, now that Christ is come: therefore our Saviour saith, that which entreth into a man, cannot defile a man. Mat. 15.11, 17, 18, 19, 20. Whatsoever entreth in at the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out unto the draught; but those things which proceed out of the mouth, come forth from the heart, and they defile the man.

How contrary are such words, to the retaining of this diffe­rence of Meats? Every Creature of God is good, if it be received with thanksgiving; for it is sanctified by the word of God and Prayer. 1 Tim. 4.4. It is good that the heart be established with Grace, and not with Meats, which have not profited them that have been oc­cupied therein. Heb. 13.9.

[Page 362]A man may eat any thing that is wholesome, if it be not up­on the account, that there is some hurtfulness in it.

But these Popish Superstitions are borrowed from Moses, and in the practice of them, men implicitely deny that Christ is come, and hath cleansed our Consciences by his own blood, from dead works.

Ʋse 2. See here the miserable pollution of our hearts by nature. This was the thing intended and aimed at in a [...] these legal Un­cleannesses.

If the water of separation sprinkling the unclean, sanctify to the purifying of the flesh: how much more shall the blood of Christ purge your Consciences from dead works.

There is a spiritual defilement on the hearts of sinners by na­ture, and this was exhibited and shown by these legal Shadows.

Take notice then what unclean Creatures you are by nature.

There is a threefold degree of spiritual uncleanness upon us, in an unregenerate estate.

1. There is external infection and defilement from without: every thing we touch defiles, and is defiled by us in our natural condition; the very ploughing of the wicked is sin, his prayer is abo­mination to the Lord.

If carnal men touch any Ordinance, they defile it; if they come into the house of God, they pollute his Sanctuary. There is a fearful defilement on the Souls and Consciences of men, in this re­spect. Every thing that a wicked man hath to do withal it defiles him, and he defiles it. To the pure, everything is pure, (saith the Apostle) but to the unclean, every thing is unclean. That is, a wick­ed man, every thing infects and hurts him, he receives a secret spiritual impression as it were, of hurt and defilement from it: and doth also defile whatever he meddles with, especially the persons they converse with.

A wicked man leaves a defilement on those he converses with, and he is defiled by them. One wicked man corrupts and in­fects another: we see it in bad Company how they infect, and are infected by one another mutually.

Therefore take heed lest there be any Fornicator, or any profane [Page 363] person among you, any root of bitterness springing up and so many be defiled Heb. 12.

2. There be unclean Issues, running Sores. Isaia 1.5, 6. putri­fying Sores, no sound part.

And what is this but the out-breaking of Corruption in actual sins. Original sin is like a corrupt Fountain, and actual sins are unclean, and evil, and bitter streams that issue from it.

3. There is an unclean Leprosie in the heart of every carnal man, which Solomon speaks of and deplores in 1 Kings 8. Know­ing every one the plague of his own heart, or the leprosie of his own heart: The same word that is vsed in Levit. 13.

And hence it follows (4.) that they are unworthy and uncapa­ble to converse in holy things, and to draw near to God in his Ordinances. For the unclean person was to be separated during the time of his uncleanness till purified and made clean again.

Ʋse 3. See Christ in the Gospel in the Law of Moses; labor to see Jesus Christ and the Gospel in the Ceremonial Law.

How excellently doth the Apostle put them together?

The sprinkling of the Unclean sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: The blood of Christ purgeth the Conscience from dead works to serve the living God.

If we cannot see these divine mysteries in the Text; if we can­not see Gospel-Truths in these legal Ceremonies, and how admi­rably they are adapted and fitted the one to the other; the Type to instruct and teach us, and inform us about the Anti-type, it is because of our own darkness and dimsightedness in spiritual things.

Ʋse 4. Behold also the pre-eminence and excellency of Christ above Moses, and the Gospel above the Law. How much more shall the blood of Christ purge your Consciences from dead works? [How much more?] It hath a greater and an irresistible efficacy, to cleanse the Soul & Conscience. And this is a Truth of clearer and higher evidence than the Ceremonial cleanness by those legal washings and purifications, which were the means of that Cere­monial Cleanness.

The Apostle uses the like note of pre-eminence when he com­pares [Page 864] Adam and Christ. Adam was a personal Type, as this was a real Type. Rom. 5.15,— 17. For if by one mans offence death reigned by one, much more they which receive abundance of Grace, and of the gift of Righteousness shall reign in life by Christ Jesus.

So here Gods design is, that in all things Christ might have the pre-eminence, and be preferred above Moses.

Ʋse 5. Labor to see and find in your selves the experience of this spiritual cleansing whereof the Apostle speaks; this cleansing by the blood of Christ, and go thou thither, have recourse to that blood for it.

Thou that hast an unclean heart, and hast lived it may be an unclean life (at least in secret) though perhaps men have not seen it, get thy Heart, and Life, and Conscience purified from dead works to serve the living God. There is healing cleansing vertue enough in the blood of Christ. And would you be cleansed in­deed? you see the way of it. Hath the Lord discovered to thee thy defilement, and convinced thee of thy own uncleanness? then get this blood of Christ applied. And as the Water of Puri­fication was sprinkled on the Unclean under the Law; so get this blood of Christ sprinkled on thy Soul and Conscience by the Gospel.

It is often called the Blood of sprinkling. The reason is, be­cause that as they did apply it by sprinkling, as a means of cleansing, &c. so is the blood of Christ applied to the Conscience. It is applied by the Spirit in the Promise. Under the Promise held forth, we receive it by Faith; and the Promise so received, the blood of Christ is brought home and sprinkled on the Soul; and this will cleanse thee, though thou have been never so unclean, there is healing purifying vertue in that blood, though thy un­cleanness be never so great, and thy Conscience never so defiled; yet there is cleansing by the blood of Christ.

Thy Case is not desperate; there is vertue enough in the blood of Christ. How much more will the blood of Christ cleanse thy Soul, if the blood of Bulls and of Goats, and the ashes of an Heyfer sprinkling the unclean could cleanse the body.

[Page 365]And remember this blood is offered: all that thou hast to do is to receive it by Faith, to beg a part in Christ, and desire him to make it effectual to thee.

The reason of all the defilement that appears in men, and that continues under the use of Ordinances, is because they ge [...] not the blood of Christ sprinkled on their Consciences, they do not receive it. And two things keep them off: either there is a Spi­rit of security, that they never seek after it, neither pray, not endeavour, or mourn after it.

Or 2. There is a Spirit of discouragement, they never fly to Christ and his blood, they seek not to him: but since he is of­fered, do not refuse him: thou canst not displease him more, then by so doing; but fly for refuge thither, as a poor unclean guilty Creature, venture all on the infinite cleansing power and virtue, that is in the blood of Jesus Christ.

Ʋse 6. See the bondage and burdensomness of the legal Admi­nistration, they could scarce be sick, but they became unclean: they could not touch so many Creatures, but they were forth­with unclean; and being unclean, might not come into the Temple, or publick society; and in some cases were shut up. They had Porters to keep them that were unclean in any thing, 2 Chron. 23.19. that they should not enter in at the Gates of the house of the Lord. Let us bless God that we are delivered from this Yoke of bondage.


THe attentive Reader will quickly observe, that here is no­thing upon that Head of Ʋncleanness by Issues which ac­cording to the Authors proposed method should have been here treated of. But there is not any thing thereon to be found a­mongst his Papers, nor to be recovered by the help of any that took in writing these Discourses from his mouth. It is therefore not impro­bable, that the Author did purposely pass over in silence that Head, for reasons to him satisfactory; which now can be but conjectured at.

Moreover the Reader is desired to bear in mind, that the fol­lowing Sermon on Levit. 13. concerning uncleanness by the Leprosy, was not preached in the Authors course as it fell in his way in go­ing over the Types, but sundry years before, on occasion of dispensing the Censure of Excommunication in that Church, whereof the Au­thor had the Oversight. This it was thought needful to advertise the Reader of, partly because of the different method of this Sermon, from his other discourses on the Types; and partly because some Passa­ges therein, evidently refer to the Dispensation of that Ordinance, on occasion whereof it was preached: and partly to account for the date of this Sermon, which the Reader will see is some years before those that go before it. The like is to be observed also concerning the foregoing Sermon on Circumcision, which in this Book is at Pag. 218. It was preached on occasion of the Administration of Baptism, as appears by a Passage in it, Pag. 219. And more then two years before it fell in the Authors way in his going over the Types; yea sundry Months before he entred on this course and subject in his Ministry.


Levit. 13.April 12 1665.

BRethren and Beloved in the Lord: If this Chapter seem to us at the first reading to be a dark and abstruse place and to have little edifying matter in it, we must impute it to our own ignorance and unskilfulness in Scripture Truths and My­steries. It is true: there is a dark shadow upon the words. But there is much light, and many useful Truths intended and held forth under these dark legal shadows.

The subject both of this and of sundry foregoing and follow­ing Chapters is concerning Ceremonial Uncleanness, of which there be several kinds, whereof this of Leprosie is one.

The general scope of this Chapter is to give Rules of tryal whereby to discern it.

The next, viz. the 14. Chapter, gives the Rules for cleansing the Leper. Concerning both which God gives them afterwards a strict and solemn charge that they should take heed and observe diligently and do according to these commands of his concerning the Leprosie. Deut. 24.8.

[Page 368]The Leprosie, and the legal uncleanness thereof, was typical. It signified and held forth three things.

1. Sin; which is fitly compared to a Leprosie for the loathsom­ness, and painfulness and infectiousness of it.

Yet this is not all. For Sin may be compared to any other disease as well as to the Leprosie. Any sore, or sickness▪ or dis­ease whatsoever may signifie and hold forth sin. As Isai. 1.5 [...] 6. full of sores — the meaning is Spiritual sickness: They were a sin­ful people— Mat. 9.12. The whole need not a Physician, but they that are sick, that is, sick of sin.

2. Therefore secondly it signified Original sin. For the Le­prosie overspreads all. Actual sins are the Boils and Sores that break forth, but Original sin is as the Leprosie overspreading the whole nature.

Yet this is not all: For this is in the best: and therefore if this were all, the people of God might be accounted Lepers. For all have Original sin; but yet there be some that be not Lepers.

3. Therefore thirdly the Leprosie signified a state of sin and unregeneracy. For the Leper must be shut out of the Camp, from among the people of God, as being none of them, as hav­ing such a spot, as is not the spot of his people. Therefore it seems also to hold forth a state of sin, a sinful or unregenerate condition.

Now for the exposition of this Chapter; to let you see a little further into some of the Truths and Mysteries contained in it, I shall only give you some general Observations, under which we shall explain some part of the Chapter.

Obs. 1. That it is a work both difficult and weighty for peo­ple to discern and judge aright of their own spiritual condition.

This appears by all these Rules and Directions. Were it not necessary, what need of any Rule? were it not difficult, what need of so many Rules of tryal about the Leprosie?

This condemns the slightness of many that are slight and care­less about this great work; bestow few thoughts and cares about it, about searching into their Spiritual Condition, as if it were an easie or a slight matter. It is the exhortation of the Apostle [Page 369] 2 Pet. 1.10. that we should give diligence to make our Calling and Election sure.

Obs. 2. That it is the Priests Office to judge of the Leprosie. It is the Office of the Ministers of God to help his people, in discerning their own spiritual estates and conditions towards God: therefore it runs so much upon the Priest throughout the Chap­ter. Bring him to the Priest, and the Priest shall make him unclean. Defile him, pollute him— that is, Ministerially declare him so to be. As Ezek. 43.3, 4. destroy the City— that is, prophesie its destruction.

God hath given his Ministers power to retain and remit sins, Joh. 20.23. which is the thing intended in this typical work of the Priests.

How should I understand without an Interpreter? Act. 8.31. How could men know the meaning of the Scripture, or apply it aright, without this means which God hath appointed for their help? Ordinarily they cannot.

Ʋse. It reproves that reservedness of many, who know not their own condition, whether they be Lepers or no, and yet will not disclose their case; whereas it may be the Priest might declare and evidence it to them, that they are clean.

To complain to every one, and to make Table talk of their Corruptions, and so to fish out praises, savours of Hypocrisie. But to make known their condition to some able faithful friend or Minister, especially if in the use of other means you cannot attain to a comfortable discerning of it, is a duty, through the neglect whereof, some are kept long in the dark about their own estates. It is often times out of shame, their sins and sores and spiritual Leprosies are loathsome and shameful.

But were it not better to make it known, then to let the sores of thy Conscience sester inwardly? Their Wounds stink and are corrupt, because of their foolishness in this particular.

Obs. 3. Note here (which will carry us through many particu­lars in the Chapter) the Rules of Tryal, whereby the Priest is to judge of the Leprosie.

There be five Rules especially, which be clear and safe to judg of the spiritual Leprosie by.

[Page 370]1. If it be but skin deep, it is not the Leprosie, he is clean: but if deeper, he is unclean. Vers. 3, 4— and again Vers 20, 25, 30. if it be but skin deep, it is some sin, some sore of a lesser nature: but if deeper then the skin, in the Vitals, blood, and spirits, he is unclean: it is the Leprosie.

So if there be sins and corruptions appearing like spots in the skin, in a mans outward walkings; yet if the heart be not taint­ed, it is a good sign.

A Child of God may have spots in his Skin, frailties in his life; but his heart is sound, his heart is perfect with God, sound in his Statutes.

But there be some sins that go deep, not only in the Skin; but the sin is deeply rooted in the heart, and spirits and affecti­ons of a sinner; so that the Vitals are infected.

This is a sign he is a Leper.

2. Tryal. Doth it stand at a stay? Or doth it spread further and further? Vers. 5, 6, 7, 8. And again vers 23, 27, 28, 34, 36, 37. If it stand at a stay, he is clean. If it spread, he is a Leper.

So a leprous sinner that is in a sinful state and condition, the Leprosy will spread in him. Evil men and Deceivers, will grow worse and worse. 2 Tim. 3.13. Their Corruptions gain ground upon them.

But it is a sign there is some beginning of healing, if it stand at a stay. If the Lord be healing a sinner, mortifying his Lusts, he is clean.

There is sinful Corruption in a Child of God; but it doth not grow, spread, and gather strength from day to day: but on the contrary, it is decaying, it is on the losing hand. The house of Saul grows weaker and weaker; but the house of David grows strong­er and stronger. This is a sign God intends good to him.

3. Tryal is this. If there be proud raw flesh in the Rising, vers. 9, 10, 11— and 14, 15. he is not to be shut up in suspense, the thing is evident.

But how shall we apply this to the spiritual Leprosy?

Thus. Is there proud raw flesh of pride and presumption and impatience of reproof? This is an evil sign the sin is grown to some strength.

[Page 371]There may be sores and spots in a Child of God; but they are not so sore, as that they will not be toucht; they will bear reproof. As David when Abigail reproved him. 1 Sam 25.32, 33. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel which sent thee, and blessed be thy advice, and blessed be thou. And so Psal. 141.5. Let the Righteous smite me, it shall be a kindness.

Others you cannot touch them, but you must be fensed with Iron, and the Staff of a Spear; Mic. 2.6. and 2 Sam. 23.6, 7. Such are the Sons of Belial, that shall all of them as Thorns be thrust away, and utterly burned with fire.

When a man cannot bear to be told of it, but his quick raw flesh appears; it is an ill sign, he is a Leper indeed.

Such an one it seems Nabal was, 1 Sam, 25.27.

But where this froward touchiness is wanting, if a man will take a reproof well, it is a good sign, it is not the Plague of unrege­neracy.

4. If all be turned white, a man is clean. Vers. 12, 17, and 34. This seems to be the strangest Rule of all, and the darkest Pas­sage in all this Chapter: there is some difficulty, both concern­ing the natural reason, and concerning the spiritual meaning of it.

The natural reason seems to be this; because it is a sign of some inward strength of nature, that it expells the Disease, and sends it forth to the outward parts.

Whereas if there be raw spots among it; it argues it is more inward, and the Vitals not so strong as to drive it forth.

The spiritual meaning is by some thought to be this; if all become white by true repentance and mortification, then it is not deadly.

But this is too general: therefore it seems to intend this fur­ther, that if we think there be any sound part in our corrupt na­ture, it is a sign of a Leprous sinner: so Ainsw. in loc.

If men have any confidence in themselves, if they seek any life by the deeds of the Law, then shall they be pronounced un­clean. But an humble acknowledgment of the overspreading cor­ruption of our natures, and flying to Christ for help under a tho­rough conviction and sense of our own total uncleanness and pol­lutedness; [Page 372] this is a sign the Plague is healed, and the Leper made clean.

The language of a Child of God is, There is no soundness in my flesh. Psal. 38.7. And in me, that is in my flesh, there dwelleth no good thing. Rom. 7.18.

The Opinion of Free will is a very dangerous Opinion. But if a man be throughly convinced of his own Corruption, and soundly humbled under it, it will make him look up earnestly, and cleave firmly to Jesus Christ to make him clean. It is the most dangerous thing in the world to take up high conceits of a mans self, and of the power of corrupt nature. This is a sure Rule, if people think themselves clean, and any part in them sound, they are in a sad condition.

5. In case the Leprosie be in the Head he is doubly unclean vers. 44. The Head is the principal part of the body, and the feat of Reason. Therefore a Leprosie there must needs be very dange­rous.

So in case men be corrupt in their Minde and Judgments, they are unclean, unclean. Corrupt Opinions are a sign of a sinful con­dition; such are far from the Kingdom of God. Where sin has pre­vailed so far, as to blind the very Mind and Understanding, they are more uncapable of Conversion than others, because so far from Conviction: For Conversion begins in Illumination.

There may be failings in the lives of the people of God: But they disown them; they are not so corrupt in their Minds and Principles as to justifie themselves in them.

There be several other Rules in the Chapter; some relating to the bodily Disease, and so not necessary to seek out a Spiritual meaning of each particular expression: And the same Rules in the first 17 Verses are repeated again in other cases of the Leprosie, in Clothes, in Skins, &c.

Let us therefore proceed to a fourth Observation.

Obs. 4. Note the duties imposed upon the Leper, when thus detected, they are five. vers. 45, 46, 47.

1. To rend his Clothes: a sign of sorrow and lamentation: so 2 Kings 6.30. The Kings Clothes were rent in that Famine.

[Page 373]2. His Head must be bare: For the same end, this being ano­ther outward expression of sorrow, usual in those times.

3. He must cover his Lip: Thus they were wont so to express their shame, see Mica. 3.7 — Ezek. 24.17.

He must keep silence before God, as being under shame and confusion.

4. He must cry unclean, unclean: He must give warning to o­thers to shun him. He may speak of his own Leprosie, but o­therwise he must be silent.

So a scandalous Sinner may speak in confession of his sin, he must tell others he is unclean. He must not charge others with their failings, but load his own Conscience, and take his guilti­ness home to himself.

5. He shall dwell alone: They were to be put out of the Camp, and excluded from the fellowship of Gods People. The Priest must shut him out and he must submit. So King Ʋzziah did. 2 Chron. 26.20.

This was a Type of Excommunication, that great Gospel Or­dinance, which is, the shutting of a sinner out of the Camp.

This brings me to speak of Excommunication, which is suitable to the present Providence. For this shutting out the Leper from the Camp of Israel, signified shutting out of the Church.

This therefore I shall speak a little to, both the Text and the present Providence of God leading and calling to it, under these five heads.

  • 1. The nature of it
  • 2. The cases wherein it must be done.
  • 3. The ends and uses of it.
  • 4. The manner of proceeding.
  • 5. To whom this work and power belongs.

1. For the nature of Excommunication. It is the putting of a Man out of the Church, and delivering him unto Satan. Put away from among you that wicked Persons 1 Cor. 5. ult. So Diotrephes, 3 Joh. 10. cast the Brethren out of the Church. There is a going out of the Church, when men rend themselves off by Apostasie, Heresie, or Schism. 1 Joh. 2.19. they went out from us— In [Page 374] which they are active, and cut off themselves, that is their own act; but in this they are sufferers, this is the Churches act by the power of Christ.

For as persons are united by consent into spiritual fellowship: so by the Churches dissent, to have him be of them any longer, he is cut off, or cast out; upon which he falls into the hand of Satan unavoidably. Delivering him unto Satan. 1 Cor. 5.5.

For the Church is the visible Kingdom of Christ in this World: therefore when cast out of that, they fall into the hand of Satan who is the God of this World; if put out of Christs Kingdom, and from under his gracious Scepter; they must needs fall under the Kingdom and power of Satan.

Quest. What power of Satan is this?

Ans. Not a bodily Possession; because the Apostle writes to the whole Church of Corinth to do it.

But it cannot be supposed, that the whole Church had the gift of Miracles: neither indeed is the Lord wonted to work Mi­racles for that end. We do not find it in Scripture, that the Lord doth put men by Miracle into Satans hand, but he rather works miraculously to deliver them from it.

But a spiritual power of Satan over them is hereby meant, namely, either to terrifie or stupefie them.

1. Sometimes he gives Satan a terrifying power in order to their humbling.

But, 2. If they be not terrified by Satan, when under this Ordinance, there is a stupefying hardning power: and there ne­ver was any man justly Excommunicated, but fell under one of these two.

Quest. 2. What are the Cases wherein Excommunication ought to be administred?

Ans. It being the highest Censure, and the severest part of that spiritual vengeance which the Lord hath intrusted his Mini­sters and Churches with; it should never be used but in Cases of great extremity, when no other means in the ordinary course of Gods dispensation, will attain the end.

But when the sinners Case is such, that it is beyond the reach [Page 375] of other means to help. Immeditabile vulnus ense recidendum est.

Hence it is not to be used for meer sailings, and infirmities, and sins of weakness, which a Godly man may fall into, and yet walk with God uprightly.

But for such sins and evils as are inconsistent with Grace here, or Glory hereafter: such, as if a man lives and dyes and goes on in; it is not possible he should have any Grace in his heart, or any grounded comfort or hope of Salvation.

Hence also it is not to be used for things doubtful and dispute­able, Rom. 14.1. much less for things indifferent; for they nei­ther commend us, nor discommend us unto God, 1 Cor. 8.8. and therefore should not to the Church. For in such things, we are not either the better or the worse for practising or forbear­ing: as the Apostle there expresly asserts.

But for things clear and certain, and universally acknowledg­ed amongst all that deserve the name of Christians: the Scri­pture speaks clearly to two Cases.

1. Fundamental errors of Judgment. So the Apostle 1 Tim. 1. ult. dealt with Hymeneus and Philetus. And what they held, is more particularly expressed in 2 Tim. 2.17, 18. viz. that the Resurrection is past already.

So Titus 3.10. An Heretick after his being twice admonished reject: so here Lev. 13.44. if the Leprosie be in the head, he is ut­terly unclean.

Hence therefore, if any man deny one God and three Persons, deny the Scriptures, the Deity of Christ, the Immortality of the Soul, the Resurrection of the body, or such like fundamental points; it is the duty of the Church to cast him out from among them; he is unclean.

2. For scandalous practises in a mans life and conversation. The Rule is plain, 2 Thess. 3.6. Withdraw your selves from every bro­ther that walketh disorderly: so in the case of the incestuous Corin­thian, 1 Cor. 5.13. put away from among your selves that wicked per­son. So Mat. 18.17. So of old, 2 Chron. 23.19. Jehoiada set Porters at the Gates of the house of the Lord, that none which was unclean in any thing should enter in.

[Page 376]This includes Moral as well as Ceremonial uncleanness.

Quest. 3. The ends of this Ordinance.

Answ. They are many: The principal are these three.

1. To vindicate the name of God from the dishonor done to it by wicked men creeping in among his people. This vindicates the ho­liness of God, that though he loves sinners, yet he shews his love in sanctifying and turning them from their sins, not in sheltering and encouraging them in their wickedness. This end is intima­ted in 1 Cor. 5.1. It is commonly reported that there is Fornication among you, and that such Fornication as is not so much as named a­mong the Gentiles. q. d. The name of God suffers by it: The Gentiles take offence against Religion because of this; they are ready to say as Ezek. 36.20. these are the Lords people. And so the holy name of God is profaned by such sinners, as the Prophet there speaks.

So again, 2 Cor. 7.11. what clearing of your selves? In clearing themselves they clear the name of God.

I mention this first, because this is the great and chief end of this Ordinance. And it never fails of attaining this end, though it have little success in other respects: Though the sinner be ne­ver so obstinate, yet however the name of God is cleared.

2. For the Churches good, to take away infectious persons from amongst them, and so to preserve and warn the rest; to keep the Church pure and free from infection. 1 Cor. 5, 6. A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. One root of bitterness may defile many. Heb. 12.15.

And to warn others, that others may fear. 1 Tim. 5.20. That all Israel may hear and fear, and do no more presumptuously. Deut. 17.13.

3. For the good of the sinner himself, to bring him to Repentance. For the destruction of the flesh, 1 Cor. 5.5. the incestuous Corinthian must be delivered unto Satan, for the destruction of the flesh. And God did so bless this Ordinance to him, that he was humbled, and brought to deep and thorough repentance thereby.

I confess this end is not always attained: But yet the Ordinance is not in vain. For this is not the only end of it, nor yet the [Page 377] chief end. For Gods glory is the chief end, the vindicating his great name, the manifesting his justiee, and holiness, and hatred of sin; and this end is attained, though the sinner is not converted by it.

Quest. 4. What is the manner of proceeding in Excommunica­tion?

Ans. Some things herein are left to Christian prudence, and must be judged of by the particular circumstances of every case.

But there be some general Rules to guide us in each particular.

There is chiefly this general Rule wherein all agree, all the godly learned that have written upon this subject do agree thus far.

That in some cases there ought to be a more gradual and de­latory kind of proceeding by certain steps and degrees: But in other cases the proceedings of the Church may be more speedy and summary.

Rule 1. In some cases there ought to be a more gradual and dela­tory way of proceeding by certain steps and degrees.

These steps and degrees are two. First Suspension, and then Excommunication.

The first degree is called by some the lesser Excommunication. And the second they call the greater Excommunication.

Suspension is a temporary debarring of a person from the present enjoyment and participation of Church priviledges. As the Sa­craments and power of Voting, till such time as his Case be fully determined.

Some call it Suspension, others call it Admonition, others the lesser Excommunication.

But he is a Member still.

For Excommunication cuts him off; Suspension only debars him of present communion with the Body for a time: But Ex­communication cuts off and dissolves his union with the Body.

The Rule for Suspension is in Levit. 13.4, 5. from the Priests shutting up the Leper seven days— And Mat. 5.24. Leave thy gift before the Altar— And Mat. 18. The Church must be told of his sin, and of his obstinacy under the former steps of proceeding [Page 378] with him, and it must appear that he doth not hear the Church before he may be made an Heathen and a Publican.

Quest. But how long must they delay the sentence of Excom­munication?

Answ. There cannot be a particular time limited, because of the infinite variety of particular Cases & Circumstances: There­fore whether an Offender should lie under suspension a week, or a month, or a longer, or shorter time, God hath left it to Christian wisdom.

It is dangerous to limit and make particular Rules, when God hath made none.

The general Rule, which is sufficient to guide and give light in all particular cases, is this. That till it do appear that the Of­fender sins presumptuously, the Church should not proceed to Excommunication.

If the Case be dubious and uncertain, whether he be a leprous, a presumptuous sinner or no, as Levit. 13. then shut him up seven days more, till it do appear that he is a Leper, and a Presumptu­ous sinner.

The same Rule is given concerning lesser & private offences, in Mat. 18.15, 16, 17. If thy Brother offend thee, tell him between him and thee: If he will not hear thee, take with thee one or two more: And if he shall neglect to hear them, then tell it to the Church.

Tell it. What is meant by the word [it?]

It must needs relate to the private offense before mentioned.

This Text therefore speaks not of publick Scandals; but of such Offenses as are private, till the Offenders impenitency neces­sitate the making of them publick.

The same Rule is given in case of corrupt Opinions. Titus 3.10. There must be a first and a second Admonition before Re­jection. The Reason is because it may be hoped in these Cases, that the mans sin may have been for want of Conviction, and therefore not of Presumption; unless he resist light, when means and matter of Conviction is held forth. And in private Offences the matter may possibly be healed privately.

Rule 2. In other cases there is no need of such delatory proceeding. [Page 379] If it be evident and apparent, that the Sinner doth not sin for want of Light, but presumptuously against Light.

And if the thing be already publick, so that it cannot be hid nor healed privately, as in the case of publick scandals. When the Offense is so hainous, that it cryes to heaven for vengeance, wasteth the Conscience, and is generally scandalous; the Cen­sures of the Church may proceed with more expedition.See Scobels Collect of Acts and Ordinance, an. 48. cap. 118. pag. 119. Thus ordained that great reforming Parliament by the advice of that Assemby of Di­vines that sate at Westminster upon their Call.

The Reasons to prove this, viz. that the pro­ceedings with Offenders, ought to be more speedy and summary in Cases of atrocious wickedness, are such as these.

Reas. 1. From Lev. 13. The Priest is directed to suspend or shut him up seven days, if the Case be doubtful.

But if it be evident that the man is a Leper, (and presumptu­ous sinners may well be accounted Lepers) the Rule is to shut him out of the Camp, not to suspend him seven days, but shut him out immediatly. See vers. 3, and 46.

Reas. 2. From the Case of the Incestuous person in 1 Cor. 5. The Apostle doth not warn them to take heed of Excommunicating him, and to suspend him first, and then to wait meekly and merci­fully for him, till he repent. No, but he declares he had already de­termined the Case, that he should be delivered to Satan, vers. 3, 4.

And indeed there is a general silence throughout the Scripture, concerning such gradations and delays in case of publick flagrant scandals. There is no Caution, no direction given for such pre­vious Admonitions to be given to such persons, in order to the preventing of Excommunication.

Reas. 3. From the strange impenitency and hardness of heart that is in scandalous sinners.

To instance in the sin of Uncleanness, which is the Case that now lyes before us, it is a very blinding hardning sin. Prov 9.18. But he knows not that the dead are there: and that her Guests are in the depths of Hell.

It is the fruit of a seared Conscience, a Conscience past feeling. [Page 380] Ephes. 4.19. Who being past feeling, have given themselves over unto lasciviousness to work uncleanness.

This meets with that Objection: should the Church censure a repenting sinner?

I will not now dispute that question, whether Repentance be always enough to prevent Church Censures.

Some think it is not: for doubtless Aaron and Miriam repent­ed. Numb. 12.11, 12. See how Aaron there confesseth and be­wails the sin; and he speaks in the plural Number for them both.

But here was a very scandalous sin, insolent and seditious speeches against the chief Magistrate and Prophet of God, who was exceeding faithful in his place, for which God smites her with Leprosie; and notwithstanding their own confessions, and Moses his Intercessions for them, the Lord would have her shut out. Vers. 14. And the Lord said unto Moses, if her Father had spit in her face; should she not be ashamed seven days? Let her be shut out from the Camp seven days.

So we may say of Fornicators, or of any other flagitious sin­ner: if his Father had but spit in his face, should he not be asha­med seven days? And shall he not be shut out of the Church at all for Fornication?

But there is no need to debate that: for all scandalous sinners are impenitent persons, and are so to be accounted by all that fear God, till full proof and evidence do appear, that they have forsaken those scandalous and wicked ways. And this neither doth, nor can appear ordinarily, till after there hath been a suffi­cient space and time, and tryal and experience how they walk.

Confession of a publick Scandal when the Evidence of the Fact is undeniable, is no sufficient Evidence of repentance: for Pha­raoh and Saul and Judas did this.

And no man that hath the use of his Reason, can or will do otherwise: for to what purpose is it to deny that which all men know? Or to seek to conceal that which cannot be hid?

In the Confessions of such persons it is observeable, That they are either meerely forced and extorted by the hand of God up­on them, as Pharaohs was when he confessed the Lord is righte­ous, [Page 381] but I and my people are wicked: and Judas his, by the horror of his Conscience, Matth. 27.3, 4, 5. Or else their Confession is extorted by the undeniable Evidence of the Fact, and mingled with manifest discoveries of Pride, even when they seem to be taking shame to themselves; as Saul, 1 Sam. 15. Or, (which is worst of all,) their Confessions are mingled sometimes with In­vectives against those which reprove them. As Matth. 7.6. They turn again and rent you.

Instead of an humble broken hearted Confession, you shall sometimes have a venomous virulent Confession from them, wherein their Confessions against themselves are mingled with slanderous reflections and invectives against their Reprovers. Yet when Excommunication is most speedy, it should not be without admonition, both before, and in the Ordinance, and after. But shut out they must be.

Hence continual suspension is an abuse; for scandalous sinners to stand suspended from year to year, but never fully cast out.

Quest. 5. To whom doth the power of Excommunication be­long?

Answ. This hath been matter of much controversy; there have been several claims set on foot, and many pretenders to this power. The Pope and Prelates have been sufficiently detected to be meer Thieves, and Robbers, and Usurpers upon the inhe­ritance of the Lord.

All the Question that remains, is about the power of the El­ders and the People. But I shall wave that which is controversal among the godly learned.

I would endeavour so to state the Case as to prevent and cut off Disputes and Janglings. Therefore note only thus much: That it is a general Rule in all Church Administrations, that the Offi­cers are to guide, and go before the Flock, and the People are to obey them in the Lord. Hence they are called Guides and Ru­lers. Obey them that have the Rule over you. Heb. 13. See Rev. 4. When the four living Wights, that is the Elders of the Church, give glory to God, then the four and twenty Elders, that is, the Mem­bers of the visible Church fall down before him and worship him. [Page 382] So in this business of Excommunication, both the Elders and People have something to do in it. To speak to them severally.

1. The Duty of the Elders or Ministers: This lies in two things.

1. It is the Ministers part to enquire of the Lord for his Peo­ple, and to declare the mind of God unto them, what the Lord would have them to do. It is the Ministers duty to enquire of the Lord for them. They must Deut. 17.9, 10, 11. come to the Priest for judgment: So Abiathar inquires of the Lord for David.

It is their part also to declare the Answer of God to his People. To hold forth the mind of God, and their duty to them. Deut. 17.9. They shall shew thee the sentence of Judgment. There is the like Rule for Gospel times. Ezek. 44.23, 24.

2. To pronounce the Leper unclean: To make him unclean, that is authoritatively to declare him so. This belongs to the Elders of the Church. Levit. 13.3. Some body must do it, and who fitter than the Officers, who have the Government of the Church in their hands? Whose sins ye retain, they are retained. Whose sins ye retain, that is, in a Ministerial way, in Christs name, they are retained.

Now when the Minister hath done his part; what is the Peo­ples part in this work?

As I said before: I shall not wade into controversies.

There be two things which are clear. There is a double act of obedience on the peoples part.

1. To give an actual consent of heart, and mind, and affections to what the Officers do in the name of Christ, supposing the Of­ficers to have done their part aright. Deut. 27.15. &c. all the peo­ple shall say, Amen. So the Apostle to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 5.12. do not you judge them that are within? their judgments should concur in it.

As at the Great Day the Saints shall judge the world, 1 Cor. 6.2. how? by approving the righteous judgment and sentence of Christ upon them: so here, the people are to approve and consent unto the judgment declared by the Elders from the Word of God.

2. It is the peoples duty to forbear keeping company with [Page 383] such a person. 1 Cor. 5. Keep no company with Fornicators. Vers. 9. With such an one not to eat. Vers. 11. Withdraw from every bro­ther that walketh disorderly, that he may be ashamed. 2 Thess. 3.6.

The Reason hereof is plain.

Either the people must thus concur, or else dissent, or else stand by as idle Spectators, and persons unconcerned: but they may not dissent: for remember how the Case was stated concern­ing Officers that are faithful in the discharge of their trust. In such a Case for the people to dissent, is, not so much to disobey them, as to disobey the Lord Christ.

They have not rejected thee, but me. 1 Sam. 8.7.

Neither are the people to stand by as Newters, and persons meerly unconcerned: for this were to frustrate the sentence of Ex­communication, and to make it void, for the sentence doth ex­clude him from the fellowship of Gods people: and therefore un­less they make Conscience of it, to forbear keeping company with him, the sentence is vain. It remains therefore that there is, and ought to be a concurrence of the people in Church Cen­sures.

Object. But all this that hath been said, goes upon this suppo­sition; that the Officers are faithful in the discharge and executi­on of their Office.

But suppose the Officers be unfaithful, and will not exclude ignorant and profane people, or will receive them, and shut out better then they.

Or suppose the people be froward, and will not withdraw from the looser sort, or will not consent to have them cast out; what is to be done in such a Case? What is the Remedy there?

Ans. This is a Case that seldom or never falls out in reformed Churches, in Churches rightly constituted, and Officers rightly qualified, it cannot often fall out: because the Lord hath promi­sed his presence to be in the midst of them; and therefore he will manifest and make known his mind, and their duty to them.

But if it do— After all other means used, Light held forth, and patient waiting and seeking to the Lord, and to the Godly-wise for advice and counsel, &c.

[Page 384]The last Remedy that Ministers have, is, to reform the mat­ter of the Church, by withdrawing from such a corrupt Majori­ty, as will not be perswaded to obey them in the Lord, and to close with the lesser, but sounder part of the people. And this is the Remedy that all the Godly Ministers generally have taken: they have left out the ignorant and profane part of the Parish from the Sacraments, especially from the Lords Supper.

So in like manner, if Ministers be so large in their Principles, that they will needs pollute the Ordinances; what can the people do in such a Case to help themselves: but, after all other means used, to betake themselves to some better Minister and purer Church? This is the last Remedy in such a Case: and so I have done with the fourth Observation concerning the Lepers duty, or punishment. Beside other things, he must dwell alone, and be shut out.

Obs. 5. We may here note the marvellous defiling, infecting nature of sin, in that the Leprosie infecteth Cloaths, and Skins, and Garments, vers. 47, 48. And sometimes houses also, see Cap. 14. It gets into the Walls and Timber: so that sin reacheth other things beside the person.

Sin may spoil a mans business, infect all his Comforts, it may ruine his house.

We see of what an infectious nature it is: therefore keep off at the greatest distance, have nothing to do with it. We should hate the very Garments spotted with the flesh.

Obs. 6. Note from the whole, what an intricate and cumber­some Dispensation the people of God were then under in those Legal times, in regard of the Law of Ceremonies.

Here was (beside the bodily Disease) a Ceremonial unclean­ness in it, which was very burthensome and difficult to judge of, and to keep themselves from it, and to cleanse it. And it was such a burthen, as might light upon a Child of God, a Godly man might possibly be a Leper.

As it is not improbable by some expressions, but that might be H [...]mans Case Psal. 88. he saith, he was shut up, an abomina­tion to them, and that Lover and Friend were gone.

[Page 385]They had this burthen of Ceremonial uncleanness, besides all their other burthens. That, as Peter speaks Act. 15. were a Yoke which neither we, nor our Fathers are able to bear. We are free from all this: we have no further care or burthen lying on us, but to look to the health of our bodies, and the moral un­cleanness of sin: but the Ceremonial uncleanness is vanisht away.

Ʋse. It should stir us up to thankfulness, and (as the best ex­pression of it) to love and prize and keep close to the Ordinan­ces and Institutions of the Gospel, which are but two, which are plain and easy and spiritual, viz. Baptism and the Lords Sup­per, with some few other things for the order and way of enjoy­ing these, as a Church-Estate and Ministry to dispense them.

As he said to Naaman: if the Prophet had required some great thing, wouldst thou not have done it? How much rather, when he saith to thee, wash and be clean?

So if the Lord had put that old Yoke upon our Necks and Consciences, which he hath been pleased to remove; should we not have taken it upon us? How much more, when he required only so few, such plain, easy, simple, spiritual things. We should love and prize them, and the Lord in them, and bring forth the fruit of Gospel Dispensations.


September 20. 1668.Hebr. 9.13, 14.

HAving spoken of the Ceremonial Uncleannesses, and the Moral Uncleanness figured thereby: It follows in the next place to speak of the Ceremonial Purifications, and the Spiritual Cleansing signified thereby, together with the means thereof. If the blood of Bulls and Goats sanctified to the purifying of the flesh— These general expressions include all: But the A­postle specifies one particular, viz. The ashes of an Heyser sprink­ling the unclean. The Law for it is in the 19. Chapter of Numbers.

There be two things chiefly to be considered in it, as in other Sacrifices.

  • 1. The matter of it.
  • 2. The Ceremonies, or actions about it for Purification.

1. The Matter; and under this there be four things observable.

  • 1. That it was an Heyser.
  • 2. A Red Heyser.
  • 3. Without spot or blemish.
  • 4. On which never came Yoak.

1. It must be an Heyser: So in the Text, so in Numb. 19. vers. 12. The Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, this is the Ordinance of the Law which the Lord hath commanded, saying, [Page 387] speak unto the Children of Israel, that they may bring thee a red Heiser without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never Yoke came.

Here is Gods Authority, so appointing that it should be an Heifer, though ordinarily they were to offer Males; yet here the Law you see, is expresly otherwise; it must not be a Bul­lock, but an Heifer: therefore this was a peculiar kind of Sacri­fice. God by his sovereign Authority did, and might appoint what he pleased to be offered in his Sacrifices.

2. It is particularly required, that it be a red Heifer: a colour often and fitly applied to Christ in a mystical sense.

My Beloved is white and ruddy. Cant. 5.10. so Isai. 63.1. Who is this that cometh from Edom, with red Garments from Bozrah? Red with his own blood, and with the blood of his conquered Enemies. And Rev. 19.13. his Vesture dipt in blood.

The redness of the Heifer did also point at the humane nature of Christ, which he had from Adam, who was made out of red Earth. Gen. 2.7. from which also he took his name Adam.

Thus Christ is red, and that in regard of his sufferings, and in regard of his victories, and of the blood of his conquered Ene­mies, and also in regard of his beauty; and lastly, in regard that he took part of flesh and blood, was really and truly man.

3. It is further required in this Sacrifice, that it must be with­out spot and blemish. Numb. 19.2.

This was required in all the Sacrifices, as Lev. 1.3, 10. with­out blemish. And it speaks forth the purity and perfection of Jesus Christ: therefore it is said, 1 Pet. 1.19. We are redeemed by his blood, as of a Lamb without spot and blemish. And him that knew no sin, hath God made sin for us, that we might become the righte­ousness of God by him. 2 Cor. 5.21. So he is both white and rud­dy— Ruddy in regard of his bloody Sufferings: but white in re­gard of his pure and perfect Righteousness.

4. It must be such an Heifer, on which never came Yoke. Numb. 19.2. So Christ was free from the bondage of sin, and did never come under the yoke of mens Inventions and Commands: nor did he suffer by compulsion, but freely and willingly when he died for us,

[Page 388]Sin, and the punishment of it, is compared in Scripture to a Yoke. Lament. 1.14. The Yoke of my Transgressions is bound by his hand: they are wreathed, and come up upon my neck. And so Joh. 8.33, 34, 35, 36.

He that lives in sin, and commits and makes a Trade of it, he is the servant of sin.

They boasted that they were free, and never in bondage to any man; but he tells them of a spiritual servitude, which they understood not▪ This was Christ free from

And yet further, as there was not this Yoke of sin upon him: so neither was there any Yoke of constraint or compulsion in his Sufferings, in any thing he underwent for us: all he did and suf­fered, was spontaneous and voluntary. Joh. 10.17, 18. I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of my self: I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. So here is a Heifer, a red Heifer, a Heifer without spot, and one upon which never came Yoke.

2. Consider the Actions and Ceremonies about the Heifer, which were also very significant, and full of spiritual mystery. Not to insist upon the bringing of her to the Priest, which was common to all the Sacrifices, there were four especially remark­able.

  • 1. That she must be slain without the Camp.
  • 2. The blood sprinkled seven times towards the Tabernacle.
  • 3. The body burnt with Cedar, Scarlet, and Hyslop, call in­to to the fire.
  • 4. The Ashes reserved to make an holy Water to sprinkle the unclean.

1. This Heifer must be slain without the Camp This is requi­red Numb 19.3. This Ceremony was required also in the Sin-Offering. Cap. 4 12.

This is expounded at large by the Apostle, Heb. 13.10, 11, 12, 13, 14. We have an Altar whereof they have no right to eat, which serve the Tabernacle. For the bodies of those Beasts, whose blood is brought into the Sanctuary by the High Priest for sin, are burnt without the Camp. Wherefore Jesus also that he might sanctify [Page 389] the people with his own blood, suffered without the Gate. Let us go forth therefore unto him without the Camp, bearing his reproach. For here have we no continuing City, but we seek one to come.

Some Sacrifices were to be eaten; but other Sacrifices, the Sin Offering, and this of the Heyfer for Purifications, they were not to eat them, but to kill them, and burn them out of the Camp. This shews that they which serve the Temple, which adhere to old legal carnal ways, they have no right to eat of the Altar, saith the Apostle; they that serve the Tabernacle, that adhere to Moses, and to those things that are of mens wisdom and invention (as all Moses his Ceremonies now are, being abo­lished by God. And therefore now to adhere to them, and to serve the Tabernacle, is to follow our own wisdom, and worship God according to our own pleasure) such have no right to eat of the Altar; they have no right to Jesus Christ, in that they keep not to the purity of his own Institutions.

Again, Jesus Christ did suffer without the Gate, which was prefigured by this their carrying this Heyfer out, there to be slain.

So they carried Jesus Christ out to Golgotha, there they Cru­cified him, so that it was fulfilled in Christ in a very manifest way. For that he suffered without the City, as this Heyfer was to be slain without the Camp.

Jesus Christ therefore being a reputed Sinner and Malefactor, and under that reproach and shame did therefore suffer without the Gate. We must therefore be content to suffer with him in the same disgrace and dishonor. If ye cannot be content to bear the reproaches and disgraces of the world, ye cannot bear his reproach.

The Apostles were accounted the very filth of the World, such as by sweeping is gathered together (as in the Margent) the swepings and refuse of all things. Wo unto you when all men shall speak well of you Luk. 6 26. We see the mystery then of this Ceremony, that the Heyfer must be slain without the Camp.

2. The Blood must be sprinkled seven times directly towards the Tabernacle. For the Priest is spoken of as standing without [Page 390] the Camp where the Heyfer was slain, who was to sprinkle the blood towards the Camp, and so towards the Tabernacle.

The Tabernacle was a Type of Heaven; therefore the sprink­ling the Blood towards Heaven, taught us, That our access into Heaven is only by the perfect merit of the blood of Christ. Heb. 10.19, 20.

The sprinkling seven times notes the perfect efficacy of the blood of Christ; for seven is a number of perfection; therefore often used in those mystical Dispensations of old. It shews the perfection of his blood, and that there must be frequent and re­newed application of it from time to time; It must be sprinkled again and again, and seven times over upon our Consciences.

3. The body of the Heyfer must be burnt with Cedar, Hys­sop and Scarlet, cast into the fire, and the Priests that do it are unclean until the Even vers. 5, 6, 7, 8.

Of the Burning you have heard upon other Sacrifices.

The casting in of Cedar, Hyssop and Scarlet, is peculiar to this Sacrifice; and something of Instruction we may pick out of it by looking into other Scriptures.

Cedar is noted for an excellent kind of Timber, the chief of Trees; and the Scripture doth sometimes apply it unto Christ in a Metaphorical way. Cant. 5.15. It is said of Christ, his counte­nance is as Lebanon, excellent as the Cedars. It is a stately and durable Tree, not subject to putrefaction. Therefore some in­terpret this Law as a shadow of the perpetual efficacy of the death of Christ, who by one offering perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Heb. 10.14.

As for Hyssop, it is said vers. 18. there must be a bunch of it to sprinkle with. Hence David prays, Purge me with Hyssop. Psal. 51.7. Some apply it thus: That the Bunch of Hyssop wherein they sprinkled the blood, is the Word of Promise, by which Christ is applied to the Soul.

Or thus. The Bunch of Hyssop signifies the Instrument of the application of Christs blood. And what is the Instrument by which we apply the blood of Christ, but Faith, and this Faith lays hold on the promise. It is the word of promise that brings [Page 391] Christ and his blood unto the Soul, and the Soul receives it by Faith. This must be cast into the burning.

It is by the death and sufferings of Jesus Christ, that the promises are made effectual, and that they have the virtue of cleansing us from our sins. And they were also to cast Scarlet into the burning.

Scarlet is of a red colour, and we read in Scripture of Scarlet sins. Isai. 1.18. Though your sins be as Scarlet, they shall be made as Snow. The death and blood of Jesus Christ saith the Apostle, cleanseth us from all sin. 1 Joh. 1.7.

And further, he that doth all this, must yet be unclean until the Evening: so before in the Sin-Offering, Lev. 4. with Lev. 16.27, 28. which plainly holds forth the imperfection of all Legal Sa­crifices, and the Iniquity that cleaves to our holy Offerings, as was there shewed.

4. The fourth thing is, the ashes must be gathered and reser­ved to make an holy Water of, to sprinkle the unclean. Numb. 19.9— 17, 18.

This Water which was made by means of this sacred Relick, is called in another place of Scripture, Numb. 5.17. holy Water.

It is called holy, because it was appointed by God for a holy use. He can set his Stamp upon, and hallow this Water, as he did on the Bread and Wine, appointing it for a holy use: and so this, it must be kept for an holy use, and every unclean person must be sprinkled with it.

Now the meaning of this sanctifying to the purifying of the flesh, is this, it plainly signifies the sprinkling of the blood and spirit of Jesus Christ upon us, for Justification and Sanctification. 1 Joh. 5.8. There are three that bear witness in the Earth, the Spi­rit and the Water and the Blood, and these three agree in one.

There is the Spirit of Faith in Vocation.

The Water of Sanctification.

And the blood of Jesus Christ for Justification.

These three concur in their Evidence and Testimony, that there is virtue and life in Christ for them that believe: so you see the mystery of it. When persons were sprinkled with this Water, they became clean; others might converse with them, [Page 392] they might come into the Tabernacle, and have Communion with God in his Ordinances.

This holds forth Souls being sprinkled with the blood of Christ, and with the Spirit, which is often compared to Water, as when it is said, I will pour water on the dry ground, and my Spirit on your Off spring. Isai. 44.3. see also Ezek. 36.25. and Joh 7.38, 39.

So they that have this sprinkling by the blood of Christ, they have access to, and fellowship with God by the blood of Christ. And so much for the meaning of the Ceremonial actions relating to this Heyfer.

Now for Use and Application a little, and so we shall conclude.

Ʋse. Learn this Instruction: See the Sovereign vertue & tran­scendent excellency of the blood of Christ; and it gives directi­on and incouragement to unclean souls to have recourse to Jesus Christ for cleansing. If these things did so avail to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ cleanse your Consci­ences from dead works to serve the living God?

The vertue and excellency of his blood appears, as to the pur­ging of our Souls and Consciences in a fourfold respect.

1. If compared with Ceremonial blood, of which the Text speaks. The Sacrifices were but shadowy cleansings, but a sha­dowy purification: But the blood of Christ cleansing the Consci­ence is the thing aimed at. These were the means to shadow out this spiritual cleansing. This is the end, the substance aimed at.

They gave an outward holiness, no inward holiness. When they were made Ceremonially clean, they did not change the mind, they removed but the shadow of Moral uncleanness, for Ceremonial uncleanness was no sin, but only a shadow of it: But the blood of Christ removes the sin it self; the guilt of sin in Justification, and the power of sin in Sanctification. So the blood of Christ hath a surpassing excellency, being compared with the blood of Bulls and Goats, &c.

2. Compare it to the blood of Souls and Sinners.

The blood of Jesus Christ brings more glory to God, than if all the Elect themselves had suffered to all eternity, more glory [Page 393] to God: And it is more efficacious for the good of Souls.

If the Elect had suffered, and their blood had been shed for their own sins, God had wanted much of that glory, which he hath by the blood of Jesus Christ. And more efficacious for good to them: For they could never have been saved by their own sufferings.

The worth of the blood of Christ appears

  • 1. In regard of the worth of the Person.
  • 2. In regard of the speedy satisfaction.
  • 3. In regard of the full satisfaction.

1. The worth of the Person: This is often taken notice of in Scripture, as belonging to the efficacy of the blood of Jesus Christ, that it is the blood of God: As Acts 20.28. and Zach. 13.7. He is the Man that is the fellow of the Lord of Hosts: Therefore the Apostle having spoken in Coll. 1. how that we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sin. In vers. 14. he falls into a description of the glory of the person of Christ. Who is the Image of the invisible God, by him were all things made. The dignity of his Person puts an infinite value on his blood and sufferings, mounting the blood of Christ to a higher satisfaction of Divine Justice, than the blood of all the Elect.

The Righteousness of Jesus Christ, is a more glorious Righte­ousness than if all the Elect had suffered for themselves; that had been but the blood of Sinners, this the blood of God.

2. The speedy satisfaction that is made to Divine Justice. Christ paid all the Debt at once, which Sinners must have been paying for ever: And this is more satisfactory to the Creditor, than to have the Debt long a paying.

If a man owe an hundred pounds, and must lie in Prison till the Debt be paid, paying ten pounds every year; this Debt will be long in paying, and it will not be so satisfactory to the Credi­tor, as if a Rich Man should come and set the Prisoner free by pay­ing the Debt presently.

3. He satisfied fully, and paid the whole Debt. Joh. 19.30. Our Saviour saith, Now it is finished. He hath made full and perfect satisfaction to Divine Justice. So that the Law of God [Page 394] hath more honor, and the Justice of God more glory, by the sufferings of Christ, than if all the Elect had suffered.

3. Compare the blood of Christ with the Righteousness of Saints and Angels, his Righteousness, and their Righteousness. There is a greater Glory of Jesus Christ, his obedience Active and Passive; then in the Righteousness of all the Angels in Heaven, though they had never sinned. For theirs is but the Righteous­ness of Creatures, in whom is a negative imperfection. Job. 4.18. He chargeth the Angels with folly, and the Heavens are impure in his sight. Christs Righteousness is more worth, then all the Right­eousness of all the Creatures.

4. If compared with the power of sin in its kind, to defile and damn souls; there is a far greater power in the blood of Christ to cleanse and save, then in sin to defile and destroy. Rom. 8.3. The Law became weak to do good, but it hath power to condemn. The strength of sin is the Law. 1 Cor. 15.56.

The Law gives a strength to sin, because by virtue of the curse of the Law, sin reigns and defiles the souls of men through that righteous Curse. The Soul that sins shall dye.

But the blood of Jesus Christ hath greater power to save, then sin (together with the Law) hath to condemn: for the blood of Christ takes away and abolishes it utterly. Where this blood is applied and brought home, sin it self cannot ruine that Soul. The Soul is poysoned and corrupted by sin; but the blood of Christ takes away that poyson, and makes the Soul pure and holy, as if it never had sinned: therefore as to those discouragements, I shall never get power against these sins, against these Corrupti­ons, they will be my ruine. These are deep reflectings on Jesus Christ, as if sin were stronger then he, as if thy sin were more powerful to damn thee, then Christ is to save thee.

Therefore be encouraged, how unclean soever thy heart and life have been, make use of this Atonement which hath been made to God by the blood of Jesus Christ.

What is the preaching of the Gospel, but the sprinkling of this blood? It holds forth Christ, and if men will refuse this blood, their destruction is of themselves; they perish not under the Go­spel, [Page 345] because there is no means of Salvation, no means to help, no means to cleanse and purifie them; but because they will not make use of it.

And what a woful thing is this, when light is come into the world, and help brought by Jesus Christ, for sinners to refuse it. For sinners to stand on their own Objections, this is to bid defi­ance to the Gospel, and to say, that Jesus Christ is no sufficient Saviour. But apply it, and make use of it, and it will cleanse thy Soul for ever.

Hebr. 9.13, 14.September 27. 1668.

THe Apostle in these expressions, [the blood of Bulls and Goats] includes, by a parity of reason, all the other Ceremonial Cleansings which are not particularly mentioned.

As they had three sorts of Ceremonial Uncleanness; so they had three ways of Purification.

1. For the uncleanness by touching any unclean Meat or thing.

The purification for this was by the Red Heyfer, which the Holy Ghost mentions in the Text particularly, whereof we spake the last time.

2. For unclean Issues: Two Turtle Doves or two young Pige­ons, the one for a Sin Offering, the other for a Burnt Offering. Lev. 15.14, 15. and Lev. 12.8. Or a Lamb and a young Pigeon, ver. 6. The rites whereof being the same with the Burnt-Offer­ing and the Sin-Offering, were there handled, and so need not be spoken to here again.

3. The third sort of Ceremonial uncleanness, was that unclean disease of Leprosie, which is treated of at large in Lev. 13. and the Cleansing of it in Chap. 14.

Of the Disease we have formerly spoken in the exposition of the 13. Chapter, and shall therefore now proceed to the cleansing of it; which was done by several Sacrifices and Ceremonies ap­pointed and directed in that 14. Chapter of Leviticus, wherein the method the Holy Ghost is pleased to use is this. He gives direction first concerning the cleansing of a Leprous person to [Page 396] ver. 33. and then of a Leprous house, from ver. 33. to the end of the Chapter.

The Rules and Directions about the cleansing of a leprous per­son are of two sorts: Preparative and Executive.

The preparatory directions are these three.

1. He must be brought unto the Priest. Lev. 14. ver. 2.

This was an Ordinance of God, and therefore Christ himself requires the observation of it; of that Leper whom he himself had cured miraculously. Matth. 8.4. Go shew thy self unto the Priest, and offer the Gift that Moses commanded.

The Leper was to dwell alone without the Camp, and with­out the City; but he was to be brought to the outmost part of the Camp, or to the Gates of the City, to the Priest.

Now the true Priest is Jesus Christ: Therefore the meaning of this Ordinance was plainly and clearly this.

That Leprous souls must come to Jesus Christ by Faith for spi­ritual healing. He is said to arise with healing in his wings. Mal. 4.2.

You know how many Lepers he did heal in the days of his flesh. And all the Miracles of Christ had a symbolical use to in­struct us in what he does for Souls in a spiritual way, by what he did for mens bodies in a miraculous way.

2. The Priest must go forth out of the Camp to the Leper. ver. 3.

This plainly speaks thus much: That Jesus Christ goes forth unto poor sinners when in their distance, in their back slidings and separations from the Lord: he seeks them and finds them out, whose blessed Office it is, to seek and to save lost sinners. Luk. 19.10.

We are by nature far from God, shut out and cast forth aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel. Ephes. 1.12. When thou wast in thy blood, I passed by and pittied thee. Ezek. 16.6. He goes to meet the returning Prodigal. Luk. 15.20. As the Priest here to meet the Leper, when shut out of the Camp of Israel.

3. The Priest shall see and behold if the plague of Leprosie be healed in the Leper. ver. 3. The Judgment of it is committed to the Priest, and he must judge as the thing is.

[Page 397]It is Christ himself that is the Judge of Souls, and he will judge true and righteous Judgment, Isai. 11.3. he shall not judge ac­cording to the seeing of his eyes.

Though men judge thou art a Leper, a Schismatick, a Fana­tick, be not troubled, if the Priest pronounce thee clean, if the Lord hath said it to thee by the witness of his Spirit in his Word.

It is the Priest must judge, and it is this Word which cannot err nor lye, that shall judge of thee at that day.

It belongs also to Ministers in an inferior way to judge of men, to discern between the Clean and the Unclean, and to retain or remit sins Ministerially. Joh. 20.23. These are the preparatory directions for the purification of the Leper.

Now, 2. The Executive part follows from vers. 3. &c. and it consists mainly in two things.

  • 1. The Sacrifice of two Birds and their Ceremonies, to vers. 10.
  • 2. A Sacrifice of three Lambs with their Appurtenances and Ceremonies, from vers. 10, to 21.

1. The first part of the Purification of the Leper, is by two Birds and the Ceremonies belonging to them, from vers. 3, to vers. 10. The Materials here required are two living clean Birds, together with Cedar Scarlet and Hyssop, vers. 4.

The Birds are thought to be Sparrows.

The Hebrew word Ziphor signifies a Bird in general, any wing­ed Fowl. Deut. 4.17. They are forbidden to make the likeness of any winged Fowl that flyeth in the Air. Psal. 8.8. The Fowls of the Air.

And is sometimes used particularly concerning a Sparrow, Psal. 84.3. and 102.7.

We may understand it here in the largest sense for any clean Birds. These two Birds and the Herbs, are the Ingredients that must all concur to make up the matter of this cleansing Sacrifice.

The two Birds were not two Sacrifices: for one of them was not slain, but dismissed: but they did both make up one Sacrifice, some of the Mysteries whereof, could not be represented by one Bird: and therefore two were appointed, the one to dye, and the other to live.

They had another Ordinance of the like nature, and of the [Page 398] same importance with this, viz. the two Goats on the yearly Feast of Expiation, Lev. 16. whereof the one was slain, the o­ther did escape, being sent away into the Wilderness: therefore called the Seape-Goat.

But why were there two Birds, and what was the Mystery of this?

Ans. It shadowed forth both the natures and estates of our Lord Jesus Christ.

1. Both his natures; his eternal Deity and his mortal Humani­ty, are here prefigured and represented.

The slain Bird, represents his humane nature capable of death and suffering.

The other Bird his divine nature, which was and is immortal and impassible.

As both these Birds were necessary, and must be used in this Sacrifice: so Christ our Sacrifice must be both God and man. We are not cleansed and saved either by his Deity or Humanity alone: but both his natures do concur in his mediatorial Actions for our Salvation.

2. Here is a shadow of the twofold state that Jesus Christ pas­sed thorough: first a state of death and humiliation, and then a state of life and glory. 1 Pet. 3.18. For Christ also hath once suf­fered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit.

Put to death in the flesh, that is, in his humane nature; but quickened by the Spirit, that is, by his Deity raising him up again from death to life; he must both dye and live again for us.

As to the Cedar Hyssop and Scarlet, they were used in the Pu­rification by the Red Heifer, of which we spoke before, and shall now add thereunto only thus much further.

That of these three, it is conceived, that there was a sprink­ling Brush made, namely the Brush of Hyssop, the Handle of Cedar Wood, and the binding of a thred of Scarlet dy.

The Apostle calls it Scarlet Wooll in Heb. 9.19. And as there seems to be a general respect had to the properties of these Plants, as was formerly shewed: so some do observe a particular sutable­ness [Page 399] between the Leprous Contagion, and these means of Purifi­cation, thus.

That as the Leprosie did corrupt and putrifie the body; op­posite to this was the Cedar-Wood, which is commended for firmness and soundness against putrefaction.

And as the Leprosie was of a foul colour: contrary to this was the fresh and fair colour of Scarlet.

And as the Leprosie had a very ill and unsavoury scent: the sweetness of Hyssop was a Remedy against that. So our Annota­tors on Lev. 14.6.

Thus for the Materials of this purifying Sacrifice.

Now the purifying Ceremonies and Actions were of three sorts, and all full of mystery: some relating to the slain Bird, some to the living Bird, and some to the Leper himself.

Let me briefly open them unto you.

1. The Ceremonies of the slain Bird, were chiefly these three.

1. It must be killed, vers. 5. You know the mystery of this in all the Sacrifices; it was a prefiguration of the death of Jesus Christ the true Sacrifice. Almost all things in the Law were pur­ged by blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission. Heb. 9.22.

2. It must be killed over running Water, or living Water. That is, Spring Water called Living, because of the continual motion resembling life thereby; that is, it must be taken out of a Spring or a River, not out of a Pond, or Rain Water.

What this means, our Saviour himself inter