Carolus Leigh M. D.

W. Faithorn delin.

I Savage sculp.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF Lancashire, Cheshire, AND THE Peak, in Derbyshire: WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE British, Phoenician, Armenian, Gr. and Rom. ANTIQUITIES IN THOSE PARTS.

By CHARLES LEIGH, Doctor of Physick.

OXFORD: Printed for the AUTHOR; and to be had at Mr. George West's, and Mr. Henry Clement's, Booksellers there; Mr. Edward Evet's, at the Green-Dragon, in St. Paul's Church-yard; and Mr. Iohn Nicholson, at the King's-Arms, in Little-Britain, LONDON. MDCC.


GUIL PAINTER, S. T. P. Vice-Cancel. Oxon.

To His GRACE, JAMES, Duke of ORMOND, Chancellor of the University of OXFORD; To the Reverend the Vice-Chancellor, THE DOCTORS, PROCTORS, HEADS of Colleges and Halls, AND THE Rest of the Learned MEMBERS OF THAT Flourishing and Famous University, THIS WORK is humbly Dedicated.

IT was some Years since by Recommen­dation from several of the Heads of Houses, Professors, and Doctors of Physick, that this Work was underta­ken; [Page] it is therefore from You that it pre­sumes to seek a Protection, which if it has the Honour and Happiness to obtain, the Censorious Criticks may shew their ill Tem­per, but will be too Weak to wound it.

I must own it may be look'd upon by some, perhaps, as a Piece of Arrogance for so ob­scure a Pen, to solicite a Protection from such a Learned and Honourable Body: But since the Sun, that great Luminary of the Universe, sometimes gilds the darkest Grotto's, I presume therefore so far as not totally to despair of Your Favour. I do with the profoundest Gratitude acknowledge that an Encouragement from so many Learn­ed Persons, contributed no small Matter to this Undertaking, and had that been wanting, the Difficulties I met with were so many, and so insuperable, I should not have been able to have accomplish'd my Design. The Method I have taken in this Book, [Page] (which has been a Work of Seventeen Years) is chiefly to relate Matter of Fact; ha­ving seen the Misfortunes of many, in swel­ling their Books with Digressive Quotations, and Chimerical Hypotheses, and as the French observe, frequently losing the Truth by Ar­gument. I can solace my self with this, that I dread not to be Contradicted in any Instance I have mentioned, having been Cri­tically Curious in each Observation and Experiment, and those frequently repeat­ed. It is my Hopes that several Matters in the following Sheets may occur, that in future Ages may not only tend to the Wealth and Honour of those Counties, but the Improvement of Natural History, and the general Good of Mankind, no Coun­ties in England affording so great a Va­riety of Mines, Minerals and Mettals, with other choice Products, and the most [Page] surprizing Phaenomena of Nature, if it happen to have this Effect, it will be to the infinite Satisfaction of

Your Ever-devoted, Most Humble, Obliged, and Obedient Servant, Charles Leigh.

To His Excellency, WILLIAM, Duke of Devonshire, &c. ONE OF THE Lords Justices of ENGLAND. The Right Honourable, WILLIAM, Earl of Derby, &c. The Right Honourable, RICHARD, Earl Rivers, &c. WITH The Rest of the Nobility and Gentry, Encouragers of this WORK.

My Lords and Gentlemen,

THERE are particular Spirits in Mankind which soar above the com­mon [Page] Level: Hence it is, that true Pa­trons of Learning and Honour, have such an Influence over those who move in a lower Orb, that they are enabled by that borrow­ed Lustre, to dart such Reflections, as raise some Sort of Men to that Pitch of Thought, that can allure them to the Perusal of a Book.

So little, indeed, by a great many is Learning esteem'd, and a Publick Good en­couraged, that an Author like an Ass in the Indies, may be overloaden with Trea­sure; but the Brambles in his tedious Fati­gues, are frequently his Recompence: The Poets, how unhappy soever they may have been upon other Accounts, have had their Moecenas's in all Ages, to guard them from the Fury of the Criticks; while the Philo­sopher, [Page] generally like Truth, the Object of his Intentions and Discourse, comes into the World naked: It's only his Innocence and In­tegrity that skreens him from their Malevo­lent Censures; but to add Lustre and Ener­gy to his Performances, is to derive it from the Patronage of the Great, which gives to 'em (if the Metaphor be not too uncouth) a kind of Perpetual Living.

Since therefore, so many Noble Perso­nages and Worthy Gentlemen, have been pleased so far to incourage this Underta­king, by honouring both it and me with your Generous Subscriptions; I hope you will pardon this in me, who cannot but now, and ever shall acknowledge it with the deepest [Page] Sense of Gratitude, and remain with the Profoundest Respest,

My Lords and Gentlemen,
Your most Obedient, and Oblig'd Servant, Charles Leigh.


I Cannot but be conscious to my self that several Errors may occur in the follow­ing Work, which have slipt my Ob­servation; but in relation to those, I have only this to say, as an Apology for my self, the Work consisting of that Variety of Subjects, I had so many different Persons to deal with, I could not give that attendance to the Press, which otherwise I would have done; and that if any material ones be met with, they are not mine.

There are some of the Plates which are figured twice over, but those being wrought off while I was in Oxford, the Error could not be rectify'd, but those are ranged in the Book with their proper Explications, so that the Fault is not material. It is said of De­mosthenes, when he gave the Athenians [Page] an Account how their Ancestors fought by Land at Marathon, and by Sea at Sala­mis, he took not the least Notice of their be­ing Victorious, but all he aim'd at, was to conceal that Tragical one at Chaeronea. If therefore the candid Reader in the ensu­ing Work meets with any thing which may be of Use or Divertisement to him, I hope he'll be so benign, as to erase, or at least cor­rect the Errors, since the Author, though he may be apt to flatter himself, to have been in some measure happy in the Former, may be as unfortunate in the Latter. The Design of the whole Work is briefly recited in the Preface; to that therefore I refer him, and shall not presume upon his Patience by Harangues and Repetitions; but subscribe my self,

His Humble Servant, Charles Leigh.


SO different are the Tempers of Men, and so various the Impressions made upon their Minds, that as it would be an high piece of Folly in me to expect the Favours of all; so on the other hand, 'tis equally pru­dent to be arm'd against the Criticisms of many, who will be apt to quarrel with di­vers Things contain'd in this Work; the Method whereof, (wherein I have endea­vour'd to be as concise as I could, having e­vaded Quotations from others, as far as the Subject would bear,) I shall briefly touch up­on, having first premised, that what is re­cited therein, is chiefly from my own Obser­vation and Experiments.

This Work therefore is divided into Three Books, the First relating to Natural Philosophy; the Second chiefly Physick; [Page] and the Third, the British, Phoenician, Armenian, Greek and Roman Antiqui­ties of these Counties.

As for the First, There is an Account given therein of the various Temperatures of the Air in those Parts, with the diffe­rent Effects it has upon Humane Constituti­ons, and other Animals: The Pressure of the Air is likewise fully examin'd, and it's made highly probable from various Experi­ments, that the Ascent of the Mercury in Glass-Tubes is not made by an External Pres­sure upon the Surface of the Quicksilver contained in the Cup, but by the various Elasticities of the Air in the Top of the Tube.

The Rise of Rivers, Meeres, Lakes, Ponds and Springs, with the Origin of them, is here accounted for; the Principles of Mi­neral Waters from divers Experiments de­monstrated; a full Account of Hot and Cold Baths, and in those Waters the different Causes of Heat and Cold assign'd, with their [Page] various Effects upon Humane Bodies.

Likewise, there is an Enquiry made into the different sorts of Earth and Coals here met with, with the Methods of Improving them, and the several Manufactures that are or may be made from them; the Mosses or Morasses, in respect to their Nature and Ve­getation, from the Plants that grow upon them, are examined, with the different Trees found in them, and divers other Phaeno­mena's: An Universal Deluge is fully demonstrated from several Topicks; but that there was a total Dissolution of the whole Strata of the Earth at that time, is proved impossible, both from Scripture and Observations in Nature: Whence 'tis evi­dent, Dr. Woodward's Hypothesis is Erro­neous, as is likewise that of the Theorist.

I have farther considered the different Minerals and Mettals, made various Ex­periments upon them, and have not past over the Methods of discovering an Essay­ing them; the Mineral Damps are also [Page] examined, with a full Account of their Causes and Effects; so are the Diamonds cast up by the Moles, and the Vegetation of Sea-Plants briefly, but fully illustrated: There is a concise Account given of the Physical-Plants, with a Rationale of their Effects and Tastes, and the Poisonous Plants ranged in their different Classes, with an Account of their Causes.

The Generation of Fishes, with the diffe­rent Kinds of them, the Formation of Shells, and the Vegetation of Pearls are enquired into, and solved; besides which, you have a Description given of Mineral plants, Shells, Fish Bones, Teeth and Formed-stones, with the Causes of them; to which is added an Account of Animal-Shells, and Sub­terraneous Skeletons, Foreign to this Island; as the Stag of Canada, the Elk, Hippopotamus or Sea-Horse, together with some American Canoes found upon the Draining of Martin Meer in Lanca­shire. Neither have I overlook'd the Rep­tils, [Page] Infects and Birds of these Parts, par­ticularly the Barnacle. And for the Qua­drupeds, they are likewise described, and divers Experiments and Observations made upon them.

The Second Book treats chiefly of Di­stempers both Chronick and Acute; be­sides which, it contains an Account of Per­sons that have been Eminent for Arms, Arts, Professions, Sciences, and Trades; for Erecting Hospitals, Colleges, and other noted Acts of Charity.

The Third and Last Book relates to An­tiquity, wherein you will find divers Hea­then Altars, Sacrificing-Vessels, Coins, Fibulae, Lamps, Urns, Tyles, Fortifi­cations, Signets, Pagods, &c. found in these Counties, described and explain'd: Like­wise it's next to a Demonstration from the Armenian, British and Phoenician Lan­guages compared together and examined, their Deities, the Asiatick Manner of Fighting, the Eastern aud British Way of [Page] computing Time, the Reverse of a Coin and divers other Things, that not only shew these Counties, but the whole Island was chiefly and primarily inhabited by Colonies from Asia long before either the Greeks or Romans came hither.

As for the Cutts of the Coins and other Curiosities contained herein, which will be found to be numerous, I have not declined the Charge of having them drawn and en­graven by the best Artists I could meet with, and I do not doubt but it will appear to be so to the Iudicious Eye.

I hope, I shall not be reputed guilty of Tautology and Impertinence, because I have recapitulated some Things now and then for the further Illustration of other Matters: And for the Language I have only this to say, that I have endeavour d to a­dapt my Expression to the Nature of my Subject, and that in writing of Philosophy, Physick and Antiquity, the Embelish­ments of Classick Eloquence is not much to [Page] be expected, since those must be exprest in Terms peculiar to themselves, and to do o­therwise were to grasp at a Cloud instead of Juno, and instead of reciting the Fact only express the Shadow.

But after all that has or could be said, I know there are some Men of that assuming Temper, that there is nothing grateful to them which is not their own; but how un­justly they usurp that Authority I leave to their own Consideration, and shall only de­sire the Impartial and Unbiassed to satisfie themselves with the Truth of any Observa­tion recited in this Book, and I shall not then despair of their favourable Opinion of me.

There is one Thing more that I cannot but take Notice of, and that is, the Unfair­ness of some Modern Authors in laying down Theorems upon Experiments which were not their own, and not acknowledging from whom they had them: And this may be observed in the Natural History of Staf­fordshire, [Page] and a late Latin Piece concern­ing Digestion, as will appear by Two Let­ters inserted in this Book. I might enu­merate more Failings incident to the Hu­mours of the Age, but I shall endeavour to evade the Calumny, of erecting a Porch larger than the Building, and shall there­fore proceed to the First Chapter.

To his Ever-honour'd Friend Dr. CHARLES LEIGH, upon his Natural History of LANCASHIRE, &c.

WHen by the pow'rful Sanction of a God,
From shapeless Nothing, and a dark Abode,
This new-born World, and early Nature rise,
Those shining Lamps, and you expanded Skies:
Then Man was dropt on this capacious Ball,
Large in it self, a Point unto the All;
His wise Creator never did design
His Life a lazy Round, and him supine;
Large Scenes he drew as Subjects for his Pen,
Worthy th' Almighty Author, and of Man;
The whole Creation in a Choire does move
From Plants below, to spacious Orbs above,
Those twinkling Lights we ken in yonder space,
For ought we know, are Globes of Earth and Seas.
But above all Man is alone supreme,
Vast in himself he forms a finish'd Theme:
Thro' all his Structure shines a Pow'r Divine,
He speaks a God in ev'ry Stroke and Line,
To him subservient the Creation bows,
And all its Blessings for his Health bestows.
Of old what Aegypt and Arabia taught,
And what learn'd Greece to more Perfection brought,
What high Improvements After-Ages gain'd,
And what Industrious Moderns have attain'd,
In you compriz'd we all their Knowledge trace,
And new Additions do your Volume grace.
From Paean's Shrine fresh Laurels are design'd
To pay you Homage, and your Temples bind,
Ev'n Natures self does all her Treasures yield,
And quits to you the Trophies of the Field;
Her in her dark Recesses you have view'd,
Thro' ev'ry Maze her wond'rous Paths pursu'd:
[Page] What Magick late and Mystery they call,
Now Art appears, and Demonstration all,
Nature exalted, rears her shining Crest,
And in her Works th' Omnipotent's confest.
You chiefly teach this curious Age to know
What Mineral Seeds in Purling Waters flow,
In raging Fevers how the Blood takes Fire,
And how in tedious Chronicks we expire;
In darksom Mines where noisom Damps offend,
Ev'n there your conquer'd Empire you extend;
What Air, or Earth, or liquid Seas contain.
Your comprehensive Genius does explain.
Old Rome to Britain once again returns,
And Heroes rise out of their dusty Urns,
Their Votive Spoils proclaim their Grandeur here,
Speak how prevailing once their Legions were,
Rescu'd from Rust of Time they live in you,
Whilst we their Pow'r in their great Ruins view.
May you these high Discoveries still pursue,
(If ought remains of that great Task to do)
Your Labours will the Test of Time endure,
Whilst you beyond the Critick's Rage secure,
Lord of your self, are pleas'd with future Toil,
And spread your healing Wings o're all your Native Soil.
R. J.

Some of the Names of the Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry, Subscribers to this book. Many are omitted (several Persons Subscribing for different Num­bers) whose Names are not known to the Author.

  • SIR Willoughby Aston
  • Dr. Robert Andrews
  • Dr. Archer of Kendall
  • Thomas Ashurst, Esq
  • Iohn Atherton of Busy, Esq
  • Edward Ayde, Esq
  • Iohn Aglonby, Esq
  • Thomas Ashton, Esq
  • Mr. Alonson, A. M.
  • Mr. Henry Ashton
  • Mr. Thomas Askue
  • Mr. Thomas Armatryding,
  • Mr. Adir
  • Mr. Atherton
  • Sir Iohn Bridgeman, Bar.
  • Sir Benjamin Bathurst
  • Sir Roger Bradshaigh
  • Sir Rich. Blackmore
  • Sir Rich. Brooks
  • Sir Tho. Billet
  • Sir Will. Busby
  • Sir Iohn Bland
  • Sir Henry Bunbury
  • Reginald Britland, Serjeant at Law
  • Dr. Bateley, Arch-Deacon of Cant.
  • Dr. Birch of Westminster
  • Dr. Breech of Christ-Church
  • Dr. Baynard.
  • Dr. Daniel Brown
  • Ioseph Brown, M. D.
  • Thomas Brotherton, Esq
  • Geor. Birch, Esq
  • Thomas Brooks, Esq
  • Humphrey Booth. Esq
  • Allen Bathurst of Trin. Coll. Esq
  • Iohn Braddyle, Esq
  • Henry Brown, Esq
  • Henry Bradshaw, Esq
  • Geo. Beach, Esq
  • Lawrance Booth, Esq
  • Nath. Booth, Esq
  • Orlando Bridgeman, Esq
  • Orlando Bridgeman, Esq
  • Rich. Bold, Esq
  • —Be [...]ford, Esq
  • William Blencore, Esq
  • —Brockhall, Esq
  • Mr. Bradshaw of New Coll. A. M.
  • The Reverend Mr. Hugh Barrow, B. D.
  • Roger Bolton, M. A.
  • Adam Budle, M. A.
  • Mr. Becinsall, B. D. Braz. C.
  • Capt. Booth.
  • Madam Brookes.
  • Mr. Robert Brewer
  • Mr. Thomas Bennet
  • Mr. Thomas Barbon
  • Mr. Tho. Briggs of Lostock
  • Mr. Tim. Bancks.
  • Mr. Thomas Bradshaw
  • Mr. Butterworth
  • Mr. Michael Burton
  • Mr. Nathaniel Boothhouse
  • Mr. William Burhell
  • Mr. Iohn Bradshaigh
  • Mr. Iohn Brenand
  • Mr. Henry Brooks
  • Mr. Iohn Brown
  • Lord Cavendish.
  • Lord Cholmondeley.
  • Lord Bishop of Carlisle.
  • Lord Bishop of Chester.
  • Sir Robert Cotton
  • Sir Edward Chisnal
  • Sir Iohn Crew
  • The Reverend Dr. Charlott, Master of University Colledge, Oxon.
  • Dr. Chamberlain of London.
  • Dr. Cox of London.
  • Dr. Covel, Master of Christs College, Camb.
  • Dr. Carmichal
  • Dr. Carter
  • Henry Chetham, Esq
  • Iohn Cheshire, Esq
  • Robert Cholmondeley, Esq
  • Tho. Cliffton of Litham, Esq
  • Samuel Crook, Esq
  • Allen Chamber, Esq
  • Lawrence Charter Prof. of Divinity.
  • Colonel Codrington.
  • Daniel Chaddock, Gent.
  • Mr. Carswell
  • Mr. Iohn Charleton
  • Mr. Robert Cheshire of Runchorne
  • Mr. Francis Cholmondeley
  • Mr. Iohn Clayton
  • Mr. Clark of Wicham
  • Mr. Thomas Clopton
  • Mr. Iames Crayle of London
  • [Page 2] Mr. George Corbishley
  • Mr. Thomas Crowther
  • His Excellency the Duke of Devonshire
  • The Earl of Derby.
  • Countess Dowager of Derby.
  • Sir Thomas Delves
  • Dr. Drummond
  • Samuel Daniel, Esq
  • Cha. Dartigueneve, Esq
  • Christopher Dauntesy, Esq
  • —Domvil of Linn, Esq
  • Mr. Delves, M. B.
  • Edw. Denham, A. M.
  • Mr. Delves of Manchester
  • Mr. Davy of Fradsham
  • Mr. Charles Du-Bois
  • Mr. Davenport
  • The Honourable Madam Egerton.
  • Edmund Entwistle, D. D.
  • Dr. Eives.
  • Peter Edgerton of Shaw, Esq
  • Iohn Eglenby, Esq
  • Thomas Ewer, Esq
  • Mr. Ioseph Eaton
  • Mr. Robert Eskrigg of Eskrigg
  • Sir Daniel Fleming.
  • Dr. Thomas Fern, London
  • Dr. Fenton
  • Dr. Pet. Fulwood at Stampford, Lin.
  • Lawrence Fogg, D. D. D. C.
  • William Farrington, Esq
  • Thomas Foster, Esq
  • Edward Fleetwood, Esq
  • Iohn Ferrers, Esq
  • Iohn Franks, Esq
  • Thomas Fleetwood, of Bank, Esq
  • Richard Fleetwood, Esq
  • Roger Fleming, Esq
  • Thomas Fleetwood of Staffordshire, Esq
  • Mr. Stephen Fox
  • Valentine Farrington, Gent.
  • Mr. Iohn Farrington
  • Mr. Fiswick
  • Mr. Fernill of Ridgeley
  • Mr. Henry Fean
  • Mr. Barwick Fairsax
  • Sir Christopher Greenvil
  • Dr. Gibbons, London
  • Dr. Goodall, London
  • Dr. Gould, London
  • Dr. Grundy.
  • Thomas Gerrard, Esq
  • Thomas Glasier, Esq
  • Thomas Gardiner, Esq
  • Henry Gilberson, Esq
  • —Greenvill, Esq
  • Iohn Grosvenour, Esq
  • —Greenvill, Esq
  • The Reverend Parson Gibbs of Bury
  • Mr. Gwin, Fellow of Iesus Col. Ox.
  • Iosiah Gregson, Gent.
  • Mr. Thomas Gibson.
  • Mr. Iohn Gadbury.
  • Mr: Henry Glibberton
  • Mr. Edward Graves.
  • Mr. Francis Gregg
  • Mr. Green, London
  • The Marquess of Hartington.
  • Sir Henry Hunloke
  • Dr. Halkat
  • Dr. Lancelott Harrison
  • Dr. Henshaw
  • Dr. Hicks, London
  • Dr. How, London
  • William Haddock, Esq
  • Thomas Hanmore, Esq
  • Iohn Harrison, Esq
  • Richard Hardy, Esq
  • Iohn Harleston, Esq
  • Thomas Hesketh, Esq
  • Robert Hesketh, Esq
  • Henry Hodgkinson, Esq
  • Iohn Hodgson, Esq
  • Iames Holt, Esq
  • Benjamin Houghton, Esq
  • —Holt of Crisleton, Esq
  • Iohn Hopwood, Esq
  • Edward Hornby, Esq
  • Hurleston, Esq
  • Hulme, Esq
  • William Hulton, Esq
  • —Hulton, Esq
  • The Reverend Mr. Iames Hamer, B. D.
  • The Reverend Mr. Hall
  • Mr. Holbrooke, M. B.
  • Mr. Haydock
  • Capt. Hambleton
  • Mr. Haddon
  • Mr. Haywood
  • Mr. Iohn Harrison
  • Mr. Iames Harvey of Knutsford
  • Mr. Harrison of Poulton
  • Mr. Thomas Haworth
  • [Page 3] Mr. William Hawkins
  • Mr. Iohn Hawkins
  • Mr. Hargraves
  • Mr. Hyde, Br. Coll. S.
  • Mr. Thomas Hodgson
  • Mr. Thomas Hunt
  • Mr. Robert Hyde
  • Mr. Francis Hopson
  • Mr. Iames Holland
  • Mr. Hunt
  • Mr. Hulme
  • Mr. Hind
  • Mr. Humphrey Hutchinson
  • Mr. Christopher Hopkins.
  • Mr. Charles Halstead.
  • Mr. Iames Hardy
  • Mr. Hall of Knutsford
  • Mr. Hall of Hulms Chap.
  • Alexander Iohnson Esq
  • Mr. Michael Iohnson
  • Mr. Nicholas Iackson
  • Lord Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland.
  • Lord Killmorry.
  • George Kenyon, Esq
  • Mr. Aaron Kinton of St. Martins in the Fields.
  • Mr. Keil of Ball. Coll.
  • Mr. Knaplock
  • Lord Bishop of London,
  • Sir Fancis Leicester,
  • Sir William Lowther,
  • Dr. Levett
  • Robert Law, M. D.
  • Rich. Legh of High Legh, Esq
  • Peter Legh of Lime, Esq
  • Peter Legh of Booth, Esq
  • Obad. Lane, Esq
  • Iohn Legh of Adlington, Esq
  • Peter Legh of High Leigh. A. M.
  • Mr. Rich. Langon,
  • Mr. William Law,
  • Mr. Iohn Legh
  • Mr. Iohn Leadbeater
  • Mr. Roger Langton,
  • Mr. Arthur Laundres.
  • Mrs. Ann Loveday,
  • Mr. Rich. Lownds,
  • Sir Iohn Manwareing,
  • Sir George Markham
  • Sir Strencham Masters
  • Sir William Meredith,
  • The Reverend Dr. Iohn Mear, Dr. of Di­vinity, and Principal of Brazen-N. Col.
  • Thomas Mather, Esq
  • Iohn Minshall, Esq
  • —Minshall of Grays-Inn, Esq
  • —Minshall of the Temple, Esq
  • Alexander Moson, Esq
  • Ralph Milbank, Esq
  • Thomas More, M. B.
  • Mr. Ioseph Milner
  • Mr. Iohn Markland of Wigan
  • Mr. Bevin
  • Mr. Valentine Moneston
  • Mr. Thomas Moss
  • Mr. Richard Mostyn
  • Mr. Francis Moult.
  • Mr. George Moult
  • George Nodes, Esq
  • Roger Nowell of Read, Esq
  • Mr. Thomas Newby
  • Mr. Nisbet
  • Crew Offley, Esq
  • —Oakes, Esq
  • —Ogle, Esq
  • Alex. Olbeldston, Esq
  • Mr. Iohn Ody
  • Mr. Iohn Offley, Grays-Inn.
  • Mr. Thomas Ogle
  • Mr. William Onely
  • Mr. Osborn, Ex. Coll.
  • Mr. Andrew Osborn
  • Mr. Ambrose Osborne of Warrington.
  • Dr. Thomas Parnell
  • Dr. Parsons
  • Iohn Price, M. D.
  • Edward Parker, Esq
  • Robert Parker, Esq
  • The Reverend Mr. Price.
  • The Minister of Penwortham
  • The Vicar of Presbury
  • Christopher Parker, Gent.
  • William Patten, Gent.
  • Nicholas Penington, Gent.
  • Mr. Pictairn
  • Mr. Parker,
  • Mr. Parker of Oxford
  • Mr. Iames Pearson
  • Mr. Thomas Patten
  • [Page 4] Mr. Plumtree
  • Mr. Henry Prescott of Chester.
  • Mr. Thomas Proddy
  • Mr. Iohn Pope
  • The Earl Rivers.
  • The Countess Dowager Rivers
  • The Lady Elizabeth Rivers
  • Sir Alex. Rigby, Knt.
  • Dr. Tancred Rovinson, London
  • Dr. Rule.
  • Thomas Rigby, Esq
  • William Rosthorn, Esq
  • Iohn Risley, Esq
  • Edward Rigby, Esq
  • Charles Rigby, Esq
  • Christopher Rawlison, Esq
  • Richard Wright Preb. of Chester
  • Mr. Keel of Baliol Mathematick Lecturer.
  • Mr. Richards, Ex. Coll.
  • Mr. Thomas Rean.
  • Mr. Ionathan Rose.
  • Mr. Reiner, London
  • His Grace the D. of Somerset.
  • The Honorable Iames Stanley, Esq
  • Sir Alexander Setton, Baronet.
  • Sir Archibald Steinson, M. D.
  • Sir Thomas Stanley.
  • Sir Robert Sybbald, M. D.
  • Sir Thomas Standish
  • Dr. Sloan, London
  • Dr. Sherwood, London
  • Thomas Slater, Esq
  • William Stanford, Esq
  • Thomas Stafford, Esq
  • Nicholas Starkey, Esq
  • Richard Spencer, Esq
  • Roger Sudel Major of Preston.
  • Charles Smallwood, L. L. B.
  • The Reverend Mr. Nicholas of Stocport.
  • Iohn Smith, Gent.
  • Iohn Smith Gent.
  • Daniel Sanford, Gent.
  • Mr. Strathem
  • Mr. Slyford, London
  • Mr. Skeer
  • Mr. William Shaw
  • Mr. Stanwicks
  • Mr. Nathaniel Spooner
  • Mr. Barton Shuttleworth.
  • Mr. Edward Shelton.
  • Mr. Savile.
  • Mr. Samuel. Shaw.
  • Mr. Iohn Stringham.
  • Mr. Iames Smith.
  • Mr. Iohn Sheer of Doddington
  • Mr. Iohn Sutherland.
  • Sir Tho. Tyrrell of Thornton
  • Nicholas Townley, Esq
  • Richard Townley, Esq
  • Richard Tompson, Esq
  • Thomas Townley, Esq
  • Dr. Tyson, London
  • Dr. Tod
  • Iohn Thane, Preb. of Chester
  • Mr. Edmund Townley, A. M.
  • Zachariah Taylor A. M.
  • Mr. William Taylor
  • Mr. Richard Thompson
  • Mr. Benjamin Tooke
  • Mr. Thomas Tatham
  • Mr. Thomas Vernon
  • The Earl of Warrington.
  • Dr. Iohn Wainright, DD. LL.
  • The Reverend Dr. Iohn Wallis
  • Dr. Woodroff
  • Dr. Wroe
  • Dr. Willoughby, London
  • Dr. Waterhouse
  • Iohn Ward of the inner Temple, Esq
  • Lawrence Walmsley Esq
  • Bartholomew Walmsley, Esq
  • Benjamin Walmsley, Esq
  • Iohn Wedgewood, Esq
  • Gabriel Wood, Esq
  • William Wooley of Derbsh. Esq
  • Mr. Will. Ward, Vicar of Portsmouth
  • Mr. Thomas Waltham
  • Mr. Thomas Watson
  • Mr. Westby
  • Mr. Thomas Wareing
  • Mr. Henry Wise
  • Mr. Richmond Walton
  • Mr. Evan Wall.
  • Mr. Thomas Williamson
  • Mr. Thomas Wilson
  • Mr. Withers
  • Mr. Whitehead
  • Mr. Thomas Winkely
  • Mr. Richard Walmsley of Showley
  • Mr. Ioseph Walker
  • Mr. Whitehead of Kirkham
  • Mr. William Walbanck
  • Ioseph Yates, Esq
  • Charles Yarborough, M. B.
  • Mr. Peter Yates


I Thought it necessary to give this publick notice to all that Subscribed to this Book, That several Impressions of Seals came to me, enclosed in Letters, but the Gentle­men who Writ them, mentioned not to whom each particular Coat belonged; for want of those Directions, I was obliged to omit se­veral; but have left a Plate, and given Orders for the Engraving of them; So that if those Gentlemen be pleas'd to send an Im­pression of their Arms to Mr. Sturt, an En­graver, near the White-Lyon in Red-Cross-Street, in London, they may have their Arms Engraved; and that Plate an­nexed to the rest.

Place this before the first Plate of the Arms.




A New Map of LANCASHIRE, CHESHIRE & DERBY­SHIRE, in wch are Delineated most of ye Towns, Rivers, Meers, & Places Relating to ye Natural History of these Countries by Charles Leigh Doctor of Physick


CHAP. 1.

Of the Ancient Inhabitants, and of the Air in those Counties.

LANCASHIRE, my Native Soil, hath its Denomi­nation from Lancaster, the County Town, an An­cient Corporation, in which there are many and spacious Buildings: It is Situated upon the River Lune, of which I shall have occasion to treat hereafter. This Country was formerly Inhabited by the Brigantes, who settled behind the Mountains, towards the Western Ocean: From what Country these Men came is not very certain, (as Mr. Cambden affirms) some deriving them from Spain, others from the Alps, and a third sort giving them that Name from the Piracies they committed, as the French: However thus far we may conclude, They were a Warlike People, inhabiting amongst the Ancient Britains; and the further Disquisition of that matter I leave to the Antiquaries, it being forein to this Undertaking: Where­fore I shall hasten to the Natural History, and according to my design'd Method, First, Treat of the natural and va­rious Temperaments of the Air, and afterwards of the un­usual Phaenomena which have hapen'd in that Element.

[Page 2] However before I leave the Ancient Inhabitants of this County, take a farther Account of them, given by that Learned and Eminent Antiquary, Mr. Hollingworth, once Fellow of the Collegiate-Church of Manchester, his Ma­nuscript being now Reposited in the Publick-Library there. ‘The Ancient Inhabitants (says he) of Yorkshire, Lan­cashire, Westmorland, Cumberland and Durham, were the Brigantes, their chief City was York, sometimes call'd Brigantia: In Vespasian's Time, Petilius Cerialis struck a Terrour into the whole Land, by Invading at his first Entry the Brigantes, the most populous of all the whole Provinces; many Battles, and some Bloody ones, were fought, and the greatest part of the Brigantes were either conquer'd or wasted.’

I dare not be positive in Matters of so abstruse a Nature, but my own Opinion is, That they Originally were Phoe­nicians; and this I shall in some measure endeavour to make out, from the Name of the Island in general, and the Phoenician Name of a River in these parts. As to the Island it self, as some have asserted, it was anciently call'd Bratanac, that word in the Phoenician Language signifying Tin, which was the chief product of the Isle they Traffick'd in: However, tho' that may seem to admit of a debate, yet it is well known to be the Custom of the Eastern Na­tions to express themselves by Allegories, Metaphors, and concise Expressions, and so the Hypothesis is not irrational. As to the derivation of the word Britannia, it may thus be accounted for in another sense, Brit in the British Language signifies Paint, and all our Historians agree the Britains were a painted People; and, as is imagined, made use of the Juice of Glastum or Woad, and the Land at that time probably had no other Name save that Monosyllable: But upon the Phoenicians arrival to Trade upon their Coasts, which chiefly they did in Cornwal, where the Tin Mines were discover'd, and whose Inhabitants were call'd by the Greeks Cassiterides; it is very likely then their [Page 3] Weights, which were the Standards of Commerce, were made of Tin, Lead perhaps not being then discover'd. Hence, it may be, the Phoenician Merchants to the word Brit added anac, which in the Phoenician Language is Poise or Ballance by which they Trade; nor do the Arabians differ much from that, stiling it ana, which by an easy corruption may be reduced to Britannia. As to the Bri­gantes, it is reasonable to conclude, a greater part of them Phoenicians, a People of Syria, very industrious Improvers of Navigation, since we have a remarkable River in Lan­cashire call'd Ribbel, by Ptolomy stiled Bellisama, which word undoubtedly he derived from the Phoenician words Belus and sama, signifying in that Language, the Moon, or Goddess of Heaven, she being suppos'd to have a particular Influence over Waters, and at that time the Deity they Adored. Hence it is evident, That before the Greeks Traded into Britany, the Phoenicians had been there, and no doubt discover'd the greatest part of the Island: Since therefore a River in this Country, in those early days, retain'd a Phoenician Name, as the Greek Geographer Ptolomy makes it manifest it did, to me it seems an un­deniable Conjecture to suppose, that that Name must be attributed to it from the People of that Country, viz. Phoe­nicia, that resided near it; probably in the pleasant and beautiful Town now stiled Preston▪

To this we may introduce one reasonable Allegation more, That these People were of an Asiatic Origin, that is, from their manner of making War, which was in ma­naging their Chariots, as the Eastern Nations practiced, a Custom not made use of in any European Kingdom, save this Island only: This Iulius Caesar found upon his Inva­sion of the Isle, which way of Fighting he had not met with, either in Germany, Gaul, Belgium, or other his con­quer'd Countries.

To these may be added the Reverse of a Roman Coin of Asia minor, which shews the Expertness of those People in [Page 4] Navigation, above all the World; which may still more easily induce us to believe, they were a great part of 'em a People of that Nation; but that will be explain'd in its proper place, viz. in the Chapter of Antiquities: However thus far we may venture to conjecture, since the Asiaticks were so great Masters of that Art, that they might easily Transplant themselves hither.

For the further Confirmation of what is here laid down, I shall only produce one Instance more, and so close this Head. It is affirm'd by Strabo, and several others, that the most Northern part of Britany was anciently stiled Thule, which at this Day the Scots term Orkney, and the Latins Orcades. Now Thule being a Phoenician word, signifying Darkness, by an easy Train of Thought we may reasonably infer, the Phoenicians might give that Name to those Islands; either from the great Shadows of their Woods, which were then numerous, or the Shortness of their Days, many of which are but Five Hours. Since therefore we may reasonably suppose, the Phoenicians were in those more Northern parts, to me there appears no difficulty to conceive, how they might Transplant themselves into Lancashire, and other Counties Inhabited by the Brigantes. Having now accounted for that River stiled by Ptolomy Bellisama, and likewise made it highly probable, that the Phoenicians were in those Parts, it remains in the last place, that I assign some Conjectures, why afterwards that River was call'd Ribbel. Concerning this the Suppositions are va­rious, some deriving it from the Greek Verb [...], which to me seems irrational; since Bel, which is a Phoenician word, cannot be accounted for in the Greek Language. Others would make it British, but I do not see how in that Language that can be made out; since in British, Avon or Savon are the Names for River, which Words cannot bear any relation to Ribbel. Wherefore, with submission to the more Knowing in those Languages, it is my Thoughts, that since from the preceding Topicks, we may reasonably [Page 5] infer the Phoenicians were in those Parts, and cohabited with the Britains, who being a People of vast Industry and Experience in Navigation, might from their Neighbours, the Persians, with their Colonies, send hither several of that Country. The Persians, as well as they, in those Days Deify'd their Rivers, sometimes stiling them Heaven, and the God and Goddess of Heaven: Wherefore Arribel in the Armenian Language (which is the Language com­monly spoke in Persia) signifying Heaven, thence Ribbel may be accounted for, and not otherwise. So far as from the Harmony of Languages I am able to conjecture, the radical Letters in the Armenian Tongue, and in the River now stiled Ribbel, being in a great measure the same; and the Rivers then, by those People, being sometimes stiled Heaven, I do not see how that consent of Languages and History can be reconciled, but by supposing People from that Country inhabiting amongst the Britains.

The more clearly to illustrate, that the Brigantes were a mixt People of Phoenicians and Britains, I shall produce but one Instance more, and upon that Head not further pre­sume upon the Reader's Patience. The Instance is taken from a Rivulet, a Branch of that River before treated of, stiled Ribbel; this Rivulet is at this day vulgarly stiled Savig: Now ig in the British Language being a Diminutive to shew the distinction betwixt a River and a Rivulet, which is therefore added to Avon, which in that Language signi­fies a River, Afonig and Savonig in the British Language signifying Rivulet, from thence may easily be accounted for the Name of that Rivulet now stiled Savig: Since therefore in those Parts we find a mixture of Phoenician, Armenian and British Languages, we may thence make this reasonable Corollary, that those People lived together. And why they were stiled Brigantes, I presume may be ac­counted for from Tacitus, who very likely might take 'em to be a People from Gaul or Belgium, that is, from the Bri­gantines Rovers and Pirates; since in those Countries, to [Page 6] this very time, the Vessels commonly made use of for ex­pedite Sailing, are stiled Brigantines.

The Air for the most part is mild, serene and healthful, excepting on the Fenny and Maritime parts of the County, where they are frequently visited with malignant and in­termitting Fevers, Scurvies, Consumptions, Dropsies, Rheu­matisms, and the like; occasion'd by Sulphureous Saline Effluvia, sometimes extremely foetid, which I have fre­quently observ'd to be so, before the approaching of some extraordinary Storm; and it is most certain, the Inhabi­tants upon the Sea Coasts, from the hollow murmuring Noise, which is frequently heard from the Ocean, and the offensive Smells perceiv'd from those Coasts, will make as early and certain a Prognostick of the Change of Weather, as the Modern Virtuosi can do by their Mercurial Tubes.

It is observable, whilst this Noise is heard in the Ocean, the Surface of the Water is elevated after an unusual manner; and upon the subsiding of the Water it is observ'd, the Storm immediately succeeds: From which Phaenomena it is reasonable to conclude, the following Tempests to be occasion'd by Eruptions from the Bowels of the Earth, strugling with that mighty Element, till they had forced their way through its immense Body, which afterwards flying about in the circumambient Atmosphere, frequently occasion tempestuous Commotions, and sometimes pesti­lential Distempers. These being the Phaenomena which are almost each Year observable, I hasten to more unusual Ac­cidents; and, first, shall begin with those of Lightning and Thunder, and other Appearances in the Heavens.

About Eight Years ago, in a small Village, call'd Elswick, upon a Sunday about Three of the Clock in the Afternoon happen'd a terrible Tempest of Lightning and Thunder, which produced very dismal Effects. The particulars of it were these: After several amazing Claps of Thunder, and dreadful Flashes of Lightning, at last struck thro' the Air [Page 7] a Blaze, not much unlike that of an artificial Serpent; it took its course into a Chimney, and beat down the Bricks outwardly, seemed to burst like a Squib upon the ground, and afterwards clouded the House with Fumes, which had exactly the smell of Sulphur. A Man lying in the Range of the Chimney, was Killed, and lay as if he had been sleep­ing; the Bench upon which he lay was split under him, and under that an Hound-Bitch Killed; near to him was sitting the Wife of the House, with a little Child upon her Knee, the Mother afterwards was wore away with the Fluor Albus, and the Child fell into the Rickets, which distorted the Spine, and after some Years, being confined to his Bed, died of that Distemper.

Behind a Table several Persons were sitting, and from amongst Four or Five, only One was struck off his Seat into the midst of the Room, and was for some time Paralytick in his lower Parts; but I afterwards by a due Course of Physick, and Bleeding, and Blistering him immediately upon the Accident, restored him to his former Health. Another Gentleman sitting in a Chair near him was struck out of it, and lay upon the Ground in most violent Tor­ture, in which I saw him; but by Bleeding and Blistering in some Days recover'd him.

In the outward Porch were sitting several Persons, and a young Man Kill'd out of the midst of 'em, none of the rest being Injured, or sensible of any Disturbance; only one Wo­man perceiv'd a Waft, like a Gust of Wind, under her Coats, but receiv'd no damage.

In the Rooms above I observ'd the following Phaeno­mena: The Chamber Door was thrown off the Hinges into the midst of the Room, the Curtains of the Bed were singed, and its two diagonal Posts split in pieces; the Win­dows, tho' fix'd firm in a Brick-Wall, were forced from their stations, but no Glass broke; upon the out-side of the Glass I observ'd a black Steam, which was insipid, and had no smell; the Brick Pillars, in which they were fix'd, were [Page 8] pierced through with the Lightning, the Holes were about an Inch diameter, and seem'd as if done Artificially. From these its plain the Matter of the Lightning was in part Sul­phureous, and in this I am further confirm'd by some Phae­nomena communicated to me by several, who had made Voyages to the West-Indies, who do all affirm, that in those Parts are frequent and terrible Lightnings, in which dread­ful Hours the Smell of Brimstone is very distinguishable; and sometimes upon their Hats, and the Decks of the Ships, they find perfect Brimstone collected. Wherefore it may suffice us Mortals, to be satisfy'd what is the material Cause of Lightning and Thunder; but Mechanically to explain how they produce these wonderful Effects, I do judge is not in the Power of Human Understanding: But in gene­ral, by the Symptoms in the Instances recited, we may con­clude, there was a total Dissipation of the Animal Spirits, and a Coagulation of the Blood: Wherefore Bleeding and Epispasticks, if any thing be to be done, must certainly be the Method that ought to be taken.

Many more Instances of this kind might be produced, but it has never been my Temper to swell a Book with un­necessary Quotations, or to trangress so far upon the Reader, as to tire out his Patience with Instances of Authors tend­ing to the same purpose; unless something occurr'd, that might clearly and fully evidence the Truth of an Hypo­thesis, or some wise conduce to the Good of Mankind: If therefore this History be compris'd in a smaller Volume, than perhaps some might expect, let such be satisfy'd 'tis for the Reasons alledg'd; and as that hitherto has been, so shall still continue my Resolution.

Mock-Suns, or Parhelii, and Moon-Bows have been ob­serv'd in this Country; but as they have not happen'd in this Generation I shall pass them over, and proceed to give an Account of some Damps which Infect the Air, in which no Creature can live. It is observable in several Cellars, especially against hot Weather, a suffocating Damp [Page 9] arises out of the Earth, this is usually most violent when any Quantity of strong Liquors are fermenting; in this I have seen Candles extinguish'd, Creatures render'd Le­thargick, Asthmatical, and their Tongues lolling out and salivating, and Boys thrown into Swoonings or Deliqui­ums. The time I stay'd in the Damp, which exceeded not one Minute, I found a very unaccountable Chilness seize my Spirits, and was sensible of an universal Weakness, was deeply Asthmatical, and could abide it no longer: This is removed by Opening the Cellar-Windows, and putting Fires into the Place, which will not Burn till Vent first be given. Of this I shall have occasion to treat more fully in the Discourse of Mineral Damps, wherefore shall in this place pass it over.

The next things remarkable are Hailstones, of which the Year 1697. afforded us a pregnant Instance. The Wind blowing high at North-west, happen'd a violent Storm of Hail, several Stones were Nine Inches in circumference, others were Six, Seven and Eight. In this Storm several Rooks were Kill'd in their Nests; some Hares upon their Seats; vast Quantities of Glass broke, and all Kinds of Cattle in a general Consternation. Before the Storm hap­pen'd, several Birds were taken up, never before that time seen in these Parts; from this its probable to conjecture, the Tempest arose from the more remote Northern Climes, and spent it self when it came into a warmer Climate, but was driven by the Wind: For it was observable, it was al­most forced directly cross the County, in a direct line from the Sea Coasts. Allowing Nitrous, Saline Particles to be the Cause of Snow and Hail, it is easy to solve the rest of the Phaenomena, by alledging a greater quantity of those Particles collected in the Atmosphere, at those times, when these Storms invaded us: Wherefore I shall not form un­necessary Schemes of Reasoning upon that matter, but pro­ceed to what I next design; and that is to give an Account of the various Alterations observ'd in Quicksilver, upon its [Page 10] Surface in the different Tempers of the Air, and shall then close this Chapter.

The Learned Mr. Boyle, in his Hydrostatick Experiments, and Linus and Torricellius in theirs, upon Tops, and at the Bottoms of Mountains, have sufficiently demonstrated, by the Quicksilver ascending the higher, by how much the more it was immersed in Water; and likewise by rising higher in the Valleys, than on the Tops of Mountains: The ascending of it in the Weather-glasses to be by pressure, the weight of the Atmosphere in those Cases being much greater, and consequently the pressure more. To these I shall add what has been observ'd by our Learned Warden, the Revd Dr. Wroe, who for several Years has kept an exact Diary of the Weather-glass: He always observ'd the Quick­silver, upon its ascending, to alter its Surface, insomuch as in very dry Weather to become perfectly Convex; and upon an Alteration of the Air to a wet Temper, to alter to a plain Surface, and in extreme wet Weather to a perfect Concave, the Mercurial Particles hanging on the sides of the Glass: By this it should seem, that besides the Ascent made by the Pressure, there is another also made by the in­testine Fermentation of the Quicksilver; and in this I am the farther confirm'd, since Quicksilver in Glass Tubes Her­metically Seal'd, has been observ'd to Rise and Fall; which could not be, was the Ascent by Pressure wholly upon the Surface of the Quicksilver contain'd in the Cup.

Another thing remarkable in the Air, is the exposing openly dry'd Leaves of Tobacco, which in the hottest Days do soonest grow Moist; for which no other Reasons can be assign'd, but the Exhalations in hot Weather are far greater, and consequently the aqueous Particles more numerously ranged in the Atmosphere: And this I take to be the reason why the Drops of Rain are then usually larger; and per­haps, for the same reason, the Bigness of Hailstones may in some measure be solv'd.

[Page 11] CHESHIRE, a County Palatine, and amongst other Things, Famous for its Earls, who had a Palatine Juris­diction belonging to them; and all the Inhabitants held of them as in Chief, and were under a Sovereign Allegiance and Fealty to them, as they to the KING. This County was anciently Inhabited by part of the Cornavii: The Air there may be said to be more Healthful and Mild than in Lancashire, this County not so much abounding with Fens, Salt-Marshes and Mosses: What is said more of the Air in Lancashire, may serve as to this Place; and as to its farther Antiquities, the following Account may be added.

According to Sir Thomas Elliot, the First Name given to this City was Neomagus, so call'd from Magus Son of Samothes, Son of Iaphet, its Founder, (see Lambert pag. 17th) about 240 Years after the Flood. Were this Account true, for ought I know it may stand in Competition with the most antique City in the Universe. Its Second Name was Caerleon, (see Albion Mareoticus) so nominated from Leon Vaur or Gauer; who, as some will have it, was a Giant in Albion, and One of its Restorers. The reason of this Conjecture I suppose may, in some measure, be grounded upon the following History, i. e. upon a Giant's Skull being dug up in Pepper-street, with the rest of the Bones. Upon the Britains coming over and settling there, it was afterwards call'd Caerleil; and afterwards Caerleir, because these Two British Kings were Enlargers and Beauti­fiers of it, according to Iackson, Stow, and others. Before the Arrival of the Romans here, it is probable this City was call'd Genuina or Gunia, as will more fully appear from the Inscription of a Votive Altar, dug up in this City, and Dedicated to Iupiter Tanar, that is, in the Welch Lan­guage, the Thunderer; which language it is likely the Ro­mans might make use of in this Inscription, to demon­strate their Conquests over the Britains. After the Ro­mans had six'd here their conquering Legion, stiled Valens & Victrix, it was then stiled Caerlheon; Caerlegion, [Page 12] or as 'tis otherwise commonly call'd, Ardourdwy; and Caer by way of Excellence, as Mr. Cambden observes, to distinguish it from the other Caerleon, or Caerusk, in South Wales. The Latin Historians stile it Cestria, that is, a Castris which the Romans had fix'd there; and Leincestria, that is, the City of the Legions. It has likewise been stiled (as is evident from the Roman Tiles dug up there) Deunana, Deva, and Devana Civitas; and these Names I presume to be attributed to it from its Proximity to the River Dee. In later Ages it was stiled Legan-Chester, Lege-Cestre; but in these Days West-Chester, or Chester, as the Greeks express it, [...], that is, to denote its Pre­ference to Dorchester, or Rochester. By Ptolomy it is some­times call'd Oxcellum, Uxcellum, Plegimundham, and Leo­gria, or Locrinus Land; of which the Three first denote no more (as Hollingshed observes in the First Volume of his Chronicles of England) than a Rock, an Island, or Place of strong Defence; by which we may easily observe, that this was the Boundary of King Locrinus's Kingdom West­ward: This was the chief City of the Ordovices before the coming in of the Romans, (as most of our ancient Histo­rians do affirm) those People were the Inhabitants of North Wales.

The Greatness of this ancient City is still the more con­spicuous, from those stately Remains of its Ruins: I mean the subterraneous Vaults in Cellars through Free-stone Rock; the Entrances into them are ranged into several An­gles, and by what I can learn from the Descriptions of the Catacombs in Italy, we may reasonably conclude, these to have been made for the same purpose. This Instance suf­ficiently demonstrates the Greatness of the Roman Power at Chester; and likewise, that it is probable, since by their Conquering Legion there, they had Block'd up the Britains in Wales, that they were resolv'd, not only to keep Incor­porated while living, but likewise to preserve even their very Ashes together. In these Passages have been found [Page 13] several Roman Coins, as I have been inform'd, which more fully illustrates these Vaults to have been Heathen, and not those subterraneous Passages made use of by the Monks, which may be observ'd in various Monasteries. This may be seen in a Cellar in Bridge-street, belonging to Mr. Iohn Minshull.

DERBYSHIRE was anciently Inhabited by the Coritani, who these were, as well as the Cornavii, is uncertain. The Air in the Peak of that Country, is more subject to Rains and Winds than in Lancashire and Cheshire; and its not unpleasant to see the Clouds riding after the sides of the Mountains, which by dashing upon them are frequent­ly forced down in Showers; and by the sudden Rarefaction of the Meteors in the Air, pent up betwixt the Hills and the Clouds, and getting vent in the spaces betwixt the Hills, I think may fairly illustrate, why Winds are in those Parts so frequent; but this will be more easily conceiv'd, if we consider those Artificial Winds, which are made by an Aeolipile; which Instrument it was, gave me the first hint of Dulcifying Salt-Water, which Experiment I shew'd to the University of Oxford, some Years before Mr. Fitz-Gerald had a Patent for doing it; who Communicated this Experiment to him I know not, but its most certain it was not his own. Having now given Account of what is most remarkable in the Air, I shall proceed to consider the next Element, and that is Water.

But before I enter upon that, must beg leave to add Two remarkable Observations. The first is to illustrate the Ela­sticity of the Atmosphere: The second is a Description of a Noted Echo at Norton-Hall in Cheshire, the Seat of my Honoured Kinsman Sr. Richard Brooke, Baronet. The first was Communicated to me, and Experimented by Christo­pher Dauson of Langcliff in the County of Yorkshire, Esq which he did in the following manner. At the Bottom of a prodigious high Hill call'd Engleborough in Yorkshire, he [Page 14] took a Bladder about a quarter blown, and tyed the Neck of it very close; as he ascended the Hill the Cylinders of the Atmosphere growing shorter, and consequently pres­sing less upon the sides of the Bladder, the internal Air expanded it self so far, that when he came to the Top of the Mountain it was fully blown, and as he descended the Hill again, gradually subsided, so that at his coming to the Bottom it was but a quarter blown as at first; from which Phaenomenon the Elasticity, or Spring of the Air, is mani­festly evident.

At Norton in Cheshire there is a remarkable Echo, where at about 60 Yards distant from the Hall Stairs, the sound of a Flute can scarce be discern'd, but may be heard exactly in an opposite Gate about 30 Yards from the Place above­mention'd; but moving some Six Yards further, in a direct line towards the opposite Gate, the Sound then vanishes from the said Gate, but may then be very clearly heard from the Place where the Instrument is sounded: The Sound is doubtless reverberated from the first Gate-house, and then repercussed again by the opposite Gate-house, and forms a Triangle, as near as I cou'd think, by the opposite and parallel Stations: I observ'd by distinguishing the sound in this, the sphere of Activity in Perception is evident, and cannot be more aptly compar'd to any thing, than that of Sight; in which to have a true Idea of an Object, a due distance is necessary, both as to Proximity and Remoteness, otherwise the Object is not adequately discern'd; as we may observe by holding any Object too near, or too remote from the Organ.

To these may be added an Experiment no less diverting, from Two Chymical Preparations, e. g. From Spirit of Harts-horn, and Elixir of Vitriol, prepared by Vigani. Open Two distinct Vials of these, neither of them will emit any visible Effluvia; but by bringing the Glasses near to each other, you may then perceive a continu'd Cloud hang over them. I do not remember the like Phaenomenon [Page 15] to be observ'd from any other Two Liquors in distinct Vials; which Experiment may demonstrate to us, the strange Pro­pensity there is in Matter to separate or unite; but it is most probable, the Volatile Alkalious Particles of the Harts-horn, and the Volatile Acids of the Elixir, even in the Air, by their Points and Pores united, by their mag­nitude become visible, which before cou'd not be discern'd separately: And this I think is the first Experiment that presents us with a Fermentation hovering in the Air, and likewise demonstrates to us abundantly, how Saline Par­ticles may, and do invisibly float in the Atmosphere; but are undiscernible, till concreting into Moleculae, and a­dapted to the Figures of the several Pores of their distinct Ores, where they form Efflorescences; this granted, it will be no difficult matter to account for Renascences of Salts, and may likewise hint to us, how by such Concretions of Saline Particles, Distempers are frequently caused in Ani­mals. I have in some Persons in acute Distempers, order'd the Patient to hold his Finger upon a Thermometer, or small Glass Tube, impleted with Spirit of Wine; but per­ceiv'd nothing further remarkable, than a quick and con­siderable Ascent, which I might have expected from the like degree of Heat in any other Body.

These following Observations of the Barometer, were Communicated very lately to me, by Mr. Prideaux near Ludgate-hill in London, which take as follows. It is evi­dent, that the Ascent of Mercury in the Barometer, is in a great measure made by pressure; but whether that pressure be from the circumambient Atmosphere, upon the superficies of the Mercury contain'd in the Glass, in which a Tube containing Mercury is immers'd; or from the va­rious Elasticities of the Air, that implete the Top of the Tube, is the next Thing that merits our Enquiry. For my part I cannot but adhere to the latter Hypothesis, since the subsequent Experiments seem to demonstrate it: As first, Let there be immers'd a Mercurial Tube, in another [Page 16] of a larger size, containing Quicksilver; the smaller Tube is to be annex'd to the end of a Trabea, the opposite end of which is ballanced by a Weight or Pondus, that keeps those Two in Aequilibrio; so that the smallest pressure upon the Superficies of the Mercury, contain'd in the larger Tube, in which the small One is immers'd, depresses it; thence it must necessarily follow, as the Mercury in the smaller Tube ascends, the larger must subside, and alter the Equilibrium, were the pressure upon the Superficies of the Mercury con­tain'd in the Dish. The contrary of which is Matter of Fact: For as the Mercury in the small Tube ascends, the Ballance rises at the same Time, which it could not possibly do, were the pressure upon the Superficies of the Quick­silver, contain'd in the larger Tube, but a different Phaeno­menon must necessarily have follow'd.

Besides it is evident, that a Mercurial Tube, immers'd in a Cup, containing Quicksilver, does not considerably ascend so high in the Tube, as the Quicksilver in a Tube of the same Length and Diameter, suspended in the Air: The Reason is, the Air contain'd in the Top of the Tube, has only that Mercury, contain'd within the small Tube to raise, and not that contain'd in the Dish, which doubtless must clog its Spring, or Elasticity.

To these may be added a Third Experiment, and that is, Let Two Tubes of equal Size and Diameter, be immers'd in Two Cups containing Mercury; the one a plain simple Tube, the other in the form of a Bicornu; at the Top of this last the Mercury ascends considerably higher than in the former; the Reason is plain, because the Elasticity of the Air in the Bicornu, is double to that in the single Tube. Now were the Ascent of the Mercury occasion'd by the pressure of the circumambient Air, upon the Superficies of the Quicksilver, contain'd in the Dish, its Ascent in the Two different Tubes wou'd be the same; the con­trary of which is Matter of Fact. Any of the Curious may any Day see these, and many other Observations at [Page 17] the aforesaid Gentleman's House. I cou'd wish the Gen­tleman, for his ingenious Experiments, by an Assent of the Learned to his Hypothesis, might receive his due Honour: Or that our Modern Virtuosi, because the No­tion is New, wou'd not, but upon solid Reasons, endeavour to explode it. The most material Argument against it is, that of Bladders carry'd up to the Tops of Mountains; but supposing the Air to be Thinner at the Bottom of the Mountain, than it generally is at the Top, and consequent­ly the Spring of the Air not so clog'd, which I am positive is true, that Objection vanishes; wherefore I shall not ex­patiate further on this Topick, but leave every Man to his own Conjecture.


In which is accounted for, Waters remarkable for their Levity, those that have their Flux and Reflux; Mineral Waters of all sorts, those that have been thought to Tran­sude through Glass Bottles; Subterraneous Eruptions, and the most Remarkable Rivers and Ponds.

AS these Counties are more subject to Rains, than some of the more Inland Ones, they likewise afford us greater Variety of Waters, than any One; or indeed, than all the Counties in England. The most Remarkable are, either Ponds, which they vulgarly call Meers, Rivers, or Springs. The most Noted Ponds are only Two, and both of them call'd by the Name of Martin-Meer: The Larger of which is now Drein'd by that Ingenious Gen­tleman, and Generous Undertaker, Thomas Fleetwood of the Bank, Esq and will, no doubt, turn to his extraordi­nary Advantage, Part of it being a fat, muddy Soil, and containing a great Quantity of Marle. Its Circumference is about Eighteen Miles, its Diameter Two: In it were [Page 18] found great Quantities of Fish, as Roach, Eels, Pikes, Pearch, Breams, and the like. Upon the Dreining of this Meer were found, no less than Eight Canoos, in Figure and Dimensions not much unlike those used in America: And in a Morass in Sawick, about Nine Miles distant from the Meer, was taken up a Stone, not unlike a sort of Whet­stone, tho' different from any other Stone I yet saw; and with it an Instrument of a mix'd Metal, resembling the Securis, or Roman Sacrificing-Ax, tho' somewhat less; nor unlike that which the Native Indians of Old used, form'd of Stone, in making Hollow their Canoos after Burning, and in Barking their Trees, which they call a Tomahoke; how therefore, in these Places, these came to be lodg'd, is next to be enquired into.

As to the Kinds of Boats the Ancient Britains made use of, we have only this Tradition from Iulius Caesar, that they used Wicker-Boats cover'd with Hides, that his Ships of War and Galleys were an unknown Terror to the In­habitants here. He likewise tells us, the Britains on the the Maritime Coasts, Traded to Belgium and Gallia, by which he probably means, Holland, Flanders, &c. that their Buildings were very Eminent, their Manners, Cu­stoms and Politeness, like their transmarine Neighbours; that they made use of Brass Imported, that Iron was a Product of the Country, but in small quantity; but that Lead was discover'd in the Inland Counties, and so proceeds.

As to these Canoos, One of which had some Plates of Iron upon it, 'tis my Opinion, they were made use of by the Ancient Britains in Fishing these Meers, and passing Rivers; not that the Inhabitants were so long in form­ing them, by burning them hollow, and shaping them with sharp Stones, as the American's were, before the Eu­ropean Metals came amongst them; which as the Missiona­ries inform us, with One of our Instruments, cou'd in One Day dispatch as much as in Six Months before. The Brit­tains doubtless had the Use of Iron, &c. and were furnish'd [Page 19] with it from the Maritime Ports, and they from the fo­rein Merchants; these Canoos might probably be sunk here, that they might be render'd of no Advantage to the Romans, when the Natives were forc'd to quit their Ha­bitations, by their prevailing Arms; nor can I imagine these an Effect of the Deluge, neither the Metal Instru­ment, nor Stone found in the foremention'd Moss, but that they further confirm what I shall make out after­wards, that Morasses Vegetate, and that they proceed and encrease from the Plants that grow upon them; and notwithstanding the Subterraneous Trees found there, tho' we consent to omit them in the Argument, there are yet so many others of different Species, together with Marine Shells, and other Exotic Exuviae, found many Yards in Marle in the Inland Counties, that without sup­posing Morasses to proceed from the Deluge, as many con­tend, they may fairly and fully be otherwise accounted for. As to the Instrument and Stone, they might casually be lost there, and lie absconded for successive Generations.

I had almost slipt one thing, which may give us a clear Idea of the Greatness and Difficulty of this noble and use­ful Enterprize, the Dreining of this remarkable Meer, in effecting of which there were sometimes no less than two Thousand Hands at once employ'd; so that to surmount all the natural and artificial Oppositions of the Work, there was highly needful a Person of so generous and piercing a Spirit, and so extraordinary a Temper, as the worthy and successful Undertaker.

Besides these sorts of Canoos, it is unquestionably true the Britains made use of another kind of Boats, the use of which prov'd of great Service to Iulius Caesar, as we find in the first Book, de Bello Civili, cap. 11. for when he had pitch'd his Tents betwixt Sicoris and Cinga, two Rivers in Spain, over which he had the Convenience of two Bridges, a sudden Inundation broke them both down, and overflow­ing the Banks, cut off all Communication betwixt his Fo­ragers [Page 20] that were sent out, and his Friends marching to his Assistance, and his distressed Army. He was reduc'd to great Extremity, nor could he possibly repair the Bridges, by all the Efforts he made, the Opposition of the Enemy's Co­horts were so vigorous on the other side. His last Refuge was for building these light Boats, the use of which he had learn'd in Britain, and which prov'd of high Advantage to his perishing Army: Imperat militibus (says Caesar) ut naves faciant, cujus generis eum annis superioribus usus Britanniae docuerat. Carinae primum ac statumina, ex levi materia fiebant: reliquum corpus navium, viminibus con­textum, coriis integebatur. And Lucan, speaking of the same thing, expresses himself thus, lib. 4. ver. 130.

Utque habuit ripas Sicoris, camposque reliquit,
Primum cana salix madefacto vimine parvam
Texitur in puppim, caesoque inducta juvenco
Vectoris patiens tumidum superenatat amnem.
Sic Venetus stagnante Pado, fusoque Britannus
Navigat Oceano: sic cum tenet omnia Nilus,
Conseritur bibula Memphitis cymba papyro.

The Commentator upon the Place quotes Pliny, lib. 4. c. 16. Ad eam Britanni vitilibus navigiis corio circumsutis navi­gare. From the whole it may seem probable the Britains upon the Ocean might make use of their Wicker-Boats, in Meers and standing Waters of their Canoos. Lucan's Verses may be thus render'd:

Caesar the Champain leaves and spreading Ground,
When Sicoris Waves his daring Troops surround;
The twisting Willows to the Keel he joins,
And reeking Hides cement and close their Lines:
Proud of their Crews, they waft them to the Shore;
Such Venice knows, such Britain taught before,
Such Boats has Nile it self to Memphis bore.

[Page 21] The other Meer is about Two Miles in Length, and One in Breadth; and is famous for Pearches, and vast quantities of Fowls, as Curlews, Curleyhilps, Wild-Ducks, Wild-Geese, and Swans, which are there sometimes in great Numbers: There was kill'd upon that Water an Asper, of which I prepar'd the Oyl, but did not find that it answer'd the Cha­racter generally given of it for taking of Fish. These Meers lie in low Grounds, have Rivulets or little Rivers, that discharge themselves into them, and having but little Vent out, form themselves into these large Area's. In the Meer that was drein'd were found great Numbers of Firr Stocks, and Firr-Apples; so that Mr. Cambden is certainly mistaken, when he asserts those Stocks not to be really Firrs, but other Woods only made Resinous by a Bituminous Earth, in which they have been lodg'd, as is commonly conjectur'd, since the noted Deluge; however the Woods might be alter'd, its certain the Apples could not belong to any other Tree: But I shall have occasion to treat more fully of these, when I come to treat of the Mosses.

The Rivers of most Note are, the Mersey, Ribbel, Lune, and Wire; the Dee and the Dove in Cheshire and Derby­shire. Mersey runs by Warrington anciently remarkable for its Lords, the Butlers, who obtain'd for it the Privi­lege of a Market-Town in Edward the First's Time; and is now a Town famous for its Trade and Market, where I think I may safely affirm, Maulting is brought to as great Perfection as at Derby, or elsewhere, the Liquors brew'd from it being no ways inferior to the most noted Ales in England. From Warrington the Mersey grows broader, and soon after contracts it self again, but at last opens into a wide Mouth very Commodious for Trade; and then runs into the Sea near Leverpool, a Town formerly but mean, but now the Third Sea-Port of England, and as well Built as any I have seen. In this River are taken vast quantities of Sparlings, or Smelts, a Fish remarkable for its Smell, as well as Tast.

[Page 22] Ribbel, called anciently Bellisama, has its Rise from a­mongst the Mountains in Yorkshire, and runs by Ribchester and Preston; from thence grows wider, and in the Meales empties it self into the Sea. This River affords us plenty of Salmon, Codfish, Flounders, Turbut and Plaise; but a River by reason of its Sands, very unfit for Trading.

The Lune, (from what will hereafter be observ'd, may take its Name from Luna, the Moon or the Goddess of Heaven) runs by Lancaster, and arises from the Mountains in Westmorland: Upon this River is a noted Salmon-Fish­ing, the best I have eat any where, and is very Commodi­ous for Trading, which is there now blooming.

Wire issues from the Mountains in Wiresdale, runs not far from a Market-Town call'd Poulton, as Commodious for Trading as any of the rest: This River affords us a Pearl-Fishing, which are frequently found in large Muscles, call'd by the Inhabitants Hambilton-Hookins, from their manner of taking them, which is done by plucking them from their Skeers or Beds with Hooks; but of these I shall have occasion to treat more fully, when I come to speak of Shell-Fishes, and the Germination of Pearls.

The River Dee is the most Noted in Cheshire, in Latin called Deva, as appears by the Roman Tiles dug up there, upon some of which are these Letters in Roman Characters, COLL. DEVA LEG. XX. V. V. In British it is called Dyfyrdwy, as springing from two Fountains in Wales, from which some believe it had its Denomination, dwy in the British Language signifying Two: Others say those words signify black Water; but why that Epithet should be apply'd to this River, I see no ground for it, the River being large and open, and the Water clear and pellucid. Some allege these Words signify a divine Water, and hence a Foun­tain sacred to the Gods was call'd Divona; and upon some Roman Tiles dug up at Chester I have seen that word in Roman Characters: Nor is this Conjecture altogether improbable, since in those Days divine Honours were [Page 23] paid to Rivers, as Gildas informs us, the Thessalians paid them to Peneus, upon account of its Pleasantness; the Scythians to Ister, for its Largeness; the Germans to the Rhine, because it was their Judge in Cases of Jealousy betwixt Married Persons. It is said moreover of this River Dee, it seemed Holy to the Christian Britains, for when they were drawn up in Order of Battle, ready to engage the Saxons, they first kiss'd the Earth, then devout­ly drank of this Water, in Memory of the Blood of their Holy Saviour.

The River Dove in Derbyshire, called so by the Inhabi­tants from its Transparency, I imagine, as resembling the silver Feathers of that Bird, is remarkable for a Fish call'd the Grailing, and likewise Trouts said to be the best in England. It runs for the greatest part thro' a Lime-Stone, which renders its Water so fertile a Manure, that even in Winter the Meadows on both sides of it appear fresh and green; and if it overflows them in the Spring, like another Nile, it enriches them: In Commemoration of which high Improvements, the People have this Saying:

In April Dove's Flood
Is worth a King's Good.

But of this River in a far loftier Strain the Ingenious Charles Cotton Esq writes; for by his witty Flights on these Streams, one would rather conclude they wash'd the Banks of Helicon, than the rugged, unpolish'd Mountains in Derbyshire. This River swells sometimes so much in twelve Hours time, to the great terror of the Inhabitants, that it carries down their Sheep and other Cattle; yet in the same Compass of Time falls again, and returns to its old Mounds; whereas the Trent, when it overflows its Banks, keeps the Fields in float four or five Days: these Reasons are manifest; because in one the Country is Moun­tainous, the other is a large extended Flat. This River runs to Ulcester seated upon an Hill of easy Ascent, where it draws to the Trent; it inclines towards Tutbury-Castle [Page 24] formerly very large, and also called Stutesbury, command­ing as it were the lower Country by its high Situation on an Alabaster-Hill, where there is a little Monastery built by Henry de Feriers, a Noble Norman, to whom William the First gave large Possessions hereabouts; but they were all lost by Robert de Feriers, Earl of Derby, upon his Se­cond Revolt from Henry the Third.

There are now Proposals for making the River Dee Na­vigable, which, if effected, will doubtless be very advanta­geous to that ancient City, where that Honourable Legion, viz. the Twentieth was fixed, stiled by the Romans, Va­lens Victrix, which was of those by Tacitus term'd Eme­riti or Veterani.

Having done with the Meers and Rivers, according to my propos'd Method I come now to treat, first, Of the Springs, not properly to be call'd Mineral-Waters, but yet remark­able, either for their Lightness, Coldness, Perspiration, Flux and Reflux; and of these some are continual, others at certain Seasons, as after wet Weather, and some are re­markable for throwing up several Marine Shells. Secondly, of Mineral-Waters, and the various Kinds of these, with an Account of their Principles and Uses; and of those, these Counties afford us a great Variety.

Near to a Noble Seat call'd Ashton-Hall about two Miles from Lancaster, which Seat is now in Possession of the Rt Honble the Lady Gerrard of Bromley, from a white Marle issues a pleasant and smooth Water remarkable for its a­greeable Tast and Lightness: This Water is lighter by an Ounce in a Pint than any I have seen in these Parts. Now all Waters containing more or less of Earthly Particles, and in the various Consistencies and Quantities of those, differ­ing one from another in Gravity; it may be imagin'd this Water to receive its Oily Tast and Lightness from the white Marle, that being an Oily and light Body, and the best Tillage this Country affords.

[Page 25] A Spring remarkable for its Perspiration is that near Stalo-Bridge in Cheshire: This Water, if put into a Glass Bottle closely Corked, will force its way thro' the Pores of the Glass; or the Water by emitting cold Effluvia upon the external Superficies of the Glass condenses the aqueous Particles of the Air, and so forms that Dew, or Sweat so often observable there: For my part, considering how diffi­cult it is for any Menstruum whatever to penetrate the Pores of Glass, nay even for Air it self, as is sufficiently evidenced by the Experiments in the Air Pump: I must own my assent to the latter; and this may be farther illu­strated by the Dews upon Bottles in Wine-Cellars, which are wholly insipid, and consequently cannot be spirituous Liquor that perspires through the Pores, but the aqueous Particles of the Air there condensed.

Springs remarkable for their Coldness in these Countries we have none, save One near Larbrick, which is a Water extreamly Cold, and of which I shall treat in its proper place; this Water is the Coldest I have seen in these Parts, and may no doubt answer the ends perform'd by that of St. Mungus in Yorkshire.

We have only One Spring that Ebbs and Flows, and that is call'd Tideswell in the Peak in Derbyshire, tho' nothing so Noted as that near Gigleswig in Yorkshire, where I have seen the Water to ebb and flow several times in an Hour; and always upon the subsiding of the Water, heard a gut­ling Noise within the Mountain, not unlike that obvious to us in pouring Liquors out of Bottles, only it is much louder; Conjectures about this Flux and Reflux are various, some imagining it to be caused by the return of a Stone, that in an Aqueduct hangs in aequilibrio, as the Learned Mr. Hobbs; others that a large Receptacle fill'd with Water by subterraneous Winds from the opposite part is blown over, as LeGrand and others of the French Virtuosi.

Tho' Mr. Hobbs's Hypothesis seems to carry the greater stress of Reason along with it, yet at the same time if we [Page 26] consider the Effects Water has upon Stone, upon which it continually falls, or runs over, in diminishing its Super­ficies, or over-turning those of a prodigious Bigness upon Floods, or other Eruptions, it will be as difficult to con­ceive, how a Stone should be so exactly poised in an Aque­duct so long a space of time as this must needs have been, so as to occasion a Flux and Reflux of the Waters, as is ob­servable in these Fountains. Wherefore I shall venture to form a different Hypothesis, and that it may be perform'd with all the Perspicuity so dark a matter will admit, in the first place I will describe the Spring, and its situation, as ex­actly as I remember. The most noted Spring of this Na­ture is at Gigleswig in Yorkshire, as above-mention'd: The Well lies at the Bottom of a Mountain of a considerable Height, and is almost contiguous to a great Road betwixt Settle, Lancashire, and Westmorland. The Diameter of the Spring, as I think, is about a Yard, and the Perpendicu­lar near the same dimension: The Flux and Reflux is not always certain being sometimes only once, again twice, sometimes thrice an Hour; and I think the Water upon the Flux may subside about three quarters of a Yard, and then you always hear an hollow gutling Noise within the Moun­tain, as is above recited: From these Phaenomena it seems reasonable to conjecture, that within the Mountain is a considerable Cavity impleted with Air, from which the Aqueducts that form the Spring run; and that those and their Exits are but small, and it is very probable from this Cavity they do not run in direct, but spiral Lines like those in a Worm used in Distillation: Now when the Water that ascends out of the Earth, which composes these Springs, reaches this Cavity, they must necessarily, as it fills gradually, press the Air into the spiral Aqueducts, and force it forward to the end of the Aqueduct; it is there then obstructed by the Water in the Well, only a little Air and Water getting vent raises gradually the Spring; the Duct still continues to fill higher and higher with Water, [Page 27] till at length by its Gravity the Air is forced through, and then it is the Flux happens, and the hollow gutling Noise is heard, occasion'd undoubtedly by the external Air rush­ing in, and strugling with the Water to supply the Cavity of the Mountain, which is now discharg'd of that Water, but still impleted with Air; it is now the Flux ceases, and again renews as before, and so it reciprocally succeeds. Such spiral Aqueducts I have frequently observ'd in the Mountains in Derbyshire, particularly near Tideswell, where that other Spring ebbs and flows, hence it seems ra­tional the same may be here also: However here is not any thing dogmatically asserted, nor am I so bigotted to this Hypothesis, but can easily quit it when any more rea­sonable is offer'd, and more exactly quadrates with the Phae­nomena of these Springs. Now as these Aqueducts are more or less Spiral, or of different Dimensions from the Sinus within the Mountain impleted with Air; or as the Spring that fills the Duct with Water is but easy, or rapid, so its probable the Flux and Reflux becomes so uncertain, for in some it flows not once in several Hours, as in that call'd Tideswell, the Water perhaps being sometimes di­verted by other Aqueducts, and reaches not the Cavity or Sinus within the Mountain; this may happen by several accidents, as the falling in of Earth, or Pebles, which for a time may divert the common course of the Spring, till by a continual currency it forces its passage again.

Several Springs we have which are only at certain Seasons, as some near the Manour in Furness, these are occasion'd by Rains, or an hazy Atmosphere. At this Abbey are the most stately Ruins I have any where observ'd, as most beautiful Pillars, spacious Windows, noble Arches, and subterraneous Vaults. Near this place is a considerable Salmon Fishing, and a large Park, in which are variety of Deer, as Red, Fallow and White, and is by much the most curious Seat in these Parts: It was formerly possest by Sir Thomas Preston, who quitted it; and as I have been in­form'd, [Page 28] is one of the Religious, and amongst them one of the meanest Order: But is now possest by the noble and virtuous Lady Madam Katharine Preston, Daughter and Heiress of Thomas Preston of Holker Esq. Tho' this Di­gression be foreign to a Natural History, yet I hope the Reader will pardon it, since I could not well pass by so considerable a Building.

Some Waters we have which cast up Marine Shells, as Latham Spaw did formerly; but that being troublesome to the Drinkers has been prèvented by laying Mill-stones upon the Spring, so that the Sand and Shells cannot boyl up so high as formerly: This is one of the best sorts of Vitriolic Chalybeates, and is remote from the Sea, or any Salt Rivers; whence therefore these Shells come may be worth our enquiry, and a clear decision of that may far­ther illustrate those other Marine Shells found in Marle; as the Echini, Cochleae, Torculars, Whilks and Periwinkles, of which I have great Numbers by me, and took them my self out of firm Marle at three Fathom deep, some being entire, others broken, but all soft and friable, yet grew hard as Coral being expos'd to the Air. The Decision of this Phaenomenon in a great measure depending upon the Origin of Fountains, I think it a pardonable digression, if I a little expatiate on that subject before we descend to the particular Case.

Springs by the French Virtuosi are suppos'd to flow from the Dews, Rains and Mists imbibed in the Earth, and after­wards form'd into various Currents, which are those we commonly call Springs: Now this being a Notion incon­sistent with Reason I cannot adhere to it; for were this Hypothesis true, it would hence follow in the various Seasons of the Year, as Summer and Winter, they would vary very much in their Currents as to quantity, which in several Springs is not discernible. Secondly, Several Springs are found in Mines in the Bowels of the Earth, deeper than the Dews and Rains are suppos'd to descend. Thirdly, [Page 29] Some Countries abound with Springs where Dews and Rains are never known to fall; from all these it is evident con­tinual Springs can never be imagin'd to be caused by Rains and Dews; it remains therefore that they either proceed from the Ocean, or a subterraneous Abyss: The latter of these the Learned Dr. Woodward adheres to, and could such a thing be made out, his Hypothesis would be undeniable; but such a thing as an Abyss being no where to be disco­ver'd in Nature, and that what Notions we have of it are only from Moses that divine Philosopher: In what sence the inspired Legislator might take the Abyss we pretend not to determine, whether the Ocean in general, or a sub­terraneous collection of Waters equal to it, and keeping a Communication with it, as Dr. Woodward supposes: Wherefore we rather assert what the great Aristotle sup­poses concerning Springs, that they have their Rise from the Sea; of this Caesar had a clear Demonstration when he Invaded this Island, and Encamp'd upon the Sea Coasts, where by digging in the Sands he was instantly supply'd with a sufficient quantity of fresh Water, which by filtring through the Sand became sweet the saline Particles stick­ing in the Sand. A Phaenomenon like to this was observ'd when that great General Duke Schomberg Encamp'd upon a Plain call'd the Mels near Hile-Lake: This granted then that Springs have their Rise from the Ocean, it is easy to imagin how they may bring up Marine Shells, and unless this be allow'd, I think the Phaenomenon cannot otherwise be fairly illustrated; but how this becomes a Mineral Wa­ter is from the Mineral Bass from which it springs. A­gainst this Hypothesis there remains yet one material Ob­jection, viz. If Fountains have their Rise from the Sea, how comes it to pass that there are Springs upon the Tops of Mountains, which are higher than the Sea, since it is evident from Hydrostatick Experiments Water will not naturally rise above its level. To this I answer, in the first place it is no wise demonstrable that there is any Moun­tain [Page 30] higher than the highest part of the Ocean, since it is suppos'd to be a Globe of equal Magnitude with the Earth. Secondly, Granting it were so, yet it is probable those Mountains lying in the middle Region, a sufficient quan­tity of aqueous Particles might be imbibed by the Earth to produce Springs there, and yet this particular Instance does no ways invalidate the general Hypothesis, in which is meant the generality of Springs, and not each particular Fountain. It is true subterraneous Eruptions of Waters especially after Earthquakes, as at Port-Royal in Iamaica, and at Kirby in Furness in Lancashire have happen'd, which have drove down Houses, and Rocks of that magnitude, that many Teams of Oxen could not move, by which it may be concluded there is a subterraneous Abyss of Waters: To this I say, it is not certain whether these come from the Ocean, or from an Abyss, and shall not therefore pre­tend to determine it, but shall proceed to what I next pro­pos'd, and that is to treat of Mineral Waters: In doing of which I begin with those impregnated with Vitriol.

The Vitriol Spring in the Kennel-Pits at Haigh, when I first try'd it, yielded an Ounce of Vitriol from a Quart of Water; nay it was so highly impleted with Vitriol, that any common Alkaly wou'd raise a Fermentation with it, and cause a Precipitation: The Vitriol it yields is White for the greatest part, tho' there is some Green mix'd with it; it is not now of that strength several fresh Springs having broken in, which yet might easily be diverted; of this the Revd Dr. Wroe our Warden has been frequently an Eye-witness: Notwithstanding this Dr. Lister with un­equal'd Assurance tells the World Vitriol is not to be found in any Waters in England, but that all Waters of a Vitriolic Taste are only impregnated with a Pyrites (which we vulgarly call Fire-Stone) Germinating in the Waters; and this must be impos'd upon the World as im­plicitly, as if it was an Article of Faith in Philosophy: For any Man to oppose him he brands him strait with [Page 31] the Character of Mean and Impudent, and such like oppro­brious Epithets, a Language, if I mistake not, unaccounta­ble for one of his Gown and Dignity: For my part what I relate is matter of Fact, and the Dr. may be fully con­vinc'd if he pleases, if not it is no fault of mine; and since I cannot as firmly believe the Germination of the Pyrites in our Chalybeat Waters (as they are commonly called) to be like that of Mint in Bottles of Water, I hope the Dr. will pardon my Infidelity till he give me better grounds for it, at which he has not yet offer'd any farther than a capricious ipse dixit.

Adjacent to a Place call'd Humblesco-Green, in a small Farm in Maudsley is a Spring impregnated with Sulphur and a Marine Salt; the Water is extremely foetid, tinges Silver a Copper colour by its Sulphur; in Distillation a Quart of Water yields half an Ounce of sulphur Salt. This Spring no question would answer all the Intentions of the sulphur Water near Knaseborough in Yorkshire either as to Bathing or Drinking; and no doubt by the addition of Rock Salt might be made an advantageous Salt-work, ha­ving Coals so convenient. The Salt at the first boyling is brown and foetid, but dissolv'd and evaporated again makes as good a Salt as any I have seen; it springs out of Bass and has I presume from that its sulphureous and saline Par­ticles: The various Kinds of Bass I shall discourse of in their proper place, and there shew how they are impreg­nated with different Principles.

There are other Springs that arise out of Bass, and are sulphureous and saline yet different from the former, as St. Anne's, and the hot Baths at Buxton in Derbyshire; here the Waters are sulphureous and saline, yet not foetid, but very palatable, because in these Waters the Sulphur is not united with any Vitriolic Particles, or but very few saline, it tinges not Silver, nor is Purgative, by reason its saline Parts are dispensed in such small proportions, which saline Particles make up a compound Salt constituted of a [Page 32] marine Salt, and the Sal Catharticum Amarum, which in­deed is the Nitrum Calcarium, that impregnates Epsom, Northall, Dulech, and the rest of the Purging-Waters in those Parts. These Waters if drank create a good Appe­tite, open Obstructions, and no doubt, if mix'd with the Chalybeat Waters that are there, may answer all the In­tentions of the Bath Waters in Somersetshire, and that of St. Vincent's near Bristol so noted for Curing the Diabetes, of which I have seen several Instances in these Parts; and likewise for Curing of Bloody Urines arising from the weak­ness of the Urinary Vessels, of which I saw a most noted Instance in Leverpool. This Bath is of a temperate Heat, and without question by reverberating the Halitus, might be brought to any degree of Heat; but I think in its own natural Heat it may in general be said to be more agree­able to the Constitutions of those Parts, and where the hot Baths cannot be safely used this may. This last Sum­mer I saw remarkable Instances of its Effects in scorbutick Rheumatisms, in Persons that could not go before without the help of Crutches, who came from thence to Man­chester on Foot without them, distant from Buxton full sixteen Northern Miles.

But the Virtues as well as Use of Bathing are so particu­larly described by my Honoured Friend Sir Iohn Floyer of Lichfield, that for your further satisfaction I refer you to his elaborate Piece, and shall only abridge those Cases he recites. These hot Baths spring out of a Bass not unlike Marble, and it is pleasant to see in what Bubbles the sul­phureous Halitus breaks out of its Matrix, and impreg­nates the Waters. After our worthy Author had given us a most exact Account of Perspiration, from his Own and Sanctorius's Observations (in rightly considering which con­sists the Basis and Usefulness of all Bathing) in the first place he enumerates the Mischiefs of the hot Baths.

In his 2d Part, p. 2. ‘I observ'd (says he) that many Per­sons came to the hot Baths at Bathe without any good [Page 33] Advice; or they who came with it used it indiscreetly, and imprudently manag'd their Bathing, by using it with­out any due Evacuation, or continuing it too long, that they went from thence worse than they came; some ha­ving enflamed their Blood, and thicken'd its Serum, so as to renew their Rheumatick Pains; others Died of Fevers, Consumptions, Convulsions, Bleeding, and Imposthumes. In­stances of these I have seen in several in these Parts; but this Point Dr. Pierce is pleased to touch as tenderly as an Hypothesis about the Waters, of which he seems afraid, but wou'd have us rest satisfy'd without asking Questions, and bring the Ingenuity of the most polite Parts, to an equal level with the most unthinking Animal: For my part I shall not fear to deliver my Sentiments, since I have no other end in it than to inform the World, in the Phaenomena I observ'd in Nature; and if these be exposing One's self to be thrown at like a Shrove-tide Cock, as he ob­serves, if I escape the terrible Blow of being Neck'd, and survive the Combate, the Comb shall be at his Service.

‘These Instances, as he proceeds, may convince all con­sidering Persons, that we ought not to use hot Baths for Pleasure, especially where there is a fulness of Humours, and a hot Constitution; and since the following Accidents frequently happen upon Bathing, they will certainly over­balance all the Pleasure of it; the Inconveniencies he reckons are profuse Sweats and Haemorrhages, Apoplexies, Sleepiness, Vertigo's, Convulsions, Asthma's, debility of the Sight, Swooning, a general lassitude and dejection of the Appetite, Torpor of the Mind, and Effeminacy of the Flesh, pag. 4. My Journey to Buxton this last Year discover'd to me a Bath, very different to that at Bathe, it being a very temperate one, producing no Sweating after it, but rather a Coldness; and upon a due Consideration I found the Bath very useful in many Cases, in which that of Bathe did Injury, as in Comsumptions, hot Scor­butick Pains, and all Defluxions of Humours, and Bleed­ings, [Page 34] and all hot inordinate Flatulencies of the animal Spirits, in Hysteric and Hypocondriac Cases.’ The far­ther Particulars may be seen at large in his third Chapter, to which I refer you, as likewise to his Extract out of Dr. Iones, and the Observations annex'd to his ingenious Treatise.

Before I close the Discourse of this Bath it may be en­quired, why the Sulphur in one Bath tinges Silver a Copper colour, as that at Knarseborough and Maudsley; why others of a Golden or Yellowish colour, as those in Somersetshire; and why others impregnated with Sulphur tinge not at all. To these I answer, Where Sulphur tinges a Copper colour, it is from the addition of a Vitriolic Salt, as is common to observe from the solutions of Sulphur and Vitriol; but where a Golden colour ensues it is from a greater propor­tion of mineral Sulphur, and but little of Vitriol, as in the sulphur Auratum of Antimony, and the golden Pyrites: But where they Tinge not at all, its from Sulphur only, as that at Buxton, which seems to arise out of a Bassy Marble.

The Waters we shall next consider are the Acidulae, or those commonly call'd Chalybeats, with which these Coun­ties abound. The most Notes are those near Lantham, Wigan, Stockport, Burnley, Bolton, Plumpton, Middleton, Strangeway near Manchester, Lancaster, Larbrick, Chor­ley, and of these Stockport is much the strongest; these Waters spring out at the Bottom of a great Rock, in strength are much the same in Winter as Summer, which is a Conveniency very few in England besides them have; these Waters give as deep a Tincture with Galls, as any I ever saw, and where Chalybeats are indicated exceed those of Knarseborough and Tunbridge; they will in twenty-four Hours, by being expos'd to the Air become insipid, and then yield no Tincture; these Waters lie very light, not heavy upon the Stomach, which is a Convenience the Drinkers of Knarseborough and Tunbridge have not.

[Page 35] These Waters are impregnated with Sulphur, Vitriol and Ocre, a little of the Lapis Scissilis, and a marine Salt united with the bitter purging Salt, as in the Chalybeat Water at Latham, but these Two last it yields in small quantities, a Gallon of Water not affording many Grains of Salt, but Ocre and Vitriol they contain plentifully; the Ocre is im­pregnated with Iron, and for that reason, and no other, may these Waters be call'd Chalybeats: the Sulphur is only discernible early in the Morning, and that chiefly by their smell, tho' there is a Chalybeat near Manchester, whose smell is very Sulphureous at all times; these Waters most com­monly spring out of a Bass that is impregnated with Sul­phur, Ocre and Vitriol, which I demonstrated to the Hond Sir Iohn Floyer at Buxton: I shew'd him the Shale or Bass, and by infusing various Proportions of it in common Wa­ter, you may have all the various Colours of the Acidulae, viz. A pale Red, a deep Red, a Violet and a Purple: As therefore the Acidulae are differently impregnated with this Bass, their Colours are likewise different. At the same time I shew'd him an Acidula springing out of this Bass, and likewise that the Bass was impregnated with Sulphur, Vitriol and Ocre, tho' Dr. Lister vehemently affirms, no Stone but the Pyrites contains Vitriol; but when a Man writes only what he fancies, and not what he sees, it can­not be imagin'd but he must assert many Paradoxes; and by too tenaciously adhering to a well woven Hypothesis, in effect makes himself one of the meanest of Philosophers. It is not the mechanisme of Reason, and the espousing of a Word which sounds pleasantly, that illustrates the Phae­nomena of Nature; but that which is plain, easy and in­telligible, and what may rationally from Experiments be deduced, that gives a Man a true Gust in natural Learn­ing: The Dr. then may rail as long as he pleases, but he can never make me disbelieve my Senses, or assent to that which is contrary to the common Reason of Mankind. Of these I have given a full Account in my Tentamen of [Page 36] Mineral Waters, and my Exercitations, to those there­fore I refer my Reader; I shall only presume so far upon the Reader's Patience to annex the following Experiments, and shall not expatiate further on this Subject.

The First is to shew, Why Galls, Oak-leaves, &c. will give a Tincture with those Waters vulgarly Chalybeats, and why other Acids will not. The Second is to illustrate, How by mixing Acids with those Waters before you put the Galls to 'em, that then the Galls, &c. will not. To clear these Phaenomena we must premise these Hypotheses, viz. That several of the mineral Particles are suspended in the fluid, perhaps as near to an Equilibrium or Balance as can easily be conceiv'd; so that the least addition of another Body to 'em, must instantly cause a Precipitation, and con­sequently then give a Tincture to these Waters, by imple­ting their Pores, and so in different Angles transmitting the Light, which must needs introduce a Diversity of Co­lours, viz. A pale Red, Agat, Violet, Purple, or intense Red, according to the various Proportions of the Mineral impregnating the Water: Hence therefore it is, that the Galls containing a volatile Acid, or rather austere, that by their hooked Particles they easily clasp themselves about the mineral Particles, and must therefore (as is evident from the Premises laid down) necessarily cause a precipita­tion of the Mineral; which I shall more fully illustrate, by making it probable, that the mineral Particles are sus­pended in the fluid in the manner recited. It is observable, that the Earth over which these Springs run is always co­ver'd with an Ocre; which to me seems evidently to hint, that the mineral to the fluid retains so equal a balance, that the least motion occasions a separation; and thence it is, that in those places where they have their currents, they constantly drop an Ocre, and colour the Earth as before observ'd.

The second Experiment is this: If before you put in the Gall you add an Acid to the Water, as for example, Spirit [Page 37] of Vitriol or Sulphur, the Gall then gives little or no Tincture to the Water; and the Reason I take to be this, the Acid you mix with it being specifically heavier than either the mineral Particles or the fluid, by their rigid in­flexible Particles keep the Mineral suspended; so that con­sequently the acid of the Gall being volatile, it is not power­ful enough to bring 'em down, and thence it is that by this method they usually hover upon the surface of the Water in an azure Cloud, the Mineral as well as that being Vola­tile; which is abundantly evident, both in the Evapora­tion of those Waters, and likewise by exposing them to the Sun, which in twenty-four Hours makes them insipid, and in that space of time so sequester'd of the mineral Par­ticles, that then they will not yield any Tincture with a Gall, or if any but a faint one: So volatile is the Vitriol in those Waters, which no doubt is carry'd off by the Sul­phur, which from its Volatility might justly be drawn like the Statue of Mercury wing'd, and still pointing upwards.

To these I thought necessary to add the following Ex­periments, that I might do Justice both to the publick, and to that most Learned and Ingenious Gentleman Richard Townley of Townley Esq who Communicated them to me.

In the Water at Burnley in Lancashire he has observ'd the following Phaenomena: First, That if that Water be expos'd to the Air there will subside a Scarlet sediment. This being a Phaenomenon never observed before in any Water in England I ever heard of, it may therefore justly challenge our Conjectures about it. Ocre and Lapis Scissilis, which are the usual Hypostases of those kind of Waters, it is most evident it cou'd not be; the one being of a Yellow, the other of a Greyish colour; but to me it seems to be a Bituminous exalted Sulphur, and this will more fully ap­pear when we come to examine its Salts, of which it con­tains Three different species: First, A small proportion of Natron, or Aegyptian Nitre, which if exposed to the Air will like that, or Salt of Tartar, dissolve per deliquium; [Page 38] will ferment with any Acid, and has a strong lixivial Taste. After the Natron has run per deliquium there remains ano­ther Salt entire, which if dissolv'd in Spirit of Wine or Water totally flies off; by which it is plain the Salt is vola­tile, and most probably the volatile Salt of the Natron, which is the only fix'd Alcali in the World I know of, that by this method, or by the fix'd Salt of Tartar, will yield a volatile Alcalisate Salt: From which Phaenomena it is undeniably evident Dr. Lister was mistaken, when (to use his own words) he violently affirms, No Waters in Eng­land contain'd Natron; a Gallon of this Water contains about twelve Grains of Sediments, and four or five of Salts; the Salts when separated from their Earths are White, but will not shoot into any regular Chrystals; have a smell much like that of Natural Balsam, which to me seems to be the scarlet Sulphur that precipitates in the Water by exposing it to the Air; this Water has a vitriolate Taste, and with Galls yields a Tincture of an Agate colour; has been experimented in scorbutick Cases, and answered the desired end.

The Hanbridge Water, a small Spring which lies be­twixt Burnley and Townley, yields a Natron or natural Al­cali, as those Bourbon Waters in France, cited by Monsieur Du-Closs; and another alcalious Salt, which like a Terebin­thinate or Resinous Body, will melt with a small degree of Heat; it is plain, the Reason why this Salt melts by Heat is only from a volatile Bitumen united with it, for the Salt being long kept in a glass Vial, will not melt by any mo­derate degree of Heat, but is then purely Alcalious, the Bitumen being wholly evaporated, as I found in my Ob­servations at Townley. This Water at the Fountain with Galls yields a Tincture inclining to a faint Orange; if kept any considerable time in Glass Bottles a perfect Citrine; contains the greatest quantity of Natron of any in these parts; purges by Stool and Urine, and is of great Use in the Stone and Scurvy, as hath been found by several Per­sons, [Page 39] who in those Cases have try'd them with great suc­cess.

The Water near Emmet, which is about two Miles di­stant from those fore-mention'd Waters, is of a vitriolate Taste, and sulphureous Smell, which with a solution of Sublimate yields a white Precipitate, which no other Wa­ters in those parts will do, nor any in France, as the French Virtuosi have observ'd, and indeed only those at Spada in Germany; and if so it may be highly worth our time by frequent and strict Tryals, both in Cases in Phy­sick, and Experiments in Chymistry, to find out the Princi­ples and Use of it, which may perhaps save us the Expences of a tedious Fatigue to Spada.

At the same time I saw there a Salt prepared from a Water in Yorkshire, which had exactly the smell of Hippose­linum or Horse-Parsley, a Phaenomenon never yet observ'd in any Salt before; this smell proceeds from a certain pro­portion of bituminous, saline and terrene Particles; for what remain'd after evaporation was of a Yellowish colour, and contain'd a great deal of terrene Matter, but the Salt when separated is perfect concocted Vitriol. Dr. Lister may here again be satisfy'd of his Error, for not only the Waters in Lancashire, but those likewise in Yorkshire con­tain perfect concocted Vitriol: Nay, in the same Coal-Mines near Burnley, there are Springs of perfect Vitriol, and under these others that contain Natron or Aegyptian Nitre, as the above-mention'd ingenious Gentleman fully demon­strated to me when I was last there. Another Salt the said Richard Townley of Townley Esq shew'd me, which was perfect Salt-petre, prepared from a very rapid Spring, a Gallon of which contain'd half an Ounce of this Salt, which upon Chrystallization shoots like Salt-petre from India into long Striae, and fulminates with Sulphur. This Salt he had from a Gentleman that discover'd the Spring, but at present conceals the Place: So that what my self and others have alleged in affirming, no Waters in England to contain Salt-petre [Page 40] is erroneous; let others retract when they think con­venient, for my part I fairly own my Error, and from re­peated Observations can positively affirm, there is no marine Salt but what contains more or less of Indian Nitre, but the proportion is so small, and the method of preparing it so tedious, it wou'd not be of any farther use than to sa­tisfy the curious Enquirer; but the Advantages that may accrue from the before recited Spring, may for ought I know be one of the greatest Treasures, as well as Secrets in Nature.

The next Mineral-Waters I shall consider, are those springing out of Bass, and Sulphureous only; of these the most Noted is One near a Place call'd Inglewhite, this springs out of a Black Bass, which by Calcination I found to contain Sulphur; the Water has a very sulphureous Smell, as strong as that near Harrigate in Yorkshire, but contains little or no Salt, which is the reason it is not Pur­gative like that, but by adding the like proportion of com­mon Salt to it, viz. about a Dram to a Pint of Water, that Inconvenience is remedy'd, and then you have either sulphureous Baths, or purging Waters; for my part I shou'd rather choose to add the bitter purging Salt, as being most agreeable.

Having now examin'd all the various Waters springing out of Bass, we proceed in the next place to give Account of saline sulphureous Waters arising out of other Minerals.

And I shall begin first with the sulphur Water near Wigan, call'd by the Inhabitants of that place, the Burning-Well; this is a very diverting Phaenomenon, and for its Rarity is visited by most Persons whose Curiosity leads them to Na­tural Enquiries. It is about two Miles from Wigan, in a Village call'd Aucliff, in the Ground of William Mollineux of that Place Esq. The Well is at the Bottom of a Tree, the Water Cold, and without any Smell; when any Person comes to see it, a Man clears the Well from all its Water, that done you will immediately hear a hissing Noise in a [Page 41] Corner of it, and by holding a lighted Candle near to it, the sulphureous Halitus immediately takes Fire, and after­wards spreads it self upon what Water has issued in, and 'tis only then, indeed, it ought to be call'd the Burning-Well: 'Tis observable, tho' this sulphureous Halitus continually mixes with Water, yet the Water continues Cold, nor will it tinge Silver; wherefore I imagine this Halitus is purely sulphureous, consisting only of Oily inflammable Par­ticles, without any mixture of Vitriol, or if any but in­considerable, and 'tis reasonable to suppose this kind of Sul­phur to impregnate the Baths at Buxton. 'Tis plain from these and the sulphur Wells at Maudsley, and those at Har­rigate in Yorkshire, which are all sulphureous, and yet all Cold Waters, that it is only by accident that sulphur Wa­ters become hot, viz. by Collision of the sulphureous Par­ticles, when in the Spiracles of the Earth they have not a free open passage, they beat and dash one upon another, and by that Collision grow hot, as we may observe in the rubbing of the Phosphorus, which immediately takes Fire; likewise in new Hay, and in Wheels taking Fire by Mo­tion only: For to imagine the Heat of the Baths to proceed from Fermentation in the Waters, or from subterraneous Fires, is no wise consistent with Experience, which after all our Hypotheses must be the true Touchstone of our Reason.

The foregoing Instances may convince the World, that sulphureous Particles grow hot without Ignition, and that there are sulphureous Particles in all hot Baths is abundant­ly demonstrated: But for a farther Illustration of this Hy­pothesis take this following Experiment, Let some Brim­stone be set on Fire in a Glass Body, immediately upon its taking Flame stop the Mouth of the Glass and the Flame expires, yet by the sulphureous Fumes dashing upon each other the sides of the Glass wax warm; a certain signal this must needs be, that where sulphureous Particles are deny'd a passage, or where they force their way through [Page 42] uneven Sinuosities, by beating upon and encountring one another, an Heat must be produced, as is apparent by the Sun-beams in Convex Glasses. And this is farther con­firm'd by the Learned Dr. Browne in his Treatise of the Mines in Hungary; in some Places of the same Mine it was extreamly Cold, in others so intensely Hot, that tho' his Cloaths were never so thin, the Heat would be trouble­some to him. The Miners work all Naked, and Eight Hours are as much as most can endure.

The Heat in these Waters cannot arise from Fermenta­tion, because no fermentation can be discover'd in them; nor by any Experiments, either in Distillation, Precipita­tion, or any other Method cou'd I ever observe such a Con­trariety of Matter in them, that one part wou'd ferment upon another, so as to cause any sensible Heat.

From subterraneous Fires they cannot proceed, because in these parts such were never known; or were there any, cou'd not but discover themselves, since no Fires will burn without admission of Air, and there must likewise be Flues and Chasms whence they vent their Smoke and foeculent parts; but since none of these were ever disclos'd in these parts, it is not probable the Baths should grow hot by any such cause; and when the Heat of the Baths may be suffici­ently explain'd by the Collision of sulphureous Particles, what necessity is there we should have recourse to any such unwarrantable Hypothesis, as a Fermentation in the Wa­ters, or to subterraneous Fires: Those two Notions are lately espoused by Dr. Guidot and Dr. Pierce of Bathe, but I am apt to think those Gentlemen rather fancy than observe the Phaenomena of Nature: For I am very well satisfy'd, had they made strict Enquiries into those Wa­ters, they wou'd never have troubled the World with such Chimerical Hypotheses. Dr. Pierce indeed does not much trouble himself or the World with any Scrutiny into the Contents of the Baths, or the Causes of the Heat of them; but only gives you an Instance from Savoy, which is as re­mote [Page 43] as that place to his Undertaking: And as for Dr. Guidot he is so Inconsistent with himself, that unless he have the Art of reconciling Contradictions, I am sure his Thermae Britannicae are not to be accounted for. I do not speak this as any wise arrogating a greater Genius to my self, or to lessen those worthy Persons, but only from the Phaenomena I have observ'd in Nature; and if they please to do the same, I despair not of their Pardons.

Having now done with the sulphureous saline Waters, in the next place I shall proceed to treat of saline Ones only, as those at Northwich, Namptwich, Middlewich, Dunham in Cheshire, and Barton in Lancashire. Various have been the Notions concerning the Rise of these Springs, some imagining they proceeded from the Sea, others from sub­terraneous Rocks of Salt which have of late Years been discover'd, and first made Useful by my self, in refining that Rock to a White granulated Salt, which is now pra­cticed in many places. These Springs sometimes break out in the Rock, but oftner either above or under it; some of them in a Quart of Water contain about seven or eight Ounces of Salt, whence its plain that quatenus Salt-springs they proceed not from the Sea, because a Quart of the best of that Water affords seldome above an Ounce and Half of Salt. Some of these Springs will tinge with Galls, but most refuse it; whence its plain Dr. Lister in his usual man­ner is much mistaken, in forcing the Pyrites upon us. 'Tis true from the sulphureous Smell that may be observ'd in the Fermentation betwixt this Salt and Oyl of Vitriol, that there is a Sulphur contain'd in the Salt, but that no wise warrants a Pyrites, since that is an aggregate of different Principles, viz. Ocre and Vitriol, besides Sulphur; which Bodies by the Dr's own Confession Salt does not contain, which is the only true Notion he lays down about those Wa­ters, and that he may assume as an Observation of his own.

It is likewise observable, that the Salt made from the Brine-springs, and the Rock-salt dissolv'd in fresh Water, [Page 44] that these Salts will shoot into different Figures; whence it is evident the Brine-springs proceed not from the Rocks of Salt that are discover'd, but from Rocks of Salt that lie deeper in the Bowels of the Earth.

Besides in different Springs I have observ'd the Figures of the Salt to differ, as some in Middlewich, from those at Northwich, where by Chrystallization they shoot into quite contrary Figures; so that the Sal Mediterraneum, as the Dr. stiles it, is like to lose its Character: Nay, Rock-salt it self will never shoot into any regular Figure at all, whence it may be averr'd, these Salt-springs have not their Saltness from any subterraneous Rocks of Salt yet known; it follows therefore, if they are not saturated either from the Sea, or from subterraneous Rocks of Salt, we may then form another Hypothesis, and conclude them to arise from Aerial saline Particles impregnating a proper Bass, and so by various Solutions and Impregnations, keeping a con­tinual Circulation, and so constantly supplying us; and what chiefly gives umbrage to this, is the Renascence of marine Salt, which is so prodigiously made out by Untzerus, in his Ac­count of those Mountains of Salt that supply Russia, Persia, Mesopotamia, Media, and those vast Countries; which as he affirms, every Year Vegetates, and the places whence the Salt was digg'd is the Year following as full of Salt as before. Phaenomena like to this may be observ'd in the Vitriol-stone near Hesse-Cassel, and in those Iron-Mines belonging to the Duke of Florence, as is related by Fallopius. Besides the marine Salt these Springs do likewise contain the Nitrum Calcarium: Its observable the Salt of some of these Springs will not easily precipitate, but a little Allum and fresh Butter will effect it, and then it makes a larger Grain and stronger Salt than any of the rest. In the Evaporation of these Salts there is likewise observ'd a white Sand, which is thrown to the Corners of the Pan; and this by frequent Evaporation and Filtrations I found to be the Particles of the Bass, out of which these Salt-springs arise.

[Page 45] The most noted Purging-Waters in these parts are those in a Village call'd Rougham, adjacent to the remarkable Sands which are the great Road into Furnace nine Miles in breadth, and at each Spring-tide entirely cover'd with Water; these in calm Weather afford us very pleasant Tra­velling, but in tempestuous Seasons no less dismal, than we can suppose the wild Desarts of Arabia. From the bottom of an high Rock near these, the Water issues forth in a very plentiful Current; it is a little brackish, taken in­wardly it purges both by Urine and Stool, and no doubt, by a due preparation of the Body they become of extra­ordinary use in the Scurvy, Worms, crude Digestions, and Distempers of that Nature; the Water by Evaporation at the last becomes lixivial, and is then extremely brackish; as the Water evaporates, there successively arise Films at first reddish, and afterwards of a grey Colour: these Films will ferment with any Acid, and contain a little of a natural alcalious Salt, which I take to be the Natron of the Ancients; the Salt which remains after Evaporation, seems to be a Marine, but by frequent Filtrations and Chry­stallizations, I found it likewise contain'd a bitter purging Salt, which is truly Dr. Lister's Nitrum Calcarium, and is that purging Salt which impregnates Epsom, Dullech, Northall, and other purging Waters in England, as is hint­ed above; besides the Salt there likewise remains a greyish Earth, which will ferment with any Acid. When the Water is evaporated to a lixivial Colour, if you then drop Spirit of Harts-horn into it, it immediately makes a Coa­gulum, and precipitates; which Phaenomenon is only ob­servable in those Waters that contain the Sal Catharticum Amarum, which demonstrates that Salt likewise to contain a natural Acid, and if in the like Water you drop any acid Spirit, as that of Sulphur and Vitriol, you will then per­ceive a very sulphureous smell. From these it is plain these Waters contain three different sorts of Salts, as the Natron, the Marine, and the Sal Catharticum Amarum; [Page 46] likewise two sorts of Lapis Scissilis, either of which will ferment with an Acid, and Sulphur too. From a mix­ture of such Principles as these, what Effects may not be hoped for, in Scrophulous and Leprous Persons, and o­ther Distempers of that nature? Nay, I have been assur'd by some of the Inhabitants there, that some Persons by drinking these Waters have been recover'd from periodical Epilepsies: but again, I say, the Body ought to be rightly prepar'd before the drinking of them, and that Consump­tive Persons ought not to meddle with them, at least very sparingly; some Persons by drinking of these have been freed from the Jaundice, others from Quartan Agues, and in the Pica Virginis, if the Patient be not emaciated, you may reckon it a specifick; by drinking of these, prodigious Worms, as the Cucurbitae, the Ascarides, and Bunches of Worms, have frequently been voided, and I do not think in that Distemper the like to these are to be had.

There are other Purging-Waters which arise out of a Morass in a Village call'd Witherslack: these Waters con­tain a marine and a bitter purging Salt, but are inferior to the former. There is another purging Water which springs out of the Sand, near a Place call'd Mine-End, which is the Mouth of the River Wire: This no doubt is the Sea-Water, which filters thro' the Sand, but by reason of the shortness of the Filtration, (the Spring lying so near the River) or the looseness of the Sand, the marine Water is not perfectly dulcify'd, but retains a pleasing Brackishness, not unlike that which is observable in the Milk of a Far­row Cow, or one that has Conceiv'd; this Water purges a little, but is much inferior to either of the other. These Waters give no Tincture with Galls, tho' Dr. Lister violent­ly affirms all saline Springs will do it. These are the most noted Purging-Waters that I have seen in these Parts, I shall therefore in the next place proceed to those, which may be ranked amongst the Acidulae, but do likewise con­tain Natron: and those are the Waters near Burnley and [Page 47] Emmett, which were first discover'd to me by that most Learn'd and Accomplish'd Gentleman Richard Townley of Townley Esq The like to these Mons. du Clos affirms are in several places in France; for a full Account of which, I refer the Reader to that ingenious Author.

From the Experiments made by the Royal Academy in Paris in the Bourbon-Waters, and the parallel Observati­ons those in these Parts entertain us with, we may make a probable Conjecture of their Principles, and I think may safely affirm that in the Cases where those are proper, these as a most natural Succedaneum may be made use of, and will, I question not, answer what Intentions may be expect­ed from the former. These Waters with Galls give a Citrine Tincture, and the Gall immediately precipitates in white perpendicular Lines: but you must note these Experi­ments were made in the Waters remote from the Fountains; I evaporated several Quarts of the Water, and towards the latter end found it to have a little of a lixivial Tast, after the surface was cover'd with a thin greyish Film; this Film consisted of saline, alcalious and terrene Particles, and would make a brisk Fermentation with any Acid; after­wards the Salts rise in perpendicular Lines upon the sides of the Retort. The like Phaenomenon I observ'd in eva­porating the Water that came from Nitria in Egypt; and the like may be observ'd in Evaporation of other alcalious Salts: After the Water was wholly evaporated there stuck to the sides of the Retort a greyish Matter of a very lixi­vial tast, and would ferment with any Acid. By Filtra­tion the Earth is easily separated from the Salt, and then you have a natural alcalious Salt the true Natron of the Ancients, as is manifest from those Specimens of Egyptian Nitre, brought from Nitria to the Musaeum at Oxford by the Learned Dr. H. and likewise by the Description of Na­tron recited by Dioscordes; tho' our Countryman Dr. Lister boldly affirms there is no such Salt in any Waters in England: but this is not the first piece of Boldness he is [Page 48] pleas'd to arrogate; and if his Reason be not totally screen'd, he may, if he pleases, be satisfy'd he's mistaken. These Waters are of great use in the Stone, Scurvy, and other Chronical Diseases, of which I have seen several Instances. There are other Waters of an austere styptick Tast, that will coagulate Milk, but give no Tincture with Galls, as some Pumps near Bury and Chorley; these I conjecture a­rise out of Allum Ore, or Marle; they lather not with Sope, but make a perfect Coagulum from the Acid and the Alcaly fixing together. Some Springs we have that petri­fy, as one in a Wood near Bury, and another by the side of a Rivulet near Manchester; these Waters superficially in­crustate as the Chymists call it, stratum super stratum; are of an austere Tast like those in Yorkshire; in Evaporation they yield a great quantity of a greyish Earth that will ferment with an Acid, and some little proportion of Salt. By these Phaenomena I do conjecture the terrene Particles are dissol­ved in Minimis. by the natural Acid, or (as Helmont calls it) the Esurine Spirit, and when on the surface of any Body they are united they form these Incrustations: I am the farther confirm'd in this Hypothesis, because I have observ'd Petrefactions where only there could be an Acid halitus, as in several Plants and Roots adjacent to the petrefying Wa­ters near Knarseborough. These Waters inwardly taken are commended by several in Dysenteries, and for the same reason they are proper in those Cases; I do judge them of use in the Cure of a Diabetes. These are the most remark­able Phaenomena I could ever observe of the Waters in these Parts: having therefore examin'd those, I shall, ac­cording to my propos'd Method, in the next place proceed to give an Account of the various Earths these Counties afford us.

An Appendix to the WATERS.

AFter I had finish'd my Experiments of Mineral Wa­ters, I had the fortune to meet with an elaborate Tract entituled, The Natural History of the Chalybeat and Purging Waters in England, with their particular Essays and Uses, with likewise Observations on the Bath in Somer­setshire, dedicated to the Rt Honble the Earl of Manchester, by Benjamin Allen, Med. Bacc. Th [...]se I shall examine in their Order, and shall in the first place take notice of his Observations concerning the Rise of Chalybeat Waters: Pag. 14. he says, the Earth and Soil of these Springs is ever a Sand or Gravel, and that the Water issues from, or ra­ther makes a Rock cemented of Stones, which are never to be found but where the Water is Vitriolic. How true this is, the World may judge from the following Observations: In the Rocks at Strangeway near Manchester in Lancashire, three or four Yards in Free-stone Rock, are several Chaly­beat Springs, which with Powder of Galls give a deep Claret Tincture, and will answer all other Experiments usually try'd upon the Acidulae. Eight or nine Yards within a Free-stone Rock near Stockport, in the same County, are several Chalybeat Springs, which with Galls yield a purple, fully as deep as Tunbridge, or Knarseborough, and will turn green with Syrup of Violets; in these Rocks are found sometimes small Vitriol-stones, a small quantity of which scrap'd into common Water, instantly makes the artificial Chalybeat Waters, but there is not the minutest Particle of the Pyrites to be found here. It is plain hence, that these Springs proceed, not always, from Sand and Gravel, nor are they (as he alledges) Marcasitical, that is, Springs impreg­nated with the Pyrites; for to satisfy his Curiosity farther, the Pyrites here is neither discoverable by Ocular Demon­stration, nor by dissolving the Rock in Aqua fortis, which he asserts, if it contains the Pyrites, will turn to a Gelly; [Page 50] and yet that very Assertion is without ground, for because the Pyrites will turn to a Gelly, does it thence follow all Bodies that will do so, participate of the Pyrites? By the same reason he may aver, That because Bones and Harts­horns with a little common Water, in Mons. Papin's Di­gesting Instrument, become gelatinous, that either the Bones contain the Horns, or vice versa, the Horns the Bones. Now since these Rocks answer not this end, it is evident these Springs, according to his own Notions, cannot be de­riv'd from the Pyrit [...]; but this, I presume, he only assert­ed as a Compliment▪ to an eminent Physician, and if he prefers his Friendship before strict and true Observations in Nature, I envy not his Choice. His other Experiments upon the Acidulae are no more than what have been before observ'd by other Authors, I shall therefore pass them over.

As to the Purging-Waters, he derives them from the Pyrites, Selenites, and Loame, and are (as he alledges) im­pregnated with purging Salts of various kinds, form'd into a saline Nature, by an acid Mineral Juice in the Loame. Hence, pag. 117. he has this Period: ‘So I conclude the Salt of these purging Waters to be of a middle Nature, betwixt Nitres and Vitriols, and form'd out of the Loame by the help of a Vitriolic Juice, or liquid Salt, and col­lected in most Cavities.’ As to this Hypothesis, from the following Phaenomena, I doubt not but to convince him that he is again mistaken; that is, that there are Springs which do contain the bitter purging Salt, and yet arise not out of Loame, (e. g.) At Rougham in Furness in the County of Lancaster, at the bottom of a Rock issues a purging Spring, at least twenty Yards perpendicular from its Summit, where there is neither the Pyrites, the Belemnites, nor Loame: the Spring flows in a luxuriant Current. This Water, upon the first Evaporation, affords a Salt not much unlike Sea-Salt, but the marine may be easily separated from the bit­ter or purging Salt; and then you have a Salt which affords Bacilli, or Stiriae, which will easily dissolve even by the heat [Page 51] of the Hand, nay even by the Air it self, and answers all the Experiments Dr. Grew made upon Epsome-Salt: It is hence evident that these Salts have not their Origin (as he alledges) from the Pyrites, Selenites, and Loame; the Earth after distillation was light and of a greyish Colour, and would strongly ferment with an Acid. But to give him an ampler demonstration of his Error, I shall produce him a­nother Instance or two: At Thernham in the County of Lancaster, there is an Earth which contains Loame, and a great quantity of Selenites; and the same Phaenomena may be observ'd upon the Ridge of Hills that run upon the Sea-Coasts towards Rossall, in the same County: out of both these Earths issue several Springs, which will neither tinge with Galls, nor are they Purgative; hence it is evi­dent, tho' the Principles he lays down do all concur, yet that thence does not necessarily follow a Marcasitical, or Pur­ging Water, nor are the Salts, as was observ'd before, col­lected so superficially as he alledges; 'tis true indeed I have seen the Salt Bass, by being expos'd to the Air, shoot out various Efflorescences, at the same time from a Spring is­suing out of the same Bass, at least 20 Yards within the Earth, may be prepar'd the true bitter purging Salt: So that what he has inform'd us in relation to the Purging Waters, is as groundless as the former. As to his Method of preparing a Salt from Loame, by Spirit of Nitre, it is no wise convincing, since the Phaenomena he recites may happen barely from the Spirit, without a Salt congenite to the Loame▪ the different Salts he prepared from the Pur­ging Waters, may, for ought I know, be true and exact; but what I alledge is, that neither the Chalybeats are always from the Pyrites, nor the Purging Waters▪ from Loame, Marcasite, and the Selenites. His other Experiments are but what were before observ'd by Dr. Plot, and Monsieur du Clos, to whom I refer the Reader.

I shall in the next place examine his Observation upon the Bath in Somersetshire▪ P. 178. he says, that ‘The Salt con­tain'd [Page 52] in this Water appear'd fully to be Salt-petre, in that it did not disturb a solution of Sal Saturni in fair Wea­ther.’ But this is no Demonstration at all of Salt-petre, for the bitter purging Salt will do the same, which is not at all Nitrous, altho' it bears the same Bacilli or Stiriae with Nitre; for since the Salt is not inflammable, there is no reason to suppose the Existence of Salt-petre. It now ap­pears his Attempts upon Bath-Waters are as fruitless as his other Experiments, and in his reasoning about them he is inconsistent with himself: I shall only remark one thing more, that when this Purging Salt becomes stiriated, if it be dissolv'd in a small quantity of Water, in a few Days it drops an hard pellucid Salt, which will not dissolve in the Air; is bitter and pungent, the Figures of it are various, sometimes Cubical, sometimes Pentagons, and Parallelope­pedons; so that it is manifest it is very difficult to reduce Salts to their distinct species, by determinate Figures. It is certain by these Experiments, that the Salt in this Pur­ging Water, which at first by its Tast and Figure seem'd only to be a common marine Salt, consists of three different Kinds; why therefore it should be stiled a Nitre, I can see no reason. I have often wondred why some Per­sons ambitiously affect the Imposing of Terms, assuming to themselves Titles of New Discoverers, without any ground at all: For if from the mere Trunk of a Mole, I should go about to prove it was the species of an Elephant, the World would doubtless conclude me the blinder Creature.

I shall beg leave to add to this Appendix one thing more relating to Cold Springs; in which, as the Moralists assure us of the two contrary Passions, Ioy and Sorrow, that the for­mer is an Expansion, the other a Depressure of the Spirits; so it is no less probable in these two opposite Qualities, Heat and Cold, that in one the Nerves are dilated, in the other shri­vel'd or contracted: But since the Cause of intense Coldness is the Subject of this Paragraph, I shall only expatiate on the latter; in order to that I shall lay down a general Hypo­thesis, [Page 53] and afterwards illustrate it, first by the Effects of Cold, and afterwards by parallel Experiments that produce it. Coldness therefore in Waters I suppose to proceed from volatile saline Particles, which by their Points contracting the Extremities of the Nerves, obstruct the Spirits, and thence proceeds an Horrour or Trembling; and if the Cold be intense, a Stupor, or Numbness, hence it is that the Ca­pillaries in the Skin, by the Punctures of those saline Par­ticles corrugate, and the Blood thereby stagnates, and by the distention of those Vessels the Skin appears extremely red. That Coldness in Waters proceeds from these saline Par­ticles, is evident from solutions of Snow in common Water, in which those Particles are so volatile, that upon Distilla­tion I found them wholly to evaporate: It is not therefore as the Peripateticks imagine, that Coldness proceeds from dull unactive Principles, but from volatile saline ones, which by their Inflexibility or Rigidness, like so many Bar­riers, fix the Particles in Water, which are of a softer Tem­per; and thence it is that it freezes, and is turn'd into Ice: In Springs therefore that are naturally intensely Cold, I suppose the Loam, from whence these arise, to have Pores so configurated, as constantly to imbibe these saline Parti­cles from the circumambient Atmosphere, which doubtless are of as Volatile nature as those of Snow; for I never could find in the Distillation of Cold Baths any Salt that could be reduc'd to a Chrystal, except a marine one, and that in so small a proportion, that it is impossible to sup­pose that the Coldness should proceed from thence. 'Tis true indeed in artificial Cold Baths the Water is made vio­lently so by solutions of marine Salt, and Salt-petre, but then to effect that, there are those quantities of Salts, that are never to be found in Baths naturally Cold; whence it is evident the Coldness in them cannot proceed from a solution of those Salts, but from a Volatile Aerial Nitre doubtless brought into the Atmosphere by particular Winds; for it is evident in opposite Parallels from the Line, in the one [Page 54] you have violent Frosts, in the other intense Heats, as the Ingenious Dr. Munday of All-Souls College in Oxford, be­yond contradiction has made evident.

The most remarkable Cold Spring in these Parts is that at Larbrick, of which take the following Account. Upon immersing your Hand into it, the Part immediately grows extreamly red, and you will then perceive a most violent Pain; Fishes of several sorts I have seen put into this Spring, which make but one Effort, and instantly expire. It is an Acidula, or Chalybeat Water, and therefore is ac­counted for in another place; as likewise the Effects of Cold Baths, which are consider'd in the following Treatise of the Scurvy and Rickets.

But more fully to illustrate the unaccountable Penetrancy, Agility and Rigidness of those Particles that produce Cold, take the following Experiment: Let a Thermometer of a Foot long, and Hermetically seal'd at both ends, and about half fill'd with Spirit of Wine, be immers'd in a Cold Spring, for Instance in that at Larbrick, and continue suspended in it about half an Hour; in that space of Time the Spirit in the Tube will subside a full Inch, which Instance fully de­monstrates how penetrating those frigorific Particles must be, that thus enter the Pores of the Glass, and force the Spirit to subside to that degree: This Instance likewise de­monstrates their Inflexibility, that by penetrating the Pores of the Glass, they should so fix their Points upon the superficies of the Vinous Spirit, which being of a softer Texture must necessarily give way and subside. By this Experiment you may easily find out the various Degrees of Cold in Springs, and by comparing those with Observa­tions of the like nature, made in the two noted Baths, Holywell in Wales, and St. Mungus in Yorkshire, may easily find of what use the Springs in these Counties may be in the like Cases which these are eminent for. I must needs own that in Leprous Distempers, Scorbutic Rheumatisms, the Rickets, and Scorbutic Atrophies, before the Hectic heat [Page 55] is grown too intense, I have not seen any Medicines per­form the Effects which these Waters frequently do.


Of Earths, Clays, Boles, Marles, Improvements by Shells, Shell-Fishes, Hares and Rabbit-Skins, Sope-Boylers Ashes, and Putrify'd Ferns; of Morasses, and their various Im­provements.

THese Countries afford us various sorts of Earths, but the most noted are the Black Soil, the Foxglove-Earth, and the Clay-Earth, which indeed is a mixture of Clay and Marle. The Black Earth is commonly rich Pa­sture, or Meadowing, or good Corn-Land; the Foxglove-Earth, which is a tender Earth, and of a brownish Colour, is usually good Pasture, and by Improvement brings plen­tiful Harvests of Corn; the Clay-Earth is chiefly for Corn, and in that either for continuing long, or producing a well fed Corn, exceeds both the other. Sometimes these Earths abound with great quantities of Lime-stones and other Stones, which mightily contribute to their plentiful Pro­ductions, as is observable in the Closes near Lancaster, and other parts in the North; the Country People imagine it proceeds from the Warmth they impart to the various Earths, but I rather attribute it to their Nitrous or Al­calious Salts, which, as I shall demonstrate hereafter, conduce to the fructifying of Earths. These Earths are usually improv'd either by Marle, Dung, Lime, Shell-Fishes, Shells, Rags, Hares, or Rabbit-skins, Sope-maker's Ashes, Sea-Mud, the common Dirt of the Lanes, or pu­trify'd Ferns. The Marles, where there is depth of Soil are usually the best Improvements; and indeed a good Marling is often counted equal to the Purchase of the Land; the Marle affords a Nitrous Salt, and Oyl, which I take to [Page 56] be the Principles that make it so fertile; its Salt I con­jecture is imbib'd from the Air, which may be the reason that the longer it lies expos'd, the more prolific it is: Hence it is common amongst Persons that can afford, to Marle their Ground, and break it up several Years afterwards, by wch it be­comes more fruitful, and continues much longer. The white Marle is of a brittle, short Body, and consequently more easily wash'd away by the Weather; for this reason it only renders the Soil fruitful for a few Years, not comparable to the other for continuance. The like may be said of Lime, and putrify'd Marine-Fishes, and Shells, which by their Calcination by the Sun-beams are converted into Lime, these being of a looser Body than the Clay-Marle, more speedily mix with the Earths, and for that reason, as the Country People term it, will sooner white, that is, will sooner produce Corn; the same may be said of Sea-mud, however the Continuance of these are far inferior to the other: The Fruitfulness of the last mention'd I judge may proceed in a great measure from their Oyls and alca­lious Salts, with a due proportion of Earth, and no doubt but Acid and Alcaly have the same use in fructifying Soils, as they have in Animals; and hence I believe that from the Dung of the Sea-Fowl in Fowley-Island, which takes that Name from the abundance of Sea-Fowl there, the Pasture becomes so pregnant, that it surpasses all in these Parts; a Sheep from thence is usually sold for 50 s. or 3 l.

The most noted Clays in these Parts are the Potters-Clay, Tobacco-pipe-Clay, and Sope-stone, as the Miners call it. The Potters-Clay is usually blew or yellowish, or of a Dove or Coushat-Colour, as the Workmen term it; after it is moulded into Pots, it is burned in a circular Oven, and is glazed with a Slurry, and Lead-Ore finely powder'd: This Slurry is made of a different Clay to what the Pot is; it is usually reddish, and will run to a Glass, which the others will not; which is the reason that with this and Lead-Ore they glaze their Pots. It is observable this Slurry upon [Page 57] one sort of Clay will be yellow, upon another black, on another green, and on others of the Colour of the Duke of Alva's Bottles, which must proceed from various Metals that flux from the Clays, and consequently produce va­rious Colours.

I was inform'd from my Ever-honour'd Friend Sr. Roger Bradshaw of Haigh, that it was upon a whitish yellowish Earth, in a Field near the Kennel-Pits at Haigh, that Mr. Dwight made his first Discovery of his most incomparable Metal: I have attempted several Colours with Smalts, and found that by those, and an azurine Spar frequently found in Lead and Copper Mines, I could upon Barnstable-Clay run a Glass not easily distinguishable from Tortoise, and no doubt if experimented by an Artist, he would find it of extraordinary use. I have likewise with several of these Earths run black Lead, by which and a little Horse-Dung finely powder'd and then wrought together, I have seen it stand Fire, when a good German Crucible has broke in pieces. Instruments of this may doubtless be made of great use to the Essayers and Refiners of Metals, and be had at far more easy Rates than those brought from Ger­many. Tiles of any sorts are likewise made from these Earths.

The Tobacco-pipe-Clay is usually blew, or of a Colour betwixt white and yellow; there are at Rainforth tolerable Pipes made of this, but not comparable to those at Chester, these are made of Clays brought from the Isle of Wight, Poole and Biddiford, which are esteem'd the best in England, and if I mistake not the best in Europe. Boles we have only in two places, Eller and Heesham; these are of a yel­low Colour, stick close to the Tongue, and will ferment with an Acid. In the same place we have likewise a white Earth, or Sope-stone; this will lather with Water, I have seen some Persons trimm'd with it; this is usually full of the Pyrites, when wet very Oily, but when dry put into Water will make an hissing like unquenchable Lime: [Page 58] Upon which Phaenomenon I shall beg your patience, to expatiate a little before I proceed to the next particular. Mons. L'Emery has observ'd, That the reason of the Ebulli­tion of unquenchable Lime with Water, proceeds from the setting at liberty the igneous Particles lock'd up in the Lime, hence they disentangle themselves, and rallying with united Forces, must consequently produce that Ebullition. The like I think may be affirm'd of this, only here the Ebul­lition causes not any sensible Heat, which notwithstanding may be, tho' igneous Particles be contain'd in the Water, as I have seen in the Burning-Well near Wigan, which is actually Cold. But that this Ebullition does proceed from sulphureous Particles, I have reason to conjecture, because out of these Earths, thro' the salt Water, frequent flashes of Flame may be observ'd like Lightning to dart by In­tervals; it appears a diverting Phosphorus in the Night­season, at which time spreading the said Earth upon my Hand, I have discern'd the like Phaenomenon.

Morasses we have several in these parts, which may be distinguish'd into these Classes, the White, the Grey, the Black: It is plain from Microscopical Observations, that the White is nothing but a Compages of the Leaves, Seeds, Flowers, Stalks and Roots of Herbs, and Fruits or Shrubs which no doubt increase every Year; these burn to white Ashes, but yield but little of lixivial Salt. The Grey is har­der and more ponderous, and to me seems to be but a more perfect putrefaction of the former. The Black is the best Fire, and the most Bituminous, which I take to be a con­summated putrefaction of the Plants that grow upon these places, as Elaeagnus, Ros Solis, Erica, and the like; and in this I am farther confirm'd, because I have frequently observ'd the white Moss, which is demonstrably a Com­pages of the recited Plants, converted easily to black Moss, which is done by draining of the Dales, or cutting Sluces thorow the Morasses; by which means the white Moss which before was like a Spunge saturated with Water, now [Page 59] drain'd, contracts to a more compact Body. Besides these are the Heath-Turffs, and a bituminous Earth near Orms­kirk, but of that I shall discourse in its proper place. 'Tis the receiv'd Opinion, that these Morasses had their Rise from Noah's Deluge, and this Hypothesis seems to be back'd by the great quantities of exotic Trees, marine Shells, and other Phaenomena that are observ'd there; I have likewise seen a Brass-Kettle which was given me by Major George Westby, and a small Mill-stone found in those places, as likewise Beads of Amber. 'Tis plain these could not be brought thither by Noah's Deluge, since in those early days the Refining of Metals was not known, and 'tis very pro­bable such kind of Mill-stones not made use of: But since I have shown how Moss may, and doubtless does increase, it is easy to conceive how such things may sometimes be found in Morasses; but whether these subterraneous Trees, Pine-Cones, Nuts and Shells did grow in these places, or were brought thither by the universal Flood, is a Question that may challenge our next Consideration. I must con­fess I have not seen Firrs grow naturally in any part of this Kingdom, but what there are have been rais'd by great Care and Industry; and Caesar assures us, that when he first invaded this Island there did not any Firrs grow in it. From these to me it seems plain, that these could not come from any other Cause but a Deluge, and it is most probable from that dreadful one recited by Moses: Some persons I know have endeavour'd to evade this Assertion by averring, that these subterraneous Trees were not really Firrs, but only Woods made Resinous by a bituminous Earth, and so conse­quently might be there without a Deluge. To these I answer; Not only Firr-stocks, but Firr-Apples are likewise found in these Morasses, and these I hope those Gentlemen will al­low me could not belong to any other Tree but to the Firr; besides the grain of the Wood, and the Turpentine that upon burning drops from it, sufficiently demonstrate it to be really Firr: so that what is argued upon that account [Page 60] is but a meer Subterfuge, and bears nothing of Argument along with it. I have often indeed wondred how upon the tops of Mountains there are sometimes these Morasses, and the adjacent Valleys Arable Ground; but in that ter­rible Confusion which doubtless was at the Deluge, I think the Phaenomena of Nature cannot be mechanically account­ed for: so that if a Naturalist can but demonstrate a De­luge by Matter of Fact, that it only could produce these wonderful Effects; whether he can or not assign the Modus of doing it, is not material. These Firrs are split and dried, and by the poorer People made use of instead of Candles.

It is urged by the Learn'd Dr. Plot, that these Morasses were the products of the Woods that grew upon them, wch by putrefaction of the Leaves, Rains and Dews, may, as we daily see, be converted into Boggs or Morasses; and that the Firrs found there were not brought thither by any Deluge, but were the product of the Soil, and in proba­bility ruin'd by the Britains, in revenge to the Danes, the Pines being their darling Tree; and he adds that Caesar ha­ving never seen the Northern Parts where the Pines grew, might easily be mistaken in that as well as in the Beech-Tree, which he asserts was not in this Island, tho' found contrary by Experience. To these I answer, Tho' the Hypothesis be ingenious, yet for the following reasons I think it not to be defended: For in the first place I think it not rational to conjecture, that the Pine thro' the whole Island could be so universally destroy'd, as that for the future it should never be the natural product of the Soil, as we find at this day it is not; besides had the Pine, as he asserts, been de­stroy'd in revenge to the Danes, by the Britains, they would for the same reason have destroy'd the Oak too, the Danes at that time being an Heathenish People, and their Druids Worship'd that Tree, for which therefore they must doubtless have a far greater Veneration than for the Pine. Wherefore had the Pines been destroy'd for this [Page 61] reason only, the Oak likewise could not but have falln a Sa­crifice to their fury; for surely their own Superstition in that revengeful Juncture could never have been a Curb to their unbounded Rage. Secondly, The Postures the Firr­stocks are found in, evince they were brought thither by a Deluge; I have seen seven or eight of a vast Thickness contiguous to each other, and whoever considers the Cir­cumference of them must necessarily conclude they could never grow there in that Order, it being impossible there should be a distance betwixt each Tree for the ascending Boughs. Thirdly, Under these are frequently found the Exuviae of Animals, as Shells, Bones of Fishes, under one particularly I saw the Head of the Hippopotamus; it is plain from hence these could not come from any other Cause but a Deluge; and if so, since the Pine is not the product of this Island, we may as reasonably suppose those to be brought thither after the same manner. What Caesar alledges of the Beech not growing here, I am apt to think that kind of Beech he saw in Italy never grew wild in this Country; we may conjecture this from the description Virgil gives of the Beech-Tree, when he terms it Patula Fagus, which cannot be affirm'd of those produced usually in England: And this may serve for an Answer to what is espous'd by Dr. Plot. I shall therefore in the next place proceed to consider the bituminous Earth near Ormskirk, that being another species of Moss; but before we close this Paragraph I shall presume so far upon your Patience, as to give a solution to an Objection urg'd by some, and then conclude. It is observ'd by some the Pines by themselves are found in Numbers, and likewise other Trees rang'd in order are discover'd together, as Birch, Ashe and Oak, di­stinguish'd in several Lines, whence they probably infer that Woods of those distinct Trees once grew there. To this I answer, That tho' they may be observ'd so in Mar­tin-Meer, yet the Assertion is not generally true, for I have observ'd them in other places to lie promiscuously; [Page 62] here a Firr-stock, next to it a Birch, an Oak, or an Ashe, not keeping any Order at all; so that what one particular place may do, no wise illustrates a general History of those fossile Trees, since generally speaking the quite contrary is observ'd. Secondly, These Ranks of Trees found together no wise invalidates the Deluge, for the same Argument may be urg'd against fossile Shells, which are frequently found collected there; yet I suppose no Man will urge this as an Argument of their not being brought thither by a Deluge, but rather the contrary, since upon the Sea-shore in their native Beds they are always found in great Num­bers.

To these may be added that remarkable Mountain call'd Naphat in the Province of Conought in the Kingdom of Ire­land, which is several hundred Fathom above the surface of the Sea, yet at the top of this Mountain ten Yards within it are vast Beds of all sorts of marine Shells, as Whelks, Muscles, Cockles, Perewinkles, Torculars, Pecti­nites, Turbinites, Oysters, &c. which doubtless, considering the immense height of the Mountain, could not be depo­sited there by any means but a Deluge, and that an univer­sal one. Parallel to these are those vast Mountains of Oyster-shells in Virginia, and other parts of the West-Indies; likewise the vast quantities of marine Shells found several Yards deep in firm Marle in Lands remote from the Sea, in which five Yards within the Marle I saw the Skeleton of a Buck standing upon his Feet, and his Horns on its Head, which are yet preserv'd at Ellel-Grange near Lancaster.

I'll give you one Instance more, That eight Yards within Marle in Larbrick near Preston in Lancashire, was found the entire Head of a Stag, with the Vertebrae of the Neck whole, which by its Branches and Magnitude is forein to any I ever observ'd in these parts; but by the Cuts of those in Canada, I cannot judge them any other than of those in that Country: These are now in the Custody of Richard Long­worth of St. Michaels Esq when they were taken out of [Page 63] the Earth they were soft and pliable, but now hard and firm. A Phaenomenon not unlike to this is observable in Coral, which immediately grows hard, the humid Particles being spent by the heat of the Air; so that the saline and terre­strial Particles are not longer disunited, but thence come to a strict union, and consequently an hard and firm Body. More Instances of this nature might be produc'd, but what are recited are sufficient to confirm an impartial Reader in the truth of what is alledg'd; and to others I think it not worth while to make any Address at all.

However I shall produce another Instance, and then leave every one to his particular Sentiments: In a Place in Lan­cashire call'd the Meales, under the Moss four Yards with­in Marle was found an exotic Head, which by the descrip­tion given me of it by the Country People, may doubtless be that of an Elke; the Brow-Antlers were bigger than u­sually the Arm of a Man is, the Beams were near 2 Yards in height, and betwixt the two opposite Tips of the Horns, which is the Diameter, was 2 Yards likewise. Such a Cu­riosity never before seen in these Parts induc'd the Country People to cut it asunder into many pieces, each preserving a part as a Rarity; so that had it been entire, it had been much greater: The scatter'd remains of it may now be seen in different Places, but that is but a slender satisfaction to a curious Enquirer. The Elke most certainly is and ever was a Creature forein to this Nation, how therefore so many Yards in Marle under the Moss this should come to be deposited, by any other means than an universal Deluge, I would gladly be inform'd; considering likewise the wild­ness of the Place, and the thin number of People where this Phaenomenon was observ'd, (for the Meales are little more cultivated than the Desarts of Arabia) I think I may venture to affirm, if a Man will lay aside Prejudice, and not be too fond of an over-weening Opinion, he cannot account for it any other way.

[Page 64] To close this Head it may be agreeable enough to insert that remarkable Instance of Andrea de Valeta, Commu­nicated to me by Signior Vigani, who had itfrom the Person himself: viz. That in the Kingdom of Granada, remote from the Sea, he saw an Indian Canoo or Boat dug out of a so­lid Rock. These all throughly consider'd undeniably evince an universal Deluge, which doubtless could not be any other than that of Noah, of which Moses gives so ample a relation; and if so, the recited Phaenomena amount to no less than a Demonstration of the Truth of what that inspired Philosopher has transmitted to us.

As to the Forms of other Fossile Plants found in solid Rocks, as some not far from the Coal-Mines adjacent to Latham, where I have seen the Impressions of Polypody, Maiden-hair and Thorn Leaves in an hard greyish Rock, imprinted in a Black bituminous Matter. I likewise ob­serv'd in a Marble near Holker, the Lineaments of a Man; and in Pool's Hole near Buxton Bath, the Representations of several other Creatures, and various Modifications of Matter. These I take to be purely the wanton Sportings of the Fluor Stalactites, and do believe these Lusus Naturae are caused by different Mixtures of bituminous, saline and terrene Particles; and are not the Exuviae of Plants in the Deluge, which in that universal Destruction subsided with the broken Strata according to specifick Gravitation.

At Halsil near Ormskirk is a Bituminous Turf, which emits a Smell like the Oyl of Amber; and from it may be prepared an Oyl not easily distinguishable from the former, and answers all the Intentions of that noble Medicine, but this must be discreetly manag'd, otherwise it contracts a foetid Empyeuma. Pieces of this by the Country People are made use of instead of Candles, and burn like Torches; I have seen it flame upon the surface of Water, as long as any part above its superficies remain'd. Where this is got there floats a bituminous Oyl, I have seen strange Effects of it in preserving Raw Flesh, which comes near to the Aegyptian Mummy.

[Page 65] The Morasses are made Arable by Draining and Marling them, and bring then very good Corn; they frequently pare off the Tops of these with Push-plows, which the amass together in small Heaps, when they are dry they set them on Fire, and by their alcalious Ashes the Ground is made very Fertile, but will not continue so above three Years, after that it is very Barren. One thing had almost slipt me, how sometimes in Mosses are found human Bodies entire and uncorrupted, as in a Moss near the Meales in Lancashire. In Eller-Moss was found the Skeleton of a Stag standing upon its Feet: These are the most remarka­ble Phaenomena I have observ'd in Morasses, I shall not therefore swell these Sheets with unnecessary Recapitula­tions, but according to our Design proceed to the next Chapter.


Of Mines and Minerals, as Coal-Mines, Kennel-Mines their various sorts; the Method of Discovering them. An Ac­count of Sparrs, Talcs, Stalactites, Asbestus, Allum and Vitriol Ores; Salt Ores of various sorts, Salt Rocks, Sul­phur Ores; the Pyrites, Native Vitriol, Salts of various kinds; Mineral Damps, and Diamonds.

IT is an Observation as common as true, and which may justly challenge our Admiration, That the Mines in all Parts of the World (I mean Coal and Kennel-Mines) are always found in Strata, shelving towards the Center; or as the Miners call it, Dipping: Insomuch, that the same which in one part perhaps cannot be discover'd under Twenty Fa­thome, is yet at the Rise of the Mine frequently found near the Surface of the Ground: These generally keep the same Dip as the Coal Slat that lies over them, and by find­ing that you speedily disclose the Mine; and whatever the Miners may pretend, so far as I have been able to ob­serve, [Page 66] more certain Directions for the Discovery of these Mines cannot be given. If the Mines ly in any con­siderable Strata, (or as the Work-men stile it) ly True, their usual Dip is East or West; or as they vulgarly word it, to the Twelve-a-Clock, or Four-a-Clock Sun. In these Mines are those luxuriant Springs of Acidulae, that it would be impossible ever to make them serviceable, if they lay not in this shelving Posture: For did they ly in an Horizon­tal Plane, they wou'd most commonly not be found under some Hundred Fathoms, and then the Quantities of Water wou'd be too great for any Engine to discharge. It was therefore, no doubt, the wonderful Providence of the Al­mighty at the universal Deluge, in the Disruption of the Earth, that as the Psalmist terms it, They started aside like a broken Bow, to remain as everlasting Monuments of his Power, as well as Kindness to Mankind: And a farther Argument of his infinite Goodness is, that they are most commonly found in cold Climes, and not in those Regions where they have a more kindly Influence of the Sun. To pretend to solve the Postures of these, in so great a Con­fusion as was at the Deluge, by specifick Gravity, is I think but to trifle in Terms: For Mechanically to account for these wonderful Phaenomena, wou'd be an Undertaking equal to that Genius who so easily discover'd a Pacing-Saddle, or preserv'd Antiphthisical Air in Bottles brought from Montpellier. In these Mines it is plain no specifick Gravitation is observ'd, for Coals, Strata of Marle, Coal Slats, in all the Mines I have seen always ly promiscuously; for sometimes you come to a Stratum of Marle, afterwards to a Stratum of Free-stone, Iron-stone, or the Pyrites; then to a Coal or Kennel-Mine, then to a Stratum of several Kinds again, and then to Coals or Kennel again, and sometimes to Coals above them all; from which it is evident, that in their subsidence they were not determin'd to any specifick Gravi­tation, but as Dr. More terms it, were solely govern'd by an Hylarchic Spirit. These things premised, I shall pro­ceed [Page 67] to the Phaenomena frequently observ'd in them, As the constituent Principles of Coals, their Mineral Waters, Damps, and Pyrites.

Coals may be said to consist of Bitumen or Sulphureous parts, Vitriolic and Ferruginous, sometimes interlarded with a mixture of Ocre and Terrence parts; the sulphu­reous Particles are easily distinguishable by their Burning, viz. By their Smell and the azure Colour of the Flame; the Vitriolic parts are prov'd two ways, first, I have some­times seen Native Vitriol in these Mines: secondly, By Di­stillation; as more particularly in the Kennel near Haigh, from which by Distillation in a Retort, will come over a very austere Vitriolic Water: Besides the Springs that issue out of these do sometimes afford us quantities of Vitriol, as I have before remark'd. Their ferruginous Particles are discover'd in the Cinder, by their adhesion to the Magnet, which I take to be a Pathognomonical Symptom of Iron in that case, tho' Dr. Lister is pleas'd to stile it one of the Pyrites: But when the Dr. is framing an Hypothesis, he is no Slave to his Senses; and by the same Parity of Reason, he might put forth Comments upon Transubstantiation. Ocres frequently adhere to Coal, as do the Bass and Ter­rene parts: As to the Pyrites, that darling Proteus of the Dr. which at a dead-lift helps him to a Solution of any Phaenomenon, and which has given him the Character of a profound Naturalist amongst several Persons, perhaps be­cause they were incapable to apprehend him; nor indeed can I think he apprehends, or believes himself those Asser­tions he lays down concerning this Pythagorical Gentleman the Pyrites. This Pyrites is frequently found betwixt the Lamellae of the Coals, and sometimes in Fissures and Strata: These by their Configuration to the Receptacles in which they are disclosed, appear to have once been fluid; I have seen some Cubical, others in Pentagons, and some rolled up in Magdalons, and Striated like Cockle-shells, in lines exactly like those; a Collection of these I have by me, and [Page 68] design them for the Musaeum at Oxford. Others I have seen in the Shape of the Pectinites. The Pyrites consists of Sulphur, Vitriol, Ocre, Metallick parts, as Iron, Copper, &c. Of this there are various sorts, as the Aureus, Argen­teus, Ferreus, Cupreus. The Sulphur is distinguishable in it by the Detonation it makes with Nitre, as likewise by the sulphureous Smell which by Collision may be observ'd in it. The Vitriol is known by its Germination, which it frequently emits expos'd in the Air. The Ocre, and Me­tallick parts are discover'd by Calcination and Fusion, and of these I have seen several Essays. These are the most noted Phaenomena I cou'd ever observe in this Minion of Dr. Lister; but if he wou'd have greater Matters credited of it, he surely writes not what he has seen, but what he fancies: Let him first oblige the World with more ample and convincing Discoveries of its Merit, otherwise why should we Attribute to it more than its Value? It may be freely said of this as of most of the Dr's Notions, All is not Gold that glisters.

Sparrs there are of several sorts, but the most Noted may be reduced to these Classes, the Rhomboidal Pellucid Spar, the Sapphirine Rhomboidal, or Azure Spar, the O­pace Azurine Spar, the Alabastrites and the Stalactites, the Pellucid irregular Spar, the Diamond Spar, so denominated from its figure: These all will run, and are commonly made use of by the Miners to run down their Ores. These are a Composition of Vitriolic Salts, Sulphurs, and Ter­rene Particles: The Sulphur is discernible by Calcination, as are likewise the Saline, and Terrene Particles, which are very austere, and like a Bole will adhere to the Tongue. The Rhomboidal Spar is frequently found in the Mines in Derbyshire, and is constituted with various Lamellae, which are all Rhomboidal; which figure no doubt proceeds from a particular mixture of Saline and Terrene parts. Some­times I have seen Sparrs consisting of various Parallelo­grams; these are Pellucid like Diamonds, and will cut Glass, [Page 69] and are frequently found in Mole-Hills, at Downham in Lancashire: These are not to be found by Digging, as I have been inform'd by several of the Neighbouring Inhabi­tants, from what Depth therefore these Earthy Pioneers do bring them up is uncertain; they are call'd by the Names of Downham-Diamonds. The Sapphirine or Azure Spar is frequently found in Copper and Lead Mines in Lan­cashire and Derbyshire; some are more Opace than others, which no doubt proceeds from the different mixture of Saline and Earthy parts. The Alabastrites and Stalactites are found plentifully in those most noted Cavities, Pool's Hole, and the Devil's-Arse in the Peak in Derbyshire: These are not so pellucid as the other, therefore seem to contain a greater proportion of Terrene, and less of Saline Particles. The Figures which these Stalactites shoot into are Wonderful, and to a Thinking Man the most diverting Objects in the Universe. In some places the Cavity is scarce a Yard deep, in others an Hundred Fathoms perpen­dicular, of a most magnificent Arch: From the Top of this vast Roof there continually drops a Water, which forms various Lamellae of the Stalactites, in the shape of Hay-cocks, Lyons, Men, Fret-work, and several other di­verting Phaenomena.

Dr. Woodward supposes the Stalactites to be form'd by the Water in some Strata of Earth, filtring from the Spar, and so according to the position of Particles, to constitute various Lamellae of Spar. I shall not deny but this in part may be true, yet in those Cavities it is most certain the Water forms various Lamellae of Spar, after it is fallen from the Rock, as is very discernible in those little Hills call'd Hay-cocks, upon which the Water is continually drop­ping, and each Year forms various Lamellae of the Sta­lactites; the Water is clear, and of a pleasant Tast, and in Distillation yields a good quantity of this Sparry Matter: Wherefore it is most probable, there is a continual solution of this kind of Matter, by some acid Esurine Halitus, [Page 70] which may likely be the Effluvia of some of the Mines, or Minerals in those parts. I am farther confirm'd in this, because the Sparrs by Calcination are of a very austere styptick Tast; therefore it is most rational to think, that they may be some Vitriolate Effluvia which make this solu­tion, but are not to be discern'd in the Water, because the Saline Particles are sheath'd in the Terrene, and so cannot exert their pungent Qualities until they are disentangled: And hence it is that the Water, tho' it be highly saturated with these Spars, is yet of a pleasing Tast; and no doubt but a thorough Discovery of the Principles of these Wa­ters, wou'd give us a satisfactory Account of the Forma­tion of Gems, and might likewise be of Use in Physick.

There are different Kinds of these Sparrs; as to their internal Qualities, some if taken inwardly will Vomit, and Purge most violently, as that in the Lead Mines near Andlesack in Lancashire; and this no doubt consists in a great measure of Salt and Sulphur, which I take to be the reason that it is Emetic. But the Nature of this Spar will be more fully made out from the subsequent Instances, and the first is by Calcination, in which you may easily discover that a Pound of this will yield a Dram of Arsenic at the least, lying betwixt the Lamellae of the Spar. Whence therefore this comes to be of so Poisonous a Nature is plain­ly evident: Notwithstanding this, the Neighbours there­about will frequently take a Scruple at least of this in Fits of the Stone, in whom it vomits, purges, and works violently by Urine; in this Case, as they have frequently assured me, they have found great Relief: Whence the Vomiting and Purging proceed is evident, as we have be­fore observ'd, viz. from the Arsenical Sulphur; as likewise from that profuse quantity of Urine, which may sufficiently hint to us what kind of morbifick Matter it is, that causes the Diabetes, both from the Quickness of its poysonous Quality, and likewise the Sweetness of the Urine. There are some have been so daring, as to venture to take a Dram [Page 71] of this, particularly One Iames Barns's Wife and Child, but alas! to their woful Experience they found the sad Effects of it; for in about Nine Hours afterwards they both Ex­pired. The like Quantity of this, in about Three Hours time, will Kill a Dog; and it is observable, that the Dog while living is deeply Lethargick, which may farther il­lustrate to us, in malignant Feavers attended with those Symptoms, what kind of Matter probably it is that causes those Symptoms; but that is more fully Discussed in its proper place. Nay, so spreading is the Poyson of this Spar, that it has not only been fatal to the Creature that has taken it, but a Dog by licking the Blood of a Swine, which had accidentally taken it mix'd with Meal and Butter, expired likewise; and it is farther observable, that the Flesh of the Swine was afterwards Eaten, and did no mis­chief tho' the Blood was poysonous; because as we may reasonably conjecture, the Arsenic had not spread it self farther than the Mass of Blood.

There is likewise in the same Mine a Black Spar, which affords a diverting Phaenomenon; or perhaps by some may be esteem'd a melancholly Scene, which is in the following manner, If you calcine this Spar in a Crucible, its sulphu­reous Particles so diffuse themselves in the ambient Air, that the Persons standing by, by their Paleness resemble the Corps of so many deceas'd Persons. It is further remarka­ble, that there are sometimes Cavities in the Body of this, and likewise in the Lead-Ore, which are impleted with Wa­ter, tho' there are no apparent Aqueducts leading to them; these by the Miners are stiled Self-Loughs: Whence this Water is deriv'd may merit our Consideration; but it is most probable it is rais'd from the more remote Bowels of the Earth, by a subterraneous Heat, and collected in those Cavities; so that it is undeniably demonstrable, that the aqueous Particles must penetrate the Pores of the Rocks, Sparrs and Ores, which will more plainly illustrate to us how sometimes in those kinds of Cavities there are found [Page 72] living Toads, which some have had the vanity to fix there ever since Noah's Deluge; but from the Ova, or Eggs float­ing in the Particles of the Water, it is most probable to conclude they bred there. Others are Diuretical, and are frequently taken with success in the Gout and Stone, which no doubt they effect by their saline Particles inciding the Lentor in the Blood, and so consequently give ease in those Cases: Instances of this kind I have seen several, but to insert them here is forein to this Undertaking. These are the most remarkable Phaenomena I have observ'd of Sparrs, I shall therefore in the next place hasten to Talcs and Amianthus, or that which is call'd Feather'd Allum.

The Talcs are pellucid, and frequently found in Marle, and will easily calcine into brittle white Lamellae, and would no doubt make a very good Plaister, which in the Malt-Kilns might be of great use, being far better than those common Clay-Floors; this is not at present made use of any farther than a common Mortar, but its farther Im­provement succeeding Generations may discover.

The Amianthus is likewise found in Marle, it consists of various Filaments, and is that which the Ancients made their perpetual Lamp with; I have seen Cloath and Paper made of this, which would stand Fire, and doubtless it would be highly worth the while of some of our ingenious Mechanicks to make farther Essays upon it. It is call'd by some the Salamander's Wool, because, as I imagin, like that it is able to withstand the fury of the Flame: Iuncker and Etmuller give us an account of its Principles, and like­wise of some Tryals they have made upon it; I shall there­fore refer the Reader to those Authors. It is used by some Physicians in Unguents, in Distempers of the Nerves, but for my part I cannot see what use it can be of in those Cases; I cannot conceive how so sluggish and unactive a Body can penetrate and open the Obstructions of the Nerves, nor is it likely that its Particles should be absorb'd by the Capil­lary Vessels, and so destroy that Acidity of the Blood that [Page 73] may occasion the Distemper. The next thing to be con­sider'd are the Allum and Vitriol-Ores, and of these there are various sorts.

Vitriol is a Salt so denominated from its being like Glass pellucid, and of this there are three sorts, White, Red and Green. The Red is found in the Mines in Hungary, and the White and Green in Lancashire and Derbyshire: The Green is either Natural or Artificial; Natural, such as is that in the Kennel-Pits at Haigh in Lancashire, and in some Lead-Mines near Castleton in Derbyshire; Artificial, such as is prepar'd from the Pyrites, by Calcination and Fer­mentation. Of the Green there are two sorts, the one spongy and the other solid, but with Galls all yield the same Phaenomena. Of the White likewise are two sorts, the solid and the Trichites, the solid is found sometimes in Laminae, betwixt those of the mineral Bass, or Shiver, as the Miners term it; the Trichites is an Efflorescence from the Ores in the form of Hairs, and for that reason so stiled from the Greek word [...], which signifies an Hair; the Ores of these are commonly Bass, and as I suppose have their Pores so configurated, as not to admit of other Salts, and with these Salts we do imagin they may be impregna­ted from the Bowels of the Earth, by the ascending Ef­fluvia, or by those Particles which fall from the Atmosphere, as is evident from those Stones near Hess-Cassel in Germany, which by exposing them to the Air, afford at several times a greater quantity of Vitriol than the whole substance of the Stone amounts to. The white Vitriol is frequently found mixed with Allum, which I suppose might give oc­casion to some to make no difference betwixt those Salts; but they may easily be distinguish'd, for the vitriolic Par­ticles will spend themselves in Efflorescences in the Air, but the alluminous remain fix'd; and then it is, and not till then, that the Allum ought to be prepar'd. Roch-Allum we have at Brindle and Houghton in Lancashire, where great quantities might be made, those Parts being most [Page 74] modious of any in the Kingdom for this Business, since they may be so easily supply'd with that Sea-plant which the Arabians call'd Kali, and we in our Idiome Kolp.

Allum, as well as Vitriol, is most commonly found in Bass, and as we suppose may challenge the like production; they differ likewise in their Figure in Chrystallization, yet neither of them do at all times shoot into one and the same Figure. Here one Question of moment offers it self to our Enquiry, (viz) Whether or no green and white Vitriol be specifically different, or only differ in Colour as they are differently saturated with some Ore or Mineral: It is cer­tain I have in the same mineral Water observ'd, both green and white Vitriol, and likewise out of the same Ore both green and white Vitriol make their Efflorescences; where­fore it seems probable to me that these two are not specifical­ly different, but that the one consists of a more compact and close Texture, and the other of more loose Particles: I am farther confirm'd in this Opinion, because I find that they will both turn black with Galls, and are both Emetic. The Ores of Vitriol are either Marcasite, or Bass; the Methods of making Vitriol have been before recited, both in the Philosophical Transactions, and in a Piece of Mr. Ray's; I shall not therefore transgress on the patience of my Reader.

As to marine Salts they either make their Efflorescences out of some kind of Limes, or Bass, as I have observ'd upon several Walls in Lancashire; and upon the blew Bass in Cheshire sometimes upon old Walls may be observ'd Salt­petre, and oftentimes an alcalious fix'd Salt, which I take to be the Natron of the Ancients; and which we likewise find in some Waters in Lancashire, as in those near Town­ley and Burnley. If the Use of this Salt was fully prose­cuted, it would doubtless be of great Benefit, as far sur­passing all our artificial Alcalies, if we may judge of it either by the Phaenomena observable in it, or from those Accounts which the Ancients give of it, as Hippocrates and Dios­corides; [Page 75] and Vauslebius, a modern Author, in his Account of the Plague at Grand Cairo, assures us of the wonderful Efficacy of this Salt, of which he himself was an Eye-wit­ness; for tho' Hundreds in a Week constantly expir'd of the Plague then raging, yet so soon as the Nitre falls, which they know by the Turgidness of the Nile, and the fer­menting and rising of the Nitre-Pits, the Sickness imme­diately ceases. Polyd. Virgil informs us that the first Inven­tion of Glass was by an Accident which happen'd from this Salt, (viz.) Some Merchants who had been at Nitria, a place in Egypt where it is collected in greatest quantities, taking several large pieces of Natron on board their Vessels, and having a mind to go on Shore for their Diversion, or­der'd some Piles of it to be rais'd on the Ground, upon which they might fix their Kettles, as on Furnaces, to boil their Meat; but when the Fire grew to an intense heat, the Salt and Sand flux'd together, and ran into a transpa­rent Glass, a Method not much unlike that which is pra­ctic'd from the Ashes of Kali; how far therefore it might be useful upon this Account, deserves our Consideration.

Rocks of Salt of a vast thickness are frequently found in Cheshire, some of them twenty-five Yards or more thick; but whence these came, whether from the universal Cata­strophe of the World at the Deluge, or have been since form'd in the bowels of the Earth, admits our next En­quiry. It is observ'd that such a quantity of Water will only dissolve such a proportion of Salt, nor will the Salt after dissolution precipitate; if then we imagin these Rocks to proceed from the Deluge, we must conclude that vast Globe of Water that drown'd the World, to be more satu­rated with Salt than any of the Brine-springs in Cheshire; and if so, the Rocks of Salt had been universal over the World. Wherefore to me the most rational Conjecture is, That upon the Rupture of the Strata of the Earth, Islands of those Salt-Rocks floated in the Flood, and so for a con­siderable time might be tossed to and fro undissolv'd, and [Page 76] in that general Confusion upon the subsiding of the Water, might settle with the rest of the Mines and Minerals, and so have continued in the Posture we find them ever since. I have before demonstrated that the Brine-springs do not proceed from the Rocks of Salt that are already discover'd, but from the Rocks that lie deeper in the Bowels of the Earth, or it may be from none at all, because the Figures of the Salt are different; I shall not therefore insist further upon that Point, but pass on to what I next propos'd; and that is to give an Account of Allum, and its various Ores.

Allum may be divided into three Classes, the Roch, the Feather'd, and the Trichites, the which is made most com­monly from an Ash-colour'd Bass, and is frequently mix'd with white Vitriol, as may be observ'd in the Ores in Lan­cashire and Derbyshire: The Feather'd Allum, as was noted before, is often found in reddish Marles near Thern­ham in Lancashire. The Uses of these are so notorious, I shall not insist upon them.

The next Mineral that bears the nearest affinity to its Salts is the Downham-Diamond; these, as we hinted, are cast up by the Moles, and in those little Mountains often discover'd after showers of Rain, I have seen some of them as dazling as those from India, and would likewise for some time cut Glass, but not like those continue it. The Lear­ned Mr. Boyle, and Seignior Bret have given us a large Ac­count of their Formation, to whom therefore I refer my Reader; only in short I shall give you my own Conjecture, which is that I take them to be a Composition of saline and terrene Particles, perhaps not unlike those of the most refin'd Sparrs; and in this I was confirm'd by the Cal­cination of them, in which I could discover a perfect vitriolic Taste, and found a cretaceous Matter; but this I presume is in that small proportion, and so curiously in­terwoven with the saline Particles, that the whole Body becomes transparent, as we see in those of Glass the like Phaenomena are observable.

[Page 77] The next Minerals to be prosecuted are the Sulphurs, of which various kinds are observable in these Countries, as in Mines, Metals and Minerals; and these, as they are united with different Bodies, may be rang'd into several Classes: some may be call'd Vitriolic Sulphurs, because con­sisting of oily and vitriolic Particles, and form that Body which we commonly call Brimstone, and these are observa­ble in Coal-Mines, Mineral-Basses, Ores, Metals and Mine­rals; others are Oleaginous Sulphurs, as the Halitus in the Burning-Well near Wigan, the Sulphur-Damps in several Mines, and the burning Turf near Halls-hall, and a Sul­phur different from all these is observable in Lead, Copper, and the Pyrites. But to give a clear Idea of all these I shall delineate their several Effects, by which the Reader will the better judge of their constituent parts.

I shall therefore in the next place proceed to the Oily and Metallic Sulphurs: The Oily Sulphurs are easily in­flammable, but in their burning have no smell; these are observable in the Burning-Well near Wigan, and the burn­ing Damps in Coal-Mines, as was before hinted: sometimes these take Fire by Collision, and sometimes by Accension, as from the flames of the Candles the Miners work with, and then too often produce dismal Effects, as the blowing Men out of the Shafts, scorching them to Death, and some­times destroying the Works. The Effects of these are as fatal as those of Lightning, and frequently present us with very odd Phaenomena, as the rending in pieces prodigious Rocks, ejecting several great Stones perpendicular, with a thousand other Disasters in the Works. From these things to me it seems plain, the wonderful Effects produc'd from Lightning upon Animals, are chiefly from their sulphureous Particles, by a total and sudden dissipation of the animal Spirits, whence necessarily follows a coagulation of the Blood, and consequently Death: Wherefore in these Cases to save the Life of the Patient, if possible, as was inserted before in the Chapter of Air, speedy bleeding in the Jugu­lars [Page 78] or Arms is to be us'd, Cupping-Glasses, volatile Alca­lies, Friction, Epispastics, and the like, are the Methods to be taken; and not to trifle with Milk, expecting that to imbibe the Poyson, as is the common Custom.

Other Sulphurs are observable in Lead and Lead-Ores, the Effluvia of which are apt to produce Palsies, the Byon, and Consumption; in these a metallic corrosive Salt is united with the Sulphur, and so either by causing a coagulation of the Lympha, or serum of the Blood, entangles the Spi­rits, obstructs the Lungs or Nerves, and so produces the fore-recited Distempers. The Byon is not much unlike a Quinsy, the symptoms running parallel, and no doubt but the like Method in that as in an essential Quinsy ought to be taken. The Sulphur of the Pyrites will easily fulmi­nate with Nitre, which Pyrites is a Complex of different metallic Particles, as they are found in different Mines, as in Lead, Copper, Iron, Antimony, &c. as was before related. Sulphur is discernable in some mineral Waters by their smell, and by a Reverberation of the sulphureous Steams of hot Baths in Cupulos, native Sulphur may be collected. Sulphur by the Greeks is called [...], because they thought in this, in those times of Heathenism, the Gods descended, and by Thunder and Lightning destroy'd the Provinces: But by modern Authors it is taken for an in­flammable or oily Concrete from some mineral Acid, which is render'd evident in the preparation of common Brimstone, which contains both an inflammable Oyl, and an acid Spirit, and accordingly as the Acid is united with the Sulphur, the Sulphur is benign or poysonous; hence it is that com­mon Brimstone may more safely be taken, because it con­tains a mild Acid; but the Sulphurs of Antimony, Arsenic, and other Minerals, are poysonous because they contain more penetrating Salts, and so inflame and lacerate the Vessels.

As to Mineral Damps it is observable that they will con­tinue upon the surface of the Water in the Mine the space [Page 79] of a Month at least, in an Oval form, as the Miners assur'd me, and then frequently break; at which time, if the Miners be within the Works, they are often suffocated: I discours'd with one who had like to have perish'd by them; he told me he perceiv'd a sudden Coldness to strike to his Heart, as he term'd it, and an extraordinary sweetness in his Mouth, that he lay like a Person in a Swooning Fit, and was not sensible of either Pain or Sickness, nor could he remember any thing farther, save that he drew his Breath short as he recover'd, and was drowsy for some time afterwards. The Phaenomena seem to indicate these Damps to consist of arsenical Sulphurs, and vitriolic Effluvia, which suddenly entangle the Spirits, and so produce a Coagulation of the whole Mass of Blood, and consequently Death it self, if not speedily prevented. The way the Persons have in those Cases to save themselves, is by digging an Hole in the Earth, and lieing in it upon their Faces till such time as the Damp has spent it self; and sometimes by shooting at it, and so firing it out: One of the Men, whose Ignorance led him to Superstition, affirm'd it to be an infernal Spirit; and indeed if a Man reflect upon the Wickedness of most of the Miners, one might have too much reason to conclude that they have too great a Correspondence with such sort of Company, their Morals being inconsistent with any Re­ligion; there is scarce a vicious Act but they are guilty of it, their Folly is as notorious as their Vice; after all their toilsom Labours for a whole Week in dismal obscure Cells, the product of all their six Days Work is generally on the seventh expended in Drunkenness and Lewdness.

Sometimes in these Mines are observable mineral Earths, by the Miners call'd Coke, and Toftan, but to me they seem a courser sort of Sparrs: These, as the Miners affirm, are unerring Indications of Lead, and when they come to those Minerals, they will pretend to tell you how far they are from Lead; but too much Confidence is not to be given to these Assertions, for I have observ'd these Minerals to be where [Page 80] no Lead could ever be found; nor indeed considering the various Bodies Lead is found in, is there any reason to con­clude these to be the preceding Characteristicks of that Metal; but these things being to be more fully consider'd in the Chapter of Metals, I shall not expatiate upon them in this, but to that refer the Reader.

The Metals in these Countries are Lead, Iron, and Cop­per; the Metallis affinia, or Bodies betwixt Metals and Minerals, are Antimony, Black-Lead, and La­pis Calaminaris. Lead-Ore is frequently found either in Sparrs, white Sand, (some of which is as white as the most refin'd Sugars I have seen) in the Fissures either of Lime­stone or Free-stone, and then it runs in Veins, as the Work­men call it: These are of different sizes, sometimes the Mine being a quarter of a Yard diameter, and the same Mine sometimes not above an Inch, and a little after the the Rock clasping together, the Vein entirely disappears, thro' which the Miners continuing to work recover the Vein of Metal as formerly; this kind of Ore is most com­monly found in the Fissures of Lime and Free-stone. An­other kind of Lead-Ore is found in Lumps, and that in white Sand, as in the Lead-Mines near Keswick. There are four sorts of Lead-Ore, viz. the Spar-Ore, Coke-Ore, Potter's Ore, and White Ore: The Spar and Coke-Ore are about equal Value, and are fluxed with white Wood in Furnaces for that purpose, and they usually run about a fourth or fifth; Potter's Ore will not lose above a seventh, and frequently contains a proportion of Silver; the White Ore is a natural Ceruss, and yields a greater quantity of Metal than any of the rest.

Iron Ores there are of four sorts, as the Raddle-Ore, Clay-Ore, Blue Ore, and the Button-Ore, so call'd from lit­tle globular Protuberances that cover its superficies: The common way of fluxing these is by a large Blast with Wood-Charcoal; but I am inform'd that lately by the Cakes of Pit-Coal those Ores may be run into a malleable Iron; and [Page 81] if so, the Profit in the Northern Parts will be extraordi­nary, they having vast quantities of that Ore, and like­wise of Coals. 'Tis most certain it is nothing but the Sul­phur of the Pit-Coal that renders the Iron brittle, and runs it to a Regulus, but whoever understands the fluxing of Metals, may easily by Lixivials and due Preparations know how to manage that Point. In the running down of all Metals a particular care ought to be taken of the Work­men, otherwise they will too often evaporate it, sink it into a Lithorhage, or run it down with the Cinders, by which means they have an opportunity at leisure to convert it to their own Use, and so to defraud the Proprietor: And unless this Disadvantage is prevented, tho there is a vast gainful prospect from the Mines in Lancashire, they will never answer expectation; for I my self have fluxed the same sort of Ore to a fourth of malleable Metal, whereas the Forger has only run it, as he averr'd, to a twentieth, nor would he account for any more to the Proprietor.

Copper Ores may be reduc'd to the following Classes, viz. The Azure, the Green, the Golden, and the Cinerous, or Ash-colour'd; and these are found simply of themselves, and sometimes mixed with Iron, Lead and Antimony, of which I have various Specimens, but when the Ores are so compounded they never turn to Account. The Azure might for ought I know answer all the Intents of Ultra-Marine, and in fluxing will not lose above a twentieth Part; but of this the quantity is so small, that no great Ad­vantage can be expected from it. The Golden Ore is so call'd from the Pyrites Aureus mixed with it, which gives it that Colour: Of these there are quantities sufficient, I do think, to supply all Europe, and were the Mines rightly manag'd, we should not have any necessity to import our Copper from Sweden, which would be of vast Advantage to the Kingdom; but either the Ignorance or Fraud of the Smel­ters is such, that the Product is in a manner destroy'd. The Method of rightly running this Metal is, by reducing [Page 82] the Ore to a small Powder, and afterwards roasting it till all the Sulphur is evaporated, and then by an addition of lixivial Ashes. Nitre and Tartan, the Ore in a proper Fur­nace will run to a fourth Part of malleable Copper; whence it is plain by the quantity of Ore got Weekly, that the Profit would be vastly considerable, but at present, for ought I can learn, they are so miserably manag'd, that they turn to no Account at all. The Green Ore is of two sorts, the Vitrio­lic, and the Stoney: The Vitriolic will run to an half malleable, the Stoney not to a twentieth; and this may be done without either Roasting, or the Flux-powder, which in the Golden Ore cannot be effected. The Cinerous Ore must be fluxed as the Golden, and then it will run to one half malleable; and of this kind there are in Lancashire quantities sufficient.

But that the Method of Essaying Metals may be more easily apprehended, I shall in each of them set down the particular Forms, which I found most practicable; and shall in the first place begin with Iron, and so descend to the rest. The Species of Iron Ore are all enumerated be­fore, wherefore I shall directly begin with the Process in running down that Metal, with some Experiments upon the Haematites or Blood-stone. The Furnace in which this is run down is about two Yards square, and so rises per­pendicular a Yard or more; it is lined within with a Wall of the best Free-stone, to keep off the force of the Fire from the Walls of the Furnace; the Bellows which are large and moved by Water, enter about the middle of the Focus. The rest of the Furnace is rais'd upon this, six or seven Yards in a square or quadrangle, but tapering, so that the sides draw each other by degrees, and the top Hole or Orifice where they throw in Baskets of Stone and Fewel, is but half a Yard square; into this place they put down a Pole, to know how far it hath rested for a certain time, and when they find it to have subsided about a Yard and half, then they put in more till the Furnace is full again. There [Page 83] is a sort of Iron Ore that yields an Iron that is brittle when it is cold, this abounds with too great a quantity of Sul­phur, however it may be made a Metal malleable as any of the rest, by reducing to Powder, and roasting the Ore till the Sulphur is sublimed, then running it down with common Salt or Pot-Ashes, or the Ashes of Ferns. There is another sort of Ore they call Red-shire, that is such an Ore which yields an Iron, which if hammer'd when red-hot proves very brittle; therefore these two melted down together produce a good sort of Iron. Their Fuel is Turf and Char­coal, and in some places Charcoal only; several trials have been made with Pit-coal, but all hitherto unsuccessful, that Fuel abounding with too great a quantity of Sulphur, by which the Metal is render'd friable; but I am apt to think if they used the Pit-coal made into Coke, that In­conveniency might be avoided; the dusty part of the Char­coal is useful for burning the Iron-stone; to every Basket of this burnt Stone they put in one of Brimstone, to make it melt freely, and cast the Cinders. This Mineral has a strange Effect upon Iron, as we see by the various Prepara­tions made from it by this Body; the Rationale of which I take to be this, That the Body of the Iron is open'd by the Acid of the Sulphur, and so quits it self of the Cinder, or terrence Particles. 'Tis strange to imagin the wonder­ful Effects Acids have upon Iron, even the least of them making an alteration in that Body; the very Acidity of a Potato, which is not distinguishable by the Palate, will make the Metal when polish'd livid, and raise a Rust or Crocus upon its Superficies; other stronger Acids make a perfect solution of it, particularly Oyl of Vitriol converts its Body into a green Chrystalline Salt, which may again be run down into malleable Iron: So wonderfully are the terreous Particles dissolv'd in Minimis, or as we express it, in Minia­ture, that they are not to be discern'd by the naked Eye, or the best Microscopes. This Metal, if rightly prepar'd, comes nearer to a Panacea, or universal Medicine, than [Page 84] any Drug yet known, and in Chronic Scorbutic Cases is doubtless as much a Specific as the Peruvian Bark in Inter­mitting Distempers, but this by the By; I shall now pro­ceed to other Phaenomena observable in its Fusion. In the midst of the Furnace is a Tunnel, at which they put in Charcoal, where it is kindled, then they add Ore broken into pieces about the bigness of a Pigeon's Egg, so much as they intend to melt down; then they set their Bellows at work, and continue blowing about twelve Hours, feeding it still with new Charcoal as it settles; the glassy Cinder being very liquid, is let thro' an Hole at the bottom of the Wall; the Iron is left in a Conical Hole in the midst of the Hearth, which they take out with great Tongs, then put it under heavy Hammers, moved as the Bellows by Water, whereby after several heatings, in the same Furnace it is melted in, it is beaten into Bars: About an hundred Pounds Weight of Metal is gain'd at one Melting, which is the Product of about three times as much Ore. This indeed was the ancient way of running down Iron Ore, but of late the following Method is practic'd. They have a plain and open Hearth like that of a Black-Smith, without any en­closing Walls, excepting where the Bellows enter there is an hollow place, which they fill and heap up with Charcoal; then lay the Ore broken small round it upon the flat of the Hearth to bake, or as some express it, to Roast or Aneel, and by degrees thrust it into the hollow, where it is melt­ed by the Blast; the glassy Scoriae run very thin, but the Metal is never in a perfect Fusion, but runs into Clods or Masses, which taken out are beaten into Bars, as before: To some of this Ore adheres a green Chrystalline Spar, which consists of ferreous, vitriolic and terrene Particles; the ferreous Particles may be discover'd by Fusion, and the vitriolic, terrene and sulphureous Particles by Calcination; by which Method you may distinguish a strong sulphure­ous Smell, and afterwards by exposing it to the Air may di­scern 1 [Page 85] vitriolic Efflorescences form'd like Needles, or small Bacilli. The soft Clay Ore is reddish, and is that which we may stile Haematites, equally good as that from East-India; the Tea-Pots in London made of it, and in Staffordshire, for Art and beautiful Colour, are not behind any from China. This Ore is frequently used with success for the Murrain in Cattle, and for all Diseases in Swine, to which latter they will give an handful or two in Milk; which may sufficient­ly hint to us of what extraordinary Use it may be in In­flammatory Diseases, Quinsies, and Pestilential Fevers, and may in all likelihood, by a particular Composition of ferreous, saline and sulphureous Particles, far surpass all those Boles and seal'd Earths which we import from the Levant and the Indies; and may for ought I know in Chronic Cases likewise be a better Mixture to reduce the Mass of Blood to a right Crasis, than the most eminent Chymists could yet effect by their elaborate Preparations: And why may not this Ore, being open'd by a Volatile temperate Acid, answer all the Indications of the Acidulae in England? since what Phaenomena we find in the Acidulae by Galls, either as to Tincture, Precipitation, or Evaporation, may by preparing this Ore, as recited, and infusing it in com­mon Water, be observed. These are the most remarkable things which I took notice of in this Metal, we proceed next to Copper Ores.

And here I shall give you a Process in making a small Essay to satisfy the Curious, what quantity of Copper the yellow Ore contains; it is effected in this following Me­thod: Take twenty Penny-weight of Copper Ore, beat it in a Mortar and searce it fine, then put it into a Crucible thorowly Anneil'd; keep it constantly stirring in the Cru­cible, placed in the Fire, with an Iron Spatula, otherwise it will run into minute Masses, and be very difficult to flux down the Metal, because the Flux-powder cannot so entire­ly mix with the Copper Particles, so many of the Scoriae interposing: Let it thus be stirred about two Hours, or till [Page 86] it be of a dark Colour, not much unlike Aethiops Mineral, and emits no sulphureous Smell at all; for if the Sulphur be not entirely burnt off, it will carry off the Metal in Fu­sion, or at least if there be any considerable quantity of it, convert it to a perfect Regulus, and be as brittle as Glass. I have seen a Regulus run from this sort of Copper Ore, which when taken out of the Furnace after Fusion, has been hard, but brittle, yet it has by lieing in the Air moul­der'd to a small Powder, in Colour not unlike the Pyrites, which I presume might be occasion'd by the Particles of the Air making a solution of the fixed Salt, which the Metal was run down withal, and so the Mass must necessarily be re­duced to Powder, not unlike Coal-slates, in which by their long continuance in open Air we may observe the parallel Phaenomena. After the Ore is thus prepar'd, if it be that of Tilberthet or Cocklebeg in High-Furness in Lancashire, it will then weigh about seventeen Penny-weight and an half. After this to run down the Metal, proceed in the fol­lowing Method: Take of Crude Tartar and Nitre each, one Ounce, powder and mix them well together, afterwards flux them in a Mortar, which is thus done. Put an Iron Spatula, or any other piece of Iron red-hot into the mix­ture, continually stirring it till the great Emotion ceases, powder the remaining part when cool, and add to it two Penny-weight of Pit-coal beaten also to Powder; mix these with the prepared Ore, then put them all into a Crucible, place it in a Furnace armed with Bricks, with a Wall about a Foot square, and as much in perpendicular; cover the Crucible with a Plate of Iron, to reverberate the heat upon the Ore, by which means it more easily fuses; let the Bel­lows be blown with a moderate Blast, and keep the Focus of the Furnace from suffocating with Cinder, by frequent­ly elevating the Fire with the Spatula, or Iron Salaman­der; in about half an Hours time, or less, the Ore will run, which may be discern'd by the violent Boyling of the Salts: Then remove the Crucible from the Furnace, and [Page 87] strike it easily for some little time upon the Ground, which motion makes the Metal more readily to separate from the Scoriae. If when the Crucible is thus hot, you should im­merse it half way in cold Water, it is diverting to observe, that this glowing Heat emits for a considerable time an actual Flame, occasion'd (as it is probable) by a Concen­tration of the Igneous or fiery Particles: The Crucible be­ing cool, you will find at the bottom of it about six Penny weight of Copper; so that it is evident the Ore contains betwixt a third and fourth Part of Metal. If the Metal, occasion'd by the remaining Sulphur, should prove brittle after it is thus run down, you must then run it down again in the same Furnace, by addition of some Saltpetre, and by repeating the Fusion twice or thrice, you will have a malleable Copper, or that which the Workmen call fine Copper. This is the best Method for Essaying this sort of Ore that I ever yet could learn, nor do I think it can be well effected otherwise. The reason why the Saltpetre and Tar­tar are thus prepar'd, is this, (tho' it is not usual in other Flux-powders, because the Ore abounds with so great a quantity of Sulphur) If the Saltpetre was not thus bridled with the fix'd Salt of Tartar, it would doubtless carry a­way the greatest part of the Metal: I have been inform'd that this Ore when prepar'd as directed above, may be run down with Flanders-Ashes; and it is very likely it may be so; to Experiment which would be highly worth the time of the Gentlemen that are concern'd in Copper Mines; for by that means they may perhaps prevent the Expence of repeated Fires, which they are at before they can reduce it to malleable Copper. These are the most remarkable Phaenomena I have observ'd in Fusion of Copper Ore, I pro­ceed next to treat of the Fusion of Lead Ores; which is done only by roasting of the Sulphur, and afterwards in a common Furnace by running it down with white Wood.

This Ore contains a very corrosive Sulphur, insomuch that when it was Essay'd in an Iron Vessel, I have known [Page 88] it corrode it quite in pieces, which Sulphur is I doubt not, the occasion of that Distemper the Smelters call the Byon. I have in some of these Mines observ'd a liquid Metal, not much unlike Quicksilver, but cannot aver it to be the same; and have frequently in Copper Mines seen small pieces of Virgin Copper malleable without Fusion; but how it came to be so, I do not determine, considering with what difficul­ty the Metal is ravish'd from its Ore; on that Topic there­fore I leave every Person to his own Conjecture. There is some Lead Ore which contains Silver, which after Fusion may be separated from it with Spirit of Nitre, and so both the Metals preserv'd. But let us consider farther this poysonous Sulphur of Lead, which will better be understood by the tragical and various effects which it produces, not only upon Human Kind, but upon Quadrupedes. The other Di­stemper is by the Miners call'd the Belland, which disco­vers it self in the following Symptoms, A continual Asthma or difficulty of Breathing seizes the Patient, with a deje­ction of Appetite, his Complexion turns pale and yellowish; these are attended with a dry Cough and Hoarseness; swel­ling of the Limbs and Joynts ensue, which are render'd useless. This Distemper may be taken either by working in the Lead-Mines, or by the Fumes of the Ore in smelt­ing of it: These very Symptoms happen to Horses and other Cattle; these generally take the Distemper either by feed­ing on the Grass where the Lead-Ore is wash'd, or by drink­ing of that Water: In some Horses that have died of this Disease, the Ore has been found in Lumps and Masses in the Stomach. Let us now enquire into the Cause of these Distempers, since it may perhaps seem strange how an Ore without any diminution of its Substance in appearance, should so far affect the extreme Parts, as to cause them to swell, and render them useless: In prosecution of wch I alledge that it is probable the Sulphur of the Lead is a Substance as minute as that of Antimony in Crocus Metallorum, which we find by daily Experience will cause most violent Vomit­ings, [Page 89] without the least diminution of its Weight, why may not this Sulphur then enter the very Penetralia of the Nerves, and in those by its saline Particles produce a Corrugation, and by that means obstruct the Influence of such a proportion of Spirits as are necessary to Nutrition? Hence the Blood becomes dispirited, and performs not its due Circulation, but stagnates in various parts of the Body; the Serum becomes Effoete and Viscid, and thence proceed the Hoarseness, Asthma, weakness and swellings of the Joynts. It is probable this Distemper in the begin­ning, before it has too far affected the Nerves, might be cured by repeated Emeticks, but after it has once advanc'd to that State, all Endeavours are vain.

In the Discovery of these Mines, I do not find that the Miners use the Virgula Divina, or the Forked and Vir­gin Hasel, but the Ore generally discovers it self in the Fissures of Rocks; and this they follow till they break into the Bole or Trunk of it, which resembles the Trunk, and its Veins, the Boughs of a Tree. I have sometimes obser­ved in the Center of a piece of Lime-stone, like a Frog in­volv'd in Amber; an entire piece of Ore, without any Strings or Leaders directing to it; which brings me in the next place to consider the Formation of Ores, whether they germinate, or are the Exuviae of the Deluge.

It is affirm'd of the Iron Mines in the Duke of Florence's Country, that in 3 Years time the same Mine will be as pregnant with Ore, as it was before it was exhausted: Which Instance to luxurious Wits has afforded sufficient grounds to descant upon the Germination of Metals, even to that excess, that some fond Opiniatres who have obser­ved the metallic Tree in a Course of Chymistry, have almost reduc'd the Metals to Vegetables; but he that considers the Fissures of the Rocks, and the closing of those again, where the Metal entirely disappears, no Strings leading to the subsequent Body, and likewise the preceding Instance in Lime-stone, together sometimes with petrify'd Plants, [Page 90] Shells, Bones, and the Exuviae of Fishes, unless for the fake of being stiled an Atheist, he would be esteem'd a Philoso­pher, he cannot conclude these to be any thing else but the Ruins of an universal Deluge; and in a serious Contem­plation of these in those dark Recesses of Nature, the Power of the Almighty is as discernible, as in the great Lumi­naries of the Universe. As to that Instance of the Iron Mine in the Grand Duke of Tuscany's Country, this may be said: 'Tis probable it is a soft Ore, which by the Effluvia continually ascending from the Central part of the Earth, may carry along with them metallic Particles, and con­sequently in such a space of time fill up those Vacuities a­gain, or the empty spaces whence the Ore was extracted; which Phaenomenon to an inconsidering Eye, might give reason to judge the Ore Vegetated. Having now discover'd the ways of Finding, Essaying, the Site and Formation of Metals, I proceed in the next place to the Methods of their Separation, and thence to the Metallis affinia, and so I shall close this Chapter.

The Separation of Metals from Ores is twofold, either by Menstruum, or the Test, which Artificers call the Couple: The Menstruum, if the Ore contains Copper, Gold or Silver, is Spirit of Nitre, Aqua fortis, or Aqua Regia, which make a solution of the metallic Particles, and by Alcalies may easily be precipitated, and then by Fusion you may judge what quantity of Metal the Ore contains. The Separation by the Test is the common Method of the Mint, and of the Silver-Smiths; which being a particular Trade, and not properly the Province of Natural History, I shall not interfere in that Business, but to those I shall refer the Curious.

Quicksilver is found sometimes, but that rarely and in small quantities; I remember once out of a Lead-Mine I saw about a Pound of Virgin Quicksilver, but never any native Cinnaber in these Parts, which is its usual Ore. Black Lead we have near Keswick, which might be got in [Page 91] great quantities, but the Mines are open'd only once in seven Years, that being engrossed by the Dutch and Ger­mans, and by them made use of in glazing Earthen Ware, and in making their Melting-pots, but I presume they make a farther Use of it, in mixing it with Metals, which is not yet communicated to us; but by mixing this with Red-Lead, I have seen it run upon an Earth near Haigh, a Glass scarce discernible from Tortoise. The Lapis Calami­naris is sometimes found in the Copper Mines, and made use of in converting Copper into Brass, and is likewise us'd in the Dysentery, which being a strong Alcaly, by imbi­bing the Acid, may be a Specific in that Distemper. I ha­ving now accounted for the most remarkable Phaenomena in Metals and Metallis affinia, I shall in the next place, according to my intended Method, proceed to give an Ac­count of Vegetables remarkable in these Countries, and their various Operations.


Of Plants, the various Species of Marine, Amphibious, Sea Plants, and their Vegetations illustrated; of Plants peculiar to the Counties; of the Physical and Poysonous Plants, with a Rationale of their Effects; Fossile Plants examined, and demonstrated from various Observations, that they are but Lusus Naturae.

THE Learned and Indefatigable Mr. Ray has discours'd with that accuracy and fullness of these, that there is little room left to enlarge upon this Subject; wherefore what I shall offer in this Chapter shall be chiefly about their Germination, and some particular Phaenomena which I have observ'd in some of them. Their Virtues and Classes being before by that incomparable Man so fully explain'd, that to touch upon those wou'd be but to Copy him, and wou'd be indeed superfluous.

[Page 92] In some of the Alga's or Sea-Oaks I have observ'd various Capsulae impleted with a pellucid Gelly, and in those an in­finite Number of globular Grains, which I cannot imagin but to be their Seed; wherefore it seems probable to me, that when those Capsulae are come to their full Maturity, as in those of a foetus, there is a Disruption of their Membranes, then that chrystalline Humour, (so I call it because it so nearly resembles that of the Eye) with the Seeds is excluded; the Tast of it is a little Mucilaginous and somewhat Saline, which Phaenomena demonstrate it to be a proper ferment to propagate the Germination of those Plants: I am far­ther confirm'd in this Opinion, because upon the Rocks where these Plants grow, I have frequently seen this kind of chrystalline Humour, and out of that, various kinds of Alga's or Sea-Oaks germinating, first sprouting with two small Leaves, and afterwards successively form'd into the whole figure of the Plant. What therefore the ancient Botanists, and some of our modern Ones have alledged of these, asserting them to be amphibious Plants, only pro­duced without Seed, if we fully consider the above-recited Phaenomena I think may fairly be judg'd an Error. I can only speak experimentally as to the Alga, but for the Seeds of the Corals, Corallines, Mosses, Spunges, Alcyoneas, I will not be obliged so strictly to account for.

Coralline we have in these parts in great quantities, and it is almost noted to any vulgar Eye for its eminent Vir­tues in killing Worms; and I think it may be prefer'd to any other Alcaly, it being a composition of marine and al­calious Particles, and by that means answering two Inten­tions; and by reason of its safeness, in giving of which there can be no mistake in the Dose, it may challenge a greater Fame than Mercurius Dulcis, which by being given either in too great a quantity, or not being rightly sublimed, has sometimes produced most dismal Effects; wherefore the Person who meddles with this ought to know the right Dose for the Years, and particular Constitution of the Pa­tient, [Page 93] and likewise be rightly satisfy'd that the Medicine is true, for I am certain no one Remedy is so commonly adulte­rated; so that he who prescribes it, not only runs the risk of his Reputation, but hazards likewise the Life of his Patient: by mistaking this I saw Two Persons Poison'd beyond re­covery; which Instance I think may sufficiently caution us when, and how to prescribe it, and that Ladies, Nurses, and Apothecaries, and wise Women, who are not compe­tent Judges whether it is rightly, or not rightly prepared, may not hereafter attempt to give it so liberally as they have done.

Spunges we frequently find thrown upon the Shores, but I do not remember that I ever saw them growing. Corals we have not any, but Mosses and Alcyonia of various sorts. The Alga Saccarifera is frequently found upon these Coasts, and by hanging in the Air it will yield repeated Efflore­scences of a white Sugar, as sweet as any prepar'd from the Sugar-Canes; it is not for the present of any known use, but perhaps by Experiments which may easily be made upon it, succeeding Ages may farther inform us; how­ever I can only add this, that the quantity of Sugar that may be had from one of these Alga's is very considera­ble. There are other kinds of Alga's which the Inhabi­tants commonly call Mermaids Purses, of these there are Two sorts, the Black and the Yellow: I do not remember any One to have given an account of these, nor can I in­form my self to what Species they belong, having never yet seen them growing, and I only found them scatter'd on the Sea-shores. The Sea-Grapes may likewise be observ'd on these Coasts; and these I think are the most remarkable of Amphibious Plants in these parts.

The perfect Marine Plants are not very numerous, but the following are common enough, Eringo, Soldanella, Buck­thorn, Plantain, Sea-Colewort, Spurge, Squills, Sea-Purslain, Sedum Minimum, Sea-Spurge, Thrift Marsh-Pinks, Rock Samphire, Marsh Samphire, Horned Poppy Flore Luteo, [Page 94] Sea-Scurvy-grass, Serpillum, Carduus Mariae, Verbena, Rocket, Absinthium Abrotani Folio, or Sea-Wormwood. The Eringo is of frequent use in Scorbutic and Consumptive cases, and makes a most pleasant Ale by infusion. Solda­nella is commonly used in Hydropic Cases, and often with success; nor have I observ'd it to be so rough an Hydragogue as some Botanists have pretended. Squills that grow here are not used, but I see no reason why they may not answer all the ends of the other. Serpillum is a Plant often success­fully made use of in Catarrhs, and in the Fluor Albus. Rock Samphire makes a most delicate Pickle, and may be ranged in the first Class amongst Anti-scorbuticks. Sea-Worm­wood is a Plant of extraordinary Virtues, yielding an Aro­matic Oyl, a volatile and fixed Salt, and is of great use in Hysteric, Hypocondriac, and Hydropic Cases. Carduus Mariae in Pleuritic Cases may be styl'd amongst the first; and no doubt but the Juice of it taken in inflammatory Di­stempers may be of great use. Marsh Samphire has a Tast perfectly Saline, makes an agreeable Pickle, and doubtless helps Digestion. These Plants may be counted Specifics for the Distempers incident to those Coasts, which if duly consider'd, give us pregnant reason to admire the Goodness of Him that made them. The amphibious Plants are not of use in Physick, but their Ashes are serviceable to Glass­makers, and spread upon Ground make very good Tillage. Some have pretended that in dulcifying Sea-Water these have been made use of; and it may be the Mucilage of these Plants may bridle the Sulphureous part of the Salt, which makes the Water unhealthful, but however this me­thod can never be serviceable at Sea, nor is there any ne­cessity for it.

Having now dispatch'd the amphibious and perfect ma­rine Plants, I shall in the next place proceed to the Inland Plants of these Countries; but shall not give an account of each particular Plant, but only of those that are esteem'd rare. The Vaccinia Nubis, or Cloud-berries, are found upon [Page 95] Pendle-Hill in Lancashire, a Fruit of a pleasant Tast, and a good Anti-scorbutic. The Lilly of the Valley is in many of our Woods, and is a noted Sternutatory. Herba Paris is in many places, and is an eminent Counter-poyson. An­drosaemum grows frequently about our Mosses, a most ex­cellent Balsamic and Vulnerary. Nummularia grows in many of our Mosses, a Balsamic. Ros Solis is very com­mon, carries a pellucid Mucilage, in which I presume con­sist its Vertues in Atrophies; and no doubt were these fully enquired into, they might give reason to enlarge farther upon its Qualities, for where there is a necessity to bridle an Acid, as there is in most chronic and acute Distempers, this may doubtless be a proper Vehicle to entangle those Salts; be­sides which it yields a volatile Oyl and Salt, which suffici­ently correct Acids. The Services we have growing in great quantities upon the Rocks near Rougham, which yield a delicious Acid. The Dwarf Cynorhoidon grows in great plenty, the Conserve of its Fruit is a good Anti­scorbutic, and of great use in Consumptive cases. Scolo­pendrium grows frequently upon the Rocks. Ophioglossum or Adder's-Tongue grows near some of our Meers, as Mar­tin-Meer. Calamus Aromaticus grows in several places: as Osmund Royal frequently upon the Morasses, the Root of which is of great use in the Worms, Rickets, and Consump­tions; and I think I may aver that I was the first that in that Case prescribed it. Virga Aurea grows upon the Sea Coasts in Furness. A particular kind of Scurvy-grass grows upon the Rocks near Castleton in Derbyshire, more acrid and pungent than any I have observ'd, and has a small Leaf, exactly resembling that call'd the Danish Scurvy-grass. The fresh Water Plants in these parts are common with most others, therefore I shall not insist upon them. Lunaria is in some places, but very rare; Origanum is common, Moun­tain Sage and Buckbane are likewise so; and I think a­mongst the Vegetables they may be esteem'd Two of the best Anti-scorbutics, either in infusion or decoction. Rocamboes [Page 96] grow in the Meadows near Preston, and make an agreeable Sawce. The Dutch Myrtle or Gale is common upon the Mosses. Erica or Cypress-Heath is common in these parts, and of great use in Hydropic cases. Telephium is in plenty, and useful in curing the Piles. We have the Filipendula Aquatica, as likewise Solanum Lethale, Sphondylium, Hy­oscyamos, and other Herbs of poysonous qualities. The Viscus Corilinus is common, but I have not observ'd the Quercinus, but either of them will answer in the Cases di­rected for: These by the Ingenious Mr. Ray are supposed to Vegetate from a Seed devour'd by some Birds, which in their Bowels receives a Fermentation, and by a Mucus which is injected with it adheres to the Tree, and so by the imbib'd ferment begins its Germination.

An Instance not much unlike this Tavernier gives us of the growing of Nutmegs in East-India, which he affirms are swallow'd by the Birds of Paradise, which by intoxicating them, urge them to vomit them up again; then by a fer­ment which adheres to the Nutmegs, ejected from the Sto­machs of the Birds, they begin to germinate, and cannot any otherwise be propagated: But this by some is looked upon only as a Stratagem of the Dutch to keep the world in Ignorance, they having engross'd all the Nutmeg-Islands; and to divert others from attempting the planting of them. Tavernier is positive in the Instance, so that what he lays down whether true or not I shall not pretend to determine; but if it be so, it fairly illustrates the other Instance.

The Lady-slipper we have in several of our Woods, and the Geranium Robertianum, which is of extraordinary use in scrophulous Cases, either in Powder or Decoction. Spa­tula foetida grows in some parts, but very rare. Lamium album grows in several places, and is a good Anti-strumatic. Dulcamara grows very common, and is an Anti-scorbutic, good in the Jaundice and Dropsies; the Bark of it is used, and that in infusion. Upon the Draining of Martin-Meer several unusual Plants were observable, never be­fore [Page 97] seen in these Parts, particularly a kind of Grass which grows to a prodigious length, and is as sweet as Liquorice; this in a very short time fattens Sheep and other Cattle, and makes them very delicious Food, but then they must be slaughter'd out of it when thorowly fatten'd, otherwise they are apt to grow rotten and dye: Which Distemper (by what I can observe in the Dissection of those Creatures) is nothing but an Anasarca, or Dropsy of the whole Body; and in these we have the fairest opportunity of discovering the Lymphatic Vessels, which if thorowly known both as to their Uses and Rise, would bring Matters in Physick very near to a Demonstration, and in Hydropic Cases might save the Lives of several Persons, by having a clear Idea of the Cause of that Distemper in those Creatures. Ery­simum we have in these Parts, and it is of use in Asthma's, Consumptions and Dropsies. Feverfew grows common, a noted Anticsteric and Diuretic. White Hoare-hound likewise, and is an excellent Pectoral. Scabios is plenti­ful, and Tragopogon or Goats-beard, of great use in Con­sumptive Cases. Centaury and Celandine are very common, and are used in the Jaundice and Intermitting Distempers. Asarum grows in several places, and likewise Arum or Wake Robin, its Water is an Antiscorbutick, and the Roots are used in Distempers of the Stomach, and the Pica Vir­ginis. Enula Campana is very common, as likewise Bistort, Echiums, and Buglosses; we have both the Hispidum and Glabrum, and Hieracia of several sorts, particularly the Lactescens, which deserves our strict Enquiry into its Ver­tues, of which the Botanists have not taken notice. Wa­ter-Plantain grows common, and is much used in Arthritic Cases; we have likewise the Plantago Rotundi-folio; other Plantains are common, which in the Autumnal Season are apt to collect a white Powder from the Air, about which time Intermitting Distempers are generally Epidemical: This Powder has no peculiar Taste, I have given it to Dogs and Cats, but never found any Effects from it. Ebulum or [Page 98] Dwarf-Elder grows in several places, and is of great use in Hydropic Cases. There are several other Plants in these Counties, but these being the most remarkable for their Vertues in Physick, I have only given an Account of them for the benefit of the Inhabitants of these parts, the other are already describ'd at large by the incomparable Dr. Mor­rison, Mr. Ray, Dr. Plackenet, Dr. Sloane, Dr. Robinson, and Mr. Dale; wherefore for a full and entire satisfaction in those Matters, to those eminent and learn'd Authors refer the Reader.

As to fossile Plants, Dr. Woodward in his Essay towards an universal Natural History, seems not to give a more probable Conjecture of a total dissolution of the Strata of the Earth at the universal Deluge, than by the Observa­tions he has made upon Plants discover'd in Rocks: But since this Hypothesis labours under so many unanswerable Difficulties, I cannot till more pregnant Proofs are produc'd, adhere to it; nor can we reasonably suppose a dissolution of the Strata of the Earth, and yet conceive these to be kept entire: That very Instance in Coal-Mines is a demon­stration against it. To these I shall add another Instance, I have now by me of a stony Substance of the exact resem­blance and magnitude of a Cockle-shell, found many Yards in Stone, yet much lighter than any Cockle-shell of the same bigness; which could never be perform'd by specifick Gra­vitation, as the Dr. alledges. In the next place to imagin a dissolution of most solid Rocks, and Bodies of more ob­durate substance, this surely must be effected by some pe­culiar Menstruum, distinct from Water; and why then in the Name of common Reason should not Plants run the same risque? That Menstruum that could make so severe an Impression, and disunite those compact Bodies, would certainly have easily reduc'd Plants to ruin. That there was a Disruption of the Strata of the Earth, is but reason­able to allow, and likewise that various Bodies floated in that general Inundation; but that these Plants are any [Page 99] Argument for a Dissolution, or that they were the Exuviae of the Deluge, is in the next place to be consider'd. In the Rocks in these Parts are only found Polypody, Wall-Rue, Scolopendrium, or Leaves of Thorns; doubtless other Plants as well as these would have occur'd to our Observa­tion, had these been deposited here by Noah's Deluge. A­gain, these Leaves are never found doubled, which certain­ly in so dismal a Confusion as the Deluge was, would have happen'd had they here been deposited in that general Ca­tastrophe. My Sentiment of the whole is this, (That as it is observable in Chymistry that the Salts of some Plants will di­varicate themselves into the figure of the Plants) that these representations of Plants in Rocks are nothing but diffe­rent Concretions of saline, bituminous and terrene Parti­cles; and I am farther confirm'd in this Hypothesis, since they, as well as the Capsulae they are found in, seldom fail to afford us that mixture. Various Specimens we have of these in Rocks in these Counties, in one particularly near Ormskirk in Lancashire, in which Scolopendrium may be seen exactly delineated: This was communicated to me by Mr. William Barton Apothecary in that Town, and is as I remember in some Rocks near Latham, belonging to the Rt Honble William Earl of Derby, to whom I am in­finitely oblig'd for the Honour done me, in having had the Honour to be frequently Physician to his Lordship, and to that unparallel'd Youth, his Son, the Rt Honble Iames Ld Strange. There are other Rocks in which may be observ'd Leaves of Thorns, as in some Rocks near Heesham, and in the Coal-Pits near Burnley in Lancashire. These are all the reputed Plants that I have found remarkable in these Parts.

Having now fairly illustrated it to be highly improbable, that these Plants shou'd be the Exuviae of the Deluge, but rather Concretions of Matter, or the Disports of Nature, it may perhaps be expected by some, that I shou'd give an account of the different Opinions concerning the Uni­versality of the Deluge, as well in respect of the Terre­strial [Page 100] Globe, as of the total Destruction of all its Inhabitants. I shall therefore give you a Scheme of the most principal amongst them: The first is of the Iews, who extend the Universality of the Deluge, not only to all the Terrestrial Creatures, but the Fish they say, were suffocated by the Heat of the Rains, and Waters which broke out of the deep Fountains of the Earth. There are others also a­mongst the Jews, who deny this Universality of the De­luge, not only to all terrestrial Creatures, but pretend that besides the Eight Persons included in the Ark, Og the King of Basan was preserv'd. But to these I reply, that whoever considers those prodigious Mountains of marine Shells, in Ireland, Virginia, the East and West-Indies, cannot but conclude that they were deposited there by the Deluge; and then considering the height of the Mountains, and the vast remoteness of the Places, one from another, that the Deluge must be Universal also: But this particular is fully discours'd of in a preceding Chapter. The third Opinion re­lating to a Deluge is that of the Scholasticks, who are of Opinion that Enoch, who they say at that time liv'd in Paradise, was not involv'd in the Deluge: But since the holy Writ is silent in that matter, and that neither the Aegyptian, Chaldee, Hebrew, or Greek Versions of the Old Testament take any notice of that Opinion, I cannot but conclude it erroneous and unwarrantable. There was a fourth Opinion of the Jews, who maintain, that not only a few Persons, but whole Nations never felt the Effects of this great Inundation, but that the Jews only, and other Inhabitants in Palestine perish'd in it; but what has been said in answer to the preceding Opinion may serve for this. There was a fifth Rank, who affirm'd that there was a total Destruction of Mankind at the Deluge, yet so as that the whole Terrestrial Globe was not overwhelm'd by the Waters; which Opinion is founded on two other Hypo­theses, viz. That at the time of the Flood the Earth remain'd for the greatest part desolate and without Inhabitants, [Page 101] and that all the Waters in the Universe were not sufficient to cause so general a Deluge: Abraham Mylius pretends to demonstrate, that if all the Waters of the Universe had been sent down upon the Earth, they could not have cover'd the tops of the highest Mountains. Isaac Vossius approves of both these Hypotheses, but since from the vast Beds of marine Shells even upon the tops of the highest Mountains, it is undeniably evident that the highest Moun­tains were cover'd; it thence follows that the Deluge must be universal, and that Mylius and Vossius are both mistaken. The sixth and last are those that have chosen the truest O­pinion, and maintain that the Deluge was universal, both in respect to the Terrestrial Globe, and its Inhabitants; be­cause the Motive that induc'd God was universal; God com­plains that the Imaginations of mens hearts were only evil continually; his Threats likewise were universal, I will de­stroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and every creeping thing, and the fowls of the air, for it repenteth me that I have made them. Hence therefore it is evident from the holy Scriptures, and from the Phaenomena in Natural History, that there was a Deluge, and that this Deluge was universal too; wherefore I cannot but admire that the great St. Austin should be so far mistaken, as to affirm that there were not the least foot-steps of the Deluge, either in the Greek or Latin Writers, since the contrary is so clearly demonstrated by Hugo Grotius.

I shall now in the last place lay down some Hypotheses concerning the Qualities in Plants, and so close this Chap­ter, and by drawing a Parallel betwixt Chymical Prepara­tions, and the Qualities in Physical Herbs, endeavour to give a Rationale of their Effects. But this having in a great measure been attempted by Pechlinius, Wedelius, Sr. Iohn Floyer, and others, I shall but briefly treat upon that Head, and that in the following Method: First, By giving an account of Emetics, and the Rationale of their Quali­ties; afterwards of Cathartic or Purgative Plants, Anti­scorbutics, [Page 102] Balsamics, Diuretics, Antistrumatics, Stoma­chics, Cardiacs, Anti-hydropics, Anticterics, Antepilep­tics, Restringents, Opiates, Paragorics, Alexipharmacs. The Emetic Plants are only two, Squills and Asarum, and both are of a bitter and nauseous Tast: first therefore we shall enquire into the Cause of the Bitterness in these, and then how that becomes Emetical. Bitterness consists in rigid, pungent and inflexible Particles, pointed upon terrene ones; hence the Points, by their continual Irritations, contract the Fibres of the Stomach, and still pressing it by their In­flexibility, at length they throw it into Convulsions, and so become Emetical, or Vomiting: Thus we see in a solution of Silver in Spirit of Nitre that the Points of the corroding Spirit being sheathed in the metallic Particles, it not only becomes extremely bitter, but likewise Emetical; the like may be observ'd by pouring Spirit of Nitre upon the Lapis Calaminaris: and doubtless thus it is that the Leaves of Asarum are so famous an Errhine, and of so great use in inveterate Head-achs, viz. Their acrid saline Particles continually pressing the Glands of the Nostrils, force them to discharge that acrid Serum, which occasions that Distemper.

The most noted Cathartics are Buckthorn, Monks Rhubarb, Elder, Damask Roses, Iris, Soldanella, Spurge, Mezereon. Buckthorn is extremely bitter, and affords an Oyl and a pun­gent Spirit, neither of which are bitter, or in the least Purgative; whence it seems evident to me, that its bitter­ness and Purging quality consist in its saline Particles be­ing strictly united with terrene ones, and so by that means contracting the Fibres of the Bowels, they become purga­tive. Roses, Iris, and the rest are likewise bitter, but they all differ in their Pungency. Mezereon, Spurge and Iris are both Emetic and Cathartic, which sometimes not only cauterize the Coates of the Stomach, but the Skin it self, if externally apply'd: No doubt but by due Corrections these might be made most noble Medicines, and the likeliest [Page 103] Method to effect this (as far as I can conjecture) would be by obtunding their saline Particles by the Lapis Calamina­ris, or some such Alcaly; or if their Vertues consist in an acrid Alcaly, a proper Acid might be thought on; and I think it would be highly worth our while to make strict Enquiries into these Matters, that being the likeliest Me­thod to bring us to a Certainty in the Practice of Physick. Before I close this Head I shall only offer two Experiments, and then proceed: The first is concerning Aloes, which by being infus'd in Spirit of Wine loses its Purgative quality, but yet retains its Bitterness; the second is con­cerning a solution of Aloes, which being injected into the Veins of a Dog, will inevitably purge him: From which Observations naturally arises this Question, Whether Ca­thartics effect their ends in the first passages, or by working Elective in the Mass of Blood, as the Physicians stile it? I affirm the former, and to the first Experiment make this reply; The volatile, acrid, saline Particles in the Aloes be­ing dissolv'd by the Spirit of Wine, it must of necessity (for the Reasons before alledg'd) be depriv'd of its purga­tive quality, yet so as still to retain its Bitterness, because it is probable some saline Particles are so inveloped with the oily and terrene ones, that a separation is not easily made, perhaps not without Distillation or Calcination; so that the Aloes in some measure may retain its Bitterness, yet be depriv'd of its purging quality. To the second I re­ply thus, A solution of Aloes being injected into the Mass of Blood, it is most probable its Particles are again sepa­rated from the Blood, by the conglomerate Glands of the Bowels; it is not therefore that they work Elective in the Mass of Blood, but by their contracting of the Bowels upon their separation: for it is undeniably evident, that several Purges will operate before they could possibly be suppos'd to have mixt with the Mass of Blood.

In the next place Anti-scorbutics may be said to be either Bitters, Acrids, or Nitrous Plants: The Bitters are La­pathum [Page 104] acutum, Mountain-sage and Water-Trefoil, and these all afford an Oyl, and acid Spirit, and a fixt alcalious Salt, but the Salt in the greatest proportion, next to that the Oyl, and then the Spirit; hence it is that these Herbs, by their saline and oily Particles attenuating the Serum of the Blood, coagulated by its Acids, restore it to its due Circu­lation, and are for that reason of great use in Anti-scor­butic Cases. The Acrids are the Cresses, Asarum, Scurvy­grass, and Radishes, and do all of them afford Oyls, and volatile alcalious Salts, wherefore for the Reasons before alledg'd they may properly be stiled Anti-scorbutics. The Nitrous are the Aparine, Vetches, Ground-Ivy and Nettles, these all yield a volatile, nitrous, essential Salt, as may be seen in the freezing of their depurated Juices; and hence it is that by tempering and diluting the bilious Particles in the Blood, they allay those Scorbutic heats, and are of great use in violent Bleeding, particularly Ground-Ivy, which by its saline Particles, not only deterses and quits the Breast from an oppressive Phlegm, but likewise by its Bal­samics, consolidates. Balsamics do all of them afford tere­binthinate Oyls, and the chief amongst these are St. Iohn's­wort, Herb Robert, Tutsal and Pennywort. Diuretics are generally Anti-scorbutics, and those being treated of be­fore, I shall not enlarge farther on that Head. Cardiacs are either mild Acids that temper too volatile a Bile, which continually irritates the Spirits, as in several Fevers, and of this sort are Wood-sorrel, Berberries, Rasberries, and the like: or those that yield volatile Aromatic Oyls, and so disentangle the Spirits, strugling in a Viscid Serum, and of this sort are Butter-bur, Angelico, Eringo, Balm, and the like. Antistrumatics are Whitlow-grass, Herb Robert, stinking Gladdon, and Dropwort, and no doubt but they effect their Ends by terebinthinate Particles, since most of them emit Effluvia of that Nature, which doubtless cor­rect the Acid, that make the Gland scrophulous, by coa­gulating the Lympha, as may be observ'd in scrophulous [Page 105] Glands. Anti-hydropics, as Alteratives, are in the Class of Anti-scorbutics. Stomachics for the most part being Bit­ters, I shall not enlarge further on them. Anticterics consist of volatile acrid Particles, which attenuate a foeculent Bile, and the chief of these are Celandine, Pilewort, and Madder. Pectorals are Maiden-hairs, Ferns, and Bitters, the two first are Nitrous. Opiates and Paregorics are the white and red Poppies, and Cowslips, but how these bridle the impetuous Tumults of the Spirits shall be accounted for in its proper place.

Poeony & Misleto are Antepileptics, and I am apt to think that it is by a Mucilage, which contains a volatile alcali­ous Salt, that they are of use in that Case, (viz.) by the innate Heat of the Stomach and Bowels the Salt sub­limes from the Mucilage, and is there immediately im­bibed by the Extremities of the Nerves; and hence they become of use in Convulsive Cases; whereas other volatile Salts are spent before they can reach the Nerves. Restrin­gents are all of them either of a mucilaginous or austere Taste, as Comfry, Horse-tail, Sloes, &c. The one by sheathing the Acid, which makes a Disruption of the Vessels, and the other by austere vitriolic Particles pursuing them up, no doubt, effect their Ends.

The poysonous Plants, it is plain, consist sometimes of saline, corroding, acrimonious Particles, such as inflame, and sometimes sphacelate the Stomach, and contract the Branch­es of the Par vagum, and then produce Tremors and Convul­sions, as is evident in the Dissection of those Creatures that have been poyson'd with these Herbs: Of this sort are the Cicuta aquatica, Ranunculus flammeus, Solanum lethale, A­conitum hyemale, &c. Some poysonous Plants are of a Narcotic Quality, as Poppy and Henbane, these are of a bitter Taste, and no doubt contain a volatile acrid Salt, which by fixing its points upon the Fibrillae of the Brain, and the Extremities of the Nerves occasions a Corrugation in them, and by that means hinders a Separation of the [Page 106] animal Spirits from the Mass of Blood, and consequently their Dispensation into the various parts of the Body: Hence they being taken in too great a quantity become poy­sonous: Lettice likewise, Melons and Cucumbers, consist­ing of a mucilaginous Water, doubtless entangle the ani­mal Spirits, and hinder their Expansion; hence by being too liberally taken, the whole Oeconomy of the Body is disorder'd, the Spirits receding like the Sun-beams, which being screen'd by thick interposing Clouds leave all in Darkness.

An Appendix to the Chapter of PLANTS.

HAving compleated my Hypothesis concerning the Ve­getation of Sea-Plants, I shall in the next place propose some Conjectures about the Vegetation of River and Land-Plants, and give an account of the Experiments on all sides, and add some Trials, which I proved my self, and amongst the rest offer my own Sentiments. The most ma­terial Hypotheses relating to this Topic are reduc'd to Two, the one asserting that Vegetation is from Earth, the other from Water only; A Suffragan to the latter is the Ld Bacon, Nat. Hist. Cent. 5. Par. 411. Where he asserts, ‘That for Nourishment of Vegetables Water is all in all, that the Earth only keeps the Plant upright, and guards it from too great Heat or Cold.’ Others in this Hypothesis are more positive, as the Honble Mr. Boyle, Helmont, and his Followers; these back their Assertions with the two sub­sequent Experiments, the first is that concerning Mint, and several other Plants, which prosper and thrive greatly in Water; the other which you have in the Sceptical Chymist, writ by Mr. Boyle, is as follows: ‘Take a certain quantity of Earth, bake it in an Oven, then weigh it, and having included it in an Earthen Pot well water'd, make choice of some fit Plant, as a Pompion, which being first carefully weigh'd and set in it, there let it grow, continuing to [Page 107] water it till it is much advanced in Bigness; then take it up, and tho' the Bulk and Weight of the Plant be much greater than at first, yet the Earth will be found little or no­thing diminished in Weight; therefore it may be concluded that it is not the Earth, but Water that Nourishes, and is converted into the Substance of the Plant.’ Thus far like­wise proceeds the ingenious Dr. Woodward, but had the Dr. given us a full account of his Sentiments on those Au­thors, he might likewise have observed that they not only took Plants, and put them in the Earth prepared as he re­cites it, but likewise the Seeds of Cucumbers and Pompions, which acquired their due Magnitude, and yet the Earth was not diminished in Weight; these Experiments indeed con­sidering the minuteness of the Seeds of those Fruits, with the largeness of their Size when grown to perfection, and yet no decrease of the Earth, might give them very pregnant Reasons for their Conjectures, but these I shall examine in their place. The other Hypothesis is that of the Ancients, which Dr. Woodward asserts, for the confirmation of which the Dr. has offer'd the following Experiments.

‘Common Spear-Mint was set in spring Water, the Plant weighed when put in Iuly 20th just 27 Grains, when taken forth October 5th 42 Gr. so that in the space of 79 Days it had gained in Weight 15 Gr. the whole Water expended during the 79 Days amounted to 2558 Gr. and consequently the Weight of the Water taken up, was 170 8/ [...]5 as much as the Plant had got in Weight. Com­mon Spear-Mint was set in Rain-Water, the Mint weigh­ed when put in 28 Gr. ¼ when taken out Gr. 45 ¼ having gained in 79 Days Gr. ½, the Dispendium of the Water Gr. 3004, which was 171 23/35 as much as the Plant had re­ceived in Weight. Common Spear-Mint was set in Thames Water, the Plant when put in weighed Gr. 28, when taken forth Gr. 54, so that in 77 Days it had gained 26 Gr. the Water expended amounted to Gr. 2493 [Page 108] which was 92 21/26 times as much as the additional weight of the Mint. Solanum or Night-shade was set in Spring-Water, the Plant weighed when put in Gr. 49, when taken out 106, having gained in 77 Days 57 Gr. the Water expended during the said time was 3708 Gr. which was 65 3/7 times as much as the Augment of the Plant; this Specimen had se­veral Buds upon it when first set in the Water, these in some Days became fair, and Flowers, which were at length succeeded by Berries. Lathyris, Sea-Cataputia Gerhardi was set in spring Water, it weighed when put in Gr. 98, when taken forth Gr. 101 [...], the additional Weight for this whole 77 Days being Gr. 3 [...] the Quantity of Water spent upon it during the Time was Gr. 2501, which is 714 4/7 times as much as the Plant was augmented. It is to be noted that the Orifices of these Glasses were covered with Parchment, perforated with an Hole, adapted to the Stem of the Plant. Mint was set in Hyde-Parke Conduit Water, which weighed when put in 127 Gr. when taken forth 255 Gr. the whole Quantity of Water expended upon this Plant amounted to 14190 Gr. the Plant had run up two Foot in height and had shot one considerable colla­teral Branch, to the Fibrillae of the Roots adhered a ter­restial Matter. Mint was set in Hyde-Parke Conduit Water, in which was dissolved an Ounce and half of com­mon Garden-Earth, the Mint weighed when put in 76 Gr. when taken out 244 Gr. Water expended was Gr. 10731. Mint was set in Hyde-Parke Water with the same Quantity of Garden-mould as the former, the Mint weighed when put in 92 Gr. when taken out 376 Gr. the Water expended was 14950 Gr. the Earth in both these Glasses was very sensibly and considerably wasted, it left a green Substance here as above. Mint was set in Hyde-Park Water distilled off in a great Still, the Mint weighed when put in 114 Gr. when taken out 155 Gr. Water dispended was 8803 Gr. this Plant was pretty kind­ly, had two small collateral Branches and several Roots, [Page 109] with terrestrial Matter adhereing to them, the Water was pretty thick, had many and numerous terrestrial Par­ticles swimming in it, and some Sediment at the bottom of the Glass, this Glass had none of the green Matter a­bovemention'd in it; the residue of the Water remaining in the Still was very turbid, high colour'd and reddish, like ordinary Beer; the Mint weighed when put into this Wa­ter 31 Gr. Water expended 4344 Gr. This Plant was very lively, and had sent out six collateral Branches, and seve­ral Roots. I took Hyde-Park Conduit Water, in which was dissolv'd a Dram of Nitre, the Mint set in this sud­denly began to wither and decay, and died in a few days, as likewise did two more Sprigs that were set in it succes­sively. In another Glass I dissolv'd an Ounce of Garden­mould, and a Dram of Nitre, and in a third half an Ounce of Wood-Ashes and a Dram of Nitre, but the Plants in these succeeded no better than in the former. In other Glasses were dissolv'd several sorts of Earths, Clays, Marles, and variety of Manures; Mint was set in distill'd Waters, and other Experiments I made of several kinds, in order to get Light and Information, what hastned or re­tarded, what promoted and impeded Vegetation, but these do not belong to the Head that I am now upon. In Hyde-Park Conduit Water I fix'd a glass Tube about 10 Inches long, the Bore about one sixth of an Inch in diameter, fill'd with very fine and white Sand, which I kept from falling down out of the Tube into the Vial, by tying a thin piece of Silk over that end of the Tube which was downwards, upon the Immersion of the lower end of it the Water by little and little ascended to the upper O­rifice of the Tube, and yet in all the 56 Days it stood thus, a very inconsiderable quantity of Water had gone off, viz. scarce 20 Grains, tho' the Sand continued moist to the very top to the last; the Water imparted a green Tincture to the Sand quite to the top of the Tube, and in the Vial it had precipitated a greenish Sediment mix'd with black, [Page 110] to the bottom and sides of the Tube, as far as it was im­mers'd in Water, adher'd pretty much of the green Sub­stance describ'd above.’

From these Experiments the Dr. draws these Corollaries, That Earth, and not Water, is the Matter that constitutes Vegetables, that Improvements by Nitrons, and Alcali­zates, are only by the saline Particles attenuating the earth­ly ones, and preparing them to be carried up by the Water, and dispos'd of into the substance of the Plant; that Water serves only as a Vehicle to the terrestrial Matter which forms Vegetables, and does not it self make any addition to them.

Now, if I mistake not, if we must make Earth a meer simple Body, and that to be the Matter only that is con­verted into the substance of the Plant, this Hypothesis will labour under more Difficulties than the former, if (accord­ing to the Doctor's Notion) the saline Particles contribute no farther than in preparing this Mould; for we may un­doubtedly assure our selves, that the Manchinello in the West-Indies, that irresistable and deceiving Poyson, must needs consist of more Bodies than Earth alone, otherwise how comes its Fruit to be so fatal, that not only the Eat­ing of it is present Death, but the very eating of the Crea­tures that have fed upon it produces the same Effect; nay even the drops of Rain that fall from its Leaves are of so poysonous a Nature, as to blister and inflame the Skin: Here doubtless is more than a bare Contexture of Earth, and without question the most corroding, sulphureous and penetrating Particles we can have any Idea of. Besides, were Vegetation from Earth alone, I cannot see how one Plant could be distinguish'd from another; wherefore to me it seems rational to infer, That the Body which the Dr. calls Earth, consists of as many different Bodies as that which the Chymists call Water; so that from either of these two Bodies simply consider'd as such, it is equally absurd to derive Vegetation; but these two Bodies do indisputably con­sist [Page 111] of variety of Corpuscles, e. g. Saline, Terrene, Aerial, and Bituminous, and as the Vessels in Plants by their vari­ous Orifices and Contextures, admit of different proporti­ons of these, so accordingly the Plant is differently mo­dify'd, and from their different digestions and proportions receives its Form, Colour, Substance and Virtues. And by this Hypothesis we may account for Plants physical, poysonous, fragrant, foetid, and of other kinds; hence Ia­lop and Scamony a sort of Spurge in the West-Indies, by their resinous saline Particles, become purgative, and if taken in too large quantities, poysonous; the same may be affirm'd of Laureola, Aloes, Spurge, Senna and Agaric: It is manifest from the Dissection of those Creatures to which Night-shade, Nux Vomica, Calculus Indicus, and Water-Hemlock are given, that the Poysons of these con­sist in acrimonious, saline Particles, corroding and inflaming the Stomach, of which the learned Wafer gives us various Instances; others by exalted Sulphurs quit from saline Particles, doubtless become Fragrant, Aromatic and Cor­dial, being by their size and figure (which we presume to be Spherical) the more readily adapted to assist the animal Spirits by their activity. When these Sulphurs become pointed with Salts, 'tis most likely that the Plant becomes foetid and unpleasant, as the stinking Garden Orach, and Herb Robert: I might likewise account for the Heat, Bli­sterings, and other qualities of Herbs, but those being in part done before, and not properly within the Verge of this Undertaking, I shall not recapitulate, but to the ingenious Sr. Iohn Floyer of Lichfield on that Head refer the Curious, in whose Works they may find variety of Experiments on those Subjects.

I must confess that the Experiments which Dr. Woodward has made relating to Vegetation, are exact as well as learn­ed, he having besides the dispendium of the Water in so many Days, fully demonstrated the Plant to have gain'd a considerable Weight, which he affirms to have been from [Page 112] Earth; but then (as I affirm'd before) the question is, what he calls Earth; for if by that he means a pure simple Ele­ment, viz. a Body consisting only of one size and figure, then (from what has been hinted before) it is as absurd to deduce Vegetation from that, as from Water. I shall only beg leave to add an Experiment or two, and so conclude: I took the Seeds of Nymphaea or Water-Lilly when full ripe, and put them in glass Vials, in which they continued twelve Months, I added fresh Water to them as the other evaporated; the Seeds at the bottom of both Vials stood erect, and emitted a pellucid Mucilage, which stood in op­posite Globules near the upper end of the Seed; the Water deposited a great deal of green and earthy Matter, but the Seed never vegetated or sprouted at all, tho' this be a Wa­ter Plant. From this Experiment it is evident, that be­sides Earth and Water barely consider'd as such, other Bo­dies are necessary to the Vegetation of various Plants, and probably to this a fat sulphureous Ouze, in which it usually grows, and has Roots of an immense Magnitude, some I have seen as thick as the Thigh of a Man, which were ta­ken out of the Pond at Tabley in Cheshire, when it was drein'd, where the remaining Earth or Mud, which was black and foetid, was wholly over-spread with them. This Instance, I think, may fairly serve to illustrate the Hypo­thesis that I have laid down concerning the Vegetation of Plants.

To these may be added those extraordinary Improve­ments made by Chandlers Ashes, consisting of oily and sa­line Particles, as likewise the Impost of Malpighius, pre­pared with an Infusion of Sheep's Dung, Pigeon's Dung, and a small quantity of Nitre; of which I saw an Instance the last Year at Edgecroft in Lancashire, by which from a fourth part of Seed, in the most barren part of the Field, I saw a very luxuriant Crop: It might do well for our Gentry (who inhabit their Country Seats) and Husbandmen thorowly to consider this, since the right application of it [Page 113] to a proper Soil, may be of so great Advantage; and who knows what this, even in the most cold and barren Ground, may effect, which hitherto for the greatest part hath lain useless; but besides what is here offer'd, their Interest may be a more inciting Argument to induce them to Tryals of this Nature.

But can there be had a more ample Demonstration of this Hypothesis, than even from Water and Earth themselves? How common is it to observe Earth, by being long pent up, to emit sulphureous Effluvia? Hence we have foetid Smells by opening of Ditches and Sluces, and hence pro­bably it is, that in Consumptive cases, from plowed Grounds that have for a considerable time been Pasture, many per­sons have received Benefit, which must assuredly proceed from sulphureous benign Particles loosen'd from their Cells, and convey'd to the Mass of Blood, which by their activity obtund the saline Particles that make the Coagulum, and in short prevent the putrifaction, which brings on a Phthisis or Consumption. And as to Water, nothing is more com­mon, than it to grow nauseously foetid by long keeping, which Phaenomenon sufficiently evinces the Existence of sulphureous Particles in that Element; besides, some sul­phureous Waters in four Days by being close stopt, be­come extremely foetid as St. Ann's at Buxton in Derbyshire, which expos'd to open Air, alters not at all, nor has the least ungrateful smell: The reason is, because those sulphu­reous Effluvia which have spent themselves in a free Air, are now forc'd by their confinement, to unite with saline Particles, and thence by their Points grate upon the Organ, and are foetid and offensive.

It is likewise to be observ'd, that if these sulphureous Particles are pent up in any Aquaeduct, that then by their Collision upon one another, they become excessive hot; hence it is that the hot Baths at Aix la Chappel, in the Bishop of Leige's Country are caused, by retarding the hot Spring with a Stoppel, and in a little time after by [Page 114] giving it Vent the Waters are render'd very hot, and even too intense to be endur'd. This Instance farther confirms our Hypothesis concerning the Heat in Baths, and by this Phaenomenon it is evident, that if the same Essay was put in practice at Buxton, the Bath there might be brought to any degree of Heat, and at the same time likewise they might have temperate Baths to answer the variety of Cases and Constitutions, and by that means acquire an advantage above any Baths yet discover'd. Thus I have made it evi­dent how compounded those Bodies are which we common­ly stile Earth and Water, nor can I see any reason to assign either of them as the principles of Vegetation barely con­sider'd as such.


Of Subterraneous Skeletons, Petrify'd Shells, Subterrane­ous Shells, and Formed Stones.

A Midst all the Mazes and Recesses of Nature, none are more common or more amazing than these follow­ing Phaenomena: Near Chippin in Lancashire, 20 Fathom in Lime-stone Rock, I have seen Cockles, Muscles, and the Pectinites, all of a perfect flinty Substance. In High-Fur­ness in the same County I have observ'd, as to their out­ward appearances, the Bones and Fins of Fishes, and some­times Bones of a Gigantic Magnitude, and those of a sparry Substance, which may be reduc'd to the Fluor Alabastrites; I have likewise seen the Glossopetrae or Crow-Bills, and those invested with an hard flinty Film, the Matter contain'd therein being a black hard Stone. Upon these Phaenomena it is that Dr. Woodward supposes them to be the Exuviae of those Creatures at the Deluge, and deposited in those Rocks by specific Gravitation; for he takes it for granted, that there was a total dissolution of the Strata of the Earth, and that the whole Globe was but one continued [Page 115] Fluid, and that in variety of Temperatures, and in some Balsamic mixtures these Shells, Fins, Fishes and Bones, have been embalm'd ever since that terrible Catastrophe. A Notion (could it be maintain'd) as wonderful for the profound Respect it bears to the Truth of Moses's History of the Deluge, as to Static Philosophy: But since the De­luge has been before fully demonstrated from other Phae­nomena observable in the Earth, and that against this Hy­pothesis there are so many concluding Arguments, I shall in the first place to clear this Head, enquire into the Nature of these Petrifactions, and reduce them to their different Species, and then lay down some Arguments to convince the World, that they are not the Exuviae of those Animals.

As to the Testaceous Petrifactions, they are either the Cockle, Muscle, Oyster, or Pectinites; the three first are of a Flinty substance, of the Pectinites there are two sorts, the one is Flinty, and the other is the Pyrites Aureus, or golden Marcasite; I have likewise observ'd in that substance representations of Fibulae or Buttons, these may be ob­serv'd in the Copper Mines in High-Furness; the Glossope­trae are found in some Mines in Wales and Derbyshire, and of those there are three sorts, the one resembling the Bill of a Crow, another that of a Lapwing, and a third the Bill of a Perr, a small Bird very common upon the Sea-Coasts: These were given me by my worthy Friend and Relation Peter Legh of Booths in the County of Cheshire, Esq

We therefore come in the next place to lay down some Arguments, why these Bodies could not be the Exuviae of Animals at the Deluge; for had these been the Exuviae of Fowls, Fishes, and other Creatures, how is it possible but that other Shells, and Beaks of other Fowls, as well as of these, might sometime or other have been discover'd in these Rocks; but since no others are found, it seems pro­bable to me that they are but what I formerly alledg'd, the Disports of Nature. In some Marbles gotten near Holker [Page 116] in Lancashire, I have seen the exact shape of a Man, and that in six Inches compass. In some Mines in Derbyshire I have seen a Substance bearing exactly the similitude of a Man's Tooth, and that as big as a Child's Head, to which was annex'd an Head which would have contain'd several Measures, and the Limbs proportionable. In Pools-Hole there is the resemblance of a Lyon, a dead Man, a Chair, and a Flitch of Bacon; yet no Man (I suppose) will assert these to be Exuviae, or the Chair one of the Houshold goods of the Antediluvians, no more than the foremention'd Cloak-Buttons the Appendices of their Apparel. In other Mines I have observ'd the resemblances of Skrews, Stars, Feathers, Bones, and Shells, and all in the same Stratum: Now, I say, considering all these together, unless we will conclude the rest petrify'd, as well as the Shells, there is no necessity to assert the former, but that they may equally be different Modifications of Matter.

Once in an Earth that came from East-India, I saw the the perfect shape of Cockles of several sizes, where there were not the least signs of any Shell, or any Petrifaction at all; it was a brownish soft Earth, and indifferently friable; It was communicated to me by Mr. Edward Ent, Son to Sr. George Ent, and formerly of Balliol-College in Oxford. I have feen great variety of Petrifactions, perform'd by the Sea-Water it self, at Hagy Bar Hills in Lancashire: The Marle there shelves downwards, and several sorts of Pebbles are included in various Capsulae; this Marle is converted by the Sea-Water into a firm Grit, or Free-stone, in some pieces of which we find Shells of Sea-Snails embalmed, and those not in the least petrify'd. Consider we then this Pe­trifaction of Earth, and tho' the Shell is often very mi­nute and tender, yet it still retains its Identic Body; I say, if we reflect on this, it is not so easy to imagin (as some conceive) that after the Deluge the Petrifaction of Shells ensued with such facility; for in a multitude of Instances, here the Earth only, not the Shells have undergone that [Page 117] This Marle, I presume, may be petrify'd after this follow­ing manner, viz. Let us allow Marle to be a substance apt to dissolve in Water, it is probable then that the Sea-water by frequently overflowing it, in tract of time makes a so­lution of its Particles, and in their room deposites white gritty Particles, with which even clear Sea-Water much abounds, which is demonstrable in the Evaporation of that Water into a granulated Salt, at which time vast quanti­ties of Grit are collected in the corners of the Boylers; but the Particles of this Grit are so minute, that till they concrete into Moleculae, they are not discoverable either by Microscopes, or by the nicest Filtration: These then be­ing amassed together by the motion of the Sea-Water, are wedg'd and riveted so close, as at last to form a perfect Free-stone; some large Columns there are of these, on which the Country People hang their Wooden Gates, and serve instead of Posts, others seem exactly to resemble Persons standing in old decayed Hats. From which Phaenomena it is demonstrable, that there may be perfect shapes of marine Shells, Bones, Plants, and Beaks of Birds in some Earths, and yet not the Exuviae of those Creatures.

I must confess the most compleat Collection of these (I do believe) in the World is in the Custody of Dr. Wood­ward, and could I receive a satisfactory Answer to the Ar­guments above recited, I would willingly adhere to his Hypothesis; but since they amount to no more than a Con­jecture, and that those Phaenomena may be otherwise sol­ved, and indeed that there are so many convincing Reasons to the contrary, I am forc'd to deviate from an Hypothesis, which I could wish were true: The divine Splendor of such an Undertaking, as well as the irresistible Charms of his Stile, almost commanding an assent to it. 'Tis true, what Mr. Robinson has reply'd to the Dr. carries not the air of an Orator and Philosopher, his Language for the most part being grating, particularly those unaccountable Terms of the Miners themselves; but since Truth walks [Page 118] naked, and needs not the Embellishments of Eloquence to set her forth, I must needs own, that what he relates in his Observations of the lying of the Strata in several Mines, is true and exact; and tho' Dikes, Riders and Leaders, with several other Idioms, may look rather like a piece of Magic than Philosophy, yet surely the things signify'd by these, are observable in all the Mines which I ever yet saw.

But amidst all the Disports of Nature, there is none more remarkable occurs than that which I saw among the many and choice Curiosities of my Honoured Friend Mr. Henry Prescot of Chester, Deputy-Register of the Eccle­siastical Court there. The Figure is as follows: There are six Calvae, or Skulls, contain'd in a Shell, with the repre­sentation of Hats upon them, included one within another, with the Brims cock'd up; on the back-side of the Head are four rhomboidal Figures, an Ellipsis with an Ecliptic Line, and the Parallels upon a Globe, and branching from those the Vertebrae and Medulla Spinalis. If therefore the Dr. will still pertinaciously affirm that those representations of Plants, Bones and Shells in Rocks, were the Exuviae of real ones, deposited there by specific Gravity, and embalm­ed ever since the universal Deluge, he may with the same parity of Reason alledge these to have been the Heads of the Antediluvian Patriarchs. From the Phaenomenon laid down we may now without great difficulty account for those representations of Shells, Bones, Fins of Fishes, and Plants, observable in Rocks and Quarreis, and may easily be convinc'd, that to solve these there is no necessity to suppose an universal dissolution of the Globe of the Earth at the Deluge, but indeed are Arguments conclusive to the contrary; wherefore to these I shall only add one general Remark, and so close this Head. Can it be imagin'd that in that general Destruction there should be such a Men­struum, or universal Dissolvent in Nature, that should con­vert all the Strata of the Earth, Mines, Minerals and Me­tals into a liquid Form, and yet some few Shells, Bones and [Page 119] Plants remain undissolved, which are of a much softer Texture, and as we find by repeated Experiments, far more easy to be dissolved? He, I say, that can averr this, cannot fairly tax a Rosicrucian with Enthusiasm, nor justly blame the Adeptist for his extravagant Notions re­lating to the Alchahest, that Chymical universal Dissolvent, which he himself does not believe, yet would so far impose upon the World as to have others to do so; but for this the Dr. has promis'd to account in his general History of the World.

Having now dispatch'd this Point, I shall in the next place proceed to real Shells, Skeletons, and Fins of Fishes, which are sometimes found under Ground, and from those deduce some Corollaries. The subterraneous Skeletons ob­servable in these Parts are only two, the one an human Body found in the Morasses of the Meales, and the other a Skeleton of a Buck, found erect in Ellel near Lancaster; both which being mention'd in a preceding Chapter, I shall not enlarge further upon them.

As to subterraneous Shells they are frequently found in Marle-Pits, about four Yards deep in solid Marle, and often in places remote from the Sea. These marine Shells are of various sorts, as Whilkes, Periwincles, Cockles, Muscles, Torculars, and the Echini Marini, and of these I have se­veral Specimens in my Custody.

I consider next the formed Stones, and those are the Bufonites, the Belemnites, and the Ophites or Cornu Am­monis, so denominated from the figure of a Serpent, or the Horn of a Ram. The Bufonites I have seen in Marle near Preston in Lancashire; the Belemnites in a Free-stone Rock near Stockport in Cheshire, in which Rock likewise are ob­servable several small Pebbles, that lie frequently in black Capsulae, and as I have been inform'd by the Masons, some­times a living Toad has been found in Free-stone Rock, in the like Cista or Cavity, which doubtless must be lodg'd there in this following manner: It is to be presum'd that [Page 120] the Ovum of some Toad was brought thither by a Spring or Vein leading to that Cavity, for Springs are very often discern'd in Free-stone Rocks, ouzing thorow their Pores; now it cannot be imagin'd that it was lodg'd there ever since the Deluge, which must necessarily follow, unless we allow the recited Hypothesis. Of the Lapis Serpenta­rius there are two sorts, the one bears the Image of a Viper wreath'd up in spiral Lines, and that I have seen in the Copper Slates in Furness in Lancashire; the other the shape of a Serpent at length, and this was found in a Free-stone Rock at Haigh in Lancashire, and communicated to me by that learned Lady, the Lady Guise.

As to the Shells remarkable in these Parts, they are either the large Sea-Cockle, in which I never yet saw Fish, the Navel Shells, the Turbo, the Echinites, the large Wilkes or Periwinckles; these are cast upon the Sea-Coasts in great numbers; there is likewise another Shell which resembles the Scabbard of a Sword, and by the Sea-men commonly call'd the Sword-Fish; the Echinites has several little Hairs that grow thro' small Orifices, but I could never discover a Fish in any of these, which that I should not, has often caus'd my wonder: I imagin therefore that they are brought from a great distance to the Shore, by the violence of Storms, and that the Fishes in those turbid Commotions quit their Shells. Of the Pectinites there are various sorts, and those variegated sometimes with red parallel Circles, some­times they are smooth, sometimes they have little Protu­berances upon their superficies, as has likewise the large Sea-Cockle.

Let us now come to that grand Enquiry of the learned Steno, (viz.) Whether or no Rocks were at first a Fluid, and by subsidence of terrene gross Particles form'd into that substance? The clearing of this point will depend upon the Phaenomena observable in them, and those are chiefly Flints, and a kind of Pebbles that will run into a Glass: Now it is most evident that these are of a Nature very different from [Page 121] that of the Rock, and have likewise never in any Age been observ'd to germinate; we may hence reasonably allow that Rocks were first fluid, and that different kinds of Fluids did then precipitate by specific Gravity, that eternal stan­dard communicated to them from the first formation of Bodies, which doubtless did in a great measure depend upon the Magnitude and Number of their Pores, and ac­cording to those variously subsided: Conformable to these Phaenomena is Moses's History of the Creation, where in the first Chapter of Genesis he tells us, that the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and that the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. But these last Words are more aptly expressed by Iunius and Tremellius, those two great Masters of the He­brew Language, who from the Hebrew Text translate it not Movebat, but Spiritus Dei incubabat superficiei aqua­rum, that is, the spirit of God brooded upon the face of the waters; a Metaphor taken from a Fowl hatching her young ones. The Explication of which Text further evinces, that at the Creation, before any thing was reduc'd to form, this Globe was an immense Liquid, consisting of all sorts of Particles. Hence not only from Phaenomena in Nature, but likewise from Divine Writ it is evident that these prodigious Mountains were the subsidence of a Fluid; wherefore how rugged soever these may appear to the Eye, yet even these, if we pry into their innermost Recesses, undeniably evidence the Power of Nature, and the Exist­ence of an omnipotent Being; so that tho' there was not an universal dissolution of their Strata at the Deluge, as was before manifested, yet to account for the various Phae­nomena observable in those Mountains, it is certain that they must once have been fluid Bodies, and successively in­durated into these hard Consistences by their own Gravity, and the Heat and Salts of the ambient Air, upon the re­ceding of the Waters, as Moses clearly evinces in the same Chapter, where God said, Let the waters under the hea­vens [Page 122] be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so, and the evening and the morn­ing were the first day. Which brings me to a small Digres­sion, in enquiring what in those Antediluvian Ages was meant by a Day, an Hour, or a Year.

The Latin word Hora has been judg'd by some to be de­riv'd from the Greek word [...], which signifies to limit or bound, because it is the measure of Time, so in Mathe­thematics comes the word Horizon, because that termi­nates the sight; but Macrobius and Pausanias both alledge that its original is owing to the Aegyptians, because the Sun in their Language was stiled Horum; the Septuagint In­terpreters would have it indifferently to express a short space of time, hence in St. Luke [...] is used for Sup­per-time; some are of Opinion that Hours anciently sig­nify'd the four Seasons of the Year, hence the Greek An­nals call'd them their Hori, and their Writers Horographici; some there are that think the Greeks call'd that part of Time an Hour wherein the Dog-star arises, hence Galen in his Book De Alimentis, calls those Horean Fruits which spring up at that time wherein the Dog-star arose; In ge­neral by an Hour the Ancients have signify'd an Age, and by the twelfth Hour Old Age, as some would have it, hence in that Dialogue of Marcus Crassus and the K. of Galatia, comes that Expression, What Man, says he, art not thou now arrived at the twelfth Hour, and yet talkest of build­ing a new City? but I am apt to think this might rather be Metaphorically spoken, because in the computation of Time for the greatest part, so many Hours terminate the artificial Day; it might therefore not unaptly be compar'd to the Period of Old Age. Herodotus relates that the Gre­cians from the Aegyptians receiv'd the use of the Pole, the Gnomon, and the twelve parts of the Day, and the origi­nal of that Use among the Aegyptians was because their Priests in those Days were accustomed twelve times a Day to make a noise to their Cynocephalus; and Cicero takes [Page 123] notice of such a Ceremony to Serapis, from which it seems clear that an Hour in those Days was the same as now in the computation of Time; and that Dial of Ahaz, where the Miracle was wrought of the Sun's going back ten Degrees, seems to confirm that the Iews in those days computed Time in the like manner, for all Interpreters agree those Degrees were the Indices of such parts of the Day; and the descri­ption that Pancirollus gives us of an Instrument amongst the ancient Romans, farther evinces the truth of this Hy­pothesis: ‘They took (says he) a Vessel made of Glass, in the bottom of which was a narrow Hole done about with Gold, lest the Water should wear it away; on the other part of the Vessel was drawn a right Line, having the 12 Hours set upon it; after which they filled the Vessel with Wa­ter, which issued drop by drop out of the little Hole; they thrust a Cork into the Water fastned to a little Wand, the end of which pointed at the first Hour, and as the Water decreased at the second and third Hour, and so on; this the Greeks call'd Clepsydra. From all which, both from the Practice of the Iews, Aegyptians, Greeks and Ro­mans, it is most probable that the Antediluvians computed Time as we do now, and that Noah very likely transmitted those Instructions down to his Posterity.

The next thing therefore to be consider'd is to illustrate what is meant by Days: Days by all Nations are divided into two kinds, the one natural, the other artificial, the one consisting of twelve, the other of twenty-four Hours; having therefore fully explain'd what the Ancients meant by Hours, I need not farther to insist upon this Point. I shall then proceed to explain what is meant by a Year: The word Annus, or Year, in the three ancient Languages is deriv'd from a thing that turns round, or a Circle, for so much the Hebrew word does signify [...]; hence the Aegyp­tians represented the Year by a Snake biting its Tail, but whether a Lunar or Solar Year is meant by the Patriarchs, is next to be consider'd. The Turks and Arabians use [Page 124] the Lunar Year, and the same Custom is observed in Tar­tary, Siam, Iapan, Peru, and in other Places; but Kepler al­ledges that the Iews after their departure out of Aegypt used only the Solar Year, ‘The Patriarchs, says he, used the Aegyptian Year of 365 Days, and divided them into 12 Months; and it is certain the Jewish Year, until the Gre­cian Monarchy, was wholly Solar, that all their Months, save the last, consisted of 30 Days;’ and Iosephus writes that there was no Innovation in their Rites as to their Year, wherefore from the afore-recited Authorities, and likewise from the Iewish and Aegyptian Hieroglyphical representati­ons of a Year, it is highly reasonable to conclude, that the Years spoken of by the Patriarchs were Solar Years, or 12 Months, in which the Sun perfects its Course in the Zodiac: So that what some have offer'd to prove an Hour or Month to be a Year amongst the Ancients, is groundless, and is only a metaphorical Allusion to a Custom very frequent in the Eastern Countries.

To conclude, from all the recited Phaenomena, if we will but appeal to our Senses, it is evident that Moses's Narrative of the Deluge is not only the most true, but the most compleat; I cannot therefore but admire at the Theo­rist, and Mr. Whiston, who affirm that before the Deluge there were no Mountains: In the first place the Argu­ments they offer are no way conclusive, but barely Hypo­thetical, a meer begging of the Question; they have in­deed supply'd us with polite Schemes, and witty Allegories, and where they do not by dint of Reason convince us, like Sirens, by their Wit they charm us: but it is not Paint that can long preserve the Features, after that is once dis­cover'd, the Face appears more deform'd; I can no more think the World before the Deluge was form'd like an Egg, or that there were no Mountains, or that upon the breach of the Shell the Waters gush'd out and overwhelm'd the Globe, than I can espouse that wild Notion of the Philoso­pher, who fancy'd himself an Egg, and dreaded lest the [Page 125] Heavens should fall and destroy him: What Moses has de­liver'd upon that Subject exactly quadrates with Nature, and from his History it is very clear, that there were Mountains before the Flood; in the seventh Chapter of Genesis he says, the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth, and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered; fifteen cubits upwards did the wa­ters prevail, and the mountains were covered. Whence it is plain that before the Deluge there were Mountains, other­wise how could they be cover'd; he may as well reconcile the contradiction of a Man covering his Head with his Hat, when he had none upon his Shoulders, and the one Absur­dity is as easily defended as the other. In the same Chap­ter that inspir'd Philosopher very clearly conveys to us the beginning, progress, and conclusion of the Deluge, all which throughly consider'd, one would think, to any unbiass'd Person are Arguments too plain and convincing to be ob­viated; for let us take him barely and literally as an Histo­rian, where he acquaints us, that the fountains of the great deep were broken open, the windows or the clouds of hea­ven poured down their waters, for it rained forty Days and forty Nights. What can we imagin those Fountains to be but the Freshes separated by the Earth from the Sea, which upon those Convulsions of the Earth, when it was broken open, issued forth upon its surface? And then that great fall of Waters from the Clouds, which doubtless incessant­ly and vehemently pour'd down Night and Day, joyning with them, might easily cause that general Inundation. To those that alledge the deficiency of the Waters to ac­complish so universal a Flood, let us by plain Text and Demonstration answer; in the first Chapter of Genesis, when the earth was without form and void, then darkness was upon the face of the deep, which plainly shews (as was asserted before) that this Globe was a meer immense Li­quid, for the Earth surely would have had a Form, tho' Darkness had been upon it, had it then been separated from [Page 126] the Waters, but upon their subsidence dry Land appeared, and received a Form; wherefore then by a very reasonable Consequence could not that Power, that made the first great separation of Fluids from Solids, once again cover all with Fluids? or why could not the same proportionate quantity of Liquids, that could dilute such a Mass of So­lids, once again overwhelm them? but where was then the necessity of a total dissolution of all the Strata of the Earth at the Deluge? or why must all again return to its primitive Chaos without form? Besides the Evidence of all the recited Phaenomena, Moses very readily clears that difficulty, for Chap. 7. he tells us, that the Ark was lift­ed up above the Earth, that all the high hills and mountains were covered; which lifting or floating of the Ark above the Earth, and covering of the Hills and Mountains, seems to be very dissonant to a Dissolution; not but that a strange Catastrophe occur'd to the superficies of the Earth, by the resistless motions of the Waters, which gave so many evidences of their Power and Universality at that time: Again, Chap. 8. The waters returned from off the earth, not separated as at the Creation, and again that they de­creased continually, till the tops of the mountains were seen. Upon the whole I can see no reason why any should so elaborately endeavour to answer Difficulties, where none present themselves, and that by so quaint a Method, as to amuse the Reader by starting greater.

Having now from Observations in Nature and Divine History, given an account of the Deluge, that we may form some Idea of it, I thought it not inconsistent with my Design, to insert the following Phaenomenon. About three Years ago near Hyde in Cheshire happen'd an unusual Flood, which overwhelm'd the Banks of the River, and violently broke in at the Eye of a Coal-Pit, the Water in its impetuous Current thro' the hollows forc'd the Air be­fore it, which when pent up in the Extremities of those Passages, by its Elasticity divided a solid Rock at least 20 [Page 127] Yards perpendicular; the Water over the greatest part of the Field appear'd in large Columns, not much unlike the Spouts in Africa; when having spent its force, the Rock clos'd again, and all over the Field were to be seen various pieces of Coal scatter'd. Hence we may imagin when all the Springs of the Deep were broken up, and the Clouds pour'd down their Waters in continued Cataracts for forty Days and Nights, in so strange a Convulsion, I say, from the recited Phaenomenon, we may form some inadequate Idea, how that terrible Destruction was accomplish'd.

And since we are treating of Floods, I think it a pardon­able Digression, if I give an account of a Spout seen by my Brother within these two Years, in his Voyage to Vir­ginia. The figure of it (as he affirms) was like a Spire-Steeple inverted, and hung for a considerable time from the Clouds to the surface of the Sea; it afterwards divided, and then the Sea was in a most violent Commotion, which was observ'd by the flowering of the Water, as he stiled it; the lower Pillar hung for a considerable time upon the sur­face of the Water, but at length vanished, the upper part from the Clouds remain'd longer. His Conjecture is, that the Spout was not a Column of Water that ascended out of the Sea, but a Cloud only that hung down to the surface of the Water, and he gives these Reasons for it, first, be­cause the upper part of the Pillar continued much longer than the lower part, after its division: in the second place, before the Spout appear'd the Air was extreamly dark, and by that the Sea-men predicted the appearance of a Spout. What former accounts we have of Spouts in Authors, are different from this, whether therefore there may be various sorts of Spouts, I shall not determine, as being forreign to this Undertaking.

Dampier confirms this Account, by the Description which he gives us of a Spout in his first Volume, pag. 451. he says, ‘It is a small ragged piece or part of a Cloud, hang­ing down about a Yard seemingly from the blackest part [Page 128] thereof; commonly it hangs down sloping from thence, or sometimes appearing with a small bending, or elbow in the middle; I never saw any hang perpendicularly down. It is small at the lower end, seeming no bigger than ones Arm, but it is fuller towards the Cloud from whence it proceeds. When the surface of the Water begins to work, you shall see the Sea for about 100 Paces in cir­cumference foam and move gently round, till the whir­ling Motion encreases, and then it flies upward in a Pil­lar about 100 Paces in compass at the bottom, but lessen­ing gradually upwards to the smallness of the Spout it self, there where it reacheth the lower end of the Spout, thro' which the rising Sea-Water seems to be convey'd into the Clouds; this visibly appears by the Clouds en­creasing in bulk and blackness, then you shall presently see the Cloud drive along, altho' before it seem'd to be without any Motion, the Spout also keeping the same course with the Cloud, and still sucking up Water as it goes along, and they make a Wind as they go: thus it con­tinues for the space of half an Hour, more or less, until the sucking is spent, and then breaking off, all the Water which was below the Spout, or pendulous piece of Cloud, falls down again into the Sea, making a great noise with its fall and clashing Motion in the Sea.’ Pag. 452. he adds farther,‘'One Capt. Records of London, bound for the Coasts of Guinea, in a Ship of 300 Tuns, and 16 Guns, call'd the Blessing; when he came into the Latitude of 7 or 8 Degrees North, he saw several Spouts, one of which came directly towards the Ship, and he having no Wind to get out of the way of the Spout, made ready to receive it, by furling his Sails; it came on very swift, and broke a little before it reach'd the Ship, making a great noise, and raising the Sea round it, as if a great House, or some such thing had been cast into the Sea. The fury of the Wind still lasted, and took the Ship on the Starboard-Bow with such violence, that it snapt off the Boltsprit and [Page 129] Fore-Mast both at once, and blew the Ship all along, ready to over-set it; but the Ship did presently right a­gain, and the Wind whirling round, took the Ship a se­cond time with the like fury as before, but on the con­trary side, and was again like to over-set her the other way; the Mizen-Mast felt the fury of the second Blast, and was snapt short off, as the Fore-Mast and Boltsprit had been before; it came on very swift, making a great noise, and raising the Sea round it, as if a great House, or some such thing had been cast into the Sea.’ From these In­stances it is undeniably evident, that a Spout is rather a Cloud, than a Pillar of Water, rising in a pyramidal form out of the Sea, as some affirm in their Voyages upon the Coasts of Africa, or such a Column of Water occasion'd by a Commotion in the subterraneous Abyss, as Dr Woodward in his Philosophical Essay alledges.

To these I will only add an Instance or two more, which might easily slip an undiscerning Eye, and tho' the Obser­vation to some may seem trivial, yet I doubt not but the Matter when rightly consider'd, carries weight along with it, and may justly challenge our Enquiry. I have in some Parts several Leagues from the Ocean, two Yards within Marle, seen Stones of a considerable magnitude most exact­ly divided, yet adapted to that height of Symmetry, and nice proportion of Parts when join'd, that no Tallies, nor the most curiously divided Bodies, could more exactly close their Fissures, and in an horizontal Line betwixt these 8 or 10 Yards of Marle interposing: Considering therefore that those Stones in all probability were originally but one, the distance betwixt them and their depth in the Marle, it must surely be most consonant to Reason to conclude that they were only split, not dissolved in that unaccountable hurry at the Deluge, and embalm'd there to perpetuate its Veracity; betwixt these are often to be found marine Shells, which sufficiently evidences this Hypothesis. Nor have we those Disports only of Shells and fossile Plants, in Bo­dies [Page 130] that are impregnated with Spar, Alabaster, Bitumen, and the Pyrites, but likewise other Phaenomena of the like Nature, particularly at the Kennel-Pits at Haigh in Lan­cashire, in several Slates of which I have seen long parallel Cylinders join'd together, and running in direct Lines, im­printed in solid Stone, twice the length of a Man's Finger, and the breadth or more of his Hand; an evident Demon­stration that this firm Substance must originally be a Fluid, which allowed, it will be no difficulty to account for the various representations of Shells and Vegetables: These were first communicated to me by that honoured and learn­ed Lady, the Lady Guise, Mother to the present Lady Bradshaw of Haigh.

But farther to demonstrate that Solids were originally Fluids, a more convincing Instance cannot be produc'd than in the Stone call'd Buphthalmos, or Ox-Eye, so stiled from the analogy it bears to that Organ: In this there is a Pebble of a sable Colour, included in an Alabaster Spar, and the Spar so strictly adheres to the surface of the Pebble, without the least unevenness, and composes so exactly a Con­vex figure like that of an Eye, that it is impossible they should come into that shape, but as the Chymists term it, In statu fluoris: These are found on the Sea-Coasts in Lan­cashire, and Wirehal in Cheshire.


Of Fishes.

THE Curious here have a large Field of Philosophy to range in, since both the Seas and Rivers in these Counties present us almost with an infinite variety of these Creatures: I shall not expatiate upon each particular Spe­cies of Fishes, but only take notice of the most remark­able, which have occur'd to my Observation, in the Seas, Rivers, Ponds and Meers.

[Page 131] The Seas frequently afford us Seales, or Sea-Calfs, and those of different Magnitudes; they are often thrown up in Salt-Rivers form'd by the Tides, some I have seen eight, some twelve Foot long, but these are most common in the Baltic Ocean, where the Russes take them in great quantities; the Method is very remarkable, They gene­rally go out in great Numbers to hunt them, sometimes they find three or four Thousand together, basking them­selves upon the Ice; these then they surround, which when the Sea-Calfs discern, they pile themselves upon an heap (as it is probable) by that means to break the Ice, and quit themselves from the Enemy, which they sometimes do, and frequently so bend the Ice, that they are oblig'd to wade to a considerable depth to attack them; so remark­able is the Principle of Self-preservation in all Creatures whatever. Their Food is upon Fish, but I found by one which I had alive, that he could not eat under Water, and when he div'd for his Prey he clos'd his Mouth and Eyes, and pursed up his Nostrils so close, that the least drop of Water could not enter: I did not find that he could continue long under Water, but frequently mounted up into the Air, and then immediately dived again. They are extreamly smooth, and will bite severely, having Mouths like those of Tygers, and indeed when provoked, make their Attacks with that kind of spitting, harring Noise.

I thought it not amiss to add the Account which Dam­pier gives of the Sea-Dog, call'd by the Dutch Hound, which is agreeable to the shape and size of those which I saw: ‘They are (says he p. 89.) as big as Calves, the Head of them like a Dog, and therefore by the Dutchmen call'd Sea-Hounds, but it had been more proper if they had said English Bull-Dogs: Under each Shoulder grows a long thick Fin, these serve them to swim with when they are at Sea, and are instead of Legs to them when on Land, for raising their Bodies up on end by the help of these Fins or Strumps, and so having their Tail-parts drawn close [Page 132] under them, they are bound, as it were, and throw their Bodies forward, drawing their hinder Parts after them, and then again rise up and springing forward with their fore Parts alternately, they lie tumbling thus up and down all the time they are moving on Land; from their Shoul­ders to their Tails they grow tapering like Fish, and have two small Fins on each side the Rump, which is common­ly cover'd with their Fins; these Fins serve instead of a Tail on the Sea, and on Land they sit on them when they give suck to their Young: Their Hair is of divers Co­lours, as black, grey, dun, spotted, looking very sleek and pleasant when they come first out of the Sea.’

The next remarkable Fish is the Sepia, or Ink-Fish, of which I have seen several upon these Shores; it has ten Horns, not much unlike those of a Snail, and with these, as with Oars, it rowes it self forward in the Water; it has two full Eyes, its substance seems to be a kind of Pulp, and one half of it is invested with a Membrane like a Leg within a Stocking, and therefore by some it is call'd the Hose or Stocking-Fish; it has only one Bone, and that upon its Back, thin, flat and pellucid; from its Mouth descend two pellucid Ducts, which terminate in a Vesica which contains its Ink, by pressing this the Ink quickly ascends, and as some Naturalists affirm, when they are-in danger of being taken, by contracting this they discharge such a quantity of Ink as blackens the Water, and secures them from dis­covery; I have a Letter by me writ with this Ink about ten Years ago, which still continues: this Liquor was the Ink of the Ancients, hence came that Expression of the Poet, Nigro distillans Sepianodo; it has no remarkable Tast, and by reason that the whole substance seems to be a kind of Pulp, it is hard to determine whether this Liquor is its Chyle, or perhaps the Juices of some Sea-Plant which it lives upon, or else a Liquor separated from its nutritive Juices; for what else to term it I know not, since I could not observe in it either Veins or Arteries, yet doubtless there [Page 133] are other Vessels adequate to those. This Fish sometimes the People eat, and it is observable, that it will mildly purge them, like Cassia, or some such Lenitive.

The next to be remark'd are the Pisces Vaginales, so call'd because they resemble the Pudenda of a Woman; these stick fast in the Sand, and are scarce to be pulled out, when you touch them, they contract strongly, and emit a Liquor like that of the Vagina in Coitu; of these there are great quantities on the Sands near Leverpoole, and other parts of the County of Lancaster.

We have frequently cast upon the Sea-shore the Sea-Blebs, the whole substance of which seems to be nothing but a perfect Gelly, and to view it, you would wonder how it had Life; only in the Center of it is a knot of Vessels which appears red, and is branched like the Leaves of the Herba Paris, or True Lovers Knot, and in these no doubt the greatest part of the Circulation is perform'd: 'Tis won­derful to me, what the use of that Gelly can be, and whether or no it has any communication with that knot of Vessels, with Microscopes I could not discern any: This by being too long held in the Hand, is apt to make it break out in Pustules.

The Star-Fish, so call'd from the resemblance it bears to a Star, is very common in these Parts; its Stomach is in its Center, and the rest of its Body is fibrous, which no doubt conveys a Liquor analogous to Blood or Chyle; when touch'd it contracts very strongly, and I presume its Food is Sea-Plants: Male and Female in these I could not ob­serve, but presume that they are rather of an Hermaphro­dite species; these are not of any known use, as I remem­ber. Sometimes we have Whales and Sturgeons, but these very rarely, one of the latter I saw taken near Warrington of about 12 Foot long, and 2 Foot deep.

Three Fishes I took of an unusual shape, and cannot find the figure of them in any Author; their Heads are extraor­dinary large, and their Aspect terrible, they have two large [Page 134] Eyes upon the midst of their Foreheads, an extraordinary wide Mouth, and different Rows of Teeth, like those of a Shark, and within the Stomach equal Rows of Teeth pa­rallel to those above, and no doubt but there must be a Mastication there, as in the Mouth. They have no Gills, but instead of those Bones like cross Bars, from their Spine there are not any Bones that branch forth as in other Fishes, like Teeth from the midst of a Comb, instead of those they have a round pellucid Body, not unlike a blown Bladder; from the Head along the Body there are Bones descending in Lines, like the Meridians of a Globe: The rest of the Body is like that of a Dog-Fish, they have a Stomach, Bowels and Liver, but I could discern no Lungs; their Membra Genitalia seem to be after the manner of Dog-Fish.

The Green-back and Mullets are very common, they af­ford an excellent Nourishment and a delicate Tast; we have likewise great quantities of Soles, a species of Flounders, these are in my thoughts the best of Fishes; the Turbut is likewise very common and very palatable; the Sand-Eels are very frequently taken, and dug out of the Sands by the Fishermen, like Worms; and it is not an un­pleasing prospect to observe the infinite number of little heaps like Mole-hills, form'd by the Worms themselves upon the Sands; these are only the Faeces of the Worms, collected by their twisting round one another in so exact a figure, that the Fishermen by their magnitude can judge, what Worm is fittest for their purpose, and accordingly dig up such or such a Bed. The Oyster and Lobster are very common, and likewise the Shrimp and Prawn; the Prawn is a Fish not much unlike the Shrimp, but much larger, and far better Meat, and in my thoughts the most pleasing of any Shell-Fish whatever; it generates in Eggs, and of these it deposites an infinite number, which by a clammy Matter it fastens to the Rocks, and piles them one upon another, till they look like a Pyramid inverted, and hang like Icicles on the Verge of a Penthouse. We have [Page 135] the best and largest Cockles in England here, and Muscles in that number, that upon the Sea-Coasts they manure their Ground with them. The Pearl-Muscles are very com­mon: Which leads me to give an account of the Germina­tion of Pearls.

The Formation of the Shells of Muscles I have observ'd from the bigness of a Pins head, to 2 Inches in length, and find in their first Formation, that the Shells are pellucid, but afterwards, as the Lamellae are constantly formed, they become opaque; their substance at first seems to me to be a Gluten thrown off from the Fish, and indurated by the Air; as the Fish grows in bigness, it still emits a greater quantity of this, and so the Shell continually encreases, till it arrives to its full hardness and maturity. In these Shells (and likewise in Oyster-shells) I have frequently found Pearls, some just appearing thro' the innermost Lamellae, others half thro', some hanging like Fruit upon a Pedestall, others dropt from the Mother of Pearl, and sticking on the out-side of the Fish; whence it is plain that Pearls are not form'd by Dews, (as some have observ'd,) nor within the Fish, (as others,) but in the Shell it self. I find the Pearls as well as the Shells to consist of various Laminae, wrapt one within another, and betwixt the Mater Perla­rum and the Pearl I could never observe any extraordinary difference, only I think the Pearl makes a greater fermen­tation with an Acid; whence it is most probable, that the most Volatile part of the Mater Perlarum protrudes it self from the rest of the Laminae, and so constantly presses forwards till it forces its passage into the Shell it self, and so forms the Pearl. They are generally of a Sphaerical fi­gure, made so (I conjecture) by the figure of the Shell; these Pearls are of great use in Physic, and did the People industriously apply themselves to the getting of them, con­siderable quantities might be acquired, at a less Price than Crabs Eyes, which they infinitely surpass, tho' they were genuine, but for the most part they are adulterated, and [Page 136] instead of Crabs Eyes we have meerly a Composition of Chalk and Mucilage, or perhaps Tobacco-pipe Clay, to the infinite prejudice of the Patient.

From what has been observ'd in the Germination of Pearls, it is evident that what Christophorus Sandius from Hamburgh transmitted to the Royal Society at London, must necessarily be a Mistake; which that the Reader may more easily apprehend, I shall transcribe the Account he gave to that learn'd Body, and leave it to any unprejudic'd Person to judge of his Error: since any of the most Cu­rious may any day in the Year, in the River Wire near Hambleton in Lancashire, have a full Demonstration to the contrary. The first Letter runs thus, being translated by the Publisher of the Philosophical Transactions, March 25. A. D. 1674.

‘Touching the Origin of Pearls, of which I formerly gave an Intimation, be pleas'd to receive the following Account. The Pearl-shells in Norway and elsewhere do breed in sweet Waters. Their Shells are like to those which commonly are call'd Muscles, but they are larger; the Fish in them looks like an Oyster, and it produces a great cluster of Eggs, like those of Cra-Fishes, some white, some black, (which latter will yet become white, the outer black Coat being taken off) these Eggs when ripe are cast out, and being cast out they grow, and become like those that cast them; but sometimes it happens that one or two of these Eggs stick fast to the sides of the Matrix, and are not voided with the rest: these are fed by the Oyster against its Will, and they do grow, according to the length of Time, into Pearls of different bignesses, and im­print a Mark both in the Shell and Fish, by the situation conform to its figure.’

Upon which I cannot but remark in the following man­ner, and indeed in doing that, can scarce confine my self within the Rules of Decency, there being not one true Line in the whole Letter: For in the first place they do not [Page 137] always breed in fresh, but likewise in salt Waters, as is evident in the River Wire, where the Water is continually salt, and when the Tide flows, little less brackish than the Sea it self; in the second place, the Shell is not only like that of a Muscle, but the Fish also is a real Muscle, and not an Oyster; in the third place, in those Fishes never any Eggs are discern'd, consequently it is not possible that the Pearl should be the Egg of the Fish, but on the con­trary it is demonstrable, by the Instances above-recited, that the Pearls are various Protrusions from the Laminae of the Shell, and those I have observ'd as well in the black, as in the chrystalline Laminae, having frequently seen black Pearls, as well as the chrystalline ones, which are so many Enve­lopments of the Mother of Pearls; Fourthly, by what is alledg'd it is evident, that these are not fed by the Oyster against its Will, and that they do not any farther imprint a Mark into the Shell, than by dropping out of it, but in­deed after that they do commonly leave a Bruise there, by which you may easily discern how many Pearls have vegeta­ted from each particular Shell: A Phaenomenon not much unlike this I once observ'd at Oxford in a Water-Rat that was pregnant, upon a Dissection of her, for by opening the Ovaria, we found as many Knots in those, as there were young ones in the Uterus. His second Letter was dated the 27. of February, 1674. and is as follows.

‘As to the Authority I have to assert such an Origin of Pearls, as I have done in my former, I here declare that a certain Dane, call'd Henricus Arnoldi, an ingenious and veracious Person, having by his own Experience found it so at Christiania in Norway, did in that manner relate it to me, as I imparted it to you, he having with great serious­ness assur'd me of the truth thereof: besides the thing seems highly probable, neither do any considerable Ob­jections appear against it; if I should chance to go into those Parts, or at least into the Country of the Duke of Brunswick, where also Pearls are found, not inferior to [Page 138] the Oriental ones of the same size, I should not fail to en­deavour to make the Observation my self.’

From what has been before observ'd, it is plain his Hy­pothesis is not probable, and that there are unanswerable Objections against it; so that his very All centring only in a Relation from the foremention'd Dane, is altogether fictitious, nor do I believe there are Pearls, either in Brun­swick, or any other part of the World yet known, compa­rable to those in East-India, the Mother of Pearl of the Oysters in those Parts being much finer than any discover'd here, or in the West-Indies: And if so (by what has been ob­serv'd) it is most certain, that the Pearls must be finer also, which are only the most refin'd parts of those defecated Laminae of the Shell. It is true indeed there are in fresh Waters hereabout Muscles of the magnitude he mentions, which are commonly call'd Horse-Muscles, of these vast numbers were found in the Pond at Tabley in Cheshire, when it was drein'd, but not any of them contain'd Pearls, nor was the Fish palatable. These, I think, may serve for a full Answer to Sandius's Hypothesis, I shall not there­fore transgress longer on the Reader's patience, but only take notice of the Phosphori, or flashes of Fire in the Night-time, frequently observable in Muscles and Oysters, and so close this Head.

It is observable that these Fishes abound with a great quantity of volatile Sulphur, and hence it is, that in Tabid Cases, as in scorbutic Atrophies, they are of extraor­dinary use, for their sulphureous Particles being commu­nicated to the Mass of Blood, they afresh inspirit and re­store it to its due Circulation, and then the Blood distri­butes its nourishment to the Body, which before stagnated in several Capillaries, where for want of a daily supply the Body emaciated. Another confirmation of their great quantity of Sulphur, is their extream foetidness upon Pu­trefaction, which is as offensive as any preparation of Sul­phur whatever. These granted, and that Flame it self is [Page 139] only a due quantity of sulphureous Particles put into a particular Motion, and then again considering what vast numbers of those Particles abound in those Fishes, and their extraordinary Activity, it is easy to imagin how those Noctilucae, or flashes in the Night-time, when their Par­ticles are not scatter'd by the Beams of the Sun, may fre­quently be observ'd in them; and it is probable that if some of our Virtuosi made their Experiments upon foetid Oysters, they might more easily prepare the Phosphorus, than from Blood, Flesh, or Urine, which is the common, but very tedious Process.

The Echini are common, as likewise Torculars, Whilkes and Periwinkles; we have likewise another Fish shap'd like the Head of a Rabbit, and thence call'd the Rabbit-Fish. The Pap-Fish is common, so call'd from the likeness it bears to a Nipple, the Country People use them for their Nipples when sore, which by guarding them from fretting on their Cloaths, give relief. These are the most remark­able of Sea-Fishes that I have observ'd in these Parts, wherefore I shall in the next place descend to River and Pond-Fish, and of these the most remarkable are the Sal­mon, Sparling or Smelt, and the Char, as likewise Eeles in the River Erke near Manchester: And of these I shall shew the difference, and their manner of Generation, and so con­clude this Chapter.

The Rivers abound with great quantities of Salmon, but chiefly those into which the Sea flows daily, as Ribble, Lune, Wire, and the Mersey, in these there are consider­able numbers taken, but the most in Ribble and the Lune. Concerning the Growth of these the Opinions are various, some asserting that after the Salmon leaves the Sea, she makes to fresh Rivers, and constantly presses forward till she gains the Shallows, and in the Sands, Stones and Peb­bles deposites her Spawn or Eggs, upon which the Male ejects a Milk which fecundates them, and so the formation of the Foetus is begun, which first is stiled a Salmon-Smelt, [Page 140] the second Year a Sprod, the third a Mort, the fourth a Forktail, the fifth a Runner, and the sixth a Salmon. O­thers assert that the Salmon comes to its Maturity in one Year, and the Morts, Forktails and Runners are a distinct species of Salmon, and will never attain to the magnitude of a grown Salmon, and that because (as they alledge) se­veral of these have been put into Ponds, and never arriv'd to any other pitch of greatness. Now it is certain that the Salmon are always best, and grow most, when they immediately leave the Seas, and by their continuance in fresh Waters they still decline, and wax leaner; when they first quit the Seas their Flesh is firm and well-tasted, and at that time they have often abundance of little Insects upon them, which the Fishermen call the Salmon Lowse, and it is then that she is best in season: The Fishermen will actly tell you, by observing of these, how long they have left the Seas, but upon their continuance long in the Freshes they become extreamly lean, and not at all palatable; so that 'tis probable if these Morts and Sprods which were taken into Ponds, and did not encrease at all, 'twas because they were out of their proper Food, and so consequently instead of growing did emaciate; for 'tis most certain, when they deserted the salt Water, 'twas not for any Food they expected in fresh Rivers, but indeed to reach the Shallows, as well for the preservation as propagation of their Fry, which in the Deeps would be destroy'd by other Fishes: so admi­rable is the Conduct of Providence even in the meanest of Creatures. Tho' the Rivers are frequently stemm'd and barricado'd with Weares of a considerable height, yet 'tis wonderful to observe how they will leap over these to gain the Shallows, to deposite their Spawn: since therefore the Smelt comes down from the Shallows, and makes towards the salt Waters, 'tis probable that the fresh Rivers are dis­agreeable to them; and since the Sprod seems to be the same Fish of another Years growth, and the rest likewise gra­dually till they compleat the Salmon it self, I am rather in­clin'd [Page 141] to adhere to the former Opinion, for why should not there in this, as in other Creatures, be a gradual Encrease? I apprehend not any convincing Reason to the contrary, nor do I believe Nature here alters her establish'd Methods in arriving to a full Growth and Maturity.

The next remarkable Fish is the Char, and that is found in Winder-Meer in Westmoreland, and no where else that I know of, except in Conningston-Meer in Lancashire. This Fish is not very unlike a Trout, only the Flesh is much more red, and when Potted, 'tis most delicious Meat; of these great quantities are yearly sent to London, from Kendall and Lancaster. 'Tis likewise observable that these Fishes are only found in one part of Winder-Meer, the other part being destitute of them, which perhaps may be occasion'd by the Pikes taken there in great quantities. There is another Fish taken there not unlike the Char, but something less, nor is the Flesh quite so red. The Water is extraordinary clear, and contains several small Islands, in one of which Sr. Christopher Philipson once resided, and in another a Hermite, a Relation of Sr. Francis Sawcole's, who for some Years subsisted only on Roots and Fish, and never went to Bed, but is now dead.

What farther may be said in relation to the Char, was communicated to me by my honour'd Friend and Relation Sr. Daniel Flemming of Rydall in the County of West­moreland. Winder-Meer (says he) according to the English Saxon is Windal-Meer, which some think to be so deno­minated from the great Winds frequent there, others from its winding and turning in and out, and others from a Person's Name, as well as that of Thurston-Meer, now call'd Coningston-Water in Lancashire, and that of Ulfes, now stiled Uls-Water in Cumberland, which are both near thereunto, which makes the last Conjecture the most probable.’

This Lough, Lake or Meer, is about a Mile in breadth, and ten Miles in length, with great variety of crooked [Page 142] Banks, which afford an agreeable Prospect; it is in several places of a great Depth, and produces many kinds of Fish, as the Char, Salmon, Pike, Bass, Pearch, Eeles, &c. This Lake by some is plac'd in Lancashire, but by others in Westmoreland, which is the more likely, since the Fishery thereof belongs to the Barony of Kendall, a Town of great Trade, particularly for Cottons, and the most noted in that County. This Meer is the largest in England, and looks as if it was pav'd or flagg'd at the bottom with square Stones, a sight diverting enough in Fishing. Our learned Clarenceux was impos'd upon, when he was in­form'd that the Char was a Fish peculiar to Winder-Meer, since in Coningston-Meer, within five Miles, a Char much fairer and more serviceable is caught.

The Char is a sort of Fish about a quarter long, some­what like a Trout, and generally red belly'd; there are three sorts, the Male, which is large, with a red Belly, but the Flesh thereof somewhat white, having a soft Roe, and is call'd the Milting-Char; the Female Char is large, but not so red-belly'd, the Flesh is very red, within being full of hard Roes or Spawn, which our Philosophers in their Discoveries sufficiently demonstrate to be the Ova, or Eggs of the Fish, which are fecundated by a Milk injected on them by the Male, and perfected by the kind influence of the Sun: the Ova thus impregnated, are buried by the Fe­male in Slutch or Sand near the adjacent Banks, and so re­ceive Invigoration, these are commonly call'd the Roving Charrs; the third sort having no Roe, is commonly call'd the Gelt Char. These Charrs differ from the Welsh Tor­gough, a Fish taken in Carnarvan-shire, and the Switzer­land Rentel, these being probably the same with the Case, a sort of Fish something like the Char, but spawning at a different time, and caught in the River Brathy, that runs into Winder-Meer. The Char is not to be caught by Angling, or any other Method but by Nets, they keep gene­rally in the deepest parts of the Water, and are most com­monly [Page 143] caught in the coldest Weather, when the Banks are cover'd with Snow; the Char never swims out of the Meer, but the Case is taken in divers Rivers.

The River Erke is remarkable for Eeles, which I think I may affirm to be the fattest in England, and indeed to that degree of fatness, that they almost nauseate; and this a late Author, a Gentleman of a considerable Estate near Manchester, chiefly attributes to the Fat, Grease, and Oyls, which by the Woke-Mills are expressed from the Woolen Cloaths, and so mixed with the Water: And indeed con­sidering the number of these Mills standing upon that River, and the extraordinary fatness of the Eeles, I do not think the Conjecture amiss.

It may now be worth our time to make Enquiry into the manner of the Generation of this kind of Fish: I could not in these, by any Dissection I ever made, observe the distinction of Male and Female, which has given occasion to some to conjecture they came from the middle Region, since Ponds and Pits are found frequently full of them, in wch none had ever been deposited, and therefore 'tis concluded that their Ova being so small as not to be discern'd by ocular Inspection, they might be exhal'd with the Waters, and con­sequently fall down with the Rains, and when these hap­pen'd to fall into Rivers and Ponds, they by the influence of the Sun, begin and compleat their Generation. But whence arose those Ova to be thus exhal'd? they must needs claim some Origin or Formation before they ascended to the middle Region; there is no doubt but the Rains are oftentimes saturated with Ova of divers Species, as may be seen by Putrifaction of the Water, in which an infinite number of small Worms are discern'd, these indeed may be small Ova wafted up by the Winds, and descending with the Rains. It is affirm'd in Russia and Lithuania, after excessive Showers, that the Ground is almost cover'd with Crea­tures not unlike Mice, which often produce by their cor­rupting, pestilential Fevers, which in some occasion'd the [Page 144] like Conjecture; yet this Phaenomenon may admit of an­other solution, for why may not those Creatures be there generated, and after the fall of those Rains desert their Cells or Latebrae, to bask upon the surface of the Ground, as we daily see here in Frogs and Worms, and other Rep­tiles? However it is, the Ponds that were never stored may be supply'd other ways, for it is usual for Eeles to quit the Pits, and creep into the Grass and Ditches, and this I have often observ'd, having found Eeles in the midst of Fields, remote from any Pit, by which means other Ponds may be replenish'd with this kind of Fish: for my part I shall not determine the Point, but these being industrious Ages, by the assistance of Microscopes, which are daily improv'd, others may give us farther satisfaction in this Matter.

But I cannot here omit that remarkable Experiment of the most ingenious Lewenhooke, who in this Creature was the first that gave us an ocular Demonstration of the Cir­culation of the Blood, and beyond contradiction has made it manifest that the Vein and Artery are one continued Canal, shewing a Pulsation in one part of the Vessel, and none in the other, but that the Blood slowly creeping on, the Ar­teries at their Extremities form a kind of Semicircle; so that the strait Line being terminated, the Systole of the Heart at so great a distance is not able to affect a Curve, for we must imagin the Pulse to be extreamly weak at the Extremities of the Arteries, for when a Vessel deviates from the direct Line of the Power, it thence ceases to be affect­ed with it; and hence it is that the Veins, tho' they are continued Vessels with the Arteries, have no Pulsation at all. What is said of this Fish generating with Vipers, is trifling and ridiculous, for whoever examins the Parts of these two Creatures subservient to Generation, will find it wholly impossible, the Male Viper containing a Penis, and the Female Ova and Ovaria, but in Eeles neither are dis­cernible.

[Page 145] The next remarkable Experiment in this Fish is the long continued Systole and Diastole of the Heart after it is taken out of the Body, which sometimes is for some Hours: This may justly challenge our strictest Enquiry into its Reasons, since (were they clearly demonstrated) it might be of great use in Anatomy. From this it is plain that Muscular Mo­tion is not perform'd by the Blood and Nitro-aerial Particles fermenting in Metaphorical Glandules, in which the Ex­tremities of the Arteries terminate, which a late young Author forwardly and foolishly affirms, in his small Book of Muscular Motion; for it is plain here that the Circulation is cut off, so that this Motion cannot be perform'd by any Blood flowing from the Arteries, in the manner he alledges; besides, the Globules of the Blood it self are discernible by Microscopes, one would think then that these Glandules which separate the Globules, should be much more per­ceiveable themselves: But these Glandules are neither to be observ'd by Mercurial Injections, nor Microscopical Obser­vations; it would be better for the Author to lay by his Suppositions, and much to his advantage to apply himself to an industrious Education, to render himself Master of right Reason, which done, he will soon see the vanity of his own Attempts in this kind. In explaining Muscular Motion, Borellus and Steno are deficient, and Dr. Charleton after all his elaborate Experiments, fairly owns his dissatis­faction in any Hypothesis, that he could form concerning it; for my part I think it is only to be solved by Him that gave it: How can we suppose Muscular Motion to be per­form'd in most Shell-fish, which have no Blood nor Glan­dules? yet some of them have very brisk and active Mo­tions, as the Shrimp and Prawn; or how in Convulsions come the Muscles to contract so strongly? It is impossible a little Blood and Lympha should effect this, but indeed (as Dr. Willis very well imagins) it is rather a violent Explosion of the Spirits. But then it is impossible that the Spirits should be a Mucilage, (which the foremention'd Author [Page 146] of Muscular Motion affirms, whose unparallel'd Assurance ad­mits not of a Rival) that being too unactive a Matter to pro­duce such Effects; the Spirits are sure the most volatile, re­fin'd parts of Matter we can form any Idea of, wherefore what that Author has writ in relation to this Matter, amounts to no more, than to shew him consummately ignorant.

One remarkable Fish had almost slipt me, it is call'd the Cat-Fish, from the likeness of its Whiskers upon the upper Lip to those of a Cat: This Fish is of a Tast indifferently pa­latable, but what is most observable in it, is the prick of its Fins, which are of a very poysonous Nature, tho' none of its Bones produce the like Effect; upon a Puncture the part will presently look red, be very painful, and swell to an ex­traordinary bigness, not much unlike a Phlegmon Erisi­piloides: This is found about the Peele, and sometimes near Heesham. How this Puncture comes to be of so poy­sonous a Nature, we shall now examine: The Fins look pellucid, and seem hollow, like so many parallel Tubes centring each upon a Cistus, impleted with a pellucid Liquor; it is probable therefore that upon the Puncture the Fin pressing upon the Cistus, the Liquor contain'd in it necessarily ascends, and mixes with the Blood, which be­ing of an Acrimonious nature, contracts the Capillaries of the Cutis, and so causes the Inflammation, perhaps not un­like that arising by the bite of a Viper.

Another Fish we have call'd the Rabbit-Fish, from the resemblance of its Mouth to that of an Hare or Rabbit: It is about 4 Inches in length, and as much in depth, the Back of it is arched and sharp, and in its Belly is an Orifice not unlike the Vagina of the Uterus. Lamperns and Con­gers are frequently found, and a small Fish call'd a Hue, exactly like an Anchove, and like that, by a proper Pickle, its Flesh and Bones will dissolve, this eats as agreeably as those from Genoa; vast quantities of these commonly hang in the Nets of the Fishermen, the Sea-Gulls feed upon them, and it is a diverting Scene enough to see their fre­quent [Page 147] Skirmishes about them. The Skeate, Thornback, and Rea, are taken in great quantities, as likewise the Dog-Fish, which some would have to be a species of a Shark, but whoever inspects their Jaws, the Roes, Figure, and po­sition of their Teeth, will find it only a vulgar Error. They do not externally emit their Ova, as many Fishes do, but generate as Dog and Bitch; in the Womb of the Fe­male I have often found a great number of young ones; it is reported that if at any time her Whelps be in dan­ger, they run within her and so secure themselves. They are but ordinary Food, yet are frequently eaten by the Country People. The Trout and Grayling may be plenti­fully had at Buxton, which are generally esteem'd the best in England; to these kinds of Fishes I presume the Water issuing from Lime-stone, is most agreeable. I have by me a round flat Bone, taken up from the Sea-Coast near Hilbree-Island in Cheshire, the inside of which is woven with an infinite number of Vessels, like the Cortical part of the Brain, but to what species of Fish it did belong, or what was the proper use of it, I cannot yet learn; its Dia­meter is about five or six Inches. Since the writing of this I find it to be a Bone betwixt the Vertebrae of a Whale.


Of Reptiles and Insects.

THERE being little room left for making Additions to these, they being describ'd so accurately before by Dr. Lister and Mr. Ray, I shall not trouble the Reader with Repetition, but only give an account of some particular Observations which I have made. The Viper is common in most of our Mosses, as is likewise the Adder or Longworm, which exceeds the other both in length and thickness, but its Bite is not so poysonous. In what particularly the the Poyson of a Viper consists, has been an old Dispute be­twixt [Page 148] Monsieur Charras and Seignior Redi; the one assert­ing the Poyson to consist in a yellow Liquor contain'd in a Bladder, at the bottom of its Tooth, which Liquor, upon its biting, by the Pressure of the Bladder, is forc'd thro' a Tube within the Tooth, and consequently into the Wound, and thence ensue very direful Effects; he alledges likewise that by this Liquor Pigeons and Pullets, by dropping it into a Wound made in either of them, have been kill'd, tho' the Liquor he took from the Viper when dead. The other asserts that he has try'd the same Experiments, but observ'd no such Effects at all: These two Seignior Vigani has in some measure reconcil'd, who alledges that the yellow Liquor with which Seignior Redi kill'd Pullets and Pigeons after the Death of the Viper, was either saturated with the Spirits of the enrag'd Viper, by whipping it before, by which means it was render'd more poysonous; or else (as its proba­ble) that in the hot and dry Climes of Italy, those Creatures are more venemous than in colder Countries: To me this Conjecture seems reasonable, however what its Venom is, is not so material, but it is certain very noble Medicines are prepared from them, and a Wine from their Flesh, singular in Consumptive, Leprous and Scorbutic Cases; they afford likewise a volatile Salt, the most generous Cordial in Nature.

The Lizard is frequently found in the Mosses, and is said to be one of those which the Naturalists stile Philanthropi, or Lovers of Men, never (as they say) doing injury to Man­kind, but destroying any venemous Creature hurtful to him. These are the most noted Reptiles.

Amongst the Insects we shall begin with the Grashopper: This Creature in its Infancy is wonderfully preserv'd by a Froth which it raises upon the surface of some Plant, conceal­ing it self by that means from Birds, or other Creatures which might destroy it. This Froth by the Vulgar is called Cuckow-spittle, by some a Meteor that falls from the Air, and is by them esteem'd poysonous, whereas indeed it is no­thing but a Froth form'd from the Plant, by this little In­sect: [Page 149] I have taken several of these, and clos'd them with some Plants in Boxes, so that they could have no commu­nication with the Air, and the Day following they were all cover'd with this kind of Froth, which Experiment puts the Matter beyond Controversy.

The Caterpillar deposites her Eggs in Cotton, in the Clefts of Trees, which are enliven'd by the influence of the Sun, at a proper season of the Year; I do think she is de­stroy'd by her young ones, which creep within her to suck, for I have sometimes found them creeping upon Cabbages, with twenty young ones within them, and sometimes dead with these within their Bodies; they enter them at little Orifices like Nipples, on either side of the Belly, and some­times creep so far as to be scarce discernible, but most commonly one half of them hangs out. The Possum in the West-Indies is said after the same manner to convey and nourish its young ones, which are observ'd to run into an external kind of a Womb, in which they lodge whilst she endeavours an Escape: so various are the Methods wch dif­ferent Creatures have for the preservation of their Species.

The Locust-Fly I have been inform'd has been found in Wales, but I remember not any to have been discover'd in these Parts. The Red Spider is very common, and is said to be that, which frequently poysons Cattle; of this I call to mind a remarkable Instance upon a Cow, which a Farrier asserted was poyson'd by this kind of Spider: The Beast was extreamly swell'd, and her Belly extraordinary hard, she lay moaning upon the Ground, doubtless in violent Pain, and past hopes of help; the Farrier however offer'd, if the Owner consented, to thrust his Knife in her Stomach, to put her out of Torment; the Owner complies, and the Farrier immediately enters in his Knife, upon which there instantly issued forth a Steam, which took Fire at the flames of the Candles, and blaz'd all over the Barn, and was with some difficulty exstinguish'd; the Cow suddenly rusht upon her Feet, began to eat, and afterwards grew [Page 150] perfectly well. How this sulphureous Halitus got into the Stomach, is not easily solved, and indeed it is a very odd Phaenomenon, but it is certainly the most probable that it proceeded from the sulphureous Particles of some Herbs she had eaten, for I cannot conceive, how any Insects she had swallowed could produce such Effects.

Human Worms I have observ'd of various kinds, as the Cucurbitoe, so call'd because they resemble the Seeds of Cu­curbits, are joynted one into another, and hence are ex­tended to three or four Yards in length: Of these the learned Dr. Tyson has given a most exact Account, to whose Works I refer the Curious. The Ascarides are commonly seen, but how these are generated in the Stomach and Bowels, may merit our Enquiry: It seems probable to me that the Ova of Insects are either mingled with the Liquors we drink, convey'd thither by the Air, in which doubtless they continually float, and when receiv'd into the Stomach and Bowels, by the innate warmth of those Parts, are gra­dually form'd till they arrive to their full growth: Paral­lel to their Formation may be the hatching of Eggs in Aegypt in Stoves, or by the heat of the Sun. Another way of Conveyance of these Ova into the Body, may be by the Roots, Fruits and Herbs, or even in our common Food, allowing first that the Generation of all Creatures arise from Ova, which we must necessarily espouse, other­wise the origin of these Worms is inexplicable, for to assert that they proceed from a Putrefaction of Humours, is but a general Term, and indeed rather gives an account of the Effect, than the Cause.

Of what we have alledg'd there cannot be a clearer De­monstration, than in the following Instance, as appears from the History of the Free-booters in the South-Sea in Ame­rica, in the Year 1685. where in the Island of St. Iohn, not many Leagues distant from Panama, they give us this Account: There are but four Months of fair Weather there throughout the Year, which are December, Ianuary, [Page 151] February and March, the other Months are incommoded with great Rains, which fall almost without intermission, and which, besides the Bloody-flux they bring, are so per­nicious, that if a Man has been wet with them three or four times, if he do not presently shift himself, there breed large Worms betwixt the Skin and the Flesh, in form somewhat like unto a Quill, and about a Finger long; whence to me it seems evident that the Ova of various Insects impregnate the Rain-waters, if so, it is easy thence to conjecture, how by the Liquids, Fruits and Aliment we take, Worms may breed in human Bodies. Against this Hypothesis there remains one material Objection yet to be solved, That if Worms in human Bodies arise from their Ova, convey'd thither in the Meats and Liquids we take, how comes it to pass that they are so usually form'd in Infants, who never tasted any thing but the Milk of their Parents or Nurses, a Nourishment that has pass'd the first digestions of the Stomach and Bowels (where the Worms are most frequent­ly nested) and separated from the Blood in the Breast by the Glands, and other Vessels adapted to that purpose? To this I answer, That the Ova of Worms, and several Insects, are as small as the Globules of the Chyle, and may conse­quently mix with the Blood, by the same Ducts the Chyle does; if this be granted, 'tis no difficult matter to assign a Reason how Worms are generated in the Stomach and Bowels of Infants, for the Ova are thence carried along with the Milk, and lodg'd in the Stomach and Bowels of the Child. To illustrate this the subsequent Instance will be very necessary: In the Year succeeding the great Frost, I frequently took notice of little white Grubbs lodg'd within the Pippins of several Apples, like those in the Kernels of Nuts, tho' the Skin and Pulp of the Apple were entire without the least Perforation. Now, I say, considering the minuteness of the Vessels that convey nou­rishment to the Kernels of the Apple, which are much smaller sure than those that bring Milk to the Breasts in [Page 152] human Bodies; by the same parity of Reason we may af­firm that the Ova are introduc'd into the Body of the Infant, by the Chyle Wch it receives from the Breasts. But perhaps it may be objected, if the various substances of Creatures are included in Minimis in their distinct Seeds, what ne­cessity is there for these Ova? To this I reply, Tho' Mal­pighius and Lewenhoeck have discover'd Animalcules in the Seeds of divers Animals, and in a late Transaction, in human Seed there are delineated different growths of them, that altho' I should grant this, yet I affirm that these Ani­malcules could never arrive to Perfection, until they are de­posited in their proper Ova, and there they receive their Nutriment; and this is not only evident in Insects, but even in Fishes, Birds, Quadrupedes, &c. and Mankind it self.

As to Frogs they generate in Eggs, the first formation of the Foetus is in a black Speck, adhering to the Ovum, after they are enliven'd, they have long small Tails, and are then call'd Bull-heads; in a little time this shapeless Co­vering is thrown off, and their perfect shapes are disclos'd, they have a peculiar Membrana Nictitans, with which they cover the whole Eye, which preserves them from the points of Reeds, Rushes and Prickles, which otherwise might injure them; they will lie with their Lungs expand­ed a long time, squeezing out the Air by degrees, and so it is they continue under Water so long; at a certain time of the Year they have a Membrane which closes their Mouths, it is wonderful how long a time they sleep in the Water, without any Food, their Mouths being still clos'd by this Membrane; but Iacobaeus, a Danish Physician, assures us, that they have two peculiar Vessels, which carry nothing but Fat, which he imagins nourishes them in that Inter­val, but this being spent, the Blood grows sharp, and then by its Irritation they immediately awake. In Consump­tive Cases the young ones are frequently made use of in France, and, as I have been often told by the Inhabitants [Page 153] of that Country, with great Success; I do judge that for the same reason that Snails are prescrib'd in those Cases, these may be also, both of 'em consisting of a viscid Mu­cilage, which probably may sheath the acid Salts of the Blood, which in the first place coagulated the Serum, con­verting the Lympha into a Size, as may be frequently seen upon the surface of the Blood taken from Consumptive Persons, and so having reduc'd it to that cross Consistence, it is very probable that it may raise Obstructions in the Lungs, whence ensue Nodes, Tubercles, and at last Impost­humations, many of the small Bladders of the Lungs be­ing distended beyond their natural tone, and at last break­ing one into another. There is a Water distill'd from the Spawn of these, frequently (and with success likewise) us'd in Spitting of Blood, for which, in some measure, the same Cause may be assign'd, as in the former Case. But I have often wondred, why Plaisters of these are so frequently prescrib'd in most of the scrophulous Cases, not only in our own Dispensatories, but in forreign likewise; but it may be, that in the Mucilage of these there may be invelop'd vo­latile alcalious Salts, that may destroy those Acids in the Blood, which so incrustate the Serum, that it obstructs the Glands, and so makes 'em scrophulous: This I rather surmise, because I know by repeated Instances, that from the Mucilage of several Plants (whose Virtues have been always suppos'd to consist in that, because 'tis easily pre­pared from them) a Volatile alkalious Salt may be sepa­rated; and if it be so in a Vegetable, why not in an Ani­mal likewise? There only remains one Observation more relating to this Creature, upon which I shall descant a little, and then not trouble the Reader further; and that is to shew what that Substance is which is vulgarly call'd Starr-Slime, whether the Frogs spawn, as some imagin, or a Meteor that falls from the Air, as others alledge, or lastly a Body that arises out of the Earth: And these I shall examine in their several order. That it is not the Spawn of a Frog, [Page 154] is evident from the subsequent Argument, because it is fre­quently found in those seasons of the Year in which the Frogs do not spawn, as in Winter; nor does it seem probable that it should be a Meteor, because I do think that no Man can Experimentally aver, that he ever saw such a Substance fall from the Air upon the surface of the Earth, which doubt­less in some Generation would have happen'd, had the Pro­duction of it been in that manner; it remains therefore in the last place, that we conclude it to be a Mucilage a­rising out of the Earth, which is usually in low moist Grounds; and what is said in relation to this, may in a great measure be apply'd to that Substance vulgarly call'd Faries Butter, both of which, as I suppose, may in small portions be rais'd by a subterraneous Heat, but successive­ly condensed into that Body in which we find 'em, by the intense coldness of the ambient Air.

Having finish'd my Observations in reference to Frogs, I shall in the next place proceed to what I propos'd, and that is, to make some Remarks upon the Toad. As this Crea­ture (like the Viper) contains one of the greatest Poysons in the Universe, so (like that also) it supplies us with the richest Cordial. I have in the late pestilential Fever seen repeated Instances, which demonstrate the truth of these: In a low vermiculating Pulfe, so call'd from the analogy it bears to the creeping of a Worm, (a melancholly Hiero­glyphic, to shew a Man by what Reptile he is just a hurry­ing to be devour'd) by giving plentiful Doses of a Pow­der prepar'd from these, many have been snatch'd from the very brinks of Eternity. Nor has it less frequently in more lingring and tedious Distempers afforded us an easy and a large Reprieve, I having by the repeated taking of this Medicine in Hydropic Cases, seen the Lives of many for several Years protracted; so that as in the former Case it saves us from perishing by the scorching heat of a Fever, so it does in the latter likewise keep us from sinking in the Waters of a Dropsy. The Tast of it (if rightly prepar'd) [Page 155] is a little Acid, which I take to be the Effect of a vo­latile, alcalious Salt, and it is I presume in these Cases by attenuating the viscid Serum of the Blood, that it pro­duces these wonderful Effects. I have been lately inform'd by Persons of great Learning, as well as Integrity, that in the Fever before recited, large Doses of Laudanum have effected the same thing, a Practice modern to what has been formerly laid down; but the reason of the giving of this in so large quantities, was grounded in a great measure upon Experiments try'd with a solution of Laudanum, by injecting it into the Mass of Blood, which was always found to make it fluid; and if so, to me the Method seems rational. Some Years ago I laid down some Arguments in the Exercitations I printed at Oxford, accounting for the Cause and Cure of that Distemper, from which it is e­vident, beyond contradiction, that the Mass of Blood in that Distemper is coagulated; and this may fully hint to us what I shall afterwards make out, viz. that Opium, by its acrid Salt making the Mass of Blood too fluid, becomes poysonous, or else because the Points of this too much contract the Fibrillae of the Brain, and so obstruct the separation of the animal Spirits; it is not to be imagin'd that by crass faeculent Particles it should effect these Mat­ters, since it is abundantly known to be a most noted Diaphoretick, and consequently a Medicine whose Ingre­dients are volatile, and 'tis therefore, I doubt not, that in the confluent Pock it is of that extraordinary use, viz. by attenuating the Serum of the Blood, which was almost converted to a putrid Pus. Much more might be added in relation to this, but I hasten to some other Observa­tions, and so shall close this Chapter; and those are chiefly concerning Butter-flies, Bees, Hornets, and the Heminens, or the American, or Humming Bird.

The Butter-flies, by the ingenious and industrious Mr. Iames Pettifer of London, as to the Descriptions of them are rang'd into that accurate Order, that it would be but [Page 156] superfluous to add any thing in relation to that Matter; wherefore since the Preparation from 'em yield us not any thing material, and their Generation having been fully accounted for by others, I shall pass 'em over; as likewise the Bees, their Government, Generation, Stings, and Honey, having been before accounted for by so many various and learned Hands; however I shall make some few Remarks, by what a wonderful, but natural Chymistry they elabo­rate their Honey, and how tho' seemingly dead, they re­vive, and lastly the difference betwixt them and the Hemi­nens. So wonderful is the structure of the Organs of these Insects, and so differently modify'd, that the various Juices which they suck and extract from Plants, that the greatest Bitter they convert into one of the sweetest Extracts, and the rankest of Poysons into one of the most balsamic Me­dicines; with what little reason therefore do some so vehe­mently inveigh against our Chymical Preparations, as not safe or agreeable to human Constitutions, since we see one of the meanest of Insects does so fully evince the contrary. Can I see that Creature imbibing the Juice of the most poy­sonous Vegetable, and converting it to a safe and a palata­ble Medicine, and not allow to Man, that he shall with all his exalted Reason, be able so far to correct the Poyson of a Metal or Mineral, that it shall become a safe Medicine? Surely he that of human Kind has these Apprehensions, either wants a publick Genius, to exert its Faculties for the good of Mankind in general, or that he has a mind to rest satisfied in the ignorant Traditions of his Ancestors, and at last be entomb'd in Cimmerian Darkness.

I shall now in the next place assign some Reasons how after being seemingly drown'd in Water, or suffocated by the steams of Brimstone, they will revive. It is cer­tain that Air is not convey'd into the Bodies of these In­sects, either by the Mouth, or any Nostrils, they not being supply'd with Lungs, but has its admission thro' the Pores of the Body; if these therefore either be impleted with [Page 157] Water, or their Orifices pursed up by the Restringency of an Acid, as in that of Sulphur, it is then that the Bee lies as if dead, the animal Spirits in her wonderful Vessels be­ing depriv'd of a fresh supply from the Air, but as soon as the humid Particles are either scatter'd by the heat of the ambient Air, or that the Orifices of their constringed Pores recover their natural tone, it is then, if the Spirits expand themselves again, that this Insect seems, as it were, re-animated. The Heminens, or Humming Bird, tho' it seems to ply about a Flower, after the same manner as the Bee, and has a Proboscis like that of a Bee, and is much about the size of the largest of that fort, yet this Creature never produces Honey, and the reason I take to be this, because that Bird has Viscera and Bowels like other Birds, which the Bee has not, and therefore the Digestions being different, so must the Effect be likewise. The Sting of the Hornet and Bee are fully accounted for by others, where­fore I shall close this Chapter.


Of Birds.

THESE Counties afford us great variety of Birds, and in some places even clog the Inhabitants with their Plenty. Amongst the rest, the Barnacle being very com­mon, and the manner of its Generation having been a Matter of Controversy, I shall recite my Observations upon it, and endeavour to reconcile that Point. It is observa­ble of our Ships which Trade to the West-Indies, that upon their return home, an infinite number of small Shell-fishes often adhere to them, at the first view not much unlike young Geese; these for several Ages have pass'd for Bar­nacles, not only amongst the Vulgar, but Men of Learn­ing likewise, wherefore to set things in their true Light, I shall in the first place give the Anatomy of this Shell-fish [Page 158] resembling the Barnacle, and afterwards that of the real Bird, and then lay down some Reasons to shew the Im­possibility of their being bred after the manner formerly receiv'd.

This Shell sticks to the outward Planks of Ships by a glutinous Matter, it resembles the Head of a Goose, to which there is a Neck annex'd, yet this Neck is not con­serted to the Body, but terminates immediately within the Shell, whence it is impossible that this should be the Barnacle in Embryo. Within the Shells are Claws, with Hairs like those of Lobsters, wound within one another in spiral Lines, and are not very unlike the Wings of a Goose, but these I found to be perfect Shells, and not Quills or Feathers; whence it is plain, that they could not appertain to the Barnacle, that being of the Feather'd Kind. These Shell-fishes are observable upon several Sea-weeds in the Gulph of Florida, and are there chiefly pick'd up by our Shipping: I never yet could meet with any Seaman who could affirm that he had seen any fall from Ships, and swim, which must have necessarily happen'd, had they been con­verted into Barnacles; besides, in the Anatomy of Bar­nacles, I found them (as other Geese) Male and Female, the one having a Penis, the other Ovaria, whence it is e­vident that their way of breeding is no wise different from that of other Birds; what therefore has been asserted by Speed and others concerning this Bird, is only a vulgar Er­ror, and they only wanted a thorow Enquiry, to give them satisfaction in this Matter.

The Sea-Crow is a Bird common in these Parts upon the Sea-Coasts, the shape of it is like that of other Crows, and it only differs from them in Colour, the Head and Wings being black, and the Body blue; its Food for the most part are Muscles, and I have often with admiration ob­serv'd these Birds to peck up Pebble-stones, and then to soar with them in the Air to a considerable height, then to let fall the Stones amongst the Beds of Shell-fishes, which [Page 159] most commonly break some of them, they afterwards a­light, and feed upon their Prey. These Fowl are said to breed in the Isle of Man, but are not used as Food.

The Puffin is a Bird about the bigness of a Duck, and sometimes is seen in these Parts, they are generally extra­ordinary fat, and when Pickled are relishing Food; this Bird breeds likewise in the Isle of Man, in a Place common­ly call'd the Calf of Man, in little Cells within the Rocks, and it is observable when they have young ones, that they take their flights to the Scotch Shores, and there fish for small Fry; when their Stomachs are full, they return and eject their Prey for the nourishment of their young: so endearing and indissoluble an Affection is imprinted on all Creatures for the preservation of their Species.

The Asper is a species of the Sea-Eagle, and is sometimes observ'd in these Parts; its Food is upon Fish, one I dis­sected, and in its Stomach I found a great number of small Fishes, some entire, some half digested, and others turn'd to a perfect Mucilage; in the Coates of the Stomach I dis­cover'd several tubular Glands, which by compression would emit an insipid kind of Lympha, which with any kind of Alcaly or Acid, would not cause any fermentation, and yet the Fishes that lay in that part of the Stomach were either thorowly digested, or had half ways arriv'd to it. From which Phaenomenon it is evident, that this Liquor is the ferment of the Stomach in these kind of Birds, and that Digestion is not always perform'd by Acids, (as some af­firm,) nor by Alcalies (as others) but indeed by an unac­countable mixture of both these united with several other Bodies; of which, Steno speaking of the Saliva, has this Expression, Nihil invenies, quod illa respuet, nihil cui sine pugna non associetur. If therefore we can but content our selves, in having the satisfaction to know how to correct too prevailing an Humour in this wonderful Mixture in a Morbific State, it is as much as relates to the Preserva­tion of Mankind; I think I may affirm, that all we can [Page 160] attain to from all Hypotheses hitherto form'd about Di­gestion, falls infinitely short of that universal Menstruum, whatever the Adeptist may pretend, he only amuses us with obscure and Utopian Preparations, and gives us the Cloud to grasp at: But here Nature plentifully distributes, what he only imagins, and without torturing us with un­merciful Flames, by Methods easy to her self, tho' un­known to us, she prepares the true Alkahest, or Universal Dissolvent. How trifling then is it to affirm this to be a Sal. Volat. Oleos. as a late Author has done; for if so, how comes Digestions of Bones and Metals to be perform'd in the Stomach? no such Phaenomenon ever was effected by the preceding Liquor hitherto prepar'd by any Man: why then should that be the universal Menstruum of Nature, set up meerly to support a tottering Hypothesis? Or why should we frame Schemes of Matters, which are not really what we fancy them, but what we could only wish them to be? And thus by an over-weening Affectation of our own Conceptions we lick our deform'd Offspring, imposing upon the World groundless and imaginary Ideas, for ab­solute Demonstrations. Others by Acid and Alcaly will unmask all the dark Recesses of Nature, and make these two Combatants all the Ingredients of the Universe; but let these Men consider the wonderful structure of the meanest Vegetable, the unaccountable preparation of its Juices, the wonderful preservation of its Species, and they will then find Acid and Alcaly to be too pitiful Principles to account for these admirable Phaenomena. Others with their Striate Particles presently set together all the Ope­rations of the six Days of the Creation, yet at the same time they cannot demonstrate the Properties of an equilateral Triangle. Thus we croud our Heads with unnecessary and false Ideas of Things, and neglect the most useful part of Learning, which is a true knowledge of the Properties of Bodies, so far as we can attain to it by Experimental Learning: But I fear I have made too long a Digression on [Page 161] this Point, and shall therefore proceed to what relates far­ther to this Head. As to the Oyl of the Asper so vulgar­ly famed for alluring of Fish, it is only a general Mistake, and in no wise answers the End.

The next remarkable Bird is the Sparling-Fisher, it is about the Bigness of a Duck, and by a wonderful Activity in Diving catches its Prey, and yields a very pleasant Di­version when pursued by Water-Dogs. The Cormorant is common in these Parts, and in the Indies it is made use of to take Fish withal, the manner which they do it by is this: A Ring being fix'd about the lower end of the Oesophagus, its swallowing any farther is prevented, and then he is turn'd into the Water; when his Prey is caught, he returns to the Shore, and immediately ejects what Fish he had taken, and again pursues his Game: The Guts in this Bird have but small Circumvolutions, hence the Food which he takes passes so very quick, that he is almost continually hungry, which renders him more fit for this kind of Diversion. Not much unlike this is a Creature in Lithuania call'd a Ierfe, whose Bowels have no Windings, and so it becomes continually craving, and gorges until its Belly is distended like a Drum; and then gets betwixt two Trees, and presses forth the Foeces, and so returns with as eager an Appetite to its Prey as ever.

Two White Crows I have seen in these Parts, One of which was Presented to King Charles the Second, and kept as a Curiosity in the Park at St. Iames's, the Present was made by that ingenious Gentleman Edward Tidesley of the Lodge, Esq. It is said in Russia and other cold Climes, that Birds and other Animals, which in the Spring-time are of a brownish Colour, in the Winter turn as White as Snow, which argues different Exaltations of the Sulphurs both in Hairs and Feathers. Of Moor-Game we have great Plenty, both of the Small, and the Black, they live upon Heath, but more particularly upon that part, which we call Erica, or Dwarf-Cypress; they afford us a pleasant Recre­ation, [Page 162] and when caught they are delicious and healthful Food: The Description of these are so accurately deliver'd by Mr. Willoughby, that I thought it not worth the time to trouble the Reader farther.

Of the Curlews there are Two sorts, the Curlew and the Curlew-hilp, these are the larger, and not very unlike the Woodcock; they frequent the Sea-Coasts, and are very good Meat. The Water-Hen is common in Ponds and Meers, but not much regarded, because esteem'd unpleasant Food. The Rale is a Bird about the bigness of a Partridge, and is common in these Parts, it hides it self in the Grass, and is discover'd by the snarling Noise, that it continually makes; it is very excellent Food, and doubtless of extraordinary Nutriment. The Quails are likewise common, and gene­rally extraordinary Fat, and eat delicately. The Rasor-Bill is sometimes observ'd upon the Sea-Coasts, so call'd from the similitude which its Beak bears to a Rasor, but this Bird is more common in the Isle of Man than here.

The last Winter at a Place call'd Durton near Preston in Lancashire, I had a diverting Relation of a small Bird, in shape resembling, and about the bigness of a Water-wagtail, which was as follows: A Troop of Dragoons having been Quarter'd in that Town, some of the Soldiers were con­stantly commanded to attend the Horses, it was in the Summer-time, and they generally lay, and repos'd them­selves upon the Grass: The Bird wou'd frequently fly to­wards them, and make its approaches to their Bodies, and at length reach'd their Faces, and offer'd to their Mouths, what it had convey'd out of the Grass, and then would return and come and offer its Food as before; but what is most re­markable is, that the Bird wou'd not approach any Person but those in a Soldier's Habit, which was Red: This was confirm'd to me by several of the Soldiers, whom the Bird had attack'd in this manner; and likewise by a great Num­ber of Persons of undoubted Credit, who were Eye-wit­nesses of the Fact, so that the truth is not to be question'd: [Page 163] From this Passage many Conjectures arose, but that not be­ing a Matter relating to Natural History, I shall not trouble the Reader with them; whoever pleases may make their Presages from this, as the Romans did of old from the Peck­ing of Chickens: However, 'tis probable that the Redness of the Habit might be to this Bird, as a Cloth of that Colour is a Lure to an Hawk, and here all their surprizing In­terpretations may center.

Sea-Gulls are of Two sorts, the Great and the Less, the Great Gull is near as large as a Goose, the Lesser about the bulk of a Partridge, they both live upon small Fish, which they frequently take up in the Shallows, and it is a very diverting sight to see them mount, and hover in the Air, spying out their Prey, which discover'd they strike instant­ly into the Water, take it up in their Pounces, convey it to Shore, and there feed upon it; these Birds frequently pursue one another in their flights, and if in pursuit one Gull happens to Mute, the Excrement is frequently caught by the other, and swallow'd; it is my opinion, That oftentimes the Apous a Fish not wholly digested, may be ejected, which is the allurement of the Pursuer so eagerly to devour their Foeces: There are vast Quantities of these in the Isle of Walney, particularly in the Breeding-time the whole Island is near cover'd with Eggs, or Young-ones, so that it is scarce passa­ble without injuring them; their Tast is very strong, and ungrateful, and therefore not much regarded.

The Sea-Pyes are very common, they are Birds of the Colour, and about the size of a Magpye, and are a very agreeable Food. The Red-shanks and Perrs are common likewise upon the Sea-Coasts, and are relishing Food. Wild-Ducks, Geese and Teal are very plentiful; but the most re­markable thing of the Wild-Ducks is their way of feeding them at Bold in Lancashire: Great quantities of these Birds breed in the Summer-season in Pits and Ponds within the Demesne, which probably may entice them to make their Visits in the Winter; they oftentimes adventure to come [Page 164] into the Moat near the Hall, which a Person accustomed to feed them perceiving, he beats with a Stone on a hollow Wood Vessel, the Ducks answer to the sound, and come quite round him upon an Hill adjoyning to the Water, he scatters Corn amongst them, which they take with as much Quietness and Familiarity, as Tame ones; when fed they take their flight to the Rivers, Meers and Salt-Marshes. Swans are common in these Parts, but more particularly upon the Sea-Coasts, and upon Martin-Meer near Poulton in Lancashire: The Cygnet is very good Food, but the old Ones not tolerable.

Sometimes there are Birds not common in these Parts brought hither by Storms (as was hinted before) particu­larly about Two Years ago, by a violent Hail Storm; a­mongst the rest there was a Bird all White (except only a short Red Beak) about the bigness of a Pigeon; and by what I observ'd of it, I cou'd apprehend it to be no other, than what our Travellers call the Tropick-Bird, met with usually in crossing that Line. The Kings-Fisher and Hey­hough are likewise common enough, as are the Fieldfeir and Woodcock, which visit us in Winter-time, and then re­turn Northwards; they are said to breed in colder Climes, as in the High-lands in Scotland, Norway, Russia and Swe­den, and such like Parts: It is probable therefore, when those Countries are bury'd in Snow, and the Brooks and Rivers frozen up, that they take their flights hither. The Cuckow and Swallow leave us in Winter: the Opinions of some are, that they sleep during that Season, and they ground their Conjectures upon finding many of them in hollow Trees, and subterraneous Vaults; but why these may not as well pursue the Heat, as the other, is the Query: I have not dissected any of them taken from their profound Dormitories, so I pretend not to decide that Controversy.

ERRATA in the First BOOK.

IN the 2d Epistle Dedicatory, l. 2. for Respest r. Respect. In the Preface, l. 3. for Coals r. Boles. Pag. 2. l. 9. for Cerialis r. Cerealis. p. 3. l. 17. for Britany r. Britain, and so where-ever you meet with it. p. 5. last l. after Brigantines r. of Rovers, &c. p. 8. l. 26. for wise r. ways, ibid. l. 30, before shall r. it. p. 10. l. 8. after Mountains a Comma instead of a Colon. p. 13. l. 11. for after r. by. ibid. l. 33. for Yorkshire r. York. p. 18. l. 9. for nor r. not. p. 19. l. 5. for nor r. neither. ibid. l. 6. for neither r. nor. p. 20. l. 6. dele for, and r. the building of. p. 23. l. 35. for easy r. easie. p. 24. l. 17. after Lightness r. or Coldness, &c. p. 32. l. 32. after considering r. of which. p. 33. l. 35. for Comsumptions r. Consumptions. p. 36. l. 6. after vulgarly insert called. ibid. l. 20. dele that. ibid. l. 21. dele they. p. 40. l. 6. after tedious insert that. p. 41. l. 23. for wise r. ways. p. 43. l. 5. for wise r. ways. p. 44. l. 1. dele that. p. 45. l. 3. for Furnace r. furness. p. 50. l. ult. for stiriae r. striae. p. 51. l. 16. after thence insert it. ibid. p. and l. after follow insert to be. p. 52. l. 2. for weather r. water. ibid. l. 5. for stiriae r. striae. ibid. l. 11. for stiriated r. striated. p. 54. l. 9. for make r. made. expire r. expired. ibid. l. 14. for Penetrancy r. Penetration. p. 56. l. 4. after afford insert it. p. 57. l. ult. for unquenchable r. unquenched, r. the same p. 58. l. 4. p. 61. l. 1. for falen r. fallen. p. 61. l. 10. after should be a insert convenient. p. 64. l. 31. for Empyeuma r. Empyreuma. p. 65. l. 3. for the r. they. p. 67. l. 21. for Transubstantiation r. Transmigration. p. 67. l. 33. for Magdalons r. Magdaleons. p. 76. l. 25. for Bret r. Boet. p. 78. l. 12. for Quincy r. squinsy. ibid. l. 13. r. squinsy. p. 81. l. 20. for Cinerous r. Cinereous. Item p. 82. l. 12. for Cinerous r. Cinereous. p. 83. l. 4. after reducing insert it. p. 97. l. 17. for Anticsteric r. Antibysteric. p. 98. l. 7. for Plackenet r. Pluckenet. ibid. l. 10. in beg. add l. ibid. l. 22. dele the first of. p. 102. l. 4. for only r. chiefly. p. 110. l. 6. for Nitrons r. Nitres. p. 111. l. 17. for Wafer r. Wepfer. p. 112. l. 29. for Impost r. Compost. p. 115. l. 13. for Animals r. Creatures. p. 120. l. 15. for Echinites r. Echini, and so elsewhere. p. 135. l. 10. for opaque r. opac. p. 136. l. 22. for Cra-fish r. Craw-fish. p. 140. l. 9. for Salmon r. Salmons. ibid. l. 16. for actly r. exactly. ibid. l. 20. dele and. p. 149. l. 12. for them r. her. p. 150. l. 15. dele either. p. 151. l. 31. for Pippin r. Peppin. p. 155. l. 32. for Heminens r. Hemineus, Item p. 156. l. 11. r. Hemineus. p. 156. l. 12. for that r. tho. ibid. l. 27. dele that. p. 157. l. 9. for Hemi­nens r. Hemineus. p. 189. l. 13. for Liquid r. Fluid.


An Explication of Mr. Burgher's first Plate.

(a) The first Figure in the upper part of the Plate is a Man sounding a Flute upon the Stairs leading to the Hall.

(b) The first Gate-house.

(c) A Man standing about 30 Yards from the first Gate-house, where observe that the Sound is not then discernible at the first Letter (a), from whence the Man sounds the In­strument, but at the Letter (e), which is another Gate-house standing as describ'd in the Cut.

(d) Is a Man moving about 10 Yards nearer to the Gate-house (e), and then the Sound is not discernible from the Gate-house (e), as it was before, but from the first Letter (a) upon the Hall-stairs, where the Man is sounding the Instrument.

These Phaenomena clearly demonstrate to us, that the Motion of Sound is undulating or waving, and not in direct Lines; so that the Sound being repercussed from (b) the first Gate-house, the Undulation from thence passes by the Man standing at (c), but is repercussed again from the Gate-house (e), from whence the Undulation of the Air being much greater, it there terminates at (c), and that is the Centrum Phonocampticum, or Center of Sound in that place: But the Man standing at (c) moving to the Man standing at (d), then the Sound vanishes from the Gate-house (e), but is very discernible from (a), where the Man is sounding the Instrument; and the reason is very obvi­ous, because the Undulation of the Air passes by him stand­ing at (d), but is repercussed again from the Hall, from whence then it terminates at (d), which is the Centrum Phonocampticum, or Center of Sound in that place.

The lower part of the Plate shews the Flashes of Light­ning, the largeness of the Hail-stones that fell in that Storm and Hares and Birds that were kill'd by them.

Note here, That the Explication of this Plate refers to the first Plate Engraven by Mr. Burghers of Oxford, figured TAB. 1. and the Explication of Mr. Townley's Mi­crometre, as likewise Mr. Brotherton's Experiments describ'd in the Book, relate to Mr. Burgher's second Plate, figured TAB. 2. where his various Experiments concerning the Circulation of the Sap in Trees, are fully describ'd, being taken from the original, as likewise the Observations made by the Micrometre; I thought it necessary not to insert these Cuts with the rest, because they were those Gentlemens, and not mine.


An Explication of the Cuts, contain'd in the second Plate:

THAT I might do justice to the Author of the Expe­riments, lest I should in any wise mistake his Notion, or as I have express'd them, that they should not be thoroughly understood, I have for the Readers further satisfacti­on, annexed to those the Cuts of the various Barometres, and shall explain the different Phaenomena, which I observed in them: But the Reader must here be pleas'd to take notice, that the Gentle­man's Name is not as is before asserted, Prideaux, but Iohn Patrick, who lives in Ship-Court in the Old-Baily, in London, near Ludgate; where any Person at any time may see the various Experiments.

Fig. I. A Glass-Tube, weighing exactly a Pound, fix'd to the end of a Ballance, as described in the Figure.

Fig. II. A pound Weight ballancing the opposite end of the Beam, so that the two opposite ends of the Beam hang now in aequilibrio, that is they are equally Ballanced. To illustrate the Phaenomena observable in this Experiment, proceed in the follow­ing Method.

Fill the Glass-Tube with Mercury, afterwards immerse it in the Cistern, at the bottom of the Tube, as described in the first Figure containing Mercury, the Mercury then forms the Vacuity in the top of the Tube, and shews the Scale of the Weather for that time. Now it is that the Tube, and the Mercury contain'd in the Tube and Cistern, complete four Pounds. Hence it should follow, that four Pounds suspended at the opposite end of the Beam, ought to be an equal Ballance to the Tube Cistern, and Mercury suspended at the other end of the Beam, but quite dif­ferent Phaenomena's are observable; for by only hanging two Pounds and five Ounces at the opposite end of the Beam, the Mercury contain'd in the Tube and Cistern, all of which weigh­ing four Pounds, are immediately boy'd up. Hence it is plain the Mercury contain'd in the Tube, does not gravitate upon the Mercury contain'd in the Cistern, for if it did, the two Pounds [Page] suspended at the opposite and of the Beam, could not have boy'd them up, two Pounds being only half Ballance to four, it must therefore necessarily follow, that the Mercury in the Tube hangs pendulous from the Crown of the Glass, and becomes of no weight below, whence 'tis plain, the Quicksilver does not as­cend in the Tube by a pressure from the Quicksilver contain'd in the Cistern, for had it done so, it would then have follow'd, that as the external Air press'd upon the surface of the quicksil­ver in the Cistern, and by that forced upward the Mercury in the Tube, that as the Mercury ascended in the Tube, the Bal­lance should have fallen lower, but a quite contrary Observation occurs, for as the Mercury ascends in the Tube, at the same time the Ballance rises also.

Fig. II. In a Glass-Tube four Foot long, containing half a Pound of Quicksilver, without a Cistern, and the Mouth of the Tube wide open, the Column of Quicksilver, contain'd in the Tube, is about thirty inches, the Quicksiver in this Tube rises and falls 9 inches, and seven tenths prependicular, for fair and foul Weather, and presages the change of Weather very nicely; there are several other Tubes of a smaller size, which perform the same. This Tube hanging at the bottom of a Ballance, at whose opposite end was suspended a Weight which was an Equi­libirum to the other, had the external Air forced up the Mercury in the Tube, it must thence have follow'd; that as the Mercu­cury ascended, the Tube would have risen at the same time, but the contrary of this is very evident, for though the Mercury contain'd in the Tube, arise to the inches before mention'd, yet notwithstanding that the Tube never moves at all, which Ob­servation plainly Demonstrates, that the Mercury hangs pendu­lous in the Tube, and only rises and falls according to the dif­ferent Springs or Elasticities of the Air, contain'd in the top of the Tube.

Fig. III. A Tube in the form of a Siphon, turned up 8 or 9 inches at the bottom, when filled with Mercury its ascent or descent is but one inch and a half.

Fig. IV. Another Tube of the same form at the bottom, but at the top in the form of a Bicornu, or forked, which Branches [Page] are about four inches long, the Mercury in this ascends three inches, which doubles the Scale to the former, which shews the ascent of the Mercury, is from the various Elasticities of the Air at the top of the Tube, and not from the pressure of the Ambient Air contain'd in the Cistern, add to these one Head more, the Mercury will then ascend one inch and a half higher, add two Heads it will rise three, and so on proportionably, which Phae­nomena, in my apprehension, amount to an absolute Demonstration of the truth of this Hypothesis.

Fig. V. A plain Barometre, in this the Mercury only rises three inches.

Fig. VI. A Bicornu, or forked Tube. In this the ascent of the Mercury is the same as in the other, which could not have been, had the Gravitation of the Ambient Air caus'd the ascent of the Quicksilver, since according to that Hypothesis, the Quicksilver in this should only have risen half an inch, since the Cistern of each only contain'd one Pound of Mercury.

Fig. VII. A plain Tube open at the bottom, with a Co­lumn of Mercury about thirty inches, in this the motion of the Quicksilver is very discernible at the top, before it is moved at the bottom, which plainly shews the ascent or descent of the Mercury, is from the Dilatation or Contraction of the Spring of the Air contain'd in the top of the Tube.

Fig. VIII. By moving this Tube a little upwards, if the Air incline to a fair Temperature, the Mercury immediately ascends in that small Tube, but if to foul, as quickly subsides, but if upon that motion it neither moves upwards nor downwards, it shews the Air at that time to be of a setled temper. Let the Column of the Mercury be what it will, as for example twenty eight inches, when it rises to the top of the Scale, it will then compleat thirty one, which Observation fully Demonstrates, that the Mercury contracts and dilates three inches.

Fig. IX. Shews the Mercury moving thirty inches upon the Declivity, this sort of Barometre shews the variation of the Wea­ther much more exact than any other. There is a Thermomete on the opposite side of it, and in the middle may conveniently be fixed a Looking-Glass. To these Experiments may be added [Page] the following Observations, which may not only be diverting to the curious, but likewise may tend to the good of the Publick and perservation of the Mariners. It is Observable, that under the line, the Mercury scarce either rises or falls, except about two or three tenths, and will not stir while they continue there, the reason is, either that the extraordinary heat there, so rarifies the Air in the Tube, or that the Etherial Particles there, are so clog'd with the Rains of the Mosoons, that the Spring of the Air is very much weakened, and consequently therefore cannot elevate or depress the Mercury as in other Chines. But when you come into the Latitude of fifteen degrees, either North or South, the Mercury then will rise and fall an inch, when in thirty degrees it rises two inches, when in forty five it rises then full three inches, when in sixty degrees Latitude, it then shortens and returns to two inches, in seventy five it shortens to an inch, in eighty one it neither rises nor falls a quarter of an inch. By an accurate Ob­servation of these, when rough tempests, and interposing Clouds prevent the taking of an Observation exactly, the Mariner may easily see in what Latitude he is in, and by that means may perhaps by observing his Compass at the same time, to let him see whether he is North or South; may not only frequently make his Voyages in a much shorter time, but likewise preserve his Cargo. Which if throughly pursued, will not only be of ex­traordinay use but Diversion also. Those Barometres were in­vented by the said Mr. Patrick, who is willing both to shew them to the curious, and supply any Person with them; and me­thinks when both interest and pleasure Prompt to a through Pro­secution of the Experiments, it cannot be reasonably thought that a suitable encouragement should be wanting. It is further re­markable, that in those hot Climes, though the motion of the Mercury is so little, that in the variation of the Weather it cannot but with great difficulties be observed; yet by his Ba­rometre, shewing the motion of the Mercury upon the Declivity, by having an account of the Latitude of the place, he adapts his Barometres to it, by which the different motions of the Mercury are as discernible as in different Latitudes.

This to be inserted after the Cuts of the Barometres.

An Explication of the Cuts contain'd in the Plate marked FIG. 1.

Fig. 1. Is one side of a terrene course Fluor or Spar, found in the Mines in Derbyshire, in which are very discernible those Bodies which we commonly call the petrify'd Bones of Fishes of various sorts, some like the Vertebrae of a Flounder, and the horizontal Bones branching with 'em; it contains also very lively representations of Feathers, Skrews, Stars, pieces of Shells, and the Exuviae of Reptiles.

Fig. 2. Is the Reverse of the same Fluor, in which are very discernible those Bodies which we commonly call petrify'd Cockles, Oysters, Pectunculi, Patellae, the Nautilus (which is observable near the lower Verge of the Figure) resembling in a great measure a Crescent; various Bodies like the Verte­brae, or Entrochi, Snails, representations of Stars, and va­rious striated Figures; pieces of the Capsulae of Insects, like those of Butterflies; there are also some Figures resem­bling the half part of a Worm, besides various Bones of se­veral small Fishes, and all petrify'd, or perfect Stone. Sure­ly in these the Disports of Nature are very remarkable, and to me it seems very evident, that they are but the various Contextures of Salts, Sulphurs and Earths, and not the Exuviae of Creatures deposited there by specific Gra­vity at the Deluge, when the Earth was universally dissol­ved, as an eminent Author affirms; since this stratum of Earth contains all those different Bodies, viz. Salts, Sul­phurs and Earths, the various mixtures of which shew us diverting Representations, as will be observ'd in other Ta­bles; so that he who contends for these to have been the Exuviae of those Creatures which they represent, must like­wise account for the Figures of Feathers and Stars obser­vable in the same stratum, which I do conjecture is not easily done, taking the whole Matter together.

In Fig. 3. Are two pieces of Marle petrify'd by the Sea-Water near Rossal in Lancashire, which shelves from those [Page]


[Page] [Page] Hills call'd Hagbur-Hills, where the Sea-Water frequently overflows, and in 7 Years time converts the Marle into a Grit or Free-stone, which is used by the People in Building, and is (I am very well assured) the best sort of Stone that can be made use of. Of this I saw an Instance in a convenient Pile of Building (commonly call'd Fox-Hall) belonging to Thomas Tildesley of the Lodge, Esq. The small Figure be­twixt the two pieces of Marle, is a Shell which the Natu­ralists stile a Buccinum, the two Cavities delineated in the Marle, are the Capsulae in which the Shell was included, but not petrify'd. Surely therefore were those different re­presentations of Shells in Rocks, the Exuviae of Shell-fishes, this Shell ought also to have undergone the same Transmutation, since the Marle in which it was found, was converted into a perfect Stone; but since it hath not, till more conclusive Arguments are offered for that Hypothe­sis, I cannot but adhere to what I formerly asserted, viz. That the representations of Shells in Rocks are but dif­ferent Concretions of Sparrs, Salts, Bitumens, and terrene Particles. The most remarkable Instance which I have seen of those kinds of Petrifactions, was indeed at Gresham-College, which was a stony Figure, and as I remember, of a gritty substance, representing that Shell-fish call'd by the Natura­lists the Nautilus, or the Sailor, because it is said of this Fish, that like the Carvel, (which is constantly observed in the Voyages to Virginia) it will put its Body into that Posture, that it will sail with the Wind, and thence doubt­less had the Denomination of Nautilus, or the Sailing Fish. 'Tis affirm'd likewise of the same Fish, that there runs a Grit quite through the Body of it, by which it can dive or sink it self at pleasure, and so preserve it self, when pur­sued. Were this a Petrifaction of the real Fish, it is doubt­less one of the greatest Rarities in the World, that being an Indian Fish. It does indeed bear a great resemblance to the Nautilus, yet falls infinitely short of the natural one, neither the representations of the Crania, and the [Page] Vertebrae branching from them, nor the Lines upon the different parts of the Body being comparable to those upon the natural Nautilus. Hence it is evident that in most kinds of Shells (I think I might say all) Nature fre­quently shews her Disports, but at the same time falls in­finitely short of those Creatures that are represented.

Fig. 4. This is a Stone taken out of the Bowels of a Man in Lancashire, and covered with Spunge.

Fig. 5. Is a species of Coral, the Superficies is tubulous and stellated; this seems likewise partly to consist of a Fluor, and if (as in this it is evident) Nature manifestly shews her Disports, viz. in the representations of Asterisms in Miniature, why may she not as well do it in the repre­sentations of Shells in Rocks.

Fig. 6. Is the Ophites, or Cornu Ammonis, that is, the Serpent-stone, or Rams-horn, found in the Mines in Der­byshire. This Stone bears the Figure of the Serpent, some of which I have seen so extremely exact, viz. those that come from the Isle of Malta, that in those not only the ex­ternal Figure of the Viper, but the very Vertebrae, Head, Teeth and Eyes were most exactly describ'd, and far sur­passed the Petrifactions of any Shell whatever. By the same parity of Reason therefore they may urge these Stones to be petrify'd Vipers, as they do those Shells to be petrify'd Fishes, which I presume none will attempt, lest perhaps after an elaborate Hypothesis, he may at last find the Snake in the Grass.


An Explication of the Cuts contain'd in the second Plate, marked FIG. 2.

[Page] Fig. 1. By some stiled a species of the Bufonites or Brain­stone, viz. from the representations which it bears to a Toad, or as some would have it, to the Cortical part of the Brain. He who here observes the curious Composure of the Lines upon the surface of the Stone, and the infinite Number of small Striae included in them, must acknowledge that the Disports of Nature are not to be parallel'd; for what can I else call 'em? surely no Man's Reason is so totally e­clips'd, nor can his Forehead be so extremely hard, as to assert this to be a petrify'd Brain, if he does, I am sure I envy not the Product of his own.

Fig. 2. The Cylindrical Pyrites striated, found in the Kennel-Mines at Haigh in Lancashire. Upon the superfi­cies of this the striated Lines are drawn exactly like those upon Cookle-shells; to me therefore (from what is before observed) it seems very obvious, how the representations of those Shell-fishes may frequently be found in Quarries.

Fig. 3. A petrify'd Oyster, found in Derbyshire.

Fig. 4. A Cookle petrify'd, found in Lancashire; this is likewise stiled the Pectunculus Auritus.

Fig. 5. One of the Echini petrify'd, with the represen­tations of Trees upon it, as may be observed by the Cut: Here again the Disports of Nature are very remarkable, for surely none will affirm that ever Timber grew upon this small Pebble.

Fig. 6. A Cockle of an irregular Figure, or Pectunculus, found in Lancashire.

Fig. 7. A Snail-shell petrify'd, found in the Copper-Mines in Lancashire.

Fig. 8. Moss petrify'd by a Water near Manchester, to­wards a place call'd the Collyarsts.

Fig. 9. A Hair-Ball taken out of the Stomach of a Calf.

Fig. 10. A petrify'd Pectunculus with spiral Lines, found in Lancashire.

Fig. 11. A Glossopetra or Crow-bill, by some called the Sharks-tooth, found in the Lead-Mines.

Fig. 12. A Glossopetra found in the like Mines both in Wales and Derbyshire. Here again are extremely remark­able [Page] the Disports of Nature, for what else can they be termed? Can I call 'em the Exuviae of those Creatures be­fore mentioned? surely he that has seen that large one in the Possession of Mr. Charleton of the Temple, and the great variety of others, that are frequently found in this King­dom, some representing the Bills of Crows, others those of small Birds, and will affirm them to be the Exuviae of those Creatures, has a Fancy extraordinary luxuriant, and I doubt not but he will attempt to fly, and convince the World, that Man is not that Creature Plato took him for, viz. an unfeather'd Animal.

Fig. 13. A piece of a Pectunculus petrify'd, specifically higher than the common Shell of that kind, by which 'tis plain that Shells at the Deluge subsided not by specific Gravity.

Fig. 14. One of the same Kind.

Fig. 15. The Figure of a Cockle or Pectunculus, of a Flinty Substance.

Fig. 16. Another sort of the Echini petrify'd.

Fig. 17. A Pyrites in the form of a Pectunculus. From all which 'tis plain how various the Disports of Nature are.

Fig. 18. A Stone taken out of the Kidneys of a Gentle­man.

Fig. 19. A Stone taken out of his Bladder.

Fig. 20. A Shell taken out of the Bladder of a Hog, re­presenting one of the Curvirostra. Hence it is plain that Shells may be found where Fishes of that Kind never were; and since the Formations of 'em, and the different Repre­sentations of 'em in Rocks, may with no difficulty be o­therwise solved, can I see any necessity from those Phae­nomena, to infer an universal Dissolution of the Globe at the Deluge? So many unaccountable Absurdities attend­ing that Hypothesis.

Fig. 21. A Stone taken out of the Gall-Bladder of the before-mention'd Gentleman, viz. Major Ashurst of Ashurst in the County of Lancashire, Esq.


An Explication of Cuts contain'd in the third Plate, marked FIG. 3.

The Spots in the three first Shells-shew the Germination of Pearls in Muscles, that is, their Eruption from the La­mellae of the Shell; these I have observ'd from their very first appearance, to their dropping from the Shell upon the surface of the Fish.

Fig. 4. Is a Turbo: In this Shell I never saw any Fish, but I presume it quits its Shell when by Storms it is forced from the Bottom of the Sea, where I do conjecture is its natural Abode; these Shells therefore being found in Inland Countries in firm Marle, do now fully confirm the Dis­ruption of all the Strata of the Earth at the Deluge.

Fig. 5. Is a Curvirostrum, found upon the Sea-Coasts in Cheshire, tho' most commonly in India.

Fig. 6. Is a Pectunculu [...] with Azurine, circular Lines Interpolated.

Fig. 7. Is a Pap-Shell, or Patella.

Fig. 8. Is a Spar consisting of various Rhomboids, found in Derbyshire in the Lead-Mines.

Fig. 9. Is a Buccinum, found upon the Sea-Coasts near Hillbree-Island in Cheshire.

Fig. 10. Is a Trochus, found near the same Place.

Fig 11. Is a different sort of Buccinum from the former, found likewise near Hillbree-Island in Cheshire.

Fig. 12. Is a third sort of Buccinum, found near the same Place.

Fig. 13. Is a Concha Veneris, found likewise upon that Coast, but most commonly in India.

Fig. 14. Is the white feather'd Lead-Ore, found in the Lead-Mines in Lancashire and Cumberland; the Lines you see are Tubulcous, and striated like those upon a Cockle, [Page] from which it is observable that Metals, as well as Mine­rals, have their various Disports.

Fig. 15. Is a sort of Iron-Ore, with several globular Protuberances upon its Superficies, and for that Reason vulgarly called the Button-Ore.

Fig. 16. Is a Fluor or Spar, of quadrangular, and several rhomboidal Figures.

Fig. 17. Is a Fluor found in the Lead-Mines, consisting of irregular and triangular Figures.

Fig. 18. Is a different Kind of Fluor, found also in those Mines, constituting six triangular Figures in one equila­teral Quadrangle, and another broke off, from the various Contextures of which it is easy to imagine how those diffe­rent Representations of Bones and Shells found in Rocks may be accounted for.

Fig. 19. Is the Buphthalmus or Ox-Eye, described in the Book.

Fig. 20. Is one part of a Bile-Stone taken out of the Bladder of an Ox.

Fig. 21. Is the other part of the same Stone, both of them resembling the Bark of a Tree, in which the Dis­ports of Nature are still further remarkable, which I have now traced through Minerals, Metals, Quadrupedes, and Shells themselves, I shall in another Chapter proceed to more Observations in Minerals, and some in fossile Plants, and human Kind.


An Explication of the Cutts contain'd in the Fourth Plate, mark'd Fig. 4.

FIG. 1. A Cut of an Indian Canoo found upon the drein­ing of Martin-Meer in Lancashire; it is very probable the Britains were taught the Use of these Boats by the Asiatics who inhabited amongst them, (the Colonies of which People we have before proved in these Parts) it being found in the Slutch under the Water, adjacent to a River now styled Rib­bel, formerly Bellisama, both which are Phoenician and Arme­nian Words, and likewise a Rivulet branching from it styled Savig. It is very likely those People in those Days might make use of these Boats in Fishing and passing Rivers.

Fig. 2. and 3. These were found in a Moss not very remote from the Canoo; the former is a Stone like that of a Whet­stone, the other a Copper Instrument not much unlike the Head of an Ax; the like to these Dr. Plot observed in Staf­fordshire, but not of so large a Size; he looks upon them to be Roman Axes, and that they might be lost in those Days by the Soldiers in their Passes; the one he styles the Securis Lapidea, and the other the Securis Cuprea: But since they are both of so small a Size, that it is not possible that a Beast should be slaughtered by them, as may be observ'd in those collected by him, now in the Musaeum in Oxford; and further, since that which he styles the Securis Cuprea has not the Shape of the Roman Securis, which I have frequently observ'd upon their Sacrificing-Altars, I cannot but conclude that he was certainly mistaken, and do rather look upon 'em [Page 182] to be Indian Instruments, since the Indians at this Day make use of such a kind of an Ax or Securis in forming their Canooes and barking their Trees, which at this Day they call a Tomahowke. These therefore being found under Ground near the same River where the Canoo's were, to me it seems more probable that they were Instruments made use of by the Asiatic Indians then residing in those Parts: And for the Stone, to wit, Fig 2. I only take it to be the Cos or Whetstone for the Securis. These considered together, I look upon 'em to be the greatest Relicts of Antiquity in the Universe, and clearly con­firm to us what has been alledged before in Relation to the Asia­tic Colonies in these Counties.

Fig. 4. The Sepia or Ink-Fish; he lies upon his Back, which shews his Spots which are not very unlike those of a Trout, the white Specks shews the Bladder, which contains the Ink, and the white Lines the Ductus's branching from it, through which, by contracting the Bladder, he ejects his Ink, and darkens the Water when he would hide or preserve himself; and it is wonderful to observe the vast Quantities of Ink that one of these small Fishes will discharge, I having writ several Letters with the Ink which I prest from the single Bladder of only one of them.

Fig. 5. Shews him dissected lying upon his Back.

Fig. 6. Shews him lying upon his Back not dissected.

Fig. 7. and 8. The Urtica Marina or Piscis Vaginalis, describ'd before in the Book.

[Page 183] Fig. 9. The Head of a young Hippopotamus or Sea-horse, as he just shews his Head above Water, as a Sea-man described him to me who saw him, but it is not very like that Head found under Moss in Lancashire, as will appear by the Cutt of it in the Sixth Plate.

An Explication of the Cutts contained in the Fifth Plate, mark'd Fig. 5.

THE Figure is the Head of a Stag of Canada found Eight Yards within Marle in Lancashire, with the Ver­tebrae of the Neck adhering to the Head, one as large again as this was found Four Yards under the Moss in the Meales in the same County. These Creatures being Foreign to this Island, I think, sufficiently demonstrate the Universa­lity of the Deluge, but this being before fully discuss'd in the Book, to that I refer you. The Explication of the Head is in­cluded in the Plate, wherefore it needs not to be inser­ted here.


An Explication of the Cutts contain'd in the Sixth Plate, mark'd Tab. VI. of Fishes.

FIG. 1. is a sort of Patella that lies betwixt the Vertebrae of the Back of a Whale; this I found to be so by the Ske­leton of one which I lately saw in Smithfield in London. This Bone was found near Hillbree-Island in Cheshire. The Use of it I take to be twofold; the First, to facilitate the Motion of that immense Creature; the Second, to prevent its Vertebrae from grinding one upon another, which, did not this interpose, pro­bably they might do; so admirable is the Conduct of Provi­dence in the largest Creature in the Universe, as well as in the minutest Insect.

Fig. 2. A Sturgeon taken in the Mersey near Warington in Lan­cashire, in a Salmon-Fishing belonging to Mr. Thomas Patten of that Town.

Fig. 3. A Seale or Sea-Calf, called by the Dutch, Sea-hound, taken in the River Ribbel in Lancashire, near that pleasant Seat call'd the Bank, the Seat of that Honour'd Gentleman Thomas Fleetwood, Esq

Fig. 4. is an exact Cutt of that Hippopotamus or Sea-horse-head dug up under Moss in Lancashire, which I frequently saw: This is a Creature peculiar to the South-Seas, and never was by any Mariner whatever observ'd in these Seas which encompass our Island: Unless therefore, a Man purely for the Sake of Contradiction will oppose the Universality of the Deluge, I am apt to think, he will scarce be able to account for all these surprizing and different Phaenomena's by any other Method; so that whoever considers the Account given of the Deluge by [Page 186] Moses, will find him one of the greatest Philosophers, as well as most faithful Historians that ever writ since the Creation, his Style being throughout nervous, and his Thoughts sublime, insomuch, that as 'tis said, Longinus, that great Master of Sub­limity, could not but admire his Eloquence.

Fig. 5. is the Rana Piscatrix, or Sea-Toad found frequently in the River Wire in Lancashire: It has an extream wide Mouth, and is said to be a very voracious Creature, it is not eaten as Food by the People, but I have seen them eagerly devour'd by the Sea-Gulls, and some of them almost peck'd to a perfect Skeleton; the Rows of its Teeth are not much unlike those of a Shark; wherefore I conclude its usual Food is upon small Fishes: It yields a great Quantity of Oyl but extreamly faetid.


An Explication of the Cutts contain'd in the Sixth Plate, mark'd Tab. VI. relating to Pooles-Hole in Derbyshire.

THESE perhaps, are the most amazing Vaults in the Uni­verse that are Natural and not Artificial. These describ'd in this Plate are Pooles-Hole and Elden-Hole, the most terrible Chasm that I ever yet beheld: How therefore these Cavities came to be formed in these Mountains is the next Thing to be enquired into. It is very probable that these Cavities have con­tinued in those unpolish'd Mountains ever since that terrible Deluge, so fully before discoursed of, and in my Sentiments abso­lutely demonstrates the Veracity of it; for so far as I am able to conceive, it is not in the Power of Humane Understanding to give any rational Account of those prodigious Cavities, but either by Earthquakes or that general Inundation; but since there is no Historian that gives an Account of any such Earthquake in this Island, and that by the Experience of those which have happen'd in all preceding Ages in these tem­perate Climates, we may reasonably suppose there never were any such. I adhere therefore to the latter Hypothesis, and do sup­pose that at that Universal Destruction, the Strata of the whole Globe were broke asunder, most of them lying in a shelving or dipping Posture, as in all the Quarries we find at this Day they do; it is probable therefore that they tossing to and fro in the Flood upon the receding of the Waters, most of these Strata lying shelving, sometimes Two opposite Summits convened and in that terrible Confusion wedg'd themselves together, and by that means might easily form those prodigious Arches and Cavities which in our Days we observe in these Mountains. [Page 188] These Phaenomena's, if I mistake not, absolutely evince the Uni­versality of a Deluge, but on the other Hand as clearly con­vince us, that the World was not then converted into a Fluid; for had the Globe then been an Universal Fluid, and all Things subsided by Specific Gravity, as Dr. Woodward affirms, there being no empty Space in the Fluid, as all Philosopers averr there was, was it possible that ever such Cavities could have been formed? I am certain, if it was so, whoever considers the Immensness of these void Spaces, must needs acknowledge that the Fluid then retain'd the most prodigious Pores that e­ver it did since the Creation. This Cavity entertains us with several very diverting Objects, which shall be accounted for in their Order: And, indeed, considering the great Diversity of Figures that may be observed in the different kinds of Sparrs in these Places, and the great Affinity the Substance of the Ala­blaster Sparr has to that of petrify'd Shells by the different Con­vening of these, does it at all seem difficult to me to imagine how in those Mountains those Mineral Shells are frequently found? But I must own they are sometimes so extreamly like those Shell-Fishes which they represent, that to a vigorous Fancy they afford Subject sufficient to write ingenious No­vels.

A. The Cutt of the Woman who had Horns, whose Picture I saw at Whalley-Abby in Lancashire.

B. The Child that was born of a Lancashire Gentlewoman with the Representation of a Flame upon its Body, the Mo­ther being affrighted with that terrible Flame when the City of London was burned.

[Page 189] C. The Representation of Plants in Rocks in a black Bitu­minous Substance imprinted in that from the Rock it self, like that of an Impression in Wax from a Signet; the Rock seems to be a coarse sort of Marble or Lime-stone, but extreamly hard: Instances of this kind I have seen at Heseham near Lancaster, likewise at Latham near Ormskirk, and in the Coal-Mines near Townley in the same County; so that in Vegetables, as well as Shells, the Disports of Nature are very obvious. From these Instances it is very demonstrable that the Globe at the Deluge was not dissolv'd, for had it been then a Fluid, that Bitumi­nous Matter in which the Plants are delineated could not have taken an Impression from the Rock, since according to that Hypothesis, the Rock at that time must be a Liquid also; and consequently therefore could not give an Impression to the Bi­tumen. The Observation may be further illustrated by a very familiar Instance: Let us suppose an Impression made upon Wax by a Signet, take another Piece of Wax, and by the Heat of a Flame reduce it to a Fluid, apply this to the Wax that has the Impression upon it; 'tis true, indeed, the Heat of the melted Wax will likewise turn the other Fluid, but at the same time it erases the Impression; so that it is plain, that had the Rock been then a Fluid, it could not have given an Impression to the Bitumen, unless you will imagine the Rock both above and under the Bitumen, to indurate before that which is both Chimerical and Absurd.

D. Shews the Entrance into the Cave.

E. The Figure of the Lion formed by the Dropping of the Water from the Top of the Sides and Top of the Arch.

[Page 190] F. The Pillar commonly call'd, the Queen of Scots Pillar, con­sisting of an Alabaster Sparr, formed after the same Man­ner.

G. The Figure of a Humane Corps, formed likewise by the Dropping of the Water from the Top of the Arch and the Sides.

H. The Sparry Globe called the Font, in the Top of which there is a small Cavity constantly fill'd with Water; this con­sists of various Lamellae inveloped one within another, and is likewise formed by the Dropping of the Water.

I. Is another Globular Sparry Substance, commonly call'd by the Natives, One of Mr. Cotton's Haycocks, formed after the same Manner.

K. Is that Sparry Substance hanging at the Top of the Arch, commonly called, the Flitch of Bacon, formed also by the Wa­ter, which is that kind of Sparry Matter styled, the Stalactites, as are all the rest described in this Plate.

L. Are those Sparry Substances hanging at the Top of the Arch, commonly called, the Chairs, formed after the same Manner.

[Page 191] M. Is the Place call'd, the Needle's Eye, which is a small Hole that goes quite through the Rock, so that from thence a Person standing with a Light to the Person that stands at the Bottom near the Water; the Light seems to resemble a Star. The Current through the Cavity is in a great measure made by the Dropping of the Water, and likewise the Fret-Work that resembles a Choir.

An Explication of the Cutts contain'd in the Seventh Plate, mark'd Tab. VII. rela­ting to the Devils Arse, near Castleton, in Derbyshire, &c.

THE First Figure on the Right-hand is a Piece of the Nautilus, found in Lancashire; in this the Disports of Nature are wonderful, as may be observ'd by the various Fi­gures included in the Shell, and the curious Lines upon its Superficies.

The Second Figure is the Cheshire Woman who had Horns; an Account is given of her in the Plate, so that a further Re­lation needs not to be inserted here.

The lower Part of the Plate is that wonderful Arch, com­monly call'd, the Devil's Arse, near Castleton, in Derbyshire, the Area where the Persons and the Houses are, where a great many of the poor Inhabitants live, is within the Arch, and reaches to the first Water which runs cross it, as you may ob­serve by the shadowed Figure stretching in that Line.

The Second shadowed Figure is the Second River, and then the Rock opens again, as may be observ'd in the Fi­gure.

The Third shadowed Figure is the Third and Last Wa­ter, where the Rock and the Water closes, and then you can­not pass further.



[Page 191] The next Thing to be enquired into, is whence in this pro­digious Cavity these Subterraneous Rivers have their Origin: It is observable in several of the Mountains in Derbyshire, that at the Bottoms of the Mountains there are several Cavities, which the Inhabitants call Swallows, into these run several Ri­vulets of Water, but where the Water has its Exit is not known: It is therefore my Opinion, that in large Subter­raneous Cavities, as in that at Castleton, several of those Ri­vulets convening, it is from them these Subterraneous Rivers are formed, and am apt to think, that those Springs which issue out of the Mountains in such rapid Currents, as some near Castleton do, are from them also.

From all these the wonderful Disports of Nature, are not only discernable, as is fully demonstrated in Minerals, Metals and Plants, but in Animals also; Why therefore some Persons should spin out such elaborate Hypotheses to amuse Mankind, when these Phaenomena's may otherwise be familiarly enough solved, I cannot apprehend? But those Heads having been fully enough discuss'd before, I shall not therefore recapitulate, but shall desire each Person to make his Observations accurately, and weigh the Whole together; and could heartily wish some Per­sons of no mean Character, would not violently espouse Hypo­theses which are not warrantable, and not fly into violent Pas­sions when they are not opposed in any thing, but what is not consonant to Experiments and Natural Observations. How these Gentlemen may resent these I am in no wise uneasie, and what­ever their Opinions may be of themselves is not my Business to enquire into, but when from Persons of Learning, in An­swer to the Experiments I fully try'd, I receiv'd no Answer but Opprobrious Calumnies and Supercilious Arrogance; let [Page 194] those Gentlemen be assured that I am ready to justifie what I have recited, and when ever they think convenient to make and Reply, either to them or these, if any thing material be offered, or more probable Arguments be produced, I will either acquit my self or fairly drop the Argument, for I am not so bigotted to any mean Performances of my own, but when more probable Conjectures are offer'd, can easily relinquish them, but in those Matters which I have recited as Experi­ments or Observations, I dread not their Criticisms.


An Explication of the Plate of Birds, mark'd Table the First, of Birds.

1. THE Sea-Crow; its Food is upon Shell-Fish, and its manner of Feeding is very wonderful, as is observ'd in the Book. These Birds are said to breed in the Hollows of Rocks in the Isle of Man, and though common upon the Sea-Coasts in these Counties, yet never known to breed here; their Flesh is not grateful, and therefore not eaten.

2. The Brasilian Magype; this was driven upon the Coasts by the violent Hale Storm, described in Mr. Burgher's first Plate, and found dead upon the Sea-Coasts in Lanca­shire.

3. The Tropick Bird, driven in at the same time.

4. The copped Wren that fed the Dragoons near Durton, in Lancashire, of which an Account is given in the Chapter of Birds.

5. The Asprey or Sea-Eagle. See likewise an Account of that in the same Chapter.

[Page 190] 6. The Barnacle or the Anser Bassanus; in these, as in other Geese, there are Males and Females, and they breed after the same manner, as may be observ'd in the Chapter of Birds, that Species of the Shell-Fish, they have formerly been said to pro­ceed from, is a Species of the Pectunculus, resembling that con­tain'd in the second Plate, Number 15. which I found in the Copper-Mines in Lancashire: These Shells are usually lick'd up by the Ships in the Gulf of Florida, and do not breed in these Seas; which Phaenomenon still further confirms to me, these Petrifactions to be nothing but different Concretions of Fluors, Sulphurs, Salts and Earths, and may justly be styled, Lapides sui generis.


The Author's Vindication of himself, from some Calumnies lately cast upon him.

SO strangely Opinionative are some Persons, and fondly link'd to the Wild products of their own teeming Genius, that an Ocular Demonstration to these amounts not to a thorough Conviction; nay, so prodigiously over-weening of those are their Sentiments, it is so far from attaining of it, that against the most evident Truths they wilfully shut their Eyes; and fall into such extravagant Expressions, that they almost exceed the rudest Offals of Billingsgate, and that for no other reason, but because I do not, as they suppose, that at the Deluge the Globe was Univer­sally dissolv'd, or, as some will have it, converted into a Pudding, and instead of Plumbs, was larded with Cockles, which are since petrified: Those Gentlemen may be assured, I shall not con­cern my self with their Missionaries; but when they themselves judge it convenient to make a Reply that is material▪ I shall then be at their Service. Some of these have indeavoured to traduce me, both at the Engravers, and the Press, but have, in some measure, been disappointed in their Expectations: They have indeed, out of their unexpected Candour, been pleas'd to acknowledge, that there was somewhat of Stile in the Work; but for that reason were pleas'd to allege, it was not my own; in Answer to that, I have only this to say, in Vindication of my Self, that in Composing the Work, I had not the least assistance from any Person whatever; and have not in any wise been de­fective to make my self so far Master of the Language that I write in, as to adapt my Expressions to the subjects that I treat off.

How far these kind of Actions are reconcileable, either to Justice, Honour, or Learning, I freely submit to the common Censures of Mankind; nay, even to their own Sentiments. And would gladly be inform'd, by what unaccountable Methods [Page] they have so totally Monopolized all natural Learning, that the freedom of thought shall not be allowable to another. Notwith­standing their wonderful assurance, I will once again venture to affirm, their Petrefactions, many of them, at least, are not so ex­quisitely like the Shells which they represent, but we may as rea­sonably suppose, that the Espousers of this Fiction, may be as much mistaken as the Bird which peck'd upon the Grapes drawn by Zeuxes: And am apt to think, that upon a serious Conside­ration of the whole matter, The one will be found as starving an Entertainment as the other.

'Tis true some of these Gentlemen have very choice and curious Collections of Natural Curiosities, and in their Collections of petrified Shells, as they term them, even out­strip all the Trophies of Caligula, when he made that vast Col­lection upon the Belgic Shore; but if these Gentlemen cannot be certain, that those Shells are the Exuviae of those Fishes they take them for, they do but impose upon their own Judgments, and only entitle themselves to a spurious Off-Spring; wherefore con­sidering the many absurdities that inevitably arise from that Hy­pothesis that Learning is built upon, I shall not expatiate upon them here, but leave the further disquisition of those matters to the Unbiassed Readers.

This to be incerted, as a Postscript, at the end of the First Book, after the Explication of the Cuts.



Of Quadrupeds, unusual Phoenomena in Human-Kind, of Persons noted for Arts, Professions, and Acts of Charity.

THAT there shou'd be a Species of Quadrupeds in these Parts, different from others in England, is scarce to be imagin'd, I shall therefore only take notice in this Treatise of what are most remarkable amongst us; In a Park call'd Stiperly in Cheshire, belonging to Iohn Legh of Adlington, Esq from which Family my Ancestors had the Ho­nour to descend, are an unusual kind of Sheep; they are of a larger size than most others, and bear rather a kind of Hair, than Wooll. They have all Four Horns, and some of them of an Extraordinary size, the Two Horns next the Neck, are erect like those of Goats, but larger, the other next the Forehead are curved, like those of other Sheep, whether or no these be a par­ticular Species of Sheep, or perhaps might come at first by Goats and Sheep engend'ring together I cannot determine, their Flesh is agreeable enough, yet different from other Mutton, yet more [Page 2] resembling that than Goats Flesh; Not far from thence lies Lime-Park, belonging to Peter Legh of Lime, Esq in which there are a great Number of Red-Deer, of which this is remarkable, that once a Year the Keepers drive them together upon a grass Plain before the Gates of the Hall, a thing, I believe, not practis'd upon these Wild Creatures in any other part of the World; The won­derful consent there is betwixt the Horns and Testicles of these Creatures is scarce to be imagin'd, as likewise their Yearly casting their Horns, it is most certain if these Deer be gelded before the Eruption of their Horns, they never produce any afterwards, and if before the usual time of casting them, they then never cast those they are possest of; which Phoenomenon to me seems to argue, that the principal occasion of casting their Horns is, that about Rutting time their Testicles are more pregnant than at o­ther Seasons, hence their Blood being raised to an higher Fer­ment, nay indeed to so touring a Pitch that Nature it self is al­most unhing'd, hence the Blood Vessels being distended beyond their Natural Tone, are uncapable to contain any longer, but are forcibly burst asunder, by the disruption of these, the Horns, which abound with them, are dispoiled of all possible Commu­nication of Nourishment, by which means the Nerves are render'd Weak and Languid, the Horn consequently by its own Weight declines, and falls off; these Horns afford us in Chymical Prepa­rations, an Oil, and a Spirit, which is indeed nothing but the Volatile Salt dissolved in Phlegm, and a Volatile Salt, which are all of them of Extraordinary use in Languors, and Convulsive Distempers, or in any Malady of the Nerves; It is affirm'd, by the Learned Dr. Brown in his Travels in Hungary, that in Servia where the Plague frequently rages, they find no better Antidote against it than Eating the Flesh of these Creatures, for which there may be this Reason, it is probable the Flesh of these Crea­tures, contains a greater quantity of Volatile Salt than other Flesh may, by which means it becomes a more generous Food, and by a more than an Ordinary Volatilized Chyle, prevents Coa­gulation of the Blood which causes that Pestilental Distemper, those Volatile Alkalies, destroying the other Saline, Acid par­ticles [Page 3] that make the Coagulum; The Horns of these Creatures by their own Effluvia are Convertible into a Jelly, which is of great use to Emaciated Persons, and a noble Food to any, it may be it was from this Preparation that Monsieur Papin recei­ved the first hint of his New Digester, by which he Converted Bones into Marrow by their own Effluvia, which I have seen frequently Experimented by that Excellent Chymist Christopher White of Oxford, Operator in the Publick Laboratory of that most Flourishing University; it is affirm'd by the Huntsmen, that these Creatures when they find themselves Encompassed by the Dogs, and no possibility of escape, will weep most Mourn­fully, a sight that to a Tender Spirit wou'd damp the Diver­tisement of that days Recreation, so endearing a Principle is Life to all Creatures.

In the Park near Mannor in Lancashire are spotted Deer; There are some of these likewise in Dunham-Park, belonging to the Right Honourable the Earl of Warrington in the County of Che­ster. In a Park near Bury in Lancashire are Wild Cattel, belong­ing to Sir Ralph Ashton of Middleton, these I presume were first brought from the high-lands of Scotland. They have no Horns, but are like the Wild Bulls and Cows upon the Continent of America, of which Monsieur Hennipin has given us a full account in his Travels up the River Mesashippi, upon the Banks of which great Herds of these are frequently seen Grasing, and are Hunted by the Indians, as the Deer by us; The defect of Horns in these Beasts brings into my Mind a very remarkable Phoenomenon of one Alice Green, whose Picture I have seen in Whalley-Abbey in Lancashire, this Woman had Two Horns which grew out at the back part of her Head, they grew backwards like those of Rams, and were about three Inches long, these she cast once in three Years, and had always intolerable pains before the Horns broke out, whence came this Lusus Naturae, or Praeternatural accident, is, I think, a Phaenomenon not to be accounted for, unless at the time of Coition some such Mon­strous Idea might then be imprinted on the Faetus, which is the most probable Conjecture I can make on this point, since we have several Instances of strange Impressions thus Effected, a Remark­able [Page 4] one is mention'd in Van Helmont, where he tells us, of a Woman who Dreamed she was with Child of a Cherry-Tree, which made such a wonderful Impression upon the Faetus, that in the Palms of the Hands, instead of those Lines usual to Man­kind, were to be seen the Figures of the Leaves, and Boughs, and Cherries, several other accounts of this Nature might be pro­duced, which wou'd too much swell this Chapter to recite them, I shall only insert one more which was upon a Woman near Cli­theral in Lancashire, this Woman when with Child was affright­ed with Fire, and upon the Body of the Infant, was very dis­cernable a Lively representation of Flames, this was Communi­cated to me by Dr. Parsons of Preston, and I am satisfy'd in the Truth of it; how these representations of things, and some­times the things themselves, are caused by Ideas imprinted by Mo­thers upon thè Faetús, is in my Judgment a matter that may ad­mit of various Hypotheses, but not any that will amount to a Demonstration, for how is it solvable by any Rules of Mecha­nism, that the Faetus which by a few Vessels adheres to the Womb of the Parent, that an Artery and Vein, which only carry and reconvey Blood to its subsistance, shou'd ever perform these ama­zing Phoenomena, it is certain the Faetus has no Communication with the Mother any way, than only in the Chyle, which is sepe­rated by the Glandules in the Placenta Uterina which cannot possibly be imagined to produce these effects, how therefore the motions of the Animal Spirits penetrate through all these recesses of Nature, so far as I am able to apprehend, surpasses human Conception, and is indeed only solvable by him who knows no Limits, but Acts according to his own Almighty Will and Plea­sure: The Atheist here may have room enough for Contemplati­on, and then let him tell us, how an Artery carrying only a lit­tle thoughtless Blood, and a Vein returning what is not spent up­on the nourishment of the Embrio, let him tell us, I say, how by an Accidental concourse of Monades or Atomes, it is possible these things shou'd be effected; but since I am apt to think he cannot define me what thought is, he may here acquiesce, and needs not blush to acknowledge his Ignorance, but may conclude [Page 5] with the Royal Psalmist, that it is, the Fool hath said in his Heart, there is no God, and indeed only he.

Lancashire chiefly in these Parts is most remarkable for breed­ing Cattle, of a size more than Ordinary large, particularly a­bout Burneley, and Maudsley, from which places I have known Cattle sold at extraordinary Rates, an Heifer sometimes amount­ing to Fifteen or Twenty Pounds, the ground they Feed upon is usually upon an Ascent, and the Grass shorter than in lower Grounds; The usual method is to buy Calves in those Parts, when they are about One Year Old, then by removing them to a more Fruitful Pasture, they arrive to a larger Pitch than usual; The like is Observable in Horses, and hence it is, that in Yorkshire, they generally breed the best of that Species.

Let us here add something concerning the Superfaetation of Hares, which though not always, yet is frequently observed, that in the Uterus at the same time, Young ones of different Pro­ductions are discovered, one perhaps no larger than a small Plumb, another about half its due size, and a third at perfect Magnitude, I have often seen here the Caesarian Birth, that is a Young one taken alive from the Doe rip'd open, preserved and nourished for a considerable time afterwards, Phoenomena not unlike to these Superfaetations, are observable in various Plants, especially the Orange-Tree, upon which are Blossoms, and Fruits of different growths at the same time. Let us enquire in­to the Rationale of this, and in the first place consider, that these Creatures have frequent Coitions after Conception, and then why may we not easily suppose, according to our former Hypo­thesis, that the Semen equally at one time, as an other, after it is injected into the Uterus, may be absorbed there by the Capil­lary Arteries, and by them be convey'd, and deposited into the Ova, and cause a Faecundation, and since there are various Ova's in the Ovaria, it does not at all seem difficult to me how Super­faetation happens; But rather indeed wonder there are not the same effects in Female Human-Kind, the same circumstances con­curring; But some may object against this Hypothesis, and allege that impregnation is not performed by the Semen thrown by the [Page 6] Mass of Blood within the Ova; But that only a Gas, or Aura of the Seed is by the Cornua convey'd to the Ova, and so produces Faecundation. But to these I answer, since with small Bellows at the end of the Tubes, I have frequently attempted to force on­ly Air within the Ovaria, but cou'd never effect it, and since the Ovaria are likewise involved in a double Membrane, I do not see how in the least that Hypothesis can be defended, but since the Cornua, or Horns of the Womb, convey the Faetus from the Ovaria thither, to assert too that they likewise carry the Se­men to them, to me seems very Preposterous; besides Dr. Harvey assures us, he has often immediately after Coition, dissected the Womb and its Cornua, but never in those cou'd discover the least re­lict of the Semen, which probably he might have done, had it been only thrown there to transmit its Aura into those Organs, to convey it to the Ovaria; again, if we consider the suddain In­disposition of Persons after Conception; The several Hereditary Distempers that attend many Births, as the Gout, Stone, Dropsy and Consumption, can we imagine how these causes shou'd be solved, unless we suppose the very substance of the Seed to be de­posited in the Ova; for how an Aura shou'd ever bring these about to me is unaccountable; But if, as some defend, Faecundation is effected by Animalcules floating in the Semen, and that the Ova are only recipients to them, I wou'd then appeal to those Modern Virtuosi, that espouse this Doctrine, to solve the causes of Hereditary Distempers, and enquire of them if these small seminal Gentlemen, have not frequent fits of the Gout, and are not sometimes Hydropical and Consumptive: But how Rational this is to imagine, I leave it to the World to judge, but shall rather conclude my self, that the very substance of the Seed is deposited in the Ova, and that as that is tainted, so likewise is the Faetus, and hence Hereditary Distempers arise. But to return to the Hare, it is observable those bred upon Mo­rasses, and Parts adjacent to the Sea-Coasts, are usually the swiftest, though of the smallest size; But this their Velocity may, I presume, proceed in some measure from their Diet, which as I have frequently found by dissection, is a short dry Grass, [Page 7] and sometimes the Tops of Heaths, and Barks of Trees, which being excellent Antihydropics, may occasion the dryness of their Constitutions, and in some measure their swiftness, by absorbing the Serum, or watry Parts of the Blood, by which the Muscles consequently must have less pressure upon them, and doubtless the Lymphaducts are less numerous in these than in other Crea­tures. As to their different Colours it is observable those in colder Climes, as in Russia, and the High-lands of Scotland, are White or Grey, but in other Countries they are of a Brown Co­lour, these variations of Colours by the Chymists are solved by their Experiments on Sulphur, which by different degrees of heat turns White or Red, as it is more or less Exalted, and consi­dering the Down of these Creatures, abounds with a great quantity of Sulphur; I think the conjecture not irrational. Distempers most incident to this Animal are commonly in the Liver, which are Hydatides, or Blisters upon its Superficies, proceeding doubt­less from a Rupture or breach of the Lymphatick Vessels in that part, occasion'd by violent running, and afterwards the coldness of the Earth too suddenly closing the Pores, and Obstructing perspiration, hence those Vessels become distended beyond a natural Tone, and Burst; This Creature is highly commended by the Germans to be a Healthful, Noble, and Generous Food, particularly by Ab-Heers, of which in his Spadacrene you may see a full and large account. But before I close my observations upon Quadrupeds, I thought it not a miss to insert two Instances, they being not only unusual, but of great Importance, the first is of two Persons, who in a small Cottage near Bury in Lancashire, dyed of the small Pox, during the whole time of their Sickness, Two Cats for the most part lay upon the same Beds with the Pa­tients, in a little time after these Persons had Expired; Both the Cats fell Sick, with the usual Symptoms in the Apparatus of the small Pox, and so regularly proceeded to the State of Erup­tion, and Maturation, with Pustules exactly like those in Hu­man-kind; at last those subsided, and soon afterwards both the Cats dy'd. By this instance it is evident the small Pox is not a Distemper peculiar only to Human-kind; But why to Mankind [Page 8] more than other Creatures, is the next thing we are to enquire into? The Decision of this Question depends upon two Topics; The first is the particular Composition of the Blood in Mankind, differing from that in other Creatures, and consequently those not so subject to this Distemper; That the Blood in Human­kind does differ from that in Quadrupeds, is evident from the different Proportion of muriatick, fixt, and volatile Salts, that may be obtained from it, and this probably may proceed from their variety of Food and Liquors, and for that reason, I think, it wou'd be highly worth the time of our Modern Virtuosi, to take an exact Proportion in each of those, and to observe the Distempers the most incident to different Creatures, as likewise those that are Carnivorous, and those that Feed only upon Plants, and distinguish them accordingly; its most certain, it is a parti­cular Crasis in the Blood, when Man is disposed to receive this Distemper, some Persons I have known conversant with People in the small Pox, and yet Twenty Years afterwards have them­selves been infected and dyed of them, when therefore by a parti­cular Crasis the Blood is so disposed to receive the Morbisick par­ticles of the Air, partly taken into the Body by the intromitting Pores, and partly by inspiration, it is then by the various con­cretions of these the Serum of the Blood is converted into a Poiso­nous Ichor, which by its acrimony separates the Cutis from the Cuticula, and forms those Pustules we Name small Pox.

A second reason why Man is peculiarly subject to this Distemp­er, may be the variety of the Orifices in the Miliary Glands of the Cutis, which doubtless in Mankind, are much different from those in other Creatures, it must therefore necessarily follow, that where there are not proper secretory Vessels to receive such parti­cular Coagulations, those Creatures cannot, as Man, be alike sub­ject to equal Distempers; These may suffice for a Decision of the Question propos'd, I shall therefore in the next place pro­ceed to the second Instance, and that is of a Mastiff-Dog; he be­longed to the Honourable Peter Bold, of Bold, Esq this Dog still attended his Master in his Chamber, during a tedious Sick­ness, being a Consumption of the Lungs, after this generous [Page 9] Gentleman Expir'd, and his Corps removed, the Dog almost each moment enter'd the Room, making a Mournful, whining Noise, and prosecuted his researches for several days, through all the Rooms of the House, but in vain; He then retired to his Kennel, from whence he wou'd not be Courted, but refusing all manner of Sustenance, died there; of this I was an Eye-Witness, being through the whole course of the Distemper concern'd for that Honourable Gentleman; what some may Bogle at to call Reason, I know not, but, I think, a deeper Sense of Sorrow and Gratitude, cou'd not be shown in any Creature whatever. Which brings me in the next place to consider what the Philosophers call the Knowledge of Brutes, concerning this there are various Opinions, the Platonists did not seem to doubt of it, and for that reason when they defin'd Man, to distinguish him from other Creatures, only stiled him an unseather'd Animal.

The Pythagoreans run into a wilder extreme, and were so ful­ly possess'd with the Opinion of the Souls of Brutes, that they be­lieved there was a mutual Transmigration of Souls. And hence surely we cou'd not blame the Poet, when he says, the mighty Thunderer transform'd himself into a Bull. But however, tho' without question there is something of a Spiritual distinguishing being, that actuates the Body of a Brute by the assistance of the Animal Spirit; yet the before recited Hypothesis of Pythagoras, in bringing their Souls upon the level with that of Man, I look upon to be groundless; since Man is the only Creature in the World that has a reflex thought, and can abstract from matter, and that has any Notion of a Deity; But alas! how imperfect wou'd that be, had not God, out of his Infinite goodness, been pleased to communicate himself to us by Revelation, as we may find by too many Instances amongst the poor Americans, who though they have Notions of a Being Infinitely Good, yet have likewise the same of one equally Bad; and therefore Worship one through Love, and the other through Fear. Knowledge in Brutes by the Peripatetics is stiled natural Instinct: But since they are not able to define what that is, it is only to explain an obscure Matter by one more dark. I shall therefore pass it by [Page 10] as not material to this Subject. But the Cartesians Quadrupeds are looked upon as a most compleat Piece of Clock-Work, or Au­tomala, moved only as the Object makes an Impression on the Or­gan, but since these Creatures are certainly endued with Thought, and Memory, which can never be explain'd by Rules of Me­chanism, that Hypothesis is but ill grounded; Nay, they are so far from explaining these two faculties by their Problems in Me­chanicks, that they are at a full stop, even by those Rules. To un­fold to me the more easy instance of voluntary motion, Steno, Charleton, Borellus, and Crone, have made Ingenious Conjectures on this Point, yet are defective when they come to examine the main business on those Notions; Epicurus, Lucretius, and Mr. Lock, refine, and explain, the Knowledge of Brutes, by Images, and Ideas, and these they make either Simple or Complex, and those imprinted upon the Organ by the Object, and thence it is through a long experience of those Ideas, they are able to think and distinguish, and in that, as they would have it, consists their Know­ledge: Now I wou'd only enquire of these Learned Gentlemen, a solution of one Question, whether or no these Ideas imprinted on the Organ, by the Object, be Material or Immaterial; if they allow them Material, it is impossible but by such a weight of matter, through the whole Series of a Creatures Life, im­printed on the Organ, the Organ must unavoidably be too op­prest even to distinguish at all: It is plain the Eye, for a small Sea­son, may view the Sun, but by a pressure of its Particles upon it, it soon becomes dim, and undescerning; But to this they may reply, that an Impression on the Organ is made equally as that of the Effigies of a Signet on Wax; But this will appear as liable to absurdities as the former, for from the same object on the same Organ, still new Impressions must succeed, hence the Organ in a common tract of time, must necessarily be worn out and de­stroy'd, and consequently not be able to distinguish any thing; for doubtless if the Object cou'd at any time stamp any Impression or Idea, it must Caeteris paribus still do so, and then the conse­quence is unavoidable: But if they allege these Ideas or Images are Immaterial, then a Soul or Spiritual being follows e­vidently [Page 11] in those Creatures, sufficient to actuate the Body, and be capable of some degrees of Knowledge; this allow'd, there is no occasion for these Images, or Ideas, for why should Na­ture produce any thing in vain; Beings without a necessity are never multiply'd: And now after all the Blaze that Elaborate Piece of Human Understanding has procured in the World, from what is observed, it is easy to learn, that it amounts to no more than trifling in Philosophy, and refining on the Godhead; and perhaps to too many unwarily caught, has been of pernici­ous consequence; I have insisted the longer on this subject, be­cause this Book, though so Universally receiv'd, if rightly weigh'd, is no more than what Mr. Hobbs has before alleg'd; I shall therefore Examine his Hypothesis, that being the Basis of the former; Mr. Hobb's Notion was, That all Beings were mate­rial, and that betwixt Matter and Nothing there was no distin­ction; which notion, no doubt, gave hint to that great Man before mention'd to form his Ideas; how far Mr. Hobb's Hypo­thesis is consistent with reason, for the following Reason I sub­mit to the Judgment of the World: In the first place let him tell me how Matter can think; if he be there at a loss, his Notion unavoidably falls; but to say it can, is only to assert Matter acting upon Matter, and then I would know what it is that judgeth of that action Thought, when it abstracts from all mate­rial Objects; This cannot be supposed to be a being consisting of Matter, for then it could not judge of the Action for the Rea­sons before alleged: It is true in Mathematical Argumentations we have not Ideas of any Beings, but what consequently we must suppose to be Material, for our apprehensions of them are under some determinate Figure, and so consequently Material, because that is a Quality, viz. Extension, inseperable from Mat­ter: But since to form adequate Conceptions of immaterial Be­ings, surpasses both our Intellects and Organs, it does not there­fore follow that there are not any such Beings, no more than since a Mathematician cannot by the Rules of Arithmetick de­monstrate why one Grain should become five hundred, which notwithstanding is obvious, and familiar enough. It is strange [Page 12] such absurdities should be put upon the World; methinks the Being that has no dependance upon the Pen I write with, suffi­ciently evinces me to the contrary: Not that I speak this out of a conceit of any mean performances of my own, but only that it is actuated by a Being independant from it, by which I am able to demonstrate I am a Rational Creature. I proceed next to Dr. Willis's Hypothesis concerning the Souls of Brutes, which is, that they are an actual fire, I shall endeavour to examine his Reasons, and Conjectures relating to that Opinion, and then lay down some Arguments why it cannot be so; in order to which, I shall examine the various Species of Fires, and their different Pabulums, and shall then, from the Experiments he recites, see how far they are convincing upon that Topic: of Fires there are various sorts, but all of them may be reduced to these gene­rical Heads, viz. Aerial, Terrestrial, or Animal, the Aerial ones are those of Lightning, shooting of Stars, flying Serpents, the twins Castor, or Pollux, called by the Spaniards Corps le Saint, and these frequently fix upon the Masts and Sails of Ships; the Seamen by their long continuance, or quick disappearance, will pretend to Prognosticate the future Weather, it is impossible from any experiment he cou'd make upon these in the Air Pump, that he shou'd form any Corollaries, and since these no ways refer to this business, I shall not farther enlarge upon them. The Experiments recited by the Honourable Esq Boyle and the Doctor, are upon common Fire in the Air Pump, which they found to extinguish as they drew out the Vitrous parts of the Air, and the same thing happening to Animals in the Air Pump, the Doctor hence concludes the Souls of Brutes to be an actual Flame; and had he lived to have seen the Phosphorus prepared from the Blood, I question not but his pregnant parts wou'd highly have improved that Notion; in answer to his Hypothesis I wou'd gladly know of any Man, whether it is possible Fire shou'd think, or that voluntary motion can be solved by that Element, when it is by the Laws of Nature confin'd only to one motion, and that is Ascension, as the Psalmist Philosophically, and truly words it, as Naturally as the Sparks fly upwards, and these [Page 13] granted, it necessarily follows the Hypothesis is groundless, be­cause in Brutes there is both Thought and voluntary motion, as is before sufficiently demonstrated; the next Hypothesis is that of Dr. Mayow, who supposes the Soul of a Brute to be a Nitro­aerial Spirit, and for that Hypothesis recites the same Experi­ments Dr. Willis does, for that of Fire, the same difficulties therefore lying against that Notion, as the Doctors, I shall not recapitulate but pass it over; these are the most remarkable Au­thors that have writ on this subject: I shall therefore in the last place, propose my own Sentiments on that Head, my Thoughts are, that in all living Creatures whatever, there is a Spiritual, immaterial Being, that thinks, and actuates them: To this some may reply, if so, where then is the difference betwixt Man and Beast? There Souls must be both equally immortal with sounds contrary to Revealed Religion. To those I answer, that these Creatures have only a lower degree of Reason, not comparable to that of Man, even as we can imagine ours to be Inferiour to the Intuitive Knowledge of Angels, their Allegations therefore on this account are Foreign to the purpose, but suppose I allow far­ther, that the Almighty may Annihilate the Souls of these Crea­tures, after Death; but whether he do or not, or in what future State they are like to be, since his Infinite Wisdom has not con­descended to Reveal his Actions so far to Mankind, does it at all concern me? And therefore I can easily conclude with the Philosopher, Quae supra nos, nihil ad nos; and it wou'd be much better to acquiesce in a modest ignorance, than disturb our selves, and amuse the World with these unaccountable Theorems.

Having thus far accounted for Phoenomena preternatural in A­nimals, in the next place, I shall descend to give an account of Persons in these Parts, that have been Eminent for their Learn­ing, and Inventions, in Natural Philosophy, or Mechanicks; A­mongst these the Learned Dr. Pearson may justly be placed the first, witness his most Learned Exposition on the Creed, and his unanswerable piece de successione Patrum, which at this day is re­ceiv'd in the Vatican it self, though he a Bishop of a different persuasion from him that presides there, and esteemed as Sacred [Page 14] as a general Councel, or any Authority of the most noted Father; For Learning likewise and Pious generosity, Bishop Smith, and Dean Nowel have immortaliz'd their Names, the former was one of the Founders of Brazen-Nose College in Oxford, the latter gave several Scholarships to it, which to this day are called the Nowellians, to these Men of Learning we may justly add Sir Pe­ter Leicester of Tabley, to whom the World owes a great deal of Thanks, for his History of the Antiquities of Buckley-Hunder'd, and I hope it may be Pardonable, though I add my great Grand­father William Legh Parson of Standish, he was Tutor to Prince Henry, and Chaplain to Henry Earl of Derby.

As to Pious, and Charitable Foundations, there are three very remarkable in Manchester in Lancashire, viz. a College, a Publick School, and an Hospital; The College was first founded Ann. Dom. 1421. By Thomas De la Ware, first Rector of the said Parish Church, and Brother to the Lord De la Ware, whom he succeed­ed in Estate, and Honour, and then Founded a College there consisting of one Master or Keeper, Eight Fellows Chaplains, Four Clerks, and Six Choristers in Honour of St. Mary, St. Denis of France, and St. George for England, to whom the said Parish Church was formerly Dedicated: This Foundation was dissolved 1547, in the first Year of King Edward VI. the Lands and Revenues of it taken into the King's Hands, and by him demised to the Earl of Derby, and the College House and some Lands, sold to the said Earl: The College was refounded by Queen Mary, who restored most of its Lands, and Revenues, only the College it self, and some of the Revenues, remained still in the hands of the Earl of Derby; it was also Founded a new by Queen Elizabeth, Ann. Dom. 1578. By the Name of Christ College in Manchester, consisting of One Warden, Four Fellows, Two Chaplains, Four Singing Men, and Four Choristers, the number being lessened because the Revenues were so, chiefly by the Covetousness and False dealing of Thomas Herle, then Warden, and his Fellows, who sold away, and made such long Leases, as cou'd never yet some of them be retrieved: It was last of all refounded by King Charles I. Ann. Dom. 1636. constituting therein One Warden, [Page 15] Four Fellows, Two Chaplains, Four Singing Men, and Four Choristers, and incorporating them by the Name of the Warden and Fellows of Christ's College in Manchester; the Statues of the same being drawn by Arch-Bishop Laud.

The Hospital was Founded by Humphry Chetham, Esq that great Example of industrious improvment, and incorporated by King Charles II. designed by that bountiful Benefactor, for the Maintenance of Forty Poor Boys, out of the Town, and Parish of Manchester, and some other Neighbouring Parishes, but since then, it is enlarged to the number of Sixty, by the Governours of the said Hospital; the Boys are to be taken in betwixt the Age of Six and Ten, thereto be maintained with Meat, Drink and Cloaths, and at the Age of Fourteen to be bound Apprentices, to some ho­nest Trade or Calling, at the charge of the said Hospital, for the maintenance of which he endowed the same with the Yearly Revenue of 420 l. which is since improved by the care and good Husbandry of the Feoffees or Governours, to the Yearly value of 517 l. 8 s. 4 d. they having laid out in the purchase of Lands, 1825 l. which was saved out of the Yearly income over and above the maintenance of the Poor Children, and others belonging to the said Hospital; wherein there are annually near Seventy Persons provided for. Within this Hospital, by the Bounty of the said Founder, is also erected a fair, and spacious Library, already fur­nished with a Competent stock of choice and valuable Books, to the number of near four Thousand, and are daily encreasing with the income of 116 l. per Annum, setled upon the same by the said worthy Benefactor, to buy Books for ever, and to afford a Com­petent Salary for a Library Keeper; there is also a large School for the Hospital Boys, where they are daily instructed, and taught to read, write, and keep Accounts.

The Publick School was Founded Ann. Dom. 1519 by Hugh Oldham, D. D. and Bishop of Exeter, who bought the Lands on which the School stands, and took the Mills there in Lease of the Lord de la Ware for 60 Years, afterwards, with the Bishop's Moneys, Hugh Bexwick, and Ioan his Sister, purchased of the Lord de la Ware his Lands in Ancoats, and the Mills upon Erkes, [Page 16] and left them in Feofment to the Free-School for ever; which Revenues are of late very much encreased by the Feoffees of the School, who out of the improvments, have as well considerably augmented the Masters Salaries, as the Exhibitions annually al­low'd towards the maintainance of such Scholars at the Univer­sity, as the Warden of the College, and the High-Master shall think requisite, and have besides, for some Years past, added a Third Master, for whom they have already erected a New, and convenient School, at the end of the other.

Besides these publick Benefactions, and Endowments, there have been several other sums of Moneys, and annual Revenues, left and bequeathed to the Poor of the said Town, by several Persons, who are thereby, with the Charity of the present Inha­bitants, competently provided for, without starving at home, or being forced to seek relief abroad.

Let us do Justice to the Memory of the generous William Hulme of Broadstone, Esq who has nobly added to the Benefactions of the publick School four Exhibitions; The Scholars are to be Batchellours of Arts, in the College of Brazen-Nose in Oxford, these are to be elected by the Wardens of Manchester, the Rector of Bury, and Parson of Prestwich then Living, they are at pre­sent of value betwixt Twenty, and Thirty Pounds per Annum each, but after the Death of his Lady, will advance to near Six­ty Pounds a piece Yearly; and these they are to hold till they have commenced Masters of Arts, and I do believe they will then be the best Exhibitions in that University.

The Town gives Title to an Honourable Family, Henry Mountague, being Created Earl of Mancester by King Charles I. Ann. Dom. 1625. which Honour is now possessed by Edward his Grand Child, third Earl of the said Family; This account was given me by my honour'd Friend the Reverend, and Learned Dr. Wroe, the Present Warden of the Collegiate Church at Man­chester, within which Church, are inscriptions of some Eminent Persons.

[Page 17] At Maclesfield in Cheshire was a College Founded by Thomas Savage first Bishop of London, and afterwards Arch-Bishop of York, in which several of that noble Family, the Savages, are buri­ed; as also of the Family of Dunham, which from Hammon de Massy, By the Fittans, and Venables, came Hereditarily to the famous Family of Booth.

After these Learned and Charitable Personages, let us rank o­thers Eminent for natural discoveries, of which these Countries have not been altogether Barren; The World owes a great ma­ny Obligations to the great industry, and Knowledge of Richard Townley, of Townley, Esq which will be the best understood by a recital of his own Experiments, and Performances.

His Letter to Dr. Croon, touching the invention of dividing a Foot into many thousand Parts for Mathematical purposes is as follows.

‘Finding in one of the last Philosophical Transactions, how much M. Auzont esteems his invention of dividing a Foot into near 30000 parts, and taking thereby Angles to very great exactness; I am told, I shall be looked upon as a great wrong­er of our Nation, shou'd I not let the World know, that out of some scatter'd Papers and Letters, that formerly came to my hands, of a Gentleman of these parts, one Mr. Gascoigne, found out, that before the late Civil Wars, he had not only devised an instrument of as great a Power as M. Auzonts, but had also for some Years made use of it, not only for taking the Diameters of the Planets, and distances upon Land; But had farther endeavour'd out of its Preciseness, to gather many cer­tainties in the Heavens, amongst which I shall only mention one, (viz.) the finding the Moon's distance, from two Observations, of her Horizontal, and Meridional Diameters, which I rather mention because the French Astronomer, esteems himself the first that took any such notice, as thereby to settle the Moon's Parallax. For our Country-Man fully consider'd it before, and imparted it to an acquaintance of his, who thereupon proposed to him the difficulties that would arise upon the Calculation; with considerations upon the strange Niceties necessary to give him a [Page 18] certainty of what he desired; The very instrument he made I have now by me, and others more perfected by him, which doubtless he wou'd have Infinitely mended, had he not been slain unfortunately in his late Majesty's Service. He had a Treatise of Opticks ready for the Press, but though I have used my utmost endeavour to retrieve it, yet I have in that point been totally unsuccessful: But some loose Papers and Letters, I have particularly about this instrument for taking of Angles, which was far from perfect; Nevertheless I find it so far to exceed all others, that I have used my endeavours to make it exact, and easily tractable; which above a Years since I effected to my own desire, by the help of an Ingenious and and exact Watch-Maker in these parts, since which time I have not altogether neglected it, but employed it particularly in taking the distances (as occasion served) of the Circum-Jovia­lists, towards a perfect setling their motion. I shall only say of it, that it is small, not exceeding in weight, nor much in bigness an ordinary Pocket-Watch, exactly marking above 40000 Divisions, in a Foot by the help of two Indexes, the one shewing Hundreds of Divisions, the other Divisions of the Hundred; Every last Division in my small one containing 1/10 of an Inch, and that so precisely as I use it, there goes above 91/22 Divisions to a second. Yet I have taken Land Angles several times to one Division, though (for the reason mentioned by M. Auzont) it be very hard to come to that ex­actness in the Heavens, (viz.) the swift motions of the Planets; Yet to remedy that fault, I have devised a rest, in which I find no small advantage, and not a little pleasing those Per­sons who have seen it; being so easy to be made, and by the observer managed without the help of another; which second convenience my yet nameless instrument hath in great per­fection, and is by reason of its smallness and shape, easily ap­plicable to any Telescope. Sir, if you think this invention thus improved, worthy to be take notice of by the Curious, you may command a more perfect description of it, or any of the observations, either Mr. Gascoigne or my Self have made with it.’

A Description of the Instrument referring to the CVT.

THE 1, 2, & 3. Figures do represent the several Parts of this Instruments; the 4th Figure part of the Telescope with the Instrument apply'd to it, and the 5th, the rest on which the whole reposeth.

The first Figure represents the Box with the whole Instrument, (excepting only the movable Cover) and the Screws, by which it is fixed to the Telescope. In this Figure (aaaa) is a small ob­long brass Box, serving both to contain the Screws, and also to make all the several moveable parts of the Instrument to move very true, smooth, and in a simple direct motion; To one end here­of is Screwed on a round Plate of brass (bbbb) about 3 inches o­ver; the extreme Limb of whose outside is divided into 100 e­qual parts, and number'd by 10, 20, 30, &c. Through the middle of this Plate, and the middle of the Box (aaa) is placed a very Curiously wrought Screw about the bigness of a Goose Quill, and of the length of the Box, the Head of which is by a fixed Ring, or Shoulder on the inside; and a small springing Plate, (dd) on the outside, so adapted to the Plate, that it is not in the least subject to shake; The other end of this Screw is by another little Screw (whose small point fills the Center or hole made in the end of the longer Screw for this purpose) ren­der'd so fixt or steady in the Box, that there appears not the least danger of shaking, upon the Head of this Screw without the springing Plate is put on a small Index (ee) and above that an handle (mm) to turn the Screw round as often as there shall be occasion, without at all endangering the displacing of the Index; it being put on very stiff upon a Cylindrical part of the Head, and the handle upon a square; the Screw hath that third of it, which is next the Plate, bigger than the other two thirds of it, by at least as much as the depth of the small Screw made on it, the thread of the Screw of the bigger third; is as small again as that of the Screw of the other two thirds; to the grosser Screw is adapted a Socket, (f) fastned to a long Bar or Bolt (gg), upon which is fastned the [Page 20] moveable sight (h) either a Thread nearer or a Thread farther of from the fixt sight (i), the (kk) which will not admit of any shaking; There are Sixty of these Threads, and answerable thereto are made Sixty divisions, on the edge of the Bolt or Ruler (gg) and a small Index (l) fix'd to the Box (aaa) denotes how many Threads the edges of the two sights (h) and (i) are distant; and the Index (ee) shews on the circular plate, what part of a Revolution there is more, every Revolution as was said before being divided into an hundred parts, at the same time that the movable sight (h) is moved forwards or backwards, or more Threads of the courser Screw, is the plate (pp in Fig. 2) so as the middle betwixt the sights may lie in the Axis of the Glass, however the Screw be turned, the midst betwixt the sights will always be in the Axis, and the sights will equally, either open from it, or shut towards it.

Figure 2. Represents the moveable cover containing the Screws, to be by the Bookseller cut off by the pricked line (xxx) from the Paper, and to be fitly placed on Figure (1) according to the pricked line (yyy) answering thereto, that by the taking off as it were, or folding up of this cover, the inward Contrivance of the Screws, and sights may appear.

And because it is conceived by some Ingenious Men, that it will be more convenient instead of the edges of the two sights (h & i) to employ two sights, fitted with hairs, therefore is add­ed Figure (3) Representing the two sights, (r & s) so fitted with Threads (t & u) that they may be conveniently used in the place of the solid edges of the sights (h & i)

The fourth Figure represents, how the Screws are to be put on, The Table (A. D.) is divided into three lengths, of which (as in ordinary ones) (B. C.) is to lengthen or Contract, as the ob­ject requires; But A. B. is here added, that at A. you may put such Eye Glasses, as shall be thought most convenient, and to set them still at the distance most proper for them, Indexes, or Pointers, which here are supposed to be at, B. which length also alters also in respect of divers Persons Eyes, (E.) is a Screw, by which the great Table can be fix'd so, as by the help of the [Page 21] Figures any smaller part of it can immediately be found, mea­suring only or knowing the Divisions on (B. C.) the distance of the object Glasses from the Pointers (F.) is the Angular piece of Wood that lies on the upperScrew of the rest, this rest is represent­ed by Figure the 5th. As for a description of the uses of this inge­niously contrived, and very curious Engine, the Reader may un­derstand it by the preceding Letter.

To this may be annexed another Letter of the same ingenious Gentleman, containing Observations on the quantity of Rain falling Monthly for several Years successively, which is as fol­lows.

I Have now completed this last Years Observations, which I was very desirous shou'd accompany the others I now send you, and I hope you will be pleased upon that score to pardon my delay in obeying your Commands, I wish they had been more exactly made, and shou'd have been so, had they been intended for any thing but my own satisfaction, and enabling me to give some Conjecture at the Proportion of Rain that falls in this Country, with that at London, and in other parts of this Kingdom, but in this I have not yet attained my desired end, not having heard of the like made in any part of England, tho' a Friend or two had promised to undertake, and afford me an Account of their Observations, but it may be they did not think it worth their while, or that it wou'd prove more trou­blesome than I found it; For I only fixed a round Tunnel of 12 inches Diameter to a leaden Pipe, which could admit of no Water but what came through the Tunnel, by reason of a part soder'd to the Tunnel it self which went over the Pipe, and served also to fix it to it, as well as to keep out any wet, that in stormy Weather might beat against the under part of the Tunnel, which was so placed that there was no building near it, that wou'd give occasion to suspect, that it did not receive its due Proportion of Rain, that fell through the Pipe some [Page 22] nine Yards perpendicularly, and then was bent into a Win­dow near my Chamber, under which convenient Vessels were placed to receive what fell into the Tunnel, which I measured by a Cylindrical Glass, at a certain mark, containing just a pound, or twelve Ounces Troy, and had marks for small parts also; I preferr'd this way of finding the Contents of my Vessel, for measuring the Water, before any other, of gaging of small Cubical or Cylindrical ones, where an inconsiderable and al­most indiscernible Error, in the dimensions, will prove much greater in the content, whereas in the other way, provided the Cylinder it self be small, or like a very small Neck at the mark­ed place for a pound, one may easily come to as great exactness as may be wished, by the help of this Cylindrical Glass, I thus kept my account of what Rain fell, and generally twice or thrice a Day, when I took several other Observations, both of the Thermometer, Barometer, Winds, &c. what Rain I found in the Receivers, if not more than made what was left in the Cylindrical Glass, a full pound I again left in it, but if there was more than that quantity, I filled it just to the pound mark, which I threw away, and did the like with the remaining Water, as often as it wou'd allow, still keeping an account of the pounds thrown away, and noting also the parts of a pound remaining in the Glass, by the help of which latter, and the parts remaining at any time before, by numbering the Pounds, and Substracting the Parts at the end, for Exam­ple, of one Month, from the Pounds thrown away, and the Parts remaining, at the end of another; I find the quantity of Rain fallen betwixt these two times, and that so as to assure me, that I erred no more in the quantity of Rain of another Year, than by mistake in the differences of the parts of a Pound, in the first, and last Observation, whereas shou'd I still Write down the Rain that falls between two Observations, I might be subject to make as great a mistake, in every one of them, and consequently be much more uncertain of the quantity of Rain fallen, in many of those added together; Besides, this Addi­tion is longer in performing, and giving the quantity sought, [Page 23] than the method I make use of, I have added these particulars to show you how little trouble there is in this task; which therefore I hope some of your ingenious Friends may be per­suaded to undertake, and then by continuing my own Observa­tions, I may be farther satisfy'd than hitherto I have been with them, for I have yet Learn'd as to the main point, is, that here we have almost just twice the quantity of Rain that falls at Paris. This County, and particularly that part of it where I live, being generally esteemed to have much more Rain than other Parts, and in a greater Proportion than I thought reasonable to be allow'd, however it be yet by what I have sent you, 'twould be unjust without farther Observations of the like Nature in other Parts, that all England shou'd be esteemed to abound as much in Rain as these parts do, where by reason of the very high Grounds in Yorkshire, and the Eastern Parts of Lancashire, the Clouds driven hither by the South and S. W. the general Winds in this part of the World, are oftener stopt and broken, and fall upon us, than such as come by an E. and S. E. Winds, which broken by the Hills are generally spent there, and little affect us; and this is the reason that Lancashire has often considerably more Rain than Yorkshire.

The above mention'd method of estimating Rain by pounds, to those of my Family, gave a sufficient Idea of the Propor­tions of the falling Rains, and the Wetness of the different Sea­sons, though they knew not how high it wou'd raise the Wa­ter in a Cylinder Equal, at the bottom to my Tunnel; but to inform others of this with little trouble, in the Table I have sent you the Pounds and Parts are doubled, and these I have rather sent you than those of the whole Pounds, since the same gives both the quantity of half Pounds, and the height in inches, ac­cording to the general way of estimating the quantity of Rain, only with this difference, that for the half Pounds only the last Figure, is a decimal Fraction, and the other the number of the half Pounds, and for the height, the two last Figures denote the Decimal Fra­ction of an inch, and the remainder of the height in inches, so near the truth, that they only fall short of it one inch in [Page 24] 200. which defect is easily supply'd; To this I need only add that the numbers on the right hand, are the summs of all those in the same line, that is, in the first part of several num­bers for Ten Years, so that the last of them shews the summ both of the half Ounces, that have fallen during that space of time, and the height the Water wou'd have been raised in that time also; To this I shall only add one Example; The summ of all the Rain in the Ten first Years 41227. and therefore accord­ing to what has been said 4122(7. is the number of half Pounds, that fell in Compass of the Tunnel during those Ten Years, and 412(27. the height it wou'd have raised the Water during that time: But if you desire to be more Critical, if you add 2(06 its 200th part, you will have 414(33 for the true height; and 41(413 for the mean height by those Ten Years observations; and 412(27 for the mean quantity of half Pounds; by the same method you will have the means for the other Five, viz. Of height 41(78, and 417(8 for the mean number of half Pounds, which means do strangely agree, and both con­sider'd do give for the mean by all the Fifteen Years 41(516 inches in height, which is about ¼ of an inch more than double to that raised by the Water at Paris, which as set down in the Memoirs for the Ingenious, for February last, is stated about 19 ½ French inches, which make 21 English, I have omitted the ac­counts of the Years 87, and 88, which I found faulty by rea­son the Person (who had the charge of noting what Rain fell during my absence several times then from home) did not pun­ctually observe the usual method I had prescribed him. I for­got when I mentioned my way of Gauging by weight that it was grounded upon 22(7368 Cubical inches of Rain Water, being equal in weight to one pound or 12 Ounces Troy, so that dividing any superficies in inches of a Vessel for receiving the Rain Water, by the before mentioned number it will give you the Pounds and parts, that will raise the Water upon that superficies with up-right sides, just an inch, and thus I found that 4(974 Pounds wou'd fill a Cylinder equal at the Bottom to my Tunnel, and one inch high, which you see is very near five Pounds, which [Page 25] you will also find will only raise the Cylinder by 1/200th part; but now I have detained you so long, and I am afraid needlesly, so that I trust to your goodness for Pardon in, and what else you shall find amiss upon the score of my Eyes, which oblige me to trust more to others, than otherwise I shou'd.

I am
Your Humble Servant.
The Table of Rain.

 1687888990919293  Sum
Ianuary  333707197054218  1509
February  393171112168078  922
March  875145476342298  2136
April  468078386498539  1969
May  182244300330093  1149
Iune  302179412416181  1490
Iuly  120218285448112  1183
August  222402193198668  1683
September  442403215605641  2306
October  470765165273514  2457
November  415717230148627  2137
December  368262169892261  1952
Sum  48604291314043724230  20893

These following Observations of the Eclipse of the Sun were communicated by the said Learned Gentleman, in a Letter to Mr. Flamsted which I will first transcribe, and then for the satis­faction of the Reader translate.

[Page 26] Coelum ante Eclipsin valde fuit Pluviosum; attamen nisi de futura serenitate desperassem fere ipsum defectus initium, non minus accurate, quam finem observare, credo, Liquisset. Omnino certas esse omnes has observationes asserere non ausim; quippe nubes frequentissime solem sub­tercurrentes, ventus (que) validior Tubam aliquando quatiens, haud uti (que) justas capi mensuras sivere. Accessit & aliud infortunium, quod cum Phasium, captas mensuras, binis Partibus, duobus Micrometri locis, ostensas, retro numerarem, servus cui scribendi negotium de­mandaveram, vitiose aliquando eas descripsit, quod tamen percepi, & correxi, credo. Quales quales sint observationes, tui esse Iuris jubeo; Exitus locus adeo vertici vicimus erat, ut in quam ab ea partem inclinaret, bene non potuerim definire; etiamsi hora 9. 29. per horologium, cuspides horizonti apparerent Parallelae.

Solis Diameter hora 9. 10 erat 2334; satis, ut putavi praescice.

Deinde accedente sole ad meridiem per lineam longam meridianam horologium justo tardius inventum fuit scrupulis 1. 42. Magno tamen Aequinoctiali sciaterico, quo medias minoresve scrupuli Horarij partes, possum distinguere, horologium toto hoc mane tardius duntaxat 45.

Lineam longam meridianam iterum prima occasione examinabo; interea correctioni per hanc factae potius quam sciaterico fidendum puto. Townleij Latitudo observata (ut ad me scribit) 53. 44. Longitudo a Meridiano Londinensi 9. Circiter scr. hor. ad occasum.

Horahorol. Oscillatorij. hCorrect. p. Lin. Merid. hMensurae Phasium  
8 06 458 08 27A B 119016 09forsan 1109 14 50
8 11 008 12 42C D 193526 15 
18 0019 42A B 140519 04 
21 0022 42C D 180524 30 
26 1427 56A B 150420 47 
34 0035 42C D 171123 13 
42 1543 57A B 155121 03accuratè
46 3048 12C D 170223 20vel 1720 23 15
8 51 458 53 27A B 155321 04accuratè
9 00 009 01 42C D 180924 23 
9 12 349 14 16A B 135718 25 
9 30 559 32 37A B 87211 50 
9 41 159 42 57Precise. Desit Eclipsis, quantum per Aeris Vibra­tionem potui discernere.

It was very Rainy Weather before the Eclipse came on, so that had I not lost all hopes of a clear Sky, my Account of its beginning had been as exact as that of its Exit, I cannot ascertain to you all my Observations, because the Clouds often interve­ned betwixt me and the Sun, and many a blast of Wind discom­pos'd my Tube, and so alter'd the measures I had taken. Ano­ther accident also interposed, for even when I came to compute the Dimensions I had observed of the Phases in two places from two parts of the Micrometer, my Servant that was to note down my observations through mistake had pen'd them very faulty, however I corrected them the best I cou'd. Such as they are, I freely recommend them to you, the place of Exit of the Eclipse was so vertual that I cou'd not possibly determine to what part it inclined from it. However at about 29 Minutes after nine by the Clock, I found there appear'd points Parallel to the Horizon. The Diameter of the Sun betwixt Nine and Ten was 2334 parts as I conjecture Eclips'd; afterwards the Sun coming to the Meri­dian, by a long Meridian line I found the Clock was two slow by one Minute, and 42 seconds, but by a large Equinoctial Dial upon which are drawn Minutes and seconds, I found the Clock during the whole Morning had only been two slow by 45 se­conds, I shall again Examine the Meridian line the first oppertu­nity that offers. However in the mean time, I think we ought rather to confide in the correction made by that, than to rely upon the Aequinoctial Dial. The Eclipse by Mr. Townley was taken in the Latitude of 53 and 44, the Longitude from the London Meridian is about 9 hours to the West.

After this worthy Gentleman, let us mention our much La­mented, and Eminent Country-Man Mr. Ieremiah Horrax. Of whom take the Learned Dr. Iohn Wallis's Character, and account of his Works; This Horrax says he is the same with him that is the Author of that excellent Tract, called Venus in Sole Visa, publish'd by the Famous Hevelius, together with his Mercurius in Sole Visus: Who if he had not been snatch'd away by an un­timely Death, in the flower of his Age, wou'd certainly by his industry, and exactness, which did accompany his great affecti­on [Page 28] to Astronony, have very considerably advanced that Science. Now we have only left us these imperfect Papers, digested not without great care and labour, by that Learned Mathematician Dr. Iohn Wallis Professor of Mathematicks in the University of Oxford; whereto do occur,

First, The Keplerian Astronomy, asserted, and promoted, which this Author undertook, after he had spent much time and great pains in acquainting himself with that of Lansbergius, which he at first embraced with so much eagerness and addition, that it was difficult to divorce him from it; Till at length by the Advertisements of William Crabtree, a Sagacious and Diligent Astronomer at that time, he found that neither the Hypotheses of Lansbergius, were consistent among themselves, nor his Ta­ble agreed with observations exactly made; nor the precepts of them were well demonstrated, nor cou'd be, whatever that Man boasted of his wonderful agreement of his Tables, with the ob­servations of former times; all which Errors being found at last by our Author himself, and withal the Writings of Kepler, and the Rudolphin Tables, by him search'd into, he saw cause to pre­fer them to the Lansbergian, because grounded upon Hypotheses consonant to Nature, and well agreeing with the Heavens, though he found causes, by his accurate observations, to amend even these Tables, yet without a necessity of changing the Hypothesis, in which Work when he was well engaged, he was cut of by Death very Young, in the 23th Year of his Age; His first pieces then were his Disputations against the Astronomy of Lansbergius, in which he clearly demonstrates that the Hypothesis of that Au­thor do neither agree with the Heav'ns, nor among themselves, which argument he carry'd on so far, that having finish'd the four first Observations (as they are here to be found) he had be­gun a few sheets of the fifth, which was about the Diagram of Hipparchus, from which some have pretended exactly to demon­strate the distance of the Sun. After which follow two disputa­tions more, the one of the Coelestial Bodies, and their motions, the other his Answer to the Cavils of Hortensius, against Tycho, so much of the first part of this Volume.

[Page 29] The second contains a good number of extracts out of this Au­thors Letters to his intimate Friend, and industrious Companion in the study of Astronomy, William Crabtree, in which occur ma­ny good Coelestial Observations, interlaced with many notable Discourses, concerning the method of his studies.

The third is a Catalogue of AstronomicalObservations as they were made by our Author, without allowance for the Excentrici­ty of the Eye, which he afterwards Castigated by a Correction fairly written with his own hand.

The fourth is his new Theory of the Moon together with the Lunar numbers of Mr. Flamsted upon it.

To these let us add the curious Experiments and Observations of Thomas Brotherton of Hey, Esq in the County of Lancaster, concerning the growth of Trees, which are as follows; The first Experiment was made in the Year 1671, upon a Crab-Tree a­bout four Inches in Diameter. It was hacked round with an Hatchet, so as to cut pretty deep into the wood, besides cutting of the Bark for about four inches wide; after which it was ob­served to encrease above the said hacking very considerably, and to shoot in length of Wood about one foot; the next year it en­creased considerably, and shot in length about nine inches, but the third Year it died to the very Root.

Much the like was observed in another, part of whose Bark was Eaten off by a Canker, that the lower part stood without encreasing, and by degrees the Wood Rotted and Mortify'd; but the upper part increased to the third Year when it died also.

Most of the following Experiments were tryed on the Abies or Scotch-Firr, and on the Black Poplar with White Bark, and on Hazel or Ash-Trees.

A Scotch-Firr of three Years growth, having a Ring of the Bark cut off of the breadth of three inches, near the bottom of of the stem or stalk, below the uppermost knot, or joint, was observed to grow and shoot out its Top about half a Yard; and the parts all about the Ring to increase very much in thickness, much more than it wou'd have done if the Section had not been [Page 30] made; But all that part of the stock between the said Ring, and the knot next below it increased not at all; but that part that was below the knot increased somewhat, yet not so much as if the said Ring of the Bark, had not been cut off; the second Year it also increased considerably, but not so much as the first Year, but the third Year it died; the Branch that was here pro­duced had the Ring cut off from it, April 1st 1686. and the part above the Section increased, and grew till the 17 of October following, when it was cut off from the Tree; In this space of time the part below the Ring increased not at all, but stood at a stay, but the part above the Ring shot out a new joint, between a Foot and half a Yard, and increased in thickness for the whole length of it, and in all its parts twice as much as it wou'd have done, if it had not been cut, as was apparent by a like Branch on the opposite side of the knot, which was not cut or barked round in the same manner; The Bark also of the part above the Section, swell'd or grew downwards over the woody part (which was bare) above half an inch in breadth.

The usual time for making this Section, was either in March, or the beginning of April; Tryal was made upon some Young Trees, cutting a Helical swath of the Bark, about half an inch in breadth, by leaving a like Helical swath of Bark, to communi­cate betwixt the upper and under part; in this Tryal the diffe­rence of growth succeeded not, but the remaining swath of the Bark swelled downwards, and by the end of the Year, covered the bared part of the Wood; The like event almost follow'd, upon making an invented Section round, of about half an inch in breadth, the upper Bark quickly swelling downward, and join­ing again with the lower. It was also observable, that as the up­per Bark grew downwards, so it increased also in thickness, whereas the Bark below thickned not at all. Several of those Boughs which were about an inch Diameter, and had increased as above, the Summer before were observ'd to out-live the great Frost, and to receive no considerable Damage, whereas others o­therwise order'd, were Killed by it, as will appear by and by more particularly: In the first Figure is represented a Scoth-Firr [Page 31] of three Years growth (it shooting forth every Year, both from the Body and the Branches, a new joint and Circumambient Sprouts to a determinate length) barked with three Rings of a­bout 1 ½ inch broad, each about the middle of the Internodia, or parts of the stock between the joints, at c. b. & a. this in one Year increased and shot forth branchings, as in the second Figure that is the stock at a. which was about the bigness of a Quill, below the Ring to the next joint, continued of the same bigness, but above the Ring it increased, and grew to the bigness of ones Finger, and from the new joint, at e. e. shot out new Limbs and stock, about a quarter of a Yard, which was somewhat big­ger than if there had been no Ring made; next the branch f. f. increased likewise proportionably, by swelling in bigness, and from a new joint shooting out new Body and Limbs, as the top and Body, and the Body of the Tree below the joint h. to the Ring b. increased more than if the Ring had not been made, but the part of the stock below the Ring to the next joint, in­creased not at all; The like shooting forth and increasing, was observed in the second Limbs, joint and stock, below it, g. g. i. to c. between which and k. it increased not; the like also suc­ceeded in the lower Branches l. l. any joint k. and in the stock d. below the joint k.

Figure third represents a young Scoth-Firr of two Years Old, on one of the lowermost Branches c. was made a Ring Section, between the Body, and first knot of the Limb; The following Year, that part of the Limb above the Ring, increased twice or thrice as much as the Corresponding parts of the other Limbs, from the same knot, as a. which increased as if there had been no Section made at B. but the part below b. to the Body, increased not at all.

Figure fifth represents a young Hazet cut into the Body with a deep gash, and the Parts of the Body above and below, cleft upwards, and downwards, and the Splinters a. and b. by wedges kept off from touching each other, or the rest of the Body; these in the following Year were observed to be in the State, repre­sented in the sixth Figure, that is the Splinter a. above the gash, was grown very much, but the Splinter b. below, stood at a stay [Page 32] and grew not, but the rest of the Body at c. grew as if there had been no gash made.

Figure seventh represents a like gash made just above the low­ermost knot, and the part Splinter'd or Cleft, and Wedged off from each other, and from the Body as before, but there is left a Branch upon the lower Splinter, to see what will be the state there of the next Year, or in October next, when it is probable by the other Experiments the lower Splinter and Branch upon it, will be found to have grown and increased, as the Splinter, in the former Experiment did above the gash, though not in the same Proportion.

Figure eight represents four young Poplar-Trees. A. B. C. D. all of equal bigness, growth, situation, and soil, as near as cou'd be found; these were order'd as is represented in the 9th Figure, that is, A. had all its Branches and Top cut off, B. had all its Branches pruned off, but it was left with a small head at the Top, C. had its Branches cut about half way, and those of the upper half left growing; D. was left growing, without being at all pruned or lopped, the event was expected, the suc­cess was found to be thus, A. in the following Year shot out ma­ny Twigs round about, but the Body encreased but little in height or bigness; B. shot out likewise many Twigs, where it had been pruned, and the top Branches and top also encreased considerably, and the Body also increased much more in height and bigness than did the former; A. C. increased much more in all its parts than B. But D. increased in Limbs, height, and bigness most of all, swelling in bigness and stretching in heighth, and spreading in its Boughs much more than C. and in about ten Years time, was more than four times as big as A.

The same worthy Person also observed, that all the Poplars, that has been pruned died in the Great Frost, 1684. in so much that in 25 that were so order'd, he observed 19 to be killed by it, and remaining to be very weak and hardly able to recover, and increased very little in the following Years; These Poplars were about 30 Foot high, and had only a small head left at the Top, unlopped, of about 4 or 5 Foot, and were pruned the Spring [Page 33] before the Great Frost; He observed also that divers of those that had been pruned, two Summers before the Frost, were kil­led by it; but not one of those that had been pruned at all were hurt by it; He took notice likewise both in Lancashire and Cheshire, that Trees of 60 Foot in height, that had been pruned, and had only a small top left, were also killed by the said Frost, whereas those of the same kind and heighth which stood near to them, and had not been pruned, continued to flourish, and suffer'd no harm thereby. Several of those Branches of about an inch Diameter, and Trees that had been barked round, as above theSpring before the Great Frost, out-lived the Violence of the same, and the preceding Winter.

Where these prunings had been tryed upon Trees Twenty Foot high, the difference of their increase was sensible the following Summer, but in 7 or 8 Years time the difference is Prodigious, the unpruned, Trees growing several times bigger than the others that were pruned, both in Body and Branches ev'n to Admiration; He hath often observed also that when the top Branches wou'd shoot out, and grow two Foot, or more, in length, the lower branches wou'd not shoot above four inches; and farther that in the Branches of the Scotch-Firr, the joints above the Rings bark­ed round wou'd increase, and grew much bigger in three, than they wou'd in five Years, if the said Rings were not cut of.

The same reason upon discoursing some other particular en­quiries about the spreading and increase of the Roots, assured that he had observed a very large Pinaster, about two Foot and half Diameter, and of an height proportionable, (viz. of about 20 Yards, the lowest Boughs of which were about 30 Foot above the ground) did spread and flourish on every side alike, though it had no Root at all towards three quarters of its Situation, but only toward one quarter, into which it spread its Roots very far, and large, divers of them reaching above 70, or 80, Foot from the Body of the Tree, the Reason of which spreading was occa­sion'd by its being Planted just within the square Angle of the Corner of a deep thick and strong Stone Wall, which was a kind of Banking, or Warfing, against a River that ran by it; this Tree I say, though it had nourishment only from one Quarter [Page 34] of four to its Roots, yet did the same flourish, and spread equally on every side.

Upon consideration of these and divers other Observations and Experiments, Mr. Brotherton is of Opinion (1.) That the sap, most of it, if not all, ascends in the Vessels of the Lignous part of the Tree, and not in the Cortical part, nor between the Corti­cal and Lignous Parts.

(2.) That increase and growth of a Tree in thickness is by descent of the sap, and not by the ascent, and if there were no descent, a Tree wou'd increase but very little, if at all.

(3.) That there is a continual Circulation of the sap all the Summer Season, and during such time as the sap is stirring, and not a descent at Michaelmas only, as some have held.

To me it seems very probable, that the Bodies of Plants, as well as those of moving Animals, are nourished and increased by a double Food, the one an impregnated Water, and the other an impregnated Air, and that without a convenient supply of these two, the Vegetable cannot subsist, at least not increase; these do mutually mix, and coalesce, and parts of the Air convert to Water, and parts of Water to Air, as some of these latter are rarify'd and freed from their Chains, and become Spiritual and Airy, so others of the forementioned, are clogged, and setter'd, and become debased. To this purpose all Plants, as well as Ani­mals, have a twofold kind of Roots, one that Branches, and spreads into the Earth, and another that spreads and shoots in­to the Air, both kinds of Roots serve to receive and carry their proper nourishment to the Body of the Plant, and both serve al­so to convey and carry off the useless Recrements; Useless I mean any farther, within the Body of the Plant, though useful to it when they are seperated, and without it, the one for season­ing the Earth and Water, wherein it is Planted, and the other for seasoning the Air, the method of which I have elsewhere explained.

To these, I hope without offence, may be subjoined two Letters, writ by my self some Years ago, to that Learned Society; for whatever is drawn from the Transactions relating to these parts, [Page 35] though before published, may yet give a diverting information to many Gentlemen, who are strangers to those Papers, the first Letter directed to Dr. Plot Secretary to the Royal Society, runs thus.

Since you gave me some Specimens of the Water of Latron, and likewise of Nitrian Nitre, I have found that those descripti­ons the Ancients gave of it, exactly agree with those Specimens we have here; Their Encomiums of it were so many, and so different the Names, which they ascribed to it, as a Sceptick indeed might equally Question whether or no they writ of any thing else, or whether or no they writ of any such thing, that we might therefore better understand the writings of the Ancients concerning it, and the Phaenomena which it afforded here, I have thought convenient to make use of this method: I shall in the first place shew whence Nitre had its Denomination; in the se­cond, the different Names which Ancient Authors ascribe to it; in the third, the different places whence it comes; In the fourth, a description of it as it is when a Compositum; In the fifth, the number of its principles when Chymically resolv'd; in the sixth, the rise of them; in the seventh, its Seperation from the Water of Latron; in the eighth, its use in Physick; in the ninth, in Agriculture and Mechanicks; in the tenth, wherein it differs from Sal Armoniac; in the eleventh from Salt Petre.

That all Nitre took its Name from a Town in Aegypt, called Nitria, I shall take for granted; I shall therefore in the next place give an account of the different Names which by Authors are as­cribed to Nitre.

By Hypocrates it is sometimes called Sal Aegypti, Sal in Aquis crescens, & Nitrum Rubrum, By Basil, Serpens Terrenus, By Vi­truvius, Flavilla Salis, By Pliny, Spuma Nitri, & Ros pinguioris Naturae; By the Graecians, Halmiraga; By Encelius, it is called Cryfo­colla, Baurac, Sal Lucidum; Sal Petrosum, Sal Anderenae; but the word Baurac by the Babilonians is less restrained, for they divide Nitre into two Species, the one they term Sal Petrosum Purpureum, Modice Ama­rum, the other Species they term Baurac, which they used in Season­ing of their Meat; the former of these may probably be the Nitre here spoke of, and the latter Salt Petre. By Iungius and Hofman, it is called [Page 36] Cerberus Chymicus, and Sal Infernalis; By Rulandus and Iohnson, it is called Faex Vitri, and Cinis Clavellatus, and so by Fallopius, and sometimes Cabalatar, Algali, Anatron, Tincar, Sago; Here likewise is to be noted that Aphronitrum, called by Schwenckfeldius in his Tracts de Fossibus Silesiae, flos Asiae, and Spuma Nitri, is not, as I conceive, specifically distinct from the Natron here spoke of. For according to Molenbrochius, and Iunken, that will Ferment with an Acid, and is commended in the same Distempers, as the Nitre of Nitria; again it is said by Pliny, fontibus quibusdam innatat, Vide­tur (que) nilo deferri.

By Encelius it is said to be found in Armenia, Rabbath, Africa, Rome, Aegypt, or Babylon, and therefore by him is divided into six Species, Nitrum, vel est Armen. Afric. Aegypt. Rabbath; Rom. Vel. Babyl. By Wormius it is said to be found in Nova Hi­spania; The Natron may be described thus, it is an Alkaly Salt perforated like a Sponge, and of a Lixivial taste, and thus I find it described by Pliny, Mathiolus, and Agricola. Its Principles I take to be chiefly two, viz. a Sal Marine, and an Urinous Salt.

That it contains a sal Marine seems manifest, by these Experi­ments, first, because that a Solution of the Natron has much of the tast that a Solution of Sal Marine hath, secondly, in Evaporati­on the Particles of the Natron incrustated upon the surface of the Water, as the Particles of Sea-Salt do in Evaporation. Thirdly, because the Natron is perforated, which proceeds as I suppose from a Sal Marine, for that when it Chrystallizeth shooteth into little Cavities; Fourthly, if the Natron be mixed with Salt of Tartar, it emits the same Spirit as Sal Armoniac, when mixt with the same Salt. And Lastly, That it contains a Sea Salt seems plain from Cesalpinus. Says he, Efflorescit etiam sponte non solum in salinis ad similitudinem lanuginis canescentis, sed etiam in Vasis in quibus sal continetur; But here it is to be noted, that though the Nitrian Water is of a blushy Colour, and makes a brisk fermenta­tion with an Acid, yet a solution of Natron looks clear, and will not ferment with an Acid; the reason why a solution of the Natron looks clear, though the Nitrian Water, which is but a solution of the same Salt, is of a blushy Colour, may perhaps be this.

[Page 37] I suppose that the Water of Latron receives its redness from a red clammy substance, which serves chiefly to cement the two Salts together, and this I the rather conjecture, because after a solution of the Natron had pass'd through a Filtre, there stuck to it a red clammy Matter and the solution was clear, and the rea­son why a solution of the Natron will not ferment with an Acid I conceive to be this, because in a perfect dissolution its parts being seperated one from another by the parts of the Water, their strug­lings are too weak to make an Effervescency with an Acid, and in this I was farther confirmed by these two Experiments.

I found that if into a solution of the Natron, I pour'd an Acid while the Water looked Whitish or Disturbed, the Salt not be­ing perfectly dissolved, it made a brisk Fermentation, but when the Water came to be clear, the Salt being then perfectly dissolved, if I then poured an Acid upon it, it wou'd not ferment; I like­wise found that this solution being Evaporated to a third part, wou'd ferment again.

Its second Principle I take to be an Urinous Salt, First, be­cause if mixed with Salt of Tartar, it smells like Sal Armoniac when mixed with the same Salt.

Secondly, when it was distilled with Salt of Tartar in a retort, it afforded an Urinous Spirit as piercing as Spirit of Sal Armo­niac.

I come now to the rise of its Principles Sal Marine, and a volatile Alkaly, Sal Marine being a Fossile Salt, I shall take for granted it receives from the Earth, and shall endeavour to illu­strate it hath its volatile Alkaly from the Air; First, because it is said by Pliny spumam Nitri (which is the Natron here spoke of) Antiqui negebant fieri nisi ros cecidisset. By Monsieur de le Chambre it is affirmed, that three or four days before the Nile begins to overflow, there falls a certain dew which hath a fermenting vir­tue, and leav'ns a Past exposed to the Air, and at that time saith Pliny, and Le Chambre, the Nitre Pits grow full of Nitre, and sands. Vanssebius, and several say, that though 500 in a day die at Grand Cairo of the Plague, before the beginning of the Inundation of the Nile, yet the very day after there does not one [Page 38] die, which doubtless cou'd not proceed from any other reason, than because at that time the Air was impregnated with this vola­tile Alkaly, for at that time the Nitre Pits grow full, and this dew falls; This I think may sufficiently hint to us the great use of its volatile Spirit; Especially in Pestilential Distempers.

Lastly, about that time the Nile begins to o'erflow those Spe­cimens which we had here, grew heavier by being exposed to the Air; Here it is to be noted that this Alkaly is not made so by Fire, I cannot therefore conclude with Helmont, that all Alkalies are made so by that Element. The next thing to be consider'd is its seperation from the Water in Latron, of which the Learned Dr. Huntington, who was at Nitria, gives us this account; There is a Town in Aegypt, called Nitria, which gives name to the Ni­trian desert, where there is a Lake called Latron, taking up an Area of six or seven Acres, situate about thirty Miles West and by South from Terena a Town lower upon the Nile than Grand Cairo, and about the same distance Northwest from the Pyramids. From the bottom of this Lake ariseth this sort of Nitre, call'd Natron, to the top (as they do apprehend) and there by the Heat of the Sun condenseth into this kind of substance, that all the Nitre comes from the bottom to the Top I dare not affirm, I shall there­fore premise some Phoenomena it afforded in Evaporation, before I give you my conjecture about it; I took an Evaporating Glass which held about four Ounces, and pour'd into it two Ounces of Nitrian Water, this I set upon a sand Furnace, giving it Fire by degrees, as soon as the Water was warm, the particles of Nitre began to swim upon its surface, in stragling and uneven numbers, these after a while United, and afterwards there arose a Salt suffi­cient to Colour the whole superficies of the Water, I took then a thin Glass and skinn'd off this Ice, but cou'd scarce take it all of before it was seconded by another, and thus the Salt did rise successively in Films, as long as there was any Water in the Glass, these Films had the Colour and taste of the Nitre that came from Nitria, and did like it ferment with an Acid; And these are they which by Pliny are called Flos Salis, and if I mistake not, the same with that which Herodotus saith, they make their Mummy with, [Page 39] if therefore by the Languishing heat of a Digesting Furnace, the the Nitrous Particles cou'd seperate themselves from the Water, and over that spread themselves in an Ice, it may be as probable that by the greater heat of the Sun, the Nitre of Latron is sepe­rated from the Water after the same manner, and as in the Evapo­ration of other mineral Waters, when the Water is not strong e­nough to hold up the Salt, it is generally cover'd with a thin Film; so I suppose in the Evaporation of Natron some Particles of the Water being flown away, the Particles of the Sal Marine branch one into another, and so incrustate upon the surface of the Water.

In this Hypothesis I was the farther confirm'd by this Experi­ment: I took some of the Natron and dissolved it in Water, and set it to Evaporate, and I found that the Salt did not incrustate upon the Water, till three parts of the Water was Evaporated, it did not there­fore seem probable that all the Nitre came from the bottom to the top, and so condensed by the heat of the Sun, but that they incru­stated when the saline Particles branched one into another, some of the Aqueous parts being exhaled.

The reason why its volatile Alkaly in Evaporation does not fly quite away, is because it is held there by the Sal Marine.

The next thing to be consider'd is its use in Physick; by Pliny it is commended in Ulcers, and Inflammations, Palsey in the Tongue, Consumptions, Cholick Haemorhagies, Purulent Ears, and Intermitting Fevers; By Galen it is said, desiccat, & digerit, Mul­to autem majus ejus spuma; By Agricola its prescribed in the same cases, commended as a Cephalick, of wonderful success in the Griping of the Guts, intermitting Fevers, and the Leprosy, Mathiolus commends it in the same cases; By Hypocrates it is com­mended when the Menstrua are obstructed, and again saith he, purgat humores albos, convenit in abortionibus ubi puer haud exierit, he likewise commends it in some kinds of barrenness, and to this Kircher in his Mundus subteraneus alludes, when he says, Nili aqua in potum redit non modo saluberrimum, sed & faecundandis mulieribus mite opportanum; and Petrus Giurius, gives us this memorable story out of Caesius, that when Philadelphus King of Aegypt Mar­ried his Daughter Berenice, to Antiochus King of the Assyrians, [Page 40] he Commanded his Daughter to Drink of the Water of Nile, that she might make her Husband happy in a numerous Off-Spring; By the Testimony therefore of Hypocrates, Galen, Ma­thiolus, Diascorides, Pliny, and Agricola, it appears to have been of great use in Physick. But here it is to be noted, that when Nitre is prescribed by the foremention'd Authors, that Nitre which is an ingredient in Gun-Powder is not to be understood; Amongst the Moderns we have this account of it, Monsieur du Closs is of Opinion, that most of the Mineral-Waters in France, are impregnated with this sort of Nitre, and that all their Cures are done by it. Molenbrochius, affirms a Tincture of Aphronitum to be of wonderful Efficacy in the Stone, this I the rather Credit, because it is said by Iunken, in his Medicus, the Nitre of Nitria is of so piercing a Spirit, that it will not permit either Stone or Rock to be thereabout; And Ten Rine in his Meditations de Ve­teri Medicina, affirms it to be of wonderful success in the same Distempers.

The next thing to be consider'd is its use in Agriculture, and in Treating of this, I think, it convenient to premise one Phae­nomenon which it afforded in Evaporation: when the Salts had spread themselves over the Water in an Ice, those thin Plates af­ter a while wou'd break, and ascend in perpendicular lines to the top of the Glass, I do say therefore, that Nitre may be said to fertilize the ground after this manner; Its volatile Particles be­ing by some subterraneous Fire, or else by the heat of the Sun, they do quickly ascend into the small Tubes of the Plant, and by their Elastick Nature carry along with them, or force before them, those Particles which as they differently convene, consti­tute the different parts of the Plant.

But this conjecture will be made something the more probable, by an Experiment in Kircher, where he says, if you take a wood­en Tube, and put into it Tartar, Quick-Lime, Salt, and the Urine of a Wine Drinker, reduced into a Mass, which is to be hardned in the Sun, and after that set in a cold Cellar, by the help of Salt-Petre from the beforemention'd Mass, you will not without admiration see Flowers branch out of it; yea, such is the force [Page 41] of Nitre, that if in a Glass kept close shut, you put the juices of some Nitrous Herbs, on the before-mention'd Mass, Nitre con­tain'd within it being pregnant with Spirits, will force it self through the very Pores of the Glass.

M. de La Chambre says, Plants do grow in Aegypt in such abun­dance, that they wou'd Choak one another, if not hindred by throwing Sand upon the Fields, insomuch, that the Aegyptians must take as much pains in lessening the fatness of their Land, as other Nations do to increase the fatness of it.

In Mechanicks we have this account of it, its said by Pliny, Cap. de Vitri inventione, that a Company of Merchants being thrown upon a shore, where there were not any Stones to be found, were forced to take great pieces of Aegyptian Nitre out of their Ships, and make Walls, upon which they hung their Boil­ing Kettle, the Nitre being heated by the Fire mix'd with the Sand, ran into several Streams of Glass, which afterwards hinted the way of making Glass, it is likewise of use in Dying; for Pliny and Vitrivius affirm, that by the help of this, true Azure is made, and that without this, there cannot be a true shadow.

In the last place, I come to consider wherein it differs from Salt Petre, and Sal Armoniac, it may be distinguished from Salt Petre; First by its fermenting; it will ferment with any acid, but Salt Petre will not, I found it wou'd ferment with Vinegar, as the old Commentators observe in their Comments upon Ieremiah and the Proverbs; but Salt Petre will not, which gave occasion to some in those Texts to alter the Word Nitre.

Secondly, It may be distinguish'd from Salt Petre in its taste, for Natron hath a Lixivial taste, the other not.

Thirdly, By the volatile Spirit it affords: For from one comes over a volatile Alkaly, but from the other a Corrosive Acid.

Fourthly, The Natron affordeth a red clammy substance, insi­pid, but the other not, this Clammy substance, if I mistake not, is that which by Pliny is called Aerugo Salis, this it hath from the Earth, and therefore it is again said by Pliny, sunt ibi Nitraria in quibus, & rufum exit à colore Terrae.

Fifthly, Like Salt Petre it will not Chrystallize.

[Page 42] Sixthly, in the fire it makes no Detonation, but in this it re­sembles Salt Petre, as that by the Flowers of Sulphur is made in­to a Sal Prunellae, so this if you drop Spirit of Sulphur upon it, shoots into Pyramidal Salt, that is not by the tast distinguishable from Sal Prunellae, though its tast before was Lixivial; From Sal Armoniac, it may be distinguished first by its Colour, for the Na­tron is redish, the other not; secondly, by the Texture in Sal Armoniac the parts seem close, and firmly knit together, but the Natron is Spungy and Perforated, thirdly, if mixt with Sal Armoniac, Sal Armoniac Emits the same Spirit, as it does when mixt with Quicklime.

But I think it comes more near to the Nature of Sal Armoniac, than Salt Petre, first, because it is composed of a Sea-Salt, and an Urinous Alkaly, secondly, like Sal Armoniac when dissolved in Water, it makes it extreamly cold, and as Franciscus Hernan­dez says, in his History of Mexico, it produces the same effect when dissolved in Wine; but I have not at present the conveni­ence of trying this, the Specimens now being but small.

I cannot therefore conclude with Kircher, that the Natron is not Specifically distinct from Salt Petre, or with Libavius, that it is a Composition of Alum, Sea Salt, and White-Wine; These all are the Observations I have been able to make at present concerning this Mineral; if any more occur, you shall have an account of them. Note here I was the first that ever prepared a volatile Alkaly from that Salt.

The Second Letter concerning Digestion take as follows.

Shou'd I reckon up here the many Controverted Hypotheses of Anatomists concerning this subject, and set up a new one of my own; it might perhaps seem a piece of fond presumption: I shall not therefore be so vainly Opinionative, as to think I have fully explained here the Nature of Digestion, but shall only give you an account of an Artificial Digester, which I hope may something illustrate the Natural one, It has been observed by Helmont Maebius, Tachenius, and the Honourable Mr. Boyle, that Meats by being kept in an acid Liquor, wou'd look extreamly White; But I do not find, that by the help of a Salt, that is [Page 43] meerly an Acid, there can be any Chyle prepared from any Meats; Wedelius is of Opinion, that Chyle is nothing but a mixture of Oil, and Serum; Tilingius affirms it is made by a Nitrous Salt, Dr. Harvey by Tritruration; Dr. Willis by an Acid and Sulphur; Sylvius and Diemerbrook by the Salva, Dr. Mayow by a Nitroaeri­al principle; Galen and Aristotle by Heat; others by a Ferment spewed from the Glands at the bottom of the Stomach; others by the relicks of the meat grown sour. So many different Opi­nions, I shall neither endeavour to reconcile nor decide; I shall therefore only lay down the Phoenomena, this Liquor afforded, and from thence draw inferences as probable conjectures; But shall in the first place premise a description of this digesting Li­quor, and see how far it may probably Parallel the natural fer­ment of the Stomach. The taste of it is like Meat vomited out of a full Stomach, something sour, but will not ferment with an Alkaly.

It is prepared from Spirit of Sulphur, Spirit of Harts-Horn, the Chyle of a Dog, and is Saliva; it is pellucid and without any smell; the Salt that it shoots into is Cubical; upon Veal it afford­ed these Phoenomena, into a Dram of this Liquor, I put a piece of Veal the bigness of a Nut, and set it upon a digesting Fornace, in two hours time there came from the Meat a Liquor, that had the Tast and Colour of Chyle, and the Meat was afterward Lighter, Dry, and Insipid, and it afforded the same Phoenomena likewise in Beef, Mutton, or any other Meat I cou'd meet with: And here it is to be noted, tho' it has been affirmed by some, that the same thing may be done by acid Liquors only, yet since by all the Tryals I have made upon them, I have not yet observed them, I hope my Scepticism in this Case may be pardonable; If therefore we now consider, by the help of this Menstruum, there came from the before-mention'd Meats, a Liquor which had the Colour, and Tast of Chyle, and if we farther consider, that the Tast of this Menstruum is not distinguishable, from the Tasts of Meats vomited out of a full Stomach, I hope I may, without being thought fond of an Hypothesis, conjecture, that by some such Menstruum, the Meat is Digested in the Stomach; [Page 44] But here I wou'd not be thought to affirm that by a liquid Men­struum only, the Meats are digested in the Stomach, but that there are likewise required these farther requisites in some or in most Creatures; First, That the Stomach receives a gentle heat from the Liver, it is therefore for this reason, said by the Learned Glisson, Calor hepatis in hepate est actio, & Ventriculo est Usui. Se­condly, That the Stomach have a Natural Situation, for says Riolanus, interdum Ventriculus propendit us (que) ad umbilicum ut obser­vatum in Cadaveribus, quod vitae coctionem multum incommodat, and Vesalius in his Anatomy, Lib. 4. gives us this Example, Observa­vi Omentum in scrotum, devolutum, & auctum Ventriculum, ex sede sua destraxisse, adeo ut munus ejus deficeret. Thirdly, it is assisted by the Omentum, these may be argu'd from those Creatures that have no Caul helping concoction by doubling their hinder Legs, and resting their Bellies upon them as Hares, and Coneys. A second instance may be brought from Valentinus; Andreas Molen­brochius in Miscellaneis curiosis, Ann. 1670. Militaris quidam vir, dum viveret nil nisi Ventriculum accusabat, quod nullum cibum ap­peteret, coqueret (que) cui ad confortandum Ventriculum multa adhibita fuere, sed omnia incassum, dissecto cadavere, Omentum plane putrefactum est, ventriculo reliquis (que) Visceribus Salvis; ex quo colligitur, Omentum ad Ventriculi coctionem non parum facere; Fourthly, its necessary that the Stomach have a Tunica Villosa; First, because that by that it is enabled to divide the Meat into Parcels, which undoubted­ly must much Facilitate the Operation of the natural Ferment, as we see all Menstruums, will sooner dissolve Metals, when they are filed into Parcels, than when they continue in the Lump; Secondly, if it had not a Tunica Villosa, the Tunica Carnosa, wou'd be apt to be too much distended, by our Meat and Drink, which wou'd necessarily weaken the Tonical motion of the Stomach, and consequently therefore its Digestion.

Fifthly, That there be right Digestion, its necessary that there be Windings of the Intestines, for if it were not for these, the Digested Meat wou'd move too fast from the Stomach, and so torment us with perpetual Hunger, which assertion, I think, may be sufficiently confirmed by these two Instances, the [Page 45] first is from Cabrollius, Observation the 10th, and Riolanus Anthrop. Lib. 2. Cap.

Firminus Chaudonius voracitate erat Erysictonaea, cui causam prae­buit, quod nec stomachi nec intestinorum figuram ullam habebat propor­tionatam unicum a Pylori locem ad anum, intestinum erat sine ullo an­fractu, cum (que) aliorum intestina quatuordecim aequant ulnas, hujus vix ad quatuor spithimas accedebant in formam Literae. S. the second instance is taken from a Creature in Lithuania, and Muscovy, that generally feeds upon its prey, till its Belly be swelled like a Bladder, then conveys it self to some strait place, and so violent­ly forces the Meat out of its Stomach and Intestines, and then immediately returns to its prey with as craving an Appetite as be­fore; which continual and insatiable Hunger, is judged to proceed from the straitness of its intestines, for as the Learned Pawius ob­served in its dissection, its Guts had no Circumvolutions, or Windings; From these therefore it is plain, that besides a fer­menting Liquor in the Stomach, other External means concur to Digestion. I shall therefore in the last place, inquire what may probably be the ingredients of the natural Ferment, and so conclude; The ingredients of the natural-Ferment, I take be these; The Sa­liva, the Succus of the Glands of the Stomach, and a Nitro-Aereal Spirit of the Nerves, that the Saliva is an ingredient may seem pro­bable from these Reasons; First, because that by the help of this, Meats though impregnated with different principles, may be made to mix with a Menstruum; for as the Learned Steno has it, Pag. 27. de glandulis oris. Saliva omnia ferre valet, sive intra Corpus, sive extra Corpus examinaveris, nihil invenies quod illa respuet, nihil cui sine pugna non associetur. Secondly, since the Saliva is impreg­nated with a volatile Salt, it is probable that that may help Di­gestion. The second ingredient I take to be a Liquor, that is separated by the Glands in the bottom of the Stomach; and this I shall evince by the Authority of the Famous Willis, and Silvius de Le Boe, and first from Dr. Willis in his Pharmaceutice rationalis, pag. 6. Tunica haec villosa in postica sive Convexa ejus superficie, qua Tunicae Nerveae cohaeret, glandulis annulatis numerosissimis ubi (que) consita est, quae proculdubio vasorum in Tunica Nervea dehiscentium ora Con­tegunt; [Page 46] ac (uti Videtur.) Humorem illis destinatum aut ab ijs depo­situm, immediatius excipiunt, ac percolant; Sylvius, pag. 881. gives us this account of it; Hoc Chylificans fermentum, in recens natorum vitulorum, ventriculis reperitur crassiusculum, dicitur (que) coagulum, sensim autem minuitur, ac in adultis, glutinis instar, offenditur liqui­diusculum, inter ventriculi rugas haerens; By these therefore it seems probable, that the Glands in the Tunica Villosa, separate a fer­menting Liquor; and its farther observed, that those Creatures which have the most of these Glands, are the most voracious; Lastly, that the Nitro-Aereal Spirits of the Nerves, are ingre­dient of the Stomachical ferment, seems reasonable from the Ar­guments of Dr. Mayow, pag. 55. He argues thus, Iam vero cum Spiritus Animales, à particulis Nitro-Aereis constant, haud difficile erit intellectu, quomodo effectus predicti, ab iisdem in ventriculo perficiun­tur, quanquam enim Spiritus Nitro-Aereus acidus non est, ab eodem tamen ferrum corroditur, vitriola perficiantur, Salia fixa ad fluorem per­ducuntur, rerum (que) compages, tanquam ab universali menstruo, solvun­tur; These therefore, are my Thoughts concerning Digestion, but here is nothing in these Dogmatically asserted; If therefore any Hypothesis here may be found Erroneous, upon better grounds I shall readily lay it down.



BEfore I enter upon the Treatise of Distempers, I think, it may be suitable to my present business, to insert here some preternatural remarks on various Phoenomena found in Human, and Animal Bodies of different Species; I have now by me Red Stones, and others of a Chalky matter taken out of the Calf of a Man's Leg; from another voided by stool, a stony substance cover'd over with a Body resembling a Spunge, from others concreted, bile Stones perfectly Triangular, and smooth as polished Marble, taken out of the Vesica fellea of an Ox, from another a substance exactly like that of the Bark of a Tree; This was presented to me my worthy Friend Henry Bradshaw, of Marple, Esq I have likewise by me a perfect Shell taken out of the Bladder of a Hog, hair Balls taken out of the Stomachs of Calves, Cows, and Oxen are familiar enough, as to spungy and stony substances, in the Bowels and Bodies of Men and Women, it is most probable they are produced by a mixture of Marine and Bilous Particles, converting the aliment, and the juices in those parts into those Bodies; But the Vegetation of Spunges not ing perfectly discover'd, pretend not in this matter to be positive, for none ever yet cou'd discover their Seeds, so that they seeming to be only Concretions of various Bodies, from Sea-Wa­ter, the Hypothesis concerning these may challenge the more probability; as to Shells found in Animals: The illustration of these will the better appear by giving you an account of the For­mation of Shells in general, which may be reduced into two Kinds, the Pearly, and the Chalky kind, the former are composed of several Laminae, and frequently contain Pearls, as Muscles, and Oysters, the Lobster, and Coc [...]le, &c. seems to be concreted Chalky substances, the Pearl it self is likewise com­posed of various Laminae, and is the most volatile part of the Mater Perlarum, but of that I have sufficiently treated before [Page 48] to which I refer you, these kind of shells are composed of Oily Saline, and Viscid Particles, and are indurated by their Saline and the Nitrous Bodies they imbibe from the Air, not much un­like those Concretions Observable in the mixtures of Alkalies, and Acids. The Chalky Shells are nothing but a mixture of Alkalious Saline and Terrene parts, and in their first separation from the Fish are Viscid, and Pellucid, and receive their hard­ness, and Colours from various mixtures of the Particles of the Air; The truth of this Hypothesis is evident from their Calci­nations, Fermentations, Solutions, and gradual Vegetations; now the Shells of the Fishes being formed after this manner, it may not be difficult to account for Shells sometimes found in the Blad­ders of Animals, since there is no Animal but what contains a sufficient Proportion of such Saline and Terrene Particles. As to Hair Balls they are usually found in that part of the Stomach of the above mentioned Beasts called the Reticulum, or manifold. They are generally of a Black, or Dusky shining Colour, not much unlike that of Bezoar Stone found in the Bowels of Indian Goats, under the superficies is a stony substance, but will not as Bezoar ferment with an Acid, nor indeed with an Alkaly. Wherefore to me it seems probable, it may be a Con­cretion of the Succus of the Glands, Choler, and the Mucus of the Stomach, which may reasonably be supposed to indurate in­to that matter, the liquid parts being cast off by the innate heat of the Stomach, the more Terrene ones must consequently fix and incrustate, in those Cells which are not to be discover'd in other Creatures. The Hairs contain'd in these are usually short and broken, which by the rough superficies of the Tongues of these Creatures, either by sucking in, or licking them, they are convey'd into the Cells of the Ventricles, and there formed into a Globular Figure; for though some may urge that their Ventri­cles abounding with Glands, those Hairs might as well be formed there, as in other parts of the Body, as sometimes in the Kid­nies, yet that conjecture is groundless, because the Hairs there are fixed and terminated upon Glands; but these Balls are inde­pendent of the Stomach, and seem not to have ever been inserted in any Glandules there.

[Page 49] And now before I proceed to Distempers in general, I shall beg leave to insert some few, peculiar rather to these, than the more Southward parts of the Kingdom; The first is the Felon only incident to Infants, and usually in their first Year; it breaks out upon the Body like an Itch, with an inflammation attending it; The Face, and Head, and sometimes the Arms, and other parts of the Body are over-spread with a White or Yellow Scurf, not unlike that in the recedence of the Small-Pox; It is certain this nauseous Distemper is very pernicious in these tender Blooms; But again, those Infants that have it not, are commonly unhealthful; The Origine of this Distemper must certainly come from the Saline Particles of the Air, and the same temper of the Milk, occasion'd doubtless from the plenty of Salt Meats, and Lea­ven'd Bread, the too common Food of these parts, the Blood thus saturated with these Particles, and they separated by the Miliary Glands of the Cutis, must necessarily stagnate, and consequently inflame, and corrupt, whence inevitably follows this Epidemical Scab, or Psora.

The method of Physick in this case is but small, since it may ea­sily be taken off with a little Calomelanos, or Syr. Cichor cum Rhab, and Anointing the parts with Ol. Ros. Camphorat. Sometimes the Poor Infants take the Distemper from their Nurses, who have frequent­ly the Itch, and in those it is the more difficultly Cured, where­fore I cou'd heartily wish the Gentry, who often Nurse forth their Children, wou'd be very cautious in their choice of these Per­sons.

The Rickets, and Scrophulous cases, are likewise very com­mon amongst us, but chiefly occasion'd by the Milk of Nurses with Child, who for a small advantage prostitute their Consci­ences, to an unpardonable Wickedness, and make no scruple by this means to ruin Hundreds, the Act is so opprobrious, and the Mischiefs so numerous, that for my part, I think, Romulus and Remus, when nourished by the Milk of a Wolf, on the Banks of Tyber, received a more Palatable, and much more healthful Diet. Scrophulous cases may be ranked amongst the Opprobria Medicorum. They may be divided into these Classes, Strumous, Glandulous, [Page 50] Cutaneous, and Osseous, the first may be termed Mesenterical, the Glands there being obstructed, and thence ensue the Rickets, or Consumption; the other species are attended very often with that Herculean Distemper, called a Spina Ventosa, I have seen the Scrophulous Glands of the Mesentery, impleted with a pel­lucid Liquor, not unlike the White of an Egg, and sometimes like Honey, which no doubt proceeds from no other cause than the Serum made too Viscid by its saline Particles, which then stagnates distends and swells up the insterstices of the Fibres, and thence proceed their bigness, and hardness, this humour being long entertain'd, and lodged there, at length acquires so high an A­crimony, as by the perpetual Corrugations of the Fibres, they be­come Cancerous, and very difficult, if not incurable, wherefore in this Case, before the Patient is too much Emaciated, or the He­ctick too far advanced, after the common Method has not An­swer'd, it is prudent, as well as necessary to attempt a Salivation, managed with great care, and discretion, as to the Cutaneous Scro­phules, occasion'd by a Viscid Lympha, distending the Miliary Glands; their Tumours are usually soft, white, and without pain, and common both in Young, and adult Persons, but are by a gentle Salivation easily removed; In the Spina Ventosa in the joints, or elsewhere, the Bone is Carious, and the Humour so Virulent, it swells the Bone like an Honey-Comb, and some­times throws it off in Exfoliations, or by digesting it in a puru­lent matter, this is seldom, or difficulty Cured, but often terminates in a Consumption; I have known some linger long in this Ma­lady, actual Cauteries apply'd to the Bones, and Salivation car­ry'd on very regularly, and that too for no short time, yet all these processes unsuccessful; I cou'd wish our Learned Chirurge­ons in this case wou'd make their utmost Applications, for the discovery of some specifick to correct this Humour, I have often seen a bright Silver Probe, turn'd to a Livid Colour by merely passing it into the Orifice, wherefore to me it seems probable some potent Alkaly might be thought of to be of service here.

[Page 51] And now having dispatched my remarks on the preceding par­ticulars, I shall enter on the Treatise of other Chronical Diseases, and since after all my Observations in Natural History, Man justly assumes the noblest part in the Creation, for whose good each individual in its proper Sphere does, or ought to Act in this World; he only then may Challenge our strictest enquiries: Here indeed is a Field large enough, and a subject too Copious for these Sheets, I shall therefore contract my self on the several Heads, and be as short as the subjects will admit, and shall first begin with that Distemper called the Scurvy, as being the Ba­sis of many others.


Of the SCURVY.

I Thought it necessary to give a full account of this Distemper, that I might thereby more fully illustrate those that are Con­comitant with it, in order to which, I shall in the first place, ac­quaint you with its various Denominations amongst the Greeks, Arabians, Latins, Germans, Dutch and Danes; in the second place shew in what Countries it is most Epidemical, and assign the reason of that; and thirdly, shall describe its various Sym­ptoms, with a rationale of them; and illustrate these by various Histories; and lastly, lay down a general Method of Cure for the Whole. The Word Scurvy most probably took its Name from Danish, Dutch, or Saxon, particularly in Lower-Saxony, viz. Schobrock, Scorbock, Schaerbunck, Scharmundt, Schorbeck, which in those Languages signifie, or denote a faetidness of the Breath, Gripes of the Bowels, and Universal pains, a Debility of the Limbs, and spots upon the Skin, which to this Distemper being inseparated Symptoms, it is evident the Word must be derived from thence. By Marcellus in the time of Gratian and Theodosius, Roman Emperours, it was stiled Oscedo, ab Oscitatione, from fre­quent yawning usually attending this Malady; Pliny assigns it a [Page 52] different Denomination, viz. Scelotyrbe, which is very clear by the description he gives us of a Distemper contracted in a Camp on the Banks of the Rhine, in the time of Germanicus Caesar; By the Greeks, particularly by Strabo it is called [...], that is as the Latins express it, quasi oris merda, from the faetidness of the Mouth, a Symptom general enough here. Hippocrates, that great Master of Learning and Physick, describes it to be Lien Magnus, and Illeon Haematitis from indurations of the Spleen, and fluxes of Blood, from the Bowels, of which I shall give you several in­stances; The Lepra of the Arabians is but an higher species of this, and that I shall make evident in its proper place.

This Distemper is the nearest Epidemical in these Northern Climes, and upon the Baltick, occasion'd doubtless by the Salt­ness of the Air, and the living on too saline a Diet. Nor is it less raging in Virginia, and the West-Indies, particularly in those places stiled the Salts, where there is almost continually a saline, faetid, and hazy Atmospher; which Phoenomena thoroughly consi­der'd sufficiently demonstrate its causes; which shall be more largely treated of in the ensuing Discourse of Consumptions; As to its Symptoms, and their causes, they are to be divided in­to a simple, and complicated State, the most common in a sim­ple State are as follows; the Patient is frequently afflicted with a faetidness, and shortness of Breath, an Universal Debility, looseness of the Teeth, spots upon the Skin, and sometimes Ulcers, Pustles, Morphew, Eprysipilas, Phlegmons in the Cutis, Erra­tick pains, violent Sweatings, numbness in the extreme Parts, Head-Achs, spitting of Corrupt putrid Blood, frequent Tooth-Achs, Gripes, Vomiting, and purging of Blood, with a sting­ing, and itching in the Skin, sometimes a Vermiculation, as if something quick crept within the Skin, intermitting Heats, and sometimes extreme Coldness, particularly on the Head, fre­quent Convulsions and Tremours, a blew Viscid spitting, and a lixivial Urine, with a pricky lateritious Sediment, and often sweet Scented, pains and swellings in the Gumms, blackness of Teeth, and inflammations of the Uvula, and Amigdilares, or Almond Glandules; This Distemper by our Modern Physicians, [Page 53] especially the Learned Dr. Willis is divided into two Classes, the one he stiles an Hot, the other a Cold Scurvy; viz. a Sulphureo saline, and a saline Sulphureous, in the one the Blood being sa­turated with too great a quantity of Muriatick Salt, in the other too much Exalted with Sulphur; These I shall particularly exa­mine, and afterwards account for the Symptoms. The cold Scurvy no doubt proceeds from too great a quantity of saline Par­ticles abounding in the Mass of Blood, and this is evident from the Muriatick Salt, that may be prepared from the Urines of those Persons abundantly more than from others, as likewise from their extreme Salt spitting which is sometimes Vitriolick, and Aluminous. How far the Blood may be said in an hot Scurvy to be too highly exalted with Sulphur, is the next thing to be examined, Its true indeed in this Distemper there are frequent heats, and inflammations, but those may be supposed to be ef­fected in the following manner; e. gr. the Bilious Particles of the Blood united with the saline ones, become of too large a size to be separated by their proper Emunctories, hence the minute Glandules of the Liver not making their due separation of the Bile, it necessarily Regurgitates into the mass of Blood, and partly thrown off by the Reins, the Urine is render'd thereby highly Lixivial, this has been made very familiar to me in the dissection of the Livers of some Persons, where all the Glandules have been highly distended, and totally obstructed by a crass, fecu­lent Bile; which containing too great a proportion of a fixt Alkaly, and Muriatick Salt, raises a fermentation with the Juices of the Blood, and assuredly occasions those Heats, and flushings common in Scorbutick Persons; this intense Acrimony acquired, by its pointed Salts the Capillaries of the Membranes and Cutis being contracted, great pains and inflammations unavoidably ensue. These are the distinguishing Characteristics so far as I cou'd hi­therto observe in practice, that can fairly be accounted for in hot and cold Scorbutick cases. In the next place I proceed to give the Rationale of theSymptoms: The fetidness of the Gumms may arise from the putrefaction of the Blood in those parts, which I presume to be effected in the following manner: Those [Page 54] parts in their Natural temper being of a loose and spungy Contexture, and consisting of an infinite number of Capillary Veins and Arteries, which run not Parallel, but are interwo­ven one with another, and compose an Aggregate of Spiral lines; hence the Blood in this case grown too grumous by the Acid Salts, more readily stagnates here, and consequently putrifies; whence proceeds that fetidness or stench of the mouth, called by the Greeks [...]. By the same Coagulations and Acrimoni­ous humours lacerating and distending the Nervous parts of the Lungs, thence unavoidably ensues a difficulty of Breathing, and sometimes a violent Haemorrhage, the Capillaries being thereby corroded, whence if the Diaeresis or Rupture be of any considera­ble Vessel, the Patient frequently dies Vomiting Blood almost in an instant; TheSpirits likewise by these saline, feculent Particles become entangled, so that for want of a due distribution of them, an universal Lassitude and Debility happens: From these kind of humours likewise falling upon the Nerves, and Membranes of the Teeth, they grow loose, turn black, become hollow and decay, and thence ensue violent Tooth-Achs. By these Acri­monious Particles continually vellicating those parts, a Stupor and Numbness, I presume, must necessarily follow, from an Ob­struction of the Spirits, Vermiculations or Creepings, Coldness, Itching, or Stinging, from the same Humours lodging upon the Muscles and Membranes, as likewise those violent Hemicranias, and Head-Achs, which are often periodical. Sometimes hap­pen unruly Gripes in the Stomach and Bowels, sometimes dry, at other times attended with a Diarrhaea or Purging, the one may be caused by a Saline Acrimonious Viscid Phlegme, adhering to the Coats of the Stomach and Bowels, the other by an Acri­monious Choler. It is observable these Symptoms happen fre­quently about the Autumnal Aequinox, and commonly after a very hot Summer, one as I presume, by the intense heat of the Weather generating too great a quantity of Bile, and the other by the North-West-Winds, common at that time of the Year which implete the Air with saline particles, which is manifest at that Season more than usual. A remarkable instance in this case [Page 55] occurs in the Philosophical Transactions, where an account is given of a Lady in America, by Mr. Clayton of Croffton in Yorkshire, in the following manner. I stood at the Window, says he, and cou'd veiw the Clouds, for there small black fleeting Clouds will arise, and be swiftly carried cross the whole Element; as these Clouds arose and came nigher, her torments encreased, which were grievous as a Labouring Woman's, there was not the least Cloud but Lamentably affected her, and that at a considerable distance, but by her Shrieks, it seemed more or less according to the bigness and nearness of the Clouds. This happen'd in September, which is the time before recited in which the Sym­ptoms are most raging, and the Air most Nitrous and Saline; it is probable the saline Particles may stick upon the Bile, like the Prickles upon an Hedge-Hog, and occasion these tormenting Symptoms. When this Distemper arises to that, we call a con­firm'd Scurvy, its then frequently attended with spots of various Colours, as Red, Livid, Yellow, Green, and with Ulcers, Pustules, or a White Scurff, the same with the Lepra amongst the Arabians, and Indians; It is certain in the Capillary Vessels of the Cutis, not running in direct but rather Spiral Lines, and forming a Retre or Net, by the stagnation of the Blood there, I say, we discover those spots of various Colours in the Skin, ac­cording to the different Proportions of Choler intermixed, which renders them Yellow or Green, &c. And as the Humours acquire a more intense degree of Acrimony, it then proceeds to a solution of continuity, and those Scorbutick Ulcers grow Numerous: Lixivial fomentations are here of use, and come near to a speci­fick, an evident argument the Blood does not abound with too great a quantity of Alkalies, as Colebatch Foolishly, and Igno­rantly imagins, but doubtless with too many Acid, or Acrid Par­ticles. It is true indeed, the Elesh may be corroded by an Acri­monious Alkaly, as in potential cauteries of Lap. Infernal. &c. but it is not then these Ulcers are Cured again by the same kind of Alkaly, their use there wou'd rather enlarge the Ul­cers; whence it necessarily follows, those Ulcers that proceed from the Habit of the Body, and are cured by Alkalies must arise from [Page 56] Acids. The next Symptom to be accounted for in this Distem­per is the Lepra, and is as difficultly Cured as any that Occurs to Observation, its cause I take to be from Volatile Acrimonious Particles, mixt with a feculent Bile, and seperated by the Mil­liary Glands of the Cutis, discover'd by Leevenhock, and Malpi­gius, and bursting them Concrete into a Dry, White and Yellow Furfur: That the cause of this Symptoms is from such Acrimoni­ous Particles, is evident from the Excoriation of the Cuticula, and the Gleeting, continual Itching, and Stinging, which are very obvious. This Symptom is not so common amongst the Europeans, as the Indians, particularly in the Mindano, Malagan, and Philippine Islands where it is almost Epidemical; the Natives there are not much disturbed at it, having a certain Cure by Vi­getables there produced, the discovery of which cou'd not yet be extorted from them by any Method whatever. In this state of the Diseases, I have frequently Salivated the Patient, and it has as often return'd, yet have more than once known it Cured by a long continuance of the Acidulae or Chalybeate Waters, cold Baths, and an universal abstinence from Flesh Meats, of which Regimen that Learned, and ingenious Gentleman, Edward Bay­nard, Doctor of Physick, and Fellow of the College of Physicians gave me the first intimation. Who some Years ago recovered a Patient at the Bath, when Bathing, and Drinking those Waters, and repeated Salivations had all been insuccessful, the Person I saw at London, in perfect Health, and I believe to this day con­tinues so; sometimes in this Distemper there happens a flux of Blood from the Bowels, shining and black as Pitch, caused by a Rupture of the Vessels, but this Symptom being in a great mea­sure accounted for before, I shall not recapitulate. By the Vis­cidness of the Lympha in this Distemper, the Nerves that branch into the Muscles become Obstructed, hence in the hands I have often observed the Chorea Sancti Viti, or the Dance of St. Vitus, when by the Antick motions of the hands, the Persons seems to Mimick Buffoons and Juglers: And sometimes in the Thighs from a parallel cause arise those Unaccountable Convulsive Motions; that one might reasonably have concluded some living [Page 57] Animal had there taken its abode, Muscular motion is peform­ed by every Muscle (except the Sphincters) having its opposite, or Antagonist, hence as one Dilates the other Contracts, so that the Nerves obstructed in either of them by these Humours, such kind of motions must consequently ensue. Having now assigned the Rationale of its various Symptoms in a simple State, in the next place let us consider it as complicated with the Iaundice, Drospy, Strumas, periodic Hemicranias, Epilepsies, Vertigos, and Asthmas, and in those Enumerate only some particular instances, the Symptoms being before accounted for. As to its complicati­on with the Jaundice and Dropsy, I shall give you some instances in my ensuing Discourse of the Dropsy, which will illustrate the Hypothesis by peculiar Demonstration in the Dissections of some Persons that died of the same, I will only insert the cases of two Persons yet living, and in Health in this Town of Manchester, the one was of Mr. Iames Scot, the other of Mrs. Boulton, Wife to one of our Chaplains; the Skin was Yellow, and Livid, the Eyes Yellow, the Urine Black, and resembling Mum, its quan­tity small, the Appetite dejected, the Limbs swell'd, and pit­ted, a continual Thirst, and universal Weakness; these by Emollient Hydragoges, Antiscorbutics, Anteicterics, Aperitives, Stomachics, and Chalibeated Syrups prepared from Sal. Martis. were to the surprize of their acquaintance restored to their per­fect Healths: By a method not much unlike this, I re­covered the Lady Leicester, of Higher-Tabley in Cheshire, who was then afflicted with the black Jaundice, a violent Hemicrania complicated with this Distemper.

One remarkable instance I will insert more, of Mr. Iohn Sher­burn, Steward to the Honourable Bartholomew Whalmesly, of Dunkenhall in Lancashire, Esq in whom these Symptoms were observable, he was incessantly tormented with an intolerable Head-Ach, to that intense degree, that even Life it self grew burdensome, and had not the Dictates of Conscience interfer'd, cou'd have acquiesced willingly in a Manumission; The Spirits by the saline Particles of the Blood, were put into such disorder­ly motions, that he often fancy'd the Persons attending him, [Page 58] were inverted and stood upon their Heads, and himself too in the same Posture: at other times he imagined there was an Aper­ture of the Sutures of the Skull, and seldom slept but in some small intervals in the Day time; his Urine was often Lixivial, and sometimes faetid, and bore upon its superficies a saline Film, where the Salts were Chrystalline, and shot into Needle like forms, or Bacilli; The points of those, I presume, occasion'd his insufferable pains; the Pulse was generally Depress'd, and Languid, but Frequent, and Vermiculating; Methods of vari­ous kinds were attempted, but in vain, as Blistring, Bleeding, Vomiting, Purging, Cupping, Antiscorbutics, Cephalics, Issues, the Cortex, Shaving the Head, all which afforded but some small intervals of ease, hence I concluded the Mass of Blood to be too deeply saturated with saline Particles to yeild to those courses; so I resolved to proceed to a Salivation, and try by that means to remove the Malady, this was affected by Calomelanos, prepared by Signiour Vigani Professour of Chymistry at Cam­brige, and by that method he was perfectly recovered.

The general method of Cure in Scorbutick cases, may be com­posed of the following intentions: First, to cleanse the first Pas­sages by universal Evacucations, as Emetics, and Cathartics, se­condly, by Antiscorbuticks to reduce the mass of Blood to a re­gular Crasis: The forms of those are at large described by other Authors, wherefore I shall not trouble the Reader with them; I only observe this, that the best of those I have found, are the Natural Chalibeat Waters, and after due preparations, Bathing in temperate or cold Baths, as at Buxton and St. Mungus, what farther is to be done chiefly consists in Diet, which ought to be but a moderate quantity of flesh Meats, and those fresh, Antis­corbutick Teas, Fruits, Gruel, and Panadoes, these are the most remarkable things relating to this Head, so I shall close this Section.



COnsumptions in general as they occur to us in daily practice may be reduced into these following Classes, (viz.) Scor­butick, Strumous or Chylous, or they are frequently the effects of Epidemick intermitting Fevers, or Dropsies, the Rickets, Sur­feits, Impetigo, the Chlorosis, fluor albus, Rheumatick, Scorbu­tick, Jaundice, of an Hernia Carnosa, spitting or Vomiting Blood, and very often the Worms.

But since the Scorbutick Phthisis rages more Familiarly a­mongst us, it shall chiefly be the subject of my present Di­scourse.

Scorbutick Phthisis may challenge three Originals contracted either from the Air, or they are Hereditary, or proceed from some error in the six Non-naturals.

I'll speak first of those that arise from the Air, they are called Stationary, or Diseases peculiar to such a place.

In those parts which abound with Marshy grounds, or where the Air is all impleted with the smoke of Pit Coal, these Con­sumptions are in a manner Epidemical.

This granted, it is plain this Distemper owns its rise, and Progress, to Vitriolick, Sulphureous, Saline Particles; But to il­lustrate this Hypothesis take these following Experiments.

Drop a little Spirit of Vitriol upon Spittle, there immediately ensues a White Viscous Coagulum, like what is frequently Cough­ed up in Consumptions.

Or take some of the Vitriolick Spring near Haigh in Lancashire, mix that with Saliva, you will then distinguish the Coagulation to be of an Ashy Colour, Parallel to that I have often observed in a Scorbutick Phthisis.

Or if you distil Kenel, there strait ascends a Vitriolick Li­quor, mix that with the Serum of the Blood, it passes strait into a very Viscous Coagulum, the same as in a Scorbutick Phthisis.

[Page 60] These things premised, it is evident that by Vitriolick Parti­cles, the Spittle, and Serum of the Blood are render'd Viscid, and in Tast, Consistence, and Colour adequate to what we find in Scorbutick cases.

Since then as is Demonstrable by Chymistry, these Vitriolick Partricles are disunited by Fire, and fill in Crouds the circumam­bient Atmosphere, and that in such an Air the Phthisis is most general and particular, it is but a rational consequence to imagine, that then these Vitriolick Particles communicated to the Mass of Blood by the Air we breath in, begin, and cherish this Stationa­ry Phthisis.

But now the principal difficulty to be solved is this, how the Inhabitants bordering on Salt and Marshy Coasts, become the subjects of this Distemper, and are so much infested with it, who live only upon the products of the Fields, and altogether abstain from Meats Salted, or Dryed in Smoke, how, I say, the Air here becomes saturated with saline Particles, since Marine Salts, as is plain by Evaporation, are of a more fixed Nature than to ascend by the Heat of the Sun or the force of the Winds.

Having had several Thoughtful Essays on this subject I brought it at length to this Conclusion.

It is very clear to any Man's Observation, that these Maritime Climes abound both with Sulphureous, and Saline Particles, this Hypothesis is confirmed by the subsequent Arguments.

In the first place about Even-tide in these parts are to be seen infinite flashes, like so many Phosphors bursting from out the Earth which undoubtedly argues a Sulphur to be there, in the second place very fetid smells are often emitted like what are discernable in a Mixture of Sulphur and Salt, so that from these Salt and marshy places, Sulphureous Particles continually arising, are yet so entangl'd with Saline ones, that they bear them up up­on their Points, and by that means impregnate all the Neigh­bouring Atmosphere; for since this Phthisis is so universal in those Airs, it is but reasonable to suppose it draws its nourishment from Sulphureous, Saline Particles.

[Page 61] For a farther Confirmation of this Hypothesis we may draw an Argumen te Contrario, as for instance, this Distemper is very rare where these saline Loams are wanting, hence it is that in some places of Russia, and New-England, for a whole Year toge­ther you will scarce hear a Person Cough, though he inhabits on the Sea Coasts, and why may it not be for the same reason that the Air in Monpelier, is become so famous against Consumptions though it borders on the Mediterranean Sea.

When on the other hand in the first mention'd places not a Year passes, but Consumptions, Dropsies, Scorbutick intermit­ting Fevers, nay whole Myriads of Diseases very severely abound, so that we may almost say of these Salt and Marshy places, as Pythagoras did of the Herb Aproxis, whose Root takes Fire like Naphtha, and by whose Effluvia the Air is renderd infectious.

It remains now that I treat of the other species of a Scorbutick Phthisis, (viz.) arising from some errour of the six Non-natnrals, and those that are Hereditary, as to the first, their causes may be explain'd by the above recited Arguments, so waving them, I'll proceed to the Scorbutick Hereditary Consumption.

It passes for an undoubted truth amongst Philosophers, and Anatomists that an Human Foetus is formed in the Ovum, but the manner how these Ova become impregnated is the Controversy.

The Ova are guarded by a double Membrane, and involved in their proper Coats, so that not one Drop can be squeezed from them, there are some that very zealously assert, they are impreg­nated by a certain Gas Virile, or Seminal Air; certain it is, and very obvious to us in practice, that many lab'ring under this Di­stemper have prosecuted the steps of their Fore-Fathers, although their Mothers through the whole Course of their Lives have con­tinued strong, and healthful, some are seized with it about the same Age their Fathers were before, some perhaps sooner, some later, some have all along continued sickly and infirm, others robust, and vigorous enough, till the very seizure of the Con­sumption, and all this according to the different Crasis of the Se­men Virile, even as the Spirits are lodged there, or more or less depress'd, or the Saline Particles exalted, hence the very Princi­ples [Page 62] of Life form our different Constitutions, and so early or late the Person becomes Consumptive.

Upon the whole it is my Opinion, that the Semen Virile in the Uterus is absorbed by the extremities of the Vessels, and thence communicated to the mass of Blood, which by its Circu­lation impregnates the Ova, for how is it possible the Gout or the Stone shou'd be derived from the Father by a Seminal Air? The conclusion is very evident to the contrary; but of this I have treated before.

I shall proceed now to the Symptoms of this Disease, which I will very briefly lay down as I have Experimentally found them.

A loss of Appetite, and Strength, generally attends the Pati­ent, with a straitness or compression of the Breast, a tickling Cough, the Spittle Large, Thick, White, and sometimes Yellow, Pellucid, Sky Colour'd, Faetid, Salt, Acid, Sweet, more or less, according to the Discrasy of the Blood, and the quality of the Obstruction, with profuse sweatings in the Night time, a tabidness of the Flesh, hot and cold fits alternately succeeding, the Urine Lixivial, with a very large sediment, sometimes Yel­low, and sometimes Red, many times a Diarrhaea, and Gripes of the Belly torment them, with swelling of the Extreme parts.

These things observed I will now endeavour to assign the rea­son of those Symptoms, and first, as to the loss of Appetite it may thus happen, those Glandules seated in the lower part of the Stomach, which were wont to separate subacid Humours flowing from the Arteries, by which the Nervous Fibres irritated, the Appetite was excited, but they being now clog'd with viscous Humours, are render'd very unfit for that motion, hence proceeds that loathing of Meat: That there are such Humours is very ap­parent in some Persons after taking a Vomit, if we observe the great quantity of tough flegm they discharge.

By the same Viscid Humours extravasated in the Lungs, the in­spiration of the Air is interrupted, hence proceeds that straitness of the Breast the Person complains of; this glutinous matter separated by the tracheal Glands is often thrown up in large quantities, and [Page 63] this also besmearing all the Trachaea, occasions hoarsness, the Conglobate Glandules thus stuft by these Coagulations, and the small Foramina of the Lymphaeducts at the same time obstructed; that Lympha which used to pass through them, now deprived of its proper Emunctories, regurgitates into the mass of Blood, and forces its way through unwonted Passages, and thence it happens, that by the Glands of the Wind-pipe those continued showers are distill'd as is plain in a tickling Cough.

By the same parity of reason those large sweats are so fre­quent, and hence comes the Diarrhea, Gripes, and Swellings of the extreme parts.

Sometimes by these tough and clammy Humours, the Glan­dules of the Mesentery become Obstructed, and even the Chyle it self is intercepted in its Passage to the Blood, whence the whole Body rob'd of its daily nourishment, the strength decays, the Patient Emaciates, and the Excrements are often White, the ve­ry Lacteal Vessels disappear, just as we may observe the Milky Way in the Heavens, screened from us by interposing Clouds.

Some portions of the Chyle are precipitated by Saline Parti­cles, thence happens the spittle emitted by Cough to be white, thick, and sweetish; and sometimes urged through the Kidneys, the Urine then becomes filled with a white, and plentiful Sedi­ment.

By the subsidence of the Muscles, the Prognostication is O­minous, as the common People apprehend, the Soul then being about to desert the Body and ready to take Wing; Hippocrates and others of the Greeks Denominate such Persons [...].

The Glands of the Liver Obstructed forbid a due separation of the Bile, which rebounding into the Blood, and Fermenting there with its Acids, thence a slow Fever ensues, and the same reason may be alleged for so large, a Yellow, or Red Sediment in a Lixivial Urine.

As to the hot and cold fits successively intervening, they may very easily proceed from such a Fermentation, and so unequal a mixture of the sour Chyle in the Blood.

[Page 64] The Spittle as we hinted before in this Distemper is often Thick, White, and Sweet, occasion'd by a Precipitation of the Chyle upon the Lungs, and sometimes it happens to be thin, and Pellucid, commixt with Thick, this I conclude to be the Lympha which instead of passing through its proper Ducts, by reason of the obstructions of the Conglobate Glands, forces it self through other secretory Vessels; and in this case He mightily errs, who offers obstinately to stay the the Defluxion by Opiates; He might equal­ty pretend to check the Billows in a raging Storm.

At other times the Spittle is Sky Colour'd, Salt, and Bitter, these happen as the Bile, and Salts of different species are indif­ferently intermixt.

There yet remains another familiar Symptom to be explain'd, how in this Distemper the Urine becoming so very Lixivial, and depositing so large, and red a Sediment, yet affords a very grateful and sweet smell, not unlike those Urines voided after the Admi­nistration of Turpentine, and preparations of Sulphur, its super­ficies at the same time being all over-spread with a thin Oleage­nous Pellicle: In this case I suppose the Urine to be highly satu­rated with Saline, and Vitriolick Particles, the Saline Particles after their Effervessence with the Bile Precipitate it, hence en­sues that vast quantity of Sediment, and those two Bodies by Fermentation grow Red, just like Sulpher exalted by Fire, and thence it is the Deposita of the Urine appear so like Brick; The Saline Particles likewise in their Fermentation entangle some Oleagenous Particles, which in that hurry being forced through the Reins, and the Urine thus impregnated, being exposed to Air, these Oily Sulphureous Particles striving to disengage them­selves, float upon the surface, and emit so pleasant on Odour, an instance like to this is in dulcifying Spirit of Nitre, with Spirit of Wine, which must necessarily strengthen the Hypothesis, where the like smell is very distinguishable.

But now the Query is, whether in this State the Lungs are al­ways full of Tubercles, as the Eminent Morton proposes; I con­fess indeed in these parts the People are generally as averse to a Dissection, as an Execution, so I neither deny nor assent to it; [Page 65] yet as far as I have observed in practice, I affirm, that not one Symptom of an Inflammatory Fever has appear'd in many Persons who have sunk under this Distemper; to this Opinion the Hi­story of Dr. Bennet agrees, taken out of Theatr. Tabidor. pag. 96. (viz.) ‘When I practised Physick at Bristol, in that Vaulted City Consumptions were very frequent, I met with some that with no great difficulty Expectorated a sweetish Spittle, yet in the space of three Months were grown very feeble, and ener­vate, some indeed of these, though not all were much fatigu'd with Coughing, and so wasting insensibly dyed Tabid, for satis­faction in this Case we opened a certain Person, who after he had ceased Spitting a Salt Phlegm, for some time Coughed up Blood, the Lungs indeed had lost their Tone, yet both them, and the other Viscera appeared sound.’

However mistake me not as if I infer'd from this instance, that the Lungs in Consumptive Cases were never fill'd with Tuber­cles, for I have often seen them Ulcerated: I only affirm this, that in this common Lancashire Consumption, where the Patient suf­fers a daily decay, and continually throws off a Thick, and White Spittle, in the beginning, I say, and encrease of this Distemper, the Lungs cou'd not be pierced, nay I have known many die without one Symptom of an Hectick, through the whole course of the Disease, so that we may reasonably conclude their Lungs cou'd not be Ulcerated.

Proceed we now to treat of the Phthisis in a confirmed state, and here we may observe Nature every day declining, insomuch that the Mass of Blood contracting a very Vitriolic habit; the Spittle tasteth like Alom, or Salt of Steel, and now it is the Saline Particles range at Large, and know no bounds, now the Fever becomes more continued and strong, by Fermentation of the Vitriolic, and Sulphureous Particles; as when you mix Oil of Vitriol, and Oil of Turpentine together.

By this Effervescence the Capillary Vessels of the Cheeks be­come distended, hence happens that fixed red Colour on both sides the Face, a certain signal of approaching Death; just like [Page 66] the last efforts of a Lamp deprived of Oil, it flashes and expires, or like a setting Sun, gilding red all the Hemisphere.

The Conglobate Glandules thus more and more Obstructed, and a greater quantity of the Nutritious juice being daily precipi­tated, a thicker and more plentiful Spittle follows, by the Vi­triolic Particles commixt with the Sulphur of the Blood, and hence ensues a smell like that of Faetid Fish.

The Lungs at length oppress'd with an uncommon weight of Phlegm, the Patient becomes Asthmatical, and finds a continual burden upon his Breast, and in this case I have known the Spit­tle to be extraordinary Faetid, yet not always proceeding from Ulcers of the Lungs, as some assure us, for how cou'd those Persons be free from a Diarrhaea, and sweats, when the Lungs are all penetrated with Ulcers; The cause of this stench may ra­ther be attributed to Volatile Sulphureous Particles, pointed with Saline Ones, with which the Serum of the Blood abounding they commix with the Saliva, for the Sulphureous Particles apt enough to fly off, bear along with them the Saline Ones, and strike up­on the sensory, and affect it with a Nauseous smell; When on the contrary Sulphureous Particles, per se, disentangl'd from SalineOnes, touch upon the Olfactory Fibres, produce a very grateful scent, as is Evident in the Effluvias of Aromatick and Balsamick Flowers, and now the Nutritious juice Expectorated in vast quantities, the Facies Hippocratica, and a Marasmus of the whole Body is the consequence.

The Conglobate Glands being still more Obstructed, and the Blood all degenerated into a Saline temper, the Patient is now afflicted with profuse sweats, violent Diarrhaeas, with acute pains like those in Rheumatisms almost intolerable, some complaining of Pains in the Bones, in whom there is not the least suspicion of the Lues Venerea.

One Symptom more remains not less common than the rest, and worthy our highest regard, in many Persons emaciated to meer Skeletons, and reduced even to the last Extremity, the Ap­petite yet remains good and laudable, nor is any Hectick heat the effect of Eating, no Sweats nor Diarrhaeas nor inflation of the Stomach, attend the Patients, and yet they insensibly wast away, [Page 67] throwing up a large quantity of Thick, and White Plegm.

From what has been said we may sufficiently gather, that the Natural ferment of the Stomach sharpned with the Vitriolick Particles of the Blood, irritate its Nervous Fibres: The Spirits thus excited, produce a quicker motion, and promote the Ap­petite, which, Ostrich like, covets and dissolves whatever is in­gested, hence passing through the Lacteals, and Chyliferous Ducts it enters the Mass of Blood, and is there by the Saline Particles precipitated into Thick, and unnutritive Humours, incapable to transpire by Sweat, or descend by Diarrhaeas, but subside in the Lungs, and by that means the party continually declines.

There is yet another remarkable Symptom under this Head, that an irregular intermitting Fever seizes very many almost spent with this Distemper, some it assaults only once, others twice or thrice in the space of Twenty four Hours; It rushes on with great dis­order with an Itching betwixt the Scapulas and Loins: The whole Body trembling is render'd Convulsive, and an intense heat succeeds, and after that sweats, and sometimes a looseness; what can these Reciprocal returns of Heat, and Coldness proceed from? But from sharp Salt Humours extravasated upon the Nervous Mem­branes, upon the Extremities of the Nerves, and the subcutaneous Miliary Glands, these parts being saturated to excess, and Vellicated by their Acrimony, of course produce those Chilling Pains, but at Length the Humours being absorbed by the extremities of the Vessels, and then mixing with the Blood, a new Fermentation with the Sulphureous Particles arises, and so the Feverish heat renews; The Morbifick matter at length overcome is cast off by Sweat or Siege.

I have known some who in a State of Health, have been of a very pleasing and agreeable Disposition, yet being much worn out by this Distemper, have grown very fretful and peevish, and so violently Passionate, that they cou'd scarce endure to see, or hear any one speak; this must needs be the effect of the sour juices of the Blood, that nettle, and enrage the Spirits.

To conclude, something might be added here concerning the other Species of Consumptions, those that are either Hereditary, [Page 68] or arise from some errour of living, but since their Symptoms are observed to be much the same, it is but reasonable to suppose their Originals so too.

Every State of the Consumption might be Illustrated with Parallel Histories, as likewise the Methods of Cure might here be proposed, but those being accounted for before in my Phthisio­logia Lancastriensis, to that I refer you.


Of the DROPST.

I Shall now proceed to treat of the Dropsy which the Greeks divide into three Species, (viz.) The Timpanites, the Ascites, and Anasarca, the Timpanites receives its Denomination from its Sound, the Ascites from the Figure it represents of a Bottle, or the Uterus, and the Anasarca from an ill Habit contracted in the Muscular parts, but to reconcile the different Opinions of the Ancient and Moderns, which are near as Numerous as their several Authors, would be to as slender purpose, as to Command the Winds raging in a Storm: I therefore only take notice of some topping Hypotheses, and so give you my own Opinion; The causes assigned by the Ancients for Dropsies, were either a Flatus as the Timpanites, or else a Weakness of the Liver, and thence by a defect of Sanguification ensued the Ascites and Ana­sarca; According to our Celebrated Willis, the Timpanites pro­ceeded from a Convulsive motion of the Stomach, called Tetanus, disturbing its Nervous Fibres; This Opinion seems to me very improbable, for how can a Convulsive motion in that part con­tinue so equally for so many Years: I have known many afflicted with the Timpany and all along have digested well their Food, have been free from Thirst, and disturb'd neither with Sweats nor Gripes, their Urine has been plentiful and laudable e­nough, which agreeable Symptoms cou'd never happen, was the Stomach still inflated with such a Convulsive motion; as to the [Page 69] other species of the Dropsy, he alleges, they arise from the Mass of Blood become Acid and Vapid, and the Chyle by that means render'd incapable to assimilate it self to it, but how this Discrasia comes in that point he is silent; which, in its proper place, I will endeavour to disclose. What our Eminent Sydenham Writes concerning this Disease, respects chiefly the Practice, to whose Works I refer you; The late Dr. Morton asserts their causes to arise from the Conglobate Glandules grown Schirrous, which tumefying burst the Lymphatick Vessels, but his errour in this will very plainly appear in a Dissection or two I shall in­stance in. The Learned Dr. Lister in his Exercitation of Dropsies, positively assigns the Origin of this Disease, to proceed from a defect of the first Concoction, and from the Stomach be­ing inflamed ev'n to a Cauterisation, but his mistake in this, as in many other things, shall be briefly shewn.

I do here affirm, I have known many Dropsical Persons through the whole Course of the Disease retain a very good Digestion, and their Urine both in quantity and quality agreeable enough, which things consider'd, it is beyond the Power of Sense to re­concile those Placid Symptoms to a Stomach so highly inflamed; It now remains, with the leave of so many Eminent Authors, that I propose my own Opinion, which I am far from positively as­serting, but shall fairly refer it to the judgment of the Learned World: The Dropsy then may be divided into two species only, (viz.) the Bilious and Lymphatick; I call that Bilious, proceed­ing from thick condensated Choler, Obstructing both the Glands and Biliary Pores of the Liver, hence the Bile deny'd a due sepa­ration, the Lymphatick Vessels, both in the Liver, Kidneys, and others parts of the Body, become distended, and at length burst­ing, produce indifferently, either the Ascites or Anasarca. The Lymphatick Dropsy arises from a Viscid Lympha, producing the same effects in those Vessels as are alleged above; the Aetiology whereof shall in what follows be explain'd.

That the Dropsy may proceed from thick Coagulated Choler, is confirmed by the Examination the Learned Sylvius makes of its Principles; it consists of a Lixivial Volatile and Oily Salt, very [Page 70] apt for Fermentation with any Acid, and thence according to the different Genius of the Acid, different effects are produced; let us then imagine the Bilious Particles either in the first Passages, or in the mass of Blood, alter'd from their Natural Crasis by Sa­line, Acid, Muriatick, or other Acrid Bodies, by which means the Bile becomes faeculent, perhaps not unlike Vitriolated Tar­tar; The Glands of the Liver hence become Obstructed, and its due secretion forbidden, they then swell beyond a common Compass, and the Particles rush qua via datur into the Lympha­tick Vessels, which they must necessarily Distend, and Lacerate; it is very common to our Observation, that where ever this fae­culent matter is deposited the part tumifies even to a solution of continuity, from whence a Yellow Liquor continually distills, of a bitter Pungent tast, which is a certain Argument of its being sa­turated with Bilious Particles.

The Kidneys likewise obstructed by this faeculency, we find the Urine to be small, and of an high Colour, not unlike Brums­wick Mum, its sediments Yellow, and often times Black and Red, the Tongue Yellow and Dry, a continual Thirst, Pungent Pains all over the Body, and a general Lassitude: In these despe­rate Circumstances Mankind lives like an Amphibious Animal, and in a Deluge of Waters breathing in Air, hence through defect of Inspiration that difficulty of breathing ensues.

As to the Lymphatick Dropsy it may thus happen, the Saline Particles of the Blood, as was alleged before in the Treatise of Consumptions, according to their different species Coagulating the Mass of Blood, in what ever part of the Body they are nest­ed, there assuredly they condense the Lympha, and render it ge­latinous like the Whitesof Eggs, and so consequently must swell and burst the Vessels as is above recited; One thing in this kind of Dropsy is worthy our taking notice of, that the Patient is not disturbed with Thirst, the Urine in quantity and quality laudable, the Appetite rather too craving than dejected, no pains invade, save that of bearing about so heavy a mass of Water, and this sort of Dropsy is more incident to Women than Men, and though it has hitherto been mistaken for a Timpanites, it is truly [Page 71] a Dropsy of the Peritonaeum, the Lymphaeducts of which Mem­brane are burst, and its Glandules highly tumify'd, hence and no otherwise ensues the Timpanites, as shall be render'd appa­rent by the following Histories.

For a farther confirmation I refer you to Nuck, Ettmullerus, and Iuncken. From what has been said the causes of the Ascites, and Anasarca may be easily deduced, wherefore I shall not insist longer on their Aetioligies, but shall proceed to illustrate our Hy­pothesis in the following cases.

The first, shall be of Mr. Iohn Leeds, Bachelour of Physick, who practised many Years in this Town of Manchester, he was seized with the Black Jaundice, upon which ensued, an Ascites, and Anasarca; no endeavours were wanting to relieve him, and no Methods of Physick unessay'd to Cope with the Disease, but in vain; generally Belov'd, and now as generally Lamented, he Expired: through the whole course of his Distemper, his Di­gestion was good, his Thirst little or nothing, at which I won­der'd, his Urine but small, yet for Colour and Consistence like Brumswick Mum, with a Black Sediment, his Body was Emaciated, and his Countenance Ghastly and Wan; towards his latter end, a Cough was very troublesome to him: His Body being opened, thirty six Pints of a Yellow bitter Water was discharged from the Abdomen, there was little or none of the Omentum remaining, the Stomach was some what contracted but no ways inflamed, the Spleen retained its Natural Colour and State, the Conglobate Glan­dules were of a sutable Magnitude, neither schirrous nor fumify'd, the Lacteal Vessels as much as I observed of them no ways alter'd.

But when the Liver was exposed, its whole substance was in­durated, inscision being made into it, those Glands first disco­vered by Malpigius, were turgent, and large as common Hail Stones, all impleted with a faeculent CrassBile; from the whole it is un­deniably apparent, this must be a Bilious Dropsy and Challenges no Original, either from the Stomach inflamed, or the Conglo­bate Glands indurated, but only from a faeculent Bile obstructing both the Glandules of the Liver, and its Lymphatick Vessels: How the Bile becomes thus degenerated is before Explain'd.

[Page 72] The next instance Parallel to this is of Lieutenant Collonel Iohn Williams, in Her late Majesty's Regiment of Dragoons, he was seized with the Black Jaundice, at his Quarters in Manchester, the same Ominous Symptoms ensued, as in the preceding Case, he swelled gradually in the Belly, his Urine in Colour and Quan­tity as is above recited, yet his Digestion was laudable enough, and his Thirst not troublesome; the Ascites, and Anasarca came on a pace, all our attempts in the Physical way, gave only some intervals of ease, alleviated indeed, but removed not the main Obstructions; for several Weeks he kept regularly to a course of Physick and Diet, towards the end of his Distemper his Cough was violently tedious, and the swellings of his Thighs, and Legs fatigued him with a constant uneasiness, insomuch, that all Rest interrupted, ev'n Life it self grew burdensome; thus every Day declining, his Manly Soul at length took flight: About twenty four Pints of Water were taken out of the Cavity of the Abdomen; the Omentum was not so much consumed as in Mr. Leeds; the Stomach, Spleen, and all the other Viscera were ge­nial enough, except the Liver, where the same Scene was repre­sented to us as before, and from whence unquestionably all that Tragick Series of Mortal Symptoms arose.

It was easy to account for many more of the like cases, where the same unhappy Train of consequences attended, but these be­ing particular Dissections, I fairly in them appeal to a Demon­stration.

I shall now descend to illustrate my Hypothesis of the Lym­phatick Dropsy by the following instance.

Mrs. Heywood living at the Roades near Manchester, aged about Fifty Eight; for four Years was afflicted with the Tympany, all along she Eat her Food, and Digested it will, was clear and free from Thirst, her Urine was plentiful enough, nor was her Coun­tenance any ways alter'd from an healthful Complexion, and save for the increase of the Tumour of the Abdomen, she was other wise very hearty, and sprightly, she had gone through all the Classes of Physick, but alas! The Numerous Prescripts of a mul­titude of Physicians were all unsuccessful; Her case was sent up [Page 73] to the London Physicians, where different Opinions, directed diffe­rent methods, whether they had not rightly the Case stated to them, or that the distance of place precluded their nicer Observations, I cannot be positive, but all endeavours were in vain; Her Belly still encreasing to the Magnitude of a large Globe, she sunk beneath the Load: Full seventy Pints of Water, the greater part very Viscous, were discharg'd from the Cavity, the Muscles of the Abdomen were all Emaciated, and the Omentum totally consumed; The Perito­naeum was full five Inches thick, whose Duplicature formed a very large Sacculus, all repleted with Schirrous Glandules highly tu­mify'd, and pellucid Vesicules, as big as the common bunches of Grapes, the Liquor contained in these Bladders, was like the Whites of Eggs clear and Gelatinous; The Stomach, Spleen, Liver, Mesentery, as much as I cou'd perceive of them were in a pure Natural State, nor were the Ovaria impleted with those Vesicules, but appeared very sound; These were the most re­markable things to be taken notice of, and doubtless the case was what is generally call'd a Timpany; which notwithstanding if we'll but Credit our Eyes, arose neither from a Tetanus of the Stomach, nor as the Ancients wou'd have it, from the flatness, or vapours of the Abdomen; But meerly from the Lym­phatick Vessels of the Peritonaeum, distended, and burst.

I had two cases sent me, by the Learned Dr. Griffith, who re­sided at Warrington in Lancashire, in the Year 1696. since re­moved to Dublin, the one was in all Circumstances like the last mention'd, so I shall forbear to relate it; In the other the Uterus proved to be the seat of the Tumour from whence about sixteen Pints of very putrid Water were Emitted, his account may be seen at large in my 54 Exercitationes, Printed at Oxford. From all which it is abundantly Demonstrable, that this Lymphatick Dropsie arises from the Lympha renderd Viscid by Saline Parti­cles, for did it proceed from the Inflammation of the Bowels, or Glandules, the Patients wou'd assuredly be afflicted with thirst, and complain of Heat, whereas neither was a grievance. Yet mistake me not as if I imagin'd every Lymphatick Dropsy to a­rise from the Peritonaeum, I only assert that Dropsy which is com­monly call'd the Timpany.

[Page 74] The other Species, as well the Ascites as Anasarca, may happen in any part of the Body abounding with Lympheducts; The Timpany likewise in other Membranous Parts may form Cistus's and Vesicules, as in the Uterus, or the Cornua Uteri, or many other places, but most frequently in the Peritonaeum; Whoever has a desire to be farther informed how these Hy­datides are formed in the Lymphatick Vessels by Mercurial injections into those Vessels, he may soon satisfie his Curiosity.

And now as to Dr. Listers Hypothesis, the Query is whether Dropsies arise sometimes from the Stomach in a manner cauterized, or from the Tunica Villosa of the Stomach, having lost its Tone, as the Learned Willis wou'd have it, for my part I believe from both causes, as I have seen from many dissections; But though it be allow'd that Dropsies often arise from continued Debauches, and surfeited Habits of Bodies, it does not thence follow that all the Species of Dropsies spring from the same Origin: For how cou'd it possibly be I beseech you, that many Persons Temperate to a wonder, shou'd yet so commonly die Hydropical? As may be daily observed in them that are worn out, and almost spent with lingring Fevers, and all Cacochymical, and Scorbutick constitutions; I profess sincerely there is not any distemper tend­ing more to the discredit of Physicians, than the several Species of Dropsies: Hydragogues, Antiscorbuticks, and Diureticks, of all degrees and kinds, I have known too often unsuccessfully used, so cou'd heartily wish for the good of Human kind some other more happy methods were discover'd.

As to the Cure in general of this Distemper, there are Specimens sufficient in most Authors, I shall not therefore fill these Sheets with a Train of Recipes, but shall only touch upon Two uncommon Heads, and refer them to the Learned World.

The first shall be of the Pills prescribed by Crato, and his own disquisition upon them, which are as follows, ℞ Terebinth. Claraess aq. Adianthi lbj, misce & bulliant ad totalem aquae absumptionem, & adde Cantharidum, abscissis alis, & pedibus capitibus (que) subtiliter pulverisatarum ℈j Mastich. Cinnamom. Rhabarb. elect, & pulv. ℥ j cum Ol. Amigdilar, q. s. f. Mass. Cujus ʒ ij tuto dari possint, [Page 75] of which he thus descants, the Turpentine though in greatest quantity, yet conduces much to the opening of the Urinary pas­sages, and strengthens the Entrails, the other Correctives are for the sake of the Cantharides, as the Mastic, Rhubarb, Cinnamon and the Oil, how far these Pills may benefit, or what improve­ments may be added, I have not yet Experienced, but can see no reason why Cantharides may not be render'd as safe and wholesome a Medicine, as Corrosive Sublimate, from which our Famous Calomelanos is prepared; why may not the Volatile Salt of those Flies, though highly Corrosive, be matched with an equal Cor­rectour. Bartholine commends an infusion of them, and if the Eminent Dr. Lister had directed his infusion of them, in the Dropsy as well as in the Gonorrhaea, I believe he had not mist the mark.

The second Question is of no small moment, whether a mode­rate Salivation may not be of advantage in this Distemper, the great effects that method produces in Scrophulous, Scorbutick, and Venereal cases, are apparent to all the World, when all other endeavours have failed; and since Dropsies generally arise and bloom from the like Vitiated Ferment, why may not the suc­cess be as answerable too?

That the Blood is effaete and vapid in Dropsies is evident enough, from whence some Object the whole Oeconomy of the Body is too infirm for that Course; But whence is it this Debility of the Blood arises? Is it not from Saline Particles abounding in the Mass of Blood? And how can the Body be more effectually, and readily freed from them than by the proper Emunctories, the Salivating Ducts; Nature her self methinks points us out the Road: To conclude, my advice is this, whilst the Viscera remains sound, let this or some other promising method be Essay'd, to relieve the Languishing Patient.

[Page 76] I will give you one instance of a Dropsy proceeding from an unweildy fatness; it was of Mr. Richard Heap, Bachelour of Arts, and Usher of Manchester School, who as I conjectured had labour'd under a Dropsy, and an Hernia Intestinalis, for near two Years; for all the Integuments of the Abdomen were suspended like a large Satchel betwixt his Thighs, and were no little trou­ble to him in Walking, various Methods were Essay'd, and for about Twelvemonths he seem'd to be relieved, but the follow­ing Winter his Distemper renew'd, and in the space of three Weeks an Hundred and Twenty Pints of faetid Water, Issued through the Velamina of the Scrotum, which at length Sphacela­ting he dy'd; His Body being opened, the substance of the Cutis was found to be very Schirrous, over all the Region of the Groin, the Membrana adiposa was full seven Inches Thick, the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Intestines, and Mesentery Glandules, were in a sound and healthful State; The Peritonaeum was entire and firm, a Corner of which Membrane pierced through the whole sub­stance of the Liver, and adher'd to the Vertebrae of the Spine, there were betwixt Twenty and Thirty Saccule's of Fat about the size and shape of Pears, that adhered to the Bowels, but within the Cavity not one Spoonful of Water: Through all his Distemper, he Eat, Drank, and Digested well, and plentifully, had no ex­traordinary Thirst, and voided Urine in quantity sufficient, and only that the swelling daily encreased, he was otherwise no ways indisposed; This must needs ensue from that weighty substance of Fat pressing upon the Lymphatick Vessels, and thence Ob­structing the due Secretion of the Lympha, the Dropsy followed.

Having thus as briefly, and comprehensively as possible run through this large Field of Chronical Diseases, from which Hypotheses many other Corallaries may be deduced, I shall now descend to treat of acute and intermitting Distempers, and so close the Chapter.


Of Acute Distempers in general, particularly the Pestilential Fever raging in Lancashire, in the Years 1693, 94, 95, 96.

THere is scarce any Year but the Fever receives some new Appellation from the common People, but those Fevers that rage chiefly amongst us at set Seasons, as the Spring and Fall, may be reduced to these two Heads; They are either inflamma­tory, malignant, intermittent Fevers, or they are simply inter­mittent: In all the Learned Treatises yet Extant on this subject, nothing is more familiar to us than an inflammation of the Blood, but what is meant by inflammation seems yet to me to be unsolved; The Greeks divide inflammations into two Species, [...], & [...], and these two Terms are taken either in a large or strict Sense; when at large they mean any immoderate flushing Momentaneous heat, that appears without a Tumour, such as present themselves daily in Scorbutick Cases; But when strictly taken they signify to us a severe hot swelling, red, and painful in the fleshy Parts of the Body, proceeding from a Collection and stagnation of over-heated Blood, Violently flowing upon the Part, and disturbing all the inferiour Orders of Vessels around it, but these distinctions of inflammations our Modern Authors take no notice of; our Celebrated Sydenham makes no difference betwixt Malignity and Inflammation, but as the Blood is more or less Inflamed, so is the Malignity greater or less; as for Malig­nity it self he condemns it as a subterfuge of ignorance, yet ex­plains not what he means by inflammation of the Blood, his whole performances rather delineate to us the effects, than causes of inflammation; The Eminent Morton says, the inflammation continues until the Febrile Poyson, the Primary cause of inflam­mation, is either expell'd by Art or Nature, or that the Spirits sink under it: by which account it is very plain he places the causes of inflammation, in a certain Poyson oppressing or destroy­ing [Page 78] the Spirits, but passes by in silence what that Poison is, so Noxious to Human kind, so that the inflammation of the Blood, thus accounted for amounts to no more, nor gives us any clearer Idea of its Aetioligy, than that Archaeus of Helmont, a meer riddle to himself and all the World, or that Light within which directs to greater Obscurity; Wepfer was in the right of it, when he takes notice of Helmont's Ferment, that it was neither Substance, nor Accident, neither Man, Woman, nor Hermophrodite; so consequently nothing. True indeed he acknowledges various Spe­cies of Poisons, but reduces their Operations all to Occult quali­ties, and to attempt their Explications, as he alleges, is only a Philosophical trifling; but with the leave of so Eminent an Au­thor, let us take Oil of Vitriol, Spirit of Nitre, or any other Men­struum, we may readily discern their Effects, in Corroding of Flesh, or Coagulating the Blood, or by a Menstruum prepared from Cantharides, the like Phoenomena are produced, and all arise from a like cause, but must it be no less than madness it self to endeavour their Analisis? And must they altogether be solved by Occult qualities? If the matter stands thus, how comes it that a Philosopher of the first Class, is Eminent beyond a Noisy Mountebank? Or in relation to Physick, how comes it that a re­gular Physician, out-strips a vulgar Emperick? Let us suppose a Person making his Observations with Microscopes, whether shall we solve the different Phoenomena there, by different refracti­ons, or by Occult qualities? No one certainly in his Senses wou'd take the last for a Rational reply; This I know, that Sulphureous, Saline, and Oleaginous Poisons, may be pre­par'd out of various Bodies, nor does it seem unreasonable to me, their different effects shou'd be solved by certain Principles: For my part let them Delight that will in Darkness, and by dusky Notions obscure the sight of Mankind, I shall think it no Er­rour freely to Essay a solution of causes, and perhaps to will in some is to effect it.

[Page 79] To set aside all Controversies of this Nature, I will briefly explain what I mean by Malignity or Inflammation of the Blood, by an Inflammation of the Blood, I mean a Coagulation of its Serous Parts, proceeding from certain, Saline, Austere, Acid, or Acrid Particles: For confirmation of which Hypo­thesis, take the following Experiments: In the first place, Let Alum or Vitriol be mingled with the Serum of the Blood, it straitways passes into a sizy Viscous Coagulum, like what is ob­servable on the superficies of the Blood in Malignant inflamma­tory Distempers.

In the second place, Scorbutick Persons, Drinkers of Wine, and the Inhabitants near the Sea-Coasts, whose Blood doubtless abounds with such Particles, are above others subject to these Di­stempers, or how comes it that Bezoardick Medicines are of such Efficacy here, unless by absorbing or otherwise altering these Saline Particles, for Particles of different kinds will exert them­selves, and shew their Power; that the Animal Spirits by these Medicaments are expanded, and excited as some affirm, I con­fess is true, but thus I imagine it to be Effected, not that the Me­dicines immediately act upon the Spirits, but by destroying the Saline Particles, they dissove the Coagulation of the Blood, and hence the Animal Spirits unfetter'd, in a constant, and continued Course perform their waving Motions, and like the Sun darting its rays through all the enlighten'd Hemisphere, actuate the whole Microcosm, and those Noble actions of the Spirits display them­selves, which were almost extinct in a Viscous Lympha, and ap­peared only as a Star twinkling in an hazy Air, and diffused only some Languid Motions, through the whole frame of the Bo­dy; that saying of Hippocrates agrees with this [...], that is an interception of the Spirits in the Veins, oc­casion'd by a severe Obstruction there; for this reason it is, that Camphir, a Natural Sal. Volat. Oleos. is so much applauded in Pestilential Diseases, by Iunken, Ettmullerus, and others, and this I Experi­mentally speak, that for two or three Years past, I made use of Electuar. de Ovo, in which Camphir is an ingredient, and met with de­sirable success in Malignant Pestilential Fevers, and judge it equal [Page 80] to the Noblest Alexipharmics, from the whole we conclude, that the more or less these Saline Particles are Malignant or Inflam­matory, the Distemper is more or less Acute or Pestilential: For a farther illustration, if we drop a little Spirit of Nitre into Blood immediately taken out of the Arm, it produces even in the twinkling of an Eye, a Black Viscous Coagulum, which a so­lution of Vitriol effects but very slowly, and hence it is these Di­stempers are sometimes called Essential, Spurious, and sometimes Scorbutick, which is attributed to the solutions of Salts of dif­ferent Kinds, Coagulating the Lympha, and Contracting, and Vellicating the Membranes, Nerves, and all the Limbs of the Body, but against this Hypothesis these Objections occur.

First, In inflammatory Distempers it very often happens the Blood is diluted, so consequently cannot be Coagulated, as is evident from the frequent large returning Haemorrhagies, and from the use of Acids, and a slender diet in these Cases.

Secondly, In these Distempers the very first Symptoms some­times appear in the Genus Nervosum, and produce Deliriums, continual Watchfulness, and Convulsive motions, wherefore it may seem reasonable they do not always proceed from a Coagula­tion of the Blood, but rather from the Genus Nervosum.

To these I reply,

That doubtless there are Poisons of various Kinds, some of which fuse and others Coagulate the Blood, as in that Disease called the Plica Polonica, and others; but the present Contro­versy is not about these: we only enquire now whether those Distempers called inflammatory amongst us, whether, I say, in those the Blood is Coagulated or Colliquated, that is made to fluid.

To the first Objection I answer, though there happen some­times Violent Haemorrhagies in these Cases, yet these arise from a Coagulation of the Blood, in this manner, in many of the Ca­pillary Vessels the Blood being either Coagulated, or through its Viscidity moving slowly, and still pressed forwards from the larger Vessels, urges its passages through other Ramifications, and hence ensues that expence of Blood through the Nostrils, some­times the Stomach, and Womb at Critical Seasons, which with Eva­cuations [Page 81] the Patient many time expires; yea, very often we observe that even in those Persons these Haemorrhagies hap­pen, whose Blood upon the opening of a Vein appear'd Black and Sizy, which is an undeniable Demonstration of its Viscidness. To these may be added the frequent fluxes of Blood in Scorbu­tick Cases, where the Blood is unquestionably condensed, as the Purple Livid Spots abundantly evince: And in these Persons, Testaceous Powders, preparations of Steel, Mineral Waters Na­tural or Artificial, Challenge the first Class, either in absorbing or altering the Saline Particles, and so promoting a free circu­lation of the Blood. In the second place, as to what relates to Acids, we may allege with Wedelius, that they both Coagulate and dissolve a Coagulation of the Blood, and for this reason may be of Excellent use in these cases; besides, yet there are Acids which Act upon each other, as Spirit of Niter and Oil of Vitriol, Vitriol and Marine Salt, and thence are converted into a third substance, by the same parity of reason tho' the cause of inflamma­tory Distempers may be deduced from a Coagulation of the Blood, or Lympha from Saline Particles, &c. yet there are Acids of different kinds, imagine the juice of Berberies, or Li­mons, or Gas Sulphuris, by adhering to the Saline Particles, Coa­gulating the Blood and Nested there, by their adhesion, thus they become so far alter'd and augmented in bulk; that they are render'd incapable to penetrate the Lymphatick Globules, or coalesce longer with them, whence the circulation returns, the Blood reassumes its wonted vigour, and the Distemper ceases.

To the third thing of a slender Diet being given in these cases, as Gruels, Panado's, and Posset Drink, it is certain that these given in large quantities dilute the Saline Particles, and ren­der the Lympha fluid, and by that means assist the circulation, and hence are of Extraordinary use.

To the fourth I answer, That some Saline Particles are of so Active and Penetrating a Nature, That ev'n in a moment of time they may be transfer'd to the Genus Nervosum, as is observable in that Sulphurous Halitus near Mount Aetna, where a Dog instantly grows Convulsive, and expires without Speedy relief. Let us imagine then when in the beginning of the Distemper such severe [Page 82] Symptoms attend, the Morbifick Ferment to be Acrid and Vo­latile, such perhaps as Spirit of Niter, by these Corrosive Parti­cles smartly irritating the Nervous Fibres, and Whirling them into twisting Motions, and at the same time Coagulating the Lympha, sometimes the Patient is Molested with Wakefulness, and Convulsive motions, sometimes a deep and heavy Coma, or becomes Paralitick, or Apoplectick; the Animal Spirits thus entangled in a Viscid Lympha, cannot be seperated from the Nerves, which now deprived of their wonted Pabulum, the Per­son becomes Pallid, like the Image of Death.

But against these Assertions, there yet remains one Powerful Argument, and urged Vehemently by Persons of no common Fame; (Viz.) That no Acid cou'd ever yet be produced from the Mass of Blood by any Art yet known; to Vindicate which the Learned Boyle is very often quoted, who cou'd never by any Experiment whatever effect it.

But to that I thus reply,

That all the Experiments try'd by that Eminent Philosopher, were only on the Grumous part of the Blood, as I remember, not in the Lympha, but in the Massy Red Body of the Blood, the Saline Particles are so involv'd with others of a different kind, that they are not distinguishable by the tast, and sight, nor can they be separated by any Art of Fire, but only by their proper Emunctories, (Viz.) The Lymphatick Vessels, and Glandules of the Body, as is evident in very many instances; for pray tell me whoever yet cou'd separate one Particle of Bile or Urine from the Blood? Or what Person will deny such Liquors are therein contain'd? Besides, it passes for an undoubted Truth, as De­monstrable, that the Lymphatick Vessels are only Compages of small Arteries, and consequently whatever is contain'd in them, first passed through the Arteries; this granted it is beyond di­spute, the Lympha sometimes affords an Acid; the truth of this is confirmed by the Learned Nuck, who by many repeated Expe­riments knew how to discover an Acid in the Aqueous Humor of the Eye, which by a peculiar Lymphatick Vessel is separated from the Artery; for this Humour is only brought thither by the [Page 83] ramuli of the Carotide Artery. I'll annex one Argument more, that if no Acid be contain'd in the Blood how comes it, I beseech you, that in Carious or Virulent Ulcers, the Silver Probe be­comes instantly of a Livid Colour, which can only be effected by an Acid not an Alkalious Menstruum? or what causes the Spittle of many Consumptive Persons to be like a solution of Alome? That Argument will not abide the Test, set forth by a late Scri­bler in assigning the causes of Distempers to Alkalies not Acids, but like his New Light to Surgery vanishes like a wandering Star. In the Gout or Stone, says he, a Chalky matter is depo­sited in the Ioints, Reins, and Bladder, fermenting with any Acid, so consequently of an Alkalious Nature, therefore these Distempers arises rather from Alkalies than Acids. We allow it to be true indeed, that those Bodies may be reputed Alkalies, for from them Volatile Alkalies may be prepared, but whoever deny'd Alkalies to be contained in the Blood? Or what then? Does this prove the consequences, that they produce Distempers? no more if I mistake not than the frothy Spittle of Epileptick Persons demonstrates the causes of their Convulsions, or the Ocre of Mineral Waters discloses their Principles. We allege then that in those Distempers the Blood having acquir'd a Saline, Acid, Austere, or Acrid Temper, and in that case commixing with the Alkalies of the Blood, become like a certain Magistery or an Adiaphorous Salt, by which faeculent matter the Capillary Vessels and Membranes become distended, and contracted by its Acrimony, hence in the parts affected arise those Inflammations, and pungent pains, the like Cretaceous substances may if I mi­stake not, be observed by a mixture of Spirit of Niter, and Oil of Vitriol, with the Serum of Blood, yet this is not to be supposed to be produced from Alkalies, but by Acids United with them; daily practice illustrates the truth of this. It is very well known Lime Water, Millepedes, Mineral Waters, a Milk diet, and other Medicines of an Alkaline Nature, which infringe Acids, are preser'd: In the Cure of these Diseases, which success cou'd never ensue if their causes were Alkalious, more might be added but these may suffice. Let such Persons who Pride only in a [Page 84] gingle of words, and argue against confirmed Principles, per­haps rather through the Protection of a Patron, than an awful re­gard to Philosophy, and the truth of things, be assured they mount like Icarus on Artificial Wings, and may expect an equal ruin.

The truth of our Allegation may farther appear from an Ex­periment first shown to me by my Learned and Worthy Friend Dr. Edw. Baynard of the College of Physicians, London. He or­der'd the Urine of Rheumatick Persons to be distill'd by Mr. George Molt Chimist; after distillation scarce one grain of Salt was found remaining, which he had never observed in the distillation of a­ny Urine before, which doubtless must proceed from this cause, that the Saline Particles lodged in the Mass of Blood, were so entangl'd in a Viscous Lympha, that the Glandules of the Reins, and Urinary passages were Orifices too small to separate them: The same reason may hold in those labouring under the Dropsy, for their Emission of so small a quantity of Urine.

These things premised, proceed we next to give an account of the Pestilential Fever raging in these Counties, the Aetio­logy of which may be deduced from what proceeds: Sometimes it seized the Patient with an intermittent fit or Two, and then instantly turn'd continued, and in this Class Malignant inter­mittent Fevers may be ranked; sometimes Violent Pleuritick, and Rheumatick pains attend them, the extreme parts, were ele­vated to an uncommon bulk, and many times the Groin swell'd; and which was worthy our Observation these Symptoms receding the Patients grew Delirious, or Comatose, sometimes their Pulse seem'd regular, but oftner weak, quick, unequal, and inter­mitting, with Vibrations, and twitching of the Tendons, some­time they were opprest with Cold clammy Sweats, Convulsive Motions and an Universal trembling, yet many thus afflicted recover'd, and many sunck away in an irrecoverable Coma, others were all distain'd with spots of different Colours, as Red, Yel­low, Purple, and sometimes with Purple Tokens about the Neck, that many times the Patients seem as though they had been strangl'd. I saw Carbuncles upon the spine with all the Ambient [Page 85] flesh Black and Sphacelated, but indeed these were only in one Person. One there was that was Paralitick but he recover'd; ma­ny complain'd of insufferable Head-Aches, as if the very Crani­um had been opened; they were very restless, and had repeated Deliriums, and sometimes it fell out, that even to their Dying hour, many were neither sick in appearance, nor was the Pulse irregular, their Urine well digested, and were sensible all along; many were seized with Violent Haemorrhagies, at the Nostrils, and sometimes the Uterus; others complain'd of Nauseousness, and continual Sickness, and Vomiting, the Tongue was spread over with a Yellow Pellicle, with sometimes Black or White Fissures, the Urine often Lixivial, full of Red, White, Black, and Dusky Sediments, many of these Dyed Convulsive, or Co­matose, sometimes the Urine was pellucid, and for many Days deposited a Bricky Sediment, yet having observed remissions in many of these by the use of the Cortex desirable success at­tended.

What the Eminent Dr. Morton takes notice of as to this Bricky Sediment, I rather attribute it to a peculiar Bilious Scorbutick Temper of the Blood, than the febrile ferment as he wou'd have it. The Urine sometimes had no Consistence with it, was gree­nish and bore an Oleaginous scum over it, but the Patients void­ing such were afflicted with very severe Symptoms; many were opprest with cruel Diarrhaeas and Gripes, and others with Costive­ness, their Egesta downwards were of a Blackish green, become so doubtless by very Acrid humours commixt with Bile; by the Learned Hippocrates such sort of Excrements were stiled [...] [...], and those Persons very Mortal Symptoms attended; that Expression of Galen, occurs with this, [...] [...], that is, The Bowels bound, and the Excrements black and small, like those of Goats, is Ominous. The Blood upon the opening of a Vein was generally sizy, and sometimes very florid, with a separation of little or no Serum, for that was too much entangl'd with the grumous part of the Blood by Saline Particles to disengage from it; in some the Spittle was thick, and plentiful, sometimes Yel­low, [Page 86] and sometimes streaked with Blood, and very often so faetid, there was no abiding in the same Room; many of them toured on to forty Days, when being counted Consumptive, and no regard had to the Fever, they expired; their Teeth frequent­ly, in Twenty four Hours, grew very Black, though White e­nough before; and when Dead, purple spots appear'd thick about their Neck and Breasts, which Symptoms to me are undeniable proofs of a Coagulation of the Blood: Besides, can any one ob­serve the vast quantity of Viscous Phlegm expectorated, and not conclude from thence the Serum of the Blood to be Coagulated? Or who in the Name of common Sense, that sees the different Coagulations perform'd by different Acids, and the various solu­tions from various Alkalies, will not upon the whole matter Vote these Distempers to arise rather from the first than the second Principle? But this Hypothesis will be the farther illustrated by what follows, Let Blood be taken from the Arm of an Healthful Person, and as it flows into the Porringer, mingle with it some Spirit of Harts-Horn, Sal Armon. or Viganis, Tinctura Antimon. and in another Porringer mix some of his SalVolat. Oleos. impraeg­nated with Salt of Amber, in the first Vessel the Blood remains fluid and florid, in that commixt with SalVolat. Oleos. a sizy Pellicle covers all the Superficies, as in Blood in inflammatory Distempers; proceeding doubtless from that Acrid Volatile Salt, Coagulating the Serum, which by the heat of the Blood endeavouring to fly off, is condensed like Bird-Lime. Note well here, if I mistake not, this Phoenomenon clearly Demonstrates to us the causes of these Distempers, and may be of great use in Physick. The Fa­mous Malpighius and Borellus, have observed in that Epidemick Distemper in Pisa, that by certain Fermentative Particles, a too great Secretion of Bile happen'd, insomuch, that many Alkali­ous Particles were thrown out of the Mass of Blood, notwith­standing which the Distemper did not arise from them as such, but only as they were armed, Porcupine like, with other Morbi­fick Particles.

[Page 87] In one Porringer let the Blood remain as it comes out; in ano­ther mingle either Hungary Water, Ticture of Tartar, or any Volatile Alkalious Spirit; in the first you will observe all the Su­perficies sizy, and in the second the whole to be Florid, it abun­dantly appears hence, that the Viscidness of the Blood arises not from Alkalies as they are such, first, because Blood mingled with Alkalies becomes Florid, yet that very Blood mixed with an Al­kaly, armed with an Acid grows sizy; these are the most re­markable Symptoms observable in these Distempers; and as to the Therapeutick part I refer it to be deduced from what precedes.

Of Intermittent Distempers.

IT is reported by the Germans, that an Eagle was so Artfully form­ed of a certain Wood, that it took Wing to meet the Empe­rour Maximilian upon his road, and appear'd as though alive. The truth of this is not our present enquiry, but an easie Parallel may be produced; any one that reflects on the admirable Virtue and force of the Peruvian Tree, amidst the Crouds of almost breath­less Persons languishing in Fevers: Hence it is that so many pro­lifick Wits have been exercised in explicating its qualities, and the doubtful Controversy of the cause of intermittent Distempers, some have placed the seat of the Disease in the Mass of Blood, as the Celebrated Willis; others in the Pancreatick juice grown too Austere, as the noted Sylvius de Le Boe; others from Salt Hu­mours thrown by the Arteries into the Miliary Glands, as the Learned Dr. Iones, others in a certain Poyson oppressing the Elastick force of the Animal Spirits, as the late Dr. Morton, and others in the Nervous juice Vitiated as the accomplish'd Dr. Cole: but to make strict enquiries into these several Opinions wou'd be too tedious a matter, I shall not therefore insist upon them, but passing over these Philosophical disputes, shall assign the cause of all intermittent Fevers, their Seat and modus; In the first place, therefore let us suppose all intermittent Fevers to arise from Sa­line Particles Coagulating the serous part of the Blood, the [Page 88] truth of this may be thus render'd apparent; as first from the Air, the Season of the Year, or an Errour in the six Non-natu­rals, in those places where the Atmosphere abounds with Saline Particles, as in Moist and Marshy parts, there intermittent Fevers Yearly Epidemically rage, as in Holland, some Parts of the West-Indies, in the Marshes of Kent, Essex, Lincolnshire, Lancashire, and other the like Countries, that the Air does abound with such Particles in such places has been before shown, from the Sea­son of the Year it is very clear, as about the Vernal, and Au­tumnal Aequinox, at which times of the Year above the rest the Air is filled with Saline Particles, for at these Seasons Saline Efflorescences are more observable, as may be seen on the Lime of Walls, and then it is these Fevers rage most. That they arise from an Errour of living, is very plain from the meaner sort of People, who are more subject to them, and whose Diet is chiefly Salted or sour Meats; to these we may add, that after the fit is ended, the Urine often is highly Lixivial, emitting a Pleasant smell, and depositing a Lateritious Sediment, which is very fa­miliar in the Scurvy, in which case it is allowed by all, the Blood abounds with Saline Particles, hence we may take notice the Cortex may be of no small use in Scorbutick cases, whose suc­cess we have Experienced more than once; From what has been said it is plain; intermittent Fevers arise from Saline Particles. Proceed we next to shew the seat of the Distempers, and this may be evinced from the following Heads: First, From Observati­ons in cases, and again from the Opinions of the Ancients, and their Methods of Cure, and after all, our own conjectures in the matter.

As to the Historical part, I will first instance in the case of Alexander Rigby, of Laton in Lancashire, Esq he was seized with a Quartan Ague, that continued upon him some Months, which Proteus like, still alter'd its form, many times after theCold trem­bling fits were pass'd, upon approach of a Hot fit, he became Epi­leptick though of no long continuance, but by a regular method with the Cortex, and other alterative Medicines, he perfectly re­cover'd, and lived many Years afterwards.

[Page 89] The second instance is of Mrs. Clegg, Wife to the Reverend Mr. Clegg, of Kirkham in Lancashire; who for a whole Winter, and some part of the Spring, had been afflicted with a Quartan Ague, which at last alter'd into a double Tertian; but alas! In­stead of those Reciprocal returns usual, Convulsive motions suc­ceeded to that degree, that for many hours her Limbs were all distorted, an Aphonia, or loss of Speech seized her, so that the very Standers by concluded her Dead. Many of these fits she had, and then fell into an Hipocondriac Melancholy, being called into her relief, Apperitive Apozems were prescribed, afterwards the use of Mineral Waters and Chalybeats, withCatharticks in due intervals; by the use of these and the Sulphur Spaw in Yorkshire, in about a Month her Melancholy vanish'd, but her Aguish fits return'd, which were only weakned by the preceding Method, the Cortex with the bitter alterative Decoction, with Rad. Serpent. Virg. were directed, which being regularly pursued she recovered.

Another case on this Topick I'll produce you, of Ann Cambell, Wife of Thomas Cambell, at Stakes near Preston in Lancashire; she was seized likewise with a Quartan in Autumn, and for a­bout a Month her fits were regular enough, but then a very tra­gic alteration ensued, it seized upon the Nerves, and instead of Aguish fits, she became Speechless, except some inarticulate in­ward Mutterings; her Sense, and Memory were lost, that for the time she knew no one nor remember'd any thing; the day after cruel Spasms disturb'd her, and thus she continued for four or five Months; about three in the Afternoon the fits came on, and after all she labour'd under a severe Anasarca, from which and her Quartan, by the use of Hydragogues, Antiscorbuticks, and the Cortex, she recovered her former Health.

From these Historical cases it is evident the Genus Nervosum is effected in intermittent Fevers; it now follows, in the next place, to confirm it by the Opinions, and Practice of the Ancients. That our Predecessors in Physick were Inferior to us in Anatomy, is not to be disputed, hence it was they transmitted to us their Sentiments in very Ambiguous expressions; however by Compa­ring their Theory and Practice together, we find they placed [Page 90] the cause of intermittent Distempers in a certain Spirit, piercing through the Blood and ent'ring even the Penetralia of the Nerves. To evince this take Hippocrates's Thoughts, (our Primitive Stan­dard in Physick) let any one consult his Book de Flatibus, where they may find he assigns the cause of intermittent Distempers to certain Malignant Spirits commixt with the Animal Spirits; I will only produce, two instances relating to the thing, the first is this Aphorism [...]. On which words Duretus, thus Comments, The Sense of any cold Cause first arises in the Limbs, then coursing through the Back effects the Head, but still occasion'd by an ill Digestion, [...]; In another Aphorism thus, [...], on which words the same Author thus proceeds, For a Rigour or Chilliness in the Back, denotes the Seat of the Distemper there; but repeats the words occasion'd by an ill Digestion, [...] as Hippocrates said before, it is plain from these Aphorisms and Commentaries, this Cathectick Habit of the Blood affixt to the Nerves, was the cause of intermittent Fevers, in pag. 130. & 131. he adds thus, ‘This cause may be given for the Yawnings, and Stretchings, which are common Symptomes in this Distemper, for the Nerves, Tendons, and Ligaments, by concenter'dBlood grow hot, and are contracted, and by the Flatus's force are as it were distorted.’

Hollerius in his second Book of Distempers, pag. 23. says, ‘It was Customary among the Ancients, and practised by the Moderns, that besides other Medicines directed before the fit, upon its approach to Anoint the Spine, Scapulas's, and Arms, and use the Oil of Chamomel prepared with Wild Cu­cumers, with a Decoction of Rose-Mary in it, and other ingredients agreeable in a Palsy, so those crass Humours which occasion'd the Quartan, and produced the Palsy, were prevented.’

In Clusius, translated by Christopher Acosta, pag. 326. These may be noted, ‘In Diurnal intermittent Fevers after the Spine is Anointed with Peruvian Balsome made warm, half an hour before the fit, let five or six drops of the same, be taken in a [Page 91] little Wine as before directed, it allays all their Symptoms if repeated twice or thrice.’

Vallesius in his sixth Section of Epidemick Distempers, pag. 219. thus proceeds; To what was before prescribed the Aegyptian Nitre may be added, with Coriander and Cummin Seeds applyed to the Orifice of the Uterus, in Barrenness and in intermittent Fe­vers to the Loins, and the whole Spine; He alleges the fits arise thence, from all which it is evident, the Opinions of the Anci­ents were, that all intermittent Fevers arose from a certain Fer­mentative matter, impacted upon the Nerves, but knew not how to explain the Modus through their Ignorance in Anatomy, which is brought to a Noble perfection in these Days, but that is not not so much to our purpose, it is sufficient for me to shew these were the Sentiments of the Ancients.

I cannot therefore see why the noted Dr. Morton in his first Ex­ercitation of intermittent Fevers, pag. 72. thus argues against the An­cients, in these words, Argumentis quae in Hypothesi nostra generali attu­limus pensitatis, nemo opinor in receptaculis, Visceribus, aut recessibus ad Mentem veterumCollocabit, verum ingremioSpirituum delite scere concedet; the arguments duely consider'd which we urged in our general Hypothesis, no one, I think, will place their cause either in the common receptacles, the Bowels, or other recesses of Na­ture as the Ancients wou'd, but solely in the Spirits; since as­suredly by the instances quoted the Opinions of the Ancients, placed the Causes of intermitting Distempers in the Spirits.

Having now made it highly probable that intermittent Fevers arise from Saline Particles Coagulating the serous part of the Blood, it now remains, to shew how it produces these Trage­dies, and assign the seat of the Distemper: Upon the Coagulati­ons accruing in the Mass of Blood, the Lympha is render'd too Viscid to be separated by its proper Vessels, hence it regurgi­tates back or forces its way through more open Passages, which we may reasonably suppose to be the ConglomerateGlands seated in the Areolas of the Stomach, and Bowels, hence by repeated Circulatious thoseSalt Humours are discharged upon the Stomach and Bowels, first, producing but slight Corrugations, or Trem­blings, [Page 92] but afterwards more dismal Agonies; these Saline Parti­cles at last entirely entangled in a Viscous Mucus, are still hur­ry'd about, and irritate or disturb the Animal Spirits, insomuch, that the whole Body seems to be in a general Convulsion, for now it is the extremities of the Nerves, and the Nervous Mem­branes, by consent bring in the Genus Nervosum, as first, the Par Vagum, then the spinal Marrow, and all the other Nervous ramifications, so that from Head to Foot the whole Animal Oeconomy is disturbed, the Saline Particlesat length encounter­ing with the Bile, from this Emotion it is those heatsarise, those inquietudes and pungent Pains; at length precipitated by the Peristaltick motion of the Bowels, it enters, the Lacteals, and Passes into the mass of Blood, there fresh disturbances arise, as well in the Nervous parts, as the whole Habit of theBody, till it is partly thrown off by Sweat; when I have often observed in ma­ny Persons, their Sweats to be perfectly of a sour smell, and partly by Urine, which being highly Lixivial deposites a Lateri­tious Sediment by reason of the Bilious Particles too much exalt­ed, and United with Saline ones; But against this Hypothesis many important Arguments may be objected, I will Enumerate the most Material;

First, If the Seat of this Distemper be in the Stomach or Bowels or both, it is not probable the whole Body should so in­stantly be shaken as in this Distemper it generally is,

Secondly, We find the Genus Nervosum effected and very severe Symptoms attending, as Convulsions, Epileptick, and Apoplectick fits;

Thirdly, How happens that feebleness, and pain of the Loins, those Yawning and Stretchings, if the Morbifick matter was confined only to the Stomach, and Bowels.

Fourthly, If in intermittent Distempers, the Lympha was grown too Viscous; How comes it the whole Body seems to be dissolved in such profuse Sweats,

Fifthly, If they arise from Salt Humours, whence comes it that from Salt and Acid things inwardly taken, Agonies and Tremblings do not always immediately ensue.

To these I will Answer in Order:

To the first, although the Morbifick matter be lodged only in the Stomach and Bowels, yet by irritating their Nervous Mem­branes all the Nerves are effected, and consequently the whole Body suffers, the truth of this is render'd apparent by those in­stances produced by Wepfer, particularly that of the Poisonous Aquatick Hem-Lock, where he reports of a Woman, who ha­ving Eaten of this Root, in the space of half an hour was seized with Convulsions, a stiff bending forwards, and as intensly backwards, and likewise with the Cramp; in which small time it can scarcely be immagin'd it shou'd enter the Mass of Blood, and the Penetralia of the Nerves, but after she had taken a Dose of Theriaca mixt with Vinegar, the Roots were vomited up entire, her Epilepsy ceased, and she recover'd; others instances he brings like this tryed upon Dogs, and Wolves and Cats, by Harderus, Hurterus, and himself, where by the use of Cocculus Ind. Nux-Vomica they were seized, with Agonies and Tremblings, in space of half a quarter of an hour, and upon a dissection of them they found the Powders had not pass'd the Stomach, but by irrita­ting its Membranes brought in the whole Order of Nerves, with the spinal Marrow; whence ensued those violent Convulsions, and Spasims, from all which it may be concluded beyond dispute, that the Body may generally suffer, though the Morbifick mat­ter be nested only in the Stomach and Bowels: More-over, who is not sensible that the Histerick Epilepsy arises from the Membranes of the Uterus, and that cruel Convulsions, Agonies, and Trem­blings proceed from the Cholick, whose Seat is doubtless in the Intestines: To these may be added that strong Convulsions arise from the puncture of a Nerve, and sometimes from the Hernia­tomia, which things consider'd it seems easy to conceive, how Agonies seize the Patient in intermittent Fevers, though the Sto­mach and Bowels are only effected, therefore, I think, my self Excusable to so many Learned Men, though I dissent from their Nervous Hypothesis in this case for these following reasons, [Page 94] First, I cannot think these Salt Humours that are the causes of intermittent Fevers can enter the Substance of the Brain, the Pas­sages or Tubes of the Nerves, or Nervous Membranes except Vertigoes, Convulsions, Stupors, or the like Symptomes had preceded the fit, which seldom happens here, Secondly, The Orifices of the Nerves are so small, that they are scarce distin­guishable by the most improved Microscopes, nor can we discern any tumefaction above a Ligature, how then can we Imagine these Salt Crass Humours, can penetrate the Genus Nervosum, so as to occasion intermittent Fevers, pardon me if I bring a Compa­rison from the sacred Writ, no more than an Elephant can pass the Eye of a Needle.

To the Second and Third Objection brought against this Hy­pothesis, the preceding Arguments may suffice; To the Fourth I reply, the Nervous System is doubtless deprived of its due Pabulum, by the Viscous Lympha entangling the Animal Spi­rits, hence the Face grows pale, the Strength decays, the Ap­petite fails, and the Subcutaneous Glandules, deprived of the elastick force of the Spirits which contracted them, now become Flaccid, and open with wider Orifices, insomuch that the serous part of the Blood continually throws off, and the patient dissolves in continual Sweats, for when we affirm the Serum of the Blood to be over Viscid, it is not to be understood of an Universal Coa­gulation, but that various humours contain'd in the Mass of Blood, are condensed according to the Quality, and Quantity of the Saline Particles, hence the fits ensue at certain distances of times, by the Circulation of the Blood, which granted it is plain enough to conceive how those profuse Sweats come on; To the fifth I An­swer, perhaps by the Mucus of the Stomach besmearing its Tuni­cles, tho' Salt and Acid Liquors may be immediately received into it, notwithstanding that it is so defended by it that no Agony can instantly arise, or perhaps by the various alterations the Saline Par­ticles undergo in the mass of Blood, they become so Volatilized they produce different effects, the truth of which is plain from the difference betwixt Crude and Fermented juices; These things allow'd, we may readily solve how by one only Dose of [Page 95] the Cortex, taken half an hour before the approach of the fit, very often diverts it, and secondly, how by Purges though very gen­tle, as even Milk glisters, the Distemper returns, thirdly, how the fits renew within a Month, the Cortex not being repeated; and fourthly, this leads us to a solution of other Inflammatory Cases, as the Pleurisy, Apoplexy, Rheumatism, Colick, &c. That a small quantity of the Cortex taken half an hour before the fit, may produce these effects, let us suppose, that by the innate heat of the Stomach and Bowels, and by the Humours there lodged, in a Moment almost a Tincture is extracted from the Cortex, just as we see in Galls put into Mineral Waters, even in the twinking of an Eye it becomes of a purple Colour, and Precipitates: by a Parallel reason may we allow the Cortex to Precipitate the Saline or Austere Particles, hence the Morbifick matter alter'd, the Nervous Tunicles are no longer twitched nor Corrugated by their Points; thus many times by one single Dose the fit is diverted: But this could never ensue in so short a time, by only one Dose of the Cortex, if the Morbifick matter lodged in the very substance of the Nerves, and that the Particles of the Cortex according to the Nervous Hypothesis, were to pass into the very Genus Nervosum, whose Penetralia are too small for such Par­ticles as we asserted before, some urge indeed that by a puncture of the Nerve many times a Lympha distils, but this does not demonstrate that a Lympha passes through the Nerves, but rather shows it to be a Lympha flowing from Capillaries adhering to the outward Tunicles of the Nerves, or it may be a Lymphatick Vessel it self wounded: but against these assertions one strong Argument remains, that if intermittent Distempers arise from Saline Particles lodged in the Stomach and Bowels, thrown of thither by the mass of Blood, how comes it then since the Circulation of the Blood is so swift, that the fits come not once every hour but only at stated times, and hence are called Quotidian, Tertian, and Quartan Agues.

To this we say, it is very true the Circulation of the Blood is ve­ry often and swiftly performed, and each in dividual Emunctory endeavours its proper Secretions, but the Lympha here having ac­quired such a thickness, that it cannot duely enter its proper Ves­sels, [Page 96] is forcid to rush into more open passages (viz.) into these Conglomerate Glandules, through which perhaps it can only en­ter in the space of Twenty Four Hours, sooner or later, accord­ing to the quality of the Disease, nay even these Glandules themselves, in a sound and Natural state, separate a Viscous Mu­cus but in very little quantity; and perhaps whilst the Blood per­forms its many Circulations, this febrile matter touches upon the the Membranes of the Muscles, and hence it is those Symptoms called Antesignana, or Fore-runners, as Yawning, Stretchings, Pains of the Loins, &c. proceed; but after a sufficient Collecti­on of Acrimonious matter separated by the Conglomerate Glands, then ensues that train of Agonies; it is certainly very wonderful to consider, what horrid Tumults the Particles of the Blood, deprived of a separation by their proper Emunctories, raise in the Body; That Particles of Bile are separated from the mass every Circulation is indisputable, but when the Glandules of the Liver become incapable to do that Office, then they re­bound into the Blood, and are hurry'd here and there, and rush thorough any Avenue, so that in some I have known periodical Convulsive fits return once in 24 hours; for the truth of which one instance shall suffice; In Ianuary, 1696. the Honoured Robert Hesketh, of Rufforth, Esq was seized with the Black Jaundice, insomuch, I concluded all the Glands of the Liver to be Obstructed, his Urine was Black, so impregnated was it with Bilious Particles, which at length invading his Brain, thence a Phrensy ensued, and for three Nights together about a certain hour he became Epileptick, from which instance it is clear that Particles deny'd a separation by their proper Emuncto­ries, undergo various Circulations before they are separated from the mass of Blood, by the same parity of reason the Lympha render'd Viscid, must undergo the same Stages before it can exert it self, and at last being separated by theConglomerate Glandules, by itsAcrid Viscocity it frets the Nerves both of the Stomach and Bowels, and so brings on the fits; some indeed allege if the Morbifick matter was lodged in the Mass of Blood, at the end of the fit the Di­stemper wou'd be removed by Sweat, but that's their mistake; [Page 97] for in these Distempers we suppose the mass of Blood to have contracted a Saline temper, so that every day Coagulations are generated, according to their quality sooner, or later; It was very strange to observe what unaccountable Ideas those Extrava­sated, Bilious Particles produced in the fore-mention'd Case; he wou'd sometimes tell me at Noon-Day he saw various sorts of Creatures crawling around him, vast Cities and in them innu­merable Crouds of People Walking, Trees, and many other things. All which put together let us imagine that a daily Tin­cture is extracted by the Humours from the Cortex as was said be­fore, by which means the fits are weakened, until its Virtue be­ing spent the Morbifick matter renews, and the Fever returns; hence it is easy to show how Purges revive them, but if we re­move the cause first the effects appear no more: that these Distem­pers, Proteus like, put on many shapes is evident. I will only add that intermittent Fevers, and other inflammatory Distempers commonly so stiled, may be reduced under the same Class, and differ only in degree, as the Morbifick matter is Qualify'd.

From the whole in these cases the Cortex has acquired a merit durable as time.

To conclude, let us suppose that Natural Ferment composed ofa Volatile Alkaly, an Oily Succus, and an Acid, to be alter'd in these Distempers from its Natural Crasis, and converted into a Saline temper, whence flow those infinite distribances, and perplexing Agonies, such a Ferment as this was prepared by me at Oxford in August, 1684, and inserted in the Philosophical Transactions.

To which I refer you, and could not therefore but wonder at a late piece concerning the Ferment of the Stomach relating to the same matter, and the Author not having the Ingenuity to ac­knowledge from whom he had the Notion.



PAge 8. line 34. read honoured, p. 9. l. 8. r. the same, l. 23. r. Spirits, p. 10. l. 3. r. Automata, p. 12. l. 17. r. and, p. 13. l. 14. r. their, Ibid p. & l. r. which, Ib. p. & l. 23. r. it does not, p. 14. l. 1. r. Fathers, p, 15. l. 36. r. Erke, p. 17. l. 5. r. Fittons, p. 18. l. 34. r. taken, p. 19. l. 3. r. Instrument, p. 25. l. 3. after in add this, p. 26. l. 11. r. vicinus, Ib. l. 23. r. Horologii, p. 27. l. 13. r. vertical, Ib. l. 22. r. opportunity, Ib. l. 29. r. Horrox, and so every where else, p. 28. l. 16. for the first His, r. the, Ib. l. 27. r. Hypotheses, p. 31. l. 21. r. and, Ib. l. 30. r. Hazel, p. 33. l. 23. r. Person, Ib. after discour­sing add of, Ib. l. 35. r. Wharfing, p. 36. l. 13. instead of the last Vel with a Capital and full point, read it without either, p. 37. l. 29. r. negabant, Ib. l. 34. r. Vanslebius, Ib. l. 36. r. Syrians, p. 40. l. 4. r. Dioscorides, Ib. l. 24. after being add raised, p. 41. l. 18. r. Vitruvius, p. 42. l. 21. for all are r. are all, p. 43. l. 5. r. Saliva, Ib. l. 18. for the first is, r. the, p. 44. l. 9. r. Coctioni, Ib. l. 12. r. detraxisse, p. 45. l. 5. instead of à Pylori locem, r. tantum à Pyloro locum, Ib. l. 2. after take add to, p. 46. l. 10. r. Ingredients, Ib. l. 17. r. tanquam, p. 47. l. 11. after me add by, Ib. l. 19. for ing r. being, Ib. before pretend add I, Ib. l. 26. before the Lobster, add the other as, p. 51. l. 26. for to r. from, Ib. l. 27. r. inseparable, p. 52. l. 25. r. Erisypelas, Ib. l. 13. r. Bricky, p. 55. l. 21. r. Rete, p. 56. l. 7. r. these, Ib. l. 13. r. Vegetables, and so every where else, Ib. l. 16. r. Disease, p. 57. l. 21. r. hydragogues, Ib. l. 26. before a violent add and, Ib. l. 29. r. honoured, p. 59. l. 5. r. Scorbutic Rheumatisms, Ib. l. 10. r. Phthises, p. 61. l. 2. r. Ar­gument e contrario, p. 63. l. ult. for in r. with, p. 64. l. 14. r. becomes, deposites, Ib. l. 29. r. so emits a pleasant odour, p. 71. l. 8. r. Aetiologies, p. 72. l. 29. r. well, p. 73. l. 11. r. vesicles, and so elsewhere, p. 75. l. 1. r. on, p. 78. l. 4. r. Aetiology, p. 80. l. 28. r. too, Ib. l. ult. for which with r. with which, p. 83. l. 17. r. Consequence, Ib. l. 29. after Serum r. as the.





TO know what our Ancestors were, cannot be more lively delineated to us, than by the Ruines we discover of those Days; hence it is that by penetrating the Bowels of the Earth, we can trace the Footsteps of our Forefathers, and imprint upon our Minds some Idea's of their Times: The Po­liteness of the Roman Eloquence was admirable, and methinks to see the Vas Lachrymatorium, as the last Obsequy to a deceased Friend, as we are Men, demonstrates to us what we ought to be, but as we are Christians much more: But, alas! an ade­quate Idea of those Days cannot be expected, yet I shall endea­vour to revive the Phoenix from its Ashes, and in order to that give you an Account of some Roman Urns, with other remarkable Antiquities, of which these Counties furnish us with no small Variety: The most noted Place for these, is Ribchester in Lan­cashire, [Page 2] by Antoninus called Coccium from Coccius Nerva, or Goc­cium, and doubtless a Town of large Circumference, as is visi­ble by its Ruines; I have seen there subterraneous Walls, Urns, Coins, Romish, Danish and Saxon, Anchors, Rings, and Nails of small Vessels or Boats; this Place however is at a great Distance from the Ocean, and to which there is no River Navigable; how therefore the Exuviae of those Times came there to be de­posited, may challenge our Enquiry. That this Place was a Roman Station seems unquestionable, and maintain'd as a For­tress to keep that Part of the Country in Awe, and it is not im­probable but that here they placed their Machines; and hence it is those Relicts are daily discover'd, for in all likelihood, when the Romans, commanded Britain by Legions, they wou'd never much subdivide or disperse themselves thinly into different Parts, but rather keep embody'd and entire: But to make it clear how these Utensils, and Marine Antiquities came here to be lodged, tho' it certainly was never a Port, being now so far distant from the Sea, take these following Particulars: The First is in a Letter from the Ingenious and Learned Mr. Oddy, School-master at Blackburn. ‘When we were at Ribchester toge­ther, and had carefully view'd the Place, you may remember I gave you my Opinion, and Reasons why Ribchester had ne­ver been Navigable so high, and that Doubt raised about the Place called Anchor-Hill, may easily be solved; that that Bank was a Rampire of the Fortress is very visible, under which there is yet a broad and deep Foss leading towards the River, serving, as I conceive, for a double use, viz. as a Trench to fortifie the Place, and a Canal (like to that up to Holbourn­bridge, London,) for Boats for the Garrison upon all Occasions, to pass over and repass the River, which is not fordable there­abouts but in dry Weather; and we may reasonably suppose there was a great Number of Boats of all forts belonging to so large a Fort and City, the Anchor-Hill, so called, being as it were a little Dock or Hithe, for the Building or Repairing them, and that the Anchors, Rings and Nails there found, were only for then use, and not for Ships, they being far too little either for Ships of Burden or War.’

[Page 3] We cannot rightly make out what Legion of the Romans was planted here, by any of the noble Ruines we disclose; how­ever, by what has been discover'd, both the Antiquity and Grandeur of the Place, will be clearly represented, and our modern Observations be no small Supplement to the more an­cient Ones, where Mr. Cambden and others have saved me the Trouble, I shall fairly name them in order, and in Conclusion add my own. The first Inscription Mr. Cambden takes Notice of, is at Salisbury-Hall, on the Pedestal of a Pillar, which is as follows:
Marti ET

And in the Wall adjoining to it is another Stone, with the Portraiture of Cupid, and another little Image, and in the back­side of it is this Inscription;

These Mr. Cambden supposes to be British Names of Places, but I do not see how that can be made out, but rather look up­on 'em to be the Names of Officers in a Wing of the Sarmatians. AL. Q. Q. SAR denoting the Ala Sarmatum, or a Wing of the Sarmations, of which Tacitus gives a full Account; Osalvedn [Page 4] may probably signifie Oswalds Town, the noble Family of the Osbaldstones still residing there; so that these Names may not only be British, but likewise Roman and Sarmatian.

His next Account is of a fair Altar, with this Inscription▪
SS. LL. M.’

The Signification of which, as Cambden himself is silent, so I refer it to other Antiquaries to discuss: However, upon my being last at Oxford, I receiv'd there the Satisfaction to find, that Iuno and Diana were constantly called by the Romans Deae Matres. And the further Explication of this Altar, is that In­genuis, an Asiatic one of the Decuriones of the Asturian Wing, dedicated this Altar to the Mother Goddesses, Iuno and Diana.

Another little Altar he saw cast out amongst the Rubbish, with this Inscription;

This Altar from its Smallness Mr. Cambden takes to have been some poor Man's Altar, to carry about with him, and to have been for offering Incense, Salt and Flower. But to me this In­terpretation seems more reasonable, from the very Words them­selves at length, that Elegaurba, doubtless a Commander there, dedicated this Altar to Mars after some signal Overthrow of the Enemy; and thence Peace ensuing, he styles him Pacifero, but who this Elegaurba was, or what Country Man, I pretend not to determine.

[Page 5] He speaks also of another Stone dug up, with the Portraiture of a naked Man on Horse-back, without Bridle or Saddle, bran­dishing his Spear with both Hands, and insulting over a naked Man prostrate, who held out before him a kind of square Piece; between the Horse and the Person prostrate stand the Letters D. M. under the prostrate Man are GAL. SARMATA. There were other Letters too defaced to guess at, one would imagine, says he, both from the former Inscription and this that was found many Years agoe, that a Wing of the Sarmatae had their Station here.

This Inscription, as I take it, may be thus translated, Aael: a Matron who lived 28 Years, Two Months and Eight Days, in this Earth lies entomb'd; and Marcus Iulius Maximus her Son, who lived Six Years, Three Months and Twenty Days; and Campania Dubba her Mother, who lived Fifty Years: Iu­lius Maximus and Alae a Sarmatian, Wife to her incomparable Husband, erects this to perpetuate the Memory of Simo the Son of a pious Father, and his Father in Law.

Now the Word Asiaticus in the Inscription beginning with Deis Matribus, and in that preceding it beginning with Seoseam, and in this last of all, that Word Sar, being repeated, it makes it more probable to me, that Sarmatia being a Part of Asia, and [Page 6] likewise Part of Europe containing Poland, Russia, Muscovy, and most of Tartary, from which vast Country the Phoenicians, being an industrious and trading People, transplanted several Colo­nies hither, and on the Portraiture of the naked Man these Words Gal. Sarmata being found too, does farther illustrate these People called Brigantes residing here, to be for a great Part A­siatics, of which Mr. Camden takes no Notice.

Thus far and no farther Mr. Camden proceeds in the Anti­quities of this noted Station; but as to the ancient Name of the Place, he says, Ptolemy stiles it Rigodunum, and that being cor­rupted from Ribodunum may not be unlike Ribbochester. It is his Opinion likewise, the Town of Preston, called so from the Re­ligious, quasi Priest Town, sprang from the Ruines of this re­markable City which might be ruined by Wars or Earth­quakes.

I shall now acquaint the Reader with my own Observations, made in this present Year 1699 when I was upon the Place, which gave me a new and different Prospect of Matters above what he has recited: The first remarkable Piece of Antiquity I took Notice of, was a Fortification called Anchor-Hill, because Anchors have sometimes been found there under Ground, with Rings and Nails of small Vessels, Roman Paterae of a Mettal like that of our China Tea-Pots, with the Effigies of Wolves and Flowers upon them, and at the Bottom of some these Letters Fab. Pro. which doubtless must be in the Time when some one of the Fabii were Pro-Consul or Procurator. From Anchor-Hill there goes a Way to Preston and a Road to Lancaster, where there was ano­ther Fortification, and a Roman Wall; another Road likewise directs to Mancunium, or Manchester, where was a Fortress called the Giants or Torquins Castle, and doubtless that was their High­way to Devona or Chester, where the Twentieth Legion, stiled Valens and Victrix, was fixed; Chester was then a Blockade to the Britains in Wales: Not far from this Fortification, called Anchor-Hill, at Ribchester, I saw a Common-shoar, and a Floor com­posed of Roman Tyles, which absolutely demonstrates the Ri­ver there was never Navigable, for had it been so that City [Page 7] must unavoidably have been under Water, together with in that Country, commonly call'd the Field, from its resemblance to a Field being all Champaign. Near this Shoar I saw a Pillar about Seventeen Inches Diameter, with Letters upon it, but those in a great measure erased, and not at all legible. This Pil­lar in all probability was erected in Commoration of some remarkable Victory the Romans obtained over the Britains. The Roman Coins I met with there, which are discover'd as the Hill shelves into the River, were one of them Augustus Caesar's, the rest Titus Vespasian, Dioclesian, Coccius Nerva, from whom 'tis likely the Place by some was called Coccium, Domitian, Trajan, Adrian, Severus, Commodus, Marcus Antoninus, and Iulia, some in Copper, and some a mixed Mettal, in which last the Letters are very legi­ble; likewise one Saxon Coin, and that in Silver; amongst these was likewise found a Ruby, with Mars on the Reverse, the Genius of the Place, as appears by a Roman Altar dug up there, which is now removed to Dinckley, a Seat not far remote from thence, and now in the Possession of Edward Warren, Esq who married a Talbot, an Heiress of that noble Family; on this Altar these Words are inscrib'd, Deo Marti & Victoriae: There is another Roman Altar, but on that the Letters are erased, and are not legible. I saw likewise Two Coins found at the same Place with Crosses on the Reverse, and the Head of an Emperor, but the Letters too obscure to be read; however, it is very pro­bable it may be of Constantine the Great, from the Figure of the Cross appearing to him in the Air, with these Words, Sub hoc Signo Vinces: At the same Place are frequently found several Pieces of Roman Urns, and Flower-Pots, all which consider'd: fully demonstrate the great Antiquity of the Place, and in those Days its Magnificence, which is now but a small Village, tho' it is still honour'd with several Noble Families that are Neigh­bours to it. But its Greatness in those Days may appear far­ther from the Finger of a Copper Statue, which doubtless was erected for one of their Emperors, and found amongst the Ruines. The Romans to perpetuate any memorable Overthrow of their Enemies had Three Ways to do it, either by erecting [Page 8] of Pillars with Inscriptions, or the Statues of the Emperors, or by Triumphal Arches, of which here are the Ruines of the two first: But, tho' all these represent to us the Grandeur of the Place, yet they prove not to us that any Roman Emperor ever resided there, but rather that the Station was command­ed by Tribunes, Pro-Consuls, and Procurators.

These following Pieces of Antiquity were communicated to me by Mr. Oddy, School-master, at Blackburn; and the Reve­rend Mr. George Ogden, Fellow of the Collegiate Church of Manchester, and present Vicar of Ribchester.

Besides the engraven Altars here mentioned, I saw another when I was last over there with this Inscription,
SS L. L. M. I. T. C. C. N. N.’

This seems to be an Altar dedicated to Mars and Victory, the Genii of the Place, by one of the Decurions, by Birth an Asiatic, commanding in a Wing of the Sarmatae, and the fix last Letters may be Imperatori Triumphanti Caesari Coccio Nervae, to the Triumphant Emperor Coccius Nerva; from whom this Place by Antoninus was called Coccium: This is truly Antique, and gives us an ample Demonstration of the Truth of what Antoninus relates.

From our Observations upon the Inscription of the Altars found at Chester, and Hulme, we may readily inform our selves who commanded the Legions or Detatchments from them; the twentieth Legion at Chester, stiled doubtless Valens Victrix, was commanded by Longinus Flavius, a Tribune. That at Man­chester by the Inscription at Hulme, seems to be only a Detatch­ment from the Sixth Legion residing at York, stiled also the Conqueror, and commanded here by Lucius Senecianius. Brutus was the third Commander in it.

[Page 9] Yet this at Ribchester only acquaints us with the Title of the Officer, a Decurion commanding the Tenth part of a Legi­on; but whether this Detatchment was from York or Chester, is not apparent by any Account these ancient Ruines afford us.

However, considering the Roman Ways leading to Ribchester, both from York and Chester, we may equally ballance the Dis­pute, and conclude, Parties from both Legions might be dis­patch'd thither as their Conveniencies stood. These Ways are yet to be seen over the Forest of Fullwood, near Preston, to Lan­caster and Appleby, &c. others are visible from Manchester by strange Ways, towards Bury, and so to Ribchester.

There was one very eminent Piece of Antiquity dug up at Ribchester, viz. a large Stone, now a Corner-stone in Salisbury-Hall, which anciently belonged to the Talbot's; on one side is Apollo with his Quiver on his Shoulder, leaning on his Plectrum or Harp, with a loose Mantle or Velamen, and on the other side Two of his Priests in the same Habit, with an Ox's-Head in their Hands, sacrificing to him the Heads likewise of various Animals lying prostrate at his Feet.

We may here raise a very probable Conjecture of this Votive Altar, that it was erected in the Time of Dioclesian, as Mr. Leigh's Caesars informs us. Eusebius, in Lib. 5. de Prop. Evang. assures us, that that Emperor going to Apollo for an Oracle, received for Answer, That the Iust Men were the Cause that he cou'd say nothing: Which Just Men Apollo's Priests interpreted to be Christians. Upon which Dioclesian began his most inhumane and barbarous Persecution; so cruel it was, that Dr. Heylin in his Geography, tells us, There was not a Day in the Year, except the First of Ianuary, (on which Day they used not to shed Blood) but there were sacrificed Five Thousand Christians at the least; as he makes evident from St. Ierome's Epistles to Heliodorus and Chrosmaticus: However, this Island in some mea­sure escaped the Fury of it, Divine Providence interfering: For Fuller in his Church History of Britain, informs us, it continued for one Year only.

[Page 10] That this Altar was erected here in Dioclesian's Time, is fur­ther probable, from the great Number of his Coins frequently found here.

This is a true Relict of Antiquity, and, perhaps, as valuable as most in the Kingdom: It gives us a clear Idea of the Pagan Superstitions, and their unmerciful Butcheries of the increasing Christians, as likewise of their obstinate Adherence to their Heathen Rites, notwithstanding the convincing Tokens of a Superior Power: Neither the Silence of their Delphick Oracle, struck dumb at our Saviour's Nativity, nor the free Confessions of their inferior Pagods, were any Motives to their Conversi­on, but they rather added Fuel to their Rage, and spurr'd them to more intense Persecutions.

At Lancaster, lately in digging up of a Cellar of Mr. Parting­ton's, were found several Roman Disci, and Sympuvia, or Cups used in Sacrifice, and Coins, as some of Aelius, Adrianus and Augustus Caesar; the Cups have upon their sides the Figures of va­rious Creatures, and Iulius Flavius in Letters; on the bottom of one of these appear'd very legibly these Letters, Regin. I. which we may easily interpret, a Discus used in Sacrifice to Iuno, as she was stiled Regina Caeli. These and the foregoing Observations, together with the Roman Wall there, commonly call'd the Weary-Wall, abundantly demonstrate that ancient Town to have been a most eminent Roman Station at the least.

The next Place remarkable for Antiquities is Coln, in the same Hundred with Ribchester, the Antiquities of which Place were transmitted to me by the Learned Mr. Hargrave, Rector of Brandsburton, near Beverly in Yorkshire, in the following Words:

‘I have often from the Name Coln conjectur'd, that the Place was of more ancient Original, than the Tradition current among the Inhabitants made it; and I was the further con­firm'd in this by the great Number of Roman Coins, which [Page 11] have been frequently dug up nigh it, as at Wheatly-Lane, which are generally Copper; and those Silver Ones cast up by a Plough, Three or Four Years agoe, nigh Emmet, enclosed in a great Silver Cup, some of which I have seen; one of Gor­dianus was very legible, and another not so: I have seen Parts of others, whose Remains show they were one of the Antonines. But that which most confirm'd my Conjecture of this Town's being a Roman Station, was a Conversation I was honour'd with the last Summer, by our Reverend Dean of York, Dr. Gale, who was pleased to shew me a Book written about the Se­venth Century, by a nameless Author at Ravenna, which is so far as I know of it nothing but an Itinerary, wherein many ancient Names of Towns through the Roman Empire are remem­bred, which others have omitted, especially in Britain: That Author comes from our Camolodunium to Colunium, and thence to Gallunium, which by the usual Transmutation of the Ro­man G. into our W. that Learned Person concludes to be Wally, and thence, I think, I may safely, from the Distance of Coln from Almondbury, and its lying in the Road betwixt that and Whalley, conclude that Coln was a Roman Station. I will only add, Sir, that the Book I have mentioned was printed at Pa­ris 1670, or thereabouts, and if our Dean's Coppy was pro­cured from the French King's Library, and (which is strange) that inquisitive Person told me, he could no where meet with an other Copy, this last Thing has induced me to think, that somewhat I have troubled you with in Relation to the Antiquity of the Place, may be new to you. The Respect I bear to the Place of my Birth, has perchance tempted me to determine too peremptorily in favour of it, which I wholly submit to your very judicious Censure; and if what I have writ­ten so hastily may be any ways serviceable to your Chapter of Antiquities, I shall be extreamly proud to have been in the least measure,’

Your Humble Servant.

[Page 12] With all Deference to that Learned Gentleman, it is my O­pinion, Coln was not a Roman Station, and that for these fol­lowing Reasons: First, Because where the Roman Stations were there are usually Fosses, and Fortifications, of which this learn­ed Gentleman gives no Account; and tho' the Coins found there might induce him to think it so, yet that Instance is not convincing, since they are frequently found in several other Parts, which in probability were never Roman Stations, as at Bury, and Standish in Lancashire: Besides, it is frequently ob­serv'd, that where the Roman Stations were, there are usually found Roman Altars dedicated to the Genius of the Place, Pa­terae and Fibulae; it is very likely therefore that where those Coins are found, and not the other Antiquities, they were only buried there by the Romans in their Marches, when they quitted their Stations, who rather chose to hide them in the Earth, than let them fall into their Enemies Hands. Secondly, It is probable it was not a Roman Station, from the Account that is given of the Boundaries belonging to them; for, as Siculus Flac­cus informs us, the Fields that lay near the Colonies were deter­min'd by several sorts of Bounds; in the Limits there were placed for Marks, sometimes one thing, and sometimes ano­ther; in some a little Statue of Mercury, in others a Wine Ves­sel, in others a Spatula, in others a Rhombus, or a Figure in shape like a Lozenge; and in some, according to Vitalis and Arcadius, a Flaggon or Jarr. Now, none of all these, as ever I heard of, having been dug up at Coln, I cannot conclude it a Roman Station, but that the Coins found there were lodged by the Romans in their Itineraries; but, by reason some of these have been found at Up­holland in Lancashire, that Place, indeed, may have been a Roman Station.

From what has been observ'd, to me it seems more feasible, that the Name Coln, is deriv'd from the Saxon Word Culme, in that Language signifying Coal, that Place abounding with that sort of Mines.

[Page 13] That Manchester was a Fortress of Note in the Romans Days, is apparent, from the large Ruines remaining in a near adjoin­ing Field, and some Inscriptions that have been found in Neigh­bouring Places: But, that I may do Justice to the Memory of Mr. Hollingworth, once Fellow of the Collegiate Church in Manchester, I hope I shall not be censur'd in transcribing his Ma­nuscript, relating to the Antiquities of this Town, and now reserved in the Library there. He supposes it received its De­nomination from Maen, which, as we find from the Glossaries of the British Tongue, signifies a Rock or Stone, because it is seated on a Rock or stony Hill: The Romans call'd it Mancunium, or Manucium, according to the Variety of Copies mentioned by An­toninus the Emperor, who lived about an Hundred and Twenty Years after Christ: The Thorough-fares ascrib'd to him, are from Eboracum (York) to Calacina (Tadcaster;) then to Cambodunum, a Place now ruin'd near Almondsbury, in Yorkshire; then to Mam­muncio, or Manucio (Manchester;) thence to Condato, Congleton in Cheshire; and then from Coccium (Ribchester) to Mancunio, and so to Condato. This Town of Manchester was a Station or Fort of the Romans; now the Stations of the Roman Colonies were the seve­ral Plats of our Cities, and principal Towns, before whose Coming the Britains had no other Cities or Towns, than Woods fenced with Trenches and Rampiers, which were Places of Re­treat, to avoid the Incursion of the Borderers. In Aldport, close by the Town, was another Fort, where many Roman Coins have been digged up; it was built Four-square, was commonly call'd Mancastle, or Mamcastle, being built, as may be presumed, by Vicius Lupus, Pro-Praetor, and Lieutenant of Britain, as Ulpian the Civil Lawyer call'd him, who strengthned these Northern Parts with Forts and Castles. From this ancient Fortress the Place was afterwards call'd Aldport; Ald for Out-Post in Teutonic, (from whence, and not from the French they anciently have it) was sometimes used for a City, Wall'd Town, or Fenc'd Place.

[Page 14] Near to the Confines of the Parish towards Prestwich, there is a Field call'd Ho-Castle-Field, and a Lane call'd Ho-Castle-Lane; Mr. Cambden visiting these Parts, saw at the Fort of Alpark, upon a long Stone this Inscription,

And Iohn Dee then Warden of Manchester, copied out this for him.

These Two Pieces it seems were for the Preservation of the Memory of Two Centuriont, that had so many Years faithfully and worthily served the Romans there.

In the Year 1692, under the Root of an Oak, in Med-Lock, near Knot-Mill, was found a Stone Three Quarters long, Fifteen Inches broad, Eleven Inches thick, with the Letter'd side down­ward, which Mr. Cambden saw not at least before the Finishing his Britania, but is now to be seen in the Garden of Holme, the Seat of Sir Iohn Bland, Bar to whom that Estate descended, the same formerly belonging to the Moseley's, in Right of his Wife, a Lady of great Temper, Piety and Prudence. The Inscription of the Stone is thus;

[Page 15] This seems to be an Altar dedicated to Fortune, by Lucius Senecianus Martius Brutus, a Commander in the Sixth Legion, which remained in York in the Time of Severus his being there, after he had vanquished Albinus, General of the Britains, and reduced their State under his Obedience: It was surnamed Victrix, and is plac'd by Dio in Lower Britain, and the Twentieth Legion, surnamed also Victrix, remain'd at Chester, which was plac'd in Higher Britain: This Division it seems was made by the said Severus, and the Country about it where these Legions were, were divided into little Regions, since call'd Hydes. This was part of the Kingdom of Deiara, several of whose Youth be­ing sent to Rome, and Pope Gregory admiring their Beauty, sent over Augustine to convert the English.

Edward, the First King of the West Saxons, and afterwards of the Mercians, sent into the Kingdom of the Northumbers an Army of the Mercians, saith Hoveden, ordering that they should fortifie the City of Manchester, and place valiant Soldiers in it, it being defac'd by the Danes: It was a Frontier Town betwixt the Mer­cians that inhabited Cheshire and Derbyshire, and the Northumbers inhabiting Lancashire and Yorkshire; and in their Wars and mu­tual Incursions, was sometimes possessed by the Mercians, and sometimes the Northumbers. Thus far our Author proceeds.

As to the present State of the Town, it is vastly populous, of great Trade, Riches and Industry, particularly for the Fustian Manufacture, and Printing them, as for those likewise which are call'd Manchester Wares; both which are now sent all over the Kingdom, as well as to the Indies: It is watered by the Rivers Erwell and Irke. Little can be added of Lancaster for Antiquity, save that it was doubtless a Roman Fortress, as appears by the Ro­man Wall and Road leading to it; it is at this time a very thri­ving Corporation, and an improving Port: Its Eminency chiefly lies in this, that many Branches of the Royal Family have en­joy'd Titles deriv'd from it; which for the Dignity of the Coun­ty in general, I will enumerate as briefly as possible. The First that was stiled Lord of the Place in the Beginning of the Norman Government, was Roger of Poictou, surnamed Pictarensis, because [Page 16] his Wife came out of Poictou in France: He was succeeded in that Honour by William, Earl of Morton and Warren, upon whose Death King Richard the First bestow'd it on his Brother Iohn, af­terwards King of England; of whom Gualter De Hemingford and R. Hoveden gives this Account: That King Richard shew'd great Affection to his Brother Iohn; for, besides Ireland, and the Earl­dom in Normandy, he bestow'd upon him such great Preferment in England, that he was in a manner Tetrarch there: For he gave him Cornwall, Lancaster, Nottingham, and Derby, with the adjacent Country, and many other Things.

After this, King Henry. III. Son of King Iohn, promoted his younger Son Edmund Crouchback (he having been prevented of the Kingdoms of Sicily and Apuleia) to the Earldom of Lancaster, giving it in these Words: The Honour, Earldom, Castle and Town of Lancaster, with the Cow-Pastures, which at this Day they call Vaccaries from thence, and Forest of Wiresdale, Lownsdale, New-Castle under Lime, with the Mannor, Forest, and Castle of Picke­ring, the Mannor of Scateby, the Village of Gormancester, and the Rents of the Town of Huntingdon. Edmund had Issue, Thomas, Henry, (and Iohn, who died unmarried) which Thomas was Second Earl of Lancaster, and was succeeded in that Honour by his Brother Henry, whose Son Henry was in Parliament created Duke of Lancaster, (being the Second Dukedom that was erected in Eng­land, that of Cornwall being the First in the Person of Edward the Black Prince) and left Two Daughters, Maud, Dutchess of Bavaria, and Blanch married to Iohn of Gaunt, so call'd because he was born at Ghent in Flanders, Fourth Son of Edward the Third; who thereby coming to the whole Estate, and being now equal to many Kings in Wealth, was created Duke of Lancaster by his Father; he also obtain'd the Royalties from him, and the King then advanced the County of Lancaster in­to a Palatinate: By this Rescript, wherein after he had declar'd, the great Service he had done his Country at Home and A­broad; he adds, ‘We have granted from Us and our Heirs, to our Son aforesaid, that he during his Term of Life, shall have within the County of Lancaster his Chancery, and his Writs to [Page 17] be issued out under his own Seal, belonging to the Office of Chancellor; his Justices likewise as well for Pleas of the Crown, as for other Pleas relating to Common Law, to have Cognizance of them, and to have Power of making all Executions whatso­ever by his Writs and Officers; and to have all other Liberties, and Royalties whatsoever, appertaining to a County Palatine, as freely and fully as the Earl of Chester within the said County is known to have.’ Nor was he only Duke of Lancaster, but by Marriage with Constantia Daughter to Peter, King of Castile, sometime bore the Title of King of Leon and Castile; but by Con­tract he parted with this Title, and in the Thirteenth of King Richard the Second was created Duke of Aquitaine by Consent of Parliament, to the great Dissatisfaction of the Country. At that Time his Titles were, Iohn, Son to the King of England, Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, and High Steward of England. After this Henry de Bullingbrook his Son succeeded in the Dutchy of Lancaster, who having deposed Richard the Second, obtained the Crown, and conferr'd that Honour upon Henry his Son, afterwards King of England; and that he might entail it upon him and his Heirs for ever, he had an Act of Parliament made in these Words: ‘We being unwilling that our said Inheritance, or Liberties, by reason of our now assuming the Regal Seat and Diguity, shou'd be any ways chang'd, transferr'd, diminish'd or im­pair'd, but that our said Inheritance, with its Liberties and Rights aforesaid, shou'd in the same Manner and Form, Con­dition and State, wherein they descended, and fell to us; and also with all and singular Liberties, Franchizes and Priviledges, Commodities and Profits whatsoever, which our Lord and Fa­ther in his Life-time had and held it, for term of his Life, by Grant of the late King Richard, and wholly and fully continu'd, preserv'd and enjoy'd, by Us and our Heirs, specify'd in the said Charters; and by the Tenure of these presents, we do up­on our certain Knowledge, and with the Consent of this our present Parliament, grant, declare, decree, and ordain for Us, and our Heirs, that as well our Dutchy of Lancaster, as all and [Page 18] singular Counties, Mannors, Honours, Castles, Fees, Advow­sons, Possessions, Annuities, and Seigniories whatsoever, de­scended to us before the Royal Dignity was obtain'd by us, how, or in what Place soever, by Right of Possession, Inhe­ritance, or in Reversion, or other way remain to Us, and our said Heirs, specify'd in the Charter abovesaid after the said Manner, for ever.’

And in this State and Condition it remain'd from that time, saving that Edward the Fourth, in the First Year of his Reign, when he had attainted Henry the Sixth for Treason, appropria­ted it, as they term it, to the Crown; that is to say, to him and his Heirs, Kings of England: However, Henry the Seventh broke this Entail; and so at this Day it has its peculiar Offi­cers, namely, a Chancellor, Attorney, Clerk of the Court, Six Assessors, a Messenger, Two Auditors, Three and Twenty Re­ceivers, and Three Supervisors.

Chester, the Metropolis of that County Palatine, is very re­markable for the many Antiquities there discover'd, and will furnish us with Variety of Matter, both in relation to its self, and the many celebrated Personages that have receiv'd Titles from it, that it was Eminent in the Romans Days is unquestion­able, by the numerous Spoils of their Grandeur, and Magnifi­cence found there. I will briefly give you the most noted Ob­servations of Mr. Cambden upon it, and then add what has been more lately observ'd: That it was a Roman Colony, the Tyles daily dug up there confirm to us; on the Reverse of some is in­scrib'd, Col. Divana Leg. XX. Victrix. It is true, indeed, we can­not expect to behold the stately Ruines of the Place in this Ge­neration, which preceding Ages did, yet even in the last Age it was not barren of them, as Ranulph, a Monk of this City tells us, in his Polycronicon: There are Ways, says he, under Ground wonderfully arch'd with Stone-work, Vaulted Dining-Rooms, huge Stones engraven with the Names of the Ancients; and sometimes Coins dug up with the Names of Iulius Caesar, and other famous Men. Likewise Roger of Chester, in his Polycrati­con; [Page 19] When I beheld the Foundations of vast Buildings, up and down in the Streets, it seem'd rather the Effect of Roman Strength, and the Work of Giants, than of British Industry: As to its Situation, Lucian the Monk, who lived Five Hundred Years ago, speaks very largely, both for its Pleasantness and Conveniency; and doubtless it was an Argument of the Roman Prudence, here first to form a Camp (for so the Word Chester from Castrum implies) and then to build a City; for as Lucian observes, this Place standing in the West Parts of Britain, was very convenient to receive the Roman Legions, transported hi­ther; and besides, it was proper for Watching the Frontiers of the Empire, and was a perfect Key to Ireland; its Harbour sup­ply'd it with the Products of all Europe: For, says the same Au­thor, Ships come in from Gascoigne, Spain, Ireland and Germany, so that we drink Wine very plentifully. Mr. Cambden takes no Notice of any Antiquities in this City, except some Pavements of Chequer-work; so that our Votive Altars, and Curiosities must be of more modern Discovery: Mr. Gibson, indeed, the late Publisher of him with Additions, has an Altar with this Inscription;
V. S. L. M.’

[Page 20] Which he thus reads; *
Iovi Optimo Maximo Tanaro
Titus Elupius Galerius
Praesens gubernator,
Principibus Legionis Vicessimae Victricis Valeriae
Commodo & Laterano Consulibus,
Votum solvit Lubens Merito.’

From which Inscription he argues the Twentieth Legion was stiled Victrix Valeria, and not Valens Victrix, as Mr. Cambden and others wou'd have it. Another Inscription he mentions, is,
LEG. XX VV &c.’

And here the V being doubled, he appeals to Dio, who says the Twentieth Legion, which is call'd Valeria and Victrix, is now in upper Britain, which Augustus preserv'd, together with the other Legion that hath the Name of Vicesima, and hath its Win­ter-Quarters in Lower Germany, and neither now is, nor then was usually and properly call'd Valeria: He farther proceeds, that Valeria may as well be allow'd, as to other Legions, the Ad­ditional Titles of Ulpia, Flavia, Claudia, Trajana, Antonina, &c. were. But as to this disputed Title, we shall give the Reader full Satisfaction in what follows:

Before I take Notice of his other Altar communicated to him by Mr. Henry Prescot of Chester, let me insert what the same Au­thor acquaints us was found round it: About the Foundation where the Altar lay were to be seen the Signs of a Sacrifice, as the Bones, Horns and Heads of several Creatures, as the Ox, Roe-Buck, &c. with these Two Coins,

[Page 21] 1. Brass on the first side,

And the Face of the Emperor on the Reverse. Victoria Au­gusti, S. C. and a Winged Victory standing.

2. Copper on the first side, FL. VAL. Constantius. Nob. C.’

And the Face of Constantius on the Reverse. Genio Populi Romani, a Genius standing, holding a Bowl, (used in Sacrifices) in the Right Hand, and a Cornucopia in the Left.

One of these Coins is not spoke of in the following Manu­script given me by Mr. Prescot, so I thought it not amiss to quote Mr. Gibson for it.

But that I may now do Justice to the Courtesie and Genero­sity of that curious Gentleman Mr. Henry Prescot of Chester, the Reader may here take a full Account of that Altar from his Ma­nuscript.

To Kendrick Eyton, Esq at Eyton, in the County of Denbigh.


‘THE Altar found here, is a considerable Piece of Anti­quity; it does, indeed, prove it self so at first sight, but because the Names of the Emperors and Consuls are want­ing, it requires greater Skill in Antiquity, than I pretend to, to fix its Aera; however, since you command me, I will give my Conjectures upon that, and other Circumstances of it:’

[Page 22] ‘In Iuly last, 1693. upon Occasion of digging a Place for a Cellar, in the House of Mr. Heath, in the East-Gate, about Two Foot deep, it was found with the Inscription downward, upon a Stone Two Foot square, and One in thickness, which is supposed to have been the Pedestal, being mouldred off on three sides; the Foundation lay deep and broad, consisting of many great Stones; the Earth about was solid, but of several Colours, and Ashes were frequently found. About the Foun­dation were found the Heads, Horns, and Bones of several Creatures, viz. The Ox, Wolf, Roe-Buck, &c.

‘On the Left Side of it was a Flower-Pot, on the Top is a Cotyla or Cavity, in the Bottom of that Cavity a young Face, supposed to be that of the Genius; on the Back, Ornaments, or Drapery of uncertain Figures.’

‘On the Right Side, a Genius standing with a Cornucopia in his Left-Hand, the Right-Hand being cut off by the Workman unawares, together with several Letters of the Inscription sig­nify'd by the Blot.’

It is plain then in Fact, that the Altar was erected by Flavius Longinus, Tribune of the Twentieth Legion, named Victrix and Valens; and Longinus his Son descended from the House (City ra­ther) of Samosate, in Performance of their Vow made for the Prosperity of the then Emperors, to the Genius of the Place: Yet in order to discover the Manner of that Performance, who the Tribune, or Augusti, or Emperors were, the Aera of their Reign, and the Year of our Lord (all which are very doubtful) I offer these Observations. (Genio Loci) In the Roman Heathen Theology, the very Genii are almost innumerable, one being deputed to every Person, Place, and almost every Thing useful in their Families, and for their Occasions: They are more fre­quently understood to preside over Generations, Nativities, and after that, to be Tutelary to the Person all his Life long: Hence it is, that the Effigies of the Genius is commonly Juvenile, crown'd with Plantane-Leaves; and Flowers, Wine, Nard and Honey are offer'd to him in Sacrifice, on Nativities; and the [Page 23] Reason is, because the Birth-day, whereon the Person first en­joy'd that chearful Gift, the Light of the Day, shou'd not be defiled or profan'd with Blood, or the Depriving another Crea­ture of that Light. Indeed, that Place in Horace, Lib. 3. Ode 17.

Cras Genium Mero
Placabis & Porco Bimestri,

Is brought for an a Authority, to prove the Sacrifice of an A­nimal to a Genius: But to me it is a Mistake, and contrary to Horace's Intention; he there urging Lamia to spend the Day mer­rily (Indulgere Genio genialiter vivere) and not advising to any Solemn Act of Religion; and in some Additions more agree­able to this Interpretation it is, Curabis (not Placabis) Genium, and Cutem curare is a proper Phrase for the same Purpose: And this Sense is confirmed by the same Poet,

b Tellurem Porco Sylvanum Lacte Piabunt,
Floribus & Vino, Genium Memorem brevis aevi.

But to the Genius of a Place, a larger and more indulgent Province was delegated: There might be subordinate Genii, and parti­cularly such as presided over Nativities within it, and to this Genius for the Plenitude of his Power and Superintendency, more magnificent and pompous Immolations were made, and from the same Opinion many Altars were erected to that Genius, as appears in Gruter, IV. 7. VI. 2. | VIII. 4. 6. 7. | IX. 23. | XC. 10. | CV. 2. | CVII. 5. | ClXXVII. 5. | MXVII. 7. | MXVIII. 9. | MlXVIII. 2. |

Longinus Flavius;) This Tribune does not occur in any Hi­story I have read: We c find that from the Cassia Gens, there descended a Plebeian Family, surnam'd Longini; it is very pro­bable [Page 24] that G. Cassius Longinus, one of the ancient Lawyers, re­membered by the a Emperor Iustinian, was of that Family. It is manifest, the same Longinus was Praeses of Syria in Claudius his Time, and very credible, that he was of the same Family with Cassius the Assassine of Caesar, as appears by the Commen­dation of his Skill in the Law, and Arms, and his own Endea­vour to support the Honour of that Family. (Caeteros praemine­bat Peritia Legum, nam Militares Artes per Otium Ignotae, Industri­osque ac Ignavos pax in aequo tenet, attamen quantum sine Bello daba­tur, revocare priscum Morem, Exercitare Legiones, Cura provisa pe­rinde agere, ac si hostis Ingruerit, ita digna majoribus suis, & fami­lia Cassia ratus, per illas quoque Gentes Celebrata.) Cassius Longinus, the Assassine of Caesar, was Q [...]stor to Crassus in Syria, and after Crassus his Death he return'd back to Syria: It is probable du­ring his Residence there, he might plant that Family which above an Hundred Years after (when the Lawyer Cassius Longi­nus came Praeses thither) was held in great Esteem in those Parts. From so great and illustrious an House, many Families, no doubt, were propagated, and considering into what Displea­sure that House fell with the Imperial Family, upon the Occa­sion of Caesar's Murther, it is reasonable to think they wou'd rather propagate and flourish in Syria, than at Rome be obnoxi­ous to the Envy and Revenge of the Iulian Family.

This Supposition granted, the Number of 346 Years (viz.) the Space betwixt the Time that Cassius fixed in Syria, viz. Anno U. C. 700. and the Aera which I shall presume to assign to our Tribune, viz. Anno U. C. 1046, will be found sufficient for the Propagation of many Families out of the Cassian Gens, or Stock. If then the Nomen of our Tribune had been Cassius, this might have given more probability of his Pedigree or Derivation from the famous Cassius. The Flavian was an ancient Stock or Gens, tho' Plebeian, and its likely our Tribune was descended from [Page 25] it, and was of a different Stock from Cassius; but the Cognomen Longinus is at least a Note of their Collateral Relation: a Dif­ferunt enim Agnati a Gentilibus hoc modo, quod Agnati dicuntur, qui ex eadem Familia nascuntur, & idem cognomen habent, Gentiles qui ex eodem genere nascuntur, & simili nomine appellantur; and therefore a Conjecture may be tolerably inferred, that, from what is here observed, our Tribune was of Relation (though of several De­scents) to the famous Cassius.

Leg. XX. The Workman's rude Instrument here wounded the Stone so deep, that we may safely conclude, there was room for the Addition of Two Letters, and then it will be Leg. XX. VV. It is certain, that b Victrix was the ancient Epithet to the Twentieth Legion, and the most authentick Proof of that Epithet is the ancient Column at Rome, whereon the 32 Le­gions were recorded. Another Epithet is added, but variously interpreted, some take it for Valeriana or Valeria, others for Valens; but the latter seems to have the Preference by the Authority of this Inscription, c
VII. GEM. &c.’

d Iulius Caesar rather discover'd than subdu'd this Island to the Roman Greatness; Augustus waved the Prosecution of Iulius his Attempt out of Prudence, and Tiberius out of Policy; but Claudius reassum'd it with Success; he sent over hither several Legions, and its most probable the Twentieth: In his Reign we find a very great Impression made upon Britain, several Pro­vinces subdu'd, a Warlike Prince (Caractacus) carry'd Captive [Page 26] to Rome, and a magnificent Triumph thereupon: In the Course of the Conduct of Ostorius Scapula the Legate, it is remarkable what is said in Tacitus, Ann. 12. 32. (Et ductus in Cangos Ex­ercitus.)

The Learned Cambden supposes upon the greatest Delibera­tion, whereon he was put by Lipsius, that the a Cangi were those Britains inhabiting these Parts, he being induced there­unto by the Pigs of Lead found in the Ground, and having this Inscription on them; ‘IMP. DOMIT. AUG. GER. DE. CEANG.’

We find the Provinces about the Brigantes, Silures, and Ordo­vices, subdued by Ostorius, and considering the Situation of Che­ster, as it lies to those several Provinces, it's not improbable but the Twentieth Legion might in his Time be encamped here. In the Reign of Vitellius, this amongst others was accounted a standing Legion in Britain, as appears by that in Tacitus, Hist. Lib. 2. 22. Cum vexillis Nonae, Secundaeque, & vicesimae Britanica­rum Legionum. Upon obtaining of the Empire by Vespasian, we find it here b under the Conduct of Roscius Celer, c and very difficultly drawn to swear Allegiance to the new Emperor: And he that considers the Success of Agricola in his Proconsulship of Britain under that Emperor, and particularly in these Parts, will be induced farther to believe, the said Legion had its Resi­dence here; and from thence it's most probable the City was called Cestria, or Caerlleon in British, a Castris; and the Learned d Selden does therefore reconcile the Saying of William of Malmes­bury, Emeriti Iulianarum Legionum ibi residere, by applying Iulia­narum to Iulius Agricola the Lieutenant, and not to Iulius Caesar.

[Page 27] Yet, though it is credible this Place might become considerable from the so long Residence of a Legion or Legions here, as be­ing a necessary Consequence of drawing a Confluence of con­quered Britains to them, and of their Inhabitation there; it is not easie to believe it did improve and advance to the Denomi­nation and Grandeur of a City, before it was made a Colony by an Imperial Charter. Had it been a Municipium or Hans-Town using its own private Laws and Customs, or had it been a City in the Time of Vespasian, or before Septimius Geta, it's likely some History had mentioned it, and also that it would not have been made a Colony by Septimius Geta: a Mr. Cambden men­tions a Coin of that Emperor, the Reverse whereof is, ‘COL. DIVANA. LEG: XX. VICTRIX.’

That Coin is a most valuable Piece of Antiquity, and to be preferred before all our Charters; it founds us a Colony from Rome, and proves (what we so much seek after) our Relation to that Legion: That Chester was called Deva, is also proved by the Itinerary ascribed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius, wherein it is thus inserted, ‘DEVA. LEG. XX. VICT. M. P. XX.

That is, from Candato or Congleton, Twenty Miles to Deva or Chester. This too proves the Residence of the Twentieth Le­gion here, and if the Itinerary be as ancient as some assert it, we may boast of a much greater Antiquity than we pretend to; but quitting that, we are not to question but it is very ancient and of good Authority.

As for the foremention'd Coin of Geta, it is unquestionable, and it is probable Chester was made a Colony in the Year of Christ, 211.

[Page 28] Another Coin of this Emperor of the same Year with this Inscription, ‘IMP. CAES. P. SEPT. GETA. PIVS. AUG. BRIT.’ On the Reverse, ‘VICTORIAE. BRIT.’ seems to attest so much. Admitting this; it is manifest, this City was a Roman Colony 1482 Years ago; and no doubt but the Residence of the Twentieth Legion so many Years before qualify'd it for that Dignity, the Legionary Soldiers being by long Succession naturaliz'd to the Place; and the Emeriti or Veteranes of them were the first Petitioners for the Honour, and the first regular Inhabitants, and Fathers of the Co­lony.

Longinus Fi. Ejus.) There is here a Flaw in the Stone, but the Space is so small that one Initial Letter only seems want­ing; and since 'tis but one, it rather denotes the Proenomen, as A. for Aulus, C for Cajus, D. for Decimus, L. for Lucius, &c. than the Nomen, viz. Flavius to be wanting: This, indeed, wou'd be a greater Matter of Scruple, but that it is found common amongst the Romans, to omit, or assume their Names, or their Surnames pro re Nata, or at their Pleasure. a Nec Mirum si ex cognominibus nata sunt nomina, cum contra & cognomina ex pro­priis sint tracta nominibus.

Domo Samosata.) The Place is here used substantively, by Ap­position, as is frequent in Inscriptions, (viz. Gruter, 634. 5. Domo Africa, 873. 15. Domo Asia, 385. 1. Domo Carthagine, 174. 34. Domo Roma, &c.

[Page 29] Since there might be, as is before presum'd, several Families descended from the same Gens, in Syria, the Addition of Samo­sata doth ascertain the Person, and his Family: a Samosata is the Capital City of Comagene, a Region of Syria, and is seated on the River Euphrates.

Augg.) But since neither the Emperors nor Consuls are na­med in the Inscription, and that our Tribune Flavius Longinus is not mentioned in History; we are yet in the Dark as to the Aera of it: We find by Experience that the Romans, perhaps, careful to preserve their own Greatness, used to throw Coins Cotemporary to the Work into the Foundations of their Thea­ters, Temples, Altars and Publick Buildings, and by very good Fortune in the Foundation of this Altar was found a Coin in­scrib'd thus, On the first Side, ‘FL. VAL. CONSTANTIUS NOB: C.’ On the Reverse, ‘GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.’

This is an Evidence so current and natural to the other In­scription, that it must be admitted by the most rigid Antiquary; it is manifest then from History that Constantius, when only Caesar, was sent over into Britain by the Emperors Dioclesian and Maximinian, with a great Force against Allectus, (which Allectus, after he had slain Carausius, assumed the Empire to himself, a­bout the Year of Christ 293, and about the Ninth Year of the said Emperors,) that he was successful in his Expedition against Allectus, and reduced the Island to Peace, and under the Obe­dience of the Emperors.

[Page 30] And it is reasonable to conclude, that upon such Commoti­ons in this Island, as must be upon such Vicissitudes, a Man of that Post and Character as our Tribune was of, being a Tri­bune of that old Britanic Legion, and most probably well af­fected to his lawful Masters, the Emperors, (together with his Son then with him) did make, and perform his Vow to the Genius, or Tutelary God of the Place, upon the Prosperity and Success of the said Emperors, or Augusti, against the said U­surpers, under the Conduct of Constantius, then adopted Caesar.

Here follows a Letter from Dr. Fowke of Little Worley, to the said Mr. Prescot:

Dear SIR,

‘YOU have taken much learned Pains to oblige me, more than I any way expected, or cou'd modestly ask, I have not Skill, nor Leisure, nor Memory enough, that you may fear my Critick or make any Argument of it: If I had Time I would rummage some Books, but indeed your Comment seems to me so reasonably founded, that I think it will be hard to correct it. In so obscure and private a Matter as the Subject of the Inscription, I cannot find any thing material of the Gens Cassia or Flavia in Patin or Ursin de Famil. Rom. so late as your Tribune, as you have dated him: I think there is something in Remetius's Epistles, but I have not Time to turn it; it's now to be wish'd Mr. Cambden had told us where that Coin of Geta is, you value so much, it is not among those of Mazzobarbaon Occo in Geta. Neither can I readily recollect where there is a full Catalogue of the Roman Colonies, and among them your Divana, or methinks, it should be rather Devana, from the Ri­ver Dee and the old British Dwy; it would indeed be a great Re­putation to you to be a Colony, and not a Municipium only of the Romans: If that Conjecture be well founded, I have little to say else about your learned Pains, (and I will not offer to pay your Kindness with a cold Complement) only at the Begin­ning [Page 31] where you interpret Domo Samosata of the House of Sa—this, methinks, should rather be render'd the City or Coun­try of Sa— qui Genus? unde Domo? Virgil. Aeneid 8th Servius; and the Dauphine Interpreters read it Country or City, but this is a small Matter; and I have nothing greater to offer but my hearty Thanks and Acknowledgments, and that I will keep your Comment, not only as a Monument of Antiquity, but of your Learning, Skill and Friendship to me, which shall ever be cherished in whatever may be returned to it material to your Service or Satisfaction, by,’

Your most Faithful humble Servant, PH. FOWKE.

I had almost omitted the other Antique Rarities shewn me by Mr. Prescot; one was a small Copper Effigies dug up in Lancashire, about a Span long, with Wings upon the Shoulders, and one Leg lifted up, and bended backwards as if ready to take flight; the Face seems like that of a thoughtful old Man: I shew'd it several eminent Antiquaries, who all conclude it no Mercury, but rather a Domestick Pagod, and a very noble Re­lick of Antiquity. He likewise shew'd me a Roman Lamp, two sorts of Brass Fibulae, with which their loose Garments were clasped, and like those in the Eastern Countries, ready to throw off at Bathing-time: There was another sort of Fibula like an Amethyst; this, perhaps, belong'd to a Roman of Qua­lity; we had likewise a vast Collection of Roman Coins which shall be accounted for.

[Page 32] And now what may farther be added to the Antiquities of Chester, may be reduced to these Four Heads. First, The Go­vernment of the Romans in Cheshire. Secondly, The Chronology of the Kings, Dukes and Earls of Mercia, of which this County was a Part. Thirdly, The Bishops of Mercia and Chester from the first Planting of Christianity there. Fourthly, Their Par­liamentary Barons, Spiritual and Temporal, who were to as­sist the Earl in Council at home and Wars abroad. I will be as brief as possible in the Account, and must here acknowledge my self indebted to the ingenious Author of the Vale Royal, whose Credit is authentick with the Curious and Learned. As to the Names of the Britains inhabiting this County in the Times of the Romans, they were called Devani, Cornavii, and Cangi; of the Cornavii, Ptolomy gives the following Account, in the Second Book of his Geography, Cap. 3. [...]; that is, The Cor­navii lie East of these, whose Cities are Devana, and have there in Garrison the Twentieth Legion, called the Conqueror: This Twen­tieth Legion was raised by Augustus Caesar, as Dion Cassius re­lates in his 55th Book of the Roman History. They were pla­ced first of all in Gallia Belgica, now Lower Germany, and from thence by the Command of the Emperor Claudius transported into Britain under the Command of Aulus Plautius, in the Year of Christ 43, whom the Emperor himself follow'd the very same Year, as the same Author testifies, which he confirms by the famous Ecclipse that happen'd therein on Claudius's Birth-Day (the Sun being darken'd about Five Digits) the First of August, in the Sixth Degree of Leo: But at what Time to fix this Legion in these Parts, is something difficult to determine; yet we may reasonably conjecture it to have been in that Year when Caesonius Paetus, and Petronius Turmilianus were Consuls under the Reign of Nero, and in the Year of Christ 61, consi­dering the Coins of Nero which are frequently found at Chester; and that that likewise was the Time when Suetonius Paulinus attempted the Conquest of Anglesey: But this may admit of a [Page 33] farther probability from the Scheme of Thirty Three Legions of the Empire (then in being) Eight Years afterwards drawn up by Galba their Emperor; in which, as Onuphrius relates it, he places the Twentieth Legion in Britain, stiled Valeria Victrix, which Error is before answer'd, and will farther appear so from Tacitus, Ptolomy, and Roman Tyles dug up at Chester. They continu'd in this Station when Marcus Aurelius Alexander was Emperor in the Year of Christ 223; and also when Constantine the Great had newly built Constantinople, this Legion remain'd in its old Station till the Year of Christ 330, and probably was transported out of Britain by Constantine, he laying great Stress upon his Country-men: Frequent Musters were made of the British Youth, and powerful Levies transported for the Service of the Empire. Richard Broughton assures us in his Ecclesiastical History publish'd at Doway, out of a Iewish Author, that so ear­ly as Vespasian's Reign, Twenty Thousand Britains were tran­slated hence for Palestine, and were at the Sacking of Ierusalem: There were standing Alae of them both in Asia and Europe; but towards the Declension of the Empire, when so many nume­rous Provinces revolted, especially in Valentinian the Third's Reign, about the Time of Aetius his Second Consulship, he being then President of Gallia, all the British Forces then in Arms were carry'd away, and the whole Island left enervate, disarm'd, undisciplin'd, and not one Roman Legion to assist them, but the Inhabitants all lay exposed to the Insults of their more potent Invaders.

The Cangi may reasonably be supposed to inhabit these Parts, as has been hinted before, and that Conghill in the Hundred of Brexton in Cheshire, and Congleton in the Hundred of Nantwich, and Kendale in Westmoreland, and Kentsand in Lancashire, recei­ved their Denominations from that People by an easie Cor­ruption.

[Page 34] As to the Kings of Mercia, who were Governours of this Province, in that famous Heptarchy of the Saxons, the first of the Royal List is by Hollingshead call'd Crida, who left it to his Son Wibba, Anno Dom. 595, this King had Wars with the Northumbers, and slaughter'd Twelve Hundred Monks at Bangor, Anno Dom. 604, as is manifest from the Computation made by Henry of Huntington, and Bede's Ecclesiastical History: This City till now was in the Possession of the Britains, but their King being defeated, it fell into the Hands of the Northumbers, as Malmesbury testifies; but as Sir Henry Spelman observes, they were stopped by the British Forces under the Command of Ble­drick, Duke of Cornwall, Manaduc, Duke of South Wales, and Cadwan, Duke of North Wales, who slew Ten Thousand of their Soldiers, and forced them to retreat to their own Coun­try, North of Trent. Cadwan was now crown'd King in the City of Chester, as Dr. Powel, Gyraldus in his Description of Wales, and Dr. Llwyd affirm: Ceolus, Brother of Wibba, was the next Mer­cian King, and Penda the Son of Wibba succeeded him, Anno Dom. 625. He was a great Warrior, and succeeded by Peada, the Son of Penda, Anno Dom. 655. he married Alfleda, Daughter of Oswy, upon Condition he would turn Christian, as Florentinus testifies, and was baptized by Finanus in the King of Northumber­land's Palace: Afterwards he founded the stately Abby of Peter­borough; he was succeeded by King Oswey, as Bede relates, who was dethroned by Three Captains, Immin, Eada and Eadberht, and Wulferus fixed on the Mercian Throne; he was the second Son of Penda, and began his Reign 658: In the Beginning of his Reign he was unfortunate, but at length gain'd the chief Rule over the Saxons. Etheldred succeeded him A. D. 676, in the Kingdom of Mercia; this Prince changed his Crown into a Cowl, and became a Monk in the Abby of Bardny in Lincoln­shire, as the Monast. Angl. informs us. Upon this Resignation of the Throne, Kenred the Son of Wulfer ascended it. He took a Journey to Rome A. D. 709, became one of the Religious and died there. Cheldred, the Son of Etheldred succeeded next, in [Page 35] 716, and was buried at Litchfield in Staffordshire. Ethelbald, the Son of Alwey, the Son of Eoppa, the Son of Wibba, began his Reign the same Year of our Lord, as appears by the Saxon An­nals; he laid the Foundation of, and gave a Charter to the Abby of Crowland in Lincolnshire; he was powerful in Arms, and lead a great Army against Somerton Castle, Six Miles from Glastenbury in Somersetshire, An. 757; he was slain at Sekinton in Warwickshire, and buried at Repton in Derbyshire, his Death was brought about by his own Subjects, especially Bernred, who succeeded him in the Mercian Kingdom: He lost his Kingdom to Offa his Successor; for his Parentage and Progeny not being known, the Legality of his Right was suspected, so he was deposed and afterwards burnt, after his Engagment with Offa: Egfrid the Son of King Offa suc­ceeds him, whose Reign was One Hundred and Forty One Days; he was buried at St. Alban's, and succeeded by Kenulph, in Seven Hundred and Ninty Six: In his Reign Egbert, King of the West Saxons wasted the Welsh Territories, and took the City of Chester from them; he died in the Fourth Year of his Reign and was buried at Winchcomb in Gloucestershire, An. Eight Hundred and Twenty, as Malmsbury testifies. Kenelm succeeded him, an In­fant, and he, as Ingulph reports, died a Martyr. Some say, he was murthered, and buried at Clent in Staffordshire. Ceoluph was expelled his Kingdom by Bernulf, who was an Usurper, and began his Reign, An. Eight Hundred and Twenty Two; he was slain in the Fourth Year of his Reign by the East Angles: Ludi­can his Kinsman began his Reign in 826, and he likewise was slain in Battle by the East Angles.

Whitnaff of the Mercian Blood Royal was chosen King, before he understood Martial Discipline; he was overthrown in a Battle by Egbert's Captains, and absconded in a Monastery, as Huntington testifies; he died in Eight Hundred and Forty, and was buried at Repton in Derbyshire. Bertulph, Brother of Whitnaff, by Permission of the Saxon Monarch, obtained the Mercian Kingdom, An. Eight Hundred and Forty Eight. In the Year Eight Hundred and Forty Nine King Alfred was born, in the Third Year of [Page 36] whose Age, the Danes came into the Mouth of the Thames with Three Hundred and Fifty Nine Ships, with whom Bertulph had an unhappy Engagement, as Hoveden testifies; he died in Eight Hundred and Fifty Three: In that Year Burthred ascended the Mercian Throne, and was assaulted by the Danes: This King died at Rome, and was buried in the Church of the English Col­ledge there, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Selulfe a Servant of his was substituted by the Danes in his Room, in Eight Hundred and Seventy Five, and bound by Oath to keep Possession in their Name, as the Saxon Annals assure us. He commanded the Danish Army against King Alfred, An. Eight Hundred and Se­venty Seven: In the Year Eight Hundred and Eighty Six, after King Alfred had overpower'd his Enemies, he made Etheldred Duke of Mercia, and Captain of his Forces in the City of Lon­don, and so the Mercian Kingdom ended, and instead of Kings, the noble Alfred substituted Dukes, under him to Govern it, which happen'd in the Year 886, as Matthew of Westminster testi­fies, it having continued under the Reign of Twenty Two Kings from King Crida.

Of the Dukes of Mercia.

Etheldred, one of the Race of the Kings of Mercia, being con­stituted Duke, he married Elfleda, the Daughter of Alfred. The Danes in 894, took the City of Chester, but were therein be­sieged and reduced to great Streights, and they quitted it in 908, as Matthew of Westminster affirms: This Duke and his Lady Re­paired the City of Chester, and Wall'd it about; he was buried at Gloucester. Afterwards Elfled ruled and built Edesbury, once a famous City, now nothing but Rubbish: It is at this Day call'd the Chamber of the Forest. Near this Place are many Fortifications and Fosses; she made Wars upon the Britains at the Castle of Brecknock, took it, and therein their Queen and Thirty Three Prisoners: She had a War with the Danes at [Page 37] Derby, assaulted the Castle and took it: She died at Tamworth the Thirteenth of July, and was buried in the Porch of St. Peter. Elswina the Daughter of Etheldred succeeded her, An. 919. The City of Chester in 941, was surprized by the Welsh, and won again by King Edward the Elder, whose Fifth Son Edward married this Elswina, as Matthew of Westminster testifies, who was Mo­ther to King Edgar. At this Time the Danes still usurped some Parts of England: Alfarus was the next Duke of Mercia; Alfric, the Son of Alfar, succeeded him in 986, who when he shou'd have engag'd the Danish Army, counterfeited an Infir­mity to the Dishonour of the Nation. Edrick, the Son of Egil­ricus, was the Sixth Duke of Mercia, and the Danes hitherto continu'd their Usurpations: He was deposed from his Duke­dom by King Canutus, and that Part of the Kingdom of Mer­cia was afterwards govern'd by Earls, commonly stiled the Earls of Chester.

Of the Earls of Chester.

Leofric, the Son of Leofwin, (the Danes still continuing in these Parts) was a great Lover of Chester, and adorn'd it with se­veral Buildings; Algar the Son of Leofric succeeded him; he died in the Year 1059, and was buried at Coventry: Edwin, the Son of Edgar, succeeded him in his Earldom; but after the Defeat of Harold, by William the Conqueror, the Saxon Nobility ended; and this Earl was by the Conqueror carried into Normandy, from whence he attempted to make his Escape into Scotland, but was slain in his Journey thither, as Hoveden testifies: Gherbod, a Fleming, was the First Earl of Chester after the Conquest; then Hugh Lupus had the Earldom, and he was succeeded by Richard his Son; Ranulph, Nephew to Hugh Lupus, succeeded him in the Earldom, then Ranulph, Son of the former Ranulph, receiv'd that Dignity in 1141, was poisoned, and suc­ceeded by Hugh Kevelioc his Son; then Ranulph the Third, sur­named [Page 38] Blundevill, succeeded his Brother Hugh; John Scot, Ne­phew to Ranulph, succeeded him, he likewise was poisoned, died at Darnel Grange, in the Hundred of Edsbury in Cheshire, and was buried at Chester: After his decease Henry the Third held that Earldom in his own Hands, till he created Edward his Son Earl of that Palatinate; Edward the First, Son of Henry the Third, succeeded him, who mightily delighted in the Plea­santness of the City of Chester, and for that Reason termed the Country the Vale-Royal of England; he was succeeded by Simon de Montfort, who was a Warrior, as appears from his Battle at Lewes in Sussex, wherein he defeated the King, and afterwards receiv'd the Earldom of Chester; he was slain at Evesham, and his Honours return'd to the Crown in 1265. Edward the Second, born at Carnarvan in Wales, succeeded him, he was Earl of Chester and Flint; Edward the Third his Son was created Earl of Chester, as likewise Prince of Wales, and Duke of Aquitain; Edward the Black Prince ensu'd next, then Richard his Son, born at Burdeaux, likewise assum'd the Title of Prince of Che­ster, as Wallingham testifies; Henry the Fifth was after him Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester; Henry the Sixth succeeded him in that Earldom; the next Earl was Ed­ward, Son of Henry the Sixth, he was murthered at Tewksbury by Richard Crouchback; Edward the Fifth succeeded him, who was likewise murthered by his Uncle; Edward, the Son of King Richard the Third, was next Earl of Chester; then Arthur, El­dest Son to Henry the Seventh, who was succeeded by Henry the Eighth, his Brother; afterward Edward the Sixth; then Prince Henry, Eldest Son of King James the First, and he was succeeded by King Charles the First, and he by Charles the Se­cond his Eldest Son. Thus it remains Titular to the Royal Family, and for ought appears may continue so for a Series of endless Generations.

The Bishops of Mercia.

The Two First Bishops were Diama and Ceollah, Two Scotch Men; the Third was Tramkere, an English Man, but ordain'd by the Scots; after him Iarnman, or German, as Bede relates it. To these succeeded Bishops, who had sometimes their Sees at Coventry, sometimes at Chester, but most commonly at Litchfield: Those were all in the Saxon Government, of whom there is a full Account in Ingulphus, Bede, and others. The First after the Conquest was Petrus, who removed his Seat from Litchfield to Chester, but was afterwards alter'd by Robert Pecaam, who had Three Seats, Chester, Litchfield and Coventry, but the Episco­pal Seat was again restor'd to Chester, in King Henry the Eighth's Time, and that of St. Werburgh, appointed the Cathedral Church, and the Bishop made a Suffragan of York: The Ca­talogue of the Bishops after that Time may be seen at large in Godwin, and others.

The Barons of Chester.

The First Barons we read of were Nigell, Baron of Haulton, Robert, Baron de Mount Hault, Seneschal or Steward of the County of Chester, who dying without Issue, it came to Isabell, Queen of England, by Settlement, and Iohn de Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, and his Heirs; thence to William de Malbedenge, Ba­ron of Malbanc, whose Great Grand-daughters transferr'd this Inheritance by their Marriages to the Vernons and Bassetts, and for want of an Heir Male to Vernon, Baron of Sipbroke, it came by the Sisters to the Willburhams, Staffords and Littleburys: Robert Fitz-Hugh, Baron of Malpas, Hammons de Massey, Fittons de Bo­lin, [Page 40] Gilbert Venables, Baron of Kinderton, Warrens of Pointon, Barons of Stockport, descended from the Noble Family of the Earls of Warren and Surrey, succeeded in Right of Marriage. I have not met with any farther Antiquities of Chester, or the County, but by what has already been discover'd, we may as­suredly conclude the City of Chester to have been the most An­cient and August Colony in these Parts.

Derbyshire (especially the Peak, which in the Saxon Language fignifies Eminence, part of the famous Mercian Kingdom, whose Inhabitants were call'd Coritani) will afford us but a slender Scene of Antiquities; the very Nature of the Place rendring it inhospitable to Mankind, and at the same time indulgent to Wolves, and Beasts of Prey; yet withal, we may with Admi­ration contemplate the Conduct of wife, and provident Na­ture, where amidst all this unpolish'd Rubbish of the Globe, she her self sits in State, and displays her Works equally com­patible with the most desirable Objects: Those uneven Moun­tains she has made pregnant with a very useful and necessary Mettal, and as useful Minerals; she has here and there scat­ter'd her Disports for the Diversion of the Curious, and cut out large Themes for Philosophical Enquiries; she liberally affords Hot and Mineral Waters, for the Relief and Comfort of in­firm and decrepid Mortals; so that these untractable and dis­peopl'd Parts become frequented with numerous Crouds, who yearly arrive here, either through a Prospect of Ease from their Pains and Infirmities, or for the pleasing Entertainment of the Mind with new Objects, of which these Parts are very prolifick. I will as briefly as I can give you my Thoughts of what is most remarkable. I have not heard of any Roman Antiquities save that Place, call'd Little Chester, mention'd by Mr. Cambden, where Coins of several sorts, and different Mettals are some­times dug up, some of Copper, Silver and Gold; and an Altar mention'd by Mr. Gibson dug up near Bakewell, in the Grounds belonging to Haddon - House, the present Seat [Page 41] of the Right Honourable the Earl of Rutland, with this In­scription,
V. S.’

As to the Tooth, Skull and Bones, found in digging a Grove, mention'd by Mr. Gibson, I have spoke of such Forms before, and take them to be only the Lusus Naturae, in Sparr and other indurated Bodies, which unquestionably at the first were all fluid, and capable of any Impression: We have such a Tooth, though scarce so ponderous, in Manchester, yet it weighs Two Pounds and a Half, having been found in Derbyshire, with a Skull, and Limbs resembling those of a Man, reported to have been found with it, though those are long since lost; the Tooth it self is a Surprize to many Beholders, who after their superficial Eye­ing it, conclude it absolute Bone, and stand amaz'd at its Bulk and Weight; when, in truth, it is only a Sparry Substance im­prest with such a Form: For, do we not daily discover the Forms of Plants, and the seeming Beaks of Birds, Effigies of the Bones of Beasts and Fishes, all of solid Stones? Why Nature therefore shou'd be tied up only to these, and not in her Sports and Interludes divert her self, and Mankind with Humane Shapes, I can see no Reason for.

I shall now first begin with the Baths at Buxton, but having sufficiently treated in a preceding Chapter of Hot Baths in ge­neral, the Cause of their Heat, and their Uses, I'll refer the Reader thereto, and here first give you the Distick of Verses made by Mary, Queen of Scots, who honour'd this Place with her Presence, as Mr. Cambden has them:

[Page 42]
Buxtona, quae calidae celebrabere nomine Lymphae,
Forte mihi Posthac non adeunda, Vale.
Buxton, whose Fame thy Baths shall ever tell,
Whom I, perhaps, shall see no more, Farewel.

That these Baths were eminent in the Times of the Romans is most certain; Lucan and others acquaint us, they were extra­ordinary hot; the high Road, called the Roman Bath-gate, as Mr. Cambden says, further confirms it, but it is especially evi­dent from a Roman Wall cemented with red Roman Plaister, close by St. Ann's Well, where we may see the Ruines of the ancient Bath, its Dimensions and Length. This Plaister is red and hard as Brick, a Mixture not prepared in these Days; and indeed, the white Plaister the Romans used was much firmer and harder than any made in these Times, being harder than the Stone it self; the red Plaister appears as if it was burnt, exactly re­sembling Tyle, but I rather am inclined to think it was a Mix­ture of Lime and powder'd Tiles cemented with Blood and Eggs, which acquir'd that Hardness: Nor is it unlikely, but the white Plaister was effected by some such Method, only in­stead of Tyle they might use Chalk.

I shall briefly now take a short Survey of the Wonders of the Peak, tho' I confess, they do not directly fall within the Heads of this Chapter, however, being so universally remarkable, I cannot well omit them. Pool's Hole within a Quarter of a Mile of the Well, may be thus described; it enters in at the Foot of a large Mountain with a small Arch so low, that for several Paces you are compell'd to creep upon all Fours, but it then o­pens to a considerable Height, not unlike the Roof of some large Cathedral; on the Right-hand stands an Hollow, com­monly called Pool's Chamber, where by striking with a Stone [Page 43] upon the Walla noisie Eccho rebounds: From hence you march forward over Ridges of Stones and Rocks, conducted with a Guide and a Candle, and in that rough unequal Passage we receiv'd the Diversion of beholding various Representations produced by the petrifying Water continually dropping from the Roof and Sides of the Rock. Here indeed, we must use more Caution than the Star-gazing Philosopher, who being taken up with a profound Contemplation of the Heavens, was surprized by a Stumble into a Ditch. Here you may see the Representation of most curious Fret-work, Organ and Choir-work; in other Places the Figures of Animals, as the Body of a Man, a Lion, and many other Things which a pregnant Fancy may suggest; here is one Thing called a Font, by others Esquire Cotton's Hay-Cocks, a Chair and Flitches of Bacon, with many more Varieties. Now you arrive at the Queen of Scot's Pillar, clear and bright as A­labaster, beyond which is a steep Ascent near a Quarter of a Mile high, which Terminates near the Roof in an Hollow, call'd the Needle's-Eye, in which a Candle represents a Star in the Fir­mament: The whole Prospect, indeed, in this remarkable Ca­vity is augmented by the Light of Candles. Near the Pillar we fired a Pistol, which redoubl'd like the Noise of a Cannon. You return the lower Way, where there are many small Cur­rents of Water: These are what I observ'd remarkable here.

Elden-Hole is a terrible Chasme, it was plumm'd Eight Hundred Fathom by the Ingenious Charles Cotton, Esq but no Bottom found; if a Stone be cast in you hear its Sound a con­siderable time; it is about Seven Yards in breadth, and double that in length, and very astonishing to look into. That call'd the Devil's-Arse is a large and most graceful Arch, from whose Top continually drops a Sparry Water, which like that in Poole's-Hole, petrifies; within the Arch are several small Buildings, where the poorer sort of People inhabit; and I cou'd not but fancy them to be like the Troglydites, or Cunicular Men, de­scrib'd by Dr. Brown, that liv'd not like Men but Rabbits. [Page 44] From this Arch I passed to a Water which almost closed with the Rock, however this Water may be pass'd, and then the Arch opens again, when you come to very large Banks of Sand; at the third Water the Rock closes, and is impassable any far­ther. Mam-Tor is another Thing remarkable in the Peak, this is an high Hill near Castleton, under which there are several Lead Mines; this Hill is almost perpetually shivering down Earth, and great Stones, yet never visibly grows less, and has thus continu'd for several Generations; indeed, the Hill ex­tends a great way in breadth, so that altho' it constantly dimi­nishes, it is not discernable by the Eye.

The next Thing to be noted is Tide's-Well, that ebbs and flows, but that being accounted for in another Chapter, I shall not recapitulate here.

Having now given an Account of the Natural Wonders of the Peak, I shall proceed next to the Artificial ones which occur, and are not less surprizing.

What I have observ'd before in the foregoing Rarities, are the rough Draughts of Nature; yet being nearly view'd, they are of so admirable a Texture, and manag'd with so unerring a Con­duct, that they justly challenge the Skill of the most daring Ar­tist. In what follows, Art sits Triumphant, and bids fair for a Corrivalship with Nature. Chatsworth, like a Sun in an hazy Air, adds Lustre to those Dusky Mountains, and attracts a ge­neral Congress to be Spectators of its Wonders: It is the Seat of His Grace, William, Duke of Devonshire; the Pas­sage to it is of an easie Ascent; the Gate it self is very remar­kable, adorn'd with several Trophies; the Hill composes a stately Square, from which through a Gallery upon Stone-Stairs, so artfully contriv'd, that they seem to hang in the Air, you have the Prospect of a most beautiful Chappel, as likewise of the Hall, in both which are choice and curious Paintings, perform'd by Seignior Vario, Master of that Art; in the Hall is the History of Caesar, stabb'd in the Se­nate; [Page 45] and in the Chappel an admirable and lively Draught of the Resurrection: Hence we were conducted into the Chambers, which are Noble and Great, and most richly Inlaid, with the choicest Woods, and Compose a very stately Gallery. At the upper End of it is his Grace's Closet, richly beautify'd with In­dian Paint, where there are various Figures of Birds, as Drawn by the Native Indians: Here stands a stately Looking-Glass, which, when you approach it, reflects the whole Gallery back again, and so deceives the Sight, that the Walk seems to con­tinue to the Eye, though you have reach'd the Bounds of the Gallery. The next Curiosity were the Gardens, very de­lightful, pleasant and stately, adorn'd with exquisite Water, Works; the First we observe is Neptune with his Sea-Nymphs from whence, by the turning of a Cock, immediately issue forth several Columns of Water, which seem'd to fall upon Sea-Weeds: Not far from this is another Pond, where Sea-Horses continually rowl; and near to this stands a Tree, composed of Copper, which exactly resembles a Willow; by the turning of a Cock each Leaf distils continually Drops of Water, and live­ly represents a Shower of Rain: From this we pass'd by a Grove of Cypress, upon an Ascent, and came to a Cascade, at the Top of which stand Two Sea-Nymphs, with each a Jarr under the Arm; the Water falling thence upon the Cascade, whilst they seem to squeeze the Vessels, produces a loud rumbling Noise, like what we may imagine of the Egyptian or Indian Cataracts: At the Bottom of the Cascade there is another Pond, in which is an Artificial Rose, by turning of a Cock the Water ascends through it, and hangs suspended in the Air in the Figure of that Flower: There is another Pond, wherein is Mercury pointing at the Gods and throwing up Water; besides, there are several Statues of Gladiators, with the Muscles of the Body very lively display'd in their different Postures: The Pile is not yet finish'd, but will assuredly be a very compleat and magnificent Structure, and worthy of so illustrious a Family.

[Page 46] Haddon-House is a stately Building, with noble Gardens, the Seat of the Right Honourable the Earl of Rutland, and worthy the Sight of the Curious.

I shall now in the next place proceed to give an Account of the Earls of Derby; the First of whom were the Peverels, Earls of Nottingham and Derby, as Mr. Cambden transmits it to us from good Authorities: Afterwards King Richard the First gave and confirm'd to his Brother Iohn the County and Castle of Not­tingham, Lancaster, Derby, &c. with the Honours belonging to them, and the Honours of Peverel: After him those of the Fa­mily of the Ferrars are allow'd to be Earls, whom King Iohn created Earls of Derby with his own Hands, but his Two Sons William and Robert in the Civil Wars were stripp'd of this Dig­nity, and many Possessions of Robert were given by King Henry the Third to his younger Son Edmund; and Edward the Third by Act of Parliament gave Henry of Lancaster, the Son of Henry of Lancaster, the Earldom of Derby, to him and his Heirs, and likewise assign'd him a Thousand Marks yearly, during the Life of Henry his Father: From that Time this Title continu'd in the Family of Lancaster, till King Henry the Seventh bestow'd it upon Thomas Stanley, who had not long before marry'd Mar­garet the King's Mother; afterwards William the Sixth, Earl of Derby of this Family, a Man of great Worth and Honour, en­joy'd it, when the Author Mr. Cambden writ this; William de­parting this Life, Anno Dom. 1642. was succeeded by Iames his Son and Heir, Eminent for his good Services to King Charles the First, as was also his Excellent Lady Charlote, who with a true Masculine Bravery sustain'd the Siege of Latham-House against the Parliament's Forces, when my Grandfather Colonel Chisnell Commanded under her: He receiv'd Two Commissions, One from His Majesty King Charles the First, for a Regiment of Horse, the Other from his Highness Prince Rupert, for a Re­giment of Foot; in which are these Expressions: ‘For the De­sence of the True Protestant Religion, by Law establish'd, the [Page 47] Liberty and Property of the Subject, and Defence of His Ma­jesty's Person; which is an invincible Argument of the Dege­neracy of the contrary Party, who wou'd calumniate these wor­thy Patriots, with being Abettors of Popery and Arbitrary Power.’ The worthy Earl after the Fight of Worcester, being unfortunately taken in Cheshire, was on the Fifteenth of October Beheaded at Bolton in Lancashire: He was succeeded by his Son Charles, and he by his Eldest Son and Heir William, the pre­sent Earl; he had Issue Iames, Lord Strange, by Elizabeth, Grand­daughter of the late Duke of Ormond, and Daughter to the late Earl of Ossory: This young Gentleman in the ripening Bloom of his Years, had all the Marks of a sweet Temper, real Honour, and solid Judgment, that in those Years cou'd possibly be ex­pected; but to the unspeakable Loss of his Parents, and the universal Sorrow of the whole Country, he unfortunately died the last Year at Venice of the small Pox, in the Course of his Tra­vels: The present Earl has now Two Brothers, (but no issue Male) Persons of great affability, true Conduct and Bravery, as the World is sufficiently convinced of by their repeated Acti­ons in Flanders, in the Service of his present Majesty, King Wil­liam the Third.

Having thus far proceeded in the Antiquities of these Coun­tries, which unquestionably add to the Glory of them, in laying before us the Regard the Romans had by erecting their Colonies, and forming their Stations for the Security of these Parts of Britain; it remains now for the Satisfaction of the Reader, that I give him an Explanation of the Reverses of the Coins dug up in different Places here. I pretend not hereby to add many to the numerous Catalogues collected and explained by the Care of preceding Antiquaries; but that I may give what is due to these Parts of our Isle, esteemed, indeed, obscure and barren by many, one may by these Reverses form some Idaea's of the Ex­tent of the Roman Empire, and their wondrous Transactions carried on in those Times. One thing is observable here, that [Page 48] as it was an universal Custom in Egypt and China to deliver their Sentiments by Hieroglyphical Representations, so in those Days the Roman Emperors were no less devoted to that Piece of Va­nity. I shall not observe any strict Method in the Successions of the Emperors, but give you the Coins indifferently as they came to my Hands.

On the Reverse of one of Iulius Caesar's Coins was Mars with a Spear, or Scutum, or Target, which doubtless denoted his Warlike Temper.

On one of Augustus Caesar's was Pallas with these following Letters, DESID. P. R. thus interpreted, the Desire of the Roman People; which sufficiently evidences to us the great Encourage­ment given to Learning in those Days, at which Time it was, those great Masters of Eloquence and Poetry flourished, viz. Ci­cero, Virgil, Horace, &c. Others of his have a Peacock on the Reverse; that doubtless denotes his Apotheosis, or being dei­fied; that being a Bird sacred to Iuno, who in those Days was stiled the Mother Goddess, or the Goddess of Heaven: It must needs be amazing to consider, that such strange Impieties and unaccountable Ignorance, and yet such exalted Learning, should then abound.

I have seen others of the same Emperor which bore Ceres with a Cornucopia in one Hand, and a Flower-pot in another, which in that Reign denoted Pleasure and Plenty.

The same I have seen upon Adrian's and Domitian's Coins, wherefore I shall not need to expatiate further upon those.

Only some of Domitian's have Augustus Germanicus, which de­notes his Conquests in Germany.

Titus Vespasianus has on the Reverse an Altar with a Cotyla, which must likewise signifie either his Sacrificing to the Gods, or that Divine Worship was paid to himself.

Those coin'd by the City of Rome have usually Two Infants sucking a Wolf, which allude to the Story of Romulus and Re­mus, of which Florus gives a Relation, to whom I refer you.

[Page 49] Upon Helena's, the Mother of Constantine the Great, I have seen Mars with a Spear in his Right-hand, holding the Left upon the Head of a Monkey, which seem to hint to us the Extent of the Roman Empire in those Days, that Creature be­ing the Product of Asia.

There are frequently found Victoria winged, and in one Hand holding a Victoriola winged, which seem to point out to us their unlimited Conquests.

I have on some observed Proserpina sitting in a Chair feeding Snakes, which probably may allude to an Universal Quietness and Plenty, she and Ceres being the supposed Goddesses of the Vallies, making all Things fruitful.

I have seen upon a Coin Sibilla Belgica, and upon the Re­verse a Man with a Spear and a Trophy upon his Shoulder, who this should be, I cannot make out from any Author.

There are several others of Septimius Severus, and Geta his Son, that have on the Reverse Iuventus, which denotes the flourishing State and blooming Greatness of the Roman Em­pire.

Some have a Man with a Torch in his Left-hand, signifying, either a Sacrificing to the Genius of the Place or to the Em­peror.

Upon others are Neptune's with a Trident in one Hand, and a Dolphin in the other, which may represent their Conquests by Sea, and probably upon this Island.

On some an Eagle and the Word Consecratio, which intimates the Emperor's being deified, or his ascending to Heaven; that being a Bird sacred to Iupiter, and as it has been affirm'd, one that only proves its Legitimacy, by not being dazled with the Beams of the Sun, whence came that Metaphor in the Greek Tongue [...], which implies Sincerity.

Many times we meet with Apollo's Priests with Simpuvia's or Sacrificing-Cups in their Hands together with the Securis and Dolabrum, which are all Instruments that denote Sacrifice.

[Page 50] Some have on the Reverse Justice with a Sword and Bilanx, which represent Authority.

There are of Geta's that have a Cupid in the Right-Hand, and a Cupid and a Laurel in the Left, which may represent his Juvenileness and Martial Temper, being, when but a Youth, put into great Commands by his Father Severus, who obtained many Victories over the Britains: Afterwards the said Geta was slain by his Brother Caracalla in the Arms of his Mother, as Hero­dian testifies.

Others bear a Palm with these Words, PAX AB TE, these hint to us, that Peace usually succeeds Victory.

Antoninus Pius has some with Britania on the Reverse hold­ing a Cornucopia, which manifest to us the Plenty in Britain in those Times.

Upon some he stiles himself Britannicus, denoting his Con­quests here.

Severus has on the Reverse Two Cornucopia's, evidencing the Abundance of Plenty in the Empire in his Reign.

Severus Alexander has on the Reverse one of the Popae or A­gones holding a Palm, which probably may signifie, that by their Prayers to the Gods the Emperor became Victori­ous.

Others have the Flaminii with Torches in their Hands, which was another Order of their Priests that assisted at Sacri­fices.

Some have a Woman with a Crow in her Hand, which may relate to Sacrifice, that being a Bird taken notice of by their Augures and Aurispices in their Predictions.

Some are adorned with the Tubicines, which was another Order of their Priests sounding their Trumpets during the Sa­crifice.

I have some with the Flaminii sacrificing Two Pigeons to Iupiter, and the Genii of the Place.

Others have the Sagittarii, another Order of their Priests.

[Page 51] Others have Ceres and Annona, arguing Plenty and an Univer­sal Amnesty and Charity.

Some with a Tripos and Caduceus, denoting Peace.

Upon some may be observed Ceres holding a Spike of Corn in the Left-hand, and a Torch in the Right, intimating, as I con­jecture, that for reaping Harvest a Sacrifice ought to be per­formed to her: Some of Faustulus's Coins are of this Kind.

Upon some are stamped a Star with a Crown and Fasces, which seems to allude to the magnificent Custom, when Caesar ordered his Golden Bench to be brought into the Theater, and appear'd there with his Crown adorned with Gold and Gems; this, as Lipsius observes, was likewise an Honour de­dicated to the Gods.

The like may also be seen at large in Tacitus's Annals, and Causabon's Comment upon Suetonius's first Book.

I have seen on some Venus Victrix, in one Hand holding a Victoriola or Victory in Miniature, with a Scutum along with it, under which are these Words, Sub quo Orbis Terrarum jacet: This seems to indicate, that by the Assistance of Venus the World must be subject to Caesar's Arms.

Upon others are Orbis Terrarum Caduceus, duae Dextrae junctae, Concordia Insignis, with the Fasces and Securis; which intimate, that under Caesar the World should enjoy Concord, signified by the Two Hands; by the Caduceus and Fasces, are meant the Vi­gour of the Laws, and their Religion by the Securis or Sacri­ficing-Ax.

Upon some are Caesar in the Habit of a God, holding in his Right-hand a Cornu. which was an Honour dedicated to the Genii and to Heroes, and in his Left-hand a Victoriola with the Statue of Mars.

Others have a Sacellum or Temple dedicated to Iulius by the Triumviri.

Others a Plow and a Perticus or Plow-share used in Til­lage.

[Page 52] Upon some are the Stern of a Ship, a Globe, Cornucopia, Caduceus, and Apex Pontificalis, which intimate Caesar's gover­ning the World, and represent Peace, Happiness and Reli­gion.

Some have Venus Clypeo Caesaris, and an Eagle fix'd upon an Altar; for then the Surname of Iupiter was publickly attribu­ted to Caesar.

Some have Minerva bearing a Trophy with a Dragon at her Feet; because, as Pliny, Plutarch, Pausanias and others observe, that Animal was sacred to that Goddess.

On those of Marcus Brutus is an Anchor with a Dolphin; this indicates the Command or Sovereignty of the Sea, which the Ejurati by a powerful Navy assumed to themselves.

Some of his also have the Lyra, Laurus and Culter Victimalis, these all relate to the Ludi Apollinares, which in the Absence of Brutus were acted.

On others of his are Caduceus Orbis and Clavus, which indi­cate, Caesar being slain by Brutus, the World should be govern­ed with utmost Felicity.

Upon some are Cancer, Acroterion and Rosa, which refer to the Victory of Cassius after the taking of Rhodes; for the Rose is observable in all the Coins of the City, and the Crab-fish or Cancer only indicates the Maritime Places and adjacent Islands; the Acroterion indicates Victory after a Naval Engage­ment.

On others I observed Mars naked, with an Helmet on his Head, leaning on a Spear, pressing a Scutum with his Foot, in his Left-hand holding a Flagellum or Scourge; the first of these intimates the Power of Mars in time of War; the last his Ju­stice in punishing Mutiniers or Offenders; this is the proper Habit of Mars, and no doubt, the Ground of it was to im­print a lively Idaea upon the Minds of the Soldiers, both as to their Valour and Duty.

[Page 53] Upon some by the Urceus Lituus, and Pullus Gallinaceus of Mark Antony's, are delineated his Inauguration. A full Account may be seen of the Superstitiousness of those Times in Goodwin, Dupry, Rosinus, and others.

Upon some is one of the Equites carrying a Trophy upon his Shoulders, which might probably be stamped after some Victory.

On the Coins of Marcus Lepidus, who was Tutor to Ptolomy's Children, may be observ'd one offering a Diadem to a Youth holding an Eagle; this doubtless in their younger Years was to instil into them true Principles of Honour and Greatness, the Diadem being the Regalia of the Emperor, and the Eagle a Bird Sacred to Iupiter.

On some I have observ'd Four Spikes of Corn, designing an Annona, or a general Amnesty, which doubtless signifies in that Year the Sacrifices to Ceres were numerous; at which Time Le­pidus return'd out of Africa, where he presided and eased the Romans of their Bondage.

Others have a Tripos, out of which a Serpent appears, the Lituus, and Sympulum, these only design the Sacerdotia.

Some have a Vessel betwixt a Thunder-bolt and a Caduceus; this by some is thought to intimate thus much, that we ought to spare the Humble, but pull down the Proud; Peace and Cle­mency being prefigured by the Caduceus, and by the Thunder­bolt War and Contention.

The Tripos with a Star, is discernable upon some, on one side environ'd with a Lituus or Trumpet, on the other side a Sym­puvium, or Sacrificing-Cup; the Birds which stand in the midst are Crows, of which we have spoke before.

I have seen likewise the Sellae Curules, to which there are affix'd Three Lawrels, placed upon a Crown; these were in Honour to the Triumviri, they having each of them One.

[Page 54] Some have a Caduceus with a double Cornucopia, and a Poppy on the Reverse; whence it is signify'd, That by the Poverty of some Men Plenty and Security is obtain'd: As in the dubious Fate of War, by impoverishing some Persons, the Fortunes of a greater Number are raised: The double Caduceus denotes Plenty, but the Poppy may import either Quiet or Sad­ness.

Upon those of Cneus Domitius is the Keel of a Ship with the Sun, because he coin'd that Money when he Commanded in the Ionian Sea.

Upon others are the Insignia of Cohorts, Praetors, and diffe­rent Legions, all which bore the Eagle, but had their various Distinctions.

Some have Two Hands conjoin'd with a Legionary Eagle, and under that the Rostrum of a Ship; this denotes Concord both by Land and Sea.

I have seen a Palm with a Crown of Ivey, with this In­scription, ALEXANDRIA AEGYPTI, perhaps, because the Palm was plentiful there; the Crown was of Ivey, because Antoninus commanded himself to be stiled Bacchus, or because at Alexandria Bacchus was the presiding Genius.

Upon others Piety with a Cornucopia, the Stern of a Ship, and a Stork, the Ensign of Piety; because the younger Storks nou­rish the old Ones.

Upon several are the Temples of D. Iulius, upon some the Triumviri joining Hands, and Tellus or Ceres adjacent, holding a Cornucopia and Caduceus; hence is signify'd, that the Earth by the Concord of the Triumviri, enjoy'd Happiness and Plenty.

Upon one of Dioclesian's Coins is Ceres leaning upon an Hasta, and holding a Cornucopia, denoting Plenty; at her Feet are these Letters, P. L. N. which Letters imply, pecunia Lon­dini notata; that is, Money coined at London; the Two other Letters D. N. that stand before the Head, signifie, Deus noster, [Page 55] as having caused himself to be stiled, and worshipped as a God.

Upon some are the Bows and Quivers of the Armenians; these denote the Extent of the Roman Empire in those Parts.

Upon others these Words, Armenia Romanorum Clypeis oppressa, which relate to the same Matter.

Upon some Nux Pinea, which is the Ensign of the Vinta­gers that Year, probably abounding with Plenty of good Wines.

Others have painted Targets, bespeaking the Roman Con­quests there.

Upon some is Victory standing on a Basis, below her Two Snakes wreathed and raising themselves upwards, which won­derfully exercise the Learned: It may be, by the Two Snakes is intimated the Division of the Roman Empire into Two Facti­ons, that is the Hospitalitates, and Distdia, which were compo­sed by Victory mediating; for the Snake is the Symbol both of Friendship and Division.

In some there is Victory sitting upon a Coelestial Sphere, as though she wou'd diffuse her Power above Heaven it self, and holds a Velamen in her Hand, which composes a Circle that her Eternity might be by that denoted. So prodigiously a­spiring were the Emperors in those Days, that they even out-did the very Cyclops, who waged War with Heaven it self.

Others have a Caduceus, and a Scutum, stamp'd with the I­mage of the Sun; these indicate the Felicity of the Times, sought for by the Ludi seculares, the Caduceum signifies Happi­ness, and the Sun the Age, which by its Circumvolutions it commensurates. Thus we may observe how the Romans were addicted to Hieroglyphical Representations: How­ever, to have a clear Sense of them, may give a Man a Gust of the Flights of the Roman Poets in those Days of Hea­thenism, [Page 56] [...] [Page 57] [...] [Page 56] in their Characters of, and Addresses to the Em­perors.

Some have Phaebus naked, sitting on a Rock, and playing upon an Harp; it is probable by Apollo here is meant Augu­stus Caesar, in whose Reign Learning was so much En­courag'd.

Augustus is on some Togated, holding in his Hand a Victo­riola, which still shews his great Inclination to Learning and Arms.

Some have Venus Victrix, with a Spear and Helmet, and a Scutum adjacent, which had for its Ensign a Star; this pro­bably represents the Shield of Augustus, which for the Me­mory of his Father he adorn'd with a Star, as likewise his Helmet.

Some have Neptune pressing the Keel of a Ship with his Foot, in one Hand holding a Trident, in the other a Dol­phin; these bespeak the Sovereignty of the Emperor at Sea.

Others have Diana Venatrix, denoting the great Pleasures of those Days.

Others have Hispania holding Spikes of Corn, shewing the Plenty thereof in that Province; she holds likewise Darts in her Hand stiled Gosa, which were taken by the Romans from the Spaniards.

In some are discernable a Syren, one half representing a Wo­man, the other a Bird; this denotes the Cumaeans, a Colony brought over to the Roman Empire by Augustus, for Cumis was commonly call'd the Body of Parthenope, which was one of the Syrens.

Some have a Parthian carrying Banners.

Some Victory, sitting on the Rostrum of a Ship, with a Law­rel and a Palm, denoting Victory at Sea.

[Page 57] Others have Parthians offering a Boy to Augustus, and as ap­pears by the Bracelets, they carried supplicated Peace from him; these sufficiently denote to us the Power the Romans had amongst those Warlike People; if we consider therefore the Roman Puissance in those and succeeding Times, and withal the Effeminacy of the Italians in these Days, it may give us just Reasons to suspect the ancient Race of the Romans is extir­pated, and the present Inhabitants are but the spurious Off­spring of the Scythians, Goths and Vandals.

On some there are these Words, QUERNA CORONA, a Crown of Oak, perhaps, alluding to the British Druids who worshipped under Oaks.

Severus Pius Augustus has on the Reverse these Letters, P. M. T. R. P. a Man holding a Patera, and Discordia; the ters may be interpreted, Pontifex Maximus Tribunitiae Po­testatis.

On some is a double Cornucopia, which is the Ensign of Vi­bo Valentiae, as is manifest from the Coins of that City.

Some have Pietas holding a Spear and a Laurel, because the Laurel was chiefly made use of in Sacrifices, which they held in their Hands, when they worshipped their Gods, im­ploring, as we may conjecture, Success and Victory to Cae­sar's Arms.

Upon some is Tiberius sitting on a Star, denoting either Eter­nity or Victory to him.

There is likewise Antonia in the Habit of Constantia Aug. hold­ing a Cornucopia, with a Torch for the Priesthood of Augustus, denoting all Vertues.

Upon some is Augustus amongst the Seven Planets in the Ha­bit of a God.

On others Caligula sitting upon a Star, holding a Lau­rel and Spear, denoting his being deified and his Victo­ries.

[Page 58] I have seen those of Germanicus, holding the Eagle of the Legion, which he retook after it was lost at the Battle of Varvana.

Some have Hope cloathed in a divided Garment, with one Hand lifting up the Skirts of it, and with the other prefer­ring an Herb to it, which shews how little we ought to value our Expectations in this World.

There are Coins of Titus Claudius with the Sacerdotia and Sacri­ficing-Vessels.

Sometimes Peace stands winged, touching with a Caduceum the Head of a Serpent, which seems to hint, the best way to compose Differences is by Clemency.

Constantia is observed sitting in a Roman Stola, lifting up the Foremost Finger of her Right-hand, which Posture denotes Vigilancy.

Britania is observed holding in her Right-hand the Stern of a Ship, what is in her Left-hand is not distinguishable; ad­jacent to that is the Keel of a Ship, denoting the Kingdom encompassed by Sea, as likewise the Inhabitants Application to Navigation.

Vesta covered sitting, holding a Sacrificing-Cup, and offering a Lamp, denotes the Perpetuity of that Fire.

On another of Constantia's, she leans upon a Spear in a Mi­litary Habit, lifting up the foremost Finger of her Right-hand, which shows how constant and indefatigable Claudius was for the Commonwealth, and indeed, there is just Reason to believe it, since he sailed round the Island, and was the first Roman Emperor that made any considerable Progress in Britain, as Dion, Suetonius, Tacitus and others observe.

Others have a naked Barbarian with a Dagger, fighting with a Roman in regular Armour: It's probable, this naked Man was a Britain, for Zonaras and Xiphilinus assure us, the Armour of the Britains was a short Shield, Dagger and Spear.

[Page 59] Some have the Genius holding a Patera and Cornu­copia.

Constantius has on the Reverse sometimes Mars, Virtus, Ex­ercitus; for by his Warlike Temper he wrested the Empire from his Two Brothers, which his Father Constantine had di­vided.

Domitian has Ceres with a Cornucopia, denoting Plenty.

Sometimes he has Mars holding in his Right-hand a Spear, in his Left a Target.

Antoninus bears a Cippus, an Instrument to punish Of­fenders.

Nero may be observed with his Head radiated with a Vi­ctoriola and with a Laurel, which denotes his Ambition to represent the Sun; and in sacrificing the Lawrel, a Tree sa­cred to Phoebus, he compared himself to Apollo, by reason of the Victories he obtained by his Harp and Singing: One remarkable Instance Nero afforded, was that he play'd upon his Harp the Burning of Troy, as Rome it self was in Flames.

Others have Roma Armata, with Breasts exerted like an A­mazon; this doubtless was to Typifie the Valour of the City of Rome.

Some have Victory offering a Shield to Nero.

Some an Hunter pursuing a Boar.

Some Hispania with a Quiver and Two Darts, signifying the Valour of that Nation, and with a Spike of Corn, shewing its Fertility.

Galba may be observ'd Gown'd, holding the World in one Hand, and with the other touching the Head of a Youth: This seems to relate to the Galbae in Piso, in adapting the Ho­spital Boys, instituted by Galba, to Piety.

[Page 60] Otho has these Words, SECURITAS POP. ROM. with a Spear and a Lawrel, which denote, that by the Vi­ctories of Otho, Security was brought to the People of Rome.

On the Reverse OTHO PONTIFEX MAXIMUS, with a Branch of Lawrel and a Spear, denoting that Expiations and Purgations by Sacrifice were performed by them; and these are all the Otho's I have seen.

Some Coins have Iupiter sitting upon a Star with a Spear.

Others Mars Grandivus, with a Spear and a Trophy.

Others Fortune, holding the Helm of a Ship in her Left Hand, and a Cornucopia, representing what vast Riches may be acquired by Navigation.

Clementia, sitting with Spikes of Corn, may be observ'd in Vespasian's Coins.

As likewise the Palm, that abounding in Iudea, which he Conquer'd.

Iupiter Custos standing before the Altar with a Patera and Hasta, which seem to shew that by Government and Religion the World is preserv'd.

Peace holding an Olive-branch, burns her Arms; behind her stands a Pillar, supposed to be Bellona's, from which a Spear u­sually appears.

Tutela Dea protecting Vespasian or Titus, and Domitian.

Eternitas represented by the Sun and Moon, those being by the Egyptians deem'd Eternal.

Neptune Redux with a Trident and Acroterion, for the Return of Titus to Rome by Sea.

Domitian in the Habit of Piety, a Son standing by, which Typifies that by Piety the Empire nourish'd and cherish'd her Son Caesar.

[Page 61] In some Coins may be observ'd Hercules, or Trajan the Em­peror, he much affecting to be clad in that Habit.

The Via Trajana in Species of a Woman holding a Wheel and Reed, denoting probably the Industry of the People of Rome.

Matidia with her Two Daughters, which represent Piety, with which she preserv'd her Two Daughters Sabina, and Ma­tidia the Younger.

Adrianus, the Reverse a Woman holding a Globe in her Hand, which shews that Adrian and Venus govern'd the World.

Aegypt leaning upon a Basket of Fruit, holding a Cistrum, or Horn like a Trumpet in her Hand; Ibis, a Bird Sacred to the Aegyptians, is adjacent, and was the Bird, when it found it self indisposed, that injected Salt Water by the Help of its Beak into the Anus; and thence shew'd us the Use of Clysters.

Cappadocia holding a Mountain in her Hand; its probable, because the Cappadocians worshipped a Mountain for their God.

Africa sacrificing, by reason of the Coming of the Empe­ror, and holding Spikes of Corn cover'd with the Exuviae of Elephants.

Asia Minor with the Rostrum, and Stern of a Ship to demonstrate their Expertness in Naval Affairs, in which her Inhabitants then excell'd, and holding in her Right Hand a Serpent, perhaps, because the Country abounds with them: This Emblem, as it delineates to us the Industry of those People in Navigation, at the same time renders it very probable, that many Foreign Parts might be Peopled thence; and Britain, by what we have hinted before, as like­ly as any.

[Page 62] But the more fully to evidence the Truth of this Con­jecture, I shall in the First place back it with a Quotation from Divine Authority.

In the Second place, clearly and fully evince, that the Bri­tains in those Days worshipped the same Deities as the Phoeni­cians did.

And in the Third and Last place make it evident, that in Nero's Time a British Queen wore a Golden Torques, which sufficiently demonstrates the Britains traded with other Na­tions before Caesar made his Attempts upon this Island, which from the subsequent Observations may fairly be proved to be Phoenician.

Of the First; Ezekiel, Chap. 27. gives us this Geographi­cal Account, which, if I mistake not, exactly quadrates with the Reverse of the forementioned Coin; and fully illustrates to us, how from their vast Industry, Skill and Experience in Naviga­tion they might transplant themselves hither; that the People of Tirus, which was one of the chief Cities of Phoenicia, were seated at the Entry of the Sea, were Merchants and a People for many Isles, that their Ships were made of the Fir-Trees of Senir, and their Masts of the Cedars of Lebanon, that they had Oars from the Oaks of Bashan, Benches of Ivory from the Ashurites, brought out of the Isles of Chittim; embroidered Lin­nen from Aegypt for their Sails, Blue and Purple from the Isles of Elisha, the Inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were their Mariners, and the Wise-Men in Tyrus their Pilots, the Wise-Men of Gebal and Ancients thereof their Calkers, that all the Ships of the Sea were there to occupy their Merchandize, those of Persia, of Lud and of Phut were in their Armies. Ob­serve here Lud in the Hebrew Language signifies Lydia, a Country bordering upon Phoenicia; that therefore the British King assuming that Name (from whom the City of London, [Page 63] as most conjecture, is denominated) seems to me to produce, that the Phoenicians had discovered the whole Island, since it is probable, he might chiefly affect the Name from some emi­nent Lydian he most admired among the Phoenicians; whether it be so or no, I shall not take upon me to determine: How­ever, it may merit the strictest Enquiries of the Learned. That the Phoenicians Traded to Tarshish is certain, which by the best Com­mentators is esteemed to be the Mediterranean, and likewise to Tu­bal, Iavan and Meshech, which signifie the North, amongst which, its probable the Britains may be included; that they likewise traded in precious Cloaths for their Chariots, an Instrument only that they as well as the Britains, made use of in Fight­ing.

Having now cleared the first Head, I shall proceed to the second, and that is, to prove that their Way of Worship in Britain and Phoenicia was the same; which, if I mistake not, duly weighing the preceding Arguments, to wit, the Phoenician Words in these Parts and Manner of Fighting, with their prodigious Merchandizing, puts it beyond Contradiction, that this Island must necessarily be inhabited from that Country, in a great Measure at least. The Deities they then worship­ped retained the following Names, Andraste and Astarte, of which Dion Cassius gives the following Account in his Life of Nero. The British Amazon Bonduca or Boadicia, says Leo, before she engaged the Romans, with her Hands lift up to Heaven, had this Ejaculation; O Astarte, Protectrix of Women, I invocate thee. Now the Phoenicians, as well as she, worshipped Astarte, by that meaning the Moon or Venus, which sometimes they termed Venus, sometimes Belisama, sometimes Diana and sometimes Proserpina, from the benign Influence that they expected from her in the Rivers, Woods, Vallies and their Pleasures, she being stiled Belisama upon the Waters, in the Woods Diana, in the Vallies Proserpina; and when they implored her Assistance for [Page 64] Pleasure and Felicity, Venus. Schaedius likewise in his Account of the German Gods gives us a Relation, that they paid a most profound Adoration to this Deity, insomuch, that when she was in her Wane they declined Fighting, of which the Ro­mans frequently took their Advantage, and made by that Method their Conquests the easier. Their Manner was al­ways, in the New-Moon to engage their Enemy, of which Superstition to this very Day there remains still some Foot­steps, it being a common Custom amongst the Populace upon the first Appearance of the New-Moon to put up a Benedicti­on to her in the following Form, to wit, Yonder is the New-Moon, God bless it.

I shall now in the Third and Last place endeavour from ano­ther Relick of Antiquity to make it evident, that the Britains traded with the Eastern Nations, to wit, Phoenicia, and that is from a Torques lately found in Staffordshire, belonging, as may be supposed, to the British Queen Boadicia: Of which take the following Account:

In the County of Staffordshire, in the latter end of April, 1700. a poor Man in the Parish of Patingham, found a large and pon­derous Torques of fine Gold, the Weight of it was Three Pounds and Two Ounces, in Length it was about Four Foot, curiously twisted and writhen, with Two Hooks at each End, cut even but not twisted; one of the Hooks seem'd to have a small Notch in it, as if something had worn it by hanging to it; it was fine Mettal, very bright and flexible, it would wrap round your Arm, your Middle or Hat, and be extended again easily to its own Shape, which most resembled the Bow of a Kettle.

It seems to be a British Piece of Antiquity for the following Reasons:

[Page 65] First, Its being found near an old British City, as Dr. Plot in his Natural History of Staffordshire, makes that Place to be.

Secondly, Dion Cassius assures us, that Bonduca or Boadicia wore a Golden Torques.

The Romans, as well as the Britains, wore these Torques's, and probably both of them had it from the Asiaticks. Titus Manlius had the Surname of Torquatus given him, as an At­chievement of Honour for killing Gallus, a Man of a prodi­gious Magnitude. The Torques by Virgil is thus descri­bed,

—Is petere summo
Flexilis obtorti in collum circulus auri.

which exactly quadrates with the Account given of it. From this Instance therefore, we may deduce this reasonable Co­rollary, that since the Britains, as well as the Romans wore Golden Torques's, and that Gold is not the Product of this Island; and that as it is evident from the Quotation in Ezekiel, the Phoenicians Traded in Gold, Precious Stones, and all the Eastern Spices, and might for these trade with the Britains, for Tin, Iron, Copper, and other Products of the Island; that several Colonies of the Phoenicians were seated here be­fore the Romans made any Attempts upon it. The Account of this Torques was communicated to me by the Reverend Mr. Smith, Batchellor of Divinity, and Senior Fellow of Brazen-Nose-Colledge, in Oxford.

[Page 66] Faustina, on some representing Lucina, predicts Faecundity, she being the Goddess that assisted in Womens Labour, she has Three Infants standing by her; upon some is Eternitas alata, holding a Torch in her Hand, and carrying Faustina to Heaven.

Heliogabalus has a Patera pouring Liquor upon an Altar, hold­ing in the Left-hand a Ferula, in Imitation of the Magi, who near the Altar sang the Hymns of the inextinguishable Fire, holding their Ferula's.

Hercules Densoniensis; this relates to Denso, a Town or Castle upon the Frontiers of the Franks, behind the Rhine, as St. Hierome ad Chronicon Eusebii says, In the Year 376, the Saxons were routed at Denso.

Upon some is Laetitia holding in her Right-hand a Diadem, in her Left an Anchor, shewing that Joy to be firm and right grounded.

Upon others is the Image of the Sun radiated, holding in the Left-hand a Spear, a Captive sitting upon the Ground at his Feet, an Epithet ascrib'd to the Conqueror, Hercules Scytalo Sagitti Pelliger: This Sign the Pagan Emperors carry'd in their Expeditions.

On others Securitas holding a Lawrel, because it was sup­posed to divert Dangers.

Imperator Crucem Tenens, which was in the Insignia of Con­stantine the Great.

Victoria Crucem Gemmatam Tenens; under that Sign assuring the most glorious Victory.

Caesar Valerianus with Proserpina feeding Snakes, which is ex­plained before.

Antoninus, with a Person holding a Discus, denoting Sa­crifice.

[Page 67] Septimius Geta, Mars holding a Spear in his Right-hand, and a Torch in his Left with these Letters, I. N. C. IU­VENTUS; the first argue his Martial Temper, as like­wise his Regard to the Gods by the Torch adapted for Sa­crifice: The Letters may mean thus, Imperator Noster Caesar, and Iuventus either signifies his Youth or the flourishing State of the Empire.

Severus Maximus Critinus Augustus has at the Bottom of the Head IVVI. on the Reverse L. TAVG. This seems to be a Coin stamped by some Tribune of an august Legion, as the Letters seem to imply; but why Severus was stiled Critinus, I cannot make out by any Antiquary.

Valerius Maximus with a Neptune, Dolphin and Trident, ex­plain'd before.

Severus sometimes has Providentia Deorum and Pallas, im­plying his great Veneration for the Gods and for Learn­ing.

Iulia has sometimes on the Reverse Pietas Publica, and a Woman with a Patera at her Feet; she was Wife to Severus, and as some affirm, very lewd; wherefore by having the Sa­crificing Cup by her Feet, it looks as if she scorn'd and tramp­led upon Religion.

Iulia Maesa has on the Reverse Venus and Foelicitas; she was Mother to Commodus, who, as some declare, was got by a Gla­diator, for which Reason, perhaps, she fix'd her chief Happi­ness in that Goddess.

She sometimes holds a Patera in her Hand, denoting Sacrifice, very likely to Venus.

Severus Alexander has a Man holding a Patera with these Letters, M. P. T. P. COS. II. implying Sacrifice, and that he had been of the Tribunitial Power, and twice Con­sul.

[Page 68] Severus Augustus has a Sacellum, signifying his Veneration for the Gods.

Septimius Geta, a Man holding a Trophy with these Let­ters, P. O. N. U. T. H. which may probably be Pontifex, the Emperors being frequently stiled, Nobilis victor, Triumphator He­roicus, & Cos. II. twice Consul.

Severus Alexander has Virtus, Exercitus, Augustus, a Man holding an Hasta and Patera, denoting his Application to Mora­lity, Arms and Religion.

Valerius Maximus has on the Reverse Proserpina holding a Snake in one Hand, atd another hissing at her; this de­notes the Division of the Roman Empire, spoke of be­fore.

Iulia has sometimes S. V. AU. AUG. P I. with Pallas on the Reverse, which is no more than Votum solvit Augusto Princi­pii, she stiling her self Augusta, and that Pallas was one of her Genii.

Some bear these Words IMPERATOR. CAESAR AUG. on the Reverse a Man holding in one Hand a Bidens, and in the other a Scutum: The Bidentes, as Scaliger upon Var­ro observes, were Cornigerae, and denote Sacrifice; the Toga signifies Peace, the Scutum Authority, and the Letters A. P. O. L. may be thus interpreted, Augustus Pontifex Legis­lator.

Iulia Mammaea, on the Reverse a Man holding a Spear and Scutum, URBIS ROMANAE CONSERVATRIX; this was found in a Roman Urceolus, near Standish in Lancashire, with Two Hundred Roman Coins more, and Two massy Rings of Gold, belonging doubtless to the Equites Au­rati.

[Page 69] Severus Pius Augustus has on the Reverse these Letters, D. M. T. R. P. with a Man holding a Patera and Discordia; D. M. may signifie Dominus Maximus or Deus; T. P. that he was of the Tribunae Potestatis, the Patera Sacrifice, and Discor­dia argues they were dissatisfied about the Worship of the Gods, or perhaps, that the Christians divided from them.

Commodus Antoninus Aug. has sometimes Ceres with Spikes of Corn, which denotes only Plenty, with these Letters L. I. R. AUG. V. TRIUMVIR. which may denote Liberalitas, and Iuventus Romana, and that he had been Five times Triumvir; as likewise PO. IIII. COS. fignifies Pontifex or Princeps, and Four times Consul.

Antoninus Pius Aug. I find him with a Man holding a Patera and Bidens; both denote Sacrifice, with these Letters, P. M. T. P. D. X. IIII. COS. IIII. P. R. the first five Letters may signifie Pontifex Maximus Tribunitiae Potestatis Deus; X. and IIII. may denote the Year of his Reign, and Four times Consul; P. R. is the People of Rome.

Another of the same Emperor has Libertas.

Another of his has Neptune, a Spear and Star, a Trident, Sacellum and Caduceum, denoting his being deified, together with his Power and Peace at Sea.

Iulia Mammaea has Providentia sitting, which may imply, Providence by a Nod directs the World.

Another of Antoninus has a Man with a Star and a Scu­tum, in the Posture of a Gladiator, which shews the Sol­dier is ready to defend the Emperor's being deified; like the Knights of Maltha drawing their Swords at the reading of the Creed, to shew their Readiness to venture their Lives in its Defence.

There is another of Iulia Mammaea with Iuno on the Re­verse, with a Spear in one Hand, and a Cornucopia in the other, and a Peacock with a Conservatrix at her Left-foot: These point to us her Power and being deified, and that Iuno was her Genius.

[Page 70] Another of Antoninus has Aesculapius on the Reverse; this probably might be coin'd after some severe Sickness, and makes clear to us the great Regard the Emperors had for the Profession of Physick.

There are of Diadumenus's Coins, on the Reverse of which are PRINCEPS IUVENTUTIS, and Two Pillars of Cre­scents by him, which typifie his Youth and future Hopes of Grandeur.

Iulia has sometimes a Vestal Virgin, a Symbol of Eter­nity.

Another of Antoninus has Britania sitting, with a Cornucopia and these Letters, P. M. T. P. XV. which signifie Plenty, and Pontifex Maximus Tribunitiae Potestatis, XV. Year of his Reign: COS. III. P. P. so that he had been Tribune, thrice Con­sul, and stiled himself Pater Patriae, that is, Father of his Country.

Severus Alexander has Apollo, which may hint his Affection to Musick.

Iulia has Faecunditas, Lucina and a Child, signifying Fruit­fulness.

Severus Alexander has on the Reverse one of the Agones hold­ing the Branch of a Tree, in which, it may be presumed, the Genius most delighted.

Others of his Coins have one of the Flaminii with these Letters, M. T. R. P. COS. which denote that he was some­times stiled Marcus, and that he had been a Tribune, Prince and Consul.

There are some of Titus Elupius Galerius with Proserpina and a Serpent in her Hand; this Person was Governour of North-Wales, and dedicated an Altar to Iupiter, as appears from the Inscription of one dug up there; the Serpent at that Time might signifie Peace.

Marcus Aurelius has Liberalitas, and a Man holding a Sword and Sacrificing-Cup, which shew his Hospitality and Prompt­ness to defend Religion.

[Page 71] Iulia has Concordia and one of the Flaminii, only implying Quietness and Sacrifice.

Antoninus Pius, on the Reverse Marti Deo Victoriae.

There are some where Caesar is not legible, but have on the Re­verse SACERDOS with a Man on Horseback; several British Coins of Cunobelin's have the same, but the Word Sacerdos makes me to take it for Roman, and one of Coccius Nerva's, by reason of the Imposition he took off that was laid on Carriages and Tra­velling Horses, which may be seen at large in Suetonius.

Maximianus has on his Reverse Iuno.

Commodus Augustus has this Word OPTIME and one of the Tubicines, which only implies, that whilst those Priests were sa­crificing they sounded well.

Clemens Augustus has a Woman with a Dove, hinting Mild­ness.

Valerius Divus Augustus has on the Reverse one of the Flami­nii sitting, which implies his being deified, and likewise a Priest sacrificing.

Antoninus Pius has these Words VOTA SUSCEPTA, and a Tripos, which indicate he had performed his Vows to the Gods for the Peace he then enjoy'd.

Marcus Severus Alexander has sometimes Annona, explained before.

Iulia has sometimes Discordia, which wants no Expla­nation.

Valerius has Pietas and one holding a Simpuvium, denoting Sacrifice.

Another of Alexander's with Victoria and a Trumpet in her Hand.

Others of that Emperor have one of the Flaminii sacrificing Two Pigeons, IOVI & VICTORIAE, which only denote that Iupiter and Victory were his Tutelar Genii.

Imp. Aael. this cannot be made out, nor do I pretend to de­termine it.

[Page 72] Marcus Valerius Alexander has a Man holding a Spear and leaning on a Tripos, which probably signifies the Sword was there sheathed.

Macrinus has a Woman holding a Sacrificing-Knife and Ax.

Aelius Adrianus has Ceres with a Cornucopia and COS. III. denoting Plenty, and that he had been thrice Consul.

The next Thing to be considered, is to account for the Caesars in Britain, that the Reverses of their Coins may be the better understood.

Iulius Caesar, as appears by his own Account, descended from from Ancus Martius, an ancient King of Rome, by his Mother's Side, by his Father's from the Gods; at Seventeen Years of Age he was made Flamen Dialis, Seven Years afterwards Que­stor of Spain, next Aedilis, and afterwards Pontifex Maximus. Whilst he was invading this Island, his Daughter Iulia died, and as Seneca testifies, he fought Fifty several Battles with Suc­cess, had Five Triumphs, been Four times Consul, and at last was murthered by a Conspiracy of the Senators, the Chief of whom was his Relation Brutus.

The Second Caesar that made any Advance in Britain was Drusus Claudius: He landed at the Mouth of the Thames, and there joined his General Plautius. For his Success here his Army saluted him by the Name of Imperator. The Britains for his Clemency after their Overthrow, erected Temples and Al­tars to him and worshipped him as a God. He had a Triumph erected to him: Upon the Louver of the Palace a Naval Co­ronet was fix'd, as if at that Time Britain had been the Mi­stress of the Sea, and that the Ensign of its new Subjection. See Suetonius. He had Two Sons in Law, Pompeius and Silanus, who, while he ascended the Capitol upon his Knees, constantly suppor­ted him. He exhibited Triumphal Sports and Games, assum'd the Consular Office and Authority, diverted himself with the Kil­ling of Bears, Fighting of Champions, and the Youths of Asia Dancing in Armor.

[Page 73] Nero sent into Britain his General Suetonius, who defeated the British Queen Boadicia, who as some alledge, afterwards poison­ed her self, others that she sickened of Grief and died, having lost 230000 Men; 'twas he that sent hither the Twentieth Le­gion.

Galba continued in Britain his General Trebellius Maximus.

Otho continued the same General, and governed but Ninety Five Days. Vitellius succeeded him.

Vespatian takes the Opportunity of the Civil War betwixt them: He had served from a Youth in the British Wars; com­manded the second Legion; and sent into Britain that great General Iulius Agricola, who destroy'd the Ordovices.

Titus Vespasian brought the Britains to the Roman Customs and Habits, who for the great Exploits performed by his Ge­neral Agricola, was Fifteen times saluted by the Name of Impera­tor: He was stiled the Ioy and Delight of Mankind.

Domitian passed over to the Orcades; these he subdued in many Battles, as likewise the Caledonians under the Conduct of Agricola: In his Life-time he commanded himself to be stiled God and Lord.

Nerva reigned only One Year, Four Months and odd Days: According to Antoninus, he built Coccium in Lancashire, now stiled Ribchester.

Ulpius Trajanus reduced the revolting Britains: During these Two Emperors Reigns, the Times were troublesome in Bri­tain, since Nerva in his Life-time accepted Trajan as his Partner in the Empire: He constituted in Britain the Municipal Laws; at Sessions and Assizes ordered the Rods and Axes to be present­ed to the Backs and Necks of the common People, and enlarged many of the Roman Ways: He died at Seleucia in Asia the less; his Ashes were sent to Rome, and enclosed within the Crown of a goodly Pillar of One Hundred and Forty Foot in Height.

Aelius Adrianus made a Journey to Britain in Person in the Sixth Year of his Empire, was thrice Consul; by Force of Arms he reduced the Britains to Obedience, as is manifest from the Three [Page 74] Soldiers upon his Coin, denoting Three Legions, of which the Roman Army then consisted, with this Inscription EXER BRITANNICUS RESTITUTOR BRITANNI. He built a Wall Fourscore Miles in Length cross the Island, from Solway Frith upon the Irish Seas to the Mouth of the Tine by New­castle on the German Ocean.

Antoninus Pius was next, in whose Time the Brigantes broke in upon Genounia, which is North-Wales, the Inhabitants of which were then under the Protection of the Romans. He reigned Twenty Three Years, and died of a Fever at Lotium.

Marcus Aurelius was the adopted Son of Antoninus Pius and Son of Elius Verus; he married his Daughter Faustina, and upon the Death of Antoninus Pius, took upon him the Empire, and chose for his Associate Lucius Verus.

In Aurelius his Reign the Britains again revolted, for appea­sing of whom Calphurnius Agricola was sent Lieutenant hither, and for the Subduing of whom was raised that Altar to the Syrian Goddess.

Commodus Antoninus his Son succeeded him, his Flatterers gave him the Name of Britannicus.

In his Reign were many Seditious Troubles in Britain, the Northern Nations breaking down the Wall which was raised to keep them out, and cut in Pieces the Romans that came a­gainst them: He sends over Ulpius Marcellus as prime Com­mander, who by his Conduct soon repell'd them; but being for that envy'd by Commodus, he was then speedily recall'd, upon which, through the Licenciousness of the Romans, the Britains again revolted.

Clodius Albinus was created Caesar by Commodus, who under­standing his Design refused that Honour; yet hearing of his Death ascended the Tribunal, and in an elegant Speech pres­sed the Senate to make him Consul.

Helvius Pertinax, after Commodus was slain, was by Laetus salu­ted Emperor, being an aged Commander. The Senate moved to have Albinus joined with him, but he being jealous of Albinus [Page 75] refused it, and sent him back into Britain with a Commission to be his Lieutenant, which Albinus revenged by exhorting Iu­lianus to assassinate him.

Didius Iulianus upon his Death bought the Empire: He was slain by the Soldiers that advanced him; Albinus being still Lieu­tenant in Britain.

Septimius Severus having disarmed the Praetorian Bands, but being jealous of Albinus in Britain, ordains him his Caesar and Successor, himself pretending Age, which the other accepted by this Cajole. Severus marches into Syria to subdue Pescennius Niger, who pretended to the Empire, in a pitch'd Battle overcame Niger and slew him, subdued the Adiabenes, and Arabians, and then re­turned to Rome: He then being weary of a Rival in the Empire, sent over Murtherers into Britain to dispatch Albinus, which Albinus too late discovered, and then declared himself Em­peror.

Hereupon Severus sent Onuphrius Heraclitus to take Possession of Britain. Albinus refused to resign, declares for the Empire, erects his own Statue, and stamped his Picture on his Coin, and to justifie himself, with the choice Troops of all Britain entred France, and near unto Lyons took the Field against Severus; Severus declares Albinus a Traytor, and gives him Battle. The Army of Albinus, saith Herolian, was very hot at the first, and the Battle seem'd to go for the Albinians, insomuch, that Severus flying, flung off his Purple Coat and hid himself.

Hence the Britains concluding all to be their own, fell into Disor­der, which Letus Albinus the General perceiving, came upon them with fresh Troops, thinking Severus had been slain, and design'd to make himself Emperor, and totally routed them; which Se­verus perceiving, he reassumes his Robes, recalls his Forces, slays Albinus, and recovers a most fortunate Victory.

After this Severus divides the Sovereignty of Britain between Vitius and Heraclitus; but in the Year 208, he came himself into Britain, where he had many Skirmishes: He built a Wall cross the Island from Sea to Sea, but this by some is supposed to be the same with Adrian's.

[Page 76] Septimius Geta his Son was slain by his Brother Caracalla in the Arms of his Mother Iulia, who afterwards married Bassianus Son to a former Wife of Severus.

Bassianus had no Issue but was succeeded by Heliogabalus; 'tis reported, he died in Britain. Macrinus succeeded him.

Heliogabalus, the supposed Son of Bassianus, took upon him the Name of Antoninus.

There are other Coins, but the Collection not being com­pleat, I refer the Reader to the Cutts.

These are the most remarkable Antiquities relating to this Island during the Roman Government, what People preceded them, as is hinted before, is evident from these following Heads, (which if we consider the Remoteness of the Places from each other) clearly evince to us, that the Asiaticks, before the Greeks and Romans came hither, had discovered the whole Island and fixed in it various Colonies. For the clearing of this Head I shall begin with the most Northern Part of Britain, and thence briefly proceed to the Lands End of England, in do­ing which I must a little recapitulate.

Thule, the most Northern Part of Britain, is a Phoenician Word signifying in that Language Darkness, either from the Shadows of their Trees, or the Shortness of their Days; these Islands the Latins called Orcades, and the Scots now Orkney: That this Thule was the Orcades is evident from Strabo, since, as was be­fore observed, he mentions Thule Britanica, which could be no other Place.

Kent, the Name of a great River near Lancaster, in the Arme­nian Tongue signifies a great River.

Lune the Name of a considerable River near the same Place, in the Armenian Tongue signifies the Moon.

Bellissama, the Name of a River near Preston in Lancashire, in the Phoenician Language signifies the Moon or the Goddess of Heaven, whom the Britains, as well as the Phoenicians, stile Andraste, and [Page 77] Astarte, as we may find by that Invocation made to her by that fam'd Heroine, but unfortunate British Queen, Boadicia, which was in the following Manner, O Andraste, I being a Woman invocate thee, Woman.

Ribel, now the Name of the same River, in the Armenian Tongue signifies Heaven.

Savig, a Branch of the same River, in British and Phoenician is Rivulet.

Caer, the primitive Name of Chester is British and Phoeni­cian.

Lud, from whence London is most probably denominated, is Hebrew, signifying in that Language Lydia, a Country join­ing to Phoenicia.

Add to these the Counties of Cornwall and Devonshire, which at this Day in their Language retain many Phoenician Words and Idioms, as Mr. Sams in his Britania informs us, as like­wise the Islands of Silly; which Observations rightly weigh'd, make it a clear Demonstration that the Phoenicians had sailed quite round the Island, and in all Parts of it fixed their Co­lonies.

I shall but produce one Instance more, and not further trans­gress upon the Readers Patience, that is the Method the Bri­tains had in numbring their Days and Nights, a Way only parti­cular to them and the Eastern Nations, viz. to make the Day to follow the Night, and not the Night the Day, as the Germans and Romans did, as Caesar in his Commentaries assures us: Which particular Instance, in my Opinion, makes it as clear as those Lights they numbred, that this Island was chiefly inhabited from the Eastern Nations, this Custom being exactly confor­mable [Page 78] to the Primitive Eastern Way, of their Numbring of their Days and Nights, as is manifest from that in Genesis; And the Evening and the Morning were the first Day: And this evidently transmits to us the great Value and Antiqui­ty of our Country, and undeniably demonstrates the Ve­racity of the History cited from Ezekiel, Chap. 27. rela­ting to their extraordinary Merchandising and Transplant­ing Colonies into distant Countries, which that it may not slip the Reader, I shall here transcribe so far as re­lates to this Matter, though the Head was before touch'd upon.

‘Thy Borders are in the midst of the Seas, thy Builders have perfected thy Beauty. They have made all thy Ship-boards of Fir-trees of Senir: They have taken Cedars from Lebanon to make Masts for thee. Of the Oaks of Bashan have they made thine Oars: The Company of the Ashurites have made thy Benches of Ivory, brought out of the Isles of Chittim. Fine Linnen with broidered Work from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy Sail; Blue and Purple from the Isles of Elisha was that which covered thee. The Inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy Mariners: Thy wise Men, O Ty­rus, that were in thee, were thy Pilots. The Ancients of Gebal, and the wise Men thereof were in thee thy Calkers, all the Ships of the Sea with their Mariners were in thee to oc­cupy thy Merchandise. They of Persia, and of Lud, and of Phut were in thine Army, thy Men of War: They hanged the Shield and Helmet in thee, they set forth thy Comeli­ness. The Men of Arvad with thine Army were upon thy Walls round about, and the Gemmadims were in thy Towers; they hanged their Shields upon thy Walls round about: They have made thy Beauty perfect. Tarshish was thy Merchant by reason of the Multitude of all kind of Riches; with Silver, Iron, Tin, and Lead, they traded in thy Fairs. Iavan, Tu­bal, [Page 79] and Meshech, they were thy Merchants: They traded the Persons of Men, and Vessels of Brass in thy Market. They of the House of Togarma traded in thy Fairs, with Horses, and Horsemen, and Mules. The Men of Dedan were thy Merchants, many Isles were the Merchandise of thine Hand: They brought thee for a Present, Horns of Ivory and Ebony. Syria was thy Merchant by reason of the Multitude of the Wares of thy making: They occupied in thy Fairs with Emeralds, Purple, and broidered Work, and fine Lin­nen, and Coral, and Agate. Iudah and the Land of Is­rael, they were thy Merchants: They traded in thy Mar­ket Wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and Hony, and Oyl, and Balm. Damascus was thy Merchant in the Multitude of the Wares of thy making, for the Multitude of all Riches: In the Wine of Helbon, and white Wool. Dan also and Iavan going to and fro, occupied in thy Fairs: Bright Iron, Cassia, and Calamus were in thy Market. Dedan was thy Merchant in precious Riches for Chariots. Arabia, and all the Princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee in Lambs, and Rams, and Goats: In these were they thy Merchants. The Merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy Merchants: They occu­pied in thy Fairs with Chief of all Spices, and with all pre­cious Stones and Gold. Haran and Canneh, and Eden, the Merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad were thy Merchants. These were thy Merchants in all sorts of Things, in blue Cloaths, and broidered Work, and in Chests of rich Apparel, bound with Cords, and made of Cedar among thy Merchan­dise. The Ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy Market, and thou wast replenished and made very glorious in the midst of the Seas. Thy Rowers have brought thee into great Waters: The East-wind hath broken thee in the midst of the Seas. Thy Riches and thy Fairs, thy Merchandise, thy Mariners, and thy Pilots, thy Calkers, and the Occupyers of thy Merchandise, and all thy Men of War that are in thee, [Page 72] and in all thy Company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the Seas in the Day of thy Ruine. The Suburbs shall shake at the Sound of the Cry of thy Pilots. And all that handle the Oar, the Mariners, and all the Pilots of the Sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the Land; and shall cause their Voice to be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up Dust upon their Heads, they shall wallow themselves in the Ashes. And they shall make themselves utterly bald for thee, and gird them with Sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee with Bitterness of Heart, and bitter Wailing. And in their Wailing they shall take up a Lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, What City is like Tyrus, like the destroy'd in the midst of the Sea? When thy Wares went forth out of the Seas, thou filledst many People, thou didst enrich the Kings of the Earth with the Multitude of thy Riches, and of thy Mer­chandise. In the Time when thou shalt be broken by the Seas in the Depths of the Waters, thy Merchandise and all thy Company in the midst of thee shall fall. All the Inhabi­tants of the Isles shall be astonished at thee, and their Kings shall be sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their Coun­tenance. The Merchants among the People shall hiss at thee, thou shalt be a Terror, and never shalt be any more.’

So far concerning the first Peopling of this Island of Bri­tain from the Eastern Nations, upon which I could have far­ther enlarg'd very much, but that not falling directly under my Cognizance, I shall wholly desist, and proceed to give a succinct Account of the History of the Romans in Britain.

[Page 73] We may thus by the many Relicts of Roman Antiquities, in every Generation still improving, form to our selves some general Apprehensions of that powerful Empire, and its extensive Boun­daries, and by the mystick Representations on their Coins, and their votive Inscriptions explain'd, we very readily arrive to to their most Sacred Retreats, and find laid open to our View, all their exorbitant Superstitions, their idolatrous Immolations, the Plurality of their Gods, the impious Ambition, and resist­less Will of the Emperors, together with the Universal Com­placency, and Servile Flattery of all Orders of the Empire paid to them.

Tho' as Christians, we may be too apt to pass our Resent­ments on their Ignorance and Worship, and at the same time ad­mire that such sublime Learning, and singular Perspicuity shou'd produce no better Effects: But if we duely consider the Thing, and take the Roman Nation, in the common Acceptation of Mankind, we shall find the Subject worthy rather our Pitty than our Censure; for, if we reflect on the Divine reveal'd Will confin'd only to that Corner of Asia, call'd Palestine, and all the rest of this immense Globe, involv'd in invincible Blindness, erring through deprav'd Nature, the Romans may admit of the same general Excuse, and share the same equal Lot with their Fellow-Creatures.

That they were a Nation design'd for Empire, their Character deservedly shows, besides the Situation of Italy, which doubt­less is a Plan of Ground seated conveniently for the Conquest of Europe, Asia and Africa, the very Genius and Temper of the Roman People, with their unerring Conduct in Civil and Mili­tary Affairs, bespoke them rising to Universal Monarchy. We need not blame them in giving the Denomination of Barbarous to all other Nations; for compar'd with their Humanity and Conduct, all preceding Empires, and particular States may be regarded as such; their Ambition extended rather to a Dominion over, than Extirpation of Kingdoms, Obedience and Tribute were chiefly the Goal they aimed at; and hap­py it was doubtless for many Countries, where their pre­vailing [Page 74] Armies cut their Way to Victory. To close this Chapter;

For the Reader's Satisfaction, I shall give a brief Account of their Attempts and Progress upon this Island, the Difficulty of their Enterprize, the Benefits accruing by their Conquests, their high Regard and Esteem for Britain, with the ill Consequences their voluntary Desertion occasion'd to that unfortunate People.

When Gaul, that Terrour of the Roman Empire, was reduced into a Province, and Caesar's successful Arms had reaped the Spoils of Germany, and the Belgic Territories, it was then his Ambition, great as Humanity was capable of, led by a secret Decree of Providence, urged him to the Invasion of Britain; but whether it was certainly known then to be an Island, or rather part of a new World, as the Soldiers term'd it, adjoin'd to some remoter Continent, is not now the Enquiry.

However, the Country, he tells us, was well Peopled, and Warlike enough, that the Maritime and Inland Inhabitants dif­fer'd much, both as to their Way of Living, their Manners, Be­haviour and Customs; the first having built them Towns not unlike those of Gaul, and Belgium, whose Dress was much the same; the others were painted, and went naked, lived in For­tresses formed in Woods, and were very Savage; their Way of Fighting was singular to any other of these Western Nations, they made War in Chariots, which they manag'd dexterously, after the Asiatic Manner: He found a great Plurality of Kings amongst them; this, tho' it render'd the Conquest more tedi­ous and difficult to the Romans, yet it was sure to be effected at last, and every petty State, tho' perhaps Confederates with some few Neighbouring ones, were certain to be involved in the ge­neral Overthrow.

It is not my Purpose to particularize the Actions of the Em­perors, and their Lieutenants here, that being already perform­ed by many learned Hands and full, as the Histories of those Times convey to us, I shall only cursorily take notice of some general Things, which may, perhaps, prove of useful Diversion to the Reader.

[Page 75] It was about Fifty Three Years before the Birth of our Savi­our, Iulius Caesar made his Two Descents upon this Island; he was doubtless the first publick Invader of it, and Success attend­ed his Enterprize, after struggling with Storms and Shipwrecks by Sea, and all the Difficulties of a rough opposing Enemy by Land, his Fortune yet surmounted all; and several of the Southern Counties, (for it was at the Downs he landed, as Mr. Halley demonstratively makes out,) having felt the Smart of the Roman Arms, were compell'd to give Hostages for Peace, and submit to a Tribute imposed upon them. Tho' this was on­ly a Footing for the Empire, yet it shew'd the Way to farther Progressions, and gave them a Taste of a Country they parted not with till the last Convulsions of the Empire obliged them: This was the first Aera of Britania's lost Liberty, which continues by successive Revolutions to this Day; tho' it is reasonably thought after Caesar's Departure the Britain's paid no Tribute, nor performed any other Articles, but that they lived under their Native Governours as of old, till the Reign of Claudius Caesar.

The Great Iulius diverted by intestine Wars, made no more Attempts upon it, nor did his Successors the Renowned Augustus, Tiberius, or Caligula think fit to proceed; Caligula, indeed, made a Flourish upon the Belgic Shoars, but pleased his Ambition only with some Marine Shells, as vain Trophies of the Con­quered Ocean.

Claudius succeeding him, began in Earnest to grapple with these Transmarine Natives, and in Anno Dom. 43. detatches his Lieutenant Plautius from Gaul, who successfully landing, had some Engagements with the Enemy, when Claudius himself ar­riving with Elephants, and strong Reinforcements, in a pitch'd Battel routs the Britains, and immediately returns. This Ex­ploit was performed during his Sixteen Days stay in the Island, and Six Months from Rome: This Action, as Mr. Tyrrel observes, was regarded by the Roman Senate as no small additional Glory to the Empire: The Emperor's Son had the Title of Britanicus given him; to himself a Triumph was ordain'd, Annual Games [Page 76] constituted, and Triumphal Arches erected: The Officers in this Expedition were rewarded with Triumphal Ornaments, and all Things performed with high Solemnity; the Title of Bri­tanicus, which many succeeding Emperors espoused, was esteem'd as Glorious as that of Germanicus, Africanus, and Asiaticus: Un­der this victorious Emperor his Lieutenants finish'd many for­tunate Campaigns, and in at least Thirty pitch'd Battels were successful; they pierc'd even to the Brigantes, Inhabitants of Lancashire, Yorkshire, &c. but met with a bold and vigorous Op­position from the Silures, possessing South-Wales. Here Caractacus their King had muster'd his British Forces, seiz'd upon advan­tagious Passes, secured the Avenues, and very Manfully encou­rag'd and commanded his Troops; nothing was defective in his Conduct, or the Courage of his Followers, save Fortune her self, imprison'd on the Roman Side: This Great unfortunate General fell a Captive, and his Army a Prey to the Romans; himself in Golden Chains was led in Triumph to Rome, to whom the Emperor for his Princely and Undaunted Behaviour grant­ed Pardon: The Triumph over this British Prince, was esteem'd at Rome equal to that of King Scyphax by Scipio, or Per­seus by L. Paulus; Ostorius, General in Britain, had all the En­signs of a Triumph decreed him. From these great Advances of Claudius's Arms, we may reasonably conclude, the Britains had received deep Impressions of the Roman Prowess; first from the Landing and Victories of