[...]rinted for Dixy Page 1673

The English Academy.


Containing Variety of EXAMPLES OF THE External Parts of Men, Women, and Chil­drens Bodies; With the Shapes of several Creatures frequently used amongst Heralds, Gold-smiths, &c.

LIKEWISE The ARTS of Drawing, Etching, Engraving in Copper and Wood, Painting and Limning: All being care­fully Performed.

WHEREIN The aforesaid ARTS are Exemplified, with Plain and Easie Directions to Guide you to their Attainment, with much Delight. Also the Real Method how to Wash or Colour GLOBES, MAPS, PICTURES, LANDSKIPS, FLOWERS, FRUITS, BIRDS, BEASTS, FISH and FOWL.

A VVORK Worthy Acceptation of all those that are Friends to ART, AS,

  • Drawers
  • Embroiderers
  • Stone-Cutters
  • Carvers
  • Goldsmiths
  • Needle-Workers
  • Gum-Work­ers, &c.

Performed according to the Order of the First and most Eminent Ma­sters of Proportion, VIZ

P.L. H.G. P.R. H▪ B.

LONDON, Printed by H. L'oyd for D [...] Page, at the Author and M [...]rriner on Fish-street-Hill near London-Bridge, who buyeth all sorts of Old-Books, and maketh the best Ink for Records. 1672.

TO THE Ingenuous Lovers OF ART.

Courteous Reader,

AMONGST the Variety of Books of this Nature, here is One puts in for a share. Its in a plain Garb, without that Enrichment that some are Adorned with; I mean, that laborious shadowing that beclouds the eyes of Young Practitioners, for whose Use chiefly this Piece is intended: It is in another kinde of Coloured Coat then all its former Brethren; not Clothed in Black, but in Red, for the convenient Use following. Those that may desire to attain the Art of Proportion, at the first sight look upon the imitation of these first Rules to be so hard a task, that it oft falls out they rather desist then adventure: Such therefore I Advise to go over each particular Part, in each Leaf, several times with a dry Pen, until the Idea of the Part they go over falls in with their Fancie, which when they do apprehend, then let them with a Pen and black Ink, go carefully over that part they so conceived in its Pro­portion; This way for a Learners Encouragement at his first Attempt, will reduce his first disheartning to a speedy undertaking of a first seem­ing impossibility: And this I Advise, for the Parts in each Leaf, and for so many Leaves as may lead the Beginner to a capacity of Appre­hension of Proportion. If Envie carp, and say, This is a New Device: 'Tis soon Answered, But 'tis a true one. If the Artist shall say, 'Tis an Erroneous Rule. 'Tis Replied, It's only intend­ed to lead to the knowledge of the true, and by that I mean the Eye and Hand, Imitation. Vale.

Of Instruments for Drawing and their Use.

A Pen knife, white Paper thick and smooth, Sallow-coals to be had of the Charcoal-men, Feathers of a Duck Wing, black or red Lead-Pencils; Pens made of a Ravens Quill, a neat Ruler, and a pair of Compasses.

Slit your Charcoals of Sallow-wood into slender Pieces, and then sharpen them into the forme of a Pencil, the neatest way of using them, is to put them into a large Quill or a brass Pen­cil; This way you will avoid soyling, both your Fingers and the Paper on which you draw; the reason why you are first to draw with Charcoal is, because it will with the least touch of a Fea­ther be taken out, as oft as you see convenient, untill the design you imitate please your Fancie.

After your Proportion is thus far touch'd out, then with black Lead, by degrees, go over those faint Touches remaining of the Cole, and carefully endeavour the Amendment of those first Touches, with diligence comparing your Imitation with your Copy, and it will the better confirm your judgement; if now you try by your Compass the Proportion of the whole, and also each particular Part therein contain'd, before you perfect your Design with Ink- for after Ink you can make no alteration.

My Advice to young Learners is, that they would follow open and visible Figures, not cumbred with tedious Shadows, until in some measure they apprehend the real Parts of true Proportion, for all ingenuous Persons, account that ill-spent time, to be­stow great pains in shadowing a lame Proportion, and is no less ridiculous then a large Knot fix'd to a lame Letter; for those that intend Graving of Figures, or Etching with Aqua fortis, af­ter they understand Proportion, it will be more advantageous to them to imitate open shadowed draughts, with the Method of the windings of the stroaks in that Piece they copy; for this will not only inure the hand, but likewise inform and confirm the Judgment, how to order proper shadows; but if the Practitio­ner design for Pointing then after Proportion is accomplish'd, Bold and free Touches upon blew or fine grey Paper, with black chalk, heightned with Pastills, of what colour you most fancie, is a most advantageous way of Practice. Some advise first to be­gin with Geometrical Figures; and then proceed to the Imita­tion of Fruits, Flowers and Plants; after that to Beasts, Fowls and Fish.

And in the last place, to the parts of the Proportions contained in the Body of Man: I confess, this tedious task of going about may bring something home at last: but if you grant, that the freest Fancie proves the best Artist, then why should the Fancy be bound up, since there hath been rarely found and Artist that hath been excellent in Proportion in th [...]s [...] [...]



IN which you will finde a Medium in the Size presented to your View, in seven several useful Motions, after the Order of no mean Master in the truth of Proportion, per­formed with few Touches, and you may single out at plea­sure, either Eye, Nose or Mouth, if the whole together seem difficult; but the Printing in Red, as was formerly mentioned, is of excellent Use to bring in your Hand, and assist your Fancy in your first Attempt.

I have thus express'd these parts of the Face, to inform you how Harmonious each part answers to the Motions in General, which way soever they turn: which if not first carefully view'd, and after that conceived of a possibility of truth in Imitation, your rash Onset will come to little: Go not from Leaf to Leaf, and from one part to another, until you have made a considerable progress by Imitation, and have great re­gard to the Face, whether young or old, fat or lean, grim or pleasant, laughing or weeping: according to which all the parts must be answerable.

[Page 3]

[drawings of faces]

Of Heads and their Proportions.

I Have here in this Leaf given you a more perfect Face with few Touches, yet Truth of Proportion and Motion; And when you at­tempt their Imitation, be very curious and careful in touching out lei­surely, Part by Part, observing whether the Face be elevated or deject­ed, wrinkled Age, or smooth-fac'd Youth, which are properly ex­press'd in this Leaf of Heads.

To Imitate which,

  • 1. Touch very lightly if it be a side face, as in these, the outmost Cir­cumference of the Head and Face, to direct you in the exact bigness.
  • 2. Consider those principal Touches that give life and likeness.
  • 3. In placing the Features, note the Parts must be equal, from the top of the Forehead to the Eye-brows, and from the Eye-brows to the bot­tom of the Nose; And from the bottom of the Nose to the bottom of the Chin are the Parts equal.
  • 4. The Mouth Extended, and the Corners turning up, shews a smi­ling Countenance, a bending Eye-brow, and the Forehead and top off the Nose between the Eye-brows wrinkled, shews frowning.
  • 5. The distance betwixt the Eyes, must be the length of one Eye in the full Face, but in a half or three quarters Face it is lesned by degrees.
  • 6. Place the Nostrils underneath the Corners of the Eyes exactly.
  • 7. Having touch'd out the Eyes, Nose and Mouth lightly, make them more perfect, then proceed to finish the Face; and then proceed, if a man, to perfect it with the Hair on the Head and Beard.
  • 8. Observe exactly the principal Curies and Deepnings in the Hair, so shall the Order of the lesser Curls fall in with Ease, still having re­gard to the Imitation of your Pattern

[Page 5]

[drawings of heads]

Of Heads and their Proportions.

YOU have here another Leaf of Heads considerably different from the former, and no less exact; wherein the Method is continued with small pains and proper Touch­es, according to their several Representations, whether spritely Youth, or serious Age.

The lovely Countenance is express'd without any cloud­ed brows, wrinkled forehead, with ample height and bredth; Also a Majestick Grace, a full Eye, a sweet shadow at the bottom of the Eye-lid, and little at the Corner; a Nose proportionable, not too wide Nostrils; a clear Cheek ten­derly shadow'd, a smiling Mouth, a thin upper Lip, the Mouth-line shadow'd at the Corners.

The fearful Countenance is express'd with hollow Eyes, looking heavy and downward, fallen, thin Cheeks, close Mouth, with careless staring Hair about the Ears.

The Envious Countenance is express'd with hanging Cheeks, pale Countenance, and Grinning Teeth.

[Page 7]

[drawings of heads]

Of Heads of several Creatures for Imitation.

THESE Varieties are no less useful then the former, for the Exercise of the Eye and Hand, done with as little pains, and yet to our intended Purpose.

  • The Cruel Savage, Bear.
  • The strong Elephant.
  • The wanton Goat.
  • The furious Lion.
  • The tender Hinde.
  • The Swinish Bore.
  • The Antick Ape.
  • The stout Horse and the Cow.

Each of which, though of various Shapes, yet with a few Touches expressing their natural and principal Features; Intended for the use of all such as have occasion for Coats of Armes, Crests, &c. In imitation of which, each par­ticular Creature requires no less care and observation them the foregoing Heads, which with care, observation and deliberation, are to be first lightly touch'd out, their Pro­portions measur'd, and their distinct differences accordingly performed.

[Page 9]

[drawings of animal heads]


THE Variety of Postures and Actions of the Hands are more various then the opinions of Matters con­cerning their Proportions; some say, the Hand is the length of the Face; others, that it is three times: the length of the Nose, against which there are Exceptions; some that hath along Face and Nose, hath but a short Hand: and others have a short Face and a long Hand: but to the drawing of Hand there goes in the opinion of most no less curious Ob­servation then is required in a Face: its true Proportion with the Fingers, Joynts, Veins, with its bending of the Joynts, the Wrist-bone, the small swellings and bendings of the Finsers; also the Nails and Knuckles.

The Hand by Touches of the Muscles discovers Age, answerable to the faces Discovery in its place.

The Plump and fleshie, Youth and Courage: The Nail upon the last Joynt of the Finger, and takes about half that Joynt.

Observe-carefully these several Proportions, whether backward or forward, and pass not them by until your Judgment convince you, that the Hand and Face are the choice Distinguishers of an able and experienc'd Artist.

[Page 11]

[drawings of hands]

Of Feet and their Proportions.

Concerning these Nine Varieties of Feet, what hath been said of Hands is not impertinent for the Obser­vation of Feet, also especially Considering our Modern ha­bits, they seldom appearing uncovered as the Hands usually do. Neither think I it proper to Lead you into that La­byrinth and dubious story, about Geometricall and Diago­nal Lines to form out Proportions, a Practice more fit for an able Mathematician, or Geometrician, than a Young un­dertaker for some particular uses, the formes themselves are obvious to each Eye, and so I leave it to your serious Imi­tation: advising you to observe all their Motions and Wind­ings, whether standing, running or fallen, with their swel­lings of Ancles or Joynts, and their due Proportions.

[Page 13]

[drawings of feet]

Of Armes and Hands joyn'd.

THESE more Compleat Parts of the Body, are [...] Preparatory to our farther design; which is to lead you on gradually to a higher perfection in truth of Proporti­on, wherein your serious Observation of each postures, Action and Motion is required, as if fix'd to the Trunk of the Body, without which you will never joyn-these Parts pro­perly to the whole: and although there appear little of sha­dow in each part, yet the grand Touches that fall in the Bend or Motion of the Arm directs the true carriage, of shadows, in all such Postures, Gestures and Actions.

There is, and you will finde it so, a vast difference be­twixt the natural Composed Motion, and the enrag'd or forc'd Motion.

Let not the Armes length contain any inequality the one part to another; but with care and deliberation touch'd out each part: for the pitch of the shoulder to the Arms bend­ing, and from that part to the Wrist, and accordingly with as great a care affix the hand.

[Page 15]

[drawings of arms and hands]

Of Thighes, Legs and Feet; their Proportions.

THESE formes of Proportion are the last Part of the Parts of Proportion: our next will be to the Trunks of Bodies: What our Advice was concerning Armes and Hands is not to be forgot in these Parts, from the Groyn, the Thigh to the Knee bears a differenr thick­ness, falling less and less: and the Muscles about the Knee have curious Observations, and seldom well express'd: from the Knee the swelling out as well as the falling in of the calf of the Leg, requires as exact Observation: And from the Ancle, the Foot, to the end of the Toes no less, if Harmoniously compleated.

If in all these parts of Proportions you run from part to part, before you understand what you are about: when you come to the Trunks of Bodies, and Bodies more compleat: then your erroneous performance will convince you of that neglect you all along so much slighted And as sure as he that will write words before he can shape Letters is ridicu­lous, so no less guilty is he that attempts at whole Bodies before he understand the parts.

[Page 17]

[drawings of thighs, legs and feet]

Of the Back-Parts and Fore-Parts of the Bodies of Man and Woman.

THE Trunk of Mans Body seen on the back-part from the shoulder to the Buttocks is express'd, though with few Touches in his natural Postures, as the Muscles properly fall: to imitate which, let it appear, that your la­bour in all the former parts was managed with such dili­gence, that now in the close your Progress expresses so much: the Touches of the Muscles, and the Motion of the Body must be answerable, you will finde swellings out and fallings in of the body require curious and careful Obser­servation: Note the Shoulders bredth, from thence to the Arm-pits, and so down: and let all Parallel-veins, Muscles and Joynts be plac'd proper as they naturally fall in oppositi­on, the one answering the other: as shoulder to shoulder, side to side, and hip to hip: still observing the Bodies Mo­tion and Winding.

The Trunk of a Womans Body is very different from that of a Man, which will appear to the eye of an Ingenious Ob­server at the first Glance.

In the plump Roundness, and tender Pleasantness in what shadows are requisite for that Sex.

[Page 19]

[drawings of bodies]

Of Heads and Trunks of the Body of Man and Woman joyn'd; both seen forward.

IN these Figures the Heads joyn'd to the Bodies come to the nearest of our last Intention, which is Perfection and Proportion in the compleat Bodies of Man and Woman; The difference is great in the Observation of their fore­parts, as the Proportion themselves best discover: The fore-part of Mans Body hath the like strength of Muscles answerable to the back-parts, as will appear in the Figure from the pitch of the Throat to the Privities, in his Breasts, Sides and Belly, how unpleasant to that of a Woman, whose beautiful Countenance, Clearness of Skin, Plumpness of Flesh, Pleasantness of Breasts, and Roundness of Body, terms her, The Delight of Man for Pleasure, Mirth and Solace.

[Page 21]

[drawings of bodies]

Of whole Figures Naked.

THESE three following Figures of Women Naked, so largely express'd, are not perfected to the Feet; but our Varieties fore-going, are to that defect, if any, a sufficient supply, I might have given you, as Alber­tus Durus, and some others ha [...]e the Proportions of Bodies by Lines thus divided, [...] which there are from the Grown or Top of the Head to the sole of the Foot contained eight Parts or Measures of the Head, which the Ingenuous may soon examine with a Pair of Comp [...]sses, either in the Fi­gures them [...]lves designed, or the Pe [...]e [...]om which they do design, in which [...]et these Observations continually be remembred.

1. That the Bodies of Women of ordinary Proportion, contain the same Measures with that of Man.

2. All [...] standing, whether of Men or Women, one Leg generally [...]ears the stress of the whole Body, and the other Legistanding more loose and free.

3. Note, that although the Measures from Head to Foot both of Man and Woman agree, yet in the bredth of some of the Parts they differ much.

4. For in the Body of Man the bredth of the Shoulders contain two Measures of the Head; and the bredth of the Hips two Measures of the Face.

5. And the bredth between the Shoulders of a Woman contains but two lengths of the Face; and from the Hips to the Buttocks two lenghs of the Head.

6. Observe how the Measures of the Body are di­vided.

  • The first Measure contains the length of the Head.
  • The second to the bottom of the Breast.
  • The third, from that to the Navil.
  • The fourth, to the Privities.
  • The fifth, to the brawny part of the Thigh.
  • The sixth, to the lower part of the Knee.
  • The seventh, to the small of the Leg.
  • The eighth, to the Heel of the Foot.

[Page 23]

[drawings of whole figures]

Of the Bodies of Anatomy, and the Body of a Skeleton; both standing backward.

THESE two Figures are added for Variety, and re­quire no less care in their Imitation then the other foregoing. In the Anatomy-Figure the several parts di­stinguished lie visible, from the Nape to the Throat, [...] Bone of knitting; the Back, Shoulder, Blade, Chine and Loynes; Shoulder-Blades, Ribs, Waste, Reins, Buttocks, Thighes, Hams, Ancles, Legs, Feet and Sole; to imitate these as the rest foregoing lightly touch'd out in the out­ward forme before you: Divide the inward parts, and be sure to finish no one part, until you find every part placed in its true and proper place, in exact Proportion, which having done, then wiping out your gross Touches of the Cole, leav­ing only dim Touches for your Direction; then with black Lead, eyeing your Pattern, amend what you finde amiss at first; And after, with a Neat Pen go over all again, and this finishing part, be sure that in it you be most exact.

[Page 25]

[drawings of musculature and skeleton]

The Art of Etching in Brass, Copper, Sil­ver or Steel. Discovering what Instru­ments belong to that Art, and the way how to accomplish the same.

FIRST, How to make the Ground to shadow upon.

Take one ounce and an half of Virgins Wax, half an ounce of Asphaltum, half an ounce of the best Mastick; beat your Asphalt to powder; first, put your wax into a new clean Pipkin, and set it over a gentle fire, and when it is throughly melted, then put the Asphalt and Mastick into it, and let it be well mix'd altogether; then take a clean earthen Porringer near full of clean water, then pour your melted stuffe altogether into the water, only remember to leave the dregs behind; and when it is through cool'd in the water, then frame it up into a Ball; and when you are to use it, put it into a clean Lawn, or [...]ine Holland Rag doubled; but let not the Rag have any holes in it, and Tye it up close for your use.

Your Copper being well polish'd, which is to be had ready prepar'd, before you lay on your Ground, Cole it over, and wipe not off the wa­ter, but set it slant that the water may drain off; and when you perceive it through dry, scrape some chalk very fine upon it, and then clear it o­ver with a fine linnen Rag, and be sure that you touch not a finger upon the side of the plate clear'd, to avoid any greasiness, which is a great pre­judice to the Work.

Then to lay on your Ground.

Put into a chaffing-dish or Fire-Pan, either some small Cole fire, or Embers, for Charcoal is too vehement a fire, and would quickly burn and dry the moisture out of your ground; but in laying your Plate up­on the fire, let the fire have Air: then take your Ground in your Rag; and try if your plate will melt it; if so, then be quick in spreading it o­ver the Copper, but lay it not too thick. Then take a Duck Feather, or a Raven, with that spread or wipe over the ground to make it very even, wiping it cross every way to lie even, and when it is so, set it to cool.

Then to work exactly, and perceive your strokes plain, cover over the aforesaid Ground with a white colour.

Thus, grinde a small quantity of white Lead, with a little Gum-water, and let it be of convenient mixture to spread; then take a large Pencil as big as a Wallnut or more; but let it be of fine hair, with which take off that Colour, and wipe over your Plate cross-ways to lay it even; af­ter you see it even, then take a brush made of Squirrils Tails, and with that you may more curiously lay your white colour even.

[Page 27]Then having Needles of several Sizes in readiness well prepared, by whetting them upon an Oyl-stone, which to keep their Points round, you must let them run round betwixt your Fingers as the Turners run; being thus prepared, and your Draught or Design as ready, you are to con­sider which way your Draught is to st [...]nd, when 'tis printed, and accord­ingly to place it upon your Plate, preparing your Draught with Red Lead, and small-coal dust rub'd over upon the back-side of your draught, and so fixing it to the Plate, with a blunt Needle for that purpose, trace over all the out lines of your draught also; touching out the folds or shadows, what distances, and how far dark or light.

Before you attempt to shadow draw over all your out-strokes, as a­foresaid, lest otherwise you lose that first mark of your tracing over which will soon be lost and rub'd out.

Let your Needles with which you work be put into sticks or Pencils the length of a Common Pen; and at the other end from the Needle, let there be a blunt Pencil to wipe off the Grounds that flies up before your Hand-working.

In your Working, Lean not hard upon your Pencil; but only to touch through the Ground to the Copper; when you leave work, wrap up your Plate in Papers; and if in Winter, in a Woollen Cloth, to keep your Ground from scratches in the one, and from freezing in the o­ther.

When you have finish'd all your VVork fit to eat with Aqua fortis, first melt some green wax, and with an old Pencil lay it round upon the Edges of your Plate, to make your green Wall of Wax round your Plate, to keep your Aqua fortis upon it to eat; and this Wax must be wrought into long Pieces, the thickness of a common Paste-board, and half as broad as a Knife, and so fix'd round upon the aforesaid melted Wax; and with a little stick, broad at the end, sharp-edged, thrust down the Wax to make it stick; when you put on the Aqua fortis, if it be good, to a third part of that which was never used, mix it at least with two parts to one of that which hath been used, if you intend your Work to be fine.

Or in case of want of that, you may mix Wine-Vineger with your Aqua fortis.

But if your Work is to be course, you may use a third part of the Aqua fortis entire.

Only consider the difference betwixt double and single Aqua fortis.

Lastly, for what Parts you would have eaten sweet, first pour off your [...]ua fortis into a dish, then wash your Plate over with clear water; let [...]y, and then melt some Candle-grease with the dregs of your Ground [...]efore melted, and with a Pencil cover those Places you would have

Thus much of Etching.

Of the Art of Graving, the Instruments to be made use of, and how to emprove them, whe­ther upon Brass, Copper, Steel or Pewter.

TO practise this Art, Gravers are to be provided according to the Work you intend to practise; If for the Goldsmiths oc­casions of Armes and Letters in what they call Flat-stitch, seve­ral crooked Gravers; If for to engrave Maps, Portraitures, Frontis­pieces, and the like, strait Gravers are the most commodious; To which adde an Oyl-stone, a Cushion, a Burnisher and a Drawing-point.

The Oyl-stone is to be of a Grit, neither too fine nor too course; they are oft sold in Forster-lane; where the several sorts of Gravers and Hafts also are sold: Before you attempt to whet your Gravers, consider what work you intend them for, and according to that prepare them, the Square point, and the Diamond-point are the chief for use.

In whetting your Graver keep the edge firm upon the stone, on which you intend to fix the point, and be sure to carry an even steddy hand, placing both the fore-singer firmly upon the opposite side of the Graver, resting your Haft-end against the Palm of the right hand, whetting both the sides alike.

Then setting the end of the Graver sloping upon the Stone, held firm against the Palm of the Hand; whet the Point very flat in form of a Di­amond: Having thus prepared your Graver, having a Leather-bag fill'd with sand to lay your Plate on, hold your Plate with your left hand, so that with freedom you may turn it according to the Motion of either shadows or Letters you engrave

If your Graver be too hard at first, you may a bate it by holding it to the flame of a Candle, until you do perceive it to turn yellowish, or a straw colour, then thrust it into the Tallow, in which quench it; but in constant using in a little time it will become more useful by whetting, which is best. That the Haft of the Graver may not prejudice you, cut off the part of the knob of the Handle that lies upon the same line with the Edge of the Graver; otherwise, specially in a large Plate you will not be able to move it upon the Copper, but it will both stop you in your stroke, and cause your Graver to run irregular.

And be sure that your Fingers interpose not between the Plate and the Graver, for that will be of the like prejudice as the Haft.

He that inures not his Hand to such a Command, that with one and the like ease, he can both begin and end a stroke, is to learn a chief part.

To imitate any Pattern, if to print forward you must reverse it back­ward upon the Copper thus; your Plate being clear polish'd, heat it [Page 29]over the fire; And when it is hot, take Bees Wax, put in a fine Rag, and rub the Plate over with it, until you perceive the Wax to lie even all over your Plate, both thin and even: you may for a more certainty lightly wipe it over with a Pidgeon or Duck-Feather to lay it even; then after it is cool'd, if your Print be not of too old a standing, you may rub it off upon the Wax with an Ivory Haft of a Knife by degrees, and it will leave a perfect Impression; But if it be very old, then to supply that defect either with black lead, or Franckfort-black, mix'd with clear water, the thickness of common Ink, and therewith go over all the chief Parts or Proportions you do intend to imitate, and that Impression will remain upon the Wax, which with a drawing Point you must trace over upon the Copper, before you attempt to grave, lest you rub out or lose your Proportion.

But if you are to imitate a Piece, as it stands in your Pattern, to be grav'd upon wax; you may trace it through the Pattern, but it will plain­est appear upon the wax, if you black the back-side.

Thus much of Graving in Copper, &c.

Concerning Engraving in Wood.

WHat ever is to be Cut, Carv'd or Graven in Wood, must be drawn, traced or pasted upon the VVood; and after that all that is vacant or to remain White must be Cut cleare out with little Narrow-pointed or points of Knives worne if the Mettall and temper be good will serve as well for that purpose.

This Cutting in Wood, is very tedious, difficult and curious, and [...]or want of Incouragement much lost to what repute once it had amongst Famous Masters.

The best Wood to cut upon are Beech, or Box, plain'd Inch t ick or more according to what use they are apply'd.

To draw any Pattern, or Coppy upon Wood.

Grinde white very fine mux't with fair Watter, and then dip a Rag therein and Rub over that side of the Wood you intend to cut upon, and when it is through dry, it will preserve the Ink, when you draw upon it that it shall neither spread nor sink.

Having whited the Wood what you intend to cut either with black or Red colour the Back-part, and with a blunt Drawing point or Swal­lows quill trace over all the parts you intend to Imitate.

If you will reverse what you are to do unless you draw the designe a­gain the contrary way, you must paste and spoyl your pattern.

And if you paste it upon the Wood it must not be whited over; but be­ing well plain'd, wipe over the pattern on the work-side with Gum Tragacanth dissolv'd in fair Water, and lay it smooth upon the Wood, and when it is fast on and dry throughly, then wet it a little all over, and fret off the Paper gently, till you see perfectly every stroke of the figure or designe; than dry it againe and so fall to work.

Thus of Cutting in VVood.

Of Painting.

HE that will Paint in Oyle must provide a good Stone, to grinde his Colours, Porphry-stone is best and will do the least damage to the Colours, but in such a want a Slate, or a very hard Stone may serve, that a Knife will not wear away.

Upon which Stone with what Colours you intend, put­ing Lint-seed Oyl to it grind it until there remain no sandiness in the Colour.

A Pallat is the next materiall to lay your Colours upon, upon which they are also tempered; It is of an ovall forme, with a hole for your thumb.

Upon which lay your Colours in this order.

Next your thumb lay white-Lead, then next that lay Ver­million, East-India-Red-Lake, Pink-Yellow-Oker, or Spruse-Oker, than Umber, Flury, &c.

Thus your Pallat is prepar'd except the Compounding of them, which to be done for a Face.

Take a little White-Lead, and as much Vermillion, and the like quantitie of Lake, and mix them altogether, and this will serve for the Darkest Carnation that is, in the Colour of the Face, and so consequently at pleasure more white will make it more pale, then having come to the Palest Colour, you must temper a little White, and Flury together, for a proper faint Shadow for the Face.

Your Colours prepar'd as aforesaid, use them on the Face, as follows.

First, take your lightest Colour, and lay in the lightest place of the Fore-head, and of the Nose, and the least part of the Cheek-bone, and next place your Carnation Co­lour▪

And when you come to any place where a faint shadow is required, then as above-mentioned.

And for the Darkest shadows use East-India-Red, and Fullers-Earth, and sometimes a little Pink amongst it alto­gether, and note that these Colours above-mentioned are to express a beautifull Face.

If you would make it a more Tawny complexion, put more [Page 31] East-India Red for the Carnation, and more Pink in the lights or heightnings.

The Pencils for your use are these two.

Swan-quills Pencils, one fige, one pointed. And for Goose-quill Pencils, two brissels, two figes, and one great brissel on a stick.

These Pencils are sufficient for any use.

Of Colours for Garments.

  • FOR light Blews, Indigo and white Lead mixt together.
  • For the darkest blew use all Indigo.
  • Use White only of it self for the light.
  • For Green, use Bise and Pinck mixt together.
  • Use Masticot for the Lights.
  • Pink and Umber for the Darks.
  • Reds must be made with East-India Red.
  • The Lights with Vermillion.
  • The Darkest with Earth of Colen.
  • For Whites, use white Lead only.
  • The Darks with Flour.
  • For Blacks, use Lamb-black.
  • The Lights, with Lamb-black and White mixt together.
  • Bone-black for the darkest.

These are the most usual Colours for Garments; but note, when all these Colours are dry, then they must be glazed, which is like washing of Prints with thin Colours, either mix them with oyle or varnish: your Blews must be glazed with Smalt, Bise or Vltramorine; your Reds with Lake, and your Yellows with Pink.

This will cause them to be exceeding beautiful.

Of Limning in Water-Colours.

TO Limn, prepare a fine ordinary siz'd Card, or very fine Paste-board, and polish it well with a Dogs Tooth, as small as pos­sibly you can, on the side you intend to use.

Then take a Piece of Abortive Parchment of the same size with your Card or Paste-board, the which paste firm with clean fine starch; but before you use it, temper it first in your hand with a Knife, or your Finger, that it may be free from Knots, and then let it dry; then your Stone whereon you use to dry your Colours being made very clean, lay [Page 32]the Card or Paste-board thereon, the Parchment-side being downwards, then with a Tooth polish the backside very hard; but note, that the out­side of the skin is best to Limn upon, and therefore must be outmost.

After this Preparation you must lay a Ground or Prime of flesh Co­lour before you begin your work, and that must be tempered according to the Complexion of the face you are to draw; If the Complexion be fair, temper white Lake and Red-lead, but if a hard swarthy Complexi­on, then mingle with your white and red a little fine Masticot, or English Oker, but observe that the Ground should always be fairer then the Face you take, for it is an easie matter to darken a light colour, but difficult to make a sad one lighter, for in Limning you must never heighten, but work them down to your just colour.

Your Ground being thus fitted, lay upon your piece of Paste-board or Card, prepared with a bigger Pencil then ordinary, and lay smooth, even and free from Hairs of your Pencil, which that you may the better do, fill your Pencil full of colours, rather thin and waterish then thick and gross; Then with two or three strokes of your great Pencil lay on in an instant; for the sooner it is laid on and nimbly, the evener it will lie.

Cover rather too much then too little for your primer; this done, take a shell, and before you begin to work, temper several little parcels of se­veral shadows for the face, and dispose them about the edge of your shell, that they may be ready for use.

Note that these Colours are fit for a face.

For the Red in the Cheeks, Lips, &c. Temper Lake, Red-Lead, and a little White together.

For faint blewish shadows temper Indigo and White.

For deeper shadows take White, English Oker, and a little Indigo, and for the dark and hard shadows use Lake and Pinck mixt with Umber, where note, that black must not be used in a face by any means.

Lastly, When you have almost finish'd, do all the scars, moulds, smiling and glancing of the eye, descending and contracting of the Mouth, all which must be sudden to express a bold quick hand; Note farther, that the best light to draw by is the North-light, and the higher the Window and sloping the better; place your self so to your desk that the light may strike in sidelong, from the left hand to the right.

Thus much for Limning.

Of Washing and Colouring; of Maps and Pictures; Discovering how to prepare them for Colours, with their Ʋse, Order and Mix­tures.

THAT Prints or Maps may lie smooth when pasted upon Paper or Cloth, first wet or damp your Prints with a Spunge or Cloth, but be careful that you wet them as the Paper will bear it; Af­ter you have so done, take your Paste, made either of Wheat-flower or of starch; and with a brush spread it all over the Paper or Cloth you intend to put it upon, then take the sheet you damp'd, and lay it upon another part of the Board you paste upon, and lay your Print upon the Paper or Cloth, and smooth it down with your hand; and so do by as many as your occasion requires, and then either press them; or if you have not conveniencie take a sheet or two of that Paper you pasted your Prints upon, and lay upon the Prints you pasted, but let the Paper be dry, then with your hands rub it all over hard, to cause your painted Prints to stick fast every where; as you take them one from another, if you perceive any swelling or rising of the Paper like blisters, then take the point of a Pin or Needle, and prick the same, and that will let out the wind that lies underneath, and so cause it to lie smooth, if you rub it with your hands; and then hang them on lines to dry.

You may prepare them to make them bear Colours and Varnish, but first observe how to paste on Cloth, which is thus, wet your Maps or Prints you intend to paste, as before you were to wet the Paper you were to paste upon, and then let them lie, while you wet the Cloth or sheet you intend to paste upon, thus put the Cloth into a pale of water, and be sure it be throughly wet, and after wring it out, and nail it fast at the top, bottom and sides, so that it may be strain'd smooth and even; this done, take your Print wet as beforesaid, and with your brush paste your sheet you intend to place first or uppermost, and be sure the paste lie all over, and then place it upon your Cloth, and after take a Spunge with a little water in it, and so smooth and strike it firme to the Cloth, thus do one after another until all are pasted.

To strengthen your Print to bear Colours and Varnish, there are three ways; either with size, or which is best of all with Paste, or with starch. If you use size, put some fair water to it, or it will soil much; when your starch or paste is boyl'd, use it until it be cool; for if it will not strengthen your Print so much, being cold, with your Spunge be sure you rub it all over with your Paste, or else if you miss, some parts will bear the Colours, and other parts will not. After it is once dry, go it over again a second time with paste, and then after it is through dry you need not fear to lay on your Colours,

How to choose your Pencils.

Be sure they be fullest next the Quill, falling off with a round sharp point; if there be any stragling Hairs, take them away by the touch of the flame of a Candle, you must have several Pencils for several Co­lours, or else be sure to wash your Pencil clean, when you take it from one colour to use it with another, or else you will endanger the spoil of all your Colours, you also must have of several sizes, as your Work requires.

To make Gum-Water.

Take a quart of clean water, and put it into a Bottle or earthen Pan, then take six Ounces of Gum Arabeck, and put it into a clean linnen Rag, and tie it up with a thread, put that in, let it dissolve in the water; if it prove too strong, put in more water; if too weak, put in more Gum.

The Names of such Colours that must be wash'd.

    • Blew B se.
    • Indiga.
    • Blew Verditer.
    • Verdigreece.
    • Sap Green.
    • Copper Green.
  • REDS.
    • Vermillion.
    • Lake.
    • Red-lead.
    • French-berries
    • Saffron.
    • Light Mastic [...]t.
    • Cambuga.
    • White-lead pickt fine.
    • Spanish brown.
    • umber, or Hair-colour.
    • Franck fort-black
    • Ivory burnt.
    • Small-coal black.
    • Sea-coal black.
    • Lamb-black.

All these must be very well ground before they can be used.

How to order your Colours.

Having very well ground those Colours to be ground; put them up­on a Chalk-stone to dry, when they are dry, lay them up carefully until you use them, then mingle them with Gum-water

Those Colours that you must wash put into a Galley-pot and cover them with fair water, and stir them with a stick very well, and after they have stood a while, pour off that water into another Galley-pot; and let the second stand until it be setled, then pour the same water back again into the first pot, and stir it again as before, then pour it into the second pot, as before, and this do three or four times; and then at last when the colour is well setled in the second pot, throw the water quite away, and then use that colour that is in the second pot.

The colour in your first pot will serve for your course work.

Blew Bise well wash'd is best, but use no Smalt in washing your Prints.

A Liquor to be used with some Colours.

Take an ounce of Pot-ashes of the best, and one Gallon of River-water, then brush your Ashes to powder, and put it into your water, and boil it a little while, then set it to settle, after pour off that which is clear, and keep that for your use.

For a sky Colour.

Let the upper part be the saddest blew, and the next lighter, and next that a flesh colour mix'd with some of the last and the lowest of all flesh colours, wrought with light yellow at your pleasure, and for the clouds your Judgment may direct, they being so various.

To make a Copper-Green.

Take an ounce of white Orgal, and four ounces of Copper-dust, to be had at the Copper-Smiths, and a pinte of fair Water, and boil it half away, then after it hath stood and setled, pour off the thinnest, and keep for your use, if you would have it a Sea-green, then put into it some blew Vorditor, and if a Grass-Green, then put in some French Berry-water, or some Cambuga.

For a Red Crimson.

Take off your Liquor made with Pot-ashes, as before is mentioned, and adde to it some rain-water, and then take Scarlet-flocks or shreds, steep them with ordinary Gum-water; but note, you must let your Colours boil in the Liquor you steep them in a little while; and then put in your ordinary Gum-water, or weak size, and let them boil together until they are thick for your use.

For an Oringe Colour.

Take Ornotto and boil it in the aforesaid Liquor, and it will make a fair Oringe colour.

To make a good blew.

Take Litmus and wet it in the aforesaid liquour, let it stand all night, and then boil it in weak size or Gum-water, and if it be too sad, adde lime water to it, and if you would have it a fair purple adde White-wine vinegar to it.

To make a fair Crimson.

Take the best Brazil ground or shaved, put of the aforesaid Liquor to it, and let it stand all night, then boil it with weak size, or ordinary Gum-water, till the colour is to your minde: try it with a stick upon your Nail, when it fades put Powder of Allum into it to strike it lighter.

Colours that set off best together in Shadows

  • WHITE sets off with all Colours.
  • GREEN sets off with Red, Browns or Purples.
  • RED sets off with Red, Brown, or Purple.
  • YELLOW sets off with Purple, Red, Green or Brown.
  • BLEW sets off with White, Red, Brown, Yellow o [...] Black.
  • BROWN sets off with Green or Yellow.
Colours that must be Ground.
  • Indigo
  • Lake
  • White-Lead
  • Spanish brown
  • Frankfort-black
  • Umber
  • Ivory burnt
  • Small Coal These must be wash [...] after they are Ground
  • Sea Coal These must be wash [...] after they are Ground
Colours that must be wash'd.
  • Blew Bice
  • Red Lead
  • Sap Green.
  • Cambuga.

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