A KEY TO THE ART of LETTERS: OR, English a Learned Language, Full of Art, Elegancy and Variety.

Being an Essay to enable both Forei­ners, and the English Youth of either Sex, to speak and write the English Tongue well and learnedly, according to the ex­actest Rules of Grammar.

After which they may attain to Latin, French, or any other Forein Language in a short time, with very little trouble to them­selves or their Teachers.

With a PREFACE shewing the Necessity of a Vernacular Grammar.

Dedicated to his Highness the Duke of Glocester.

By A. LANE, M.A. late Master of the Free-School of Leominster in Herefordshire, now Teacher of a private School at Mile-end-green near Stepney.

LONDON, Printed for A. and J. Churchil at the Black Swan in Pater-noster Row, and J. Wild at the Elephant at Charingcross. 1700.

We have read over this Book, intituled, A Key to the Art of Letters, and do think it contains many Excellent Rules and Observations very neces­sary to be followed by all who desire to learn, pronounce, and write the English Tongue exactly.

  • Matthew Shortyng D. D. Master of Mer­chant-Taylors School, London.
  • Thomas Walker L. L. D. Master of the Charterhouse School, London.
  • Samuel Mountfort M. A. Master of the Grammar-School in Christ's-Hospi­tal, London.
  • James Richardson M. A. Master of the Free-School of St. Martins Westmin­ster.

TO THE Most Illustrious PRINCE WILLIAM Duke of Glocester.

May it please Your Highness;

THE Design of these few Sheets being to show the excellency and usefulness of the English Tongue, I humbly conceiv'd they could not be more properly ad­dress'd to any than to Your Highness, whose Interest and Concern in the Ho­nour and Dignity of Your Native Lan­guage, is much greater than of any o­ther whomsoever.

And I hope I have made it appear, beyond contradiction, in this Essay, that the English Tongue is as capable of all the Art and Elegancies of Grammar and Rhetorick, as Greek or Latin, or any other Language in the World, whether Antient or Modern: and if so, it seems to be contrary to Sense and Reason, as well as to Antiquity, to put English Youth to toil in any Forein Tongue whatever for the attainment of good Learning, while their own Excellent Language lies neglected and uncultivated, as bar­barous, and unfit for the entertainment of the Liberal Arts and Sciences.

If we polish and adorn our Native Language with good Literature, as the Antients always did theirs, then it will cultivate and accomplish us more than all the Forein Languages in the World can do: Nor will this be any hindrance to the learning of Forein Tongues, but on the contrary be the most effectual means of acquiring them speedily and easily that can be imagined.

All Aristotle's Literature was in his Mother-Tongue, and perhaps he knew no other; yet King Philip did so much [Page v]admire him for his great Learning, that he writ to him in these words: I thank the Gods, not so much on the account that a Son is born to me, as that it is his good hap to be born in thy Life-time; for I hope that after he is perfectly instructed by thee, he may be worthy of us, and of so great a Kingdom. And Alexander him­self was so sensible of the inestimable benefit of Aristotle's Vernacular Educa­tion, that he lov'd him no less than he did his Father Philip.

It is Your Highness's great happi­ness, that You have an Alexander and an Aristotle to write after: and may the Great Example of the One excite You to the imitation of those Heroic Atchiev­ments, that all Languages are little e­nough to express; and the Learning of the Other fit You, like Caesar, to write Your own Commentaries.

If these small Beginnings of a Learn­ed English Education, which is so much for the Honour and Advantage of all English-men, be favourably enter­tained by Your Highness, and the Nation, the Author will be encou­raged to proceed to some further [Page vi]Improvements of what he has begun for the Publick Good. And who knows but the reviving of this piece of the best Antiquity has been reserv'd for Your Highness's Times, whose great Ge­nius, and early Advances in Learning, to­gether with so Great a Conduct, do all concur to raise the Hopes and Expecta­tions of the Nation, that Your Highness may (by the Favour of Heaven) prove a most Learned and Virtuous Prince, an Ornament to the Royal Family, and a great Blessing to Your native Coun­try? And that Your Highness may eve­ry day more and more increase and confirm these Hopes to the Joy of all Good Men, is the most ardent prayer of,

Most Illustrious Prince,
Your Highness's most humble, and most devoted Servant, A. Lane.

The PREFACE, Humbly submitted to the Learned Reader.

TO write an English Grammar for Eng­lish Youth, may seem to many, at first view, a very superfluous and ri­diculous thing; but if the Reader have a little patience, I hope to make it appear to all the World, that it is so far from being superfluous, that on the contrary it is the most necessary, and best Expedient to promote all good Learning that ever was thought of since the dissolution of the Roman Empire.

The indispensible necessity of Grammar makes the consideration of it of far greater im­portance to Mankind, than of any other Art or Science whatever: for Grammar, or the Art of Letters, is universally necessary, and useful to all Persons of whatsoever Quality, Condition or Sex; because it polishes and perfects those noble Faculties of Reason and Speech, by which Men are distinguished from Brutes.

And therefore it hath ever been the great care and concern of all civiliz'd Nations, to found and erect Grammar Schools, for the cultivating and improving the Children of both Rich and Poor, that there might be a constant supply and suc­cession of Learned Men to sit at the Helm of Publick Affairs, without whose wise Conduct no Kingdom or State can be preserved from Barba­rity and Misery: for Men without Learning, [Page viii]are rather rough-draughts of Men, than Men.

But alas! this noble Art that so much improves and refines humane Understanding, and is the Golden Key to unlock all other Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the Gate that gives an easy en­trance into all Forein Languages, is it self the hardest of all others to be attain'd to; tho not by reason of any intrinsick or inseparable Diffi­culty that is in it, but because it is every where misunderstood, and consequently misapply'd, e­ver since the Latin Tongue ceas'd to be a living Language.

Both Masters and Scholars in all the European Schools, are so miserably toyl'd and perplex'd in teaching and learning Grammar, that almost all learned and ingenious Persons shun to be School­masters, but whom necessity drives to those Workhouses for the necessary subsistance of Life. And generally all Children are utterly averse to go to the Schools, where they find nothing for se­veral years together, but a constant Series of in­superable Diff [...]culties, like one Wave upon the back of another, ready to overwhelm their weak Understandings: and the reason is, because they are forc'd to cleave the Block with the blunt end of the Wedg. Is it any wonder then to see so much sweat and pains with so little success, in all Schools without exception?

Many of the Nobility and Gentry (whose Children need Learning most, and in whom it would be most beneficial to Mankind) are by reason of these hardships often at a loss, whether to indulge those pledges of their Love, and hopes of their Families, in an easy Ignorance, or to pur­chase their Learning at so dear a rate, as the racking and torturing their tender Wits, ener­vating [Page ix]their Spirits, and forfeiting, for the most part, the easiness and contentment of their Minds, which ought to be the continual Com­panions of their younger years.

The consideration of these Distresses every where, both upon Masters and Scholars, has en­gaged the Endeavours of many Learned and Excellent Men of several Nations to study, and find out various new Methods, and compose va­rious new Forms of Grammar; but all to little or no purpose: for the old difficulties still con­tinue under all their new Methods, like an Er­ror in the first Concoction, that cannot be mended in the second and third.

The Author, who has been long chain'd to these Gallies, and has tugg'd at the Oar for many years, having a Fellow-feeling, and be­ing a Fellow-sufferer with his Brethren in this kind of Calamity, is willing, among others, before he go off the Stage of this World, to cast his Mite into the common Treasury; which he hopes will contribute more to the ease and comfort of his Fellow-labourers, and their Scholars, than any thing that has ever yet been attempted, to alleviate their Bondage, and sweeten their Lives while they grind in those Mills.

But yet he would not be mistaken, as if he thought himself any taller than those who went before him; but being very thoughtful in this great and common Concern of Mankind, and standing upon the Shoulders of others, he thinks he has made some further Discoveries, which he humbly submits to the candor and judgment of the Learned.

He says then, that the principal End and Use of Grammar is universally mistaken by all the European Nations, who think it to be no­thing else but an Instrument to acquire some un­known Tongue: Whereas the true End and Use of Grammar is to teach us how to speak and write well and learnedly in a Language al­ready known, according to the unalterable Rules of right Reason, which are the same in all Languages how different soever they be.

The Greeks and Romans writ all their Lear­ned Books in their Mother-Tongue, and al­ways had their Grammars in their own Lan­guage, and for that only, and for no other; which made their Application to Learning so easy and successful, that it was as rare to find any of their Youth of either Sex, that were put to School, fail of being Learned, as it is rare for the Youth of the present European Nations to at­tain to some little smattering of it, after several years drudgery in the Schools.

It is not any Language as such, that makes a Person Learned: but the Wisdom and Know­ledg that is written in that Language, which without the Art of Grammar can never be well understood. The common People in Rome, or Athens (tho they could speak Latin and Greek from the Cradle) were not one jot more learn­ed than the Vulgar in England or France. Then if Learning consist not in Sounds, but in Sense, why may not English-men be as learned with­out Greek or Latin, as the Greeks and La­tins were without English? A common Sea­man or Soldier may (if his Memory be good) attain to the several Languages of those Coun­trys where he travels; and suppose among them [Page xi] Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; yet without the Art of Grammar he is as illiterate and un­learned as before.

What can we imagine to be the reason that so few among us, who are not bred Scholars, can neither speak nor write well, nor with a­ny competent measure of understanding make use of our own English Books? Sure it is not for want of Greek or Latin, more than of Welch or Irish; for Words are but the Conduit-pipes to convey Sense and Learning, being in them­selves neither learned nor unlearned. Here it may be asked, how then it comes to pass that Scholars can speak, and write with more sense and understanding than others? I answer, that it is not for having Greek or Latin, or any o­ther Forein Language, but because they have learned the Art of Grammar with those Lan­guages, which yet they might have learned far better, and with much less expence of Mony, Time, and Pains, in their Mother-Tongue, as the Greeks and Romans did.

Tho, as I said before, the chief end of Gram­mar be not to acquire a Forein Tongue, any more than the Mathematics or any other Art; yet it is of excellent use to attain to all Tongues, and all Liberal Arts and Sciences; for he that is a good Grammarian in his Mother-Tongue, may, without any Miracle (if his Memory be strong enough) attain to as many Languages as Mithridates King of Pontus, with little or no pains in any Forein Grammar.

Can any thing be imagined more absurd and ridiculous, than to put Children to learn Latin and Grammar at once? To learn an unknown Tongue by an unknown Art, must needs be a [Page xii]Barbarous and Gothic Custom; for I am very sure it is neither Greek nor Roman. The great Tully himself would have thought it such a mor­tification to him in the height of his Strength and Wit, that it is more than probable the World had never been blest with his excellent and learned Works, had he been obliged to learn Latin, after the same manner that our poor Children are forced to before they be ten years old.

I am perswaded that a Youth who is made a good Grammarian in his Mother-Tongue, may afterwards (if under good Conduct) read and understand all the Roman Authors extant, ei­ther in Prose or Poetry, in as little or less time than another of equal Age and Capacity can be Master of Lilly's Grammar alone. And that this may not seem so very strange and im­practicable, let any School-master take a Boy that has been perfectly taught the Grammar of his Mother Tongue, and put him immediately to a plain Latin Author, without so much as teach­ing him first to decline or conjugate one word in Latin, he shall learn more in one Month, than another of the same Age and Capacity can possibly do in a whole quarter of a Year in the common Methods. And suppose, for instance, the first Sentence that offers it self be this, Pa­ter amat filium; after the Master has construed it to him in the natural order, he will tell him as readily as if he had been seven years at Latin, that Pater is a Noun Substantive of the Nomi­native Case, of the Masculine Gender, and of the Singular Number; that amat is a Verb Active Transitive of the third Person Singular of the Present Tense, and of the Indicative [Page xiii]Mood; that filium is the Accusative of the Ob­ject after the Verb Active amat, and so of any other plain Sentence; and all this in less than a quarter of an hour, which many cannot do in the common Methods, after they have been a whole year at the Latin School. Nor is it unlikely by this time, that every word in the Sentence has insensibly fixt it self in his Memory without his care or concern. Would not some weak Peo­ple be apt to think that this were Conjuring, or Legerdemain, when it is nothing else but the real effect of a rational Education in the Mother-Tongue, which is the true Standard and Mea­sure of all our Attainments in Forein Langua­ges?

But here some will be ready to object, That the many Idioms, and burdensom Exceptions that are in the Latin Tongue, will stop the Youth's career, and be a clog at his heels in spite of this rational Conduct. To which I answer, first, That all Languages have their Idioms, and anomalous words no less than the Latin; and therefore that difficulty is not pecu­liar to the Latin Tongue only, more than to English or any other Language. Secondly, That the only way they can be a hindrance to him is (by stopping his progress in reading Authors) to put him to get by heart, as a particular Task, unconnected and loose Words, or Ter­minations, which like Ropes of Sand, are no sooner done but undone; or rather like the Si­syphian Stone, which tumbles down much faster than it was roul'd up. But if no words, whe­ther Analogous or Anomalous, be minded any where but in the contexture of good Sense; they will of course insinuate themselves into the [Page xii] [...] [Page xiii] [...] [Page xiv]Memory by frequent reading, as they do in the Mother-Tongue by frequent conversation.

We do not put our Children to toil them­selves in the Mother-Tongue with a task of words, whether regular or irregular; and yet they equally understand them all. And if the Child be ask'd how he came by so many words, he can tell you no more than if you should convey something into his Pocket by stealth, and then ask him how it came there.

Thus it has pleased God in his Mercy to Mankind, to make the acquiring not only of one, but of several Languages, so easy to Children by Conversation, that they never complain of it as any burden, but are rather apt to think it is natural to them; tho that be a mistake: for he that never heard a word spoken, can never speak a word; and therefore those that are born deaf, are perpetually dumb. But if Chil­dren were obliged, by stated Lessons, to get their Mother-Tongue alone by heart, they would either pretend to be deaf, or at least wish they were so, to be freed from those Anxie­ties that must unavoidably attend them. And tho the acquiring of Language by reading be more laborious and less expeditious than by conversation, yet it is next to conversation, be­ing a kind of commerce with the dead or ab­sent; but there is neither of the two in getting loose words by heart. By all this it is mani­fest, that oppressing the Memory with Forein Grammars, and Forein Words in set Lessons, is the next great Impediment of attaining to Learning and Languages.

The third and last Impediment that is any thing considerable, is the putting Children to [Page xv]learn Grammatical Propositions or Rules barely propos'd, without giving any reason for what is affirmed: This makes Children seem so stu­pid and unlearned (when they chance to be ask'd a Reason why the thing is so, or so) that they cannot endure to be interrogated by any body in their Learning, but usually withdraw themselves, or cry, being griev'd and asham'd of their Ignorance; which yet is neither their own fault nor their Teacher's, but of the bad Tools they have to work by. Young ones are of themselves very inquisitive and curious to know the Reasons of things; and therefore most Infants are full of their pretty whys, and wherefores; which when solidly answer'd, are both delightful and profitable to them. To remove this Block out of Childrens way, I have given the best Reasons I could for every Proposition I lay down in my Book: for a bare Affirmation without a Reason for it, is rather a parroting Rote than a rational Knowledg; and the more sensible any Child is, he takes the greater pleasure in any thing that has some colourable Reason subjoin'd to it. And besides, to reason a Child into his Learning, greatly ad­vances the rational Faculty, which is no less improv'd by frequent Reasoning, than Writing is by frequent Writing, or Singing by frequent Singing: And every body knows that Habits are acquired by repeated Acts; and what ha­bit more necessary than that of Reason and Un­derstanding?

Let none mistake me, as if I thought the La­tin Grammar altogether useless; for I think it very useful, as a Repository, to be often con­sulted in our reading as we do our Dictiona­ries, [Page xvi]which I think is the surest way to make e­very thing in it our own; but to oppress the Memory by getting so much by heart, is so far from promoting Learning, that it is a very great hindrance to it: for one Word shuffles out a­nother, but one Sense does not drive out ano­ther: and therefore Sense is a more faithful Preserver of all Words, than an overcharg'd Memory.

Our young Gentlewomen, who have ge­nerally been discouraged from good Learning (their more nice and tender Constitutions not being able to endure those rugged and thorny Difficulties in the Methods hitherto practised) may, if they be not wanting to themselves, at­tain to a perfect knowledg of the Art of Gram­mar in the method here proposed, by which they may become as learned as those excellent Greek and Roman Matrons recorded in Histo­ry; which will contribute much more to the good of their Children and Families afterward, than all those inferior Attainments which take up so much of their best time, and which are generally useless to them in the remaining part of their lives. And if any of them have a ge­nerous ambition of understanding the Greek or Latin Tongue, they may now do it at a much easier rate than some excellent English Ladies of our own time, who with a masculine Courage waded through a thousand Difficulties till they attain'd to a great perfection in all humane Learning, notwithstanding those Labyrinths and Mazes that lay in their way in the ordinary Method. And if the Author has found out the true Secret of an easy and rational Education, that may prove to the advantage of the fair Sex, [Page xvii]who have so many Slights and Affronts put upon them for want of Learning, he thinks all his Pains and Labour happily bestow'd.

I hope the Learned will forgive me, if I be forc'd to make use of some terms not usual in Grammar, as Subject, Predicate, Object, and such like, which I have not used out of vanity, but of necessity, either to prevent Circumlo­cutions in terms of Art, or to avoid terms which are vagous or common to several Arts. If I have borrowed these Terms from Logick, I am perswaded that Aristotle bor­rowed them first from Grammar, which was in being long before his Logic, which I think (with submission to better Judgments) to be nothing else but Grammar, except his superad­ded invention of Syllogisms, and some other things of less use, which he ingrasted upon the Stock of Grammar. And in my weak opinion the Art of thinking and speaking are not two, but one Art; for Grammar first teaches us how to con­ceive of things in the order of Nature, and then how to express our Conceptions by speaking or writing: for we can never speak or write well, what we cannot rightly conceive; Speaking be­ing nothing else but vocal Thoughts, and Thoughts but silent Speaking, and Writing the Images or Characters of them both.

I have chosen the Socratical way of Questi­on and Answer in my Book, as most imstruc­tive; the frequent Interlocutions making Learn­ing less tedious, and more intelligible to Chil­dren, who are very sociable Creatures, and love good company in every thing they do.

I was willing to deliver at the same time what belongs to the same head, that it might not be [Page xviii]look'd for in two several places; yet any thing the Teacher thinks more nice or remote from the Child's Capacity at first, he may pass over it sicco pede, till afterwards: for whatever is to be first learn'd, is much easier and plainer than in the common Accidence.

I have not set down so many Examples as o­therwise might be useful, because I would not discourage Children with a bulky Book; but the discreet Teacher may supply that defect when he finds it needful. And as for those that think to become good Grammarians by the Book alone, without a Master, they will find them­selves mistaken, and lose their labour: for the Art of Grammar, tho in plain English, is no less a Mystery to the unlearned, than a Mechanick Trade in plainer English, which yet requires a Master, and seven years Apprenticeship.

This is all I have to say, as to the Method of the Book, submitting it in every thing else to the favorable Correction of the Learned.

Now since no Language in the World seems more capable of having all manner of Learning treasur'd up in it, than our English Tongue; why may we not, after the laudable Example of the Greeks and Romans (besides our Latin Schools) set up Grammar, Rhetoric, and Phi­losophy Schools in our Mother-Tongue, that Fo­reiners abroad may covet to learn our Lan­guage, as we do Greek and Latin for those Treasures of Learning and Knowledg that are lock'd up in them? Our Language has (besides its innate easiness) a peculiar felicity, by which we may incorporate into it whatever useful or significant words we find in Greek or Latin, or any other Forein Language. Thus the cultivat­ing [Page xix]and enriching our Mother-Tongue with all manner of good Literature, would soon make our happy Island famous for all kind of Learn­ing and Virtue, which would then be easily diffus'd into the Minds and Manners of People, having such an easy and native Vehicle as the Mother-Tongue. This would be a more effec­tual means to reform the corruption of Man­ners, so much complain'd of among us, than all the coercive and penal Laws that can be de­vised: for, as Learning and Virtue generally go together, so Ignorance and Vice are insepa­rable Twins; or more properly, Ignorance is the Mother, and Vice the Daughter.

If those who have Power and Authority in the Nation, were pleas'd to oil the Wheels of a learned English Education, and put them once in motion, by encouraging Persons quali­fied to carry on such an excellent Design, I am perswaded we might in a few years have a hundred learned and virtuous Persons for one we have now. Britanniam, quam nacti sumus, hanc ornemus.

Were we as industrious in improving and cultivating our Language, as the Greeks and Ro­mans were, we might equal, if not exceed them, having many Advantages not known in their time. We might have as learned Leaders and Commanders, both by Sea and Land, as they had, who by their Learning, Civility and Elo­quence in their Mother-Tongue, inlarged their Dominions no less than by their Arms: The barbarous Nations being, as it were, ambitious to be conquered by such brave and generous E­nemies, who sought rather to subdue their Bar­barity, and civilize their Manners, than to en­slave [Page xx]their Persons, or ruin their Countries. Must we still grace their dead Languages with the Title of Literae humaniores, and leave our own out, by which we tacitly seem to acknow­ledg our selves Gentem barbaram, aut saltem minùs humanam? And since it pleas'd God to convey Christianity into the Isle of Great Britain on the Wings of these learned Languages which are now dead, ought not the British Christians, in a grateful sense of such Goodness, to polish, refine, and enrich their living Language with all excellent Knowledg, were it for no other end but to carry the Christian Religion to other wretched and barbarous Nations, who for want of Learning and Virtue, are but a kind of more savage Beasts?

To conclude; If no Children were to learn Latin, or any other Forein Language, till they had first learn'd the Art of Grammar in their Mother-Tongue, I doubt not but our Latin Schools would soon become much more success­ful and useful to the Nation than ever yet they have been.

ERRATA.

PAge 10. line 23. r. Diphthong. P. 11. l. 1. r. trou­ble. P. 12. l. 15, & 24. r. Additional; l. 26. r. the. P. 22. l. 5. r. for more; l. 30. r. Termination. P. 24. l. 25. r. both. P. 27. l. 24. r. which. P. 34. l. 15. r. formed. P. 35. l. 25. r. encreased. P. 39. l. 16. r. intransitive. P. 41. l. 28. r. requires. P. 42. l. 17. r. after. P. 43. l. 25. r. Tenses; l. 26. r. The. P. 46. l. 6. r. thou. P. 47. l. 25. r. Participle. P. 51. l. 13. r. been. P. 56. l. 8. r. conjugated. P. 110. l. 16. after middle insert, they may be in the middle.

A KEY TO THE Art of Letters.

Quest. What is Grammar?

Answ. GRammar is an Art that Teaches the Right Way of Speaking and Writing, according to the particular Form of every Language.

Q. How many Parts of Grammar are there?

A. There are four Parts of Grammar; Letters, Syllables, Words, and Sentences.

Of the Letters.

Quest. What is a Letter?

Answ. A Letter is the Character or Mark of an individual or single sound.

Q. How are the Letters distinguished in respect of their sound?

A. The Letters, in respect of their sound, are distinguished into Vowels and Consonants.

Q. What is a Vowel?

A. A Vowel is a Letter that can be sounded alone without a Consonant.

Q. What is a Consonant?

A. A Consonant is a Letter that cannot be sounded without a Vowel.

Q. How many Letters are there in English?

A. There are Twenty Six Letters in English, viz. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.

Q. How many of them are Vowels?

A. Six of them are Vowels, viz. a, e, i, o, u, y, all the rest are Consonants.

Q. What Consonants are called Mutes?

A. The Consonants, b, c, d, f, g, k, p, t, are called Mutes.

Q. Why is a Mute so called?

A. A Mute is so called, because a Li­quid before it cannot be sounded with it [Page 3]in the same Syllable with the Vowel after it; as, rpo.

Q. What Consonants are called Liquids?

A. The Consonants l, n, r, are called Liquids.

Q. Why is a Liquid so called?

A. A Liquid is so called, because a Mute before it can be sounded with it in the same Syllable with the Vowel after it; as, pro.

Q. Is not m a Liquid?

A. M is not a Liquid because a Mute before it cannot, without force, be sound­ed with it in the same Syllable with the Vowel after it.

Q. Is h a Letter?

A. H is a Note of Aspiration or Breath­ing, rather than a Letter; and therefore the Aspirats, ch, gh, ph, rh, sh, th, are but single Consonants express'd by two Cha­racters.

Q. How is c sounded?

A. The genuine or natural sound of c is hard like k, but we always sound it soft like s before e, i and y, as in the words Centre, Citron, Cypher.

Q. How is g sounded?

A. The genuine sound of g is hard, as in the word good; but for the most part we sound it soft, like j, before e, i, and y; as in the words Gentle, Ginger, Egypt.

Q. How is ti sounded before a Vowel?

A. We sound ti before a Vowel, like si, as in the word Relation; but when s or x comes before it, or when it is in the first or last Syllable of a word, then t keeps its natural sound; as in the words, Christian, tied, severitie.

Q. How is ph sounded?

A. Ph is sounded like f, and is usually written instead of f in words derived from the Greek; as, a Prophet, a Philosopher, &c.

Q. How is ch sounded?

A. We sound ch in meer English words, as in the word Check; but in words bor­rowed from the Greek, we usually sound it like k, as in the words, Christ, Cha­racter, &c.

Q. How is w sounded?

A. We usually sound w like the Vow­el u, and for the most part we write it instead of u, in the middle and end of words, as in Vowel, Law, Bow, &c.

Q. How is y sounded?

A. When y begins a Syllable, we sound it as in the word yea, and then it is a re­al Consonant; every where else it is a Vowel, and is sounded like i; and is al­ways written at the end of words instead of i, as in my, thy, &c.

† Since different Sounds should in Rea­son have different Names leading to those Sounds, it would be much for the ease of young Scholars and their Teachers, to call c hard, kee; c soft, see; g hard; ghee; g soft, jee; ch soft, chee; ch hard, ke; ph, fee; sh, shee; th thee; wh, whee; y Con­sonant, yee; and qu, quee, since it is but one single Consonant under two Characters. And if the Printers did also distinguish them by some Point, it would make them much more easie; for it is a great Oppression of Children, to force them, contrary to Reason, to give different sounds to the same Chara­cters, without the least mark of distinction.

Q. What is a Diphthong or double Vowel?

A. A Diphthong or double Vowel, is two single Vowels sounded together in one continued Breath.

Q. Which are the most usual Diphthongs in English?

A. The most usual Diphthongs in En­glish are these thirteen, ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou, ee, oo, ea, eo, oa, ie, ui, as in the words aid, eight, join, fault, feud, found, feed, food, Meat, People, Boat, piece, build.

Note, y and w are often the subjunctive, or latter Vowels of a Diphthong, instead of i and u, especially in the end of words, as buy, few, &c.

† When two Vowels that usually make a Diphthong are to be sounded separately in two distinct Syllables, some put two Points, called a Diaeresis, or Mark of division over the subjunctive or latter Vowel, as in the word Creätor.

Q. How are the Letters distinguished in respect of their Form or Figure?

A. The Letters, in respect of their Form or Figure, are distinguished into Great and Small.

Q Where are the Great, or Capital Letters used?

A. The Great, or Capital Letters are on­ly used in the beginning of Words.

Q What Words begin with Capitals, or Great Letters?

A. The first word of every new Peri­od; the first word of every Verse; all proper Names, and Adjectives derived of proper Names; all Names or Titles of Honour and Dignity; all Names of Arts, Offices, and Trades; all Emphatical or Remarkable Words begin with Capitals, or Great Letters; and in English, the first Person singular, I, is always written by a Capital.

Q. How is the small s written?

A. The small s is usually written long [Page 7]in the beginning and middle of words, and always short in the end, as Seasons, Sessions.

Of the Formation of the Letters.

Q. How are the Letters distinguished, in respect of the Organs or Instruments of Speech?

A. The Letters, in respect of the Or­gans, or Instruments of Speech, are di­stinguished into Gutturals, Palatines, and Labials.

Q. Which are the Gutturals?

A. The Gutturals, or Throat-Letters are those which are formed by a softer, or harder Expression of the Spirit or Breath out of the Throat, as c. g, h▪ k.

Q. Which are the Palatines?

A. The Palatines, or Palate-Letters, are those that are formed by a softer or harder Impression of the Tongue against the Palate, whence they are also called Linguals, or Tongue Let­ters, as d, l, r, s, t.

Q. Which are the Labials?

A. The Labials, or Lip Letters, are those that are formed by a softer or har­der Compression of the Lips together, as b, f, m, p, v.

Q. How are the Vowels formed?

A. All the Vowels are formed with the Mouth open; the Vowel a with a greater [Page 8]opening, all the rest with a lesser open­ing; a is Guttural, e and i Palatine, o and u Labial.

Q. Of what use is it to know how the Letters are formed?

A. To know how the Letters are form­ed, is of great use;

  • 1st. to help Children that have any Impediment in their Speech.
  • 2dly. to know the true Derivation and Composition of Words; for the Letters of the same Organ being so near in sound, are often put for one another; as v for f, in Knives; t for d, in forc't.

    † The Letters are called the Elements of Speech, because they are the first Principles of which all Speech is composed; for Syllables are made of Letters, and Words of Syllables, and Sentences of Words.

Of Syllables.

Q. What is a Syllable?

A. A Syllable is a sound uttered in one Breath, and consists of one single Vowel, or Diphthong, alone; or with one or more Consonants joyned with it.

Q. Can there be any Syllable without a Vowel?

A. There can be no Syllable without a Vowel, because no Consonant can be sound­ed alone.

Q. How many Syllables are there in a Word?

A. There are as many Syllables in a word, as it has single Vowels or Diphthongs in it; except e mute at the end of some English Words.

† Since the greatest difficulty in Reading, Writing, and Spelling English is occasion'd by the Vowel e in the end of many Words, we shall shew the true use of it in the following Questions; and for distinction sake, call it e Servile.

Of e Servile.

Q. What is the use of e Servile?

A. E Servile is of great use in the English Tongue; for by its help we can borrow the most signisicant and useful Words from other Lauguages, to inrich our own; and so far disguise and transform them into good English, that others cannot lay claim to them as theirs; as for Example, these Latin words, Candela, Vinea, Linea, Bru­tum, Centrum, are made good English, by the help of e Servile, thus; a Candle, a Vine, a Line, a Brute, a Centre.

Q. What need is there to disguise words borrowed from other Languages?

A. It is necessary to disguise Words bor­rowed from other Languages, because no [Page 10]free People should have a Foreign Face on their current Words, more than on their current Goin, both being Badges of Conquest or Slavery.

† Thus the Romans borrowed a multitude of Words from the Greeks, which they made their own by altering the Accent, curtailing and cutting off their Terminations, with other various Changes.

Q. How is e Servile distinguished?

A. E Servile is distinguished into e Sub­junctive, e Liquid, and e Mute.

Q. Where is e Subjunctive written?

A. E Subjunctive is written at the end of a word, after a single Consonant, to make the single Vowel before it long.

Q. How can e Subjunctive, after a single Consonant, make the single Vowel before it long?

A. E Subjunctive is really sounded with the single Vowel before the Consonant, and so makes the Subjunctive or latter Vowel of a Diphthong; otherwise it could not make the Syllable long, as in the words, Fire, more, pale, read, Fier, moer, pael.

Q. Where is e Liquid written?

A. E Liquid is written at the end of a word, after a Mute, and a Liquid, but sound­ed swiftly between them, as in the words, [Page 11] Candle, Troulbe, Apple, Acre, read rapidly, Candel, Troubel, Appel, Aker.

Q. Has not e Liquid sometimes the force of e Subjunctive also?

A. E Liquid has also the force of e Sub­junctive, when the single Vowel before the Mute and the Liquid must be sounded long, as in the words, Bible, Bridle, Title; but if it must be sounded short, the Mute must be doubled, as in Saddle, Tittle, Juggle, &c.

Q. Where is e Mute written?

A. E Mute is written at the end of a word, after c and g, to shew they must be sounded soft, as in the words, chance, change, &c.

Note, When g follows d in the same Syllable, it needs not e Mute after it, to make it soft, be­cause it cannot then be pronounced hard, as in Judg, Judgment.

Q. Is e Mute written any where else, but after c and g soft?

A. There is no Necessity of writing e Mute any where but after c and g soft; yet it is often tack'd to many other words, with­out any other Reason, than corrupt Custom.

Q. Is not e Servile sometimes suppress'd?

A. E Servile is always suppress'd before an additional Termination that begins with a Vowel, to avoid the concurrence of two Vowels, which might seem to make a Diph­thong; [Page 12]as, Time, timing, not timeing; Trou­ble, troubled, not troubleed; change, changed, not changeed; but e Mute must not be sup­press'd before the Vowel a, lest c or g soft should be sounded hard; as in the words, ferviceable, changeable, &c.

Q. Which are the additional Terminations that begin with a Vowel?

A. The additional Terminations that be­gin with a Vowel, are ed, ing, en, er, es, est, eth, ish, able, age, ance.

Q. What if an-additional Termination that begins with a Vowel, come after a single Con­sonant, with a short Vowel before it?

A. If an addi [...]ional Termination that be­gins with a Vorel, come after a single Con­sonant with a short Vowel before it, then the single Consonant must be doubled, lest e Subjun­ctive should seem to be suppress'd; as, run, runneth; tun, tunned; writ, written.

Note, When c hard is doubled before an-addi­tional Termination, we write it by ck as bac, backing: When g hard is doubled before an ad­di [...]ional Termination, both are sounded hard, as, beg, begging.

Q. Is not the Vowel e sounded at the end of any English word?

A. The Vowel e is not both written and sounded at the end of any English word, except the; in all other English words, that [Page 13]end in the sound of e, we write the Diph­thong ea instead of e; as in yea, plea, Sea, &c.

Q. How is a word rightly divided into Syllables?

A. A word is rightly divided into Sylla­bles by this one Rule, viz. Stop at every single or double Vowel; and if one or more Consonants follow, join them with the follow­ing Vowel, as in the words, Cre-a-tor, Crea­ture, Ma-ster; but if any of them cannot be joyned together in the same Syllable with the following Vowel, it must of necessity be joyned with the foregoing Vowel, as in the words, Mul-ti-tude, Mat-ter, Ser-pent; where you may observe, that lt, tt, rp, are sepa­rated because they cannot be sounded toge­ther with the following Vowel.

Q. What Consonants can be joyned together in the same Syllable with the following Vowel?

A. A Mute, and a Liquid after it, can always be joyned together in the same Sylla­ble with the following Vowel; as likewise s with several other Consonants, which may be known by sounding them.

Q. How are compound words divided in Spelling?

A. In compound words the compound­ing parts are always separated in Spelling, as in the words, mis-take, un-easie.

Q. To which Vowel must x be joyned?

A. X is not properly one single Letter, but an abbreviature of c s, which cannot, [Page 14]without force, be sounded with the Vowel after it; and therefore must of necessity be sounded with the Vowel before it, as in the word, Com-plex-i-on.

Q. What if a word must be divided at the end of a Line?

A. If for want of room, a word must be divided at the end of a Line, a Syllable must not be broken, but a Hyphen or Mark of Union made at the end of the line, thus—

Q. How are words called in respect of their Syllables?

A. A word of one Syllable is called a Monosyllable, a word of two a Dissyllable; any word of more than two a Polysyllable.

Q. How are Syllables distinguished in respect of Quantity?

A. Syllables in respect of the quantity, or space of time in which they are pronounced, are distinguished into long and short.

Q. What Syllables are long?

A. All Diphthongs are naturally long, be­cause two Vowels pronounced together in one continued Breath, take up more time than one single Vowel.

Q. What Syllables are short?

A. All single Vowels are naturally short, except they be made long by the Accent.

Of the Accent.

Q. What is the Accent?

A. The Accent or Tone, is the extension of the Voice, in pronouncing one Syllable in a word louder and longer than the rest.

Q. How are Syllables distinguished in respect of the Accent?

A. Syllables, in respect of the Accent, are distinguished into Acute and Grave.

Q. What is an Acute Syllable?

A. An Acute Syllable is that which must be sounded sharp and long.

Q. What is a Grave Syllable?

A. A Grave Syllable is that which must be sounded flat, and short.

Q. How many Syllables in a word are to be sounded Acute?

A. In every word of more than one Syl­lable, whether it be simple or compound, there is but one Syllable sounded acute, all the rest are sounded grave, whether they be single Vowels or Diphthongs.

Q How shall one know which Syllable in a word is to be sounded acute?

A. The acute Syllable is known by the Custom of every Language; for tho Nature has put one acute sound in every word of more than one Syllable, yet it is the Custom of every Nation that determins it to this or that Syllable.

Q. How is a single Vowel made long by the accent?

A. In every acute Syllable there is a Diph­thong, or double sound; for if the Vowel be single, it is sounded double in one continu­ed Breath; and sometimes written double.

Q. Is there no Mark to know the acute Syllable?

A. The Greeks put this Mark over the acute Vowel or Diphthong; which, if done in other Languages, their Pronounciation would not be so difficult for Foreigners to learn, as usually it is.

Q. Are there not some words distinguished only by the Accent?

A. There are many words written alike, and only distinguished by the accent; as for Example, òbject is a Noun, but objèct is a Verb; orátor is Latin, but òrator is English.

Q. What is the principal thing in learning any Language?

A. The first and principal thing in learn­ing of any Language, is to get the true Pro­nounciation of the words; for he that ac­cents a word contrary to the Custom of the Language, speaks barbarously, and makes himself ridiculous to the Hearers; as if one should in English say, Rélation for Relátion; Orátor for órator; facúlty for fáculty; Adver­sáry for ádversary; Audítor for áuditor, &c.

Q. Are there not three Accents?

A. There is no more than one Accent, [Page 17]but the ancient Grammarians, finding three several marks for the Acute Syllable in the Greek Tongue, imagined there were three se­veral Accents; which is not only false, but simply impossible in the Nature of Speech. That which they call the Grave Accent is always a mark of the Acute Syllable, and is nothing else but the Acute mark turned backward, when the Accent is on the last Syllable of a Word, least it should run forward into the following Word, and cause Confusion in Reading; for Grave Syl­lables never had any mark because they ne­ver needed any, all the Syllabes in a Word except one, being Grave, whether they be Single Vowels or Diphthongs.

That which they call the Circumslex-Accent, is always a mark of the acute Syllable, and is chiefly used when two Syllables are Con­tracted into one.

Q. How many Syllables can come under one Accent?

A. There can come eight or nine Syl­lyables under one accent, and any more is a force upon Nature; but those Words are most Harmonious that do not exceed six or seven Syllables.

† The English for the most part love to Ac­cent the first Syllable of a Word, which is more Vehement and Masculine. The French for the most part love to Accent the last Syllable of a Word, which is too Soft and Feminine. The Latins do almost always Accent the penult, or antepenult Syllable of a Word, which makes the best and most agreeable Harmony in Speech, and in that regard the Latin Tongue excels all other Languages.

Note, The penult is the last Syllable of a Word but one, the Antepenult is the Syllable before the Penult, or the third Syllable from the end of the Word.

Of Words.

Quest. What is a Word?

Answ. A Word is an Articulate sound that signifies something by the Custom of any Language.

Q. What is an Articulate Sound?

A. An Articulate Sound is that which con­sists of Letters and Syllables, as it were of Joints.

Q. How are Words distinguished in respect of Derivation?

A. Words in respect of Derivation are distinguished into Primitive and Derivative.

Q. What is a Primitive Word?

A. A Primitive Word is that which is not derived of another, as good, man, &c.

Q What is a Derivative Word?

A. A Derivative Word, is that which is derived of another, as Goodness, Man­liness.

Q. How are Words distinguished in respect of Composition?

A. Words in respect of Composition are distinguisht into Simple and Compound.

Q. What is a Simple Word?

A. A Simple Word is that which is not Compounded of two Words, as a Book, a School, a Stone, a House, &c.

Q. What is a Compound Word?

A. A Compound Word, is that which is Compounded of two or more Words; as a Book-seller, Compounded of Book and Seller; a VVatch-man, of Watch and Man.

Q. Are there not Half Compounds?

A. When we Compound two or more Words, without putting them under one Ac­cent, we only join them with a Hyphen or mark of Union, and such may be called Half-Com­pounds, as a Water-Spider. But if the Custom of the Language has put them under one Accent, we must write them in one Word without a Hyphen, as a Shoomaker, not a Shoó-maker; a Highlander, not a High-lander.

Q. How many Kinds of Words are there?

A. There are four kinds of Words, a Substantive, an Adjective, a Verb, and a Particle.

Q. How do you know there are but four kinds of Words?

A. I know there are but four kinds of Words, because there are but four kinds of things to be signified by Words: for what­ever is in the whole Ʋniverse, is either a thing, or the manner of a thing; the action of a thing, or the manner of an Action.

Q. How are these four kinds of Things sig­nified?

A. The Things themselves are signified by Substantives; the manners of things, by Adjectives; the Actions of things, by Verbs; the manners of Actions, by Particles.

Q. VVhat is a Substantive.

A. A Substantive is a Word that signifies a thing whether Corporeal or Incorporeal; as God, Man, Reason, VVisdom, &c.

Q. VVhat is a Corporeal thing?

A. A Corporeal or Bodily thing is that which can be perceived by the Senses, and may be seen or felt; as, a Boy, a Book, a Pen, a School, a Table, &c.

Q. VVhat is an Incorporeal thing?

A. An Incorporeal thing is that which can­not be perceived by the Senses but only by the Ʋnderstanding, and cannot be seen nor felt, as Justice, Knowledg, Ʋnderstanding, Goodness, &c.

Q. How may a Substantive be known?

A. Every Word that can be declined a­lone in good Sense, in any ones Native Lan­guage, is a Substantive; as for Example, I I know the Word, Man, is a Substantive, because I can decline it in good Sense, thus, [Page 21] of Man, to Man, with Man: No other kind of Word so Declined can make Sense, for if I say, of against, to against, with a­gainst, it is Nonsense, by which I know against is not a Substantive?

Note, A Substantive is also called a Noun, or a Noun-substantive, or a Name.

Q. How many sorts of Substantives are there?

A. There are two sorts of Substantives, Common and Proper.

Q. What is a Common or Appellative Noun?

A. A Common or Appellative Noun, is a Word that signifies one kind of thing, and is Common to all of that kind, as the Words, Man, City, Kingdom.

Q. VVhat is a Proper Name?

A. A Proper Name is a Word given to any individual thing of a kind, by which it is known and distinguished from others of the same kind, as Peter, London, England. Man is one kind of thing, Peter is one of that kind, John another, James another. A City is one kind of thing, London is one of that kind, Paris another, Rome another. A. Kingdom is one kind of thing, England is one of that kind, France another, Italy another.

Q. Have not Persons two Proper Names?

A. At first one Person had but one Pro­per Name, as Adam, Abraham, Jacob, but afterward when Mankind multiplied, the same Proper Name was given to several Per­sons, which made it necessary formore par­ticular distinction to add a Second: the for­mer of which is usually called the Name, the latter Sirname, as Charles Stuart; some Persons have three or more proper Names, as Julius Caesar Scaliger.

Q. Are not Common Nouns sometimes made Proper Names?

A. Common Nouns are sometimes made Proper Names, but then regard is had only to the Sound, not to the Signification; other­wise these Sirnames, King, Knight, Thom­son, and such like, could not in good Sense be given to the Females of the Families so called.

Q. Can Proper Names be Translated from one Language to another?

A. Proper Names as such cannot be Tran­slated from one Language to another, for if the Sound be changed the proper Name is lost. As for Example we must not tran­slate the Latin Proper Name, Piscator, Fi­sher, nor the English proper Name, Fisher, Piscator: Yet the Latins to Accommodate Forein proper Names to their own Idiom, do often add to them a Latin Termination, as, us a, um, thus they call Jacob, Jacobus, Fisher, Fisherus, and Forreiners for the same [Page 23]Reason cut off the Latin Terminations, thus we call Paulus, Paul; Marcus, Mark.

Q. Is it necessary to give a proper Name to every Individual thing of a kind?

A. If there be but one Individual thing of a kind, it is not necessary to give it a proper Name, since there is no other of the kind, from which it needs to be distin­guished, as God, the World, the Sun, &c. And where there are more of the same kind, none of them needs a Proper Name, but Men and such things as Men have fre­quent occasion to mention in particular, as Countries, Islands, Towns, Villages, Ri­vers, Mountains, Ships, and many other individual things of other kinds.

Of S Servile.

Q. Why is s Servile so called?

A. S Servile is so called, because it serves for several uses, in the Variation of Nouns and Verbs in English.

Q. How is s Servile distinguished?

A. S Servile is distinguished into s Plural, s Possessive, and s Personal.

Q. Where is s Plural writen?

A. S Plural, is writen at the end of a Sub­stantive Singular, to make it Plural, as a Boy, Boys.

Q. Where is s Possessive written?

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]

A. S Possessive, is written at the end of a Substantive Singular or Plural, to make it the Genitive of the Possessor, as the Lords house, &c.

Q. Where is s Personal written?

A. s Personal is added to the Theam of a Verb, to make it the third Person Singu­lar, as, Irun, he runs.

Q. Is not the Syllable es sometimes used in­stead of s Servile?

A. The Syllable es is always used in­stead of s Servile, when the Word ends in s, or in the Sound of s, because s alone can­not be distinguished in the Sound, as, Case, Cases, Corps, Corpses.

Q. What Words end in the Sound of e?

A. Words that end in sh, z, ch, e, and g soft have the Sound of s, as Fish, Fishes, Prize, Prizes, Church, Churches, Race, Races, Age, Ages.

Note. When s Servile comes after e Ser­vile, es doth not increase the Number of Sylla­bles in a Word, because e is Sounded before the final Consonant, and s immediatly after it; thus Time and Times are bo [...]h Monosyllables; Ta­ble and Tables, are both dissyllables: but when es comes after s or the sound of s it makes a Sylla­ble more in a Word, because s alone cannot be distinguisht in the Sound, thus, Page, Grace, Prize, are Monosyllables, but, Pages, Graces, Prizes, are Dissyllables.

Note. When e Subjunctive or e Mute is sup­prest before a Vowel, then the final Consonant is joyned in the same Syllable with that Vowel, as Time, Ti-ming, not Tim-ing, Age, A-ged, not Ag-ed; when e Liquid is supprest before a Vowel, the Mute and the Liquid are both join­ed in the same Syllable with that Vowel, as, Trou-ble, Trou-bler.

Of Number.

Q. How are Substantives distinguished in respect of Number?

A. Substantives in respect of Number are distinguished into Singular and Plural; the Singular Number denotes one, as, a House; the Plural Number denotes more than one, as, Houses.

Q. How is the Plural Number made in English?

A. The Plural Number is usually made in English, by adding s to the Substantive Singular, or es when the Pronunciation re­quires it; as, a Book, Books, a Pen, Pens, a Church, Churches.

Q. Is not the Plural Number made other­wise than by s or es?

A. Some Nouns form the Plural Number otherwise than by s or es, as, Ox, Oxen. Child, Children. Man, Men. VVoman, [Page 26]VVomen, Tooth, Teeth, Goose, Geese, Mouse, Mice, Louse, Lice, Foot, Feet, a Cow, Kine, or Cows; the Words Sheep and Swine are both Singular and Plural. In some Nouns f is turned into v a Letter of the same Organ for ease of Pronounciation, as, Knife, Knives, VVife, VVives, Life, Lives.

Of the Declining of a Noun.

Q. What is the Declining of a Noun?

A. The Declining of a Noun is the Vari­ation thereof, according to the various State or Case of the thing signified by it.

Q. How many Cases are there?

A. There are six Cases, Viz. Nominative, Vocative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, and Accusative.

Q. When is a Noun in the Nominative State or Case?

A. A Noun is in the Nominative State or Case, when 'tis the Subject of a Verb, and then it usually comes in good Sense before the Verb, as the Master teaches, the Scholar Learns.

Q. VVhen is a Noun in the Vocative Case?

A. A Noun is in the Vocative Case, when it is the Person to whom we speak or call, as, Master, I can say. Child, Read your Lesson.

Q VVhen is a Noun in the Genitive Case?

A. A Noun is in the Genitive Case, when it is the Possessor of some other thing posses­sed, as, the Book of the Master, or, the Masters Book.

Q. How is the Genitive formed in English?

A. In English the Genitive is formed two ways, either by putting the Preposition of before the Substantive or s after it, (or es when the necessity of Pronounciation re­quires;) when of is before the Genitive, the possessed Substantive comes before of: but when s or es is added to the Substantive, the possessed Substantive comes after it. As the Masters Care, or, the Care of the Master. An asses Milk, or, the Milk of an ass.

Q. Is not es Possessive sometimes omitted?

Es Possessive is often omitted for easiness of Pronunciation, as Priamus Son, for Pri­amuses Son; the Horses bridles, for the Hor­sesses bri [...]les.

Q. VVhen is a Noun in the Dative Case?

A. A Noun is in the Dative Case, when it is the thing to which any other thing is applyed by some Verb or Adjective.

Q How is the Dative known in English?

A. In English the Dative is usually known by the Preposition to, and sometimes for be­fo [...] it, and then the applyed Word comes before the Preposition, as for Example, Strong Drink is hurtful to Children or for Children. I said my Lesson to the Master.

Q. When is a Noun in the Ablative Case?

A. A Noun is in the Ablative Case, when it comes after any of these Prepositions, with, from, in, or by, &c. as with my Ma­ster, from my Father, in the School, &c.

Q. When is a Noun in the Accusative Case?

A. A Noun is in the Accusative Case, when it is the object of Action, and then it usually comes after a Verb or Participle of an active Signification. As for Example, VVorship God, Honour thy Parents, &c.

Q. What Cases are alike in English?

A. The Nominative, Vocative, and Ac­cusative are alike in English. As for Ex­ample, the Nom. Sing. Man, the Gen. of Man or Mans, the Dat. to Man, the Abl. from Man, the Accus. Man, Nom. Plur. Men, the Gen. or Men or Mens, the Dat. to Men, the Abl. from Men, the Accus Men

Q. How is the Personal Substantive, I, de­clined?

A. The Personal Substantive, I, is irre­gularly declined, thus, Nom. Sing. I, Gen. of me, Dat. to me, Abl. to me, Accus. me, Now. Plur. we, Gen. of us, Dat. to us, Abl. from us. Accus. us.

Q. How is the Personal Substantive, Thou, declined?

A. The Personal Substantive, Thou, is irre­regularly Declined thus, Nom. Sing. Thou, Voc. thou, Gen. of thee, Dat. to thee, Abl. [Page 29] from thee, Accus. thee, Nom. Plur. Ye, or you, Voc. ye, or you, Gen. of you, Dat. to you, Abl. from you, Accus. you.

Of the Genders of Nouns.

Q. How are Substantives distinguished in respect of Gender.

A. Substantives in respect of Gender are distinguished into Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter; the Masculine Gender is the he kind, the Feminine the she kind, the Neu­ter Gender any thing that is neither he, nor she.

Q. How are the Genders signified in En­glish?

A. In English the Masculine Gender is sig­nified by he, the Feminine by she, the Neu­ter by it.

Q. What Nouns are of the Masculine Gen­der?

A. All Nouns that are said of the he kind only, are of the Masculine Gender, as a Father, a Brother, a Son, &c.

Q. What Nouns are of the Feminine Gen­der?

A. All Nouns that are said of the she kind only, are of the Feminine Gender, as a Mo­ther, a Daughter, a Sister, &c.

Q. What Nouns are of the Neuter Gen­der:

A. All Nouns that are not said of the he kind only, nor of the she kind only, are of the Neuter Gender, as a Creature, a Thing, a House, a Book, a Table, &c.

Q. Are not some Nouns said both of the Males and Females of a kind?

A. There are some Nouns said both of the Males and Females of a kind without distin­ction, and they are called Epicens or Nouns common to both Sexes, because they signify the Species or common Nature of both without regard to either, and therefore they are properly of the Neuter Gender: as a Child, a Sparrow, a Slave, &c. But when Epicens are particularly applyed to one Sex distinct from the other, they also admit the Gender of the Sex, to which they are applied: As for Example, I may say in good Sense, The Nurse took the Child, and gave it suck, or (with regard to the Sex) gave him suck, or gave her suck.

Note. In Epicens the Sex is often distin­guished by the Words, Male, Female, he, she, and such like Sex-distinguishing Words, as a Male-Child, a Female-Child, a He-ass, a She-ass, a Cock-sparrow, a Hen sparrow.

Of an Adjective.

Q. What is an Adjective?

A. An Adjective is a Word, that signifies the Manner or Quality of a thing.

Q. How shall one know an Adjective?

A. Every Word that can be declined in good Sense with a Substantive, and without a Substantive does not make Sense, is an Adjective, as the Words, Wise, Foolish, White, Black, &c.

Q. How do you know the Word Wise is an Adjective?

A. I know the Word Wise is an Adje­ctive, because I can decline it in good Sense with a Substantive, thus, A Wise Man, of a Wise Man, to a Wise Man, with a Wise Man: And without a Substantive it does not make Sense, as, I Love Wise.

Q. Are all Adjectives said in the Vocative Case?

A. The Adjectives a and the and other in­comparable Adjectives, are not said in the Voc. Case, because they always denote the Person, or thing spoken of, but the Voc. al­ways denotes the Person or thing spoken to.

Q. Can a or the be joined with a proper Name in good Sence?

A. A or the, Or any other Adjective, can­not in good Sense be joined with a Proper [Page 32]Name, as such; because every Adjective qualifies and determines some kind of thing, but a Proper Name is no kind of thing, but a meer sound, by which an individual thing of a kind is distinguished from other individuals of the same kind. But when a Proper Name is put for a common Noun, or when a common Noun is understood with it, then it admits a or the, or any o­ther Adjective in good Sense.

Thus I can say in good Sense, a Man, the City, but not a John, the London; I can say, a Solomon for a very Wise Man, a Judas for a very treacherous Man, and if I say, Wise Solomon, or treacherous Judas, the common Substantive Man is understood.

Q. Do Adjectives admit s to make them Plural?

A. In English the Adjectives are alike in both Numbers; but when they are used as Substantives, then they admit s to make them Plural, as, secrets for secret things, goods, for good things.

Q. Is the Adjective a said in the Plural Number?

A. The Adjective a is not said in the Plural Number; because it always denotes one, or some one indefinitely, and there­fore cannot be said in the Plural Number. We say a before a Consonant, and an before a Vowel for easiness of Pronounciation, as a a man, not an man; an ass, not a ass.

Q. Is the Adjective the said in the Plural Number?

A. The Adjective the denotes one or more things particularly known, or suppo­sed to be known, and therefore can be said in both Numbers, as the boy, or the boys.

Note, The Adjective this makes these in the Plural Number; that makes those; self makes selves. The Adjective who makes whose or of whom in the Genitive Singular, the Dative to whom, the Ablative from whom, and so Plurally.

Q. The Adjectives, he, she, it, are thus Declined?

A. Nom. Sing. He, Gen. his, or of him, Dat. to him, Abl, from him. Nom. Sing. She, Gen. hers, or of her, or her, Dat. to her, Abl. from her, Accus. her. Nom. Sing. It, Gen. Its, or of it, Dat. to it, Abl. from it, Accus. it. He, She, It, have the same Plural Number. Nom. Plur. They, Gen. their, theirs, or of them, Dat. to them, Abl. from them, Accus. them.

Of Comparison.

Q. How are Adjectives distinguisht in respect of Comparison?

A. Adjectives in respect of Comparison are [Page 34]distinguished into Compárable and incompá­rable.

Q. What is a comparable Adjective?

A. A Comparable or Positive Adjective is that whose Signification can be increased, as hard, soft, long, short.

Q. How may one know a comparable or Po­sitive Adjective?

A▪ Every Adjective that in good Sense admits before it, the Particles more, most, or very, is a Comparable or Positive Adjective; thus I know hard is a Positive Adjective, because I can say in good Sense, more hard, most hard, very hard,

Q. What Adjectives are formed from Po­sitive Adjectives?

A. From Positive Adjectives are formed Comparative and Superlative Adjectives.

Q. What is a Comparative Adjective?

A. A Comparative Adjective is that which signifies the same as the Positive with the Particle more before it; as harder, which is the same as more hard.

Q. How is the comparative formed in En­glish?

A. The Comparative is formed in English, by adding the Termination er to the Posi­tive; as harder, softer, longer, shorter, &c.

Q. What is a Superlative Adjective?

A. A Superlative Adjective is that which signifies the same as the Positive with the [Page 35]Particle most before it; as hardest, which is the same, as most hard.

Q. How is the Superlative formed in En­glish?

A. The Superlative is formed in English, by adding the Termination est to the Posi­tive, as, hardest, softest, longest, shortest, &c.

Q. Are there not some Comparative and Superlative Adjctives formed irregularly?

A. The Positive Adjectives, good, bad, little, much, form their Comparatives, and Superlatives irregularly; as Good, better, best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; much, more, most.

Note. To Compare an Adjective in Gram­mar, is to give the Comparative and Super­lative of it, as, hard, harder, hardest. The Grammarians call them the three degrees of Comparison; as for Example, hard, is of the Positive degree; harder, of the Comparative degree; and hardest, of the Superlative degree.

Q. What is an incomparable Adjective?

A. An Incomparable Adjective is that, whose Signification cannot be encreafed, and admits not before it in good Sense, the Particles more, most, or very; as all, some, any, &c. I cannot say in good Sense, more all, most all, or very all.

Observations on some Adjectives.

Much makes many, in the Plural Number: Much with a Substantive of the Plural Num­ber, denotes a great quantity; as, much wine, for a great quantity of wine. Many with a Substantive of the Plural Number signifies a great Number; as, many men, for a great Number of Men. Many a man, is a barba­barism, first used among the Vulgar for many men.

More, with a Substantive of the Singular Number, signifies a greater quantity, as, more wine, or a greater quantity of wine. More with a Substantive Plural, signifies a a greater number, as, more men, or a greater number of men.

Most, with a Substantive Singular denotes the greatest quantity, as, most of the wine, or the greatest part of the wine. Most, with a Substantive Plural, denotes the greatest num­ber, as most men, or the greatest number of men.

All, with a Substantive Singular, denotes the whole quantity, as, all the wine, or the whole quantity of the wine. All with a a Substantive Plural, denotes the whole num­ber, as, all the Children, for the whole [Page 37]number of the Children, Note. Every is only said with a Substantive Singular, as every man not every men. Enough with a Substan­tive Singular denotes a sufficient quantity, as, enough of wine, or a sufficient quantity of wine. In the Plural Number, it is enow, and denotes a sufficient number, as, I have Books enow or a sufficient number of Books.

Who is usually said of Persons, which of things, and sometimes of Persons.

The Interrogative who, or which, asks the Question, [...]n individual things, as, who is there? Ans. Peter. The Interrogative what, asks the Question on the kind, or Quality of things, and also on the order of a thing, as, what is that? Ans. It is a Book. What art thou? (in the order of number) Ans. the first, second, third, &c.

When the Adjective, no, is without a Sub­stantive expressed after it, we say none, as for Example, Is there no wine? there is none.

Of Verbs.

Q. What is a Verb?

A. A Verb is a Word that signifies the Action, Passion, or Being of a thing.

Q. How shall one know a Verb?

A. Every word that can be Conjugated in good Sense, with a Substantive of the Nominative Case before it, and without a Nominative Case before it cannot make Sense, is a Verb. As the Words, teach, read, run, &c.

Q. How do you know the word Teach is a Verb?

A. I know the word teach is a Verb, because I can Conjugate it in good Sense, thus, I teach, thou teachest, he teacheth, we teach, ye teach, they teach.

Q. How are Verbs distinguished as to their Signification?

A. Verbs as to their Signification are di­stinguished into Active, Passive, and Neu­ter.

Q. What is a Verb Active?

A. A Verb Active is that which denotes the Action or doing of its subject or Nomi­native Case; and admits after it in good Sense the Accusative Case of its object, or thing it acts upon.

As for Example, I call thee, I call him, I call her; But if I say, I call thou, I call he, I call she, it is non sense, because these are Nominatives, not Accusatives.

Q. How shall one know a Verb Active?

A. Every Verb that admits the Auxilia­ries, do, or did, before it in good Sense, is [Page 39]a Verb Active, as, I stand, or, I do stand; I sit. or, I do sit.

Q. How is a Verb Active distinguished in respective of its Object or Accusative Case?

A. A Verb Active, in respect of its Object, or Accusative Case, is distinguished into Transitive, and Intransitive.

Q. What is a Verb Active Transitive?

A. A Verb Active Transitive is that which admits Various Objects, or (which is the same) Various Accusatives.

As for Example, I know the Verb read is Active Transitive, because I can say in good Sense, I read a Book, I read a Letter, I read the Bible, I read my Lesson.

Q. What is a Verb Active Intransitive?

A. A Verb Active Intransitive, is that which in good Sense admits but of one Ac­cusative, and that of its own Signification. As, I live a life, I run a race, I go a journey: But I cannot say in good Sense; I live a horse, I run a chamber, I go a house, &c.

Q. What is a Verb Passive?

A. A Verb Passive is that which denotes the Passion or suffering of its Subject or Nominative Case.

Q. How is a Verb Passive formed in En­glish?

A. In English the Verb Passive is always formed by the Verb am, and the praeter Par­ticiple; [Page 40]and if either of these be want­ing it is not Passive: as, I am called, thou art beaten, &c.

Q. What is a Verb Neuter?

A. A Verb Neuter is that which is nei­ther Active nor Passive, as the Verbs, am, may, must, can, &c.

Of the Conjugation of Verbs.

Q. What is the Conjugation of a Verb?

A. The Conjugation of a Verb is the Va­riation thereof, according to its various Nominatives, and various differences of Time or Tense.

Q. How many sorts of Nominatives are there?

A. There are three sorts of Nominatives, called in Grammar Three Persons, Singular, and Plural.

Q. What Nominatives are of the first Per­son Singular?

A. Of the first Person Singular, is only one Nominative Singular, I.

Q. What Nominatives are of the second person Singular?

A. Of the second person Singular, is on­ly one Nominative Singular, Thou.

Q. What Nominatives are of the third Person Singular?

A. He, and every other Nominative Singular, is of the third Person Singular, except I and Thou.

Q. What Nominatives are of the first Person Plural?

A. Of the first Person Plural, is only one Nominative Plural, [...]e.

Q. What Nominatives are of the second Person Plural?

A. Of the second Person Plural, is only one Nominative Plural, ye or you.

Q. What Nominatives are of the third Per­son Plural?

A. They, and every other Nominative Plural, is of the third Person Plural, except we, and ye or you.

Q. VVhat are the Persons of Verbs?

A. The Persons of Verbs are their vari­ous Terminations, accommodated to the No­minatives of the several Persons.

Q. How do the Persons of Verbs end in En­glish?

A. In English Verbs, the first Person Sin­gular, the first, second, and third Plural are alike; the second Person Singular usually ends in est; the third Person Singular usually ends in eth, or s, or in es, when the neces­sity of Pronounciation requires it: As for Example, I teach, we teach, ye teach, they teach, thou teachest, he teacheth, or teaches.

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]

Of the Moods.

Q. How is a Verb distinguished in respect of its Mood or manner of expression?

A. A Verb in respect of its Mood or manner of expression, is distinguished into the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative Mood.

Q. When is a Verb of the Indicative Mood?

A. A Verb is of the Indicative Mood, when it simply affirms or denyes, or asks a question. The Verb alone affirms, as, I call, or, I do call; it denyes with the Negative Adverb not after it, or after its Auxiliary, as, I call not. or, I do not call: when a Que­stion is asked, the Nominat ye comes after the Verb or af [...]er its Auxiliary, as, callest thou? or dost thou call?

Q When is a Verb of the Subjunctive Mood?

A. A Verb is of the Subjunctive Mood, when it is joined to another Verb, by the final Conjunction, that, as, I read that I may learn.

Q. When is a Verb of the Imperative Mood?

A. A Verb is of the Imperative Mood, when it commands or prays, and then the Nominative comes after the Verb, or its Auxiliary, as, call thou, or, do thou call?

Q. Does not the Imperative want the first Person Singular and Plural?

A. The Imperative wants the first Person Singular and Plural, because none can com­mand or intreat themselves.

Of Tense or Time.

Q. How many Tenses are there?

A. There are five Tenses, the Present, the Preter imperfect, the Preter perfect, the Preter pluperfect, and the Future.

Q. VVhat is the Present Tense?

A. The Present Tense is the time, that now is passing.

Q. VVhat is the Preter imperfect Tense?

A. The Preter imperfect Tense is the Time, that was then passing.

Q. VVhat is the Preter perfect Tense?

A. The Preter perfect Tense is the Time, perfectly past.

Q. What is the Preter pluperfect Tense?

A. The Preter pluperfect Tense is the Time, more than perfectly past.

Q. What is the Future Tense?

A. The Future Tense is the Time to come.

Q. How are the Tenses known in English?

A. The Tenses are known in English by Auxiliary Verbs, commonly called the Signs of the Tenses.

Q. VVhat are the Auxiliaries of the Pre­sent Tense?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Present Tense, are, do, dost, doth, does; am, art, is, are; as, I do call, thou dost call, he doth call, we do call, ye do call, they do call; I am calling, thou art calling, &c.

Q. VVhat are the Auxiliaries of the Imper­fect Tense?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Imperfect Tense, are, was, wast, wert, were; as, I was cal­ling, thou wast calling, he was calling, we were calling, ye were calling, they were calling.

Q. VVhat are the Auxiliaries of the Perfect Tense?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Perfect Tense, are, have, hast, has, hath; as. I have called, thou hast called, he has called, we have called, ye have called, they have called.

Q. VVhat are the Auxiliaries of the Plu­perfect Te [...]se?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Pluperfect Tense, are, had, hadst; as, I had called, thou hadst called, be had called, we had called, ye had called, they had called.

Q What are the Auxiliaries of the Future Tense?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Future Tense, are, shall, shalt; will, wilt; as, I shall call, thou shall call, he shall call, we shall call, ye shall call, they shall call; I will call, thou wi [...]t call, he will call, &c.

Q. What are the Auxiliaries of the Ten­ses, when a Verb has the final Conjunction, that, before it?

A. When a Verb has the final Conjuncti­on, that, before it; the Auxiliaries of the present Tense, are, may, mayst; of the Im­perfect, might, mightest; of the Perfect, might have; of the Pluperfect, might had; of the Future, may have; as for Example, that I may call, that I might call, that I might have called, that I might had called, that I may have called.

Q. What are the Auxiliaries of the Impe­rative?

A. The Auxiliaries of the Imperative, are, do, or be; as do thou call, be thou called.

Q. Are not the Auxiliaries sometimes abso­lute Verbs?

A. When the Auxiliaries have not another Verb or Participle after them, they are not then Auxiliaries but absolute Verbs; and all the Auxiliaries are also absolute Verbs, ex­cept shall, shalt; when may, or might, has not the final Conjunction, that, before it, it is not an Auxiliary but an absolute Verb.

Q. What is the difference between the Aux­iliaries, shall, and will?

A. Shall, in the first Persons barely fore­tells, in the second and third Persons it pro­mises, or threatens.

VVill in the first Persons promises or threa­tens, in the second and third persons it barely foretells.

Q. Can any Tense be express'd without an Auxiliary?

A. The Present Tense, the Preter tense, and the Imperative can be express'd without an Auxiliary, as in the Present Tense, I see, thou seest, he seeth or sees, we see, ye see, they see; in the Preter tense, I saw, thou sawest, be saw, we saw, ye saw, they saw; In the Im­perative, see thou, see he, see ye, see they.

Q. Is not the Imperative sometimes expres­sed by let?

A. In English we usually express the third Person Singular and Plural of the Impera­tive by the Verb Active, let; as, let him call, for call he; let them call, for call they; except in some forms of Publick Authority, as, Know all men, Be it enacted, &c.

Of the Preter tense of a Verb.

The Preter tense or Time past of a Verb in English, is sometimes of the Imperfect tense, and sometimes of the Perfect tense, and therefore it may be simply called the Preter tense, or the Preter indefinite, because it is uncertain, whether it denotes the time im­perfectly past, or the time perfectly past till the Sence of the Sentence determines it. as, went, called, paid, &c. In this Sentence, I went to School, and said my Lesson, the Pre­ter tense went is of the time perfectly past, [Page 47]and may be resolved thus, after I went to School, &c.

In this Sentence, as, I went to School, I met my Father, the Preter tense went is of the time imperfectly past, and may be re­solved thus, when I was going to School.

Note. The Auxiliary did, or didst, is a Pre­ter indefinite, and may be either of the im­perfect or Perfect tense. The Particle whilst before the Preter indefinite, always denotes the Imperfect tense, as, whilst I did write, or whilst I was writing.

The Particle after, or, after that, be­fore the Preter indefinite always denotes the Perfect tense and is the same as the Auxiliary having, as, after I writ, or hav­ing written. The Particle when is ambiguous; and sometimes signifies whilst, and some­times after, or after that.

Note. The Auxiliary have with the Pro­ter participle immediately after it is always Active; but if been come between, it is al­ways Passive; thus, I have called is Active, but, I have been called is Passive. Where­ever the present Particip [...]e is, it is always Active, as, I have been calling.

Q. How is the Preter tense formed?

A. The Preter tense is regularly form­ed by adding the Termination ed to the Theam, or present Tense, as, I call, I call­ed; and sometimes e is omitted for brevity or easiness of Pronounciation, and then the d is often changed into t a Letter of the same Organ, as distinguish'd, for distinguished; and distinguisht▪ for distinguish'd.

Q. Is not the Pretertense sometimes irregu­larly formed?

A. The Preter tense is often irregularly formed, as, from see, saw; from run, ran; from break, broke; with many more, which use will teach.

Of the Participles.

Q. What is a Participle?

A. A Participle is a Verbal Substantive, or Adjective, which admits after it such case as the Verb of which it is derived.

Q. What Substantive Participles are there in English?

A. In English there are two Substantive Participles, the Present, and Perfect infini­tive.

Q. How is the Present Infinitive formed in English?

A. In English the Present Infinitive is usually formed, by putting the Preposition, to, [Page 49]before the Theam or Present Tense of the Verb; as, to call, to read, to teach, &c.

Q. How is the Perfect Infinitive formed?

A. The Perfect Infinitive is usually form­ed by putting to have, before the Perfect-Tense of the Verb; as, to have called, to have taught; &c.

Q. What Adjective Participles are there in English?

A. There are two Adjective Participles in English, the Present and Preter Participle.

Q How is the Present Participle formed?

A. The Present Participle is formed by adding the Termination ing▪ to the Theam or Present Tense of the Verb, as, calling, reading, teaching, &c.

Q. How ends the Preter Participle in En­glish?

A. In English the Preter Participle usu­ally ends in d, t, or n, as, called, taught, beaten.

Q What if the Verb of the Preter Tense end in d or t?

A, If the Verb of the Preter Tense end in d or t, the Preter Participle is the same with it, and is only distinguished by the Sense. But if the Verb of the Preter Tense, end otherwise than in d or t, then the Pre­ter Participle usually ends in en, as, broken, and oftentimes e is left out, as known, for knowen.

Q. How shall one know the Preter Participle?

A. The Word that follows the Auxiliary have, in good Sense, is always the Preter Participle; as for Example, I know seen is the Preter Participle, because I can say in good Sense, I have seen, but I cannot say in good Sense, I have saw; whence I know that saw is only a Verb of the Preter Tense, and no [...] also the Preter Participle.

Of the Substantive or Copula­lative Verb am.

Q Why is the Verb Neuter am, called a Substantive or Copulative Verb?

A. The Verb Neuter, am, is called a Sub­stantive or Copulative Verb, because it al­ways couples the Substantive of the Predi­cate after it, to the Substantive of the Subject before it.

Q. May not all the Tenses of a Verb be ex­prest by the Verb am, and the Participles of the Present, or Preter Tense?

A. All the Tenses of a Verb Active, may be exprest by the Verb am, and the present Participle, as, I am calling, I was calling, I have been calling, I had been calling, I shall be calling.

All the Tenses of a Verb Passive, may be express'd by the Verb am, and the Pre­ter [Page 51]Participle, and in English they are al­ways so express'd; as, I am called, I was called, I have been called, I had been called, I shall be called.

Q. How is the Verb am Conjugated?

A. The Verb am is irregularly Conju­gated thus,

Present Indicative, I am, thou art, he is, we are, ye are, they are.

Imperfect Indicative, I was, thou wast, he was, we were, ye were, they were.

Perfect Indicative, I have been, thou hast been, he hath been, we have been, ye have been, they have been.

Pluperfect Indicative, I had been, thou hadst been, he had been, we had been, ye had been, they had been.

Future Indicative, I shall be, thou shalt be, he shall be, or, I will be, thou wilt be, &c.

Present Sujunctive, that I may be, that thou mayest be, that he may be, that we may be, that ye may be, that they may be.

Imperfect Subjunctive, that I might be, that thou might'st be, that he might be, that we might be, th [...]t ye might be, that they might be.

Perfect Subjunctive, that I might have been, that thou might'st have been, that he might have been, that we might have been, that ye might have been, that they might have been.

Pluperfect Subjurctive, that I might had been, that thou might'st had been, that he might bad been, that we might had been, that ye might had been, that they might had been.

Future Subjunctive, that I may have been, that thou mayest have been, that he may have been, that we may have been, that ye may have been, that they may have been.

The Imperative, be thou, be he, or let him be; be ye, be they, or let them be.

The Present Infinitive, to be.

The Perfect Infinitive, to have been.

The Pesent Participle, being.

The Preter Participle, been.

Note. Be and beest are often used in the Present Tense, especially after some Conjunction, as, if thou beest, tho we be.

Q. Does not the present tense of the Substan­tive Verb am, with the preter participle, some­times denote the perfect tense?

A. In External or Corporeal Actions, the present tense of the Substantive Verb am, with the preter participle, denotes the per­fect tense immediately past; as, the Letter is Written: but when we would be understood of the present tense passive in External Acti­ons, we usually express it by the Substantive Verb, with a, for in, before the present par­ticiple, as the Letter is a Writing; which form [Page 53]of speaking is usual in all other tenses, ei­ther actively or passively understood ac­cording to the sense, as I was a Writing my Letter, is the imperfect active, but the Letter was a Writing, is the imperfect passive.

Q. Is not the Vowel e, often left out in some terminations?

A. The Vowel e, is often left out in the terminations, en, ed, est, eth, either for bre­vity or easiness of Pronounciation, and we always put an Apostroph over the place of the Vowel left out, if the word be commonly used with it; as for Example, we write prov'd with an Apostroph, because proved is in common use, but if the word be not com­monly used with the Vowel, we do not mark it with an Apòstroph, as in doth, dost slain, done, gone, because doeth doest, slaien, doen, go­en, are not in common use.

Q. What if the Vowel e, be left out after c, or g, soft?

A. If the Vowel e, be left out after c, or g, soft, the Apostroph must always be mar­ked, least c, or g, soft, should seem to be hard, as in forc't, chang'd.

Q. What is an Apostroph?

A. An Apostroph is a mark put over the place of a Vowel, left out in a word for brevity or easiness of Pronounciation.

Obs. In all English words that end in en, we pronounce the Vowel e, so swiftly, that it is scarce heard, as in Oxen, Chicken, Wri­ten, &c.

Q. Are there not some Defective Verbs?

A. There are some Defective Verbs, that neither admit the Auxiliaries before them, nor have any participles derived of them, as these neuter Verbs can, may, must, ought, and some others: can, canst in the present tense, could in the Imperfect, could have in the per­fect, could had in the pluperfect.

Can, denotes strength or ability, and may in all tenses be resolved by the Verb am, and the Adjective able, as I can, or, I am able; I could, or I was able, &c.

May, may'st in the present tense; might in the imperfect, might have in the perfect, might had in the pluperfect.

May, denotes either the Lawfulness, or pos­sibility of a thing, and may be resolved in all tenses by the Substantive Verb, and the Ad­jective lawful or possible, as I may, or it is law­ful for me, or it is possible for me, &c.

Must in the present tense; in the perfect must have, in the pluperfect, must had.

Must, may be supply'd in all tenses, by the Substantive Verb, and the Adjective necessary; as I must, or it is necessary for me, in the im­perfect it was necessary for me, &c.

Ought to in the present tense, ought to have in the perfect, ought to had in the plu­perfect.

Ought, denotes Duty, and may be supply'd in all tenses by the Substantive Verb and the word Duty, as I ought to read, or it is my Du­ty to read, &c.

Should in the imperfect tense, should have in the perfect, should had in the pluperfect, shall have in the future.

Should, does sometimes denote Duty as I should read, and sometimes only the future tense, as if I should neglect to read, my Father would be angry.

Would in the imperfect tense would have in the perfect, would had in the pluperfect.

Would denotes futurity, and a propension of the will also.

The Verb behoveth, or behooves is only said in the third Person singular and signifies re­quisite, and it has always the Adjective it before it, and an Infinitive after it, as it be­hooveth me to read, or it is requisite for me to read.

Note, The Grammarians call those Verbs impersonal, that are only said in the third Person singular, and they have always it be­fore them, and an Infinitive or a sentence after them.

Of the Particles.

Q What is a Particle?

A. A Particle is a word that signifies the manner, Circumstance, or Connexion of Verbs, as swiftly, foolishly with, as, &c.

Q How may one know a Particle?

A. Any word that can neither be declin­ed nor congulated in a good sense is a Parti­cle. As for Example, the word wisely; for if I say, wisely, of wisely, to wisely, with wise­ly or I wisely, thou wiseliest, he wiselieth, it is all nonsense, by which I know it is a Parti­cle.

Q. How many sorts of Particles are there?

A. There are three sorts of Particles; Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions.

Of an Adverb.

Q. What is an Adverb.

A. An [...]dverb is a Particle that denotes the manner or quality of an Action, as wisely, slowly, sadly, &c.

Q. How may one know an Adverb?

[...]. Any Particle that makes compleat sense with one Verb is an Adverb: As for Example, a fool speaks foolishly, a good Man lives happily.

Of a Preposition.

Q. What is a Preposition?

A. A Preposition is a Particle that denotes some Circumstance of an Action, as to, for, with, from, in, by, &c.

Q. How may one know a Preposition?

A. Any Particle that makes compleat sense with a Verb or Participle before it, and an oblique Case after it, is a Preposition: As for Example, I know the Particle to is a Preposition, because I can say in good sense, I speak to him, not, I speak to he, because he is not an oblique Case; but a Nominative, with which no Preposition can make sense: He came from me, not, from I, he was with thee, not, with thou; I spoke with her, not, with she.

Q. What Cases are called oblique?

A. All the the Cases are called oblique, except the Nominative and Vocative, which are called direct Cases.

Of a Conjunction.

Q. What is a Conjunction?

A. A Conjunction is a Particle that joins two sentences together: As for Example, and, as, when, that, &c.

Q. How may one know a Conjunction?

A. Every Particle that leaves the sense imperfect without two Verbs is a Con­junction.

Q. How do you know the Particle as is a Conjunction?

A. I know the Particle as is a Conjuncti­on, because it leaves the sense imperfect with one Verb. As for Example, As I went to School, where the sense is imperfect, and the mind in suspence till another Verb, or (which is the same) another sentence be ad­ded, thus, As I went to School I met my Fa­ther.

Q. Is not the same word sometimes of dif­ferent Parts of Speech?

A. Sometimes the same word is of differ­ent Parts of Speech, which must be distin­guished by the sense. As for Example, the word sound in this sentence (I will sound the Trumpet) it is a Verb: In this sentence (I hear the sound of the Trumpet) it is a Sub­stantive: In this sentence (he is a Man of a sound Judgment) it is an Adjective.

Of Abbreviatures.

Q. Are there not some words that are Ab­breviatures of two or three Parts of Speech?

A. There are some words that are Abbre­viatures of two or three Parts of Speech, [Page 59]which the Grammarians call Adverbs of time and place.

Those Abbreviatures called Adverbs of time, are chiefly these; now at this time, then at that time, when at what time or at which time, always at every time, evermore at all times, often at many times, once at one time, twice at two times, thrice at three times, sel­dom at few times, ever at any time or at all times, never at no time, &c.

Those Abbreviatures called Adverbs of place, are chiefly these; here in this place, there in that place, where in what place or in which place, hence from this place, thence from that place, whence from what place or from which place, hither to this place, thither to that place, whither to what place or to which place, &c.

Note, The Abbreviatures here, there, where, are often Compounded with a Prepo­sition, as hereof of this thing, thereof of that thing, whereof of what thing, or of which thing, wherein in what thing, or in which thing, herein in this thing, therein in that thing, wherewith with what thing, thereto to that thing, &c.

Q. Of what Case are the Abbreviatures of time and place?

A. Those Abbreviatures that may be re­solved by the Prepositions at, in, or from, are all of the ablative Case.

Those Abbreviatures that may be resolv­ed by the Preposition to, or unto, are all of the Accusative Case.

Note, Here doth sometimes signify, in this State or Condition. Whence doth sometimes signify, from that Person, or from which Per­son.

Where, here and there are Vulgarly said, for whither, hither and thither, as, where are you going, for whither are you going? I am going there, for I am going thither. I came here, for I came hither.

Of Interjections.

Q. What are those Voices called Interjecti­ons?

A. Those Voices call'd Interjections are not properly words, because they do not sig­nify by the custom of any Language, but are Natural Expressions or Signs of the Passions of the mind, and are the same in all Lan­guages, as ah, o, oh, ha, ha, he, &c.

Q. Why is an Interjection so called?

A. An Interjection is so called, because it is thrown in between words in speaking; by the Force or Violence of some Passion, as of Joy or Grief, Pain or Pleasure, Admi­ration or Indignation, &c.

Of Derivative Words.

Q. How many sorts of derived Substan­tives are there?

A. There are seven more usual sorts of derived Substantives, viz. Diminitive Nouns, Abstract Nouns, Verbal Substantives of the Actor, Verbal Substantives of the Action; Nouns that signify Office, Nouns that signi­fy Dominion or Rule, and Nouns that signify State or Condition.

Of Diminitive Nouns.

Q. What is a Diminitive Noun?

A. A Diminitive Noun is, that which sig­nifies the same as its Primitive Substantive, with the Adjective little, as Cockrel a little Cock, gosling a little Goose, parcel a little part, &c.

Q. How are Diminitive Nouns formed?

A. Diminitive Nouns are variously form­ed, but more usually they end in ock, kin, or et; as Hillock a little hill, Bullock a little Bull; Manikin a little Man, Willkin a little Willi­am, Pocket a little Poke, Billet a little Bill.

Of Abstract Nouns.

Q. Is not the same Quality both a Substan­tive and an Adjective?

A. The same Quality is both a Substan­tive and an Adjective, in different respects and under different forms; in the Abstract, (or as it is conceiv'd without the Subject) it is a Substantive; in the Concrete, (or as it is joined with the Subject or Substantive) it is an Adjective: As for Example, kindness, goodness, meekness, are Substantives, but kind, good, meek, are Adjectives.

Q. What is an Abstract Noun?

A. An Abstract Noun is a Substantive de­rived of an Adjective, and signifies a Quali­ty, as Abstracted or separated from any Sub­ject.

Q. How are Abstract Substantives form'd?

A. Abstract Substantives are regularly formed by adding the termination ness, to the Adjective, as goodness, kindness; and sometimes they end in th, as length from long, strength from strong, wealth from weal. Ab­stract Nouns borrowed from the Latin end variously, as Justice, Fortitude, Liberty, &c.

Of the Substantive of the Actor or Doer.

Q. What is the Substantive of the Actor or Doer?

A. The Substantive of the Actor or Doer, is derived of a Verb, and Denotes the use or habit of doing, as a reader, he that reads often, or useth to read.

Q. How is the Substantive of the Actor or Do­er formed?

A. The Substantive of the Actor or Doer, is regularly formed in English, by adding the termination er, to the theam of the Verb; as teach, teacher; play, player: But in words borrowed from the Latin we usually keep the Latin termination or, as Doctor, not Doc­ter; yet some write our for or, to avoid the Latin termination, as Governour for Gover­nor, Oratour for Orator.

Of the Substantive of the Action.

Q. What is the Substantive of the Action?

A. The Substantive of the Action, is that which signifies the Action, as separated from the Agent or Doer, as Learning, Reading, Writing, &c.

Q. How is the Substantive of the Action formed?

A. The Substantive of the Action is regu­larly formed in English, by adding the ter­mination ing, to the theam of the Verb, as Preach, Preaching; Pray, Praying; Sing, Sing­ing, and sometimes it is the theam of the Verb taken Substantively, as a Command, a Dance, Love, Ʋse: Some end in ment, age, ance, as Commandment, Tillage, Appearance; and many derived from the Latin end in ion, as Instruction, Correction; and many other­wise, as Lecture, Reason, Doctrine, &c.

Q. How is the Verbal Substantive in ing, distinguished from the Verbal Adjective in ing?

A. The Verbal Substantive in ing, is di­stinguished from the Verbal Adjective in ing, by the sense.

The Substantive in ing, admits a, or the, or any other Adjective before it in good sense, without another Substantive: But the Adjective in ing, does not admit a, or the, or any other Adjective in good sense, without some Substantive before it, or after it: As for Example, a Boy Singing Psalms, here Singing is an Adjective: The Singing of Psalms, here Singing is a Substantive.

Of Substantives that signify Office.

Q. How are Nouns that signify Office formed?

A. Nouns that signify Office are usually formed by adding ship to th [...] Primitive Sub­stantive, as Kingship, the Office of a King; Stewardship, the Office of a Steward; Guardi­anship, the Office of a Guardian. Some Nouns in ship signify State or Condition, as Lordship the State of a Lord; Partnership, the State or Condition of Partners.

Of Substantive that signify Dominion.

Q How are Nouns that signify Dominion or Rule formed?

A. Nouns that signify Dominion or Rule are usually formed by adding dom to the Substantive, as Christendom, the Dominion of Christians; a Kingdom, the Dominion of a King; Popedom, the Dominion of the Pope.

Of Substantives that signify State or Condition.

Q. How are Nouns that signify State or Con­dition formed?

A. Nouns that signify State or Condition are usually formed by adding head or hood to the Primitive Substantive, as the Godhead, the State or Majesty of God: Manhood, the state or condition of a Man: Childhood, the state or condition of a Child: Brotherhood, the state or condition of Brothers: Widowhood, the state or condition of a Widow.

Of Derivative Adjectives.

Q. How many sorts of derivative Adjectives are there?

A. The most usual derivative Adjectives are of seven sorts, viz. possessive Adjectives, material Adjectives, Adjectives of fulness, Adjectives of emptiness, Adjectives of like­ness, diminutive Adjectives, and ordinal Ad­jectives.

Of a Possessive Adjective.

Q. What is a possessive Adjective?

A. A possessive Adjective is nothing else but the Genitive of the Possessor under the form of an Adjective, and the Substantive after it is always the possessed Substantive; for there cannot be a Possessor without some­thing possessed, nor any thing possessed with­out a Possessor.

Q. How is a possessive Adjective formed?

A. A possessive Adjective is variously form­ed, but for the most part it is made in Eng­lish by adding s or es possessive to the Sub­stantive, and oftentimes s or es is omitted for the conveniency of pronunciation, as the house Door for the houses Door, the horses Bridles for the horseses Bridles.

Q. How shall one know a possessive Adjec­tive?

A. That is always a possessive Adjective that may in good sense be resolved by the Genitive of its Primitive, made by the pre­position of; as, my or of me, thy or of thee, our or of us, your or of you, his or of him, her or of her, their or of them; English or of England, French or of France, Italian or of Italy.

Q. Does not an Adjective admit s or es pos­sessive?

A. An Adjective taken substantively ad­mits s or es possessive, as another's Debt, or the Debt of another.

Note. When the possessed Substantive is not express'd after my, thy, our, your, her, their, we say mine, thine ours, yours, hers, theirs; as, this Book is mine, not this Book is my; this Pen is thine, not this Pen is thy.

Q. What is the use of a possessive Adjective, since it is nothing else but a Substantive of the Genitive Case, under the form of an Adjec­tive?

A. Tho the possessive Adjective be a real Substantive of the Genitive Case, yet it is of great use to distinguish the Genitive of the Possessor from other Genitives made by the preposition of, which is often very ambi­guous and doubtful.

Of a Material Adjective.

Q. What is a material Adjective?

A. A material Adjective is that which denotes the matter of which any thing is made; and in English it is usually made by adding en to the Substantive, and sometimes en is omitted, as a golden Ring, or a gold Ring, or a Ring made of Gold.

Q. How shall one know a material Adjective?

A. That is always a material Adjective that may in good sense be resolved by the Primitive Substantive, the participle made, and the preposition of; as brazen or made of Brass, wooden or made of Wood, woolen or made of Wool, flaxen or made of Flax.

Of an Adjective of Fulness.

Q. What is an Adjective of fulness?

A. An Adjective of fulness is that which denotes the plenty, frequency or fulness of a thing or action, and it is usually made in [Page 69]English by adding the termination y or ous to the Substantive, and sometimes the Ad­jective full, as healthy or healthful, or full of Health.

Q. How shall one know an Adjective of ful­ness?

A. That is always an Adjective of ful­ness, that may be resolved in good sense by the primitive Substantive, and the Adjec­tive full, as witty or full of Wit, malicious or full of Malice, &c.

Of Adjectives of Emptiness.

Q. What is an Adjective of emptiness?

A. An Adjective of emptiness is that which signifies the want of the thing, and it is formed in English by adding less to the Sub­stantive, as healthless or without Health, grace­less or void of Grace, senseless or void of Sense.

Of Adjectives of Likeness.

Q. What is an Adjective of likeness?

A. An Adjective of likeness is that which denotes likeness to a thing, and it is usually formed in English by adding the terminati­on ly to the Substantive, and sometimes the [Page 70]Adjective like, as godly or like God, manly or like a Man, or manlike.

Of Diminutive Adjectives.

Q. What is a diminutive Adjective?

A. A diminutive Adjective is that which denotes a little or somewhat of the nature or quality of the thing, and it is usually form­ed in English by adding the termination ish to a Substantive or Adjective, as Childish or somewhat of a Child, blackish, a little black, or somewhat black; and sometimes it is made by adding the Adjective some, as troublesome, handsome.

Of Ordinal Adjectives.

Q. How are Adjectives of Number distin­guished?

A. Adjectives of number are distinguished into Cardinal and Ordinal.

Q. What is a Cardinal Adjective?

A. A Cardinal Adjective, or an Adjective of the cardinal Number, is that which signi­fies Number, as one, two, three, four, five, six, seven eight, nine, ten, &c.

Q. What is an Ordinal Adjective?

A. An Ordinal Adjective is formed from the Cardinal, and signifies the order and place of the Cardinal, as, first, second, third fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, &c.

Thus, first is the foremost of any number, second the latter of two, third the last of three, fourth the last of four, fifth the last of five, &c.

Of Derivative Verbs.

Q. How are derivative Verbs formed?

A. Derivative Verbs, are usually formed from Substantives and Adjectives, by add­ing a verbal termination to the Substantive or Adjective, as ship, I ship, thou shippest, he shippeth, &c. to put into a Ship; and some­times they are formed by adding the ter­mination en to the Substantive or Adjective, as lengthen to make long, shorten to make short, widen to make wide, &c.

Of Derivative Adverbs.

Q. How many sorts of derivative Adverbs are there?

A. There are four more usual sorts of derivative Adverbs, viz. Positive, Compara­tive, Superlative, and Ordinal Adverbs.

Q. How is a Positive Adverb formed?

A. A Positive Adverb is usually formed by adding the termination ly to the Positive Ad­jective, as wise, wisely; foolish, foolishly; sin­ful, sinfully, &c.

Q How may a Positive Adverb be resolved?

A. A Positive Adverb may be resolved by the Preposition in, with the Ablative manner, and its Positive adjective, as ignorantly, or in an ignorant manner; foolishly, or in a foo­lish manner.

Q. Are not some Positive Adverbs the same as their positive Adjectives?

A. Some positive Adverbs are the same as their positive Adjectives, as ill, little, much; not illy, littlely; so well, not welly.

Q How are Comparative and Superlative Adverbs formed?

A. Comparative and Superlative Adverbs are nothing else but Comparative and Super­lative Adjectives, taken adverbially with Verbs and Participles; and for the most part they may be resolved by a positive Adverb with the Particles more, most, or very; as I write slower or more slowly: Solomon spoke wisest or most wisely of all Men.

Q. How are Ordinal Adverbs formed?

A. Ordinal Adverbs are usually formed by adding ly to the Ordinal Adjective, and they may be resolved by the Preposition in, with the Ablative place, and the Ordinal Ad­jective; as secondly, or in the second place; thirdly, or in the third place; fourthly, or in [Page 73]the fourth place. First is both an Ordinal Adjective, and an Ordinal Adverb; for we do not say firstly.

Of the inseparable Particles un, dis, and mis.

Q. Why are the Particles un, dis, and mis, call'd inseparable?

A. The Particles un, did, and mis, are call'd inseparable, because they are never used but in composition with other words; and they all include the negative Particle not, besides their peculiar signification.

Q. What does the Particle un signify?

A. The Particle un always signifies Pri­vation, that is the absence or want of some­thing that either was or ought to be; as, unmerciful unkind, unholy.

Q. Does not the Particle in sometimes sig­nify un?

A. In words derived from the Latin, the Particle in (or im when the pronunciation requires it) is the same as the privative Particle un; as ingratitude or unthankfulness, impatience or want of Patience: and some­times it is an intensive Particle, and then it signifies very or very much; as intent or very earnest; inraged or very much provoked.

Q. Is not the French Particle en sometimes used for the Latin Particle in?

A. In many words borrowed from French and Latin, we use the French Particle en for in, when it is not privative: thus we indif­ferently say enraged or inraged, engrave or ingrave, engender or ingender, embrace or im­brace, employ or imploy.

Note, The Particle un is always privative, en never, in sometimes privative and some­times not: yet in Verbs it is seldom ever privative, but often in Participles and other words.

Q. What does the Particle dis signify?

A. The Particle dis usually signifies some contrariety, as to dishonour, or do something contrary to ones honour.

Q. What does the Particle mis signify?

A. The Particle mis usually signifies wrong or error, as to mistake or take wrong, or o­therwise than it is; to misuse, or use ill, or o­therwise than we ought.

Of a SENTENCE.

Q. What is a Sentence?

A. A Sentence is a construction of words wherein something is said of another, as man is Mortal; here it is said of Man that he is Mortal.

Q. What are the essential parts of a Sen­tence?

A. The essential parts of a Sentence, without which it cannot be, are a Verb and the Nominative of the Subject; all other words in a Sentence depend upon one of these two mediately or immediately.

Q. Why cannot a Sentence be without a Verb and a Nominative Case?

A. A Sentence cannot be without a Verb and a Nominative Case, because nothing can be said of another without a Verb, and no Verb can be without the Nominative of the Subject either exprest or understood.

Q. How is a Sentence distingnished in respect of Composition?

A. A Sentence in respect of Compositi­on, is distinguished into Simple and Com­pound.

Q. What is a simple Sentence?

A. A simple Sentence is that wherein there is but one Verb and one Nominative of the Subject, either exprest or understood.

Q. What is a Compound Sentence?

A. A Compound Sentence is two simple Sentences joined together by a Conjunctive Particle, or a Conjunctive Adjective, as I read, and thou playest: This is the Boy who broke the Windows.

Of the Syntax or Construction of words in a Sentence.

Q. What is Syntax?

A. Syntax or Construction is the right joining of words in a Sentence.

Q. What's the construction of the Adjective with its Substantive?

A. The Adjective is always of the same Gender, Number and Case with its Sub­stantive; as this Man, that Boy, every Book, all things, one day; not those Man, those Boy, every Books, all thing, one days.

Note, Tho English Adjectives for the most part have no distinction of Gender, Number or Case, yet some have, as in the instances above, and many more: on which Account this Rule cannot well be omitted in English.

Of Apposition.

Q. What is Apposition?

A. Apposition is the adding of one Sub­stantive to another, to declare and explain it: the latter or explaining Substantive is called the Apposite Substantive; the former or explained Substantive is called the ante­cedent Substantive: as for Example, if I say Paul the Apostle, the Apposite Substan­tive [Page 77] Apostle explains what Paul I speak of; and if I say the Apostle Paul, the Apposite Substantive Paul declares what Apostle I mean.

Q. What is the construction of the Apposite with its Antecedent Substantive?

A. The Apposite Substantive is always of the same Case with its Antecedent Substan­tive, as my Father loves me his only Child.

Of the Nominative of the Subject.

Q. What is the Nominative of the Subject?

A. The Nominative of the Subject is that of which the Verb is predicated or said; and it usually comes before the Verb.

Q. Must every Verb have a Nominative of the Subject?

A. Every Verb must have a Nominative of the Subject either exprest or under­stood, because there can be no Action with­out an Agent, nor Passion without a Patient, nor Being without something that is in be­ing.

Q. What is the construction of the Verb with the Nominative of the Subject?

A. The Verb is always of the same Num­ber and Person with the Nominative of the Subject, as I write, thou writest, he writeth; not I writest, thou writeth. I am, thou art, he is, we are; not I art, thou am, he are.

Q. May not a whole Sentence be the Nomi­native Case to a Verb?

A. A whole Sentence is often taken as one aggregate Substantive of the Neuter Gen­der, and third Person singular; and then it may be the Nominative Case before a Verb, or the Accusative after it, a Substantive to an Adjective, or an Antecedent to a Rela­tive: as for Example, He who is vertuous is content with his Condition, which is the true property of Riches.

Q. When does the Nominative of the Subject come after the Verb?

A. The Nominative of the Subject usu­ally comes after the Verb, or after its auxi­liary, when the Sentence is imperative or interrogative; as read thou, or do thou read, readest thou, or dost thou read?

2ly. When a declarative or final Sentence is the Nominative Case, it usually comes af­ter the Verb, and then the Adjective it comes before the Verb; as for example, It grieves me much that thou art idle, or that thou art idle grieves me much.

3ly. When the Nominative is put inde­finitely, it usually comes after the Verb, and then we put the indefinite Particle there before it; as there came a Man to our House.

Q. Is not the Nominative of the Subject sometimes supprest?

A. The Nominative of the Subject is of­ten supprest after the second Person Singu­lar [Page 79]and Plural of the Imperative; as go, for go thou, or go ye.

2ly. Before Verbs of Nature, and then we put it before the Verb; as it rains, it grows Night.

Of the Nominative of the Pre­dicate.

Q. What is the Nominative of the Predicate?

A. The Nominative of the Predicate is that which is said of the Nominative of the Subject; as I am he, thou art she, those are they; not I am him, thou art her, those are them.

Q. May not the Nominative come after other Verbs?

A. The Nominative may come after any other Verb, by a suppression of the sub­stantive Verb or its Participles.

Q. After what Verbs does the Nominative most usually come?

A. The Nom. comes most usually after intransitive Verbs, and Passive Verbs, of calling, esteeming, judging, and others; which therefore may improperly be called copulative Verbs; as I am called Peter: thou art esteemed (to be) an honest Man: My Fa­ther returned (being) angry.

Q. How shall one know when a Substantive or Adjective that comes after a Verb is in the Nom. Case?

A. When a Substantive or Adjective comes after any Verb, it is in the Nom. Case, if it belong to the Nom. before the Verb; as I went to bed sick, or being sick; the Child died young, or being young.

Q. How may one know the Nom. of the Pre­dicate from the Nom. of the Subject?

A. In order of nature, the Nom. of the Predicate comes after the copulative Verb; but oftentimes the natural order of Predica­tion is changed, by which the sense and meaning of Authors is often mistaken and perverted. Yet the Predicate may be easily known from the Subject, whether it be be­fore or after the Verb, because it is always a superior or more common Substantive than the Subject, or at least equal to it, ne­ver inferior or less common.

Q. How shall one know the superior Substantive?

A. That is always the superior Substan­tive that can in good sense be affirmed of the inferior and of more things, but not con­trary wise. Thus all common Nouns are superior to the personal Substantives I and thou, and all proper Names, and all other individuals; and more common Nouns supe­rior to less commons Nouns; as London is a City; an Oak is a Tree; a Sparrow is a Bird; not contrary wise, a City is London; a Tree is an Oak; a Bird is a Sparrow; because there are more Citys than London, more Trees than Oaks, and more Birds than Sparrows.

Q. When is the Predicate equal to the Sub­ject?

A. The Predicate is equal to the Subject, when they can be mutually affirmed of one another, and one cannot be said of more things than the other; as, every extended Sub­stance is a Body, and every Body is an extended Substance; every Man is a rational Creature, every rational Creature is a Man.

Of the Vocative.

Q. What is the construction of the Vocative?

A. The Vocative is no part of the Sen­tence, but only the Person to whom the Sen­tence is addrest, and therefore depends up­on no other word in the Sentence.

Q Of what Person is the Vocative?

A. The Vocative is always of the second Person, Singular or Plural.

Note, Persons or intelligent Beings properly have the Vocative Case, because they only can be spoken to: yet other things are sometimes spoken to, as if they were Persons, and then we give them the Vocative Case.

Q. Is not the Voc. governed of the Inter­jection O?

A. The Voc. is not governed of the In­terjection O, tho it be sometimes put before the Voc. in Exclamation, as it may also be before any other word.

Of the Gentive of the Possessor.

Q. Of what is the Gen. of the Possessor go­vern'd?

A. The Genitive of the Possessor is go­verned of some possessed Substantive, either exprest or understood; as the Word of God; the Life of Man.

Q. Is not a possessive Adjective often substi­tuted for the Gen. of the Possessor?

A. A Possessive Adjective being nothing else but the Gen. of the Possessor under the form of an Adjective, is elegantly substituted for the Gen. of its Primitive made by of, to avoid ambiguity; as, my hand, or the hand of me; God's Word, or the Word of God.

Note, The possessive Adjectives, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their, are almost always used instead of their Primitive Genitives made by of, when Possession is signified; as my House, thy Book, our Town, your Coun try; not the House of me, the Book of thee, the Town of us, the Country of you.

Q. When the Genitive of the Possessor is ex­press'd in several words, where must s or es Possessive be added?

A. When the Gen. of the Possessor is ex­press'd in several words, they are taken as one aggregate Substantive, and s or es Pos­sessive added to the last word; as, the King [Page 83]of England's Court; Julius Caesar Scaliger's Book.

The Genitive of the Object.

Q. Of what is the Genitive of the Object governed?

A. The Gen. of the Object is governed of a verbal Substantive, of an active Signi­fication; as, the reading of the Bible, the Sal­vation of a Sinner, a lover of his Country. &c.

Note, The Gen. of the Possessor, and the Gen. of the Object, are sometimes govern­ed of the same verbal Substantive; as, God's care of his Creatures.

Note, My love is that which I possess, and wherewith I love another; the love of me is that of which I am the Object, and with which another loves me.

Of the Genitive of the greater Number.

Q. Of what is the Genitive of the greater number governed?

A. The Genitive of the greater number is governed of some partitive Adjective; as, one of the Sisters, the best of the Boys.

Note, The Genitive of the greater num­ber is always Plural, except it be a collec­tive [Page 84]Noun; as, the best of the People, the worst of the City.

Note, That Partition of the greater num­ber is sometimes made by the Preposition among; as, the wisest among them, or the wisest of them.

Q. What is a Collective Noun?

A. A Collective Noun, or a Noun of mul­titude Singular, is that which in the Singular number contains many Individuals; as, a Nation, a City, &c.

Q. What Adjectives are Partitive?

A. Almost all Adjectives may be used partitively, but especially interrogative, nu­meral, comparative, and superlative Ad­jectives.

The Genitive of the greater Quantity.

Q. Of what is the Genitive of the greater Quantity govern'd?

A. The Gen. of the greater Quantity is governed of some Substantive signifying a lesser Quantity; and oftentimes an Adjec­tive of Quantity is elegantly substituted for its abstract Substantive: as, a bushel of Wheat, a yard of Cloth, a foot of Ground, part of the Mony, most of the Time, enough of Hail.

Note, the Preposition of is sometimes sup­press'd; as much Wine, for a great quantity of Wine; more Wine for a greater quantity of Wine; a little Bread for a small quantity of Bread.

Note, The Genitive of the greater Quan­tity is usually Singular, but not always; as, a barrel of Oysters.

Note, The Genitive of the Possessor, and the Genitive of the greater Quantity, may both be governed of the same Substantive; as, my part of the Wine.

Of the Genitive of the Part or Property.

Q. Of what is the Genitive of the Part or Property governed?

A. When the Substantive of the Part or Property has an Adjective joined with it, it is governed of the Substantive, whose Part or Property it is in the Genitive, and some­times in the Ablative with the Preposition with before it; as, a Boy of a good Counte­nance, a Man of a long Head, or with a long Head.

Note, In English the Adjective is some­times supprest, especially when the Geni­tive is a verbal Substantive; as, a man of Sense, for a man of good Sense.

Of the Dative.

Q. Of what is the Dative governed?

A. The Dative is governed of some ap­plicable Adjective or Verb, or of words de­rived of them, whether Substantives, Ad­jectives, or Adverbs.

Q. What Adjectives and Verbs are appli­cable?

A. Almost all Adjectives and Verbs may be applied to a thing, yet some are of their own nature more applicable than others, as Adjectives and Verbs that denote Profit or Loss, Good or Evil, or any other reference to a thing: as, it is agreeable to nature; he is obliged to me; be acted agreeably to his na­ture; where there is no Crime, there is no obli­gation to punishment.

Q. Is not the Preposition to sometimes sup­press'd before the Dative?

A. The Preposition to or unto, is often supprest before the Dative; as, I gave him a Bock, or I gave to him a Bock; like me, or like to me; near thee, or near to thee.

Note, We usually suppress to before the Substantive home; as I came home, not to home.

Note, To or into, after Verbs of Motion, is a Preposition of the Accusative Case.

Q. Is not for sometimes substituted for to in Application?

A. For is sometimes substituted for to in Application; as, I have a Book for you, or to you; This is for your Profit, or to your Profit.

Of the Accusative of the Object.

Q. Of what is the Accusative of the Object governed?

A. The Accusative of the Object is al­ways governed of some Verb or Participle of an Active signification, either exprest or understood; as, I call thee, I call him, I call them; not I call thou, I call he, I call they.

Q. Is not the Accusative of the Object some­times supprest?

A. When the Accusative of the Object is a cognate Substantive, or of the same sig­nification with the Verb it is usually sup­prest; as, I live, viz. a Life: but if it have an Adjective with it, it is necessarily exprest; as I live a good Life.

Of the Ablative.

Q Of what is the Ablative governed?

A. The Ablative is always governed of some Preposition of the Ablative Case, ei­ther [Page 88]exprest or understood; as, from me, from thee; not from I, from thou.

Of Passive Verbs and Participles.

Q. What case have Verbs and Participles of a Passive signification after them?

A. Verbs and Participles of a Passive sig­nification have after them the Ablative of the Agent or Doer, with the Preposition of or by; as, a good Child is loved of or by his Father.

Note, There is a verbal Adjective that ends in able, and sometimes in ible, which signifies a Passive power, and sometimes an Active power: when it denotes a Passive power, it is a Passive Participle, and admits after it the Ablative of the Doer, with the Preposition of or by; as, attainable by no Man: but when it denotes an Active Pow­er, it is not a Participle; as, a forcible Me­dicine, or a Medicine that can force.

Q. What's the difference betwixt Action and Passion?

A. Action and Passion are the very same in sense, and differ only in the manner of Expression: for whatever is the Object of Action, is always the subject of Passion; and contrary wise, whatever is the Subject of Passion, is the Object of Action.

Q. May Intransitive Verbs be said in the first and second Persons Passive?

A. Intransitive Verbs cannot be said in the first and second Persons Passive, because the Object of intransitive Verbs is only the Accusative of their own signification, which is always of the third Person, and therefore cannot be the Nominative to the first and second Persons Passive; for nothing can be the Subject to Passive verbs and Participles that cannot be the Object of their Active Verbs and Participles: as for Example, I cannot say in good sense, I am lived, in the Passive Voice; because the personal Sub­stantive I cannot be the Accusative of the Object in the Active Voice; but I can say, a Life is lived, because I can say in the Active Voice, I live a Life.

Q. How may a Sentence be changed from Active to Passive, the sense remaining the same?

A. A Sentence may be changed from Ac­tive to Passive, the sense remaining the same, by turning the Accusative of the Object af­ter the Active Verb, into the Nominative of the Subject before the Passive Verb, and the Nom. of the Subject before the Active Verb into the Ablative of the Doer, with the Preposition of or by before it after the Passive Verb; as, I call thee, passively thou art called by me, or of me; my Father loves me, passively, I am loved of my Father, or by my Father.

Q. What if there be another Accusative af­ter the Accusative of the Object?

A. If there be another Accusative after the Accusative of the Object, it is either the Apposite Accusative by a suppression of the Participle being, or the Accusative of the Predicate after the copulative Infinitive to be; or it is the Accusative of some Preposition supprest.

If it be the Apposite Accusative, it is turned into the Nom. and put after the Nom. of the Subject before the Passive Verb; as, I read Paul the Apostle; passively Paul the Apostle is read by me.

If it be the Accusative of the Predicate, it is turned into the Nom. after the Passive Verb; as, I will make thee a Scholar; pas­sively, you shall be made a Scholar by me.

If it be the Accusative of some Prepositi­on supprest, then it comes after the Passive Verb in the Accusative Case; as, I will teach thee them; passively, thou shalt be taught them by me.

Of Compound Sentences.

Q. Which are the principal Compound Sen­tences?

A. The principal Compound Sentences are, a Relative, Copulative, Declarative, Fi­nal, Continuative, Comparative, and Interroga­tive Sentence.

Of a Relative Sentence.

Q. What is a Relative Sentence?

A. A Relative Sentence is that which hath in it the Relative Adjective who or which.

Q. Why is the Relative Adjective so called?

A. The Relative Adjective is so called, because it relates or rehearses after it some antecedent or foregoing Substantive; as, this is the Book which (Book) I lost.

Q. Of what Number and Person must the Relative be?

A. The Relative must be of the same Number and Person with the Antecedent.

Q. How may a Relative Sentence be con­tracted?

A. If the Relative be the Nom. of the Subject to the following Verb, then the Sen­tence may be contracted by putting away the Relative, and turning the Verb into a Participle, to which the Antecedent is the Substantive: as for Example, A man who wants Learning is little esteemed; contracted, a man wanting Learning is little esteemed.

Q. What if the Relative be the Accusative of the Object to the following Verb?

A. If the Relative be the Accusative of the Object to the following Verb, turn it in­to the Nom. of the Subject before the passive Verb: as, A man whom God hates is wretched; [Page 92]passively, a man who is hated of God is wretch­ed; contracted. a man hated of God is wretched.

Q Into what Participle must the Verb be turned?

A. If the Verb be active, it must be turn­ed into the present Participle; but if it be Passive, it must be turned into the Preter Participle.

Q What if the Relative be the Nom. to the Substantive Verb?

A If the Relative be the Nom. to the Substantive Verb, it is turned into its Parti­ciple being, and the Predicate after the Sub­stantive Verb must be conformed to the An­tecedent Substantive in case.

Note, This Contraction made by the Par­ticiple being, is the ground of Apposition, and may be resolved by the Relative and the Substantive Verb: but if the Apposite Substantive be a proper name, it is resolved by the Relative, and a Passive Verb of call­ing: as, Paul the Apostle, or Paul who is the Apostle; the Apostle Paul, or the Apostle who is called Paul.

Note, The Participle being is very often supprest in English, and always in Latin.

Q. How shall one know the case of the Re­lative?

A. The Relative with the Antecedent af­ter it, either exprest or understood, is the Nom. to the following Verb, if there come no other Nom. between it and the following [Page 93]Verb; but if there come another Nom. be­tween it and the following Verb, then it is governed of the Verb, or of some other word in the Sentence with the Verb.

Q Is not the Antecedent usually supprest af­ter the Relative?

A. The Antecedent is usually supprest af­ter the Relative to avoid a repetition, and sometimes is supprest before the Relative, but never both before and after.

Q. Is not the Relative sometimes supprest?

A. The Relative is often elegantly sup­prest in English; as, this is the Child I love, or whom I love.

Q. What if the Relative be supprest after a Preposition?

A. If the Relative be supprest after a Preposition, the Preposition is elegantly put after the following Verb; as, this is the Per­son of whom I spoke, or this is the Person I spoke of.

Q. Of what Person is a Substantive or Ad­jective of the first or second Person affirmed?

A. Every Substantive or Adjective affirm­ed of the first or second Person, is then of the first or second Person; as, I poor man am singing, not is singing; thou rich man art la­menting, not is lamenting.

Q. What if the first or second Person be the Antecedent to the Relative?

A. If the first or second Person, or any other Substantive or Adjective affirmed of [Page 94]the first or second Person mediately or im­mediately, be the Antecedent to a Relative of the Nom. Case, then the Relative and the Verb are also of the first or second Per­son: as for Example, I am a man who am full of Grief, not who is full of Grief; Thou art a Boy who lovest to be idle, not who loveth.

Q. Is not a possessive Adjective sometimes the Antecedent to the Relative?

A. A possessive Adjective is often the An­tecedent to the Relative; as, This is my wri­ting who am a Scribler.

Note, If the possessive Adjective has an Apposite Substantive, Adjective, or Partici­ple, it is of the Genitive Case, and comes after the possessed Substantive; as, my Sin alone is incorrigible, for the Sin of me alone: No man regards his Promise, a perfidious Knave, for being a perfidious Knave, or who is a perfi­dious Knave.

Q. How is a Relative contraction resolved?

A. A Relative contraction is resolved by supplying the Relative Adjective after the antecedent Substantive, and turning the Participle into the Verb, and putting the apposite Substantive after the Substantive Verb.

Of a Copulative Sentence.

Q. What is a copulative Sentence?

A. A Copulative Sentence is that which hath in it the copulative Conjunction and.

Q. How is a Copulative Sentence contracted?

A. If two coupled Substantives of the same Case have the same Verbs, the same Adjectives, the same apposite Substantives, they may be turned into one Verb Plural, one Adjective Plural, and one Apposite Plural.

Q. What if the Verbs be of different Persons?

A. If the Verbs be of different Persons, the Verb Plural is of the more worthy Person. The first Person is more worthy than the second, and the second than the third; as, I and thou art Boys; here the Verb are is of the first Person Plural: thou and Peter are idle, here are is of the second Person Plural.

Q. What if the two Nominatives be the same?

A. If the two Nominatives be the same, the latter is usually supprest; as, Peter stood, and Peter prayed; contracted, Peter stood and prayed.

Note, If the two Verbs be of the same Tense, one of them may be turn'd into the Present Participle, and then the sense is the same as in a continuative Sentence; as, Peter [Page 96]stood praying, or, Peter prayed standing, or while he stood.

Of a Declarative and Final Sentence.

Q. What is a Declarative Sentence?

A. A Declarative Sentence is that which hath in it the declarative Conjunction that; as, I know that thou art he.

Q. What is a final Sentence?

A. A final Sentence is that which hath in it the final Conjunction that; as, I desire that I may read.

Q. How is a Declarative or Final Sentence contracted?

A. A Declarative or Final Sentence is con­tracted by putting away the Particle that, and turning the Nom. into the Accusative, and the Verb into the Infinitive: as, I know that thou art he; contracted, I know thee to be him: I desire that I may read; contracted, I desire to read.

Note, The Nom. of the Predicate after a copulative Verb is turned into the Accusative after the Copulative Infinitive; because the Predicate must always be in the same Case with the Subject; as, I know thee to be her, not to be she.

Q. What if the Accus. before the Infinitive be the same Substantive with the Nom. of the fore­going Verb?

A. If the Accus. before the Infinitive be the same Substantive with the Nom. of the fore­going Verb, it is elegantly supprest; as, I desire that I may go; contracted, I desire to go: and if the Infinitive be Copulative, the Predicate after it is then the Nom. Case; as, I desire to be he, not him.

Q. How shall one know when the Particle that is Declarative, and when it is Final?

A. The Particle that is Declarative when it may in good sense be supprest; as, I know that he is come, or I know he is come. It is Final when it admits after it in good sense the Auxiliary may or might; as, I de­sire that thou read, or that thou may read.

Q. When is the Adjective that Relative, and when Demonstrative?

A. The Adjective that is Relative when it may in good sense be turned into who or which, otherwise it is Demonstrative; as, I know that Man.

Q. How is a declarative or final Contracti­on resolved?

A. A declarative or final Contraction is resolved by supplying the Particle that, and turning the Accusative into the Nom. and the Infinitive into the Verb, and the Accusa­tive of the Predicate after a copulative In­finitive into the Nominative of the Predi­cate after the copulative Verb.

Note, Every Infinitive with an Accusative before it, either exprest or understood, is the [Page 98]contraction of a declarative or final Members otherwise it is the same as the verbal Substantive in ing; as, to read is profitable, or reading is profitable.

Q. Is not the Infinitive to be often supprest between the Subject and the Predicate?

A. The Infinitive to be is often supprest between the Subject and the Predicate, e­specially after active and passive Verbs of calling, making, seeming, esteeming, judg­ing, and some others; as, I will make him (to be) a Man; he is esteemed (to be) honest.

Q. Is not the Imperative a contraction of a Final Sentence?

A. The Imperative is a contraction of a Final Sentence, where the Antecedent Verb is a Verb of commanding or intreating; as, go thou, or I command that thou go; give me Bread, or I pray thee give me Bread.

Of a Continuative Sentence.

Q. What is a Continuative Sentence?

A. A Continuative Sentence is that which hath in it some continuative Particle; as, while, whilst, when, after that.

Note, We often say after by a suppression of that; as, after I came home.

Q. How is a continuative Sentence contracted?

A. A Continuative Sentence is contracted by putting away the continuative Particle, and turning the Verb into the present or preter Participle.

Q. What if the Nom. in the continuative Member be the same with the Nom. in the an­tecedent Member?

A. If the Nom. in the continuative Mem­ber (or the Accusative of the Object which may be turned into the Nom.) be the same with the Nom. in the Antecedent Member, then it is put away; as, when I was Sick I stay'd at home, or being Sick I stay'd at home. But if it be not the same with the Nom. in the Antecedent Member, it is not put away; as, when my Father was Sick, or my Father being Sick, I staid at home.

Q. When must the Verb be turned into the present Participle?

A. The Verb must be turned into the present Participle when the Particle is while or when, denoting that both actions were done at the same time; as, I stood while I was writing my Letter, or I stood writing my Letter.

Q. When must the Verb be turn'd into the Preter Participle?

A. The Verb must be turn'd into the Preter Participle when the continuative Par­ticle is after or after that, denoting that one action was done after another, and then the Participle having or being is put be­fore the Preter Participle in English; as, I went home after I had said my Lesson; having said my Lesson I went home.

Q. May not a continuative Member be con­tracted [Page 100]by a verbal Substantive of the Action?

A. A Continuative Member may be also contracted by the verbal Substantive of the Action with the Preposition in, when both actions are done at the same time, or with the Preposition after, when one action fol­lows the other; as for example, When Au­gustus reigned Christ was born, or Christ was born in the reign of Augustus; The wise men came to Jerusalem after that Jesus was born, or after the Birth of Jesus.

Of a Comparative Sentence.

Q. What is a Comparative Sentence?

A. A Comparative Sentence is that which hath in it the Comparative Particle than.

Q. How many sorts of Comparison are there?

A. There are two sorts of Comparison, viz. a Comparison of thing with thing, or a comparison of action with action.

Q. How is the Comparison of thing with thing made?

A. The Comparison of thing with thing is made by a Comparative Adjective be­fore than.

Q. How is a Comparative Member contracted?

A. A Comparative Member where thing is compared with thing, is contracted by sup­pressing the substantive Verb after than, and the Positive after the substantive Verb; as, I am wiser than thou art wise; contracted, I am wiser than thou.

Q. In what case is the Substantive after than, to which the Comparison is made?

A. The substantive after than, to which the Comparison is made, is always the Nom. of the Subject before the substantive Verb either exprest or understood; and if ano­ther Verb come after it, then 'tis a con­traction of a Relative Sentence; as, I have a better Book than thou hast, i. e. I have a better Book than the Book is which thou hast.

Q. What if the Positive Adjective to which the comparison is made, be not the Positive of the Comparative Adjective?

A. If the Positive Adjective to which the comparison is made, be not the Positive of the Comparative, it cannot be supprest nor the Sentence contracted; as, I am stronger than thou art wise.

Q. How is the Comparison of Action with Action made?

A. The Comparison of Action with Acti­on, is made by a Comparative Adverb be­fore the Particle than; and if the Verb af­ter than be the same with the Verb in the Antecedent Member, it may be supprest, o­therwise it cannot; as, I write better than thou writest; contracted, I write better than thou: but if I say, I write better than thou readest, it cannot be contracted.

Q. Does not the Particle than join like Cases?

A. No Conjunction joins any Case, but always Sentences, tho very often by reason of the suppression of other words in the Sentence it falls out that the like Case is be­fore and after the Conjunction, on which the Grammarians falsly grounded a Rule, That Conjunctions couple like Cases.

Of an Interrogative Sentence.

Q. What is an Interrogative Sentence?

A. An Interrogative Sentence is that which has in it some Interrogative Adjec­tive or Particle; as, who, what, whether or no, and such like.

Q. How is an Interrogative Sentence con­tracted?

A. An Interrogative Sentence is contrac­ted by putting away the Interrogative Verb with its Nominative, and putting the No­minative in the Subjunctive Member after the Verb; as, I ask who thou art; contrac­ted, who art thou?

Obs. In a Question made with a Substan­tive Verb, the Interrogative Adjective is always the Predicate after it, tho it go be­fore it; as, who am I? but when the Sub­stantive Verb is in the Imperative, the No­minative of the Predicate follows the Nomi­native of the Subject after it; as, be thou good.

Note. There is no need of a Point of Inter­rogation after an interrogative Sentence, where the Interrogative Verb is exprest.

Of a Disjunctive Sentence.

Q. What is a Disjunctive Sentence?

A. A Disjunctive Sentence is that which has in it the Disjunctive Particle or, either, neither.

Q. How is a Disjunctive Sentence contract­ed?

A. A Disjunctive Sentence is contracted by suppressing the Nominative and the Verb in the Subjunctive Member; as, I have Mo­ney, or (I have) Goods; contracted, I have Money or Goods.

Of a Period.

Q. What is a Period?

A. A Period is a circuit or round of Words wherein the sense is not only perfect, but fully finish'd without any following words depending on it.

Q. What are the Members of a Period?

A. The Members of a Period are two compound Sentences, and sometimes three, rarely four: some lesser Periods consist on­ly of one Member, or of one and a half, [Page 104]that is of one Compound Sentence, and one single Sentence depending upon it.

Of the Figurative Construction of Words.

Q. Is not the Sense of a Sentence often ob­scure and ambiguous?

A. Besides the ambiguity of a single word, by reason of its various significations, the sense of a whole Sentence is often liable to be mistaken by reason of the various Tran­spositions, Suppressions and Substitutions used in English, and all learned Languages.

Of Transposition.

Q. What is Transposition?

A. Transposition is the placing of words in a Sentence out of the natural order of Construction, that is, in putting words be­fore which should come after, and words after which should go before.

Q. Why are words transposed in a Sentence?

A. Words are transposed in a Sentence to please the Ear, by making the contexture of words more harmonious, elegant, and agreeable; for in the natural order it of­ten happens that the pronunciation is very rough and inelegant, because of the con­currence [Page 105]of rough Consonants, or of hiant or gaping Vowels, or some other harsh conjuncture of words; but where the natu­ral order is smooth and grateful to the ear, the words ought not to be transposed unless in Poetry when the necessity of the Verse requires it.

Note, Many of the Romans too much af­fecting this kind of elegancy, have greatly cloud­ed, and obscur'd their sense, as if they de­sign'd not to be understood; or at least to puzzle their Readers with their intricate and perplex'd Contextures.

Of Suppression, call'd in Greek Ellipsis.

Q. What is Suppression?

A. Suppression is the omission or leaving out of words in a Sentence that are neces­sary to a full Construction; as, I came from my Father's, where House is supprest.

Q. Why are words supprest in a Sentence?

A. Words are supprest in a Sentence for brevity and elegancy.

Q. What words are usually supprest?

A. It were almost infinite to tell all the words that are supprest in English, or any other learned Language, only in general you may observe these three Rules.

  • 1st. That whatever word comes to be re­peated in a Sentence oftner than once, it [Page 106]is seldom exprest but once, to avoid a re­petition of the same word which is usually very inelegant and unpleasing to the Ear; as for example, This is my Master's Book, or this Book is my Master's, for this Book is my Master's Book.
  • 2dly. Words that are necessarily imply'd need not be exprest; as for Example, I live in London, where Life is necessarily imply'd after the Verb live, it having no other Ob­ject, and therefore needless to be exprest.
  • 3dly. Whatever words are usually sup­prest by the custom of any Language, are not to be exprest without some particular reason; as for example, A good man lives a good Life; where the Adjective good makes it necessary to express the Substantive Life.

    Note, Suppression is the most elegant and useful of all the figures of Construction, to a­void the tedious and nauseous repetition of ma­ny words that yet are necessarily understood to make up a full Construction; as for example, I write a better hand than thou; where the full Construction amounts to more than double the number of these words; thus, I write a hand, which hand is a better hand, than the hand is good which hand thou writest; which kind of expression is both nauseous and trouble­some.

Of Substitution, called in Greek Enallage.

Q. What is Substitution?

A. Substitution is the using of one word for another, or one accident of a word for another, as one Case for another, one Tense for another, one Person for another, one Number for another, one Mood for another, and the Primitive and Derivative for one another, Simple and Compound for one a­nother, &c.

Q. Is not the Construction often made accord­ing to the sense, not the words?

A. Construction is often made according to the sense, not according to the words; that is, not according to the substituted word, but according to the word for which it is substituted; as for example, the whole Nation were called Venetians, where the whole Nation is put for all the People of the Nation, to which the Verb Plural were is accommo­dated: part of the men are killed, where part is put for some, several, or many of the men, to which the Verb Plural are is conformed. Thus a concrete Adjective is often substi­tuted for its abstract Substantive, and con­trary wise the Abstract for the Concrete; as for example, He has no good in him, i. e. no Goodness; a man of Knowledg, for a know­ing man; a man of Learning, for a learned man.

Of Zeugma.

Q. What is Zeugma?

A. Zeugma is when two or more Substan­tives in a Sentence have some words common to them, especially Verbs or Adjectives, and some words peculiar to each of them; then the Sub­stantives with what is common to them, are first exprest, and then what is peculiar to each is sub­joined by a Suppression of what is common; as for example, One Brother was kill'd in Flanders, and another in France; contracted, The two Bro­thers were kill'd, one in Flanders, the other in France.

Of a Solecism and Pleonasm.

Q. What is a Solecism?

A. A Solecism is when words are joined toge­ther contrary to the laws of Grammar, as me­thinks, for I think.

Q. What is a Pleonasm?

A. A Pleonasm is the using of unnecessary words in a Sentence, especially Nouns and Par­ticles; as, he spoke with his Mouth; he saw with his Eyes; he heard with his Ears: where the words Mouth, Eyes, Ears, are superfluous in the Sentence, because they are necessarily imply'd.

Of the natural Order of words.

Q. Since the Composition of Sentences are often intricate and obscure, how may the sense and mean­ing of them be best found?

A. The best way to find the true sense and meaning of any Sentence, is to reduce transpos'd [Page 109]words to the Natural Order, to supply supprest words, and to change substituted words into the words for which they are substituted, and lastly to distinguish ambiguous words.

Q. What is the Natural Order of words?

A. The Natural or Grammatical Order is that depending words follow the words on which they depend, except Relatives and Interroga­tives, whose Natural Order is to come before the words of which they are governed.

Q. How may every Sentence be divided?

A. Every Sentence may be divided into two parts, the Subject and Predicate: the Nom. of the Subject with all that depends upon it, medi­ately or immediately, is the Subject of the Sen­tence, and must be taken first: the Verb with all that depends upon it, mediately or immedi­ately, is the Predicate of the Sentence, and must be taken next; as in the following Example, Alexander the Great, Son of Philip King of Macedonia (the subject) conquered the greatest part of the World, in the space of twelve years, (the Predicate).

Q. How may one reduce words to the Natural Order?

A. Words may be reduced to the natural Or­der thus: first read the Sentence deliberately to a full stop. Look next for the Verb, that by the Number and Person of the Verb you may find out the Nom. Case; and if there be two Verbs in the Sentence, the first is to be taken first, unless it be the Infinitive, or have a Relative or a Conjunction before it; for in Compound Sentences the Subjunctive Member follows the Antecedent Member in the natural Order.

The Relative and its Member must come im­mediately [Page 110]after the Antecedent Substantive. Ad­verbs and Prepositions come after their Verbs and Participles. The Adjective in English comes before its Substantive; but if any other word depend upon the Adjective, then it must neces­sarily come after the Substantive to avoid confu­sion of the sense; as for example, I saw Peter writing a Letter, not I saw writing Peter a Letter. Resolve s or es Possessive into its Primitive Ge­nitive made by of: dilate all contracted Senten­ces by which you may find the true Grammar of the words, and consequently the true sense of the Sentence.

Note, Conjunctions and Conjunctive Adjectives do always belong to the Sentence immediately follow­ing them; and if they be not in the middle by put­ting the Antecedent Member before; as, If thou be rich thou shalt have many Friends, or thou shalt have many Friends if thou be rich. If there be a Voc. Case, it must be taken first, because it is the Person to whom the following Speech is ad­drest. If there be any Interjections or other exciting Particles, they are next in order of na­ture, because they excite the attention of the hearers to what follows.

Of the Points, Pauses or Stops.

Q. How many Points or Stops are there?

A. There are four Points or Stops, a Comma (,) a Colon (:) Semi-Colon (;) and a Period or full stop (.)

Q. What is the use of the Points?

A. The use of the Points is to give time of Re­spiration or Breathing, and to avoid the confu­sion of the sense in joining words together in [Page 111]speaking or reading, which are not joined in Sense or Construction.

Q. Where is a Comma put?

A. A Comma is put between the Members of a Compound Sentence, whether full or contract­ed, and between all words that have not an im­mediate dependence upon one another in Sense and Construction.

Q. Where is a Colon put?

A. A Colon or Member is put between the two Members of a Period, or which is the same, between two compound Sentences.

Q. Where is a Semi-Colon put?

A. A Semi-Colon or half Member is put be­tween a whole Member and a half Member, that is between a compound Sentence, and a single Sentence following it.

Q. Where is a Period put?

A. A Period or full Stop is put at the end of a Sentence containing full and compleat Sense, and where no other words following have any dependence upon it.

Note, A Comma is the shortest Stop, a Semi­colon is longer than a Comma; a Colon is longer than a Semicolon; a Period is longest of all; as in the following Period. Riches are often joined with habitual Vices in the Possessors, and indif­ferently serve for bad or good Ʋses: the greedy pursuit of them, blasts all true worth of Spirit, and turns the Soul to Earth and Corruption.

Of a Note of Interrogation. (?)

Q. Where is a Note of Interrogation put?

A. A Note of Interrogation is put after a short and contracted Question, to show that it [Page 112]is a Question; but if the Interrogative Verb be express'd, there's no need of it.

Of a Note of Admiration. (!)

Q. Where is a Note of Admiration put?

A. A Note of Admiration is put after words, to show how wonderful, strange, or deplorable the Thing is.

Of a Parenthesis. ()

Q. What is the use of a Parenthesis?

A. The use of a Parenthesis is to inclose words put within a Sentence, which are no part of it, and without which the sense is perfect.

Note, The mark of an Apostroph is some­times put before s servile, not because there is any Vowel omitted, but to shew that s there is an additional Termination, and not a part of the Theam or Primitive word: this mark does not seem necessary but when s servile is added to a foreign word used in English without any alteration; as, great Encomium's, two Comma's; or when a word is taken materially, that is, for the Letters and Syllables, or (which is the same) for the Sound without the Signification; as, yea's and no's; if's or and's.

FINIS.

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