TRULY Representing the variety of Dangers inhaerent to their Crowns; and the lamentable Deaths which many of them, and some of the best of them, have undergone.

Collected, Not onely out of the best Modern Histories; but from all those which have been most famous in the Latine, Greek, or in the Hebrew Tongue.

Shewing, Not onely the Tragedies of Princes at their Deaths, but their Exploits and sayings in their lives; and by what virtues some of them have flourished in the height of Honour; and overcome by what affections, others of them have sunk into the depth of all Calamities.

A Work most delightfull for Knowledge, and as profitable for Example.

Collected by Lodowick Lloyd, one of the Gentlemen in ordinary to Queen Elizabeth.

And Corrected and Revived by R.C. Master of Arts.

London, Printed by E. Alsop, dwelling near the Upper-Pump in Grubstreet, 1653.

To the true Lover of all good Lear­ning, the Truly Honourable CHARLS DIMMOCK, Esquire, &c.


I Have here preferred to your observance and protection, a work of great Art, and of greater Industry; you shall find in it a Summary of almost all the Kingdomes and Common-wealths upon the earth, and what were the men of Power, which commanded in them, and also what were as well their Excellencies of Understanding as of Soveraignty; it being a Gift unto great men, who are called unto extra­ordinary places, to be indued for the [Page] most part with extraordinary abi­lities.

Here, as from a Turret of Specu­lation, you may look down upon the Vulgar, and every where behold how near of kin is Misery to Mortality; and raising afterwards your Contemplation higher, you may looke up on those who have been the Potentates and Princes of the Earth, and observe how empty is the Title of Greatnesse, and how vain in the Grave is the Prerogative of Kings; insomuch that if the Dusts of Alexander the Great, and of Bu­cephalus his Horse, were committed both unto one Urn, I do believe that Aristotle himself could not distin­guish betwixt them, either by his Phi­losophy, or his Flattery.

Sir, It it is then easie to be seen that it [Page] is onely Virtue that crowneth the lives of Princes, and after their deaths doth raise them higher then their Py­ramids; yet in many Examples you may distinctly here observe, that even the best of Kings, and those of them who have been nearest unto Heaven, have often stooped under the greatest Visitations, as the highest Hills are most often checked by the lowdest Thunders.

But others there have been, whose lives by their Lust and Cruelty, have been covered with infamy, or by their Sloth, with silence; as Tertullian speaks of Sardanapalus, that if he had not been famous for his Riot, no man had known him to be a King; therefore those depraved Affections are here described, and by many Examples a­bundantly illustrated, in the pursuit [Page] of which so many great men and Con­querours upon Earth have both de­lighted and perished.

They are produced as a Caution unto all, and the Book may serve as a Mirrour unto the Best, in which they may observe the uncertainty of humane condition in the Pilgrimage of this life: It precisely (Sir) devo­teth it self to your protection in whose Example, as in a purer Mirror may be read all the Influences of Ho­nour and of Chivalry; which that you may long live to dispence a­mongst us, is the dayly prayer of him who is,

Your most humble and most devoted Servant. ROB. CODRINGTON.



That all Princes are but Pilgrims, and some Pilgrims are higher then Kings.

THis at first may seem a paradox; but upon a deliberate consideration it will easily un­riddle it self: For if you look upon a King (in the first place) as he is but a man, he is a Pilgrim, and no more. He begins his journey in his cradle, and travels every year from sorrow unto sorrow. The pleasures and pomp that courts him are but momentary, like a flash of lightning, that is rather the subject of his memory then his eye: But the troubles and the dangers are perpetual, and lie as heavy upon his heart as the Crown upon his head. This was not unaptly re­sembled by the Tyrant, who (his friend affecting the crown) did invite him to a Banquet, where there was nothing wanting either for abundance, or magnificence; the Sea and Earth were examined for their rarest provisione to sa­tisfie [Page 2] his palate, and on the Cupboard India did appear in all her treasures; This indéed did promise a welcome a­bove the invitation; but behold, over his head a sword hung upon one hair, and by its ponderous burthen carry­ing a certain Death in its point, did threaten a sudden de­struction to him, so that the edge of his appetite being ta­ken off, and the Banquet ended, there needed no man to say so much as, Much good d'it you, to him.

And yet for all this, I know not by what secret tempta­tion of Ambition it comes about, that the Crown is the onely object of all great Spirits, not considering what cares hang round about the ring ols of it. This was that which made the great Turkish Emperour, seeing a shepheard sit­ting on a hill, and making melody to himself, as he march­ed with his puissant Army against Tamberlane, O happy shepheard (said he) who hath neither any remarkable Town, nor any Army to lose.

Agreable to this, is what at least the Poets enform us of Henry the fourth of England, who lying on his Death­bed, and sending for the Crown, his Son came to visit him, and beholding the Crown on the pillow, and his Father so fast asléep that not the least motion of breath could be dis­covered to come from him to vex the lightest feather on the pillow, he took the Crown away, conceiving his Fa­ther to be dead. Not long after his Father did awake, and missing the Crown, demanded where it was, and who was so bold as to take it away? It being answered, That his Son had it, to whom it was due by the right of succession, his Son came in, to whom his Father said, That if he knew with what travel both of mind and body, and with what danger of both it was purchased, he would never be so hastie to take it away, but kéep far from it, as from the center of all sorrow and affliction.

And if the whole life of man is but a Pilgrimage, the life of Kings is the greatest pilgrimage of al, A pilgrimage it is both of the mind and of the body, to which they are most subject, who have the most and the greatest Kingdoms. [Page 3] Their life is a perpetual vexation, whether you look upon them as greedy to possesse the Kingdomes of others, or so­licitous to defend their own. No sooner one trouble is en­ded but another begins, occasioned either by covetousnesse or ambition, or by jealousies extrinsick or Domestick; some­times they fear the over-growing power of their neighbou­ring Princes; somtimes they do lie in wait to intrap them; sometimes they fear the conspiracies of their own ser­vants; sometimes of their own children; for you are to un­derstand that in this nature, the condition of Princes is of all most miserable. How many Kings may I number up who have been all deprived of their lives by the unnatural conspiracy of their own children! Justin makes mention of an Emperour of Persia, who by divers Concubines had fif­ty sons, who all held in a conspiracy with the eldest to take away the fathers life, for no other cause but that they con­ceived he lived a little too long, and they were resolved to depend no longer upon expectation.

And it appears to me a great wonder that the spirits of men should be so much blinded and that Princes should be so misguided by the Prince of the ayr, that although they are assured within themselves, and may be convinced by a thousand examples, that a revenge not to be avoided, doth attend such desperate contrivers, yet no age almost hath béen without a President of such horrible Parricides. Irenus King of the Molossi, having conspired with some of the Nobility, who were most near unto his father, did not long after by poison take away his fathers life, and being himself invested with the Crown, although he injoy­ed a long time a happy and quiet life, yet he was torment­ed in his conscience within him, and having lost the love of his subjects, he at last lost his own life, his people having made war against him, and being taken by them he was beheaded in the same place, in which he conspired his fa­thers death.

The Histories can afford us a thousand examples of the same nature, but Herodotus makes mention of Enanthus a [Page 4] Prince, as unblemished in his conversation as innocence it self; who passing through a world of afflictions which like waves came rowling upon him, one on the neck of the o­ther, was first banished, and afterwards put to death by his subjects, and dying, confessed that it was the first hour of his happinesse, being to passe from a Labyrinth of sor­rows and perplexity into an everlasting Elizium of Peace and Rest.

But to give you an instance what miserable Pilgrims Princes are, you may behold Nebuchadnezzar who from the height of glory was by divine vengeance metamorphosed into a beast, and wandring from field to field in a worse condition then a Pilgrim, he fed on the grasse of the field for seven years together, and was wet with the dew of hea­ven, and at the last returning to himself, he acknowledged the divine power, and the divine Iustice, which taught him to understand in what a frail condition he stood and how uncertain is life, and the glory of mortality like the Lilly in the field, which appears in the morning in all its beauty, and more richly apparelled then Solomon in all his glory, and before the evening it is gathered and fades away, & is seen no more.

Just so are Kings, the flourishing array
Of the proud Summers meadow, which to day
Weares his green plush, and is to morrow Hay.

Therefore Philip the father of Alexander the great, revol­ving with himself what a pilgrimage this life is, and espe­cially the life of a King, which as it is more full of state then the life of others, so it is also more full of danger, com­manded his Page every morning to come unto him, and to pronounce a loud, O Philip remember that thou art mortal, which though his son seemed to forget, and therefore would be estéemed immortal, and have divine honours done unto him, yet whosoever shall take the pains to behold him a­right in the height of all his victories, he shall find that his [Page 5] life was the greatest pilgrimage, nay I may say the arran­test slavery that was in the world: for what did he do, but became onely a slave to his own ambition to inslave the world and to make it stoop to his yoak. A plundring Pil­grim he was, and under the pretence of glory and of con­quest, he enjoyed no rest either by day or by night, but tra­velled from place to place, uncertain in the morning in what field to take up his lodgings the night following, or where he should dine the next day, but as if he would try providence, as well as victory, he did put all things to the adventure; and indeed it was providence that did pro­tect him, for into how many dangers did he rashly run, from which he was miraculously preserved, and by a rare happi­nesse, made his rashnesse alwaies to be the increase of his glory. I shall on this subject speak something of him, which Curtius never thought on, which is, that when he took a poor Pyrat prisoner; he asked him, how he durst be so in­solent as to commit such robberies on the seas. The Py­rat nothing dismaied, made answer, he did it with the same confidence as Alexander himself, who went up and down plundering and destroying the world. And when Fate had put a period to his life and Empire, it is obser­vable how this invincible spirit became heavy and time­rous, which on purpose in this place I do insert, because many who have delivered his atchievements to memory have left it out and it may more plainly appear what mo­mentary things great Princes are, when that power doth forsake them which doth lead them to their high underta­kings. Alexander being come to Babylon, he put off his cloaths one evening to anoint himself, to make his bo­dy more nimble in some exercises in the field with his companions, in which hee much delighted. The sport beeing ended, as hee returned to put on his cloaths, the young Nobles who were with him beheld a man who sate in the Kings seat, and had put on his royall habiliments, and the Diadem on his head. They amazed at it, demanded who he was; the man would make no an­swer [Page 6] at all, at last being threatned that he should indure the greatest torments if he would not confesse what he was, he at last spake in Greek, that he was a poor fellow, who being unjustly condemned to death, was delivered from it by the God Seraphis, who seated him in that place, and com­manded him to put on the royal habiliments. The wonder increasing that there being so many of the guard and of the Kings associates, in the field and in and about the Pavil­lion, and not any of them should either discover the man ei­ther coming into the Pavillion, or putting on the cloaths. Alexander was so possessed with horrour at the strangenesse of the spectacle, that he became as a dead man, and for the thrée days following was so mute and stpid, that he appea­red as another creature, he would neither speak to any, nor return any answer being spoken unto, till he went unto the house of Thessalus Medius, where he drank the fatal poison, and being carried afterwards to his own chamber, he la­mented with himself the condition of man, and more pre­cisely of Princes, who in the height of all their lustre, like the sun at noon, were suddenly eclipsed by ungrateful clouds; howsoever it is worth your observance, that even in his death desiring to traduce the world with a false belief of his immortality, he desired Roxane who was present with him, and at that time great with child by him, that she would give way that some who were most faithfull to her, and to himself, might take his body (he finding an impos­sibility of recovery, and death apparently to grew upon him) and throw it into the River of Euphrates, that the army and the world might conceive, that invisibly he was advanced from mortality, and translated into the number of the Gods, which when Roxane by no means would give way unto, affirming that the power which protected him from so many dangers, would preserve him still, he was passionate against her, that in pretence of love she should deny him immortality and dying in the flower of his youth, he acknowledged how momentary and uncertain at the best is the condition of Princes.

[Page 7]And thus Alexander you see, who contended to be above the reach of mortality, and to be no Pilgrim, became the greatest Pilgrim in the world; for he not onely living was in a perpetual travel both of body and of mind but he did not rest being dead, for his body was carryed from place to place, until it was brought at last to Alexandria, and afterwards conveyed unto Memphis.

And to speak the truth, the condition of Kings is more lamentable then the meanest of their subjects, who may en­joy their lives with safety, which is permitted but to a few Kings, so true is that of Juvenal.

Ad generum Cereris sine caede & sanguini pauci
Descendunt reges & sicca morte tyranni.
By a dry Death, without a bloudy end
Few Kings to Ceres son in Law descend.

For this reason the Honourable Sir Francis Bacon, who said. That God did most for Kings, and that Kings did least for God, did affirm, That there was so many cares and dangers depending on a Crown, that no wise man would take it up to have it, especially considering how ma­ny excellent Princes who have been as admirable for their justice as for their fortitude, and for their continence as for either, have violently lost their lives by their ungrate­full subjects. Of this I shall give you examples pregnant enough in its due place, and conclude this chapter. That Princes are the greatest Pilgrims, by the example of the best of Princes, which was David himself.

And this is as easie to prove by his confession, as by his sufferings; He is hunted, he saith, like a Partridge upon the mountains, he is like a Pelican in the wilderness, he is as a Sparrow upon the house top: You may behold him persecuted from place to place, yet giving life to the King who would take his life from him; You may behold him flying out of the Kingdom, and disguising himself in a safe [Page 8] madness, to protect him from the violence of his adversa­ries; You may behold him exposed to all the dangers that malice could imagine, reviled by his own wife, cursed by his own servants, and conspired against by his own son, and driven out of his City by him, so that he might well say, I am a stranger in the land, and my life is waxen old with heaviness, and my years with mourning.


The attractive Liberality of Princes.

BVt before I proceed to give you examples of it, I shall exhibit to you, that the pleasures and the splendours which commonly at­tends the Court, and do cast such a false shew of Glory on it, are but as so many flatterers, who would perswade to things which are not & onely leave a dazle on the eye, the easier to delude and betray the underastnding. It is vertue only that maketh Princes glorious. I will first give you a general survey of the vertues and vices of Princes, by which in the pilgrimage of this life, some have attained to the heighth of honour, and others have sunk into the lowest infamy. And first, to deface the vice of Avarice, I will in this place shew you the vertue of Liberality; to put the churlish co­vetous out of countenance, I will extol the liberal, which in taking is shamefaced, in giving joyfull: For a measure in taking and in giving, is the true nature of liberality; Neither can he that taketh all things though he give much, be named liberal in nothing.

Agesilaus King of the Lacedemonians, so observed the laws and rules of Lycurgus, that he was wont to say unto the Citizens of Sparta, that gifts are more dangerous some­time to be received, then hurtfull to be refused. Which Phocion, the whole glory of Athens, at what time Alexander the Great had sent him great gifts, wealthy presents, jew­els, and treasures from Persia, did shew a true example there­of [Page 9] of in refusing the same, saying I will not learn to take, lest I forget to give. The like answered Zenocrates the Phi­losopher to the self same Alexander, when that he did send great sums of gold and silver for love and affection unto Ze­nocrares, he said he wanted neither gold nor silver: Which when it was told unto Alexander, he said; Hath Zenocrates no friends then that want money? Alexander hath more friends then either the substance of Darius, or the wealth of Persia can suffice: A Question is here to be demanded, Whether of them both was more liberal, the Prince in gi­ving, or the Philosopher in refusing? When certain Em­bassadours of the Samnites came to Rome, and being at Fa­britius house, they perceiving the liberality of Fabritius to be such, as it were pity wealth should want to so noble a Gen­tleman, at their return from Rome unto their Countrey, not forgetting the free dealing of Fabritius at Rome, these Embassadours minding to gratifie Fabritius with the gold of the Samnites, sent gifts and presents to him unto Rome, for their noble entertainment; which were refused with an answer, that Fabritius had rather rule and govern them that were ruled by gold, then to be subject unto gold; al­ledging the answer of M. Curius to the Embassadors of Ma­cedonia, offering large gifts and treasure after the like sort, That to possess much is no wealth, but covetousness; to desire nothing, and to give is perfect wealth and liberality: A sound proof of two liberal Gentlemen.

When such ruled Rome, then the Romans excelled all the world, bountifull and free and most beneficial unto all, and covetous unto none When L. Lucullus house was a com­mon hospital to all the poor Gréeks that travelled from A­thens Sparta, and Thebes, yea, from al Gree [...]e unto Rome, then Rome was liberal. When Pomponius Atucus did send unto Cicero being banished, two hundred thousand Sesterces, un­to Volumnius and Brutus as much, then Rome was benefici­al When the Senators restored Faucula and Oppia, two poor women of Campania, not onely unto their ancient li­berty, but doubled their wealth and riches, for their true [Page 10] meaning and service to the Romanes, the one praying and sacrificing for their good success, the other toyling and tra­velling about the souldiers business at the siege of Capua, where Fulinus was Captain, then Rome was mercifull. Li­berality in noble persons is most commended, for in liberal giving; and beneficial doings, are Princes compared unto Gods. Fabius Maximus having certain of his souldiers ta­ken by Hannibal in the wars of Carthage, did send unto the Senators of Rome for money to redeem the Roman soul­diers from Hannibal, according unto Martial law, but be­ing denied of his suit, he commanded his son straight to go to Rome, to sell all the lands and livings that he then pos­sest about the City of Rome, and to bring him money. The money being brought, he paid Hannibal, redéemed his soul­diers brought them frée to Rome upon his own charge, and being blamed of the Senators that he sould his land, he an­swered, that he had rather want patrimony in his Country, then love towards his Countreymen; he had rather be without living in Rome, then to want the good will of tho poor souldiers. Alphonsus the great King of Arragon was wont to rejoyce more in one little sentence that Titus Ves­patianus would often say, then of all that he had read all the days of his life: This Emperours golden sentence was, That day to be unhappy in the which he neither gave or granted any thing to some man, saying, That no man ought to depart from a Prince sad. Ho judged time lost, when no body fared the better by him, and thought no man should depart without some benefits done, or gifts given to some, or others Liberality doth purchase to the Prince, faith and love; to the Nobleman, service and homage; unto all men, benefits and good turns. Wherefore Alexander the Great, not so desirous to take, as willing to give, was wont to say to any that demanded where his treasures, wealth and substance that he got in the wars were kept, by poynting with his singer to his friends, it is hidden, saith he, in the hearts of my subjects. What can be more commended in a subject towards his Prince, then faith and truth? What [Page 11] may be more praised in a Prince towards his subjects then liberality and lenity? The liberality of the poor is good will. A poor Scholler sometime of Gréece, being in Rome, thought good to salute Caesar the Emperour comming from the Capitol toward his pallace in a few Gréek verses, thinking thereby his penury should be somewhat looked up­on by Caesar: But Caesar surnamed Augustus, answered the Scholler in writing again the like Gréek verses, which when it was delivered to the poor Gréek, he delighted much in the reading, commended highly the verses, and approa­ched unto Caesar where he was in his Chariot, opened his purse, and gave unto the Emperour four single halfpence, saying, Hold, not according to thy dignity & calling, but ac­cording to my ability and poverty I give this reward. Cer­tainly the poor Scholler was more commended for his small gift to the Emperour then the Emperour himself was prai­sed for his liberality unto all the people in Rome. The poor Poet Antilochus was as liberal to his power for his verses made unto King Lisauder, as Lisander was in his calling to give him his hat full of silver. Simple Sinae [...]es was as li­beral in offering a handfull of water of the river Cydnus unto the great King Artaxerxes of Persia for want of better ability, as Artaxerxes was princely in gifts, and beneficial unto Sinaetus, in rewarding liberally the liberality of Sinae­tes, with Phiala aurea cum mille Daricis. Chaerilus had no better present for a proof of his liberality toward Alexander the Great, then to shew his good will unto him in writing, whereby he shewed himself more willing then able, which being accepted, he was liberally rewarded, for every seve­ral verse a piece of gold. What greater gift can any man give, then that which proceedeth from the heart? Of all treasure, saith Aristotle, the mind of a man ought most to be esteemed; the Mite of the poor woman offered to Christ was no less made of, and estéemed then the Gold, Myrrhe, and Frankincense of the great Sages of the world. For the gift maketh not the giver liberal, but the giver maketh the gift liberal. Wherefore a poor Student of Paris going [Page 12] home to his country Scillia, and being urged through penu­ry, wanting money, to go to a great learned mans house (as though he might go to some of the Bishops of England) tarrying there a long while without either meat or drink, perceiving the house to be gorgeous, fair and brave with [...]ut, and full of hunger, thirst and cold within, he wrote with a coal on the wall a sentence of Cicero, Non domo Dominus, sed domus Domino honest and [...]est. As though he might say, fair buildings want more liberal dwellings, then liberal Lords fair houses, for the house is praised by the man, and not the man by the house.

Fair houses and wealth do hardly make men liberal; it is said that fair things are coupled with pride, and wealth joined with covetousnesse. In the beginning, all men were liberal, untill private wealth began to practise with money, covetousnesse was not known for as money did increase, fo covetousnesse grew. In Rome saith Pliny money was not seen four hundred years and more, after the building of Rome. Then was Rome true and beneficial bp reason of liberality, which after waxed wealthy and false, by means of covetousnesse. That City was most famous chiefly for her liberality, wherein Rome excelled all the world; if the death of Princes, of Noble men, yea, of all men can suffi­ciently bear witnesse of their lives, considering vertue and fame shall prove that by death, which life hardly may ut­ter (for no man is well known during life.) The death of Epaminondas that most renowned Prince of Thebes, and Conquerour of all Gréece, was a sure and a certain shew of his liberal life. The last day of P. Aemilius, who trium­phed in life time over the proud Macedonians and Liguri­ant, was a true token of his frank and frée dealing in life. In life manner we may say of Maenemus Agrippa, and Sci­pio Affricanus, the one victor ove [...] the Samnites, the other triumpher over Carthage and Numantia, whose renown­ed lives, made their deaths famous: whose worthy deaths, do revive their noble lives. Their beneficial dealing and liberality, was well known by their deaths: so liberally [Page 13] they lived, that their friends found no money hidden, no gold kept, no treasure preserved, no wealth at all, though divers time by victory and triumphs, by conquest and for­tune they psssessed Kingdomes and countries in the time of life. The greatest Prince in his time Cyrus, the first King that brought the Monarchy unto Persia, slain by Tomyris, had on his grave being buried in Scithia, in no gorgeous Temple, nor sumptuous Tomb, but in an open field, this Epitaph Here heth Cyrus the great King of Persia, con­tented now with seven foot, who could not be satisfied some­time with seven Kingdomes: what Caesar, King, or Prince so­ever thou art, spare this place unto Cyrus. And when Alexander the great, passing with his army unto Scithia and India, had read this Epitaph, and perceiving the slippery estate of Princes, the uncertainty of life, and mutability of fortune, he much doubted the state of his own life: howbeit, at that voyage he forgot by means of Mars, the Epitagh of King Cyrus, untill he returned from India, from his wars into Babylon, where he married Statira King Darius daughter, whom before he conquered: where such liberality was shewed, such magnificency done, such gifts given such ban­quets kept that Alexander upon his own charges married the most part of the Nobles of Macedonia, unto the Ladies of Persia, the feasts during five days amounted to the sum of thrée and twenty thousand Talents, every Talent valued at fourscore pounds, he repeating oft the Epitaph of Cyrus, would suffer none, though divers Princes were present, to be at any charges but himself, onely saying that which for­tune giveth unto Alexander, the same will Alexander give unto his friends, for Cyrus grave is appointed unto Alex­ander: in this Alexander passed all Princes, in taking all, and giving all: private faults may not deprave open ver­tues, every man hath a fault. Alexander was known to be a drunkard; Julius Caesar was noted to be ambitious; Antio­chus the the great King of Syria blamed for lechery. Alcibi­ades of pride; P [...]rrhus of incredulity; Hannibal of falshood; Di­onifius of tyranny. I may number up infinite Princes, who [Page 14] for one vice may not be forgotten for their divers vertues: Vertue must not be hidden for that vice is manifest. Phrine a Courtisan sometime of Gréece, though for her slanderous life, worthy reprehension, yet for her liberality she ought well to be remembred, for after Alexander the great had subdued that famous City of Thebes, and made the walls thereof even with the ground: she offered to re-edifie the same upon this condition, that upon every gate of the City this sentence shall be set. This City Alexander the great threw down, and this City Phrine the Courtisan builded up again. The like I have read of Queen Rhodope, sometime a Courtisan, and a lewd woman, who made up the brave and sumptuous work, called the Pyramides in Egypt, where she used such liberalliry, such a vast expence of money, that for her noblenesse she was well worthy to be commended, though for vitious living she was otherwise to be blamed. Men and women were desirous then to be liberal: Then Princes were as liberal and beneficial with such lenity and humanity unto the poor, as they grew afterward to be hard and covetous with severity and cruelnesse. Therefore A­naxilaus a liberal Prince, was often wont to say, that the chiefest commendations and noblest vertues which could be in a Prince, were, not to be overcome in beneficial do­ings. Attalus King of Assa, languishing in sicknesse, and ready to dy, bequeathed his Kingdome and Scepter of A­sia, unto the noble Romans by testament, fully and freely to bestow it on whom they would, for that they were so liberal and beneficial sometime towards him, whilest yet fortune favoured him not.

A liberal Prince cannot be void of love. Antigonus was wont to answer Aristodemus, one of his Councel, who was brought up of a boy in his Kitchin, when he spake any thing against princely gifts, and found fault with Antigonus libe­rality, that his talk did smel of the Kitchin: A fit repre­hension for such a saucie servant, who hindred Kings from doing good, and moved Princes to do evil. I would such Sycophants should be so answered by Princes, as Aristode­mus [Page 15] was of King Antigonus. Worthy of perpetual memory was Artaxerxes for his passing liberality towards the poor souldiers that came from the Lacedemonian war with him, he made them that came on foot unto him, to go home on horseback; he that came on horseback, he sent him home in a chariot; and he that had a village before he came unto him, he gave him a city at his going away from him. A Prince worthy of Subjects, and a Captain most fit for Souldiers. What made Julius Caesaa to be beloved of his souldiers? What caused Alexander to be honoured of all men? Mag­nificence and liberality; The one in the great Wars at Pharsalia, at what time he conquered Pompeius the Great, having all the treasures and substance of Pompeius brought before him, took nothing from the souldiers but Pompeius letters: The other, after he had vanquished King Darius, having a great chest full of treasure, where he found in pre­sent coyn, two hundred thousand pound, beside other inesti­mable treasures and jewels took nothing from his souldi­ers but a little book named the Illiads of Homer, wherein he delighted more to read the noble acts of the Gréeks, and the worthy feats of the Troyans, then in all the wealth of Per­sia. Thus liberality maintained their fame; Thus their magnificent benefits so spread forth their noble names, that happy was he that could be a souldier unto Caesar, or to A­lexander. I remember a certain King in Syracusa, named Hiero, who understanding the liberality of the Romanes, and perceiving the penury of victuals which then the Ro­mans sustained in the wars of Tharsimenos, did send three hundred thousand bushels of wheat, and two hundred thou­sand of barley, with great sums of gold and silver to ease the Roman souldiers,, and fearing that his gifts would not be taken, nor his presents received, considering the nature and liberallity of the Romans, he willed the Embassadours to say that it was an homage and service of good will, sent to honour the Romans from Hiero King of Siracusa an ex­cellent policy to practise beneficence, with manifest exam­ples of a liberal heart. O Rome how happy hast thou been, [Page 16] through thy liberrlity and good will hast won the hearts of all Kingdomes and countries, Vntill Ninus time all things were common, no division of ground no hoording of mony, no covetousnesse known no greedinesse of Kingdomes, no desire of wealth: in fine, for the space of two hundred and fifty years, for the simplicity, innocency and true dealing of people, it was worthily called the golden world, and then a man could not find a covetous person, and now a man can­not find a liberal friend; then no man knew to do evil, and now no man knoweth to do good; then no man did take, and now no man doth give: in fine, then one for another and now all for themselves. What made Cimon a liberal Gen­tleman of Athens, to be so famous in Greece? his liberality amongst nigards he onely counted liberal, and all Athens besides covetous, whereby he deserved renown and glory, amongst so many nippers of money, he onely shewed him­self bountifull and liberall. What caused Flaminius to be so much spoken of amongst the Romans? his liberal gifts amongst so many greedy takers, his open benefits, amongst their privat wealth and hidden hatred? What moved the Agrigentines to honour so much the manly Gillias, to ad­vance his fame to extol his name? his liberality. Such co­vetousnesse then was in Athens, Rome, and Agrigentum, that then worthy were these of admiration and praise, who avoided the cankered state of avarice. Thus from the gol­den world, it came unto the silver world, and then to that hard mettal the iron world for the covetous people can ne­ver be satisfied. The young Partridge, by nature is ready to flee as soon as she commeth out of the shell, the wild duck to swim, the Lion to go, and man onely born ready to seeke and travel for money. Where might a man find out such a man as Ari [...]ides was in all Greece now? who was so liberal, that having all the state of Athens under his go­vernment, gave all to the poor Citizens, a little excepted which brought him unto the ground. Where should one méet with such a one as Pelopidas in all Sparta? being blamed of his friends and counsellours, for his large gifts [Page 17] and liberallity, exhorting him to make much of money, con­sidering how necessary money is to Princes: yea said Pelo­pidas, to such Princes as Nicomedes, a lame man both dumb & deaf. Where should a man séek in Thebes for such a man as Epaminondas? who when he heard that he who carried his Target after him, had taken money for the dismission of certain prisoners taken in the wars, Give me (said he) my Target, and go you to kéep an Inne, for if you love money, you are not fit to carry Epaminondas Target: with so much honour is liberallity attended, that those Princes who have béen famous for the most fortitude haue béen famous also for the most liberallity, yet neither liberallity, nor fame, nor fortitude, can reprieve a Prince from the ingratitude of death.


What Princes were advanced one way, and were oppressed by an other.

HOw some men are exalted and others oppres­sed, Histories do record. All the Kings that ever reigned in Rome, almost from base birth and slender progeny, were advanced by fortune to sit in the royal throne, and in­joy Princely Scepters. Romulus the first King and builder of Rome, born of Rhea, a Vestal Virgin, and daughter unto Amulius, was left as a prey unto beasts, forsaken of all in Rome, so hated of his own grandfather, that he found more friendship in a she Wolf, then he had at his grandfather Amulius, more kindnesse of the Wolf for his nourishment then love of his mother, though he was born of her. Notwithstanding, contrary to the expectation of A­mulius, being not thought of in Rome, he was by a Woolf preserved, and by a poor Shepheard brought up to be a King of Rome. The like hapned unto Cyrus at thrée days old, when he was commanded by his grandfather King Astiages to be drowned, and delivered unto Harpagus chief officer a­bout [Page 18] Astiages, by King Astiages own hand, to be killed and destroyed: yet by fortune, a Bitch (he being left as Ro­mulus was) fed him and gave him milk and life when his Parents appointed death for him, and being thus brought up by a Bitch, he was the first and most renowned King that ever reigned in Persia. Even so may I alledge of Paris King Priamus son called likewise Alexander, who being commanded to be killed as soon as he was born, he was brought up by a Bear to be a famous Phrigian Prince. Thus Cyrus by fortune, found more friendship in a bitch then in his own mother: Romulus more love in a Woolf then in all Rome: Alexander more kindnesse in a Bear then in his father Priamus. What shall I say of Pelephus the son of Hercules, who was fostred by a Hart or of Camil­la and Semiramis, the one brought up by a Mare, the other by birds of the air to be such famous Quéens, as the one ruled the Volscians the other the Babylonians; How for­tune appointed little Ants to féed King Midas, and Bees to féed Plato, the wealth of the one, and eloquence of the other did certifie the same: but I will declare first the extolling and advancement of simple and base men unto Princely seats. Tarquinius Priscus, a stranger born in Corinth, the son of Demaiat [...]s a banished Merchant from his country, be­came a famous King in Rome: yea so famous I say that he inlarged the confines of Italy, amplified the wealth and state of Rome, augmented the number of the Senatours, encreased the order of Knighthood, and left Rome so hap­py at his death, that the Citizens thereof would have travelled twice as far as Corinth, so that they might en­joy again so noble a Prince. Tullius Servius, a poor stranger, was likewise advanced unto the same place by fortune: and Tullus Hostillius a shepheard, was from féeding of beasts ex­tolled to be the King of Rome. Thus fortune to shew her might, exalteth the poor, and oppresseth the proud. Thus from banished strangers, from simple shepheards, most fa­mous Princes, and noble Kings have proceeded. Fortune as Seneca saith, from low birth, and base conditions, hath [Page 19] made Princes; many have béen advanced from the Plough to sit in seat of Kings, as Gordius, who from the plough be­came a King in Phrygia: Fortune took Agathocles from his fathers shop being a Potter, and made him King in Sycilia: she brought Darius from the Stable of Cyrus to be a King in Persia: she brought Giges from a Shepheard to be the wealthiest King that ever reigned in Lydia: Ju­stinus a swine-heard from féeding his Swine, became the mighty Emperour of Constantinople. And Carpenters likewise may brag of Telephanes, whom fortune advāced to ye Kingdome of Lydia. Shall not Husbandmen extol fortune, which made Valentianus Emperour in Rome? How much did fortune favour learning, how brought she the greatest Princes in the world to honour simple men, and caused the cruellest tyrant to esteem and reverence the same? King Dyonisius that wicked tyrant of Sicilia, when he heard that divine and noble Phylosopher Plato was coming unto Sycilia he made certain of his Nobles to go méet him on the sea, and in a ship bravely appointed, and gorgeously ap­dressed with Sails of purple silk to bring him to land, where Dionisius himself did attend his coming in his golden Chariot, with four white horses trapped over with gold, and having taken him into his own Princely Chariot, he talked unto him reverently, used him honourably, and so en­tertained him, that if Jupiter had descended from the skie, greater honour could he not get in Creet, then Plato a poor Philosopher Aristons son of Athens obtained in Sicil. Ari­stotle born in Stagira a poor Phisitians son named Nicho­machus, merited such fame that not onely Philip King of Macedonia, thanked God that his son Alexander was born in his time, under whose tuition Alexander five years lear­ned Philosophy, but also Alexander the great, Conquerour of the world honoured and saluted him as his Master, unto whom he said that he was no lesse bound for his learning and vertuous education, then he was unto King Philip his father for his birth, he declared the same being in India, a country far from Greece, & in the midst of his great wars, [Page 20] he did write unto him of the state of India, of the successe of his journies, and the prodigious and monstrous sights that he saw in his expedition. That mighty Artaxerxes King of Persia, hearing of the fame of that learned Hypo­crates, did send unto the chief Governour of Hellespent earnest letters for Hypocrates, promising him great ho­nours, and an equality to the chief rulers of Persia, and to be a fellow and friend unto mighty Artaxerxes.

Bion being demanded what was the most dangerous thing in the world, he answered, to be most fortunate. Pho­cion, that learned Athenian, was wont to say, that better it were to lie carelesse upon the ground, safe and sound, then to lie with trouble of mind under cloth of States in danger and peril. A certain wise Prince, before he was crowned King, did take the Crown first (as Valerius saith) in his hand, and after looking and musing a while upon it, he said, O Crown, more noble then happy, whose peril to enjoy if men understood, no man would take thée from the ground, though thou didst offer thy self unto him What felicity happened unto Alexander the Great, whom fortune so ad­vanced to be a King of Kings, a Conqueror of Conquerors, yea to be worshipped as a God, and to be called the son of Jupiter, whose fame compassed the whole earth, in so much, that Thalestris Quéen of the Amazons came from Scythia unto Hyrcania with thrée hundred women to lie with Alex­ander thirty days to have a child by him; and yet in Baby­lon that fortune that so exalted him, did likewise oppresse him, being in his chief fame, and but thirty two years old, poysoned by his kinsmen and friends, and so left and forsa­ken of all men, that he was thirty days unburied, as a beg­gar, not as a King, and rather like a beast then the son of Jupiter. In the same manner fortune served Julius Caesar, who after the glory of so many conquests, was in his own city of Rome, and in the Senate house amidst his Counsel­lors, treacherously slain and murthered with Bodkins and Daggers, by his most trusty friends Brutus and Cassius, that he had twenty and thrée wounds in his body. This was the [Page 21] unfortunate end of so fortunate a beginning. How did fortune deal with famous Xerxes, whose huge armies dryed up rivers, whose infinite numbers of Navies co­vered the Ocean seas, whose power and force all Gréece trembled at; fortune that promised all Gréece to him, did give him over into the hands of Themistocles his enemy to be vanquished, and unto the force of Artabanus to be slain. A little better she used Mithridates King of Pontus, who af­ter many victories in divers countries, and noble triumphs against the invincible Romans, she at length to his great discomfort, after he had lost his wife, children, and all his friends, did leave him in his old age a prey unto Pompe­ius. Therefore was Plato wont to thank God, that he was born a man, and not a beast; in Gréece, and not in Barba­ry; and thanked fortune, that he was a scholler unto Socra­tes, who always despised fortune and her power: For for­tune never doth a good déed, but she requiteth the same with an evil turn afterwards. Pyrrhus that valiant King of Epy­rus, whom fortune guided so famously, that he was counted by Hannibal the second souldier and Prince for his magna­nimity and courage, unto Alexander the Great, was killed by a silly simple Argive woman with a Tile stone. Hanni­bal, whose name was so terrible unto Rome by the space of sixtéen years, was driven into exile, and became a banished abject from his Countrey, and weary of his life, he ended his days with poyson in Bithinia. Alcibiades, whom fortune so favoured that he excelled all men in personage and birth, in wisdome and honour, in strength and wealth, and in all kind of vertues, was brought to such banishment and penu­ry, to such infamy and reproach, that he was compassed round, and taken by his enemies, and burned in his bed with his whore whose name was Timandra. Cambyses and Nero, whose cruel and unhappy days both Rome and Persia long time felt; their fate was such, that after much tyran­ny and bloodshed, being weary in murthering of others, they slew themselves: This was the end of their cruelty.

Polycrates, who ever sayled with prosperous winds of for­tune, [Page 22] so that he was named fortunate Polycrates, at length (being so served of fortune as other Princes were) he was taken and hanged by one Orontes, an Officer of King Da­rius, in the open sight of Samos, where he a long time flou­rished, and in the end was hanged on a high hill named the mount of Mycale. These evils happen by fortune, yet we sée them not; she gripes us with her hands, and yet we féel it not; she treadeth us down, and yet we will not know it. Happy is he that accompanieth not with fortune, though di­vers think themselves happy that he fortunate: As Gyges and Croesus, two Kings of Lydia so wealthy that they judg­ed no man so happy as they were; and yet was Aglaus the poorest in all Arcadia, and Byton the simplest of all Gréece (the one by the sentence of Solon, the other by the Oracle of Apollo) judged far more happy then they. The very ty­rant Dyonisius, being banished from his Kingdome of Co­rinth, would often say in his misery That happy twice were they that never knew fortune, whose fawning face in the beginning doth purchase cruel death in the end. Where­fore a certain Lacedemonian called Diagoras, being in the Games of Olympia in Gréece having his children, and his childrens children crowned with Garlands of Fame, for their vertuous acts and qualities, said, that it were great happiness for him to die presently at such a sight of his chil­drens Fortune; and being asked the cause, he said, That Fortune never pleased that man so much at one time, but she would at another time displease the same as much a­gain. And most true it was spoken unto one of the thir­ty tyrants, who being in banquet with divers Nobles and Gentlemen, when the house fell and slew them all; yet he escaping, bragged much of his fortune that he so saved him­self, a simple man hearing it, said to him, Never boast of Fortune at any time, for that she spareth thee now, she will the next time more sharply plague thee. Which came so to pass; For his flesh was made a food to his horses, and his bloud was the drink which was appointed for them.

If Fortune, whose wavering steps are never cer­tain, [Page 23] were as little trusted of the most as she is most deceit­full and false to all then Cicero would not have spoken, that they which séek Fortune are blinder then Fortune; she never advanced any to dignity, but she suppressed the same again unto misery, as Tarquinius the proud, a King that Fortune made famous divers waies, of Princely Progeny of passing personage of incredible beauty and of all noble qualities; but Lucretia, Collatinus wife, was made the onely snare to catch him, and to take him, by whom he was deprived of his government, and banished out of Rome, to range countries in misery and pain after long felicity and pleasure: even so Dionisius King of Siracusa, after many Princely pleasures, renowned fame, great glory, yet in the end was banished his country, and driven to keep school in Italy. In the like sort, that noble and valiant Scipio Affricanus was deceived, whose prowesse and magna­nimity augmented much the fame of the Romans by con­quering of Affrick and Carthage, and notwithstanding, he was driven to exilement and misery, where he died after many triumphs and victories like a poor beggar. O uncer­tain state and slippery wheel of Fortune.

And because fame followeth fortune, and proceedeth from Fortune, as the smoke cometh from the fire (for as Fortune is variable, so is Fame divers) if we seek Histo­ries, we find the fame of poor men for their poverty is great, as well as the fame of the rich, for all their riches: poor Codrus and ragged Irus, are as famous in respect of be­ing Beggars, as Midas and Craesus two wealthy Kings of Lydia. Doth not Aristophanes make as much mention of Cleonimus the Coward, as Homer doth of stout Achilles? Po­liphemus and Enceladus, two huge monstrous Giants, not so famous in Virgil for their bignesse, as Conopas or Molon, two little dwarfs of two foot length, are renowned in Plini for their smalnesse. Juvenal and Claudian, report no lesse of the little Pigmies, then Ovid or Maro of ye huge Ciclopes. If Fame proceed of poor men for poverty, of dwarfs for their smalnesse, of cowards for their cowardize, as much as [Page 24] it doth flow of rich men for their wealth, of Giants for their bigness, and of stout men for their courage: What is it but a pilgrimage in which we live & travel here? For for­tune & fame run together as cōstantly as they are thēselves uncertain. Plini that famous Historiographer, writeth of one named Messala, who was so forgetfull and weak of memory, that he forgat his own name, and yet he was as famous for his obliviousness, as Hortensius was renowned for that he could pronounce out of hand with his tongue what he wrote with his pen. Seneca the Philosopher commendeth one cal­led Calvisius, that he was likewise so oblivious, that he could not often name those dayly friends that he used company withal. What greater Fame could Cyneas have for all his memory, when he was sent from King Pyrrhus as Embassa­dor to Rome, where the second day, in the Senate house, be­fore all the people of Rome, he named all the Senators by name? What greater renown could King Cyrus have for his noble memory, for naming every souldier of his by name, being in the Camp? What Fame hath King Mithri­dates for his divers and sundry languages, which he, with­out an Interpretor, could speak unto two and twenty Na­tions, being his souldiers, but onely that they are recorded in books, where likewise Calvisius, Messala, and such oblivi­ous men that forgot their own names are committed into History. Doth not Homer, the Trumpetter of Fame, write of Militides an Idiot, who after the destruction of Troy, and the death of King Priamus and all his sons, would come to succour the Troyans? Homer (I say) doth not forget Mili­tides, no more then he doth Agamemnon. What should I speak of silly and wicked Herostratus, who for burning the Temple of Diana, is everlastingly remembred: And mil­lions more of the like nature, who are mentioned by anci­ent writers? Thus you sée we travel all one way in the vale of misery, and the condition is alike of the greatest Princes and the poorest Beggars; and if there be any diffe­rence, it is in that oftentimes the King is the more unfor­tunate of the two.


Of magnanimity of Princes, and their fortitude of mind, where and when it was esteemed.

AS Iustice without temperance is often counted injury, so magnanimity with­out respect unto prudence is but tyran­ny. This vertue proceedeth from a va­liant and a sober mind, joyning both the body and the mind together, so that the wisedome and policy of the one, the strength and courage of the other, are united and alwaies ready to defend the cause of their coun­try and the quarrel of their Prince, and society of friend­ship: unto this therefore every good man is born, prefer­ring common commodities before private wealth Hercu­les pondering much, what he might best do, and to what he should apply his noble mind, there appeared unto him two goodly women, the one, as Xenophon doth describe, very gor­geous and brave, rings of gold on her finger, a chain of gold about her neck, her hairs composed and frisled, with pearls and Diamonds hanging at her ears: the other in sober and comely apparel, of modest behaviour, of shame faced countenance: they stood both before him. The first said, Her­cules if thou wilt serve me, thou shalt have gold and silver e­nough thou shalt féed daintily, thou shalt live princely, thou shalt injoy pleasures: In fine, thou shalt have all things at thy will to live with ease and rest. The other said with comely countenance, If thou wilt serve me Hercules, thou shalt be a Conquerour of conquerours, thou shalt subdue Kingdomes, and overthrow Kings: thou shalt be advan­ced into fame, renowned in all the world, and shall deserve praise both of men and women. Which when Hercules un­derstood taking into consideration the idle service of the first, and the exercise of the second, he took her as his mi­stresse, and willingly became a servant to her. Wherefore [Page 26] according unto promise made, he injoyed fully the fame and praise by due deserts; he overcame Lions Dragons, Bears, and such monstrous huge wild beasts, he did destroy King­domes and countries; he had that fortitude of mind, that he conquered Giants, and subdued Tyrants inlarged liber­ties, set frée Captives and prisoners: and briefly that mag­nanimity was in him, that he never effended just men, nor hurt innocent men, he preserved divers Kings and coun­tries, he never spoiled good countrey, nor subdued a just King, but wholly addicted himself to merit fame. He de­stroyed the Serpent Hydra, the Dragon the Lion, the wild Bore and terrible Bull, conquering Geron, Cerberus, and Diomedes, cruel Tyrants. He took the gilded Hart, he van­quished the Centaures, and the ravening birds named Stim­phalides, was there any tyranny in these his enterprizes? but Hercules they say, was more aided of the Gods, then helped of man. With these his princely acts and renowned feats, noble Theseus was much enamored, insomuch that he emu­lated the vertuous life of Hercules, he tamed wild beasts, slue monsters, overcame cruel Creon the Tyrant of Thebes, he descended also as the Poet saith unto hell, to imitate the feats of Hercules, to resemble his magnanimity, to augment Hercules fame, erecting alters, appointing sacrifice in me­mory of Hercules, hoping that others would do unto Theseus as Theseus did unto Hercules. Next unto Theseus for anti­quity of time, that valiant and renowned Gréek Achilles, succeeded, who was the onely stay and comfort of his coun­try the very hope of Greece, his magnanimity, valiant cou­rage, worthy acts, and famous life is at large set forth in Homers Illiads, which Homer, Alexander the great so estee­med, by the reading of the atchievements of Achilles, being brought up in school, in his fathers days, with that learned Phylosopher Aristotle, that he never went to bed but he had Homer under his pillow, and there fell in love with the prowesse of Achilles, honoured his life, and magnified his death insomuch that he went unto Illion in Phrygia, where that famous City of Troy sometimes stood, to sée the grave [Page 27] of Achilles, where, when he saw the worthy monuments of his martial chivalry, his famous feats and renowned life depainted about the Temple, which invironed round his sumptuous Tomb, he brake out into tears, beholding the tomb, and said. O happy Achilles who had such a Poet as Homer, that so well could advance thy fame. And thus Alex­ander being moved by Homer to imitate Achilles, minded nothing else but magnanimity and courage of mind, as Cur­tius, and Diodorus Siculus can well testifie, whose life though it was but short, was a mirrour unto all the world, that be­ing but twenty years when he began to imitate the acts and feats of Achilles, in twelve years more, (which was his whole time of life) he became King over Kings, a Con­querour over Conquerours, and was named another Her­cules, for his prosperous successe in his enterprises, inso­much that Julius Caesar, the first and most valiant Emperor that ever was in Rome, after his great conquests entring into the Temple of Hercules in Gades, and reading the life of Alexander painted round about the Temple, his worthy fame declared, his noble déeds set forth, his victories and conquests in every place described, such monuments and mirrours in memory of his noble life every where expres­sed, he fell into the like tears for Alexander, as Alexander did for Achilles.

Thus was one in love with another for magnanimities sake, each one so desirous of others fame, that Caesar thought himself happy if he might be counted Alexander, Alexander judged himself renowned if he might be named Achilles, A­chilles sought no greater fame then Theseus, Theseus ever de­sired the name of Hercules. Therefore Agesilaus King of the Lacedemonians wondered much at the singular magnani­mity and prowesse of Epaminondas, sometime Prince of Thebes, who with one little City could subdue all Gréece. This Epaminondas having wars with the Lacedemonians, people no lesse renowned by war then justly feared by Epa­minondas after great victories and triumphs; was after this sort prevented by Agesilaus, in the wars of Mantinia, that all [Page 28] the people of Sparta were counselled either to kill Epami­nondas, or to be killed by Epaminondas whereby the whole force and power of Lacedemonia was fully bent by com­mandment given by Agesilaus their King, to fall upon E­paminondas, where that valiant and noble Prince by too much pollicy was wounded to death, to the utter destructi­on of all the people of Thebes; and yet being carried unto his tent alive, he demanded of his souldiers the state of the field, whether Thebes or Sparta was conquered, being cer­tified that the Lacedemonians fled and that he had the vic­tory, he forthwith charged the end of the spear to be taken out of his wounded side, saying, Now your Prince Epami­nondas beginneth to live, for that he dies a Conqueror. We read not of Epaminondas his parralel, who being compared unto Agamemnon for his magnanimity, was angry there­with, saying Agamemnon with al Greece with him, was ten years about one town, the City of Troy Epaminondas with little Thebes in one year conquered all Gréece. An order was observed amongst the Lacedemonians before they did go to the wars, they were by their Laws charged to make solemn sacrifice unto the Muses; And being demanded why they so did, sith Mars hath no society with the Muses; Euda­midas then their King, answered For that we might obtain as well of the Muses how to use victory gently, as Mars to become victors manfully.

These Lacedemonians were so valiant, that having ba­nished their King Cleonimus for his extraordinary pride and violence did make Arcus King in his place: Who being in Creet, aiding the people of Corcyra in wars with the most part of the Citizens of Sparta, Cleonimus their exiled King consulted with Pyrrhus King of Epyre, and perswa­ded him then or never to conquer Sparta, considering Are­us was in Creet, and that Sparta was not populous to de­fend any strength of invasion; they both came, and pitched their field in the open face of the City of Sparta, assuring themselves to sup that evening at Cleonimus house. The Citizens perceiving the great Army of Pyrrhus, thought [Page 29] good by night to send their women unto Créet to Areus, making themselves ready to [...]ie manfully in resisting the hoast of the enemie, and being thus in the Senate, agrée­ing that the womankind should passe away that night, lest their nation at that time should be quiet destroyed by Pyr­rhus a great number of women appeared in armor, amongst whom Archidamia made an Oration to the men of Sparta, wherein she much blamed their intent, and quite confoun­ded their purpose, saying, Think you, O Citizens of Spar­ta) that your Wives and Daughters would live if they might, after the death of their Husbands, and destruction of Sparta? Behold how ready we are, how willingly the women of Sparta will die and live with their Hus­bands: Pyrrhus shall well feel it, and this day be assured of it.

No marvel it is that the children of these women should be valiant & high in their resolution. If Demosthenes, who was so much esteemed in Athens, had said in Sparta that which he wrote in Athens, that they who sometime ran a­way should fight again, he should have the like reward that Archilogus had who wrote in his book, that it was sometime better to cast the buckler away then to die for which he was banished the confines of Lacedemonia. At what time the noble city of Sagun [...]um was destroyed, the Senate of Car­thage having promised the contrary, the renowned Ro­mans, though the league was broken, and peace defied, yet the Senators did send Fabius Maximus as their Embassador, with two tables, the one containing peace, the other wars, which were sent to Carthage, either to choose peace or wars; the election was theirs, though the Romans were injured. Hardie then the Romans were, when Scaenola went alone armed unto the Tents of Porsenna King of Hetruria either to kill Porsenna or to be killed by Porsenna, greater fortitude of mind could be in no man: a more valiant heart also was séen in no man then in Cocles, who alone resisted the whole army of King Porsenna, and when the draw bridge was ta­ken up, he leaped in all his harnesse from his enemies into [Page 30] the midst of the river Tybur. And though he was in divers places sore wounded yet neither did his fall hurt him, nor his Armour press him, neither the water drown him, nei­ther thousands of his enemies could kill him, but he swam through the river Tybur unto Rome, to the great admira­tion of King Porsenna, and excéeding joy of Rome; so that one poor Romane gave the repulse to the whole Army of a King. Valiant was Rome, and the Romans feared, when Popilius was sent Ambassador to Antiochus the Great, King of Syria, when Antiochus (either for pride or pomp of his person, or contempt of Popilius) refused to answer the Ro­man Embassador; but was presently enforced to answer the Senate of Rome, and give satisfaction to the demands of the Embassador, before he might go out of a little round circle which Popilius made with his riding Rod. Rome was then faithfull, when Pomponius a Roman Knight and soul­dier under Lucullus, who was General in the field against Mithridates King of Pontus, was taken prisoner by Mithri­dates, and was sore wounded and mangled, the King deman­ded, If he should give him Quarter for his life, he would be true to Mithridates? to whom the poor wounded Roman an­swered, Pomponius will be unto Mithridates as Mithridates will be unto Lucullus: So true and faithfull were Romans, as they were stout and valiant, insomuch that Scipio being almost thréescore years of age, and was desired by a young souldier to buy a brave Buckler, and a fine Target, said, That a true Roman must not trust to the left hand, where the Buckler is, or to hide himself under a Target; but must trust to his right hand and show himself in field in o­pen sight. This magnanimity had the people of Scythia, at what time Darius King of Persia was marching with his Army towards Scythia, they having intelligence thereof, like people of great magnanimity, sent certain Am­bassadors to méet Darius, to signifie his welcome unto Scy­thia by presents sent by their Ambassadours: When the Ambassadors met with King Darius, they began to tel their message, and opening in the privy chamber the Wallet [Page 31] where their presents were, they took out a mouse, saying, Vnless you créep like this mouse to some countrey, or swim like this frog to another, or flie like this bird to a third, these arrows shall pierce your hearts: The presents were a Mouse, a Frog▪ a Sparrow, and five Arrows; rare pre­sents sent unto a King, simple gifts, small charges, but yet containing valour, fortitude, and contempt of Darius, [...]a­ther to move him to war, then to entreat for peace. Though Scythia was bare, yet was she stout; though rude and bar­barous, yet valiant and manfull. It is not in the nature of the place, or in the number of the persons that magnani­mity consisteth, but in the valiant heart, and noble mind: Wherefore Leonides King of Sparta was wont to say un­to his souldiers that he had rather have one Lion to lead a whole herd of Déers, then to have a whole band of Lions ruled and led by one Déer; applying his meaning unto King Xerxes, who had ten hundred thousand ships on the Seas sayling towards Gréece, so many as all Gréece could hardly receive so many that divers rivers and flouds were dried up by his huge Armie, a proof (saith Justine) more of his wealth then of his magnanimity. Leonides (know­ing well the manner of Xerxes, that he was séen first in the flight, and last in the field; whose glorious pomp and numerous army was not so famous and terrible at his com­ming to Gréece, as his departure from Gréece was shame­full and ignominious) began so perswade the Lacedemoni­ans, being but four thousand in number, willingly to die in the streights of Thermopylae for the renown of Sparta; ex­horting them to dine as merrily with Leonides their King, as though they should [...]up with Pluto. But perswasions to these that were already perswaded, were superfluous; spurs unto those that might not be stopt with bridles, were néedlesse, as in the Thermopylae was well séen and proved to the noble fame of Leonides, and great shame of Xerxes.

It is not in multitude of men that magnanimity of men consisteth, but in wise and valiant hearts, for wit and cou­rage joyned together (saith Salust) do make men valiant: [Page 32] Wherefore Agamemnon that most renowned Emperour of all Greece at the siege of Troy, would often say, that he had rather have ten wise Nestors, then ten strong as Achilles, ten such as Ulysses, then ten such as Ajax: wisedome in war availeth much. Plutarch reciteth four famous and renown­ed Princes, and either of these four had but one eye, to the advancement of their renowned fame, the first was Philip King of Macedonia, and Father unto Alexander the great, whose wisedome in wars, whose policy in feats, whose libe­rallity unto his souldiers, whose clemency and humanity to his enemies, in fine, whose successe in his affairs were such, that his son Alexande [...], doubted whether the valiant­nesse of his Father, would leave any place to Alexander un­conquered. The second was Antigonus King in the self-same place succeeding after Philip, whose wars with Mithri­daies King of Pontus, and Pyrrhus King of Epire, fully set forth in Plutarch, do yeeld due honour and renown unto him for his force and magnanimity: The third was Hannibal Prince of Carthage, the whole stay of all Lybia, for sixtéen years, the scourge and terrour of all Rome and Italy, whose name was so terrible for his courage and hardinesse, that Antiochus King of Syria, and Prusia and King also of Bi­thinia, rather for fear, then for love, Hannibal being then but a banished man did receive him with hon [...]ur. The fourth was Serto [...]ius a Roman Prince born in Sabina the thunder of whose Fame was nothing inferiour to the proudest, these were not so famous by their prowesse and chivalry one way, as they were notorious and spoken of, for that either of them had but one eye. These renowned Princes and sin­gular souldiers, excelled all men in wisedome and prowess, as is recorded by Plutarch in their lives. Philip for temper­ance of life, Antigonus for faith and constancy to his friend, Hannibal for truth and patience for his county, Sertorius for his clemency and gentlenesse towards his enemies, and all of them for their passing courage, invincible stoutnesse, and worthy enterprizes, although they were incomparable, yet were they all deprived of their eys, as Philip lost one of his [Page 33] eys at the siege of the City of Methron, Antigonus at Perin­thia, Hannibal in Hetruria, Sertorius in Pontus. When the people of Thasius had erected altars, and appointed sacrifices to honour Agesilaus in their Temples for his Fame of for­titude, they sent Embassadours to certifie the King thereof, who reported that as Apollo was in Delphos honoured as a God, so Agesilaus was in Thasius: but the King as he was valiant, so he was wise, and much detesting the assentations of the people, he demanded of the Embassadours, and desi­red them, that if their country could make Gods, they would make some first for their own country; saying, Agesilaus had rather be a King in Sparta, then a God in Thasius. While hidden hatred was exempted, while civil wars were not known, while Athens sought no supremacy over Sparta, while Sparta sought no mastery over Thebes, then all the power of Persia, the force of Macedonia might not stain one little town in Gréece: but the insolency of Princes, the desire of Fame, the felicity of renown, the honour of glo­ry was such, as Alexander the great answered King Darius Embassadours, who coming from Persia to Macedonia to treat of peace, tendering unto Alexander the daughter of Darius in marriage, with all the country of Mesopotamia, and twelve thousand talents yearly beside and the assurance of the kingdom of Persia after Darius days: as there wanted no princely liberallity in Darius offering, so there wāted no princely stoutnesse in A [...]exanders answer, saying unto the Embassadors, tel your master Darius King of Persia that as two suns may not be in the firmamēt so two Alex [...]nders may not rule one earth. Such high and valiant minds could be subject in no wise, neither D [...]rius unto Alexander, nor Alex­ander unto Darius. Such stoutnesse reigned in Princes to maintain states that as Archestratus the Athenian was want to say, that in the City of Athens two Alcibiades might not rule: so Ethocles the Lacedemonian did likewise speak, that two Lisanders could not agree in Sparta. So opposite were Princes, so high and lofty of courage, so valiant of heart▪ so noble of mind, that though fortune could not so often fawn [Page 34] and favour their estates; yet she could not bereave them of their valiant minds, nor spoil them of their magnanimity, nor diminish their courage, as may appear by that worthy and most ancient souldier Mithridates King of Pontus who after he had plagued the Romans with wars for the space of forty years, during which time, he shewed himself no lesse hardy and stout in resisting the strong force of Romane, then valiant and couragious in attempting the fortitude of Ro­mans; and though he were by fortune forsaken in his latter days and spoiled of all health, friends, children, countries, kingdomes, and all worldly wealth; yet to spite fortune his mortal foe, he went to Cel [...]ae, thinking with them to passe o­ver into Italy, to let the Romans understand, that though friends and countries by fortune were spoiled: yet neither fortune with her spite, nor all the Romans with their force could subdue King Mithridates valiant heart. It was then the onely joy of Princes not to be conquered. In this one­ly they triumphed, that they could not be vanquished. In this gloried they most, in that they were free from subjection. Cercilidas being one of the wise men named Ephou in Sparta, hearing the thundring threatnings of King Pyrrhus Embassadours, the slaughter and mur­ther that King Pyrrhus intended upon men, women, and chil­dren, the cruel destruction and last confu [...]ions of the Lace­demonians, answered no lesse stoutly then wisely the Em­bassadours of the King, saying. If Pyrrhus your master be a God, we have not offended him, and therefore doubt him not: but if Pyrrhus be but a man, tell your master that the Lacedemonians be men likewise, and therefore we nothing fear him at all. The valiant Pyrrhus thought so well of himself, and judged all men so inferiour unto him in their atchievements, that being at the victory of that noble City Tarentum, where he saw such feats attempted, such acts done, such stoutnesse shewed by the Romans, that dismaied at the manhood and boldnesse of them, thought that if mag­nanimity were lost, the spirit thereof should be found in a Romans heart; insomuch that beholding of them, he cried [Page 35] out and said: O how soon would Pyrrhus conquer all the world, if either he were King of Rome, or Roman souldiers subject unto Pyrrhus. Of these Romans Hannibal being in­forced to forsake Carthage, was wont to say unto King An­tiochus of Syria, that Rome would never suffer equality, but be Prince over all. Rome was compared unto the Serpent Hidra of Lerna, that having so many heads, when one was cut off, another sprung up; insomuch that all the world might not destroy Rome, being either injured, or overcome by the enemies. Licinius having lost divers of his souldiers unto Perseus King of Macedonia (who afterwards was subdued by that valiant Roman Pompey the great) Per­seus did send certain Orators to speak for peace, who elo­quently perswaded Licinius to consent thereto, after a long debate, and the learned councel, and pithy perswasions of the Orators, it was answered as briefly and plainly by Li­cinius, that the best way for King Perseus to obtain peace of the Romans, was first to restore the prisoners he had taken, and then afterwards to send his Embassadours to the Ge­neral Licinius, otherwise the whole country of Macedonia should féel the force and magnanimity of the Romans. To speak of the conquest and victories of Julius Caesar, of the re­solution of Merellus, of the Fortune of Silla, of the severity of Marcellus, being therefore called the spur of Rome and of Fabius named the Target of Rome of divers more valiant Romans, it were infinite; but I mean not to molest the Reader, to prove the renowned Romans most worthy of this valiāt vertue magnanimity. Claudian makes mētion of one Camillus a noble Romā, who having a long time laid siege at Philiscus, & could not prevail, the Schoolmaster of the City taking his schollers with him, under pretēce of walking out of the town, came and offered the schollers unto Camillus saying: by this means you may do what you will unto Phi­lifeus, for here be their children, whom to redéem I know they will yeeld up the town. Camillus having regard to the Fame of Rome, and loathing much to shew such treachery, rewarded the School-master after this sort, he did set him na­ked [Page 36] before his schollers, fast bound with his hands behind him, and every one of his schollers with a rod in his hand, saying unto the boys: bring him home to your Parents, and tell your friends of his falshood: and the poor boys having an opportunity to requite old beatings, were as glad as he was sorrowfull, laying on load, and jerkt him with so many stripes, as loitering trevants may best be bold to number, untill they came unto the City, where they told their Pa­rents the cause thereof, who weighing the clemency and hu­manity of Camillus to be such, they gladly and willingly yeelded themselves and their City into the hands of Camil­lus, knowing well, that he that would use them so being his enemies, could not use them ill by yeelding all into his courtesie, who might have had all by tyranny.

Now because this vertue was often séen in divers Quéens Ladies Gentlewomen and others. I may not omit the pilgrimage of their lives. We read of two Quéens of the Amazons, Penthesilaea the first, and Hyppolica the second; the one so valiant against the Gréeks at the destruction of the noble City of Troy, that she feared not in open field to encounter face to face with that valiant Gréek Achilles; the other so hardy that she shrunk not at the force and stout­nesse of that renowned Champion Theseus, who being com­mended by Theseus for her singular stoutnesse and courage was married to him, which certainly had hapned unto Pen­thesilaea, had she not béen taken by Achilles, Camilla likewise Queen of the Volscians, beside her Princely profession of sacred viginitie, which she vowed unto Diana, was so fa­mous for her magnanimity, that when Turnus & Aeneas were in wars for the marriage of Lavinia, King Latinus daughter, she came Bellona like unto the field resisting the violence and puissance of the Troyans with the Rutils, and brought aid unto Turnus, That noble Zenobia, the famous Quéen of the Palmyrians, a Princess of rare learning, of excellent vertues, of most valiant enterprises, after that her Husband named Odenatus had died, took the Empire of Syria, and attempted the magnanimity of the Romans, and a long time [Page 37] she withstood in wars that noble and renowned Emperor Aurelian, by whom the Emperor was wont to say, when it was objected to him, that it was no commendation for a Prince to subdue a woman; That it is more valiant to conquer a woman, being so stout as Zenobia, then to van­quish a King, being so fearfull as Xerxes. The ancient Gréeks, as Herodotus doth witnesse; were much amazed at the magnanimity of Artemisia Queen of Ca [...]ia, who after that the King her husband died, did shew such fortitude a­gainst the inhabitants of Rhodes, that being but a woman, she subdued their stoutness, she burned their Navies, wast­ed their wealth, vanquished and destroyed the whole Isle, entred into the City of Rhodes, caused her Image to be set up for a monument of her chivalry, & the perpetual memory of her victory. O renowned Ladies, O most worthy women that with feminine feats have merited manly fame! How did famous Teuca Queen of the Illyrians, govern her sub­jects after the death of her husband King Argon, who being warred on by the Romans, repelled their force broke their bonds and discomfited their armies to her perpetual fame and commendation? she governed the people of Illyria no lesse wisely, then she defended the puissant force of the Ro­mans stoutly: She lived (as Histories report) as soberly and chastly without the company of man, as she governed her countrey wisely and stoutly without the counsel of man.

It were sufficient to repeat the ancient Histories of two women, to prove fully an everlasting pr [...]ise and com­mendation unto all women: The one written in Herodo­tus in his first book of Quéen Tomyris of Scythia; the other mentioned by Valerius and Justine, of Cleopatra Queen som­time of Egypt. The first, after that Cyrus had made havock in her Kingdome of Scythia, killing, destroying, and bur­ning all, without any regard of Princely clemency, or re­spect unto a womans government; and not satisfied there­with, he slew also the Queens own son, named Margapices, thirsting more and more for bloud: Insomuch that the va­liant Queen being much moved to revenge Margapices [Page 38] death, weighing the gréedy rage of Cyrus, came Lion like to field, either to lose her own life, or else to revenge her sons death, and prest upon Cyrus at that time more like a grim Gorgon then a silly Scythian, and [...]lew him in the field; and haling him up and down the field, she cut off his head, and bathed it in a great Tun full of bloud, appointed for that purpose, saying, Now Cyrus drink thy belly full of that which thou couldest never have enough of. Thus va­liant Tomyris revenged tyranny, requiting the death of her son with the death of two hundred thousand Persians.

The other was Cleopatra, who after that Julius Caesar was murthered by Brutus and Cassius, and that Marcus Anto­nius was by Augustus invaded with a puissant Army for his perjury and falshood shewed unto his Vncle Caesa [...]; she, I say, Cleopatra having the most part of Arabia and Syria, confederated with her friend and lover Antonius against Augustus, being then the second Emperor of Rome, and ha­ving with the forces of Egypt aided him a long time, until that she perceived, that Augustus prevailed, and that Anto­nius was vanquished, lest she should be conquered by Augu­stus, she conquered her self, yeelding rather her body a prey unto Serpents then to become a subject unto Augustus. Han­nibal could do no more, but to poylon himself rather then to yeeld to Scipio. Let Semiramis with her valiant force and stoutness be commended at Babylon, where she reigned fourty years a Widdow after King Ninus her Husbands death. Let noble and famous Atalanta, with her Bows and Spears, and feats of Arms, be praised in Arcadia. Let Hypsieratea, that followed her Husband King Mithridates in the wars as a Lackey unknown be extolled in Ponius. Lot Helerna, Janus daughter, with all her fortitude be spo­ken of in Latine; And let Deborah be famous amongst the Israelites. These women were no lesse famous for their pilgrim [...]ge, th [...]n the worthy Conquerors and Champions of the world: They were in no point inferiour to men, and in many points far excelled Princes and Kings: Sure­ly the world was then very weak, or women were very [Page 39] strong and resolute. And to omit particularly to touch any more of women, I will open and declare their vertues in several Countreys. The women of Lacena would together with their husbands go unto the field: yea they went soul­dier like unto Missena to fight in field. The women of Cimbria would kill those that first fled the field, though they were the next friends or kinsmen unto them. The wo­men of Saca had this custome, either at their marriage to be conquered by their husbands the first day, or else to be conquerors over their husbands all the days of their life: their combat (saith Aelianus) was for victory, and not for life, The women of Persia would meet their husbands and sons flying the field, lifting up their cloaths, shewing their na­kedness, saying, Whither flée you, O you Cowards? will you again enter into your mothers wombs? will you créep into your wives bellies? This they [...]id in the wars betwixt Cyrus and his Grandfather Astyages. The women of Spar­ta would go unto the field to sée in what place their Hus­bands and friends were wounded; if it were before, they would with gladness and joy shew the same unto every man, and bury the body solemnly; if their wounds were behind▪ they would be so ashamed of the same, that they would leave them unburied in the field. The women of Scythia called Amazons, lived as conquerours over men, and not conquered by men, untill Alexander the Great de­stroyed them and their Countrey, which before were so va­liant, that they weighed not to encounter with Hercules in the field, and after with Theseus in open battel; they blushed not to meet the valiant Greeks at the destruction of Troy. Magnanimity which was then for the defence of countreys, is now turned into Tyranny to destroy countreys: so that the toyl and travel, the great dangers, and high attempts that men took in hand, was nothing but a pilgrimage of life; some going, some comming, some born, some dying, some winning, some losing, some beginning their race, and some ending their life; much like a Comedy played on stages, where every man acteth his appointed part, shifting [Page 40] himself into sundry shapes and fashions. To make an end of this subject, whatsoever we do we do like pilgrims; wher­soever we go, we go a pilgrimage; and thus we live, and thus we die.


Of Martial Triumphs, and the solemnity of Kings and Princes.

AFter that Mars had moved first Ninus, King of the Assyrians unto wars, who was the first after the floud, that invaded the confines of Asia: the world at that time for the simplicity of the people, and temperance of life, and specially for that it was not popu­lous, was called the golden world, for the space of two hun­dred years and a half after Noah, untill Ninus first framed wars, whence in short time after proceeded sundry wars in several countries. Insomuch that to animate the souldiers, and to stir their Captains with greater courage to defend their countries, they invented glorious triumphs, whereby the deserved fame of the Conquerours might be renown­ed. And as the victory of it self was either more or lesse, so were the triumphs appointed to be correspondent unto the same.

The Lacedemonians a people most studious of war, had appointed several triumphs according unto the state of the victory: for if through deceit or craft, they had gotten a vic­tory, they would kill a Bull to do sacrifice unto their Gods. If again through strength and courage they had purchased a victory, then in triumph thereof they would kill a Cock. The Athenians at any victory, would crown the Conqueror with a Garland made of Oken leaves, in triumph of his successe, properly appointed for him that defended the estate of Cities, or the persons of Citizens: Thus Pericles and Demosthenes used often to triumph in wearing the crown called Civica Corona, the Civick Garland. This order also was observed among the Gréeks, that the victors might one­ly [Page 41] make a triumphant shew of their victory not to move any enmity, or to maintain discord against the enemy, as some­time the Thebans did, who were of all Gréece with one consent accused, for that they made a perpetual monument of the victory against the Lacedemonians to stand in brasse, rather to stir enmity and discord amongst their successours and posterity, then justly to triumph in their present for­tune. The Princes of Carthage used such triumphs, as at the yéelding of the Empire of Carthage, by Hasdrubal unto his brother Hamilcar, who was Hannibals father, and often­times triumphed against the Romans. It is read in Justine that at the beginning the triumphs were not gorgeously, nor sumptuously appointed, as they were in processe of time: for the Romans who far excelled all countries▪ had no such triumph when Romulus had vanquished Acron King of the Senenses. He did wear nothing else but Bay-leaves in tri­umph thereof: for first the branches and bows of trées were cut down in triumph. Secondly divers fresh flowers were gathered. Then they invented Garlands made of Time, intermingled with silver, and with gold. At length divers kinds of Garlands were so used in Gréece, that at their banquets and their drinkings they had their Garlands on their heads, for as the world grew in wealth so it grew in sumptuousnesse: for the triumph of Romulus was far infe­riour to the gorgeous triumphs of Camillus, and yet Romu­lus was a King, and Camillus was but an Officer. Time bringeth things unto perfection. In time Rome waxed so wealthy that Camillus I say was carried in a Chariot all gilded and wrought over with gold, having all white hor­ses gallantly furnished, a Crown of pure Gold on his head, all the Senatours and Consuls of Rome going on foot be­fore him unto the Capitol of the City, and thence unto the Temple of Jupiter: where to honour the triumph further, they slue a white Bull as a sacrifice unto Jupiter, and thence he was brought triumphantly unto the City of Rome unto his ow [...] house. Even so in Gréece and Carthage, in time they grew into such pomp and sumptuous triumphs, that [Page 42] there was as much study to invent brave shews and solemn sights in triumphs, as there was care and diligence to have removed the enemies: when Epaminondas ruled stately Thebes; when Hannibal governed proud Carthage; when Leonidas bare sway in war like Sparta: then Gréece and Lydia were acquainted with solemn and brave triumphs. In Ninus time the triumphs were in Assyria. In Arbaces time the triumphs flourished amongst the Medes. In Cy­rus time the triumphs were in Persia. In Alexanders time they were in Macedonia. In Caesars time they were in Rome, and thus alwaies from the beginning of the world, triumphs followed victories. And here I mean a little to intreat of the triumphs of the Romans, which far divers ways surmounted the rest, whose Fame was spread over all the world: and yet imitating in all things the Gréeks, in­somuch that Rome alwaies had Athens as a Nurse, or a pa­tern to frame their laws by: for although the Kings were banished as well in Athens as in Rome, yet they ruled and triumphed more by Orateurs in Athens, and by Consuls in Rome, then by Kings. Therefore as Plini saith they ex­ercised such feats of arms they contrived such policies, they used such solemnities in triumphs, that Rome then was no­ted to be the lamp and lanthorn of Mars. They had (I say) divers Garlands made onely for the triumphs of wars: Pli­ni counteth seven sorts of Garlands, which the Romans had: the first made of pure gold, appointed onely for the triumphs of Princes: The second of Laurell, which of all was most ancient in Gréece, and in Italy appointed for the triumphs of souldiers: The third of all kind of swéet flowers, appoin­ted to him that restored Cities to their liberties again: The fourth made of Oken leaves, to him that defended Ci­tizens from death: these two Garlands were of great ho­nour in Rome, but especially in Gréece the one Cicero wa [...]e in Rome, for his invectives against the conspiracies of the wicked Cacelin; the other Fabius Maximus did wear, for that he saved Rome from the second wars of Carthage, where Hannibal was Captain. The fift Garland was appointed [Page 43] for him that assaulted the walls of the enemies first, and entred the town: The sixth for him that attempted the tents of the enemies: The seventh bestowed upon him that boarded first the Navie of the enemy. These three last Garlands mentioned for the scaling of walls, the boarding ships, and attempting the tents, were made all of gold. and given by the Princes or Senatours to the aforesaid Soul­diers,

There was likewise in Rome a decrée concerning the triumphs, yt none might triumph unless he had béen before some Officer in Rome, as Dictator, Pretor, Consul, or such like: and if any (unless by the Senate) had won any victo­ries, though their conquest were never so great, and their victorie never so famous (as Pub. Scipio for all his victories in Spain, and Marcus Marcellus for all that he took the great City of Syracuse) they might in no wise by Law make any claim of Triumphs, because they were not appointed by the Senator. Then Rome flourished and was defended from divers injuries, and saved from enemies. At what time M. Curius triumphed over the Samnites, Mae: Agrippa over the Sabines, Paul Aenilius over the Lygurians, Marius over the Numidians, Pompeius over Armenia and Pontus, Sci­pio sirnamed Affricanus over Carthage and all Lybia, Juli­us Caesar over all Europe and Affrick; Rome was then feared of all the world, and now Rome is despised; then Rome might say, Roma vincit, now Rome may say, Roma vista; then Roma at mata, now nermis; then Roma, now Ruina: But time consumeth all things.

That victory that was not manfully gotten, and valiant­ly won in the field, was rather counted tyranny then victo­ry: For when Lucius Pius in a banquet that he made, had filled the people of Sarmatia full of wine, and made them so drunk, that all the Nobles and Captains of Sarmatia yéelded themselves as subjects unto the Empire of Rome, for which at his return home to Rome, he required accord­ing to the custome, to have a triumph done unto him for the victory of Sarmatia; the Senators having understood [Page 44] the manner of the victory, and how, and after what sort Lu­cius Pius subdued ye Sarmatians, he was openly beheaded by decrée of all the Senate, and a slanderous Epitaph set upon his grave, to manifest the deceit he used in stead of magna­nimity, that he deceived them by wine, whom he ought to have subdued by force. The Romans were not in those days contented that any of their Captains should use vicious dea­ling, or shew any fraud or guile in wars unto their ene­mies; but at last as wars grew common in all Countreys, so deceit and craft was thereby augmented, and triumph exiled: Then the Assyrians warred on the Persians, the Persians on the Argineans, the Argineans on the Atheni­ans, the Athenians on the Lacedemonians the Lacedemo­nians on the Sydonians the Sydonians on the Rhodians, and the Rhodians on the Scythians, with all kind of policy, right or wrong they cared not, so that victory were gotten: So that the triumph then, is now turned into captivity; magnanimity then, unto craft and deceit now; In fine, victory then unto tyranny now. And so with Caesar I end, Ex bonis principtis mala or iuntur. Such is the state of life, the pilgrimage of man which is daily worse and worse as it waxeth to the end: For in the beginning, renown and honour was the cause that all men attempted dangers and great perils, and now in the end, gain and profit moveth wars; then was their desire to overcome Lions, Bears, Elephants Tygers, Panthers, Rhinocerots, and such wild and savage beasts that might renown their atchievements, and now for the most part forgotten, they descend into the Vale of Death.


Of the first finding out of Laws and Orders, and of all invention of things general, and of Time,

THe world growing into its maturity, divers men found means to set things in order, which at the beginning were rude and bar­barous; as amongst the Athenians, Draco; amongst the Egyptians, Mercury; amongst the Argives, Phoroneus; In Arcadia, Apollo; in Tyre, Charandes; in Italy, Pythagoras: Other things no lesse necessary for the manners and civility of men, then for the life and food of men, were found. And because Time is the beginning and end of all things terrestrial. I think it expedient in this place to declare the cōputation of Times and Ages: For with the Egyptians at the first, they coun­ted their years by the Moon, attributing unto every year thirty days, as both Herodotus and Macrobius do agrée. The The Arcadians as Putarch in the life of Numa doth write, had three moneths in every year appointed. The people of Caria finished and ended their year every sixth Moneth. The Greeks did number three hundred fifty and four days in their years, which want of our years eleven days and six hours. The Romans at the beginning in the time of Ro­mulus, who was their first King, had their year in ten Mo­neths compted, counting their first moneth March and gi­ving that name unto it after his fathers name Mars; April was named of Aphros in Greek, which is Fome, whence Venus was born: May was called a Majoribus, of the El­ders; Iune of the youth called Juniores: These four were of Romulus named. The fifth moneth was then called by Romulus, Quintil, which Julius Caesar in his time na­med Iuly. and Augustus Caesar named the moneth cal­led Sexulis, August; and so in order, September, Octo­ber, November, December. Numa Pompunus, who succee­ded Romulus, added Ianuary and February, and so named [Page 46] them according to the name of Janus, who was the first King of the Latines, and Februus who was supposed to be the inventer of the Lustration: For as the Greeks did count all things by their Olympiades, so did the Romans by their Lustra. Then was the use of Clocks unknown in­somuch that Authors herein do much vary, and seem to be ignorant of the inventers of them. First, some think that Herme, in Egypt found them out by a beast sacrificed unto Seraphis; some again attribute the invention unto Anaxi­mines in Lacedemonia, and that they were found out by a shade; some unto Scipio sirnamed Nasica in Rome, by a water: But uncertain it is by whom, and by what means Clocks first were found. Some again do count their day, which is four and twenty hours, from sun rising unto sun rising, as the Babylonians use; some from sun setting to sun setting, as the Athenians; some from midnight to midnight as the Egyptians; some again from midnight to noon again, as the Vmbrians do: Thus diversly have hours and days been counted.

Now after laws were invented, and orders made, and time divided, men as yet rude and raw, leading their lives beastly and bruitishly, for want of civility, having neither houses, Towns, or Cities, to inhabit, but some having in Caves of the ground their chief mansions, others had their best garments made of green bows and branches of trées, some hid themselves in shadows of the woods, some in Dens like wild beasts, untill nature first by reason opened a way and a means thus unto further civility. Then houses were made, and Cities builded, high towers raised, strong walls invented: King Cerops erected Athens: Phoroneus buil­ded Argos: Diospolin in Egypt was by Threson builded. Likewise the first tower after the deluge of Noah was made by Nimrod; then Temples were builded Pythias in Perenna made a temple unto Minerva: Romulus in Rome builded a temple unto Jupiter, and thus divers men in sundry coun­tries have béen the builders of monuments. By this means came Pallas unto great fame, for that she was supposed to be [Page 47] the first that invented sciences, amongst the Grecians in Athens; for this purpose was Ceres in Sicilia renowned, for that she was thought to be the first that sowed corn, and taught husbandry, for this reason were Typhis and Jason so worthily commended, that they among the Gréeks were the first that sailed the seas. Then was money found in Mount Pangaeum, and coined in Aegineta, which as Plini saith had béen better unknown then found; money being found wars insued by Ninus, who was the first that ever warred after the deluge Then Idolatry sprung up by Me [...]issus King of Greet: Images and pictures were first made by Epime­theus. Tribute was appointed first by Darius: Fighting on horseback by the Centaures was first practised. Imme­diately things were found apt and necessary unto wars, af­ter that Mars first invented the way thereunto. Then the Lacedemonians people of great antiquity, found first the Helmet, a Sword and a Spear, the Scythians found first the use of Bows and Arrows; the Thracians were ancient in feats of chivalry; for that Mars as they supposed was born with them, who was honoured as the God of wars, and found out divers things necessary for wars, Happy was that man that might then invent something or other to profit his country: and thus the wit of man sought so déeply, and studi­ed so painfully, that from a rude and lumpish Chaos, the world waxed beautifull, and men waxed civil, and all things became ripe and perfect by the industry of man. Afterwards the world grew unto such ripenesse, that liberal sciences were found and used in all places, as things necessary unto man, and there was nothing unsought that might induce profit: both hearbs, stones, trées, and all things within the compasse of the earth were searched to what end they were and used accordingly unto some purpose. Vulcanus and Promotheus found out the profit of the fire, Anacharsis the Scythian first found bellows to blow the same; as Ceres taught to plough the ground, Argeus did invent the dunging of it. Urania found first Astrologie, the people of Chaldea, straight practised the same. Errato invented the use of Ge­ometry, [Page 48] the people of Egypt straight exercised the same. To be brief, Clio first found Histories, Melpomene Trage­dies, Thalia Comedies, Polyhimnia Rhetorick, Cal [...]ope Po­etry, or rather Palias her self, whom all the Greeks suppo­sed to be the first founder of sciences, and arts; Simonides invented the art of memory as the register and sure record­er of knowledge to keep the same; the vertues of herbs were found by Mercury and Chiron, and by others; Hyppo­crates and Avicen first professed Physick, though the most part do attribute to Apollo the first exercise in Physick and unto his son Aesculapius the practise of Chirurgery. Dedalus in Creet was the first Carpenter. Amphion the first Mu­sitian in Thebes, Tages the first Soothsayer in Hetruria. Nothing escaped mans in [...]ustry: Aristeus King of Arcadia first found the use of Honey, and the nature of Bees; the Lydians to die Wool, the Egyptians found out the first use of flax the Phrygians to sew first with néedles the He­truscans Weaving: Nature left nothing unsought for her own profit, as Plautus saith, she is always desirous to invent and to know new things.

Victories and triumphs were first invented by Dionisius. Crassus made the silver garland first to be worn in Rome. The Phrygians made the Chariot first. Hunting was practised by Artaxerxes and laws thereunto appointed. Epe­us for that he invented the brasen horse in Troy for the Gréeks, is famous. Perillus for that he made the brazen Bull in Agrigentum for Phalaris the tyrant is renowned, though the one was made to satisfie tyranny, and the other to ac­complish treason: Yet such was the desire that men had to Fame, that alwaies they studied and contrived what best might advance their Fame, and might be the memorial of their attempt travel. What a thing was it to sée in an­cient time the invention and policy of men in all countries, what orders what laws were in all places, to conserve that by wit, which afterwards they destroyed by wars. What was not invented in Rome before Julius Caesar and Pompei­us altered it, before those wicked members Sylla and Marius [Page 49] spoyled it: before that rebel Catiline disturbed it: before Marcus Antonius and Augustus quite destroyed it. So that pollicy of men in observing laws & orders in their wisedom in framing them, their magnanimity in defending them, were topsey turvey thrown down afterwards by cruel Ty­rants and wicked Princes: as Caligula, Nero, Tiberius, Helio­gabalus with others: so that time findeth all things, and en­deth all things: time maketh, and time destroyeth.


Of the sumptuous and wonderfull Buildings of Kings and Princes,

I Thought it convenient to place the strange and wonderful buildings, which were made by mens hands, together with the marvel­lous works of nature; and the rather because amongst them are so famous, that for the renown thereof, they are named in number the seven wonders of the world. The first was called Py­ramides, which the Kings of Egypt made by the City of Memphis, a miracle so made, that twenty and two yeares, six thousand were occupyed and travelled in the same: ei­ther, as Pliny saith, to busie the vulgar people lest they should be idle, or else to shew and brag their superfluous wealth in making so stupendious a work. The second, were the walls of Babylon, which Quéene Semiramis unto her perpetuall memory had made a monument amongst the Persians. In making of these walls, she kept three hundred thousand men at work, they were made of two hundred cubits height and fifty cubits broad, having a hundred gates, wrought of brasse round about, to come and go unto the ci­ty, and from the City: And upon the walls were made three hundred towers: she brought Euphrates one of the foure Rivers of Paradise to passe through the middest of Babylon. The third in order was the sumptuous tombe [Page 50] of Mausolus King of Caria, which Quéene Artemesia his wife made so gorg [...]eous, that it was twenty and five Cu­bits high, and in compasse foure hundred and eleven foot, and wrought round about with sixe and thirty pillars and broad beames: hence all the monuments and brave build­ings of Emperours and Kings took their patterne, for it was so curiously wrought, that upon the East side, that fa­mous workman Scopas shewed his skill: upon the West side that renowned Leocares wrought his cunning: upon the North side Briax a man of great name applyed his part: and upon the South side Timotheus did what he could to winne renowne. These foure famous workmen had more fame by making the tombe of Mausolus, then for all the workes that ever they made before. These two noble Quéenes are not to be blotted out of memory all the while that the name of Babylon is reade of in bookes, or the Tombe of Mausolus spoken off with tongues. Now to passe further to speake of that monument and miracle which ex­celleth all the world for worke, I meane the great Temple of Diana amongst the Ephesians, in the building of which all Asia were occupyed two hundred and twenty yeares, almost with all powers of the world. This Temple was made nigh the seas for feare of earthquakes: it was foure hundred twenty and five foote long, two hundred and twen­ty foote of breadth, it had a hundred twenty and seven pil­lars, which for the wealth thereof, every one after another was made by a king, The cheife master of this worke was Ctesiphon, whose fame thereby was spread over all the world The fifth was the high tower which King Pcholome m [...]de in the Isle of Pharos, to benefit the saylors upon the Seas. This Sostratus made so high, that in the night time there hanged a Candle for a light and marke unto poore Mariners, which could be séene for the height of the To­wer almost every where. The other two and last of the seven wonders, were two Images, the one for Iupiter, made by Phydias, of Ivory in Olimpia. The other made for Phaebus in Rhodes, by Lindus, whose immensity was such, [Page 51] that it was threescore and ten Cubits high: so great was this Colossus, that when it fell downe by an earthquake, it séemed a wonder to the beholders: every finger that he had was bigger then a man of this age. These seven huge and monstrous workes were called the seven wonders of the world, which Pliny and Plutarch speaketh of in divers pla­ces. Some suppose that the royall Pallace of Cyrus, which that cunning workman Memnon made, might bee iustlie numbred with these worthy and famous works. But to pro­céed to other sumptuous buildings, though not counted of the seven wonders, yet allowed amongst the best for the stately worke of the same, and of no inferiour fame: as the Laberinth made by Dedalus in Creete, of such difficult worke, that he that came in, could not without a guide goe out againe. Three others were made like unto that, the one in Egypt which Smilus made, the other in Lemnos which Rhodus wrought, and the third in Italy which Theodorus made. These foure Labyrinthes were so curiously wrought, that Porsenna king of Hetruria took hence example to make him a monument after death, to bury and eternize himselfe. Againe, after these there were other wonderfull workes made by the kings of Egypt called Obelisci, such renowned and famous buildings that when Cambyses, king of Persia. at the siege of the city Sienna saw but one of them hee was in such an admiration that hee thought them invincible. Phyus made one of forty cubits. King Ptolome made ano­ther of fourescore cubits in Alexandria: and divers others which for their fame were then counted as m [...]rva [...]lous as any of the seven wonders. But let us speak of sundry build­ings, aswell of cities and townes, as also of temples, hou­ses, and pallaces, whose fame thereby long flourished: as Romulus was famous by building of Rome. Cadmus by building of Thebes, a city of Boetia in Greece. And Og­dous by the building of the city of Memphis in Egypt Nei­ther may I escape any, sith I have taken upon me to re­cite all, whose renownes and names by these their workes doe yet live I must not escape Alexander the great, who in [Page 52] his great warres made a city of his name, named Alexan­dria. I must not forget King Darius, who likewise built up Susa a city in Persia. These two kings, though they de­stroyed thousands of cities, yet they builded some cities. Neither may I omit Caesar Augustus, who made a famous city in memory of the great victory over Antonius and Cleo­patra, and named it Nicopalis, that is in english the city of victory King Ninus, an ancient King, made the city of Ni­nive, within two hundred yeares after the flood of Noah, Si­chem builded Sidon: Agenor Tyre. Then the world waxed populous, and kings began to build every where for the fur­therance of civility, and encrease of pollicy and wit, in which the world in the beginning was very raw: for as the world grew into civill order and the knowledge of things: so cities and townes were builded. Castles fortified, and high walls raysed for a Bulwark, and a Defence unto the same: so by little and little the world was full of cities. Then Siracusa was builded by Archias. The city of Argos was erected by Phoroneus. Laodicea by king Antiochus. And so briefly to recite them over, the noble and famous city of Troy in Phrygia, was builded by Dardanus. Arpos, a town in Apuleia, was built by Diomedes: and so Telegonus build­ed Tusce in Italy, being the son of Ulisses a Gréek. Capis likewise builded the city Capua, to which Hannibal layd a long siege: but least I might be too long in rehearsing the builders of famous cities, having just occasion to respect the time. I will end with the Cities and Towns, alwayes considering that women ought not to be forgotten, as Semi­ [...]amis Quéen of Persia, who builded the city of Babylon: Quéene Dido, who builded the warlike city of Carthage. Danae the daughter of king Acrisius, who builded in Italy a great towne called Arcade. Divers Quéens and noble Women, are for the like no lesse famous then Men were.

Now pausing a while, we will repeat those that encreased the Common-wealthes, and beautified them with other kinde of buildings. Amongst other miracles, and woun­drous [Page 53] works. Mount Athos was made of Xerxes navigable, even unto the sea, eleven yéeres hée kept thirty thousand men to bring his minde to passe. Caesar made in one day two famous bridges: the one over the River Rheum, and the other over the river called Ara, which was almost in­credible. Alexander the great made such a dining-roome at the marriages of the nobles of Macedonia with the women of Persia, Aelianus doth witnes, that a thousand Persians, and a thousand Macedonians, and five hundred others with swords and silver Targets lodged in that house, while the marriages continued. Traian the Emperour made such a Bridge on Danuby, that for length, breadth and height, all the world could not shew the like. What should I rehearse the Temple which Salomon made in Hierusalem, unto the which, the Ephesians with their temple of Diana, and the Carthaginians with the temple of Juno must give place, needs must Alexander for all his bravery and Clodius house, which was the spectacle of Rome yéeld unto the golden hall of Nero: but of finenesse of works, if the rarenesse of skil, if I say the worthinesse of, wonders might rlaime place, and justly challenge fame, I should prayse Spintharus for the making of the Temple of Apollo in Delphos, or Meleage­nes for his work in Prienna, in making the Temple of Minerva.

I should commend Epeus for his cunning about the brazen horse in Troy, I should commend Perillus for his brazen bull in Agrigentum, yea and Vulcanus, who as Po­ets faine, was appointed by Jupiter to work onely for the celestial gods. I commend the Image of Diana in Chios; which was so skilfully made, that unto those that came unto the Temple she seemed glad and joyful: and unto those yt went out of the Temple, she séemed sad and angry. I should prayse the artificial golden birds made by the Sages of Persia, and the curious work of Pallas Temple in Illy­on, and the work and invention of noble nature, unto which nothing is hard: It pierceth the clouds, it wadeth the Seas, It compasseth the whole world: the cunning workm [...]n, [Page 54] the skilful Carpenter, saith Cicero, guideth every man as a Captain. I might have occasion in this place to speak of the work of nature, but that it is needlesse, considering how familiarly she instructeth a man unto those works, which are most strange and marvellous.


Of Painting and Poetry, and how much they were countenan­ced by Princes.

HOrace that learned Poet, affirmeth that the like reputation and dignitie is given unto a Poet, as unto a Painter: naming the one a speaking picture, and the other dumb poeste. For painting unto the ignorant, was as printing unto the learned. Where the one viewed with the eye, and the other read with the tongue. Painting and graving were the ancient monu­ments of Gréece, and so much estéemed, that Phrydias waxt so famous, as Plini doth witnesse, for that he made the I­mage of Minerva in Athens, so artificially and so subtilly, with a great Target in her hand, wherein were graven the wars of the Amazons, and the combat of the Giants: the rebellion of Centaures and the Lapitheans, that all Gréece wondred much thereat. Nealces in like sort did set forth the wars betwixt the Egyptians and the Persians, so lively to behold, and so worthily wrought; that the beholder thereof might be as well instructed in sight, as the learned in read­ing the history thereof. That cunning Philoxenus did also as effectually set forth the wars between Alexander the great King of Macedonia and Darius King of Persia in colours, as either Curtius or Diodorus did expresse it with writing. The noble Painter Timantes, at what time that worthy Gréek Agamemnon at the siege of Troy, was inforced by an Oracle to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia, to mitigate the fury of the Gods: he beholding the wofull hap of Agamem­non, and the sorrowfull state of the Gréeks; the solemn [Page 55] sadnesse of the sacrifice, the order and state of of Iphigenias death, did so set it forth, that it was more lamentable to be­hold it in colours then rufull to read it in letters. A sci­ence belonging unto noble minds: and sometimes so estée­med of the Gréeks, that their fame thereby much was aug­mented. What almost was done or written in Gréece, but it was streight set forth in colours? No war any were, but it it was painted out in Greece. No strange history of any thing but it was expressed in common colours: inso­much that philosophy it self, which was so honoured then in Greece, was set forth in Tables. That learned Zeuxis did paint in a table the picture of Jupiter, sitting in his throne, wt the rest of the Gods about him: where likewise was shew­ed the history of Hercules, how he yet in his cradle slew the two great Snakes, or rather Dragons, where his mother Alemena, and his supposed father Amphytrio, did fearfully behold the death of the two Dragons, and the escaping of young Hercules their son, being a child. Nichomachus did lively expresse the boldnesse of Theseus and Perythous in at­tempting their voyage to King Plutoes region, blazing in Tables their high enterprize, taking away Queen Proser­pina from her husband Pluto. So skilfull was Licias, so cun­ning was Philiscus, that they made a subtile Chariot where­in Apollo and his sister Diana, and his mother Latona were perfectly graven, and the nine muses orderly set, and that upon one stone. Praxiteles excelled all men in the like, for he graved in marble stone, the image of Venus so perfectly and so lively in each point, that a certain young man saith Plini fell in love with the image, and came often in the night when none know, to kisse and clip the image of Venus: as sometime was read of Pigmalion the cunning Greek, who likewise fell in love with his own handy work, in garnish­ing and decking with fresh flowers his own handy work. But to speak of Apelles, Pirgoteles and Lisippus, their fame was spread over the whole world insomuch that Alexander the great commanded that none should paint him in colors but Apelles: none to grave him in stone but Pirgoteles: and [Page 56] none to carbo any part of his Princely person but Lisippus. It were too much to speak of Calycratis, P [...]y [...]aerides, and di­vers famous men more, wherewith Gréece sometime flou­rished: whose fames and worthy reports, made Paulus Ae­milius that noble Roman, from Rome to send unto Athens for two men, the one a Philosopher to teach his sons, the other a Pointer, to set forth in tables the great triumphs and victories which he got over the Ligurians and Persi­ans: and one man being an excellent Philosopher and an excellent Painter named Metrodotus was sent from Athens unto Rome for the purpose. Poets and Painters were much set by in ancient time: for even as these aforesaid Painters were famous and renowned so were Poets hono­red and estéemed. For we read that Alexander the great would never go unto his bed without Homers Iliads and his dagger under his pillow. He so much esteemed Pindarus the Poet that he spared a whole street in Thebes from bur­ning for Pindarus house, which was in that street. That re­nowned Emperour Augustus so honoured Virgil that being dead, his books were worthily honoured and imbraced of Augustus. So that noble Emperour Gratianus advanced the poet Au [...]onius unto the office of a Consul for his learn­ing and knowledge in poetry. The fable of Chaos, the de­luge of Deucalion, the rebellion of Giants, with innumera­ble more, under the shadow of fables have great wisedome and knowledge. At what time King Philip of Macedon, the long enemy of Athens, had demanded upon condition of peace, ten Orators of Athens to serve him, and to remain with him in Macedonia, Demosthenes, that sugred Orator, made an open Oration before King Philip, where he brought the fable of the Woolf and the Sheep that as the Woolf did offer peace unto the Sheep upon condition the dogs should tarry at home: so King Philip offered peace unto the Athe­nians upon conditions that the Orators, which as dogs do bark at the Woolf, barked at him, should be taken away, and so soon he would destroy Athens being spoiled from their Orators, as the Woolf would the sheep without dogs. [Page 57] This fable much edifieth the vulgar people. Menenius A­grippa a Romane Counsellour, rehearsed oftentimes the fa­ble of the belly and the other members, when he went to make any foes friends, or to bring rude rebels against their Prince and their countrey, unto amity again. With the which fable he reduced and brought againe those that of­fended most against their countrey, to be the chief assistance and helpers unto their countrey. Thucidides doth witnesse, that by a fable, that noble Captaine Peticles put such a cou­rage into the Athenians, being sore oppressed and vexed, and in a manner become a spoyle unto their enemies, that they did winne the victory, when before they were almost over­throwne. The noble Consul Cicero, by the fable of Giges ring, how he went invisible unto King Candaules wife, and made him a cuckold, made application of it unto those glo­rious persons that often delight in their folly and evill be­haviours, as sometimes the Poets faine of Ixion, who brag­ging and boasting of Juno, he got the centaurs engendred of a cloud in stead of Juno, Quintilian saith, that fables con­taine under feigned words, most excellent wisedome: for E­rasmus doth often repeat the fable of grashoppers and the ants, to exhort men to travel and to labour with little ants. Plato that divine and noble Philosopher, in his second book, de Rep. doth use the like fables. Aristotle in his Rhetorick doth use fables. Mark how fables ease the Philosopher in his study, help the Orator in his perswasiōs, garnish the Di­vine in his sermons: and in fine they bring pleasure in any thing. Thus I thought good to write in the commendations of Painting, and Poetrie, of which, for the secret friendship and for the affinity of one with another, much more might be spoken, I meane not those fonde foolish and fantasticall fables, fostered by women and old men sitting at the fire, where often the idle braine is occupyed: but those wise and prudent fables of Poets which containe wisedom in sense, though they séeme light in words, which durst not be ope­ned plainely in those dayes, for the Tyranny of Princes, which then would not have their faults touched by any, [Page 58] yet were they covertly reprooved in fables Poeticall: As the fable of Sphinx, of Circes, of Tantalus, of Acteon and of others.


Of Eloquence, the Delight and defence of Princes in their pil­grimage.

PYrthus King of the Epycotes, the defender a long time of the Tarentines, was woont to say of Cineas his Oratour that he wan more victories through the eloquence of Cineas, thē through the force and puissance of all his E­pir [...]tes besides: for through eloquence Cineas would make the stout enemies to yéeld: and by eloquence would Cineas move the cowardly souldiers to victory, Valeri­us a noble and eloquent Romane, at what time the Kings of Rome were expelled, and their names quite banished, and the popular state having such liberty therby that the whole City through sedition and late sprung liberty, was like to come to ci [...]ill ware amongst themselves, had not Valerius appeased the fury of the people, being ready in hearts to be­come enemies unto their countrey, finding them triumph­ing much, and rejoycing within themselvs, and devided one from another to maintains discord: he reduced them not onely through his eloquence unto peace and quietnesse: but also brought them unto such state, that where Rome was like to fall over to greatest ruine, Rome at that time be­gan most to flourish and prosper. Great was the force of elo­quence in Marcus Antonius, who with his sugred and sweet perswasions turned the furious rage and tyranny of the souldiers of Marius and Cinna, being sent by these two cruel Captains to kill him, unto such lenity and mercy, that ha­ving their swords naked drawne, and ready to kill him, having heard Antonius his eloquence, as men convicted with words, would not perform the execution, though they had great rewards appointed: nor could they of themselves though enemies they were unto Antonius, finde in their [Page 59] hearts to kill him. Pericles wanne such renown in Athens by his eloquence who sometime was a scholler unto Anaxa­goras, that he had the government and rule of Athens com­mitted to him, as to one in whose words the people reposed more credit and trust, then they did in the force & strength of al Athens beside: Insomuch that when he would speak any thing unto the people, such mellifluous words and sugred sentences procéeded out of his mouth, that they were amazed or astonied to hear him: being alwayes never weary of his counsel. Wee read that their eyes did water to sée him, their eares were allured to hear him, their hearts were convicted to yéeld unto him Cowards are made couragious, and stout tyrants are made gentle and merciful: Cities pre­served, victories gotten, and all by eloquence. What is it but man is able through comely gesture, and apt pronountia­tion to bring to passe? What could escape Cicero in Rome? What might have avoyded Demosthenes in Athens? Whose knowne eloquence, whose learned perswasions, whose swéet and sugred words, could not aswel move emnity in Athens toward King Philip, as it could kindle love in Rome toward Pompeius.

Such is the excellency of eloquence, that it moveth as well men to behold for the gesture, countenance, and pro­nunciation, as it doth inforce men to hear for the Majesty and sweetnesse of words. For Hortensius was not so eloquent in words, but he was as comely in gesture, and so excellent in either of them, that when he spake before the people, Se­nators, and Citizens of Rome, they were no less enamour­ed with his sight then they were allured and enticed with his words; for he laboured no lesse outwardly to please the times, then he studied inwardly to please men, Therefore Demosthenes, the Well and source of flowing eloquence, being demanded what was the chief part of eloquence, an­swered that it was pronunciation; again, being demanded what was the second part of eloquence, he said pronunciati­on: And so the third time being likewise demanded, said as before, pronunciation: Insomuch that he travelled and [Page 60] studied oftentimes to have this pronunciation, being some­what by nature letted to speak, putting stones in the roof of his mouth, and wrastling with nature until he had the per­fection of pronunciation. When Aeschines had forsaken A­thens for certain causes, and was come unto Rhodes, whose fame for his eloquence was spread not onely in Rhodes, but well known in all Greece: after he was desired by the Citizens to recite some Oration or other, of his own ma­king, whereby the Rhodians might sée and hear that which long before of all men they heard praised: He to satisfie the request of the City, repeated an Oration that he made against Ctesiphon, wherein the people of Rhodes mused much at his eloquence: And when he had ended his own Oration that he inveighed against Ctesiphon, to put the peo­ple in a greater admiration of eloquence, he recited another Oration that Demosthenes made in the defence of Ctesiphon against Aeschines, wherein the people were amazed at the eloquence of Demosthenes more then at the first: Which when Aeschines saw that his enemy Demosthenes was so prai­sed (for they were one envious of another he was enforced to speak, that if the Rhodians might but hear Demosthenes himself, then would they rightly praise him, since they prai­sed Demosthenes Oration in Aeschines mouth; for no man hath so great a delight to tell another mans story, and espe­cially his enemies, as he hath pleasure to set forth his own. Plato therefore that famous Gréek, attributing unto every man due honour, when certain men skilfull in Geometry, came to ask Plato's counsel concerning the measure quanti­ty, and longitude of things, he counselled them to go unto Euclides, where they should be sufficed and fully satisfied of their demands, for that Euclides might more aptly speak in Geometry, for it was his profession. For every man, saith Aristotle, may boldly speak in that which he professeth; and therefore Apelles that noble and cunning Painter, when a Shoomaker came unto his schoole, and féeding his fight with the worthy works of Apelles, he found fault with a latchet of a shoe, Apelles, because he was a Shomaker, gave [Page 61] him place and amended it. The second day the Shoomaker came again, and found fault in the hose; then Apelles an­swered and said, that a Shoemaker ought not to judge of any thing but of the shoe.

Every man that thinketh himself eloquent, for that he hath his tongue at will, and can shift matters skilfully in his own judgement, is not that eloquent man which Cicero speaketh of, nor hath those parts of Rhetorick where­with hee can perswade to good, and disswade from e­vil. The eloquent man doth comfort the afflicted, he expel­leth fear and terrour from men, he stoppeth again the stout and insolent. This man is able, faith Cicero, to win towns, countreys, castles and kingdomes: this eloquence in ad­versity is solace, in prosperity an ornament, in youth lauda­ble, in age delectable, in all men profitable▪ Wherefore, not without cause did M. Antonius use to say, that oftentimes he saw and heard fine tongued men, but he never saw nor heard any eloquent man: For though, saith Cicero, we fol­low Nature as a Captain, unless Art be coupled and uni­ted to it, we follow a rude and barbarous Captain What Captain was Paulus Aemilius, being in wars with King Perseus? In a certain clear night, when the Moon upon the sudden shifted her self from sight, and the night became ve­ry dark, all the souldiers of Paulus, yea, Paulus himself, be­ing their General and Captain, were dismaid and quite discouraged, thinking it had béen some prodigious show, to pregnosticate mishap to come, and being ready to yéeld, in heart and courage, until Sulpitius began to perswade the rude Souldiers with reason, opening the causes unto the Souldiers, and declaring the effects of the superiour bodies so eloquently, that being before dismaid, they were by the eloquence of Sulpitius perswaded to fight valiantly; and where through fear of that sudden sight and change of the Moon, they were ready to yeeld as captives to King Perseus, they were moved and stirred by the eloquence of Sulpitius to become Conquerors and Victors over King Perseus, in the self same night.

[Page 62]The like did Pericles sometimes amongst his souldiers of Athens, at what time the sun so darkned, that great ter­rour and fear came upon the souldiers: he eloquently per­swaded his souldiers, and told them as he heard of his ma­ster Anaxagoras, the cause thereof, and quite expelled fear from the souldiers by reason, and made them bold again through eloquence. In Affrick there was in the time of Anascarimis a Philosopher named Afranio, who being de­manded what he did hear all the days of his life, answered: to speak well, the second time being asked what he taught unto others, answered likewise to speak well: at the last he was demanded what he knew in any science, he said, I know nothing but to speak well: so that this old Philoso­pher Afranio learned nothing, taught nothing nor knew a­ny thing but to speak well: and most certain it is, that he that consumeth all the days of his life, to learn to speak well, and knoweth nothing else but to speak well, spendeth his time very well.


Of those Kings and Princes, and others, who had their Pictures and Images, for a shew of their deserved Fame erected.

THe greatest honour that both Gréeks and Gentiles used toward those that deserved well in the Commonwealth was to advance them by pictures painted, and images glori­ously graven: thinking thereby either to in­flame thē further to do good, or else to discourage thē again from doing evil, by banishing and neglecting their pictures. which when Favoritus the Philosopher heard, that the Ci­ty of Athens had rejected his picture, because Adrian the Emperour was angry with him, said: I am right glad thereof, for better said he had it béen for Socrates to have had his brazen picture broken, and thrown away for some shew of displeasure by the Athenians, then to be deprived of his life for nothing by the Athenians; for the surest estate [Page 63] of all is not to be known. Agesilaus therefore, King of the Lacedemonians, understanding that the inhabitants of e­very country in all Gréece, had decréed to put up the picture of Agesilaus for a memorial of his vertuous and noble acts, to be as monuments of his life after death: returning then from Egypt unto Gréece, being very sick, a little be­fore he died, he wrote letters unto Gréece, that they should make no pictures no images no painted shews, no graven work of his person, nor yet of his life, saying: If I have done well in life, the vertue thereof is a sufficient monu­ment when I am dead. Cato Senior was of that opinion, that he had rather that men should ask why hath not Ca­to his Picture set up, then to asks why hath Cato his picture set up. A number of sage Philosophers and wise Princes have lothed and utterly neglected this kind of flat­tery, which then was thought to be the greatest fame and commendation of all things, to have their pictures in pla­ces set up to make mention of honour and dignity which thereby is meant, either for restoring of liberty lost, or in defending from tyranny, or in saving of Cities, or for such things done, pictures were erected to advance their fame thereby. Thus Aristogiton and Armodius, because they de­livered Athens from the tyranny of Pysistratus, had their pictures, with great estimation set up of the people of A­thens. Likewise Marcellus because he subdued Syracusa, vanquished the French men at Padua, and gave the repulse unto Hannibal at Nola, had his picture set up in the Tem­ple of Pallas, with an Epigram written in letters of gold, unto his great praise and commendation. Eutropius saith, that Claudius Emperour of Rome had his picture made with a golden Target in his hand, because he vanquished the Goths which were about to spoil the county of Macedonia. Numa Pomp. the second King of Rome, and Servius Tullius the sixth King had their pictures a long time amongst the Romans in great honour and fame. Selostris King of Egypt for his martial feats and vertuous acts was honoured in his country with divers pictures. Polydamas that strong [Page 64] Champion in the games of Olympia, for that he being without weapons and naked, slew a terrible Lyon, and held fast by the foot a huge great Bull, and with the other hand stayed a running Chariot, had his picture therefore erected and set up in Olympia. In Athens how many pictures were set up of noble men and learned Philosophers, as Conon Euogoras, Phocion, Isocrates and others, which were now up and now down as mutable fortune favoured or frown­ed, the state and life of men being uncertain and change­able. As Demosthenes having his picture in Athens had this Epigram written round about the picture. If Demosthenes had had courage and strength as he had wit and eloquence, neither Philip nor his son Alexander, nor all Macedonia had ever vanquished Gréece: yet this Demosthenes was exiled and banished Athens divers times. So hard was it to please the people then, which had the chief government in Athens and Rome, that for a small displeasure conceived, yea for nothing, they were ready to requite good men with cruel déeds, as banishment and death. As in Rome, Cice­ro for Clodius sake, after sure and sound service often shew­ed toward his country, was afterward inforced to flee unto Greece from Rome, where so well he was before estéemed. The like I may urge of Aristides, Thrasibulus, Hippias, and Thucidides, men sometimes honoured in Athens with pict­ures, for the noble and excellent defence of the City, and yet for nothing not long after exiled, the pictures taken down, and the monuments broken. So Popilius, Opimius, Metellus, Scipio, and L [...]vius, with others, were sometimes in Rome highly honoured with pictures, and yet at length the like fortune as these aforenamed Gréeks had, did accrue unto them. Such is the uncertain pilgrimage of man the wandring ways of the world, the mutability of fortune, as there hath béen full proof shewed of the same from time to time in all places, in banishing, in murthering yea, again in worshipping and honouring. As for example, we read that Alexander the great was born in Pella, a town in Ma­cedonia, and died in Babylon. King Cyrus was born in [Page 65] Persia, and slain in Scythia; Hannibal born in Affrick and buried in Bithinia; Cleomenes King of the Lacedemoni­ans born in the City of Sparta, yet his grave was made in Egypt. Crastus and Pompeius the great, born in Rome: the one died in Assyria, the other in Egypt. Paulus Aenilius di­ed in Cinna. T. Gracchus in Lucania; Augustus Caesar in No­la. Trayane the Emperour in the East part of the world, with other famous men born within the City of Rome, as the Cornelii, Scipioes, Catots, Decii, all Noble families, who died like pilgrims in the world, scattered one from another. So in Athens Themistocles, Theseus Solon were flourishing with others: yet in Syria, Cyprus, and Persia, were they buried. King Jugurtha born in Numidia, was buried in Rome. Again King Aegeus born in Athens, Pharao in E­gypt, Ajax in Gréece, Leander in Abidos: yet their graves and burial was in the bottome of the sea. Mark how pu­issant Princes of the world, and mighty Cae [...]ars were sub­ject unto fortune. And sée again the learned and sage philo­sophers, which as I said before, had their persons estéemed, their pictures erected, yet not able to avoid the furious frets of Fortune. As Pythagoras born in Samos died in Meta­pontus, Virgil born in Mantua buried in B [...]undusium. Te­rence born in Carthage, brought up in Rome, ended his life in Arcadia. These Princes and famous men had notwith­standing in divers places their fame spread, their name advanced, and their pictures every where erected. Gorgius Leontinus was the first amongst the Greeks for his wise­dome and eloquence that had his picture set up in Delphos, in the Temple of Apollo. His scholler Isocrates had for his wit and passing eloquence, in Olympia his picture erected. Demetrius, Theophrastus scholler, after he had ten years with all diligence and industry governed the state of Athens, ha­ving three hundred and threescore pictures in Greece erect­ed and set up for his fame and reonwn in administration of the Common-wealth: yet were they all broken and taken down through envy afterward, and when Demetrius heard of the inconstancy and envy of the people, in shewing their [Page 66] malice therein he said: though they pull down my pictures yet can they not banish the vertuous cause of the pictures; Mithridates King of Pontus made a worthy monument at Sylo unto Plato, about the which as Plutarch saith was writ­tgn this sentence: Mithridates made this picture of Plato, and dedicated the same unto the Muses. Mutius Scaevola had his picture in Rome, for that he delivered the the City of Rome from Porsenna King of Hetruscans: For the like Cocles was not forgotten of the Romans. It were unto small purpose to speak of Lucullus, of M. Attilius and Octa­vius, whose fame and renown made their pictures to be mo­numents thereof? And why should I busie my self with in­finite names of men, since women well deserved the same, as Tanaquil, Tarquinius wife: Cloaelia a Virgin of Rome, yea as Quintilian saith, Phrine for her beauty was commen­ded by pictures, so common were they for all men, that I refer those who will read further of this unto Plini, where he may at large satiefie himself in this subject. I should be ever much charged to recite the places persons, and time, only this, that pictures were erected to advance the fame of Princes and deserving men, and to stir them further in such procéedings as were the cause of these their pictures, of which as before is spoken, they shall find in Plini varie­ty of examples.


Of Kings and Heroes who defended divers from death, from Serpents, Dragons, Lyons, and of cunning Archers.

EVen as by these valiant and noble Con­querours, not onely Towns, Cities, and Countries, were defended, but also Serpents, Dragons, Licus, and other monstrous and wild beasts were slain: so divers and sundry captives and prisoners were deliver­red from death unto life. How many did famous Hercules [Page 67] that off-spring of the Gods, save from the gulf of Av [...]ntine, where that Cacus both day and night murthered the passers by? How many delivered he from the huge monster Chy­maera. which continually with flashing of fire, feared and slew many valiant men? For he had three heads, one of a Lyon, the second of a dragon,, the third of his owne mon­strous proportion. Hee againe slew Sphinx a terrible beast in Ethiopia, which with his sight destroyed men: hee over­came Geron, Cerberus and Diomedes, and divers other en­terprizes, as is before rehearsed. Perseus after that Neptune had defloured Medusa in the temple of Pallas, the Gods be­ing displeased therewith, turned every haire of her head un­to Snakes whose sight was so venemous, that whatsoever he was that beheld her, dyed presently: Perseus slew the same, whereby he delivered divers that should else have pe­rished. Cappadox being then tribune of the souldiers in Af­frica under the Emperour Dioclesian, killed a huge serpent, and delivered a young Phrygian, made even a prey for her mouth. Even so Alc [...]n a noble Archer of Creet, shot at a dra­gon which had his own son in his claws ready to be devou­red, and slew him, and so saved his son unhurt.

But I will digresse here from the skilfull Archers and speak a little more of the famous and renowned conquerors of wilde beasts, of monsters, and of serpents as Bellerophon, King Glaucus son of Corinth, being accused of fornication with Quéen Stenobia King Proetus wife, hée was judged to dye, and to be devoured of the Monster Chimaera, which he valiantly subdued and slew in the dungeon. The fame of Lysimachus is spread over all the world, for that he killed a Lyon being but a souldier under king Alexander. The name of Coraebus shall not be forgotten amongst the Pelo­ponesians, for the overthrowing of that terrible monster in Gréece.

The renowne of Att. Regulus shall alwayes be revived when any man doth think of the great serpent that he slew by the flood Bragada, which as Pliny saith, was a hundred and twenty foot long. Did not these noble men benefit [Page 68] their countries much in saving thousands lives, which should have béen destroyed by these monsters? The Poets feigne that Cadmus, Agenois son, did kill a Serpent whose téeth engendred and brought forth out of the earth armed men, which fought and destroyed one another. Againe such was the fortunes of young maids, as B [...]lsaria when Carphu­rinus Crastus was taken captive of the Messalins, and should be offered for a sacrifice unto Saturne, shee delivered Crassus from death and made him conquerour where before he was conquered. Calluce, a young woman after Troy was by the Gréeks destroyed, when her father king Lycus sayling into Lybia, had appointed to kill Diomedes, for a sacrifice to ap­pease the Gods for winde and weather, shee delivered him from the king her father, and from present death. Plutarch writeth of these two maids that their fames hereby may ne­ver be forgotten. To speak here of those who delivered men from death, from captivity, from perpetual prison, it were necessary; howbeit short Histories are swéet, and few words are pleasant: therefore I will not speak of Lucu [...]lus, who be­ing in warres with Mithridates King of Pontus delivered Cotta from thousands about him. I will not write of Lucil­lius a Roman souldier, when he saw that Brutus at Philippi, who was compassed round about with enemies, he himself ran with a few soldiers wt him amōgst the nemies, because Brutus in the mean while might save himself. Neither will I much mention Quintus Cincinnatus, being then Dicta­tor in Rome, who delivered Quintus Minutius from the hands of the Sabines and Volscians: But according un­to promise, I will touch partly on those that deserved fame another way. For fame is not bound unto one kind of qua­lity, but unto divers and sundry vertues; therefore with these renowned Conquerors and defenders of countries, I will joyn most excellent and expert Archers, who likewise have done noble acts worthy feats and marvellous things: As [...]erdes was such an Archer that he would kill the flying birds in the air; Catenes could do the like, as Curtius in his sixth Book doth affirm. Alexander the son of King Pria­mus, when neither his brother Hector with his courage, nor [Page 69] Troylus with his force, nor all the strength of Phrygia could resist that noble Greek Achilles, he slew him with an ar­row. Acastus won immortal renown for killing of the huge wild Boar, that spoiled Calido [...]ia. Princes in times past were taught to do feats of Archery; Great Hercules himself was taught of Euritus the science of shooting, that he could kill any flying fowl, or the swiftest beast: as sometime he killed the birds called Harpies; and slew the swift Centaure Nessus: we read in the first of Herodotus, that Commodus the son of Marcus, sirnamed Aurelius Emperour sometime of Rome, begotten of Empresse Faustina, was so skilful in shoo­ting, that whatsoever he saw with his eyes, the same would he kill with his bow: likewise I finde, that the Empe­rour Domitianus was so expert in his bow, that hee could shoot (when any hold up his hand) betwixt his fingers a great way off. The people of Creet passed all men in this faculty. The Parthians were so cunning in shooting and throwing of darts, that backwards as they fled they would spoyle and destroy their enemies. The Arimaspians excelled the Par­thians. Againe, the Schythians and Getes were most fa­mous for this subject. And thus having occasion to travell as pilgrimes, some slew great wilde Tygers, huge Bears, terrible Lyons, and such monstruous beasts, that advanced the fame of such who attempted the danger.


Of diligence, and labours of Princes.

AS Horace that ancient Poet affirmeth, that the worthyest and greatest vertue is to avoyd vice: so is it (I judg) the greatest commendation unto any man to imbrace diligence and to eschew idlenesse. For such is the vertue of mans mind, the rare gifts, and ex­cellent talents, which God and nature have bestowed upon man that to see the excellency and vertue therof with exter­nall sight, if it could be séen, it would, saith that divine and noble Phylosopher, Plato, enflame great desire, uncredible love unto vertue & would on the contrary, kindle such hatred unto vice, that the sight thereof, would feare any beholder.

[Page 70]When saith Cicero, the world was new, and nothing ripe, no laws made, no Cities builded, no order set, no common­wealth framed▪ but all things confusedly on a heap, without divisions and limits, most like to the Poeticall Chaos, be­fore the elements were discovered, water from earth, and and the fire from the ayre: then (I say) we lived brutishly and beastly, without civility and manners, without lear­ning and knowledge: but when reason began to rule, when Lady prudence began to practise with pollicy, when we be­gan to search and to seek by diligence and travel the nature of things: then divers men in sundry countries sought means by diligence to profit their countries. As Moses first found out letters amongst the Hebrews: M [...]nno first found out letters amongst the Egyptians: Rhadamanthus amongst the Assyrians: Nicostrata amongst the Romanes r Phoenices, amongst the Greecians: thus by the diligence and study of men, from time to time, raw things waxed ripe, strange things became familiar, and hard and difficult things, wax­ed facile and easie. Then Solon made laws in Athens, Ly­curgus in Lacedemonia, Zeleucus in Locresia, Minos in Créefe, so orderly all the whole world was beautified with lawes, adorned with wit and learning. Then began Philo to give laws unto the Corinthians. Then Zalmosis began to reform the rude and barbarous Scythians. Then Phaleas amongst the Carthagenians practized pollicy, and limited laws. Then I say laws began to order the affairs, and rea­son began to rule, so that learning and knowledge was sought far and néere, wit exercised, pollicy practised, and ver­tue so honoured, that well might Tully say, O Phylosophy the searcher of all good vertues, and the expeller of al vices! Then was that common-wealth noted happy▪ that enjoyed such a Prince to rule, as a Phylosopher; that would extoll vertue, and suppresse vice: reward the good, and punish the evill, estéeme the wise and learned, and neglect the foolish and ignorant. I will omit to speak of mighty and famous Princes, whose care, whose diligence, study and industry, were such, whose numbers were so infinite, that I might [Page 71] well seem too tedious to molest the Reader with them. I will therefore in this place speak of the diligence and tra­vell of poor men, who by their study and labour became lamps of light unto the world. And to begin with Plato and Socrates two base men of birth, whose diligence in their life, made them most famous being dead, the one the son of a poor Citizen of Athens named Ariston: the other the son of a poor Marbler named Sophroniseus. Might not poor Pe­rictione the mother of Plato, be proud of her son, when the greatest tyrant in the world, that proud Prince Dionisius, would honour and reverence him for his learning and knowledge, and take him into a Chariot as a Prince, and not as a poor Philosopher? Might not that poor midwife named Phanaerara rejoyce to have such a son as Socrates, who being estéemed of all men to be best learned, being counted of all men most Orthodor, and taken of all men to be most modest, and most grave, was also judged by the O­racle of Apollo to be the wisest in all the world. How hap­py was Elbia? How famous was Creithes who nursed two such sons as Cicero and Homer? the one the glory of Rome, the other the sugred and sweet Oratour of all Greece. Thus diligence and travel brought them to fame, that being poor men, they were honoured of rich men, being base men they were exalted of Princes. Oh happy countries of such wo­men! oh happy women of such children! Oh twice happy children of such learning and knowledge! The poor Smith which was Demosthenes father, and the silly Potter who was Virgils father, are more renowned by their children this day being dead, then known by their own wealth be­ing alive. Thus much happened unto the silly Smith, and unto the poor Potter, their names shall never die, whilest either Demosthenes is read or Virgil heard. What might be spoken of that poor Physitian Nichomachus son, I mean that famous and learned Philosopher Aristotle, whom King Phi­lip of Macedonia so estéemed, that he counted himself happy to have his son Alexander the great born in Aristotles time, whose diligence and study was such, that he had the guard [Page 72] and tuition of that renowned Conqueror Alexander five years together, who was honoured of Alexander, and not onely esteemed of King Philip, but Athens being destroyed by Alexander, it was restored by Aristotle. Such was the diligence of men, their care and industries, that their large volumns and infinite books, are witness of their well oc­cupied minds. How became Plutarch Master to Traian the Emperor? How was Seneca appointed the Tutor and Schoolmaster of the Emperor Nero? How came Zeno un­to such favour with King Antigonus, but by diligence, and not by idleness; by travel, and not by slothfulness; by lear­ning, and not by ignorance. Why did that great and fa­mous Roman Scipio, sirnamed Affricanus, esteem so much the poor Poet Ennius alive, that being dead, he caused his picture to be set before his eys, as a pledge of his great love and earnest good will? It was for the desert that Scipio found in Ennius. Why did Augustus Caesar, that wise and Godly Emperor, make so much of Maro's books? but be­cause he was in his time the lamp of Rome, he honoured no lesse his books after he was dead, then he embraced him alive. The great King Artaxerxes thought himself half dead without the company of Hippocrates. Pomponius Atticus did think him happy, when either Cicero was in his sight, or some of his books in his bosome. Alexander never went to bed without Homer under his pillow. Who will not praise the diligence of poor Cleanthes the Philosopher? Who will not commend the travel of Plautus the comical Poet? the one living with a Baker, the other with a Bruer, with much care and pain in the day time, that they might study in the night time. Such was their poverty and necessity, that they were urged to labour in the day such was their af­fection and desire unto learning, that they were willing to study in the day time.

Who will not extol Euclides to take such pains, and to in­cur such danger, to go in the night time in the apparel of a woman, because he might not be known, to hear Socrates read Philosophy? Oh painfull men, Oh worthy members [Page 73] of their country that so sought by diligence, that so travelled by study and industry: and in fine so found by wit and rea­son the redresse of things, to disperse that diffused Chaos, which Time said Cicero had then scant opened the doore un­to. Then after private pain and special study of sundry men in several countries, knowledg came to that perfection, that from one man in one place, divers grew learned and polli­tick. Thus from Romulus the first builder and King of the Romans, Rome in short time had wise and discréet Coun­sellours to govern the City. From Solon the first law-giver (after Draco) amongst the Athenians, by and by, learned and eloquent Oratours flourished in Athens. From Lycur­gus amongst the Lacedemonians, straight grew modest and grave Senators called Ephori. And thus from one in the be­ginning divers procéeded forth in the end: Thus the Pro­phets began amongst the Egyptians: the Gimnosophistes among the Indians: the Caldeans amongst the Babyloni­ans, the Sages called Magi, amongst the Persians: And so of others in other countries. And thus by diligence, were all men first commended by their pilgrimage and labour of life, and were well recorded in memory for their service to their countrey, Prince, and friends, that so having finish­ed their pilgrimage in this life, the fame of their merits were a perpetual memory to them after death.


Of the first inventors of artes, countenanced by Princes, and of the use of southsaying.

TThe world being raw and rude, and barba­rous, without all civil pollicy: Nature of it selfe first mooved men to civilize their man­ners, and instructed the ignorant to séek and search things unknowne. This Nature wrought in divers men in sundry countries a desire to knowledge, whereby men exercised their gifts to the ad­vancement and commendation of their countries, following [Page 74] as Cicero saith, Nature as a good guide, and a Captaine to finde out that which was not known. And because nature was alwayes desirous to be acquainted with art, as a thing to exornate and beautifie her selfe, she first invented letters as the foundation and the ground whence all learning doth procéed. Afterwards letters were invented amongst the Hebrews by Phylo, and brought unto Gréece by Cadmus, and practised first in Egypt by Memnon: from Egypt unto Phrygia, brought by one named Hercules an Egyptian born. Again, among the Hetruscans letters were first invented and written by Demaratus a Corinthian. Amongst the Ro­manes as both Plutarch and Solinus do affirm the Pilagians invented letters, and taught the use thereof. And some Au­thors of great credit, affirm that Nicostrata the mother of E­vander the Areadian invented letters first in Rome. So Radamanthus in Syria, and so others in divers places of the world were studious and carefull to search a way by reason to practise the same by wit, and to disperse the lumpish Chaos, which yet for want of knowledge had no perfect forme. And now letters being invented. Grammer worthy­ly came to claime the second seat of fame whose beginning and entrance unto Rome, was celebrated by Epicurus, brought by one Crates, being sent as Ambassador from king Attalus, unto the Senatours, at the time of the second wars of Carthage. This is the well, whence flow all other scien­ces: for from the faculty of writing, and the art of speaking, do the rest procéed. Macrobius preferreth Dydimus for his excellency herein. Cicero commendeth one named Antonius Enipho, whose schoole and lecture Cicero long frequented. The force of Grammer chiefly consisteth in Histories and Poetry; for Poetry is so commended, that both Moses that mighty ruler of the Hebrews, and David that wise Prince of Israel, the one in reducing the people from Egypt, the red Sea opening a way, and giving place unto Moses to passe through, made Exemetron verses in good méeters, to thank God for his good successe and fortune; the other with divers Hymns in méeter, and swéet songs did asswage the [Page 75] just anger of God for his offences. In Poetry Homer and Hesiodus excelled for antiquity, the one in setting forth the fame of Mars, (I mean wars) the other in commending the pains and diligence of Ceres, (which is husbandry) though Lynus Orpheus, Marcellinus and others were of great antiqui­ty, yet not of so great a fame. Histories and the profit there­of were found, as Plyny writeth, by Cadmus Mylesius the first History that was written by any Phylosopher, was by Xe­nophon: but the excellent and worthy fame of Historiogra­phers in Gréece afterward was justly noted in Thucidides and Herodotus, as it was amongst the Romanes in Livi and Salust. Thus from a rude beginning, came famous and lear­ned writers.

As for Rethorick, it was first invented by Mercury, as Horace saith, but as Aristotle and Quintilian do think, it was by Empedoc [...]es: then from time to time from age to age, it came unto that perfection at length that Rethorick was as necessary to be taught every where, as it was profitable to be used any where. The Prince of this faculty in Gréece; was Demosthenes, who with his eloquence long guided A­thens. Isocrates, Aeschines and others flourished in great fame by this art in Gréece. In Rome Cicero and Salust. were the fountaines of all sugred eloquence. For the beginning of Musicke, divers opinions and sundry assertions are made, where Musick was first found. The Gréeks suppose that Dionisius found first Musick. The Hebrews think that Tu­bal, Polibius saith, that Musick first was found in Arcadia, Solinus saith, that it was first in Créet. The most do agree and judge, that Orpheus and Linus were the inventors of it, some again think that Amphyon found Musick: but how. where and when it was first found it is uncertaine. But unto that perfection at length Musick came, that the Gréeks thought that man not well learned, unlesse he had some skil in Musick. As for the golden study of Phylosophy, which as Cicero saith, searcheth wisedome hateth folly, the only seeker of vertues, and the scourge of vices; some suppose that it was first from the barbarous people brought unto Greece, [Page 76] for amongst the ancient Egyptians, Philosophy was first studied and opened by Vulcanus. Amongst the Persians it was found by them that were called Magi. Amongst the Indians by Gymnosophistes. Amongst the Babylonians, and Assyrians by the Caldeans, which as Laertius doth wit­nesse, were called all wise men. This art was sought with great industry, and much honoured in all the world, for that it contained all sciences and faculties in it self, as well the life and manners of men, as also the obscure and diffi­cult nature of things, with the subtil search of the same in the disputation thereon. Great was the contention of the Astrologers who was he that first found the orders and mo­tions of the heavens: some attributing the first invention thereof unto Prometheus, some unto Belus; some unto Atlas, as Plini in his seventh book affirmeth wherefore the po­ets fain that Atlas doth sustain the heavens upon his shoul­ders; some attribute it unto Mercurius, some unto Actinus. And thus every country contendeth about the antiquity thereof. The Egyptians brag of their antiquity upon this subject; the Assyrians boast no lesse of their knowledge in this art. The course of the Moon was first found by Endi­mion. The eclipse of the same by Anaxagoras, Thus first nature sought such means as might set forth her desire by séeking and travelling for knowledge; And physick is not so little to be estéemed but it might here well be mention­ed, considering the common profit thereof, and how painful­ly the same was studied by others in time past.

Phisick is either healing with diet, medicine, or sugery. In the first Apollo was most honoured, in the last Aesculapi­us was chiefly commended, whom the Gréeks supposed to be the first that healed wounds. Afterwards Hippocrates born in the Isle of Coos, made a law, that whosoever recove­red health, should write his name in the temple of Aesculapi­us, whereby it séemeth that Aesculapius was one of the first Phisitians. The first phisitian that ever came to Rome, did come from Peloponesus named Archagathus, when L. Ae­milius, and Marcus Livius were Consuls in Rome: when he [Page 77] came first to practise phisick there, he was called for the rare sight thereof, first a butcher, at last a murtherer. To re­peat several hearbs, by sundry men found out in this art, it were over long. But we will touch on nothing but the first inventers and searchers of arts, and so come unto Ma­gick which was found, as Plini saith, by Zoroastes first King of the Bactrians, eight hundred years before Illion was buil­ded. This saith Plini might have béen better unsought then found for that we see every man desirous to be acquainted with Divels, and to be taught of Simon the secret counsels of Divels: insomuch that women go unto school with Cir­ces or Calipso, to learn sorcery of them. The Egyptians had great felicity in this art, insomuch that Pharao com­manded the priests to shew some feats before him, deriding Moses and his doings. In presence of Moses they convert­ed a rod into a Dragon, which when Moses saw, to suppresse vain incantations, and to shew how much the one did excel the other, he threw his rod unto the ground, and it was con­verted unto a Snake, and devoured the Dragon that the Egyptians inchanted. Solomon the wise, whom at the be­ginning God so advanced and favoured, made and invented ways to expell Divels. Eleasalus as Josephu doth write, used a ceremony in expelling and conjuring of Divels from any man, to put a ring in his nosethrils, having a certain herb, or a root, appointed and named of Solomon, within the ring, which root with his smel drove out Divels and he conjured them not to return to that man any more. This art in short time grew to that credit, and at this time is in di­vers places in such honour, that a conjurer is more estéem­ed then a Preacher. There are such branches in this art that do well merit praise; for there are divers kinds of these Magicks, whereby men say they are able to do any thing, and that by it they know all things. The first part or ra­ther kind of Magick is called Nigromancy, which is a kind of conjuring the dead bodies to tell things to come, as at the wars in Pharsalia betwixt Caesar and Pompeius, it was foreshewed by the ghost of a dead man unto Sextus, the [Page 78] whole chance and event of that war, and how his father Pompey should lose his head. The second kind of Magick is called Pyromancy, which is a certain divination by fire, thus Tanaquil, Tarquinius Priscus wife, when she saw th [...] flames playing about Servius Tullius head, she affirmed thereby that he should be King in Rome. The third is Ae­romancy, which useth to prognosticate things by the air, as by flying of Fowls, and tempest of weather as when it rai­ned Iron in Lucania, it did presage said they, the death of Marcus Crassus amongst the Parthians, or as Livi writeth, when it rained stones in Picen at the second wars of Car­thage, it was to shew the slaughter and murther that Han­nibal should do in Italy. The fourth is Hydromancy, to judge things to come by fight of water, as Varro doth report of a boy, that saw the picture or image of Mercury in the wa­ter, pronouncing and reciting all the wars of Mithridates King of Pontus, that should follow in verses. There are two other kinds of Magick the one named Geomancy, to declare and expound things by the opening gaping, and mo­ving of earth: the other Chiromancy, to judge by the lines of han [...]s called Palmistry, these are they that Cicero ma­keth mention of in his first book of divinations, where he saith, Cum semitam ipsi nesciant alijs tamen, monstrant viam, they will teach others that way that they know not them­selves. They will teach others how to have money and sub­stance and yet they are themselves poor beggars, always in the house of Codrus, hanging at the fléeve of Irus. There is again a kind of Soothsaying which was first practised in the land of Hetruria, where when a certain Husbandman ploughed in the field called l'arquimen, a certain man ap­peared in sight, who sprang up from the ground which then was plowed named Tages, in face and countenance much like a young child: but in wisedome and discretion far sur­mounting any sage Philosopher. This Tages taught all the land of Hetrmia. Plini saith, that one Delphos first invent­ed Soothsaying, and Amphiaraus first invented soothsaying by fire.

[Page 79] Polydorus describeth another sort of Soothsayers, who were wont to conjecture and foreshew by beasts slain to be sacrificed, whether the heart, the liver, or such like did pe­rish; as Caesar, which when he sacrificed an Oxe unto Jupi­ter, which had no heart, thereby the Soothsayers prognosti­cated the infelicity and mishap of Caesar. Likewise, King Xerxes in his wars against the Gréeks, a Mare, being a stout and warlike beast, brought forth a Hare, a timerous and fearfull thing, whereby they declared the overthrow of Xerxes and his huge army, and the flight and cowardize thereof. Again, there is a kind of sooth saying by light­ning, thunders and tempests. The folly of men was such, that they thought nothing to be in the world, but had hidden knowledge concerning man: they would take nothing in hand without some Oracles of Jupiter or Apollo; they re­posed more trust in flying fowls, in their chirping notes, concerning any attempts which they took in hand, then in their own force and strength; they had more confidence in beasts of the field, and trusted more in elementary sights. In fine, there was nothing almost, but they had more respect either unto the colour, the voice, the proportion, and such like toys, then they had in themselves, as is before menti­oned in the worshipping of their Gods, and institution of Religion. These foolish toys were first observed amongst the Chaldeans; from Chaldea they came to Gréece, from Gréece to Hetruria, from Hetruria to Rome, and from Rome to all Europe they were scattered. Wherefore Mo­ses that wise Hebrew, and the singular instrument of God for his people, commanded that no man should consult with those wicked and abominable faculties saying unto his people, You shall not beléeve Sooth-sayers, neither shal you trust unto dreams. The Iews were so addicted to observe these augurations, that they would not go to war at any time, without some warnings and conjectures had by some bird or beast; insomuch, that one Mossolanus, a Iew born, a wise man noted in his Countrey, making his voyage un­to wars, as Josephus in his first book of Antiquitie doth [Page 80] write, was commanded with all his hoste to stay, untill a certaine southsayer would go to counsel and know the suc­cesse of the wars: which then he took in hand, with a bird hard by the army, Mossolanus perceiving how they were in­clined and wholly bent to be instructed by divination, he took his bow and an arrow, and slew this bird, whereat the souldiers were so amazed, and the soothsayer so angry, that had not Mossolanus perswaded the people wisely he had béen like, though he was their Captain, to have béen by his own souldiers slain: but after long tumult made, Mossolanus spake after this sort unto his souldiers: Do you think that birds, beasts, and such like dumb things, can foreshew things to you, which know nothing of themselves? for behold the bird which you trusted most unto, and likewise your sooth­sayer, could not sée to avoid my purpose when I slue him. Do you trust that creature for your lives which is ignorant of his own death! O blindnesse of people which yet remai­neth in this age. Thus having briefly past the inventers of sciences, in sundry countries, men were much given to find other necessaries to live by, and studious to make things profitable for their countries, and carefull to augment the state and life of man to full perfection. For the Cyclopians were the first workers of Iron work; the Lacedemonians the first inventers of harnesse, spears, swords, and bucklers for wars: people thereby most renowned; the Athenians taught first to plant trees and Vineyards; the Phrygians made first the chariots and waggons; the Lydians used first to dresse wools, and so the people of Caria practised first bows and arrows, and the Phenicians the Crossebow; then other particular matters were likewise sought out by di­vers speciall men, in speciall countries for the use of man, as oyl and honey by Aristeus: Keys by Theodotus the Sami­an; Ships to sail by Jason, silver by Ericthomus, gold by Cadmus. Thus every where each man in his pilgrimage did something worthy of memory. Thrason was renowned for his lofty walls and his towers, Danaus for his wells and for his digging of water, Cinira for finding out Copper, [Page 81] Brasse, Lead, and such other metals, Ceres for sowing of Corn, and Bacchus for planting the Vine: thus the world in time waxed not onely populous, but it grew also skilfull in things, and plentifull of laws, for the redresse and safe­guard of man.


Of Patience of Kings and Princes.

PAtience is a vertue saith (Cato the wise) in all adversities, the best medicine to a sick man, the surest plaister to any sore; it comforteth the heavy, it rejoi­ceth the sad, it contenteth the poor, it healeth the sick, it easeth the painful, it hurteth no man, it helpeth all men: therefore said the wise man Byon, that that the greatest harm that can happen unto man is not to be able to sustain, and abstain, For this was Tiberius Cae­sar much commended of Suetonius, that he suffered in free Cities and Towns free tongues, Philip King of Macedo­nia, when certain Embassadours of Athens came to him, he required of them if he might stand in any stead to A­thens, to certifie him of the same; to whom Demochares one of the Embassadours answered, that the greatest pleasure that he could do to Athens, was to hang himself: the King most patient in such scoffs and taunts, said: the reproach­full slander of the Athenians do make King Philip better a­ble to revenge their malice by wars, then to move him to answer their back-biting in words. A Prince not onely patient in hearing, but also wise in answering. As some­time the Emperour Alexander Severus in Rome. when it was signified unto him (after Antonius was dead) that the barbarous nations were ready to enter the City of Rome, and that he was much rebuked of the people, and blamed of the Senators, for the slender care he had to the City: he (as Herodianus affirms) answered, that it belongeth to Princes, [Page 82] to requite the good, and not to answer the evill: for wisemen will speak evil of no man in the beginning, least they should be judged fooles in the end, whereunto all things are directed and whereby all things are proved. So patient was Anaxagoras, when it was told him that his son was dead, to answer merrily. I know my son was mortal. So pa­tient was King Antigo [...]us being certified of his son Alc [...]o­nus death, to answere, I looked no other than for his death. So patient was Pericles, whon he heard that both his sons died in one day, to kéep his countenance merry, his cheere unchanged and his businesse about the state of his countrie not delayed. But Harpalus was of passing patience, being bidden of Astiages King of Persia to supper, where he had two sons of his ready drest, and layd in a silver dish before him on the table, to be eaten by their owne father. The King, nay the tyrant marking the countenance of Harpalus, and perceiving him not to be moved much at the matter, asked him how he liked his supper, he without alteration of colour, or change of countenance, framed himselfe to an­swer the king merrily, commending much the supper, as one that knew that patience was the onely remedy in tyranny. A second Iob in patience, nay hee passed Iob, for Iob knew that his God did suffer Satan to punish him for love he had to Iob, but Harpalus perceived that this tyrant did this to him of tyranny and evil will, far from christianity: for in this vale of misery, we count him wise, and certain we may cal him most wise, that can in prosperity be gentle, and in adversity be patient. Both these examples were seen in one man in one day at Rome. Paulus Aemilius, having two sons the hope of Rome, and comfort of the father, the one dead foure dayes before the triumphs of Macedonia, the other, three dayes after the triumph, returning from Macedonia with that noble victory, and such triumphs unto Rome, that no man could finde in his heart to tell this noble Romane of the heavinesse in Rome, by reeson of the death of his children, he perceiving the people of Rome to be sad, and he so merry, they so heavy with sobs and sighes, and he [Page 83] so glad by reason of his triumphs and victories, demand­ed the cause which being at length made known, he then comforted them, that should comfort him saying: I thank the Gods more to give me victory over my enemies, to the glory and prayse of Rome, then I accuse fortune to spoyl me of my children, which by nature were borne to dye: and though much it be to my griefe, yet wish I the Gods to do the like to the father as they did the sons, so that the like conquest and glory may happen to Rome. In this was both magnanimity and patience. Some men are patient in some things, as in a corporal paine: some in torments: ano­ther is patient of injuries done. I commend them both: but to be patient in all kinde of aflictions and adversity, heaven and earth commendeth that man. Plyny speaketh of one man Anarchus Augustus most patient in torments. Of one Woman Laena, to kéep silence. So were the Egyptians people of great patience, when they had rather dye in tor­ments with patience, then to betray any man. The Gym­nosophistes of India were so patient, that from sun rising untill night, upon the hot san [...], they continued without meat and drink (saith Plyny) going from one seat to an other, to behold the heavens, the Sun, the Moon, &c. The Lacedemonians were most patient in travel, paine, winde, weather, and wars. The people of Sparta, at what time cer­taine men of Chios came to pilgrimage, understanding the wise men of Sparta called Ephori, to be in all things most patient, to move them to anger, they vomited before them, and then went where the Ephori sate in judgement, and u­sed it as a common stoole to discharge nature. When they came to Chios againe they said that the wise men of Sparta were fooles and blocks, because they could not move them to be angry, but not more patient then the other were beast­ly. For this kinde of patience was Mithridates king of Pon­tus renowned, so was Agesilaus king of the Lacedemonians, so was Masissima king of Numidia. So patient was the Emperor Augustus, that he suffered a young man of Sycilia to answer him as boldly, as he had demāded of him merrily, [Page 84] whether ever his mother had been in Rome, he being like to the Emperour in countenance and proportion, meaning thereby that he might be his father if she had been there, the young man perceiving the sleight of Augustus, answered boldly, and said: My mother was never in Rome, but my fa­ther hath béen divers times in Rome: meaning that the Emperour might rather be his brother that way then he to be his son the other way by his mother. But because pati­ence is better known by reading of divers Princes anger, where they shall see what hurt was done; what wickednesse was committed by impatience, which might have bin re­dressed and saved by patience: therefore to avoyd prolixity, it shall be spoken in the one, what wanteth in the other, but I will first speak of the humanity and sobriety, and other vertues famous in Kings and Princes.


Of humanity and clemency of Princes.

LIke as pride oppresseth love, provoketh dis­dain, kindleth malice, confoundeth justice, and at length subverteth states: even so hu­manity stirreth up affection, augmenteth a­mity, maintaineth love, supporteth equity, and preserveth Cities and countries. No­thing, saith the godly Emperour Alexander Severus, so joyn­eth the hearts of subjects unto their Prince, as humanity. Nothing doth purchase honour so much to the noble man, as affability. Nothing so much kindleth love amongst the Commons as mutual humanity. How gently did Cyrus king of Persia handle Croesus king of Lydya, who being vanqui­shed and convicted, was by the law, as Herodotus doth wit­nesse, appointed to dye, he being brought to the place of ex­ecution, began heavily to sigh and say: This even Solon told me before: at whose sighes Cyrus being with pity con­victed, gave him life. This may be seen in Cinna, a noble gentleman of Rome, and Nephew unto Pompeius the great, [Page 85] who having conspired the death of that most gentle Empe­rour Augustus, who had been oftentimes Cinnas patron and defender, both in restoring him unto his patrimony, and in augmenting his honour, and in saving his life: and now likewise having his accusers ready to prove the intent of Cinna, and in place to stand before Cinnas face, to declare his conspiracy, where, how, and when he had conspired the Emperours death. While this complaint was made, the Empresse Livia, Augustus wife, came in place, saying: the Physitian, said she doth use a contrary pl [...]ister to those pa­tients that will not heal with rules of physick. No prince said she, wins such praise by severity as he meriteth com­mendation by lenity. For Cinna now being reprehended, his fault known, to grant him life, doth more augment Au­gustus fame by lenity, then to make Cinna die for safeguard of the state by Iustice: for Iustice without prudence is half tyranny. The Emperour joyed much to hear such cle­mency proceed from his wife Livia, and caused Cinna to be sent for and made him sit in a chair, and willed every man to depart the chamber, then not repeating Cinnas fault, nor reciting his conspiracy he said: I crave of thée Cinna in re­compence of good will, and pardoning of thy faults good wil and love again & to shew me the like good will as I have & wil alwaies shew unto thee: & in proof thereof he made him a Consul in Rome, whose princely clemēcy therein made his foes to become his friends this his wonderful wisedom and humanity caused all Rome to love him and his wife alive, & to honour them both being dead. He was went to answer a­ny slanderous reproach or tanting words thus gently, that Augustus never weighed slanderous words, so that he might avoid malicious déeds. We read of the like humanity to be in that most worthy Emperour Trayane, who when he was blamed by some of his friends, for his too much humanity towards his subjects, considering that familiarity bréedeth contempt, he answered. I will be unto my subjects as I would my subjects be unto me, for the gentleness and lenity of a Prince never hurteth his estate.

[Page 86]In the same place doth Brusonius joyn unto these two no­ble Emperors, a worthy example of like clemency; Alexan­der Severus, who if all Rome had lost humanity, it had béen found again in him: He in like sort, being spoken unto by one of his Consuls, and being often reprehended of Mam­mea his own mother, for his courtesie and facility of spéech: I read (said hee) that severity groweth unto tyranny, and tyranny in a Prince worketh his destruction. And that lenity is the most secure state in a Prince, who seeth not the experience thereof? Certainly Nero, Caligula, and Heliogabulus, were never so cruel, as these thrée noble Emperors, Augustus, Traiane and Severus, were gentle and méek. Alphonsus the great King of Arragon, giving ear a long time to his friends, who found fault with his often pardoning and forgiving those that offended much his own person, said, Alphonsus had rather save many by lenity and gentleness, then lose any by cruelty and tyranny. This King being moved to wars against the Venetians and Flo­rentines, people very stout in Italy, and ready from Na­ples to march forward to méet his enemies, certain Embas­sadors comming from the Florentines to entreat of peace with Alphonsus upon humble suits and conditions: No con­ditions (said Alphonsus) shall be denied to them that séek peace, but frankly and fréely to grant it. His humanity was such, that the Embassadors were not so ready to aske peace, but he was as ready to grant peace. Herodotus doth write that there was a law among the Persians, that no man should be punished for one fault, but first they would examine whether his good deeds were to be rewarded, or his evil life to be punished. Nicanor the Macedonian, after he had used evil speech every where against Philip, Alexanders Father, he was complained of unto the king: When the king knew thereof, he answered gently, That poverty cau­sed Nicanor to speak against king Philip: Therefore he did send him money to ease his mind, and pardoned withal his offences.

How worthy of memory is Theodosius Junior after he was [Page 87] perswaded by his friends, to revenge these backbiters that spake ill of him, he answered in this sort; a Prince ought not to bend himself to revenge faults, but be ready to par­don offences, saying moreover: Would God that Theodo­sius were able to make his enemies alive again. And to prove that a Prince ought not to revenge. Adrian the Em­perour shewed a noble example thereof, he having great en­mity with a certain worthy Roman, and being in great ha­tred towards this man, before he became Emperour, the self same day that Adrian was made Emperour of Rome, méeting his enemy in the stréet, he said aloud to him be­fore the people. Evasisti thou hast won the victory, meaning that he then being a Prince elected, might in no wise re­venge the wrongs that he received before. O passing huma­nity and clemency in princes.

It was Alexander the [...] great his saying as Pontanus in his first book affirmeth that it was more meet for a Prince to do good for evill, then to add evill to evill. We read that cruel Nero in the beginning of his Empire was so gentle, that he wished often he could not read, because he should not put his hand (according unto the custome of Rome) to the libells for the punishment of the offendors. And Domitianus in the beginning did so abhor tyranny and cruelnesse, that he would forbid to kill any beast for sacri­fice, though they in the latter years forgot this natural clemency? What a noble vertue is humanity in a Prince? what excellency in a noble man? what an ornament in a Gentleman? what commendation in all men, insomuch that the Snakes of Syria, the Serpents of Terinthia, the Scorpions in Arcadia, want no due deserved praise of Pli­ni for their gentlenesse, and sparing of their natural soil, though they were cruel in others. What humanity was it in Scipio, having taken captive Hasdrubal, king Masinisla his nigh kinsman, to restore him home again without ran­some? what clemency used Demetrius to Silla, a Captain of K. Ptolome even as before, Ptolome shewed to Demetrius him­self being taken prisoner, the like shewed he to Silla? such [Page 88] hath béen the lenity of some Princes, that thereby they aug­mented fame, purchased great honour, won victories: and such hath béen the tyranny of others, that they have defamed themselves, won hatred, lost their estates, and in fine de­stroyed themselves. For this purpose was Philip King of Macedonia wont to instruct his son Alexander, to deport him courteously towards the Macedonia, to use lenity and clemency to his equals, and to shew himself gentle unto all men, while his father Philip yet lived that he might the bet­ter in that season win favour, and find friendship with his subjects: for then some came by heritage, some by the sword, and the most came by election. Nothing saith Plutarch doth so establish the estate of a Common-wealth, as the clemen­cy of a Prince towards his subjects, and the love of the sub­jects towards their Prince, the one is never séen without the other. King Darius therefore understanding that his sub­jects were taxed sore with Subsedies, blamed his counsel, rebuked their law and made an open oration unto his com­mons, to signifie how loth he was to molest his subjects and that he was as loth to take any from his poor commons, as he knew them to be willing in giving all they had to plea­sure their Prince: his care therein shewed, and his speech so affable, and his good will opened, with such curtesie and lenity, inflamed such benevolence, kindled such a love, cau­sed such a readinesse in his subjects and made them through gentlenesse so beneficial, that both goods, lands, and lives, were at Darius commandement. Plutarchus in the life of King Antigonus doth recite a famous history, concerning the alteration and change of Antigonus, who with tyranny a long while, fomed in bloud, and delighted in murther, be­ing given altogether to wickednesse of life, spoiling at all times every where, sparing no place at any time; but at length having obtained the kingdome of Macedonia, be­came so méek, so liberal, so quiet towards his subjects, that he was of all men wondred at for his sudden change, from so cruell a tyrant to so gentle a Prince, from a spoiler of all places, to be a sparer now of his subjects: being demanded [Page 89] the cause thereof, answered; Then I travelled for the King­dome of Macedonia, which was to be won with wars and tyranny, and now I labour for the good will of my subjects, which is to be gotten with gentleness. The onely remedy, the sure way to win good will of the subjects, is always for Princes to be courteous and gentle Pitie in a Prince cau­seth love in the subjects. Such pity was found in that gen­tle Emperor Aurelian, when he would have entred into that City called I [...]aena, the gates being shut against him, he did send his Heralds to signifie, unless the gates should be o­pened, he would not leave one dog alive within the City. The City more stout then wise, refused to open their gates, until with force of Engines the walls were battered down, and the City in the hand of the Emperor to do what it li­ked him. The souldiers gréedy of the spoil, were by the gentle and mercifull Emperor, charged not to meddle with any within the City, until they had licence. The Emperor being charged by the souldiers with his promise, to kil and to spoil all, and not to leave a dog alive, he kept promise like a Prince, and destroyed all the dogs of the City, and restored the City again to the inhabitants thereof. This noble Aurelian had rather his souldiers should want, then that they should not shew mercy, (according to his custome) to the comfortless. Xerxes, the great King of Persia, used such lenity and gentleness towards his brother Arimenes, with whom before he was a great enemy, that he made him of a foe, a friend. Porus, a famous Prince of India, being conquered by Alexander the Great, fearing that pity might not have place in the heart of such a conqueror, sought no­thing else of Alexander (who willed him to ask any thing, and he should have it) but clemency. This vertue long waited upon Alexander, till pride (the root of all mischief) corrupted his gentle heart, and he was by the Medes and Persians perswaded to be the son of Jupiter. So gentle he was before, the King Darius did wish either to conquer A­lexander, because he might shew courtesie unto Alexander, or else to be conquered by Alexander.

[Page 90] Aeneas Sylvius was wont to use the saying of Sigismund the Emperor, that happy are those Princes that foster up cle­mency in Court, and prudent are those Princes that use hu­manity in their Cities. It was no small proof of humanity in the Senators of Rome, at the burial of Siphax King of Numidia, who being taken by the Romans, and kept in Tiberius house, according to martial law, before he was ran­somed by the Numidians, died at Rome, where such solem­nity, honour and pomp was shewed at his funeral; such gifts given, such liberality used, as if Siphax had died a­mongst his own subjects, he might have wanted to have such glorious burial in Numantia, being there their King, as he had in Rome being a prisoner. That is worthy huma­nity which is shewed to men in adversity: and that is méer clemency which is done to those banished strangers, as the Romans sometime did to Prusius King of Bithinia, who being driven to exile by his son Nicomedes, came unto Rome, where humanity and clemency were used and nou­rished in the Senate, and was met at Capua (a City some­time by Hannibal conquered) by Scipio and Cornelius, and brought to Rome, not like a banish [...]d man, but as a noble Prince, with such triumphs and honour done to him, and such passing courtesie, and liberality of Senators, that al­though he was banished Bithinia his Kingdome, and by Nicomedes his own son, yet was he received into Rome by strangers, and that to the honour and the fame of Rome. Thereby the Romans grew to that admiration with all people that for their lenity, and surmounting courtesie, they were of all men beloved; and for their valour and magna­nimity they likewise were of all the world feared. For as to Siphax and Prusius, wonderfull clemency and humanity were by the Romans tendered; so was the like to Ptolomy King of Egypt, being of his own brother banished, and by them restored again to his Kingdome.

Rome then was called the Haven of succour, the anchor of trust, the Key of courtesie, whereto all succourless Prin­ces, and noble Captains sled. Rome flourished then, while [Page 91] pity and mercy continued: Rome prospered, while huma­nity and clemency were fostered. Rome excelled all nati­ons in gentleness and pity, when Marcellus and Metellus li­ved, the one Captain of Syracusa, the other in Celtiberia: The noble Captain Marcellus was so pittiful, that after his souldiers had conquered Syracusa, with great slaughter and murther of men, women, and children; he mounted up into a high Tower of the Castle, and there with tears he lamented the cufull sight of Syracusa, more like to one con­quered, then a conqueror; more like to a Prisoner, then a Prince: so that any who then saw him, might rather judge Marcellus; a Syracusan captive, then a Roman Captain. Happy was Syracusa (sith fortune was no better) to hap­pen on such a gentle Conqueror, who was not so glad of his own victory, as he was sorrowfull for the fall of Syra­cusa.

That renowned Roman Merellus, besieging the great Ci­ty of Centobrica in the countrey of Celtiberia, when he perceived their Bulwarks broken, their Walls ready to fall, and victory nigh at hand, he began to be moved with pity, and mercy possest the chief place in his heart, so that when the women of the City brought their children in their arms to crave mercy at Merellus hand, he avoided the cala­mity and misery that was ready to fall on Centobrica, and spared the City, and removed his Camp, being conquered himself with pity and mercy of the ruthfull women, and in­nocent children: Thus gentle Metellus where he might have béen a Conqueror over men, did suffer himself to be conquered by little Infants. O Rome, happy were those golden days, wherein through clemency and gentleness thou wast as much loved and honoured, as thou hast béen by valiant Captains trembled at and feared.

Pompieius the great, when Tig [...]anes King of Armenia, be­ing by him conquered, had knéeled before Pompeius face, yéelding his Crown and Scepter at Pompeius his foot, and himself unto his gentleness as a captive; took him in his arms, embraced him, put his Crown on his head, and re­stored [Page 92] him to to the Kingdome of Armenia again. The like courtesie he used toward Mithridates King of Pontus, being dead, in giving him a royal burial though he knew well the great hatred that Mithridates had fourty years a­gainst the Romans, yet in stead of just revengement, Pom­pey used Princely clemency.

The gentleness that was then used in Rome, yet, betwixt foes, was such, that Julius Caesar (that valiant Emperor and Conqueror) was as willing to revenge the death of his great enemy Pompey upon Photina and Bassus, who slew Pompey, and did send his head to Caesar; as L. Par [...]lus was courteous and favourable to his most mortal foe Perse­us. Hannibal, though he was counted the most and greatest e­nemy that ever Rome felt, yet moved with Princely cle­mencie, he won more commendations for the burial of P. Aemilius, Gracchus, and Marcellus, three noble Romans, then he wan fame by overcomming two thousand Romans in field. The chief fame that Hannibal was worthy of, was for his humanity and gentlenesse, as is proved by these two noble Romans before mentioned, whose dead carcasses Han­nibal caused diligently to be sought for in the field and so­lemnly to be buried with honour and renown, though they were his enemies. And as Hannibal was much commend­ed in Rome, and well beloved of the Romans for his huma­nity, so was he fe [...]red much in Rome for his prowesse, and valiant déeds of arms.

Polycrates, that Tyrant of Samos, was chiefly commen­ded for his gentlenesse and courtesie shewed towards wo­men which were the wives and mothers of the dead souldi­ers, in restoring them unto liberty, in giving them wealth to live, and a great charge that no man should do them any wrong. Augustus the Emperor, when he beheld in the Ci­ty of Alexandria the sword wherewith Marcus Antonius slew himself, could not refrain from tears to shew his humanity; and opening his clemency of nature to his enemy, he com­manded that he should be honourably buried with his dear friend Cleopatra in one grave.

[Page 93] Cicero in his first book of Tusculans commendeth much the clemency of Cleobes and B [...]ton, in shewing such love and obedience to their mother, who being in her Chariot ready to go to the solemn feast of the Goddesse Juno, the horses suddenly died, and there being no other remedy least their mother should go on foot they yoked themselves to draw the Chariot ten miles, to their immortal praise and commen­dations. I remember a history in Patritius, of one Simoni­des, who for that he was moved with pity to bury a dead corps, left in the way where no man put it into the earth, as he was passing with his fellows over the seas, that night before they should sail in the morning appeared unto Si­monides the self-same man whom he had buried upon the way, warning him that day not to go to sea: so when he should take shipping, he remembring his dream, told if unto his fellows, desiring them to stay that day: but his company laughing him to scorn, leaving Simonides on the shore sailed to the seas, where in sight of Simonides the ship and all his fellows were lost. The like pity was found in Simon, the son of that most valiant Gréek Militiades, who being elected Generall over the Athenians, against the great might and force of puissant Zerxes, in the wars of Marathon, was nothing inferiour unto his renowned father in prowesse, but far passed him in clemency and curtesie: this young man for his lenity and pity, being joined with valiantnesse, was appointed by the City of Athens to in­counter with Xerxes, whom his father Militiades often pla­gued, at the first time of trying his magnanimity inforced Xerxes; after spoil of his souldiers, and victory of field, to fly unto Persia, he was so pittifull that he paied a great sum of monies to have his father Militiades buried, who after many conquests, and fawning of fortune in victories, died in prison, whose death and burial, shewed no lesse love and faithfulnesse in Simon towards his father, then it shewed e­vidently the pity and mercy he had in redéeming his fathers corps to be buried. Wherefore that pitifull Emperour Alexander Severus, being demanded what is that, which is [Page 94] chief felicity in this world, said, to foster friends with be­nefits and gentlenesse, and to reconcile foes with pity and rewards.

Alphonsus at what time a certain dog barked at him, took a toast out of his cup, and cast it to the dog, then saying; gentlenesse and clemency shall make foes friends. I know not what greater humanity could be then was in Vespasi­an the Emperour, after that Vitellius had killed his brother Sabinus, and had long persecuted Vespasians son, being at last subdued, he spared not to shew gentlenesse to Vitellius his daughter, and gave her a great sum of money towards her marriage. Agesilaus King of the Lacedemonians, after he had the victory of Corinth, did not so joy in his conquest, as he lamented the deaths of so many Athenians, and Co­rinthians, and as Plutarch doth witnesse, he said, wéeping. O Greece thou spillest more men with civil wars by dis­cord, then would defend thy state against all the world with courage. To use victory genty, is more famous then to con­quer cruelly; As the Emperour Adrian was wont to say, that Princes ought rather with pity to say, this I can do, then with tyranny to say; this I will do. Augustus that most pittifull Prince, after he had conquered that famous City Alexandria, which the great Conquerour Alexander had builded, and named it according unto his own name, be­ing moved with pity, stirred with mercy in sight of the Citizens, who hoped to have nothing but death, said, for the beauty of your city, and memory of Alexander, as also for the love I have unto Prius your Philosopher, and for the pity I bear unto you all, I spare unto you your City, and grant you your life: O swéet sounding words, from a pittifull Prince, not much unlike his predecessour Julius Caesar, his own mothers brother, who after vanquishing of Pompey at Pharsalia, sent letters unto Rome of such love professed, of such friendship promised, that though Pompey was the onely joy of Rome, the long delight of Romans, and the defender and maintainer of their name and fame, yet being convicted, they received Caesar as another Pompey, [Page 95] for that he used humanity, and shewed gentlenesse even to his enemies. For noble hearts ought to contemn cruelty, Princes minds ought to abhor tyranny. A simple Sparrow which to avoid the griping paws of a hungry Sparhawk, that would have preyed upon him, fled unto Artaxerxes bo­some, being in the Camp, wh [...] after long panting, as well for fear as for wearinesse, in Artaxerxes bosome, Artaxerxes said. It is as little mastery unto a Prince, or commendati­on to a valiant Captain to destroy that which of it self doth yéeld, as it is a fame unto Artaxerxes, to kill this poor spar­row that fled for succour; Saying again, beholding the spar­row: As I will not betray thee (thou little sparrow) for that thou hast fled for help unto Artaxerxes, so will I never deceive any man that will have confidence in me. If this pity of Artaxerxes was shewed unto a Sparrow, how much more ought Princes to shew the same unto men. Antigonus though he was a great enemy to Pyrrhus, as Princes be du­ring the time of war, Pyrrhus being slain by a silly woman in Argos, and his head brought by Alcioneus unto his father King Antigonus, thinking to please his father much with bringing K. Pyrrhus head, who long had molested Antigo­nus alive: yet the King perceiving the cruel tyranny of his son, delighting in dead mens heads, took the staff where­on his son Alcioneus carried the head, and instead of thanks which he looked for at his fathers hands, he was well and worthily rewarded with stripes; he took Pyrrhus head, and very honourably covered it and after long looking thereon, he commanded his son Helenus to carry it to the Kingdome of Epire, where Pyrrhus in his life time was King, and there to bury it according unto the custome of the Epirots by King Alexander his own brother. The like history is writ­ten in Herodotus of King Darius, who yéelded thanks unto those that brought Histeus head, as Antigonus did to his son Alcioneus, saying, I do as little joy to see Histeus head, being dead, as I do lament much such tyranny and cruelnesse to be in you▪ who never did see King Darius so cruel to any man alive, as you are cruel to Histeus being dead.

[Page 96]As Darius was gentle of himself, so he greatly estéemed those that were gentle; insomuch that being at the point of death, even at that time when he was so weak that he knew not Polistratus that gave a litle water to refresh his heart, he said; Whosever thou be I know thée not, and for that I am not able to thank thée, Alexander shall and will requite thy gentlenesse, and the Gods shall thank Alexander for his clemency and humanity towards my mother my wife and children: And with that he stretched forth his hand, and said, Have me recommended to Alexander, and give him this my right hand and tell him that Bessus killed Darius, whom thou didst sée dying. Which when it was told by Polistratus to Alexander, he much lamented his death, and caused his body to be brought to his mother na­med Sisigambis. Thus worketh clemency and humanity, that these two famous Princes, Alexander and Darius, two mortal enemies, & yet not forgetting each others courtesie at deaths dore were in love each with the other, for their humanity one to another; Darius at his death repeating A­lexanders gentlenesse towards him, and Alexander requited Darius gentleness being dead.

The greatest fame or commendation that may happen to any man, is to be counted gentle and courteous: therein are divers vertues knit and joyned in friendship, as pity, mercy, wisedome, and affability, with others; so that the property of those men is always, though they can hurt, yet never to offend. As it is the property of an evil man to re­venge, so it is the nature of the good and gentle to forgive.

Pilistratus shewed both wisdome and rourtesie to certain drunkards, who having in their drink used wanton speech to his wife, and being sober the next morning, came to Pisi­stratus to ask him forgivenesse for their lewd talk to his wife, he gently said, Learn to be more sober another time; I know my wife was not out of her house yesterday: Excu­sing his wife wisely, and pardoning them gently. How gently did Alexander Severus use Camillus though he rebelled against him, and by sleight thought to be Emperor of Rome, [Page 97] and for that being condemned to die by the Senate, yet he was pardoned by Alexander. How curteous was Fabius Maximus to forgive Marsius one of his chief Captains, the treasons and snares that he used against his Master Fabius with the enemies. Such gentlenesse did Xerxes the great shew unto the Gréeks, who were as Spies to view the power and host of King Xerxes, sent from Athens: and being taken and brought before the King he not onely gent­ly dismissed them, but shewed them curteously all his host and force of souldiers. The greatest victory is alwaies got­ten by gentlenesse, as Alphonsus King of Aragon by gen­tlenesse won Careta, Marcellus won Syracusa: Metellus Celtiberia as you have heard before mentioned. Plutarch re­citeth a passing history of great curtesie and humanity of King Belenus, towards his son Antigonus, who being mar­ried to a fair woman, fell in love with his fathers wife (for his mother was dead) and his father married the daughter of Demetrius king of Macedonia named Estrabonica, a young woman of excellent beauty: for this therefore the Kings son languished in love, that he was like to die, unknown to his father, which when his father knew, he caused his own wife to be married to his son Antigonus: a rare clemency and great gentlenesse for a man to give his wife to please his friend. Pity accompanieth this excellent vertue, cle­mency, as we read in holy Scriptures, that divers good men ceased not to bewail and wéep over the state of their enemies. I néed not here to recite Peticles the Athenian, who willed that the dead souldiers of his enemies, should be buried in the wars of Peloponesus, nor of Hannibals cur­tesie in the wars of Carthage, for the burial of Roman e­nemies. But Moses that man of God brought with him from Egypt the bones of Joseph. Tobias and Machabeus, mercifull men commanded likewise a solemn buriall for the dead souldiers. And Jehu king of Israel, caused his enemie Jezabel, to be honourably buried. But as white is better discerned by the black▪ then by any colour else, so shall humanity and gentlenesse appear most excellent in [Page 98] reading the title of tyranny, where by conferring both to­gether, the excellency of the one is manifest, the terrour of the other is odious. The gentlenesse and pity that our Sa­viour Iesus Christ shewed unto Mary Magdalen, the lewd woman, unto the prodigal child, unto Peter that denied him, unto the Thief that was hanged with him, unto Da­niel in the Den, to Sidrach in the Fire, to Jonas in the wa­ter, was nothing else, but examples for our learning, to be gentle one unto another, even as Iesus Christ was un­to us all: thus we conclude as Cicero said of Caesar, that Caesar extolling Pompey being dead, and setting up his pict­ures, did extoll his own name: so that the clemency that men do shew unto others, doth advance their own glory.


Of sober and temperate Kings and Princes, and where temper­ance and sobriety were most used.

SO much was this noble vertue of temperance estée­med with ancient people, that they thought the greatest pleasure and the happiest life was to ab­stain from desired meat and drink. So much was this sobriety of life commended of learned Philosophers, that Anacharsis the Scythian was wont to write about the pictures of Princes, this little lesson, Rule Lust, Temper the Tongue, Bridle the Belly. Whereby the Philosopher dili­gently perswaded Princes to be temperate of life, to be so­ber in talk, and to abstain from filthy féeding. For to sub­due appetite, to vanquish lust, to suppress pleasure is a wor­thy conquest. He is a worthy Victor, a famous Conque­rour, a puissant Prince, that can govern his own affection. For even as fishes are taken with hooks, so men, saith Pliny are allured with pleasure. It is the greatest vertue that can be in man to abstain from pleasure, to avoid these baits, these swéet pleasures, wise Princes have lothed banquet­ting and drinking: insomuch that Julius Caesar that famous [Page 99] Emperour of Rome, for his singular sobriety and passing temperance, was the glory of Europe, and for his absti­nence the onely mirrour of Italy, who by overcomming of himself overcame all Europe. Of this Emperour Cato of U [...]ica would say, though he was a mortal enemy unto Caesar, for that Caesar used the company of Catoes sister Servilia, that one sober Caesar should subdue all Rome. His abstinence was such (saith Pliny) that most seldome or never would this Emperour drink wine. Agesilaus King of the Lacede­m̄onians passing through the country of Thasius, being met with then [...]bles and entertained of the people with divers dainties and rare banquets, to welcome the King unto the country, he touched not their dainties, but fed onely with bread and drink, to satisfie the importunity of the Thasi­ans. And being earnestly requested and humbly sought, and in manner inforced (least he should séem ungratefull, not to eat their meats) he commanded his footmen and slaves the Helots, to feed if they would on such chear, say­ing, That princes might not pamper themselves with dain­ty chear and wines but to use abstinence and temperance: The one is incident to vice, and shame, the other a nurse unto vertue and glory; for in eating and drinking there li­eth hidden that sucking Serpent named Forgetfulness: To avoid therefore gluttony and drunkennesse, which are often tendred unto Princes, Constantius that most temperate Emperour, kept him alwaies so hungry, that he would take of a poor woman a crust of bread to satisfie hunger. It was Licu [...]gus law in Sparta and Ze [...]uchus rule in Locresia, to abstain from delicate meats and sweet wines, as from an enemy unto Princes: for wise men were wont to say, that meat is onely good to expell hunger, and drink to quench thirst. King Cyrus in his wars being demanded of his host what he would have provided against dinner. Bread said Cyrus for drink we shall not want, meaning as Amia­nus saith water. This vertue of abstinence was so honour­ed then, that Princes which were given to wine were odi­ous to the world. A great shame it was in Thebes in Le­onidas [Page 100] time to make banquets; thus Epaminondas that brave Prince of temperance, being willed of a rich Citizen being his friend, to come to a supper he found there such su­perfluous chear, such excesse of meat and drink, that he said (being much offended with his friend) that he thought he was invited to come to eat like a man, and not to féed like a beast. This Prince knew the incommodity of féeding, and again knew the commodity of abstinence. A number of excellent vertues do follow abstinence, as continence, chastity, sobriety and wisedome. A heap of vices wait on pampering Princes, as gluttony, lechery, drunkennesse, and such others. Such was the temperance of great King Porus of India, that bread and water was his accustomed chear. Such was the abstinence of Masinista King of Nu­midia, being fourscore years old, that he fed hungerly always and not daintily at any time. Such was the temperance of that noble Pericles, and of that Gréek Tymon, that Aelianus in his book of divers histories, commendeth, the abstinence of the one, and Cicero in his book of friendship, extolleth the temperance of the other: and so jointly these two noble Gréeks, did avoid alway banquetting and belly-chear, they forsook and fled the company of drinkers, as things more noisome then profitable, more dangerous then healthy, and more filthy then friendly. Demetrius king sometime of Ma­cedonia and son unto Antigonus, being much given to féed­ing and pampering of himself, grew to that lechery that being not sufficed with divers stately strumpets, and curi­ous curtisans, as with that renowned Lamia, the famous Crisides, the Diamond of that age Dama, and such other dainty dames, he lusted after a young Gentleman of Greece of amorous countenance, of passing beauty, and of a princely port, endued with séemly shamefacednesse, who came from Athens unto Macedonia, to serve a souldier under King Demetrius, who sought divers means to accomplish his in­ordinate lust, by eating and drinking with this young De­mocles, and divers ways attempting to have his purpose, he followed him privily where Democles went a bathing [Page 101] unto a close chamber, Demetrius hid himself until the young man was naked, and then on a sudden enterprized his lust. But when Democles saw the King, and perceived his wic­ked intent, to avoid the shamefull act and filthy lust of the King and to maintain temperance of life, and everlasting fame of abstinence, he leapt naked into a great séething vessel, of hot boiling water, and finished his noble life, with famous death. O renowned Democles! O vile and shame­full Demetrius! thy death is famous, his life is infamous, thy temperance and vertue commended, his lust and wicked­nesse justly of all men condemned.

The like history doth Plutarch write of Trebonius, a young souldier, of a younger Captaine named Lucius, and Nephew unto that noble Romans Caius Marius. This Luci­us having a charge over rertaine souldiers, designed to him by his uncle Marius then Generall, and having a long while devised means to bring his purpose to passe in accomplish­ing his lust with Trebonius, it hapned on such a season, that he found Trebonius by himselfe alone, and offered violence unto him. Trebonius understanding his Captaines desire, made as though he should obteyn it, and imbracing him, he thrust him to the heart with Lucius own dagger, and so slew his Captain to avoyd infamy: which when it came to Marius his eare, that his Nephew was slaine by Trebonius, the cause thereof being demanded by Marius, and orderly de­clared by Trebonius, where as it was thought he should be hanged, drawn and quartered, and suffer most ignominious death, he was rewarded with a Crowne of gold upon his head, written about with this sentence: This crowne and garland won Trebonius by temperance. Had Demetrius King of Macedonia embraced sobriety of féeding, Democles had not béen so famous by abstinence, as Demetrius might have béen renownes through temperance. Had that Roman Luci­us loved continency, as Trebonius honored chastity, Trebonius had not had of Marius, Lucius his uncle, the praise, the garlād of commendations, and he so vile and shameful a death. Cer­tainly, when the people of Athens fed on figs: the Arcadians [Page 102] on Acorns or Walnuts: the Argives on Parsly: the Te­rinthians on Pears: the Scythians on herbs, the inhabitants of Carmenia and Me [...]cica, on poor fare: yea, when the whole world fed on those fruits, which our old mother the earth naturally brought forth, before corne was sowne; then kingdomes and nations were ruled by the law of nature, to imbrace temporance, to honour abstinence, and to observe chastity. which since grew to that aboundance and excesse, that the law of God, which was first, the law of nature which was the second, the law of Princes which was the last, could not kéep men from the excesse of meat, which onely was the cause of the sinking of Sodom and Gamorrha: of the often plaguing of the Israelites, of the just confusion of gluttony and drunkards. When the Gymnosophistes of India fed onely with apples, when the Priests of Egypt abstained from flesh and wine, and fed on bread and oyl, when the Sa­ges of Persia fed on fruits and herbs: then temperance bare rule, then sobriety governed then abstinence was honoured, then Egypt flourished through temperance, and is now de­stroyed by gluttony. Then India prospered through conti­nencie and sobriety, and is now vanquished by drunkennesse and temerity. Then Persia was famous, and conquered Kingdomes by abstinencie, and is now convicted and con­quered by abundance and excesse. Where is learned A­thens, famous Sparta, stately Thebes? These while tem­perance ruled, were feared of all kings, and are now by meanes of excesse, hated and despised of all Princes. All the while that the Lacedemonians observed the laws of Lycur­gus, in abstaining from brave banquets and excesse of chéer: yea, when they might not passe unto Asia, for fear they should be allured and entiled with the sight of the junkets of Asia, then saith Cicero, were the people of Sparta so temperate, that the men did never sit with women, nor the women with the men. The Milesians made a straight law, as Theo­phrastus doth witnesse, that neither their wives, their daugh­ters, nor maids might taste wine, neither durst any man by the same law praise any wine in presence of women: for [Page 103] wine causeth heat heat moveth lust, lust causeth murther. Wherefore wise men write that it is dangerous to prayse. three things, in presence of the people. As for a man to prayse the beauty of his wife, for fear of fornicators; (for so did King Candaules of Lidia praise his wife unto his friend Giges, and he was murthered thereby, and the Queene his wife afterward married unto Giges:) for a man to brag of his riches and substance; (for so did Sichaeus shew his sub­stance unto Pigmalion king of Tyre, who married the kings daughter named Eliza, and was slaine by the selfe same Pig­malion, king of Tyre and his owne brother in law:) lastly to commend swéet wine in presence of the people doth bréed a desire unto lust, and lust unto death. The famous Romans for a long while kept so streight an order to observe tempe­rance, so streightly was this law looked unto, that Eg. Mae­cenius having slain his own wife, as Pliny recordeth, for that she loved wine, he was by the law of Romulus made for that purpose, saved from death. In the same place of Plini it is read, that a certain matron of Rome was adjudged to die, for that she had a privy key unto a cellar of wine. So much did they observe this temperance, that Cato the Censor ap­pointed by a law certain men to kisse the women of Rome, to know whether they smelled of wine by their breath. No man of what degree soever he was, Consul, Censor, Tribune or Senatour, might drink wine in Rome before he was thirty and five years of age. The people of Messali [...]tica made and ordained, that the women should drink no other drink then water. Amongst the Egyptians there was by a law appointed how much wine their Princes might drink and no more. The Persians fed onely then on bread salt, and water. The prophets of Jupiter in Créet, abstain­ed from flesh and wine. In Rhodes he was taken a grosse brained man, that fed on any thing else but on fish. The Lacedemonians were most severe against those that waxt fat by féeding, insomuch that they would punish their own children with hunger, if they waxed fat either by feeding, or by idlenesse Thus abstinence was fostred as a nurse [Page 104] unto chastity and temperance, then Princes lothed vice, and loved vertue: then they abhorred gluttony and drun­kennesse, and honoured abstinence and sobriety.

The learned and sage Phylosophers, and men of passing abstinence and sobriety, being no lesse studious then careful of temperance despised banquets, refused feasts, lothed and defied belly chéere, and being allured of Princes, enticed of noble men, sought of all men, they forsook and fled from the same, saying: we eat to live, we live not to eat. A golden sentence and worthy to be observed. Rather had Diogenes féed and lick dishes at Athens, then to féed daintily at Alex­anders table. Rather had that learned Gréek, noble Zeno, drink water, and féed poorly, as an example unto his schollers of temperance, then to pamper his belly at Antigonus princely table, to shew them the way unto gluttony and drunkennesse. Rather had Plato forsake Dionisius table, than to abstain from his wonted Philosophicall cheere. This vertue of abstinence was of noble Socrates maintained with bread and milk onely, and learned Homer honoured it with pottage made of herbs and ancient Pythagoras with beans, Anacharsis a Scythian Phylosopher, being demanded of his estate how he fed, how he did lye, and how he was clothed, answered: I feed on hunger, I lye on the ground, and am clothed like a Scythian.

The famous Athenian Aristides, at what time king Dio­nisius made sute for his daughter in marriage, though he was a puissant Prince, a mighty king, yet for his gluttony and prodigal drinking, for his tyranny and excesse. Aristides, who abhorred such vices in Princes, soberly and temperately answered: that he would rather kill his daughter with his own hands, then to give his daughter in marriage unto Dionisius. So odious unto good Princes was that excesse of eating and prodigal drinking, and so highly esteemed was abstinence and temperance, that in Athens a long while in the temple of Ceres, of all the laws of Triptolemus, three onely commandements, as Zenocrates saith were high­ly observed. The first, Their Gods to be worshipped, the [Page 105] second, Their parents to be honoured; and the third, To abstaine from flesh and feeding. O most temperate life, when abstinence was observed, O most golden world when neither wine nor banquets were knowne: then chastity was honoured in the temple of Vesta, then temperance frequen­ted the Capitol of Jupiter, then lust knew no way to the pal­lace of Caesar, then abstinence walked in the market place, then all Rome was chaste. Then Rome triumphed, when Kings were deposed for lechery towards Lucreti [...]. Then Rome merited fame, when the princely office of Decem [...]iri was put down for the rape of Virginia. When Scipio Affrica­nus had overcome the famous City of Carthage, and Nu­mantia, he was not so valiant by his great and renowned conquest, as he was famous by abstinence: for when he tri­umphed as a valiant conqueror, a certain noble young vir­gin, for her passing beauty and great admiration of person, was presented unto Scipio, as a rare gift whose beauty and excellency though Scipio, a long time was amazed at yet he respected abstinence, as a thing belonging unto a Prince, especially unto a conquerour, who having overcome K [...]ng­doms and countries was not to be subdued by lust, he trust­ed not his souldiers to guard and guide this Virgin, but with his presence, brought her home to her father unto Campania saying: were it not that I am a Conquerour, I had not béen able to bring thy daughter home. A greater conquest surely was it of Scipio to overcome himself then to subdue Numantia or Carthage. That lesson worthy of a Prince, he learned of Alexander the great, who thought it a shame unto a conquerour of men, to be conquered by wo­men: and though in divers authours and places, this prince is noted a glutton and drunkard, yet of wonderfull absti­nence he was towards women, which is rare in a drunken Prince. For when Alexander came unto Illiria, to the tem­ple of Jupiter he saw a passing fair woman of comely beau­ty, viewing still the comely state of her person, and féeding himself a long time with the sight thereof, his counsellour, and great friend Ephaestion, perceiving that Alexander was [Page 106] taken in the Briers of beauty said, it is not meet that A­lexander should want any thing that he wisheth for; to whom Alexander answered: neither is it an honour unto Alexan­der that overcame all men to be overcome by one woman. The modesty and continency of Princes have béen such, that they refused the company of their own wives, and went in a wildernesse solitarily to live to avoid the occasion of lust, and to embrace the cause of temperance, as Amoebas and Dionisius surnamed Histrio, being married both to fair women. Clitomachus was of such modesty, that he might not abide in a place, whether he were at supper, or any o­ther place, where filthy talk was ministred, but he would avoid the place and the person as Plini saith, where any in­civility was: and true it is, ill language corrupteth good manners I read in Valerius, a worthy Roman history, of one Spurina, a young Gentleman of the City of Rome, whose a­morous countenance and wonderfull beauty, and passing state of person, surmounted all the Ladies of Rome: but he was not so beautifull outward, as he was modest and tem­perate inward, and least he should séem with his outward beauty to inflame the Roman Ladies and Virgins of the City to lust, he so deformed his body, an [...] mangled his face with his own hand, that from the fairest creature that was in Rome, he became the most deformed man in all the world, insomuch that all Rome knew him not. Spurina is more fa­mous by his modesty therein, then he is now renowned for his beauty, the one passeth like a flower in short time, the other without prescription of time hath immortal fame. Philosophers have béen in the world that have subdued lust, and overcame themselves: yea, and though attempted with great allurements, yet temperance saved and preser­ved them, as Valerius saith that Phrine, a passing fair woman, came unto Zenocrates the Philosophers bed, and being all night in bed with him, could not win the Philosopher with all her tricks to venery: and the next day being de­manded where she lay all night, with an image of a man, she said, or a mans picture. The like doth Xenophon report [Page 107] of Socrates, who though he were married to two wives, on a certain time being in talk with a renowned and famous courtisan named Theodota, a woman of great brags, shée boasted much what shee could do unto princes be­fore Socrates, saying that she could make any come from Socrates unto her, and that Socrates could not make any of her men to come to him: it is no marvel said Socrates; for to draw men to vice is most easie, and to draw them to ver­tue is most hard. I might here bring forth divers histo­ries for the proof of modest and temperate Princes, but to avoid prolixity of reading, and to embrace a compendious history, I omit to speak further of them. I will now turn my stile unto women, where such infinite numbers appear in histories, that I will touch but two or thrée, for that I should be overcharged otherwise. The chast life of Lucrecia, and noble temperancy of Sophronia, two noble matrons of Rome, the one ravished, to satisfie the tyranny of the Em­perour Tarquinius, by whom she was deflowred, after that she made her husband privy that his bed was defiled by Tar­quin, she slue her self with her own knife: the other in like sort, because she could not resist the violence of Decius, to make Decius more odious, and his déed more shamefull, en­ded her life as Lucretia did. Even so Medullina being op­pressed by her father in the dark, got his ring from his finger to know him in the morning, who had deflowred her virginity in the night, and when she knew by the ring that it was her own father, she spared not to revenge her disho­nour with the death of her father, and for that she little e­steemed her own life, her honesty being stained, with that knife that she slue her father, she also killed her self, as a witnesse of her own truth and proof of her honest life. This hath made Rome famous. How well was temperance re­garded in Rome when Virginius slew his daughter Virginia, for that she was deflowred of Appius Claudius? So greatly was it estéemed, so highly honored, & so straitly looked unto, that Sempronius slue Gallius, that Cervius gelded Pontus the Roman; both being taken in adultery. How happy and re­nowned [Page 108] was Rome, when Sulpitia, Paterculus daughter, and wife to Fulvius Flacc [...]us the lamp of Rome, and the lanthorn of the world, was preferred for her temperance, by the verdict of Sibilla to excel all Asia and Europe. The like temperance was proved by Cyb [...]le the mother of all the Gods, to be in Claudia that heaven and earth extolled the name of Rome. Was not temperance then honoured, when Virgins and young women bought temperance with death some killing themselves, others burning, and some drowning themselves, and thus by death their lives were known. Hippo a woman of Gréece saith Valerius, and tra­velling to Rhodes on the seas, and perceiving the Marri­ners to be gréedy and ready to spoil her honesty, and to de­file her temperate and chast mind, to avoid their purpose and filthy lust, leapt from board into the surging seas, whose terrour she contemned, lesse fearing to die, then wil­ling to live, as a woman stained and corrupted, what way findeth not modesty of life, to requite shame; Timociea a woman of Thebes, being violated by a certain Prince of Thracia against her will requited the Prince, and eased her mind after this sor [...], [...]ith Sabellicus, she went in an eve­ning to this Thracian Prince, and told him privily if he would follow Timoclea, she would bring him where such store of substance, and such wealth was hidden, as would make him the richest Prince in all Asia, to whom he grée­dily consented, and went willingly and gladly, thinking to obtain it: and being brought unto a deep Well, she said, in this Well there is infinit treasure; but when he stoopt to look unto the bottme of the Wel, she threw him in head­long, and a mighty huge stone she rouled after him. A [...]ta­la [...]t [...] was the mirrour of all Ladies, a second Diana, who refused the company of men, living in the wildernesse, ab­staining from worldly pleasure, and ended her life in pure virginity in the desarts of Arcadia. But because I may better begin and sooner end, with alledging kingdoms and countries for a proof of temperance, it were impertinent in so large a scope in so ample a matter, to deal with parti­cular histories.

[Page 109]Therefore to begin with the women of Teutonica: temperance was there so much estéemed, so well thought off that the women hearing their husbands to be slain and taken captives by a valiant Roman namede Marius, then Captain for Kome they came kneeling before him, and be­sought him curteously and humbly since their husbands were slain, being women willing to lead a chaste life, they might go and serve the Vestal Virgins in Rome, to avoid the greedinesse of Marius souldiers, and there to end the rest of their lives in the service of Vesta; but being denyed of Marius, clean contrary unto a Roman heart, and to a noble Gentleman: the next night following, the women of Teu­nica hanged themselvs, lest they might be a prey to the Ro­man souldiers, to be defiled by unchastnesse. The like did the fifty virgins of Sparta, going a pilgrimage to Messena, and being courted by the gentlemen of Messena for their virginities, and now ready to be made women that night, they all prevented it with death, choosing rather to lose life honestly, then to live shamefully, knowing what a reproach and infamy it would be unto Sparta, and to all the Coun­trey of Lacedemonia, if they esteemed life more then ho­nesty: so they killed themselvs to honour their countrey, and to defame Messena.

Hence proceeded terrible and long wars betwixt the Lacedemonians and Messenians, to the confusion and utter destruction of the Countrey of Messena: and these wars continued ten long years, wherein the Messenians shame­full intent was requited with a sharp revenge. We read of a passing good history of Alexander King Amintas son, bro­ther to King Philip of Macedonia, who when he perceived the Ambassadours of Persia to waxe wanton with his sisters and desirous to do villany unto the King his father, he promised the Ambassadours that they should accomplish their lust and pleasure with fairer Virgins then these were, which the Persian Ambassadors should enjoy, they being glad of the promise, expected the time and their comming, being then in their beds ready for them, Alexander to [Page 110] chastise such villany, and to open the same unto others, cau­sed certain young men to array themselvs like women, and such a night to go unto the Persians, as though they should seem to be women, and to bring either of them a knife pri­vily: and being in bed, they were commanded by Alexander to kill the Ambassadours, and their company. Magapy [...]us, when he heard that his Ambassadours were slain in Mace­donia, waxed mad a long time and was ready to rayse wars, untill he had understanding of the cause and order of their deaths. And for Alexanders temperance, therein he married Amintas daughter, the sister of Alexander. This is the sacri­fice that the priests of Isis did use to abstaine from flesh and wine: this is the temperance that Numa Pompilius shewed most often in Rome, from women and wine to abstaine, This abstinence used Sarah the daughter of Raguel, this u­sed Judith to have Holofernes head off: and this used Queen Esther to king Ahasuerus. Worthy examples we read of Kings sometime, that being most thirsty refused to drink, as Alexander the great, before he fell amongst the Persians to drunkennesse, was so temperate, that having a cup of water brought unto him in his extream thirst, he would not drink the same in sight of his souldiers, least the sight there­of should augment the thirst of his souldiers, being most thirsty already. Cato Junior leading a great host of souldi­ers over the hot sands of Lybia, having no drink nor water nigh them, waxed so thirsty, that when one of his souldiers brought him in his head-peece a draught of water by chance he would not drink himself, and leave his souldiers thirsty, but threw the water upon the ground▪ because he might partake of their thirst with abstinence which was much ease to his souldiers to see his temperance one way, and his humanity another way, and they felt their thirst much ther­by asswaged:

King David being besieged by the Philistins, was desi­rous to drink of the water called Bethlem: same stout souldiers of his named Eleazarus, Jesebes, and Semera ventu­red their lives for the Kings sake through the enemies: but [Page 111] when the water came, David drank it not, as one that could abstain from that he liked best: but because it was brought with great peril, he offered that water as a sacrifice unto God, for the three souldiers that ventured their lives for it. A great vertue to abstain from that which a man liketh best: and great temperance there is in abstaining. Ro­mulus being bid to supper to a Citizen of Rome, drank no wine all supper time, but two or three drops after supper time unto whom the Host of the house spake merrily: Ro­mulus said he, if all men would drink no more then you, wine would be nothing esteemed: to whom Romulus an­swered soberly and said: wine would be more precious and dear if every man would drink as I did, for I drink as much as I would: and if all should do so, wine would be scant. Noting his temperance in a little, and the gluttony of the most part in drinking. Hannibal, Scipio, Mithridates, Fabritius, Sempronius, and Papirius had no lesse praise for their temperance in abstaining from offered pleasure, then fame for their victories and triumphs.


Of Taciturnity and silence in Princes and others, and of the ver­tue and commodity thereof.

SOcrates a famous Philosopher, and Master unto that noble and divine Plato, was wont to charge his schollers to honour and to embrace these three excellent vertues: Silence of tongue, shame fast­nesse of countenance, and wisedome of heart, vertues appointed most fit for such noble persons. The wisedom of a fool lies in his tongue which is the key of his councel, & the tongue of the wise lies hid in his heart for of the abundance of the heart the tongue wil speak, so that silence in tongue is a proof of wisedom of heart. Wherefore that learned Philosopher Zeno, said, that nature appointed two ears to hear much, and one tongue to talk little.

[Page 112]In ancient time the Egyptians thought silence such a vertue unto people, that they caused an image to be made saith Pliny, with her finger on her mouth, and a table writ­ten on her breast with this sentence: hear, sée, and say no­thing; to represent silence. The renowned Romans so e­steemed, silence saith the same Pliny, that she was sa [...]rificed unto once a year in Rome, imitating the old Egyptians, e­recting an image and named it Angerora, as a great God­desse to honour for silence sake. The Persians honoured nothing so much as silence, and hated nothing so much as inordinate spéeth. The famous Lacedemonians had silence in such reverence, that their wise men named Ephori, at what time they met in places to be merry, fearing in drink to forget silence, the elders did speak to the company before they sate down at drinking, and pointed to the door with their finger: Let nothing done or spoken at this table, pass yonder door O worthy order and renowned law to think of that before sitting, that should do them no harm after rising up.

The Lacedemonians used such short spéech, that when one demanded of Charillus, why did not Lycurgus appoint more laws then he did unto his country? he answered, to few words, few laws will serve. The silence of Mary Mag­dalen, and the woman found in adultery, pleased God much, for that they went not with words, but with sobs, sighs, and silence they came to Christ. Better saith Zeno, it it is to fail from foot or horse, then to lie in tongue. Even so the learn­ed Athenians held silence in such estimation, that though Athens was counted the Well of wisedome, the flower of Philosophy, where all the world came to speak: yet learned they silence also: in such sort, as that worthy Gréek Themi­stocles, at that time he was banished Athens, and inforced to go into Persia, where he was much esteemed, and honour­ably received: being intreated of the King to shew the state of the country, he besought the King to grant him one year to learn the Persian tongue, & then the king should be certi­fied in all points that he would demand of Themistocles.

[Page 113]O famous Gréek, though banished from Athens, yet ob­ [...]erved he the law of Athens forgot not silence, which was [...]o honoured in Gréece but knew he was in Persia, a place, [...]aith Curtius, where silence was so magnified that sharp pu­nishment was provided for talkative persons. The people of Sparta wece noted as men given most unto silence ha­ting so superfluous words, that when the Ambassadours of the Abderites as Plutarch maketh mention had made a long and tedious Oration before Ag [...]s King of Sparta, and after much time spent, and many words in vain bestowed (as vaine bablers do) did take their leave of Agis, willing to have an answer to their King of Abderits: salute your King (faith Agis) from me & tel him as long as you spake, so long held Agis his peace; letting them to understand their much folly in babling The like answer received ye Embassadors of Samos after a lōg oration of Cleomenes king of ye Lace­demonians, saying the first part of your oration I have for­got the second part I understand it not, and the third part I do not well allow. The Taylor is not expert that ma­keth Hercules hose to a childs leg▪ neither can that Shoema­ker be good saith Ag [...]silaus, that frameth Titormus shoe to little Molons foot: Neither may he be counted wise that speaketh much to none effect. Wherefore the first thing which that ancient and learned Pythagoras taught his schol­lers, was carefully to kéep silence. It was Pythagoras law, that none of his schollers might speak any thing in five years space after their their first comming unto School. Pythagoras was no less careful to teach them silence, than it was painfull for them to learn silence. Most hard and most difficult is that silence unto a young man, that one Messius used, who pined and tormented himself three years, as Plini saith, for silence sake. But Simonides said sometime to a si­lent man amongst a number of wisemen: If thou be a foole said he, thou doest the part of a wiseman to hold thy peace: but if thou be wise, thou art a fool that thou doest not speak to wisemen, and so I end: silence in a fool is great wisedom, and silence in a wise man is méer folly.

[Page 114] Cleanthes therefore being desired of a Gentleman, some short wise sentence to instruct his son withall, said: learne only this word to thy son, Sige, that is silence. That noble and renowned Phylosopher Zeno, at what time he had pre­pared a banquet in Athens, to receive the Ambassadours of Antigonus, King of Macedonia, where certain learned Phi­losophers, and eloquent Oratours were present: after many large and subtill disputations, and great ostentation of Rhetorick betwixt them had at supper, Zeno being deman­ded of the Ambassadours why he kept silence all that while, answered, that to keep silence is greater knowledge than to speak, for silence said Zeno is most difficult to obtaine, and most hard to kéep, and therefore most rare to be found. A Gentleman in that company then named Agatho, hearing Zeno so commend silence, being no lesse desirous to learn silence, then having learned it to keep it, prepared a great stone and held it in the roofe of his mouth three yeare, to a­voyd idle words and superfluous talk and to learn sober si­lence, and vertuous taciturnity. Alexander the great, when his mother Olimpias did send letters from Macedonia unto India where then he was at wars, wherein were written much concerning the state of Macedonia, and great com­plaints made of Artipater, with divers more secret counsels sealed: he reading this news, his friend Aephestion, who knew all the secrets of Alexander, looking and reading the letters with the King unto the end, Alexander tooke his signet from his finger after perusing of those letters, and joyned it close to Aephestions mouth, saying: since in friend­ship you fail not in silence break not. Thus was silence in Alexander honoured: but ot Princes which honored silence, Julius Caesar most esteemed the same: he may justly chalenge for sobriety in drinking, and medesty in talking, the gar­land of praise. Who after long warres with Pompeius the great, sometime his special friend, yea, and who married Ju­lia, Caesars daughter, being overcome in Pharsalia, and en­forced to flie unto Egypt, his treasures, substance, & wealth, being brought unto Caesar in a great chest, Coesar found di­vers [Page 115] sealed letters and great counsels, which he never ope­ned for silence sake, but took them altogether and threw thē into the fire, for that all men might learne how much he e­steemed silence: this done unto Pompeius at Pharsalia, he said unto his souldiers, that it behoved a Prince to finde out friends, rather then search out foes, The noble Empe­ror knew well, by reading of Pompeius letters he might be moved to divers injuries, and by opening of secrets, he might accuse divers wrongfully: therefore he had rather purchase by silence friends, then by breaking of counsell enmity. How sure and safe is the reward of silence, histories of Greek and Latine can well report? Had Calisthenes fol­lowed the counsel of his master Aristotle, either merrily, or never to speak unto a Prince, he had never found fault with Alexander, by speaking to anger Alexander, and to harm himself. Had not learned Seneca so reproved the Em­perour Nero, the tyrant of Rome, with words, he had not béen rewarded with death. If the Poet Nevius had not written his mind unto Metellus. If Chius had not béen fa­miliar in talk with King Antigonus, they had saved life by silence, where they purchased death by talking. Therefore Phocion that Gréek, whom sugred Demosthenes called the rasor of Athens, was alwaies afraid as Plutarchus saith, lest any sudden sillable or foolish word might escape his tongue imprudently. So that silence gaineth life, and words cau­seth death, as Miles the ancient Mu [...]tian, at what time with Hercules he found fault, for that he was Linus scholler and taught by him on instruments, for words speaking of Linus unto Hercules, he was slain of his own scheller, so that silence unto Princes is most necessary. O noble silence! O rare vertue! O most worthy jewell thou hurtest no man, thou betrayest no body.

Philippides a noble man of Athens, who for his singular learning, and dexterity of wit King Lisimachus made most account of, and was most desirous to please him, most rea­dy to advance him unto honour, willed him to ask what he would and he should have it; Philippides most humbly knée­ing [Page 116] upon his knees, besought Lisimachus the King in any wise not to open his secret and counsel unto him; the king demanded the cause thereof, because said he, I know not whether I am able to kéep counsel or no. How much it re­pugneth the nature of man to kéep silence, Cicero in his book of Offices doth manifest the same, for were it possi­ble saith he, unto man to ascend the skies, to see the order of the bodies superiours, and to view the beauty of the hea­vens unswéet were the admiration thereof unle he might shew it unto others. And again he saith, there is no such ease unto men, as to have a friend, unto whom a man may speak unto as himself, giving thereby to understand the grief of silence, & that nature loves nothing which is solita­ry. It may séem that silēce one way is not so beneficial, as it is another way most grievous, as is proved by the history of Secundus the Philosopher, who having company with his own mother in the night time, either of them most ignorant of the other, his mother in processe of time having know­ledge thereof, for very grief and sorrow slue her self. The Philosopher likewise having understood of his mothers death, knowing the cause thereof, knew not what to do for that he was ashamed of the filthy act one way, and most sor­rowfull for the sudden death of his mother another way: to die, to burn, to hang to drown himself, he thought it too short a torment for so hainous a fact, and knowing his mo­ther being a woman, stayed not nor feared not to kill her self, to ease her sorrowfull heart, he conceived that he being a Philosopher, it stood him upon to find out the painfullest torment in all the world to plague himself justly for his grievous offence, he therefore vowed unto God never to speak one word ouring life, such torment he thought was most painfull unto nature, and thus by silence he consumed away his life. Since therefore silence is suco a burning disease, so heavy in the heart of man, so hard to kéep in, so dangerous to utter, how worthy are they of commendati­ons. how do they merit fame and praise that can rule their tongues and keep silence? Therefore a noble Senatour of [Page 117] Rome sometime, brought his eldest son named Pap [...]ius un­to the Senate house, to hear the councel pleading, charging him whatsoever he should hear in the house amongst the wise Senatours, to keep it in silence: for the order was in Rome, that a young man should say nothing unlesse he were a Consul, a Tribune, a Censor, or such like Officer, wher­by he had authority to speak. This young Papirius on a time being importuned by his mother, and charged on her bles­sing to tell her the cause and businesse that the Senatours had, so often to come together, the young man being threat­ned, weighing his fathers charge to avoid words one way, said, since you are so importunate mother, to know the se­cret of the Senate, you must keep counsell, for I am char­ged therewith; There is a long debate in the Senate house to agree on this conclusion, whether it be more expedient for one man to have two wives in the City of Rome, or one woman to have two husbands: and most like it is, that it will go on the mens side. Straightways she went into the City, and certified the matrons and women of Rome what the Senatours were about to conclude, and appointed certain of them to accompany her the next morning unto the Senate: where when she came, as one dismaied, she be­gan to declaim against the purpose and decrées of the Se­natours, proving what inconvenience might arise for a man to have two wives, laying before them the dissention that should be in that house where two women should be marri­ed to one man and what comfort and consolation, it were for a woman to have two husbands: the one to be at home in Rome to see his children brought up, and to sée the city defended, when the other should be far from home, at the wars in other countries. The Senatours being amazed at her talk not knowing to what it tended, young Papirius de­manded licence to speak, which being granted, he declared the cause of her comming, how and after what sort as is be­fore mentioned. The Senatours commended much Papi [...]i­us wit, as well for his obedience to his mother, as for si­lence toward the Senate, & recompensed his wisedom with [Page 118] the Consulship of Rome. Silence was so observed in Rome, and honoured of Romans, that Demetrius the Phylosopher, would often say, that the birds can flie where they will, and the grashoppers sing where they wil: but in the city we may neither do nor speak, Euripides, a learned Gréek it being objected to him that his breath did stink, answered nipping­ly the party, saying: so many things have so long béen hid in my heart, that being putrified there they stink. I would all men had such a breath, that by long kéeping of silence it might taste therof. Cato the wise Roman perceived the ver­tue of silence to be such that one of the thrée things (as he himself would say) that he most repented him off, was to tel his counsell unto another. Plini doth commend of all men, one man named Anaxarchus: of all women, he praysed one woman named Laeena, whom the tyrannt Nycocreon with all the torments and punishments that he could possibly de­vise, could not enforce to speak that out, which they thought should be kept in: but Anaxarchus chose rather to dye by tor­ments, then to break concealed words, spitting in the tyrant Nicocreons face, and saying, spare not Anaxarchus carkasse, thou troublest no part of my minde. Epicharis amongst o­ther conspiratours, against that cruel Nero, being diversly tormented to open the treason against Nero's person, would by no means break counsel, no more Laeena for all that ty­rany used towards her would betray the secrets of Harmodi­us and Aristogiton, which only was the cause that she had her picture erected in Greece.

In like manner Pompey the great, being sent as an Em­bassador from the Senators, and being charged by the King named Gentius, who prevented Pompey in his Message, to declare the secrets of the Senators, and councel of Rome, he stretching forth his arm, held his finger in the flame of the candle, saying, When I draw my finger from the can­dle, I will break the counsel of the Senators; and so sted­fastly he held his hand, and so long, that King Gentius won­dred no less at his patience, then he honoured him for his silence. O rare silence! O passing patience, and that in so [Page 119] great a Commander! Isocrates, an excellent Orator some­time of Athens lest he should be ashamed of his schollers by their spéech and talk (for tongues bewray the heart,) would never receive unto his school, but those onely who would pay double hire, first to learn silence, and then to learn to speak to speak nothing but that which they knew to be most certain, and that which of necessity must be spoken. This was the order of Isocrates school. Yea silence was of such dig­nity, of such estimation, that it possest place in Princes hearts, that Tiberius Caesar Emperor of Rome, would often say, Princes ought not to impart their secrets, nor to make any privy to their counsel, considering how hard is si­lence to be observed. Silence was of such credit, and of such force, that Metellus, who used to be close in the wars of Ma­cedonia, would say, that if he knew his own coat to be pri­vy to his secrets, he would straight cast off his coat and burn it. For in him to whom secrets of life are revealed, in the same also is danger of death, for in the committing of se­crets, is life and death also committed. Had not that famous Hercules, the imp of great Jupiter, and off-spring of the gods, revealed his counsell and opened his heart unto his wife Deianira; Had not that mighty Sampson, so great in Gods fa­vour, that he was a Iudge in Israel, shewed his secrets un­to his wife Dalila, they had not been conquered by two wo­men whom Serpents, Dragons, Lyons yea, all the whole world could not annoy; The just punishment of Princes for frivolous talking. Conquerours of the world of King­domes of countries, and yet conquered by a woman: yea, by a lesser thing then a woman, a little member never séen, but alas, too often heard, the tongue onely. Tantalus is pu­nished in hel for that he opened the counsel of the Gods, after this sort; Dainty meats, and pleasant wines before his face, and yet may he not touch them he hath sight of all things, and yet tasteth nothing the hunarier he is, the bet­ter, and braver his banquet shines before him, the more de­sirous he ie to eat the further he is from his victuals. Ixion for his telling tales of Juno, is no lesse tormented in turn­ling [Page 120] of his whéel in Hell, than is Sisiphus in rowling of his stone, or Danaes daughters in filling of their empty tubs. The pain of Prometheris in Caucasus, the punishment of Titius is duely appointed and of the Gods, say the Poets, provided truly to those that be braggers and boasters of se­crets. I must not in this place forget a worthy history of King Demetrius, Antigonus son, who being sent by his fa­ther to Pontus, where Mithridates was King being sworn by his father to keep counsel, of a vision, that he sowed gold in Pontus, and that Mithridates should reap it: was there­fore commanded with his army to passe unto the Kingdom of Pontus, and without any word to kill Mithridates. His son Demetrius very sorry, for the great friendship which was of late sprung betwixt Mithridates and him, obeying his fa­ther went unto Pontus, and commanded his people to stay untill he went to know where Mithridates was, who when he came in place, he wrote with the end of his spear upon the earth in the dust: Flee Mithridates, and streight turning to his souldiers, he spake nothing to him, according to his oath for kéeping silence, but wrote a warning to flee; wher­by he kept his fathers counsel one way, and maintained faithfull friendship with King Mithridates another way. A young man of Helespont prating much in presence of Gua­thena a strumpet in Gréece, she demanded of him whether he knew the chief city of Helespont; to the which the young man said, Yea forsooth: What? said she, me thinketh you know not the name of it for it is Sigaeum, the City of silence: a just reproach for such vain praters. Aelianus doth write, when the Cranes, from Sicilia take their flight to flee over mount Caucasus, they stop their mouths with stones, to passe with silence the dangers of the Eagles.


Of Age and the praise thereof.

BY on that wise man, would say often that age was the Haven of rest, for that it was the end of misery, the gate of life, and the perfor­mance of all pilgrimages. And since age is wished of all men, what folly is it to hit any man in the téeth, with that which he chie­fly desireth. Wherefore when king Archelaus had appointed a great feast for his friends, amongst other discoveries then at the table, Euripides decla­red the great love which he bare unto Agathon, an old tra­gicall Poet. Agesilaus demanding why should an old man be so well esteemed of Euripides? he said Though the spring time be pleasant, yet the harvest is fertile: though flowers and hearbs grow green in the spring, yet wax they ripe in harvest. The age of man are compared unto the four sea­sons of the year. his growing time unto the spring, his lu­sty time unto the Summer, his wit time unto the Harvest, and his old time unto the Winter, which doth make an end of all things. Frederick Emperour of Rome, after he had appointed an old man to rule the City of Scadmenna, was often moved, that he for his age was not méet to go­vern such a City, considering the multitude and number of people that were within that City, they thought that a young man should better discharge the office: but the wise Emperour perceiving how bent and prone were the youth of that town, to have a young man to rule over them, an­swered them after this sort: I had rather said he, com­mit the governance of the City to one old man, then the governance of so many young men unto the City. Better it is that an old man should rule the City, then the City should rule the young men: meaning no [Page 122] otherwise then that aged men should onely be admitted to be rulers in Cities, for that there belongeth unto them ex­perience of things, and care of youth. Such was the ho­mage and reverence which was amongst the young Ro­mans, toward the Senatours or old men of the City, as both head and leg, did acknowledge the same, in doing duty unto age. They had this confidence in age, that no man might be chosen unto the number of the Senatours, before he should be thréescore years of age. The like custome had the people of Chalcides, that no man before he were fifty years, should either [...]ear office within their Cities, or be sent Embassadour out of their country. Amongst the Per­sians, no man could be admitted to be one of the sage ru­lers, which they called Magi, unlesse perfect age had brought him thereto perforce. Amongst the Indians, their wise men which ruled their country, which were named Gimnosophi­stae, were ancient, for time giveth experience of govern­ance. Amongst the Egyptians the like credit was given unto old men, that youth meeting them in the way, would go out of the way to give place unto age, so that their coun­sellours which were called prophets were counted men of much time and experience: even so the Babylonians elect­ed their sage Chaldeans: the French men, their ancient wise men called Druydes: In fine, noble Greeks did observe the like order in chusing their rulers and counsellours of a­ged men, as before spoken. The Lacedemonian youth, were by the law of Licurgus no lesse charged to reverence age, then their own parents.

The Arabians in all places without respect of person, preferred their old men before honour, dignity or fortune. The people called Tartesi had this law so to honour age, that the younger might bear no witnesse against the elder. The reverence said Chylon, that should be shewed unto age, by young men, ought to be such, that they then being young, doing obedience unto age, they might claim the like when they waxed old of youth. Agesilaus King of Sparta; being an old man, would often go in the cold weather, very thin in a [Page 123] torn cloak, without a coat or doublet, only to shew the way unto young men to be hardy in age, by contemning of gay apparell in youth. Masinista King of Numidia, being more then threescore years of age, would lively and valiantly, as Cicero saith, without cap on head or shoe on foot, in the cold or frosty weather in the winter, travell and toyl with the souldiers only unto this purpose, that young souldiers should be hardned thereby in their youth, and practise the same for the use of others, when they came to age them­selvs, Ihero King of Sicilia, shewed the like example in his old age, being lxxx. years, to train youth and to bring them up so in young years, that they might do the like in their old age. For thus judged these wise Princes, that all men covet to imitate Princes and Kings in their doings. Gor­gias the phylosopher, and master unto Isocrates the Orator, and to divers more nobles of Gréece, thought himselfe most happy, that he being a hundred years and seven, was aswell in his memory as at any time before, and made so much of age, that being asked why he so delighted in age, he made answer because he found nothing in age for which he might accuse it. So sayd King Cyrus a little before his death being a very old man, that he never felt himselfe weaker, than when hee was young, The like saying is reported of that learned Sophocles, who being so old, that he was accused of his own children of folly, turned unto the Iudges, and said: If I be Sophocles, I am not a foole; if I be a foole, I am not Sophocles; meaning, that in wisemen the senses waxed bet­ter, by use and exercising the same; for we prayse saith Cicero the old man that is somewhat young, and we commend a­gain the young man that is somewhat aged The old is com­mended that hath his wit young and fresh at comandement, and the young is praised, that is sober & sage in his doings. When M. Crassus a noble Captain of Rome, being a very old man took in hand to war against the Parthians a strong and stout people, being by Embassadors warned of his age, and admonished to forsake the wars, he answered stoutly the Embassadour of the Parthians and said: when I come [Page 124] to Seleucia your City I will then answer you. Where­upon one of the Embassadors, named Ages [...]s, an aged man, stretched forth his hand, and shewed the palm of his hand unto Crassus, saying, Before thou shalt come within the Ci­ty of Seleucia, bristles shall grow out of this hand. The stoutness of Marcus Crassus was not so much as the magna­nimity of Agesis, and yet they both were old men.

What courage was in Scaevola, to withstand that fire­brand of Rome, Sylla, who after he had urged the Senators to pron [...]unce Marius enemy unto Italy, he being an old ag [...]d man, answered Sylla in this sort, Though divers be at the commandements of the Senators▪ and that thou art so en­compassed with souldiers at thy beck; yet neither thou nor all thy souldiers shall ever make Scaevola, being an old man, for fear of losing some old bloud, pronounce Marius, by whom Rome was preserved, and Italy saved to be enemy unto the City.

The like history we read, that when Julius Caesar had by force of arms aspired unto the office of a Dictator, and came to the Senate house, where few Senators were together, the Emperor Caesar desirous to know the cause of their ab­sence, Confidius, an aged father of Rome, said, that they fea­red Caesar and his souldiers. Whereat the Emperor mu­sing a while, said. Why did not you likewise tarry at home fearing the same? Because (said he) age and time taught me neither to fear Caesar, nor yet his souldiers. For as Bru­sonius saith there are young minds in old men; for though Milo, the great wrestler in the games of Olympias, waxed old, & wept in spight of his decayed limbs & bruised bones, yet he said his mind flourished and was as young as ever it was before. Solon hath immortal praise in Gréece, for his stoutness in his age; for when Pisistra [...]us had taken in hand to rule the people of Athens and that it was evident enough that tyranny should procéed thereby; Solon in his latter days having great care to his countrey, when that no man durst refuse Pisistratus, came before his door in Arms, and called the citizens to withstand Pisistratus; For age (said he) [Page 125] moveth me to be so valiant and stout that I had rather lose my life, then my country should lose their liberty. What vertue then see we to be in age, what wisedome in time, what courage in old men? The examples of these old men stir and provoke many to imitate their steps, insomuch that divers wished to be old when they were yet young, to have that honor as age then had. Wherefore king Alexander the great, espying a young man coloring his hairs gray, said, It behoves thée to put thy wits in color and to alter thy mind.

The Lacedemonians, a people that past all nations in honouring age made laws in their Cities, that the aged men should be so honoured and estéemed of the young men, even as the parents were of the children; so that when a stranger came unto Lacedemonia, and saw the obedience of youth towards age, he said: In this country I wish one­ly to be old, for happy is that man that waxeth old in Lace­demonia: and in the great games of Olympia, an old man wanting a place, went up and down to sit some where, but no man received him, but amongst the Lacedemonians, not onely the young men but also the aged gave place unto his gray hairs, and also the Embassadours of Lacedemonia being there present, did reverence him, and took him unto their seat, which when he came in, he spake aloud: O you Athenians, you know what is good, and what is bad for that which you people of Athens, said he, do professe in know­ledge, the same doth the Lacedemonians put in practice. Alexander being in his wars with a great army in Persia, and meeting an old man in the way in the cold weather, in ragged and rent cloaths, lighted from his horse, and said un­to him, mount up into a princes saddle, which in Persia is treason for a Persian to do, but in Macedonia comendable, giving to understand how age is honoured, and old men e­stéemed in Macedonia, and how of the contrary wealth and pride is fostred in Persia: for where men of experience and aged men are set nought by, there it cannot be, that wise­dome beareth rule. How many in the Empire of Rome, ruled the City, and governed the people, of those that [Page 126] were very aged men? as Fabius Maximus, who was thréescore years and two in his last Consulship: Valerius Corvinus, who was six times a Consul in Rome, a very old man, who li­ved an hundred and odd years: Metellus of like age, called to the like function and administration in the Common-wealth being an old man. What should I speak of Appius Claudius, of Marcus Perpenna, of divers other noble Ro­mans, whose age and time was the onely occasion of their advancement unto honour and dignity? What should I re­cite Arganthonius, who was threescore years before he came unto his Kingdome, and after ruled his Countrey fourscore years unto his great fame, and great commendations of age? To what end shall I repeat Pollio, who lived in great credit with the people unto his last years, a man of worthy praise, of renowned fame, who lived a hundred and thirty years in great authority and dignity? What shall I speak of Epimenides, whom Theompus affirmeth that he lived a hundred and almost thréescore years in great rule and esti­mation. Small were it to the purpose to make mention a­gain of Dandon amongst the Illyrians, which Valerius wri­teth that he was five hundred years before he died, and yet of great memory and noble fame: Or of Nestor, who lived thrée hundred years, of whom Homer doth make much men­tion, that from his mouth proceeded sentences swéeter then honey; yea, in his latter days almost his strength was cor­respondent to the same. That renowned Prince Agamem­non, General of all Gréece, wished no more in Phrygia but five such as Nestor was, with whose wisedome and courage, he doubted not but in short time he should be able to subdue Troy.

Swéet are the sayings of old men, perfect are their coun­sels, sound and sure their governance. How frail and weak is youth? How many Cities are perished by young coun­sel? How much hurt from time to time have young men de­vised, practised, and brought to pass? And again of age, how full of experience, knowledg and provision, painful, and stu­dious is it unto the grave? As we read of Plato that noble [Page 127] Philosopher, who was busie and carefull for his countrey, writing and making books the very year that he died, being fourscore and two. What shall I say of Isocrates who like­wise being fourscore and fourtéen, compiled a book called Panathenaicus: of Gorgias who being studious and care­full to profit his countrey, being a hundred and seven years, was altogether addicted to his books, and to his study. So of Zeno, Pythagoras and Democritus it might be spoken, men of no lesse wit, travell and exercise, than of time and age. For as Cicero saith the government and rule of Comon-wealths, consisteth not in strength of body, but in the vertue of mind, weighty and grave matters are not governed with the light­nesse of the body, with swiftnesse of the foot, with external qualities but with authority, counsel, and knowledge: for in the one saith he there is rashnesse and wilfulnesse, in the other gravity and prudence. As Themistocles and Aristides, who though not friends at Athens being both rulers, yet age taught them when they were sent Embassadours for the state of Athens, to become friends to profit their country, which youth could never have done. That sage Solon was wont often to brag, how that he dayly by reading, learning, and experience, waxed old. Apelles that approved painter and renowned Greek, in his age and last time, would have no man to passe the day idle without drawing of one line. Socrates being an old man, became a scholler to learn mu­sick, and to play upon instruments. Cicero being old him­self, became a perfect Greek with study. Cato being aged in his last years went to school to Ennius, to learn the Greek. Terentius Varro was almost forty years old, before he took a Greek book in hand, and yet proved excellent in the Greek tongue, Clitomachus went from Carthage to Athens after forty years of age, to hear Carneades the Philosophers lecture. Lucius, as Philostratus doth write, meeting Marcus the old Emperor with a book under his arm going to school, demanded of the Emperour whither he went like a h [...]y with his book in his hand: the aged Emperour answered, I go to Sextus the Philosopher to learn those things I know [Page 128] not. O God, said Lucius, thou being an old man, goest to school now like a boy, and Alexander the great died at thirty years of age. Alphonsus King of Sicilia, was not ashamed at fifty years old to learn, and to travel for his knowledge; and lest he should lose the use of the Latin tongue, he occupied himself in translating Titus Livius, though he was a King. I do not hold with age in divers men, who for want of discre­tion and wit, was childish again: but of perfect men, in whom age seemed rather a warrant of their doings, For even as he that playeth much upon instruments, is not to be commended so well, as he that playeth cunningly and artificially: so all men that live long, are not to be praised so much as he that liveth well. For as apples being green are yet sower, untill by time they wax sweet, so young men without warrant of time, and experience of things are of­tentimes to be misliked. If faults be in old men, saith Ci­cero (as many there be) it is not in age, but in the life and manners of men? Some think age miserable, because either the body is deprived from pleasure, or that it bring­eth imbecility or weaknesse, or that it is not far from death, or calleth from due administration of Common-wealths: these four causes, saith Cicero, make age seem miserable and loathsome. What shall we say then of those that in their old age, have defended their countries, saved their Cities, guided the people, and valiantly triumphed over their ene­mies, as L. Paulus, Scipio, and Fabius Maximus, men of won­derfull credit in their old years. What may be spoken of Fabritius, Curius, and Cornucanus, aged men of great agility, of famous memory in their latter days? How can Appius Claudius be forgotten, who being both old and blind, resist­ed the Senatours to compound with King Pyrrhus for peace, though they all, and the Consuls of Rome hereunto were much inclined. If I should passe from Rome, a place where age was much estéemed, unto Athens, amongst the sage Philosophers: if from Athens to Lacedemonia, where age altogether bare sway and rule: if from thence unto the Ethiopians, and Indians, where all their lives are ruled [Page 129] and governed by old men: If from thence to any part of the world, I might be long occupied in reciting the honour and estéemation of age.

Herodotus doth write, that the Aethiopians and Indians do live most commonly a hundred and thirty years, The people called Epeii in the Countrey of Aetolia, do live two hundred years naturally; and as it is by Damiates re­ported. Lictorius, a man of that Countrey, lived thrée hun­dred years. The Kings of Arcadia were wont to live thrée hundred years; the people of Hyperborii lived a thousand years. We read in the old Testament, that Adam our first father lived nine hundred and thirty years, and Eve his wife as many; Seth nine hundred and twelve years; Seth his son called Enos, nine hundred and five; Cainan the son of Enos, nine hundred and ten; Mahalalehel the son of Cainan, eight hundred fourscore and fifteen; so Enoch the son of Ia­red, lived nine hundred thréescore and five years; Enoch his son, named Mechuselah, lived nine hundred threescore and nine years; with divers of the first Age, I mean till Noah's time, who began the second world after the floud, who lived as we read, nine hundred and five; his son Sem six hundred years, and so lineally from father to son as from Sem to Arphaxad, from Arphaxad to Sala, from Sala to He­ber, the least lived above thrée hundred years. This I thought for better credit, and greater proof of old ago, to draw out of the Old Testament, that other prophane autho­rities might be beleeved; as Tithoni [...]s, whom the Poets fain that he was so old, that he desired to become a Grash [...]p­per. But because age hath no pleasure in the world, frequen­teth no banquets, abhorreth lust, loveth no wantonness, which saith Plato, is the only bait that deceives young men: so much the happier age is, that age doth loath that in time, which young men neither with knowledg, with wisdome, nor yet with counsel can avoid.

What harm hath happened from time to time by young men, over whom lust so ruled, that there followed eversi­on of Cōmonwealths, treason to Princes, Friends betrayed, [Page 130] countreys overthrown, and Kingdoms vanquished, through­out the world. Therefore Cicero saith, in his book entitu­led De Senectate, at what time he was in the City of Ta­rentum, being a young man, with Fabius Maximus, that he carried one lesson from Tarentum unto the youth of Rome, where Architas the Tarentine said, that Nature bestowed nothing upon man so hurtfull to himself, nor so dangerous to his Countrey, as lust or pleasure: For when C. Fabri­cius was sent as an Embassadour from Rome to Pyrrhus King of Epyre, being then the Governour of the City of Tarentum a certain man, named Cineas, a Thessalian by birth, being in disputation with Fabritius about pleasure, affirmed, that hee heard a Philosopher of Athens affirm, that all which we do is to be referred to pleasure; which when M. Curius, and Titus Coruncanus heard, they desired Cineas to perswade King Pyrrhus to yéeld to pleasure, and make the Samnites believe that pleasure ought to be estee­med: Whereby they knew, that if King Pyrrhus or the Samnites (being then great enemies to the Romans) were addicted to lust or pleasure, that then soon they might be sub­dued and destroyed.

There is nothing that more hindreth magnanimity, or re­sisteth vertuous enterprises, then pleasure, as in the Trea­tise of pleasure it shall more at large appear. Why then how happy is old age, to despise and contemn that which youth by no means can avoid, yea, to loath and abhor that which is most hurtfull to it self? For Cecellius contemned Caesar with all his force, saying to the Emperor, that two things made him nothing to estéem the power of the Empe­ror Age, and Wisdome.

By reason of Age and Wisdome Castritius feared not at al the threatnings of C. Carbo, being then Consul at Rome; who though he said, he had many friends at commande­ment, yet Castri [...]i [...] answered and said, That he had like­wise many years that could not fear his friends. There­fore a wise man sometime wept, for that man dieth within [Page 131] few years, and having but little experience, in his old age, he is then deprived thereof. For the Crow liveth thrise so long as the man doth; the Hart liveth four times so long as the Crow; the Raven thrice so long as the Hart, and the Phoenix nine times longer then the Raven. And thus Birds do live longer time then man doth, in whom there is no understanding of their years: But man unto whom reason is joyned, before he commeth to any ground of expe­rience, when he beginneth to have knowledge in things, he dieth, and thus endeth he his toyling Pilgrimage and tra­vel in fewer years then divers beasts or birds do.


Of the manners of sundry People under sundry Princes, and of their strange life.

THe sundry fashions, and variety of manners, the strange life of people every where tho­row the world dispersed, are so charactered and set forth amongst the writers, that in shewing the same, by naming the Countrey and the people thereof orderly, their customes, their man­ners, their kind of living, being worthy of observation, I thought briefly to touch and to note every countrey in their due order of living, and to begin with the Egyptians, a peo­ple most ancient, and so expert in all sciences, that Macro­bius the writer calleth the Countrey of Egypt the Nurse and Mother of all Arts: For all the learned Greeks have had their beginning from Egypt, even as Rome had from Gréece, This people observe their days by account of hours, from midnight to midnight: They honour the Sun and Moon for their Gods, for they name the Sun Osiris, and the Moon Isis. Their féeding was of fish broyled in the heat of the sun, with herbs, and with certain fowls of the aire: They lived a thousand years but it is to be understood, that hey number their years by the Moon; the men did bear bur­thens upon their heads, and the women upon their breasts [Page 132] and shoulders; the men made water sitting, the women standing. The Crocodile is that beast which they most do adore, that being dead they bury him; a Sow is that beast which they most detest, so that if any part of their clothes touched a sow, they straight did pull off their clothes, and wash them over. They were black people, most common­ly slender, and very hastie Cur [...]ius calleth them seditious, vain, very subtile in invention of things, and much given to wine.

The Aethiopians are a people that live without Laws and reason servants and slaves to all men, selling their children to merchants for corn, their hair long with knots, and curled. The Indians were a people of too much liber­ty, as Herodotus saith, the women accompanying them in open sight: Neither sowe they, nor build, neither kill they any living beast, but féed on barley bread and herbs; they hang at their ears small pearls, and they deck their arms, wrists and necks with gold: The Kings of India are much honoured, when they come abroad, their ways are set and decked with fresh flowers, and men in arms following their Chariots made of Margarite stones, and men méeting them with frankincense: And when their King goeth to bed, their harlots attend him with songs and mirth, making their prayers unto their Gods of darknesse, for the good ri­sing of their King. Again, the children kill their parents when they wax old; the maids and young damosels of Indi­a are brought abroad amongst the young men, to choose them their husbands: When any man dieth, his wife will dress her self most bravest for the funeral, and there they are both buried together. Hercules is much honoured in that coun­trey, and the River Ganges.

The Scythians are pale and white for the coldness of the air, and full of courage: Amongst these people all things are almost in common, saving no man will have his sword and his cup common; their wives they weigh not but are common one with another. For drunkenness they pass all nations; for in their solemn banquets, there may no man [Page 133] drink of that appointed cup, which is carried abroad to banquets, unlesse he had slain one or other; for it was ac­counted amongst the Scythians no honesty for a man to live unlesse he had killed one or other. They have no cities nor towns, as Egypt, which was full of them (for it is writ­ten, that when Amazis reigned a King in Egypt, there were twenty thousand cities numbred within the countrey of Egypt,) but Scythia is a most barren and rude countrey, the people whereof live and féed beastly; a countrey most cold, for that no wood groweth in the countrey; no religion, no temples for their Gods, but to Mars onely: their chief weapons are bows and arrows, When the King dieth in Scythia fifty men, and fifty of his best horses must bear him company and be slain, for that they judge they shall go one way. The Parthians are a people most thirsty, saith Pliny, for the more they drink, the more thirsty they are, their chief glory they séek is by drinking, and are given so much to sur­feits and drunkenness that their breath for their inordinate drinking doth stink, and wax so strong, that no man can a­bide them: their King likewise is so much honored of them, that when he commeth in place, they ever knéel and kisse his foot: He hath many Quéens, with whom the King must lie one after another: The King hath about his Chariot ten thousand souldiers, with silver spears in their hands, and the end of their spears all gold; they honour their King, with the Sun, the Moon, the fire, the water, the wind, and the years, to these they sacrifice, and honour them as their Gods; to lie is most horrible with the Parthians, insomuch that they instruct their young children onely to avoid lies, and to learn to speak truth, Of all men they hate ungrateful men; they judge it most unhonest to speak any thing filthy, and loath chiefly that which is shamefull, either in talk or in doing insomuch that they will not spit, or make water, but in a place where either a floud, or a river, or some other water is; Riding, dancing and tennis they exercise most.

The people of Arabia are long haired, with shaven heards, save that they spare the upper lips unshaven; their [Page 134] women are common for all men at al times to meddle with leaving a staffe at the door in token unto one another, that she is with one already, and to let understand that he must tarry untill that man go out, In Arabia, it is not thought amisse for any one to lie with his mother, and if any that is not kin, take that in hand, it is adultery: they worship as their Gods, Urania and Dionisius, They are like unto the Babylonians, people of most corrupt life, and most given unto filthy pleasure, Insomuch that their daughters and their wives are hired unto every man, walking in the stréets, going unto the temples, meeting and offering themselves unto any stranger. With the Arabians and Babylonians, we may well compare the Lesbians and the Sybarites, people passing in that wickednesse, given to no­thing but to sleep and venery, insomuch that they weary themselves with all kind of pleasures, and the excesse of their banquets, and the bravery of their women was such that made all the beholders to muse, and wonder at their excesse, as well in cloathing as in féeding, wherein they took glory: they expelled all sound and noise that might trouble their sleep. So filthy were these nations, that hand, foot, head and all parts of the body were naturally given to pollute themselves with venery.

The Arcadians are people of such antiquity that (as they suppose) they are before the Moon, of this they brag most: they worship Pan as their God, this people never trium­phed over their enemies, nor kept wars with any nations, but oftentimes served under other princes, These Arca­dians, were like to the people called Averni, for their brags of their antiquity, for even as the Arcadians brag of the moon, so the Averni boasted of their pedigree and stock, who were the ancient Troyans, wherefore they would be called brethren unto the stout and ancient Romans. The Boetians are the rudest people in the world, so that the A­thenians call them as Plutarch reporteth, bold baiards and blocks, for their grosse understanding.

[Page 135]The Bactrians are most puissant and warlike souldiers, detesting much the excesse of the Persians, but are of such grosse sense notwithstanding, that they give and bestow their old men, and also sick men unto dogs to be devoured, which dogs for the purpose they nourish and bring up in their country. The Agrigentines, a people given unto such buildings and banquetting, that Plato the Philoso- said: the Agrigentines builded as though they should live for ever, and banquetted as though they should die dayly. The manners of the Assyrians were to bring their sick friends abroad unto the high ways, to séek, to ask, and to know remedies for their sicknesse of all kind of men that passe by: and if by chance without remedy the sick should die, they should bear him home and bury him solemnly, a­nointing over the corps with honey and wax. This people did wear for their weapons, daggers and targets, and clubs: they did worship Adad for their God, and Adargatin for their Goddesse. The people of Creet were most expert sea men, and well practised in wars, abstaining not onely from flesh but also from sodden meat: their thief infamy was in venery masculin, otherwise for their manners of living, much like unto the noble Lacedemonians, which for their modesty in feeding and contempt of wealth, for their wise­dome and study in warfares passed all nations, for a token thereof they printed in their Targets, the Gréek letter L. named Lambda; they brought up their youth, as Lycurgus that ancient law-setter taught them, in all kind of study, pain, and labour, with hunger, thirst, cold, and heat, whereby they might be able to suffer any chance happened, or injury offered; then were they again brought up in wrastling, leap­ing, running, swimming, riding, and such other qualities as might profit their country in time of service, for their na­ture was either to win and conquer, or else to die and yeeld. Learning and science they little esteemed, insomuch that Athens and Sparta could never agree, for that the one was addicted to serve Minerva or rather the muses, the other gi­ven unto Mars.

[Page 136] Lycurgus made a law in Sparta, that no man might ac­company with his own wife, but with shamefastnesse of that filthy act. The candles might not be lighted in that house where the man was, when that he would go unto his wife. When the King would go unto wars, before he should go unto the field to incounter with the enemies, he offered two solemn sacrifices: the one unto Minerva, other­wise named Bellona, to kindle flames of stoutnesse in his souldiers manfully to fight, the other to the Muses to mo­derate their doings in victory as might be commendable and praise worthy therein: they passed all men in pati­ence: for as before they brought up their children in such hardinesse, that their parents would have them whipt, scourged, and wounded into the flesh to harden them in their young years. They suffered theft to be unpunished, for that the exercise thereof doth represent a kind of boldnesse in wars.

The nature of the Lydians was to delight in superstiti­cus divinations, in invention of plaies and in theft. As for the art of dicing, and playing divers kinds of games upon tables the Lydians first invented the same. They also were much enflamed by luxurious life, and filthy venery, which they neither spared day nor night. Pliny writeth of a cer­tain Nation called Esteni, which abstained from all kind of pleasure, insomuch, that they never accompany with wo­men, never eat flesh▪ nor drink wine; and thus by custome of fasting they became naturally chast: For custome and use (saith Aristotle) is another nature. In that countrey no man possesseth any thing of his own, all things are indiffe­rent betwéen them, and they live as companions one with another; for in these their vertues they excel all men in ve­hement and most ardent love towards God. Thus vertue most diligent with great care and study was weighed, their Neighbours wonderfully beloved and made of, so that by this their precept of life, they have great fame and com­mendations. They have few Cities, and as few Towns, and for that they take the earth as a common Mother, they [Page 137] have all one respect unto all kind of men. The Getes have no division of lands, no limits of ground, nor any partitions of their goods: they drink bloud mingled with milk, they eat no flesh, and they rejoyce much when their friends die, even as the people called Trauses in Thracia do, when a­ny is born into the world, they mourn and lament with wée­ping eys, that the little child then born, should know the misery and state of this wretched world: and when any of their friends are dead, they rejoice and be glad with melo­dy and all kind of mirth, for that he hath past this toiling life. The Thracians, people of great antiquity, were fa­mous warriours, bragging much that Mars the God of war was born in their country, much addicted unto drunken­nesse, selling their children in the market, and their maids and daughters are common to lie with every man: they judge and count it most commendation to live onely by spoil, theft and wars, they brag if any have a wound, and think it a fame unto the person. And of the contrary, if they have no mark in the forehead, no wound in the body, they will judge those idle men and cowards; the common people worship Mars and Diana for their Gods: their king onely doth worship Mercury, by whom the King useth to swear.

Psilli are people of so great folly, that when the Southern wind bloweth so long and strong that their lands perish, their waters dry, then they arm themselves with common counsel to fight against the wind, even like to the people of C [...]lta, who use to draw their swords & shake their spears at the waves of the seas, to revenge the injuries and wrongs done by the seas to them. The Bithinians were men of like folly, for they would ascend and climb up to the top of high mountains either to thank Jupiter for his furtherance towards them or else to curse Jupiter for his cruelnesse to­wards them. So the Pigmies being sore troubled and mo­lested with Cranes, did ride on Rams and Goats backs, with their bows and arrows, a whole band together, in the spring time towards the sea-banks to break their eggs, to [Page 138] destroy their nests, and to fight with the Cranes, every third moneth they take this journey in hand, else would the Cranes destroy them, for that they are little dwarfs of a cubit long, their houses are made of dirt and feathers most like unto birds nests, but that they say they are somewhat larger and bigger.

I know not to what purpose I do recite these countries, sith the more I write, the more I have to write. What should I recite the people, that eat the flesh of Lions and Panthers, called Agriophagi, or recite those that eat lice in Scithia called Budmi, or them that eat Serpents, called Ophiophagi, or those that féed on mens bodies called An­thropophagi; yea, or those that eat their own parents as the Caspians did. Vnto what purpose should I name the A­stomians, a people in India without mouths, who onely live with the air that commeth unto their nosethrils, where they receive breath: they can neither eat nor drink, as Pli­ni saith in his seventh book, they live the longer with the sweet smell and odours of flowers? Vnto what end like­wise should I speak of those blind Andabates that fight without eyes, or of those great eared people the Fanesii, whose ears shadowed and covered their whole body, or of the Monopods, which in like manner shadow their whole body with one foot, or of the Arimaspians people in Scy­thia having but one eye in the midst of their forehead, like the great Ciclop Poliphemus, which Ulisses destroied; yea, of millions more, whose deformity to deprint, whose ugli­nesse to write, were too much charge to the writer, and too much tediousnesse to the reader.

I might speak of people in some part of India, who live two hundred years and more, whose hair upon their heads in their young age is white, and in their old age black, cal­led Pandorae. I might likewi [...]e recite a people in Lybia, whose horses may not be guided nor governed with bridles, be the bitts never so strong; but with rods most gently are they tamed, be the rods never so weak. Herodotus, a fa­mous Gréek writer, is not ashamed to shew how the women [Page 139] Selencridae, brought forth egs, whence men were born of such heighth, length and stature, that I am partly abashed to al­ledg his authority therein. Again, the people called Sorbo­tae of Aethiope, are said to be eight cubits long. Why should I speak of the Troglodites, who live in caves of the ground, féeding on Serpents, being people of wonderfull swiftnesse, and out-run any horse in Aethiope, and cannot speak, but hisse? Why should I speak of the Massagetes, of the people Nasomones? I will (according to promise) omit the prolixity therof, touching all countreys by the way, or some of the chief; as of Egypt with brags and vaunts of their antiquity: Of the Ethiopians and the people of Ca­ria, with their simplicity and slavery; so the Carthaginians were false and deceitfull: the Babylonians wicked and cor­rupted: the Persians drunkards and gluttons: the Syci­lians wary and trusty: so was the cruelnesse of the Caspi­ans: the filthinesse of the Lesbians: the drunkennesse of the Scythians: the fornication of the Corinthians: the rudenesse of the Boetians: the ignorance of the Cymmeri­ans: the beastlinesse of the Sibarites: the hardinesse of the Lacedemonians: the delicacy of the Athenians, and the pride and glory of the Romans. Thus we read that the Spaniards be the greatest travellers, and the greatest dis­pisers: the Italian, proud and desirous to revenge: the Frenchman politick and rash: the German a warriour: the Saxon a dissembler: the Swevian a light talkative person: the Britain a busie body: the Cimbrian seditious and fierce: the Bohemian ungentle and desirous of news: the Vandal a mutable wrangler: the Bavarian a flouter and a scoffer.

These qualities are incident to the aforesaid nations by nature. But because in this place it were somewhat to the purpose, to declare the glory and state of Rome, which of all the world was estéemed and feared, and for that Rome had more enemies then all the whole world beside, to shew briefly how they flourished how their fame spread, and their glory grew. I think it not expedient to meddle with the [Page 140] antiquity thereof in the time of Janus and Cameses, but to touch upon their fame by managing of wars, in the time of Romulus, who being begotten of Mars and Rhea a Vestal virgin, was the first builder of the city, and also king there­of This King Romulus warred on the Sabins after he had elected a hundred Senatours, to discern and judge the cau­ses of the City, to defend Iustice, and practice the same, and to punish vice and wrongs, according to the law of Pla­to, who willed every Common-wealth to be governed with reward unto the vertuous, and punishment to the vicious. Again, he appointed certain souldiers, unto the number of one M. to be in a readinesse alwaies to defend the City. After Romulus succéeded Numa Pompilius the second king, a man very religious and pittiful: he in his time made laws to observe rites, sacrifices, and ceremonies, to worship their Gods: he made Bishops and Priests, he appointed the Vestal virgins, and all that belong thereto. Thirdly came Tulius Hostillius to be king in Rome, whose felicity was one­ly to teach the youth of Rome the discipline of warfare, and stirred them wonderfully to exercise and practice the same. Then fourthly succeeded An. Martius, with the like indu­stry and care of the further and surer state of the City, in raising the high walls of Rome, and raising a bridge upon the river Tyber, in amending and beautifying all the stréets of Rome. The fifth King was Tarquinius Pri [...]cus, who though he was a stranger born at Corinth, yet he increased the po­licy of the Romans with the wisedome of Greece, he trium­phed over the people of Tusk, and inlarged the fame of Rome much more then it was: to this came next Servius Tul [...]ius who was the sixth and Tarquinius Superbus the seventh and last King of Rome, who for his misgovernment and lust in the City against the chast matrons, for the pride and infringement of the liberty, having withall ravished Lucre­cia, Collatinus wife, was at length after long rule and go­vernment banished Rome.

The first alteration and change of state was then after these seven Kings governed Rome, two hundred years and a [Page 141] half which was the first infancy of Rome. Then Collatinus and Brutus, after these Kings were exiled in reward of re­storing liberty and for honest life, were the first Consuls in Rome: they I say altered the government of the City, from a Monarchy to a kind of government called Aristocra­tia, which continued in Rome from the time of Brutus and Collatinus, untill the time of Appius Claudius, and Quin [...]us Fulvius, which was two hundred years. In this season, du­ring this two hundred years, was Rome most assailed of all kind of enemies, stirred unto wars of all nations, for the space of two hundred years and a half. Then Appius Clau­dius forgetting the law which he himself made in Rome a­gainst fornication, forgetting the ravishment of Lucrecia, and the banishment of Tarquinius, for breaking of the same, against all right and reason willingly and wilfully ravish­ed Virginia, the daughter of Virginius, and after that her own father slue her in the open fight of Rome, the cause being known unto all the City, the people were straight in arms to revenge the wrongs and injuries against the laws. E­ven as the Kings before named were exiled and banished Rome for the ravishment of Lucretia: so now the ten Com­missioners, called Decem. viri, were likewise excluded and rejected for the ravishment of Virginia.


Of the strange Natures of Waters, Earth, and Fire.

IN divers learned Histories we read, especial­ly in Pliny of the wonders of waters, and of the secret and unknown nature of fire, wher­in, for the rare sight thereof, are noted things to be marvelled at. There is a wa­ter in the countrey of Campania where if any mankind will enter therein, it is written that he shall incontinent be bereft of his senses. And if any woman kind happen to go into that water, she shall always after­ward be barren. In the same countrey of Campania, there [Page 142] is a lake called Avernus, where all flying fowls of the air that fly over that lake, fall presently therein and die. A well there is in Caria, called Salmacis, whose water if a­ny man drink thereof, he becommeth chaft, and never desi­reth the company of a woman. The River Maeander doth bréed such a kind of stone, that being put close to a mans heart, it doth straight make him mad.

There are two rivers in Boetia, the one named Melas, whose water causeth straight any beast that drinketh there­of, if it be white, to alter colour to black; the other Ce­phisus, which doth change the black beast to a white beast by drinking of the water. Again, there is in India a stand­ing water, where nothing may swim, beast, bird, man, or any living creature, but they all sink; this water is called Silia. In Affrica on the contrary part, there is the water named Apustidamus, where nothing, be it never so heavy or unapt to swim, but will swim upon the water; Lead, or any heavy mettal doth swim in that lake, as it is in the well of Phinitia in Sicilia. Infinite waters should I recite, if I in this would be tedious, in repeating their names, whose strange natures, whose secret and hidden operation, whose force and vertue were such as healed divers diseases: As in the Isle of Avaria, there was a water that healed the col­lick and the stone. By Rome there was also a water called Albula, that healed gréen wounds. In Cilicia the river called Cydnus was a present remedy to any swelling of the legs. Not far from Neapolis there was a well, whose wa­ter healed any sicknesse of the eys. The lake Amphion ta­keth all scurfs and sores from the body of any man. What should I declare the natures of the four famous Rivers that issue out of Paradise; the one is named Euphrates, which the Babylonians and Mesopotamians have just occasion to commend; the second is called Ganges, which the Indians have great cause to praise; the third called Nilus, which the countrey of Egypt can best speak of; and the fourth is called Tigris, which the Assyrians have most commodity by.

[Page 143]Here might I be long occupied, if I should orderly but touch the natures of all waters. So the alteration of the seas, and the wonders thereof appear, as ebbing and flow­ing, as saltnesse and swéetnesse, and all things incident by nature to the seas, which were it not that men see it dayly, and observe the same hourly, and mark things therein con­tinually, more wonders would appear by the seas, then al­most reason might be alledged for. God (as the Prophet saith) is wonderfull in all his works. So the five golden Rivers which learned and ancient writers affirm, that the sands thereof are all glistering gems of gold, as Tagus in Spain Permus in Lydia, Pactolus in Asia, Idaspes in In­dia, and Arimaspus in Scythia: These are no lesse famous through their golden sands, which their rowling waves bring to land in these aforesaid countreys, then Parnessus in Boetia, where the Muses long were honoured, or Si­mois in Phrygia, where Venus was conceived by Anchises. To coequat the number of these five last and pleasant Ri­vers, there are five as horrible to Nature; as Styx in Ar­cadia, whose property is to kill any that will touch it, and therefore feigned of the Poets to be consecrated to Pluto, for thfre is nothing so hard but this water wil consume, so cold is the water thereof: Again, the River Phlegeton is con­trary to this, for the one is not so cold, but the other is as hot, and therefore called Phlegeton, which is in English, Fiery or smoakie, for the Poets feign likewise, that it bur­neth out in flames of fire: Lethes, and Acheron, two Ri­vers, the one in Affrica, the other in Epire, the one called the river of forgetfulnesse, the other the river of sadnesse: The fifth called Cocytus, a place where mourning never ceaseth. These five rivers for their horror and terror that procéeded from them, for the strange and wonderfull effects thereof, are called infernal lakes, consecrated and attribu­ted to King Pluto, which Virgil at large describeth. Divers wells, for the strangenesse of the waters, and for the plea­santnesse thereof, were sacrificed to the Gods as Cissusa, a well where the Nurses of Bacchus used to wash him, was [Page 144] therefore consecrated to Bacchus; so Melas to Pallas, A­ganippe to the Muses, and so forth, not molesting the Rea­der further with natures of Water, I mean now briefly to touch the strange nature of the Earth.

Pliny affirmeth, that there was never man sick in Lo­cris, nor in Croton, neither any Earthquake ever heard in Licia. By Rome, in the field called Gabiensis, a certain plat of ground, almost two hundred Acres, would tremble and quake as men rode upon it. There are two hils of strange natures by the River called Indus, the nature of the one is to draw any Iron to it, insomuch, as Pliny saith, that if nails be in any shoes, the ground of that place draweth the sole off, There is a piece of ground in the City Characena, in the countrey of Taurica, where if any come wounded, he shall be straight healed: And if any enter under divers places, as in a place called Hirpinis, where the temple of Mephis is builded; or in Asia, by Iheropolis, they shall inconti­nently die. Again, there are places by the vertue of ground in that place, that men may prophesie. Divers times we read that one piece of ground devoured another, as the hill Ciborus, and the city hard by, called Curites, were choaked up of the earth. Phegium a great mountain in Aethiopia, and Sipilis, a high hill in Magnesia, with the cities named Tantalis and Galarus.

There is a great Rock by the City Harpasa in Asia, which may be moved easily with one finger, and yet if a man put all his strength thereunto, it will not stir. I néed not speak of mount Aetna in Sicilia, of Lypara in Acolia, of Chymera in Lycia, of Vesuvius and Aenocauma, five fi­ery mountains, which day and night burn so terribly, that the flame thereof never resteth. If any man will see more of these marvellous and wonderfull effects of Elements, let him read the second book of Plini, where he shall have abun­dance of the like examples. There he shall see that in some places it never rained, as in Paphos upon the temple of Venus; in Nea, a town in Phrygia, upon the temple of Minerva, and in divers places else, which is the nature of [Page 145] the ground. About Babylon a field burneth day and night. In Aethiopia certain fields about mount Hesperius, shine all night like stars.

As for Earthquakes and wonders that thereby happen­ed. I will not speak but those strange grounds that never alter from such effects before mentioned, beside the mettals, the stones, the herbs, the trées, and all other things are mi­raculous and strange, as Pliny in divers places doth wit­nesse. And as for fire it is too great a wonder that the whole world is not burned thereby, sith the Sun, the Stars, the Elementary fire, excell all miracles, if God had not pre­vented in kéeping the same from damage, and hurt to man: yea, appointed that the heat of the Sun should not kindle straws, stubbles, trées, and such like, where the heat there­of (as we daily sée) burneth stones, lead, and harder substan­ces: sith especially that fire is in all places, and is able to kindle all things, insomuch, that the water Thrasimenos burneth out in flames, which is unnatural and strange that fire kindles in water; and likewise in Egnatia a City of Salentine, there is a stone, which if any wood touch, it wil [...] kindle fire-

In the Well called Nympheus, there is a stone likewise whence come flames of fire, the stone it self burneth in the water. A greater wonder it is, that the fire should be kin­dled by water, and extinguished by wind. Fire flashed about the head of Servius Tullius, being then a boy in sleep, which did prognosticate that he should be King of the Romans. Fire shined about the head of L. Marcius in Spain, when he encouraged his souldiers to revenge manfully the deaths of those noble and famous Romans, named Sipians. The mar­vellous effects of fire are most wonderful and most strange.


Of the World, and of the soul of Man, with divers and sundry opinions of the Philosophers about the fame.

AMongst divers Philosophers and learn­ed men, grew a great controversie of the beginning of the world, some of the best affirming that it had no begin­ning, nor can have end, as Aristotle and Plato, applying incorruption, and per­petual revolution to the same. Some with Epicurus thought the world should be consumed: Of this opinion was Empedocles and Hera­chius. Some on the other side did judge with Pythagoras, that so much of the world should be destroyed as was of his own nature. Thales said there was but one world, agréeing with Empedocles. Democritus affirmeth infinite worlds, and Metrodorus the Philosopher conceived worlds to be innu­merable. Thus hold they several opinions concerning the making, the beginning, the ending, and the numbers of the world. What child is there of this age, but smileth at their folly, reasoning largely one against another, in applying the cause and the effect of things to their own inventions? And as they have judged diversly of the world, concerning the frame and nature thereof; so were they as far off from the true understanding of the Creation of man. Some grosly thought, that mankind had no beginning. Some judged that it had a beginning by the superiour bodies: And for the antiquity of mankind, some judge Egypt to be the first people, some Scythia, some Thrace, some this coun­trey, and some that countrey, with such phantastical inven­tions, as may well appear to the most ignorant an error. And alas, how simple are they in finding out the sub­stance of the soul, what it should be, where it should be, and by what it should be? Some say that there is no soul, but a natural moving, as Crates the Theban: Some judge [Page 147] the soul to be nothing else but fire or heat, betwéen the un­divisible parts: others thought it an air received into the mouth, tempered in the heart, boiled in the lights, and dispersed through the body. Of this opinion was Anaxa­goras and also Anaximenes. Hippias judged the soul of man to be water. Thales and Heliodorus, affirmed it to be earth, Empedocles is of opinion that it is hot bloud about the heart so that they vary in sundry opinions, attributing the cause thereof either to the fire, or else to water, either to the earth, or to the air, and some unto the complexion of the four ele­ments: others of the earth and fire: others of water and fire: some again reason that the substance of the soul is of fire and of the air. And thus of approved Philosophers, they show themselves simple innocents.

How ignorant were they in defining the soul of man? So far disagréeing one with another, that Zenocrates thin­keth again the soul to be but a number that moves it self, which all the Egyptians consented to. Aristotle himself the Prince of all Philosophers, and his master Plato, shewed in this their shifting reason, which both agree that the soul is a substance which moveth it self. Some so rude and so far from perfection in this point, that they thought the heart to be the soul: some the brain. How ridiculous and foolish séemeth their assertion to this age concerning the soul, and as childishly they dispute and reason again about the pla­cing of the same, where and in what place of the body the soul resteth. For Democritus judgeth his seat to be in the head: Parmenides in the breast: Herophilus in the ven­tricles of the brain: Strato doth think that the soul was in the space between the eye brow: yea some were so foolish, to judge it to be in the ear, as Xerxes King of Persia did: Epicurus in all the breast: Diogenes supposed it to be in a hollow vein of the heart: Empedocles in the bloud: Plato, Aristotle and others that were the best and truest Philoso­phers, judged the soul to be indifferent in all parts of the body? some of the wisest supposed, that every peece and p [...]rce [...] of the body had his proper soul. In this therefore [Page 148] they were much deceived, in séeking a proper seat for the soul: Even as before they erred shamefully, and li [...]d ma­nifestly about the essence and substance of the soul, so now were they most simply beguiled in placing the soul as you have heard.

And now after I have opened their several opinions concerning what the soul is, and where the soul is, you shall here likewise hear, whither the soul shall go after death, ac­cording to the Philosophers which as diversly vary and dis­agrée in this, as you before heard the diversity of opinions concerning the substance, and the place▪ And first to begin with Democritus, who judgeth the soul to be mortal, and that it shall perish with the body: to this agrée Epicurus and Pliny. Pythagoras judged that the soul is immortal, and when the body dieth it s [...]éeth to his kind. Aristotle is of opi­nion, that some parts of the soul which have corporal seats, must dye with the body, but that the understanding of the soul, which is no instrument of the body, is perpetual. Tho people called Drinda were of this judgement, that souls should not descend to hell, but should pass to another world; as the Philosophers called Essei, which suppose that the souls of the dead do live in great felicity beyond the Ocean Seas. The Egyptians judged with Pythagoras that the souls of men should pass from one place to another, and then to enter into another man again. The Stoicks are of that opinion, that the soul forsaketh the body in such sort, that the soul which is diseased in this life, and advanced by no ver­tue, dyeth together with the body; but they judge it, if it be adorned with noble and heroical vertues, that it is then ac­companied with everlasting natures. Divers of the Pa­gans hold that the soul is immortal, but yet they suppose that reasonable souls enter into unreasonable bodies, as in­to plants or trées for a certain space.

There were again some frivolous Philosophers, as Eu­ripides and Archelaus, which say, that men first grew out of the earth in manner of herbs, like to the fables of Poets, who fain that men grew of the sowen téeth of Serpents. [Page 149] Some again very childishly affirm, that there be nine de­grées of punishment, or rather nine mansions in Hell, ap­pointed and prepared for the soul. The first seat is appoin­ted for young infants; the second for Idiots and fools (I fear that place will be well filled;) the third for them that kill themselves; the fourth for them that be tormented with love; the fifth for those that were found guilty before Iudges; the sixth appointed for strong men and champi­ons; the seventh is a place where the souls be purged; the eight seat is where the souls being purged do rest; the ninth and last is the pleasant field Elisium. And to joyn these Legends of Lies of old women, with frivolous fig­ments of Poets, they likewise affirm the like folly of fiery Phlogeton, of frosty Cocytus, of the water of Styx, of the sloud Lethes, and of Acheron, with other such whence all Paganical rites, and fond foolish observations first grew I mean of fables of Poets, and not by the reading of the Ho­ly Scriptures. O blind baiards in séeking that which they could never find! And as they could prove and say that the body came out of the earth the moysture out of the water, the breath of man by the air, and the heat of man by the fire; so could they not know the worker thereof, how wit and wisedome came from God, how all things were made by him of nothing. This knew they not, not that they want­ed learning, but that they wanted the knowledge of true Divinity. They could appoint planets in their several places, in their due seats and just mansions, as Iupiter in the liver, Saturn in the spleen, Mars in bloud, Sol in the heart, the Moon in the stomack, and Venus in the reins; but they could not agrée in appointing a place for the soul. They could likewise appoint seats for the bodies superior in man, as the Ram in the head the Bull in the neck, and the Crab, in the brost the Lion in the heart, and the Fish in the foot, and so others; but they could in no wise find a seat for the soul, Truly is it said, that God revealeth wisedome unto Babes, and hideth the same from the Sages of the world. Hence groweth the beginning of all Heresies, according [Page 150] to the proverb, The greatest Philosophers, the greatest Hereticks: Hereby I say grew almost the invention of Philosophy, coequal unto the verity of the Gospel: and ther­fore Paul the Apostle cryeth upon all men to take héed of flattering Philosophers. If in this place I should shew their opinions concerning our God and Creator I should séem tedious: For Diagoras and Theodorus affirm, that there is no God; Epicurus judged that there is a God, but that he had no care over earthly things. Thales said, that God was a mind which made all things of water. Cleanthes supposed God to be the air onely. Alcineon judged the Sun the Moon, and the Stars to be onely God. Parmenides ma­keth God to be a continuall circle of light, which is called Stephanen, Crisippus nameth God a divine necessity. Anax­agoras supposed God to be an infinit mind, moveable of it self, so doth Pythagoras likewise judge: yea Aristotle ima­gined God to be a proper nature, as the world, or the heat of the heavens, or the divinity of the mind, which either of these thrée he nameth God; and so infinite are they, that so simply conceive the majesty of the Godhead, that far wiser had they seemed unto us by silence therein, then by uttering such fond fantastical opinions, wherein their too much fol­ly and errour is to all men evident.


Of worshipping of Gods, and religion of Gentiles.

NUma Pompilius, the second King of Rome, be­ing studious to draw the ignorant and rude people to some profession of religion, was ye first that appointed sacrifices to Jupiter, & to Mars. In Rome he elected Virgins to Ve­sti, and appointed certain orders in chu­sing of the same. None by the law of Numa, might be taken under six years old, and none above ten to be a Vestal Vir­gin, which virgins should be thirty years religious, and vowed to Vesta: of the which thirty years, the first ten [Page 151] years they should learn the order and fashion of the sacrifi­ces, and religion of the Goddesse Vesta. The second ten years they should sacrifice and imploy the ceremonies with rites and honours belonging to Vesta. The third ten years they should as grave matrons, learn the others late chosen to be perfect in the rites and ceremonies of Vesta: then if any of them would marry, they might after thirty years continuance so do. If any of these Vestal virgins were convicted of whoredome, the law was that in open sight of the City of Rome, she should be brought to the gate called Collina, and there alive be burned. Again, if the fire at any time in the Temple had gone out by any means, their kéepers with scourges should whip and scourge them al­most to death.

The same Numa to make the people more religious, ap­pointed twelve men called Salii with painted garments, sin­ging verses in the praise and commendation of Mars, with soleman dancing and playing round about the City. A­mongst other sacred orders, he made certain priests called Feciales: these punished effendours: these revanged the wrongs done to Ambassadours: these redressed all injuries offered and committed within the City of Rome: these Priests appointed rites and ceremonies, made sacrifices to the Goddesse Bona Dea in a Temple erected upon mount Aventine: here might no men come to do sacrifice but all women. Of this Goddesse Bona Dea doth Cicero make oft mention in divers of his orations and invectives made against divers pernitious and wicked Citizens as Catelin, Clodius and others.

There was in Rome another kind of religion dedicated to Flora, the sacrifice whereof was called Floralia, This Flora, as both Livius and Dionisius do report, was a common strumpet, which for that she made the whole City of Rome her heir, being wealthy at her death, she was therefore thought to be of the Romans, the Goddesse of fruits and was honoured of all the lewd women in brave garlands, decked with all kind of flowers, in gorgeous apparel, and [Page 152] this was done in the moneth of May. The Goddess C [...] began then to be famous, for she had her feasts and sacrifices named Cerealia, by the Priests appointed; she was thus honoured: The Priests in white garments, and with lanthorns and fire-brands in the night time would come to the Temple, they abstained from wine, and avoid­ed venery for a certain time they appeinted every fifth year a great fasting. Minerva likewise began to have such ho­nour in Rome, that she had thrée several kinds of sacrifices, one of a Bull, the second of a Crane, the third of a Wea­ther. The Romans did celebrate in the beginning of the spring, such feasts and sacrifices to Berecynthia, called the Mother of the Gods, that every man did offer of the chiefest things that he did possess to pleasure this Goddess. There were divers other kinds of sacrifices, and vain superstitious ceremonies observed then in Rome, whose beginnings pro­céeded from the invention of Devils, which of long time were honoured as Gods; for then men sought no help but of their Gods, which were rather Devils: As Polidorus in his fourth Book affirmeth of a certain rich man in Rome, who had thrée of his sons sore sick of the plague; this man was named Valesius, who every night at home in his house besought his houshould Gods called Penates, to save his chil­dren, and to plague him for the fault of his sons: Thus e­very night praying to his Gods, for the health of his chil­dren, a voice was heard, that if he would go with his thrée sons to Tarentum, and wash his sons with the water which was consecrated to Pluto and Proserpina, they should recover their health. Valesius thought the way was far, yet for health to his children, he took his journey; and being ready shipt in Martius field, hard by the river Tyber, he was desired of the master of the ship, to go to the next village called Taren­tum, for a little fire, for the fire was out in the ship, and the mariners busie about other things: When Valesius heard the name of Tarentum, he knew straight that it was that place that his Gods appointed him to go to, for the ci­ty of Tarentum was in the furthest part of all Italy, in [Page 153] the country of Calabria, he willingly went and brought both fire with him for the Master of the Ship, and water for the children, which being given to his sons, they recove­red health. Wherefore in memory of this, he recompensed his Gods with this sacrifice: he in the night appointed so­lemn playes to honour Pluto and Proserpina, to each severall nights every year for so many sons as he had that recovered health, erecting up altars, and offering sacrifices in honour and solemnity of Pluto. These were the Oracles and di­vine answers which the Divels were wont to give in Idols to deceive men withal, these I say were they that allured the people to idolatry.

Cicero saith, that the chiefest Priests of Rome the Bi­shops, for that the sacrifices and feasts, the ceremonies and rites belonging to new made Gods, grew to such a number that they appointed thrée men called Triumviri, to be rulers of the sacrifices, and appointed other thrée that should kéep the sacred Oracles of Sybilla, The Oracles of Sybilla were written in books, to which they resorted oftentimes for coun­sel and admonition, fiftéen men were appointed to know what was to be done in any peril or necessity: as at the wars betwixt Caesar and Pompey, such prodigious sights were séen, such unnatural working of the heavens, such ter­rible sights on the earth, such portentuous miracles then seen in Rome, that the Senators came to Sybilla to know the effects and ends of these monstrous shows, and to be in­structed of the state of the City; Vnto whom she gave six letters in writing, three of R. and three of F. to be expon­ded of their wisemen, whereof the meaning was found the thrée of R. were these, Reg [...]um Roma Ruet: and the thrée of F. were Flamma, Ferro, & Fame, that is as much to say, that the monarchy of Rome should perish with fire, sword and hunger.

Dionisius in his fourth book saith, that an aged woman brought nine books to Tarquinius Superbus, being the seventh and last King of the Romans, which she would have sold for three hundred Crowns to the King, letting Tar­quinius [Page 154] understand, that those books were full of Oracles and divine answers; but he making a jest of her books, did burn three of them before her face, demanding of her again, what he should pay for the other six? she answered, Thrée hundred Crowns: then he burned thrée more, and asked what he should pay for the thrée books that were left? She answered as before, Thrée hundred Crowns: The King marvelling much at the constancy of the woman bought the three books for three hundred Crowns, and after that time; that woman was never seen in Rome, wherefore it is thought of the Romans, that she was Sibilla. Therefore these three books were preserved in Rome as aforesaid un­der the custody of three men appointed for the purpose, and she so honoured and worshipped, that sacrifice upon sacrifice was offered to Sibilla in Rome. Thus the Oracles of Sibil­la in Rome; the Oracles of Apollo in Delphos; the Oracle of Jupiter in Ammon, were the instructors to the Gentiles, and teachers of the Greeks. Moreover they had such solemni­ties of feasts, and celebration of banquets, either called pon­tifical feasts, for that it was ordained by Priests; or else triumphant banquets after victories, made of the Empe­rors, and given to the people; or else funeral feasts, where honour and solemnitie was had for the dead.

As for games and plays to sacrifice and to honour their Gods, they had Lupercalia, Floralia, Bacchanalia, Cerealia, with divers and sundry others to pleasure their Gods, and to mitigate their fury and wrath. For in the days of Tar­quinius the proud, for that divers women of Rome being great with children, got sufeits in eating of Bulls flesh, they appointed certain sacrifices to the Gods infernals, cal­led Tau [...]lia, to appease their anger therein again for them that were sick. Valerius Publicola, who was the first Tri­bune in Rome, appointed banquets and feasts in the temple of the Gods, to asswage likewise their fury, as Jupiter, Ju­no, and Minerva, who were with banquets reconciled to re­store health to the sick.

The homages and services, the sacrifices and solemni­ties, [Page 155] the banquets and feests, the mirth and melody, the pa­stime and sport the great games and plays that alwayes Greeks and Gentiles have used towards their Gods, were almost infinite. The honour and reverence that Jupiter had in Creet, the worship and fame that Apollo had in Delphos, the sacrifices and ceremonies that Mars had in Thracia, are in books written, and by authority recorded, and I fear they be in the hearts of men too deeply printed. Pallas had her seat in Athens, Juno was enshrined in Samos, Diana in E­phesus, Cibeles in Phrigia, Venus in Ciprus, Ceres in Si­cilia: Again, Pan was in reverence amongst the Arcadi­ans, Osiris amongst the Egyptians, Bacchus in the Isle of Naxus, Vulcan in Lemnos. In fine, blocks and stones, dogs and cats, oxen and calves were honoured and worshipped as Gods. Thus they wandred in this vale of misery like pil­grims far from the countrey that we ought to travel to, where that true and living God is, the God of salvation and health, which is without end to be worshipped. He is the God of all men, and yet of the fewest worshipped; he is the Saviour, and yet he is neglected; yea and more rejected of us that be Christians, then the blocks and stones that were honored of the Gentiles. And for proof hereof I mean to shew the severe laws that were both in Athens and Rome, the two lights of the world, for observing of their Gods and Religion: Neither the Philosophers in Athens, nor the Senators in Rome nor the Magistrates and Princes of the world then would in any wise permit injuries towards the Gods, or suffer any evil report toward their religion, in such care were they lest they should offend their Gods, and break their laws, Certain husbandmen found in the lands of L. Petilius, by plowing therein, two stones whereupon an Epitaph of Numa Pompilius was written in one, in the o­ther were found fourteen books; seven latin books entitu­led, Jus pontificum, the law of the Priests, concerning reli­gion and sacrifices of their Gods; these books with great diligence and care were not onely commanded to be kept, but also in all points to be observed: The other were Greek [Page 156] books, entituled Disciplina sapient [...]ae, the rule of wisedome, which for that they tasted of Philosophy, & condemned the vain superstitious religions of their Gods, Petilius fearing lest by reading of wisedome and Philosophy, their folly and religion should be destroyed, being then Proe or in Rome, at which time Cornelius and Beb [...]us were Consuls, by authority of the Senate in open sight of all the City of Rome burned the Greek books. For the old and ancient men would have nothing kept within their city that might hinder their Gods: For before all things they preferred their Gods, and their religions, and so honoured their Priests, their sacrifices, and their vestal Virgins, more then they honoured the Emperours and Senators, as it ap­peareth by a History in Valerius, that when Rome was ta­ken and conquered by the Gauls, and the vestal Virgins were enforced to bear those things away, shifting more for the sacrifices and rites of their religion, in carrying their books, their garments, and their Gods, then they cared for their countrey, friends, children, and goods: Insomuch that L. Alvanius, when he saw the vestal Virgins taking pains to maintein the honour of Vesta undefiled, her sacri­fices unpolluted, in saving the ceremonies and religion of their Goddesse from the enemies, as one that had more re­gard and respect to their vain religion then carefull of his wife and children, which then being in a Chariot to be car­ried and conveyed from Rome, he commanded his wife and children to come down from the Chariot, and to go a foot, and placed in their room the vestal Virgins with all their burthens belonging to Vesta, their sacrifices, and other ne­cessaries, and brought them honourably to the countrey of Créet where with great honour they were received; and for memory hereof till this time the people of Creet, for that they did succour the vestal Virgins in adversity, were by the Goddesse Vesta recompensed no lesse for their huma­nity in receiving of her maids into their town, then she gratified Alvanius for his reverence to her religion, inso­much, that the coach where her Virgins and her sacrifices [Page 157] were carried, was afterward more honoured and esteemed, than any triumphant or imperial chariot.

In the self same time and troubles of Rome, when the Capitol was besieged with the enemies, Caius Fabius per­ceiving how religion was then estéemed, girded himself like a sacrificer, and carryed in his hand an host to be offer­ed to Jupiter, and was suffered to passe through the middest of his enemies to mount Quirinal, where solemnities and sacrifices were done to Jupiter, and that being accom­plished, he likewise went to the Capitol through the mid­dest of the Army with all his company, and by this means got the victory over his enemtas, more by religion then by strength.

So much was superstition and idolatry honoured and observed every where, that the Persians sailed with a thou­sand ships to do sacrifice and solemnity to Apollo at Del­phos. The Athenians slew and destroyed all those that en­vied or repugned their religion. Diagoras was exiled for that he wrote that he doubted whether any Gods were or no, and if Gods were, what they were. Socrates was condem­ned, for that he went about to traduce their religion, and speak against their Gods. Phidias that noble and cunning workman, was no longer suffered at Athens, then while he wrought the picture of Minerva in Marble, for it was more durable then Ivory; which when Ph [...]dias thought to draw in Ivory, he was threatned with death, to vilipend so great a Goddesse, and to make her in Ivory, which was wont to be honoured in Marble.

The Romans made a law at the destruction of Canna, for that great slaughter of the Romans which at that war happened, that the matrons of Rome, who bewailed and la­mented the deaths of their husbands, their children [...] their brethren, and friends incessantly, should not p [...]se thirty days in mourning lest the Gods should be angry, ascriving all fortunes good and bad to their Gods. Wherefore it was decreed by the Senatours, that the Mothers and Wives, the sisters and the daughters of them that were slain [Page 158] at Canna, at the thirty days end should cast away their mourning apparel and banish their tears, and come alto­gether in white garments to do sacrifice to the Goddesse Ceres. For it was thought, and truly believed among the Gentiles and heathens, that the Gods would justly revenge those that would at any time neglect their sacrifices. Bren­nus, for that he went to Delphos, and spoiled Apollo's tem­ple, and neglected his Godhead, was plagued grievously, and worthily revenged: So King Xerxes, whose Navies covered the whole Seas, whose Armies of men dried up ri­vers, and shadowed almost the whole earth, because he sent four thousand souldiers to Delphos to rob Apollo, was ther­fore discomfited in his wars, forsaken of his souldiers, pro­secuted of his enemies, and compelled to flee like a vaga­bond from hill to hill, till he came to his Kingdome of Per­sia, to his great infamy and shame. The like was in Car­thage, when the City was oppressed by the Romanes, Apol­lo's temple neglected, and he himself not esteemed, he reven­ged the same; for the first that laid hand upon him, lost his hand and his arm, Thus in Delphos and in Carthage did Apollo revenge his injuries. His son Aesculapius, a great God in divers countreys, for that Turulius, chief ruler of the Na­vies of Antonius, hewed the Groves which were conse­crated to his temple, Aesculapius revenged it after this sort; When Antonius and Caesar were at wars, after that the Army and Host of Antonius were vanquished, and Caesar a victor, he brought Turulius to be murthered unto that place in the Grove, where he neglected Aesculapius. Ce­res when the City of Mileton was taken by Alexander the great, and her temple therein spoiled and robbed by the souldiers, she threw flames of fire into their faces, and made as [...] blind as neglected her Godhead and Majesty. Dio­nisius K. [...] Siracusa, for yt he spoiled the temple of the God­desse Proserpina, & robbed this Goddesse of her golden gar­mēts, flouting & scoffing at her rites & ceremonies, & nothing esteeming her sacrifice: & again for that he cōmāded his sol­diers to pluck, & take away Aesculapius beard in Epidaurus a [Page 159] City in Peloponesus in Gréece, because his father Apollo had none, he was brought by the Gods from a King in Siracusa, to be a poor School-master in Corinth, and wretch­edly to end his life by the just indignation of the Goddesse Proserpina. Juno shewed her anger upon Fulvius Flacchus, for that when he was Censor of Rome, he caused the Mar­ble Tiles to be brought from the Temple of Juno in Laci­nia, unto the Temple of Fortune in Rome; He having his sons in Illyria at the wars, the one of them by the wrath of Juno was slain, the other by her command was plagued and tormented to death, he himself having news hereof, died for sorrow and grief and the Senatours knowing the cause returned the Marble Tiles by their Embassadours unto Lacinia again. The wrath of Juno was the cause of the unhappy successe of that noble Consul Varro in the wars of Canna. Hercules forgot not to revenge the contempt and despising of his ceremonies and rites by Pontius, which once he and his name received as their God but being by Appi­us perswaded, who then was Censor in Rome, to neglect he was destroyed, he and all his name, which were in num­ber above thirty, and Appius for his counsel was made blind.

Thus the Gentiles and Heathens thought that nothing could escape unrevenged of their Gods. This made Masi­nissa King of Numidia to send back the Ivory téeth that the Master of his Ships brought from the Temple of Juno in Meleta unto Meleta again. This made the Senatours of Rome, to send back again the money which Pleminius the messenger of Scipio took away from the temple of Proserpi­na again, fearing the anger and displeasure of the Goddesse. Thus were the people blinded with vain ceremonies of the Priests, Bishops, and Magistrates. Thus were the rude people deceived by dissimulations of the Potentates, as Numa Pompilius one of the first Idolaters that was in Rome, would make the people beléeve that he had warn­ings and admonitions from the Nymph Aegeria, to whom he said he had accesse in the night time to be instructed in [Page 260] the ceremonies of Rome. Lycurgus the law-giver amongst the Lacedemonians perswaded the people that what law soever he made, it was done by the Oracle of Apollo. Za­leucus made the Locresians believe that his doings and pro­ceedings were done by the counsel of Minerva. Pisistratus deceived the people of Athens through dissimulations by a woman named Phia, whom hee dressed like Pallas: he was brought often times by this woman into the Castle of Pallas: and the rude people thought that she was Pallas her self, and judged thereby that Pisistratus might do what he would, and have what he craved of Pallas. Mi­nos King of Créet, was wont every ninth year to go unto a secret place by himself, and there staying to consult with Jupiter what law he should make to the people of Creet, as he informed the people, and so deceived them craftily. Thus we see how Licurgus amongst the Lacedemonians, Zaleu­chus amongst the Locresians, Pisistratus amongst the Athe­nians, Numa amongst the Romans, and Minos in Créet have deceived the ignorant people with counterfeit talking with Gods, making them to beléeve that the Gods counsel­led them. Thus by craft they invented false Gods, framed ceremonies, and observed vain orders.

Sertorius that famous Sabin, and ruler long in Rome, was wont upon the high rocks of Lusitania to consult with a white Hart, of whom he was warned to avoid things, and to do things, to take things, and to refuse things: insomuch, that to blind the people, he would attempt nothing till he had consulted on the Rock with this white Hart. L. Sylla when at any time he went unto wars, would in open sight of the souldiers imbrace a certain remembrance, a sign which he brought from Delphos with him to Italy, requi­ring that to kéep promise as Apollo had commanded him. Scipio would never take any publick affairs in hand, before he had gone to the Capitol to the secret Alter of Jupiter, and there continued a while to deceive the people. Thus were they thought to be the Of-springs of Gods by the common souldiers, whom they deceived with false shews, and to this [Page 161] effect that the people should flatter and obey them in all things.

And as Liberius did use to féed Julius Caesar with flattery saying that mortal men ought to deny nothing unto those to whom the Gods do grant all things; so did these forena­med Princes hunt for such honour as Caesar or Alexander had. Mahomet a great Prophet, and a mighty God amongst the Gentiles, whose laws till this day the most part of the world observe, had such a beginning as aforesaid, and dissem­bled with the people, that a Dove that he taught to come e­very day upon his shoulders, to féed on certain grains of wheat, which he alwaies did bear in his ears, was the holy Ghost, and perswaded the people that his doings and laws were appointed by the holy Ghost, which dayly came to in­struct him, and to make orders amongst the people. We read in divers places of the scriptures, that the men of Iu­da did build altars and make Idols upon every high hill, and under boughs of trées. The Idolatry of the people of Israel, with the daughters of Moab, using their sacrifice, and worshipping their false Gods was such, that God the true Messias did loath and abhor them. Such Idolatry I say grew among the Israelites, that Jeroboam commanded two Golden Calves to bee made, and to be worshipped, say­ing: Behold O Israel behold thy Gods, which brought thée out of the land of Egypt. These were those Iews whom God most estéemed, and they least regarded it: these were his own people, and yet they sought other Gods, saying to Aaron: Make us Gods to go before us. Manasses King of Iuda, erected and made altars to Baal to go before him. Ho­lophernes said, that there was no God but Nabuchadonosor. Nabuchadonosor commanded that all people and nations should knéel and worship the Golden Image. Solomon ha­ving received so great wisedom of God, that no Prince in Israel had the like, fell in his latter years to Idolatry, to worship the Gods of strange women. Antiochus commanded Idols to be worshipped, altars to be erected, temples to be made, swine to be sacrificed, and his own children to passe through the fire.

[Page 162]Thus was Idolatry maintained, and Calves, Dragons, Serpents, the Sun, the Moon, and all the Stars of heaven were honoured and worshipped as Gods: insomuch, that when St. Paul went to Athens, and saw the City so addict­ed unto all kind of Idolatry, his spirit was troubled with­in him. Thus they made unto themselves Gods most like unto them that made them. For as they heard not the true God and Saviour of the world, perswading them unto a­mendment, and threatning them with correction: even so their fained Gods having ears heard not, having eys saw not, having hands felt not, having nostrils smelled not, for all the worshipping, sacrifices, and knéeling that they did to them. O miserable man, to forsake him who is the onely saviour and redéemer of man, and to worship those Gods which work the onely confusion of man, I doubt least some with the rich glutton make their bellies their Gods: I fear least some with Simon make money their God: nay I doubt most of all least some make themselves Gods with Lucifer, or with Darius King of Persia, who made an edict, that no man might ask any thing of other Gods for thirty days, but of King Darius. The original beginning of Ido­latry, as learned writers affirm, was that the Prince of the world, which is the Divel exercising Art, practising his di­vinations, and shifting in such sundry shews, powred such errours into mens hearts (for that prodigious acts and mi­racles, which Divels, and men by Divels wrought were séen) that men were blinded with the shifts of Satan which as St. Paul said could change himself like an angel of light. So that some by sorcery some by conjuring, and some by the Divel who goeth about like a roring Lyon to increase his Kingdome, became Gods on earth: some again for strength, some for building of Cities, some for inventions of things, were had and counted in the number of Gods: as Isis a­mongst the Egyptians, Gabyrus amongst the Macedonians Mithia amongst the Persians: even so by the Rhodians and Messagetes was the sun honoured, amongst the Latines Faunus, by the Romans Quirinus, by the Babylonians Belus, [Page 163] by the Sabines Sabius, by the Moors Uranios, and so Jupiter in Créet, Apollo in Delphos, as is afore said. They had al­so certain beasts appointed for their sacrifices, and consecra­ted to them, as an Owl to Minerva, a Hart to Diana, a Sow tō Ceres, a Swan to Venus, a Cock to Aesculapius, a Bull to Neptune, a Goat to Faunus, an Asse to Priapus, a Heg to Bacchus, a Goose to Isis, a Peacock to Juno, besides this, the Persians offer to Phoebus, a Horse for a sacrifice, the Car­thaginians even till the destruction of Carthage, offered a child to Saturn. The Eagle was appointed for Jupiter, the Phenix for the Sun, the Raven for Apollo, and the Pie for Mars.

A further superstition was amongst the Gentiles, that trées, blocks, and such dumb things were likewise conse­crated and hallowed to their Gods; as the Oak to Jupiter, the Bay to Apollo, the Vine to Bacchus, the Poplar to Her­cules, the Olive to Pallas, the Pine tree to Cybele, the Mir­tle to Venus, and the Cypresse trée to Pluto. Thus with beasts, birds, blocks and stones the Gentiles honored their Gods. There was almost nothing in all the whole world, but it had the name of a God. Amongst the Gentiles, Dogs, Oxen, Calves, Serpents, Dragons, and such others were reputed as Gods.


Of the first beginning of shaving, and of the use thereof, and in what reverence were the hairs of the head.

THe Lacedemonians were wont to excel all o­other nations, in giving growth to their hairs of their heads and beards, as an orna­ment and a comely setting forth of man. Wherefore Lycurgus did defend the same, saying, that as the hairs of the head were comely and seemly to beautifull men; so were they a terror and a fearfull sight upon the deformed man for the enemies to look upon. Ni­cander therefore being demanded why the Lacedemonians did so esteem their beards, and locks of hair upon their heads, he said, Because it is a most natural garment, and most comely unto man, to have that which is best in sight and least in charges. The ancient Greeks, and specially the people of Athens, assoon as any was once past fourteen years of age, had a custome and law that they should be brought to Delphos, to offer their first down on their chins, and gay and frizling bushes of their heads to Apollo, as a sacrifice of their first fruit, and a pledge of their homage to that God. So much esteemed they their hairs, that they thought nothing to be so acceptable to Apollo as that, who always was painted young.

The Thracians likewise had such regard unto the hair of their heads, that they combed it, and decked it upon their forehead, with curling knots upon long hairs, so that their chief care and study was to trim those which they esteemed most. In India, the subjects in all things obeyed their Prince and the Laws, but in shaving their hair, which by no means they would agree to. The Argives loved so well their hair, that being defeated by the Lacedemonians at Ti­ria, they shaved their hair, and wept and bewailed their mis­fortune so much, that they vowed never to let their hair grow, before they would recover again Tiria.

[Page 165]The Gréeks honoured their long hairs, and so estéemed their beards, that Homer was wont to call them Careco­m [...]onta, that is to say, fair haired. It should séem that the Macedonians made much of their hairs and beards, for at what time Alexander the great, had gathered all his power and force to take his conquest in hand, being demanded of his souldiers whether in them any thing were to be amend­ed, the wise Prince considering the great hurt and inconve­nience that should happen chiefly in wars to those that were long haired or long bearded: and again being loath to of­fend his souldiers, for that he knew w [...]ll they much estéem­ed their beards, he smiling merrily spake, I see no want in you to forward the expedition, but I wish your beards and long hairs were at home untill your return. They marvel­ling much at his request, Parmento answered and said that the Macedonians wot not what you mean thereby: then Alexander perceiving that his souldiers were angry at his desire, replied, because long hair is dangerous, and special­ly among the enemies, there is no better hold then by beards or hairs. But it seemed that they had rather be con­quered like men in their beards, then to be conquerors like boyes without beards. As for the Romans their long hair delighted them so much, that there was no shaving at all, no Barbers known, untill Pu. Ticinius, brought certain Bar­bers out of Sycilia to Rome. But for the space of four hun­dred and fifty years, Rome nourished their long hair, as that which they best delighted in for those times. Affricanus was the first that ever delighted in Barbers and next to him was Augustus Caesar successor of Julius Caesar.

Besides these countries and famous kingdomes, divers others there were that so made of their hair, that to observe orders, and to avoid the dangers in the wars, they did shave divers parts of their head, much against their will; yet for custome sake the Maxi [...]s a people in Affrica, do use to shave the right side, and let the hairs grow on the left. A­gain, the people which Strabo called Anases, do shave their hair upon their foreheads, and yet they make much of [Page 166] the hinder part of the head, where they suffer their hair to grow very long. The Maceans shave little hair upon the crowns of their heads, and yet suffer all their hair to hang down in order about their faces.

Herodotus in his fourth book doth name a people who are called Machleis and Abantes, which for that they be war­riours, and always in the field face to face with their ene­mies, they shave their hair before, and suffer it to grow be­hind. The Euboians likewise did let their hair grow be­hind upon their backs very long, and yet were enforced of necessity to cut it before for fear of the enemies. It seemed that either Barbers were scant, or not known in those days, or else long hair was much set by, and esteemed of all men. For Sueronius that writ the lives of the Emperors, doth re­port, that the Emperor Caligula was wont for envy to those he met, to shave their hair off behind, knowing well, that nothing might molest them so much, as to have their hair off; for he was so envious, that if he saw any that had fair golden hair, he would have it off straight with his own hand,

Beards were so much set by, and so estéemed was hair in those days, that women were forbidden by the Law of the twelve fables, to shave any part of the face, to prove whe­ther hair might grow or no. Occasions were ministred to them, said they, by their long hair and beards to know them­selves, and the state of their bodies. For an old man in the City of Sparta being asked why he did wear his beard so long, he answered, That in beholding the gray hairs in my beard, I may do nothing unséemly, nor unworthy of such gray hairs; for a good man is always admonished to live vertuously. Demonax was known by his beard to be some grave Philosopher, by him that demanded of him what kind of philosophy he professed, not knowing him otherwise then by his beard. The tyrant Dionisius, to spight the Citizens of Epidaurus, took the golden beard of Aesculapius away out of the temple, to move them to greater displeasure. At what time Aristippus was brought to Simus house, the Phrigian, [Page 167] which was so dressed with cloth of Arras, and precious han­gings that the very floors so gorgeously shined, that he could not find in the house a place to spit, without some offence, he spit in his handkercher, and threw it into Simus face, who was all bearded; he being angry therewith demanded the cause why he so little esteemed him: Because, said A­ristippus, I saw not in all the house so f [...]ul a place as that, which should have béen most clean, (meaning his beard.) And though it was merrily done of Aristippus, yet it was not so merrily thought of Simus, who more estéemed his beard, then Aristippus esteemed all his precious cloaths, and golden hangings. The like did Jeronimus sirnamed Rhetris make of his beard; for when I sée (said he) my beard, then I know right well that I am a man and nor a woman; and then knowing my self to be a man, I am ashamed to do any thing like a woman, either in word or déed. Much more might be here alledged for the authority of beards and for estéeming of long hair; for there is no countrey, be if ever so civil, but it is addicted to some peculiar qualities; nei­ther is there any man, be he ever so wise, but doth glory in one thing more then in another: As the wise man in his wisedome, the learned man in his knowledge, the ignorant man in his folly, the proud man in his person, the self-lo­ver in some part of his body more then in other, either in his face, body, leg, middle, foot, hand or hair, and specially many do make much account of their beard, combing, dec­king, handling and setting it in order always. But because people are mutable and full of change, and that time alter­eth all things, we will no further procéed in this though men may mis-judge of others concerning their long hair and beards; yet I say judgement is not safe in this point: for it may be that they prefer the country Poet Hesiodus be­fore the warlike and eloquent Homer, as Panis King of Cal­cides, or as Mydas did judge Pan the Piper before Apollo the God of Musick. Hard it is to judge of men whether the bearded man, or the beardless man is to be preferred, whe­ther the long hair or the short hair most to be esteemed; for [Page 168] under strange habits are concealed hidden qualities, and under a ragged cloak (as the Greek proverb is) lyeth wis­dome as secretly as under a Velvet gown.


Of divers and sundry fashions of burial amongst the Gentiles.

THe ancient Egyptians weighing the short­nesse of mans life, little esteeming the time, did provide such sepulchres against they died, that they accounted their graves an everlast­ing habitation: Wherefore in life time they studied how to make such gorgeous graves as should be per­petual monuments after death: Insomuch that thrée hun­dred and thréescore thousand workmen were twenty years in building a huge and stupendious work to bury their bo­dies, which for the bignesse thereof, was counted one of the seven wonders, named at this day the Pyramides of Egypt. Pliny saith, that thrée Pyramides were made in Egypt be­twixt the City of Memphis and Delta: And King Ceopes as Herodotus affirmeth, began to make the first, and as Di­odorus saith, his brother Cephus began the second, and the third, King Mycerinus, as both Herodotus and Diodorus do affirm. Some say that Rhodope, a harlot, being married to King Psamneticus, and left a widdow, did make third Pyra­mide; but to this effect they were made, as common sepul­chres, to receive dead men as guests to dwell always there­in, with such ceremonies first, that being dead, they filled the scull of his head with swéet odours, and then they open­ed his body with a sharp stone of Aethiopia, which the E­gyptians have for the purpose, and purged it, and then ha­ving embalmed it with fragrant odours, and sweet spices, they sow up the body, which being done, they did put it in fine sindon cloth, having the likenesse thereof made upon a hollow work, wherein they put the body, with many o­ther such ceremonies, onely to save the body from any pu­trefaction. For they think as the Stoicks, so long, say they, [Page 169] shall the soul flourish and live, as the body is unputrified, and as the bodies perish, so doth the Egyptians beléeve that the souls decay. The Athenians have such care of the dead, that being dressed with all kind of swéet odours, they put them in such sumptuous tombs and gorgeous graves, that the sepulchres are made over with fine glasse. The Scythi­ans when their Kings and noble men die, they must have to bear them company to the grave one of their concubines, and one of their chief servants, and one of their friends that loved them best alive; they I say must accompany and follow them to the grave being dead.

The Romans had this custome, that if any man of coun­tenance and credit should die, his sons and daughters, his nigh kinsmen and best beloved friends, as Cicero doth write of Metellus, did put him in the fire made for that pur­pose, unlesse he were one of the Emperours, whose funeral pomp was much more sumptuous: for then his body was to be carried to the market or common Hall of Rome: on the second day he was to be carried by certain young noble men to Martius field, where a great pile of wood was raised much like a Tower, and there after much solemnity and ce­remonies done, he that succéeded him as an Emperour, did first put fire to that work, and then all men were busie to sée the body burned: and when they had burned him to a­shes, they would let an Eagle flie from the top of some high Tower, which as they supposed should carry his soul unto heaven. The Assyrians did use to anoint the dead bodies with honey and wax, and with study and care did preserve them from putrifaction. Such strange order of burial was in India, that the women of that country thought there could be no greater fame nor worthier renown, then to bee burned and buried together with their hus­bands.

The Thracians are much to be commended herein, who at the birth of any of their friends children, use to wéep, and bewail the misery and calamity that man is born to; and at the death of any of their friends, they rejoice with [Page 170] such mirth and gladnesse that they past these worldly mise­ries, that at the burial of them even when the corps doth go out of the house, they altogether say with one voice, Fare­wel friend; go before, and we will follow after. So the corps goeth before, and all his friends follow after him with trumpets, musick, and great mirth for joy that he is gone out of the vale of misery. Plato that divine Greek and no­ble Philosopher, made the like laws in Athens that when any of the chief officers should die, he appointed that no mourning weeds should be worn there, but all in white ap­parel, and that fifteen young maids, and fifteen young boys should stand round about the corps in white garments, while the Priests commended his life to the people in an open o­ration, then he was brought very orderly to the grave, all the young children singing their country hymns, and the ancient men following after them, and the grave was co­vered with fair broad stones, where the name of the dead, with his vertuous commendations and great praise was set upon the stone. The like grave the Italians use at this day, and divers other countries. And as these and others had the like ceremonies to the praise and commendations of the dead: so others little esteemed and regarded such things, insomuch that the Persians were never buried till Fowls of the ayr and dogs did eat some part thereof. The Messa­getes thought it most infamous that any of their friends should die by sicknesse, but if the Parents waxed old, the children and the next kinsmen they had, did eat them up, supposing that their flesh was more méet for them to eat, then by worms or any other beasts to be devoured. The people called Tibareni, had a custome that those whom they loved best in their youth, those would they hang in their age; even so the Albans being inhabitants about mount Cancasus, thought it unlawfull for any to care for the dead, but straight buried them, as Nabatheans bury their Kings and rulers in dung-hils. The burial of the Parthians was nothing else but to commend them to the birds of the air. The Nasomones when they bury their friends, they set [Page 171] them in the grave sitting. But of all most cruelly deal the Caspians and the Hircanians, which kill their parents, their wives, their brethren, their kinsmen and friends, and put them in the high way half quick, half dead for to be de­voured of birds and beasts. The fashion and custome with the Issidones, a rude people in some part of Scithia, as Pli­ni in his fourth book affirmeth, is to call their neighbours and friends together were the dead lie, and there merrily singing and banquetting, they eat the flesh of the dead, and make the scull of the dead a drinking cup, and cover it with gold to drink withall. Again the people called Hyperbo­rei, think no better grace for their friends, vvhen they be old then to bring them to some high bank of vvater or great rock, and thence after much feasting, eating and drinking, in the middest of their mirth, their own friends do throw them down into the water headlong To seek into histories, many such burials might be found amongst so many rude and barbarous nations. Notwithstanding in divers regi­ons, the funerals of the dead are so esteemed, that the great­est infamy, the severest punishment for any offendour, vvas not to be buried; this the Athenians used tovvards those that vvere traitors to their country, and the Egyptians if a­ny lived amisse, he should be carried dead to the vvilder­nesse to be devoured of vvild beasts. The Persians like­wise brought the bodies of men condemned to be eaten of dogs. The Lybians thought them most worthy of solemn buriall that died either in wars, or were killed by wild beasts. The Macedonians had great care in burying the dead souldiers in the field. Amongst the Gentiles there were certain days appointed for mourning at the death of their friends. Licurgus law amongst the Lacedemonians was that they should mourn but eleven days. Numa Pompil­us decreed that children after their parents death, the wives, their husbands, &c. should mourn ten moneths, though by the Senatours it was enacted in the wars at Canna that the Romans should mourn but thirty days. Amongst the Egyptians they had a custome to mourn after their kings [Page 172] died thréescore and twelve days, but generally the most cu­stome was to bewail the dead nine days. In some places mourning was forbidden at their burial, as at Athens by the law of Solon, in Locretia, in Thracia, in Coos, in Ly­bia and in divers other places. The diversity of mourning was such, that amongst the Gréeks they shaved their heads and beards, and threw them into the grave with the dead. Amongst the Lacedemonians when the Kings of Sparta died, certain horsemen were appointed to travell over all the whole Kingdome, certifying the death of the King, and the women in every city, did beat their brasen pots, and made a great and heavy noise for the soone; the Egyptians did mourn after this sort, they rent their cloathes, and did shut their temples, they did eat no meat, and besmearing their faces with dirt, they abstained from washing their fa­ces, thréescore and twelve days, all which time they lamen­ted and bewailed the death of their Kings and friends; the Carthaginians at their funerals did cut their hair of, man­gle their faces, and did beat their breasts. The Macedoni­ans likewise did shave their hair bewailing the death of their friends, as we read of Archelaus King of Macedonia, who shaved his hair at the burial of his friend Euripides; the Argives and the Siracusans did accompany the dead to the grave in white cloaths discoloured with water and clay; the Matrons of Rome threw off their fine apparel, their rings and chains, and did wear black garments, at the burial of their friends, but I burn candle in the day time, to write of such infinit ceremonies that the Gentiles had at their bu­rials: therefore better to end with a few examples, then to weary the reader with too many histories, for all men know that all people have their several manners, as well in li­ving as in dying, which they alter according to the vital cir­cumstances, of person, place, and time.


Of Spirits and Visions.

SUndry and many things happen by course of nature, which timerous and fearfull men, for want of perfection in their sen­ses suppose to be spirits. Some are so feeble of sight, that they judgd shadows, beasts and bushes and such like to be spi­rits. Some so fearfull, that they think any sound, any noise, or whistlings of the winds to be some bugs, or devils. Hereby first were spread so many fables of spirits, of goblins, of bugs, of hags, and of so many monstr [...]us visions, that old women and aged men told their children, who judged it sufficient authority, to alledge the old tales told by their parents in their aged years. The Gentiles be­cause they were given much to idolatry and superstition, did credit vain and foolish visions, which oftentimes by suggestion of devils, and by fond fantasies being conceived, did lead them by perswasion of spirits, either in attempting or in avoiding any thing; for Suetonius doth write, that when Julius Caesar stayed in a maze at the river Rubicon in Italy, with a wavering mind, musing what were best whe­ther to passe the water or no, there appeared a comely tall man, piping on a réed, to whom the souldiers flocked to hear him, and specially the trumpetters, when he suddenly snat­ched one of their trumpets, and leaping forthwith into the river Rubicon, he straightways sounded an alarm; where­with Caesar was moved, and said, Good luck my fellow soul­diers, let us go where the Gods do invite us. It is writ­ten in Plutarch, when Brutus was determined to transport his army out of Asia into Europe, being in his tent about midnight, he saw a terrible monster standing fast by him, without any words; wherewith he being sore affraid, ven­tered boldly, and demanded of him what he was, to whom he answered and said, I am thy evil Genius, which at Phil­lippi [Page 174] thou shalt sée again: Where when Brutus came, being vanquished by Augustus Caesar, remembring the words of his foreséen visions, to avoid the hands of his enemies, he slew himself to verifie the same, The like happened to C. Cassius, who by the like apparition was enforced to kil him­self; for he was warned, that the murther of Caesar should be revenged by Augustus his Nephew. These sights were so séen amongst the Gentiles. and so feared and esteemed, that all the actions of their lives were thereby ordered. Ta­citus, as Fla. Vapiscus reporteth, when it was told him that his fathers grave opened of it self, and seeing as he thought his mother appearing to him as though she had been alive, did know full well that he should shortly after die, and made himself ready thereunto. There appeared to one Per­tinax, as I. Capitolinus reporteth, three days before he was slain, a certain shadow in one of his fish-ponds, with a na­ked sword in his hand ready to kill him.

Neither may we so little esteem the authority of grave and learned men, in divers of their assertions concerning sights and visions, though divers fables be alledged and avouched for truth, with simple and ignorant men. We read in the sacred scriptures, divers sights seen, divers visions appearing, and sundry voices heard. We read that King Balthasar, being in his princely banquets, saw a hand writing upon the wall over against where he sat at table, what his end should be, It is read in ye third chapter of the second of the Macchabees, that a horse appeared unto Helio­dorus, who was servant to Seleucus King of Syria, as he was about to destroy the temple at Ierusalem, and upon the horse seemed to be a terrible man, which made towards him to overcome him, and on each side of him were two young men of excellent beauty, who with whips scourged Heliodorus. There also appeared to Machabeus, a horseman in shining armor all of gold, shaking his spear, to signifie the famous victory that Machabeus should obtain.

Many such like visions we read of in Scripture; but let us return to the Athenians, who presaged that when Milti­ades [Page 175] joyned in battel against the Persians, hearing a ter­rible noise, and beholding certain spirits before the battel, to have victory over the Persians, judging those sights and visions to be the shadow of Pan. Likewise the Lacedemo­nians before they were vanquished in the battel at Leuctris, their armor clashed together, and made an excéeding great noise in the temple of Hercules, so that at that time the doors of the temple of Hercules being fast shut with iron bars, o­pened suddenly of their own accord; and the armor which hung before fastened on the wall, was found lying upon the ground.

Pliny writeth in the wars of the Danes, and Appianus af­firmeth in the wars at Rome, what signs and wonders, what miserable cryes of men, clashing of armor, and run­ning of horses were heard, insomuch that the same day that Caesar fought his battel with Cn. Pompeius, the cry of an ar­my, and the sound of trumpets were heard at Antioch in Syria. But I will omit to speak of such things, and take in hand to intreat of spirits, which were both seen and heard of learned men, and of visions supposed of the wisest to be the souls of dead men: for Plutarch writeth in the life of Theseus, that sundry men, who were in the battel of Mara­thonia against the Medians, affirmed that they saw the soul of Theseus armed before the host of Greeks, as chief Gene­ral and Captain, running and setting on the barbarous Medians, whom the Athenians afterward, for that cause onely, honoured as a God.

It is reported by Historiographers, that Castor and Pol­lux have been seen often in battels after their deaths, ri­ding on white horses, and fighting against their enemies in camp, insomuch that Plutarch testifieth, that they were seen of many in the battel against Tarquinius. Hector be­sought Achilles after he was slain by him, not to throw his carcasse to be devoured of dogs, but rather to deliver his body to be buried, to his old father Priamus, and his mother Hecuba: Even so Patroclus appearing in like manner after death to Achilles, desired him to bestow upon his body all [Page 176] funeral solemnities. Virgil testifieth how Palinurus and Deiphobus appeared to Aeneas, the one being his Pylot the other his brother in law. Their wandring ghosts never ceased till such exequies were done to them as Aeneas had promised. It is thought the Witch Phetonissa of Endor, raised the soul of Samuel at the commandment of King Saul, to foreshew the end and successe of the battel with the Philistines. It is read in Lucan the Poet of a Witch na­med Erictho, dwelling in Thessalia that revived and re­stored to life a souldier lately dead, at the request of Sextus Pompeius, to know the end of the wars at Pharsalia. One History I must repeat, which Plutarch reciteth in the life of Cimon, that one Pausanias after he had taken the City of Bizance, being in love with a fair damosel named Cleoni­ces, a maid of noble parentage, he commanded her father, who durst not resist him, to send his daughter to use her at his pleasure: When the maid came, he being fast asléep in his bed, the Virgin being shamefaced and fearfull, did put out the candle, and comming in the dark towards Pa [...] ­sanius, she stumbled at the stool, which with the fall sudden­ly awaked Pausanias from sléep, thinking some enemy or mortal foe of his to be there, and having his sword hard by, slew the virgin: But she being so slain, would never after suffer Pausanias to take any quiet rest, but appeared to him always, saying Recompence the injury and wrong thou didst to me, by equity and justice: Following him as he fled, from Bizance to Thrace, from Thrace again to Hera­clea, from Heraclea to Sparta, where he famished for hun­ger.

Saint Matthew in his seventéenth chapter beareth re­cord that Moses and Elias after they were dead many hun­dred years before Christs incarnation, yet appeared bodily and ghostly on mount Tabor to Christ, where they spake and communed with our Lord and Saviour. The soul of Lazarus did not onely appear, as John saith in his eleventh chapter, but came again both body and soul, in a true token of our sure resurrection. But as the appearing of those [Page 177] sights at Gods appointment were most true, so it is most absurd to give credit that the souls of men after death do either by visions, or by bodily apparance shew themselves: But the Devil is well beaten in experience of things, and knoweth best how he may deceive the wisest, for he is sub­tile and crafty. If the Mariner doth know when storms and tempests arise; if the Physitian judgeth by the Vrine the state and danger of the patient; [...]f the skilfull Astrono­mer can many years before exactly foretel the Eclipse of the Sun and Moon; in fine, if the practised souldier knoweth where the victory will happen: no marvel it is that the Devil, an old souldier, can foreshew things to come, and make things apparent of nothing.

What made Theodoricus to observe the terrible and threatning countenance of Symmachus, whom he slew be­fore, in a fishes head as in a mirror, being brought before him to the table at supper at the which sight he fell for fear into a grievous sicknesse, and so dyed? the divel. What caused one Bessus, of whom Plutarch maketh mention in his book, de sera numinis vindicta, after that he had killed his own father, and a long while hidden himself as a murther­er, at last being by the devil moved to throw down a swal­lows nest with his spear, and killing the young swallows, he was by the company about him misliked for his cruelty to poor birds, and taunted of his companions for his tyran­ny therein: But he answered and excused himself, saying, Why should I not kill those that accu [...]ed me of my fathers death, and cryed out upon me a long time that I should kill my father? They which were present being amazed at his talk told the King thereof, who caused him to be apprehen­ded and examined by that evidence, he confessed the mur­ther These are the suggestions of Devils, the shifts of Sa­than at all times, and in all countreys.

Paulina the chast wife of Satu [...]us a Romane, was of such excellent beauty, of such noble parentage, and of such God­ly life, that when Decius Mundus, a young Knight of Rome, who being enamored with her beauty, sought sundry means [Page 178] a long time to none effect (for neither gold nor treasure could allure this sover and chast Paulina to consent to sin) he perceiving how she was bent to temperancy, and to re­nounce all filthy lust, gave himself willingly to dye: In the mean time the Devil practised a feat with Ida, a maid who dwelt in the house with Mundus his father, to bring this purpose to passe: this maid knowing well the constan­cy and honest life of Paulina, and how religions she was to serve the Goddesse Isis, invented this fraud; She went and conferred with some of Isis Priests, opening the whole matter in secret to them promising a great reward, to fain that their God Anubis had sent for Paulina to accomplish love with him. This being done by the elder Priests, her husband Saturnius was very joyfull that the great God Anu­bis had vouchsafed to send for his wife; she being as glad, boasted and bragged of the same amongst her neighbours, and went to the temple of Isis, where Anubis was worship­ped, being sent by her husband very brave and gorgeous, where the young and lusty Knight. Mundus by the advice of the Priests hid himself till Paulina came who embracing her in the dark, did accompany with her till he had satisfi­ed his lust all that night Then in the morning the matter being known, she rent her hair an cloathes and told her husband Saturnius how she was dealt withal: Her husband then declared the whole matter to the Emperor Tiberius, who having perfect knowledge by diligent examination, did hang the Priests, & Ida the cause of the mischief, & comman­ded the image of Isis to be thrown into the river of Tyber, banished Mundus out of Rome. So that under the colour and pretence of holinesse, divers Matrons and maids have been defloured & mens wives & daughters abused: As Ruf­finus testifieth of a certain Priest in Alexandria in Egypt, named Tyrannus, who used such shifts, and practised such ways to have his desire accomplished, and his lust satisfied, with such women and maidens as he thought good, saying, that the great God Saturn, whose Priest he was, sent for them to come to him; and there until his wickednesse was [Page 179] known, he used under pretence of the great Saturn which was honoured in that City, his filthy lust and horrible life.

We read the like almost of Numa Pompilius, that he bare the people of Rome in hand, that he had familiar company with the Goddesse Aegeria, because he might purchase the more credit and authority unto his laws and orders. These are the works and shifts of wicked men, who deceived al­ways the rude people with vain religion and superstitious holinesse, whom the Divel the father of lies did bewitch and allure them to beléeve fantasticall visions to be the souls of dead men, the Divels appearing themselves like men, letting them to understand that they were the souls of such men as they appeared like unto: so Romulus the first King and founder of Rome, appeared after his death, wal­king up and down by Atticus house, to Julius Proculus, char­ging him to erect him a Temple in that place where he walked, saying that he was now a God, and that his name was Quirinus. Remus likewise King Romulus his brother, appearing to Faustulus, and to his wife Laurentia, sometime his nurse, complained of his miserable death desiring them to indeavour that the same day wherein he was slain, might be accounted among their Holidays for that he was canoni­zed amongst the Gods.

We read in Lucan, how that the souls of Sylla and Mari­us, two famous and renowned Romans, were alwaies wal­king and appearing to men before they were appeased by sa­crifice: for the Divels made the people believe after the bodies were so buried, the souls should have rest by which means Idolatry increased amongst them, as you heard a little before. What complaint made Hector and Pa­troclus to Achilles? What request made Palinurus and Dei­phobus to Aeneas, for the burial of their bodies, which Ho­mer and Virgil rehearsed? Suetonius writing of the lives of the Emperours, sheweth how Caligula sometime Emperour in Rome, after he was dead, being half burned and buried, for that he wanted due solemnity of burial, appeared in [Page 180] the Gardens of Rome called Lauriani to the kéepers, trou­bling and molesting them very much, till his sisters caused him to be taken up, and commanded he should be throughly burned and buried.

There was in Athens by report an excellent fair house set to sale, for that no man durst dwell within it: for a­bout midnight continually there was heard a great noise, and clashing of armour, and clattering of chains, and there appeared an image or shape like an old man lean and loth­some to behold, with a long beard, staring hairs, and fette­red legs. This house having a piece of paper upon the door, concerning the sale thereof, though no man would venter to dwell in it, Athenodorus a Philosopher returning from Rome, where he abode a long time with the Emperour Augustus Caesar, and reading the writing upon the door, hired the house, and commanded his servant to make his bed in the highest chamber in the house, where he setled himself to mark and behold what things would happen: being thus in study, first he heard the ratling and sound of chains, and then he saw an old man beckning toward him to follow, the Philosopher went after him with his candle in his hand into an inner court, where the image left him alone and vanished. Athenodo [...]s the next morning caused the rulers of the City to dig up that place, where they found divers bones of dead men, these were commanded by the Philoso­pher to be burned solemnly, which being burned, the house afterward was quiet, without, either noise or appariti­on.

Thus the Divel soweth the séed of superstition, and ma­keth his Angels oftentimes to work miracles? what strange works did that conjurer Bileam bring to passe by the means of Divels? what wonders wrought that wicked Appolom­us by the help of Satan? What marvels, shews, and sights did Simon Magus use by the industry of false spirits? what did not Pharaoes sorcerers oftentimes attempt by the per­swasion of Devils? Mark their end, and judge of their life, the one breaking his neck, and the other drowned in the red [Page 181] sea, and so the rest ended their lives miserably: too many have béen and I fear are yet, that give credit unto such vain illu­sions, and fantastical sights.


Of Dreams and warnings.

AMongst the Gentiles dreams were so ob­served that the vain superstitious no­ting of the same, was the whole trust and hope of their countries, and of their own lives; when the Kings of India take their rest, they were brought to bed with all kind of melo­dy and harmony, every day knéeling upon his knées, beséeching Morpheus the God of sléep to re­veal those things unto their King that should be commodi­ous and profitable to the subjects. They thought themselves well instructed when either by Oracles they were perswa­ded or else by visions suggested. King Pyrrhus knew well that his dying day was at hand, when he besieged the City of Argos, and saw in the market place a brasen Woolf, and a Bull, which the Argives for memory of things past, and an­cient monuments had put up, for he by an Oracle did un­derstand, at what time he should sée a Bull and a Woolf fighting together, he should then prepare himself to die. A­lexander the great, after that the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon was pronounced that he should be unconquered, he doubted not but to subdue the whole world, and so trusting more to the Oracle of Iupiter, then the mutability of fortune he took upon him the conquest of all the world, attempting nothing at all without some Oracle or dream had warned him there­to. For till the great Conqueror Alexander had séen Hercules in his sléep reaching out of the wal his hand, promising him his aid and help in his wars, he had not so boldly attempt­ed so high an enterprise without fear and dread,

[Page 182]In the like manner, unto Hannibal after long perturbati­on of mind, with great industry & study how he might an­noy & destroy the Roman Empire, there appeared a young man of wonderfull beauty, who told him, that Jupiter sent him as a Captain before him into Italy, whereby straight he was encouraged the rather to take the charge in hand, ho­ping therby to enjoy triumphant victory over his enemies. Caesar that mighty Prince & Monarch, & the first Emperor that ever possessed Rome, thought in his sleep that he com­mitted fornication with his own mother, which when it was opened by the Soothsayers, and declared that it was the earth that was his mother, and that he should suppresse all the Princes of the earth under him, he vvas ensiamed thereby to vvars, perswading himself that he should be a conqueror over all the world.

After that the noble & renowned Greek Themistocles was exiled from Athens and banished the confines of Greece, ha­ving done such service and honour to his countrey, as Plu­tarch worthily mentioneth, for the subduing of proud Xerxes King of Persia the great enemy of all Gréece, being in great peril and danger of life in strange countreys, he sée­med to see in his sleep, a Dragon creeping upward from his belly towards his face, and as soon as the Dragon touch­ed his face, he was changed (as he thought) to an Eagle, and carried by the Eagle a great way through the Ayr into a strange countrey, where the Eagle gave him a golden staff in his hand, and so left him: Whereby straight he was in­formed, that he was not onely delivered from all dangers, but also should be sought for by all Greece, to the encrease of his fame, and augmentation of his honour. Brutus clean contrary, after much good successe and prosperous fortune, after he murthered Caesar, at length he was in his sleep by a vision warned to make himself ready to die at Philippi, where he was enforced in the wars between Augustus Caesar and him to kill himself.

Thus were they allured and entised to uncertain dreams, to order and rule all their doings. For as the Poet Ennius [Page 183] saith, what they studied and pondered in the day time, the same dreamed they in the night time. Dreams moved the Heathen to tyranny; for L. Sylla, the Firebrand of Italy, was warned in his sleep by Bellona the Goddesse of wars, to murther kill and destroy all that ever he might find in his way, giving him in his hand, fire, in token he should over­come Rome and Italy. Likewise Eumenes King of the La­cedemonians, having wars with Antipater King of Mace­donia, was fully perswaded by a dream to obtain victory; for he dreamed that two Alexanders were with great hosts and armies of men ready in the field to fight, the one having the Goddesse Minerva as a leader, the other having the God­desse Ceres as their Captain, and after long conflicts and much slaughter on both parties he thought that the souldiers of Ceres had the victory, and that they were crowned with ears of corn in the honour of Ceres, which is the Goddess of corn: And because the country of Lacedemonia was more fertil then Macedonia, the wise Sages declared the dream, & said, that Eumenes should have the victory over Macedonia.

Besides these dreams, they had a kind of credit in fowls of the ayr, in beasts of the field, in wind and weather, and in divers other things, where Soothsaying Oracles and consultations were had. When Xerxes the great King of Persia, with so many Myriades of men, had purposed and decreed with himself to destroy all Greece, a Mare (being a stout and a proud beast) brought forth a Hare (a most fear­full and timerous creature) whereby the flight of Xerxes from Greece with shame and reproach was presaged. And afterward, before he would lay siege to Athens, resolving with himself to destroy Sparta, & all the country of Lacede­monia, a strange warning happened to this Prince at sup­per, for his Wine before his face was converted into Bloud as it was filled in the cups, not once, but twice or thrice whereat he being amazed, consulted with Wise men, of whom he was then admonished to forsake his first intent, and to give over the enterprize which he took in hand a­gainst the Greeks.

[Page 184] Midas being yet in his cradle, the Ants were séen to car­ry grains and victuals to féed him withal; whose parents being desirous to know the effect thereof, were certified by the Soothsayers, that he should be the wealthiest and rich­est man in the world, and the most monied Prince that o­ver should reign in India. Plato, that noble and divine phi­losopher, while he was an infant in like sort in his cradle, the Bees with honey fed his sugred and swéet lips, signify­ing his eloquence and learning in time to come. They were not Bees of mount Himettum, but rather of Helicon, where the Muses, and Ladies of learning delighted to dwell. This was that Plato of whom his master Socrates before he knew him, dreamed, that he held fast in his hand a young Swan, which fled from him away, and mounted the skies, whose sweet voice and songs, as a wonderfull me­lody and harmony, replenished the whole skies. They thought it a sufficient admonition to see any thing happen between birds or beasts, as a sure and certain shew of their own fortune to come.

M. Brutus when he was in Camp against Caesar and An­tonius and saw two Eagles fighting together, the one com­ming from Caesars Tent the other from his own, he knew well when the Eagle that came from his side took flight and was vanquished, that he should lose the victory. Cicero understood well enough his death to be at hand, when the Raven held him fast by the hem of his Gown, and made a noise and ever plucked at him, till the souldiers of M. An­tonius came to the very place, where he at that time vvas beheaded by Herennius and Popilius. For in the night be­fore Cicero dreamed, that he vvas not onely banished from Rome, but that he vvandred divers strange countries, vvhere Ca [...]us Marius, a noble Roman, as he thought, met him, demanding of Cicero vvhy and vvhat vvas the cause of his sad countenance, and vvherefore he travelled such strange countreys: the cause being knovvn to Marius, he took him fast by the right hand, and brought him to the next Officer, vvhere he thought in his sléep that he should have died.

[Page 185]Thus you sée that Xerxes by a Hare had warning; King Mydas was by Ants admonished; Plaro by Bées; Brutus by an Eagle; Cicero by a Raven; Themistocles by an Owl, of death. Pericles by the head of a Ram, was fully perswaded and taught by the soothsayers, that he should win the people of Athens from Thucidides, with whom then he was in con­troversie. And was not Agamemnon and his brother Mene­laus, with all the Princes of Gréece, certified by the Dra­gon that climbed a trée, where he slew a she Sparrow, and eight young ones beside, that they should be nine years in wars with the Troyans, and that in the tenth they should destroy and quite vanquish Ilium? Was not Julius Caesar admonished by his wife Calphurnia in a dream, that if he would go to the Senate that day, he should die? And was not that mighty Monarch Alexander warned by a vision to take more regard to his life then he did, and to take héed of Antipater, who afterward poysoned him? Was not Alcibi­ades that noble Greek certified by a dream of his miserable death, by which he and his Concubine Timandra might di­vers times see before hand what followed after, had they had but so great a desire in following of good things as they were bent and prone to seek after evil; such prodigious sights, such strange miracles were seen, that might well allure them to a more perfect and upright life. The Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and all the host of Heaven, wrought great miracles to reduce Princes from evil enterprizes, and to give warning unto others to avoid the tyranny of wicked Princes: For the Heavens appeared bloud [...] at that time when Philip King of Macedonia with tyranny in­vaded Greece. At what time Augustus Caesar, after his un­cle Julius was murthered, came to Rome as the second Em­peror, there were seen stars wandering about the circle of the sun, great lightnings, and strange impressions, like men fighting in the skies, yea, and birds fell down dead in the City of Rome, and Livi writeth that an Ox spake under the plough these words to the ploughman, that not onely corn should be dear, but also men should perish, and therefore, said [Page 186] the Ox, thou urgest me in vain to travel. When that wic­ked tyrant Nero began his Empire in Rome, trées, pastures, meddows, and certain grounds about the City (a strange miracle) altered places, and changed seats one with ano­ther, the ground moving from one place to another. Even [...]o it harned at the exilement of King Dionisius, after much tyranny and bloudshedding, when he was banished from his Kingdome, the salt sea the same day that he was driven from Sicilia, altered his saltness to sweetness. These two tyrants Nero and Dionisius, the one comming to his Em­pire, what wonders shewed the earth it self? the other de­parting from his Kingdome, what miracles shewed the Sea?

When Darius besieged the City of Babylon, a voice was heard out of the strong walls of Semiramis, that Babylon should be conquered, at what time a mule should engender; at the which the souldiers of Darius were discomfited, and Zopyrus his mule accomplished the foreshewed Oracle. Likewise when Pompey was vanquished by Caesar, a gr [...]n bough grew in the temple of Victory, under the image of Caesar, and hives of Bees darkened the ensign of Pompey, foreshewing he should be subdued at Pharsalia. The City of Rome had these warnings a little before the first Civil wars; there were seen fires [...]ining suddenly ab [...]ut men; Spiders, Mice, and Worms consumed the gold and sub­stance of their temples, Ravens devoured and did eat their young ones, the noise and sound of trumpets were heard in the ayr, with such other terrible warnings, as might well move amazement and amendment.

Again, before the second wars of Carthage, an Ox spake, and said, Rome take thou héed to thy self. It is noted like­wise, when Tarquinius the last King of the Romanes was driven away from Rome, and banished the Kingdome, that a dog then spake, and a serpent barked. Too many of these examples are to be read, if we read histories; for signs and tokens were séen and marked in the heavens according to the natures and doings of Princes; for when Tiberius came [Page 187] to the Empire of Rome, there happened such great earth­quakes, that twelve famous Cities in Asia fell prostrate to the ground, two mountains moved, and ran and fought to­gether in a place by Rome called Mutina field. It is writ­ten, that in the City called Sagunthus, before it was con­quered by Hannibal, a child in the time of the delivery of the mother, entred again into his mothers womb. And in Pli­ni, Clepidus beareth witnesse, that trées spake. And though it séem fabulous to divers, that such things by nature should speak, yet we sée the tryal of this clean contrary, to set forth the wonderfull works of God, whereby he might the more be magnified by these his creatures: For we read in the sa­cred scriptures, that an Asse spake, whereby the more credit may be given to P [...]utarch, Pliny, and Livi, which mention that dogs, trées, oxen, serpents, and other creatures of God did speak, for a wonder and a warning as well of things to come, as things past. For before the famous City of Ieru­salem was destroyed by Vespasian the Emperor, there appea­red a star in manner of a sword in the skie, there were likewise seen Chariots running up and down the skies, and men in harnesse fighting in the clouds, right over the City.

Divers wonders by nature were wrought, which for the rarenesse thereof are worthy to be noted; as Caecilius Agrip­pa, the first day that he was born of his mother, did go on foot without help; Likewise Zo [...]oastres, when all children cry at their birth, he the self same time laughed: It was strange that Telephus the son of Hercules was nourished of a Hart. Romulus the first King of Rome fostered by a Wolf. Cyrus the first King of the Persians brought up by a Bitch, Alexander and King Priamus by a Bear. Jupiter by a Goat. Mydas by Ants, and Plato by Bees, and so divers others. But certainly more strange it was, that little beasts yea, small creeping worms should be able to vanquish and de­stroy famous Cities and Countreys: As in Spain a City was un [...]ermined by Coneys: in France a City was de­stroyed by Frogs; in Thessaly a City was overthrown by [Page 188] Mouldwarps. In Affrica a City was spoiled by Locusts. Gyara an Isle of twelve miles was consumed by Mice, and Abdera a City in Thracia by Mice likewise, and Amyclas by Serpents. Peradventure these séem not credible to di­vers readers, the learned may read the same in the righth book of Plini, and twenty and ninth chapter, where he may be satisfied. The works of nature were so wonderful in all places, at all times, that learned writers for memory of the same, do recite the effect thereof. It is written that Ammo­nius the Phylosopher had an Asse frequenting his school with Porphirius to hear his lecture. In the Isle called Co­es, in the ground of a certain tyrant named Nicippus, a shéep brought forth a Lion instead of a Lamb. Plini doth witnesse that he saw in a City of Affrica, a man changed to a woman in the same day he was married, whose name was Cofficius, a Citizen of Ti [...]dria. Pontanus and divers authors affirm that Tiresias the Theban, Ceneus and Iphis were changed from men to women, from males to females by alteration of kind.

Again, some think that as Anaxagoras never laught, so Zenophantes never wept, things wonderfull and strange to nature; and as L. Pomponius never belcht, so Antonia ne­ver spit There was a Poet sometime dwelling in Coos, of such small growing and slender body, that lead was put in the sole of his Shoes, least the wind should bear him from the ground, and blow him into the air. And as he by nature was small and light of substance: so by the self-same nature was found in a certain hill of Créet, the body of O­rion which was forty and six cubits in length. What Alber­tus Mag [...]us wrote of the secrets of nature, I will omit: bet­ter it is I suppose to be ignorant in some things, then to be skilfull in all things. He saith among other things, that there was a woman in Germany that had thréescore sons, side every time at one burthen: and there was another wo­man named Agrippina in Colonia that did neither eat nor drink for the space of thirty days. Besides these, there was a man named Philinus that never eat nor drank all the days [Page 189] of his life but milk onely. Cicero saith that all the Iliads of Homer were written and placed within the shell of a Nut. Plini reports that there was an hearb called Acheminis, that if it were cast or thrown amongst the enemies they streight would take their flight thereupon. Mermecides made a Wagon so artificially and so small, that a Flie might cover it with her wing. Strabo did sée so well that he could discry the ships that departed from Carthage from a from a promonto [...]y in Sicilia, which was above a hundred and thirty miles. Cornelius Agrippa in his first book of hidden Philosophy, writeth a history of one Cippus King in Italy who being in sléep dreamed of Buls fighting all night, and in the morn­ing he had two horns growing on his head. The learned hold opini [...]n that imagination and vapours of dreams may alter things into some other substance, as Caieta and Aenuli­a two married women, became men, and Medea by a dream waxed hot in love with Jason: and so imagination by ope­ration of natural vapours doth effect things wonderfully, as some do by sight assure themselves most certain, and some by conjectures affirm things to be true: but because ima­gination is a thing that néedeth at large to be spoken off, considering how diversly it worketh in divers men, I will in another place speak of it.


Of the beginning of Marrrriages, and the divers manners of the same.

AFter that God had made the world in full perfection, and so beautifull that the Gréeks did call it Cosmos: which is, fair, framing all things for the use of man, as well the world, as also all that move or grow in the world, he then made a woman, who should be likewise a further solace to man, and as he made the world, and all living creatures in it in several proporti­ons, [Page 190] in it he framed man like himself to behold the heavens, to measure the elements, & to rule the very Globes and to the end he might multiply the world, he said unto Adam after he blessed all things on earth: Goe and multiply. The multiplication and the use thereof was so divers, that divers countries had sundry orders, as well in single life, as in matrimony.

And as concerning antiquity of marriage, we read in Tr [...]gus that noble Historian, that Cec [...]ops the first King of Athens before the time of Deucalion, first framed and ap­pointed matrimony in Gréece: But such were their orders in divers places, such was their liberties in matrimony, that the Egyptians the Indians, and the Thracians might marry as many as they would according to the ability of the man: some ten, some twelve, some more some lesse. A­gain amongst the Scythians, the Persians, and all Barba­ry, their wives, and daughters were common one for ano­ther like bruit beasts. The Messagetes had this law, that it was not to be suffered that any of their country should marry but one wise, but it was lawfull for any man to take another mans wife, and to make an exchange, for so were their wives common to all, but married to one. In Lybia the people called Augylas, and the people called Nasamo­nes, had this order in their matrimonies, that the Bride the first night after she was married, should lie with every guest before she should go to bed to her own husband. The Arabians law was, that one woman should be married to all her kinsmen, and at all times lawfull for any of her kin to challenge and claim her as his wife, using this policy, to leave a staff at the chamber door, to give to understand that one was in bed with her: and when the staff was not there, then they knew that no body was within, and if any were found of another kindred, it was adultery, and by law he should die.

Polydorus reciteth a History for the purpose to be noted, That there was a Kings daughter of great beauty, which had fifteen tall men to her brethren, with whom severally [Page 191] oftentimes she did accompany; and being almost wearied, desirous to take some rest (for she was so fair, and they so many, that always she had company) she used this pollicy; to make a staff much like to the chamber staff, which was as it were a Porter appointed to give notice: Afterwards upon a time one of her brethren had left her in the Cham­ber, and was gone out, she straight laid the staff at the door, thinking thereby somthing to ease her self, and to rest from venery; but one of her brethren came from the market, ha­ving left all his brethren there, and when he saw the staff at the door, went straight to his father, and accused his sister of adultery, saying, that all his brethren were in the market, and that there was a fornicator with his sister: But the matter being known, he was punished by his father for that he sl [...]ndered his sister.

The like liberty in matrimony was sometimes amongst the Medes, and with the people called Magi, Anthropopha­gi, and with divers others. Some of Aethiopia, and some of Arabia married their own mothers and sisters. Thus people in divers manners did lead their lives, and do lead their lites so horribly and filthily, that better it were not to know it then to know it: But though it be a play and a sport to the ungodly and wicked, yet it is a horror and ugly monster to the godly and wise; for to know all things pro­fiteth the good. Herodotus in his fourth book doth mention certain inhabitants called Poeni, approaching the confines of Egypt, whose order and law of matrimony was, that the King of that country should have the first taste of the Bride before her husband. This order was once observed by the ancient Scots, that the Lord of the soil should have the vir­ginity of the married woman.

The Assyrians and Babylonians did sometimes marry those that hired their bodies to all men. The people called Cantabri gave money as a dowry with their wives to other men. The daughters of the Lydians and the Cyprians might not marry till they had gained by the hire of their bo­dies as much as should pay their dowry. In the mean time [Page 192] did they go from City to City, from town to town, offering themselves to every man upon the high way; and when they had gained sufficiently for their dowry, then might they marry, and not before. And thus were there sundry orders, and several laws to maintain the same. Some again did lead a life without women, as the Esseni which Pliny affir­meth that they live most sober and chast without women all their life time: Also certain people of Thrace called Cri­stae, did likewise avoid the company of women.

The Romans after Rome was built five hundred years and more, kept matrimony inviolated, till Sputinus a noble Roman, because of the barrenness of his wife, had a divorce­ment granted him, when Pomponius and Papitius were Con­suls in Rome. Moses perceiving the Iews much to be given to several vices, some to covetousnesse, some to lechery, for the reformation of domestick quietnesse, and because the Iews were desirous of other women, either for beauty, or for wealth, they had a divorcement granted by Moses, to mi­tigate the fury and hardnesse of their hearts, which was ra­ther to avoid the tyranny of the Iews which they used to­wards their first wives, and by sufferance then by comman­dement. For as the world in most places was too wicked concerning the liberty of Matrimony; so were they in di­vers Countreys very straight concerning Marriages, in so much, that the Ethnicks observed that sentence of Catullus the Poet, that virginity ought to be ruled by the parents, sith one part is the fathers, the second is the mothers, and the third and last is in the child. The solemnity in Matri­mony in divers places, imported unto us wise morals, and did as it were presage a duty and an obedience to things as both Plutarch and Pliny write of the Venetians, that when a Marriage was solemnized in Venice, the Bride after that day bringeth her distaff, and her spindle, and fl [...]x ready, as one after that day never to be idle, but occupied always in she affairs of her house.

The Greeks and Romans also had this custome; they girded the loyns of their daughters alwayes till the day of [Page 193] their marriages, and then that night her husband should loose the knot, and unbind that which of long time the Vir­gins of Greece kept fast bound. Amongst divers Coun­treys, where sundry solemnities in matrimony are used, I read not in any History, so solemn a state, and so worthy ce­remonies as we do see in England, which if you mark in all points, you must néeds confesse, that outward ceremo­nies do import a great Majesty and Dignity in Matrimo­ny.

Again, they had laws in divers places, that none might marry without some reverence shewed to their Gods be­fore; as the Athenians suffered no marriage without sacri­fice first done to Diana; In Rome a law there was, that she that should be married should sit in the seat of Faunus before she might see the Bridegroom her husband: The like was observed in Boetia and Locresia, that before their youth should marry they should drink one to another at the altar consecrated to Euelia. In Hetruria they used to kill a hog to sacrifice to their Gods, and to call upon Juno for good suc­cesse to come. In Lusitania the Bride goes to Church with a distaff and a spindle in her hand, and one of her kinsmen going before her with a firebrand of Pine tree. In Sparta by the law of Lycurgus, the maids that should marry, should shave the hairs of their heads, and wear mans apparel; and by the same law they were forbidden to give any substance with their daughters, but love and good will was to be the whole cause of marriage.

Moreover they used these ceremonies; To divide a peece of bread in Macedonia, and in the most part of Greece, for the Bride and the Bridegroom to eat before they should be married. The like in Rome in Romulus time was used. In Galatia they did both drink first of one cup appointed for that purpose onely. And so forth in di­vers Countreys they used divers ceremonies; as in Car­menia no man might marry, without he brought the head of some enemy or other to the King, as a proof of his love to­ward his Countrey.

[Page 194]In Maeous no maid might marry, without she had sub­verted one enemy or other of her Countrey. But in some countreys they married not, as the Esseni, a people much given to abstain as well from Wine as from Women. Wherefore Socrates being demanded what was best, Whe­ther to marry, or no; answered, If you marry you shall suf­fer brawling and chiding; if you are single, you shall be so­litary and comfortlesse. Therefore Pompey the great com­ming among the Massagetes, who used once a week to com­pany with their wives demanded the cause thereof: They answered, Because we would not hear their chidings in the day time nor their complaints in the night time. But to end, let every man have his own wife, if he cannot live chast, for better it is to marry then to burn.


Of Likenesse and Similitudes of Kings and Princes.

ALthough comparisons are odious amongst divers men, yet for that Pliny and Plutarch do use them chiefly for necessaries, I shall shew how like di­vers Princes were one to another, not in coun­tenance and outward proportion onely, but in life and con­versation: Also by comparing the ancient Gréeks and the la [...]ter Romans one with another (as most certain the Ro­mans imitated the Gréeks in all points) we shall sée and perceive by their acts, doings, and life, who were most like one to another. And first to begin with Ro [...]ius the first King of Rome; he in all his doings did imitate that vali­ant Gréek Theseus, as Plutarch in his first book declareth. And as by comparing their lives one with another a m [...]n may easily judge how like in state and fortune they lived, the one having occasion to war with the Sabines the other with the Centaurs; the one in augmenting the state of I­taly, and building of Rome, the other in delivering all Gréece from tyranny and [...]ondage; of equal travel both and of like state: for then Italy was in Romulus time, as Gréece [Page 195] was in Theseus days. The next was in Rome Numa Pompi­lius, who for pity to the poor, and love toward his Countrey, and his gravity and severity in Law making, his zeel and religion to the service of their temples; in fine, for all ver­tuous doings, in all respects, was like unto Lycurgus that fa­mous Law maker amongst the Lacedemonians: The care that these two Princes had for their friends and countreys, were clean contrary to Theseus and Romulus before mentio­ned, as is set forth by Plutarch in his fourth book; Lycurgus was not so studious to call the Lacedemonians from vice and sin, but Numa was as carefull to instruct the Romans in all goodnesse and vertue; so that Rome did bear witnesse of Numa, and Sparta of Lycurgus, who for their several and sundry Laws, their vertuous lives and doings, compared by Plutarch, they may well for their contempt, and neglect­ing the honors and dignities due to them, and for care they had either of them for their people, be like one unto the o­ther. And even so Publicola did not onely imitate Solon in all points, but also translated Solons laws to Rome, so that one was counted most sage and wise in Greece, the other thought to be most happy in Rome. So did Numa also fol­low Lycurgus in all his doings, imitating his laws and or­ders in Rome. What comparison is made between noble Scipio and Hannibal, the one defending the state of Rome the other Carthage, and either of them in open wars with the other; that to read their lives and fortunes about the affairs of their countreys, what is it else but to see two noble Cap­tains one like another in magnanimity and courage? whose fortunes, after many strong and stout services toward their countrey, was such, that they both were banished Rome and Carthage: And as they in life were most like, so did they embrace their deaths likewise. Even so was that stout Greek Alcibiades, which Thucidides most worthily prayseth, and M. Cotiolanus that famous Roman, compared for the like magnanimity and state of fortune. Pericles that renowned Greek, and Fabius Maximus the Roman, who ruled long in Rome and Athens, were likewise noted one to be like ano­ther.

[Page 196] Plutarch in his book entituled The lives o [...] Emperours com­pareth Sylla the Roman to Lysander King of Sparta; com­pareth Ser [...]o [...]us to Eumenes, and likewise Pompey the gre [...]t to Agesi [...]us King of Lacedemonia. If respect de duly had to the martial feats, and noble acts of Greeks and Romans; If their lives, honours and dignities be weighed: If on the contrary mishap, evil fortune, banishment, and such like be considered we must think and judge truly of Plu­tarch, in comparing these great Champions, and puissant Princes, as Alexander the great and Julius Caesar, Demet [...]i­us and Antonius, Nicias and Crastus, men in all their do­ings, in all their enterprises, most like one to another.

Some again for wisedome and eloquence were to be com­pared, as Cicero to Demosthenes: Some for justice and equi­ty were likened one to the other as Cato the Senior liken­ed to A [...]istides the Athenian: For gentlenesse and clemen­cy was Pelopidas, King of Sparta, compared to Epaminon­das Prince of Thebes: Some again were compared one to another for their liberality and bounty, as that famous and liberal Phocion, was judged to be like to that free and no­ble Athenian, Cimon: Some were paralelled by misfor­tune, as Dion, who governed Sicilia a long time, in fa­vour and great honour with Dionisius then King; to Brutus, who might command Caesar to do what he would at Rome, and both at length banished.

We read moreover, that some were so like in counte­nance and face, in proportion of outward lineaments, that one could not [...]e known from the other; as Antiochus King of Syria, had a servant named Artcon, so like unto him in face and person in all parts, that when King Antiochus died, the Quéen Laodices dissembled the matter, having the pre­sence of Artcon in stead of her husband the King, to blind and deceive the people, till she of her own decrée had made another King in Syria. Cornelius Scipio, though he was of a noble family, of passing prowesse, of excellent qualities; yet for that he was in person like deformed Serapion, he was called of the people Scipio Serapion. Pompey his father was [Page 197] so like to his Cook Menogenis, that for all his honour and dignity, he was by the vulgar sort named another Menoge­nis.

Cruel Nero caused Sporus, for that he was most like unto a Sabine maid whom Nero loved, most detestably to be made like a woman, to use his filthy lust on him. They say that Ephestion was so like to Alexander the great in propor­tion of person, that Sisigambis, King Darius mother, who knew Alexander as wel for the long wars that was betwéen her son Darius and him as for that she was in one house with Alexander as a captive, having continual sight and talk with him, yet was she deceived oftentimes to distinguish Alexan­der from Ephestion, and knéeled to Ephestion in stead of A­lexander divers times when she thought to speak to Alex­ander.

As for Pompey the great one Vibius, a man of base birth, and slender progeny, was so like to that noble Pompey, that when he came at any time where Pompey was not, he was honoured and saluted of every man as Pompey by name and supposed of all men to be Pompey himself, and he so much estéemed him, that he advanced him unto honour and dig­nity, and men called Pompey oftentimes by the name of Vibius, and Vibius by the name of Pompey; so like were these two one to the other. In the same manner Plancus the Orator was like Rubrius the Stage-player, who might not be known the one from the other, unlesse their apparel would betray them; so like they were, that P [...]ancus was cal­led Rubrius, and Rubrius called Plancus, as is before menti­oned of Pompey and Vibius. So Mirmillo was like to Cassi­us Severus, Messala like to Menogenes, that as before it is spo­ken of Antiochus, Alexander, and Pompey, and their compa­nions, so likewise of these the like may be spoken. Some are likened again for their huge quantity, and large propor­tion of body, excéeding the common measure of men, as Orestes and Achilles are likened the one unto the other for their great heighth.

[Page 198]Some for their monstrous shape are likened to one ano­ther as Gabbara and Titormus two huge Giants, Pirag­mon and Poliphemus two huge and monstrous Ciclops. Some for the qualities of the body are likened one to a­nother, as Ladas, who was so swift that he would run up­on the soft dust without any shew or sight of his steps, he was compared to Polimnestor▪ who being a Shepheard did overrun and take a Hart, and for that cause was he brought by his master unto the games of Olimpia, the forty and six Olimpiade; where he won the victory of running. Philippi­des was so swift on foot, that he ran in two days from Athens to Sparta and therefore compared to Philonides, who ran in one day one thousand and two hundred furlongs. Some a­gain for strength, as that strong Roman Cicinius, was like­ned unto M. Sergius for the strensth of body. Some again for memory, as Cineas▪ Oratour to King Pyrrhus, was com­pared to Metrodorus the Philosopher; to write of these, and to compare the stoutnesse and the qualities of Princes per­sons, I might grow tedious, therefore I think it better to observe measure in things, then with prolixity of writing or tedious examples molest the Reader: When it was told Caesar Augustus, that there was a young man of Sicilia that was very like to the Emperour in countenance and per­son, he commanded the young man to be brought before him, where when he came the Emperour demanded mer­rily, whether his mother had ever béen at Rome; the young man answered, my mother was never at Rome, but my fa­ther hath oftentimes béen there: and so the Emperour was met with the like equivocation to him, as he meant to the young man, giving to understand that the young mans fa­ther might be as bold with the Emperours mother, as he thought he might have béen with the young mans mother himself:


Of Musick and Mirth.

GReat controversie there is for the antiqui­ty of musick, some do attribute it to Or­pheus, as the Thracians, which with Horace affirmt, hat the musick of Orphe­us could move stones, rocks, and trées: some to Amphion, as the Thebans do, who honour Amphion for the first Musi­tian, for that with the Harp he caused stones and trees to follow him, wherewith he builded the City of Thebes: some unto Dionisius as the Gréeks, who say that he first invented harmony; Solinus affirmeth that musick was first f [...]ad in Creet: Polibius saith, that musick was first found in Arcadia: Diodorus thinketh that Apollo found harmony first; Josephus judgeth that Tobal amongst the Hebrues was the first finder of musick; and thus anti­ent writers diversly do vary herein. But as musick is but a sound in number and measure, as Cicero saith, and by di­vers means found of men, so hath it béen from time to time augmented by man. For first, when Mercury the son of Ma [...]a had found, after that the inundation of Nilus had wa­tered all Egypt amongst divers other drowned creatures, a sea Snail, the flesh being withered, and yet the sinews still remaining, striking the same it made a sound: Thus did Mercury make first a Harp with seven strings to coequat the number of Atlantides, and then he added two more and made them nine, just with the number of the Muses; thus was the first Harp made by Apollo though some say it was made by Orpheus, some by Amphion some by Li [...]s: yet it is most like that Apollo made it. For in Delphos, the pic­ture or effigies of Apollo is there set up having in his right hand a bow and in his left hand the thrée Graces and either of them having in their hands several kind of instruments, [Page 200] the first a Harp, the second a Pipe, the third a Flute. In the chapter of the invention of things, you shall at large find more concerning musick. But now to declare the har­mony of musick, the mirth and melody that procéeds from musick, the love and affection that antient Princes and gravewise men bare to musick: Themistocles, though he was wise and discréet in other things, yet for that, as Cicero saith in his first book of Tusculans, he refused to hear one play on the Harp in a banquet where he was, he then of the wisest men in Athens was thought and judged to be of lesse lear­ning than they supposed him to be: For the Greeks judged none to be learned, unlesse he were experienced in musick: Socrates the father of all philosophy, and master of all Phi­losophers being by the Oracle of Apollo named and judged the wisest man in all the world in his latter years being an old man was taught to play upon the Harp, and often found amongst little children: he being taunted of Alcibiades, for that he found him playing with a little infant called Lam­proces, answered: it is good being to be in good company. Even so that wise and discreet Prince Agesilaus, king some­time of the Lacedemonians, spying one of his men to laugh at him for that he rode upon a long reed with one of his children, said: hold thy peace and laugh not, and when so­ever thou shalt be a father, thou must do as a father. We read the like of noble Architas the Tarentine, who when he was married, having a great number of servants in his house, he would play with their children and delighted much in the company of young infants. Certainly either of these thrée last mentioned, Socrates, Age [...]laus, or Architas. were in those days most renowned for their wisedom and knowledge, and yet refused they not the company of young infants.

That mighty and strong Hercules though he was the son of Jupiter, and counted in all the world most famous, ra­ther a God taken then a man, as Euripides doth testifie, would be often found amongst children and young inno­cent infants playing, saying this sentence with a child in [Page 201] his hand: I play with children which for the change there­of is so grateful unto me, as though I were in the games of Olimpia. The self-same famous Hercules went to school to Livius to learn to play upon the Harp to solace him in his sadnesse, and to make him merry when he was compelled to mourn. In the middest of his triumph went that great Conquerour Alexander likewise to learn musick. That divine and godly Prophet David played upon his Harp, and served his God with hymns and godly ballads. It is writ­ten that in the marriage of King Cadmus the son of Age­nor, who builded Thebes in Boetia, the Muses played on instruments.

In Gréece musick was so esteemed, that their sages and wise Philosophers addicted themselves wholly to musick. The Arcadians, the Lacedemonians, and the Thracians, though they were people much given to wars, severe in dealing, hardy in all travels, and in learning most inexpe­rienced, yet would they acquaint themselves with musick till they were thirty years old The people of Créet brought up their youth in all kind of melody and harmony. The most part of the world did learn musick, save in Egypt, where, as Diodorus in his second book affirmeth, musick was forbidden, least the tender and soft minds of their youth should be inticed to too much pleasure. And though some contemn musick with Diogenes, and say that it were more profitable to mend manners then to learn musick: and some with Alcibiades despise musick, who was wont to say that the Thebans were méet men to learn musick, for that they could not speak, but that the Athenians should hate such wanton tunes, for that they spake without instru­ments: Likewise King Pyrrhus being demaanded which was the best musitian, Python or Charisius, he despising them and their musick, preferred a great warriour accord­ing to his own mind, named Polysperches: though these I say with divers others despised musick, yet we read again as wise as they, as stout as they, used much musick, as Aca [...] ­les, Alexander the great, Nero, Silla, M. Cato, Socrates, Cimon. [Page 202] Too many might I repeat: the learned Jopas whose songs in Virgil are expressed: the Salij, whose pleasant pamphlets Rome a long while embraced and much estéemed For as musick is delightfully pleasant, full of harmony and me­lody: so is musick terrible also and full of life and cou­rage.

For we read in the old age, while yet the world was rain, that Aliates King of Lidia, in his wars against the Milesi­ans, had Musitians for his Trumpetters, Pipers and Fid­lers, as Herodo [...]us in his first book affirmeth, to move the people with musick to wars. The people of Créet, as Gelli­us writeth, had Gitterns and Cithrons playing before them as they went to the field to fight. The Parthians used, as Plutarch [...]s in the life of Crastus reporteth, the beating of drums at their going into field; the Ethiopians used songs of divers tunes, and dancings before they went to wars: the Syrians before they met their enemies, would sing ballads to honour the fame of the wars, with all kind of dan­cing to solace themselves; the Cimbrians did make melo­dy with dry skins, beating the skins with sticks like drum sticks, at the very entrance to the enemies. Cyrus the great King did with his souldiers sing to Castor and Pollux, be­fore he took his voyage to the enemies; the Athenians would sing hymns to Iupiter before they would go to the field; the first noise and sound that the Lacedemonians had as Th [...]cidides saith, instead of Trumpets were Flutes, til' by an Oracle they were warned of Apollo that if they thought to have victory over Moslena, they should appoint a man of Athens for their Captain: the Athenians being right glad of the Oracle, for that the Laced [...]monians and Athenians were alwaies enemies one to another, they sent to Athens for a Captain, who appointed to them a lame and a deformed man, named Dircaeus; in a reproach and mock of the Lacedemonians.

This Dircae [...]s being appointed and made Captain over all the people of Sparta, he first then invented the trump, and taught all the Lacedemonians to sound the trump, [Page 203] which was such a terrour to the enemies, the people of Mes­sena, that at the first sound of the trumpets they fled, and so the Lacedemonians got the victory; thus was the ancient musick in the beginning so necessary, that every country indeavoured to have skil in musick: then Mars claimed musick in the field, now Venus onely exerciseth musick in chambers.

This is that kind of gentle and soft musick the Egypti­ans forbad the youth to be taught, lest from men they would become again women; but shall we join the old ancient games, the mirth the solace, and the plays that they used in those days, together with their musick, to prove the agility of that time, and the activities of that age to be much estée­med amongst the Gréeks and Gentiles. The Gréeks had four great games appointed: the first in mount Olimpia in Arcadia, hard by the City Pisa which Hercules invented first to honour Iupiter: this was so famous amongst the Greeks that even as the Romans used to account their time by their Consuls, so did the Greeks use to number by the games of Olimpia, which was appointed every fifth year. Vnto this game came all the youth of the world, both on horseback and on foot, to do masteries, the reward was ap­pointed for the victors a Garland made of Olive leaves for they came not there for money, but for mirth and exercise' insomuch that when Tigranes King Artabanus son heard of the fame thereof, and of the Garlands of Olive, he said: Well worthy were the Greeks to be spoken of, that so lit­tle estéemed money, the Olive was preferred for the chief reward in Olympia. This same moved first King Xerxes to wax against the Greeks to his losse and decay. The se­cond games were called Pithii, and invented of Apollo in memory that he killed the great Serpent Python, which was of Iuno sent to kill Latona, Apollo his mother. Here was appointed for the victors either on foot or on horseback, a garland made of Oken leaves. Here likewise all the youth of Greece exercised feats, practised policies, used ma­steries, and proved themselves in any thing that they felt [Page 204] themselves apt to perform, as in running, leaping, wrast­ling, riding, swimming or such like as then was used; the third was called Isthmia, invented of Theseus in the honour of Neptune. In this play was appointed for the victors certain garlands made of Pine leaves, having the name of Isthmos, a place in Achaia where Neptune is worshipped. The fourth game is called Nemea, which the Argives make in memory of Hercules, for that he killed a great fierce Li­on in the woods of Nemea, according to the name of the play. Here do likewise the Argives come to exercise youth, and practise feats as the rest do; these four plays were long in Greece observed, as causes and occasions for men to come together, to shew feates and to try qualities: the first in Olimpus for Iupiter, the second in Delos for Apollo, the third in Isthmos a place in Achaia for Neptune, the fourth amongst the Argives to Hercules. In the first play the gar­land of victory was made of Olive, in the second play the garland of victory was of Oke, in the third play they had their garlands of Pine, in the fourth play of Poplar; and thus then they triumphed in their mirth, they joied in their victories they gloried in their garlands while the Lawrel as Ovid said was not known. Besides these four famous plays, there were divers others, as Pyrrhus play which he invented in Creet, for the souldiers to exercise themselves in arms, wherein he taught divers gestures and sundry po­stures whence first procéeded the use of wars: this was a kind of d [...]ncing in arms, as Dionisius Hali in his seventh book saith, which was by the people called Curetes, main­tained in the memory of Pyrrhus. Licaon likewise invent­ed other kind of plaies, where naked men, contrary to Pyr­rhus games, did use feats of activity. Divers other games were had in great estimation in Greece, being made and invented of men, but the first inventeur of mirth was as Diodorus saith, Mercurius, which onely was invented to re­create the people, and to practise agility and feats of bodies. Others there were of lesse name, but of as great mirth, as divers kinds of playing at the Ball, which is an ancient [Page 205] game as it séemeth in Virgil, and it was much used some­time amongst the Troyans, for when Aeneas immediately after the destruction of Troy came unto Italy, he taught the exercise of the ball, before he married Lavinia King Latinus daughter; and at this day it is much used in divers coun­tries.

Again, for further recreation, they used sundry kinds of playing at dice. Herodotus doth witnesse that the old and ancient Lidians did first find out the dice and Ball, though Plini doth report that one named Pythus first found the play at the Ball: but for the certainty thereof, since so many balls there are, and the playing likewise is so variable, both Plini and Herodotus may well agree: for the people of Lydia at a certain time being oppressed with great dearth, and so plagued with hunger, they invented then divers kinds of games at dice, as Herodotus affirms to pass the time in playing, & to forget hūger, for they fed one day, & they came together the second day to play: thus eating a little one day to satisfie nature, they plaied the second day to forget hunger. Again, there was amongst the ancient Gréeks a play much like unto our chesse play, which one Xerxes a wise man first invented to warn a tyrannous prince, which he their served, to forsake his tyranny, and to let him understand by his play, that a Prince ought to be vigilant, and to use his subjects as his force and strength, even as the play is in moving the Pawns, the Knights, the Bishops for the de­fence and bulwarks of the King; thus as the player I mean Xerxes did shew his master the King the effect of the play, how the King was preserved by playing wisely of the men lest they be lost, so the tyrant himself understood by the play of Xerxes, how dangerous that Princes state is, that useth not well his subjects, nor discréetly sée and watch for their commodities, which is the Princes safe­ty.

Another play was used then in Gréece, either upon the Dice, or else closely in hand, called Even and odde. This play came from Greece unto Rome, in the time of Au­gustus [Page 206] Caesar the second Emperor of Rome, as Suetonius doth write in the life of Augustus wrote a Letter unto his daugh­ter in Rome, after this sort Daughter, I send thee two hun­dred and fifty Sestercij, which I give amongst thy guests, to play after supper, the Greek play called Even and odde, whether it be at Dice, or close in hand. Lets likewise were much used for recreation and mirth, with divers other sun­dry games and plays to recreate the mind of man, which both the Greeks and Gentiles did practise, as well to try their wits, as also to use pastime and mirth, to draw compa­ny together to be merry.

I leave the Gréeks a while, and will speak something of the Roman pastimes and sports, which in nothing were in­feriour to the Gréeks, but rather excelled Gréece, and all the world in all qualities. And lest I should seem tedious, I will speak of no more but four principal games, corres­pondent to the Greeks, and coequal to their number. The first called Lupercalia, brought out of Arcadia by Evander, and sacrificed to Pan upon mount Palentine: And as Sil­vanus doth write, the sacrifices were made in the moneth of February after this sort; The young men of Rome did convene together, every one bearing in his hand a scourge, or a whip made of Goats skins, running one to another, and he that was most swift of foot, escaped stripes; for eve­ry one was to run to another in order, every one his length before the other; and thus they made themselves swifter in running by reason of the stripes, for he that was overtaken by the way, was sure to feel the blow: Every man ran na­ked, to this end, that they might be the swifter. The wo­men likewise, thinking thereby to become more fruitfull and fertil, offered themselvs willingly to receive the stripes of the ratling thongs. These scourges and whips that they had in their hands made such a noise, by reason they were made of dry skins, that if made him that ran before to strain himself hearing the noise, and fearing the stripes.

The second game that the Romans used, was called Cir­censes; some say it sprung up first among the Romans them­selves [Page 207] in a place appointed by Rome, environed about with huge and strong walls. Here all kinds of pastime and sports were used, running with horses, and fighting on horseback in the one end; In the middest the Champions were placed in arms to fight on foot; In the other end, wrastlers, leapers, runners, and such like games were ap­pointed; so that the place was framed accordingly long and large, that they might have room enough in both ends, and in the middest.

This was the chief and the most ancient play among the Romans, saving Saturnalia. This sport did Janus invent, who did reign together with Saturn, as Macrobius saith in the memory and monument of Saturn his fellow. This play was celebrated in the moneth of December, with such mirth, pleasure, and pastime, that it far surmounted all o­ther. In this moneth of December, every man saluted his friend with rewards tokens, presents, or with any treasure that they had, to pleasure one another. And because all things were common in the time of Saturn, which was cal­led the Golden World there was such mirth used, as would make some men of this time jealous to see it; I beleeve nōe of this Age would be content to see his servant in bed with his wife, which in Saturn's time was tolerable. Some say this play sprung first among the Pelagians, some again af­firm that it began among the Athenians; but how and where it began in other countreys it is no matter, but in Rome it was first framed and invented by Janus.

The fourth play amongst the Romans was called Gladia­toria, where the youth of Rome came to learn how to behave themselves among the enemies. In this play they did fight one with another at the long Spear, the long Sword, the Staff, and such weapons as then they used in fight, for to em­bolden themselves: In this play, being naked, and with­out arms, they came to fight against their armed enemies. By this play were the Romans taught boldly to fight with their enemies, and being hardened at home, did little e­steem wounds and blows abroad. Thus games and plays [Page 208] were chiefly estéemed of the Romans, who, as Cicero in his Offices affirmeth, had divers others in Martius field, hard by Rome, to exercise the young men to practise feats of Chi­valry, to become ready and prompt in martial affairs, which they onely most esteemed.


A Comparison between the love of Men and Beasts.

IF men be divers in affection one towards a­nother, as we daily sée and try by experi­ence; how much ought the silly and simple beast, which wants use of spéech, to be com­mended, that so careth and provideth for its self and his own. And though Cicero saith it be common to all living creatures to multiply, and to be carefull over those that nature procreated, yet men do ex­cel all kind of beasts, seeing all things are in subjection to man, as well the heavens above, and all that shineth there­in, as the earth beneath, and all that live thereon. And here I marvel much, though the secret working of nature in fierce and raging beasts be tolerable; yet in a reasonable man, whom (saith the Philosopher) Nature onely moveth to the best, such enmity, variance and discord should procéed. It is thought that the Eagle and the Swan be not friends, that the Dolphin and the Whale cannot agrée, and that the Wolf and the Fox are always at variance: the same of the Dog and Cat, of the Crow and the Kite may be spo­ken; but it is well known, that man is most odious to man: and though it be spoken, Homo homini Deus, yet it is pro­ved, Homo homini Daemon. If Nature made the Lion, the most valiant beast in the world, to fear the little crowing Cock; if Nature do cause the huge and monstrous Ele­phant, to tremble at the sight of a silly simple Shéep; and if Nature move the Panther, a strong and a strange beast, to quake at the presnce of a Hind: If Nature work so sub­tily, that the strongest, mightiest, and valiantest beasts, [Page 209] should fear those that are most ancient and most simple: how much more might reason rule in us to fear our God and his mighty works, which we altogether contemn, ei­ther forgetting his glory, or despising his power? though in beasts the heavens have dominion, yet said David, man by his reason and knowledge of God ruleth the heavens. But I will omit to speak further of that, and will return to that which I mean a little to discusse. I will not speak of the love and affection of man in general, but of the love mutual betwixt man and wife, betwixt brother and bro-brother. And as it is a vertue not to be forgotten, so is it a vertue most rare to find, for every thing in its own kind is most to be accepted, and first to entreat of the excéeding love, of the wonderfull affection that men bare towards their wives.

We read of that noble Roman Antonius Pius, who lo­ved so well his wife Faustine, that when she died, he caused her picture to be made, and to be set up before his face in his bed chamber, to ease some part of his grief with the sight thereof. M. Plancius sayling with his wife to Asia, with thréescore sail of ships came very gorgeously to the Ci­ty of Tarentum, where in the middest of his pomp and great glory, for that his wife Orestella by sicknesse died, he siue himself with a dagger, saying: two bodies shall possess one grave. The like we read of two young men in Plu­tarch, the one named Aemilius, the other Cianippus, who for méer affection and passing love towards their wives, after long torments pangs and pains conceived by inward griefs that their wives were dead, did offer their pined bodies a sacrifice unto death, for a pledge of their true and faithfull love. What means doth love séek to save it self, and to be acquainted with ease and pleasure, how carefully the Greek Poet Antimachus bewailed the death of his wife Lisidides, in such mourning verses and wofull plaints that whosoe­ver did read them he would be as ready to weep in reading the dolefull Epitaph of Lisid [...]des, as was Antimachus her husband sorrowfull for her death. Pericles was so loving to [Page 210] his wife, being a noble Captain of Athens, and he was withal so chast, that when Sophocles espied a marvellous beautifull young maid, saying, Behold a passing fair young maid, Pericles answered and said, Not onely the heart and the hands of a Magistrate must be chast, but also his eys must refuse the sight of any but his wife. It is read, that Pericles being at Athens, he was found kissing and making much of his wife, and being from Athens, he was found as sad to depart from his wife, as he was willing to die for his countrey. Orpheus loved so well his wife Euridice, that as the Poets feign, he feared not the power of King Pluto, to redéem his wife, with hazard and danger of his own bo­dy. Innumerable are they that deserve the like fame, so that these few may be a sufficent proof of others And now I will produce a few examples to prove the like good will and love from the wives shewed toward their husbands, as hi­therto you heard the great love of husbands towards their wives. Alcestes, a noble Qu. of Thessaly, at what time K. Admetus her husband should die, having received an answer by an Oracle, that if any would die for the King he should live; which when all refused, his wife Queen Alcestes of­fered her self to die to save her husbands life. Julia the wife oi Pompey the great, and onely daughter to that famous and renowned Julius Caesar Emperour of Rome, was no lesse obedient to her father Caesar, then she was loving to her hus­band Pompey, who though they both were enemies one to to another, yet she shewed her self a loving daughter unto her father, and a true wife to her husband and so true, that when she saw her own Pompey coming bloudy from the field, as his apparel made a shew a great way off, she supposing yt her husband was hurt, being great with child did straight fall into travel, and died before Pompey had yet come in.

The love of Artemisia Quéen of Caria towards her hus­band King Mausolus is as well declared by the sumptuous Tomb. and gorgeous Grave, which she made for him when he died, counted for the excellency thereof, to be one of the seven wonders of the world; it was also truly verified by [Page 211] ceremonies at his death, in making the scull of his head her drinking cup, in drinking all the ashes of his body as sugar to her wine, and in knitting of his heart to her body, say­ing, Though our bodies be parted, yet our hearts shall ne­ver be asunder.

That noble Greek Laodamia loved her husband so well, that when she heard that her husband Protesilaus was slain by Hector at the siege of Troy, she desired onely of God, that she might see his shadow or likenesse once before she died; which when she saw, embracing the likenesse of her hus­band, as she thought, in her arms, she then presently died.

We read that Quéen Ipsicratea loved her husband King Mithridates so entirely, that she shaved off all the hairs of her head, and did wear mans apparel, and followed him like a Lackey, for that he should not know her to be his wife; she had rather go to the wars with her husband like a Lackey, then tarry from her husband in Pontus like a Quéen. Pau­lina when she heard that her husband Seneca was put to death by that cruel Emperour and Tyrant Nero, whom Se­neca sometime taught in his youth, but was at length requi­ted with death; when (I say) Paulina heard thereof, she en­quired what kind of death her husband suffered, which be­ing known, she attempted to die the same kind of death her self as Seneca her husband.

Likewise that noble Portia, daughter to Cato, and wife to Brutus, hearing that her husband was slain at Phillipi, for that she could not procure a knife, she choaked her self with coals. The like History is read of Triata, who when she knew by letters that her husband Vitellius was environ­ed by his enemies, and no way able to escape, his wife rush­ed into the Camp, and preast near her husband, ready to die or to live in the field with him.

What can be so hard to take in hand, but love will hazard it? What can be so perilous, but love will venter it? Nei­ther water can stay it, nor fire stop it. Sulpitia the wife of Lentulus, the daughter of that worthy Roman Paterculus, when she perceived that her husband was appointed by the [Page 212] Magistrates of Rome to passe unto Sicilia as an Embas­sador, and there to continue for a season though her mother had great charge over her, and very carefull and studious she was to comfort her daughter in the absence of her hus­band; yet she deceived her mother, she changed her appa­rel, and caused her two maids likewise to be disguised, and went all by night from Rome to Sicily, Aemilia the wife of Affricanus, and mother to the noble Cornelia, who was mo­ther to those famous Romans called Gracchi, perceiving her husband to be in love with one of her maids in the house, and often to use the maid as his wife, though Aemilia knew well of it yet she never hated the maid, nor opened it unto her husband; But after that her husband was dead she gave unto this Maid a great summe of money, and marri­ed her wealthily in Rome: A rare thing to be found in a woman.

What shall I speak of the love of Penelope in Gréece, to­wards her husband Ulysses? or shew the constancy of Lu­creece in Rome, towards her husband Collatine? the one twenty years was proved by divers noble Greeks, yet she remained true unto Ulisses; the other through force being ravished by proud Tarquinius son named Sextus, would not be false to Collatinus, but opened the same, and revenged it with her own death. Now again how well did Queen To­miris love her son Margapites, the death of great Cyrus King of Persia with two hundred thousand of his souldiers can testifie: or how Aegeus loved his son Theseus, who when he had perceived the black sail, he supposing his son was slain, in that Labyrinth, he threw himself from a high rock into the sea. Why should I molest the Reader herein since an end can hardly be found? I will but onely recite one wor­thy History out of Valerius, of a servant to one named Pa­nopion, who hearing that certain souldiers came to the Ci­ty of Reatina in purpose to kill his master, he changed ap­parel with his master, and conveyed his master first away safe from the enemies, and he went unto his masters bed, as though he had béen Panopion, and suffered himself to be slain [Page 213] in stead of his master. A man would think, that greater love could be found in no man, then for a man to die for his friend, and truth it is: But to find such love in beasts to­wards men, is wonderfull indéed; Insomuch, that in Leu­cadia a Peacock loved a young Virgin so well, that when she died the Peacock also died. And Pliny saith, that in the City of Seston an Eagle being brought up by a young maid, loved the maid so well, that it would fly abroad, and kill fowls, and bring them home to the young maid; and when the Virgin died, the Eagle flew into that same fire where the maid was appointed to have her dead body burn­ed, and also died with her.

The Persians were wont for favour and affection they baro unto their horses, to bury them; and the people na­med Molossi made brave Sepulchres for their dogs. Alex­ander the great made a tomb for his horse Bucephalus, so did Antiochus and Caesar likewise. Such love and faithfull trust was found in dogs, that the great King Masinissa of Numi­dia never went to bed, but had a dosen great dogs in his chamber, as his guard to kéep and watch him from his ene­mies, for sure he was that money might not corrupt them, friendship might not allure them, and threatnings might not fear them. There was a Dog in Athens named Capa­rus, unto whom the tuition of the Temple of Aesculapius was committed, with all the wealth and treasure therein, which in the night being trained away, the Temple was robbed, the substance and the riches was stoln thence, but in the morning the dog found out the falshood thereof, and made all Athens privy of the theeves, by raving and run­ing toward them.

We read in Plini of Ulisses dog, which Ulisses left at home when he went with Agamemnon to Phrygia to the wars of Troy, and being twenty years absent, he found Penelope his wife and his dog faithfull and loving at his re­turn. That noble Gréek Lisimachus had a dog named Duri­des, that loved him so well, that even at Lisimachus death, the dog died also. Hiero had another dog that died even so, [Page 214] and ran willingly unto that flame of fire where his master did burn, to die with him. I might well speak of Alcibia­des dog, which wheresoever he came, no man might or durst speak any evill of Alcibiades in presence of his dog. Titus Sabinus dog never forsook his master in prison, and when any man gave him bread or meat, he brought it to his master in prison, and when he was thrown into the river Tiber, the dog was séen, as Fulgotius saith, to do what he could to lift up his masters head out of the water, think­ing his master had béen alive.

At what time Pyrrhus subdued the City of Argos, there was in those wars an Elephant which after he perceived that his master was slain, went up and down among the dead souldiers to seek his master; which being found dead, the Elephant brought his body being dead to a safe place, where the Elephant after much mourning died for sorrow. The like examples we read in Plini of horses, and special­ly of thrée, the one Alexander the great, King of Macedo­nia had; the second Julius Caesar Emperour of Rome posses­sed; the third Antiochus King of Syria had: these thrée hor­ses suffered no man to ride or touch them, but their own master, and were so gentle to them, that they kneeled to let them mount on their backs. Thus beasts did bear fancy to men, obey and love them, and were most true and trusty to men, and did shew such love, as neither Seleucus to his son An [...]gonus, or Pericles to his son Priasus, nor So­crates to his son Lamproces did ever shew. How gentle was a Woolf unto King Romulus, to nourish him in spight of his Grandfather Amulius? How loving was a Bear to Alexander, to bring him up against his fathers will King Priamus? How kind was a Bitch to King Cyrus, to foster him unawares to his Grandfather King As [...]iages? The Bees come to Plato his Cradle to féed him with honey, be­ing an infant. The little Ants brought grains to féed King Mydas, being likewise in his Cradle. O what is man said the Prophet David that thou art so mindfull of him, that thou hast brought all things in subjection to him, beasts of [Page 215] the fields, fouls of the ayr, and fishes of the Seas, all things made to fear and to love him, and yet he neither to fear God nor to love himself. We read in Quintus Curtius of an Elephant that King Potus of India had, which Alexander the great took captive afterward, when this Elephant saw the King first, he knéeled down and shewed such honour and homage as was marvellous to the beholders. It is read in Caelius, of a King in Egypt named Merthes, that had a Crow taught to carry his letters, and how to bring answer in writing home again. Plini doth write that a Nightingale loved Stesicorus so well, that it would alwaies sing at the beck of Stesicorus to pleasure him. Heraclides the Philoso­pher had a Dragon taught to follow him every where. A­jax likewise had in Locresia a Serpent brought up and taught to honour him as his master. Agrippina the Empress and wife unto Claudian, had a Thrush that never departed from her during the Empresse life. Plini hath in his book of natural histories infinit such exāples to prove the love that all moving creatures do ow & shew to man: as the wild Bull in Tarentum, the raging bear in Daunia, which Pythago­ras so tamed, that all places, all countries, and all persons, were sure and safe from any danger or hurt by these wild beasts. This commeth by no vertue that is in man but onely by that which God made for man, that all living creatures fear man and love man; so that if comparisons be made, it shall be evident that there hath béen more love in beasts towards man, then in man towards man: yea, then brother to brother, then the husband toward the wife, or the wife toward her huband, considering the nature of man and the beast together.


Of Memory, and Oblivion.

SOme hold opinion, that in the ancient time whiles yet the world flourished not in learning, that memory then was most set by and estéemed; for whatsoever was séen or heard, was then committed to memory, and not recorded in books. But Socrates said, after the use of letters were had, the vertue of memory decayed, for that care which then was by tradition and memory, with care and diligence to observe, is now by all put in books, that now our memory is put in writing, and then was it fixed in mind: insomuch that the noble Athenian Themistocles passing by Simonides school, who as some suppose taught first the Art of memory, being demanded whether he would learn the art and faculty of memory, answered, that he had rather learn how to forget things, then to kéep things in memory, for I cannot said he, forget what I would, and I have things in memory, which feign I would they were out of memory. Seneca doth so report of himself; that he was of such a perfect me­mory, that he could rehearse after one, by hearing, two hun­dred verses: yea to a greater marvell of his memory, he could recite two thousand names of men, being repeated once before him, with as good a memory as he that first na­med them. The like we read of Aelius Adrianus a Captain, that having a great army of souldiers under him, if any were absent in any place about any businesse, he had in me­mory the name of the person, the name of the place, and the cause of the businesse. Of this excellent memory, to their perpetuall fame was King Cyrus and Scipio, the one a Per­sian the other a Roman, which had this fame by memory, that either of them could severally call their souldiers by name, every one after another, which is most rare, yea most marvellous, having so many alwaies under them, as [Page 217] both Rome and Persia were chiefly in their days by them defended, to be able to name so many souldiers, as either of them both had in their armies. Their memory was such then that they may not be forgotten now: Julius Caesar was much renowned, for that Pliny reported, that he could do such things by memory, as in reading, in talking, in hear­ing, and in answering at one time, that no fault could be found in either of these four qualities at one time practised, whereby he deserveth no lesse praise by his memory, then fame by his acts. Divers excelled in time past in memo­ry, as Hortensius a noble Oratour of Rome, was able to speak in any place, any thing which he premeditated pri­vately, without study openly, he had more trust in his me­mory then in books. Carmides of Greece was so famous for that faculty, that he never heard any reading, but he could repeat it word by word without writing, were the writing or reading never so long, he would not misse a syllable. Ci­neas a noble and a famous Oratour, one of the counsellours of King Pyrrhus, being sent from Epire unto the Sena­tours of Rome as an Embassadour, he but once hearing the names of the Senatours, before he came unto the Senate house, he named them orderly by name, every one after a­nother, that all the Senatours were in a great admiration of his memory, in repeating so many names in opening so many matters, in concluding so many things: which when he came unto King Pyrrhus, he recited not onely his doings and orations, but also their answers and replies, every word by word, as then was spoken, done, or writ­ten by the Senatours. This Cineas was not so excellent of memory, but also of passing eloquence of whom King Pyr­rhus was wont to say, that he got more Cities, Towns and Kingdomes by the eloquence of Cineas, then with all the force and strength of the Epirots beside. It is written in Laertius in his eighth book, that Pythagoras had charge of God Mercury, to ask what he would (saving immortality) and he should have have it, and he willed to keep in memo­ry all things that he heard, and saw and to forget nothing [Page 218] being dead, of that which he saw being alive, which being granted the soul of Athalides being slain by Menelaus, en­tred in Euphorbus, secondly took place in Hermonius, third­ly in Pyrrhus, & fourthly into Pythagoras, which had such me­mor [...] thereby, that he could describe the state of the living & the dead. Divers were famous for memory amongst the Greeks, as Archippus, Lysiades, Metrodorus, Carneades, The­odectes, and others. Many amongst the Romans, were re­nowned for their memories, as Julius Coesar, L. Scipio, Por­tius, Claudius Hortensius, with infinite number. What great fame had Mithrid [...]tes King of Pontus that having as Pliny and Gellius both report xxii. strange nations, that were souldiers alwaies in wars under him against the Romans, he could speak xxii. languages, without interpre­ter to open his mind unto them. A strange thing it is now to find a man in this our ripe years, that can speak half a dozen languages. If a man can but smatter in six or seven languages, he is noted to be a rare fellow, and yet King Mithridates had xxii. A note of great memory; for some there be in learning for one language, that they hardly know, they forget another that they know. That worthy man Lucullus is remembred of Cicero in his fourth book of Academical questions, for his passing and noble memory. The Egyptians used notes and figures for their memory, insomuch that they noted the well memoried man with a For or a Hare, for that the Hare heareth best, and the For is of greatest memory: and if any wanted memory, they compared him to the Crocodile. We read of Esdras a Priest, that he had all the laws of the Hebrews upon his finger end. We read of Portius that he never forgot any thing, that he once read before. He again, would never read that, which once he wrot, but straight out of hand, his memory was such, he would speak it and pronounce it in order even as he wrote it before. Memory therefore is like­ned to a Net, which taketh and stayeth great fish, and let­teth through the little fish; and even as books that be not occupied wax rusty, and did cleave together, so memory, [Page 219] that is not occupied, saith Seneca, waxeth dull, and oblivi­ous, as we oftentimes see how forgetfull men wax, either with sicknesse, age, or such like, that letteth the memory of man: as Orbilius by extremity of age forgot his Alphabets and letters: Hermolaus had a friend, which in his youth was a perfect Grecian, and yet in his latter years waxed so oblivious, that he could not read Gréek. Plini saith Messala surnamed Corvius waxed so forgetfull by long sicknesse, that he forgot his own name. And Seneca doth write of one Calvisius, that was so weak of memory, that he did forget the names of those, that he was daily in company with, as Achilles, Ulisses, and Priamus whom he knew very well. What is it else for a man to want memory, but to want the name of his knowne friend, for hee is no man that knoweth not that man: as Augustus Caesar, sometime Emperour of Rome, his beadel having forgot when he should come unto the Senate, demanded of the Emperour whether he would command him to do any thing that he could do? why said the Emperour, take this letter with thee, that men may know thée, for thou knowest no man, for thou wantest memory.

Cicero doth make mention of Curio, that was so oblivi­ous, being a judge, that he forgot the cause, which he should give judgement upon. Likewise Articus the son of Sophista was of so frail memory, that he could never keep in mind, the names of the four Elements. Bamba a certain King of the Goths, by a draught of drink given by Heringeus his suc­cessour lost his memory. It may well be that drink cutteth off memory. For the Poets fain that there is a river na­med Lethes, whose water if any man taste thereof, he forget­teth any thing done or past before. In this were the Thra­cians so dull of memory, that they could not count above the number of four. Now that memory is praised in some, and obliviousnesse is dispraised in others, there vvant no testimonies therein vvhat may be spoken of those that vvere counted famous clerks, and the renovvnedst O­ratours in all the vvorld, vvhich did not onely stay in their [Page 220] Orations, but also were quite beside their matters? as De­mosthenes Cicero, two noble Oratours upon whom depend­ed the City of Athens and Rome, such imperfection was in them, that Demosthenes was so dismaied at the presence of Philip King of Macedonia, and Cicero so astonied at the presence of some bold Senators, that both tongue and coun­tenance failed these noble Orators.

Likewise Theophrastus that grave Philosopher who suc­céeded Aristotle, many times was put to silence in the mid­dest of his Oration, before the people of Athens. So was Heraclitus Severus dumb before the Emperour, Herodus At­ticus was before M. Antonius; so that the presence of Prin­ces, the dignity of places, the majesty of states, abate and change the worthinesse of the person. Some again chal­lenge to themselves that which altogether they are in no capacity to apprehend, as Hyparchion, who when he would have contended with Ruffinus, had not a word to speak, in somuch that a proverb grew thereon, applied unto him that is more talkative then wise, Hiparchion is dumb. Some a­gain with Cassius Severus, who though all his books were bur­ned by Senatours, said that he carried all his learning in mind and memory, which could not be taken away. For my learning, said he, is in my mind, and not printed in books.

The greatest excellency that can be in man is memory, and the next thing that approacheth immortality is memo­ry. and so nigh, that if a man could but remember the end of the things, he should never taste death, but he should live for ever.


Of Dissimulation and Craft; of Subtiltie and Deceit.

THat Cynick Philosopher Diogenes, making himself ignorant sometime in that which he knew best, was wont in banquets and feasts to say, if any man had demanded what kind of meat there was, I cannot name it, but I can eat it; and so would passe to answer any thing with dissimulations. So likewise Sigismund the Em­perour would say, that he that could not dissemble, could not rule. At what time Galba, a Citizen of Rome, had bidden a Gentleman named Mecaenas unto supper, perceiving the Gentleman to be in love with his wife, he feigned himself asléep, for that Mecaenas might shew some part of his will, and love in the mean season: In the mean time, while his wife and he were in talk, came one of his servants, to take some things away from the table, supposing his master had béen asléep; unto whom his master said, Sirrah forbear, though I sée not Mecaenas, yet I sée you; I sléep to him, and not to you.

The like dissimulation was betwéen Demosthenes and Archia, at what time he fled from Athens for fear of Antipa­ters displeasure, and went to the Isle of Calabria, where in the Temple of Neptune he hid himself, till Archias came, and promised him what honour and dignity he could enjoy, if he would come unto Antipater: Demosthenes perceiving his dissimulations, and crafty ways, answered plainly, to move him to anger, and said, Thou of all men couldest ne­ver play upon the stage, playing thy part then where truth is oftentimes opened, and now at this time, thou canst not be an Orator to perswade me: whereat Archias waxed an­gry, and threatned to hale him out of the Temple; to whom Demosthenes answered, Now perforce thy dissimulation is broke forth into truth.

I might hereon stay, to note the great dissimulation be­twéen [Page 222] Metellus and Scipio, which was so great, that Metellus feigned that Rome was happy that Scipio was born therein, and yet was his mortal enemy all the days of his life. In like case Frederick, an Emperor sometime of Rome, at what time the Senators would sit about the state of the City, he would say, Before you go into the Senate house, cast away from you two things that you carry with you: And being demanded of the Senate, what two things were they, he said, Simulations, and Dissmulations.

In this Philip of Macedon differed much from his son A­lexander, insomuch that Alexander would exercise nothing but magnanimity and truth; and his father used all kind of falshood, as was séen by subduing of the Sarunsians, and the Cities of Thrace; for under colour of peace, he com­manded his souldiers to bring under their Clokes, every one a cord, that at what time King Philip made silence to speak, the enemies being attentive to hear, he stretched forth his right hand, for a Watch-word to his souldiers, sud­denly to bind the enemies with their cords, and to bring them captive to Macedonia. The like craft used Alcibiades amongst the Agrigentines, feigning that he had something to speak for the common profit, as well of Athens, as of A­grigentum, calling them into place as though he would o­pen something necessary for them, and had the Gréeks rea­dy in the mean time to take the City, and to possesse their substance by this craft.

Such craft used Thrasillus, to take the City of Byzanti­um; such deceit used Zopyrus, to overcome Babylon; such did Sextus the son of Tarquinius practise against the Gabi­ans, who when he perceived that his father might by no means subdue them, he imitated Zopyrus craft, making the enemies to believe that he was ill handled, and cruelly used by his father, and that he knew well how to deceive his fa­ther, and to betray him unto them, they being ready to be­leeve Sextus, made him chief of their company: He straight sent messengers to his father, to signifie unto him, that he might do his pleasure with his enemies. Tarquinius under­standing [Page 223] the craft and subtilty of his son, did bring the mes­senger into a fair garden, mistrusting (like a wise Prince) the matter, and gave this subtil warning to his son; Wal­king up and down the Garden with divers noble man, he with his staff did strike off the chief flowers in the Garden, saying to the messenger, Farewel, tell my son what I do, and bid him do accordingly. Young Sextus Tarquinius per­ceiving his fathers mind, flew the most eminent of his ene­mies, and having thus oppressed the chief men, he betrayed the City to his Father.

By this means, and like craft, Conon the Athenian decei­ved the Persians in Cyprus. The subtilty that Pysistratus used, to beguile the people of Megaera, & what Hannibal used in Italy, when he subdued Tarentum, are to like effect; inso­much that Hannibal was wont to say when the Romans had again won Tarentum, Eadem arte qua prius cepimus, Ta­rentum amisimus: For by craft Hannibal vanquished the Ta­rentines, and by craft did the Romans win the same again. Antigonus deceived the Citizens of Corinth, under the co­lour of a marriage betwixt his son Demetrius, and Alexan­ders wife, who then was a widdow, and a Quéen in Co­rinth; for in the midst of triumphs, and preparations to the marriage, Antigonus by deceit took the Castle, comman­ded his souldiers in arms, and proclaimed himself King in Corinth.

In the same book of Polinaeus, the like History is writ­ten of Lysander of Sparta, and Nearchus of Creet, the one promising to the inhabitants of Miletum, his aid and help, in defending their liberties, and the people giving credit to a Kings promise, and trusting to have Lysander their spe­cial friend, they found him their mortal foe; for he decei­ved them thereby, and took the City of Miletum unto him­self. The other sailing to the haven of Telmessus to renue friendship with Antripatridas, who then governed the City of Telmessus, under the color of friendship, he had his men at arms ready on the Sea, to destroy his friend, and to take the City to himself.

[Page 224]This deceit was not onely séen in wars, where much fals­hood and perjury is practised, but in all things men use craft, according to the proverb, There is craft in daubing. To speak of Theodectes craft toward his Master Aristotle, to defraud him privily of his glory; to speak of Sertorius deceit, in winning authority among the common people; to describe the means that Dionisius used to get mony amongst the Sy­racusans; or how Pythius deceived Cannius in his bargain of fish; or how Darius became King of Persia by the neighing of a Mare, and a million more of such deceits and crafts, were infinite. I therefore refer the Reader to Poliaenus, where he shall have enough of falshood. But because craft is used diversly, I will somewhat touch those that used craft, in altering themselves into the form of women, some for filthy lust, some for vertues sake, and some for vice.

What kind of dissimulation was in Sardanapalus King of Assyria, to forsake the Empire to forgo his Kingdome, to become like a woman to spin and card with his Concu­bines, and so from the shape of a man to dissemble himself to be a woman? What kind of dissimulation did that re­nowned and mighty Hercules, even the off-spring of the Gods, and son to Jupiter, use, after that he tamed monsters, slew Giants, overcame Dragons, Lions, wild beasts, and yet he did translate himself from a champion and a conque­rour into womans apparel, and fashioned himself like a woman: with such dissimulation he served Omphale Quéen of Lydia like a woman, in the apparel of a woman, at the whéel and at the cards at Omphales commandement. What kind of craft used Clodius, to bring his purpose to pass with Pompeia, Caesars wife, dissembling himself to be a woman, as Cicero taunteth him in an Epistle that he writeth to Lentu­lus, where he saith, that Clodius dissembled with the Npmph Bona Dea, as he was wont to use the thrée sisters. Thus Clodius would at all times go unto Pompeia, in the apparel of a woman to use such feats, that he made Caesar to divorce his wife Pompeia.

Dissimulations and subtilties, as they are most evil to [Page 225] practise so somtimes they are necessary to do good; for exam­ple, Euclides used the like craft as before, but to a better pur­pose; for he practised it not to féed lust, or to pleasure affectiō, but he used it to hear Soc [...]ates to read Philosophy, & to learn wisedome from him. For there was a law betwéen Athens and them of Megaris, for the great hatred the one bare un­to the other, that whosoever came from Athens to Mega­ris should die, and whosoever would go from Megaris to Athens should likewise die. Thus death frighted not Eu­clides, but the love th [...]t he bare to Socrates, and to Philoso­phy, and wisedome, so emboldned him, that he would in the night travel from Megaris to Athens, in the apparel of a woman least he should be known, and he returned before day from Athens, to Megaris again. This dissimulation and craft of Euclides was far better, and more to be com­mended then the doings of the former. Better is Semiramis Quéen of Babylon thought of, in that she perceiving her young son Ninus, to be too tender to govern the stout Baby­lonians and Assyrians, and knowing the nature of the peo­ple to be impatient of a womans government, became in her apparel like a man, and ruled the Kingdome till her son came to ripe age. More pra [...]ie ought [...]l [...]gia a woman of Antioch to have, who though she fained her self to be a man, and dissembled with the world in that case, yet this was to avoid incontinence, and to live chast and solitary, without the company of men. For this cause is the Greek Virgin M [...]rina, and Euphrosina a maid of Alexandria, wor­thily preferred before Cleocritus and Clisthenes for that they went in the apparel of men to live in the wildernesse, to avoid lust and sensuality: the others went in the apparell of women to beguile women Caelius doth report, that certain women as Mantinia, Lasthenia, Ax [...]othea, and Phliasia would come in their apparel like men, to hear Plato read philoso­phy in the schools. The cause of their dissimulations was vertue and honest life; the cause of the others dissimulati­on was vice and a wicked life: so that dissimulation is both good and bad.

[Page 226]For we read at what time the armed youth of Gréece, had determined co fetch home again fair Helene, Menelaus wife, from Troy, where she was deteined by Paris King Priamus son, that then Achilles the stoutest and worthiest of all the Gréeks, while yet he slept in the Tent of Chi­ron, his mother Thetis suddenly took him from Chi [...]ons house, and changed his apparel into the apparel of a wo­man, and appointed where he should hide himself with the daughters of King Lycomedes, where he got one of them with child, and commanded her to betray him to no man, for she knew that her son Achilles should die in Troy, if he should go thither. There Achilles was a long while, at the commandement of his mother Thetis, untill the Oracle was given that the City of Troy should never be destroy­ed without the help of Achilles, Ulisses being most subtill and crafty, taking upon him to séek out Achilles, took a lit­tle pack full of fine wares, such as women buy and a strong bow and arrows: thus when Ulisses came to King Lyco­medes daughters, though he knew Achilles to be there, yet because he was in the apparel of a woman he knew him not, and therefore shewed his fine ware unto the Kings daughters, having a strong bow bent by him: while Dei­damia the mother of Pyrrhus, and the rest of her sisters, viewed the glistering ware of Ulisses, Achilles stept in, and took Ulisses bow in hand, and drew it, whereby Ulisses séeing him draw so strong a bow, he straight perceived, that he was Achilles. And thus one craft beguileth another, one de­ceit deceiveth another, and one dissembling man findeth out another. For by the means of Ulisses, was the dissimu­lation of Achilles known. I might have just occasion here, to speak of those that were much given to soft clothing, gay apparel, and delicate fare, as Aristotle the Prince of Philo­sophers, delighted to go brave in gorgeous apparel, with rich Chains and Kings, and had herein great felicity. De­mosthenes and Hortensius, two famous and noble Oratours, the one of Athens, and the other of Rome, went so fine in their cloths, with such neat and wanton gesture, that L. [Page 227] Torquatus would often call Hortensius the son of Dionisia, for that she had great pleasure in dancing, and light ge­sture of bodie. But I will omit such examples and speak of dissembling persons, who thinking to hurt others de­stroyed themselves, as that strong Golias, who contemning all Israel for force and strength, David a weak man over­came him. Hammon was hanged upon that gallows that he prepared for Mardocheus, even so Absalon going about to destroy his father King David, was hanged by the hairs of his head by Gods appointment.


Of Famine.

CIcero, in his first book of Tusculans questions, doth note the saying of Socrates, that hun­ger was the best sauce to meat, and thirst the best occasion to drinke. Wherefore King Dioniusis the tyrant, hearing much report of the Lacedemonians hard fare, and specially of their pottage, which was called Jus ni­g [...]um, the black pottage, he took a Cook of that Countrey to be his servant, to dresse his diet in the ordinary way of the Lacedemonians: the Cook having taken much pains in making the foresaid pottage, he brought a messe thereof unto the King, who much longed for it; but assoon as he ta­sted of it, he spit it again out of his mouth, and was v [...]ry angry with the Cook, saying: is this the pottage that the Lacedemonians so much brag of, my dog, said D [...]onisius, should not eat it: the Cook perceiving the gluttony of the King, said: O Dionisius whensoever thou art to eat of this pottage, thou must bring fit sauce for it, which is a Lacede­monians stomack, for the Princes of Sparta have more pleasure in this kind of fare, then ever King Mydas had in his golden banquets.

What maketh any meat swéet? hunger. What causeth man to féed pleasantly? hunger. Or what makes any drink [Page 228] pleasant thirst? For at what time Darius was enforced of méer thirst to drink of a lake, all defiled with stinking car­cases of dead souldiers being then in the field and compel­led to take his flight, he said after his draught, that he ne­ver drank swéeter drink in his life. Though this King was a proud Prince over the Persians, and had all kind of wines at commandement, yet his want and penury now, and his thirsty stomack, was the onely cause of this noble drink which he so much commended and preferred before all the wine that ever he drank before. Even so affirmed King Artaxerxes in his wars, when his victuals, and all were spoiled by the enemies, of a few dry figs, and of a piece of a barley loaf upon which he fel so hungerly, that he spake after this sort: O good Lord, of how great a pleasure have I béen all this while ignorant.

Lisimachus likewise being in wars in Thracia, against Domitianus the Emperour, where he and all his souldiers were kept so long without drink, untill he was so thirsty, that he was inforced with all his host to yeeld as captives to the Emperour Domitianus, and now being in captivity, having a draught of drink of the Emperour, he said: O God that I should make my self from a King to be a captive, from a noble Prince of Greece, to be a bond­slave unto the Romans, for one draught of drink? See what hunger and thirst is: how it hath made Kings to yeeld, and Princes to be vanquished. Yea it hath made King Ptolomy in his own Kingdome of Egypt, to com­mend a piece of bread which was given him in a poor Cottage, and to say that he never eat better meat, nor more comfortable chear in all his life, then that piece of bread was.

It was the custome of that noble Emperor Julius Caesar, in all his wars, more with famine, then with sword, to van­quish his enemies. For this famous warriour would often say, that even as the physitian would use his patients, so would he his enemies; the rule of the physitian is, to make his patient fast to recover his health, The order of Caesar [Page 229] was, to kéep the enemy from victual, to make them yéeld. Great is the force of Famine: And by Histories we read, that when King Cambyses marched towards the Ethiopi­ans, he endured great scarcity of victuals, and such penury and want of food was among the souldiers, that they agréed with themselves to kill the tenth throughout all the host, to asswage hunger; and the Famine continued so long, that Cambyses the King was in great fear, lest the Lot should at length happen upon him and so to be eaten of his own soul­diers.

Sagunthus a City in Spain, as Eutropius doth witnesse, in great amity with the Romans, was besieged by the Car­thaginians so long, that all the City was brought unto such famine, that the Lords and the Captains of the City made a great fire in the Market place, and there brought all their wealth and substance, and threw it into the fire, and after made their Wives and their Children to enter into the fire, and last of all, the chief Lords and Captains, ended their own lives in it lest they should come into the enemies hand: So great was that Famine, that it was before prognosticated by a Woman in the time of her delivery, whose child, his head being out, entred into his Mothers womb again.

The like calamity happened in Caligurium, a City where Quintilian was born, which being likewise long be­sieged by Cneius Pompey, to bring them in subjection, and to kéep promise with Sertorius, they lacked victuals, and waxed so hungry, that all kind of beasts whatsoever being slain, they were constrained to eat their own Wives and Children. It was séen in Ierusalem, when that it was de­stroyed by Vespasian, the Emperor of Rome, that the mo­thers were compelled to eat their own children, for very hunger, whose small and tender bones were left as a shew and token of their calamity.

Pliny in his eighth book of Natural Histories, saith, that when Hannibal laid siege to the city Casilinum, the Roman [Page 230] souldiers were in such hunger, that one Mouse was sold for two hundred pieces of silver, and he that sold the Mouse, died himself for hunger. The Athenians likewise were brought unto such hunger by Sylla, who afterward was Di­ctator of Rome, that one bushel of Wheat was sold amongst the souldiers for a thousand Drachmes; the common soul­diers being poor, for want of money on the one side, and sore plagued with hunger on the other, were compelled to eat the gréen grasse of the fields about the City of Athens, and to gather the mosse off the walls of the City, and did eat it: This City of Athens was oftentimes brought to that mi­sery, as by King Demetrius, by King Philip, and by his son Alexander the great.

So much was famine feared amongst the ancient Gréeks, that in the time of abundance they used to scourge famine with rods out of their houses, saying, For as fames, intra di­vitiae; Away penury, come in plenty. We read in Q. Cur­tius, that Alexander was driven by hunger to eat his Ca­mels, and Elephants, and other huge beasts that carried the trains for the wars. Such hunger and famine did hap­pen among the Lacedemonians, that the Citizens of Spar­ta were so hungry, that they did eat the very serpents that had béen dead a long while, which multitude of serpents did presage this great calamity to come▪ and though they had been dead a long time, yet the Spartans most hun­gerly did feed on them, and mitigated the rage of their fa­mine.

Doda King of Syria besieged a great and famous City in Iewry, called Iora, where the miserable mothers were by meer hunger enforced to féed on the bowels of their own children. Not much unlike was that horrible and cruel fa­mine in the countrey of Apulia, where the souldiers being enforced by the French men, then their enemies in War, were compelled to take the skins from their Bucklers, and to warm and boil the hard horns, and to eat them. To speak of the wonderfull calamity, miseries, and plagues that happened through hunger, the charge thereof were [Page 231] too much; too many authorities are manifest in this be­half. Antonius, whom Augustus Caesar could never vanquish by force of arms, was driven to yeeld in a City called Pe­rusia, by hunger and famine. Wherefore that noble Athe­nian, Nicias, always thought the easiest way of conquest was by Famine, which he shewed at Melos, a City of Thes­saly, where he made the Citizens to yeeld by hunger. O raging force of famine! O terrible misery of man! which compelleth the parents to eat the children, the children to kill their parents: what beast was spared ever, when this hapned? The people named Hymmi, through hunger were constrained to eat their own dogs, as the Macedonians did sometime feed themselves with Camels, Elephants, Hor­ses, and such like.

What herb was unsought? What root was not found to feed this cruel Monster? Sabellicus doth witnesse of a dearth that chanced in his time, that in some parts of the countrey of Flaminia, and about the fields Pi [...]eni, the common peo­ple did live by grasse and herbs, and by such like that pro­ceeded from the earth. Thus was the world ever plagued with famine, as with that Monster that spoileth and devou­reth it self, as we read of divers that did eat their own arms and flesh. Again, in the sacred scripture, divers exam­ples we have of the like plagues sent from GOD to plague man. But even as hunger one way is most excellent if meat may be had, so hunger another way is most terrible, if meat doth fail. Therefore Stratonicus never went to bed without a cup of drink by him, not for that he thirsted when he went to bed but lest he should thirst in the bed, and so be compelled to do some injury to one or other, for that he wanted drink. So did Alphonsus King of Arra­gon, when he saw the poor countrey man greedily feeding on Grapes, he said, O would the Gods had framed me to be such a one as this is. So that hunger is good to those that want food. Gnefactus King of Egypt his souldiers in the deserts of Arabia wanting victuals, waxed so hungry that he himself not amongst the countrey men, and their homely [Page 232] fare was so acceptable unto him, that he set up a table for a Monument of the same, in the Temple of Jupiter in Thebes,

Of divers Famines we read in scripture, as of that in the time of Abraham, who fled from the land of Canaan in­to Egypt and Isaac was driven by famine unto Abimelech King of the Palestines, and all the sons of Jacob were en­forced to go to King Pharaoh, where their own brother Jo­seph ruled as chief Officer. Famine is appointed for a just scourge to sin, as appeareth by David, who for causing the people to be numbred, had leave to chuse either Plague, Famine, or Warres, which are the instruments to punish offenders.


Of Warinesse.

WE will here leave Apollo in Delphos, and Ju­piter in Boetia with their wise answers and Oracles; we will not speak of Socrates, So­lon, and thousands such as were counted and known wise and discreet among the Gréeks and Gentiles: We will onely entreat of those worldly and natural wise men, which by their pru­dent policie and wary practises have greatly advanced their fame, as well in vanquishing their enemies, as by invent­ing such policies for the obtaining of the same, as their wits thereby were worthily commended. Hannibal perceiving the courage and strength of the Romans, used this strata­gem: He gathered a great number of serpents, and put them in huge vessels, and caused them to be brought to the field amongst his souldiers commanding the Captains and chief officers to throw the same into the face of the enemies; who being thereby astonished fled away as men almost in dispair of themselves, thinking the souldiers of Hannibal to be Devils and not Men.

Of the like wisdome was King Cyrus, who [...]eing in his [Page 233] Tents, and ready to pitch the field the next day against the Messagetes, he commanded his souldiers to be in a readi­nesse that night, to flée from their tents; leaving behind their victuals and substance, that the enemies being busie about the spoil, and given up to banquettting, and carow­sing of wine he with all his army might unawares return, and finding the Messagetes more greedy of the spoil, then ready for their enemies, he did destroy and kill them. So that in wars, saith Salust, wit doth as much good as strength, policy sometimes is better accepted then power, and Virgil saith, so that victory be gotten, men weigh not whether it be through courage or through policy. For Sertorius that worthy Captain of Rome, was wont by false letters, by dreams and outward religion, to feign and invent a thou­sand waies to stir his souldiers to courage. The inventi­on of wit is much, and so divers, that too much it were to repeat it. Sicionius deceived Xerxes with all his souldiers through policy. Pisistratus moved the Athenians, to re­venge his false wrongs upon the chief Officers of Athens. Darius after Cambises death became King of Persia, by means of a horse, and such like. But letting passe infinite numbers of such, I will declare what nature wrought in silly and simple beasts, in flying fowls, and in the very fish­es swimming in the water.

The Lion by nature is taught being very sick, to find out an Ape, which by outward sports and pastime, doth heal his great grief. The huge Elephant is so subtil when he is like to die, that he will séek by all means the Came­leon, which he so estéemeth, that his sicknesse forsaketh him straight. The Panther knoweth by nature his ready salve for his sore, for féeling himself not well, he streight séeketh the dung of man, and by the scent thereof, he heal­eth himself. The striken Hart féeding on high mountains hath that consideration that at what time he is shot through with any dart or arrow, by féeding of an hearb called Dict­amum, his bloud stencheth, and his wounds are healed. And the Bear is so crafty, that by the same nature he is [Page 234] taught being sick, to lick and eat up little ants for his ap­pointed physick.

Even so flying fowls do know their appointed salve for their sores, being taught by nature. The Raven, the Duck, the Swallow, yea, the silly Mice do before hand presage their ruinous state by nature, and know well the decay of any house, barn, or place where they be, and will change hospitality before the time, if necessity happen upon them. The little Ants are full of toil and travell to ga­ther in the Summer, to serve them in the Winter, Of this with divers others. Pliny maketh mention in his 8. book, chapter 27. and Aristotle in his book De natura ani­malium. We read in Aelianus divers worthy histories of the like, but especially of the Cranes of Sicilia, which when they be about to take their flight from Sicilia, over mount Caucasus, they are so crafty and subtil by nature, that they bear in their mouths certain stones, to stop that cry and noise, which Cranes most commonly use in flight, lest by hearing of their voice and the noise they make, the Eagles of Caucasus should destroy them.

The Goats of Creet, when they be shot through with darts and arrows, are of themselves moved to feed on a certain hearb; which streight stencheth the bloud, healeth the wound, and expelleth the venome out of the wound, There is such craft and subtilty in a little Frog of Nilus, that when the Trout commeth toward him to destroy him, the Frog by and by out of hand, beareth a long reed over­thwart this mouth, and so marcheth forward toward this great champion, that by no means he can destroy him, for that the reed is longer then his mouth can swallow the same, and so the little Frog escapeth the terrour of his ene­my. What a sleight hath a fish called Polipos, which be­ing desirous to feed on any fish, he goeth and hideth himself under some shrub or rock or any other place, whereby he see­meth to be, as though he were a tile or a stone, till the fish come to that place, then he leaps on them, and kils them. So that there is no beast, no fowl, no fish, but hath as it were [Page 235] a certain priviledge by nature to defend himself, and to foil his foe, and by nature taught to practise it craftily. There is again a kind of knowledge in beasts to know their friends, and to love them, and to fear their enemies and to avoid them. The Serpents in Terinthia, the Scorpions in Arcadia, and the Snakes in Syria, as Plini affirms, will not hurt their country men and known friends, though they find them asléep, as divers and sundry times histories make mention thereof. Strange therefore is the work of nature, which mightily displaieth her self in all living creatures; and for the proof thereof, I will note one history written by Quintilian in his 14. book of histories, that in Achaia there was a city named Patra, in the which a cer­tain young man bought a little dragon, which with great care and diligence he nourished till it waxed big lying in his chāber in the night time, and playing all the day time. At length the Magistrates of the City, fearing lest some hurt should be done by him, considering the fierce and cru­el nature of them, did let him to go to the wildernesse where divers other Dragons were. And there being a long time, this young man that brought up this dragon, with di­vers of his fellows passing by, where this dragon was, cer­tain théeves assailed them, and he by his voice was known by this dragon, which as soon as he heard, he came out of the den, and séeing him with divers of his fellows like to be murthered, he flew to the very faces of the théeves, and so strongly fought with them, that some of them the dragon slue, some were sore hurt, and some constrained to flie: thus he saved this young man and his fellows, in recompence of his former courtesie. Surely I think better of this dragon, then of some ingrateful persons that live now in the world.


Of Revenge.

THe best way to revenge any injury offered, is to suffer quietly the same, and to shew ver­tue toward vice, goodnesse toward evill, ho­nesty toward scurillity, which is the onely poison unto the enemy; as for an example. Laertius doth manifest the same by compa­risons of things: who is he that séeth his enemies fields gréen, his pastures well grassed, his house well furnish­ed, and all things in comely order, but is grieved there­with? How much more, saith he, when the envious séeth his foe adorned with all vertues, compassed with all pati­ence, and prospering in all goodnesse, is he therewith mo­lested? And in that place of his sixth book, he reciteth a worthy and a noble example, of due revenge by Diogenes the Cinick Philosopher, who by chance came where cer­tain young men were at banquet, making merry, his head being bald, by reason of his age, he was so flouted and scoft by most part of the company, that with stripes and strokes they threw him out of the house; the poor old Phi­losopher revenged his wrong in this wise: he took a piece of white chalk, and writ the names of all those that so used him upon his cloak, and so opened his cloak that all men might read their names, and know how wickedly they had used him, and what flouts and scoffs he had suffered of those persons, whose names were to be read upon his cloak, and so brought them in such blame with all men, that they wished in heart that they never had séen Diogenes, who made all the world to sée their folly, and were e­ver after noted for ridiculous persons, not worthy of ho­nest company, and so were they excluded from good and civill men.

Agesilaus King of the Lacedemonians when hee had heard of certain foes of his that alwaies spake il of his per­son, [Page 237] and of his state, he after this sort revenged himself, he chose and elected them to be chief Captains over his men of arms, and committed all the charge of his host to his ene­mies, whereby he made his foes to become his friends, yea, to be his servants and slaves, to do what he would command them. So Demosthenes did when he was provoked and in­juriously handled by one who in a banquet was disposed to fall out and fight with him: No, said Demosthenes; I will never take that in-hand, wherein he that getteth the victo­ry, must bear the shame. O worthy sentence, and most apt­ly applied to a wise man.

We read in Brusonius, of Dion of Alexandria, who with silence revenged more his foes, then with words; for being provoked to anger by a villain and abject, which followed him through the stréets, chiding and threatning him, he an­swered not one word, but bad him Good night, when he come to his own door; which when the enemy saw and that he would not be moved to anger, to take any advantage on him, he went to the next tree and hanged himself. Thus did Socrates, who being blamed by his friends for his silence in that he was injuriously handled by his foe, answered That his enemies could not endamage him, sith he was not that man whom his words did import to be; and being stricken & spurned by the same man, Socrates was counselled to call the same to the Law before the Iudges, to the which he answer­ed, Which of you if an Asse strike him, will call that Asse before any Iudges, sith he is no better that useth me this; for by this am I known to be Socrates and he to be an Ass. The greatest revenge to a fool is to let every man know his fol­ly; and the greatest hurt to a wise man, is to revenge folly; for it was al the revenge of Socrates, whē any man spake il of him to say thus, The man never was taught to speak well.

So courteous was Fabius Maximus, that when he had heard, that one of his chief souldiers was about to betray him to his enemies, he called the party before him, not ma­king him privie that he knew of it, and demanding of him what he wanted, he commanded him to ask any thing [Page 238] he would have, and made him chief Captain of his Army: By this means he became most true to Fabius, being before most false.

This was far from such revenge as Alexander the Great used, who after he had subdued divers Kingdoms and Coun­treys, he went to the Temple of Ammon, to know by the Oracle of Jupiter, whether yet any were alive that flew his father King Philip, whereby he might shew more tyranny, and practise greater murther. This was far from M. Brutus rage, who was not content to conspire against Caesar, and to kill him in the Senate-house; but also when power failed, when souldiers decayed, and he was almost vanquished, he made his prayers to Jupiter, and to the host of Heaven, to plague Caesar and his posterity. This, I say, was far from Livius Salinator, who being warned of Fabius Maximus, not to revenge malice upon Hasd [...]ubal, before he knew the state of the matter, the power of the field, and the end of the vic­tory, where it should happen yet being more rash to revenge, then wise in forbearing, he said, that either out of hand he would kill or be killed.

And in this place I will recite three or four Histories, fit for this purpose. Phobius wife fell in love with Antheus, a noble Gentleman of Halicarnassus, being left in pledge with Phobius, chief ruler then of Milesia, and used al means possible to allure Antheus to requite her love. But he, part­ly for fear, and partly for love of Phobius her husband, in no wise would consent to any filthy desire; Cleoboea, Phobius wife, took the same in so evil part, that she began mortally to hate him, inventing what way best she might revenge his discourtesie in refusing her love. She feigned on a time, that she had quite forgotten her old love towards him, and thanked Antheus very much for the love and great zeal that he did bear to her husband Phobius, in not consenting to her folly then when she was in love with him. Thus talk­ing with him, Cleoboea brought her old Lover Antheus over a Well, where for that purpose onely, she threw a tame Partridge, desiring him to aid her to have her Partridge [Page 239] out of the Well; the young Gentleman misdoubting her in nothing, as one willing to pleasure his friend and old lover, went down into the Well to have the Partridge out, but she revenged her old love, and requited his service after this sort, she threw a great stone after him, and there killed him; and straight for sorrow caling to mind the old amity, and hidden love betwéen them, she hanged her self. This revenge that noble and famous Lacedemonian used, who had his own wife in such admiration, and was so im­patient in love, that he was as much hated of her, as she of him was honoured and estéemed. For she loves King A­crotatus son so dear, that her husband Cleonimus understand­ing the same, went to Epire to King Pyrrhus, perswading him earnestly to go unto Peloponesus, and to move wars against King Acrotatus, whereby he might revenge the in­jury done by his wife, in killing him whom she loved best, thinking it a greater revenge to kill him whom she loved better then her self, then to revenge it upon her own per­son. Valerius Torquatus, for that he might not have Tuscus daughter in marriage moved wars immediately, and re­venged the same with bloud. For what cause did Progne King Pandions daughter of Athens kill her own son I [...]is, and gave him to be eaten unto his father, and her husband King Pereus of Thrace? for nothing but to revenge her sister Phylomela, whom her husband deflowred. Why did Nero that cruell Emperour kill Seneca his master, and teacher in all his youth? for nothing but to revenge old stripes which he received at his master being a boy. For what purpose did Cateline, Silla; Damasippus, Marius, and o­thers, make quarrels to plague Rome, to punish all Italy, to destroy the country? for nothing, but for that they could not abide the one to be above the other. Darius after that he had taken the City of Babilon he revenged his old malice after this sort, as Herodotus in his third book affirms: he caused thrée thousand of the best within the City to be han­ged. Attilla King of Panonia slue eleven thousand virgins, at the siege of Colonia.

[Page 240]So several were revenges amongst men, so cruel, yea, so foolish that Xerxes and Cyrus, two great Kings of Per­sia, when the water of Hellespont troubled Xerxes, and molested his souldiers, he forthwith commanded that the sea of Hellespont should have thrée hundred stripes: and willed thrée hundred pair of Fetters to be thrown into He­lespont, to bind the sea. Even so did Cyrus, because the ri­ver Gindes did drown one of his best geldings, he made his souldiers to divide the river into a hundred and four­score small parts, to revenge the rage of the river toward him, thinking that by breaking of the great rage of so great a stream▪ he well and worthily requited the injuries of Ginges. These are cruell revenges, too many are of these insomuch that women revenge their malice after this sort.

So Tomyris Quéen of Scithia, to revenge her son Mar­gapites death, slue King Cyrus, and two hundred thou­sands of his souldiers; too great a slaughter for one mans death, and not yet satisfied, till she bathed Cyrus head in a great vessel of bloud. This B [...]ronice, Pollia, and divers cruell women have performed. Princes ought to use advisement in revenging, and wisedome in sufferance. For as Frederick the Emperour was wont to say, Princes that revenge hastily and especially wrongfully, are like fair marks for good Archers to shoot at. High towers and lofty buildings, are sooner fired with lightnings, then low houses, and small cottages.

Tiberius Caesar Emperour of Rome, being in the Senate house, to punish those evills, and to revenge those harms, that were by same of the City threatned to his estate: God forbid, said he, that Tib [...]rius should have so much idle time to hear EVIL spoken, much lesse to revenge EVIL done. Ant [...]gonus King of Macedonia besieging a Castle in Gréece wherein a number of hold Gréeks used for their pastime and sport, to scoff at this King, knowing the scitu­ation of the Castle to be in such a place, that it might not be subdued: they therefore laughed him to scorn, as well [Page 241] for his enterprise therein, as also for his slender person, and crooked nose, which King Antigonus perceiving, said, He would revenge all their doings by sufferance, and hoped therby to molest the enemies double Divers heathen Prin­ces were acquainted with this revenge; as Lysander, Agesi­laus, and others; for to God onely belongeth vengeance.

I will not speak here of such revenging of Princes, of Countreys, of friends that all men know: But of rare revenge, which Philosophy taught unto Socrates toward Xantippe; who being at supper, having a strange guest, named Enthidemus, his wife Xantippe began to take her husband up, with taunting and opprobrious words, which because he would not answer, and be moved by her chiding, she overthrew the Table, with all the Meat, and the Cups: Which when Enthidemus saw, he was amazed at the raging of Xantippe, and beheld Socrates in the face, to see how he thought of the matter. But Socrates understanding that his guest did marvel at his wife, said, Have not you sometime at home a Hen that will after long clocking with a sudden flight throw down your cups with her wing? wherewith Enthidemus was fully satisfied, with the wise answer of So­crates, in not revenging so great a fault.

Phocion, a learned man of Athens, was wont to say, That he had rather suffer injury wrongfully, then to re­venge injury sometime rightfully. This man Phocion by whom Athens long flourished, at what time he was put to death most wrongfully of the Athenians, even a little be­fore he should die, being demanded whether he would com­mand any thing to his son, standing hard by to sée his fathers end, did speak to his son after this sort: My son, said he, this I charge and require thée, and moreover, beséech thée, that thou wilt never revenge the wrongfull death of thy father Phocion on the Athenians.

Solon that noble and learned Athenian, was wont to revenge his wrongs with these words. If the Fisher­man do suffer the salt water of the Sea, to sprinkle upon his face, and upon his cloaths, and to wet him [Page 242] when he taketh fish how much more ought Solon to forbear to speak, to win men to be friends unto him. Surely these thrée Philosophers deserve more praise and commendati­on, I mean Socrates, Phocion, and Solon, for the reveng­ing of the evil with goodnesse and vertue, then ever Alex­ander, or Julius Caesar, or Theseus which revenged evil with evil. Wherefore Chilon the Lacedemonian, being one of the Officers called Ephoti, in the City of Sparta, his bro­ther demanding why he might not be likewise one of the five Ephoti, as well as his brother, said unto his brother, Because I can suffer wrong, and thou canst not. Therefore Princes ought not to do wrong, nor yet revenge wrong with wrong, but with patience, sufferance, and goodnesse, and by doing good for evill. For thus they shall make foes to become friends, evill men to become good by prevent­ing evill with lenity and gentlenesse. It behoveth not a wise man to revenge injuries, neither doth it become a Prince to requite evill with the like, but to overcome ra­ther evill with good. Therefore was it truly spoken of the wiseman, Sapit qui sustinet, he that can suffer, he is wise.


Of Theft, and Sacriledge.

AFter that greedy desire unto wealth had possest a place in mans heart, and af­ter that the world was altered from a wealth in common, unto a private wealth, every man went about with study and industry to augment his own with the spoile of others. For this cause Princes began one to sup­presse an other, to spoil and destroy either others Domi­nions, moving first noble men to imitate them in steal­ing and taking away perforce others wealth: and though it be not an apt Epithete for Princes to be called theeves, [Page 243] and spoilers, yet truly by Princes it began, by Nobles i­mitated, and by all the world at length practised, that some became Pyrats upon the seas, some sacriledgers of temples, and some grand théeves of countries and kingdomes. For after the deluge of Noah, there was neither theft nor sacri­ledge known almost 300. years, till Ninus the third King of the Assyrians, who first began to play the théef in Asia. Dionisius, King of Sicilia, and tyrant of all the werld, the greatest robber that reigned upon earth, being not satisfi­ed with spoil and theft on lands and seas, became also a sa­criledger in the Temples of the Gods, which he so practi­sed that after he robbed the Temple of Jupiter in Olimpi­a, he passed forth to Locris to spoil the Temple of Proser­pina, and from thence unto Epidaurus to steal the golden beard of Aesculapius. The tyrant King could not satisfie himself till worthily he had merited the name of a théef, a Pyrate and a sacriledger.

Xerxes spared not amongst other wilfull robberies, to send four thousand of his souldiers to Delphos, to rob the Temple of Apollo, Spartacus a great Prince, and a main­tainer of theeves, gathered a whole army of fugitive per­sons, vagabonds, theeves, and robbers, and marched toward Rome, with a resolution either to conquer Rome, or to be conquered by Rome, but there was he and all his rogues vanquished by Pu. Crassus. The City of Rome was often in perill by théeves and robbers, as by Silla, Catelin, and Marius, famous spoilers of Italy. And as Cercion did rob and spoil the country of Athens, so Ti [...]gias in Arcadia was renowned for theft. I might in this place speak of the rob­bery of the Emperour Nero, of the spoil and wast of that beastly Emperour Heliogabalus, and of the sacriledge and theft of Caligula. These three Emperours did steal spoil, and tooke from Rome, more then ever they gave to Rome.

Marcellinus writeth that there was sometimes a King of the Parthians named Arsaces, which in the beginning of his reign, was then named the master of theeves, a tea­cher [Page 244] and a school-master unto all robbers and spoilers: but after that he had subdued Seleucus, Alexanders successour he became famous and renowned in martiall feats, and civill policy. Herodotus likewise doth report of one Amazis, a King of Egypt, when at any time money wanted, he was wont to spoil, wast, and take away all that ever he might, either by stealth or force.

Thus the names of Princes were first corrupted, that the Poets judged well and worthily, Mercury to be the God of théeves: and for the antiquity of theft, it is thought that Prometheus Deucalions father as Poets do feign, by the aid of Minerva, stole first fire from Phoebus, for the which fact, he was punished in mount Caucasus, after this sort; he was bound fast, and an Eagle appointed to eat up his heart, and to hale his puddings along, in furtherance and memory of his theft. Hercules and Jason, two of the most fa­mous Princes that ever Greece fostred, went unto Col­chis to steal the golden Fléece. Theseus and Perithous went unto the Kingdome of Pluto to steal Proserpina away.

There was dwelling in a rock near Athens, a famous théef named Sci [...]on, who was wont to throw headlong, strangers that were his guests, from a rock into the sea, and after that he had continued a long time in spotling, and murthering of men that passed by, in taking their goods, and lives away, he was in thē same sort by Theseus put himself to death, Cacus of whom Virgil makes menti­on the son of Vulcan, was so crafty a théef that having a den in mount Aventine, he used to draw any thing back­ward by the tail, unto his cave, where he spoiled it, whe­ther it were man or beast, there should he be brought by flight of Cacus to he destroyed, till he attempted to spoil Hercules by stealth, who after long wrastling in his den, with his club slew him. The famous theef Sinius used such seats and thefts about Corinth, that he would bind any passer by or strangers unto trees, and there would hew them into small gobbets for their money and sub­stance.

[Page 245]These three last renowned theeves, are much mention­ed of writers. So Capiton kept himself fifty years in a den, as a common robber to steal and to spoil all that came near his violence. The Argives were men most noted and infamous, for this fault, insomuch that a proverb grew of the Argives, Argivi fures, that is the Argives are theeves. Amongst the Persians there were certain theeves called Cardaces, permitted without punishment to steal and to rob. The old Germans and ancient Egyptians might som­time by law, and the liberty of their country be allowed to steal.

Lycurgus made laws in Sparta amongst the Lacedemo­nians, that he that did steal, without reprehension, or being taken with the theft, should be free, and he which could not artificially steal being taken, should be punished: inso­much that Brusonius, in his second book, doth speak of a young man, that stole a young Fox, the owner thereof fol­lowing after, demanded of the young man whether he saw a little for or no, the young man denied it, hiding the Fox under his cloak, but the Fox a subtil beast, willing to shew himself to his master, did bite and scratch the young man so sore, that his puddings gushed out of his side, who thus suffered himself to die, rather then he would mani­fest his theft.

Wherefore Theophrastus a noble philosopher, having the examination of a subtile théef, demanded whether he could blush, or no, to the which the théef answered that he could not, for he néeded not to blush, in a true matter: therefore saith Theophrastus thou art the liklier to be a théef for truth alwaies appeareth in a shamefast countenance. Where­fore the wise Cato the Senior was wont to say that young men that waxed red, were better to be trusted, then those that would wax pale, for the one signifieth shamefastnesse, and the other deceit. For Pithias, Aristotles daughter being demanded what colour was best in man or woman, she an­swered, that colour that shamefastnesse bringeth, which is a blushing countenance.

[Page 246]But to speak of Pyrates: Sextus Pompey the son of Pom­pey the great, kept under him divers and sundry Pyrates about the borders of Italy and Sicily to rob and spoil upon the seas, to his great infamy and reproach, being the son of so famous a Roman, whom Rome a long time so estéemed, that Caesar hardly might be superiour to him. What shall I say of King Pyrrhus, and Caius Verres, whom Cicero for his sundry thefts and spoil, and for divers sacriledges by Verres committed, compared unto the foresaid Tyrant? To speak of infinite Pyrates, and divers Sacriledgers, it were to none effect, because it is a common practise in all Coun­treys. Therefore as Diogenes the Philosopher said, when he saw a poor man led between the Magistrates, to the place of execution, Behold, saith he a little theef betwéen a num­ber of great theeves. God grant that it may not truly be spoken of divers Magistrates in sundry places.


Of Lust.

THe spoil and slaughter of Lust, did always far surpasse all other vices; it hath suppressed Castles and Countreys, it hath vanquished Kings and Cesars, overthrown the pomp of Asia, Affrica, and Europe, and almost depo­pulated the whole world. This vice of all vices is to be ab­horred and detested; for there is no vice but hath its center; as pride chiefly hath her seat appointed in puissant Princes and Noble men; Covetousnesse resideth with old men that be Magistrates and Officers; Envy with men of sciences and faculties; Vsury with Citizens; Symony with Bishops and Priests; Hypocrisie with Religious men; Deceit with Merchants: but Lust is common to all men, as well to the subject as to the Prince, to the learned as to the ignorant, to the wise as to the foolish. For David and son Salomon, to whom God gave singularity of wisdome, dexterity of wit to govern the Israilites; yet the sacred Scriptures do witness [Page 247] of their horrible lust. David lusted for Bathsheba, and that so wickedly, that he appointed a way to put to death her hus­band Uriah. Solomon lusted so much, that he did forget his God that did guide his steps all the while he ruled justly, and lived godly in Israel.

Aristotle and Socrates in despight of their Philosophy and great knowledge the one became a slave to Hermia, the other a subject to Aspasia. Sampson and Hercules, for all their strength and conquest of Giants and monsters the one pro­strated his Club at Deianiraes foot, the other committed his strength to the beauty of Delilah. The renowned and sugred Oratours, Demosthenes and Hortensitis, the one from Athens came to Corinth, to compound for a nights lodging with Lais; the other in Rome, with nicenesse and wantonnesse, was judged more subject to lust, then Lord over himself. If then witty and wise men, if learned and discreet men, if e­loquent and subtil men, if strong and mighty Conquerours have been ruled by lust, deceived by beauty, overcome with women; what should I speak of Heliogabulus, not well na­med Emperour, but worthily called the beast of Rome? What should I recite that Monster and Tyrant Nero? What should I recite that filthy and vile Emperour Cali­gula, the onely sink of sin, and shame? not Emperors, but Monsters; not Princes, but Tyrants; not men, but beasts which defiled their own sisters, kept open stews and brothel houses, maintaining Whores and Harlots, made Laws, at their banquets, every man to his woman first, and then to his meat; and at the change of every dish, every man again commanded by a law to go to his woman: And thus from meat to women, from women to meat they beastly and brutishly entertained their Epicurial lust, wherein these Gorgons reposed their chief felicity.

Certainly if Quéen Semitamis of Babylon had been mat­ched with Heliogabulus, Emperour of Rome, it had béen as méet a match, if time had served, as one beast should be for another; for he was not so filthy, but she was as shameless, not onely in procuring divers to lie with her, but in allu­ring [Page 248] her own son Ninus to lust, and as writers report, being a beast, matched her self with a beast, a horse. Had Pasiphae Quéen of Creet been well matched, she had forsaken King Minos, and come to the Emperour Caligula, where she might have been as bold with others, as she was with Minotaurus father. Had the Empresse Mestalina been deservedly, ac­cording to her life, married she had been more meet for Nero then for Claudius; for his life and her life did well a­gree together: for she passed all the Courtesans of Corinth, all the strumpets of Athens, and all the whores of Babilon; for she was onely mistresse and ruler of all the stews and brothel houses in Rome

What wickednesse procéedeth from lust? what ungodly incest is brought to passe by lust? what secret vengeance commeth by lust? Lust assured Queen Cleopatra to use her brother Ptolomy as her husband. Lust deceived King Cy­nar to lie with his daughter Myrrha. Lust brought Maca­rius to his sister Canaces bed. By lust did Menepron defile his own mother. Lust stayeth the purpose of all men, hin­dereth and hurteth all kind of persons. Lust stayed King Antiochu [...] of Syria in Chal [...]idea a whole winter, for one maid he fancied there. Lust stayed Hannibal in Capua a long season, to his great hurt. Lust stayed Julius Caesar in Alexandria a long time, unto his infamy.

Lust was the first cause of wars between the Romans and the Sabines; for Romu [...]us had hardly built Rome, but he lusted to ravish the women, and to steal the Sabine maids to Rome, whereby the war first began. The great wars between King Cambyses of Persia, and King Amasis of Egypt, wherein was a great slaughter and murther of men, grew by lust to one woman. The ten years betwixt the Thebans and the Phoceans, was for the lust of one young man in Phoca towards a young woman in Thebes. The cruel conflicts that was between the Troyan Prince Aeneas, and stout Turnus, was the lust which either of them did bear to Lavinia, King Latinus, Daughter. What bloud, what tyranny was between the Egyptians and the Assyri­ans, [Page 249] betwéen Ptolomy and Alexander, the one King of E­gypt, the other King of Assyria, and all for one woman Cle­opatra. Augustus the Emperour made long wars for Octa­via his sister, whom Antonius abused to the spoyl and mur­ther of many Romans. Had Hesione, King Priamus sister, not lusted to go with Telamon from Troy to Greece; had likewise Helen, the wife of Menelaus, not lusted to come with Paris from Greece to Troy; the bloudy wars, and ten years siege between the Greeks and the Troyans had ne­ver been writ [...]en by Homer. Had not lust ruled the five ci­ties called Pentapolis, where Sedom and Gomorrha were, they had not been consumed with fire and brimstone from heaven to the destruction of all the people, saving Lot & his children. If lust had not ruled all the world, the deluge of Noah had not drowned the whole earth, and all living crea­tures, saving Noah; his wife and children. Thus lust from time to time was the onely Monster and scourge of the World. And in this our Age lust is nothing diminished, but much encreased; and though we shall not be plagued again with Water, according to promise, yet to be punish­ed with Fire most sure we be, unlesse we detest and abhor this vice.

There is a History in Justine, worthy to be noted of Prin­ces that will not punish these offences. Pausanias a Noble Gentleman of Macedonia, being a very fair young man, whom Attalus by lust abused; and Attalus not contented to handle the young man so wickedly and ungodly, did bring him also to a banquet, where Attalus would have used him as before making all men privy how Pausanias was his pa­ramour as a woman: The young man being ashamed of it, often complained unto Philip King of Macedonia, and after many and divers complaints having no redresse, but being rather flouted and scoffed at by Philip, Pausanias took it so grievously, that after this sort he requited his shame and injuries. At the marriage of Cleopatra, King Philips daughter, with Alexander King of Epirus in great tri­umphs and pomps, King Philip in the midst of his joys, wal­king [Page 250] between his own son Alexander the great, who then was but young, and Alexander King of Epirus his son in law being married then to his daughter Cleopatra; Pausa­nias thrust him into the heart, saying, Minister Iustice and punish Lust. Thus died that mighty Prince, as well for the bearing of Attalus fault, as also for his own wickednesse, using the same sin sometime with a brother in law of his, natural brother to his first wife Olympias.

Lust and intemperancy do never escape without just pu­nishment and due vengeance. Amnon the son of King Da­vid, for that he misused his own sister Tamar, was afterward slain. Absalom for that he did lie with his fathers Concu­bines, died for it. David was plagued for Uriah's wife. The two Elders that would ravish Susanna, were put to death. This sin is the onely enemy of man: For all sin (saith St. Paul) is without the body, but uncleannesse and lust sin­neth against the body. Had not Olofernes séen the beauty of Judith, yea, marked the comelinesse of her slippers, he had not lost his head by it. Had not Herod séen Herodias daugh­rer dancing, he had not so rashly granted her John Baptists head. Had not Eve séen the beauty of the Apple, she had not eaten thereof.

We read in Genesis, that when the sons of men, view­ed the beauty of women, many evils happened thereby. By sight was Potiphars wife moved with lust toward Joseph her servant. By sight and beauty was Solomon allured to com­mit Idolatry with false Gods. By sight was Dina the daugh­ter of Iacob ravished by Shechem. These evils procéed from sudden sights; therefore saith the Prophet, Turn away thine eys, lest they sée vanities. The Philosopher likewise saith, That the first offer or motion is in the eye, from sight pro­ceedeth motion; from motion election; from election, con­sent; from consent, sin; from sin, death. Wherefore with the Poet I say, resist the violence of the first assault, I mean the eys: The evil that happened thereby too long it were to write.

Lust again hath its entrance by hearing, as Justine in [Page 251] his twelfth Book doth testifie of Thalestris Quéen somtime of the Amazons, who having heard the great commendati­ons, the fame and renown of Alexander the great, ven­tered her life to hazard to come from Scythia to Hirca­nia, which was, as Iustine saith, five and twenty days jour­ney in great danger and peril of life, as well by wild beasts, waters, as also by forreign foes. She had thrée hundred thousand women of Scythia in company with her: For the fame she had heard of this great Prince, she came from her Countrey, where she was a Quéen, to lie with a stranger, to satisfie her lust. And when she had accomplished her mind, after thirty nights lying with him, she returned unto her own countrey again.

Cicero doth write, that we are more moved by report of­tentimes to love, then by sight. For as by report, Quéen Thalestris came to lie with Alexander, from Scythia unto Hircania, for his magnanimity, victories, and courage; so by report came the Quéen of Sheba from Ethiopia unto Solomon, to hear and to learn wisdome. O golden world! Oh happy age, when either for simplicity men could not speak, or for temperance men would not speak. The inno­cence of them then, and the subtilty of us now; the tempe­rancy of their age, and the lust of our age, being wel weigh­ed, and throughly examined, it is easily to be séen, how ver­tuously they lived in ignorance, and how viciously we live in knowledge.

Before Aruntius, proud Tarquins son, was by lust moved toward Collatines wife, there was no alterations of States, nor change of Common-wealths, no banishment of Prin­ces in Rome: And Rome being changed, for this mans lust onely, from a Monarchy unto another state, called A­ristocracy, it continued so long in that form, until Appius Claudius ravished Virginius daughter, which was the occa­sion of the second change. And the popular state, which had the chief rule always in Rome, changed the states of the City, for that lust so reigned.

[Page 252]Thus might I speak of divers other Countreys, where lust was the just cause of the subversion of them. For by one Venus, a strumpet in Cyprus, all Cyprus was full of Whores: By one Semiramis in Babilon, all Persia at length grew full of queans: By one Rhodope in Egypt at the beginning all the country became full of strumpets. In Rome Flora was honoured like a Goddesse, having such so­lemnity, and on Theaters, which were called according to her own name Floralia. In Thebes was Phrine so magni­fied, that her name was put in print upon every Gate of the City. As for Lais in Corinth, and Lamia in Athens, their Fame was more heard, then their Honesty known.

It grew in fine to that strength, that all the Princes of the world were as bulwarks and defenders of lust. Yea, learned Philosophers and wise Law-givers, séemed to de­fend the same in writing. As Lycurgus and Solon, two fa­mous wise men, the one a Law-giver among the Lacede­monians, (people in the beginning more expert in the ban­ners and flags of Mars, then studious or desirous to haunt the palaces of Venus:) The other a Law-giver in Athens (people likewise, more frequenting at the first, the school of Minerva, then the lurking dens and secret snares of Cupid) these two famous men made laws to maintain lust, under the colour and pretext of issue; every young woman being married to an old man, might for children, take choise what young man she would of her husbands name. So likewise might any young man, choose a young woman, being mar­ried to an old woman.

Aristotle séemeth to defend this law after a sort. So Abra­hams wife Sara after a sort, willed her husband to accompa­ny with a young maid, for that he might have children. And Sempronia, a woman excellently well learned in the Gréek and Latine; and Sapho, a woman of no lesse fame then of learning, defended lust by their Writings. I might have large scope herein, to prove Lust, as a Lord, to rule and go­vern every where.

I have sufficiently, I hope, declared the effect of Lust: [Page 253] For as Princes wise, stout, and learned, have been hereto subject: so the Poets fain, that the Gods themselves have yielded to the might of lust. What I pray you, translated Jupiter to a Bull, Neptune unto a horse, Mercury unto a Goat? Lust. What moved Apollo to be in love with Daphnes? What caused Bacchus to favour Gnosida? What made Pan to yeeld unto Sirinx? lust. What moved wise, learned, stout, and strong as well as the foolish, the igno­rant, the weak, and the simple, but onely that corruption of nature, that seed, and dregs of Adam, which equally without grace, moveth all men to sin? For there is no man, but he is privy to lust, moved by lust, and sorely assaulted by it. Yet there be some that subdue lust, some that rule lust, but none that vanquish lust; for as some are born chast, so some do make themselves chast, and some who are thus made chast are yet not without some spice of lust.

I speak not of Proculus the Emperour, who kept at his pleasure a hundred maids of Sarmatia. Neither do I think herein of Sardanapalus King of Assyria, who was al­waies we [...]ried but never satisfied with Venus. But I speak of those that fight, and wrastle against nature: of those I say, that are in common combats with the world the flesh, and the Divell. For lust saith Ovi [...], is I wot not what, and commeth I wot not whence, it taketh root without breaking of flesh and pierceth the very intrals of the heart without any cutting of the vein, it is the onely businesse and travel of idle men.

The young Roman Estrasco at mount Celio, beholding the beauty of a Lady called Verrona, either of them by na­ture being dumb, one fell in love with the other so sore, that Estrasco would often go from Rome to Salon, and Verrona would as oft travel from Salon to Rome, the one to sée the other, and this dumb love continued thus thirty years, till it fortuned that the wife of Estrasco died, and the hus­band of Lady Verrona died also. Whereby these lovers thirty years without words, did both manifest their long desire by a marriage▪ So was Masinissa K. of Numidia, & So­phronisba, [Page 254] a Lady of Carthage, the one enflamed with the other, onely by a sight that King Masinissa had of Sophro­nisba.

The like is written of that most valiant Captain Pyr­rhus the long defendor of the Tarentines, and King of E­pirots, when he came from Italy unto Neapolis, being but one day there, he fell in love with a fair Lady called Gamalice, to the great, infamy of so famous a Prince, and to the great shame of so noble a Lady. The like lust ar­rested that noble and renowned Conquerour Alexander, so that when he thought to give battel to the Queen of Ama­zons, having a sight of her at a river side, where they both had appointed to come to talk concerning their wars, their fury and rage before bent to fight, and murther, was by a sight changed into a wanton pastime and sport. We do read also that Quéen Cleopatra made a banquet for Antho­ny her lover, in the Province of Bithinia, in the Wood Sechin, where the young virgins were not so cunning to hide them in the thick bushes; but the youthfull Romans were as crafty in finding them out, so that at that one in­stant of sixty young virgins, fifty and five deserved the name of mothers. Thus we perceive that by sight we are moved to lust, and by consent we wilfully sin, the one in the eye, the other in the heart: therefore better it is with Sophocles, for a man to turn his back from a fair woman, then with Nero to behold beauty, who looking to ear­nestly upon the haire of Poppaeas, was thereby moved to lust.


Of Jealousie.

A Question was propounded to all the Gods, to be answered, whether man or woman be more jealous. For as the Poets feign there sprung a con­tention between Iupiter and Iuno, con­cerning lust and jealousie, and ha­ving no equal judge to determine this matter, it was referred after great controversie unto one Tiresias, an ancient and learned po­et sometime in Thebes, which Tiresias on a certain time meeting two Snakes, according to kind ingendring together, having a white rod in his hand, parted at once both their bodies and their lives. Wherewith Iuno being moved to anger, transformed this poet Tiresias from a man to a woman and being in the shape of a woman se­ven years, he again found two Snakes ingendring toge­ther, and in like manner striking them, he was again re­duced to his first form. This Tiresias was thought most meet of Iupiter and Iuno, by the consent of all the Gods, for that he had been a woman seven years, and now a man a­gain, to judge of this question. And being called to the Bar to give his verdit, he preferred Iuno for jealousie: whereby Iuno waxed angry, and made him blind, and Iupiter to recompence his truth, did make him a Pro­phet.

When Jupiter fell in love with Io, Juno being suspici­ous and full of jealousie, caused one named Argos with an hundred eys to watch Jupiter, who for all his eys was decei­ved Juno thereby was so furious and so hungry with Argos, that she translated his eys unto a Peacocks tail, and trans­formed Io to a white Cow. There is no such rage in jea­lousie, as there is craft in love, so that the streight kéeping of Danae King Acrisius daughter in Towers and Castles, [Page 256] could never kéep her from Perseus, neither the hundred eies of Argos might spie the craft of Jupiter to Io.

We read of a woman named Procris who was in such jealousie of her husband called Cephalus, that having him in suspicion for his often going a hunting, on a cer­tain time she followed him privily into the Woods, thin­king there to find her husband at his wantonnesse, and hi­ding her self in a thick bush, to sée the end of the event, her husband passing by the bush perceiving something there to stir, thinking it had béen some wild beast, thrust his wife into the heart with his dart, and thus Procris was slain of her own husband, for her importunate jealousie. The like happened to Aemilius wife, who for her suspicious and raging jealousie, was never quiet, but was busie alwaies to find some fault in her husband, following him every where, and watching still in privy places, thinking to find him in the manner; and untill she sped of the like chance as Procris did, she could never be quiet. Cyampus wife named Leuconona, was devoured by dogs instead of a wild beast, hiding her self in the Woods, to follow and mark her hus­bands voyage. Iealousie so moved her, that she could do no otherwise. A strange kind of sicknesse it is that so infecteth the mind, vexeth the spirits, and molesteth the heart, that the head is full of invention and the mind full of thought, and the heart full of revenge.

So jealous was Phanius, that the dores being shut, the windows close, all privy and secret places prevented, every where as he thought so stopped, that his wife could not de­ceive him yet, never thought that love could pierce tile­stones to come unto his wife; but he was deceived, for the lurking dens of love, and fancies, and the secret search of affection hath more privy paths, whereby Cupid may come to his mother Venus, then the Labyrinth had chambers for the Minotaur. King Acrisius thought he was sure of his daughter Danae when she was close bulwarked within a great Castle: Iuno thought to prevent Iupiter by the hundred eys of Argos, Phanius thought that his wife was sure enough [Page 257] when the dores were shut, and the windows close, but nei­ther could the jealousie of Iuno prevent it, neither the eys of Argos spie it, neither the streight kéeping of Danae avoid it, neither the close defence of Phanius defend it.

I must needs commend one called Cippius, that would oftentimes take upon him to sleep when he did wake, and would pretend to be ignorant though he knew it. I wish wise men to sleep with Cippius, and to say with Cicero, Non omnibus dormio, I sleep not to all men, and to be ignorant though they know things. And likewise I wish wise wo­men to imitate Aemilia, the wife of noble Scipio, who al­though she knew things evident by Scipio, yet she made as much of his Paramour, as she made of her husband, and all for his own sake.

They say jealousie proceedeth from love, and love from God, but I say it commeth from hatred, and hatred from the Divel. And yet we read in the sacred Scripture, that Abraham was jealous of his wife Sarah, saying thus to his wife, I know that thou art fair, and they will kill me to have thy love. The manners of the Parthians, were to keep their wives in privy places of their houses, over whom they were so jealous, that their wives might not go abroad but with covered faces. The Persians were so suspicious of their wives, that they had no liberty to go in sight, and they durst not go on foot, but in Wagons covered over lest they should see or be seen. The Thracians with such care and study keep their wives, that as Herodotus affirms, they trust no man with them in company, but their own parents. The old and ancient Romans in times past kept their wives so close, that their wives as Valerius Maximus saith, did divers times, either kill poison or with some cruelty or other destroy their husbands, and it was by a young man of the city of Rome disclosed, yt there was a hundred threescore and ten, that so killed and destroyed their husbands, for that their husbands were so jealous over them. But be­cause it is a comon disease in all places, I need not further [Page 258] to write thereof, wishing my friend, never to be incumbred therewith, but rather with silence to passe it with Cippius, and so he shall find ease thereby.


Of Idlenesse.

AS nothing can be greatly difficult to a willing mind, so every thing is a bur­thē to the idle, one for as labor & exer­cise of body, & industry & diligence of mind are sure and strong bulwarks of countries, so are idlenesse and neg­ligence the cause of all evill. We read that Alexander the great, least he should be acquainted with idlenesse at any time, even in the night time used this art, to hold a silver ball when he went to bed in his hand, having a silver bason upon the ground that when the ball should fall, he being fast asléep, the shrill sound thereof should wake him, and make him mindfull of his enemies: so fearfull was this noble prince of idlenesse, that to shake off sléep and slothfulnesse, he stu­died and travelled, how he might avoid it. For Alexander the great being called the son of Jupiter, and fully perswa­ded with himself that he was of the linnage of the Gods, had special regard of sléep and lust, whereto he being so much subject, knew himself to be a man: wherefore he of­tentimes wrastled with nature in that behalf. In the self­same place of Marcellinus it is read, that Julius Caesar the greatest and most renowned Emperour that ever reig­ned in Rome, followed this order, and practised this po­licy, least he should be idle at any time. For first, to suf­fice nature, he slept a certain time appointed. Secondly, he would be occupied in the affairs of his country. Third­ly he travelled in his private study. Thus least he should be idle, nay rather, least he should lose any time he divided every night into thrée parts, first to nature, secondly to his [Page 259] country, thirdly about his own businesse. The mighty Prince Philip of Macedon as we read in Brusonius, was of such care and diligence, that when his souldiers slept, he al­waies watched. Again, he never slept, untill his friend Antipater were first awake. So that betwéen King Philip and Antipater, diligence was as much honoured and embra­ced, as slothfulnesse was feared and hated.

Epaminondas that renowned Prince of Thebes, being studious and profitable to profit his country, so hated idle­nesse, that finding one of his Captains in the Camp in the day time sléeping, he slue him streight with his own hand, and being reprehended by his Nobles and Counsellours, for that cruell fact he answered them in few words, I left him as I found him; comparing idle and drowsie men to dead men, for men are born to travell and watch, and not to take pleasure and stéep. How did Scipio in Affrica over­throw the Tents of Siphax? how vanquished he his host of souldiers, slew his army, and how took he King Siphax captive himself. Livius saith, that the diligence of Scipio, and the sloathfulnesse of Siphax being a sleep, when he should be waking, was the cause thereof. Had Demosthe­nes loved idlenesse, he had never been able to prevent that famous Prince Philip King of Macedon: he was so care­full and diligent to the state of Athens, that that worthy Captain and great Conquerour Philip, was wont to say, that he doubted more the diligence of Demosthenes, then he feared all the force of Athens. Had Cicero slept, during the conspiracy of Catelin, he had never been able worthily to boast of himself. O happy Rome, that ever I was thy Consul. Studious travel, saved oftentimes Rome from di­vers enemies.

Quintilian reciteth a worthy history of a famous scholler named Hippias, who to avoid idlenesse after long studying of his book, would exercise himself in something or other, least he might seem to be idle, insomuch that he applied himself to divers faculties at void hours, and used to pract­ise the faculty of a Goldsmith, of a Tailor, of a Shoo-ma­ker, [Page 260] insomuch that at length he became his own Taylor, his own Shoemaker, yea, to make his own rings so artifi­cially, as though he had been brought up in the school of Praxiules. What is so hard but diligence will attempt it? What is so déep, but travel will wade through it? What is so strange, but study will know it? Labour and diligence are of Wise men much commended by the example of the Bée, that is busie and carefull, and knoweth how to profit her self and others. If the little Ants be so praised, for that they toyl in the Summer to provide against the Winter: If the silly simple Worms do provide things necessary for them and theirs: How much more ought man, who is born to profit his countrey, his Prince, his friends and his pa­rents, to consider the commodity of diligence, and the dan­ger of idlenesse? But it is before mentioned, vices are covered with the names of vertues; as the idle man is noted to be a quiet man, the ignorant termed an inno­cent.

Caelius doth write of a certain Emperor named Attalus, which so well loved idlenesse, that he gave the government of the Empire to his friend Philopenes for that he would be idle. We read again of one Vatia, a great ruler and Ma­strate in Asia, that loved idlenesse so well, that the people used a proverb, when they saw any man idle, to say, He is an idle scholler of Vatiaes. The Emperor Licinius and Va­lentianus were such enemies to learning, and so ignorant, as Egnatius doth report, that they called Learning the onely poison of the world, and named them that were learned, the Asses of Cuma.

Who hated learning so much as Heraclides and Philoni­des which were so ignorant, that they were as Caelius doth testifie, had of the common people in great derision, These blind men did call others Asses of Cuma, when they them­selves were far inferiour to any Asse in the world. For di­vers Asses had more reason then Philonides or Heraclides had. We read that Ammonius a great philosopher of Alexandria, had an Asse which would keep company with Origen and [Page 261] Porphirius to frequent the school of Amonius, to hear him read Philosophy and to his schollers, the Asse was taught to know the reader, as the schollers were to know the school at the time of reading.

The sacred Scripture commends tons the Asse of Bala­am, who was likewise taught to speak and to shew the pro­phet Balaam the will of God. But the idle and ignorant, will neither learn to know time, place, nor person, neither to profit themselves nor others. These lasie members, these idle and ignorant beasts, are the children of Morpheus, slée­ping alwaies in the cave of Pamedes, to whom it well may be spoken, as Aurelian sometime an Emperour of Rome. spake unto one Bonosius, that he was born to drink, and not to live.

The Romans used to punish idlenesse so sharply, that the Husbandman that had his ground barren, and his Pa­stures, Meadows, or Fields untilled, any other man should be there placed, and he put out. The Gentleman that had not his horse ready, and in good liking, with all things thereunto belonging, should be suspected to be an idle mem­ber unto his country, and should be hated and eschued by the people. The common people might use no kind of pri­vate pleasure, as plaies, pastime, or any other idle sport, but at times appointed. The gates of Rome were opened day and night, to come and to go for the good of the Com­monalty, & as Plutarch writes, the life & manners of all men were strictly examined, whether they lived idle or no. And if any did resist the order of the Magistrates, his head should be cut off, & offered to Jupiter in the Capitol of Rome, his family to the temple of Ceres, his children should be sold as bondmen to the Tribunes and Censors.

The Lacedemonians were most studiou [...] to expel idle­nesse, and brought their children up always in hardnesse to practise them in the Arts of Industry, and hated Idlenesse so much, that if any in the City of Sparta waxed grosse or fat, they straight suspected him of idlenesse; and if any young man waxed fat, they had appointed laws that he should fast, [Page 262] and live poor, untill he were again changed into his first estate,

The Egyptians, an ancient people, when the country of Egypt began to be populous, to avoid idlenesse, as Pliny re­porteth, made the great building called the Pyramides, which for the mightinesse and strange working thereof, was named one of the seven wonders of the World, in which there were kept at work, thréescore thousand young men, who continued a long time in the making thereof, and onely to avoid and banish idlenesse. The Athenians so ab­horrid and detested idlenesse, that when a certain man was condemned to die, for that he was found idle in Athens, a citizen thereof named Herondas, as Plutarch testifieth, was as desirous to see him, as though he had been a prodigious Monster; so strange and so marvellous was it to hear, or to see any idle man in Athens. The people called the Mas­silians, would suffer no travellers, neither Pilgrim, nor Sa­crificer, nor any other stranger to come within their City, lest under colour of religion, or of pilgrimage, they might corrupt the youth of the City, with the sight thereof to be idle. The Indians had a law, made by their Wise-men called Gymnosophists, that after meat was set on the table, the youth should be examined, what they had done for their meat, and what pain and labour they had used all the mor­ning before; if they could make account of their travel, they should goe to dinner; but if they had béen idle they should have no meat except they had deserved the same. The like did the young men of Argis, who made an account to their Magistrates of their occupations and works. The A­reopagites, as Valerius affirmeth did imitate the Athenians in commanding their youth to avoid idlenesse, and to exer­cise travel, the one as necessary to any Commonwealth, as the other is most dangerous. So that some countreys are naturally given to travel, as the Lydians, Phrygians, French men, with others. Some again are given to idle­nesse, as the Persians, Corinthians and others. Some by law were forced to slie idlenesse, some by punishment were [Page 263] feared from it, some by death were enforced to labour for their living. Thus this Monster Idlenesse is beaten every where, and yet embraced in most places; every man speaks against idlenesse, yet a number are in love with it; Magi­strates and Officers are appointed to punish it, and yet they often favour it.


Of Wrath and Anger, and the hurts thereof.

THe famous and noble Philosopher, Aristotle, did charge his schollers always being in An­ger or Wrath, to behold themselves in a glasse, where they might see such alteration of countenance, such a palenesse in color, that being before reasonable men, they appear now like brutish beasts. Wherefore that great Philosopher perceiving the furious and hastie nature of Alexander, wrote from Athens unto India, where this noble conqueror was at wars with King Porus, to take heed of Wrath and Anger, saying, An­ger ought not to be in any Prince toward his inferiour, for he was to be mended with correction, nor toward his equal, for he might be redressed with power; so that Anger ought not to be, but against superiours; but Alexander had no co­equals. Yet in vain was Aristotles doctrine to Alexander in this point: for being in a bāquet when Clitus his dear friend cōmended his father King Philip in the former age, to be the worthiest, & most renowned Prince, Alexander wexed upon a sudden so angry, that any man should be preferred before him, though Philip was his own father which was comend­ed, and Cli [...]us his especial friend that did commend him that he thrust Clitus into the heart with a spear. So hastie was this Prince, that Calisthenes and Lysi [...]achus, the one his Historian and counsellour, the other his companion and friend, for a few words spoken were either of them slain: Silence therefore, saith Aristotle, is the surest reward to a Prince.

[Page 264]We read that King Tigranes of Armenia, whom Pom­pey the great did conquer, waxed so angry by a fall from his horse, because his son was present, and could not prevent his fathers fall, that he thrust him with his dagger into the heart; and was so sorry afterward, and angry withal; that he had likewise killed himself, had not Anaxarchus the Phllosopher perswaded him. Anger in a Prince (saith So­lomon) is death; terrible is the countenance of a King when he is oppressed with Wrath; hurtfull to many, and dangerous to all is the anger thereof. Nero was so furious in anger, that he never heard any thing, if it were not to his liking, but he would requite it one way or other with death, insomuch that in his rage and anger he would often throw down tables, being at dinner, and dash cups of gold wrought with pearls against the walls, and fling all away, more like to a furious Gorgon of hell, then a sober Empe­ror in Rome.

Such fury reigneth in anger, that Orestes the son of Aga­memnon slue his own mother Clytemnestra, suddenly in his Wrath. Such madnesse reigneth in Anger; that Ajax Te­lamon, that famous and valiant Gréek, after that Achilles was slain in the temple of Pallas by Paris, at the destruction of Troy, waxed so Angry because he might not have Achil­les Armor, which was given before to Ulisses, that he beat stones and blocks, fought with dead trées, killed beasts, thinking to méet with Ulisses amongst them. If Anger make men murtherers, if Wrath make men mad, without wit or reason to know themselves or others, let them imitate Plato in his anger, who being angry with any of his scholers or servants would give the rod to Zenocrates to correct them; Because he was angry, the learned Philosopher misdoubt­ed himself, that he could not use moderate correction. E­ven so Archicas would always speak unto his servant that had offended him, Happy art thou that Architas is not an­gry: Thereby giving his man to understand how dange­rous Wrath is.

Aristotle saith, the angry man séeth not the thing which [Page 265] lieth under his féet. Augustus Caesar Emperour of Rome, de­stred Athenedorus a Philosopher of Gréece, which a long time accompanied Augustus in Rome, and now was ready to depart to Athens yt he would write som sentence that the Emperour might think of him in his absence. The Phi­losopher took a pen, and wrote in a little Table this sen­tence: Caesar when thou art moved to anger, speak nothing till thou hast recited the Greekes Alphabet: a worthy lesson and a famous sentence, well worthy to be learned of all men.

There is nothing, neither can there be any thing more ugly to behold, then mans face when he is angry, nor to be feared because he hath no rule over himself. All the pain­ters of Persia had much to do to draw in colours the ter­rible countenance and fiery face of Queen Semiramis, when she heard that her City of Babylon was besieged by the e­nemies, being then dressing of her head: she came with her hairs hand flying in the wind half amazed at the news. Her picture in this discontent and fury, stood as long as Baby­lon continued, as a monument and a terrible mirrour to posterity.

We read of the like history of Olimpias, whose anger was such, when she thought of her son Alexander, that she straight ways like a raging Lion or a cruel Tiger, digged up the body of Iolas, Alexanders murtherer, and tare his bo­dy in small pieces, and gave it to the birds of the air. Such anger was in Marcus Antonius towards Cicero, that he was not contented at Ciceroes death, but comanded his head to be set before him on the Table, to féed therewith his wrath­full heart, and gréedy eys; and his wife Fulvia to shew her anger, pulled out his tongue, and pinned it to her hood, and ware it on her head, in token of her cruel and Tigrish heart.

The noble Roman Metellus was so inflamed against Pompey, for at what time he was appointed by the Sena­tours of Rome, to succéed Metellus in his pro-consulship in Spaine. Metellus perceiving that hee was discharged, [Page 266] he brake for very anger, all the furniture of wars, and de­destroied all the provision, he famished the Elephants, and permitted his souldiers to do what injury they could a­gainst Pompey; so great was his anger that to hinder Pom­pey, he injured his native City of Rome. The property of anger is, to hurt divers, in séeking to offend one. As he is not wise that cannot be angry, so he is most wise that can moderate anger.

The fame and renown that both Themistocles and Ari­stides got, in vanquishing their anger one towards the o­ther, was great: for being sent both as Embassadours for the st [...]te of Athens, travelling over a high hill, Themi­stocles said unto Aristides, shall we both bury our anger on this hill and go as friends, and not as enemies? and there though the cause was great they became friends one to the other, forgetting and forgiving one anothers fault. Anger and wrath are the onely poison of the world, whence hidden hatred doth procéed, for to nourish the one is to féed the o­ther. Therefore it is written, that hidden hatred, private wrath, and young mens counsel, hath béen the very cause of divers destructions.

Manlius Torquatus, after he had conquered Campania, and triumphed over the Latins, returning into the City with noble fame, though the Senatours of the City, met him in triumph, yet the young men of Rome more disdain­full then courteous, were more willing to have his death, then desirous of his life, the cause is known in Valerius. I will omit to speak of Caligula, whose anger and hatred was such that he wished Rome had but one neck, that with one stroke he might strike it off. Neither will I recite H [...]lo­gabalus, who amongst writers is named the beast, and not the Emperour of Rome. The histories of Catelin, Silla, and Appius, for their anger and hatred towards their country, and native City, are extant in Plutarch and Salust: by this anger and wrath proceeded invectives and declarations, and then envy and malice began to build their bowers, by their chief Carpenter anger, and mischief and ven­geance, [Page 267] doth alwaies depend upon them. And because an­ger is the onely counsel of all mischief, I will speak of those two monstrous furies, incident alwaies to anger, I mean Envy and Malice, and shall referre that to En­vy and Malice, which might have been spoken on this subject.


Of Perjury, and Faith, and how Princes have been honoured, and punished accordingly.

FAith is the foundation of Iustice, and Iustice is the chief means (as Aristo­tle saith) to preserve a Publick Weal. We will therefore note how faithfull & just some Princes have béen, & how wicked and false others have shewed themselves; there are so many vertues in the one, and vices in the other. For some from foes become friends, as Clodius and Cicero two great enemies a long time, and yet before two faithfull friends. Tiberius likewise, and Affricanus from mortal foes, grew to be such perpetual friends, that Affricanus gave his onely daughter Cornelia in marriage to Tiberius. Even so some again from friends became foes, yea from tried friend­ship, to mortal enmity; as Dion of Siracusa was killed by Calicrates his most assured friend (as he thought) with whom alwaies before, he found friendship and faith. Po­limnestor likewise though King Priamus reposed such great trust and confidence in him that he committed his own son Polidorus to his custody, yet he falsly slew him, and murther­ed him, though beside friendship, he was his near kinsman. How well saith Socrates, do faithfull friends far excell all Gold, for in danger faith is tried, and in necessity friends are known.

[Page 268]Such is the secret force of truth and love, and such is the hidden subtilty of falshood, as may be proved in a history of Sextus Pompeius, son and heir unto Pompey the great. The faith and justice of Pompey at what time he had appointed a banquet for Augustus Caesar, and Marcus Antonius upon the seas was well tried; for being moved by divers at that time, to revenge his fathers death Pompeius the great, and especially at that time being prompted to it by his friend, and master of the ship, whose name was Menedorus, Sextus in no wise would suffer it, saying: that faith and justice ought not to be turned into perjury and falshood; for, said he, as it is perjury to omit faith and promise made to these Emperours, so this is tyranny, and not justice, to revenge my fathers death upon innocence. And true it was, that Augustus Caesar was then but a boy and brought up in school in Apulia, when his uncle Julius Caesar vanquished Pom­pey. And Marcus Antonius was rather a friend to Sextus fa­ther, then a foe, and therefore no lesse faithfull was Sextus in preserving, then just in weighing innocency.

Far unlike was false Hannibal, who under pretence of peace with the Romans, sent Embassadours unto Rome to treat thereof, where they were honourably received: but well requited he the courtesie of Rome to his Embassa­dours. For when that noble Roman Cornelius came from Rome, as an Embassadour unto Hannibal, his welcome was such, that he never went alive unto Rome again; for most cruelly and falsly was he slain by Hannibal. In this falshood and perjury, was Hannibal much defamed, whose vertues were not so much corrupted by the vilenesse of his own nature, as by the falshood and corruption of the Countrey, which alwaies in this was not to be trust­ed; of which it is proverbially spoked, Poeni perfidi, the Carthaginians are false, for the people of Carthage de­lighted in falshood, practised perjury, and used all kind of crafts, as the people of Sarmatha were most false in words, most deceitfull in déeds, and most cruell one towards the other.

[Page 269]The Scythians being much molested with wars, and dri­ven to leave their wives at home in the custody of the slaves and servants, having occasion to be absent four years, their wives married their servants, and brake their former faith with their husbands, until with force and power their ser­vants were slain, and so they recovered their countreys and wives again. Apollonius the chief Govern [...]ur of Samos, whom the Commons of the countrey from low estate had exalted to dignity, to whom they committed the Govern­ment and state of Samos, was so false of his faith towards his subjects, that having their goods, lands, livings, and lives in his own han [...], he betrayed them to Philip King of Macedonia, their most mortal enemy.

That proud perjurer, Cocalus King of Sicily, slue King Minos of Créet, though under colour of friendship, and pre­tence of communication, he had sent for him. Cleomines brake promise with the Argives, with whom he took truce for certain days, and having craftily betrayed them in the night, he slue them being sleeping, and imprisoned them a­gainst his former faith and promise made before. Even so did the false Thracians with the Boetians, they brake pro­mise, violated their faith, destroyed their countreys, depo­pulated their cities, and having professed friendship, and vowed faith, became wicked foes and false traytors, and all of these received condign punishment.

But of all false perjurers and unnatural foes, Zopyrus amongst the Persians, and Lasthen [...] [...] amongst the Olinthi­ans, to their perpetual Fame, shall be ever mentioned: the one in the famous City of Babylon deformed himself in such sort, with such dissimulation of forged faith, that having the rule and government thereof in his hand, he brought King Darius to enjoy it through his deceit; and was more faithfull to his King then to his Countrey. Lasthenes being the onely trust of the Citizens, delivered Olinthus their City into the hands of their long and great enemy, Philip King of Macedonia, What fraud hath béen found always in friendship, what falshood in faith; the murthering of [Page 270] Princes, the betraying of Kingdoms, the oppressing of in­nocents from time to time, in all places can well witnesse the same.

When Romulus had appointed Spu. Tarpeius to be chief Captain of the Capitol, the chamber of Rome, where the substance and wealth of Rome did remain; Tarpeia, Spurius daughter, in the night time, as she went for water out of the city, méeting Tatius King of the Sabines, though he was then a mortal enemy to Rome, and in continual wars with Romulus, yet by her falshood and policy he was brought to be Lord of the Capitol. Thus Tarpeia was as false to Rome, as King Tatius was to Tarpeia; for she looking to have pro­mise kept by Tatius, did find him as Rome found her: she was buried alive by Tatius close to the Capitol, which was then called Saturnus Mount, and after her death and burial it was named Tarpeiaes Rock, untill Tarquinius Superbus did name it the Capitol, by finding a mans head in that place.

There was never in Rome such falshood shewed by any man, as was by Sergius Galba, who caused the Magistrates of three famous cities in Lusitania to appear before him, promising them great commodities, concerning the states and Government of their Cities, yéelding his faith and truth for the accomplishment of the same; whose professed faith allured to the number of Nine thousand young msn, picked and elected for some enterprise for the profit of their countrey: But when false Galba had spoiled these thrée ci­ties of the Flower of all their Youth against all promise and faith, he slue the most part of them, sold and impriso­ned the rest, whereby he most easily might conquer their Cities.

Men are never certain nor trusty in doing when they are faulty in Faith: For as the Sun lighteneth the Moon so Faith maketh Man in all things perfect. For Prudence without Faith is Vain-glory and Pride; Temperance without Faith and Truth is Shamefacednesse or sadnesse; Iustice without Faith is turned into Injury, & Fortitude [Page 271] into Slothfulnesse. The orders in divers countreys for the observation of Friendship, and for maintainance of cer­tain and sure love one towards another, were Oaths of Fi­delity. The noble Romans, at what time they sware, had this order, He or she to take a slint stone in their right hand, saying these words, If I be guilty, or offend any man, if I betray my countrey, or deceive my friend willingly. I wish to be cast away out of Rome by great Jupiter, as I cast this stone out of my hand. And therewith threw the stone away.

The ancient Scythians, to obserbe amity and love, had this Law: They poured a great quantity of wine into a great Boul, and with their knives opened some vein in their bodies, letting their bloud to run out one after ano­ther into the boul, and then mingling the wine and bloud together, they dipped the end of their spears and their ar­rows in the wine, and taking the boul into their hands, they drank one to another, professing by that draught, faith and love. The Arabians when they would become faithfull to any, to maintain love thereby had this custome: One did stand with a sharp stone betwéen two, and with it made bloud to issue from the palms of both their hands, and ta­king from either of them a piece of their garment, to re­ceive their bloud, he dipped seven stones in the bloud; and calling Urania and Dionisius their Gods to witnesse their co­venant, they kept the stones in memory of their friendship, and departed one from another. The like law was among the Barcians who repairing to a Ditch, and standing there­by, would say, as Herodotus affirmeth, As long as that hol­low place or ditch were not of it self filled up, so long they desired amity and love.

In reading of Histories, we find more certainty to have béen in the Heathen by prophane Oaths then truth often in us by Evangelist and Gospel Oaths; lesse perjury in those Gentiles, swearing by Jupiter or Apollo, then in Christians swearing by the true and iiving God; more amity and friendship amongst them, with drinking either of others [Page 272] bloud, then in us by professing and acknowledging Christs bloud, When Marcus Antonius had the government of Rome, after Caesar was murthered by Brutus and Cassius, and having put to death Lucullus for his consent therein Volum­mus hearing of his friend Lucullus death, came wéeping and sobbing before Antonius, requiring one his knées, one grant at Antonius hand, which was to send his souldiers to kill him upon the grave of his friend Lucullus, and being dead, to open Lucullus grave, and lay him by his friend. Which being denied, he went and wrote upon a little piece of pa­per, and carried it in his hand, untill he came to the place, where Lucullus was buried, and there holding fast the pa­per in one hand, he with his dagger in the other hand, slue himself upon the grave, holding the paper fast in it being de [...]d, where this sentence he wrote, Thou that knewest the faithfull friendship betwixt Volumnius and Lucullus, join our bodies together being dead, as our minds were alwaies one being alive. The like history is written of Nisus, who when his faithfull friend Eurialus was slain in the wars be­twixt Turnus & Aeneas, he having understood thereof, wēt up & down the field tumbling and tossing the dead carcasses, til he found out Eurialus body, which having long looked on, and embraced, he drew out his sword, & held it in his hand a little while saying. As my body shal never depart from thy body so shall I never fear to follow thy ghost, and laying the pummel of his sword upon the ground, he fell upon it, having the body of his friend Eu [...]ialus betwixt his arms. This love was great betwixt Princes, who did live ho­nourably, and died willingly. A strange thing for men so to love their friends, as to weigh their dea [...]hs more then their own lives.

Orestes faith and friendship towards Pylades was such, that being come unto a strange Region named Taurica, to asswage his grief, and to mitigate his furious flames, be­cause he slew his mother Clitemnestra, and being suspected that he came onely to take away the image of Pallas, their Goddesse in that country; the King understanding the [Page 273] matter, made Orestes to be sent for, and to be brought before him to have judgement of death. For Pylades was not men­tioned nor spoken off, but onely Orestes; he it was that should steal their Goddesse away, and carry it into Gréece. Orestes therefore being brought, and his fellow Pylades with him the King demanded which of them was Orestes? Pylades that knew his friend Orestes should die, suddenly stept forth, and said, I am he; Orestes denied it, and said he was Orestes; Pylades again denied it, and said, that it was even he that was accused unto the King: thus the one deny­ing, and the other affirming, either of them most willing to die for the other, the King dismaied at their great [...]mity and love, pardoned their faults, and greatly honoured their natural love and faith. So many like histories to this there be, that then Princes would die for their friends even that great Conquerour Alexander, would have died presently with his friend Hephestion, had not his counsel letted him; he loved him alive so well, that he was called of all men another Alexander; he so much estéemed his friend, that when Sisigambis King Darius mother, had saluted He­phestion instead of Alexander, and being ashamed at her er­rour, he said, forbear not to honour Hephestion, for he is A­lexander also. What was it that Anaxagoras wanted that Prince Pericles could get for him? whither went Aeneas at any time without Achates with him? there was nothing that Pomponiu [...] had, but Cicero had part of it, the friendship of Scipio never wanted towards Cloe [...]ius. Though Rome could alter state, though fortune could change honour, yet could neither Rome nor fortune alter faith or change friends. After the Senatours had judged Tiberius Gracchus for di­vers seditions in the City to die, his friend Blosius having knowledge thereof, came and kneeled before the Senators, besought Lae [...]us, (whose counsel the Senators in all things followed) to be his friend, saying unto the rest, after this sort. O sacred Senate and noble Counsellours, if there re­mains in the City of Rome any sparkle of Iustice, if there be regard unto equity, let me crave that sentence by law [Page 274] which you injuriously award unto another, and since I have committed the offence of Gracchus, whose commande­ment I never resisted▪ whose will I will during life obey, let me die for Gracchus, worthily who am most willing so to do, and let him live who justly ought so to do. Thus with vehement invectives against himself, he made the Sena­tours astonied with his rare desire of death, saying: the Capitol had béen burned by Blosius if Gracchus had so com­manded, but I know that Gracchus thought nothing in heart, but that which he spake to Blosius, and that which he spake to Blosius, Blosius never doubted but to do: and there­fore I rather deserve death then he. The faith and love be­twixt Damon and Pythias, was so wondred at by King Di­onisius, that though he was a cruel Tyrant, in appointing Damon to die, yet was he so amazed to sée the desire of Py­thias, his constant faith, and his love and friendship proses­sed in Damons behalf, striving one with another to die, that he was inforced in spight of tyranny to pardon Damon for Pythias sake. Thelcus and Perithous became such faithfull friends, that they made several oaths one unto another, ne­ver during life to be parted, neither in affliction, plague, punishment, pain toil, or travel to be dissevered: insomuch that the Poets fain, that they went unto the Kingdome, and region of Pluto together. I will not speak of the great love of that noble Greek Achilles toward King Patroclus: Neither will I recite the history of that worthy Roman Titus toward Gisippus, nor report the love of Palemon and Arceir, nor of Alexander and Lodwick, whose end and con­clusion in love were such, as is worthy of everlasting me­mory.


Of Envy and Malice, and the tyranny of Princes.

AS Malice drinketh for the most part her own poison, so Envy saith Aristotle, hurteth more the envious it self, then the thing that it envieth. Like as the sloathfull in war, or Darnel amongst Wheat, so is the envious in a City: not so sad for his own miseries and ca­lamities, as he lamenteth the hap and and felicity of others. Wherefore the Philosopher Socra­tes calleth the enemy serrom anima, the sow of the soul, for that it cutteth the heart of the envious to sée the prosperity of others. For as it is a grief to good and vertuous men to sée evill men rule: so contraily to the evill most harm it is to sée good men live. Therefore, the first disturber of Com­monwealths and last destroyer of good states: the begin­ning of all sorrows, the end of all joys: the cause of all evil, and the onely let of all goodnesse; is envy.

How prospered Greece? Had flourished Rome? How quiet was the whole world? before envy began to practise with malice, two daughters of tyranny, never séen, but hid­den in the hearts of flatterers? Then, I say, Gréece was glorious, Rome was famous, their names were honoured, their prowesse feared, their policy commended, their know­ledge extolled, their fame spread over the whole world: but when envy began to sojourn in Gréece, and malice to build her Bower in Rome; these sisters (like two monsters, or two grim Gorgons) oppressed Castles, destroied countries, subdued Kingdoms, depopulated Cities: in fine, triumphed over all Gréece and Italy.

Hannibal chief General of the Carthaginians, Jugurth King of Numidia Pyrrhus of Epirus, most valiant, puis­sant & mighty Princes, with long wars, and mighty slaugh­ter, could not with all their force and power hurt Rome so [Page 276] much as their hidden hatred betwéen themselves did. A­gain, Alexander the great, Cyrus the valiant, Xerxes the fa­mous, most mighty Conquerors, with all their strength of wars, could not annoy Greece half so much as their inward Envy betwéen the Cities of Gréece. What caused Julius Caesar to war against his son in law Pompey? Ambition. What made Adrian the Emperor to despise the worthy fame of Tra [...]an? Envy. What moved Cato surnamed of Vtica, to kill himself? Envy to Caesar. Hidden hatred working for private gain, and rash counsel of flattery, which is heard most often in the envious mouth have destroyed Kingdoms.

Envy first entred into the hearts of Princes arrested the worthiest Conquerors, waded into the bowels of the wise, and blushed not to attaint the learned Philosophers in the middest of Athens. Hercules in killing the great Dragon that watched in the garden of Hesperides, in destroying the ravening birds Stimphalides, in conquering the ra­ging and furious Centaurs, in vanquishing terrible mon­sters, as G [...]rcon and Cerbe [...]us, in overcomming the Lion, the Boar and the Full; in overtaking the gilded Hart; and lastly for his conquest of the huge and prodigious Hy­d [...]a, in the fens of Lerna, won no lesse envy of some, then he justly deserved fame of others.

Theseus to imitate the haughty attempts of Hercules, o­vercame Thebes, slew Mino [...]mus in the dens of Labyrin­thus, subdued Ca [...]on the Tyrant, with divers other large enterprises, as one more willing to envie the fame of Her­cules, then desirous to deserve fame by lenity and quietnesse. So might I speak of Julius Caesar that envied Alexander the great, and Alexander likewise that envied Achilles. And thus alwayes Envy was fostered by Princes. With the wise and learned envy bare great sway, as betwixt Plato and Xenophon, the best and gravest philosophers in their time: betwixt Demonsthenes and Ae [...]ines, betwixt Aristotle and Isocrates, one despising the other.

Such slaughter grew of Envy, that one brother killed another, the son the father, and the father likewise the son; [Page 277] as Romulus slew his brother Remus through envy, lest he might be King in Rome. Cambyses King of Persia killed his brother Mergides, as Herodotus doth write, through en­vy. Envy caused Anacha [...]sis the Philosopher to be slain by his own brother Cadvidus. King Jugurth murthered both his brethren Hiempsalis and Adherbales, that he onely might reign King in Numidia. Cain did kill his brother Abel, the scripture doth testifie, because his sacrifice was not accepted. Thus envy was known and seen to be betwixt brethren, betwixt parents and their children.

The like we read that envy committed horrible and ter­rible murthers as well betwixt the husband and the wife, as in the children towards their Parents, as in short exam­ples is verified. Clicenmestra slew her own husband Aga­memnon, and she again was slain by her son Orestes, Queen Semi [...]ams killed likewise her husband King Ninus, and she was killed even so by her son called Ninus, Agrippina murthered her husbād Tiberius, & she was also murthered by h [...]r son Nero O cruel tyranny that envy should ever cause such unnatural murther, as one brother to kill another: the father to destroy his son, ye son to slay his fathsr ye husband to murther his wife, the wife to make away her husband.

We read in Pliny of a certain King in Thebes named Athamas, that gave both his sons, the one named Learchus the other Euriclea, to be devoured by ravenous Lions. So many monstrous tyrants have been brought up in the school of envy, so many deformed Centaures, that all countries have been full of them. When Antiphiles saw Apelles in great favour with King Ptolomy, he so envied the matter, that he told the King in spight to Apelles, that Apelles was the very cause of the long wars between the Tyrians and Egypt, to discredit Apelles for very envy that he was great with the King, but the matter being known, and his envy weighed, Apelles was rewarded by the King with a hun­dred Talents, and Antiphiles for his envy commanded af­terward all the daies of his life to be the slave and bonomen of Apelles. Themistocles was so grieved to see Miltiades [Page 278] so honoured for his great conquest and triumph in Mara­thon, that being demanded why he was so sad, he answer­ed, Mitiades triumphs will not suffer Themistocles to be joyfull.

There was no countrey but envy bare sway in it; there was never any great vertue, but it was accompanied with envy. Caesar was envied in Rome by Cato; Turnus was en­vied in Rutilia by Drances; Ulisses was envied in Gréece by Ajax; Demetrius was envied in Macedonia after King Cassander died: What envy M. Crassus bare toward Pom­pey, is sufficiently known: What hidden hatred Pollio had toward Cicero, may be read in Brusonius the third book, the seventh chapter, where Pollio saith to Messala, that he could not endure the voice of Cicero. The like we read of Aristo­tle, who envied Isocrates so much that he was wont to say; It were a shame to Aristotle to hold his peace, and let Isocra­tes speak. For as there is no light (saith Pliny) without a shadow, so there is no vertue or glory without envy.

The wavering state of the vulgar, which always ruled Rome and Athens, was so mutable and uncertain, that af­ter wise and sage Socrates was condemned to die being dead, the Athenians repented, his accusers were banished, and Socrates now being dead, had his pictures erected; which be­ing alive, the rude and uncertain people estéemed nothing. Even so was Aristides and Themistocles banished into Per­sia, Iphicrates into Thrace, Conon into the province of Cor­poros, Chabrias into Egypt, and Cares into Sigeum; men of excellent vertues, of noble service, of renowned fame; yet by the envious people they were banished their own countreys to range abroad the world. Again, Homer was envied by Zoilus, Pindarus by Amphimanes, Simonides by Ti­mocreon; yea, learned Maro and Horace were envied and backbiten by Maevius and Suffenus. What do I speaking of envy? Why wast I time to write of envy? Wherefore seem I so fond to touch a general subject, being so common with all men, so nourished in all countreys, being known from the beginning of the world, and being first practised by [Page 279] the Devil; who envying mans state, the felicity, joy, and pleasure hee was in, lest man should possesse the place where somtime the Devil reigned as an Angel, he decei­ved man?

This envy took root then in the first Age; for Cain envi­ed so his brother Abel, that he slue him, for that God accept­ed the sacrafice of Abel, and refused his. Joseph was by his own brethren sold into Egypt, for envy that he was better beloved of his father then they were. Saul did envy King David, that he gave his daughter Michal in marriage to Da­vid, for that she being his daughter, might betray her hus­band to the Philistines. Dathan and Abiram had great en­vy toward Aaron. Daniel was much envied in the Palace of King Nebuchadnezzar. What should I be long in this? The Apostles, the Prophets the Martyrs, yea Christ him­self was envyed at by the Iews and Gentiles; insomuch that tyranny and murther was the sequel of envy, as from time to time hath been tried, from age to age séen, and from man to man practised nay, even to dead men it hath béen shewed; as Achilles did to Hector, by haling and drawing his body about the fields of Troy, in the open sight of King Priam his father. So M. Antonius did to Cicero, having the head of Cicero set before him, to ease his Tygerish mind, permitting his wife Fulvin to wear the tongue of Cicero on her Coyf. This Cambyses shewed to the Iudge S [...]samenes, who being dead flead him, & being flead did cut him in pie­ces, and being cut in pieces did give him to be devoured by beasts and birds.

I might well declare the tyranny of Tullia, shewed to­wards her father King Servius Tullius, being dead, who caused her Chariot and horses to tread on her fathers body in the open stréets. I might speak of Tomyris Queen of Scythia toward King Cyrus being dead, who did strike off his head, and did bathe it in bloud. I might make mention of the tyranny of Alexander in Thessaly, and of Busiris in E­gypt. I might open the wicked life and state of Dionysius in Syracusa; of cruel Creon in Thebes; of Periander in [Page 280] Corinth, and of Pisistratus in Athens: But I should be te­dious to amplifie that which may be briefly examined. And this we read and see daily by experience, that the end of Tyrants is to die in tyranny, and as they deal with others, so are they dealt withal themselves. As Diomedes and Bu­siris were wont to féed their horses with mens flesh, and to quench their thirst with mens bloud; so were they them­selves vanquished by Hercules, and made food to be eaten and devoured by their own horses, which they before fed with other mens flesh. Likewise the great tyrant Phalaris and that cruel Perillus, were both destroyed with those new in­vented torments that they made for others: I mean the brazen Bull which Perillus made to satisfie the tyranny of Phalaris. Thrasillus and Scyron; the one teaching the way of tyranny, was first of all in that which he taught unto o­thers, tormented and slain: the other, thrown headlong in­to the sea by Theleus, even so as he was wont to do unto o­thers. What should I speak of the great cruelty of Aemilius, who as Aristides in Plutarch doth testifie used to recompence any man that would and could invent new torments to pu­nish the innocent, and to pleasure his divellish minde: He (I say) dwelling in Agesta a City of Sicilia, made a brasen horse to vexe and torment the people, wherein through the commandement of Armmius Paterculus chief Magistrate of the City, he first suffered the assay of his new invented work. We read again of King Danaus fifty daughters, cal­led Belides, which being maried to the fifty sonnes of Aegi­stus, slew all their husbands the first night, except Linceus who was preserved by Hypermenestra his wife. The like we reade of the thirty sisters of Albina, who after the same manner made an end of thirty husbands in one night. The sequel of tyranny was such, that what wanted in the father, w [...]s fully supplied in the sonne, for amendment is seldome séen: And that was very well considered of a simple wo­man named Ihera, who when she perceived that the people of Syracusa did wish the death of Dionisius the tyrant, she straight knéeled upon her knées, and besought the Gods [Page 281] that he might live; and being demanded why she prayed for such a tyrant? she said; I knew three Kings in Siracu­sa, every one a tyrant; the second worse then the first, the the third worse then the second, and now Dionisius being the fourth is worse then the third; and I am doubtfull if a fourth should come, it would be the Divel himself, who is worse then Dionysius, and therefore I pray the Gods he may live; for of two evils the least is to be chosen. Mark how in a simple woman, a silly person truth doth often sojourn. The like we read of a certain husbandman, that digged in the ground, when the murtherers that slew King Antigo­nus passing in hast, taking their flight into Phrygia, de­manded of the husbandman why he digged so déep; I dig up (said he) another King Antigonus to rule in Macedonia: letting them to understand the true Proverb. That seldome comes the better; that he that would come after should be far worse then King Antigonus. O happy age! O golden world, while tyranny was not known!

The great Monarchies of the world were gotten with tyranny, and likewise through tyranny lost. The first Mo­narchy after the great Deluge, was that of the Assyrians; which began under Ninus the third King of the Assyrians, and continued in slaughter and tyranny till Sardanapalus time, who was the last King, which was a thousand two hundred nine and thirty years. From the Assyrians it was won with the sword, and brought with violence and tyranny by that cruel and bloudy Arbactus to the Medes, and remai­ned there till the time of King Astyages, who was the ninth and last King of the Medes, two hundred and fifty years: From the Medes it was had away by tyranny to Persia, by King Cyrus, and there stayed until the time of King Da­rius, which was two hundred and thirty years: From the Persians it was with bloud and great slaughter taken a­way by Alexander the great unto Macedonia, and there maintained till Perseus time, which was a hundred and seven and fifty years. From the Macedonians it was post­ed to Rome, where under Julius Caesar, the proudest Mo­narch [Page 274] in all the world, it fomed in bloud, flourished in ty­ranny a long time. Thus tyranny was fed and fostered from one country to another, till almost the whole world was destroied.

The murther and tyranny that long flourished in Gréece betwéen the Thebans and the Lacedemonians, again, be­twixt the Lacedemonians and the Athenians, betwixt the Athenians and all Greece, who readeth it not in Thucidi­des. Tamberlan, the great murtherer, King sometime in Scythia, got through tyranny Medea Albania, Mesopota­mia Persia, and Armenia, he passed over Euphrates, sub­dued Asia the lesse, and took Baiazet King of the Turks, cal­led all the Princes of Asia in his voyage toward Gréece, where such tyranny was used that not onely Cities and Countries were destroyed, but also their Temples and their Gods neglected and spoiled. Great was the tyranny betwixt King Darius of Persia, and Miltiades Prince of Athens, who slew a hundred thousand of Darius men? How great was the slaughter of King Cyrus, after he had exiled his Grandfather King Astrages from Persia, vanquished the Babylonians, and overthrew Croesus King of Lydia, and after he had subdued the most part of Asia, he ceased not his tyr [...]nny untill he came to Scithia, where he and two hun­dred thousand were slain by one woman, Tomyris Queen Scithia who after she had slain him, she caused his head to be cut off, and made it to be bathed in a great tun of bloud, saying these words: now Cyrus drink enough of that which thou hast alwaies so long thirsted for. Bloud doth require bloud and tyranny will have cruelty. Antiochus famed in tyranny brought in subjection Egypt, and India with other countries

Hannibal excelled all men in tyranny, as both Rome and Italy can well testifie. To speak of King Philip and his son Alexander the great, their tyranny, their conquest, and bloudy wars, it were superfluous, as Thessalia Thebes Larissa, the Olinthians, Phoceans, Lacedemonians, Athe­nians, Persians, Indians, and all Asia are witnesse there­to: [Page 275] Pyrrhus, Antigonus, Pompey the great, with infinite more bloudy Generals, did more rejoyce with tyranny to offend others, then with justice to defend their own. For the triumphs of cruel Captains are to joy in tyranny, the wish and desire of the ungodly tyrant is to destroy all, he is thirsty alwaies of bloud, hungry continually of murther and slaughter. What wished Caligula the Emperour to his own City of Rome? onely one neck, that with one stroke he might strike it off.

The difference betwéen a gentle and a goodly Prince, and a cruell tyrant, is, and hath béen alwaies séen. King Codrus of Athens, how far excelled he cruell Caligula? when by an Oracle it was told to the Athenians, that they should never have victory during the life of Codrus their King the King understanding of it, he cloathed himself like a com­mon souldier, nay rather as the history saith, like a poor beg­gar, and went into the midst of his enemies to be slain to save Athens. How much did noble Curtius, and famous Decius surmounted that cruell L. Sylla, and that wicked imp C. Marius; they instructed by the like Oracle, were ready in their arms to mount on horseback to offer them­selves alive, to an open gulf to save Rome: the other with sword and fire were no lesse willing to destroy Rome, and to spoil their native soil and country of Italy. Again Thra­sibulus was not so beneficial to Athens, but Catelin was as hurtfull unto Rome.

Divers Princes and Noble men have béen no lesse stu­dious how to kéep and defend their countries, then they were loath and unwilling to trespasse against their coun­tries. Happy are those places, and most happy are they that injoy such Princes. How famous was Thebes while E­paminondas lived? how renowned was Sparta, while yet Agesilaus ruled? how happy was Rome when Fabius Max­imus bare sway? how flourished Athens when Pericles with his magnanimity, when Themisiocles with his worthinesse, when Demosthenes with his wisedome defended their state? The vertuous lives of goodly Emperours time hath advan­ced, [Page 284] to fame, and fame hath spread over the whole world, as of Traian, Constantine, Augustus, Alexander Severus, with others, which are to be honoured and had in perpetual me­mory. But the cruell tyranny of other wicked Magistrates, neither time can take away, nor any good nature forget, as that monster of shame, sinck of sin, that beast Heli [...]gaba­lus, that tyrant Nero, that monster Caligula, with Domiti­an, Dionisius, and others, which are to be detested, and ut­terly lothed. Laertius in his third book doth write, that the people of Agineta, had a law written, that if any of Athens should come unto their great City Aginia, he should lose his head. Whē Plato the phil [...]sopher had hapned to come to that City, it was told Carmendius who then was chief Iudge for that year that a man of Athens was in Aginia, which ought by law to die; the calling Plato before him in a great assem­bly demāded what he was, & he said a Philosopher: a certain man envious unto learning hearing the name of a Philoso­sopher, said: this is no man but a beast, then said Plato, I ought to be frée by your law, being a beast and not a man, and so pleaded the matter, that by the name of a beast he was dismissed: applying thus the sense thereof, that with tyrants and envious people beasts are better esteemed then men.

Such is the furious rage of tyranny, that without mercy and respect of person, he féedeth his fury. King A­treus brother to Thiestes, and son to King Pelops, slew with­out pity the thrée sons of his brother. Thiestes, whose bloud he caused his brother, and their father, to drink unawares, and after he had hidden their bodies in a cave, he cut off their members, and made their father to eat thereof. The like history we read in Justine that King Assiages made Harpa­gus to eat his own son, dressed ready, and served up at the Kings table, in two silver dishes before Harpagus the fa­ther: of which as one ignorant of such tyranny the father fed. Mithridates the bloudy King of Pontus, slew his thrée sons, and three daughters he killed his wife Laodice, and married another named Hipsicratea.

[Page 285]Tyranny lurketh in the hidden veins, and secret bow­els of envy: for even as Mithridates flew his wife Laodice; so Constantine the great Emperour slew his wife Fausta, and Nero murthered his wife Poppea. I should weary the Rea­der to speak of Cleander, Aristratus, Strates, Sabillus, with in­numerable others. The state of Rome was so often chan­ged by tyranny, that sometimes they reigned under Monar­chy, and then streight under Aristrocacy. And thus the Commons séeking by change an amendment of Princes, kept alwaies the chief rule and government of the City of Rome under Democracy, which is the popular govern­ment, abhorring the corruption of Princes, to their im­mortal fame and glory.


Of Flattery.

FLattery is the sweet bait of Envy the cloak of malice, the onely pestilence of the world, a monster ugly to behold if it could be seen, and dangerous to trust if it might be known; it hath as many heads as Hidra, to invent wic­kednesse; as many hands as Briareus to commit evill; as many eys as Argos to behold and delight in vengeance, as swift of foot as Tha­lus. entring into every mans house with words as sweet as honey, but a heart as bitter as gall, of which the old poem is spoken, Melin ore, verba lactis: felin corde, fraus in factis.

Antisthenes the learned Athenian was wont to say, that he had rather have Ravens in his house with him, then flat­terers: for Ravens said he, devour but the carcasse being dead, but the flatterer eateth up the body and soul alive. For even as tyranny is hidden in the secret bowels of envy, so is envy cloaked under the filed phrase of flattery, and ve­ry [Page 278] well compared to the Crocodiles of Nilus, or to the Sy­rens of the seas, the one weeping and mourning, the other singing and laughing, the one with lamentation, the other with mirth doth study how to annoy the poor Mariner. The flattering Parasite, as Ovid saith, denieth with the nega­tive, and affirmeth with the affirmative; wéepeth with him that is sad, and laugheth with him that is merry: As sometime Clisophus, who when his master Philip King of Macedonia, and further to Alexander the great, did halt be­cause he had the gout, he would halt likewise; when the King would be merry at his drink, Clisophus would not be sad: In fine, whatsoever Philip took in hand, the same Cli­sophus did imitate. Aristippus the Philosopher, could better please King Dionysius with adulation, the Dion the Syra­cusan could pleasure him with truth. Cleo could better ac­complish the desire and lust of Alexander with forged flatte­ry, then Calisthenes his counsellour could satisfie him with Philosophy. Who might move Caesar to do any thing, so much as Curio his Parasite? Not Pompey his son in Law, nor yet his onely daughter Julia, nor all the Senatours of Rome.

Flatterers are dangerous to the most part, hurtfull to all, profitable to none, and yet of Princes most accepted: Vnder the shape of humanity, they sway and rule in Court like furious Centaurs, deformed Scyllaes, huge Cyclops, grim Gorgons, fretting Furies, and monstrous Harpies; yea, with a thousand more deformities. For who is more made of then he that ought least to be esteemed? who is trusted more then he that deceiveth soonest? who is heard more at all times then he that ought least to come in sight at any time? who hath more of all men then he that deserveth least of all men? In fine, who is more beloved any where then he that ought most to be hated every where? The com­mon people of the Medes and Persians, for that they knéel­ed to Alexander, and made him the son of Jupiter were more estéemed for their flattery therein, then the Nobles of Macedonia for their truth and plain dealing.

[Page 279]What is it but flattery bringeth it to passe? That which that famous and renowned Prince Agamemnon, with all the force and power of Gréece, could not with ten years siege subdue; one subtil Sinon, a simple and a silly Greek, allured the mind of King Priam unto and deceived with flattery his Nobles, and entised the Citizens through adula­tions to their utter destruction, and last confusion. That ancient and renowned City of Babilon, which King Darius with all the power of Persia was never able to vanquish, one Zopyrus, a Citizen born in Babilon, through forged faith and filed flattery, I say, betrayed it unto King Da­rius.

What shall I speak of the ancient Lacedemonians, the most famous and worthiest people in the whole world for their wars; whom neither Medes Persians, Macedonians, nor all Greece could vanquish; Phrinicus with his flattery deceived them. The people of Sambs were deceived by false Apollonius. Menelaus was beguiled with the flattery of Paris. Dion of Syracusa was slain by his flattering friend Galicrates. O sucking serpent of malice, whose fruit is death! If King Antigonus had known the flattery of his feigned friend Apollophanes, he had not been deceived as he was. If King Astyages had throughly known Harpagus his servant he had not been slain by King Cyrus. If that noble and famous Roman Crassus had weighed the flattery of Carenus he had not been so shamefully murthered among the Parthians.

What flattery was between Jason and Medea? what de­ceit followed? What adulation was betwixt Theseus and Ariadne? what falshood ensued? The one helping Jason to the Golden Fleece, the other delivering Theseus out of the dreadfull Labyrinth from the monster Minotantus, were de­ceived by flattery. But passe we forward in the Pilgrima­ges and affairs of Princes. Who murthered Caesar, that worthy Emperour, in the Senate house of Rome? Brutus and Cassius, those flatterers that Caesar loved most. Who poysoned that mighty Conqueror Alexander, in the midst of [Page 288] his triumphs at Babylon? those that flattered him most, his own Cup-taster, lola, and his kinsman Antipater. Who betrayed that famous Roman Cicero to his meer enemy Marcus Antonius? even he whom Cicero before defended and saved from death, Popilius. Finally, who betrayed Christ, both God and Man, to the Scribes and Pharisees? his purse-bearer, that flattering Judas with fair spéech, say­ing, Avi Rabbi, embracing and kissing him as flatterers use to do.

Where is there greater tyranny shewed then where flat­tery is most used? Where is there greater deceit practi­sed, then where courtesie is most tendered? Where is more falshood, then where trust is most reposed? The first thing that deceived man was flattery, which the Devil tho ser­pent put in ure to deceive Eve; flattering her, saying, If thou eat of this fruit thou shalt know good and evil, and you shall be as Gods on earth. As the Devil is the onely Au­thour of all lies, so is he the onely Father of flattery, at­tempting always the best and not the worst; accompanying the highest, and not the lowest, frequenting the Court more then the Countrey, and approaching near to Princes, and not to Beggars.

When Christ was assaulted with the flattery of the Di­vel, promising him all the world if he would knéel and flat­ter him: I would to God that all Princes would speak to flatterers as Christ spake to the Devil: Avoid Satan: A­way flatterer. Or else I wish that wise men, who are soon­est of all by flattery allured, would imitate the example of a noble man of Thebes, named Itmenius, who being sent Embassadour from Thebes to Persia, understanding the manners & fashions of the proud Persians, and that nothing could be gotten without flattery, nor heard without knéel­ing he did let fall his ring on the ground, whereby he might stoop before the King, not to the King, but to take up his ring. Or else I would wish all men to answer flatterers, as Diogenes answered Aristippus; who speaking to Diogenes, that if Diogenes could be content to flatter Dionysius the [Page 289] King, he needed not to lick dishes, or to live poorly in A­thens; Diogenes made answer. If Aristippus could be con­tent to lick dishes, or to live poorly in Athens he needed not to flatter Dionysius.

It is read in Caelius, that the maid-servants of Cyprus were so giuen to flattery, that they knéeled down to bow and bend their shoulders, as a footstool to their Ladies to mount into their Chariots: surely the men of Persia and the wo­men of Cyprus engendred such numbers of flattering Para­sites, that glorious masters now never want flattering ser­vants. The schollers of Gnato frequent always Thrasoni­cal places. Have we not many now a days, that will speak to their friends as Nicesias was wont to say to Alexander the great being wounded, and his bloud spinning out? O what noble bloud is this! This bloud comes from some God and not from man. The wise man saith that five things ought of all men to be mistrusted; a strange dog, an unknown horse, a hollow bank, a talkative woman, and a flattering servant. Fair words makes fools glad; yea flattering spée­ches overcommeth wise men. Demetrius having obtained vi­ctory in the wars at Salamina, was so joyfull of his fortune, that he did send Aristodemus, a very sublil and a cunning flat­terer, to certifie his father King Antigonus of his prosperous successe, giving in charge unto him to shew the King his fa­ther orderly the triumph and victory in the largest manner. Aristodemus no lesse joyfull of the message, then skilfull in flattery, leaving his Navy, and his company in Cyprus, went on land toward King Antigonus; who having under­stood that Aristodemus was come from his son Demetrius, be­ing desirous of the newes, and to heare of the Wars and successe of his son, sent divers to méet him on the way, to know the truth and effect of his comming: He saluted all men as one very sad, and so sad, that all men judged that ei­ther Demetrius was slain, or else had lost the field. The King being certified that Aristodemus was very sad, and that there was no likelihood of good news, came hastily to meet him; which when Aristodemus saw, he cryed out with a [Page 290] loud voice a far off saying: Most happy art thou King Antigonus, beloved of the Gods, saluted by Demetrius, and this day feared of all the world. Thy son is Conquerour o­ver Conquerours and King over Kings a triumphant vic­tor in the wars at Salamina: thus artificially did Aristo­demus use his flattery before King Antigonus, that the King had as great a delight to hear Aristodemus flattering phrase, as he had joy and gladnesse in the prosperity of his son De­metrius. Thus he did win the heart, and dived into the soul of King Antigonus, that his reward was as much by his flattery, as his thanks was for his news. Marcus Antonius was delighted so much in the flattering spéech of the Athe­nians, at what time he was inforced to forsake Rome by means of Augustus Caesar, that the Citizens of Athens went to méet him out of the City, having an Oration in com­mendation of his wisedom, saying: that he was well wor­thy to have Minerva in marriage. He joied so much in this their adulation that they won this Roman by flattery to do more honour unto Athens, then nature could crave at his hands to love Rome. Such force hath flattery, that when Alexander the great would have died for sorrow: yea, would have killed himself for that he slew Clitus in his an­ger, An [...]x [...]chus with sugred words and fair sentences as­swaged his sorrow. Aristippus when he might not obtain his purpose at Dionisius hand with flattery and fair words, he would knéel down, and imbrace and kisse his féet, and being accused of his friends, that he being a Philosopher, he was a flatterer, he answered them in this sort: Aristip­pus is not in fault to speak unto any man where his ear is, Dionisius rather is to be blamed to hear at his féet, or to have his ears at his héels. Diogenes therefore being deman­ded what beast was most hurtfull to man: of wild beasts a tyrant, of tame beasts a flatterer. What subject is he that delighteth not in flattery? what Prince is he that is not pleased with adulation? What God is he, saith the Poet, that loveth not his commendation and praise? Her­cules was glad to hear the adulation of Cecropes, Bacchus [Page 291] was joyfull to hear the flattery of Silenus: even Jupiter himself the King of Gods was delighted in Vulcan. The remedy therefore to avoid this Gorgon, to expell this mon­ster, to exile this murtherer is as Cato the wise man saith, to use truth, for he that useth to hear good talk alwaies, will never himself speak evill at any time. The nature of flat­tery was so known, and was so hated by Augustus the Em­perour, that he lothed the knéeling of his houshold servants. Tiberius the Emperour likewise would in no wise suffer a­ny of his own men to call him Lord. Flattery was some­times so abhorred in Athens, that when Timagoras was sent as an Embassadour to Darius K. of Persia, for that he flattered the King in talk, at his return, he was beheaded. Even so Evagoras because he called Alexander the son of Ju­piter, was put to death.

The Lacedemonians feared flattery so much, that they banished Archilogus onely for his eloquence in a book which he composed. Flattery was so odious in Rome, that Cato the Censor gave commandement to expell certain fine O­ratours of Athens, out of Rome, lest by their fair spéech and flattery they might annoy the state of Rome. What is it but flattery can compasse? what may not sugred Ora­tours move? what could not Demosthenes do in Athens? what might not Cicero perswade in Rome? King Pyrrhus was wont to say, that he won more Cities, Towns, and Countries, through the flattering perswasions of Cineas, then he ever subdued with the strength and force of all the Kingdome of Epire. But to avoid too much striking on one string, which as Plutarch saith is tedious to the Reader, (for nature is desirous (saith Plautus) of novelties:) I wil speak a little of those that fled flattery: it was the onely cause that Pythagoras that noble Phil [...]sopher forsook his country Samos, the onely occasion that the worthy and lear­ned Solon fled from Athens, the chief cause that made Li­curgus to renounce Lacedemon, and the onely cause that made Scipio Nasica forsake Rome: for where flattery is e­stéemed, there truth is banished, where flattery is advan­ced [Page 292] and honoured there truth is oppressed and vanquished: in fine, flattery findeth friendship when truth doth purchase hatred as is proved in the histories of Seneca and Calisthenes two famous Philosophers, the one master unto Nero Em­perour of Rome, the other appointed by Aristotle to attend upon Alexande [...] the great, these Philosophers, because they would not féed the corrupt natures and insolent minds of these proud Princes with adulation and flattery, they were put to death: Seneca by Nero for his pain and travel taken with the Emperour in reading him Philosophy Calisthe­nes by Alexander, because he reproved the customes of the Medes and Persians who used such flattery, that Alexander commanded all men to call him the son of Jupiter. Even so Cicero and Demosthenes, the one the soveraign Oratour and the Phenix of Rome, the other the sugred anchor and the patron of Athens, and protector of all Gréece; who ha­ving sundry times saved the two famous Cities Rome and Athens, the one from the pernicious and privy conspiracy of that wicked Catelin and his adherents the other from the proud attempts and the long wars of Philip King of Mace­don, yet were they both banished and exiled their own countries Cicero for Clodius sake, which the Romans took so heavily, that twenty thousand did wear mourning appa­rel with no lesse heavinesse in Rome, then tears were shed for Demosthenes in Athens. Flattery was of some then so hated that noble Phocion a learned Athenian, was went to say to his friend Antipater, that he would take no man to be his friend, whom he knew to be a flatterer, And most cer­tain it is that he that at this day cannot flatter, can get no friendship according to that saying of Terence, obsequium a­micos &c. For even as Aristides of Athens for his mani­fold benefits to the Athenians was by flattery prevent­ed and for truth banished: so likewise Thucidides being sent as an Embassadour from Athens to Amphipolis, a Ci­ty betwixt Thracia and Macedonia which King Philip kept by force, was by flattery circumvented. True service is of­ten rewarded with anger and the rage of Princes, as Thra­sibulus [Page 293] a noble Captain and famous, for his truth was ba­nished out of Athens. Lentulus the defendour of Italy, exi­led from Rome. Dion of Siracusa hunted out of his coun­try by Dionisius: even that renowned Hannibal, that long protector of Carthage, was compelled after long service for his country to range about like a pilgrim every where, to séek some safe-guard for his life. Too many examples might be brought from Gréek and Latine histories for the proof hereof. The chiefest bulwark of a Common-wealth saith Demosthenes is assured faith without flattery, and good will tried in the Commons, and plainnesse without deceit, boldnesse and trust in the Nobility. Flattery is the onely snare that wise men are deceived withall, and this the pha­risées knew well, who when they would take our Saviour Christ tardy in his talk, they began to flatter him with fair words, saying: Master we know that thou art just and true, and that thou camest from God. Even so Herod wil­ling to please the Iews, in killing James the brother of John, and in imprisoning Peter, he so pleased the people with flattery, that they cried out this is the voice of God, and not the voice of men: so sweet was flattery amongst the Iews. The flattering friends of Ammon knowing the wickednesse of his mind, and his perverse dealing toward Mardocheus did not perswade Ammon from his tyranny, but flattered him with fair words, and made him prepare a high gallows for Mardocheus where Ammon and his children were hanged. But the young man that came to flatter king David saying, Saul and his children are dead, was by David for his flattery commanded to die.


Of the Pilgrimages of Princes, and Misery of Mortality.

THere is neither beast on the earth, nor fowl in the ayr, nor fish in the sea, that séeks his own decay, but man onely; as by experience we sée all things to have a care of their own lives. The Lion when he féeleth himself sick he ne­ver ceaseth till he féedeth upon an Ape, whereby he may re­cover his former health. The Goats of Créet féeding on high upon the mountains, when any of them is shot through with an arrow, as the people of that Countrey are most ex­cellent archers, they seek out an herb called Dictamum, and assoon as they eat any part of it, the arrow falleth down, and the wound waxeth whole incontinently, There are certain kinds of Frogs in Egypt, about the floud of Nilus, that have this perceiverance, that when by chance they happen to come where a fish called Varus is, which is great a mur­therer and spoiler of Frogs, they use to bear in their mouths overthwart, a long reed, which groweth about the banks of Nile; and as this fish doth gape thinking to feed upon the Frog, the reed is so long that by no means he can swallow the Frog; and so they save their lives. If the Goats of Creet, if the Frogs of Egypt have this understanding to a­void their enemies; how much more ought man to be cir­cumspect of his life, who hath millions of enemies neither seen nor known.

We read in the first book of Aelian, that the rude swine, if at any time by chance they eat of that herb called Hiosci­amus, which so contracteth & draweth their veins together that they can hardly stir, they will strive for remedy to go under the water, where they feed upon young Crabs to re­cover health. In the same book you may read of a sea Snail, which from the water doth come to land to breed, and after she hath egged, she diggeth the earth, and hideth her egs, and returneth to the sea again, and there continueth fourty days; [Page 295] and after fourty days, she commeth to the self same place where she hid her egs, and perceiving that they are ready to come out of the shell, she openeth the shell, and taketh her young ones with her into the sea. And thus have they a care not onely of their own states and lives but also of others; and by some shew of sence they help that which is most dan­gerous and hurtfull.

The little Mice have this kind of fore-knowledge, that when any house waxeth old and ruinous, they forsake their old dwelling and creeping holes, and flee and seek refuge in some other place. The little Ants have such fore-sight, that when penury and want of relief draweth near, they wax painfull and laborious, to gather victuals as may serve them during the time of famine. If these small creeping worms and simple beasts provide for themselves; what shall we say of man, the King and ruler over all beasts, who hath not onely a body to provide for, but also a soul to save? More happy are these worms and beasts in their kind, then a number of Princes are; for that they by nature onely are taught to avoid their foes, we neither by nature neither by God the cause of all goodnesse can love our friends. There­fore very well it is said of the wise man, that either not to be born, or else being born straight to die, is the happiest state that can chance to man; For living in this vale of misery, we see the Pilgrimage and travel of life to be such, that better far it were to be a poor quiet man, then a proud ambitious Prince.

And since death is the last line of life, as well appointed for Princes as for poor men, who in reading of the lives of Emperors, Kings and Princes, and the Nobles of the world, seeth not their unhappy states, which come into the world naked, and depart from the same naked yet like proud Pilgrims are busie one to destroy another: not con­tent with countreys and Kingdomes, they go from place to place like Pilgrims, to be more acquainted with misery, and to seek death. Alexander the great conquerour [...] taking his voyage from his Kingdome of Macedonia unto India, [Page 296] in a desire to destroy all the world, he was in the City of Babylon prevented by Antipater and Iola with poyson, and there he died. Philopomenes, a great Emperor sometime in Gréece, being taken prisoner in the wars of Messena, was so cruelly handled, that he besought Dinocrates, who then was Prince of that countrey, and conquerour over him, one dr [...]ught of poyson to end his life: Thus he that could not be content to be Emperor and ruler of Gréece, was moved to seek death in a strange Countrey amongst his foes. La­dislaus King of Apulia endeavouring to subdue the Floren­tines, and séeking to be King over the Florentines lost the Kingdome of Apulia, and by them was at length poysoned, and so bereft both of Kingdome and life.

With this unhappy kind of death many Princes have been prevented; and no lesse threatned are these Princes by their own houshold friends, then by forraign foes: No lesse do their children, their wives, brethren and kinsmen study to destroy them. Thus Claudius Caesar, an Emperor of Rome, was poysoned by his own wife Agrippina. Antio­chus King of Syria was poysoned by his Quéen Laodice, so that he was in love with Berenices, King Ptolomy's sisterr Constantine the Emperor, the son of Heraclius, being but one year a ruler in the Empire, was poysoned by his mother in Law named Martina. The very cause of the Emperor Con­radus death who was Fredericks son was onely the Empire and rule of Rome; for Manfredus his successour hired the Physitians to poyson him, that he might have the onely sway. O unhappy state of Princes, whose lives are desired both of friends and foes.

No lesse danger it is to be in favour with Princes some­time, then perillous to be Princes. We read of a Quéen named Rosimunda, the daughter of King Cunimund of Ge­pida, who after she had poysoned Albonius King of the Lon­gobards, her first husband did marry a Prince of Ravenna named Helinges, whom likwise she thought to poison; but being warned in the middest of his draught, he caused his wife to drink the rest, which drink was the cause of both [Page 297] their deaths. How many noble Princes in the middest of their pilgrimages have died that death? as Dioclesian the Emperour of Rome, Lotarius King of France, Charls the eight of that name, with divers others, as Hannibal prince of Carthage, Aristobulus King of Iudea, and Lucullus Ge­nerall of Rome.

Princes and noble men do sometime poison themselves, lest they should be inforced to serve their foes, as Themisto­cles being banished from his country of Athens, being in service under Artaxerxes King of Persia, poisoned himself with the bloud of a Bull, in presence of all the Persians, lest he should be compelled to fight in wars against Gréece his country. Even so Aratus prince of Sicionia, perceiving Philip the younger would banish and exile him out of his country, was inforced with poison to drink his own death out of his own hand Even after this sort, after long admini­stration of the Commonwealth, did noble Socrates, learned Anaxagoras, worthy Seneca, and famous Demosthenes poison themselves.

Thus their pilgrimages were ended, and their lives fi­nished, their honour and dignity, their fame and renown did purchase them death. Happy then are those whom the world knows not, who desire not to be acquainted with the world, but quiet and contented do finish the course of their pilgrimages. Had not Jugurthus thirsted for the Kingdom of Numidia, he had not slain his two brethren Adherbal and Hempsal, which were partakers of the Crown, for the which vengeance fell upon him, being subdued by Marius, and dying afterwards in prison Had not King Siphax thirst­ed after the Empire of Rome, he had never béen taken cap­tive and prisoner by Tiberius, where he at length out of his Kingdome died in prison. Henry the third was of his own son named Henry put again in prison, where he died. Aristo­nicus for all his businesse and great doings, was vanquished by the Consull Aquilius, and put in prison where likewise he died.

In prison divers princes have ended their lives in forrein [Page 298] countries. Strange kinds of deaths, happen upon Princes more then on any other men, as orderly I shall prove by their pilgrimages and lives. Some by fire, as the Tyrant Phalaris of Agrigentum, who was burned with all his chil­dren, and his wife in the Brasen Bull which Perillus made for others, & was first of all put into it himself. By fire was the Emperour Valentine burned by the Goths, by fire was that famous Greek Alcibiades destroied in Phrygia, and burned in bed with his mistresse Timandra, after he had ru­led Athens and all Greece a long while, Sardanapalus that great King, and last prince of Assyria, fearing to fall into the hands of Arbactus, and detesting to die by his ene­mies made a solemn fire, when after his lewd life, wanton­ing in lust, and following his desires, he burned himself: it was the end of the renowned Hercules, who conquered Mon­sters, subdued Serpents Lions, Dragons and wild beasts; at the last he put on the shirt of Nestus the Centaur which burned him alive. What shall I speak of Boges, the dear friend sometime of King Xerxes, who when he knew that he could not escape the hand of Cimon, and the power of At [...]ens, he made a great fire, where he caused his wife and concubines, his children and family to be burned and then his gold silver, and treasure and last of all he burned him­self, Empedocles, Catullus, Luctatius, Asdrubal, and Po [...]tia died this death.

So desirous were men alwaies to become princes, so ambitious of honour, so greedy of wealth, that having the name of a King, they thought to avoid and escape that, which alwaies waits on the heels of Princes, I mean death. Were not princes hanged by their own subjects, which is the vilest and most ignominious death that can be? Achaeas King of Lidia, for that he troubled his subjects with new taxes and subsedies, was hanged by his own subjects at the river of Pactolus. Bomilchar a Prince of Libia, being sus­pected by the Carthaginians, that he had conspired with Agathocles, unto the annoiance of the subjects, was hanged in the City of Carthage, in the middest of the Market. Po­licrates [Page 299] who was supposed to be the happiest Prince that e­ver reigned in Samos, and never sustained any losse by fortune, was at last by Orontes the Persian, King Darius General hanged in sight of Samos. Herodotus doth affirm, that Leonides that famous King of Sparta, who long ruled the Lacedemonians with great fame and renown, was by Xerxes King of Persia, after his head was smitten off, com­manded notwithstanding to be hanged. Trogus doth write of Hanno a prince of Carthage, which flourished in the time of King Philip, father to Alexander the great, who for his prosperous successe that he had in all his attempts, waxed to be such a tyrant, that his own people first bound him with cords, whipt him with rods, pluckt out his eys, brake his legs, cut off his hands, and at last to recompence his tyran­ny, they hanged him up in Carthage. These were no mean men, that thus were hanged in their own country, and by their own people. Thus Princes in the middest of their lives have béen arrested by death, and by divers kinds of death.

Some as you have heard by poison, some by fire, some by hanging have ended their pilgrimages, some again have been devoured by their own horses, as Diomedes King of Thracia became food himself to those beasts, which before he fed with mens bodies. The King of Eubea for his ty­ranny in Boetia, was given by Hercules to be eaten by his own horses. Licinius the Emperour, at what time he had appointed that his daughter H [...]rina should be given to his horses to be eaten, he himself giving her as food unto them, was torn in pieces.

It h [...]ppened that Neocles, the son of that noble Greek Themistocks was by a horse likewise devoured. And this was not strange unto princes, for they were alwaies sub­ject unto all kind of deaths. After that the famous prince M [...]us Captain of the Lybians, had broken truce with the Romans he was afterward as Livi doth witnesse, taken and drawn by four great horses alive at the cemmandement of Tullus Hostilius being then King of Rome. H [...]pp [...]litus son [Page 300] son to Theseus, being falsly accused by his mother in law Quéen Phedra, and flying to avoid the fury and rage of his father at the request of the Queen, was torn in pieces by wild horses. But let us passe further, and we shall read, that as some were devoured by horses, so others were by Ser­pents stung to death, as Laocoon that worthy Troyan was by two Serpents destroyed; yea, that famous and war­like woman Cleopatra Quéen of Egypt, after her lover and friend Marcus Antonius was overcome by Augustus Caesar the Emperour, did chuse rather to be overcome with Ser­pents, then subdued by Caesar. With this death was Opheltes, the son of Licurgus, King of Menea vanquish­ed.

Again some have perished by wild Bores, and raging Lions, as Anceus King of Samos, and Paphages King of Ambracia, the one by a Bore, the other by a Lion. Some have béen devoured by dogs, as Linus, the son of Apollo. Pli­ny in his seventh book metions a Quéen in Bithinia named Cosinges K. N [...]comedes wife whom her own dogs flew, & tare in pieces. Euripides that learned Gréek, coming in the night time from Archelaus King of Macedonia, with whom he had been at supper was incountered by his enemy Promerus, who set his dogs on him and did tear him to pieces. Even so were Herachtus and Diogenes both Philosophers, by dogs likewise killed. I may not forget so great a prince as Basili­us the Emperour of Macedon, who in hunting amongst his Lords and Nobles, yea, amongst thousands of his Com­mons, he onely meeting a Hart in the chase, was hurt by him in the leg whereof he died. As for Seleucus King of Syria, son to Antiochus surnamed the Great, and B [...]la King of Panonia, they were both thrown by their horses, and died.

If these mischance happen unto princes in the midst of their state what is their glory but misery, since nothing ex­pelleth fate, nor can avoid death. Some have been so weary of life some so fearfull of death that they have thrown them­selves into the water to be drowned, others for all their dili­gent [Page 301] fear, and watching for death, have most shamefully notwithstanding been by death prevented. Frederick the Em­perour marching towards Ierusalem, after that he had ta­ken several Cities and Townes in Armenia, in passing through a little river, was drowned. Decius that noble King, being enforced to take his flight from the Goths, with whom he then was in wars, was drowned in the Ma­rish ground Marcus Marcellus after that he had béen a Con­sul in Rome thrée times, before the third wars betwixt the Romans and the Carthaginians, was likewise by ship­wrack cast away.

How many noble Princes have béen drowned? as Pha­raoh King of Egypt in the red sea, of whom we read in the sacred scriptures. How many have the seas despoyled of life, and with their own names christened the names of seas and waters in which they were drowned? As by the death of Aegeus King of Athens, the sea Aegeum was so called; by the death of Tyrrhenus King of Lydia, the sea was called The Tyrrhen Sea: And so King Tyberinus al­tered the river called Aelbula, by his death, to be the river of Tyber. Again the sea Hellespont was so called by a wo­man named Helle, drowned in it. So by I [...]arus and Myr­tilus, the sea of Icarus, and the sea Myrton were so cal­led.

Divers Princes have also perished by famine and have been compelled to eat their own flesh as Erisicthon, and Ne­ocles a Tyrant of Scicioma. It is written in Curtius, that Sysigambis King Darius mother died of hunger. Ulysles the Gréek lest any off-spring of Hector should rise in Phrygia, to revenge the fall of Troy, and his countrey, did cast Asti­anax the son of Hector, over the walls alive. Lycurgus King of Thrace was by his own subjects thrown headlong into the sea, for that he first mingled water with wine.

How many famous and noble Princes have been stoned to death, as valiant Pyrrhus King of the Epyrotes, being in wars with Antigonus, was slain by an old woman with a a tile-stone at Argos. Pyrander at what time the Atheni­ans [Page 302] warred against Eumolpus, for that he feared famine, hi­ding the wheat from his souldiers, was therefore by them stoned to death. Even so was Cinna the Roman in the wars betwixt the Gauls and the Romans, for the like offence stoned to death. Stout Cebrior, King Pria [...]'s son was slain by a stone, hurled at him by Patroclus, at the siege of Troy; so died Cygnus the son of Achilles at the same time. O un­stedfast fortune, that stones should end the many lives of famous princes! O imprudent princes, that know not how nigh ye are always to death.

How many hath God punished with sudden death for their offences: as Mithridates King of Pontus: and Nica­nor the son of Parmenio of Macedonia died suddenly. Serto­rius was slain suddenly at a banquet by Upenna. The Em­perour Heli [...]gabalus was killed upon his stool at his ease­ment, and thrown into Tyber. That renowned and fa­mous Conquerour Julius Caesar, was in the middest of the City of Rome, where he was Emperor, yea, in the Senate-house, murthered and mangled by Brutus and Cassius. Di­vers Consuls in Rome died this death, as Fabius Max [...]mus, Gurges the Senator; And Manlius Torquatus, even at his supper died presently.

Some with Thunder-bolts did God likewise punish; thus Capaneus was slain at the wars of Thebes. Tullus Ho­stilius King of Rome, was with a Thunderbolt for his inso­lency and pride slain. Zoroastres King of the Bactrians, the first inventer of Magick, was likewise by that kind of death encountred. Pride in princes was the onely cause of their falls, insomuch that the poets feign, that the great and monstrous Giant E [...]c [...]ladus, for his proud enterprise against Jupiter, was thrown by a Thunderbolt into the bot­tome of Aetna, a fiery and flaming mountain.

The uncertain state of princes is séen and tried by their death. Who liveth so short a time as a prince? who dieth so strange a death as a prince? Who liveth in care? who dieth living but a prince? Was not Sergius Galba, and Commodus the son of Marcus, sirnamed Anbilius, two Em­perors [Page 303] of Rome, the one by Otho strangled in the Market place of Rome, the other imprisoned by Martia his own con­cubine? Minos King of Creet travelling after Dedalus into Sicily, was by his great friend King Cocalus, slain by de­ceit. So was Alebas, chief governour of Larissa, murthered by his own souldiers.

The desire that men bear unto honour and dignity, is commonly accompanied with death; as Spurius Cassius and Spurius Melius for their greedinesse of the Empire of Rome, were both worthily beheaded. God hath shewed just ven­geance upon Princes for their iniquity, with plagues and pestilences, which spoiled the Emperor Constantine, and the Empresse Zoae, his wife: And by this were Marcus Anto­nius, Alphonsus, and Domitius justly and worthily punished. God hath wonderfully punished the pride of Princes, even with shamefull and horrible deaths, insomuch that Lice and vermine have consumed their bodies alive; As Maxi­milian the Emperour, Arnulphus, Honorificus King of the Vandales, and Herode King of the Iews, were eaten up a­live with vermine and Lice. Pliny and Plutarch say, that proud Sylla, which sore plagued Rome and Italy, had all his flesh converted into Lice, and so died. Herodotus doth like­wise report of one Pheretrina a Quéen of the Barceans, who died of this filthy and horrible death. God hath taken them away in the midst of their pleasure, even eating and drink­ing, as Septimus and Valentianus, two famous Emperours, who died both of a surfeit, for want of digestion, Archesilaus died presently with one draught of wine.

What is the life of Princes, but an uncertain Pilgri­mage? Nay, women are famous for their pilgrimage there­in: As the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to hear and to learn Solomon's wisdome. Cornelia from Rome, be­ing a noble woman, went to Palestina to hear Saint Hie­rome teach Christians. The pilgrimage of our life is no­thing else but a continual travel until we come to our last journey, which is Death: then is the end of all pilgrimage, and just account to be made for the same,


Of Death, the End of all Pilgrimage.

THe last line of all things is death, the discharge of all covenants, the end of all living crea­tures, the onely wish of the good, and the ve­ry terrour of the wicked. And for that the life of man is divers, so is death variable after sundry manners and fashions, as by experience is séen and known in all Countreys. Nothing is surer then death; yet nothing is more uncertain then death. For Pindarus that wise King of the Liricans, being demanded of certain Be­otians, what might best happen to man in this world? E­ven that (said he) which chanced to Trophonius and Ag [...]me­des, meaning Death: For these men after they had builded a new Temple to Apollo, demanded of Apollo the best re­ward that he could give them: they thinking to enjoy some dignity or worldly substance, were seven days after reward­ed with death.

The like we read in the first Book of Herodotus, where the mother of Biton and Cleobes, two young men of Argos, knéeling before the Image of Juno, besought the Goddesse to bestow some excellent good thing upon her two sons, for their pain and travel that they shewed toward her, in draw­ing her Chariot ten miles in stead of horses: The Goddesse willing to grant them the best thing that could be given to man, the next night, quietly in bed as they slept, they both died. Wherefore very well did Aristippus answer a certain man who asked how Socrates died: Even in that order, said he, that I wish my self to die. Giving to understand, that any death is better then life.

That noble Philosopher Plato, a little before he died, as Sabellicus doth write, did thank nature for three causes; the first, that he was born a man, and not a beast; the second, that he was born in Gréece, and not in Barbary; the third, that he was born in Socrates time, who taught him to die [Page 305] well. Hermes that great Philosopher of Egypt, even dying, so embraced death, that he called upon that that divine spi­rit which ruled all the heavens, to have mercy upon him, being right glad that he had passed this toyling life. Such is the uncertainty of death, that some in the half of their days, and in the midst of their fame and glory, die. So A­lexander the great died in Babilon, Pompey died in Egypt, and Marcellus, being a young man of great towardnesse, and by adoption heir unto the Empire of Rome, died.

It is strange to sée the varieties of death and in how di­vers and sundry fashions it hath happened unto Great men always. Some being merry in their banquets, and drink­ing were slain; so Clitus was slain by Alexander the great, being his chief friend. Amnon being bidden to a banquet by Absalom, was slain by him. Yea, all the Embassadors of Persia were commanded to be slain, even drinking at the table, by Amintas King of Macedonia. Some end their lives wantonning with women, and playing in chambers; as that renowned Alcibiades, being taken in wantonnesse with Timandra, was slain by Lisander. Even so Phaon and Speusippus the Philosopher died likewise. Some bathing and refreshing themselves, have perished by their own wives: so Agamemnon that famous Gréek was killed by his wife Clitemnestra; and Argirus Emperor of Rome by his wife Zoe,

Divers in prison have died as captives; so Aristobulus, Eumenes, Aristonicus, Marius, Cleomenes, Jugurth, Siphax, fa­mous and renowned Princes. Divers have béen slain in the draught, as that beast Heliogabalus, whom Rome so ha­ted, that he fled to a draught, and there was slain, and after was drawn through the streets and thrown into the river of Tyber. Cneius Carbo a man of great dignity and power in Rome, was commanded that he should be slain, as he was sitting on his stool of ease, by Pompey, in the third time of his Consulship in Rome. Thus shamefully have some died, and thus famously others died. Patroclus knew not that he should be slain by Hector, Hector never thought he should [Page 306] be killed by Achilles. Achilles never doubted his death by Pa­ris. Paris never judged that he should be vanquished by Pir­rhus. Neither did Pirrhus know that he should be overcome by Orestes: so that no man knoweth his end, where, how, and when he shall die, and yet all men are certain and sure, that they have an end, that they must néeds die. And yet the fear of death hath overcome the stoutest souldiers. We read that Asdrubal of Carthage, a noble and a famous Cap­tain, [...]verthrown by Scipio, for fear of death knéeled before Scipio, embracing his féet, and was so fearfull that his own wife was ashamed of his doings; Yet had this famous Ge­nerall rather be a laughing stock to the Romans a bond man to Scipio, running a foot like a lacky after his triumph, then to die manfully in the behalf of his countrey, which vali­antly for a time he defended. Perpenna likewise a famous Roman, being taken in Spain, by the souldiers of Pompey in a place full of Groves, fearing lest at that instant he should be slain by Pompey's souldiers, he made them believe that he had divers things to speak to Pompey, of some de­signs that the enemies had in hand against him: rather had Perpenna betray his friends and his fellows, yea, and all his country to his enemy, then suffer a sudden death. A greater fear of death we read in that book of Fulgosius, of the Empe­rour Vitellius, who after he had vanquished and slain divers nobles, and shewed great wrongs unto the Emperour Otho, and to Sabinus, brother to Vespasian the Emperour, being in fear of his life by Vespasian, and being taken by the soul­diers, hee besought them, rather then die presently, that hee might be kept safe in prison, untill he might sée and speak with Vespasian the Emperour; such was his fear, that he did hide himself in a chest to prolong his wret­ched life.

So fearful was Caligula of death that he would never go abroad at any Lightning or Thunder, but had his head co­vered with all such things as might resist the violence of Lightning, Misa King of the Moabites, and Joram King of Iewry, being besieged by the enemies, and in danger of [Page 307] death, they practised devises and invensions to save their lives, and sacrificed their children, to mitigate the rage of the Gods. The love that divers had unto life, and the fear they had of death were to be noted worthily considering how much men are vexed with the fear of death. Antemon was so desirous to live and so fearfull to die, that he hardly would travel out of his house any where; and if he were compelled to go abroad, he would have two of his servants to bear o­ver his head a great brasen Target, to defend him from any thing which might happen to do him hurt. Theagenes in like sort would not go out of his house, without he had con­sulted with the Image of Hecate, to know what should hap­pen to him that day, and to understand whether he might escape death or no. Commodus the Emperour would never trust any Barber to shave his beard lest his throat should be cut. Masinissa King of Numidia would rather commit his state and life unto dogs, then unto men, who was as his guard to kéep and defend him from death. I might here speak of Bion, of Domitianus, of Dionisius, of Pisander, and of a thousand more, who so feared death that their chief care and study was how they might avoid the same. The fear of death causeth the son to forsake the father, the mother to renounce the daughter, one brother to deny another, and one friend to forsake another, Insomuch that Christ himself was forsaken of his disciples for fear of death. Peter denied him and all the rest fled from him and all for fear of death Behold therefore how fearfull some are and how joyfull o­thers are. Some desperately have died being weary of life. As Sabinus, [...]uba, Cleomenes, some have hanged, some have burned, and some drowned themselves, and thus with one desperate end or other perished. But since every man must die, it were reason that every man should prepare to die for to die well is nothing else but to live again. Wherefore certain philosophers of India called the Gymnosophislae be­ing by Alexander the great commanded to answer to cer­certain hard questions, which if they could absolve they should live, otherwise they should die. The first question [Page 308] propounded to know whether there were more living or dead; to the which the first philosopher said, that the living are more in number because the dead have no being, no place, nor number. The second question was whether the land produced more creatures, or the sea; to this answered the second philosopher and said, the land doth ingender more for that the sea is but a portion of the land. The third que­stion was to know, what beast was most subtil; that beast answered the third philosopher, whose subtilty man cannot discern. Fourthly it was demanded why they being philoso­phers were so induced to perswade the Sabians to rebelli­on; because said the philosophers it is better to die manful­ly, then to live miserably. The fifth question was, whether the day was made before the night, or the night before the day; to the which it was answered the day. The sixt was to understand how Alexander ye Great himself might get ye good wil of the people; in shewing said yt sixth philosopher thy self not terrible to the people. The sevēth question was whether life or death were strōger; to which it was āswered, life. The eight was to know how long a man should live; till said the eight philosopher, a mā thinks death better thē life. The last question proposed by Alexander was, how might a mortal man be accounted in the number of the Gods. In doing greater things said all the Philosophers then man is able to do. For they knew this proud Prince would be a God, and that he would learn of the sage Philosophers how he might eschew mortality, he was answered roundly because he should know himself to be a man, and being a man, he should make himself ready to die, for death is the reward of sin, and death is the beginning again of life unto the good. As Aulus Posthumius, in an Oration which he made unto his souldiers, said, it is given to both good and bad to die, but to die g [...]dly and gloriously is onely given unto good men. So Hector speaking in Homer, said unto his wife Andromache, that she should not be sorry for his death, for all men must die.

[Page 309]Some with the Galatians do so contemn death that they fight naked and are perswaded with the Pythagoreans, that they shall never die, but passe from one body to another: Some again die joyfully as the brethren of Policrat [...], who being taken captive by Diognitus the King of Milesia, she was so ill intreated by him, that she did send Letters to Naxus, to her brethren, at what time the people of Milesia were feasting, drinking and banquetting at a solemn feast: Her brethren embracing the opportunity came and found the Emperor drinking, and all his people overcharged with wine, and slew the greatest part of them, and having taken many of them prisoners, they brought their sister home to Naxus, where as soon as they came home, they died, for joy of the victory. Even so Phisarchus sometime in his great tri­umph crying out, O happy hours and joyful days, was taken with such an extasie of joy, that he brake his veins at that very instant with the excesse of gladnesse,

He is counted most wise that knoweth himself. To joy too much in prosperity, to be advanced and extolled when fortune favours, without all fear of ill haps to come is fol­ly. To be vanquished and subdued in adversity, without hope of solace to ensue, is meer madnesse. Therefore the Wisemen, knowing that death was the last line of life, did endeavour in their lives how they might die well: And briefly for the examples of our lives, I will here note a few sentences of these wise men, which they used as their Po­sies, and think good to shew their answers to divers questi­ons propounded to them.

Bias dwelling in the City of Prienna, after the City was destroyed by the Mutinensians, escaped and went to A­thens, whose Poesie was Maximus improborum numerus: He willed all young men in their youth to travel for know­ledge, and commanded old men to embrace wisedome. This Bias being demaunded what was the difficultest thing in the world; he said, to suffer stoutly the mutability of fortune. Being demanded what was the most infamous death that might happen to man, to be condemned (said he) by law. Be­ing [Page 301] asked what was the swéetest thing to man, he made an­swer Hope. Being again demanded what beast was most hurtfull, Amongst wild beasts a Tyrant, said Bias, and a­mongst tame beasts a Flatterer. And being demanded what thing it was that feared nothing in all the world he answered, A good Conscience. And again in the second O­lympiade, he was demanded many other questions; as who was most unfortunate in the world; the impatient man, said Bias. What is most hard to judge? Debates betwéen friends. What is most hard to measure? he answered, Time. Thus having answered to these, and divers other questions, Bias was allowed one of the seven Wise men of Gréece.

Chilo, the second of the Sages, being asked what was the best thing in the world he answered, Every man to con­sider his own state. And again, being demanded what beast is most hurtfull, he said Of wild beasts a Tyrant, of tame beasts a Flatterer. Being asked what is most accep­table to man, he said, Time: And being asked of the Gréek Myrsilas, what was the greatest wonder that ever he saw, he said An old man to be a Tyrant.

The third was Chilo the Lacedemonian who being de­manded what was a difficult thing for a man to do, he an­swered, Either to kéep silence, or to suffer injuries. Being demanded what was most difficult for a man to know, he said, For a man to know himself: And therefore he used this Poesie, Nosce teipsum. This Chilo being of Aesop de­manded what Jupiter did in heaven, he said He doth throw down lofty and proud things, and he doth exalt humble and méek things.

S. Ion said, that in knowing and considering what we are, and how vile we are, we shall have lesse occasion ministred to us to think wel of our selvs; for there is nothing good nor beautifull in man. This Solon being asked by King Cy­rus, sitting in his chair of state, having on his most royal habiliments and Princely robes, covered with Pearls and Precious stones; Whether ever he saw a more beautifull [Page 311] sight then himself sitting in heighth of his Majesty? Solon answered that he saw divers Birds more glorious to behold then Cyrus: And being demanded by Cyrus, what Birds were they, Solon said, the little Cock, the Peacock, and the Pheasant, which are decked with natural garments, and beautified with natural colours. This Solon was wont to say, I wax dayly old, learning much: He noted nothing so happy in man, as to Live well, that he might Die well; applying the Cause to the Effect, as first to Live well, and then to Die well.


LONDON: Printed by Elizabeth Alsop, dwelling in Grubstreet, near the Upper Pump 1653.

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