MODERN POLICY Compleated, OR, THE Publick Actions and Councels both Civill and Military of his Excellency The Lord Generall MONCK under the generall Revolutions since 1639, to 1660.

By David Lloyd.

[...], Dion. l. 61. p. 696. et Moschion: [...], Arist. eth. 6.7. Met. 2.2. Rhet. 1.37.— dolus an virtus— virg: Mens una sapiens plurimum vicit manus: Eurip. et Liv. apud Charron. vid. Hor. 3. ode 4. [...] R. Jer. ex R. Sim. B. Joch. [...]alm. vid Maim Mor Nev. p. 1. c. 31. [...]. 22.

London: Printed by I. B. for Henry Marsh at the Princes Armes in Chancery-lane neer Fleet-Street, 1660.

TO THE Most Illustrious JAMES DUKE of YORK.

May it please your Highness,

SPeculation is the life of a Schol­lar,Arist. Pol. 6. 2. Aquin. e [...]h 1.2. su [...]rez et Burid. ibid Rev. D. Pri­ [...]p. ded. cos­mogr. and action is the life of a Prince.

It sufficeth the one to meditate up­on the great things which former ages have done, while the other doth great things, which future ages may meditate upon: the one Mentes [...]apientiores sun [...] q [...]i es­cendo. Plat. [...] vid Rev [...]d Reyn Passions: ex Arist. et [...]li­i [...], &c. rests when he hath Bacon de Augment. sci [...]t. des­c [...]rtes medit. [...]. D [...]gby immortality soul 7. raised a scheme, a frame, [Page] an De Idea in D [...] vid. G [...]ot [...] Christ. relig. 1. An­n [...]. ex An­ [...]g &c. Idea within himselfe propor­tionable in all things to the He hath made all things in n [...]ber and m [...]su [...]e Syr. [...] [...]yne [...] beautifull in his [...]ime, Ec [...]. 3.11 order, and method of beings without him; while the other having understood this vid D [...]c­kens. Delph. Ph [...]en. d [...] Pan [...]. [...] S [...]alig. exerci [...]. [...]. c. 7. 8 Im. Ter [...]ull. de Palleo. 2 Pla [...] d [...] 21. all is urged by his eager virtues to performe things as great as those he understood; and actions as great as his thoughts.

There is Norunt G [...]ramantes et Indj &c. I have heard Turks, Jews, speak hono­rably of you no tongue, nor lan­guage, but hath heard that you are as eminent for your action as for your birth; That you are a Prince in both, in both your selfe i [...] as well known as your name.

I need not informe [...]ou (great Sir) that all great actions in any way are guided by a Arist eth 6. 7 [...] Me [...]. [...]. 2. Nulla qu [...] natura impedi­t [...] sun [...] con­fili [...] expedi­ [...]n [...]u [...]: Liv. see Reyn: on Hos. 14. v. 9. Ser. 7. wisedom from above, first pure then peaceable, ac­cording to the principles and max­imes of that way, together with the conclusions, rationally, deducible from those principles to their pe­culiar ends by a discreet applicati­on of proper meanes; for it was [Page] your selfe that mannaged the great affaires of France and Spaine with a wisedome as Me li [...] tu­li [...]si [...]us ihij, t [...]e Duke of Rhoan, In­terest of Sta [...]es and Kingdomes. distant from the sud­den rashnesse of the one, as from the solemne slownesse of the other; bare action the priviledge of lower be­ings, valour the glory of those more noble, or honour becoming your selfe sufficed you not, withou [...] a wisedome guiding all these above your selfe and yeares; Therefore when I entertained thoughts of drawing a rude draught of the [...]e great actions, and counsels that I look upon as the best patterne [...] of Modern Policy, I mean these of this honourable Person, who discovered most of a Poli [...]icians virtues, with­out any of its vices; that could be wise as a Serpent, and yet innocent as a Dove; I immediately resolved to dedicate it to your selfe; wisdom is justified of its children, the Dia­mond only can cut Diamond, the [Page] wise onely understand the wise; when I presume to make your Highness [...] the Patron of this Modern Policy, I intimate you ought to be the sub­ject of another, which some Dizn [...] [...]a [...]c virum musae vetat morj: Horat. soule might attempt with a Pen as Hero­ick as your sword; writing your life with as much Majesty as you lived it with.

[...] Or a P [...]ur­traict [...]re of his sa [...]r [...]d Ma [...]sty CHARLES the se [...]ond, with his two illustrious Brothers the Duke of Yorke and Glouc [...]ster. Sold by H M at the P [...]in­ces Armes in the low [...]r end o [...] Chan­cery lane. When envy suppressed the worth and malice blasted the innocence of our dread Soveraign with those ca­lumnies (that were never licenced but in the age when Men spoke what­ever they thought fi [...], there being no King in Israel;) I humbly de­sire your Media [...]ion for a pardon to my inconsiderable selfe, who was then past all fear of loss Amorem asseruit Plat [...] [...]. Cael. Rhod [...]g. 16. 15. durst vin­dicate injured truth and Majesty ad­vancing them above interest, preju­dice, & malice, by a course I thought most conscientious as a Christian, and most generous as a Man; my [Page] highest designe was to establish his sacred Majesty in the hearts of his people, which was all poor I could doe towards his establishment in his Throne.

Now envy, malice, and ignorance dares abuse [...]hat renowned Person, whom the King hath desired to ho­nour, to whom we owe even your very selfe, I could not but doe his Majesty, the Nation, and Himselfe right in justifying his honourable actions, which I doe sufficiently when I repeate them; I must con­ [...]esse I am sorry that former powers allowed me that leasure I had to vindicate the best Majesty; but now his Majesty is come again to his own House in peace; I am contented to be at leasure to doe justice to the best Loyalty.

Diou. Hal. a see Sue [...]. in Tit. Vesp. Leighes Cae [...]ars: Mallel: M. S S. B [...]b. Bodl. Vespasian one like your selfe, the darling of Mankind, as he dismissed none sad from him; so he professed [Page] [...] that his Doores were alwayes open for Schollars: But to his favourite Appollonius desiring accesse for Dion and Euphrates, he said [...] but to you my very breast is open, a poor Schollar despaites not of a gracious admission to your royall presence, while he is confident you will give his grace the Duke of Au­marle admission to your very heart: But alas! Its high time to leave your Highnesse full of thoughts to ad­vance the honour and good, and to improve the virtue and valour of your dread Soveraigne and gracious Brothers Dominions; and to retire with my best affections, devoutest prayers, & my honest endeavours into the croud — of your Admi­rers, and Servants,

David Lloyd.

Modern Policy, The Second Part.

GOD (as great soules observe) hath equally suffered by the too much worship the superstition of the World that was drowned flattered him with;The occa­sion. and by the too little which the Atheisme of that World which shall be burned slandered him with.

Good men (saith Vossius) are equally in­jured with the honour the fabulous age be­stowed upon them by Legends, as with that the sullen & silent age denyed them: while the one raised their worth to that heighth that it cannot be beleived; the o­ther keepes it so low that it cannot be [Page 2] known; The good Apostle is abused as much when the Barbarians cry he is a God as when they say he is a Malefactor: when he was worshipped at Lystra, as when he was stoned there; His Excellency the Lord Generall Moncke suffereth equally by the Courtiers smooth Panegyricks, as by the ignorants dull silence, or the envious his malignant calumny, while his renowned actions are made the issues of loose fancies roving at uncertain worth, rather then the issues of his great virtues; and after ages shall know rather how happy Poets they are, then how great or how good a Man he was.

§ 2 It will be therefore but a reason­able service equally due to his Excellency and to the World; to do his publick per­formances so much right as to expresse them with the same integrity they were accomplished with; and to expose them in their own naked Grandeur and plain state more solemne with the solid and great then splendid with the gaudy & vain; the highest honour that can be done to great and solid worth is faithfully to repeat it, the great­est elogy that wit can grave upon it is it selfe.

[Page 3]§ 3 The right honourable Sir George Monck Knight of the most noble order of the Garter,Birth and Education. Lord Generall of all the Forces in his Majesties dominions of [...] Eng­land, Scotland, and Ireland; Master of the Horse; and one of his Majesties most Ho­nourable PrivyCouncell; being borne a Gentleman of the posterity of ancient No­bility, and former Majesty, (as that hap­py Pe [...] may easily evince, which may hereafter in an History due to this re­nowned Hero's life, consecrate to eter­nity Him and it selfe) and educated as honourably as he was borne; 1. under such a discipline that moulded his tender soule to that frame that was not onely ad­vantagious towards the succeeding parts of his education, but towards the Regu­larity of his whole Life: 2. Under that erudition that successively instilled inge­nuous and good rudiments into his ten­der breast, in the order that was proper to his tender years, Age at once maturing his parts, enlarging his capacity, and ad­vancing his lectures, untill some years e­ducation, had accomplished his mind with that stock of active, usefull, and manly knowledge, that furnished him with those [Page 4] vertues that are a perfection to noble na­tures, and a rest and tranquility to great minds, 1. bridled and checked the irregular sallies of the inferiour faculties, and the impetuous passions incident to those years, 2. fashioned his behaviour to that humanity, that gentleness that was due to Mankind, and that modesty and gravity, as was due to himselfe, 3. regulated his dis­course to that temper that became the product of judgement and right reason, and raised him to thoughts of imploy­ment worthy and ingenuous, abhorring to bufie himselfe vitiously, or imper­tinently.

§ 4 In a word; when education had made him a compleat Man, he bethought himselfe that he was borne to Labour as na­turally as the sparkes are made to flye up­wards, being endued with that [...] as Iamblichus calls it, that ever moving and restle [...]se principle his soul, and trusted with those abilities that suggested to him that he was not so far neglected by God or Nature, as to be placed in the World without imployment.

Employ­ment.§ 5 He found that if he looked up to Heaven, that was alwayes in its course [Page 5] with its severall glories, rejoycing to run their race; if he ascended above humani­ty, and assumed the nature of Angells, imployment would pursue him thither, and overtake him; for they stand alwayes before God to know and do his pleasure.

If a Man in honour would quit his Birthright whereby he is a little lower than an Angell, and become with Nebuchadnez­zar like the Beasts that perish; yet both the Field and Forrest are severe Monitors to imployment, each animal being continu­ally engaged in an orderly exercise of those powers they are endued with.

Yea the dull Earth (besides its constant exercises in spring, after it's long vacati­on) hath been discovered by some of late to spend it selfe and to be spent in constant [...] efluviums and emanations.

To descend to Hell, and lower he could not go, he saw the accursed Spirit imployed and busied, Satan going to and fro in the Earth, and industriously walk­ing about seeking whom he may devour, ma­king diligent use of the faculties, abili­ties, dexterities, which either his nature or experience have furnished him withall, towards the end he proposeth to himselfe.

[Page 6]And therefore wondered what they meant that gloried in the ignominious honour and abasing exaltation of being above imployment, which bcomes Hea­ven, Angells, and Men made perfect, and of being priviledged for that idlenesse which is below Earth and Hell, as if it were praise-worthy to be unprofitable-burdens of the Earth, to be born onely to consume the fruit of it, to eat and drink to day, and to morrow to die; as if they were brought to the Earth, as the Leviathan to the Sea, to take their past­time therein.

A Souldi­er.§ 6 He was ready to embrace any in­genuous imployment opportunity offred him and his parts deserved, not (though as a younger Brother) as a prize either to ambition or covetousnesse, but as an op­portunity to exercise his vertues, a sphear wherein he might move vigorous­ly for the service and honour of his Country, and (as mens parts, abilities, and capacities, are their best directions in the free choice of their calling wherein they intend to abide with God) finding himselfe master of those manly and severe endowments, that qualifie great natures [Page 7] for the rougher engagements of Camp and Warre, and are above the smoother dalliances of Court and Peace, he listed himselfe among the noble train of Cavi­leers, and of their number that were de­figned for actions worthy and great.

§ 7 Although his Excellency had not any right of his own lost which he was to recover by War (which is defined to be the state of two parties contending by publick force about right and wrong) and if he had,war yet being a private person (since the constitution of publique Courts of jus­tice) he ought to submit his right to the fair triall of judgement, ‘rather then to put it to the ordeall of force and tumult, for hence it is that the reverence of the Law was found out, that nothing might be done by force,’ see Paul. L. non est de rep. 1. Cassian. l. 4. van. 1. Ep. 4. Theod. edict. 10. 124. et L. exstat. D. quod metus. Serven. 11. AEn Virg. though Am­brose de offic. 3. 3. Ambros 1. lib. arb. 5. ep. 155. 10. 59. Eustied. Amic. de Gratian. [...]. vel caus. 13. q. have been taught to speak by some as otherwise minded) see Canon. Epist. 55. edit. novis.

Yet when lawfull power and publique [Page 8] persons for the maintenance or recovery of their rights that are invaded or threat­ned by some mens ambition or coveteous­nesse, Those lusts whence come Warres and Fightings among us, have set up a Warre (War being of such concernment and con­sequence to Commonwealths, that its treason and that justly by most Laws to undertake a War without highest autho­rity; Plato de leg. l. ult. cic. de leg. l. 2. L. 3. D. ad l. Iul. maj. et Cornel leg. Iustin. cod. valent. Aug. cont faust. l. 22. c. 74. p. 206. lin. 10. liv. Dec. ult. vel. l. 29. vict. de bello numero 9.) I say when lawfull power hath raised a War: Its lawful for pri­vate persons to assist others, being not wholly for themselves; it's commendable to become champions to afflicted right, to put forth a noble hand to rescue op­pressed innocence out of the jawes of ty­ranny, it's the best way a younger bro­ther can raise himselfe by raising the af­flicted, and nothing ought to be moreser­viceable to a man saith Cic. 2. de off. than another man; it behooves every one to take up Arms upon injury done to him­selfe or other [...], Arles Rhet ad Ale [...]. c. 3. and happy are those Common-wealths [Page 9] wherein every one thinks anothers injury to be his, and minds not onely his own things but the things of others, and no man thinks himselfe unconcerned in that which is humane. Lactant. car. var l. 6.

Its usuall to engage in War for fellow- Citizens, for Mercheants, saith Cic. ad Quint. and ver. 2. by the leave of the su­pream power; indeed he were not a man that had not so much of the sociable na­ture as to help a man, Simler rep. Helvet. Senec. de. ira 1. c. 7. p. 51. he is not vali­ant that will not assist weaknesse, Euripid. supplic. nor he just, that will not do right to the injured.

Praebent saxa perfugium feris, — aura (que) famulis,
Vrbib (que) pr [...]ssis malo — tutamen urbes, &c.

See Mores de ko [...]z. praec. 77. 80. Ben. Maim. in pec N. c. 7. And he is not Loy­all that will not serve his Prince, and there being as great a necessity there should be Wars, as the Apostle saith, that there should be divisions among us, its not unworthy of great persons so disposed, to seek their fortunes in a War, and having given themselvs to attain abilities suitable [Page 10] to the variety of exercises to be met with in that way, its reason they should follow it, not as mercenary and hired to kill men, and thinking there is most right where there is most pay, Plato in theat. Bellin. de re mil. 2. t. 2. p. 106. n. 4. casting their life away for that which they have onely for their lives, Plato Bacch. Diod. sic. l. 18. though yet to be encouraged with rewards and stipends, for (saith St. Paul) who ever went a warfare at his own charge? 1 Cor. 9. 7. see S. August. de verb. Dom. AEgid. de ait. super disp. 31. n. 8.

I [...]ish War.§ 8 His Excellency was ready for ser­vice when his late Majesty had a sad occasi­on to employ his ablest Subjects to sup­presse the Rebellion in Ireland occasioned by the Pope, 1 upon pretence of Religion, 2 a right to Ireland, and 3 the oppression of the Catholicks in that Kingdome; but re­ally upon the old maxim, that he that would gaine England, (which his holinesse longs after) must first begin with Ireland, and upon a Prophecy found in the Vatican encouraging them at that time there-unto together with some sad divisions by Ro­mish Emissaries to be raised in England a­bout that time.

[Page 11]§ 9 His Excellency well knowing that War is lawful: 1 By nature Man (as Galen de usu partium hath it,) being made for war and peace, see Arist. de. part. animal. 4. 10. Cassiod. de anima. Arma (que) in armatos sume­re jura sinunt Ovid. dente lupus cornu taurus petit, &c. Ho. For 2. by Scripture, which re­cordeth it approved by the Priest of the most high God, Gen. 14. 20. which provi­deth Lawes for it; and recordeth the Worthies that fought the Battailes of God, and mentioneth Men after Gods own heart Men of War; and devout Men, Centu­rians, and forbids not Souldiers their employment, but forbids them violence and falshood, advising them to be content with their wages.

§ 10 And knowing likewise, that this of all wars was most lawfull, being for his Majesty against such subjects as begun without authority, It being a generall a­greement of all Societies even the Aborig. to obey Superiours least otherwise a Common­wealth become a solitude, or a confused throng where every one commands, and none obeyes, Valer. maxim. l. 1. Salust. 2. to the Prince as Tacitus writes, doe all Men give the power, and to subjects the glory of obe­dience; [Page 12] It being death to resist by the Law, Deut. 17. 12. Ioh. 1. 18. see Philo. in Flacc. l. 2. c. 3. and damnation by the Gospell; he that resisteth the power, resisteth the Ordinance of God, and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation, Rom. 13. 2. Concil. chalced. et Trull. can. 4. Tolet. 4. Luess. Can. 5. II. and without cause.

§ 11 For 1. War is not to be under­taken as they pretend for Religion; the Papists might know that Peter was bid long agoe to put up his sword; It being (as Gregory a Prophet of their own once said) an unheard of way of preaching to beat Men into a beleife; It's the errone­ous his punishment (saith Plato) to be taught rather then to be murdered: M. Anton. l. 9. valent in Am. marcel. l. 30.

None ought to be compelled to be­come religious saith the counsell of Tolet. c. de Iud [...] and Tertull: : : 2.

2 War is not lawfull to fulfill prophe­cies; which are uncertain in themselves, and in the time of their accomplishment; and its not our duty to doe what is fore­told, but what is commanded. viz. Lun­cl [...]u. Turc. Hist. l. 18. Procop. Persic. 2.

3. The Pope hath no right over Ireland: [Page 13] For [...]. if Christs, (as Pet. Dam. saith) then his Vicars Kingdome is not of this world: 2. Paul would not, and therefore why doeth Peter meddle with them that are without: 3. A Bishop ought not to strike much more not to War for a Kingdome: 4. Our Kings enjoyed it as Lords, and then as Kings, time enough to prescribe three times over; being at first invited to it by the Irish: And then 5. if the Papists were oppressed, which they were not unlesse it were with indulgencies and favours, as that Champion in the olympick games was pressed to death with Roses; yet the Pope did [...] medle foolishly in other Mens business; & subjects are not to redresse greivances by Wars, bnt by petitions, they are to beseech their Soveraigne, and not to force him.

§ 12 His Excellency might think it as reasonable and just as it was honourable to assist his Soveraign against the mighty who upon these forementioned unjust grounds, (which may better become the compleat History of the Irish Rebellion) assaulted his Majesties undoubted right to be bestowed by the Pope upon the Duke of Lorrain, and to endeavour un­der [Page 14] his Majesties authority to reduce the Rebellious to obedience, and punish the bloody murthers, it being a primitive constitution, that he that sheds mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed, Constantine upon this account made War against Licinius, and others made War against the Persians, Zonar. et menand. P. et A (que) 2. 2. 108.

§ 13 And therefore as well satisfied in the lawfullnesse of his undertaking (as every Souldier ought to doe who carrieth his life in his hand,Command. and may expect (as the Theban Souldiers (a pattern for all o­thers) argued with Iulian) to die daily, and ought not to submit his precious life to the lusts and will of others, which hath too much to do to serve its own divers lusts and pleasures, he heads a Regiment by the Lord-Deputies's Commission, (that great man who understood well whom he employed, who as curiously observed other mens worth as he care­lessly neglected his own: and was choice in his instruments, because he was so in his designes and imployments, well knowing his great actions must be left to the management of great soules) [Page 15] and this is the first of those publick un­dertakings wich are the subject of this discourse.

§ 14 Wherein the first thing he was eminent for, was Discipline, Discipline. without which Commanders lead thronged multitudes and not armies, and listed routs ra­ther than Regiments; he was not less care­full of morall than of the military Disci­pline, well knowing that that Souldiery will hardly vanquish an enemy that is vanquished by its own debauchery, Ire­land (they say) endures no poyson, his Excellency would endure no dangerous exorbitancy to envenom his Regiment, nor any perverse Achan that would trouble his Camp, and next the care of keeping his Souldiers Men, and restraining them (when going out of themselves) within the compasse of humanity, he added that of making them Souldiers, that they might not be to Learn when they were to perform their duty.

Turpe est in arte militarj dicert non pu­taram.

§ 15 Besides that by his preparation the enemy might suspect that their plot was discovered, and by his readinesse that [Page 16] it was prevented, when men did but seeme to suspect an unknowne plot they have often discovered it, and withall few Souldiers brought together in a military posture, as they can vanquish many out of order, so they can affright more; the of­ten mustering of Souldiers among a dan­gerous people, is not the least part of their policy, who know what pannick feare armed multitudes strike into the dispersed vulgar.

§ 16 His Excellencies solemn famili­arity no Mother of contempt was obser­vable,Familia­rity. whereby he insinuated himselfe so far into his Souldiers affection that they could have wished their lives doubled that they might have one life to spend for his person as they had one for his cause.

His Language with Caesar was not Milites, but Commilitones, not Souldi­ers, but Fellow-Souldiers; nor was this out of any designe so much as out of nature, and that note of Livy tooke no place here, Credant haud gratuitam in tanta majestate Comitatem fore, that so much Majesty never condescended with­out designe, nor was that of the Comick a good rule here; Non temerarium est ubi [Page 17] dives blande appellat pauperem; altera manu fert Lapidem, panem ostentat altera Nemini credo, qui longe blandus est dives pauperis.

§ 17 And when the sad time came that called for his actuall service; the sad condition of Ireland, (now without a De­puty, (the last being beheaded; the sad Prologue that ushered in this Tragedy; the red morning of whose bloody death presaged this tempest; as he prophecyed rather than spoke upon the Scaffold:) and by reason of the jealousies at the same time stirred up between his late Majesty and his Parliament by Rome and Hell; (one not daring to trust the other to be chari­table) without supply and assistance, grap­ling with the power of Rome from within, and from without from all the Kings that h [...]d given their power to the Beast:) kept his Excellency and other Worthies to the defensive, and confined their care more how to save themselves handsomely then how to subdue the enemy; which though their cause and valour prompted them to: (for qui molestos arcet ex [...]ona, Conscientia sumit fiduciam, bonaque ei spes adest, inde quod injuriam non inferat sed au­ferat, Alex. orat. ad. mil. Herod. 5.) yet their [Page 18] prudence checked them from, with the prudent caution in the Gospell of consi­dering, whether they were able with ten thousand to hurt them that came against them with twenty thousand, for doubtlesse such and much greater was the ods, between these two adversaries.

§ 18 Though his Excellency spent not that time he stayed there without some offensive sallies upon the enemy; we must offend sometimes in our own defence, and give our enemies occasion to complaine that we will not patiently lye open to their full stroke; as that Roman brought an action against a Man, because he received not his whole dart.

§ 19 Yet he was most eminent then upon necessity, as he was since upon designe in a prudent reservation of himselfe; It being as great skill to ward off blowes, as to give them; he was as wise as that Lewis of France in preventing danger; who had foresights to prevent mischiefs when they were coming, but not a present prudence to engage them when come, though yet he was as ready in encountring dangers as that Henry of England, who could (as Bacon observes who drew his life with a pencill [Page 19] as majestick as his Scepter) with ready ad­vice command present thoughts to en­counter that danger with success which he could not with foresight prevent; he gave then, great signes of an admirable dexte­rity in mannaging disadvantages vvhich he hath si [...]ce given full proofe of, vvhen he opposed himselfe against a declining age: engaging thousands with his single selfe.

§ 20 His stratagems were as conside­rable as any Mans in so narrow a com­mand; for though force and terror be most proper to wars, yet we may lawfully use guile; Sive dolo sive vj clamve Palamve Hom: Quicquid agendo Hostica delenda vis est Pind: dolus an virtus quis in hoste re­quiral virg.

Your enemy you lawfully may spoyle,
Whether by open force or secret guile.
Bellandum est astu levior laus in duce dextra.
—Lesse praise I gaine,
By my strong hand I war with my strong braine.

Silius l. 5. ex Polib. l. nono. xenoph. [...]: 1. Thacid. l. 5. Martis comites irae insidiaeque virg. Elharba hudiatum saith Mahomet, Wars must have some deceit, [...] Eust ad Il. x. versu [...] [Page 20] 120. so honourable is it to be wise as Ser­pents, that Saint Chrysostome in his first Book de Sa [...]erdotio pronounceth that Ge­nerall most praise-worthy that hath ob­tained his victory by stratagems.

§ 21 The other private particulars (that that Hi [...]tory may enquire into, which is due from after age to his blessed memory) will not beare those grave ob­servations which are designed in this dis­course for those more publick; his per­formances in this lower spheare being swallowed up with those of his superiors as the glories of lesser lights are undone at the appearance of a greater: Wherefore,

§ 22 I passe to the cessation made by his Majesties order; and the alteration in his Excellencies affaires thereupon.

For the jealousies forementioned being heightned to a War between his late Ma­jesty and his two Houses of Parliament by their industry who are so well read in Ma­chiavell, as to have learned that the best way to enjoy a Kingdome is to divide it; One side affirming our Government by a fundamentall constitution, a [...] as Aristotle, a [...] as Sopho­cl [...]s an [...] [Page 21] as Plutarch, and an [...] as Strabo saith, a [...] absolute and full King­dome, wherein his Majesty was [...] by no meanes obnoxious to his Subjects; being Supreame over all Causes and Persons, accountable to none but to the blessed God, as the Hebrew Barnachman hath it, who (saith Iob) shall say to [...]ings yee are wicked, or to Princes yee are ungodly.

The other side asserting our constituti­on mixt, and our Supreame power divi­ded between the King, the Lords, and the Commons, as Chalchondylos formerly asserted of England, Arragon, Navarre, vide Plin. l. 6. c. 22. and some new Politicians of late, who though they confesse, that in the beginning Kings had all power, as Pomponius and Iustine out of him; yet afterwards (as Tacitus observes) the People established Lawes which the King was to obey, Tacit. 3. Annal. Cic. de rep. 1. [...]t Fenestell, 3. 2.

And indeed we had the best constituti­on of a [...] as Solon, and an [...] as Lycarg. is by some made to sp [...]ak.

§ 23 But upon some disconte [...]t [...] the [Page 22] severall powers clashed and mistrusted each other; and gave themselves over to such feares and jealousies as put each rash­ly upon thoughts of War which cannot be just unlesse it be necessary; and there­fore not to be undertaken, upon every causlesse feare of uncertaine danger; But then there were some with Attila, that,

Cared not how the War begins,
If they could bring it to their ends.

This civil War was managed a while with variety of success, that neither side should either presume or despaire.

§ 24 It pleased God his Majesty suf­fered some disadvantage at last, successe being not commanded to attend the best cause here, nor miscarrage the worst, greatnesse and goodnesse, justice and vi­ctory being not yet married; there is so much security of the happinesse of another life; that Christs Kingdome was not, and our hapiness is not of this World; though many have been perplexed with that que­stion, Cur bonis male sit, why it fares so ill with the good, yet a Bible well understood hath taught them, that there is neither love nor hatred to be knowne by any thing under the Sun; when we goe into the Sanctuary [Page 23] we are taught that its unwarrantable to appeale to heaven for the decision of this or that controversy by the successe be­stowed upon this party or that cause, ac­cording to its righteousnesse and due merit.

Pluto in Aristophanes is commanded to be as favourable to the wicked as the good; because if virtue were rich, she should be courted more for her dowry then for her beauty; so if Justice or Reli­gion had the advantage of prosperity (we should be apt to follow it as the common Souldiers, more for the prey then for the canse; Christ would be followed againe for loaves.

§ 25 His Majesties unhappy affaires in England, made some alterations in his Councels; together with no lesse unsea­sonable then unlawfull interposition of those of Scotland in our affaires; for since civill society was instituted; its certaine the Rulers of every one have attained a speciall right (in which others have no share) over their own Subject, so that in them onely resides the supreame power of Judgement, whence there is no appeal saith Thacydides.

[Page 24]
Nos quotquot hujus Colimus urbis maenia,
Sufficimus ipsi nostra judicia exequi: He­raclides:

Spartam tibi quae contigit orna — nobis fuerit Cura mysaenae: Pro [...]. vandal 2. c. b. n. b. (although when Subjects suffer whats intollerable humane Society hath allowed, and prompted one Nation to as­sist another, so the Romans assisted the Persians; so the English succoured the op­pressed Dutch and French.)

§ 26 These advantages prevailed with his Majesty to order the honourable Mar­quesse of Ormond to bring the Rebels to a cessation upon the most advantageous termes: and to spare so many of his best Regiments for English service; among whom his Excellencies is brought over as one every way accomplished for the exi­gence of those times affaires; Neither needed his Majesty make use of a Quintili Varo redde legiones; So compleat are his Companies, that he might reply to his Majesty with reverence to our Saviours words, and of those which you have given me, I have hardly lost one.

§ 27 No sooner was he and others landed on English ground, but they were [Page 25] entertained with a Surprize, by some Par­liament Forces, before they had time to know which was their foe, which was their friend; For the Scene was altered and their noble hands were to be imbr [...]ed now in Protestant, and not in Popish blood; their swords were to be sheathed no long­er in Irish, but in English bowels; It had been some comfort had it been strangers that they engaged with, but alas! it was with those of their own and their Fathers house; It was wth their famili [...]rs, those wth whom they had taken sweet councell to­gether, they of their own faith, one Bap­tisme, and one hope, were their aid cal­led against aliens, it were easy to resolve, saith Aristides Luctrica 5. but a suddaine disaster prevented these debates, they be­ing set upon by that Person whose under­takings were more suddaine then others thoughts, and sometimes then his own.

§ 28 The Parliament were too well informed of these Regiments to give them the strengthning advantage of uniting with the Kings main body, and better in­structed in that maxime, dum singulj pag­nant vincuntur universi, then to let them pass without attempts upon them singly.

[Page 26]§ 29 His Excellency and others were taken Prisoners, and had now nothing left them but the glory of suffering for his Majesty, he is deprived of all those things that make a Souldier, and now what remaines but those prayers & teares that may make a Martyr; And in this ca­pacity of a Prisoner did he remaine in the Tower so long as to see his Majesty utter­ly defeated, imprisoned as himselfe, (the a [...]ointed of the Lord was taken in their Nets, under whose shadow we said we should live in peace) yea and murthered too; to see Monarchy laid aside, Parlia­ments forced, Lawes, Priviledges and Properties invaded by their own Patrons; and the veyle that the uncertaine Warre kept on the Rebells face, now by a cer­taine successe drawn off: At their first en­trance to England the Irish Forces were puzled; Against whom to direct their loyall Swords while each side was for the King, for Lawes, for Liberty, Property, and Religion; But now they were satis­fyed in what they meant, that fought for his Majesty against the King.

Now the whole World saw that they least intended what they most pretended; [Page 27] [...] Homer they that sit at our helme looked one way but rowed another, when they should make his Majesty glorious, they summon all the wit and malice of their side to make him infamous; when they should bring him to his Throne they bring him to the Scaffold, the Liberty they with much blood and treasure obtained for the Par­liament is it seemes an unparalleld force; the Religion to be established are all the antiquated and condemned errours and heresies with the exploded Schismes that attended them, so many Religions that sober & unconcerned Spectators thought we had none, so easy is it in a throng of Religions to loose Religion.

§ 30 His Excellency saw how prospe­rity opened those Persons whom another condition kept close as mid day discloseth those shels whom night keepes shut, ad­vancement discovers a Man; when Appius had his wish, finem fecit gerendae alienae personae; he left wearing another mans Person: maxim [...] pars morem hun [...] homines habent, quid sibi volunt dum id impetrant boni sunt, sed id ubi jam penes sese habent, ex bonis pessimi, et fraudulentissimi sunt.

[Page 28]
Before the man
Had got his end
He was all Puritan
What he would have
He thus obtai [...]ed
And then resumed knave

§ 31 And now he was in love with his imprisonment, seeing cleerly by this time that good cause that consecrated his mi­sery, advanced his Prison to a sanctuary, and his close retirement to a religious life, in the good company of his many ho­nourable and reverend fellow-sufferers; his withering and tedious durance being deceived away by the happy alleviation of Society; wherein it was doubtfull whether he took or gave more content.

§ 32 There were no meane Persons then that buzzed in his Excellencies eare his Majesties neglect of him, in that upon the severall exchanges of Prisoners on both sides he was not thought off; It seemes there broke out through his con­cealement & obscure restraint that worth that was not by our grandees thought be­low their temptations.

But his Excellency was so well appoint­ed with naked honesty, that he was proofe against all suggestions to disloyalty.

He that looked upon his service to his Majesty as its own encouragement, and [Page 29] upon his loyalty as his own reward, valu­ed not a neglect, or contempt, his care was not so much what he was in others thoughts, as what he was in his own; he is great that is just, good and great in his con­science.

And moreover his Majesty was so beset with malignant Courtiers that he could hardly see any Person in his own worth, without a malicious tincture from those mediums they passed through; otherwise he knew the Sun beheld not a more gra­cious Master to condescend humbly to take notice of his subjects service, to ac­knowledge it gratefully, and to reward it liberally.

His Excellency was not ignorant how coldly the renowned Montrosse was enter­tained for those services that were then (without disparagement to any) unparal­lelled; and have not been since seconded by any but those of his own.

But now he and three Nations have reason to think it was not his Majesty but God that delayed his releasement; re­serving him for better seasons, wherein it might please him to make use of his Excellency; when rebellion had [Page 30] run to the end of the line, and the iniqui­ties of the Amorites became full: And it was time to check successefull villanies that blustered in the World, casting terror round about, and threatning Heaven and Earth; and to vindicate oppressed right and afflicted innocence.

Perijssem (might he say) nisi perijssem: I had been undone had I not been undone, for had he been released probably he might have partaked in some of the stragling undertakings of those times which proved as unhappy to his Maje­sties cause as to the undertakers; for these slight endeavours kept together their di­vided adversaries with the common dan­ger, and hardned them with their miscar­riage; for they now thought that success hallowed their villanies; Honesta scelera successus facit, Sen: Whereas if Men had stood still, the fury of the Rebels had been spent upon themselves, for as they say wine must be fed with flesh, otherwise it will devour its own strength, so usurpati­on must have an adversary up for a fomes to its power, otherwise (as we have since seen) its like to feed upon its selfe; wher­fore who knowes not that his Excellency [Page 31] was reserved for such a time as this.

§ 33 And although he had been slight­ed by his Majesty, (which was not impos­sible, considering the evill councell about his Majesty (that betrayed him to his friends and foes) against whom he himselfe had as great cause to raise a War as his Parliament:) yet that his enemies who durst not put him to death (it being a­gainst equity saith Sen. ep. 1. & Alexander in Plutarch, against the Law of War saith Salust. in his Iugurt History, and great cru­elty saith Diodorus Siculus l. 17. against the custome of War saith Caesar l. 2. de belle Gallico: Taul. Anali. 12. to murther Prisoners quos mars reliquit praelio supersti­tes Eurip.) entrust him with liberty is the eternall Monument for his worth and faithfulnesse; this was a Man (as his late Majesty said of that honourable Strafford) that even Principalities and Powers that would not trust might feare.

§ 34 Upon the Parliaments unhappy successe, Men of dangerous designe and loose Principles, usurping Supreame power: 1. From the Sword, when most that fought in this unhappy War protest they fought not for power but for Li­berty: [Page 32] 2 From the people when though they are not Servants by nature, as A [...]ist. would have it, yet neither are they all Masters, for who then would obey? or if they had the power, all the World knows that they would otherwise dispose of it then to these Persons) Proceed (as its u­suall after civill Wars) against the Kings party as Traytors for their loyalty; whose carriage in the War could not be treason against their Government, which they acknowledge is the issue of the War: and now searching Prisons they chose out the chiefe for exemplary justice (as the fattest commonly falls a Sacrifice) and shed the blood of War in the time of peace; and revenged themselves, (1. Inhumanely saith Sen. 2. Unjustly as they were inju­red, saith Tyrius, yea beastly saith Plut. for saith he, Beasts bite him that bites, see Grotius, de bello et pace part. 2. p. 80:) Upon his sacred Majesty (though they were checked with a Touch not mine anoyn­ted: and though no Man 1 Sam. 26. 9. could lay hands upon the Lords anoynted and be guiltlesse;) and upon the flower of the Nobility and Gentry that had escaped their fury in the Field.

[Page 33]§ 35 His Excellency being a younger Brother had not estate enough to make his offences capitall; yet had too much worth to be at liberty, and to be an ene­my; there appeared it seemes in his single Person what whole Nations might be afraid of.

Therefore Cromwell that had So [...]ldier enough in him to understand a Souldier takes the advantage of his Excellencies solitude for a temptation, and assaults him with an all this will we give you; withall adding (as most commonly his speeches had a sting in the tayle) that there was no lesse could purchase his Liberty of the Parliament then his service.

§ 36 His Excellencies thoughts are now divided between two equall incon­veniencies, uncertaine how to guide a dis­creet choice; to continue himselfe in Prison (now he might be enlarged upon the inauguration of these new powers) were sullenly to put himselfe beyond all hope of being serviceable to himselfe, his cause, his Countrey; to goe and serve his successefull adversaries, and to abet pros­perous villany with the same hands he once withstood it were to betray his for­mer actions, and condemne himselfe: not without some suspition of time-serving, [Page 34] as if with that Marquesse of Winchester he had been made rather of the complying willow, then of the royall and solid oake; ready alwayes for the prevailing side.

§ 37 Upon a sober debate with him­selfe (for War must be once well thought on, wherein they say a Man cannot erre twice) though morals by reason of the variety of unexpected circumstances are so uncertaine that its [...] Arist. 1. eth [...] Cic. 1 [...] et 3. et. Rhodius l. [...]. c. 3. and quod dubitas ne feceris saith Pliny l. 1. ep. 19. covar. de mal. c. 7. p. 2. n. 9 [...] what is not of faith is sin saith the holy [...] Ghost Rom. 14. 23. if a Man doth any thing and doubts he is damned:) yet part­ly by the strength of his own great reason; partly by the advice of his Oracles whom he had ready to consult with in all emer­gencies; (Its most excellent to be able to direct ones selfe, saith Minutius out of Hesiod, next to follow the good directions of [...] others, vas (que)disp. 62. c. 3. n. 10. victor: de Judic. relat. 1. n. 12. [...] the company of wise men brings learning and wisdome unto Kings; The Rom [...]n Emperours u [...]dertook no War without the advice of Faeciales, nor the Christian without their Bishops saith Grotius bell [...] et pac. p. 1 [...] 117.) he left it to [Page 35] posterity, that betwixt two evils his Excel­lency could doe well.

§ 38 For with the consent of his best friends; with the blessing of his reverend Confessour the L.B. of E. with the ap­probation of his own heart (and if our hearts condemne us not we have confidence towards God) He lifted himselfe under the Par. for the Ks. service, professing (as I am credibly informed) to the B. of E. that as he expected Heavens blessing with his Lordships, he now served his enemies on­ly for his friends advantage; And me­thinkes the reverend Father, with other his noble and reverend fellow-prisoners bespeak him as David doth Hushai the Ar­chite, 2 Sam. 15. 32, 33, 16, 17, 18, 17, 14. ‘If you continue with us, you will be a burden to us as we are to you, but if you return, and say unto these younger pow­ers, I will be your servant, as I have been a servant to the powers before you so will I also be yours; then may you defeat the councell of their Achitophels; Have you not with you also Zadock and Abiathan the Priests (two reverend Per­sons, whom had I time to goe and aske their leaves, I would mention to the World not without due prefaces of ho­nour,) & me thinks when some enemies [Page 36] were ready to say is this your kindnesse to your friend? why would you not goe with your friend? he might reply as well as Hushai and no better, whom the Lord, and this people, and all the Men of Israel chose, his will I be, and with him will I abide.’

And we have seen how by the councell of our Hushai, the Lord had appointed to defeate the good councell of eminent Achitophels to the intent that the Lord might bring evill up­on these Absal [...]ms; The incomparable Grotius out of L. sec. 1. de dolo m [...]lo, saith it was too crudely spoken by Cicero that our whole conversation ought to be alto­gether f [...]ee from simulation or dissimulati­on; without which we cannot live among those that are wise in their own generati­on; so lawfull is it (as Thom. 2. 229. 40. or 3. 9. 7. artic. silv: in verbo bell. p. 1. n. 9. decides the question out of St. Augustine upon the fifth Psalm) to cast the vayle of dissimulation, not that [...] but [...], that compliance and dispensation as Saint Chrysost. calls it over the face of truth, that God himselfe seemes sometimes to goe along with successefull wretches in the pursuit of their lower designes while he mannageth the eternall councell of his own will, thus Paul harmlesly becomes all [Page 37] things to all Men that he might gaine some; although [...], as well as [...], ought to be [...] [...] a Man in whome there is no guile, and if it were possible to deale openly with all Men.

§ 39 But his Excellency besides was not to learne that usefull Men must not withdraw their service from their Coun­trey to spight Usurpers: we must goe on each in our place to keep up Law, peace, and order according to an Usurpers will; though not for his Authority, but for publick good, which is the onely Sove­raignty we are under in the absence of the L [...]wfull M [...]gistrate ordained of God; pro­vided we contribute as little as vve can for the establishing of the Usurpers; Cyllas Lavves vvere of povver saith Quint. l. 2. c. 1. so far as the state of the C [...]tty vvas contained in them; that it could not stand (as Florus upon those Lawes) if they were dissolved, see S [...]urez. de legib. l. 3. c. 10. n. 9.

§ 40 And now not onely Ireland, but England called like the Macedoni [...]n, come and help us; for they that turned the World upside down were alm [...]st come hither also: Campanella Cotzen, and Richle [...] in their politicks having long since made Ireland a passage into England; so its not so much [Page 38] an order of Parliament, as a law of nature dictated by common safety and publick good that seemes to command him over into Ireland; which must not be neglected for any private quarrell; Themistocles and his Antagonist left their private grudges at home; when they were employed a­broad for publick service; if the intelli­gences were removed, their own (they say) and the Worlds interests would turn the Spheares.

§ 41 Its true the Rebels pretended a League with his Majesty, and therefore they should be rather succoured then op­posed by his friends: But the wise knew that had his Majesties subjects helped these Rebels to a conquest over the Parliament, they had helped them to a conquest over themselves, for they were as impatient of a Protestant Monarchy, as of a Free state or rather more, for this was thought to be of their own designe and contrivance; and the other the object of their malice and antient hatred. His Majesty himselfe though much perswaded by his Mother, could not be prevailed with to joyne with those in Ireland; for though Thucy­dides say the Athenians did well in a case of necessity to seek aide not onely of the Grecians but of the Barbarians; Yet me­thinks [Page 39] I heare Fulco of Remes in Fred. l. 4. Hist. Rhemensi c. 6. admonishing our Charles as he did another; who may not be afraid seeing you covet amity with the enemies of God; aud to the overthrow of the Protestant name take unto you Popish armes, and enter into Leagues detestable; they are great offenders saith Alexauder in Arrianus, who serve the Barbarians a­gainst the Greekes, contrary to the Lawes of Graecia; shouldest thou help the un­godly, and love them that hate the Lord, 2 Chron. 19. 2. O King let not the arme of Israel goe with thee, for the Lord is not with Israel, nor with any of the Children of Ephra­im, [...] Chron. 25. 7. Be yee not une [...]ually yoked with misbelievers; for what fellowship hath righteousnesse with unrighteousnesse, what communion hath light with darknesse, 2 Cor. 6. 1. 15.

§ 42 His Excellency resolves (upon the termes proposed by the Parliament) for the Irish service in the capacity of a Collonel of Foot; but first he must take the engagement; when usurpation hath ravished just power, it usually supports it selfe with the two Pillars of Armes and Oathe [...]; a good Man feareth an oath, and therefore his Excellency, upon mature deliberation made a promise equall to an [Page 40] oath: (for a noble soule of [...] as the Persians, such bonae fidei as Augustus, that [...] Isoc. de evag. Gunther. Leg. &c. Its word is as strong as its oath:) that he would be true and faithfull to the Common-wealth without a King or House of Lords; and he is not a Man that would not be faithfull to the interest, Common-wealth, and good of his own Nation as well without as with a King; which was the primary, favour­able, proper and significant import of that ingagement to the best judgements of that time.

§ 43 He is no sooner made sure, but he is sent by that Man of dispatch, O. [...]. (into whom the old Emperour of Ger­many thought Gustavus Adolphus his hasty soul was got by a metempsuchosis) with Reynolds and others to Chester, and thence wafted over by a favourable gale immedi­ately to Dublin, and made his way reso­lutely through the thickest of his enemies to relieve the distressed City; where they staid not long but impatient both of restraint and delay; they sally out for more elbow-room with that successe that they had the pursuit of the enemy for ma­ny miles, untill they came upon my Lord [Page 41] of Ormond's whole Army ready for an o­verthrow, such was their confusion and disorder.

The honourable Lord of Orm [...]nd un­happily thus associated, being betrayed to that security that he is playing at Tables, and his Army and cause lyes at stake.

After this Victory these lower Com­manders are carried about with the rapid motions of O. C. that violent first mover, who upon his first arrivall Iehu-like drave furiously tovvards Trogedah vvith all his Forces; took the place by storm, and spa­red neither Man, Woman, nor Child, In­deed throughout he vvas resolved to use the highest right and lavv of War; vvhich after ages may dare to call an injury; strangers were not spared, for by the Law of War strangers upon an enemies ground is an enemy, Philo. de judice ex vetere Ora­culo. Malcho excerp. legis: nor sacred Per­sons, my Lord Broghil hanged a Bishop (notwithstanding the common clamour for their Father in God) with an haec sunt vestim [...]nta patris: no native e [...]caped the severall parts justly suffering for the guilt of the whole: Its lawfull to continue the punishment of a guilty Nation; for one generation after its fault, Arist. Pol. 7. c. 13. Liban. orat. de sedit. Ant. Yet its [Page 42] the generall Law of War (if yet it have any law, and it be not true what that rash head blurted that martiall Law was as ab­surd as martiall peace) Hostis sit ille et qui extra praesidia, &c. Liv. 37. Baldus 1. de just. Bembus Hist. 7. mercy, sanctuary, &c. are say the Souldier, for the miserable ra­ther then for the guilty, venet. de Asylis Thu. 1585. Cambd. Eliz. 1593. and we tooke all his Cities at that time, and utterly destroyed the Men, and the Women, and the little ones, and we left none to remaine, Deut. 2. 34. Ps. 137. ult. But with this flux of blood, they said they stopped a greater; Sanguinis fluxu [...] diffusi venula revocamus Tert.

The very report of this siege reduced all Ireland: for immediately the two next Garrisons Trim and Dundalk are quitted; such a pannick fear seizing upon the Soul­diers, that they were not able to endure a summons: this successe is seconded with the taking of Werford, Rosse, Kingsale, Corke, Youghal, Bandon-bridge, Barrow, and Duncannon, Enistroge, Carricke, Waterford: and now Cromwell no sooner seeth a Citty or an Army, but he conquers it; In the meane time his Excellencies particular honour was involved in that great renown of the Generall; whatever glory he ac­quired it was as the Civilians say for his Master.

[Page 43]§ 44 Ireland now acknowledging a conquest in ten months, (for they were there but from the midle of August, 1649. to the next May, 1650.) which ten Ages formerly durst not boast of; They return by order of Parliament to England to assist them in those dangers that threatned them on every side; especially from Scot­land that had ingaged it selfe by a late Treaty at Breda to assist his sacred Majesty. 1. In bringing the Murtherers of his late Father of blessed memory to condig [...]ne punishment. 2. In recovering his royall right.

§ 45 Cromwell being to goe for Scot­land, (the House having now concluded that the War should be offensive; and my Lord Fairfax laying down his Commis­sion) makes choice of his Excellency for one of his Commanders in that desperate expedition; which he willingly under­goeth when he heard the quarrel stated by Lashley upon the account of the Old Cause, ‘and not upon the account of the King whom they disowned, as one sticking too close to his Fathers sins forsooth, his House & Friends:’ Judging souls thought that War was for his Majesty rather then against him, that Cromwell there was loy­all; and that it was a great courtesy for [Page 44] our Soveraign to be conquered, least a sad successe had gained him a Kingdome with the losse of Religion, Law, and Liberty, however his Excellency thought it unre­sonable to see his Native Countrey submit its Law and Religion to the sawcy imposi­tion of a neighbour Nation that had been indeed often taught to take Lawes from us; but never to give us any.

§ 46 When his Excellency was in Scot­land, jealous Oliver joynes with him Lam­bert and Okey to watch his thoughts, words and actions, and to check him from any designe of loyalty; which he discreet­ly observed, and therefore managed each action committed to his trust, as that a­gainst the Highlanders, Dundee, &c. with such resolution as made him beleeved cordiall to the cause, and able for service, and therefore advanced him to the com­mand of Lievtenant Generall in Scotland; It was his honest ambition to be eminent in every thing he undertook, so he hoped at last to arrive at that power that might sway Kingdomes to a compliance with his Majesties interest, as successfully as he saw them now swayed against it.

§ 47 And therefore when his Majesty marched for England by the way of Car­lisle, he refused to follow him, and chose [Page 45] rather to compleat former victories in Scotland as Commander in chiefe, then to gaine new ones in England under Oliver: Therefore waiting anxiously betwen hope and feare upon his Majesties successe in England, he took care to reduce Scotland into a subjection to the Parliament untill an opportunity offered it self of restoring it to the King, who had utterly lost it had not he lost it.

§ 48 But no sooner were the Scots Wars finished, but Holland threatneth us. 1 Partly upon his Majesties account being engaged to his assistance: 1 By the Prince of Orange: 2 By Admirall Vantrump who had not forgot the high honours bestow­ed upon him in England in the year 1641. 3 By an overture made between his late Majesty of blessed memory, and their Em­bassadour the night before his death; Partly upon their own account claiming a right in our Seas which we for times out of mind were taught to See Grat [...] ­um in mare lib. Seld. ma­re Clou [...] S [...]in [...]. Mar. Com. Greg. Thol. jur. reg. Franc. prop. L. L. quae propria ulpian l. o. L. L. quae comuniae: vid servium in 12 AEn. virg. Eu­st [...]ch. in il. x. n. 22 [...].— deny them.—

See Fleta and Selden notes upon it; see Draytors Polyalbyon, Grotius de jure belli et pacis of propriety; see Saxon Lawes in Spelm and Selden: Iust. and Theod. Codes: the Danish Lawes in the exact Collect of Beccius: W [...]itlock [...]s observat. &c.

§ 49 His Excellency is called upon [Page 46] from Scotland to Sea in joynt commission with Blake, and Deane, he willingly sub­mits knowing he was to engage for the right of his native Countrey, I meane the dominion of the narrow Sea, which be­longed to England as a hedge (so the Sea is called in Eurip. and most Poets since out of him) belongs to the inclosure, and indeed is the best of its enjoyments.

§ 50 He being at some losse in Sea af­faires discovers as much wisedome in making use of other Mens skill, as others did in acting by their owne; others di­rect he encourageth, and spirits the dull Sea-men to action; to passe by the mean­er passages his most solemn performance was the last engagement with the Dutch for which the Parliam. honour him with a gold chaine, and oblige him by a com­mand over the Army in Scotland; which he underwent willingly, so securing to himselfe and his Master one Kingdome while now an Usurper swallows up two.

§ 51 Being come to Scotland he takes care that the councell who were in joynt power with him, should be Men of solid Principles and good Interest, & if he must be troubled with some fa [...]aticks, they were some soft, easy and quiet Men that stood for cyphers, and were only to fill up [Page 47] a number, and not to maintain a party.

§ 52 He takes care to restraine that Scottish spirit that is never quiet Conque­rour nor conquered; and remembring what sad use they had made of former in­dulgencies, proceeds with force and ri­gour, resolving that they should really fear him, who he knew would never really love him.

§ 53 He disarmed, imprisoned, and in­nocently trappanned them, (though none of them sussered the least upon his ac­count in state or life) and so amused the cunning Scot, with active policy, that he had scarce time to think of plots, or to contrive villany.

§ 54 And when some Loyall persons under the honourable Middleton, at­tempted something 1654. he easily sub­dued them, first dividing and then con­quering them; he was as ready to suppress those men that attempted any thing In­considerately for his Majesty, as he hath been since to incourage them when they attempted any thing soberly: It was a­bout that time Oliver would have had him out of Scotland, and therefore had not he opposed his Majesty then, probably he had not been in a capacity to restore him now.

[Page 48]§ 55. In Scotland he impartially exe­cuted all Lawes enacted by the Supreame power in England tending to the peace & welfare of that Nation: so that his seve­rities had not formerly enraged them more than his justice obligeth them, and therefore Oliver omitted no opportunity to tempt him out of Scotland, by calling him to the other house, &c. which temp­tations he dextrously put off (choosing (with Caesar) rather to be first in Scotland than 3d. or 4th. in England) so that the Usurper was heard often to say "that he could do many things were G. M. out of Scotland: And if I am not deceived by knowing and good men, the Usurper up­on his death-bed (when he was urged to name his successour) professed, It was in vain to set up a Protector in England for George Monck would bring a King out of Scotland.

MODERN POLICY. The Second Part.

ALthough upon Cromwel's death,Sect. His Ex­cellencies behaviour upon Cromwel's death. it was thought, the awe (where­by he checked the private de­signes of each party to an ho­mage to his own) was so happily remo­ved; that the severall Grandees would now publickly pursue their aime at that Su­premacy, to which each of them was wil­ling to advance Cromwell first (one daring enough to break the ice to an usurpation) [Page 2] that they themselves might be his Se­conds: and because (as Seneca saith) see­lera dissident, their villainous Enterprises would interfer and clash, each of them resolving to admit neither equall nor su­periour; it was thought honest men might have opportunities to joyn toge­ther in vindication of lawfull Soveraignty and publick Right, while the Theeves and the (Magna Latrocinia.) p [...]blick Robbers (as the Pirates told Alexander) fell out about oppression and wrong; Take off the common Princi­ples in which Rebels agree, and the common persons that keep them together with those Principles, their variety of humors and inte­rests bring them immediately to a division, and then to a ruine, Machiavel. Kings l. 2. c. 3. on Livy l. 6. c. 2. sect. 3. These Rods that have lain so long upon our backs might be singly broken, when they could not be broken united, and in a bun­dle.

But Cromwell taking as much care to keep usurped power as he took to gain it: —Nec minor est virtus quaerere quum per­tatueri: and being a man of [...], as Arist. de A [...]. l. 2. c. 1. Eth. 4. c. 3. of desires as vast as his thoughts, [Page 3] and as boundless as his soul: [...] as Iamblichus Carm. 6. And therefore its pitty (as Socrates saith) that great and good have been separated) he secured not the Government with more policy to himself then he doth to his Heires after him for ever! for (naming his Son Ri­chard Successor, according to a power cun­ningly gained by him from the Parliament in a Petition and Advice 1656.) he con­trived him an impregnable in [...]erest; first in Ireland, by his B [...]other Henry made there Lord Deputy: secondly in Scotland, by a Councell and an Army, made up, for the most part, either of Relations, or of Fanatiques, or of New-purchasers of the Kings, Queens, and Bishops Lands, all equally engaged to the Usurper: thirdly in England, 1. by a Councell made up of his Fathers own Creatures: 2. An Ar­my under his Brother in Law Flee [...]wood Commander in chief; his [...] le Desbo­rough as Major Generall, and seve [...]all other Relations of his in great command; so that his Army was like that of Abrams, of his own house: 3. The City awed by a pack of Sectaries, under one Io. Ireton a Creature of his, since the marriage of his [Page 4] Brother Henry with Oliver's Daughter. 4. The Countrey people generally so much pleased with the obliging carriage, to which Oliver politickly brought him up, that they generally said, If we must needs have an Usurper, we will be content to have him.

Sect.His Excellency saw Richard so well set­tled, that to attempt any thing against so well layed a Government, in the behalf of his most Sacred Majesty, had been but to hazard the best Cause, with his own and his Friends persons and fortunes, against a tide, which swelling higher by the opposition, would quickly have overwhelmed them: And therefore he submitted himself to a compliance with the Power then in being; acting by its authority; knowing (as Grotius saith, jure belli & pacis p. 1. c. 73.) That the acts of empire which an Usurper exerciseth may have power to oblige, not out of his right, which is none, but because its better his Commands should prevail and be of force, then utter confusion be brought in; the Laws and Iudgements being taken away; See Suarez leg. l. 3. c. 10. n. 7. vid. de potest. civ. n. 23. And so his Excellency [Page 5] went on with the Usurper, [...]trengthening the hands of the evill doer for publique good, while he was weakening him in pri­vate interest: We may observe in Nature, that the severall parts of it, though they are ordinarily true and faithfull [...]o their standing rule, law, and duty, (the light go­ing upwards and the heavy downwards, &c.) yet they are allowed to comply with a violence, that brings them out of their place & order, against their inclination and law, to fill up such chasmes, and supply such vacuities as may endanger the dissolution of the whole.

Besides, I think really his Excellency, together with our Gracious Soveraign, had rather the Invader should be left in posses­sion, then occasion given to such danger­ous and bloudy commotions, as they both trembled at the thoughts of, which yet must necessarily follow upon any violence against those men, who have strong Facti­ons on their side at home, and as strong Con [...]ederacies abroad. It was their opinion, [...], Plutarch: Or as Favonius hath it, Ci­vill War is worse then unlawfull Government-Mihi pax omni cum civibus bell [...] civilii [Page 6] utilior videtur, Cic. Titus Quintus thought it better the Tyrant Nubis had been let alone at Lacedemon, when he could not otherwise be thrown down, but with the ruine of the Common-wealth, likely to perish in vindication of her Liberty: For (as Aristophanes h [...]th it) A Lion is not to be bred in a City; but if he be brought up he must be kept: For indeed we nec morbum ferre possumus nec remedium, Liv. Yea, we were so unfortunately sick, that we feared, plus pericul [...] a medico quam a morbo: For though Usurpation falls heavy upon many particulars, yet the bloudy consequences of an intestine War are worse spreading and permanent.

Sect.His Excellency was as carefull to keep others within an usefull moderation and prudence, as he was to act according to it himself; and therefore upon Oliver's death He and the Councel make an Order:

That there be none brought from beyond the Seas to Scotland, and that none be carried from Scotland [Page 7] beyond the Seas, without speciall leave, and a Passe. That there be no unusuall meetings of Persons danger­ously affected to the Peace of that Nation, &c.

And seized upon severall persons danger­ously busie about his Majesties Affairs in that Kingdome; whereby he at once seemed to be very cordiall against his Ma­jesties interest, and for that of the Usur­pers; and really did his Majesty the best service imaginable, and his Friends the greatest [...]rtesie: 1. Restraining them from those attempts which had been their ruine: AEquum non est (saith Stal­lius) ut sapiens disipienti [...]m causu in pe­ricula & turbas se con [...]ic [...]a [...]: See N [...]hem. 9. 27.

2. And withdrawing from the Usurper that advantage whi [...]h he made of such vain and empty oppositions, towards his own esta­blishment and settlement [...] who knows no [...] that Oliver was advanced to that height [Page 8] we ere while admired and feared, by those plots which he subtlely contrived, and others were foolishly trapanned to? by whose discovery and defeat he rendered himself formidable, and by sly insinuati­ons, of what danger the Government, and the three Nations were in, by reason of them, prevailed with his Conventions to secure the Common-wealth, by promoting his power daily, upon the occasion of one pretended Plot after another, untill he scrued himself up to the power of the most absolute Monarch in Europe.

His Excellency thought that monstrous Power would fall away of it self, which might be held up and strengthened by op­position; A Lacedemonian in Plutarch when he read, Hos dum Marte parant domi­natum extinguere, saevus ante saliuntis Maenia mors rap [...]it; added, Merito viri illi periere; expectare enim deb [...]erunt, ut ipse per se dominatus conflugraret.

Sect. His ac­quiescing in Ri­chards free Parlia­ment.In the meantime he resolved to acqui­esce discreetly in the determination of the free and full Parliament, which Richard and his Councell were happily necessitated to call; towards the right constitution of [Page 9] which, he contributed much in the choice of such Parliament men for Scotland, as the Malignant party in England would not have willingly admitted to the House; who when they entered, assisted the Honest party in such counsels as would have brought down the power which Oliver set up with so much blo [...]d and treasure, in the twinkling of an eye, without any noise or stir: wherefore they were suddenly after dissolved by the Army, with a consent that Richard gave to it: [...]

Although his Excellency was sorry to see such unwarrantable violence offered to a free Parliament, made up of the ho [...]ou­rable Representatives of three Nations; yet he was pleased to see that vast Power taken from Cromwel's Family, by the same Authority that gave it them, even before a third Heir en [...]oyed it: He so well fore­saw the future establishment of these Na­tions, through these severall revolutions (as the establishment of a fair World out of a Chaos) that he stuck not in an Ad­dress to the Parliament (whom the Army had invited to reassume their power, which they had once forced them from, and now looked upon as the onely Authority that [Page 10] could serve their turn and interest) to say, that the Nation was then born in a day.

Sect. His carri­age to­wards the long Par­liament when re­called.When those Members that the Army had called in, refused the admission of the secluded Members, those worthy Patriots, that were resolved to doe their King and their Countrey right; when they resolved to [...]surp the Government, denying the Na­tion their priviledge of being governed by a free and full Parliament, and siding with a company of Secta [...]ies and desperate per­sons, that were engaged to ruine our Church and State, neglected our honoura­ble Nobility, our worshipfull Gentry, our reverend Clergy, and in a word slighted three Kingdomes, and with their assistance awe us with Militia's, and oppress us with Assesments so farre, to the discontent of the whole Nation, that they agree upon a generall Insurrection upon the first of August; but upon some discoveries made by the unhappiness of the Honourable the Lady Howard (whose Sex was not capa­ble of that secrecy whic [...]her Loyalty might be intrusted with) and others, they were prevented in most places, save onely [Page 11] in Cheshire, Lancashire, and Wales, where Sir Thomas Middleton, Sir George Booth, Sir Philip Egerton, &c. by reason of their distance from the Parliament and Army, got together such a considerable party that alar [...]med the whole Army under Lambert, and an Irish B [...]igade besides, to march to­wards them; whom his Excellency be­held favourably, and had they brought their design to any iss [...]e, he would have as­sisted to bring those refractory Members at Westminster to some reasonable termes: Although he would not have engaged against those Members, (being obliged unto them, and thinking not with Cicero, T. Fregis [...]idem. A. quàm nequ [...] dedi, neque do Infid [...]li cui periam. Accuis. that a man may break his oath with theeves; or with Brutus in Appion, That [...], That the Romans esteem no faith, yea [...] nor oath to be kept with Tyrants,) yet would he have used his interest with them to reduce them to a Modera­tion.

But upon Sir George Booth's overthrow,Sect. His design upon Sir G. Booth's rising. Lambert, blown up with the success, sores high, and contrives, that the Army now highly caressed by him, with the thousand [Page 12] pound sent by the Parliament to buy him a Jewell, &c. should stickle for his Honour to be Commander in chief of all the For­ces in England, Scotland, and Ireland, the next step to the Protectorship of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and that the Par­liament, in case they denied it, should be dissolved; which he saw done accord­ingly.

Sect. His reso­lution a­gainst the Armies Arbitrary power.Whereupon Lambert calling together his Counsel of Officers, makes sure of a correspondence with the Army in Ireland, and Scotland, and therefore dispatcheth Collonel Barrow for Ireland, and Collonel Cobbet to General Monck; who though he was a Member of the Army, yet was he likewise a Servant to the Parliament; and of two Confederates he is to be preferred that hath a just cause of warr. The Athe­nians were to assist their fellows the Messe­nians against their other fellows the Lace­demonians, Dem. Orat. de Megalop. Me­thinks I hear his Excellency replying to Collonel Cobbet's Message, as the A [...]onans did to the Spartans, A [...]icis auxilia feren­da contra hostes non contra A [...]icos; vid. fidel. Tubal. l. 4. c. 31. l. 7. Ptolom. apud [Page 13] Appianum in leg. exceptis: Or with him in Alexandrides.

Ego esse vester non queam Commilito,
Quando nec leges nec mores Consentiunt
Sed multis inter se Convallis discrepant.

Vid. Orat. Partazae ad Laz [...]s apud Agath. l. 3. c. 2. n. 6.

The noble Generall,Sect. according to his instructions from London, secures Cobbet; at once preserving his Army from such dangerous in [...]inuations as that person brought along with him thither; and to cut off all the advantages the Army in England might have of the informa­tion he might carry home with him.

Its true an Embassadour is per saecula po­pulis sanctum no [...]en Papin. & Pompon. l. si quis D. de legal. yea,He impri­sons Cob­bet the Ar­mies Mes­senger. Sancta sunt car­pora legatorum var. l. 3. del. Tutius regres­sus legat [...] Radevi [...]. append. de Polon. morian. l. 12. de mauris; so that they were not to be violated in life, limb, estate, or li­berty; for it is contra jus legatorum, lega­tos in vinculis habere Menand. de Iust. 2. Imp.

But Collonell Cobbet is rather a Messen­ger [Page 14] of a Faction of Subjects, then a proper Embassadour of the Supreme power, and therefore he must not claim the right of an Embassadour: It's the pe [...]liar preroga­tive of Majesty, and Supreme Authority ( [...]aith Dion. Hulicarn.) to create Magi­strates, to make Laws, to make Warre and Peace, and to send Embassa­dours.

Legates must not be received from An­tony, for saith Cicero, In that Case we have not to doe with Hanniball, an enemy of the Common-wealth, but with [...]ne of our own Countrey. Nobly doth the Generall im­prison him, who brought along with him the face of a Faction, and the authority of Rebels; who would have honoured him, Si senatus faciem secum attulerat, auctori­tatem reip. Cic. Philip. 7.

Sect. He models his Army.And then his Excellency feeling the temper of his Army, upon Collonell Cob­bets Message (according to the power gi­ven him, when he was made Commissio­ner for governing of the Army, with Sir Arthur Haslerig, Collonell Walton, Collo­nell Morley, Collonell Okey, & [...]. by the Parliament, just before their dissolution) [Page 15] he models it, and secures such Officers (as he found, either too loosely principled, or already too dangerously engaged, to be en­trusted in so honourable an expedition as he resolved upon;) in Tantillon Castle fi [...]st, and since in the Basle I [...]lands, so confi­ning their principles and persons within those walls, which otherwise might have too sad an influence upon that whole Ar­my and Nation.

And then thinks fit to declare his reso­lution,Sect. He de­clares. to assert the a [...]thority of Parlia­ments against all violence whatsoever, in two Remonstrances, one to the whole Nation, and the other to the Churches.

Whereupon the English Officers bethink themselves of a De [...]laration too; ‘where­in supposing the end of Government to be the publick good, they must perswade the world that they are the onely promo­ters of that in the world:’ In melle sunt linguae sita vestrae [...] atque orationes lacte; cord [...] felle sunt [...]ita, atque acerbo aceto e linguis dicta dulcia datis, ut corde amara facitis.

[Page 16]
Pretence white as milk,
And as soft as silk,
Will do [...]he feat;
Your hearts as sowre as gall
Purpose our thrall,
And thus ye cheat.

‘They ravish us with apprehensions of li­berty, while they enthrall us with oppres­sion; and as their usuall manner is, they bespatter the Parliament with their foul­est ink, making (according to an ordi­nary figure in Policy) every infirmity a fault, and every fault a crime:’ yea, they were almost ready to swallow that grosse abuse; [...], Isocrates, of making [...] the Office guilty of the Officers abuse.

And withall they declare the necessity of their proceedings; they thus make a virtue of necessity, seeing no other virtue will be so easily induced to serve their pro­ceedi [...]gs; and she may well be the patron of all licentiousness, who her self hath no law.

They declare the necessity of continu­ing the cashiered Officers in power, which is a necessity onely of their own creating, [Page 17] and [...]ignifies no more, but that they are compelled to cover wrong with wrong; as if it were not enough to have done mi [...]chief with an Army, but we must con­tinue that Army to defend and justifie it: Their [...] is, That his Maje­sty must be kept out of his just rights, and that the Nation be deprived of their Laws, Liberties, Religion, & [...]. And thence it follows, as a Conclusion becoming that Premise, that it's [...]ecessary our Army be commanded by Persons, that are the worst Rebels against the one, and the greatest Violators of the other: [...].

But his Excellencies rationall Declara­tion (which he published to give the world the same satisfaction,Sect. The e [...]fi­cacy of his Declarati­on. for his un­dertakings, that he had already in his own breast, scorning the [...] of [...] Ioseph. An. 15. Crantz. Saxon. 11. Nicet. l. 3. & 4. and willing to provide honest things, [...]ven in the sight of men) out-weighed their Pamphlet with the Ju­dicious; because they saw in his few words; (for he, with Stenelaidos the Ephor, would not stand deb [...]ting with words, [Page 18] being injured above words) that he asserted Authority, the ligament of humane socie­ty, against Violence and Rebellion; he asserted the true publique, instead of a pri­vate good; he stood for liberty against li­centiousness and oppression: In a word, because they saw him expressing himself throughout like a Person of worth and ho­nour.

Messen­gers sent to him.After this [...] of the Armies Declaration, they send two more Messen­gers to his Excellency, his dear Brother in Law, Doctor Clerges, and another, to satis­fie him more fully of their proceedings; for his Excellency, as if he wanted nothing else all this while but good intelligence, writes them an ambiguous Letter, intima­ting, that he might comply with them bet­ter if he had but the happiness to under­stand them. Indeed it was but prudence, to suspend all expressions that might make them despair of his compliance with them, untill he were ready to appear against them.

Sect [...]And these are followed by Whaley and Goffe, Caryl and Barker, as Messengers from [Page 19] the Churches, who had a Bird for every Conquerour: Its the boast of a Dutch­man, that he can sail with all winds; the Compass breaths not more varieties then these dexterous souls have changes, and garbs, and suitable compli [...]nces. ‘Its the perfection of an Oratour, to make happy applications to the severall humours and geniusses of all sorts of men:’ That's the character of these Church-men; these Inde­pendent Willows are pliant to the poor power of a contemptible Committee of Saf­ty; as Alcibiades shifted disposition as [...]e al­tered place, so they proportion themselves to time, place, person, religion, with such a plausibleness, as if they had been born one­ly to serve that Opinion, which they har­boured but as a guesse, while it continued in sway.

In the mean time his Excellency (be­ing by a call (as he expressed himself to the Convention) from God and man, He calls an Ho­norable conven­tion of Nobility and Gen­try a [...] E­denbo­rough. engaged for England, to restore the Parlia­ment to their due freedome and honour) assembles the Nobility and Gentry of Scotland at Edenburgh; to whom he pro­posed:

  • [Page 20]


    His pro­positions to them, with there Answer and his Reply.

    1. That they would secure the peace of that Nation during his absence, which would not be long.
  • 2. That they would supply him with some men for this undertaking, which he engaged upon his Honour should be to their satisfaction.
  • 3. That they would advance what mo­ney they could beforehand.

And hearing by the Earl of Glencarne, the Chair-man o [...] that Assembly, that

  • 1. The Scots were, since their being disarmed, uncapable of keeping the peace.
  • 2. That they were so unconcerned in the issue of his undertakings, that they saw no reason they should engage with him.
  • 3. That they would advance a yeares tax before-hand.
    • 1. He gives the Lords and Gentry power to arm themselves.
    • 2. He sati [...]fieth them privately in the design of his expedition.
    • 3. And accepts of their yeares tax (O rare) be [...]ore-hand; that being what he first intended, though what he last proposed.

[Page 21]And thereupon he dismisseth the As­sembly, which he would not have called together but in a case of necessity, which makes any thing lawfull; it being one of the Regalia (as G. Tholos hath it) to call Assemblies.

And then he resolves to stay no longer then his supplies of men and money come in: In the mean time he encourageth Sir Charles Coote, the Lord Brohill, &c. to take this opportunity to reduce Ireland, with it's sectarian Governours (the first poi­senous Creatures that ever came over thi­ther) according to their design layed be­fore any thoughts of the dissolution of this Long Parliament; but he advised them to proceed leisurely, and by piece-meal, for that, which at one view would be a m [...]rmo to fright them, give it them but in part, and it would please them: All great mu­tations (saith the noble Falkland) are dangerous, even where what is introduced by that mutation is such, as would have been very profitable upon a primary foun­dation,

Yet hearing that Lambert was coming against him with thirteen thousand men,Sect. His pru­dent ma­nage­ment of a Treaty. [Page 22] (resolved pro regno patriam penates, conju­gem flammis dare) indeed Imperia pretio quolibet constat bene, according to the advice of an high-spirited Fury) he (with that King in the Parable) sits down and considers with himself, whether with his seven thou­sand men (which was all he could bring to the field from his Garrisons, the High­lands, and the new supplies) was able to enter battell with his enemy, that leadeth thirteen thousand; and finding himself too weak, before the enemy enters his Territories, he sends Messengers of peace, he thinking of the unexpected Accidents before he did engage, Thucydides adviseth, was loth to hazard the jus [...]ice of his Cause upon the chances of a battell; we, may quit something of our own right to avoid pursuing it, with so much hurt to other men as Warre carrieth along with it; Vict. de jure bel. n. 14. & 33. Arist. Polit. 4. Rhet. ad Alex. 3. Pausan. l. 5. Philost. l. 23. Sen. suas 5. Yet withall he provides for Warre; being (as Ioseph. 2. Cont. Appian) To preserve the Laws; other losses he could bear patiently, but when he is forced to depart from the Laws, then he will fight even beyond his strength, [Page 23] and endure all extremitie of Warre.

He sends three to treat with those at Wallingford, viz. Collonell Wylkes, Lieute­nant Collonell Clobery, and Major Knight, with letters to Gen. Fleetwood, intima­ting ‘his readiness to comply upon reaso­nable terms with his old friends and fel­low souldiers; and his sorrow for the ad­vantages which were given the common enemy, by this unseasonable distance of friends.’

But withall he sends letters to the City,Sect. His Let­ters to the City. ‘to encourage them to stand fast in their Liberty, for their Laws, Priviledges, Pro­perties, and lawfull Government;’ for which he there expressed himself ready to live and die: which letters were deliver­ed by Collonell Alured, and Collonell Markham; but by reason of the conclu­sion the fore-mentioned Treaters came to, so contrary to the contents of those letters, they were a while under Cassan­draes fate, of not being believed, though they brought in them the highest truths imaginable, as time the father of truth hath since made manifest.

[Page 24] Sect.The Treaty is concluded in an agree­ment upon these termes:

  • 1. That his Majesties Title be renoun­ced.
  • 2. That England, Scotland, and Ireland, be governed as a free State, with­out any single Person, or House of Peers.
  • 3. That an able and a godly Ministry be encouraged, and the Universities regulated.
  • 4. That the Army be not disbanded without its own consent.
  • 5. That there be a meeting of three from Scotland, three from Ireland, and three from England, not Officers of the Army, and five from Scotland, and five from Ire­land, and five from England, Officers of the Army, to consult about a further settle­ment.

Sect.But his Excellency had discreetly re­served to himself the ratification of the Treaty, so that nothing should be of force untill he confirmed it with his own Seal; and therefore upon the return of his Com­missioners by his own order, he (imprison­ing Collonell Wylkes for going beyond his [Page 25] Commission) declareth the Treaty void, and marcheth [...]owards the Borders, in­tending to make B [...]rwick, which he had secured at first, his Head-quarters; hold­ing correspondence with his friends all over England, esp [...]ciall in the West, as the information Collonell Cobbet gave his friends at Wallingford House intimated.

At B [...]rwick he gave the Messengers of the Army,Sect [...] and of the Churches, very plau­sible answers, which yet signified nothing, receiving and dismissing them with great respect; but yeilding to them nothing prejudi [...]iall to his cause; so that one of the Ministers, upon his return home, must needs tell his Congregation, That the seed of the Serpent is irreconcileable with the seed of the woman.

Fabius saved Rome by a delay;Sect. Overtures towards a second treaty [...] with the grounds of it. his Ex­cellency being advised from England, That if he could keep at distance with his Ad­versary untill the first of Ianuary, the work would be done without bloud-shed; make some overtures of peace with Lam­bert, but alwayes insisting upon the re-ad­mission of the Parliament to the exercise [Page 26] of their trust, to be granted before they enter upon any Treaty.

Sect.Now some Commissioners for the Par­liament, viz. Haslerig, Walton, and Morley, having gained Portsmouth with the consent of Collonell Whe [...]ham, formerly of the Counsell of Scotland, whereof his Excel­lency was Pre [...]dent; and Lawson (not­withstanding all endeavours by that Syren Vane, to perswade him to the contrary) declaring with the Navy for the Parlia­ment; and the Land forces for want of p [...]y revolting; the Army in the North moul­dereth away, and yieldeth to time and delay.

Sect. He mo­veth to England with his whole Ar­my.Thus all force being removed from the Parliament, and they sitting, thought themselves not safe untill he by his autho­rity and presence came to awe the So [...]l­diery and the tumults, that want nothing but an Head to lead them to another Re­bellion.

Sect. His pru­dent ma­nagementHis Excellency (whom former Powers could not draw from Scotland with either fear or favour) takes this opportunity to of affairs throughout his progress to a subservien­cy to his design. [Page 27] do his Countrey and King a publick right: And so (though ordered to bring with him onely three hundred men, and dispose the rest for quarters) he marcheth with his whole Army, modelling such Garrisons and Forces as he met with to a posture subservient to his design, intrusting them with men faithfull to his and the Nations Interest, which were now no more two but one: and commending the care of Scotland to Major Generall Morgan, a Person very in­dustrious in assisting his Excellency, going to him in his greatest extremity from Lon­don, to encourage him and his Army to a resolution in those designes, that were as great as they were good, he marcheth with his own Army, which he knew was tryed and faithfull: whereas the other Forces (an aire dato conduct a cohors bellica, miles dona sequens pretioque suum n [...]utar [...] favo­rem suetus, & accept [...] pariter cum munere bello, hunc habuisse dator pretii quem jusse­rit, hostem, Bell. de re mil. 2. p. t. 2. n. 4.) would upon the least temptation (as he told the Parliament) betray both himself and them too.

And in his way finds the Honourable [Page 28] Lord Fairfax, His confe­rence with [...]e Lord Fair­fax in his way to York-shire. with Sir H. Cholmely, &c. in Armes against free Quarter, and for a free Parliament, with whom he had pri­vate conference, to each parties satisfacti­on.

SetctHere he receives a Message from the City by the Sword-bearer; to which he returns this Answer.

  • 1. That he was resolved for the Parlia­ment as it was on the 11. of Octob. last.
  • 2. And yet when he came to the City (which he said would be shortly) he as­sures them he would satisfie their expecta­tion.

Thus at once he keeps himself to his own Commission, owns the onely face of Authority then in being, under whose Au­thority he might act safely, & yet privately manageth things according to his own principles and thoughts: So inferiour Orbes suffer themselves to be swayed by the motion of the superiour, while yet they steal a motion of their own: The Parliament serve the Publick for them­selves; His Excellency will serve them for the Publick; ‘Being inviolably constant to his Principles of Virtue and religious Prudence; his Ends are noble, and the [Page 29] meanes he useth innocent: His Worth had led him to the Helm of our State: The Rudder he useth is an honest and vi­gorous Wisdome: The Starre he looks on, for direction is in Heaven; and the Port he aimes at, is the joynt welfare of Prince and People.’

And then he proceeds towards London, Sect. He is ca­ressed by the whole Countrey but not under­stood. being courted by the Countries as he passed, as the Patron of Authority, Law, Liberty, and Property, (his Expedition looking like a Kings Progress rather then a Souldiers March) and addressed [...]o by the most considerable Gentry, to use his interest in restoring them to their Birth­rights, their Laws, their Priviledges, and a full and a free Parliament; whose de­sires if he had satisfied, he had utterly dis­appointed; for to have discovered him­self, had been to defeat the hope of the whole Nation: Veritatem voluit celari non mendacium dici, Aug. q 20. in Gen. And therefore he usually answered them, that he would see 1. All force removed from the Parliament. 2. The House filled. 3. See that there be good provision made for future Parliaments: And so he kept [Page 30] himself dark to his Adversaries and his common Friends, though he was light to himself, his Prince, and his discreeter Friends, Quibus pro sermone nutus motus­que membrorum est; uti, Plin. de AEthiopum Gente l. 6. 30. [...] Arist. Nu. 4. c. 8. Incerta disseruit, tractu­rus interpretationem, pro ut conduxisset, Ta­cit. Hist. 3. He gave answers doubtfull and inclining whither they were drawn: Manass. Ben. Iser. Concil. q. 39. Notwith­standing there were two sent of purpose to watch him Scot and Robinson, who re­turned as wise as they came: His Excel­lency dropped never a syllable that Suspi­tion it self could be afraid of, all the while they were with him; every word he let fall was [...]he well-weighed issue of Judge­ment and Reason, that did signifie, but not betray his mind: His expressions were Oracles, as well for their clear worth to his discerning Friends, as for their dark doubt­fulness to his preying Enemies, So Christ himself spoke to his Enemies in Para­bles.

Sect. He con­ceales hisAbout this time his Excellency saw how dangerous it had been for him to de­resentment of the Par [...] hard usage to those that made address to him [Page 31] clare for the Nations right, when it was high misdemeanour but humbly to wish for it; when gro [...]ns for grievances, as once at Rome, were dangerous, and com­plaints were treason; when men are im­prisoned for what Natu [...]e, Reason and Law hath declared to be the right of man, and our Parliament declared to be the right of English men; I mean, An humble Petition for Right. He saw Sir Coppleston Bamp­field for Exeter, and Sir Robert Pye for Berk-shire, without any respect at all to the Countries whence they came, the Message they carried, or the Honourable Person to whom they were imployed, confined to the Tower; and yet he having, with that Earl of Leicester, his passions in his poc­ket, looks upon them with an unconcerned eye, and takes no care for the liberty of few imprisoned persons, least he should lose the opportunity of redeeming an en­slaved Nation.

His Excellencies march to England was slow & orderly:Sect. How he controls his Soul­diers. So first taking time to ob­serve the posture, genius, and inclination of the Kingdome. Secondly, and keep­ing his Souldiers close to himself, ready [Page 32] for any occasion, and in order; fobidding all private meeting of Officers for consul­tations about State Affairs; assuring them, that he and they were rather to obey Pow­ers, then to controul them: and that every person should be so long in Command un­der him, as they were in obedience under Authority.

Sect. A Letter to Mr. Roll in his name.In his March he takes occasion to an­swer a Declaration of the Western Gen­tlemen, that run too high at that time to be complied with, and yet was too just and equall to be neglected: Wherein he pub­lished expressions, that like a well-framed picture, look'd smilingly upon all sides; especially let the honest part of the Nati­on see a Grant of their whole wishes through a denyall: ‘For (said he) the Nation could not be settled without a Civill Warre, unless the severall interests 1. Of such new Sects (as Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists) never known here before the Warres. 2. Of such new Factions [...] as the purchasers of Kings, Queens, and Bishops Lands, were provi­ded for by such a comprehe [...]sive settle­ment as might include all sides:’ ( [...] [Page 33] [...], Aristot. Eth. 6. Quod com­mune est, connectit civitates, quod singuloru [...] dissipat, quare & publice & privatim u­tilius est ut publica magis quam privata curentur. Plato 4. legum; a Law is to be profitable (saith Cato L. [...] D. de leg [...]l. 3. in fine D. D. petit haered) to the grea­ter part and the main: Semper non quod privatim interest, uni ex sociis servari de­bet, sed quod communi societati expedit L. actiones sect. Labeo D. Soc. That is good for the Bee that is good for the Hive (An­toninus) and therefore Monarchy in the State which a free Parliament would in­troduce being so inconsistent with the la­ter sort of mens interest, and Monarchy in the Church which is the necessary at­tendant of State Monarchy (for no Bishop no King) ‘they being so inconsistent with the interest of the former sort of men was not the best way of establi­shing these Nations: Whereby he gave us to understand rather what he thought expedient, then what he thought lawful; intimating withall to the discreet and wise, that those things were his as well as the Natio [...]s designe, but it was not yet time to accomplish them.’

[Page 34]As soon as time and prudence had con­quered all remaining difficulties, he could be as much for a free Parliament, and the happy issues of it as themselves. In the meane time, though his Loyalty promp­ted him to serve his Majesty, and his Countrey; yet his Prudence taught him not to engage against Impossibilities: In a word, he lets not fall one word in that Let­ter, that seemed to deny that any of those things therein mentioned were lawfull, though hee dropped some that signified that all those things were not Then expe­dient.

Sect. His hono­rable La­dies arri­vall at London.When a long and tedious March, with the P [...]ayers and Wishes of the whole Na­tion, had brought his Excellency to Saint Albanes, his honourable Lady borne to succour affl [...]cted Loyalty and Majesty was arrived at Whitehall: Our Venus being b [...]ought by Water to meete her Mars by Land, how seasonably is shee arrived to give heat and life to his cooler thoughts, and to spi [...]it his grave and slow designes into accomplishment [...] he sayd the King should Come, but she sayd Now: Her eager Passions, those Whet-stones of ver­tue [Page 35] (Cic. Acad. 9. l. 4. Tusc. 9. l. 4.) Set him on to a performance, when his cauti­ous Wisdome checked him to a Retreat, A furiis agitatus amor, A sacred fury of Love: [...], Cael. Rhodig [...] l. 16 c. 15. Raising her wishes above all thoughts of difficulties, suggested to her expedition: but [...]e remembring that [...] Arist. Poli. 3. c. 16. That Passions are not fit to conclude of Enter­prize, Methinks answers her Importu­nate Loyalty: As Latinia doth Turnus,

— Quantum ipsa feroci
Virtute exupero, tanto me impensius aequum est
Consulere, atque omnes metuentem expen­dere casus
The more undaunted Courage doth you move
Its fit my serious feares shew the more Love
In mature Counsells, and in weighing all
The various dangers, and Event may fall.

[Page 36]The impatient Lady was so intensively fixed on resto [...]ed Majesty, that shee seem­ed to decay with a lingring Expectation to enjoy it, [...], Theocrit. Idyl. 2.) she hardly rested night or day from some e­minent service for her Soveraign, he took up her thoughts, her discourse, insomuch that her hopefull Son, when checked by some Gentlemen for an often mention of the King, replyed pretily, I am sure my Fa­ther and Mother talke of him every night: When the honourable City drooped under a fear of the Issue of the late do [...]btfull ex­pedition of his Excellency, she speakes them to a Life and Resolution with these words: Did you (Gentlemen) un­derstand Generall Monck as well as I do, you might trust him.

He lodg­eth at White-Hall.When he had stayed there some days to refresh his Army to consult with his Of­ficers, and to look about him for the setle­ment of every thing in its place, in a sub­serviency to his designe, He marcheth to London, and refuseth not the accommoda­tions offered him at Whitehall, as some thought he would; being too wary to o­pen himselfe, when he had the opportuni­ty [Page 37] to hide himselfe by an acceptance of a curtesie.

At Westminster (when he had indulged himselfe some time [...]or the imbraces of his dearest Consort,Sect. He gives account of his ex­pedition to the House. that deserved his first and dearest Affections) he attends the House solemnly according to their Order, conducted by Scot and Robinson on each side of him, who was a virtue to each ex­treame, and modestly refused the Chaire that was offered him, now as above him­selfe in Humility, as he was above others in worth: They with most Regret and Ten­derness receive Honours that most deserve them.

Leaning on the back of the Chaire, pro­vided for him,Sect. His de­po [...]tment and speech. he delivered himselfe in a choice, pure, breife, clear, vigorous Ex­pression of the great Notions in his mind to this purpose. 1. ‘That he deserved no Thanks, having done no more then his Duty:’ He is lesse willing to hear Commendations [...] that hath done most worthy of them: though he had attempted great things resol [...]tely and valiantly, he heared Applauses and Elogies for them, by so [Page 38] much the more tenderly, by how much they were more justly due.

2. He turned their Thanks [...] Applauses, and Commendations from himself the In­strument in their Resta [...]ration to God the Author: Accipio, agnosc [...]que, Deos, Virg. AEn. 12.— [...].

If God will fight Soph. Aj. Ezek. 3.
He can make the weak men put the strong to flight,

[...] Anton. By God, and therefore to God are all things, Rom. 11. Ult. But knowing that it is, [...]. Clem. Alex. Strom. l. 7. Sen. Ep. 95. Chrysost. Hom. 25. Its not the mentioning so much as the improving of mercies, which expresseth our thankfulness to God, Ovid. AEshyr. Apud Plut. de audit. P [...]et. A. Gel. l. 1. c. 15. Tertul. de Patria, c. 1. Therefore he humbly desired the Par­liament to satisfie the Expectation of the Nation, in the establishment of their Laws [Page 39] Liberties, &c. Upon this their wonder­full Restauration; God had beene at the charges (as I may so speak) of so many wonders from above, nor his Excellency of so much care and paines below to re­store them, not so mu [...]h that they should seek Their own, as the publick good.

3. He desired them particularly to take off the Suspition men had of their perpetuity, by determining their own Sessions, and providing for future Parliaments (A consti­tution si vetustatem spectes vetustissima, si dignitatem honoratissima, si jurisdictionem Copiosissima) Where the Nation by its se­verall Representatives might gravely, de­liberately, and safely consult its own peace and setlement. The Major part as Grotius saith in his Hyl. Gothi...) prevailing over the minor "Otherwise theres no hope of Peace: Where there are multitudes of Coun­sellers there is safety.

4. Then he commended to them a mo­deration in their qualification, intimating, That it would be their Prudence not to nar­row but widen their Interest: Withal, telling them, the noble Gentry were so ingenuous, That faire meanes would bring to that compliance, when hard usage would de­terre [Page 40] them: English spirits must not be forced but won by an acquiescence, they are not to be subdued but with kindness.

5. He wisheth them to be tender in im­po [...]ing Oathes (though yet he thought none were to be admitted to any trust in England, as none ever was without an In­gagement to be faithfull to the Power in Being.) In all Governments Fundamen­talls are secured by standing Lawes, obli­ging all to a faithfullnesse and constancy to them, when the supestructures are capable of alterations by the growing Wisdome of succeeding Ages, and Powers) He was sen­sible of the abuse of Gods Name in our fre­quent Oathes: En toutes manieres sa este un fort belle Ordinance & institution, de en [...] user point du nom des deieux legerement de peur de les Contaminer, Car la Majeste des dieux ne se doit Imployer [...] qu' en un sainct, & Vene­rable purete. Its wisely ordained that the Names of the Gods should not be used upon trifling occasions: for the Majesty of the Gods should not be imployed but in holy and venerable purity. Malvezzi on Philostratus. Casaub. Exercit. 203. 2, Of the abuse of force whence, [...] [Page 41] [...]. Scholl. in Aristoph. Untill men have used them so commonly, that they can shake off their Cords with as much ease as Sampson did his Withs, and breake over these Hedges of Faithfullnesse when they please: Though Vt Masora sepes, legi decimae di­vitiis, vota sanctimonie, silentium sapientiae, sacramen [...]a [...]idelitatis, Pirke Aboth As the Masora Hedges in the Law, Tythes Hedge in Ri [...]hes, so Oathes kepe in faithfullness, so restraining and bounding our hearts that are as unstable as Water, whose propriety is to be [...] Arist. Gen. 5. Corrupt. l. 2. c. 2. to be apt to shed abroad when left to it self: but alass! His Excellency, s [...]n [...]e men make too much use of that piece of Lysander [...], that Children are to be cosened with Rattles and men with oathes: with whom pactum non pactum est, non pactum pactum est cum illis Lubet, Paul. Aul. An oath shall no oath be, if they no ad­vantage see: but an oath, an oath shall be if it with their designes agree they were so good at that of Euripides, Iurata lingua est, mente juravi nihil, that his Excellency [Page 42] thought fit to put the Parliament in mind that they had more need to repent of their former oathes then to take new.

6. He warnes them to take heed of ad­mitting Cavaleers and Phanatiques into pl [...]es of any imployment or trust: doing the Cavaleers no injury, for they could not have wors thoughts of them then they had, but secretly weakning the Parliament, by rendring their friends the Phanatiques odious to them, and so useless and unser­vicable: when he seemed to discharge Ca­valeers from imployment, he meant those whose actions had been more serviceable to their enemies then their friends, whose rash and unadvised zeal had done more harm than their Loyalty was ever like to do good; for those sober persons that were in a mean between madness and AEnthu­siasme, were such as we have seen manage their moderate Councils in two Moneths, with more success on his Majesties behalf then others have managed their valour in twenty years.

7. He commends to them Scotland, as a Nation that indeed had of late deserved to be encouraged, and assures them of Ire­land, with the persons in whose hands that Nation was.

[Page 43]8. He commends to them a Free State, for he would gladly lay down his life; but he knew well that Nunquam libertas gratior extat quam sub rege pio, That it is the high­est freedome a State [...]an hope for, to serve a good Prince.

And then he withdraws to his place in the Council of State where the first thing under consideration was the reducing of the City,Sect. The Par­liament imploy him to the City. now stiffly resolved to own no power save that of a Free and full Parlia­ment, where he saw that that Parliament and Council of State w [...]re neer a period: by those strong attempts they made to keep themselves alive, (Morientium morsus acerrimus, the last endeavour of the dying is most vigorous) for they order,

1. That he should march into the City with so many Horse and Foot, to force them to an obedience to the Act of Asses­ment: Its the guise of men in power to act themselves in the plausible part of their Go­vernment, leaving the more offensive passa­ges to their instruments. His Excellency coming up to the City, at Guild-Hall pe­remptorily demands the Assessement, by an order from the Parliament and the Council of State, to which demand procee­ding [Page 44] from him beyond expectation, the City after a little respit for extasy and a­mazement, return this answer, In Magna Charta confirmed by the Petition of Right, and renewed by this present Parliament, a day before their forcible dissolution upon the 11. of Octob. they were to pay no Taxes, &c. but by their consent i [...] Parliament, which now they had not: Yet to give no offence to the Parliament, the Council of State, or his Excellency, desire time to consider of it: and indeed those debates upon which depended the welfare of the Nation, with its Liberties, priveledges, and properties called for time and leisure.

His Excellency in the mean time writes to the House to know thei [...] pleasure, to which they answer that

  • 1. He should imprison the Honourable Col. Bromfield, Alder. Bludworth, L. C. Jackson, Ma [...]or Cox, &c.
  • 2. That he should remove their Chaines, digge up their posts and break their Gates.

Which strange orders were sent not on­ly to try his Excellencys patience and obe­dience, but to make that emnity open which was but suspected between him and the City; so did Achitophel advise Abso­lom [Page 45] to ravish his Fathers Concubines be­fore all Israel, that Israel might be assured that he and his Father were enemies.

And his Excellency obeys them readily, thereby gaining an opportunity to discover the genius of the City, which he had not otherwise there known certainly to be [...]o resolute for, and so true to Liberty and right.

But the Parliament as they intended, that by that imployment so offensive to the City,Sect. Th [...]y af­terwa [...]ds degrade him. he should weaken his Int [...]rest; so they contrive that while he is busy in it he should be weakned in his power: His Commission for Generalship expiring, they renew it not according to his desert, but impower six more of thems [...]lves to be e­qual with him in command that never came neer him in me [...]its, according to their interest, viz. Hazslerig. Walton, Mor­ley. &c. which when his Army heared as they were not satisfied with their late im­ployment, so much less were they satisfied with this reward; the lessening of their Generals power when they might justly expect his advancement, and therefore be­ing assured of the City, by a conference at the three Tunns at Guild-Hall, his Excel­lencies [Page 46] Head quarters, They humbly re­monstrate,His Offi­cers Re­mon­strance thereup­on. First, their sence of that vio­lence they were commanded to offer the renowned City, a violence unparraleld in our worst of daies, which though they made havock of most part of the Nations, yet spared the ancient City, for its late performances too honourable, and for its antiquity too reverend to be so abused.

Secondly, their fear of several persons eminent in this late disturbance, who had their freedome within and without the Ci­ty, to consult, plot, and design what might reduce us to our former misery.

Thirdly, their abhorrency of a late Pe­tition delivered in the House by Praise-God Barebone, so subversive of all order and power, so dangerous to all Religion, wor­ship, and discipline, so destructive to all Lawes, Statutes and Customes that to re­peat it was to confute and condemne it, and all sober eyes have as soon abhorred it as seen it.

Fourthly, Their wish that the Parliament would quickly determine their session, and provide for succeeding Parliaments.

Sect. He ad­heres to the City for a Free Parliament.Which as soon as his Excellency had communicated to the Speaker by a Letter [Page 47] he marched to London for quarters decla­ring for a Free Parliament, and casting himself upon the love, and faithfulness of the City, and Countrey, that they might stand by him in the prosecution of publick good.

In which resolution he persisted, (not­withstanding, 1. The flatteries of the House, cajoling him with the Honour of Hamp [...]on Court, and his Brother the Hono­rable Sir Th. Clergis, with the Hamper Office which was worth a 1000 l. a year .2. Their snares, into which (had it not been for his incomparable Lady, he migh [...] have been trappanned by a dinner, to which he was to be invited by the Council of State. 3. their threatnings expressed in Haslerigs Speeches, (that breathed nothing but fire and sword.) In the mean time taking his quarters among the Citizens, he expects patiently the issue of the Parliaments de­bates, in answer to his last Letters to them, and finding they thought of nothing but the setling of their own interest and con­tinuing of their power; he desired the messengers they sent to treat with him, to delay time, to procure a conference be­tween some Members of the House, and [Page 48] some honourable patriots that were exclu­ded from it,He heardt the con­troversie between the Seclu­ded and the other Members. which was granted and had before him [...]or m [...]tual information, in which he judi [...]iously weighed each sides reasons and arguments being all the while silent himself, and concluding with himself upon the result of the whole, that the set­tlement intended by the ho [...]se was upon [...]oundations too narrow to bear up a pub­like good: he resolved to withdraw all force from the house, and admit men of more sober, moderate, and therefore of a more p [...]blick spirit, who would establish us upon [...]ermes comp [...]ehen [...]ive of every con­siderable interest among us,He admits Seclu [...]ed Members to the House. making each part happy in the welf [...]re of the whole; which he did upon the one and twentieth of February, Cressane careat pulchra dies nota. 5. Meeting the Secluded Members at White-hall, Sect. His speech to th [...]m at White-Hal. and expressing himsel [...] to them in a speech not delivered by himself to avoid offence, but by his Secretary; wherin he commended to their care.

1. Religion that [...], as Ari. stol. 7. that first care of Magistrates, it be­ing in Plat [...] and Plutarch, Coagulum omnis societatis & fundamentum, and efficacissi­mum vinculum benevolae amicitiae unius dei [Page 49] Cultis Philo: so great an awe hath Religi­on had alwaies upon the spirits of men, prevailed with by the thoughts of eternal weal and woe, that to settle it [...]. Iust. Mart. Apol. would be a royal work, which his Excellency p [...]o­posed in the most sober and moderate way, imaginable between some mens too close and severe rigor, whi [...]h hi [...] Excellency had di [...]countenanced in Scotland, and others too loose indulgen [...]e which he checked by a publike [...]islike of a Sermon preached be­fore him at St. Pauls for that abomination that makes desolate, I meane a toleration for every one to do what is good in his own eyes.

2. He commends to them the State: desiring them to provide for a Free and full Parliament, in whose resolves he himself and the whole Nation might acquiess.

As soon as they sit,Sect. He is Vo­ted Gene­ral. they vote his Excel­lency according to agreement, Lord Gene­ral of all the Forces in England, Scotland, and Ireland; which trust he managed with much discretion and faithfulness, model­ling his Army to a temper suitable with the designes he had in hand, disarming the Phanatiques in City and Countrey, in the [Page 50] mean time taking care to arm Loyalty, while he [...]ayd the Factions naked.

Sect. He rejects all temp­tations to b [...]senes [...].Now to let the world see his Excellen­cy had the best Souldiery, virtues, valour, and wisdome; without any of their vices, ambition, &c. He slights all temptations of Command, Power, and Authority, which were offered him, and resolves ra­ther to be a Loyal Subject, then an usu [...]ping Soveraign: he had rather have obsequii glo­riam (as Tacitus calls it) the Glory of Obe­dience, then the Majesty of command.

Sect.The Parliament having setled the City in its just power, by Mayor, Aldermen, and an honourable Common-Council, and an incomparable Militia, under as worthy Commanders as ever lead English men to the field: and vacated the Phanatique pow­er in the Countrey, and setled the Militia of the three Countries in honourable and great hands, of men of worth, and interest, and p [...]ovided for the future Parliament, they dissolve upon the 16. of March, lea­ving the care of the Nation to an incompa­rable Council of State, and the care of the Army to his Excellency, as Commander in chief, and Major General of the City, and the care of the Navy to his Excellency, and [Page 51] the Honourable Lord Mountagne.

His Excellency in this interval condes­cends to the divertisements of several en­tertainments by most Companies in Lon­don. Sect. His Ex­cellency entertai­ned in London. The Honourable society of the Mer­cers beginning; but in the middest of pastimes and pleasures, his great and solid mind (as invincible by these soft, as formerly by his harder services), [...]orgets not the greater affairs of State.

And he keeps good correspondence with his Army b [...] frequent confe [...]ences:Sect. His pru­dence in the inter­val of power. at last he brought them to declare their acqui­escence in the resolves of the approaching Parliament, to the confusion of such whose hope lay wholly in their reluctancy against lawful power.

When Lamberts escape had s [...]irred up the drooping spirits of the factio [...]s to de­signes threatning and formidable;Sect. his Ex­cellency first discreetly ordereth the Forces in the Countrey, so as to prevent their uni­ting in any considerable posture, and then Honourably offers his own person for the service of his King and Countrey: In the mean time taking care to settle the Militia of London, and Westminster, so as they [Page 52] might be able to guard themselves if he sho [...]ld be called abroad to engage against the Enemy.

Sect.He takes care likewise of Intelligence, well knowing of what concernment it is for a Nation to have an impartial relation of the actions of the supreme power.

Sect.The Parliament being sare, whereof he was a Member both for Devonshire and Cambridge, he carrieth himself there with that modesty that might become the mea­nest Member, hardly so confident as to own the honour that honorable House con­ferred upon him by their solemne thanks to him.

And would hardly accept the 20000. l. bestowed upon him,Sect. His mo­desty. until the Kingdomes account and stated, his Majesties occasion supplyed, his publike debts payed: so little did this publike minded Worthy care for his own things, and so much for the things of others.

Sect. He sends his bro­ther in Law to his Majesty.When his Majesties gracious Declarati­on and Letters came over, to give occasion to modest Loyalty to discover himself, his Excellency having received the Declarati­on with a Letter to himself, (by the leave [Page 53] of the House which he humbly asked) he sends his Brother the Honourable Sir Tho. Clergies to attend his Majesty, with his humble answer, wherein was inclo [...]ed a loyal address from the Army, to let the world see how well a Generals command became him, who had modelled his Army to that temper, that there seemed to be but one soul controuling that whole great bo­dy, that expressed its allegiance to his Ma­jesty unanimously as one man.

When the Honourable Parliament,Sect. (each Member whereof deserves an ever­lasting monument) had upon that blessed 1. of May voted the Governmen [...] by Kings, Lords, and Commons) a constituti­on to be admired and envied, but not imi­tated) and were preparing Commissioners to attend his Majesty, to de [...]re him to come to his Parliament and People with all speed possible.

His Excellency takes care for Pallaces to entertain him,His care to make all things ready a­gainst his Majesties coming. his own incomparable Lady condescending to the drugery of a common maid for the service of her Sove­raign and then gives order for so many Regiments of Horse to attend his Majesty, [Page 54] taking great care, and giving many discree [...] orders for his Majesties security, providing with v [...]lour against open foes, and prudence against base friends, knowing his Majesty had good reason to pray with the Italian God deliver me from my friends.

Hom. Il. 313.

Who have taken Theogenis wicked Counsel to his Cyrnus.

Vid. dom. vit. Agric. Tacit. Annal. l. 1.

Sect.His Excellency according to his Ma­jesties order, waites upon his Majesty at Dover (being unwilling to Land before he came) with so much humility, as if he had not knowne any worth and merit in him­selfe; and was received by his majesty as if he had knowne nothing in him but worth and desert: how Honorably doe the best of subjects and the best of Kings greet each other? how modestly doth the Subject kneel? how humbly doth the So­veraign kiss and embrace: its one property of love to condescend with a [...]. Eurip. Hal. [Page 55] So Parents out of love to their Children lisp, and play, and fit their speech and dal­liances [...]o the age and infirmities of their children.

In that renouned progress of his Majesty to London, Sect. He meets his Ma­jesty. his Excellency had the honour to ride nex [...] before his Majesty, with the Il­lustrious Duke of Buckingham all the way to London, and with the Honourable Mayor through London: where the whole Nation saw him more Honourable in that he restored a soveraigne, then if he had been one more glorious in his Loyall Subjection then in an usurped majesty: his bare head was more honourable then others Crowns.

When some careful of the Subjects li­berty would have bounded his Majesties prerogativeHis ten­derness of his Ma­j [...]sties preroga­tive. within the compass of the Lawes (it being a power not to be intrusted to frail flesh and blood to be above Law) and what was more have capitulated with his for his own right, and brought him to him Throne upon termes: his Excellency withstood the motion, scorning to fetch home a [...]ettered Majesty, and to restore a captive Soveraignty: if he brought in a [Page 56] King, he would also bring in prerogative; and a plenam potestatem, 2. Ed. 4. 17.21. H. 7 2. H. 7.7. as it was in principio rerum, where Gentium nationumque imperium penes reges erat, Iust. l. 1. See R. B. Ios. in Mishput Aammelech: and indeed pre [...]ogative can­not be in [...]rusted to a mortal more capable of it than our Soveraign, who thinks it his highest power not to be ab [...]e to do an inju­ry; and his highest prerogative to take no­thing from his Subjects but a libe [...]ty to offend, Principi summum rerum arbitrium dijdederunt, subdi [...]is obsequi [...] gloria relicta est, and may it suffice us when we admit his Majesty to a Soveraignty over us, that we know, Regem in ipsum imperium est Io­vis, God is Soveraign over him.

Sect. His care for justice.It was thought his Excellency would in­tercede with his Majesty for a general par­don to all parties and persons, but his Ex­cellencie perceiving his Majesties extra­ordinary inclination to mercies, thought fit rather to encourage him to do Justice.

1. That innocent blood may not be up­on our heads or upon our posterities, such blood as may ov [...]rthrow a world: Its a fearful thing to let a Nation fall into the [Page 57] hand of the living, by a neglect to satisfie that justice which divine mercy will not defraud, and therefore humane mercy dares not.

Secondly that posterity may look upon their late villanies with horror when they see them punished with severity.

[...], Plato apud A. Gel. l. 6. c. 14. Fa­mosos publica furca figendos pluribus placuit ut conspectu deturreantur alii ab iisdem faci­noribus F. de. paenis L. 28 P. fumosos Pet. E­rod. decret. l. 2. Til. 14. Zeppa. de leg. l. 1. c. 11. Plin. l. 29. c. 4.

3. That compleat justice be done to all sufferers of the Clergy and Layty, righte­ousness establisheth a Nation, and the guilty must be as contented for the good of the Nation to suffer Justice, as the innocent may be to enjoy right.

But his Majesty and his Excellency hath taught the Nation to sing of mercy and judgement Ps. 101. 1. by their [...], Arist. Rhet. Iudex [...] medicus syropos habet & aloen. R. maim. transl. p. 63.

[Page 58] Sect.When his Majesty had leisure for any thoughts of setling his Officers of state he began in his own family, (for as a Bishop so a King must rule well in his own family) for how saith St. Paul, can he rule the Church that cannot rule his house, and how saith A­ristotle, Can he govern Kingdomes that go­verns not his own Court: Indeed Kingship (saith Selden, in his titles of honour, Weems exercitations 3. Arist. Polit. 7. Rev. Bp. Will. in his jura Majestatis) was first exer­cised in the narrow comp [...]ss of an house­hold, and those increasing to Cities, Kings a while contentedly possessed those Cities, and Cities swelling into Nations, we had our Kings of Nations. Whence his Excel­lency had the honour himself of being Master of the Horse, and to commend the incomparable Sir. Will. Morris (eminent in his Countrey for piety, prudence, publike­mindedness, and valour for rejected truths, eminent in his worthy book called Caena quasi [...] for depth of judgement, solid and accute reason, sharp, quick, yet clear apprehension, for comprehensive reading, for a copious fancy, for a choice, grave, brief, perspicuous, pleasant, vigorous, and [Page 59] moderately vehement expression, with a gratious frame of spirit running through each part, and the whole of it) for the first Secretary of state.

His Majesty well weighing That in the multitude of Counsellors there is safety, Sect. called his Excellency with his own high-borne Brothers in suffering as well as nature, the Honourable Marquesses of Hartford, of Or­mond, the Lord Chancellor Hide, & [...]. to the Council Table, where there is no per­son that need go beyond him who first hath been present at all the subtile debates wherby the [...]. The Rulers of the darkness of this age promoted their mysteries of iniquity.

2. Who hath managed the troublesome affairs of Scotland so succesfully for so ma­ny years.

3. Who had manifested so much pru­dence in his late expedition, that the King solemnly desired his sage advice for the settlement of his Kingdome.

But his Excellency conscious enough of the worth and ability of the most honoura­ble Council is not so intent upon the affairs of state,Sect. as upon those of the field his own [Page 60] peculiar charge, where his chief care is to model the Army to a frame subservient to his Majesties and the whole Nations inte­rest; and well knowing that the whole Ar­my is at the beck of superiour Officers as much as the lower O [...]bs & at the command of the first mover, he disposed of most commands to persons of honour, worth, and sound interest. His Majesty himself with his two Royal Brothers, honouring their respective Regiments with their com­mand.

And now it may be expected that from this confluence of the highest worth,Sect. the most eminent virtues, the most renouned performances, the result must be the highest honour [...] Arist. de mor. l. 4. [...]. 7. Charron wisd. c. 7. Haell government l. 1. c. 5. and therfore his Ma­jesty was pleased to call his Excellency to the House of Peers as Duke of Aumarle See Hey­lin Surv. France Seele blane French. Nob., Earle of Torrington, Lord M [...]nk of Pothe­ridge, Beauchamp, &c. Knight of the most Honourable order of the Garter, &c. ho­nours that others indeed have enjoyed, but his Excellency made it his chief business to deserve: and I hope as he hath attained [Page 61] this honour with great actions, he will main­tain it with greater until he is gathered to his Fathers full of honor and of daies, until having seen 1. That Sacred Majesty which he was an instrument to restore, established above malice, envy, ambition, rebellion, faction, and [...]reason, by a sage Council, well constituted Parliaments, a well disciplined Army, and Navy, well chosen Officers and Ministers of State.

Secondly the s [...]bject secured against all encroachments (by a Prince who [...]e prero­gative it is th [...]t he cannot do wrong) in their persons, estates, lives or liberties, through wholesome, just, and good lawes, the Chu [...]ch established 1. Against all He [...]esy in the faith on [...]e delive [...]ed to the Saints a­gainst all schisme by the Primitive order, discipline and government.

3. Against all prophaness,See 39. Art. Ro­gers. Dr. Overal. Dr. Ellis. Bp. Andr. ibid. 1. By a wor­ship in spirit and in truth, 2. decent, 3. in order, 4. to edification, 2. by the power of godliness) his daies be swallowed up of eternity, and his honour be exchanged for An eternal weight of Glory.


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