LETTERS, AND Divers other mixt Discourses in Natural Philosophy,

Many of which, were formerly Published in the Philosophicall Transactions of Mr. Oldenburg, and part in the Philosophicall Collections of Mr. Hooke, and else where.

ALL Which are now Revised, Augmented, and to them are Added very many other matters of the same Nature, not before Published.

ALSO, An Intire TREATIS of the Nature and Use of COLOURS, in OYL PAINTING.

Written by M. Lister, F. of the R. S.

YORK, Printed by J. White for the Author. 1683.

Some Observations Concerning the odd Turn of some Shell-snailes, and the darting of Spiders, communicated to Mr. J. W. and Published in the Philosophicall Transactions N. 50. 1669.

Sir,

I Can deny you nothing, and you may do what you please with the Notes I send you. You would know of me (you say) what I have observed concerning the Odd Turn of some Shell-snailes with us in England, and the Darting of Spiders.

I will tell you then of the first, that I have found two (a) sorts of them, easily to be distinguisht one from the other, and from all besides, because the Turn of the wreathes is from the right hand to the left, contrary to what may be seen in common Snailes. They are very small, and might therefore well escape thus long the more Curious Natura­list; neither of them much exceeding, at least in thick­ness, a large Oat-corne.

The first I thus describe: The open of the shell is pretty round, and the second turne of wreaths is very large for the proportion, and the rest of the wreaths, about the number of six, are still lesson'd to a point. This Turbin or Conical figure is well near a quarter of an inch; the colour of the shell is duskish, yet when the shrunk animall gives leave, you may see day through it, and then it is of a yellowish colour. These shells are extream brittle and tender, so that I cannot send them in a Let­ter: You may guess at the figure, if I tell you, they are som [...]thing like those of Aldrovandus de Testaceis, markt P. 359. Turbinum levjum.

Of the second sort (b) I send you inclosed at aventure halfe a dozen; (you see, in that I can so plentifully re­pair the loss of the former, that they are not very rare;) they seem to be much stronger and thicker shel'd; they are well near halfe as long again as the other, and as slen­der [Page 2] they have the exact figure of an Oat-corn, being as it were pointed at both ends, and the middle a little swel­led. The open of the shell is not exactly round there being a peculiar Sinus in the lower part thereof. I think, you may number above 10. Spires, having their turn from the right hand to the left. The colour of the Shell is of a dark and reddish brown.

There are two sorts of this make described, and with their respective Cutts, in Fabius Columna; but ours agree not with them in any thing more than the odd Turn: though it's true, that the other, the third there described, and call'd by him Cochlea Terrestris turbinata et stirata, (c) is very frequent in the road 'twixt Canterbury and Dover, and likewise in some woody parts of the Woles in Lincoln-shire. There are odd differences in this very Snaile very remarkable, as its having but one pair of horns (if I mistake not,) as also a hard shelly co­ver; its manner of wearing that cover &c. which I leave to another opportunity and place.

And to return to our two new described Snailes, they, when they creep, lift up the point of their shells towards a perpendicular, and exert with part of their body two pair of horns, as most of their kind do.

In March they are still to be found in paires, Aristotle affirms all these kind of creatures to be of a spontaneous birth, and no more to contribute to the production of one another, then Trees, and therefore to have no di­stinction of Sex. I have no reason to subscribe to his authority, since I have seen so many of them pair'd, and in the act of Venery. That they engender then, is most certain; but whether those, that are thus found coupled, be one of them a male, and the other female, or rather, as you first observ'd, and published to the World in the Catalogue of Plants growing wild about Cambridge, that they are both male and female and do in the act of generation both receive into themselves, and immit alike [Page 3] penis (as it seems probable to any man that shall part them) I leave to further and more minute discovery to determine.

Moreover we find in Aristotle a Circle of other parts, but of those we find no mention at all. However the Romans knew something extraordinary of these kind of Animals, that made them so choice of them as to recken them among their most delicate food, and use all care and diligence to breed and fat them for their Ta­bles at large discribed to us by Varro. Their tast and relish is none, methinks, of the most agreeable.

Of late, comparing Bussy's Historire Amoureuse de Gaule with Petronius Arbiter, out of whom I was made to be­lieve, he had taken two of his Lettes word for word, beside other Love intrigues; I find, in running him o­ver, what satisfied me; not a little in this very subject of Snailes; viz. That these very Animals, as well as o­ther odd things in Nature, as Truffs, Mushroms, and no doubt too the Cossi or great worms in the Oak (ano­ther Roman dainty) were made use of by the Antients to incite Venery. You'l there find, that the distressed and feeble Lover prepares himself with a ragoust of Snailes necks, (cervices Cochlearum;) and indeed in this part it is that these strange penes's are to be found.

Mr. Hook does as it were promise the Anatomy of this Insect. It were surely worth his paines, and the Learn'd World would be obliged to him for a piece of this nature; nothing, accuratly done of the inward part of any Insect, being yet publishedWhen this was written, Malpigius de Bombyee was not not publisht. These Snailes are to be found frequent enough under the loose barke of Trees, as old Willows, and in the ragged clefts of Elmes and Oak &c. And in no other places else, that I could observe.

You tell me, that it is generally concluded by Phy­losophers, That the reason of the usuall Turn of Snailes [Page 4] from the left to the right, is the like motion of the Sun, and that especially more North-ward, there have not been hitherto discovered any in our parts of the con­trary Turn to the Sun's motion. But this is not the only case, where they are out, who consult not the Stores of Nature, but their own phancy. What I am further about to tell you concerning Spiders, is as evident an Instance against them.

The long Threads in the Aire in Summer, and especially towards September, have been a strange puzel to the wiser World. It would [...]ert you, though you know them as well as I, if I [...] [...]ckoned up the ridiculous opi­nions concerning them; but I omit them, and proceed to tell you the certain and immediat Anthors of them, and how they make them.

I say then, that all Spiders, that spin a thread, (those which we call Shepherds or long-legged Spiders, never doe;) are the markes of these threds, so much wondred at, and in such infinite quantities every where.

I sent you the last Summer a Catalogue of thirty sort, of Spiders, that I had distinguisht here with us in Eng­land; and I must confess, I had well near compleated that number, with many other Experiments concerning them, before I discovered this secret. You must not expect from me any thing more, then what you deman­ded of me; for as for other Experiments, I reserve them till our meeting.

I had exactly marked all the way of Weaving, used by any sorts of them, and in those admirable works I had ever noted that they still let down the Thred they make use of; and draw it after them. Happily at length in neerly attending on one, that wrought a nett, I saw him suddenly in the mid-work to desist, and turning his taile into the wind to dart out a thread with the violence and streame, we see water forced out of a squirt or syring pipe: This thread taken up by the wind, was [Page 5] in a moment emitted some fathoms long, still issuing out of the belly of the Animal; by and by the Spider leapt into the aire, and the thread mounted her up swiftly.

And after this first discovery, I made the like Observa­tion in all the sorts of Spiders, I had before distinguish­ed; and I found the Air filled with young and old, sail­ing on their threads, and undoubtedly seizeing Gnats and other Insects in their passage; there being often as many fest signes of slaughter, as the leggs, wings of Flyes &c. on those threads, as in their webbs below.

One thing yet was a wonder to me, viz. That ma­ny of these threads, that came down out of the Air, were not single, but snarled and with complicated woolly locks, now more now less; and that on those I did not elways find Spiders, though many times I had found two or three upon one of them: Whereas when they first flew up, the thread was still single, or but little tangled, or, it may be, thicker in one place then in another. In the end, by good attention I plainly found, what satisfied me abundantly, and that was this; That I observed them to get to a top of a stalk or bough, or sum such like thing, where they exercise this dar­ting of threads into the air, and if they had not a mind to sail, they swiftly drew it up again, winding it [...]p with their fore-feet over the head into a lock, or brok it off short, and let the air carry it away. This they will do many times together, and you may see of them, that have chaines to these locks or snarled thread before them, and yet not taken flight.

Again, I found, that after the first flight, all the time of their sailing they make locks, still darting forth fresh supplyes of thread to sport and saile by.

It is further to be noted, that these complicated threads are much more tender, then our house-webbs.

In Winter and at Christmas I have observed them [Page 6] busy a darting, but few of them saile then, and therefore but single threads only are to be seen; And besides, they are but the young ones of last Autumns hatch, that are then employed; and it is more than probable, that the great ropes of Autumne are made onely by the great ones, and upon long passages and Summer weather, when great numbers of pray may invite them to stay longer up.

But I cease to be tedious: I have many Experiments by me to satisfy many doubts, that may be made, viz. infinite number of these Insects, and their numerous In­crease; and besides how strangely they are able to fur­nish and husband great quantities of matter out of so small a bulk &c.

You may expect all from me after another summers leisure, which at least I think necessary to confirm to me these; and other things concerning their Generation and Poison. What I have said at present, is such as I have certainly observed; and you may take the Truth of these Observations for excuse of the ill Texture of them.

Note, (a) I have since also found one sort of Snaile of this Turn, amongst the Aquatik or Fresh Water kind: see my Book. (b) This I have caused to be elegantly drawn in the Plate, Published in the Appendix to that Book, 1680. (c) of this see the said Book.

Extract of a Letter, written to Mr. Oldenbourgh, and pub­lished in the Philosoph: Transactions, N. 68. 1670. about an Insect, which besides Pismiers, may probably yield an Acid juice. Also about the winter Bleeding of the Sycamore Tree.

SIR, Concerning the Acid liquour of Pismiers, I have very lately received from Mr. Wray the Account (I suppose you have it by this time,) that was sent him from Mr. Fisher and Mr. Jessop; wherein these two last Gentlemen make this further Inquiry, whether there be any other Insect, or Animal, Flesh or Fish, that will afford an Acid Juice; they having with great industry tryed many species amongst Insects, and other Animals, without lighting on the like Acid liquor. I am of the mind, there are; and a ready way to find such out, may be, that having observed, that a Pismire bruised and smelt to, emits a strange fiery and piercing savour, like the leafe of the Herb, by Botanists called Flammula, broken at one's nostrills; by this means I have, since Mr. Wray put the question to me, found an Insect, which I suspect, may yeild an Acid liquour; as well as the Pismire; and that is the Long and Round-bodi­ed lead-coloured Julus, distinguished from all other Mul­tipeds in that their innumerable leggs are as small as hair, and white and in going they are moved like waves; not rare amongst drier rubbish; no Scolopendra, ours being an harmless Insect, and not armed with dangerous forcipes. The body of this Julus being bruised strikes the nostriis exceeding fiercely; but I have not yet any opertunity to furnish my selfe with any quantity of them for far­ther trials. The Change of Colours in Flowers, &c. Is a subject I have a little considered, and you shall have my thoughts an Experimen [...]s about it more a leisure.

As to the Bleeding of Sy [...]amore; the last year I win­ter'd at Nottingham, where I pierced a Sycamore about [Page 8] the begining of November; the turgescence of the Buds invited me thereto, and some hopes in improving the notion of Winter-bleedings, so happily discover'd by Mr. Willughoby and Mr. Wray. This succeeded so well with me, that I did afterwards engage my selfe in keeping a Journal throughout the whole Winter; from which Journal, I think I may note; 1. That the wounded Sycamore niver bled, neither in November, December, nor January, nor February, nor March, (which yet they did above 40. several times, that is, totally ceasing and than beginning a new,) unless there preceded a sensible and visible Frost; for I had no other way of recording the temper of the Air. 2. That the Frost did not always set a bleeding the wounds, they found made before they came, though sometimes they did; but upon their breaking up, or very much re­lenting, the wounds either made in that instant of time, or made many months before, did never fail to bleed more er less. 3. That particularly upon the breaking up of the two great and long Frosts (the first of which hapn'd that year in that Country to be on the third of January; the second, about the 12th. 13th. 14th. of February,) all the wounds ra [...] mist plentifully: so that such times may be looked upon as the most proper season of gathering great quantities of Juyce from this Tree. Removing into Cravon the latter end of March, and thence to London, my Journal was discontinued; I had yet, [...]pon my return from London unto Craven, some leasvre to prosicute it. Those, I there wounded the latter end of May, did not bleed neither the re­maining part of that month, nor the following months of June and July, but had the orifice of the wounds, made with a small Auger, in a manner quite grown up, and would scarce admit a Pigeons feathers. Where­fore the 30th. of July I cut out a square piece of about two inches of the barke of a large and well-grown [Page 9] Sycamore, about my hight in the body of it: This wound began to run the next morning about 9 a clock, so as to drop; and that was all, and dryed up by 11 in the morning. it continued in like manner the 21 days following, that is as long as I had the oppertunity of observing it. The like cut I made in a young Sycamore the 8th of Au­gust; which in like manner bled the next morning, but stopp'd before 9 a clock. It did so for 2 or 3 days, but then totally drying. Afterwards removing to York, the first of November I here pierced, and otherwise wounded two Sycamores; and having observ'd them my self at times, when, according to my former Observations made in Nottingham shire, I might wel expect to have found them bleeding; yet they never stirr'd, that we could observe, to this day. Since Mr. Wray hath assured me, that those of Warwick-shire bled the 16th of November last past co­piously; and since the Walnuttres also. And so much for matter of fact.

To what cause we may truly refer this Anomalous Bleeding, is not easie to say. For my part, I am not apt to think, that there is such a sudden and extemporary As­cent of Sap, at such time as these Trees are most disposd to bleed; but rather, that the Sap, already in all parts of the Tree, is some ways notably alter'd in its temper and consistance: And this Bleeding by stress of weather may in these Trees probably be look'd upon as a violence done to their natures from an unkind Climate; consider­ing the Walnut and Sycamore as strangers, and not natives of England. 'Tis indeed true, there are many sorts of English Plants, which will bleed in Winter; but note al­so, that such Plants never refuse to do so at any time of the year, no more than a Man, who may bleed a vein when he pleaseth, But let the Hypothesis be what it will, I am perswaded, we shall have but dark and imperfect notions of the motion of the Juyces in Vegetables, until their true Texture be better discover'd. To conclude [Page 10] this subject, I now put these two Quaries; 1. Whether the Juyce of Trees, whil'st alive & vegete, can properly be said, at any time of the year, to descend, or to be want­ing in any part, or not to be therein in a much like quan­tity? 2. What condition the Soil is of, where such Trees are planted, that shall either bleed or refuse to do so; whether Sandy, as that of Nottingham; or a wet Clay, as that of the two Trees, I have observ'd here at York.

An Extract of another Letter written Febr. 8th. 1670. Containing some Experiments about the Bleeding of the Sy­camore, and other Trees; as also, a considerable Note of Pliny about the Mulberry-Tree. Ibidem.

COncerning the Bleeding of the Sycmore, let me acquaint you with the following Experiment. The first in­stant it froze, the Wind at North; the Frost and Wind continued (some little Snow and rain falling) the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, until the 7th in the morning, when the Wind came about to the South-East, and the weather broke up a pace. The Sycamores bled not all this while, but the 7th about Noon all Trees of that kind bled very freely, both at the Twigs and Body, and I struck above a dozen.

At this same Critical season I was willing to repeat the Experiment upon other Trees; and to this end I forthwith struck the Hawthorn, Hazel, Wild-Rose, Goose­berry-bush, Apple-tree, Cheery-tee, Blather-nut, Aprickcock, Cherry-Lawrel, Vine, Walnut; yet none bled but the last­named, and that faintly in comparison of the Sycamore. This is consonant to our former Experiments: And if it did happen (as I said in my former Letter,) that these Sycamores bled not all this Winter afore at the wounds made the first of November, I do now think, that if new wounds had been still made at every break of Frost, some [Page 11] signes, at least of our York-shire bleeding, might have been discover'd before now. But I affirm no more, than I have seen and tried.

In all the Monuments of the Antients, collected by the great industry of Pliny, I find but few instances of this nature. Amongst those few, there is one that is rgistr­ed with two or three remarkable circumstances to our purpose. He tells us, that the Physitians of old, when they had a mind to draw the Juyce of the Mulberry-tree, were wont to strike it skin-deep only, and that a­bout two hours after Sun-rise. This Experiment is twice mentioned by him, and in both places as a strange Phoen [...] ­menon. We might make our Comment upon the places, but for this time are content only to transcribe the Text. Lib. 16. c. 38. Mirum; hic (cortex) in Moro, Medicit succum quaerentibus, ferè horâ diei secundâ, lapide incussus manat, allius fractus ficcus videtur. Lib. 23. c. 7. Mora in Aegypto & Cypre sui generis, ut diximus, largo succo abundant, summo cortice desquamato, aeltiore plagâ siccantur; mirabili naturâ.

Extracts of divers Letters, Touching some Inquiries and Ex­periments of the Motion of Sap in Trees, and relating to the Question of the Circulation of the same. Phi. Traus. N. 70.

1. January. 28. 1670. York.

YOu may be pleased to put this Quaerie also, con­cerning the Bleeding of the Sycamore: What con­dition the Soil is of, where such Trees are planted, that shall either bleed, or refuse to do so: whether Sandy, as that of Nottingham, or a wet Clay, as that of the two Trees, I have observed here at York. Of both which, see this Ob­servers Experiments former­ly communicated, No. 68. p. 2067, 2608.

2. Febr. 8. 1670. York.

Concerning the Bleeding of the Sycamore, be pleased that I acquaint you with the following Experiments of very late date. The first instant it froze, the wind at North; the Frost and Wind continued (some little Snow now and then falling) the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, until the 7th in the morning, when the wind came about to the South-East, and the weather broke up a pace, the Sycamores bled not all this while; but the seventh about noon, all Trees of that kinde bled very freely both at the Twigs and Body, and I struck above a dozen.

At this same Critical season, I was willing to repeat the Experiment upon other Trees, and to this end I forth­with struck the Haw-thorn, Hazel, Wild-Rose, Gooseberry-Bush, Apple-Tree, Cherry-Tree, Blathen-Nut, Apricock, Cherry-lawrel, Vine, Wal-nut; yet none bled but the last nam'd, and that but faintly in comparison of the Syca­more. This is consonant to our former Experiments: And if it did happen, as I said in one of my former LetterSee No 68. p. 2 [...]68., that these Sycamores bled not all this Winter afore at the wounds made the first of November, I do now think, that if new wounds had been still made at every breach of Frost, some signes at least of our York-shire bleed­ing See the ground for this di­stinction in the same Numb. 68. p. 2067. 2 [...],. might have been disco­vered before now: But I a­ffirm no more than I have seen and tried.

3. Febr. 15. 1670. York.

To continue our Experiments concerning the motion of the Sap in Trees; Febr. 11th, all was here cover'd with a white Frost betwixt 9 and 11 in the morning. The weather changing I made the Experiments, which follow, upon the Sycamore, Watnut, Maple. A twig cut asunder would bleed very freely from that part remain­ing [Page 13] to the Tree; and, for the part separated, it would be altogether dry and shew no signs of moisture, although we held it some prety time with the cut end downward; But, if this separated twig was never so little tipp'd with a knife at the other end, it would forthwith shew no moisture at both ends. The same day, late in the after-noon, the weather very open and warm, a Twig cut off in like manner as in the morning, would shew no moisture at all from any part. These Experiments we repeated very many times with constant and like suc­cess on all the Trees abvoe-mentioned. I enter'd this Experiment with these Quaries for the next opportunity. 1. Whether a Twig, or the small part of a Root cut a­sunder, will not bleed faster, upon the breaking up of a Frost, from the part remaining to the Tree, than from the part seperated; and whether the part seperated will bleed at all, and shew no more signes of moistule, than a Twig cut from the top of the Tree, unless that small Root be likewise cut off at the other end also? 2. Whether when it shall happen, that a Sycamore shall be found to bleed upon the setting in of a great Frost, the top twigs and small roots will not both of them bleed freelier from the parts separated, in proportion to their bigness? 3. And if it shall not so prove in the Tryal, that in cold weather the Sap moves inwards from Root and Branch to the Trunk to the extremities of both Root and Branch; I say; if this prove not so, whether there be any different motions of Sap at a time in the divers parts of one and the same Tree; and where such motions of Sad begin, and whither they tend? 4 Whether the Sap, when it will run, moves longer in the Branches than in the Roots; or whether it begin not to move in all parts of a Tree at a time, and rest every where at a time; 5. When it rests, whether it retires to the Body of the Tree, from the Roots and Branches, or sinks down to the [Page 14] Root, or is any way spent by insensible steams, or is quiet and lodged in every part of the Tree in proportion?

I shall long to hear the success of your Experiments in the Question of the Circulation of the Sap. I have ma­ny years been inclin'd to think, that there is some such motion in the Juyces of Vegetables. The reasons which induced me, are; 1. Because I finde, that all the Juyce of a Plant is no extravasate and loose, and like Water in a Spunge; but that there are apparent Vessels in Plants, analagous to Veins in Animals: which thing is most con­spicuous and clear in such Plants, whose Juyce is either White or Red, or Saffron colour'd; for instance, in each kind of Juyce we propose Latuca, Atractilis, Cbelidonium majus. 2. Because that there are very many Plants (and these last named are of the number) whose Juyce seems never to be at rest, but will spring at all times Iteely, as the Blood of Animals, upon Incision.

The way of Ligature by Metalline Rings, by you men­tion'd is an Expedient I have not used; but other Li­gatures I have, upon a great number of our English Plants, not without the discovery of many curious Phe­nomena. The success of an Experiment of this Nature upon Cataputia minor Lobel. was as followes: I tied a silk-thread upon one of the Branches of this Plant, as hard as might be, and not break the skin; there follow'd no greater swelling, that I could discern, on the one side than on the other; although in often repeating the Ex­periment, some silks were left hours and dayes unloos­ed, and yet the dimple which the thread had made in the yielding branches, had a little raised the immediate sides, but both alike: the Plant in like manner would bleed very freely both above and under the Tye. This was also, I thought, very remarkable, amongst other things, in this Experiment, that in drawing the Rasour round about the branch just above or below the Tye, the Milky Juyce would suddenly spring out of infinite small [Page 15] holes, besides the made orifice, for more than half an inch above and below the Tye: which seems to argue, that though there was no Juyce intercepted in appear­ance from any turgescence, (as in the like process upon the members of a Sanguineous Animal) yet the Veins were so over-thronged and full, that a large orifice was not sufficient to discharge the sudden impetus and pressure of a some-ways streighten'd Juyce.

I have endeavou'rd many wayes to discover the Con­figuration of the Veins of Vegetables and their other constituent parts and Texture; but enough of this in one Letter.

4. March 17. 1670. York.

To the end that I might satisfie my self about some of the doubts I sent you, I have been most concern'd, according to former thoughts and inclinations, in examin­ing the Truth of these Quaeries, viz. Whether Saps are not to be found at all seasons of the year in a much like Consistence and Quantity in the respective parts of a Vegetable; and what Communication one part of a Plant may have with another in relation to the Ascent and Decent of Sap?

Now, because Sap is then said to Ascend from the Root, when it is found to move in Tapping; I lopp'd off certain Branches of a Sycamore, the morning betimes of a hard Frost (Febr. 21.) before they would bleed, or shew any signe of moisture. This I did to vary the Effi­cient, not willing to wait the Change of the Weather, and the Suns heat; but brought them within the Air of the Fire: And by and, as I expected, they bled apace, without being sensibly the warmer.

The Experiment repeated afforded me divers Phoeno­mena, which follow; and proved almost an Universal way of Bleeding all sorts of Trees, even those, which of them­selves would not shew any signes of moisture.

1. Poles of Maple, Sycamore and Walnut, cut down in open weather, and brought within the warmth of the [Page 16] Fire, did bleed in an instant. Also Willow, Hazel, Cher­ry, Wood-bind, Blather-nut, Vine, Elder, Barbery, Apple-tree, Ivy, &c. Whicking Egge-berry Tree (i. e. Padus Theophrasti) tried in the same manner in Craven.

2. Briar and Rasberry-rcds were more obstinate. Ash utterly refused, even heated hot.

3. Branches, that is, Poles with their tops entire and uncut bled also when brought to the Fire side; but seem not so freely to drink up their Sap again when in­verted, as when made Poles.

4. The same Willow-Poles, left all night in the grass­spot, and returned the next day to the Fire-side, bleed afresh.

5. Maple and Willow-Poles, bleed and cease at pleasure again and again, if quickly withdrawn and balanced in the hand, and often inverted to hinder the Falling and and Expence of Sap: Yet being often heated, they will at length quite cease, though no Sap was at any time sensibly lost. And when they have given over bleeding, that is, shewing any moisture, by being brought within the warmth of the Fire, the Bark will yet be found very full of Juyce.

6. An hard Ligature made within a quarter of an inch of the end of a Wood-bind rod, did not hinder its bleed­ing at all when brought within the warmth of the Fire.

7. Maple and Willow-Poles, &c. quite bared of Bark, and brought to the Fire, will shew no moisture at all in any part.

8. One Barbery, or Pipridge-pole bared of its Bark, brought to the Fire, did shew moisture from within the more inward Circles, though not any from the outward.

9. Maple and Willow-poles, &c. half bar'd of Bark, woud bleed by the Fire, from the half onely of those Circles, which lay under the bark.

10. Maple and Willow-poles, split in two and planed, [Page 17] would not shew any moisture on the planed sides, but at the ends only.

11. A Pole of Ivy did of it self exudate and shew a liquid and yellowish rosin from the bark and near the pith; but when brought to the Fire-side, it bled a dilute, thin and colour-less Sap from the intermediat wood Circles.

12. A Pole of Willow (for Example) bent into a bow, will ouse its Sap freely, as in bleeding either spon­taneously or by the Fire.

Extract of a Letter, written from York, April 8. 1671. both in relation to the futher Discovery of the Mo­tion of Juyces in Vegetables, and removing some differ­ence noted the in next fore-going Letter.

SIR, Yours of the 4th instant came safe to my hands. This last Month hath been a busie time with me in my private concerns, so that I have but a few things to return to what you have been pleased to communicate to me, in relation to the further discovery of the Mo­tion of Juyces in Vegetables. And I must acquaint you, that these Notes following are above 14 dayes old; for I have scarce busied my head, or put my hand to any Experiment of later date.

One or both ends of the pith of a Willow-pole seal'd up with hard wax, will yet freely bleed by the warmth of the Fire. This was tried, when the last Experiment, I sent you, were; and was then, I think, omitted.

March 23th, was the greatest Frost and Snow we have had this Winter in these parts about York. Some Twigs and Branches of the very same Willow-tee, as formerly, and likewise of many other Willow-trees, taken off this morning, March 23th, when brought within the Air of the Fire. would shew no moisture at all; no not when heated warm, and often and long turn'd.

[Page 18] March 24th, the same Willow-branches, which yester­day would not bleed, and were thrown upon the Grass­spot all night,; did, both they and others, new cut down by the Fire-side, freely shew moisture and bleed this morning upon the breaking up of the Frost.

Ash-poles and branches this day, nor yesterday, would by the Fire-side, be no more moist, than when I form­erly tried them.

The same morning March 24th, a Twig of Maple, which had had the top cut off the 7th of February last past▪ and which then bled, this day being quite taken off from the Tree, and brought within the Air of the Fire, and held with the formerly cut-end down-wards, did not run at all at the end, but held on in that pos­ture, it did run apace at the other new-cut end upper­most, so as to spring and trickle down.

Note, That this doth well agree with my Experiments made the last year at Nottingham, where I observ'd wounds of some months standing to bleed apace at the breaking up of every hard Frost. For first, in these parts there hath been no hard Frost this year, not compara­ble to the last year. Again, those Nottingham-trees I wounded in the Trunk, and they stood against a Brick­wall, and the wounds were on the side next it; and be­sides had Horse-dung stopp'd in all of them for some reasons; which things did undoubtedly defend them much from the Air and Winds, and keep the wounds still green and open: Wheras the tops of these Maple-twiggs, spoken of in the last Experiment, were expos'd in an open hedge to the Air and Winds; as also the two Sycamores here at York mention'd in my former Letter to have been wounded in November last, and not to have shew'd any signes of moisture, for that very cause, that they were not fresh struck at Bleeding times.

Concerning the Bleeding of Poles and entire Branches [Page 19] held perpendicular, Mr. Willboughby is in the right, and some Experiments in my last to you of March 17th con­firm it. Yet it is very true what I observ'd, though the Cause I did not then well take notice of, when I first made the Experiment and sent you an account of it. For, I held the Twigs, which I had cut off, a slope, joyning and holding up the cuts together in my left hand, that I might the better observe, which part or cut would bleed or not bleed the faster; and because I found, that the cut of the separated Twig did not in that posture (hold­ing it upwards, as I said, for the advantage of my eye) bleed at all, when as the Cut of the Branch remaining to the Tree did freely bleed; I therefore inverted the separated Twig and held it perpendicular with the cut end downward, and found, that that little they were expos'd to the Air in an upright posture, had so very much check'd the motion of the Sap, that I concluded they would not bleed at all; and yet striking off their tops, and making Poles of them, I found some of them, if not all, that I chanc'd to try, as I remember, would shew moisture: But I am convinced since, that it was was rather some unheeded accident, as violently bend­ing them, or perhaps the warmth of my hand and sea­son, or place, which caused this new motiom of Sap, than meerly the striking off their Tops.

Some Observations, touching Colours, in order to the Increase of Dyes, and the Fixation of Colours 15. 1670.

TWo things, I conceive, are chiefly aimed at in the Inquiry of Colours, which subject you desire my thoughs of; the one, to increase the Materia Tinctoria, and the other, to fix, if possible, those colours we either have already, or shall hereafter discover for use. As to the first, Animals and Vegetables, besides other Natural Bodies, may abundantly furnish us. And in both these [Page 20] kinds some Colours are Apparent, as the various col­ours of Flowers, and the juices of fruits, &c. and the sanies of Animals: others are Latent, and discovered to us by the effects, the several Family's of Salt and other things may have upon them, Concerning the Apparent colours of Vegetables and Animals, and the various ef­fects, of different Salts in changing them from one col­our to another; we have many Instance in Mr. Boyle. And if we might, with the good leave of that Honour­able and Learned person, range them after our fashion, we should give you at least a new Prospect of them, and observe to you the conformity and agreement of the effects of Salt on the divers parts of Vegetables: Viz. 1. That Acid Salts advance the colours of Flowers and Berries, that is, according to the Experiments of Mr. Boyle, they make the infusious of Balaustium or Pom­granat-Flowers, Red-roses, Clove-jilly flowers, Meserion, Pease-bloom, Violets, Cyanus flowers, of a fairer red; also the the juices of the Berries of Ligustrum, of black Cherris, Buck-thorn-berries, of a much fairer red: and to the same purpose Acid Salts make no great alterati­ons upon the white flowers of Jasmin and Snow-drops. 2. That Vrinous Salts, and Alcaly's, on the contrary, quite alter and change the Colours of the same flowers now named, and juices of the said Berries also, from red to green; even Jasmin and Snow-drops. 3. Again, that in like manner Vrinous Spirits and Alcaly's advance, at least do not quite spoyle the colours of the juices of leaves of Vegetables, of their Wood and Root. Thus Mr. Boyle tells us, that Vrinous Spirits and Alcaly's make the yellow infusions of Madder-roots red; of Bra­zil-wood, purplish; of Lognum Nephriticum, blew; the red infusion of Leg-wood, purple; of the Leaves of Sena, red. 4. That on the contrary, Acid Salts quite alter and change the said infusions from red or blew, to yellow.

In the next place we would note to you the effects of [Page 21] Salts upon Animals in the production and Change of colours; but the Instances are very few or none, that I meet with in any Author; the Purple-fish being quite out of use, and Cochineil and Kermes are by most question­ed, whether they are Animals or no; but I think, we may confidently believe them both to be Insects, that is, Worms or Chrysalys's of respective Fly's in proxima faetura. We find then, and have tried concerning Cochi­neil (which of it self is red,) that upon the affusion of most the Oyl of Vitriol, that is, an Acid Salt, it striks the vivid crimson that can be imagined; and with Vrinous Salts and Alcaly's it will be again changed into an ob­scure colour 'twixt a violet and a violet and a purple. Pliny somewhere tells us, that the Gaules in his time could dye with Vegetables, what the Romans with so much danger and pains sought for in the bottom of the Sea. Indeed, we find many Plants mentioned by the same Author, for dying which either are not known to us at this present, or neglected.

To what we have briefly observed out of Authors, we will subjoyne some of our own Considerations and Tryals, And first, concerning the Apparent Colours in Flowers, we think we may insert; 1. That generally all Red, Blew and White flowers are immediately, upon the affusion of an Alcaly, changed into a Green colour, and then, in process of no long time, turned Yellow. 2. That all the parts of Vegetables, which are green, will in like manner strike a Yellow with an Alcaly. 3. That what Flowers are already yellow, are not much changed, if at all, by an Alcaly or Vrinous Spirit. 4. The Blew seed-husks of Glastum Sylvestre old-gathered and dry, diluted with water, stain a Blew, which upon the affusion of Lye striks a Green, which Green or Blew be­ing touched with the Oyl of Vitriol dyes Purple; all these three colours stand. 5. On the tops of Fungus tubulosus, so called by M. Wray in his late Catalogue of [Page 22] the Plants of England, are certain red knots; these, up­on the affusion of Lye, will strike a Purple, and stand.

As for the Latent Colours in Vegetables and Animals; to be discovered to us by the affusion of Salts; they likewise, no doubt, are very many. We will set down only a few instances in both kinds, which have not been, that we know of, discovered or taken notice of by o­thers. Latent Vegitable colours, 1. The Milky juice of Lactuca Sylvestris costâ spinosa, and Sonchus asper & laevis upon the affusion of Lye, will strike a vivid flame-colour or Crimson, and after some time quite degenerate into a dirty yellow. 2. The Milk of Cataputia minor, upon the affusion of Lye, especially if it be drawn with a knife, and hath any time stood upon the blade of it, will strike a Purple or Bloud-red colour, and by and by change into an ignoble yellow. Latent Animal dyes, 1. The common Hawthorn-Catter-pillar will strike a Purple or Carnation with Lye, and stand. 2. The heads of Beetles and Pis­mires, &c. will with Lye strike the same Carnation-colour, and stand. 3. The Amber-coloured Scolopendra will give with lye a most beautiful and pleasant Azure or Amethystine, and stand.

Lastly, we might consider the Fixing of colours for use; but we are willing to leave this to more experinced persons, as also the Philosophizing on the particulars we have produced, to better Heads. Some obvious Infe­rences we may venture to take notice of; 1. That in all the Instances above mentioned, whether Vegetable or Animal, there is not one colour truly fixed, however there may, I conceive, be some use made of them, as they are. I say, truly fixed, that is, proof of Salt and Fire; for, what seem to stand and be Lye-proofe, are either wholly destroyed by a different Salt, or chang­ed into a much different colour; which must needs prove a stain and blemish, when it shall happen in the use of any of them. 2. That both the apparent [Page 23] and latent colours of Vegetables are fixable: An instance whereof we may observe in the seed-husks of Glastum, and the Use Diers make of the leaves after due preparation. 3. It is probable from the same in­stance, that we may learn from the colour of some part of the Fruit or Seed, what colour the Leaves of any Vegetable and the whole Plant might be made to yeild for our use. 4. That the Latent colours are prae­existent, and not produced; from the same instance of Wood, and likewise from this that the Milky juyce of Lactuca Silvestris doth afford it self a Red Serum. 5. That the change of colours in Flowers is gradual and constant. 6. That the colours of Flowers, which will not stand with Lye, seem to be wholly destroyed by it, and irrecovrable: Thus it happens in the Experiment; that one part of a Violet-leaf, upon the affusion of Lye, is changed very soon into yellow, and will never be revived into a red by an Acid salt; but if another part of the same leaf be still green, it will be revived, 7. That the Dryness seems to be a means, if not of fixing, yet bringing the Vegetable colour into a condition of not wholly and suddainly perishing by the otherwise de­stroying Alcaly. 8. That those Plants or Animals that will strike different and yet vivid colours upon the affu­sion of different Salts, and stand, as the Cochinel and Gla­stum, are probably of all others to be reckoned as the best Materials.

It would have been a much safer way, to have put these Inferences in the Quaeri't; but besides that I affirm no more but matter of fact, it is lawful for our encour­agement (as my Lord Bacon advises) to set up rests by the way, and refresh our selves with looking back, though perhaps we have not much advanced. You will be pleased to excuse the little cohaerence that I have used in these notes, and attribute it to the readiness and af­fection I have to answer such inquiries as you put to me. [Page 24] I never yet did make this subject any part of my busi­nese, but the desire I have to search after and examine the Medicinal qualities of things iu Nature, hath by the by presented me with such Phoenomena, as I was not willing to leave unnoted, nor to refuse them you, though in a confused way, because you desire them. To con­clude, how immethodical and barren these papers may seem; yet the consideration of them hath led me to a way of Fixing colours, which I willingly forbear to re­late, until I may have an oppertunity of shewing the Experiment before the R. Society. I have found out a Colour most exquisitely black, & comparable to the best ink; even in the use of the pen, and which will not change by Fire or Salt. This an English Vegetable yield­ed me, and for ought I know (for I have not repeat­ed the trial on any thing else) the like method will succeed to good purpose, I am, &c.

An Observation concerning certain Insect husks of the Kermes-kind May 22. 1671. Philosophical Transacti­ons. N. 71.

I Gave you a short account formerlyMarch 17. 1671. I find in my Notes (saith he) that some years ago I gather'd off our En­glish Oak round Worm-husks very like Ker­mes-berries, but I then made no tryal of them. Again, I have often observed on Plumb trees and Cherry-trees; also on the Vine and Cherry-Laurel certain patellae or flat Husks containing wo [...]ms, which (or at least the husks; for them only I had oppertunity of making the Experiment on) will strike a Carnation Ly and stand. of certain ma­trices or Insect-husks, of the Kermes-kind, which I had some years since observ'd on Plum-trees. This instant May hath afforded me the same Observation, and some little improve­ment of it. I have obser­ved the same Patellae. Husks indifferently on Vine-branch­es, Cherry-Laurel, Plvmb-trees, and the Cherry-tree, also on the Apricock-tree. The Figure of the Husk is round, save where thy cleave to to the branch; for bignes, [Page 25] somewhat more than the half of a grey pea. These, I say, cleave to their branches, as Patellae do to the Rocks: For colour; they are of a very dark Ches-nut, extream­ly smooth, and shining membran-like. They adhere most commonly to the under side of a branch or twig, and so are best secur'd against the injuries of weather, as too much Sun and Rain. They are well fastned to the branches single, and some will be double and sometimes many in company. They are seldom found without ver­min, as Pismires, &c. which, I guess, pierce them and pray upon them. Thus much for the entire Coccum. If you open one of them, that is, cut off dextrously the top of the husk with a rasor, you'l find somtimes five or more small white magots of the Wasp or Bee-kind, that is, sharp at both ends. When these are carefully taken out, you will further observe the remainder of their provisi­on of meat, and a partion 'twixt them and the branch, where, what they excerne, is reserv'd. Lastly, if, when you have clear'd the Husk of Maggots, Bee-meat, and excrements, you then rub the inside of the empty mem­bran upon white paper it will freely and copiously tinge the paper with a beautiful purple or murrey. At the date of this, none of the Maggots were yet in nympha, so that you cannot expect from me a description of the Bee or Wasp they will turn to, when they come to perfection. Before the season be over, the Curious may satisfie themselves forthwith about it, and verifie and improve it. Few Cherry-trees, I suppose, in any place, but will yield them some of these Berries. However, if they shall not be so fortunate as to light on them, I shall furnish you with them, &c.

York. Jan. 10. 1670. a Viviparous Fly. Inquiries and a Table about Spiders. Philosophical Transactions. N. 72.

Sir,

I Return you thanks for your obliging Letter of the third of January, and have sent you the Viviparous Fly [Page 26] and the Sett of Inquiries you desire of me. The Fly is one, if not the very biggest, of the harmless Tribe that I have met with in England; I call them harmless; because that they are without that hard Tongue or Sting in the mouth, with which the Oestrum-kind, or Gad-flyes, trouble and offend both man and beasts. This Fly is striped upon the shoulders grey and black, and as it were checkered on the tail with the same two colours: the Female may be known by a redness on the very point of the tail. The very latter end of May 1666, I opened several of them, and found two Baggs of live white worms of a long and round shape, with black heads; they moved both in my hand and in the unopened Ves­cicles, backwards and forwards, as being all disposed in the Cells, length-ways the body of the femal, like a Sheaf of arrows.

Some such thing is hinted by Aldrovandus lib. 1. de I [...]sect. p. 57. edit. Bonon. Tiro cùm essem (saies he) è gran­dioribus muscis unam albis pict [...]m lineis, specie illectus, cepi; ea, in vola manus aliquandiu retenta, plusculos edidit Vermi­culos candidos, mobilitate propria insignes.

This is the only Fly I have observed with live and moving worms in the belly of it; yet I guess, we may venture to suspect all of this Tribe to be in some mea­sure Viviparous.

With these Flyes I have sent you a paper of those odd turned SnailsSee Numb. 50. 1011. mentioned in my former Letter, which perhaps you may think will deserve a place in the Repository a­mongst the rarities of the R. Society.

Some general Enquiries concerning Spiders

1. WHat sorts of Spiders to be found with us in England, and what is the best method to di­stinguish them and to reduce them to Classes?

[Page 27] 2. Whether Spiders come not of Spiders, that is, of creatures of their own kind? And whether of Spiders are bred Grashopper, Cicadae, &c. as Interpreters falsly make Aristotle to say, first Aldrovandus, and lately Kircher (V. Arist. Hist. Nat. lib. 1. cap. 19. Confer Interpret. The: Gazae, Scaliger, Aldrov.)

3. Whether Spiders are not Male and Female; and whether Female Spiders growing bigger than the Male, be sufficient to distinguish Sexes.

4. Whether all kinds of Spiders be alike, as to the place and number of Penis's; and whether all the thread-yeilding kinds, are not furnished with a double penis, that is, if the Cornicula or certain knobbed Horns, by which all Males are best distingushed, be not each a penis, and used in the Coit alternatively?

5. Whether the Eggs in Spiders be not formed, and very large before the time of the Coit?

6. What Spiders breed in Spring, and what in Au­tumn? what Spiders are content with one brood in the year, and to lay all their Eggs at a time? What seem to breed every Summer month, at least to have many subordinate broods; and whether the Eggs be accord­ingly distinguishable in several Matrices or Cells in the body of of the Female.

7. Whether Spiders do not take their form and per­fection in the Egg, and are not thence hatched necessa­rily at a stated and set time, that is, after a certain num­ber of days, as 21, compleat Animals of its own kind? and whether the presence of the Female be necessary in order to the hatching the Eggs, at least for three days, as the Ancients seem to affirm?

8. Whether the perfectly-round eggs of Spiders ought to be called and esteemed Worms, as Aristotle and Pliny will have them,Aist. Nat. lib. i. c. 27. lib. 3. c. 9. that is, in Swammerdam's phrase and doctrine, Whether they be Puppets in the egg, and undergo all al­terations accordingly, before they be thence hatched perfect Spiders?

[Page 28] 9. What different colours observable in the Eggs of Spiders, as well of pulps as shell, as white, yellow, o­range, purple, greenish? and what respective tinctures they will give, or be made to strike with the several families of Salts?

10. Whether there be not Eggs of some sorts of Spiders, which the Worms of certain slender Wasps (the kind in general being called by Mouffet Muscae tri­piles) delight to feed on?Arist. Hist. Nat. ib. 5. cap. 20. and whether the Fable of Vespae Iehneumones, told us by the Ancients, be not to be made out by the same Ob­servation, of these Wasp-worms feeding on the Eggs, and perfected into Wasps in the very webs of Spiders?

11. After what manner do Spiders feed; whether in sucking they devour not also part of their prey? How long can they live without food, since they store up nothing against Winter?

12. Whether Spiders feed only of their own kind of Creatures, as of Insects, that is, of Flyes, Beetles, Bees, Scolopendrae and even of one another? or whether they kill Snakes too, as the Ancients affirm, for food or delight?

13. Whether some of them choose not to feed on one sort of Fly or other Insect only; and what pro­perties such have?

14. When, and how oft in the year they cast their Skins, and the manner of their casting it? What varie­ty of colours immediatly after the shifting the Hackle in one and the same species of Spider, that may, if not well heeded, make the history of them more confused?

15. What mean the Ancients by Spiders casting their threads,Arist. Hist. Nat. lib. 9. cap. 39. which Aristotle compares to Por­cupins darting her quills, or bark-starting from a Tree; and Democritus to Animals voiding of Ex­crements?

[Page 29] 16. Whether the thread be formed in the Body of the Animal such as it comes from it; I mean, whether it be, as it were, unwound of a stock or clew, as I may say, and which indeed to me seems to have been Ari­stotles meaning; or whether it be drawn off of a liquid mass, as in spinning of Glass or melted Wax, which seems to have been Democritu's sense, in saying it was ex­crement corrupted or fluid at certain times?

17. Whether the Spiders-thred being glutinous, e­very thing sticking to it upon the lightest touch, be not so much the reason of the Spiders taking his prey, as the Figure of the Net.

18. Whether a Web be not uninflammable; and whether it can be dissolved, and in what Menstruum?

19. What difference 'twixt the thred of Spiders, and that of the Silk-worm or Caterpillars? What strength a Spiders thread is of, and what proportion it bears with the like twist of Silk? Whether there be not stronger thread from some sort of Spiders than from others, as there are threds from them of very different colours, as white, greenish, blewish, dark hair-colour, &c. Whe­ther the strength of the Barmudo nets to hold a Thrush, mentioned in one of the Transactions, Nu. 50. p. 795. con­sist in the thickness only, or much too in the nature of thred?

20. Whether its being to be easily drawn out at any time and at what length one pleases, and many threds together in spight of the Animal, be not as advantageous to the working of it up and twisting, &c. as the unra­velling the Cods of Silk-worms.

21. Whether either the viscous substance of their Bodies or Webs be healing to green-wounds, &c. as the Ancients have taught us, and we use vulgarly? and whe­ther some one kind of them be not preferable, for this purpose, before others?

22. What use may be made of those Animals, which [Page 30] devour Spiders for their daily food, as Wrens, Red-breast, &c.? Whether Spiders be a cure for sick Poultry, as the good Wives seem to experiment?

23. Whether the reason why Spiders sail not in the air until Autumn, be not because they are busily emply­ed the Summer months in breeding, or what other rea­sons may be assigned?

The first article of Enquiry I have in part answered, by sending you enclosed a Scheme, which, after some years observation, I have corrected and enlarged to what it is: yet I must acquaint you, that such Draughts will be ever lyable to change and improvement, accor­ding to the measure of knowledge a continued Obser­vation may bring us to. However it is the first, that I know of, that will be extant, on this subject, and it may be acceptable to the curious.

Araneorum Angliae Tabula.

  • Aranei
    • Octonoculi
      • Aucupes à me dicti; qui scilicet Muscas capiendi cau­sâ tendunt
        • Reticula
          • Scutulata Antiquis dicta; scil. uni­versis maculis in eodem plano dispositis in modum cujusdam Scuti sive Orbitae. Numero X.
          • Conglobata; scil. maculis crebris in omnes in circuitu dimensiones precedentibus. Num. VI.
        • Telas linteoformes; scil. reticulorum filis densè inter se contextis in modum Veli sive Panniculi. Num. VIII.
      • Venatorii, qui aperto marte muscas insectantur; cùm tamen aliàs texere possunt; nimirum telas ad nidificationem & ad hyberna.
        • Lupi propriè sic dicti. Num. IV.
        • Cancriformes. Num. II.
        • Phalangia, sive Aranei pulices assul [...]im ingredientes. Num IV.
      • Binoculi, ferè longipedes, Opiliones quibusdam dicti, telis digitatis sive forcipatis, cancrorum marinorum more armati. Numero IV.

May 30. 1671; concerning an Insect feeding upon Henbain, together with the colour yeilded by the Eggs of the same, &c.

Sir,

YOu may please to annex a late Observation to the last I sent you: both being chiefly concerning the improvement of colours, and from the Insect-kind.

There is a Cimex of the largest size, of a red colour spotted black, and which is to be found very frequently and plentifully, at least in its season, upon Henbain: I there­fore in my private notes have formerly intitled it, Cimex ruber maculis nigris distinctus super folia Hyoscyami frequens. This Insect in all probability doth feed upon this plant (on which only we have yet observed it) if not upon the leaves by striking its trunk (the note of distinction of the kind of Insect from the rest of the Beetle-kinds) into them, and sucking thence much of its substance, like as other sorts of Cimices will upon the body of man yet upon the unctuous and greasy matter, with which the leaves seem to touch to abound. It is further observable, that that horrid and strong smell, with which the leaves of this plant do affect our nostrils, is very much qualified in this Insect, and in some measure Aromatick and agreeable, and therefore we may expect, that that dreadful Narcosis so eminent in this plant, may likewise be usefully temper­ed in this Infect; which we refer to tryal. About the lat­ter end of May and sooner, you may find adhering to the upper side of the leaves of this plant, certain oblong O­range-coloured Eggs, which are the Eggs of this Infect.

Note 1. that these Eggs yet in the belly of the Females are white, and are so somtime after they are layd; but as the young ones grow near their time of their being hatched, they acquire a deeper colour, and are hatch­ed Cimices, and not in the disguise of worms.

2. As to the colour, these riper Eggs yeild, if they be crushed upon white paper, they stain it of themselves [Page 33] (without any addition of Salt) with as lively a Vermi­lion or couler de seu, as any thing I know in nature; Cochneil scarce excepted when assisted with oyl of Vi­triol. Whether this be not precisely so, I refer to the tryal and judgment of the Curious. I have sent you a couple of the Cimices themselves, though you will scarce find a Henbain-plant without them. I add concerning the Purple-husks, whereof I gave you an account in my last, that I have found them since on Rose-tree-twiggs also, and that very dark coloured ones, yeilding an ex­quisit Murrey: so that I conclude, that the Tree they may be found on, scarce contributes any thing to the colour or vertue of the husks, but they are the sole work and product of the Mother-Insect, indifferently choosing a twig of any tree in order to the convenient placing and hiving her Eggs.

Two Letters Of June 14. 1671 and July 5, 1671. concerning the kind of Insect, hatched of the English Ke [...]mes.

THe first Letter. June 10th, I found several of the Patellae Kermi formes hatched in a Box, where I had purposely put them. They prove a sort, as I guess­ed by the figure of the Worm, of Bees, but certainly the least, that I ever yet saw of that Tribe as not much exceeding in their whole bulk the half of a Pismire. They are very compact and thick for the bigness; of a cole-black colour. They seem to want neither stings, nor the three balls in a triangle in their fore-head; which yet are things to be referred to the testimony of a Mi­croscope. That which is very remarkable to the nak­ed Eye, is a white or straw-colour large and round spot on the back: Of their four Wings the upper pair are shaded or darked-spotted, the undermost pair are clear. [Page 34] We may entitle them, according to our custom, Api­culae nigrae, maculâ super humeros sub- [...]lave scente insig­nitae, è patellis sive savis membranaceis, veri Kermes simi­libus, suâque itidem purpurâ tingentibus, Cerasi aut Rosae aliarumve arborum virgis adtextis, exclusae.

This of the Purple-Husks, and the other History of Scarlet-staining EggsOf which latter▪ See Numb. 72. p. 2176. 2177. I present you as parallels of our English store to Kermes and Cocheneil; I mean, additaments to encrease the number of agreeable tinging [...] Materials and not Medicaments, unless wary and safe Tryal shall discover to us if they have any Medicinal qualities, as use and custom hath made us believe the Exotic have in an high degree. One of the husks, I sent you, ad hered to a Rose-tree-twig, and other to a Cherry-tree. But a Rose-bush since hath afforded me some scores of these patellae, many of which are hatched in the box I put them. It is to be further observed, 1. that those that look the blackest, yield the deepest and best purple: 2. That as the Bees come to maturity the dye seems to be spent, and the Husks grow dry. 3. That the young ones make their way out at several small holes; whereas the true Kermes husk seems to be pierced but in one place.

The Second; The discovery of our English Kermes hath very much pleased some of it the Curious in these parts; who resolve upon Tryals of it the next season. I think I advertised you formerly, that that deep pur­ple or violet, with which the insides of the husks are lin'd, is much spent, if the husks be not taken whilest the Bees are in vermiculo; and the blackest husks are richest in colour. Yesterday in very good company we compar'd our English Purple-kermes with the Scarlet-kemers or Grains of the Shops, and found them in every point to agree save in the colour of their Juices; and particularly (finding in some parcels of the Shops many [Page 35] yet sticking to little twigs of the Ilex,) we confidently affirm that those as well as ours are only contiguous to the Ilex-branches, and are not excrescencies of the Tree, much less fruit or berries; by which abusive names they have been too long known; But that they are the arti­fice and sole work of the mother-Bee in order to the more convenient hiving and nourishment of her young.

Concerning Vegetable Excrescencies, July 17. 1671. from York. N. 75. P. T.

I Understand by yours of the 13th instant, that M. Ray cannot without much trouble retrieve the Let­ter, wherein I gave him formerly my opinion concern­ing Vegetable Excrescencies; and yet not wholly to deny you the satisfaction of what you seem much to desire, I am willing to think again upon the same subject, at least to recollect part of my former thoughts, as my memory will serve me.

The occasion then of that Letter was upon the ac­count given us by You in Numb. 57, of the opinion of the Italian F. Redi; Viz. that some live Plants or their Excrescencies do truly generate some Insects. To which opinion of F. Redi I told my friend, as I remember, that I indeed had observed, that the By-fruits of some Ve­getables, as of the Oak and wild Rose, for example, did grow up together with their respective worms in them from small beginnings to fair and large fruit, some of them emulating even the genuin off-spring of the plant, ‘—& miratur non sua poma,’

And further, that I did believe, the worms were furnish­ed with food in and from them; but not by any Navil­connexion, as that Author fancies, and which I said, to me was unintelligible, and that I should be glad of a no­tion, [Page 36] which might make out to me such monstrous re­lation, as half animal half vegetable, or which is all one, Vegetable vessels inserted into an animal, or, the con­trary. Strange Oeconomy!

That it had never been my good fortune (what ever diligence I had used) to discern Eggs in the Center of Galls, but a worm constantly, even at the very first ap­pearance, as near at least as my fortune led me. Yet I would not deny, but that diligence might one day dis­cover the egg it self, which I was of opinion was affix­ed to or near the place by the parent-Insect, where the Gall rose.

That I ever found the worms in all the excrescencies, that I had yet met with, perfectly at liberty; and for the filaments, our Author mentions, it was very possible he might be mistaken, it being very hard, and a matter not yet treated of in my publick paper, which and what are the vessels that enter into the Texture of a Vegetable, as of a large Tree, for example; much more hard would it be to say, this is a vessel in a small Gall. That there were many By-fruits of different figure and shape (though perhaps of a like Texture) upon one and the same plant, every one of which did nourish and produce a diffe­rent race of Insects: Whence, I told him, I thought might rather be argued the diverse workmanship of dif­ferent Insects, then one and the same principle of vege­tation to be Author of several sorts of Animals.

That the Animals themselves, produced of such Ex­cerscencies, were of such a Genus many of whose Species were well known to us to be otherwise generated of animal parents, and therefore it was probable, that these were so too, as well as their tribe-fellows.

That the Insect-Animals produced of such Excres­cencies were Male and Female; and that, if so, we might argue with Aristotle (lib. 1. c. 1. de Generat. Animal.) that Nature made not such in vain, and that, if from [Page 37] the coit of these Animals, which have their birth from no Animals, Animals should be born, they would either be like their parents and of the same species with them, and if so, it would necessarily follow (since in the ge­neration of all other creatures it so comes to pass) that their very parents had such origin too: or unlike them, and if so (if these also were Male and Female) of this second unlike off-spring a third race of different animals or species would be begot, and of them a fourth, and so in infinitum. And that these Insects, which he and I had observed to be produced of the Excrescencies of some vegetables, we had good cause to suspect they were male and female, since some of them had slings and were tripilous, and others not (vide Catalog. plant. Can­tab. ad Rosam caninam & alibi.)

These were some at least of the Arguments, as far as I remember I used, when I formerly wrote on this sub­ject to my friend; but since that Letter, I have perused the Book of F. Redi it self, and do find, that the said opinion is barely proposed as thing not unplausible, but the proofs thereof are reserved, till the publishing of a curious piece, concerning the Excrescencies of the Oak; and therefore I shall be less earnest in the refutation of that opinion, which perhaps a more accurate search into Nature will in time make the Author of it himself find erroneous.

I presume not to venture to decide this controversy, my experience in these matters being too insufficient, and my leisure and health but little to hasten a conve­nient stock of particulars, and a due examination of them; yet before I leave this subject, I am willing to run over and present you with a few abreviated instances of some of the several kinds of Vegetable Excrescencies, and likewise some un-obvious ways of Insects feeding on plants; and these I shall deliver in confirmation of the following Propositions.

[Page 38] 1. That all are not truly Vegetable Excrescencies that are reputed such. And here we may justly name the Purple-Kermes, for example, whose history you were pleased to publish in Numb. 73. This, I say, both gives a clear light to the discovery of the nature of the Scar­let-Kermes, (a thing wholly unknown to the Ancients, as far as we can see by their writings, and no less ig­nored by the moderns, and yet, which is admirable, in very great esteem and continued use for some thousands of years,) and also is an evident instance, that some things, confidently believed Vegetable Excrescencies, are no such matter, but Artificial things meerly conti­guous to the plant, and which have no other relation to it than the patella-shellfish to the Rock it cleaves.

2. Generally, Insects Eggs laid upon the leaves of plants, or their respective feeding on them do not ac­casion or raise Excrescenies. This truth every body, that hath been the least curious, is an Eye-witness of.

Thus, for example, the Eggs of the common Red butter-fly, laid upon the Nettle, are thereon hatched without blistering the plant into an Excrescence, and the stiff haired or prickly Catterpillars hatched from them Eggs, feed upon the leaves without any ill impre­ssion, puncture, or prejudice, save that they make clean work, and eat all before them. I could produce some hundreds of instances, if this were to be doubted of.

3. Some Insect-eggs, laid upon the leaves or other parts of plants, do, as soon as hatched, pierce and en­ter within the plant to feed. To give you a convinc­ing instance of the truth of this proposition, take this from my notes.

May 22, I observed on the back or underside of the leaves of Atriplex olida, certain small milk-white ob­long Eggs, on some leaves four, on others fewer, or more; these Eggs were on some plants yet unhatched, but on many of the same plants I found the Egg-shells [Page 39] or skins yet adhering to the leaves, and the little mag­gots already enterd (through I know not what invisible holes) within the two membranes of the leaf, and feeding on the inward pulp or substance of the leaf: in other leaves of that plant, (he that shall make the observation after me, will find plants enough of this spe­cies seized on, to vary, as I did, the observation in one day,) I found those maggots grown very great, and yet the two membranes, that is, the uppermost and un­dermost skin of the leaf, entire, but raised and hollow like a blather. Note 1. That those maggots were of a Conick shape. 2. That in July they shrunk into Fly Chrysalis's and accordingly came to perfection, &c. To this unobvious way of feeding we may refer all worm-eaten fruits, wood, &c.

4. Worms feeding within some of the parts of some plants do cause Excrescencies. Thus the head or seed-vessels of Papave. Spont. Sylv. Ger. Emac. &c. are dis­figured for having worms in them, and grow thrice as big, as the not seased ones. This is also plain in the Excresc. of Pseudo teucrium, and Barbarea, &c.

5. The substance or sibrous part of many Vegetable Excrescencies is not the food of the worms to be found in them. The instances given in confirmation of the last proposition do also confirm this: neither is an Oak-apple properly worm-eaten, or the Shagged Galls, or Sponges of the Wild Rose, or the Smooth ones on the leaves of the same plant, or the Baggs upon the leaves of the yellow dwarf Willow or the Elm, &c.

This is the sum of what I to say at present concern­ing this subject being very unwilling to advance fur­ther, than my own private observations will suffer me.

York August 25 1671. confirming the Observation in N. 74. P. L. about Musk sented Insects; adding some Notes upon D. Swammedam's book of Insects, and on that of M. Steno concerning Petrisy'd Shells.

SIR.

I Have observed the two Insects, which Mr. Ray saith, smell of Musk, which indeed they do in an high degree. The small Bees are very frequent in the Wooles in Lincoln-shire, and about the latter end of April are to be found in pastures and meadows, upon the early-blown flowers of a sort of Ranunculus, as You have been rightly inform'd; but it is something improper to say Bees feed on flowers: And likewise the same Bees are no less frequent on the flowers of Dens Leonis, &c. The sweet Beetle, is a very large Insect, and well known about Cambridge. All the trials I have made to preserve them with their smell, have proved ineffectual: For, both sorts of these Insects will of themselves in very few weeks become almost quite sent-less. To these I shall add another sweet-smelling Insect, which is a Hexapode­worm feeding on Gallium luteum.

The Observation of the Vespae Ichneumones, as it hath relation to Spiders, I willingly reserve for other Papers: yet I may tell you in general, that this kind of Insect is one of the greatest puzzelsSee more of this in my Notes upon Goe­dartious in nature; there being few Excrescencies of Plants, and very many births of Insects, wherein these slender Wasps after divers strange ways are concerned.

Though I be at present from my Books, yet I well remember the passage, which Mr. Willoughby refers you to in Musset See Numb▪ 74. p. 2221.. And he is well able to judge, whether the Observation be made upon the same sort of Insect. I conceive it a fault not consistent with Ingenious Spirits, to pass by in silence the Industry of Moderns as well as Ancients [Page 41] Writers; according to that of C. Celsus: Oportet neque recentiores viros in his fraudare, quae vel repererunt, vel rectè secuti sunt; & tamen ea, quae ab antiqui-oribus po­sita sunt, authoribus suis reddere. You can best inform me, what D. Swammerdam does in a matter of this na­ture: when I read in the Account given us by you of his Book, Numb. 64; that Snails are both Male and Female; that Catterpillars may teach us, by their feeding, the correspondence of the vertues of Plants, I am de­firous to know, whether he quote Mr. Ray for the for­mer, as having publish't the Observation ten years ago at least; and for the latter, the Learned and Noble Fab. Columna, who did propose the way of essaying the ver­tues of Plants by the palats of Insects in the beginning of this Age.

But I leave this,Coehlitz, or Petrified shells ex­amined. and proceed to a remark of my own; and it shall be, if you please, concerning Petrified Shells; I mean such Shells, as I have observed in our English stone-Quarries. But Sir, let me premise thus much, that I am confident, that you at least will acquit me, and not believe me one of a litigious nature. This I say in reference to what I have lately read in Steno's Prodromus, that, if my sentiments on this particular are somewhat different from his, it proceeds not from a spirit of con­tradiction, but from a different view of Nature. First then, we will easily believe, that in some Countries, and particularly along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, there may all manner of Sea shells be found promiscuously included in Rocks or Earth, and at good distances too from the Sea. But, for our English-inland Quarries, which also abound with infinte number and great varieties of shells, I am apt to think, there is no such matter, as Petrifying of Shells in the business (or, as Steno-explains himself p. 84. in the English Version, & alibi, that the substance of those shells, formerly belonging to animals, hath been dissolved or wasted by the penetrating force of juices, [Page 42] and that a stony substance is come in the place thereof,) but that these Cockle-like stones ever were, as they are at present, Lapides sui generis and never any part of an Animal. That they are so at present, is in effect con­fessed by Steno in the above cited page; and it is most certain, that our English Quarry-shells (to continue that abusive name) have no parts of a different Texture from the rock or quarry they are taken, that is, there is no such thing as shell in these resemblances of shells, but that Iron-stone Cockles are all Iron stone; Lime or marble all Lime-stone and Marble; Sparre or Chrystalline-shells all Sparr, &c. and that they never were any part of an Animal. My reason is: That Quarries of different stone yeild us quite different sorts or species of shells, not only one from another (as those Cockle-stones of the Iron-stone Quarries of Adderton in York-shire differ from those found in the Lead-mines of the neighbouring mo­untains, and both these from that Cockle-Quarrie of Wans­ford-bridge in Northampton-shire, and all three from those to be found in the Quarries about Gunnerby and Béavour-Castle, ) but, I dare boldly say from any thing in nature besides, that either the land, salt, or fresh water doth yeild us. 'Tis true, that I have picked out of that one Quarry of Wansford very resemblances of Murices, Telinae, Turbines, Cochleae, &c. and yet I am not convinced, when I particularly examined some of our English shores for shells, also the fresh waters and the fields, that I did ever meet with (N. B.) any one of those species of shells any where else, but in their respective Quarries; whence I conclude them Lapides fui generis, and that they were not cast in any Animal-mold, whose species or race is yet to be found in being at this day.

This argument perhaps will not so readly take place with those persons, that think it not worth the while e­xactly and minutely to distinguish the several species of the things of nature, but are content to acquiesce in [Page 43] figure, resemblance, kind, and such general notions; but when they shall please to condescend to heedful and ac­curate descriptions, they will, I doubt not, be of that opinion, which an attentive view of these things led me into some years ago. Though I make no doubt, but the Repository of the R. Society is amply furnished with things of this nature; yet if you shall command them, I will send you up two or three sorts of our English Co­ckle-stone of different Quarries, nearly resembling one the other and all of them very like a common sort of Sea-shell, and yet if there shall not be enough specifically to distinguish them, and hinder them from being sampled by any thing of the spoils of the Sea or fresh waters or the land-Snails; my argument will fail, and I shall be happily convinced of an Errour.

Another Letter, from York Sept. 13 1671. enlarging his former Communications in Numb. 75. about Veget­able Excrescencies, and Ichneumon-Wormes.

IN my last Paper about Vegetable Excrescencies, I was wholly-silent of the opinion, which Mr. Willoughby is pleased to favour; and because that worthy Gentle­man hath so far made it probable, that now it seems only to depend upon the good fortune of some lucky Ob­server, I am willing to reassume my former thoughts, that all those odd Observations, we have made of the Births of Ichneumons, do but beget in me a strong belief, that they have a way yet unheeded, whereby they do as boldly, as subtly, convey their Eggs within the Bodies of Insects and parts of Vegetables.

A fifth and last proposition of that Paper * was, that the substance of many Vegetable Excrescencies seemed not to be the food of the worms to be [...]ound in them. See Numb. 75. p. 2254. My meaning was, that the substance of the Vegetable Excrescencies in [Page 44] which those Ichneumon worms were to be found, was rather augmented, than diminished or worm-eaten. And the like conformity of their feeding within Insects is well observed by Mr. Willoughby See above in this very Tract., that the impraegnated Caterpillars seem not to be concerned, though their bodies are full of Insects of a quite different kind, but go on as far as they may towards the atchievement of the perfection of their own species. Thus I have seen a Poppy-head fwoln to a monstrous bulk, and yet all the Cells were not receptacles of Ichneumons, but some had good and ripe feed in them. I shall not refuse Mr. Willough­by (though you know upon what grounds I have twice done it to you) the satisfaction of an Answer to my 10th Quaere, by him resolved negatively: It is true, the swarms of the Ichneumons, coming out of the sides of Cater­pillars, do immediatly make themselves up into bunches, and each particular Theca, from the Cabbage-Catter­pillar (for example,) is wrote about with yellow silk, as those from the black and yellow-Jacobaea-Catterpillar with white; but as for web to cover those bunches of Theca's, I never observed it but in the green Catterpillar so common in our Lincoln-sheir, heaths, which are affixed to Bents or other plants. These in truth never deceived but my expectation, for I verily thought I had found, when I first observed them, a Caterpillar equivalent to the Indian silk-worm; but having cut them in two, and expected to have found a Caterpallars Chrysalis in the middle, there presented themselves a swarm of Ichne­umons. These are as large many of them as my thumb, that is, at least four times bigger then the Folliculus or Egg-bag of any English spider that I ever saw yet. By good fortune I have not thrown away the boxes, where­in I made the Observation concerning Ichneumons feed­ing upon the Eggs of certain Spiders. I have had them in several boxes, some 8, some 10, some 12 days in Ver­miculo, [Page 45] feeding upon the very cakes of Spiders-eggs, before they wrought themselves Theca's for further change; and they seldome exceeded the number of 5 to one cake of Eggs, &c. so that you may assure Mr. Willoughby, this is no conjecture, but a real observation accompanied with more circumstances, than I am will­at present to relate.

Some Additions about Vegetable Excrescencies, and Ichneumons Wasps; together with an Inquiry concern­ing Tarantula's, and a Discovery of another Musk-sented Insect: from York in two Letters, of Octob. 16. and 28. 1671.

The Extract of one of these Letters

THat this Letter may not be all matter of Phi­losophy, you may take an occasson to put this Quaere to your correspondents of Italy, viz.

Whether the Tarantula be not a Phalangium (that is, a six-eyed skipping Spider) as Matthiolus and others seem to tell us? if so, whether some later Authors im­pose not on us by giving us a Cutt of the Figure of a Net or Reticulm orbiculatum, which our English Phalangia are never (that I know of) observed to weave or make use of in hunting? and whether the person bit by a Ta­rantula, be not ever, when on his feet, disposed to and actually dancing after the nature of a Phalangium, which seldom or never moves, but by skipping; even as it hap­pens with such that are bitten by a Mad Dog, who have been sometimes observed to bark like a dog, &c. And if so, what we are to think and credit concerning such and such Musical tunes, said to be most agreeable and tending to the Cure of persons bit by a Tarantula?

But next among other things, I had the good fortune to present Mr. Willoughby giving me the honour of two [Page 46] visits, with a Musk-Ant See of two or three more Musk-Insects Num 74. p. 2220. and Numb. 76. p. 2281. an Insect observed by me not many days before his first visit: And though I cannot send you the In­sects themselves, as having parted with all I had, yet I will the Note, viz. Septemb. 2. I found in a Sandy Ditch-bank, the first hollow beyond the Ring-houses in the high-road to Lon­don about a mile and an half from York, a sort of ex­ceeding small Pismires) by which note alone I think they may be sufficiently distinguish't from all at least that I have seen.) Those without wings were of a light-yellow or flaxen, and being broken at on's nostrils they emitted, like others, an acid or sowre sent; but those of the same bank with wings, were cole-black, and these, bruised and smelt to, emitted so fragrant a smell like musk, that I must confess they were too strong for me to endure: yet having kept them some time by me, the more delicate sex were not displeased with the smell. And an Apothe­cary in this City, famous for his diligence in Chymical Operations, did compare them (unseem and not yet made known to him) to an excellent balsom, he is wont to prepare.

Mr. Willoughby inform'd me, that he had found the Goat chafer or Sweet-beetle Of which see Numb. 74. p. 2220. and N. 76. p. 2281. out of season as to that smell; and thereupon asked me, what I had observed as to the time of their sweetest and strongest smelling? I answer'd, that I believed it to be at the time of the Coit, for asmuch as at that time, when I took them highly per­fumed, I had observed the female full of Egg.

The Extract of the other Letter:

I Send you a second paper about Vegetable Excres­cencies; the shortness of the formerOf which see Numb. 75. p. 2254. and some things therein, perhaps liable to Exception, obliging me thereto.

[Page 47] Concerning the fifth and last proposition of the first paper, it might be more intelligibly experssed thus, viz. That the substance or fibrous part of many Vegetable Excrescencies seems not to be the food of the worms found in them: My meaning is, that the worms in those Vegetable Excrescencies, which produce Ichoneumons (to which kind of Insect we would limit this proposition, and therefore expunge all other instances,) these worms, I say, do not seem to devour the substances or fibrous part of them, as other worms eat the Kernels of nuts, &c. but that (what-ever their manner of feeding is, and we doubt not but that they are nourish't in and upon some part of them,) the Vegetable Excrescencies still mightily increase in bulk, and rise as the worms feed.

It is observable (to endeavour a Solution) that some of the Ichneumons delight to feed of a liquid matter, as the Eggs of Spiders, the juices (if not Eggs) within the bo­dies of Caterpillers and Maggots: Whence we conjec­ture, that those of the same Genus, to be found in Vege­table Excrescencies, may in like manner suck in the juices of the equivalent parts of Vegetables. And this the dry and spongy texture of some of those kind of Excrescen­cies, seems to evince: For, if you cut in Pieces a wild-poppy-head, for example, (or the great and soft balls of the Oak) you'l find in those partitions, wherein these worms are lodged, nothing but a pithy substance like that of young Elder; and if there chance to be any cells yet unseised, (which I have sometimes observed) the feeds therein will be found yet entire and ripe. Whence very probably they feed upon or suck-in by little and little the yet liquid pulp of the tender seeds, and leave the substance or fibrous part to be expanded into an Excrescence.

As for matter of Fact, to clear the truth of that opi­nion, that the divers races of Ichneumons are generated by their respective Animal-parents, and particularly that [Page 48] which the divers Excrescencies of Vegetables produce, are not plantigenous, I am in great hopes, the instance of Poppy-heads, swoln into Excrescencies, will favour us the next season. My expectation is chiefly grounded upon the condition and nature of that plant; which is such, that nothing can pierce the skin of it and wound it but it must necessarily leave a mark of its entry, the milky juice springing upon the lightest puncture, and drying and concreting suddainly into a red scar: And this, I think, I may affirm, that of the many heads grown into Excrescencies, which I gathered this Summer, all had more or less of those marks upon them. But our aim is heer only to make way for the Observation against the next season; to which purpose also we propose the fol­lowing Quaere's;

1. Whether the shagged balls of the Wild Rose are not Excrescencies grown from the bud and very fruit of the plant; like as the Wild-Poppy-heads are apparently not for worms but seed.

2. Whether the large and soft balls of the Oak are not in like manner the bud and acorn with all the parts of a sprouting branch, thus monstrously perverted from the first design of nature?

3. Upon what parts or juices the Ichneumons-wroms, supposed to be thrust into Caterpillars and other Maggots can be thought to feed: And whether there be not actu­ally Eggs in Caterpillars and Maggots (as there are to be observed in their respective Chrysalis's) sufficient to serve them for food?

Concerning the name [...] although I could will­ingly refer you to Mr. Ray, who is another Hesychius; yet for present satisfaction I shall transcribe what the Ex­cellent Critique G. Vossius saith (c. 16. de Inimicitia;) Ichneumon (i.e. Mus Pharaonis sive Aegyptiacus) Crocodili & Aspidis ova indagat, unde illi Ichneumonis nomen, quasi dic [...]s Indagatorem ( [...]) Reperta utriusque [Page 49] ov [...] conterit; ut est apud Oppianum in 30 de Venation [...]: Nicander tamen ait, cum Aspidis ova humi mandare.

Now a like Observation of certain Insects of the Wa­sp-kind, made no doubt by some of the Ancients, oc­casioned the application of that name to Wasps, as well as to that Aegyptian Mouse. Yet cannot I remember to have met with, in any of the Ancients, of more than one text concerning those Wasps; viz. Aristot de Hist. Anim, 5. c. 20. which Pliny (vid. lib. 11. c. 21.) hath rendred in a manner verbatim, thus: Vespae, quae Ichneumones vocan­tur (sunt autem minores quàm aliae) unum genus ex araneis perimunt, phalangium appellatum, & in nidos suos ferunt; deinde illinunt, & ex iis, incubando, suum genus procreant.

How far this relation is true, and agreeable to mo­dern Observations, we shall have perhaps occasion to discourse of else-where; Our design here is only to tell you, that we have enough to make us believe, that those very Insects, we have been treating of, are for kind, the Ichneumons of the Antients.

A Letter. York, Januar. 10. 1671. containing an ac­count of Veins observ'd in Plants, analogoue to Hu­main Veins.

SIR,

I Am very much pleased, when you give me to un­derstand, that somthing is published of the Anatomy of Vegetables, and that more is designed by that excellent person Signior Malpighi This Learned and Accurate Philess­pher hath already presented to the R. Society, in a very obliging manner, his Manuscript, containing the S [...]m of his Observations and Labours about the Structure of Plants; and he hath also very generously engaged himself, that, upon the Approbation of that Il­lustrious Body, he will enlarge his Pa­pers, illustrate all the particulars, there­in contained, with Scheams▪ and the [...] publish the whole.. And since the receipt of your last, I have perused the very ingenious Book of Dr. [...]rew and, as far as I have observ­ed these matters, all things therein are faithfully delive­red, and with great sagacity. In turning over my Notes, [Page 50] made some years agoe, I find, among other things of this nature, some few Observations concerning the Veins of Plants, or such Duct [...]'s as seem to contain and carry in them the noblest juices of Plants. Of these there is lit­tle or no mention made in this curious Tractate, unless under the notion of Pores. And because I am of the opinion, that they will prove vessels Analogous to our Hu man Veins, and not meer Pores, they shall, if you please, be the subject of your entertainment in this Letter; and the rather that, if they prove Veins (as I little doubt them) they are not to be passed over in silence, but are early to be accounted for in the Anatomy of Vegetables.

To avoid ambiguity; Those parts of a Plant, which Pliny (lib. 16. 38.) calls by the names of Venae and Pulpae, are nothing else, in my opinion but what our late Author, Dr. Crew, calls Fibres and Insertments, or the Lignous body interwoven with that which he takes to be Cortical, that is, the several distinctions of the Grain. Now, that the vessels, we are about to discourse of, are not any of the Pores of the Lignous body (to use the Doctors terms) is plain in a traverse Cut of Angelica Sylvestris magna vul­gatior J. B, for example; the Veins there very clearly shew themselves to an attentive view to be distinct from Fibres, observable in the Parenchyma of the same Cortical body together with themselves; the Milky juice still rising besides and not in any Fibre. Also in the like cut of a Burdock in June, the like juice springs on this and on that side of the radii of the Woody circle, that is, in the Cortical body and pith only. Again, where there is no pith, there is none of these Veins as in the Roots of plants, and Trunks of trees; but ever in the Bark of either. I need not here enumerate the many Plants, wherein these particulars are most plainly observable, as in Sphondylium, Cicutaria, many of the Thi [...]sle kind, &c.

Further, Neither are they probably of the number of the Pores, described by our Author in the Cortical body, [Page 51] or Pith. Not surely of those Pores extended by the breadth, because the course of the juice in these vessels is by the length of the plant; as I have sometimes very plainly traced in the pith of a dryed Fennel-stalk, fol­lowing them by dissection quite through the length of the pith. It remains, that, if Pores, they are of those pores of the Cortical body, that are supposed to be extend­ed by the length thereof; which yet seems (to me at least) not enough, but we think them vessels invested with their own proper membranes, analogous to the Veins of our Humaine body; for these reasons: 1. Because they are to be found in the Pith, and sometime in the Cortical body of a plant, not included within the common Tunicle of any Fibres, as is above noted: (that Fibers, or the Seminal root are cloathed, is most plain in some plants, as in Fern and Geranium Batrachoides, the Fi­bres of the former are coated, at least in some parts of the plant, with a black skin, in the latter likewise with a red one:) And in these cases, had they not, I say, their own proper membranes, we see no cause, why the very porous and spongy body of the Pith and Cortex, should not be in all places filled alike with the juice, and not rise (as most plainly it doth) in a few determinate and set places only, that is, according to the position and or­der of these vessels. 2. Again the Experiment I made, which you were pleased to publishSee Numb, 70. p, 2122, & 2123., con­cerning the effect of a ligature on Catapu­tia minor L [...]bel. viz. the sudden springing of the Milky juice out of infinite pores besides the In­cision: (the cause of which Phoenomenon I take be, the dissected veins impetuously discharging themselves of part of their juice within the porous Panenchyma of the Bark;) whence it is probable, that, if there was no coated vessel to hold this milky juice, we might well expect its springing upon the bare ligature, as when we squeez a wet Sponge; the external Cuticle of the plant, [Page 52] as this Experiment shews, being actually perforated.

In the next place it is very probable, that these ves­sels are in all Plants whatsoever. For as it is truth-like of all the other substantial parts of plants, though speci­fied by divers accidents in Figure and Texture; so of these Veins, which, though they be discernable mostly in those plants where they hold discouloured juices, yet we may very probably think, that they are not want­ing, where the eye finds not that assistance in the chal­lenging of them. And in these very plants, where they are least visible, there is yet a time when they are, if not in all, yet in some parts of these plants, plain e­nough to the naked eye: The tender shoots of the Greater and Lesser Maple, in May, are full of a milky juice; viz the known liquor of these Veins. Again to this purpose, If you apply a clean knife blade to a travers cut of the like Shoots of Elder, the Gummy liquor of these Veins will be drawn forth into visible strings, as is the nature of Bird-lime of the bark of Holly, or the milk of Cataputia minor Lobel. Further, The leaf stalks of our Garden Rubarb do sometimes shoot (by what accident, we enquire not here) a transparent and very pure Chrystallin Gumm, though the Veins, that held this gummy juice, are by no ordinary means visi­ble in them, and yet by comparing the nature and pro­perties of this Gum, with that of the Gums of other Vegetables to be of theirs, by the same comparative Anatomy. Lastly, we think, that even Mushromes (that seemingly inferiour and imperfect order of Vegetables) are not exempt and destitute of these Veins, some of them yielding a milky juice, hot and fiery, not unlike some of the Spurge kind, or Euphorbium.

It might be expected, that I should add somethings at least, concerning the Original and Productions of these Veins, if not an exact description of them, the course of the juices in them, and their more immediate and pri­mary [Page 53] uses in the matter of Vegetation: But I must ac­quaint you, that (besides the season is not now proper to improve and verifie, if I had leisure, the Observati­ons formerly noted, and that they were things thrown into my Adversaria without other order, than that no­thing should slip from me in the quest of Medicaments, that might be of light) although I find indeed many scattered particulars (besides them already delivered) concerning the Position, Order, Number, Capacity, Dis­tributions, Differences, Figure, &c. of these Veins; you will be pleased to take it in good part, if I think fitting to reserve them until the opportunity of another Summers review: It seeming to me no small matter, to have fairly hinted the existence of them to such curious persons as shall have the leisure, and find themselves in better cir­cumstances, than I can pretend to, as to those great advantages of Glasses. Designing, &c.

To conclude with the primary use of these Veins; which is, in my opinion, to carry the Succus nutritius of Plants, because, where they are not, there is no Ve­getation; as it is seen, if an ingrafted Branch or Arm be bared and stripped off the clay, &c. in June, all the course of Vegetation will appear to have been made only by the Bark, and not by the Wood, that is, in the place only, where these veins are. A secondary use is the rich furniture of our Shops; for, from these Veins only it is, that all our Vegetable Drugs are extracted, and infinite more might be had, by a diligent enquiry, and easy means, which I have not unsuccefully put in practice; witness the black Resin, I not long since sent you a specimen of.

An Account of a Stone cut out from under the tongue of a Man; sent in a Letter to his Grace the Lord Arch-Bishop of York.

May it please your Grace,

IN obedience to your Grace's Commands, I have pen­ned the Circumstances of a not common Medical ob­servation, viz. the Excision of a stone from under the tongue. And I here with present your Grace also with the stone its self, as I had it from the person it was taken.This Stone is now in the custody of the R, Society, to whom it was pre­sented afterwards. As to the occasion and time of its birth, he tels me, (My Lord, you may be pleas'd to give firm Credit to every particular, that he hath answered me at your Grace's instance) it was from a winter Sea-voy­age, which lasted much longer than he expected, and wherein he suffered an exceeding cold; and that, not long after his landing, he found a certain Nodus or hard lump in the very place whence this stone was cut. There was about 8 years betwixt its breading and being taken away.

As to its growth, and the inconveniences thence en­ensuing; he further saith, that upon all fresh-cold tak­ing, he suffered much pain in that part especially; and yet, that cold once being over, that part was no more painful than the rest of his mouth. He adds, that towards the 7th and 8th year it did often cause sudden swell­ings in all the Glanduls about the mouth and throat upon the first draught of beer at meals; which yet would in a short time fall again.

Lastly, as to the particulars remarkable at the time of its being taken away, he relates; That it began its work with a sudden vertigo; which vertiginous dis­position continued more or less from Spring 'till August; in which month, without any praevious cause save rid­ing, the place where it was lodged suddainly swelled, [Page 54] and ran purulent matter at the aperture of the duct [...] Whartouianus: that it suddainly stopped of its running (which he cannot attribute to any thing but Cold,) and swelled with a great inflammation, and very great dan­ger of choaking; it being scarce credible, what pain the party suffered in endeavouring to swallow even beer or any liquid thing.

This extremity lasted 5 days, in all which time, the party had so vast a flux of spittle runing from him, that it was not possible for him to repose his head to sleep, without wetting all the bed about him; insomuch as that it was very much questioned by some friendly vi­sitants, whether he had not of himself, or by mistake, made use of Mercurial medicines.

The varieties or degrees of this spontaneous salivation were such, that he urged me not to omit them in the relation I was to make to your Grace, as thinking them very notable.

The first day, the saliva ran thin and transparent, al­most like water without any bubles. The 2 day it ran frothy; it tasted salt, (which yet he is apt to think hot rather, than really salt, because that day the inflamma­tion was at the height). The 3 day it roaped exceed­ingly; on which day a small pin-hole broak directly over the place of the Stone and ran with purulent mat­ter as formerly. The 4 day the saliva ran insipid, sen­sibly cold in the mouth; (which again confirms me in that opinion, that the former sharp tast was the effect of heat, and not the immediate quality of a salt hum­our;) very little forthy. The 5 day (which was that of the incision,) it ran as on the 4 th but left an extream claminess on the teeth, insomuch that they often clave together, as though they had been joyned together with glue.

Upon the inci [...]ion, which proved not wide enough, the membrances or baggs, wherein the Stone lay, came a­way [Page 56] first. As to the Stone it self, it was so hard as to endure the forcipes in drawing it forth: it was covered over with grass green matter, which soon dryed, and left the stone of a whitish colour, as it is to be seen. It is but light in proportion to its bulk, weighing about 7 grains; and its much of the shape of our ordinary horse-beans. There are visible impressions upon it of some Capillary and small vessels, it was bred amongst. Lastly, it is scabrous or rough, sand-like, although the substance is Tophaceous.

The Accidents accompaning the working away of this Stone, (for the incision was meerly obstetrical,) and the place of its birth give occasion to call the distemper a Ranula. Yet in truth this was nothing else but one of those Tumours called Atheroma, and therefore we will name it lapis Atheromatis.

An Extract of a Letter from York April 12. 1672. concerning animated Horse-haires; rectifying a Vul­gar Errour.

Sir.

I Cannot discover any thing new and rare in natural Philosophy, but I must forthwith make you parti­cipate of my good fortune; and I assure you, the re­lation, I am about to make you, is of a thing very surprising.

It hath been credibly reported, that Horse-hairs thrown into water will be animated; and yet I shall shew you by an unquestionable observation, that such things as are vulgarly thought animated Hairs are very Insects, nourished within the bodies of other Insects, even as Ichneumons are within the bodies of Caterpillars.

I will premise the particulars concerning this Ainmal, as I find them collected by the Industry of Aldorvaudus, and save you the trouble of that voluminous Author.

This Insect (saith he) seems to have been unknown [Page 57] to the Ancients; as it is called by the moderns seta aqua­tica or vermis set [...]rius, either from the most slender figure of the body; or because it is thought to be generated of an horse-hair putrifying in water. The Germans call them by a name rendred Vituli aquatici.

It is bred in corrupt waters; perhaps of horse-hair, for (saith Albertus upon his own frequent trial, as I find him quoted by Aldrovandus,) these hairs, put into stand­ing water, move and are animated or, as he words it, vi­tam & spiritum accipiunt, & moventur. Other have thought them to have their birth from weeds hanging down from the banks into ponds and Rivers. Others from Locusts and Grashoppers (ex Bruchis;) which last though it be near the matter, yet it is rejected by Aldrovandus himself, as the most unlikely.

They have been fouud in cold and good springs, and elsewhere, (which is a wonder, saith Aldrovandus,) upon a leafe in a Garden. And this, which was there found, was 5 or 6 fingers-breadth long; the thickness of a bristle Horse-hair, with a duskish back, and a white belly; and the tail on every side white.

I saw (saith Aldrovandus) a black one thicker than the whitish one. Other Authors otherwise descibe them, as Bertruius, Albertus, &c. Some affirming them to have been a cubit long; others, two cubits others, 9 inches long at the least: that they are white of colour, and so hard as scarce to be crushed with ones foot: to be e­very where of the same thickness: that they move not as wormes move, but snake-like, and knit themselves up into knots: that their skin is one continued thing with­out Incisures; and therefore some would exclude them from the Insect-kind: that they have no head, but swim both waies, and therefore may be called amphisbaena a­quatica: that they are poyson, drunk down into the stomack, but not venom to touch.

And thus much out of Aldrovandus concerning the [Page 58] name of this Insect, the place of its birth and original, the place where they are to be found, its description, different species, nature, poyson &c.

Our observation is this. April. 2. there was thrown up out of the ground of my Garden, in digging amongst other things of this nature, a certian cole-black Beetle of a midle size, and flat shape, and which I have observed elsewhere common enough. These Beetles I dissected upon the account of some curiosity, wherein I had a mind to satisfy my self. But I was surprised to find in their swollen bellies of these Hair-wormes, in some three, in others but one onely. These particulars we carefully noted: 1. That upon the incision they crawl'd forth of themselves. 2. That putting them into water, they lived in it many daies, and did seem to endeavour to escape by lifting up their heads out of the water, and sastning them to the side of the vessels; very plainly drawing the rest of their body forward. 3. That they cannot be said to be amphisbaena, but do move forward only by the head, which is fairly distinguishable from the Tail by a notable blackness. 4. That the three, I took out of the body of one Beetle, were all of a dark hair-colour with whitish-bellies, somewhat thicker then hoggs bristles; but I took out of the body of another beetle one that was mu [...]st thicker than the rest; much lighter colour­ed; and by measure just five Inches and a half long; whereas all the rest did not exceed three inches three quarters.

An Extract of a Letter enlarging and correcting the former Notes about Kermes; and withal insinuating a conjecture of Cochincil's being a sort of Kermes.

Sir,

WE must correct as well as en­large our Notes concerning Kermes Compare herewith, what was publish't in No▪ p. 71. 2165 No, 72, p. 2177 espe­cially No. 73. p. 2196.; and yet there will be much [Page 59] difficulty in resolving the question concerning the Ori­ginal and Efficient of Kermes. These things are certain.

1. That we have this year seen the very Gumm of the Arpicok and Cherry-lawrel-Trees trausudated, at least, standing in a Crystal-drop upon some (though very rarely) of the tops of these Kermes.

2. That they change colour from a yellow to a dark­brown: that they seem to be distended and to war greater, and from soft, to become brittle.

3. That they are fill'd with a sort of Mites; that small powder (which I said to be Excrement,) being Mites as well as that Liquamen or softer pulp (which I took to be Bees-meat;) concerning both which particulars I am pretty well assur'd by my own, and also by my ingenious friend, Dr. Johnsou of Pomsret's more accurat Micro­scopical Observations.

4. That the Bee-grubbs actually feed on Mites, there being no other food for them.

5. That there are other Species of Beesor Wasps be­sides those by me described; which are sometimes found to make these Mites their food: Dr. Johnson having open'd one Husk, with one only large Maggot in it.

6. That there are probably different sorts of Mites in these Huskes, making possibly different species of Ker­mes: For, some I have found to hold Carnation-colour'd Mites, enclosed in a fine white Cotten, the whole Husk starting from the Twiggs, shrivelling up, and serving only for a Cap or Cover to that company of Mites, Other Mites I have seen white, and (which is most usual) the Husks continuing intire and not coming away from the Twigg they adhere to, and but little Cotton at the bottom. Those of the first sort are the white Cob-webbs on the Vine, described by Mr. Hook Micrograph. Obs. 56.

7. That shrivell'd Cap to be found upon the Mites inclosed in Cotton, as also the whole Husk it self, if [Page 60] taken early in April, while so [...]t, will dried in the Sun, shrink into the very figure of Coch [...]il: Whence we guess, that Cochineil may be a sort of Ker [...] taken thus early and sun-dried.

Hitherto [...] Summers▪ [...] [...]concerning Kermes, This advantage at least we may have by [...] the [...]count, taken from M. Verney by Dr. [...] publish't in one of the Tran­ [...] [...] is made more intelligible: See Numb. 20. p. 362. the small Scarlet powder, there mention'd, being to be understood of those Mites; and they to be distinguish't from the Bee-grubbs; which are chang'd into the [...] ­ping Fly, that is, the bee, (for kind at least) by us de­scribed formerly, I am, &c. York Octob. 9. 1671.

A Description of an odd kind of Mushr [...] [...] Milky Juice, much hotter upon the tongue than Pepper, &c. Novemb, 15. 1672.

THe 18 of August last▪ I passed through [...] woods under Pinno-moor in Craven: In the Wood [...] I then found an [...] number of Mushroms, some with­er'd, and [...]. They were of a large [...] red­gilled eatable- [...] or [...] and [...] of their shape, that is, with a perfectly found [...] or [...] we vulgarly call it,) thick, fleshy, not [...] and round Foot stalk, of about 6 fingers breadth [...] a­bove ground, and ordinarily as thick as my [...] If you cut any part of this Mushrom, it will bleed exceed­ing freely a Milk-white Juice, concernig which [...] 1. That this Milky-Juice tasts much hotter upon the tongue than Pepper. 2. That it is not clammy to the touch. 3. That the [...] not much discolour it, on [Page 61] the bl [...]de of a knife; as is usual with most Vegetable Juices. 4. That it became in the glass viol, I drew it into, suddenly concret and stiff, and did in some daies dry into a [...] Cake. 5. That it then also when well dried, retain'd its fierce biting tast and white colour.

Fu [...]er, I observ'd these Mushroms, [...] of Juice, not to be endured upon our tongues, to abound with Fly-maggots. Also, the youngest and tendrest of them, that is, such as are most Juicy, to have been very much eaten by the Grey meadow naked Snail, lodging themselves within the sides of the plant.

Concerning this kind of biting Mushrom, I find in a certain late discourse of the State of Russia these words; Groozshidys Fungorum maximi, palmam lati, instar Omasi bibuli sunt, crassi & candidi; dum crudi sunt, succo Cla­ [...] putà) abundant. Eos sicut Tithymallum muriâ cor­rig [...] R [...]them; aliter fances & gu [...]ter [...]. Ipse se [...]el [...] assato [...] [...] non [...] periculo. The reference to the Cuts or Figures is here confused, and the description too concise, to say that Ours agrees in any thing with Theirs, save the great ac [...]imony of the Juice they both yeild.

I may sometime acquaint you with the Medicinal Uses, I have caused to [...] made of this White [...] the mean time I shall only mind you of the great [...] hath with Euphorbium.

Since this Letter the Author thereof was pleased to give us this further Account in an other of Decemb. 17. viz.

—Mr Wray return'd me this Answer to my Letter about the biting Mushrom;

‘At my return to Midleton I found a Letter from you, containing the Description of a Mushroms by you [Page 62] discover'd in Marton-woods unde Pinno moor. I doubt not but it is that described in Joh. Ba [...]bin 1. 40. c. 6. under the title of Fungus piper at us alb [...], lacteo succo turgens. Only he saith; 1. That it doth in bigness ex­ceed the Champignon; whereas you write, that there are few of them much bigger than that: But yet in say­ing so, you grant them to be bigger. 2. He saith, for their bigness they are not so thick as that; you de­scribe yours to be thick in flesh. In all other points the Descriptions agree exactly. For the colour, of that it is white, Gills and all; for the place, that it grows in woods; and for the tast, that its hotter than Pep­per. Several particulars mention'd by you, are not observ'd or not mention'd by him. I cannot say, that I have as yet met with this Mushrom.’

A futher Account concerning the Existence of Veins in all kind of Plants; together with a Discovery of the Mem­branous substance of those Veins, and of some Acts in Plants resembling those of Sense; as also of the Agree­ment of the Venal Juice in Vegetables with the Blood of Animals, &c. Communicated in a Letter of Januar. 8. 1673. and exhibited to the R. Society.

SIR,

WE have formerly given you certain reasons for the Existance of Veins, (analogous to those in Animals) in all Plants whatsoever, not Mushromes ex­cepted: To which we might add others of later notice; as the skin of a plant may be cut sheer off with part of the spongy parenchyma, and no signs of Milky juice follow, that is, no breach of a vein. Again, we have stript the Plant of its skin, by pulling it up by the roots, and exposing it to the wet weather, untill it became flaccid as a wet thong, without any injury to the Veins, [Page 63] which yet upon incision would freshly bleed. These Ex­periments, I say, make against the general opinion of one only sap loosely pervading the whole plant, like water in a sponge.

And though we have made these and many other Ex­periments to facilitate an ocular demonstration of these Veins; yet we have not been able to effect it to our mind, and subject them as nakedly to our eye as we could wish, for a through-information of their Use, and a min­ute and accurate discovery of all the particular Acci­dents belonging to them as such vessels. This, I say, is a work of much labour and patience; and that which renders matters very difficult, is the infinite number, smallness and perplexity of these Veins.

In the Transverse cuts of Plants, we see as it were a certain Order and Number the bloody orifices of dis­sected veins. We observe also in a Leaf, which we take to be the simplest part of a plant.

1. That the Veins keep company with the Ribbs and Nerves (as we vulgarly call them,) and are distributed into all the parts of the Leaf, according to the subdi­visions of those nervous lineaments, and are disposed with them into a certain net-work; whether by Inosculations or bare contact only, we pretend not to determine.

2. That in a Transverse cut of a Leaf, the middle Fibre or nerve, for example, seems to yeild one big drop of a Milkie juice, springing as it were from one vein; yet the Miscroscope plainly shews us, that there are many veins which contribute to the making up of that drop.

3. That if a Fibre or nerve be carefully taken out of the Leaf, the Veins will appear in it like so many small hairs or pipes running along and striping the nerve.

4. That those many veins are all of an equal bigness, [Page 64] [...] to be more certain of the ra [...]ifications of the Fibres, wherein those veins are, we yet are so, that those veins do any where grow less and smaller, though probably it may be so. That which makes us doubt it, is the exceeding smallness of these veins already, even where we might probably expect them to be Trunk veins and of the largest size; and being there also in very great Numbers and running in direct lines along the fibre, we guess, that one or more of them may be distributed and fall off on either hand with the subdivisions of the fibres, and not suffer any diminution in their bulk.

6. That we cannot discern any where throughout the whole plant larger or more capacious veins, than those we see adhering to the fibres of the Leaves; which do also appear from comparing the bleeding Orifices in a transverse cut. I have found it a difficult and labori­ous task, to trace and unravel them throughout the whole plant.

Our opinion is, that these Veins do still keep com­pany with their respective Fibres. And as all the Fibres of the Leaf are joined in the Stalk of the Leaf, and that stalk explicated in cloathing the Twig or Stem of the plant, (which we take to be the reason of the orderly breaking forth of the Leaves.) so do we think of the Veins, their perpetual companions. And, as we have said, the Fibres of the Leaves are joined in the Twig; so are those of the Twigs in the Branches; those of the branches in the Trunk or body of the tree: The like also in an inverted order we seem to observe in the several Coats and Ramifications of the Root. This the several Circles of bleeding Orifices in tranverse cuts seems to confirm.

But more in the Roots of plants, if a simple Coat be [Page 65] separated and exposed betwixt your eye and the light, the Veins appear to be strangly intangled and impli­cate, and not in the simple order, as in the Leaves. The like we think of the Bark of the bodies of Trees, which we cannot distinguish from the Roots of plants; though there is, indeed, something (at least at certain seasons of the year▪) in the Root, which is not to be found in any part of the plant besides.

From what hath been said, it may well be doubted, whether there is any sinus or common Trunk, into which all the veins are gathered? But rather, each existing apart by it self. We indeed have found it very diffi­cult so to exhaust the plant of its milkie juice, as to kill it, though we have given it very many incisions to that purpose. Divers other instances there are, which fa­vour the Discontinuance of the Veins, and the little relation and intercourse they have with one another; as one branch of a Tree having fair and well grown fruit, before the other branches of the same tree and fruit blossom or have leaves; from the different situa­tion and other circumstances of culture; the indefinite and perpetual growth of a Tree; the Cyon governing, &c.

And thus far we have taken our information con­cerning these Veins, partly by the appearance they make in transverse cuts, and partly by the help of a Microscope; which last indeed has shewed us some­thing of their number, magnitude, order, distributions, &c. And yet neither of these helps in our hands has satisfactorily discovered to us other particulars belong­ing to these vessels, as external Figure, Coats, Ca­vitie, &c.

The substance of these veins seems to be as truly Membranous, as the Veins of Animals: A Leaf will not give way and be extended, but the Veins in a leaf, if freed of all the woody Fibres, will be stretched out [Page 66] to one third part at least, and vigorously restore them­selves again, just like a Vein, Gut, or any other mem­branous ductus of an Animal. Again these membranous Pipes are exceeding thin and transparent, because they suddainly disappear and subside after their being ex­hausted of their Juice; and particularly in that we see the liquor, they hold, quite through our Veins, or (in Chelidonium majus, for example) a tincture of Saffron in Crystalline Pipes.

Concerning the External Figure of these Veins and Cavitie, as well as other Accidents, we thought, they would have been made more apparent to us, if it were possible to coagulate the Juice they hold without much shrinking the plant. We were in hopes, Freezing would have effected this; which though it did not succeed as we promised our selves, in respect of the manifestation of these Accidents; yet it gave us some further light into the nature of the Juice of these veins. In the keen­est frost, which hapned the other winter, we dissected the frozen leaves of the Garden Spurge. Here we ob­served, that all Juice (besides that which these veins hold) was, indeed, frozen into hard Ice, and to be ex­pressed out in the figure of the containing pores; but the Milkie-Juice was as liquid as ever, but not so brisk as in open weather.

This Experiment we take to be good proof of the per­fection of this Milkie Juice, and that it hath within it self so great a degree of fermentation, that it preserves it self and consequently the whole plant from the in­juries of the weather; that is, the plant owes it life to it. Thus we have seen Insects (as Hexapode-worms, &c.) ly frozen upon the snow into very lumps of Ice, which did not only cause the glass to ring we struck them a­gainst, but did endanger the breaking of it: And yet, put under the glass and exposed to the warmth of the [Page 67] fire, they quickly recovered their legs and vigour to escape; which we think could not be, unless the Vital liquor of their veins, as in this Instance of plants, had been untouched and little concerned in the frost. Further, we hence also argue the different Vses as well as Natures of these Juices, and look upon the frozen Icicles or that copious dilute and Limpid sap as Alimental; the Milkie and not frozen Juice, as as the only proper Venal.

As to the motion of these Juices, these things are certain;

1. That the Milkie▪ Juice alwaies moves and spring [...] briskly upon the opening of a vein; the Limpid sap but at certain seasons, and as it were by accident, and not (as I judge) from any vital principle or fermentation of its own.

2. The vena [...] juice hath a manifest intestine motion or fermentation within it self; witness (besides what hath been just now said of it) its contributing (and the long continuance of) that motion to the most insensible li­quors; and likewise its thick and troubled bleeding, sike the rising of yeast, which yet in a few hours after drawing falls, and the juice becomes transparent, as the Gum of the Virginian Rhus, &c.

I shall not desire any person to acquiesce wholly in a bare fermentation; but endeavour a happy discovery of the Frame of all the parts of a plant, on which per­haps this motion may much depend. In the mean time we must indeed needs think (according to the know­ledge we yet have of the parts of plants,) that these juices move by a far different contrivance of parts from that of Animals; not yet here discovering any uniting of veins into one common Trunk, no Pulsation, no sensible stop by ligature, no difference in veins, &c. All which difficulties notwithstanding may, I hope, in time may be happily overcome; and the Analogie betwixt Plants and [Page 68] Animals be in all [...] opening of flowers; the [...] of the heads of Poppies from a pendulous pos­ture, and particlarly the Vermicular motion of the veins when exposed to the air. Again, the Veins of Plants may indeed be different, though at present we cannot tell wherein they are so. The Arteries within our heads are hardy to be known by the eye from the Veins. Further there are natural and spontaneous ex­cretions or venting of superfluous moisture in plants, visible and constant, in the Crown Imperial, Rorella, Pin­guicula, &c. As to the Ligature, as it hath been hither­to applied by us, it is not to be relyed on for disco­very of this motion; the Veins only of plants being the parts probably distendable.

Lastly we shall not omit to tell you, that either we must take that away from the other reasons given of the necessity of the Circulation of the blood in Ani­mals, viz. the hindring of its breaking and clodding; or we must grant the same motion to the Venal juice in Plants: we having undeniable Experiments to shew, that the Venal juice of Plants and the Blood of Animals agree in this, that they both, when they are once drawn from their respective veins, do forth-with break and coagulate, and that the serum in the one as well as in the other becomes a stiff gelly by a little standing.

But of the different natures of the juices of these viens in divers Plants and their motion we will remain your debtor, and acquit our selves when we shall find it con­venient; at present; only acquainting you, what variety of Experiments hath taught us, that probably more useful preparations and certainly a truer Analysis and [Page 69] [...] and parts of vegetable Drugs may be [...] whilst they are bleeding and liquid, than after they are once become concrete and have lost their natural Fermentation.

I am &c.

A Letter dated May 21. 1673. in York, concerning the unalterable Character of the Whiteness of the Chyle within the Lacteal Veins; together with divers parti­culars observed in the Guts, especially several sorts of Worms found in them.

—I Come to your Letter, where the Analogy be­twixt the Veins in Plants and the Nerves in A­nimals, hinted by Dr. Wallis, is a considerable notion, and I shall set my self a task e're long to examine them both again on purpose, and to give you my thoughts. In the mean time, I will entertain you, if you please, with some Anatomical Observations and Experiments.

It hath been long in my thoughts and desires to have discovered the Actual passage of the Chyle into the Lac­teal Veins; of which yet I never doubted, as I find some do at this day. The difficulty lyes in the certain and unalterable character of the Chyle's Whiteness, especi­ally when received into those Veins. And yet it is as certain, that in a Diabetes the Urine retains all the qua­lities of the liquor drunk. Also in that famous instance of those that eat the fruit call'd the Prickle-pear (if I remember aright,) their Urine hath affrighted the Ea­ter with the colour of bloud, that is, with the not-alter'd colour of the Juice of the Fruit. In these instances at least we cannot doubt but the Chyle, even in the Lacteal Veins, was qualified according to the food and drink.

To effect then something to this purpose, we have formerly, and that very often, repeated the Experiment [Page 70] of injecting highly tinged liquors into the Guts of a live Animal. It would be too tedious and impertinent, to write down the circumstances of many different tryals: We will only in short tell you the manner of perform­ing it and the success.

We laced the skin of the Abdomen of a dog loosly for a hands breadth, and then opening it underneath the stitches, we took out either the duodenum, or any o­ther of the tennia intestina. The Gut, took out, we open'd with a very small orifice, and having ready the tinged liquor luke-warm, we injected it upward and downward: Carefully stitching up the gut, and then drawing the Lace, we unloosed two of the Dogs feet, laying him on his side for what time we thought con­venient. The tinged liquors we used, were good Bar­bado's Indigo, in fair water, and filtrated; also lumps of Indigo thrust down his throat; good broath (as they call it) of a blew fat; Indigo in Milk; Saffron in Milk. Again, we tried in some Dogs fed before hand, and injected the liquors in the very hight of the Chyle's distribution; into others yet fasting, and that for a long­er or shorter time.

The Success was so constant, that we cannot say, we ever did find the least discolouring of Chyle on the other side the Guts, that is, within the Lacteous Veins, but ever white and uniform. Whence we judge it not very feasable to tinge the Venal Chyle in a well and sound animal. And He that would demonstrate the matter of fact to the Eye, must probably do it by giving him some such thing in the food, as shall cause a Dia­betes, or some distemper equivalent to it.

Though we have observ'd many odd things in the several Exercises of this nature; yet we shall not trou­ble you at present with any other particulars, than what we have further observ'd in the Guts, to which we [Page 71] shall confine our paper. Of these we shall proceed to speak though possibly the the things may be better known to you already.

As 1. of the Glandul [...] miliares N. B. Peyer [...] did not Publish his Book of these Glandul [...] til the Year 1677. viz. more then 4 Years after my discovery of them and Pub­lication in the Philosophical Transactions. of the small Guts, which may also in some Animals be well call'd fragi­formes, from the figure of the one half of a Strawberry, and which yet I take to be Excretive glanduls, because Conglomerate.

2. The Vse of the Intestinum cae [...]um, subservient to that of the Colon and Rectum; manifest in such Animals, where Nature intends a certain and determinate figure to the Excrements.

3. Of some sorts of Vermin, we found in the Guts. And first of the Lumbrici lati or Tape worm. Of these, I say, we found in the guts of one Dog, perhaps more than an hundred in all. The duodenum was exceeding­ly stuffed out and extended with them. Which also well agrees with an other Observation I made in a Mouse, where I found the duodenum to be far bigger than the Stomach it self, by reason of the great num­bers of these worms for kind, which were contained in it: For kind, I say; for these Tape-worms were of a quite different shape from those of the Dog, or any that I have ever yet seen. To proceed, we found them also in the Dog's Jejunum and Ileon; but not any one lower than the Valv [...] a coli, nor any higher than the duode­num or within the Pilorus. Below the duodenum they lay at certain distances one from another, though some­times by pairs or more of them twisted together. Near them was constantly to be observed an Excrement of their own, distinct, for colour (the observation being made in a Dog plentifully fed for other purposes;) just as we find in worm-eaten tracks of wood, where the Coss [...] leave behind them the wood which hath pass'd through their bodies: These worms lay mostly with [Page 72] the small ends upward, as feeding upon and expecting the Chyle in its descent. These lumbrici lati were none of them above one foot long, and most of them of an equal length and bigness. The one end was as broad as my little finger-nail, and pointed like a lancet; the other end, coming small gradually for the whole length of the Animal, was knoted, or ended in a small button like a pin-head. They were every-where and in all parts of them alike milk white, of a flat and thin sub­stance like fine Tape, divided into infinite rings and incisures; each incisure having sharp angles, on both sides, looking to the broader end standing out beyond each other: else the sharp corners of the annuli would necessarily hinder the Ascent of the Animal; whereas, if the contrary be true, they serve to keep it up. Each ring hath also on the one side only, and that alterna­tely, one small pro [...]uberance, much like the midle feet of the body of some Caterpillers.

After I have thus described them to you, I desire you to view the Cut of Tulpius in the last years Edition of his Medic. Observat. l. 2. 42; where he retracts the first figure, given us in the Edition of that book in the year 1652. And yet I cannot say, that all in this last is true; for, to me, the rictus and eye in the there supposed head of the animal seem to be the meer fancies of the painter; not to say, that probably the smaller end is the head, which, indeed, is in this Cut wholly neglected. Comparing our Animals with that Cut of Tulpius, it was not very easy for me to observe, be­cause of the great resemblance, the specifick difference of the lumbrici lati of Men, and those of this Animal.

I was not so happy as to discover any motion in any part of them, in water or out of it, nor did they seem, if pricked or otherwise hurt, much if at all) to contract themselves or shorten the Annuli, so that they then ap­pea'd to me as things without motion or sense.

[Page 73] There is an other sort of lumbrici lati to be met with very [...]requently also in Dogs, called Cucurbitini from the likeness each annulus or link hath to a cucumber seed. I have found of them about half a foot long, but more often broken into shorter pieces. The former by us discribed is undoubtedly a compleat and entire Ani­mal; but there is great reason of suspition, that this is a chain of many Animals linked together. These Ani­mals for Kind have been observed to have been voided by Men, and found enclosed in a Gut or Membrane of a prodigous length: And (which is more notable,) a person of great integrity and worth, Mr, F. I. affirmed to me, that he once assisted at the opening of a Dog, in which one of the Kidneys was observed to be quite wasted and become a perfect bladder, and in that blad­der they found something like an Animal of a monstrous shape, which being dissected, was nothing else but a skin full of these lumbrici cucurbitini. V. Kerkring [...] Spic. Anat. Obs. 59. 79. It were to be desired, that such as have the oppertunity of such rare Phaenomena, as of Snakes, Lizards, Beetles, Catterpillers, Toads and such like things, as we read of in Medicinal histories to have been vomited, whether they are not the like disguises of this sort of Worms, much assisted by the surprised fancies of the first Observers.

And because these sort of Wormes are sometimes said to be found out of the Guts, their most proper place, we shall conclude with a very recent observation of the last month in this City. A Chirurgion brought me about 20 worms, which he had just then taken out of an ulcerated Ankle of a Girle of about eight years old. I had the curiosity to go my self and see it. I found the leg found all but the Ankle, which was vastly swell'd, and the Girle otherwise hearty and well coloured, She had been in great misery for some months; had been sent up to London, where she was touched and dressed [Page 74] for the Evil. Sometimes after her return, her pain con­tinuing, a young Puppy was opened and applyed to the Soars. The Chirurgeon, who took off the puppy, found it, to his great admiration, full of worms, at least 60. in number, what those he found in the body of the Puppy, and what he drew out of the soar Ankle; into which, he said, they crawled down as worms do into the Ground. The same puppy was again applyed, and it was then (at the second taking of the puppy) that I made the visit, and saw only one worm got out into the puppy, but a very live and stirring one. Many were afterwards kill'd injections. These worms I affirm, ac­cording to my best Knowledg, (and I had the opper­tunity of comparing them) were of the very Species of the Lumbrici teretes, which Children familiarly void from the Guts. They were betwixt three and four inches long; all, about the matter, of an equal bigness, as of one brood; something thicker than a Ducks quill; very sharp at both ends; stiff, and exactly round; without in­cisures, visible at least, and yet could move and twist themselves readily enough. All the difference was in the colour, these being much whiter than any I have seen from the Guts. Vid. Barthol. in Hist. 60. Cent. 5. where neer twenty worms, as long as my finger, were found in a Lady's arm, probably of this Species too.

I beg your pardon for my, &c.

Some Papers written about the same time to Mr. Olden­burgh, in whose hands they remained unpublished.

1. Paper.

THe passage of the Chyle through the Intestines, into the Lacteous Veins, is a thing hitherto demon­strated to the eye by none. Dr. Lowar ingeniously con­fesses [Page 57] the ill successe he had in trying with Air or ting­ed Spirit of Wine, by neither of which he was able to force a passage. And J. Wallaeus is very positive that however the Chyle in the Intestines may be divers­ly coloured, yet it is still white in the Lacteal Veins. (V. Epist. de mot [...]) Chyle. To this purpose Diembroock in his late anatomie * affirmes "Chylum semper album" inveniri in vasis lacteis mesenterij, & thoracic is— viridem verò rubrum alteriusve coloris in jis à nemine hactenus visum fuisse. p. 37. Notwithstanding which, and my own Insuccessfull Tryals, I did not doubt, but some happy Experiment would shew the con­trary; and a purposely coloured Chyle might find admit­tance into the Lacteal Veins, though not by force, yet by the consent and introduction of nature her self. The successe of some late Experiments we made to this purpose, we shall further acquaint you with.

1. Experiment, I caused a Dog to be fed, and after 4 hours, or therabouts (having ready by me a cleer Tin­cture of Indigo dissolved in fair water filtred) I opned the Abdomen, and making a small incision in the Jejunum, (as was formerly discribed) I injected one ounce or two. this done, the Gut and all we stitched up again, and the Dog turned upon his leggs. After one hour and one quarter we cut the stitches, where we beheld a copious distribution of Chyle and turgid Lacteal Veins, but as white as ever; And yet carefully searching the Guts, we perceived none of the liquor injected any where.

2. Experiment, An other Dog which was kept fasting 40. houres, a very little flesh, without water, given him, some 5 houres before the injection of the Tincture of Indigo, which was done after the same manner, as before related, only the Tincture was well warmed, and some 12. ounces throughn up the duodenum, and down the Ileon. Here were empty Guts, nor the least ap­pearance [Page 76] of any Lacteal Veins in the Mesenterie. After full 3 hours the stiches were cut again (some occasi­onal businesse hindring me from doing of it sooner) and carefully examining the Mesenterie, we found many Lacteal Veins of an azure colour, and cutting some of the biggest of them asunder we did plainly see a thick blewish Chyle to issue forth, and to spread it self over the transparant Membrane of the Mesenterie. This is a very truth, which the Chirurgion, I imployed to assist me in the Experiment can well witnesse, and whose eyes I used as well as my own in carefully examining these matters. whence, although it hath been doubted of by some, yet it is most evident, that the Lacteal Veins re­ceive, what they carry, from within the Cavitie of the Intestines.

As to the bunches of Glandulae within the Guts, I have observed them in several kinds of Animals at di­vers times, and do therefore think them natural and not adventitious or morbous, as some were pleased to object. These Glandulae protuberate, and are thereby visible in any part of the small Guts, where they are to be found. In the duodenum of a Dog, I have seen many clusters of them, some as broad as my nail, and all disposed in an oval figure, like the half of a Straw­berry, or Mulberry. They are very visible in the Guts of Mice, where each grain seems much larger than in a Dog. Again the part, where these Glandulae are, seems more thin than the rest of the Gut, and there­fore the Gut slit, and held betwixt the light of your eye these grains are very conspicuous. Further these Glandulae (like the rest of the Conglomerate kind) em­pty themselves into the Guts, which is manifest by the comparison of them, and therefore serve for the ex­cretion of some Saliva-like juices, but whether they may not also introduce the Chyle, I will not determine here.

A Second Letter writ about the same time; 1673. to the same Person.

I did not think of explaning my sense of the use of the Caecum until I had had the Leisure and opportunty of purposely examining the I [...]testines of most kind of Animals. But because I am much mistaken by the person, who, as you tell me, is desirous to be anonimous to me, him I mean who raised the scruples you sent me, upon the Second Paragraph, which says, the use of the Intestinum Caecum to be subservient to that of the Colon, and Rectum; manifest in such Animals where Nature in­tends a certain, and determinate Figure to the Excrements. I shall be forced to tell you, what I presume may prove, as neer the truth, as any one of the many con­jectures extant in Authors, about the unknown use of this part. I understand by determinate figure. First, the Excrements divided into many small parts of a like shape, such as Sheep, Deer, Conies, Rats, Mice, Horses Catterpillers, Some Snailes &c. doe void. Secondly, in a greater Latitude, I oppose figured Excrements to Liquid, as C. Celsus in some place doth; Thus the dung of Pigeons, and Geese, of Men, Dogs, Cats, &c. may be said to be figured. Now the Caecum, in my opinion, is subservient in some measure to the figuration of both, but most manifestly in the first kind. My meaning is that pro­bably the use of the Caecum is to keep the Excrements, that passe into its cavitie (and I believe all, or most part of them do in sound Animals) so long, until they are sufficiently drained, baked, hardned, or of a due consi­stence, (as clay is temperd for the mould) to receive the Figure to be given from the Colon and rectum. This use I say of the Caecum, seems to me to be much more manifest in such Animals, as have figured Excrements of the first kind. In Ratts for example, (whose Excre­ments [Page 78] are the most elegantly and constantly a like figu­red, of any Sanguineous Animal I have met with) the Caecum is more large, and capacious, than the stomack it self, and perhaps than all the small guts put toga­ther. But its use in receiving the Excrements or ex­hausted Chyle, is not more apparent, from its large capacity; than that other of further draining and tem­pering them to a stiffnesse, for the service of the Co­lon, from the admirable contrivance, and structure, of this latter Gut, which is a Phaenomon that deserves further consideration: it is I say to be noted, that im­mediately under the Value of that Gut, in this Ani­mal, are certain Spiral Fibres, which make a kind of screw. Now it seems to me, that the Excrements, after they are brought to a due Consistence by the Necessarie stay they make in the Caecum, and being car­ried out thence into the Spiral folding, or screw of the Colon, cannot descend in a perpendicular, as formerly through the small Guts, but still gently glide very lei­surly by the vinding of the screw; whence arises their Figure.

And I am apt to believe, that if the Caecum of a Ratt, or any of the first kind of Animals mentioned, was tyed up, or otherwise hindred from its receit, the Animals would unavoidably fall into a Diarrhaea: there being, I say, no reason, that I can foresee, why the yet liquid Excrements or exhausted Chyle, such as we constantly find it, even at the very bottom of the small Gut, should slop at the entrance of the Colon, and not speedly glide through the screw, in a down right descent, that is, elude the devise of nature, and make the configuration of that so curiously contrived part uselesse, we I say supposing the Experiment to have taken away the ne­cessarie Diverticulum and repositarie of the unprepared Excrements, in tying up the Caecum.

[Page 79] I know not, whether the observation will hold good in general Terms, because I say, I have not yet pur­posily examined divers Animals in nature, viz. That the more accurately figured the Excrements of any A­nimal are, the more capacious is the Caecum, and on the contrary the lesse figured and liquid they are, the lesser the Caecum, or none at all. This is true certainly that some Animals, which are naturally loose have no Caecum at all or very little, as the Talpa, the Echinus terrestris the Gulo, a certian kind of voracious Woolfe, mentioned by Bartholine in his Observations.

We shall not trouble you at present with our obser­vations concerning the different Figure of Excrements in the divers Species of Animals already by us examin­ed, nor of the place and of their becoming so figured. Also we shall passe by our thought for the present of the manner of the Caecums reception and preparing the Excrements.

For the Colon, we likewise sorbear to offer some doubts we have, concerning natures end, in the neces­sarie Figuration of Excrements in some Animals, as first to prevent Diarrhaeàs; Secondly to abide hunger the better; thus Snails in Winter rest with full Intes­tines; Thirdly to heighten the firmentation and diges­tion of the stomack and small guts.

What we have hastly writ at present, being only in­tended for the better uuderstanding of that Paragraph, and not all that this subject would incite me to say.

If it shall be objected, that grant the reception of the exhausted Chyle to be made in the Caecum, before it passe into the Colon: yet it seems that either we must give a power of choice to the Caecum, or what just comes in, will first be thrown out, it still being uppermost, that is, the lesse prepared excrement. I answer, that I do not conceive, what choiee or distinction Sheep, can [Page 80] make of the meat not ruminated, in the stomack, from that, which is but just now ruminated, and swallowed down, since all the many stomacks of a sheep are but one stomack and but one Gula, that is, in that respect of ruminating the stomack and Gula of a Sheep or Cow, is an other Caecum; and yet in ruminating nature has its aime, and chews not things oftner over, than needs must; the like we think of the office of the Caecum, which parts only with what is duly prepared, and retains the yet liquid Excerment.

3 Paper. Some probable thoughts of the whitenesse of Chyle; and what it is after it is conveyed within the Arteries: Com­municated much about the same time with the former. N. B. I am not altogether of the same Opinion Now; yet, they were my thoughts than.

1. IN digestion of meat in the stomack, there is made a Separation or solution of Urinous salts; no ot­herwise, than in the rotting of Animals, or Plants.

2. The Chyle is hughly impregnate with this Urin­ous Salts.

3. The Whitenesse of the Chyle is from the Ferm­entation it hath from its mixture with Urinous salts; and that if desolv'd with fair water, it is wholly de­prived of that colour, the firmentation ceasing.

4. The Salt Chyle is conveyed into the Venal blood, and with it enters the heart; and it is thence thrown out, Chyle as it comes in by a continued pulsation into the Artery.

5. That as oft as it enters the emulgent Arteries, it there leaves behind it part of its salinous liquour or Urine, and consequently abates of its colour.

6. That when sufficiently freed of its Urinous salt, it becomes a Lympha; which we think nothing else, but the residue of the Chyle, not yes made into the nature [Page 81] of blood, as not sufficiently depurate of its Saline Particles.

7. That probably it circulates long under the na­ture of a Lympha; after visiting all the parts of the body by the Arteries, and returning again to the Hart, partly by its own vessells, and partly by the veins.

8. That in defect of Chyle (for we cannot constant­ly feed) nature continually supplys the Masse of blood with the Lympha, or old Chyle.

9. That upon every supply of fresh Chyle, much of the old stock or Lympha is (according to the necessitie of parts) converted to this or that use: and not till than.

10. That there is ever, more Lympha in the masse of blood, than there is need off for the diluting of it. the Arterial blood (be the Animal never so much ex­hausted by hunger) always parting with some upon extravasation and coagulation.

11. In the Coagulation of extravasate blood there is no praecipitation of parts, as in curdled Milk &c. for if the Chyle be freshly distributed into the Masse of blood, it will again separate it self, as Oyl will from water; and in like manner is it with the Lympha or old Chyle, neither of them being as any essential part of the blood.

12. The Venal and Arterial blood have probably both a like quantity of Lympha to dilute them; but the Arte­rial in Coagulating involves within its Crassamentum more than the Venal: the reason may be, for that the Ar­terial is fuller of air, which rarifies and renders the Ar­terial Crassamentum more porous and capacious, of lodg­ing the Lympha: which yet as it subsides by long stand­ing, parts with and lets goe more and more Lympha.

13. The great Instrument of Circulation is the Sy­stole or Vibration of the Heart; which yet would not be sufficient from hindring the Coagulation of the blood, [Page 82] without a continual supply of Lympha to dilute it.

An Account of two uncommon Mineral Substances, viz. of Bitumen, and a White Liquor. January 7. 1674.

SIR,

THat this Letter may be the more acceptable to you, I shall communicate some Excerpta, taken out of the Letters, which that Inqusitive and Learn'd Gentleman Mr. Jessop is pleased to honour me with. I will give, (saith he) the best answer I can in short to the Questions, you put to me in your last.

1. The Fungus subterraneous, I sent you a large quan­tity of, was gotten in a Rocky Lime-stone ground, on a Common about two miles distant from Castleton in the Peake of Darby-shire, 15 or 16 yards deep, in the Old man (as they call a Mine formerly wrought and stopt up) covered with earth, that had either fallen or was thorwn in. There is no coal-bed that is knowu of within five or six miles of the place.

Of this Fungus, by Mr. Jessops procurement, I recei­ved a good quantity; and yet I am not able to say, in what form it grows. It does not seem to me to have any constant shape; at least the pieces that I receiv'd are much like Pears or Turff, cut up in the high moosr, bothe in the sooty colour and inward substance; this ouly is more clammy and tough, and dries not. And some of the fungous substance is very soft and like gel [...]y. In and about the more solid pieces, (of which I have some, half a soot square,) are many big lumps of a bituminous substance. This bitumen is very inflammable like Rosin; it is very light, it breaks firm, and shines like good Aloes; and for colour, it is not much unlike it, save that it is more dark color'd and purplish; yet there is much of it of a dark green colour. We di­still'd a parcel of it, which yielded us an Acidulous lim­pid [Page 83] water; then, a white liquor, which was, I guess, from some of the Oily parts precipitate. And in the last place, a copious yellow Oyl, not unlike that of Suc­cinum or Pitch. In the neck of the Retort we could discern no Volatil Salt, as in the like process upon Am­ber. Whether this ows its Original to a Vegetable, or is truly a concret Mineral Juyce and a fossil Bitumen I forbear to determine. I have not read of any such fungous Earth, in which bitumen naturally grows and adheres: And the finding of it in an Old mine doth much favour the first opinion of being a Vegetable substance; either the very substance of the props of Wood, they make use of in lining and supporting the Grooves, thus alter'd, or certain fungus's growing out of them. That Birch, (of which there is great plenty and hath been vast woods all these mountanous parts of England over) will yeild a bitumen, as limpid as the sap is which runs from it by tapping, if we now had the skill to extract it, Pliny is very express, l. 16. c. 18. Bitumen ex Betula Galli ex­c [...]quunt. And more-over it is certain, that much of that wood, if not all, which is dugg up in the high moors of Craven, and which the people there call and use for Candle-wood, is no other than Birch, as it appears from the grain and bark; and yet this wood kindleth flames, and exudats a rosin, which makes many pronounce it very Firr-wood. Whatever this bitumen is, which this Fungus subterraneous yeilds, it much differs from the As­phal [...]um of the Shopps; and you may command a Spe­cimen of it, that it may be better examin'd by more skilful Naturalists.

2. There is an other Mineral Juyce in these parts of England, which I have much inquir'd after, and long­ed to see; and now I am likely to be satisfied, as you may think by Mr. Jessops words: Captain Wain, (saith he) a diligent and knowing person in Mines, gave me a [Page 84] White Liquor, resembling Cream both in colour and con­sistance, which he found in great quantities at the bot­tom of a Coal-pit, 49 yards deep, which I reserve for you. But this is not all the information that hath been given me about this White Liquor. Mr. George Plaxton, a cu­rious and very intelligent person, writes thus to me from Sheriff Hales in Shropshire: I shall trouble you with an Observation, I lately met with in our Iron-mines, especially that which the Country people here call the White Mine, which yeilds the best Iron-stone. The Miners do commonly, upon the breaking of a Stone, meet with a great quantity of a whitish milky Liquor, inclosed in the Center of it; they sometimes find a Hogshead contain, d in one cavity. 'Tis in taste sweetish; only it hath a Vit­riolick and Iron-like twang with it.

A Description of certain Stones, figured like Plants, York Novemb. 4th. 1673.

IN this paper I send you an Account of some of the Parts of certain Stones figured like Plants; which Argicola (5 Fossilium) calls Trochitae, and the com­pound ones Entrochi; we in English, St. Cutberds beads.

Agricola will have them akin for substance to the La­pides Judaici; and, indeed, these are of an opaque and dark coloured Sparr; though I have of them from some parts of England of a white Sparr or Cawke, as our Miners call it: They all break like Flint, polished and shining.

Put into Vinegar (saith he) they buble: Atque etiam reperitur interdum qui se tanquam Astroites moveat de loco. But this is true of all Fossils of what figrue so ever, that Vinegar will corrode and dissolve as a Men­struum; provided they be broken into indifferent small grains, and the bottom of the Vessel hinder not, they [Page 85] will be moved from place to place by it.

The figure of the Trochitae is cylindrical; the out­most round or Circle (we speak of one single joynt, which Agricola calls Trochites) is in general smooth, both the flat-sides are thick drawn with fine and smal rayes, from a certain hole in the middle to the circum­ference. From the shooting of these rayes like Anti­monie, and because a large Peice of this Stone of many joynts resembles the bole of a Tree, Aldrovandus (who yet elsewhere discourses of this Stone, after Agricola and Gesner, under the name of Trochitae and Entrochi) not improperly terms it (Musae: Metallici lib. 1. pag. 188.) Stelechites Stibii facie; and there gives us a true [...]igure of it. Two, three, or more of these Trochitae joyned together, make up that other Stone, which he calls En­trochos. The Trochite or single joynts are so together, that the Rayes of the one enter into the other Furrows, as in the Sutures of the skill. Hitherto we agree to what Agricola, Gesner, Boetius, Aldrovandus, and Wormius have said of them: We proceed upon our own Observations, which go much further.

The Places where we find them very plentifully, are certain Scarrs in Braughton and Stock, little Villages in Craven. The Stones of the abovesaid described Figure, as many as have yet come to my hands from those places, have afforded us these Particulars. As to their bigness, I never yet met with any much above two inches about; others there are as small as the smallest pinn, and of all magnitudes betwixt those proportions. These are all broken bodies; some shorter Pieces, some longer, and of them, indeed, Trochitae, that is, but single joynts. I never fonnd one intire piece much above two inches long, and that very rarely too; in some of which long pieces, I have reckned about 30 joynts. And as they are all broken bodies, so are they found dejected and [Page 86] lying confusedly in the Rock, which in some places, is soft and shelly (as they call it,) that is, rotten and perished with the wet and air. And though in some places they are but sprinkled here and there in the Rock, yet there are whole bedds of Rock of vast extent, which are made up of these, and other figur­ed Stones, as Bivalve, Serpentine, Turbinate, &c. as at Braughton.

As to the injuries they have received in their re­moval from the natural posture, if not place of their growth and formation, they are manifest. For, besides their being all broken bodies, we find many of them depressed and crushed, as if the joynt of a hollow▪

Cae should be trod under foot: These Crushes be­ing also real Cracks of a stone or glass. Again these stones consisting of many vertebrae or joynts, they are many of them strangely dislocated; sometimes two, three, or more of the joynts in a Piece are slipped and out of order or rank, and sometimes a whole series of joynts, as when a pack of Crown pieces leans obliquely upon a Table. Futher, others I have that are twisted like a Cord, if this possibly may be reckoned amongst the injuries. Lastly, some have their joynts, indeed, even and in file, but are yet stuffed with a forrain mat­ter, as when bricks are layed in motrer.

There is great variety as to the thickness of the Tro­chitae or single joynts: some are so thin, that they are scarce the full of the 24th. part of an inch; others are a full quarter of an inch thick; of these latter I only found at Stock: These, I say, are the extream propor­tions, as far as my Observations have yet gone; there are joynts of all measures betwixt those two Extreams. This is true in divers Pieces, for mostly the joynts are of an equal thickness in one and the same Piece. Note, that there are slender and small Entrochi or Pieces, [Page 87] which have as thick joynts, as the biggest and fairest Pieces.

There is also some difference in the seames or clo­sing of the joynts: Some are but seemingly joynted; which appears by this, that if they be eaten down a while in distilled vineger, the seeming Suturs will vanish, as in some I had out of Stafford-shire, from about Be­resford upon the Dove: Others and all here at Braugh­ton and Stock are really joynted, and the Sutures in­dented; which indentures being from the terminating of the rayes, they are more fair or large, according to the differenc of the rayes, but even, equal, and regular.

We have said, that generally the outmost Circle of each joynt is flat and smooth; yet are there many o­ther differences to be noted as to that Part: Very por­bably because they are Parts or Pieces of different Species of rock-Plants.

1. That the smooth-joynted (to say no more of them here) are of different thicknesses as to the joynts.

2. On some Entrochi betwixt, Suture and Suture in the middle of each joynt, are certain Knots in a Cir­cle; the joynts thus distinguished are very deep and large, and are very frequent at Stock.

3. There are likewise of these with a circle of knots, which have many knots besides upon each joynt and look rugged.

4. Some with much thinner joynts, which yet have a Circle of knots in the middle of joynt; and this also looks as though it was all over knotted, and these are found at Braughton only, as far as I know.

5. As some have but one Circle of knots, others, are knotted all over the joynt and rought; so are there some others, which have a Circle of larger knots in the middle of each joynt, and a circle of lesser on each side close adjoyning to the border or verge of the [Page 88] Suture. This is huge pretty, and they are found at Stock.

6. Others betwixt Suture and Suture in the middle of each joynt rise with a circular edge.

7. A smooth Entrochos with a large or much risen edg on the middle of one of the joynts, and a much smaller on the middle of an other joynt and that at­lernatively.

8. The same alternate difference, the joynts only much rounder and blunt, and here the joynts are vi­sibly one thicker than the other.

9. The same with alternate edges knotted.

10. A double edg in the middle of every joynt; this makes the joynts look as though they were exceeding thin and numerous, but indeed they are not so.

11. A double edg in the middle of every joynt knotted by intervals, or as it were serrate edges.

And these are some of the differences, that I have at present been able to make out. Some of the Pieces of most, if not all, of the differences of these Entrochi are ramous, having lesser branches deduced from the grea­ter, and that without order. Some have but few branches on a Piece; others I find so thick of branches, that they resemble a ragged Staff. These Branches are deep inserted within the stemm, and by being separated, leave great holes in the sides of it. The rayes in the joynts of the branches run cross to the rayes of the stemm. On thick stemms, are somtimes very small branches, but mostly the bigger the Stem the thicker the branches. Some of these branches are branched again: Yet I find not any of them above one inch intire, and yet adher­ing and inserted into its stock o bole, and for the most part not above a joynt or two. The Branches are known from the stemm, by being a little crooked and some­thing tapering or Conic.

We meet but with few Pieces (besides the branches) [Page 89] that are not exactly Cylindrical, setting aside the in­juries above mentioned, that is, that are not as thick at one end as at the other, and perfectly round, notwith­standing that we said, that there are of them of all de­grees of magnitude within the proportions above-named.

And, as we said, it is rare to meet with a Piece, that is not exactly cylindrical; so amongst those few that are not so, some we find tapering at both Ends, and much swelled in the middle. And this is the other Species of this Stone, according to the division of Agricola: En­trochi duae sunt Species; aut enim aequaliter teres est; aut teres quidem, sed par [...] ejus media tumet, utrumque caput angustius est. But this must not be understood, as though both ends were compleat; for these, are but bro­ken Pieces, as the rest, more swelled in the middle.

Others there are figured like a kind of Fruit, or La­pis Judaicus; but these also are truly Entrochi, and are joynted notwithstanding this shape. Upon a small Stalk of two or three joynts is suddainly raised an Oval bot­tom, broken off also at both ends.

To these we shall add what seems to have been sum­mitates or fastigia; long and slender Pieces with a lit­tle jointed buttom, hollow on the very top; which top seems not to have been divided or broken off from any thing else.

I must not forget, that as they are hollow in the mid­dle (and so it was easy to string them like beads, which gave occasion to the English name;) so these hollows are someetimes filled with earth, and sometimes an other Entrochos is inclosed like a pair of screws, and which is (as it were) pith to the other. Of these inward Entrochi some I have which are transparent. Note, that the hollows or piths are of different bores, but most are round. And yet there are of them in great plenty at Stock, whose hollow in the middle is in the elegant fa­shion of a Cinquefoil; and the rayes of the joynts of [Page 90] Entrochi are much deeper and fewer in number, than of any other yet observed by me. These are smooth-joynted. This is most surprising, and I know not any Vegetable, whose Pith is perforate in such a manner.

Lastly we in these Rocks find rude Stones, of the big­ness of Walnuts, which have many impressions of Tro­chitae upon them, as though they had been the roots of them. And when these have been a little cleansed in Vinegar, these impressions appear more than casual; for, the substance that covers them (if not the Stones themselves) is Sparr, and the impressions are round holes, which, we said above, the Branches made in the sides of the stock, when broken out from them. Agri­cola makes mention of these also: Saepenumero lapis in­formis reperitur unà cum Trochite & Entrocho, Rotae in se continens figuram; quae in eo quasi quaedam radix, Tro­chitis jam abruptis, remansit.

Although there are indeed certain lapides informes, which may with some colour be thought to have been the Roots, from whence some Entrochi have been bro­ken; yet are not all such lumps of Stone, on which we discern the Vestigia of Entrochi to be called lapides in­formes, some of them being most elegantly figured. One or two of them, which I found intire and compleat at Stock, amongst very many others strangely shattered and defaced, I shall describe to you.

1. The first is in the fashion of a Pine Apple or Cone, with a hollow bottom: On the very Top is the round figure of an Entrochos broken off; round about the bot­tom or basis are five single feet at equal distances, in the figure of Crescents. This Stone is incrustate or made up of angular Plates; viz. the bottom is composed of five plates, which we call Feet; the middle of the Stone of five other plates, all of a Sexangular figure; and the Top Stone. All other plates are smooth on the outside.

2. The sccond is a large Stone of the bigness of a [Page 91] Walnut, much after the pyramidal fashion of the other; the bottom convex, about one inch and a quarter over; on the top is the lively impression of an Entrochos bro­ken off, or rather a Trochites yet remaining; round the Basis are five double points or Feet at equal distances, all broken of somewhat in the figure of Crescents. This Stone also is incrustate or covered with Sex-angular plates, which are rough. I can compare the inc [...]ustating of these stones to nothing so well, as to the skins of the Piscis Tringularis, which Margravius describes: Cu­jus Cutis (nam caret squamis) figuris Trigonis, tetra­gonis, pentagonis, hexagonisque mire distinguitur & no­tatur.

Of these figured plates I find so great variety in the Rocks, both as to the number of Angles and other beauti­ful Ornaments, that it has caused in me great admiration. And it will not be amiss▪ since they manifestly belong, as parts, to the above described stones, to enumerate them, at least, as many as have yet come to my hands. Some of these angular plates, I said, are yet visible in their natural place and posture in the described stones: But I find the greatest part of them broken up and heap­ed together in great confusion in the Rocks. And it will be as hard to set them together, as to skill to tell you, what the figure of an intire Entrochos (or the stone to which all the above described parts seem to belong) is: But we will omit no part, that we can justly say belongs unto it. We shall begin with Pentagonous plates.

1. The first is a Pentagonous Stone, as broad as my thumb-nail (we speak of the fairest of them,) hollow on the one side, like a Dish; convex on the other side, where are certain eminent knots, about the bigness of small pinn-heads, set iu a kind of square order: This plate is somewhat thinn at the edges and yet blunt.

2. The second is also Pentagonous, and not much nar­rower [Page 92] than the other: It is, indeed, somewhat convex above, but not hollow underneath; it is smooth on both sides, at least without those eminent knots, which are so remarkable in the other plate: The edges of these are as thinn as of a knife, and sharp.

3. The third Pentagonous Plate is not near so broad, as either of the former; yet one I found amongst a 100 of this sort, that is full as any of the above described: These are all convex on the one side and somewhat hol­low on the other; thick edged; one of the 5 sides only is indented; the indented side is ever the thinnest, and the stone is most sloped towards that side. Note, that there are many amongst these last indented sorts of pla­tes, which are channelled on the concave side and o­therwise notched.

4. All these Pentagonous plates are to be found plen­tifully at Braughton or Stock. But I shall not omit in this place the mentioning of one, I by chance espied a­mongst certain figured Stons, which I had out of the Quarrie near Wansford-bridg in Northamptonshire, and it probably belongs to these kind of plates I am now in hand with. It has one of the five sides thick indented; the convex part has in the middle a raised Vmbo, like some antient shields, and round about the sides list of smaller Studds. We have since had some plates much like this from Bugthorp under the Woolds in York-shire. We proceed to remarke some differences in the sex­angular plates.

5. All these stones are but small, save here and there one: The first of them is but little hollow on the one side, and convex-side most elegantly wrought with rais­ed or embossed work, that is, with an equilateral tri­angle bestriding each Corner, and a single right line in the midst; or, if you will, two Triangles one within a­nother. These we found at [...]raughton-fear only.

6. That Plate-stone which is most common in these [Page 93] Rocks, there being a 1000 of these to be found for one of the other, is sexangular, a little hollow on the one side and convex side or scabrous only; some are much thicker than others; some being as thick as broad, but most are Plate-like; the sides are very unequal, as in Crystals; sometimes five broader sides and one very small; again two sides broad and four much narrower, and infinite other differences as to the inequality of Sides.

Words are but the arbitrary symboles of things, and perhaps I have not used them to the best advantage. Good Design (and such is that I send you, done by that ingenious young Gentleman and excellent Artist, my very good friend, Mr. William Lodge.) or the things themselves, which I have all by me, would make these particulars much more intelligible and plain to you.

The Explication of the Figures. See Tab. I.

1. A Trochites or single joynt with very fine and small Rayes.

2. A Trochites or single joynt with the pith bored through, in the fashion of cinquefoil.

3. A Trochites or single joynt, of an Oval figure, the rayes scarce apparent and a very small point in the place of the pith.

4. A single joynt or two of a middle size, with the pith exceeding large.

5. A pack of single joynts dislocated, and yet adhering in their natural order.

6. A very long Entrochos or a piece of many smooth joynts with the branches broken off.

7. An Entrochos with smooth joynts not branched.

8. The biggest Entrochos I have yet seen, with stumps of branches.

9. A smooth Entrochos with very thin and numerous joynts.

10. The largest or deepest joynted Entrochos, save the oval one noted in the third figure.

[Page 94] 11. An Entrochos with very many disorderly knots in each joynt.

12. An Entrochos with one only single Circle of knots in the middle of each joynt.

13. An Entrochos with three Circles of knots.

14. A smooth Entrochos, with a large and much risen edge in the middle of each joynt.

15. Alternate joynts round or blunt.

16. A double edg in the middle of each joynt.

17. Alternate joynts, edged.

18. 19. 20. Certain other differences noted in the Pa­per, but not pefectly exprest in the Design.

21. An Entrochos with a branch of a good length.

22. A branch of an Entrochos knocked off.

23. An Entrochos fruit-like.

24. A fastigium or Summitas.

25. A radix of an Entrochos in Prospective: where A is a joynt or Trochites yet remaining, whence an En­trochos was broken off. C. E. F. D. are four of the double feet; the 5th. being hid.

26. The same radix to be seen at the best advantage: A the Trochites or basis: C. B. D. E. F. the five dou­ble Feet. Note also the sex-angular rough plates, which incrustate the stone or cover it all over.

27. A smaller Radix with smooth plates and five single Feet: H. the top stone. I. one of the five Feet. K. one of the five angular plates which incurstate the middle of the stone. G. the basis, Also the same stone in prospective. G. the same with the hollow bottom upwards.

Figures of Plates supposed to incurstate divers roots.

28. A pentagonous plate knotted.

29. A thinn edged smooth pentagonous plate.

30. An indented pentagonous plate.

31. The Northamptonshire pentagonous plate.

[Page 95] 32. A large pentagonous smooth plate.

33. An hexagonous plate imbossed with angles

34. An hexagonous plate, as deep as broad.

35. 37. Odd figured plates.

36. A quadrangular plate ribbed and indented.

A Letter concerning Snails, with Tables about that sort of Insects. York. March. 12. 1673.

I Herewith send you the first part of our Tables of Snails, and some Quaere's upon that subject, I reserve by me the Sea-shells and Rock-stones. That part, I send you at present, being at a stand with me, these o­ther increase upon my hands daily; which though that be not a sign of perfection (for there is undoubted work for many ages,) yet it is of good advancement and pro­gress; this other of the copiousness of the subject. A­gain, in that part of the Tables, you have from me, Authors are very little concern'd; in the others of Sea-shells and Stone-like Shells there are many authors, which are to be consulted and taken in, if possibly we can un­derstand them treating of the same species. As for Rcok-shells in particular, they come in to me in greater num­bers, than I could ever have imagined. And I can assure you, that of near 30 Species, I have now by me, found in this County alone, not any one can be sampled by any Sea, Fresh-water or Land-Snail, that I have, or ever saw. So that you see, I have still good reason to doubt of their Original, besides many other arguments that my Observations about Fossils do afford, and which you may possibly one day see. And that there are the ele­gant representations of even Bivalve-shells, which never ow'd their original to any Animal, I can demonstrate; and think none, that hath considered the thing with me, yet hath denyed: Of which hereafter. But whether [Page 96] all be so or no, I choose this method, as the most con­vincing, viz. to give a Comparati e view.

Some general Quaere's concerning Land and Fresh-water Snails.

1. Whether there are other Shell-snails at land, than Turbinate;

2. Whether this kind of Insect are truly Androgyna, and equally participate of both Sexes, as Mr. Ray first obseru'd; and whether both them two, which shall be found in the act of Venery, do accordingly spawn, or lay those perfectly round and clear Eggs so frequently to be met with in the surface of the Earth and in the Water too; and the circumstances of those Eggs hatching?

3. Whether the way of fatting Snails, in use amongst the Romans, that is, to make little paved places incir­cled with water, be not also very expedient in order to the true noting the manner of their Generation?

4. What light the Anatomy of this Kind of Insect may give to the rest?

5. Whether the black spots, observable in the horns of some Snails, are Eyes, as some Authors affirm, and not rather parts equivalent to the antennae of other In­sect; as the flat and exceeding thin shape, also the branch­ed horns, in other Species of Snails seem to confirm?

6. Whether the coccinea Snails, which some of our Water-snails freely and plentifully yield, be not a Sali­va rather than an extravasated blood: The like may be thought of the Juyce of the Purple-fish, now out of use, since the great plenty of Cochineil?

7. In what sort of Snails are the Stones, mentioned by the Antients, to be found? And whether they are not to be found (in such as yield them) at certain times of the year? And whether they are a cure for a Quar­tan; or what other real vertues they have?

[Page 97] 8. What medicinal vertues Snails may have, as re­storative to Hectic persons; and what credit the Romans may deserve, counting them, especially the necks of them, highly venereal; Celsus also particularly commend­ing them to be boni succi, and stomacho aptas.

9. Also inquire concerning the Mechanical uses of the Saliva of these animals, as in dying, whitening of wax, hair, &c.

Cochlearum Angliae Tabula.
  • Cochleae
    • Fluviatiles
      • Testaceae, seu testis contectae.
      • Turbina [...]ae
        • Breviore figurâ, testae apertura clausa
          • Operculo è saliva confecto, tantùm ad hyemem. Num. IV.
          • Operculo testaceo Num. I.
        • Longiore figurâ, sive Buccina, convolutae
          • à dextrâ versus sinistram. Num. IV.
          • à sinistrâ versus dextram. Num. II.
        • Compressae Num. III.
      • Nudae, Limaces quibusdam dictae. Num. III.
    • Terrestres
      • Turbinatae
        • Validiore testa, operculo testaceo clausa. Num. III.
        • tenui, pellucid â, semper aperta; convolutae
          • à siextrâ in sinistram. Num. IV.
          • à finistrâ dextram versus. Num. I.
        • Compressâ testâ, Coccum sundentes. N. III.
      • Bivalves, Musculi quibusdam dict. Num. III.
      • Univalvis, Patella dicta. Num. I.

Some Observations and Experiments made, and in a Letter communicated to the Publisher, For the R. Society. Philosophical Transactions, N. 10.

I Shall venture to entertain you at present with a few loose Notes, which you will be pleas'd to take in good part, and dispose of them as you think fitting.

I. Of the Efforescence of certain Mineral Glebes.

I keep by me certain big pieces of crude Allom-Mine, such as it was taken out of the Rock. I had also in the same Cabinet like peices of the ordinary Fire-stone or Marcasite of the Coal-pits, which here we call Brass lumps. In process of time both these Glebes shot forth Tufts of long and slender fibres or threads; some of them half an inch long, bended and curled like hairs. In both these Glebes, these Tufts were in some mea­sure transparnt and crystalline. These Tufts did as often repullulate, as they were struck and wiped clean off.

Herein these fibres differ'd in tast; the All [...]minous very Allomy and pleasantly pungent; the Vitriolick stiptique and odious. Again, the Allom-ones, being di­ssolv'd in fair water, raised a small ebullition; whereas the Vitriolick fibres dissolved quietly. The Allom-fibres were generally smaller, and more opaque, snow-like; the Vitriolick larger, many fibres equalling an horse-hair in thickness, and more crystalline.

The water, wherein the Allom-fibres were dissolv'd did give no red Tincture with Gall; not by all the means I could devise to assist them; whatever hath (and that with great confidence) been said to the contrary, by some of the Writers of our York-shire Spaws: The Vit­riolick did immediately give a purple tincture with Gall.

Having laid pieces of the same Marcasite in a Cellar, they were in a few moneths cover'd over with green Copperas, which was these Fibres shot and perhapps again dissolved by the moist Air, clodder'd and run together.

[Page 99] Exposing other pieces of the same Vitriolick Glebe in my window, where the Sun came, they were cover'd over with a white farinaceous matter, that is, with these Fibres calcined by the rays of the Sun and warm Air, beating upon them.

Of what figure these Fibres were, whether round or angular, I could not well discern. But I take these fib­rous and thread-like shootings of Allom and Vitriol to be most genuine and natural; and their Angular shoot­ings, after solution, into Cubes and Rhomboides, to be forc't and accidental; Salts of very different natures, as well Vegetable as Fossile, by a like process in cry­stallizing of them, being observ'd to shoot into like figures. But this is not my purpose at this time.

II. Of an odd figured IRIS.

I have not observ'd any Rock or sort of stone, whether Metalline or more Vulgar, which hath not its differ­ent sort of Sparr, shot in some part or other of its bed or seams. And these Sparrs differ not only in their Co­lours and other accidents, but eminently too in their Figure. To pass by divers, which I have collected, I shall describe one of a very curious Figure, and which (though very common in our blew-Lime-stone Rocks, out of which plently of Lead-Ore is got,) yet is not, that I know of, mention'd by any Author.

These Crystals are mostly of a black water, like the black flint in Chawk-hills; but there are of them, which have a purplish or amethystine colour; and there are as clear as crystal. They adhere to the seams of the rock, be it betwixt bed and bed, or where-ever there are cross and oblique veins through the very substance of the bed.

The smaller the veins, the less the Iris. You will find of them as small as wheat-corns, and others an hundred times bigger. They shoot from both sides the the seam, and mutually receive one the other.

[Page 100] They are figured thus, viz. a column consists of three quin-angular plains, very little rais'd in the middle: these plains too are very unequal. Let them hug one another, or be any ways straightned and compressed in their shooting; yet the number of plains meution'd, both of the column and top, is most certain. The pla­ces, where infinite of them may be had, are Rainsbo­rough Scarr upon the Rible; also in a Stone-quarry near Eshton Tarne in Craven.

III. Glossopetra tricuspis non-serrata.

Mr. Ray in his Travels hath these words concerning the Glossopetrae, pag. 115. Of the Glossopetrae (saith he) I have not yet heard, that there have been any found in England; which I do not a little wonder at, there being Sharks frequently taken upon our Coasts. I have had out of the Isle of Shepy in the River of Thames, very Sharks teeth dug up there; which could not be said to be petrifi'd; though, at our first receiving them; but they were white, and in a short time came to their natural colour.

In the Stone-quarries in Hinderskels-Park near Mal­ton, I had this stone (the scheme whereof I send you;) the greatest rarity of this kind I ever met with, and which I took out of the rock there my self. It is a fair Glossopetra with 3 points, of a black liver-colour, and smooth; its edges are not serreate; its basis is (like the true teeth) of a rugged substance; it is carved round, the basis with imbossed work: It hath certain emiuent ridges or lines like rays drawn from the basis to each point.

IV. Of certain Dactili Idaei, or the true Lapides Ju­daici, for kind found with us.

The Stones call'd Dactili Idaei and Lapides Judaici, are brought over to us from beyond Seas in divers [Page 101] shapes; and some of them are described in Authors. We have plenty of them for kind in these parts, as in the Stone-qurries at Newton near Hemsley, and at Helling­ley by Malton. There is some variety in the figure of them here also; but the most common one in these rocks is after the fashion of a Date-stone, round and long, about an inch, and sometime longer. They are a little swelled in the middle, and narrower towards each end: They are channelled the length-way, and upon the ridges knotted or purled all over with small knots, set in a quincunx-order. The inward substance is a white opaque Sparr, and breaks smooth like a flint; not at all hollow in the middle, as are the Belemnites:

V. Of the Electrical power of Stones in relation to a Vegetable Rosin.

It so hapned, that having occasion in July to view certain Fossils, which I had dispos'd of into divers Draw­ers in a Cabinet made of Barmoudos Cedar, I observ'd many of the stones to be thick-cover'd over with a liquid Rosin like Venice Turpentine. Examining further, there was not a Drawer, wherein there was not some more some fewer stones thus drenched.

That this could be no mistake, as from dropping, the bottoms of the Drawers are of Oak. Again, many stones, which were lapped up in papers, were yet wholly infected and cover'd with this Rosin. Besides, after diligent search there appear'd no manner of exudation in any part of the Cabinet.

Two thing, I thoughts very remarkable: 1. That of the many sorts of Stones I therein had, divers escaped, but not any of the Haematites-kind; having therein Manganes, Scistos, Botryides, &c. which were all deeply concern'd. 2. That amongst perhaps 500 pieces, of the Astroites here and there one or two in an appartment, and sometimes more, were seised, and the rest dry; [Page 102] as it fares with people in the time of the Plague in one and the same house. I further observed, that stones of a soft and open grain, as well as those of a hard and polish't supeficies, were concern'd in a manner alike.

'Tis certain, that the whole body of the Turpentine of the Cedar-wood was carried forth into the Air, and floating therein was again condensed into its own pro­per form upon these stones.

This makes it more than probable, that Odoriserous bodies emit and spend their very substante. Thus Cam­phir is said, if not well secured, totally to fly away. Again, it is hence evident, that there is great difference betwixt the Distillation of Vegetable Juyces, and the Emission of Effluviums or this natural Distillation; that really separating and dividing the substance into diffe­rent parts; but this carrying out the whole entirely and un-alter'd in its nature.

VI. Of the Flowers and Seed of Mushroms.

The general received opinion of Botanists concern­ing Mushroms is that, which Caspar Bauhinus in his Pinax expresses in these few words, viz. Fungi ne (que) plantae, ne (que) radices, ne (que) flores, ne (que) semina sunt; sed nihil aliud quàm terrae, arborum, lignorum putridorum, alia­rumqe, putrilaginum humiditates superfluae. I am of the opinion, that they are Plants of their owu kind, and have more than a chance original. We will instance B. The texture of the Gills is like a paper prickt full of pin-holes. In August this is very frequent under hedges▪ and in the middle of the Moors in many places of this Country. It seems to me (and, no doubt, it will to any person that shall well examine it, (that the Gills of this Mushrom, are the very slower and seeds of this Plant. When it is ripe, the Gills here are easily seperated from the rest of the head: Eech seed is distinct from other, and hath its impression in the head of the Mushrom, [Page 103] just as the seeds of an Artichoak hath in the bottom of it. The bigger end of the seed is full and round; and they are disposed in a spiral order just as those of the Artichoak. The like we do think of all other Mushroms, however differently figured.

And if it shall happen to him that shall sow them, that these will not produce their kind, but be steril; it is no strange thing amongst Plants, there being whole genus's of Plants that come up, and flower, and seed, and yet their seed was never known to produce Plants of their kind, being naturally steril, and a volatil dust, as all the Orchides or Bee-flowers.

We shall not here omit to tell you futher concern­ing this Mushrom, that, when fresh gather'd, it is of a buff-colour inside outside; and yet, cut through the middle, it will in a moment change from a pale-yellow to a deep purple or blew, and stain linnen accordingly. A drop of the juyce, leisurely squeezed out, will change, holding it betwixt your eye and the light, through all the colours of the Rainbow, in the time of its falling, and fix in a purple, as it doth in the springing out of its veins.

VII. Of the speedy Vitrifying of the whole body of Anti­mony by Cawk.

The several vitrifications of Antimony are either opaque or transparent. To the first kind I shall add one, which is in it self very curious, and hath these advan­tages above the rest, that it is done with great ease and speed; and by it I have performed some things upon Minerals and Mettals, which with crude Antimony al­one I could not effect.

Take of Antimony one pound; flux it clear: Have an ounce or two of the Cawk-stone (by and by to be discribed) in a lump red-hot in readiness. Put it into the Crucible to the Antimony; contiune the flux a few minutes; Cast it into a clean and not greased Mor­tar, [Page 104] decanting the melted liquor from the Cawk.

This Process gives us above 15 ounces of vitrum of Antimony, like polish't Steel, and as bright as the most refined Quicksilver. The Cawk seems not to be di­minish't in its weight, but rather increased; nor will be brought incorporate with the Antimony, though flux't in a strong blast.

This Cawk-stone is a very odd Mineral, and I always looked upon it to be much a kin to the white milky Mineral juyces, I formerly sent you a specimen of: And this Experiment is demonstrative, that I was not mi­staken; for, the milky juyce of the Lead-Mines vitrifies the whole body of Antimony in like manner.

That this Vitrification is from the proper nature of Cawk, I little doubt; for, I could never light upon any one Mineral substance, which had any such effect upon Antimony; and I have tryed very many Lapis Calaminars, Stone-Sulphur; or Sulphur vivum, Gala­ctites, Sulphur Marcasite, Allom-glebe, divers Sparrs, &c.

Cawk is a ponderous white stone, found in the Lead-Mines; it will draw a white line like Chawk or the Galactites: And though it be so free yet it is more firm, and hath a smooth and shining grain, Sparr-like, yet not at all transparent. Of the Spirit, it yields by distillation, and the use that may be made of it, For casting of Speculums without other mixture, another time. I am, York, Novemb. 20. 1674. Sir, Your, &c.

Of the Astroites, or Star-stones Jan. 19 1673.

SIR, You are pleased to tell me, that my Notes con­cerning certain Stones figured like Plants, found in the mountains of Carven, were well receivedSee N. 100. of these Tracts.. This encourages me to give you the trouble of what I have observ'd of the Astroites; [Page 105] which are stones also jointed like the other, but not found, that I know of, in the same Rocks. And we must cross the plain Country, and seek for them hard under the York-shire Woolds: For, what store I could porcure of them, were brought me from Bugthorp and Leppington. At the fromer place, my self have seen them dugg out of a certain blew clay on the banks a of smal rivulet, betwixt the Town and the Woolds. There are plenty of them washed into the brook; but the most fair and solid are those we get out of the Clay.

I pretend not, to discover to you their Original, no more than I did of the Entrochi; but having used some diligence in causing the places, where they are found, to be a little more searched than is usual, I was by that means furnish't with a good quantity of them; which gave me the opportunity to make the following Obser­vations. What light may be hence had, I leave to more judicious persons, acknowledging my self at persent not to be able to demonstrate (if they are not Stones of their own kind,) what they have been before petrifi­cation.

It is very little and inconsiderable, what any Author, that I have yet seen, hath said of them; save a very brief description of them in Gesner, and the like in Wor­mius; in the rest, all is transcribed.

The Matter and substance of these Stones, if broken, is flint-like of a dark shining politure; but much softer, and easily corroded by an acid Menstrum. † (a) Vinegar indeed, makes them creep; but a stronger spirit, as of Niter, tosses them. I doubt not, but they will readily calci [...]e, as the Belemnites, to a very strong and white Lime.

These Stones (as we now find them) are all Frag­ments; as we have noted of the Entrochi: Either one single joint, or 2, 3, or more joints set together, making a pentagonous Cylindrical figure or five-sided column. [Page 106] And I have not yet had any piece much above one inch long, which consisted of 18 joints; but I have seen one piece, somewhat shorter than the former, which had 25 joints. These last thin-jointed pieces are quite of a dif­ferent make, as to all circumstances, from the other, as will appear.

Every joint consists of 5 Angles, which are either drawn out and sharp, and consquently the sides of these pieces, made up of such joints, are deep-channeled; (and this is the condition of some of the thick-jointed pieces, as well as of all the thin-jointed ones;) or the Angles are blunt and round, and the sides plain or very little hollowed. There are as big, and as smal pieces of this sort, as of any other more sharp-angled; and therefore I account them a 3d. species of Star-stones. And of this sort was, I guess, that piece which Wormius describes; which therefore, he saith, is more like the blown Flower of Pentaphyllum, than a Star. Besides, the manner of the engraving of the joints in every one of the 3 respective species is also very different, as will be declared.

Where the joints are thin or deep, they are so equal­ly throughout the whole piece; yet there are some, but very few, exceptions to this also, of pieces which consist of joints of the unequal thickness. Many of thick-jointed pieces have certain joints a thought broader, or a very litle standing out at the Angles, and thereby the joints are distinguish't into certain Conjugations of 2, 3, or more joints: And these Conjugations are very observable in the thin-jointed stones, and are marked out with a sett of Wyers; of which by and by.

The thickest piece, which hath yet come to my hands, is not above one inch and a half about, and those very rare too: From which size to that of a smal pin, I have all the intermediat proportions; and these so exceeding smal pieces are as exactly shaped, as the greatest. Most [Page 107] peices, if not all, of any considerable length, are not straight, but visibly bent and inclining. All the pieces of any sort are much of an equal thickness, or but litle tapering; yet one of the ends, by reason of a Top-joint, is visibly the thickest.

This Top joint hath 5 blunt Angles, and is not hatch­ed or engraven, or but very faintly, on the outside. E­very joint else of a piece (save the top joint) is an In­taglia, and deedly engraven on both sides alike; and will accordingly serve for a Seal. The middle of each angle is hollow, and the edges of the angles are thick furowed: The terminations of these hatchings are the indented futures, by which the joints are set together; the ridges of one joint being alternately let into the furrows of the other next it. The Hatchings of the flat-sided pieces are in circular lines; but of the other two species, they are straight lines, or near the matter.

In the very center of the 5 angles is a smal hole, con­spicuous in most joints. Note also, that in the middle of each joint, betwixt angle and angle; in very future, is another such like smal pin-hole very apparent, if the stones be first well scoured.

Besides all the former particulars, there may be ob­serv'd, in the deep-jointed pieces, just under the top-joint, above discribed, the Vestigia of certain Wyers rather than branches; and sometimes 2, 3, or more of the joints of the Wyers yet adhering. These Wyers are ever five in number, viz. one in the middle or hol­low part betwixt angle and angle. Again in thin-joint­ed pieces there are ever five of these Wyers, or a sett of them inserted into every conjugation of joints; so that it were some representation of the thing, to imagine the stalk of Asperula or Equisetum. Also I have seen, but that very rarely, (not in one peice amongst 500,) a sett of Wyers in the middle of a deep-jointed piece. One thin-jointed piece I have by me, where a Wyer [Page 108] of 20 joints and upwards (and how much longer they may be, I know not,) lyes double within the hollow side, and by that accident was preserved in its natural place. Further, some lumps of Quarry I have from the same place above-nam'd, where the Wyers as well as the Stones themselves are seen in long pieces. It is no won­der, that these Wyers are knocked off, and but very rarely found adhering to the Stones they belong to, be­ing very small and slender, of a round figure and smooth-jointed, being sett together per harmoniam and not in­dented future. Nothing that I can think of, is so like these Wyers, as the antennae of Lobsters. Lastly, some of these Wyers are knotted, and others of them farely subdivided or branched.

I have, by the assistance of Mr. Lodge, illustrated all these particulars with Figures: Of which this is the Ex­plication;

1. The Top-joint of an Astroites, figur'd on both sides; on the one it is deep engraven, on the other the hatches are scarce visible. Also the ends of the 5 An­gles are very blunt.

2. A second or sharp-angled joint with fair hatchings on both sides.

3. A piece with very narrow and sharp angles. Also the Top-joint designed, as it naturally appears smooth and without hatchings.

4. A round-angled joint.

5. A flat-sided piece; where the hatchings are some­what Circular.

6. A thin-jointed piece: Where note also, that the angles are much narrower, and of a protracted Oval figure.

7. The biggest piece I have yet seen. Note also its bending.

8. The smallest piece I have yet met with.

9. The longest piece; where every 4th joint is a [Page 109] thought bigger or more prominent than the rest; as in the 7th fig. also is well designed.

10. A large and round-angled or flat-sided piece; to which belongs that single joint noted fig. 4.

11. A flat or not hollow-sided piece; of which sort also is the 5th figure: The 10th and 4th not much differing.

12. A thin-jointed piece; where the conjugations are marked out by the vestigia of the several sets of Wyers or branches.

13. A piece where the joints are un-equal in thickness.

14. A piece with some part of the Wyers yet adher­ing in their natural order at the biggest end of the piece.

15. A thin-jointed; where note on the left side a single Wyer accidentally preserved in its natural place, though snapt asunder.

16. A thick-jointed piece with a set of Wyrs in the middle of it.

17. A good long piece of a Wyer, and a single joint thereof.

(a) I have said the same thing above of the Entrochi, and it is true of all other stones in small Fragments, which vinegar, or a stronger spirit will dissolve: but I neither s [...]y here nor there (Phi: Tran. Num. 100) that any sort of stone whatsoever will make an ebullition with vinegar, as Dr. Grew (Musae. R.S. p: 273) would have me, and I admire how he could fancy such a thing from my words, which are as plain and fairly limited, as can possiblie be writ: I appeal to the passage.

Of the Vomiting of strange Worms, Philosophical Tran­sactions. Numb. 117.

A Son of Mr B. living not far from Rippon, about nine years of age, in the month of February [...]ast was afflicted with great pain in his Stomach, and con­tinual, [Page 110] [...]. A Powder was given, wherein [...] a small quantity of [...]. He thereupon [...] up several strange Worms, two of which were brought to me at York, the one dead, the other alive, and which lived many daies after it came to my hands, and might have lived longer, but that I put it into Spirit of Wine, to preserve in it its true shape. These Worms were very Catterpillar with fourteen legs, viz. six small pointed, the eight middle stumps, and the thickness of a Ducks-quill, thin haired or rather naked, with brown annuli, and a black head. The very same for kind that I have many times seen on Plants, and no doubt, these (as those others) would in due time (if the place had not hindered) have shrunk into Chrysalis's, and changed into Moths.

A Letter containing an account of Antiquities, &c. Philosophical Collections. Numb. 4.

IN turning over my Papers, I found Notes of some­thing I formerly writ to Mr. Oldenburg, and which I believed was lost; it being sent much about the time of his death▪ They relate to certain Antiquities, which have, for ought I know, escaped the more curious Anti­quaries of this and the last Age, when that Study was much more in credit: But we shall treat of them here only in the relation they may have to the advancement of Natural Philosophy and Arts.

1. Roman Vrnes are found in very many places throughout the whole Kingdom; but the different work­manship of these Vessels, their composition, and places where they made them, have been little that I know of taken notice of by any. I have observed what fol­lows of these matters:

Here then are found at York, in the road or Roman-street without Mickle-gate; and likewise by the River [Page 111] side, where the Brick Kilns now are, Urnes of three different tempers, viz.

1. Of a bluish grey colour, having a great quan­tity of course Sand wrought in with the Clay.

2. Others of the same colour, having either a very fine sand mixt with it full of Mica, or Catsilver, or made of clay naturally sandy.

3. Red Urnes of fine Clay, with little or no Sand in it. These Pots are quite throughout of a Red colour like fine Bole. Also many of these red pots are elegantly adorned with Figures in Basso Relievo, and usually the Workmans name, which I think others have mistaken [Burtons C. Ant. It. p. 183, 230.] for the persons name buried therein, upon the bottom or cover; as Januarius and such like; but that very name I have seen upon several red Pots, found both here and at Aldbo­rough. After all, these are glazed inside and outside with a kind of Varnish of a bright Coral colour.

The composition of the first sort of Pots, did first give me occasion to discover the places where they were made: The one about the midway betwixt Wilber­sosse and Barnbie on the More, Six miles from York in the Sand-Hills, or rising grounds, where now the Warren is. The other Roman Pottery on the Sand-Hills at San­ton, not far off Brigg in Lincolnshire, In the first place I have found widely up and down broken pieces of Urnes, Slagg, and Cinders. At the latter place there are yet remaining, (though it is a moveable Sand, and burried every way by the Wind, and has by that means covered the places all over) some of the very Furnaces; whose ruins I take to be some of those metae or sandy Hillocks. Besides here are many pieces of Pots and Urnes of different shapes, and much Slagg and Cinders; This Potterie having taken up much Ground, as to one that shall diligently view the place, it will appear. 'Tis remarkable, that both the above mentioned Potteries [Page 112] are within less than a mile of the Roman Road, or Mili­tary-high-way. Nothing is remembred in either of those places, of any Pottery that was known in those parts, nor indeed could I learn where any good clay for that purpose was to be had near those Sands: which yet our modern Potteries chiefly seek after, which has made them to be forgotten and disused; The materials of our modern Pots being much altered, and consequent­ly the places.

The Roman Urns above discribed differ in these particulars, from what Pots are now usually made a­mongst us. (1) That they are without all manner of glazing with lead, which perhaps is a Modern inven­tion. (2.) That a far greater quantity of Sand is used than clay, which thing alone made it worth their while, to bring their clay to the Sand-Hills. (3) That they were baked either with more leisure after long and through drying, or immoderate contact of the Flames: which I am induced to believe, because there seem to be fragments of such things to be found. 'Tis certain the natural colour of the Clay is not altered by burn­ing: So that both the degrees of heat and manner of burning might be different. And one of these Potsherds as I have tried, baked over again in our Ovens, will be­come red. As to the two last kind of Urns, its likely the first of them with their particles of Mica in it, were made of a sandy blue Clay, of which nature there is good plenty among the Western Mountains of York­shire, and particularly at Carleton in Oatley Parish not far off Ickley a Roman station. The red Urns seem to have been their Master-piece, wherein they shewed the greatest Art, and seemed to glory most, and to eternize their names on them. I have seen great varieties of Embossed work on them. And lastly for the elegant manner of glazing, it is far [...]eater indeed, and more dur­able than our modern way of Leading, which is apt [Page 113] to crack and crase, both with wet and heat: and at the fire is certainly unwholsome, by reason of the fumes Lead usually emits, being a quick vaporable Metal. This an­cient glazing seems to have been done by the Brush, or dipping; for both inside as well as outside of the Urn are glazed, and that before the Baking. And some­thing of the Materials of it seems to be remembred by Pliny Lib. 36. C. 19. Fictilia ex bitumine Inscripta non delentur. The Painting of Pots with bitumen is indelible. And again, Tingi solidas exbi [...]umine Statuas. lib. 35. c. 15. The bitumen he sayes sinks into the very Stones and Pots, which is something more tha [...] glazing.

The great plenty of these Urns found in many parts of England seems to argue them also of English Manu­facture, but where I cannot guess, unless wrought at the Bole Mines (of which Clay alone they seem to be made) in Cleveland; for that that barren tract of Land, called Blackmoor, was well known to the Romans, the Jet Rings taken up withthese Vrns doth sufficiently testifie. Now Bole and Jet are no where that I know of to be found with us in England but in that Tract; beings Fossils peculiar to those Mountains. Of these Jet Rings some are plain, and others wrought, but all of them of an extraordinary bigness, being at least three Inches diameter, and yet the inward bore is not a­bove an inch and an half, which makes them too little for the Wrists of any Man, as they are much too big for the Fingers, so that probably they were never worn either as Armilla or Anuli. One of each sort I have by me, which I carefully redeemed of the Work­man, besides many others which were broken, found about a sort of Urns in York fields. And since we are upon the subject of Plasticks, or the Roman Clay-work, we cannot but take notice of the opinion of Cambden; [Page 114] Who will have the Obelisks at Burrow-Briggs in this County Artificial, when in truth they are nothing less, being made of a course Rag, or Milstone-grit; but without doubt, the bigness of the Stone surprized him, either not thinking them portable, or perhaps not any English rock, fit to yield natural Stones of that magni­tude: But Roman Monuments I suppose none doubt them, because pitched here by a very remarkable and known Roman station, Isurium.

And then consider what trifles these are, compared with the least obelisks at Rome. And as to the Rocks whence they might be hewn, there are many of that Stone near the River Nid, and upou the Forest of Rnasborough; and a little above Ickly, (another Roman station) within sixteen miles of Burrow-Briggs there is one solid Bed of this very Stone, whose perpendicular depth only will yield obelisks, at least thirty foot long. And yet at Rudstone near Burlington in the York-shire Woolds, full forty miles wide of these Quarries, is an obelisk of the very same Stone, shape and magnitude of these before mentioned. But we cannot let this pass without noting, That almost all the Monuments of the Romans with us were of this sort of Stone; As the ancinet walls of this City, as appears by what re­mains of the ancient Gates, and the great quantities of it that is wrought up in most of the Churches, and is still daily dug out of Foundations: But a most undeni­able instance is, a vast Roman head, perhaps of some of the Emperors, upon a neck or square to pedestal of one solid Stone, with the point of the square to the eye, of as course a grit as that of the Obelisks above mentioned. This Stone is now in Mr. Hilliards Garden, and was dugg out of the Foundations of some Houses there­abouts. The only remaining Inscription that I could find at Burrow-briggs, yet imperfect as well as odde, is [Page 115] upon this sort of Stone in the Street Wall of Sir Wil­lam Tankards House.

[figure]

Also two Roman Alters I have seen of this Stone; one the original of that at Ickley mentioned in Camb­den; Another in the possession of that ingenious An­tiquary Mr. Thirsby late of Leeds.

And this I think sufficient to disprove that mistake of Cambden, That the Stones at Burrow-briggs are arti­ficial. There is but one only instance that I ever yet met with of the Romans ever having used in these parts of England any other sort of Stone; yet is it not the common lime stone, but a certain Stone had from the Quarries about Malton, because of the Lapides Ju­daici, by me formerly described to be seen in the tex­ture of it. It is small but elegant Alter with Figures in Basso Relievo, of Sacrificing instruments, &c. It has suffered an unlucky accident by the stupid igno­rance of the Masons, who were ordered by the late [Page 116] Lord Fairfax to place it upon a Pedestal in the Court of his House at YORK. Yet the Inscription which they had miserably defaced, was by chance preserved.

I. O. M.
DIS. DEABUS QUE
HOSPITALIBUS. PE
NATIBUS QUE OB CONSERVATAM
SALVTEM
SUAM. SUORVM QUE
P. AEL. MARCIAN
US. PRAEF. COH
ARAM. SAC. F. NC. D.

An account of a Monstrous Animal cast out of the Stomach by Vomit; Phi: Coll. Num. 6.

SIR,

I Send you (here inclosed) the true and exact shape of a Worm, which a man Vomited up here the last week. I found it my self in the Blood, which came up with it, having caused it to be washt for the more careful examination of it, much of the Blood, being clods of a kind of skinny and fleshy substance, Haud alitèr, quàm in Mulierum molis excernendis acci­dere solet. Of this kind of Blood there was about two pound weight saved in the washing, and this odd A­nimal amongst it; which was easily discovered by me, being of a dark green colour like a Horse-Leech, and spotted not unlike some of them. I could perceive (when I fouud it) no life or motion it had; the Girle that washed the Blood having almost beaten off a Finn, and part of one of the forks of the Tail; and burst the belly of it; yet it was curiously and regularly shaped in all its members, as is fully exprest by the pains of a most excellent Artist, who Limmed it by the thing it self, not two hours after I had it under my eye, that nothing might be added, but what was very true and natural. The Spirit of Wine in which I put it, has al­together changed it as to its colour: but yet it still remains perfect enough to satisfie any curious person.

This honest man, a Baker, imagined he drank it the last Summer in pond water; of which he was used to drink after sore labour in his calling. This is certain, he had about his Stomach and right side a most exquisite and tormenting pain, for at least four Months last past; which many times threw him into horrours and chill­ness, ague-like; and indeed when he vomited this up, he was the sickest-man I ever saw not to dye: He also [Page 118] voided Blood by Stool several dayes also, and now I do believe, he will recover, although his pains are not wholly ceased.

To say what this Creature is, I dare scarce venture. You know how long I have made it my diversion to search into the nature of In [...]ects, and it is no small pro­gress I have made therein, yet I am at a loss where to place this Animal; for that it is not like any thing I e­ver yet saw in Nature: However it makes me give more credit than I did to several stories of a like nature which we frequently meet with in Medical History, and those recorded as very truths by sober, learned and industri­ous persons. But though I now believe there was much truth in most of them, yet I fear little care was taken to describe exactly the Animals, otherwise than by me­mory, either in respect of the words or painting, which has gone a great way in rendring all such stories use­less and and ridiculous.

This Animal was about four inches long, and in the thickest place three Inches about; it had three Finns of a side, all near the head, and the upper pair most exactly and elegantly figured, as is described; all these Finns were thick and fleshy: but the forked Tail was finny and transparent, and to be extended; it was placed horizontally, not as that of most, (if not all) small Fish, and even Neuts and Tadpoles or Froggs in disguise, in which particular it differs from them all, as well as in the fleshiness of the Finns.

Besides this odd Animal I found the head of another of a different shape, as is exprest; but of a dark green colour also as the other: the body of it had not been lost, or this other so ill treated, if I had expected to have found, what we never looked for.

But what shall we say this Monster was? give me leave to speak my mind without prejudice, and with [Page 119] submission to the better Sentiments of the Honourable and Learned Society: I am apt to think (and I believe few will deny it me) that we often drink and eat what is alive; and it is certain some things will live on in our Stomacks in despight of concoction; not to instance in the many sorts of Gut-worms natural to us, and which are bred with us, perhaps in some Children even be­fore they are born; these Worms I say, do freely wander up and down the Guts and Stomach at pleasure, and receive no prejudice from the concoctive faculty of them: And for this reason we see Insectivorous Birds so solicitous to kill Worms and all other sorts of In­sects, by drawing them again and again through their Bills as Canes through a Sugar-Mill, that they may be verliy dead before they swallowed them, and in­stinct is the great wisdom of undebauched nature: A­gain, admirable instances there are of Animals living within Animals; of which in the Insect kind, the Royal Society shall ere long receive some notes of mine upon Godartius. And yet I am of the mind that what was accidentally swallowed by us alive, and that shall have the power to live on within us, (especially if it shall be young and tender, and yet growing) may have its designed form and shape monstrously perverted, so as to appear to us quite another thing than naturally and really it is; and this I take to be the case of this odd Creature, the present subject of our Discourse: and so this might have been the Spawn or Embryo of a Toad or Neut.

But we must also account for the much fleshy sub­stance or shinny lumps of Blood vomited up with it, which I think easily intelligible thus; That that Spawn or Embryo of a Toad or Neut might well venome the Stomach or Gut, in which part soever or wrinkle there­of it chanced first to rest or stick, and cause an inflam­mation [Page 120] there, and so have it self swelled aud closed up within a Tumour of its own making, which in process of time might gather to this bigness, and at length burst in pieces and come up together.

Familiar and infinite instances of this nature, we see in By-fruits or Wens which Insects raise upon Veget­ables; which by natural instinct know how to inve­nome a Plant, and so compondiously to provide both food and housing for their young.

An Account of a Roman Monument found in the Bi­shoprick of Durham, and of some Roman Antiqui­ties at York, Phil. Tran. N. 145.

I Have with much trouble got into my hands a Piece of Roman Antiquity, which was but a very few years ago discovered upon the South Bank of the River Tine, near the Sheilds in Bishoprick. It is a very large and fair Roman Alter of one entire Stone. But after all my cost and pains, I am sorry to find the In­scription very ill defaced, that much of it is not legible. And I believe it hath been mis-handled by those who endeavoured to read it; whereas if the remainder of the Letters had been exactly measured, and the face blackt and lightly washt off again, as in Prints, some things more might have been spelled.

As to the nature of the Stone it self, it is of a course Rag, the same of that with that of the Pyramids at Bur­row-Briggs. It is 4 foot high, and was ascended to by steps, which appeareth, in that all the sides, but the Front, have two square holes neare the bottome, which let-in the Irons that joyn'd it to the Steps.

[Page 121] I have carefully described it in all it's sides, and have given the Plane of the Top also; which if you please we will survey in order.

1. The Back-side, opposite to the Inscription; on which is Ingraven in Basse-reliefe, a Flower pot furnish­ed, I suppose with what pleased the Stone-cutter, for these men need not to be more curious than the Priests themselves, who were wont to make use of the Herbs next hand to adorne the Alters. and therefore Verbenae is put for any kind of Herb. Yet if we will have it re­semble any thing with us, I think it is most like, if not truly Nymphaea, a known and common River Plant.

2. One of the sides, which is somewhat narrower than the Front or Back: On this are Engraved in Bass-re­lieve, the Cutting-knife (cesespita) and the Ax (securis). The Knife is exactly the same with that on the other Alter formerly by me mentioned in the Philosophical Collections of Mr. Hook; but the Ax is different; for here it is headed with a long and crooked point, and there the head of the Ax is divided into 3 points.

3. The other side; on which are engraved after the same manner an Eure (Vrceolus) and a Ladle, which serve for a Sympullum. This I call rather a Ladle, than a Mallet, it being perfectly Dish-wise and hollow in the middle, altho Camden is of an other opinion in that ele­gant Sculpt of the Cumberland Alter, And the very same Utensil I have seen and noted on the Ickley Altar, which is yet extant at Middleton Grange near that Town; but the Stone which Cambden saies supports a pair of Stairs there (as at this day it does in the very Road) is but an ill Copy of it, and not the Original.

4. The Plane of the Top; which is cut in the Figure of a Bason (discus or lanx,) with ansae on each side, con­sisting of a pair of links of a chain, which rest upon, and fall over two Rowles; And this was the Harth.

[Page 122] 5. The Front; which hath an Inscription of nine lines in Roman Letters, each Letter a very little more than two inches deep of our measure; now remaining as in the prefixt Sculpture, Fig. 5. which I would read thus, Dis deabus (que) Matribus pro Salute M. Aurelii Anto­nini Augusti Imperatoris—votum solvit lubens meritò ob reditum.

The Deae Matres are well interpretted by Selden. It is much his Safety and Return both vowed, should be so seperated in the Inscription; but I have not Gr [...]er by me to compare this with the like. Caracalla say the HistoriansXiphilinus Herodianus &c. after his Fathers death at York, took up­on him the Command of the Army alone, and the whole Empire; he went alone against the Enemie, who were the Caledonij inhabiting beyond the Wall, which his Father had built, he made Peace with them, received their Hostages, slighted their fortified places, and return­ed. And this seems to be confirmed by the Inscription; for undoubtedly upon this his last Expedition of him a­lone, without his Brother Geta and Mother, was this Altar erected to him alone, at a place about Two Stations on this side the Wall. So that the Vow might be as well under­stood of his Return from this expedition, as for his Safetie and return to Rome; which mi-thinks should be true, or his Mother and Brother Geta would scarce have been left out, at least so early. For yet the Army declared for them both, according to their Fathers Will.

Further, it seems also to have been erected by those who flatter'd him, and who were afterwards killed by him; and for this reason the persons Names, who de­dicated it, seem to me to be purposely defaced, the 6 and 7th Lines of the Inscription being designedly cut away by the hollowness of them, and there not being the least sign of any Letter remaining, and this I sup­pose might be part of their disgrace, as it was usual to [Page 123] deface and break the Statutes and Monuments of per­sons executed, of which this Monster made strange havoc.

But since worn Inscriptions admit of various read­ings, because some Letters are worn out, and some more legible, whereby not prejudiced people may conceive them diversly, I will therefore tell you an other read­ing of part of the two first lines, which I do not dis­allow, but that it will agree well enough with the Hi­story of Severus, tho his Apotheosis, or solemn deifica­tion, was not performed till he came to Rome, in the manner of which Funeral Pomp Herodian is very large; it was of that excellent Antiquarie Dr. Johnson of Pomfret

CONSERVATO

RI. B. PROS &c.

The rest as follows in mine,

Which shews the hight of Flattery of those times. So that they paid their Vowes to the lately dead Father the Conservator of Britain, for the safety of the Son; and the Story tells us how gladly he would have had him made a God long before, even with his own hand.

I think it not amiss, if I give you the rest of my Ob­servations concerning these matters, which I have met with in this City.

1. A large Pedestal of the same sort of Stone, found deep in the ground, on the West side of the River, which by the Stone, and its mouldings, was undoubt­edly Roman, and must have been for a Pillar in some large building.

2. A Broken Inscription in the Church-wall in All-Saints North-street, with the Figure of a Naked Wo­man in Bass-relieve on the left side of it. The Letters (as many of them as remain) are exceeding fairly cut, beyond any thing I have yet seen of Roman Antiquities [Page 124] in England, and the Stone of a finer grain than ordi­nary. It is a Monument of Conjugal Affection.

----
---AE❧ AN
--S❧ SEC❧
---ENE
--I❧ A O
--CO VGI

The first stroak is the out-side of a great M, and is part of the Dis Manibus. The three last lines may be read thus, Benè merenti Antonio Conjugi: Yet it is hard to say, whether it was for the Husband or Wife, for it may be read Antoniae. The Points also betwixt the words are here very singular, but this was the caprice of the Stone-cutter, who sometimes also use a Leaf, hanging or erect, a Hand, a Feather, or such odd fancy for Points.

2. A Relation of a Man biten with a mad Dog, and dying of the disease called Hydrophobia: Philosophical Trausactions. N. 147.

I Have formerly entertained the R. S. with odd cases in Phisick; as the Stone cut from under the Tongue of a Man; of Lumbrici teretes found in the Ancle of a Child; of a monsterous Worm vomited, &c. And I therefore think by the kind acceptance of those, this I am about to relate of a man bit with a mad Dog, and dying of the disease called Hydraphobia, will [Page 125] be wellcome. It is by Gods providence that it is a rare case, for Gallen calls it omnium morborum pessimus: And since it is in that great Physitians opinion the worst of diseases, it is an extraordinary blessing to mankind that it happens so rarely; especially if we consider how infinitly fond we are of so poisonous a Creature, and what vast numbrs we keep out of meer wantonness and pleasure more then any real use or service they can do us.

James Corton, a very strong and well built youg man, was bit with a mad Dog in the right hand, the wound heal'd of it self, and the thing was forgotten by himself and wife; but as he said (after the disease of Aquae pauor had seiz'd him, and that it was given him by me as a reason of his not drinking) he told his wife he wondred why the Dog, which used to be so familiar mith him, should then bite him. But this was all forgot; And af­ter about five or six weeks he complains of Pain all over his bones, but especially his back and round about his Stomack, looks very pale, hollow eyed, &c. The third day after this complaint, viz, Sunday in the evening March 11th. 1682, he called for burnt brandy, drank it, went to bed, and vomited it up; after this he had a rest­less night, and in the morning found himself very ill, with a strange rising in his Stomack, and though no thirst, yet an impotence to drink, and even to swallow his Spit­tle, which was death to him as he often said. Diascor­dium and a bottle of Cordial water was brought to him by an Apothecary that morning, The Diascordium he took, but was not able to drink of the Cordial one Spoou­full. This on Munday morning; about one a Clock that day I first saw him, and found him upon this Bed, his Pulse very slow, and sometimes unequal, but not un­less frighted from the rising of his Stomack; his flesh cold, his tongue not dry, but flexable and moist, a little white. I caused him to rise off the bed, and set him full in the [Page 126] light; and then because he mightily complained of I know not what sickness about his stomack, I offered him of the Cordial, but he started, and trembled at the ap­proch of it. This I exceedingly admired, whereof I called for a glass of Wine or Water, and a Tumbler of water was brovght me up, which I gave him to drink; but he vehemently startled at it, and his Stomack swell'd and rise, after I knew not what odd and strange manner; and I could then find his Pulse very trembling and disturbed. I still urged him to drink; But as I put it forwards to his mouth, he the more affrighted drew back his head, and sighed, and eyed it with a most gashly look, not without Screeking and Noise. This I most mightily admired, and was at a great loss what should be the cause of this strange Symtom, when at length it providentially came into my minde, that this was Aquae pavor; and then I tryed him again and again to drink; and found him more disordered at the sight, especially at the drink. Wherefore I ask't his mother in Law and the Maid, who stood about him, where the wound was he last had had; at which question they seemed concerned, and replyed, they wondred what I meant. I then told them he had been bitten by a Dog; It is true (he said all in a fright,) I was bit by such a Neighbour's Dog, about five or six weeks ago, here in my hand, but it has been long well. I then bid him lye down, and so left him, calling his Wife and Mother and Friends to me below Stares, and telling them that he would certainly dye, that there was but small hopes of his recovery, it being too late; that none should be suffered to go to him but keepers, some strong man or two, &c.

I forthwith ordred a Vein to be opened in the arm which was bit, caused the wound to be scarified and drawn with Vesicatories, and the same Plaister to be ap­plyed unto the neck and leggs and the inside of the arms; I ordered the usual and famed antidotes to be given him [Page 127] as of Theriaca, Cinis cancorum, Ruta, Agaricus, &c. In Bolus's. For it is to be noted, that solid things in a Spoon he could take, but yet not without much trembling, and fear, and Caution, and an earnest request that no body would suddenly offer them to him, but give them into his hand gently; and then he would by degrees steal his hand softly towards his mouth, and of a suddain chop the Spoon in and swallow what was in it, velut canis ad offam; and this he did more greedily and readily then any other man could do. Of these antidotes in Bolus he took a Dram every hour, and alwayes in this manner, for at least a dozen times taking; and every like drink was profferred him in the night, but he could not see it without horrour, and the same motions from his Sto­mack. Nay he did affirm that as oft as he by chance swallowed any Spittle it went to his heart, even as tho he should dy that very Moment. This night passed wholy without any sleep or rest.

Tuesday morning I viewed his blood, which was both to the Serum and Cake well coloured, and in such propor­tion as is usual in healthful persons, and of good con­sistance.

He had now a violent Feavour upon him, and a very quick Pulse. Water was offered him by my order, but in vaine; He begging he might dye unmolested, nothing being such a terror to him as the approach of any drink; and that none might come suddenly upon him, or offer him any thing more, for all things frighted him; And that he found he must shortly dye, for that his heart be­gan to faile him; and indeed he look'd exceeding pale and hollow and thin visag'd.

I then with much difficulty perswaded him to cast him­self cross the bed upon his belly (for he had his Cloaths loosely about him) hanging his head over the other side; perswading my self that this posture might be ad­vantagious to his drinking, since that in the erect posture [Page 128] of a man he could not so much as endure the approach of liquor. In this posture then of a Dog, he suffered a large Bowl filled with small Beer to be brought under his head, and imbracing it with raptures of joy, he de­clared he was infinitely refreshed with the smell of it; that he now saw it with delight, and assured us he should be able soon to drink it all off. And he that now thought himself a dying man talked pleasantly, and said many passionate things to his brother, wife, &c. won­derfully extolling this invention, and thanking me for it. He endeavoured with great earnestness to put down his head to it, but could not; his Stomack rise as often as he opened his Lips; at length he put out his tongue and made towards it as tho he would lap; but ever as his tongue never so little touched the Surface of the beer, he started back affrighted. And yet all this while was pleased with the thoughts of drinking; and would not suffer the Maid servant to take it away from nuder his head; and if she did a little withdraw it, he said he fol­lowed it by the smell with delight, snuffing with his nostrils. After a long time being mightily foiled, he alleadged that the faint smell of the small Beer hinder­ed him from drinking, and therefore desired a Bowl of Ale; which was brought him; but after much striving, and exerting his tongue a thousand times, he could not drink of it; and lapping with great affrights, as oft as his tongue touched it he started back with his head, bringing it down again gently to the Bowl a hundred times, but all in vain. And in this posture, what upon his belly and what upon his hands and knees, he kept himself at least an hour thus Tantilizing himself; but it was not in his power to drink. We than gave him a Quill which consisted of two or three Joints, the one end in his mouth and the other in the liquor; but he could not manage it, nor suck no more than a Dog. I perswaded him to give all over and lye down; which he [Page 129] did; and not long after my going away, he fell into a Convulsion Fit, bit and snarl'd and catch'd at every body, and foamed at the mouth. After this was over he took an Elleborism in a Bolus, which was taken like the rest, and very willingly by him; it wrought about 3 or 4 times very Plentifully, and he declared himself wonderfully at ease by it; but yet now and then fell convulsed, and then always insensible. After four hours I returned to him again, and found the Minister with him; he talked very sensibly to him, prayed very earnestly with him, saying the Prayers after him, and desired the Sacrament, which in these cirumstances could not be given.

He was again solicited to drink, and he now readily enough put himself into the former posture, and with as much earnestness as ever used all the little shifts to drink, while the Bowl was under his head; but all in vain. He had a little Silver Tumbler fill'd with drink put into his hands, which suddainly, when he had as it were stolen it near his mouth, he would have thrown it into his throat, as he did the Bolus's, but it hit against his teeth & fell into the Bowl. I cannot say he ever went to stool or made water all this time, and therefore had a Glyster given him; but upon parting with it, which he did immediatly almost as soon as given, he died con­vulsed: But his not making water, as well as a trouble­some Priapisme which he complained of, when upon his knees, might proceed from the Blistering Plaisters, as well as from his Disease.

That nothing may be omitted which relates to this case; the day after his interment I accidentlly met with his Cozen Mrs. S. who told me that her Daughter was in fear, for just that very day fornight before his death she had been at his house, and he would go home with her to her Mothers; that she remembred his hand trembled and his body shake'd, that he was in a cold sweat, and in a great disorder, so that she asked him what [Page 130] he ail'd: he told her, that after his work (for he was an Upholster) it had been of late usual with him: And which was remarkable the very Dog which bit him came at that time along with him to her Mothers house; and was alive and well at the mans death.

To this we add that Mr. Widdow a Mercer doth affirm, that about the very time that Mr. Corton was thought to be bit with Suttons Dog, a black Dog, which he ve­rily believes to be the same, came and bit a Whelp of his in his Shop. The next day the Whelp ran mad up and down the House, and bit both him and the Maid; him in the hand, and the Maid in the leg, and dyed that very day. About a month after he was bit he found himself not well, and was troubled with a pain at his heart, and had a fearfulness and trembling upon him, and got no rest for three nights, upon which he had had him­self blooded, and found himself better; his Maid doth not yet complain of any harm.

Thus far for matter of fact, delivered with care in all circumstances that came to my knowledge.

It is very hard to give a probable reason of this Aquae pavor: what Galen (de Theriaca) says of their much co­veting water, because of the intollerable thirst upon them, agrees not with our case. For this man was nei­ther thirsty nor distracted, as he would have them; he was all the time in his Witts, did very well consider, and rationally discourse of the thing, and exceedingly ad­mired at the impossibility of his drinking: was well satis­fied with the Minister who told him of his incapacity of the receiving the Cup in the Sacrament; and did often say he was not thirsty, which appeared by the moisture and flexibility of his tongue, (even after his taking many hot and piperate Antidotes,) for this was by me even to the last carefully viewed. Besides, those who are very thirsty, and distracted in the most violent Feavers, do not only drink readily enough without dread; but on the [Page 131] contrary have an exceeding greedy Appetite to it.

Nor can I well understand what Julius Palmarius (de morbis Contagiosis) means by the third Paroxism of an Hy­drophobia, before which he would have his never fail­ing Antidote to be given, which our dispensatory calls pulvis Antilissus; I suspect he took the disease, as he ownes he did the Medicine, upon trust; indeed it seems to me not to have many things in it of the nature of An­tidotes. This our man certainly had the disease of A­quae pavor upon him continually from the first Moment to his death, which was near 48 hours without any in­termission; for as oft as drink was shewed him, or he swallowed his own Spittle, his disturbance was most grievous and terrible.

Dioscorides in this (as in all things else he treats of) is most sober, and to be credited; Quidam, qui jam a­quae metum sentirent, sumpto Helleboro, simul ac primum morbi impetum experirentur, sanati sunt: nam & jam vitio tentatos nemo unquam servare potest. This very well agrees with out case; The latter person who had a sense of the evil, had it prevented by bleeding; but our man which had the evil; that is the Aquae pavor up­on him, not bleeding, or the most famed Antidotes, or even Hellebore could in the least save, tho not very un­timely given him.

The case indeed rarely occurs, and therefore cannot well be observed in all due circumstances in order to its clearer understanding, and consequently cure; we shall venter however to lay down some few things to salve it by.

First, That J. Corton had some of the organic parts of his body transformed into, or affected after the nature of a Dog, especially the Gula, Tongue so that what was offer'd to him in the erect posture of a man was very frightful, as well as difficult for him to take, because a­gainst his new nature, as much as it would be for us to [Page 132] get a dog to drink standing upon his hinder legs.

But yet this is not all, for when he was turned upon his belly, and would have acted the Dog, he yet could not drink; and tho' he frequently put out his tongue and lapt, yet he could not endure to take any thing into his mouth of liquor, as tho something had hindred him within.

Therefore we may imagine he was also convulsed in those parts, or swelled: but this we cannot grant, for the contrary does plainly appear, because he could cast any thing into his mouth and swallow it; as he did very many times stif Bolus's, more nimbly, as to the swallow, then any man reasonably could be supposed to do, that was so weakened: for I saw no difference betwixt those he swallowed an hour or two before his death, and the very first he took.

Secondly, That his Spittle was envenomed; for as oft as he swallowed it, (his Stomack vehemently abhorring it) it went to his heart (as we say), and was even present death to him; And so liquid things coming nearer to the consistance of Spittle might the rather movere sali­vam, and therefore gave him a greater terror and diffi­culty to swallow, then solid things.

And that his Spittle chiefly was infected with the ve­nome of the Dog, seems also. 1. Because the Dog bit him, whose Spittle alone to be venomous to the touchGal. de locis affec. lib. 6. there are many credible in­stances in Medical History. 2. He was most like a Dog in the mouth, viz. where are the proper Organs of the Saliva. 3. The bite of a man so bitten is alike in [...]ctions; but otherwise innocent.

But it may be askt how comes it to infect his Spittle, and not other humors and the blood. I answer, The blood in part was undoubtedly affected, as the Symp­toms arising before the Aquae pavor (which yet is the onely true Pathogmonick [...]f the disease) demonstrate. Again the blood is not one liquor (as is generally thought), [Page 133] but many distinct liquors circulated together in one set of common Vessels; and so it might infect that liquor, which it was most a kin to, as the Saliva of a Dog to the Saliva of a man. Concerning the truth of that pro­position, I have formerly writ some things to you; and more I intend to entertain you with; you will excuse me at present if I do not think it convenient to antici­pate my Papers.

An account of part of a Wall, built in the Ro­mans Time.

I Carefully viewing the Antiquities of York, and par­ticularly what might relate to the Roman Empire; of which this place had been a seat, And the dwell­ing of at the least two of the Emperors, Severus and Constantine, I found a part of a Wall, yet standing, which is undoutedly of that time; it is the South Wall of the Mint-Yard, being formerly an Hospitall of St. Lowrance, looking towards the River; it consists of a Multangular Tower, which did lead to Bootham-bar, and about—yards of Wall, which ran the length of Conning-street: As he who shall attentively view it on both sides may discerne.

But the outside Towards the River is most worth taking notice of, it is faced with a very small Saxum qua­dratum of about four Inches thick, and laid in Levells like our Moderne brick-work: This sort of building Vitruvius (Lib. 2. Cap. 9.) calls after the Greekes, Iso domum, cum omnia Coria aequá crassitudine fuerint, [Page 134] structa; but the length of the stones is not observed, but are as they fell out in hewing; From the Foundation twenty courses of this small squared Stone are layd; And over them five courses of Roman bricks; These bricks some of them are layed length-waies, and some end-waies in the Wall; And were called Lateres Diatoni.

After these five courses of Bricks, other twenty two courses of small Square stones, as before described, are laid, which raise the Wall 3 Foot higher; And then five more courses of the same Roman Brick are over laide; beyond which the Wall is imperfect and capt with modern building. Note that in all this height there is no Case­ment or Loopehole, but one intire and uniforme Wall; from which we guess the Wall to have been built some courses higher after the same order.

The reason of this order of Brick-worke intermixt with Stone the same Vitruius gives, and in this particular the Romans after his time, and upon his admonition, and recommendation, in all probability, did imitate the Greeks. Longitudines coriorum (saies he) alternis coagmentis in crassitudinem instruentes, and a little further; inter ponunt singulos perpetua Crassitudine utraque parte Frontatos (latcres) quos Diatonos appellant, qui maxi­mè Religando confirmant parietum soliditatem; These Bricks were to be as Throughs, or as it were so many new Foundations to that which was to be Super­structed; And to bind the two sides together firmly; for the Wall it self is only faced with small square stones; And the middle thereof filled with Morter and Pebles; Frentibus serviunt (saith the same Author) & medio farciunt; which Vitruvius discomends in the Romans of his time; And therefore the later Romans (the builders of our Wall) did, as I said, correct this Errour, and the Greeks.

And least it should seem strange, that Bricks should give a firmness to Stone buildings, the same Vitruvius [Page 135] testifies, and therefore commends Brick building before stone (our men indeed, for wholesomeness, which also is true, and to be much considered in a cold and moist Climate) even for the duration; And therefore in Rome abatement was ever made for the use of Sone build­ing, none for that of Brick, provide it kept its level and stood upright upon its Foundation; And therefore to excuse it he at large gives a relation why the Romans, suffered not Brick buildings to be made within the City of Rome; as a thing not of choice, but necessity. Those Brick buildings being certainly in that great Architects opinion to be preferred, the Law (sayes he) suffers not a Wall to be made to the street ward (for so give me leave to interpret communi loco) above a Foot and a halfe thick, and partition Walls the same, least they should take up too much rome. Now Brick Walls of a Foot and a halfe thick, (unless they were Diplinthij, or triplinthij), cannot bear up above one Story; but in so vast and Majestic a City (as Old Rome) there ought to be innumerable habitations; Therefore when a plain Area, or building of one story could not receive such a Multitude to dwell in the City, therefore the thing it self did compell them to it, that the Houses might be raised higher, and therefore they had strange contrivances of out jetting, and over hanging stories, and Belconies, &c. Which reasons if rightly considered are great mistakes; Our men at this day have taught the World better things; And have demonstrated that a firm building may be raised to many stories heighth up­on a foot and a half thick wall. The oversight of the Romans was the vast bigness of their Bricks; for the lesser the Brick the firmer the worke, there being much greater firmness in a multitude of Angles, as must be produced by small Brick, then in a right line; And this is the reason of the strength of Butresses, and Mult-angular Towers, &c.

These Bricks are about 17 Inches of our measure long [Page 136] and about 11 Inches broad, and two Inches and a half thick. This, (hauing caused severall of them to be carefully measured) I give in round Numbers, and do find them very well to agree with the notion of the Ro­man Foot, which the learned Antiquary Greaves has left us, viz. Of its being of halfe an Inch less then ours; they seem to have shrunk in the baking more in the bredth then in the length; which is but reasonable, because of its easier yeelding that way; And so, for the same rea­son, more in the thickness, for we suppose them to have been designed in the Mould for three Roman Inches.

Now that this was properly the Roman Brick, we have the testimony of Vitruvius, and Pliny: of Vitru­vius, "fiunt Laterum tria genera; unum quod Grece Didoron appellatur, quo nostri utuntur, &c." And of Pliny; "Genera eorum tria Didoron, quo vtimur longum sesquipede, latum pede;" But we are to note, that the Coppy of Vitruvius, where it describes the measure of the Didoron is vicious. And is to be cor­rected by Pliny; And had not Vitruvius's Commenta­tour been more a friend to his Author, than to truth, he had not perswaded the contrary; for the Bricks them­selves do demonstrate at this day Plinie's measures to be right and not that of Vitruvius, as they are extant: which makes me much wonder at the confidence of Daniel Barbarus affirming the Bricks, now to be found are all ac­cording to Vitruvius and not Plinte's measures; for all that I have yet seen with us in England, are of Plinie's measures; as at Leister in the Rome Ruine there, called the Jews Walls; at St. Albons, as I remember; and here with us at York.

And to goe no farther for Arguments, than that Chap. of Vitruvius, the diplinthij parietes in Rome were against Law, and the single Brick-wall was only allowed as Stand­ards; viz. A foot and a halfe thick wall, or one Roman Brick a length, as was above Noted.

[Page 137] Pliny, lived some time after Vitruvius, and being a pro­fessed Transcriber, and, as it appears from this very place, having taken the whole business of Brick Verbatim out of him and not differing in any one thing in the whole Chapter, but in this; viz. in the measure of the Dido­ron; And the Bricks demonstrating the truth of that differance, it is but reasonable we should make Vitru [...]i­us's longum pede, latum semipede, a fault of Vitruvius's Coppiers.

I shall conclude this differance with this remark: That proportion and a plaine Uniformitie, even in the minutest parts of Building, is to be observed, as this mise­serable Ruin of Roman workman-ship shews: In our Gothic Buildings there is a totall neglect of the measure and pro­portion of the Courses, as tho that was not much materi­all to the beauty of the whole, whereas, indeed, in Na­tures works, It is from the Symmetrie of the very Graine, whence ariseth much of the beauty of the thing. Indeed, if I was never to come nearer a building, and to view it alwayes at such a distance, this might be excused as to me; And so in Artificiall things, as in Pictures, and Car­vings to be seen on high: But yet in my opinion 'tis but an excuse of Laziness to tell me such and such rude dashes will have a marvelous effect at a distance; as though things Painted or Carved to addorn our com­paratively low Roomes were distanced. And this Noble Art, in my opinion, has of late in nothing suffered so much with us as in admitting of this vile (not to say Impudent) Excuse, whereas indeed, What is well done and most exactly finished in the most minute parts of a thing Painted? I am sure if it pleaseth me near the Eye, it will never displease me at a distance.

[Page][Page]
25 Cochlea terrestris turbinata et Striata fab Col.

[figure]

14. Buccinum exiguum fasciatum et radiatum.

Gall nar.

Aldernensi Insula.

A. Wallia Floid.

[Page][Page]
39 Buccinum exiguum pullum duodecim orbium.

[Page][Page]
46. cochlea cinereo rufescens fasciata leuiter umbilicata. POMATIA GESNERI

Cochlen POMATIA, edulis Gesneri.

[Page][Page]
47 cochlea hortensis nostra, fusca, maculata, et fasciata.

43 cochlea maculala, unica fascia fusca, per medium orbem insignita.

[Page][Page]
54. cochlea interdum unicolor, interdum uariegata, item uarijs fascijs depicta.

[Page][Page]
68. cochlea nostras umbilicata pulla.

78. cochlea compressa, umbilicata, fasciata compestris.

79. cochlea Subfusca umbilicata, clauicula modicè producta.

[Page][Page]
A

A

[Page][Page]
Gall. Nar.

56. cochlea alba leuiter umbilicata pluribus fascis circumdata, clauicula productiore.

Hisp

Gall. narb.

[Page][Page]
Cochleae nudae Terrestres Limaces quibusdam dicta'.

101. limax paruus, CINETEUS

102. limax ATER,

[Page][Page]
103. limax subrufus.

104. limax uanegatus, siue fascialus, cellarius.

Limax, Succini colore, albidis maculis insignitus.

[Page][Page]
26. Cochlea vivipara Fasciata.
Fluviatilis.

32. cochlea papua, pellucida, operculo testacco; cochleato (que) clausa.

[Page][Page]
an idem cum 21.

21. Buccinum Subflauum, pellucidum, Sex orbium, clauicula admodum tenui, productiore.

22. Buccinum Subflauum pellucidum quatuor orbium, ore amplisimo mucrone acuto.

23. Buccinum Subflauum, pellucidum, trium orbium

[Page][Page]
Purpurae Lacustres coccum fundentes.

41 cochlea pulla quatuor orbium.

42. cochlea fusca Limbo circum scripta.

43. cochlea exigua, quin (que) orbium.

[Page][Page]
38. Nerites Fluviatilis è. coeruleo uirescens, maculalus, operculo sub­croceo aculeato (que) donatus.

39 Patella Fluviatilis, exigua Subflaua, uertice mueronato inflexo (que).

[Page][Page]
Sectio. 1. Musculis [...]luviatilibus. Cardine dentato.

à Danubio

1. musculus ex slauo uiridescens medio dorso leuiter RADIAIUS, admodum crassus.

[Page][Page]
Musculus Fluviatilis è Fluvio Tamesi ad Battersey.

an uitium 2.

[Page][Page]
2. musculus angustior [...] ▪ ex flauo uiridescens medio dorso leuiter radiatus cardinis pinna Siue denticulo Birido.

3. musculus angustus. Subflauus Siue Cirriaus.

4. musculus niger Omnium longè crassissimus. conchae longae Species gesn. aldrou.

[Page][Page]
[...]. musculus latus maxims et tenuissimtus è coeruleo iuridescens, ferè palustri:

Sectio. 2. de Musculis cardine Laevi

8. musculus tenuis minor SUBFUSCUS, latiusculus.

14. pectunculus Subiuridis par [...]s. Subglobosus.

15 pectunculus perpusillus, rostratus.

virgin

[Page][Page]
Sectio. 1. Cap 1 de Pectinibus. exutra (que) parte aequaliter Auritis, Striatis.

Anglie

1. pecten magnus, albidus, circiter DUODEOEM STRIJS. multis minut i [...] (que) incienris exasperalis donatus.

[Page][Page]
9. pecten minor ex Croco uariegatus asper et fere Sinuosus et inequalis leuiter et admodum crebrò Steiatus.

17. pecten Sub [...]ufus Strijs uiginti quatuor ad minimum donatus.

[Page][Page]
18. [...]em cum Superiore [...] 17

23. pecten paruus ex croco uariegatus, tenuiter ad­ [...]modum Striatue alteris ferè Strys paulo minoribus.

[Page][Page]
27. pecten me [...]iecris latus, ex rufo uariegatus, circiter uiginti Strys admodum Striatis distuictus.

28. [...]dem cum DENTICULIS Sub aure; et non nisi altera et Infima ualua est.

[Page][Page]
Sectio. 2 Cap I. de OSTREIS

A [...]op [...]vsi planà [...]onga, recuruâ angulo acuto desinente.

Sulenta [...] qualiter utrin (que) ad cardinem denticulata.

31 [...] altera ualua pla [...]a. DENTICULATA.

[Page][Page]
Sectio 2 Cap 2 de ostracis APOP [...]YSI breui, SUBTER et quasi in occulto posita

36. [...]estrea fere circinata,, Subuiridis leuiter striata.

37. eadem Supina.

[Page][Page]

ostrea syluestris rondeleti

39. Ostrea laeuis Subpurpurea uel Subaurea instar margaritae intùs et extrà resplendens.

[Page][Page]
A J GarnSEY

69. pectunculus exiguus, albus, admodum tenuiter Striatus.

Chama Glycymeris Bellonij.

A. J. Garnsey. 82. pectunculus ingens, u [...]riegalus ex rufo.

[Page][Page]
87. pectunculus cra [...]iusculus, albidus.

88 pectunculus latus, admodum planus, tenuis, albidus.

[Page][Page]
100. pectunculus tenuis, leuiter purpurascens, radiatus, an idem cum Superiore?

mare mediter:

à. D. E. FLOId

105. pectunculus, Superiore paulo planior.

[Page][Page]
108. pectunculus maximus Subfuscus▪ ualdè grauis.

120 pectunculus fuscus densè fa [...]ciatus elegatiti quadam pictura undulata insignitus.

[Page][Page]
122. pectunculus omnium crassissimus fascijs ex latere bullatis donatus.

mar meciterr.

126. pectunculus rostro productiore capillaceis. fascy: donatus.

[Page][Page]
154 pectunculus exiguus, Subfuscus.

161. pectunculus orbiculari [...], fuscus Strijs medijs [...]u [...]ricatis.

marc adrintico.

[Page][Page]
169 pectunculus Subfuscus strys [...]

171. pectunculus capite minore, rotundiore, et magis cequali niargin [...].

[Page][Page]
127. pectunculus dense fasciatus [...] rubro uar­ [...]egatus, et undatus.

J. GarnSEY.

129. pectunculus Subfuscus, tenuitèr admodùm fasciatus.

[Page][Page]

136. pectunculus planus cra [...]sus, ex rufo radi [...]tus.

J Garnsey

[Page][Page]
200. musculus Subcoeruleus. ferè UirgaTUS.
mytulus RondEL

201. musculus paruus, Subcoerulcus latus, rostro tenui, adunco

202 musculus paruus, albidus, tenuis, angu [...]tior, rostro tenui, recuruo.

[Page][Page]
217. tellina Subfusca angustior, intus purpurascens.

[figure]

218. an eadem cum Superiore. 11. 216 [...]

menis

219. tellina purpurascens margine Sinuoso.

Jamaic

[Page][Page]
232 tellina lata albida ex rubro radita.

J. Garnsey.

241. tellina ex rufo [...] exasperata

[Page][Page]
247 tellina fasciata, [...] rubro ueriegata.

J GarnsEY

248. tellina fasciata angustior intus lut [...]scens, extra radiata

249. tellina fasciata [...] Subaurca radiata.

[Page][Page]
250. tellina parua▪ [...] rubra ad alterum latus Sinuosa

251. tellina leuis nitu [...] et extra rubra ad latus Sinucsa.

[Page][Page]
Sectio. 9 Solenis i. d. est. Conchae tenuibus longissimis (que). ab utra (que) parte naturalitèr hiantibus

255. Solen major Subfuscus▪ RICTUS

Solen [...]

[Page][Page]
259. chama fusca, lata, planior.

264. chama Subfusca augusti [...]na, ad Solenes quodam▪ mede acceden [...].

[Page][Page]
271 chama fusca Strys te [...]sir [...]is donata

[...].

[Page][Page]
Sect. 1 [...] cap. 2. Chamae: Pholad [...]bus
269. chamoe pholas, latus, ex alter [...] parte obfusus. Scaber Siue rugosus.

270. chamoe pholas fasciatus, ex altera parte intus ui [...]lacca.

[Page][Page]
pholos Striatus Sinuatus ex A alterà parte.

[figure]

pholas latus,

rugorus ex dimidio dorso et asper.

pholas paruus, asper.

[figure]

[Page][Page]
Pholadum tertia t [...]sta, aliarum cardin [...] Superinjecta.

Saxum pheladibus foratum.

[Page][Page]
Sectio 2 Conchis quinque Testarum, Anatifer [...]s pleris (que) dictis.
280 concha ana [...]fe ra Subrotunda bartholini.

[figure]

[...] mediter

282 concha a natifera, margine muricata.

[Page][Page]

287 Salanas paruus, Striatus.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.