A DISCOURSE OF CONSTANCY, In TWO BOOKS.

Chiefly containing Consolations Against Publick Evils.

Written in Latin By IVSTVS LIPSIVS, and translated into English By Nathaniel Wanley, M. A.

LONDON, Printed by I. Redmayne, for Iames Allestry, at the Sign of the Rose and Crown in St. Pauls Church-Yard. 1670.

[figure]

To his very Worthy Friend IOHN HAREWELL In the Middle Temple Esquire.

AS soon as my spare houres were deli­vered of this birth; I resolved it should be yours. Not that you cannot converse with Lipsius when you please, without the help of an Interpreter: Nor that I pretend by so slight a present as this, to dis­count with him; who [Page] ha's ever been ready to perform me all the best Offices that can be ex­pected from a generous and disinterested friend­ship. But, to speak truth, I have done it in a kind of tenderness to my self: I know you will look upon my pre­fixing your name to this Essay with other Eyes than some others would; and will interpret that to be the Fruit of a well-meaning affection; which perhaps they [Page] would have called the bold effects of an unpar­donable presumption. Being also conscious to my self, in what man­ner I have humbled that mighty Genius, which moves it self (with a pe­culiar and happy ele­gancy as well as reason) throughout almost eve­ry page of our Authour, by the cheap and base allay I have brought un­to it: I determined to appease his Manes, and make him some amends [Page] at least by the choice of such a patronage as pos­sibly himself would not have refused: I am sure I do not flatter you, when I say you are none of those degenerate Brit­tains, whom Gildas their own Country-man calls aetatis atramentum; but such a one as Lipsius himself dothelse where describe.

—In quo, veteris vestigia recti
Et mores, video, ductos meliore metallo.
In whom the prints of ancient worth appear,
And the choice draughts of manners are as clear.

[Page]Go on Sir, and as you have hither to very happily avoided those Rocks, whereupon some others (in an Age like yours, and through the dangerous allure­ments of a fortune at command) have fatally split themselves: So let every new accession of years, bring along with it such improvements, as may force us to ac­knowledge, that you have more than acquit­ted your self of all that [Page] your youth had so libe­rally promised. These are such wishes as he shall ever be prone to; who is

SIR,
Your most obliged Friend and servant, N. WANLEY.

To the Noble and Magnifique CONSULS, And to the SENATE and PEOPLE Of ANTWERP.

THese Books of Constan­cy, which I both began and finished in the midst of the troubles of my Country, I thought meet to dedicate, and devote to you; the great Sena­tours of so great a City. Your Dignity, Prudence, and Vir­tue, were the motives to it; to­gether with that humanity of [Page] yours which I have often expe­rienced, and which is peculiar to you; towards all that are good and learned. You will not I suppose disdain the gift; which though small in it self, will derive a kind of value from the mind of the Donour: See­ing I have given you the very best, and greatest of such things, as my Scholastical stores would at this time afford. To con­clude, possibly the novelty of it may some way recommend it. For (if I am not mistaken) I am the first, who have attempt­ed the opening, and clearing of [Page] this way of Wisdom, so long re­cluded, and overgrown with thorns; which certainly is such, as (inconjunction with the holy Scriptures) will lead us to tran­quility, and peace. For my own part, I wanted not a desire, to render my thankful acknow­ledgments to you; and to con­tribute to the profit of others; if I have not had the ability, it is but reasonable, that you should be as equal to me, as I am to the great God; who I know hath not given all things to any one. Farewell.

IVSTVS LIPSIVS To the READER, Touching the design and End of this TREATISE.

Reader,

I Am not ignorant of those new judgments and censures I am likely to undergo in this new way of writing: Partly, from such as will be surprized with the unexpected pro­fession of wisdom from him, whom they believed had only been conversant in the more pleasing and delightful studies; and partly from such as will despise and undervalue all that can be said in these matters, after what the ancients have written. To both these; it is for my concern, and no less for thine, that I should briefly reply. The first sort of persons seem to me to miscarry in two most different respects: in their care, and their carelesness. In the former that they assume to themselves a liberty of enquiring into the acti­ons and studies of others: In the latter, that their enquiries are yet so overly and superficial. For (that I may give them an account of me) the Hills and Springs of the Muses did never so [Page] intirely possess me; as that I should not find fre­quent opportunities to turn back my Eyes and Mind upon that severer deity: I mean Philo­sophy. The studies of which (even from my Childhood) were so pleasing to me, that in this youthful kind of ardour I seemed to offend, and to stand in need of the bridle of restraint My Tutors at Ubich know how all those kind of books, were as it were forced out of my hands together with those writings and commentaries which I had laboriously composed out of all the best ranks of interpreters. Nor certainly did I after ward degenerate; for I know that in all the course of my studies; if not in an exact and straight line, yet at least in the flexure, I have tended towards this mark of wisdom. Not after the rate of most here that deal in Philosophy: who doting upon some thorny subtilties, or snares of questi­ons, do nothing else but weave and unweave them with a kind of subtile thread of disputati­ons. They rest in words, and some little falla­cies; and wear away their dayes in the Porch of Philosophy, but never visit its more retired apartments. They use it as a divertisement, not as a remedy, and turn the most serious instru­ment of life, into a sportage with trifles: Who a­mongst them seeks after the improvement of his manners, the moderation of his affections; or de­signs a just end and measure for his fears or hopes. [Page] Yes, they suppose that wisdome is so little con­cerned in these things, that they think they do nothing, or nothing to the purpose that look af­ter them, And therefore if you consider of their life, and sentiments, amongst the vulgar them­selves you shall find nothing more foul than the one, nor more foolish than the other. For as wine (though nothing is more wholsome) is yet to some no better than poyson: So is Phylosophy to them that abuse it. But my Mind was other­wise; who always steering my Ship, from these quick sands of subtilties, have directed all my endeavours to attain that one Haven of a peace­able and quiet mind. Of which study of mine; I mean these books as the first and undeceivable instance. But say some others, these things have been more fully and better treated of by the an­cients. As to some of them I eonfess it: As to all I deny it. Should I write any thing of man­ners or the affections after Seneca and the divine Epictetus: I should have (my self being judge) as little discretion as modesty: But if such things as they have not so much as touched upon, nor any other of the ancients (for I dare confidently affirm it) then why do they despise it, or why do they carp at it? I have sought out consolations against publick evils: Who has done it before me? Whether they look upon the matter, or the method; they must confess they are indebted to [Page] me for both: And for the words themselves (let me say it) we have no such penury, as to oblige us to become suppliants to any Man. To con­clude, let them understand I have written many other things for others; but this book chiefly for my self; the former for fame, but this for pro­fit. That which one heretofore said bravely and acutely; the same I now truly proclaim. To me a few Readers are enough, one is enough, none is enough. All that I desire is, that who­soever opens this book, may bring with him a disposition to profit, and also to pardon. That if possibly I have any where slipt (especially when I endeavour to climb those steep places of provi­dence, Iustice and Fate) they would pardon me. For certainly, I have no where erredout of ma­lice and obstinacy: But rather through humane ignorance and infirmity. To conclude, I de­sire to be informed by them, and I promise that no Man shall be so ready to convince; as I to correct. The other frailties of my nature, I neither dissemble nor extenuate; but obstinacy and the study of contention, I do heartily pray I may never be guilty of, and I do detest it. God send thee good health, my Reader; which I wish may be in part to thee through this book.

A DISCOURSE OF CONSTANCY.

BOOK I.

CHAP. I.

The Preface and Introduction, a Com­plaint of the troubles of Belgia.

SOme few Years since tra­velling towards Vienna in Austria; not vvithout a signal Providence, I turn­ed aside to the City of Liege; which [Page 2] as it was not much out of my vvay: So I had some Friends there, whom both Custom and Affection did ob­lige me to salute. Amongst these vvas Charles Langius (to say nothing but vvhat is truth) the very best and most Learned Man of all the Bel­gians, I vvas receiv'd by him at his own House; vvhere he sweetned my entertainment, not only by the expresses of a civil and friendly re­spect; but also by such kind of dis­courses; as I shall doubtless find ad­vantageous to me, during the re­mainders of my life. This, this I say vvas the Man, vvho by the dis­sipation of some Mists of Vulgar O­pinions, vvas the First that open'd my Eyes; and shew'd me the vvay, vvhereby without intricacy I might active at those desireable places, vvhich Lucretius calls

[Page 3] The high-rais'd Temples which the VVise
By learning make to top the Skies.

For one hot Afternoon (as being towards the end of Iune) vvhile vve vvalk'd in the Court before his House: In very obliging Termes he ask'd me concerning my Journey, and the Rea­sons that had mov'd me to it. After I had spoken many things vvith equal Freedom and Truth, concerning the troubles of Belgia: I told him at last, that howsoever I had pretended an­other; yet this vvas the very Reason of my departure. For vvho, O Lan­gius said I, is there to be found of so flinty and hard a heart; as longer to endure these evils? We are toss'd as you see, for so many Years together in the stormes of a Civil War: and are vvhirl'd up and down in a Tem­pestuous Sea vvith the different Winds of Trouble and Sedition. Doth my temper incline me to ease and quiet? [Page 4] The hoarce accents of Trumpets, and the clashings of Armes, do speedily interrupt me. Do I seek my Diver­tisements in the Country or Gardens? The Souldier and Swash-buckler soon fright me into the City. And there­fore, O Langius, leaving this infested and unfortunate Belgia (pardon me O thou Genius of my Country) I am resolv'd (as he saies) to shift my Ha­bitation; and to fly into any part of the Earth, where I may neither hear of the name or actions of this Race of Pelops. Langius admiring and some­what mov'd; Is it true then Lipsius, saies he, that you will needs depart from us? Either from you or most un­doubtedly from this Life, reply'd I. For what Sanctuary is there from these Evils, but only in the flight of them? For to behold them and endure them daily I am not able Langius, as being one whose heart you may be sure is not composed of Adamant. Langius sigh'd at this discourse; and feeble [Page 5] Young Man said he, what kind of de­licacy is this? Or what may be thy meaning to seek for safety by flight? I acknowledge your Country is full of Trouble and Turmoile; but vvhat part of Europe is that which is at this day free? Insomuch as you may truly praesage according to that of Aristo­phanes,

Things that are high with awfull frown
High-thundring Jove will tumble down.

And therefore not so much our Country (Lipsius) as our Passions are to be fled: and this Mind of ours is to be so fram'd and establish'd, as that vve may find repose in the midst of trou­bles, and peace in the midst of Warrs. They are rather to be fled, Langius, (reply'd I with an ardour Youthfull enough) for certainly those evils that vve hear of, do more lightly affect us, than those vve behold: and withall our selves (as they say) are out of Gun­shot [Page 6] and the dust of this contention. Do you not hear how craftily Homer advises?

Get out o'th compass of the Arrows flight,
Lest a new wound upon the former light.

CHAP II.

That Travaile availes not against those Diseases which are within us. It is rather a Symptome than a Cure: un­less in some first and light motion of the Affections.

YEs I hear him, said Langius, vvith a kind of Nod: but I had rather you would hear the Voice of Wisdom and Reason. For those Clouds and Mists vvhich enwrap you Lipsius, are ingendered by the Vapours of Opini­on. And therefore in this Case (as Diogenes saies) you have more need of [Page 7] Reason than a Rope: I mean such a ray as may enlighten the darkness of your understanding. You are about to leave your Country, but tell me se­riously, vvhen you forsake it, can you also forsake your self? Take heed lest you experience the contrary; and carry with you even in that bosome of yours, the source and fountain of all your evils. As those who are sick of a Feaver do continually toss and tum­ble, and shift their Beds, with a vain hope of finding some ease thereby: In the same manner it is vvith us, who do in vain pass from one Climate to another; vvhile the sickness is in our Minds. For this is to manifest, not to remove the disease: to make a dis­covery of this Internal heat; but not at all to asswage it. The wise Roman speaks excellently vvell. 'Tis the pro­perty of the sick not to endure any thing long: and to make use of change it self, instead of a Remedy. Hence are those straggling peregrinations, and [Page 8] those wandring Voyages upon the Shores undertaken: Now by Land, and anon by Sea; vvith a levity that is ever disgusted vvith vvhatsoever is present. You do therefore rather fly than escape troubles, after the manner of that Hind in Virgil

VVhich (while unwary she at distance feeds
Among the Craetan woods and nothing beeds)
Some Shepherds arrow strikes; away she hyes,
And through Dictaean woods and groves she flies:

But all in vain; for as the same Poet addes.

—the fatall reed
Sticks in her side, for all her speed.

'Tis thus with you, who being in­vvardly smitten vvith this dart of Pas­sion; do not by travell shake it out: [Page 9] but rather carry it elsewhere. He that ha's broke an Arm or Leg does not use to call for a Horse or Coach, but for a Chirurgion: What kind of Va­nitie then is that of yours; that causes you to seek the Cure of an inward vvound, by motion and gadding up and down? For certainly it is the mind vvhich is sick; and all this outward vveakness, despair and langour, arises from this one Fountain, that it lan­guishes and is cast down. That Princely and Diviner part hath cast away the Scepter; and hath humbled it self to that Degree of baseness; as to become a voluntary slave to its own Vassailes.

Tell me now in this Case; vvhat advantage is to be hop'd for, from Place or Motion? Unless possibly there is any such Region, vvhich can tem­per our Fears, or bridle our hopes; or make us discharge our selves again of that filthy matter of Vices, vvhich we have so liberally taken down. But [Page 10] there is alass no such, no not in the Fortunate Islands themselves; or if there be, be so kind as to shew us it, and vve vvill all embody and forthvvith march thither. You vvill say that very Motion, and change of place it self hath that force; and that those daily sights, that variety of Customes men and places, vvhich vve meet vvith in travell; doth recreate and rouse a­fresh the dejected Mind.

You are deceiv'd Lipsius, for (to speak seriously and as the matter doth require) I do not so far forth depress travail as to grant it no kind of povver over Man, and his Affections. Yes, let it be yielded that it hath, but hitherto only, that it may possibly re­move some lighter taedium; or as it vvere loathings of the Mind: but as for the Diseases of it, they have lodg'd themselves so deep therein, as to mock the Virtues of any external Me­dicines. Musick, Wine, Sleep have frequently cur'd those first and lesser [Page 11] Motions of Anger, Grief, or Love: But never the Disease, vvhen once it hath been fix'd and hath fastned its Roots deep. The case is the same here; Travail vvill possibly heal some lighter languors, but it can never cure the true ones. For those First Mo­tions vvhich do arise from the Body, do after a sort still remain in the Body; or at most (if I may say so) in the su­perficies of the Mind: and therefore it is no marvail, if some lesser spunge be able to vvipe them out. But it is not so vvith those inveterate Affecti­ons; vvhich have their Seat, yea throne in the very Soul of the Mind. When therefore you have gone far, and spent much time in travail, vvhen you have circled both Sea and Land: Yet no Seas vvill suffice to vvash them out, nor any Earth to overvvhelme them. They vvill follovv you, and vvhether on Foot or on Horse-back, that I may use the Phrase of the Poet; these black cares vvill sit behind you. [Page 12] When Socrates vvas ask'd by one vvhat might be the Reason that he had no better accomplish'd himself by tra­vail: he answer'd him pertinently; because said he you did not travail from your self. Somewhat like unto this I shall now say: Even vv [...]ithersoever you shall betake your self; you vvill have in your company a corrupted and a corrupting Mind; none of the most desireable associates. I wish it an as­sociate only, but I fear it may prove a leader: For your Affections vvill not so much follow you; as they vvill dragg you after them.

CHAP. III.

That the true Diseases of the Mind are not removed by travail; but are thereby the more exasperated. That it is the Mind which is sick; a re­medy for which is to be sought for from VVisdom and Constancy.

YOu vvill say then: doth not tra­vail call us away from those tru­er evils? vvill not the prospect of Fields, Rivers, and Mountains place us beyond the sense of our Grief? They may possibly call you off; and place you beyond: but neither for any time not vvith any firmness. As the eye is not long delighted with a pi­cture how excellent soever: So all that varietic of Men and places, may af­fect us vvith the Novelty; but it vvill not last long. This is indeed a kind of vvandring from Evils; but not the [Page 14] flight of them: Nor is it in the power of travail to break; all it can do is to lengthen, this Chain of our Griefs. What advantage is it to me for a vvhile to behold the Light, and then forth­vvith to pass into some comfortless Dungeon? Such is the case; and ve­rily the vvhole Body of these outward pleasures do lie in ambush for the Soul; and hurt us the more securely, vvhile they pretend to assist us. As the vveaker sort of Medicines do ra­ther exasperate than draw forth the peccant humour: So this vain com­placencie doth encrease and svvell the Tide of these desires in us. For the Mind doth not long vvander from it self; but by and by how unvvilling soever is compell'd to return home, unto its old familiaritie vvith Evils. Those very Cities and Mountains vvhich you go to see; vvill reduce to your thoughts the Memory of your Country: And in the midst of all your delights; you vvill either see or hear [Page 15] of something, vvhich vvill unclose a­fresh the vvounds of your Griefes: Or if possibly you may rest avvhile; it vvill prove but like to one of those shorter slumbers; that leave the a­vvaked party, in the same or a greater Feaver. For there are a sort of de­sires which being interrupted do in­crease the more: And are sensibly the stronger for having had Vaca­tions.

Away then Lipsius vvith these vain yea dangerous experiments; more like to poysons than remedies: And betake your self to those, vvhich how severe soever, are yet the true ones. Are you about to change your Soile and Climb? O rather let it be your Mind: vvhich you have unhappily withdrawn from the Obedience of Right Reason: for no other purpose than to make it a Slave to your Affections. The un­sound temper of that is the Root of this despair; and thence are your languors because that is corrupted. [Page 16] It behoves you then rather to endea­vour a change of that, than of the place; and to strive not so much to be else where, as to be another. You long now to see the fruitfull Austria, the Loyal and Stout Vienna, that King of Rivers the Danubius, and those o­ther rare and strange things vvhich Men so delightfully listen to the Re­lations of.

But hovv much better were it for you, if you had the same Ar­dour and eagerness after Wisdome? If you vvould foot it in those fer­til Fields; if you would search out the springs of Humane perturbati­ons; in fine, if you vvould erect such Bulvvarks and Forts; as might ren­der you impregnable to all the storms and assaults of such desires as are Illegitimate? For these are the grand Remedies for your Disease; and every thing besides are but as Lint and Lavatory. Your depar­ture vvill nothing help you; It vvill [Page 17] be small advantage to you that you have

Escap'd to many Graecian Cities, and
Through squadrons of arm'd Ships get safe to Land.

You vvill find an Enemy vvithin your self; and Claying his hand on my brest) in that so private an apartment. What matter is it how peaceable those places are to which you shall arrive: So long as you carry a War along vvith you? Or how quiet? When troubles not only surround you; but are got vvithin you. For this dis­agreeing Mind of ours, vvill ever be piquering vvith it self: Desiring and flying; hoping and desparing. And as those flying Cowards do most of all expose themselves to danger; that discover their unarmed Backs to their Enemies: So those Errants and Fresh­vvater Souldiers also do: vvho as yet did never maintain a fight vvith their [Page 18] Affections but alwayes fled before them. But thou Young Man, if thou vvilt hearken unto me, shalt stand, and fortifie thy self against this Enemie of Grief. For above all things it is con­stancy you stand in need off: and there are some vvho have commenced Conquerours by fighting, but not a single Person by flying.

CHAP. IV.

The Definitions of Constancy; Patience; Right Reason and Opinion: The dif­ference betwixt Obstinacy and Constan­cy, and betwixt Patience and Stupi­dity.

SOmewhat rais'd vvith this Dis­course of Langius, there is much of Noble and Gallant (said I) in these Advices of yours: And now am I [Page 19] endeavouring to raise up my self and stand: But to as little purpose as per­sons that attempt the same thing in their sleeps. For not to dissemble, Langius, I tumble back into my form­er Seat; and as vvell publick as pri­vate Cares stick fast in my perplexed Mind. Drive from me (if it is pos­sible) these Vultures vvhich are con­tinually pecking, and take from me these Ligatures of Anxiety vvith vvhich I feel my self bound unto this Caucasus. I shall doubtless take them away reply'd he, and as another Her­cules, set at liberty this Prometheus: Do you only attend and consider. I did before invite you to Constancy, Lip­sius, and it is in that I have placed the Hope and Sanctuary of all your Safety. This therefore in the first place is to be understood by us. Now by Constan­cy I here understand; AN UPRIGHT UNMOVED STRENGTH OF THE MIND; NEITHER E­LEVATED NOR DEPRESS'D [Page 20] BY EXTERNAL OR ACCI­DENTAL OCCURREN­CES. I said a STRENGTH, and I thereby understand such a firmness as is begot in the Mind, not by O­pinion, but by Judgement and right Reason. For above all things I would exclude from hence Pervicaciousness (or vvhether I may better call it Per­tinaciousness) vvhich it self is the strength of an Obedient Mind, but such only as is engender'd by the vvind of Pride and vain Glory; and is but in one part of it only. For those Pervicacious Persons though they are not (swollen as they are) easi­ly to be depress'd: Yet a light mat­ter doth lift them up. Not unlike unto a bladder vvhich being fill'd vvith vvind vvill not sink vvithout difficulty; but appears aloft, and bounds upon the Water of its own accord. Such is the flatulent hardness of these Men; vvhich as I said arises from Pride, and too high an estimate of self, and by [Page 21] consequence from Opinion. But the true Mother of Constancy, is Pati­ence and lowliness of the Mind; vvhich I define; A VOLUNTARY AND COMPLAINTLESSE EN­DURANCE OF ALL THOSE THINGS WHATSOEVER THEY BE, THAT FALL OUT TO, OR FALL UPON A MAN FROM ELSEWHERE. Which being taken up, upon the actount of right Reason, is that only Root, from vvhence the height of this excellent Oak-like strength doth vvear it self. For here also it is requisite that you should be heedfull, lest Opinion should impose upon you, vvhich fre­quently in the room of Patience doth subrogate a kind of abject and stupid temper of the Mind; a very Vice, and vvhich arises from too low an estimate of our selves. As for Virtue she ever marches in the middle path, and is cautiously heedfull lest there should be any thing of Excess or Defect in [Page 22] any of her Actions. For still she di­rects her self by the Ballance of right Reason, and hath that alone for the rule and square of her Test. Now this right Reason is nothing else but, A TRUE APPREHENSION AND JUDGEMENT OF HU­MANE AND DIVINE MAT­TERS, AS FARR AS THEY APPERTAIN TO US: Contrary hereunto is Opinion vvhich is A FU­TILE AND FALLACIOUS JUDGEMENT CONCERN­ING THE SAME THINGS.

CHAP. V.

The Originals of Reason and Opinion. The Power and Effects of each. That leads to Constancy; this to Levity.

BUt forasmuch as from this double spring (I mean of Reason and O­pinion) doth arise not only the strength or vveakness of the Mind: But also every of those things for vvhich vve are accounted praise-worthy, or re­proveable amongst Men: I suppose I shall not do amiss, if I go about a little more copiously to Discourse of the Original and Nature of them both. For as Wools must have a previous tincture and preparation by some o­ther juices; before they are capable of receiving as they should that last and more excellent colour they are intended for: After the same manner, Lipsius, your Mind is to be prepared [Page 24] by a preceding Discourse; before I shall be able (as I vvould) to dye it in the last purple of Constancy. There are therefore (as you vvell know) two parts in Man, Soul and Body: the one more Noble as resembling Spirit and Office; the other is more Base as it respects the earth: These two are joyn'd together, yet vvith a kind of disagreeing Concord, nor do they easily accord vvith one another, espe­cially in those matters wherein Sove­raignty, or subserviency is concern'd. For both have a desire to sway; but that especially that ought not. Earth strives to advance it self above its own fire; and Clodds are ambiti­ous to get above the Clouds. From hence are those broils and troubles in a Man; and as it vvere a continual fight, betwixt two parties that are al­vvayes Skirmishing vvith each other. The chief Leaders, and as it vvere Generalls unto these are Reason and Opinion. The one is for the Soul [Page 25] and Warres therein; the other is for the Body, and in the Body it fights. Reason derives its Pedigree from Hea­ven; yea from God himself, and very highly doth Seneca extoll it, as a part of the Divine Spirit infused into Man. For this is that most excellent faculty of understanding and judging, vvhich is no less the perfection of the Soul, than the Soul it self is the perfection of the Man. The Greeks call it the Mind, and so the Latines, or else the Mind of the Soul. For (that you be not mistaken) the vvhole Soul is not right Reason; but that only therein vvhich is simple, Uniform, unmixed, sever'd from all Lees and Dreggs, and (in a vvord) that vvhich is in it of sub­lime and coelestial. For the Soul it self (howsoever it is lamentably cor­rupted and infected, vvith the stain of the Body, and the contagion of the Senses) doth yet invvardly retain some certain Footsteps of its Origi­nal: and there are in it (very clearly [Page 26] discernible) some sparkling remain­ders of that first and purer fire. Hence are those stings of Conscience even in the vvorst and most profligate Per­sons: Hence are those invvard scour­ges and gnawings; and hence is that approbation of a better Life, vvhich is frequently extorted from them, though not vvithout a reluctancy in themselves. For that sound and ho­lyer part vvithin us, may possibly for a time be suppressed, oppressed it can­not. And that burning Flame may be cover'd; but cannot be extinguish­ed. For those little Fires do alwayes shine forth, and sparkle out, to en­lighten us amongst these shades, cleanse us from these stains; guide us in our vvandrings; and to shew us the vvay to Constancy and Virtue. As the Heliotrope and some other Flowers do by a natural instinct bend towards the Sun: So doth Reason turn it self to God and the Original of its self. Firm and immoveable in vvhat is good, [Page 27] one and the same in its Censures; e­ver desiring or flying one and the same thing, the very source and Fountain of right Councel and sound Judgement. To obey this is no less than to command, and to be subject here is to svvay the Scepter of the U­niverse. Who ever hearkens unto this hath already subjugated the re­bellious desires and motions of the Mind: And he shall never be wildred in the Labyrinths of this Life, vvho remits himself to the guideance of this Theseian Clevv. God himself by this his Image comes unto us (nay vvhich is yet more) into us. But that baser and unsounder part (I mean Opinion) it owes its Original to the Body (that is to say) to Earth, and therefore savours nothing besides it. For the Body howsoever it is immove­able and senseless of it self; yet it derives both Life and Motion from the Soul; and on the other side presents to the Soul, the Images of things [Page 28] through the Windowes of the senses. Thus there is a kind of Communion and Society Cemented betwixt the Soul and the Body: but such a com­munion, as if vve attend the Event, proves unfortunate to the Soul. For through this it is that the Soul, by al­most insensible degrees, is led from the Nobler place of its residence, be­comes addicted to and is mingled vvith the Senses, and from this im­pure mixture, is the birth of Opini­on; vvhich is no other than a vain shaddow, and resemblance of Rea­son. The true seat of it is Sense, the Parent, Earth; and therefore abject and base as it is, it advances not it self, it aspires not, nor so much as regards any thing that is lofty and AE­therial. It is ever vain, uncertain, deceitfull, ill-advising, and as perver­sly judging: and that vvhich it chiefly aimes at, is at once to deprive the Soul of Constancy and Truth. It languishes for this thing to day, and [Page 29] on the Morrow despises it, this it approves and this it condemnes; no­thing vvith judgement, but gratifying the Body and indulging the Senses in every thing. As the Eye makes but a false measure of those things vvhich it beholds through some Cloud or in the Water: So doth the Mind but perversly judge of vvhat it beholds through the misty Mediums of Opi­nion. This (if you consider vvell) is to Man the Mother of his Evils; and this is the Author of that confu­sed and perturbed Life vvithin us. That cares do disquiet us, it is from hence; that the Passions do distract us, it is from hence; and if Vices do Reign over us, it is also from hence. And therefore as those vvho are re­solv'd to abolish Tyranny in any City, do first of all demolish the Castle: So if vve are Serious in the prosecution of a good Mind, vve must subvert this Citadel of Opinions. For vve shall fluctuate vvith them for ever: Anxi­ous, [Page 30] Plaintfull, Discompos'd, and ne­ver (as vve ought) assigning vvhat is equall either to God or Man. As a void and empty Ship, is tossed in the Sea, vvith every wind: So vvill that Vagrant Mind of ours be, vvhich the vveight, and (as it vvere) the ballast of Reason hath not established.

CHAP. VI.

The praise of Constancy, and a serious ex­hortation to pursue it.

LEvity therefore Lipsius (as you see) is the Comrade of Opinion, and the property of it is alvvayes to change and to repent. But the asso­ciate of Reason is Constancy; to the putting on of vvhich I do very seri­ously exhort you. To vvhat purpose is it to have recourse unto things vain [Page 31] and external? This is that only He­lena vvhich can present you vvith that true and rich Nepenthe, in vvhich you may drown the memory of all your Cares and Griefs; which if once you have tasted and taken down; proof against every chance, in the same equal tenour, and not vvavering after the manner of a ballance; you may challenge to your self that great and God-like property of Immove­able. Have you not observed in the Scutcheons and Impresses of some of the Princes of this Age; that high and envy'd Motto, NEITHER BY HOPE NOR FEAR? It shall be yours; vvho being truly a King, and truly free; shall be a sub­ject unto God alone, exempt from the bondage both of Affections and Fortune. As there are some certain Rivers which are said to pass through the middle of Seas; and yet preserve themselves intire: so you shall travel through surrounding tumults in such a [Page 32] manner, as not to contract any saltness from this Sea of sorrowes. Do you fall? Constancy will lift you up. Do you stagger? It vvill support you. Shall you hasten to some Pond or Hal­ter? It vvill solace and reduce you from the very Portalls of Death. Do you only deliver, and raise up your self: Steere the course of your Ship unto this Haven, where Peace and Security dwell: In vvhich there is a Refuge and a Sanctuary from troubles and perplexities. Whereunto (as­suredly) if you are once arriv'd; should your Country not only totter, but fall into ruines; your self should stand unshaken. When Storms and Tem­pests, and Thunder-bolts fall about you; yet then you shall cry out vvith as true, as loud a Voice,

In midst of all these VVaves I stand
Secure, as if upon the Land.

CHAP. VII.

VVhat it is and how manifold, that oppo­ses Constancy: they are external good and evil things. Those evils are twofold, Publick and Private; those which are Publick seem the most grie­vous and dangerous.

WHen Langius had spoken these things vvith a Voice and Air more earnest than he used: a spark of this desirable fire did seise on me also. And my Father said I (for I call you truly not feignedly so) lead me where­soever you please, and instruct, cor­rect and direct me. You have a pa­tient prepared for any method of O­peration vvhether you shall determine to make use of the Caustick, or shall proceed to Amputation. Both these reply'd Langius, in as much as in some places the stubble of idle Opinions [Page 34] is to be set on fire, and elsewhere the shrubs of Passions are to be grubb'd up by the very Roots. But shall vve continue our vvalk; or whether is it not better and most convenient for us to sit? To sit reply'd I, for I begin to be hot, and that upon divers accounts: So assoon as Langius had caus'd Chairs to be brought into the same Court, and that vve vvere both sate; turning himself towards me, he again thus began.

Hitherto Lipsius I have been laying the Foundations vvhereupon I might safely erect my discourse: Now if you vvill I shall draw a little nearer to you, enquire out the causes of your Grief, and as they say, lay my Finger upon they very sore. There are two things that lay Battery to this fort of Con­stancy vvithin us. False Goods and false Ills. Both vvhich I thus define. THINGS NOT WITHIN BUT ABOUT US and WHICH PRO­PERLY DO NEITHER DAM­AGE [Page 35] NOR ADVANTAGE THIS OUR INWARD MAN THAT IS OUR SOUL. And therefore I vvill not call them Good or Evil; as if they were so absolutely and sim­ply: But only from Opinion and the common mistake of the Vulgar. A­mongst the First they Ranke Riches, Honours, Power, Health, Long-life. Amongst the Last Poverty, Infamy, vvant of Power, Diseases and Deaths; and in a vvord vvhatsoever is acciden­tal and external. From these two stocks those four chief Affections grow up in us vvhich compass and perplex the vvhole life of Man. Desire and Joy, Fear and Grief. The two former of these respect some imagined good; and thence are bred: the two last respect supposed evils. Each of them do equally hurt and molest the Mind: and unless care be taken to dethrone it; though not after one and the same manner. For vvhereas the repose and Constancy of the Mind is placed in [Page 36] a kind of even and equall ballance; they force it from this poise, the one by hoisting, and the other by depres­sing it. But these false goods together vvith the Elation of the Mind by them, I shall purposely pass over (as not concerning your Disease) and hasten to those I call false evils; The Brigade of vvhich is also twofold: Publick and Private. The Publick I thus define; SUCH AS THE SENSE OF WHICH, DOTH AT ONE AND THE SAME TIME EXTEND TO MANY. The Private; SUCH AS REACH BUT TO SINGLE PERSONS. Amongst the former I reckon Warrs, Pestilence, Famine, Tyranny, Slaught­er, and such other things as spread abroad; and do respect the commu­nity: Amongst the latter I put Grief, Poverty, Disgrace, Death; and what ever is enclos'd within private vvalls, and is the concernment of some par­ticular person. It is not upon any [Page 37] frivolous account that I thus distin­guish. Forasmuch, as indeed that Man mourns otherwise and in a different Fashion vvho laments the Calamity of his Country, the Exile and De­struction of many; than he vvho only sighs for his own misfortunes. Add to this, that from each of these do arise different Distempers, and if I mistake not, the more grie­vous and durable from the former. For most of us are concern'd in Pub­lick Calamities; vvhether it is that they rush upon us vvith an impetuous vehemence: Or as it vvere in a form'd Battalia do overwhelm the Opposer, or rather that they flatter us vvith a kind of Ambition, that keeps us ig­norant and insensible, that through them a sickness is bred in our Minds. For vvhoever he is that bows under a private Grief, he must of necessity acknowledge his vice and vveakness; although he amend it not, for vvhat excuse hath he? But he vvho falls [Page 38] under this other; so farr is he many times from the acknowledgement of his fall and fault, that he often makes it his boast, and esteems it a praise­worthy thing. For it is styl'd Piety and Commiseration, and there vvants but little; that this publick Feaver is not consecrated not only amongst the Virtues; but the very Deities them­selves. The Poets and Oratours do everyvvhere extoll and inculcate the servent Love of our Country: Nor do I my self desire altogether to erase it, but to temper and moderate it; this is all that I contend for. For assuredly it is a very vice, a Disease, the very fall of the Mind, and the casting of it down from its seat. But vvithall on the other side, it is a very grievous Disease, inasmuch as there­in there is not a single Grief only, but your own and anothers confound­ed, and that other is also double, respecting the Men, or the Country.

That you may the better apprehend [Page 39] what I have more obscurely deliver'd take this instance. You see your Belgia is at this time press'd vvith more than a single Calamity; the Flames of this Civil vvar doth enwrap it on every side: You see on all hands that Fields are vvasted and spoiled, Towns are burnt and o­verturned; men are taken and slain; Ma­trons are defiled; Virgins ravished, and vvhatsoever inhumanities use to accom­pany vvarr. Is not here matter of Grief to you? Grief indeed; but a various and divided one (if you consider it vvell; in­asmuch as at one and the same time, you lament your self, and your Countrymen, and your Country besides. In your self your losses, in your Countrymen their various Fortune and Death, in your Country, the change and overthrow of its State. Here you have cause to cry out; O miserable man that I am! there

So many of my Countrymen must stand,
The shock of Plagues brought by a hostile hand!

[Page 40] and lastly elsewhere: My Father! My Country! So that he vvho is not af­fected vvith these things: he on whom the vvedge and vveight of so many invading Evils can vvork nothing, must certainly be either a very tem­perate and vvise person, or exceeding­ly hard hearted.

CHAP. VIII.

Publick Evils oppos'd. Three Affecti­ons restrain'd: and of these; First, a certain Ambitious Simulation, by which Men lament their own misfortunes as Publick Evils.

WHat think you Lipsius have I not seem'd sufficiently to pre­varicate vvith my Constancy, and to plead the Cause of your Grief? Yet I have done but as couragious and [Page 41] brave Chieftains use; I have dar'd out your vvhole Forces into the Field; and now I mean to deal with them, in a Skirmish first and then a joyned Battail: In our Skirmish, there are three Affections (Great Enemies to Constancy) vvhich at the first on­set are to be thrown under Foot, these are Simulation, Piety and Pitty: I'le begin vvith Simulation.

You are not able you say to endure these publick evils, that they are not only grievous to you but Death it self. Are you in good earnest, or vvhether is not there here some im­posture and cousenage? At this a little heated: Nay said I do you ask this in earnest, or vvhether is it mock­ery of my Grief, and on purpose to provoke me? I am serious reply'd he, for there are not a few of this Spittle of yours that impose upon their Phy­sicians, and Counterfeit a publick Grief vvhich yet in reality is but a private one. I demand therefore [Page 42] vvhether you are certain that this care,

VVhich deeply rooted in your brest
Doth you so grievously molest,

be taken up by you, upon your Countryes account, or only upon your own? What do you doubt it said I? I mourn solely upon the account of my Country, my Country Langius. He shaking his head as unsatisfyed; consider of it again and again Young Man said he; I shall vvonder to find in you so excellent and sincere a Piety, for certainly it is to be met vvith, but in a very few. I acknowledge it is usuall for Men to complain of pub­lick evils; nor is there any Grief so common, and (as I may so say) that doth sooner shew it self in the Fore­head: But if you examine it a little more nearly; you shall soon discover some disagreement betwixt the heart and the tongue. The Calamity of [Page 43] my Country doth affect me; are vvords more ambitious than true: born in the Lips rather than in the Reines. That vvhich is reported of Polus the Famous Actour, that vvhen he was to play such a part at Athens as required to be presented vvith a remarkable passion; he privily brought in the Urne and Bones of his dead Son, and so fill'd the vvhole Thea­tre vvith unfeigned Lamentations and Tears; the same may be said of most of you. You play your parts in a Comedy (my Friends) and dis­guised in the masking Face of your Country; you lament your private losses vvith the truest and most live­ly Tears; The vvhole World saies Arbiter are employ'd in a Stage-play: I am sure it is so here. This Civil Warr (say they) torments us, the shedding of innocent blood, and the decease of Liberty and the Laws. Say ye so? I perceive indeed your Grief, I now ask and enquire of the cause [Page 44] of it. Is it because Publick matters are but in an Evil case? Away vvith thy vizzard thou Stage-player; for it is because thy own concernments are so. We have often seen the Ru­sticks tremble and throng together unto the Temples, upon the ap­proach of some sudden and unexpe­cted Calamity; but so soon as it is over, call aside those very men; ex­amine them apart, and you vvill find that each of these vvas in fear only for his Corn, and some little Close of his own. Let them cry Fire, Fire, in this City, and I may almost affirm that the very Blind and the Lame vvill run to quench it. But vvhat think you? Is it for the Love of their Country? Inquire of themselves I pray, and the answer vvill be because the loss, or at least the fear of it doth extend to every Man in particular. It is in this case, after the very same manner: Publick evils do generally afflict and disquiet Men; not because [Page 45] many are concern'd in those losses: but because themselves are amongst those many.

CHAP. IX.

A clearer discovery of this Simulation by Examples; something (by the way) of our true Country. Of that ma­lice in Men, which occasions them to rejoyce in the Evils of others, when themselves are secure.

BE you therefore the Judge, and let this cause be pleaded before your own Tribunal; only (as I said before) let the disguise be taken off. As thus. Do you indeed feare this Warre? You do feare it. Upon what account? Because Pestilence and Slaughter are the companions of Warre. To whom [Page 46] comes that Pestilence? To others in­deed for the present, but it may also in time reach unto you. Behold there the true source of your Grief; and (if without the rack you will con­fesse the truth) it hath no other foun­tain. For as when the lightning hath strook down some one; even those also tremble who are near: so in those great and Common Calamities, the losse arrives unto few; but the fear unto all. Now take but that away, and together with it this grief also is removed. If Warre be amongst the AEthiopians or Indians, you are not mov'd at all (for you are in no dan­ger) but if in Belgia, then you la­ment and take on, and deliver up your self to all the expressions of sor­row. But if you bewaile Publick evills as such; where lyes the diffe­rence? you will say that is not my Country. Thou Fool! Are not they also men? of the same stock and ori­ginal with they self? under the same [Page 47] Canopy of heaven; and on the same Globe of Earth? suppose you that this little Horizon which these moun­tains terminate, and these Rivers bound, is your Country? you are mistaken; It is the whole World, wheresoever there are men sprung from that celestial seed. Socrates of old reply'd excellently to one that ask'd him of what Country he was: of the World said he. For a great and lofty mind includes not it self within the narrow limits of opinion: but in its apprehension and thought embraces this whole universe as its own. We have seen and derided the folly of such; whose keepers have tyed them in a nooz of stravv only; or some slender thread: and yet they have stood as if they vvere shackl'd in fetters of iron: such a kind of mad­nesse is this of ours: vvho by the vain bond of opinion are restrain'd to a certain part of earth. But to omit these stronger vvayes of reasoning [Page 48] (in regard I fear you are not yet able to concoct them) I shall adde this far­ther. Suppose that some god should promise you, that during this vvar, your fields should be untouch'd; your house and mony safe, and your self set on some mountains top, folded in one of Homers clouds: vvould you grieve still? I vvill not say it of you, but there are a sort of men, that vvould even rejoice, and greedily feed their eyes vvith the confused slaughter of dying men. What do you deny this, or seem to vvonder at it? I tell you there is a kind of inbred malice in the disposition of mankind; vvhich as the old Poet speakes ‘Ioyes at another mans calamities.’ And as there are a sort of Apples, vvhich to the tast are svveetly sovvre: such are other mens perplexities vvhen our selves are secure. Set me but a man on such a shore of the [Page 49] Ocean vvhere he may behold a Ship­vvrack, he vvill possibly be affected, but not vvithout a certain pleasing ti­tillation of the Mind; as one that be­holds other Mens extremities vvith­out his ovvn: But place the same Man in the same endangered Ship, and then hee'l grieve (I'le vvarrant ye) after another fashion. It is the same here vvhen vve have said and done all that vve can: And vve do bevvaile our ovvn Miseries truly and unfeignedly; vvhile vve lament those that are publick only to be talk'd of, or because it is a custom. Excellent­ly Pindar

Our own misfortunes when they light
they wound us very near;
But let another feel the spite
Our hearts are quickly clear.

Wherefore at the last Lipsius, dravv aside this Scenick Tapestry, fold up this Veile of the Stage, and vvithout [Page 50] Simulation, shevv us your self in the Genuine Countenance of your ovvn Grief.

CHAP. X.

A Complaint of Langius his so liberall Reproof. That it is the part of a Phi­losopher. Endeavours of refuting what was before said. Our Obliga­tion and Love to our Country.

THis first Skirmish seem'd to me somevvhat sharp, and therefore interposing, vvhat kind of Liberty (said I) or rather, vvhat sharpness of speech is this? You are so smart that I may vvell call unto you vvith Euripides,

Adde not affliction to a Soul distrest,
I am already but too much opprest.

[Page 51] Langius smiling, and what said he do you then expect at my hands, Wa­fers or Muscadell? It is not long since you call'd for the sharpest Me­thods of Chirurgery; And rightly, for you hear a Philosopher Lipsius and not a Minstrel; vvhose design is to teach, not to entertain, to profit, and not to please. I had rather you should blush and be asham'd, than laugh: and that you should repent rather than triumph. The School of a Philosopher, O yea Men (said Rufus of old) is the shop of a physici­an, vvhereunto Men hasten for health and not for Divertisement. This Phy­sician neither flatters nor smooths up any, but pierces, tents, and searches the vvound, and vvith a kind of sharp Salt of Speech, fcoures away that Scurfe that cleaves to our Minds. And therefore Lipsius dream not (no not hereafter) of Roses, Pulse, and Poppyes, but of Thorns and Poyn­ards, of Worme-wood and Vinegar. [Page 25] But said I Langius (if I may say it) you deal with me in an ill and malicious manner: Nor do you as a skilfull vvrastler cast me upon a right lock; but supplant me by a cheat. In a counterfeit manner (say you) vve la­ment our Country. Do I? It is not so. For to grant you this (as one that means ingeniously) that I have therein a respect unto my self, yet not unto my self alone. For I do lament Lan­gius, I do lament my Country in the First place, and I vvill lament it, al­though in the midst of its hazzards, there should be no danger to me. And that upon the justest grounds, for this is she vvhich hath entertain'd, foster'd, and nourish'd me; and is according to the common sence of Nations our most Reverend and Venerable Parent. But in the mean time you assign me the whole Universe as my Country. Who doubts it? But yet even your self vvill confess, that besides this vast and common one, I have another [Page 53] more limited and peculiar Country; unto vvhich by a certain secret bond of Nature I have a nearer Obligation. Unless you do imagine that there is no force in our being swath'd and suckl'd in that our Native soil, vvhich vve have first greeted vvith this Body of ours; and first set foot upon, vvhose Air vve have breath'd; in which our Infancy hath cri'd, our Child­hood play'd, and in vvhich our youth hath been educated and trained up. Where the Skies and Rivers, and Fields are familiar with our eyes: wherein in a continued order, are our Kindred and Friends, and Asso­ciates: and so many other invitations unto Joy; as vve in vain hope to meet vvith in any other place of the Earth. Nor are these tyes (as you seem to assert) from the slender threads of O­pinion, but from the strong Chains of Nature it self. Go to the Crea­tures themselves and behold the vvild­est among them do love and own the [Page 54] places vvhere they lodge, and the Birds their Nests. The very Fishes themselves, in that vast and boundless Ocean, do yet delight in the enjoy­ment of some certain part of it. For what should I speak of Men? Who vvhether they are civiliz'd or still in Barbarisme; are yet so glew'd to their Native Earth, that whosoever is a Man will never doubt to dye for, and in it. And therefore Langius this new and rigid Wisdom of yours, (for the pre­sent) I neither embrace nor compre­hend, I am rather the Disciple of Eu­ripides more truly affirming, that

Necessity it self commands
All Men to love their Native Lands.

CHAP. XI.

The Second Affection of too much Love to our Country refuted. That it is falsly call'd Piety. As also whence this Affection hath its Original. what is properly and truly our Coun­try.

LAngius smiling at this discourse; Young Man (said he) your Piety is vvonderful, and now it concernes the Brother of Marcus Antonius to look after his Sir-name. Notwith­standing it falls out vvell, that this Affection doth so readily present it self and advance before its colours, vvhich I had before determin'd to charge and to overthrow with some light endea­vour. But in the first place I must seize upon as spoil that very beauti­ful Garment wherewith it hath un­happily attyr'd it self: For this Love [Page 56] unto our Country is commonly call'd Piety; vvhich for my part as I do not understand, so neither am I able to endure. For how comes it to be Piety? Which I acknowledge to be an excellent Virtue, and properly no­thing else but A LAWFUL, DUE, HONOUR AND LOVE TO GOD, AND OUR PARENTS. With vvhat Fore-head now doth our Country seat it self in the midst of these? Because say they it is that vvhich is our most Ancient and Reve­rend Parent. Ah silly Souls! And herein injurious not only to Reason but also unto Nature it self. Is that a Parent? Upon vvhat account, or in vvhat respect? For I profess I see not, if you Lipsius are any sharper sighted, help to enlighten me. Is it because it hath entertain'd us (for that you seem'd to insinuate but now) the like hath been done to us often by an Host or Inkeeper. Hath it cherish'd us? So have our Nurses, and [Page 57] those Women that, vvhen time vvas, bare us too and fro, vvith a farre greater tenderness. Hath it nourish'd us? This Office it performs daily to Beasts and Trees, and all sorts of Grain, and so do also those great Bo­dyes; Heaven, Air and VVater, as vvell as the Earth. To conclude, transport your self, and any other soil vvill performe the same. These are frothy light vvords, from vvhich nothing can be extracted besides a certain vulgar and unprofitable juice of Opinion. Those are indeed our Parents, vvho have conceiv'd, begot, and gone vvith us; to vvhom vve are seed of their seed, blood of their blood, and flesh of their flesh. Of all vvhich if there is any thing vvhich in any degree of comparison, may be fitly spoken of our Country: I am willing that all my attempts, a­gainst this kind of Piety, should prove but lost labour. But (say you) there are many learned and great Men, who [Page 58] every vvhere have spoken after this fashion. I acknowledge it, but it vvas then vvhen they had respect to Fame only, not to truth; vvhich if you vvill follow, you shall restore back that Sacred and August Name unto God; or (if you please) to your Parents, and command this Affecti­on (vvhen it is corrected) to be con­tented vvith the honest name of Cha­rity. But thus far concerning the name only, let us now consider the thing; vvhich truly I shall not vvholly remove, but moderate, and pare (as it vvere) vvith the Pen-knife of Right Reason. For as the Vine unless you prune it, vvill very vvidely extend it self: So vvill those Affections more especially, vvhose Sails are swell'd vvith any gust of popularity. And I readily confess to you Lipsius (for I have not so put off at once, both the Man and the Citizen) that there is in every one of us, a kind of inclination and Love to this lesser country of ours: [Page 59] the causes and Original of vvhich I perceive are not so clearly under­stood by you. For you vvill have it to be from Nature, vvhereas it is in­deed from a kind of usage and Cu­stome. For after that Men from that rude and solitary life, vvere forc'd from the Fields into Towns, and be­gan to build Houses and Fortificati­ons, to grow into Societies, and in­formed Bodies, to make or repell in­vasions: From that time there did of necessity commence amongst them, a kind of Communion and Partner­ship as to divers things. They toge­ther possess'd such a part of Earth vvith such and such limits: They had their Temples, Market-places, Trea­suries and Courts of Judicature in Common; and (vvhich is the princi­pal bond) their Rites, Statutes, and Lawes. Which things yet our cove­tousnes, did so begin to love and care for (nor did it therein altogether erre) as its own peculiar, For there is in­deed [Page 60] unto every particular Citizen, a true right as to those things, nor do they farther differ from private poses­sions than in this, that they are not the propriety of any Person alone. Now that Community doth express (as it vvere) a kind of forme and face of a new State, vvhich vve call a Com­mon-wealth, and the same thing (pro­perly) our Country. In vvhich vvhen Men did understand how much of moment there vvas in reference to the safety of every particular Person, there vvere then also Lawes made con­cerning the improvement and de­fence of it, or at least a Custome de­rived from our Ancestours, vvhich hath the force of a Law. Hence it comes to pass, that vve rejoyce in its advantages, and grieve in its Ca­lamities: Forasmuch as in very deed our private substance is safe, in the safety of it, and perishes in the de­vastations of it. Hence is charity or Love towards it, vvhich our An­cestours [Page 61] (upon the account of the publick good, vvhereunto also a cer­tain secret providence of God doth attract us) have encreased, vvhile they endeavour'd in every of their vvords and deeds to advance the Majesty of their Country. This Affection there­fore in my Opinion is from Custom, but if from Nature (as you did lately insinuate) vvhat is the reason that it diffuseth not it self into all alike, and in equal measure? Why do the No­bility and vvealthier sort love and care for their Country more, and the vulgar and meaner sort less? Whom you may behold (for the most part) full of their own cares vvith a palpa­ble neglect of the publick, vvhich yet doth most certainly fall out otherwise in every such Affection as proceeds from the peremptory injunctions of Nature. To conclude, vvhat reason vvill you assigne why so light an occasion should oftentimes diminish or remove it? See how this man Revenge, a second [Page 62] Love, and others Ambition hath al­lur'd from their Country; and in our dayes how many hath the God Mam­mon in the same manner seduced? How many Italians are there, vvho quitting Italy the Queen of Countrys for gain alone have transported them­selves into France, Germany, yea into Sarmatia and there fixed their habi­tations? How many thousand Spa­niards, doth Avarice and Ambition yearly draw into remote Lands and of a different Climate? Certainly a great and strong proof, that this vvhole Obligation is but external and Opinionative; seeing some one or o­ther Lust can vvith that facility dis­solve or break it. But you erre also to purpose Lipsius, in the bounding of that Country, for you restrain it to that Native soil of ours vvherein vve have settled, and whereupon we have walk'd, and such other things as you tinckle with a vain sound of Words. For you will seek in vain from thence [Page 63] the Natural causes of this Love. For if only our Native soil may challenge that name, then only Bruxells is my Country, Isca thine, a Cottage or a Hut vvill be some other Mans: Yes there are many that vvill not have so much as a Cottage for theirs, but must seek it in the Woods or open Fields. Shall then my love and care be shut up vvithin such narrow li­mits? Shall I embrace and defend this Village or that House as my Country? You are sensible of the ab­surdities; and Oh how happy (ac­cording to your determination in these matters) are those Wood-men and Rusticks, vvhose Native soile is ever in its flourish, and almost beyond all the hazzards of Calamity or Ruine! But certainly that is not our Country; No, but (as I said before) some one State, and as it vvere a common Ship under one Lord, or under one Law; VVhich if you vvill have (of right) to be beloved by its Natives; I shall [Page 64] confess it: If to be defended I shall acknovvledge it, If death to be un­dergone for its sake, I shall not be a­gainst it; but shall never yield to that that vve should also grieve, be cast dovvn, lament,

If once our Country for it cry
'Tis sweet and glorious then to dye.

Said the Poet of Venusia vvith the loud applause of the vvhole Theatre; but then he said to dye, not to vveep. For vve ought so to be good Citi­zens, as that vve may also be good Men; vvhich vve cease to be, as oft as vve decline to the ejulations and laments of Children or Women. Fi­nally, Lipsius, I impart that to you vvhich is lofty, and knovvn but to some few. That these are vain and counterfeit Countryes, if you consider the whole Man. That possibly for the Body there may be one found out here, but not any for the Soul, which de­scending [Page 65] from that celestial and up­per Region hath the whole Earth as its Prison and place of restraint; while Heaven is its true and proper Country. After which let us breath that with Anaxagoras vve may Cor­dially reply to the Sottish Multi­tude as oft as it shall ask, hast thou no care of thy Country? There is my Country pointing at once vvith our Fingers and Minds unto Hea­ven.

CHAP. XII.

The third Affection which is Commise­ration rectifyed to indulge it over much, a Vice. Its difference from Mercy. How and with what respects it is to be admitted.

THis Discourse of Langius vvith­drew (methought) a Cloud from my understanding; and, my Father (said I) you still better me both by your reproofs and instructions. So that (methinks) I am now able to keep under that Affection which re­spects the place and state in which, but not as yet that which respects the Men themselves amongst whom I have been bred. For how is it pos­sible that the losses of my Country should not touch and deeply affect me for my Country-mens and Com­panions sakes, vvho are toss'd in the [Page 67] Ocean of these Calamities, or perish by a different and unhappy Destiny. Langius interrupting me; but this Lipsius said he is not properly Grief, but Pitty; which yet it self is to be despis'd, by a wise and constant Per­son. For nothing is more suitable to such a one than firmness and strength of Mind, which cannot be, in case not only his own, but also anothers Calamity shall overturn and discompose him. Here I interrupted him, and vvhat Thornes of the Sto­icks are these said I? Do you forbid me to pitty too? Yet this is look'd upon as a Virtue by all good Men; at least amongst us vvho are season'd vvith the true Religion and Piety. Langius immediately, but I said he do forbid it, and if I shall remove this sickness from the Minds of Men; there is no Man who is really good that vvill resent it amiss. For it is cer­tainly a sickness, nor is he far distant from misery, whoever he is that pit­ties [Page 68] one who is miserable. As it is a signe of a vveak and bad Eye to grow Blood-shot at the sight of one that is so: So is it of a vveak Mind to grieve at the sight of one that grieves. Pitty is rightly defin'd, THE VICE OF A SLENDER AND MEAN MIND FAINTING AT THE APPEARANCE OF ANOTHERS MISFORTUNE. What then? Are vve so rigid and severe as not to suffer that any should be mov'd or affected vvith the grief of another? Yes, to be affected I approve, but then it must be so as to assist, not so as to lament. I am for Mercy, but not for Pitty. For thus I am willing to distinguish at this time, and a while to recede from our Porch the better to instruct. I call Mercy AN IN­CLINATION OF THE MIND TO LIGHTEN THE PO­VERTY OR ANGUISH OF ANOTHER. This is that Vir­tue Lipsius vvhich you discover as it [Page 69] vvere through a mist, and in vvhich Pitty creeps to, and imposes upon you. But you vvill say it is Huma­nity to be affected vvith Pitty and compassion: Be it so; yet is it not therefore right. Suppose you that there is any Virtue in the Effemina­cy and stoopage of the Mind? In Sighs, or Sobbs, or in the mingling of broken and disjoynted vvords with a Mourner? You are mistaken. If you think not, I can produce a sort of covetous old Women and some fordid Euclio's from whose Eyes it is much more easie to extract a thou­sand Tears, than one single Penny from their Purses. But now that truly mercifull Man (of vvhom I have been speaking) he vvill not indeed be pittiful; but yet he vvill performe the same, or better Offices, than he that is so. He will behold other mens Evils with a humane, but yet with a right Eye. He will discourse with the Sufferers, with a serious, but not [Page 70] vvith a mournfull or dejected Coun­tenance. he vvill comfort couragi­ously, he will assist liberally, and vvill do more nobly, than he vvill speak, and vvill more readily lend his hand than vvords to a necessitous or fallen Man. And all these things he vvill performe vvith Caution and Cir­cumspection; lest as in some very mis­chievous Contagion; the Disease of another should transferre it self to him: Or lest (as they say of Gladi­atours) a vvound surprize him through anothers side. What is there here (I beseech you) of severe and rigid? and such is the whole Body of Wis­dom, vvhich to them that look upon it at a distance, seems to be sterne and lowring: But as many as make nearer approaches, it is found to be so gentle and complaisant, as that the Goddess of Love her self is not more amicable and obliging. But enough of these three Affections; vvhich I have partly put to the foyle [Page 71] vvithin you; it vvill prove of no in­considerable advantage to me, in the restof the Combate.

CHAP. XIII.

These Impediments remov'd, Publick Evils themselves are seriously con­sidered. Four Arguments propound­ed against them. Of Providence; that it is interested in, and pre­sides over all humane affairs.

I Come now at length from our Velitation to a true and serious fight, and laying aside these light and jocular Armes, unto such vvea­pons as shall finally decide the mat­ter. I shall lead up my Souldiers and Forces in Order; and range them under their several Ensignes, vvhich [Page 72] I also forme into Four Squadrons. The First, shall evince that publick evils are sent unto, and dispers'd a­mongst us by God himself. The Se­cond, that they are necessary, and from Fate. The Third, that they are advantageous to us. And the last, that they are neither over-pressive nor new. Now if these Forces of mine shall, from their several Posts, dextrously charge and recharge; shall all the powers of your Grief dare any further to resist, or so much as to face me? They dare not. I have conquer'd, and with this Omen, let the Signal be given. Whereas there­fore Lipsius all those Affections vvhich do so variously rush upon, and di­sturb the life of Man, do spring from a distemper'd Mind: So also (in my Opinion) doth that Grief especially vvhich vve espouse upon the publick account. For vvhereas the rest of the Affections have some end and scope as it were; (as the Lover to [Page 73] enjoy, the Angry to revenge, the co­vetous to heap up, and so in the rest) to this alone you shall find nothing proposed besides it self. But lest my discourse should be too loose and for­ward; I shall curbe and restrain it vvithin this compass. You lament you say your falling Country. But to vvhat end I beseech ye? For what hope you, or vvhat do you expect thereby? Is it that thou mayest re­pair it in its decayes, and underprop it vvhere it yields? Or is it that by grieving you may keep off that Plague and mischief under vvhich your Country labours? None of all these: It is only that you may use that thredbare saying, it troubles me; as to any thing else this lamentation is but vain and unprofitable. For it concernes a thing past; vvhich to re­cover again, and to render undone; the Gods themselves would not have it in their own power. But is your Grief only vain? Yes, possibly it is [Page 74] impious also, if you shall rightly con­sider it. For (as you know) there is an eternal Mind vvhich vve call God, vvhich Rules, Orders and Go­verns the lasting Orbs of Heaven; the different courses of the Stars; the interchangeable variations of the Elements; and (in a vvord) all things vvhatsoever, as vvell above as below us. Suppose you that any Chance or Fortune bare rule in this beauti­full Body of the World? Or that hu­mane affairs are hurried on, and blend­ed together by a rash and blind im­petuosity? I know you do not be­lieve it, nor doth any other, vvho hath any thing (not to say) of Wis­dom, but Sobriety. For it is the Voice of Nature, I say of Nature, and vvheresoever you shall turne your Eye or Mind: Things Mortal and Immortal, Superiour and Inferiour, Animate or Inanimate, they all speak out and proclaim, that there is some­thing above us, vvhich hath created [Page 75] and made those so vvonderful, so great, and so numerous things; and being so created and made, doth also still continue to direct, and preserve them. This now is God, to whose superexcellent and most perfect Na­ture, there is nothing more agree­able, than that he should be at once both able and vvilling to undertake the Care and Guardianship of all that he hath made. And how shall he not be vvilling vvho is the BEST? Or how should he not be able vvho is the GREATEST? So farr are any forces from being superiour to his, that all are Derivative from him. Nor doth this vastness or variety of things either molest, or remove him from their inspection: For that eter­nal light doth every vvay emit its rayes, and vvith one and the same dint (as I may say) doth pierce all the re­tirements and Abysles of Heaven, Earth, and Sea. Nor doth this Di­vinity only preside over all things, [Page 76] but it abides vvith; yea resides vvith­in them. Why do ye vvonder at this? What a part of the World doth this Sun at once Survey, and inlight­en? What a Mass of things doth this Mind of ours vvith one thought em­brace and compass? And fooles that vve are do vve not believe that more things can be seen into, and com­prehended by him vvho hath created and made this very Sun, and Mind? Excellently, or rather Divinely said he, who hath not said much in matters Divine, I mean Aristotle; what the Pi­lot (saith he) is in the Ship; the Chario­teer in the Chariot; the chief Chaunter in the Quire; the Law in a City; or a General in the Army: Such is God in the World, with this only difference, that to them indeed their Government is laborious, toylsome, and perplexing; but that of Gods is without Grief or Labour, and severed from all Bodily pains-taking. There is therefore in God, Lipsius, there vvas, and shall be [Page 77] that very vvatchfull, and active care (yet a care vvhich is secure) vvhere­by he looks into, visits, and knowes all things; and doth guide and go­vern them so known, in an immove­able, and (to us) incomprehensible Order. Now this is that vvhich I here call Providence; of vvhich there are not a few, vvho through vveakness may complain, none that can doubt, unless they are such as have stopp'd their Ears, and hardned themselves against every voice, and the very sense of Nature it self.

CHAP. XIV.

Nothing done here below but by the Pro­vidence of God. Calamities upon People and Cities from thence. It is not therefore piously done to complain of, or lament them. An Exhor­tation to obey God, With whom it is vanity and rashness to contend.

WHich if you have throughly imbib'd, if you do in good earnest and from your heart believe that this Governing Power doth thus insert and insinuate it self, and (to speak vvith the Poet)

—Doth when it please
Pass through all Lands and Seas:

I do not see vvhat further place there can be for your Grief or com­plaint. For that very provident Being [Page 79] vvhich daily moves and turnes about this Heaven, vvhich leads forth and recalls the Sun; vvhich discloses and shuts up all sorts of fruits: hath brought to the Birth all those chang­es and vicissitudes vvhich you do ei­ther repine, or vvonder at. Do you think that only pleasant or profitable things are sent to us from Heaven? Yes, those also that are sad and dis­tasteful are from thence: Nor is there any thing at all in this grand frame of the World, vvhich is trans­acted, discomposed or confounded (sin only excepted) vvhose cause and original proceeds not from that first cause: Pindar said vvell,

In Heaven they are that do
Dispense to us below.

There is (as it vvere) a certain golden Chain let down from above (as Homer gives it us in a Fable) un­to vvhich all these inferiour things [Page 80] are fastned. That there, an opening of the Earth hath swallow'd up some Townes; it is from Providence. That the Pestilence elsevvhere hath mowed down so many thousands of Men; is from the same. And that Warre and Slaughter is amongst the Belgi­ans; is from the very same. It is from Heaven, Heaven Lipsius, that all these Calamities are sent, and therefore they are aptly and vvisely styl'd by Euripides

—Calamities
Sent by the Dieties.

Every Ebbe and Flow (I say) of humane affaires depends upon that Moon; and the Rise and Sett of Kingdomes upon that Sun. As oft therefore as you give scope to your Grief, and seem to resent it, that your Country is thus harrass'd, and overturn'd; You do not so much as consider, either vvho you are that [Page 81] repine, or against vvhom your mur­murs are directed. What are you? A Man, a shaddow, Dust. And a­gainst vvhom do you murmur (I trem­ble to speak it) against God himself. It vvas the fiction of Antiquity; that certain Giants did attempt to de­throne the Gods. To omit Fables, you Complainants are those Giants. For if all these things are not only by the permission, but also by the immission of Almighty God: You vvho fret and resist, vvhat do you but (as much as in you lyes) seise his scepter, and intrench upon the pre­rogative of his Empire? Blind Mor­tality! The Sun, Moon, Starrs, E­lements, and all the successive Or­ders of Creatures, do vvillingly obey, and submit themselves to this Su­pream Law; only the Noblest piece of the Creation, Man lifts up his heel against, and replyes upon his Cre­ator. Had you hoisted Sailes into the jurisdiction of the Winds, you [Page 82] must then go not vvhither you vvould but vvhither they list. And shall you in the Ocean of this life refuse to follow the conduct of that Spirit by vvhom the vvhole Universe is sway­ed? In vain notwithstanding is this refusal, for either you shall vvilling­ly follow, or be forc'd along; and those Heavenly decrees shall preserve their Efficacy, and Order, vvhether you shall comply or rebel. We should smile at that Man vvho having ty'd his Boat to some Rock, and pulling at the Cord, should rather think he pulls the Rock to him than that his boat moves to it. And is not our Folly every vvay as remarkable, vvho being chain'd to that Rock of Eternal Pro­vidence, do yet by our struggling and resistance seem to desire that it should obey us, rather than vve it? Let us free our selves at the last from these Vanities; and (if vve are vvise) let us follow that Power vvhich attracts us from above, and think it nothing but [Page 83] equal that vvhatsoever is pleasing to God, should (for that very reason) be so also to Man. The Souldier in the Camp upon Notice of a March, gets on his knap-sack; but if it sound to Armes, he layes it aside, as one vvho vvith his Mind, and Eyes, and Ears, is intent upon, and prepared for any command. Let it be thus vvith us, and in this Warfare of ours, let us chearfully and resolvedly March after our General, vvhich vvay soe­ver he shall command us. VVe are sworn to this, saith Seneca, to endure such things as Mortality is liable to, and not to be disturbed in case some things fall out, which it is not in our power to prevent. VVe are born in a Kingdom, and to obey God is Liberty it self.

CHAP. XV.

The Second Argument for Constancy, drawn from Necessity. Its force and Efficacy. Necessity deriv'd from two Grounds; and first from the things themselves.

THis Lipsius is a firme and vvell temper'd Shield, against all ex­ternal Evils. These are those gold­en Armes vvith vvhich being cover'd, Plato vvould have us to fight against Chance and Fortune, to be subject to God, to think upon him, and in all kind of Events, to bend this Mind of ours, unto that great Mind of the World, I mean Providence, whose pious and fortunate forces, forasmuch as I have already made sufficient proof of; I shall now draw forth and lead up another Squadron, vvhich march­es under the Standard of necessity. [Page 85] A valiant, stout, and Steel temper'd Squadron it is; and such as I may not unfitly compare to that Legion vvhich the Romans call'd Fulminatrix: The stubborn and unbroken force of it is such, as doth conquer and subdue all things, and I shall vvonder Lip­sius if you should be able to resist it. Thales vvhen one ask'd him vvhat vvas the strongest, answered rightly, necessity; for that Conquers all things. There is an old saying too, about the same thing; although not so advised, that the Gods themselves cannot force necessity. This neces­sity I annex to Providence, because of its near relation to it; or to speak truly, because it is born of it. For this necessity is from God, and his decrees; nor is it any other thing than as the Greek Philosopher hath defin'd it: A FIR ME SANC­TION AND IMMUTABLE POWER OF PROVIDENCE. Now that it doth intervveave and [Page 86] twist it self vvith publick Evils; I shall evince two vvayes, from things themselves; and from Fate. From things themselves, because it is the Nature of all created beings, to hast­en unto their change and fall, from a certain inward proneness, vvhich they have thereunto. As there is a kind of fretting rust, vvhich doth naturally cleave to Iron, and a con­suming scurffe or Worme that fol­lowes Wood: In like manner both Creatures, Cities, and Kingdomes, have their internal and proper causes vvhereby they perish. Look upon things above or below, great or small, the vvorkes of the Hand or Mind; they have perished from the first Ages; and shall persist so to do unto the last. And as all Rivers journey towards the Ocean vvith a prone and hasty current: So all humane things slide along by this Channel (as I may call it) of mi­series, unto their utmost periods. [Page 87] That Period is Death and destructi­on; and thereunto Pestilence, vvarr, and Slaughter are as subservient in­struments: So that if Death is ne­cessary to these things, upon the same Ground are Calamities also. That this may appear to you the more evidently by Examples: I shall not refuse for a vvhile to enlarge my thoughts and travel vvith you through this great universe.

CHAP. XVI.

Instances of Necessary Mutation and Death throughout the whole VVorld. The Heavens and Elements change, and shall pass away. The same is discernable in Cities, Provinces, and Kingdomes. All things here are wheel'd about, and nothing is stable or firme.

THere is an eternal Law vvhich from the beginning hath equal­ly passed upon every thing in this vvorld, that it shall be Born and Dye; Rise and Set. Nor vvould the great Moderatour of things, have any thing firm and stable besides himself.

From Age and Death only the Cods are free,
The rest of things under Times sickle be.

[Page 89]Cryes out the Tragical Poet. All those things, vvhich you behold and vvonder at, do either perish in their courses; or are certainly changed. Do you see that Sun? He is sometimes ec­clipsed: The Moon? She suffers in the like kind, and has her vvaines. The Starrs? They shoot and fall; and how­soever the vvit of Man may seek to palliate and excuse the matter; Yet there have and vvill be such acci­dents amongst those celestial Bodies; as may pose the skill, and stagger the Minds of the ablest Mathema­tician. I omit to speak of Commets of various Form, and different Sci­tuation and Motion; concerning vvhich, that they all have their Birth from, and Motion in the Air, is a thing vvhich Philosophy it self can­not easily perswade me to believe. But behold (of late) there are cer­tain new kinds of Motion and Starrs found out, vvhich have cut out vvork for the Astrologers. There arose [Page 90] a Starr in this very year, vvhose in­crement and decreases vvere through­ly observ'd; and we then saw (vvhat will scarcely be believ'd) that in Hea­ven it self, there may be something Born and Dye. Behold even Varro in St. Augustine cryes out and asserts, that the Planet Venus vvhich Plautus calls Vesperugo and Homer [...], hath chang'd its colour, magnitude, figure, and motion. Next to the Heavens look upon the Air, it is daily changed, and passes into vvinds, Clouds, or showres. Look to the vvaters, and those Rivers and springs vvhich vve call everlasting: Some are lost, and others have altered their course, and found out new Channels. The Ocean it self that great and abstruse part of Nature, is sometimes swell'd vvith stormes, and at others smooth'd vvith calmes, and though those stormes vvere not, yet it hath its own Ebbs and Flowes; and to convince us that it may to­tally [Page 91] perish; It doth daily increase or decrease in its parts. Look now upon the Earth vvhich alone some vvould have immoveable; and to stand by its own strength: Behold there it totters, and is shaken into a palsy fit, by the struggling of those vapours that are pent up in the Bow­els of it, and elsewhere it is corrupt­ed by Waters or Fires. For even these are at contest vvith one ano­ther; and that you may not resent it over deeply, that there are vvarrs amongst Men: The very Elements have theirs also. How many Coun­tryes, hath a sudden Deluge, or in­undation of the Sea, either lessen'd, or intirely swallowed up. Of old that great Island Atlantis (for I think it no Fable) afterwards Helice and Bura: And (that vve may not have recourse only to ancient and re­mote times) amongst us Belgians (in the Memory of our Fathers) two Islands; together vvith their Townes, [Page 92] and inhabitants. Even at this very day that blew Deity, is forcing open to it self new creeks; and daily frets and vveares away the unfaithfull shores of the Frisians and Hollanders. Nor doth the Earth her self alvvayes give vvay by a Womannish sloth; but doth sometimes vindicate its losses, and in the midst of the Sea frames Islands for its self; to the vvonder and dis­pleasure of that hoary god. Now if those great (and in our imagina­tion eternal) Bodies, are destined to their destruction and change; vvhat shall vve think of Cities, Com­mon-wealths, and Kingdomes; which must needs be as mortal as the foun­ders of them? As particular persons have their Youth, Maturity, Old-Age, and Death: So these, they rise, grow, stand, flourish; and all these to that very purpose that they may fall. In the reign of Tiberius one single Earth-quake overthrew twelve [Page 93] famous Cities of Asia, and another did the like to as many Townes in Campania, in the reign of Constan­tine; and one vvarre of Attila more than an hundred. Fame scarce re­tains the ancient Thebes of Egypt, and vve scarce believe the hundred Cities of Creet. But let us come to more receiv'd instances. The an­cients have seen and vvondered at the Ruines of Carthage, Numantia and Corinth, As vve do at the ig­noble, inglorious rubbish of Athens, Sparta, and those other once re­novvned Cities. That Lady of So­vereignty, and Queen of Nations falsely Styled the Eternal City, vvhere is it? Overturned, Rased, Burnt, overwhelmed: She has un­dergone more than a single Fate, and is at this Day curiously sought for, but not to be found vvhere she formerly stood. You see that Con­stantinople proud of its being the Seat [Page 94] of a double Empire: And Venice that glories in its continuance for a thousand years? Their Fate attends them. And thou also our Antwerpe the Eye of Cities, there vvill come a time when thou shalt be no more. For that great Architect pulls down and sets up, and (if vve may say it) doth even sport himself in the affairs of this World: And as a Potter at his pleasure, doth mold and unmake divers forms and representations out of this Clay. I have hitherto dis­cours'd only of Townes and Cities; but even Kingdomes also and Provin­ces are dragg'd unto the same desti­ny. In old time the East flourish'd; Assyria, Egypt, and Iudea vvere fa­mous for Arts and Armes; that hap­piness of theirs hath pass'd over into Europe, and even she methinks (as Bodies upon the approach of a Di­sease) trembles and seems to have some sore apprehensions of her great fall. That vvhich vve may more (though [Page 95] never sufficiently) vvonder at; this World vvhich hath been inhabited this Five thousand and Five hundred years, doth now grow old, and that vve may again applaud, the old ex­ploded Fable of Anaxarchus; there arise now elsewhere, and are born new Men, and a new World. O the vvonderful and incomprehensible Law of Necessity! All things turn about in this Fatal Circle of begin­ing and ending: and there may be something in this vvhole frame that is long liv'd; but nothing that is E­ternal. Lift up your Eyes; and look round vvith me (for I am not vvil­ling as yet to desist) and contem­plate the alternate courses of hu­mane affaires; not unlike the Eb­bings and Flowings of the Sea. Thou shalt arise; and thou fall: thou shalt command, and thou serve; be thou obscure and thou glorious; and let this round of things hasten­ing into themselves, vvhirle about, [Page 96] as long as the World it self shall en­dure. Were you Germans Savage of old; be ye now civil beyond most of the Nations in Europe; vvere you Brittons rude and poor? Do ye now emulate the Egyptians and Sybarites in riches and luxury. Did Greece here­tofore flourish? Let her now lye vvast. Did Italy sway the Scepter? She shall now obey. You Goths, you Vandalls, you refuse of the Barba­rians; forsake your Dens, and in your successive courses command the Na­tions. Come hither also you pelted Scythians, and for a vvhile, vvith a strong hand, rule both Asia and Eu­rope: But do you your selves after a vvhile depart, and resigne the Scep­ter to the Nation bounded by the Ocean. For is it my Fancy only? Or do I indeed desery I know not vvhat Sun of a new Empire arising from the West?

CHAP. XVII.

Of the Necessity that is from Fate. Fate asserted, the universal assent both of the Learned and of the people to it; though some difference about its parts. How the ancients distin­guished of Fate.

LAngius had finished; and this discourse of his had almost drawn Tears from my Eyes, so clearly did it seem to represent those Mockeries that are in humane affairs. Insomuch that I cryed out; Alass! VVhat are even vve our selves; or vvhat are all these things vve sweat so much in the pursuit of?

Whats he that ha's a brighter Fame?
Or he that's of Obscurer name?
Man when summ'd at highest, he
Is but as dreams of Shaddows be?

[Page 98]As the Lyrick Poet said truly of old. Langius replyes; Young Man; Look then upon these things not as above, but beneath you; and labour to establish Constancy in your Mind, by reflecting upon the inconstant and unsteady levity of all things. Incon­stant (I say) as to our sense and ap­prehension of them: but if vve re­spect God and his Providence, than all things succeed in an admirable and im­moveable order. For now laying swords aside, I come to my Ensignes, and shall assault that Grief of yours, not with Arrowes, but more formidable in­ventions. I shall inforce against it the Ramme of Fate, an Ensigne of that strength and firmness; as no humane power or policy shall be ever able either to elude or resist. And howsoever the Ground is slippery e­nough to endanger a fall: Yet I shall adventure upon it, though vvith a cautious slowness, and as the Greeks say vvith a modest foot. In the First [Page 99] place therefore, that there is a Fate in things, neither you Lipsius, nor (as I conceive) any Nation or Age did ever doubt. Here I interpos'd; pardon me (said I) if as a Remora I stop you in this course. Do your op­pose me vvith Fate? Weak is this Ramme, Langius, and such as is di­rected by the enervate and languid forces of the Stoicks. I speak freely, I despise at once, both it and the destinies: and vvith the Souldier in Plautus, I can blow away this feeble troop vvith a single breath, as vvinds do leaves from the Trees. Langius vvith a severe and threatning Eye; Rash and inconsiderate Young Man (said he) do you imagine you can elude or take away Fate? You can­not, unless together with it, you deny the very Power and Being of a Deity: For if God is, Providence is; if Providence, than a decreed or­der of things; and if so than a firme and establish'd Necessity of events; [Page 100] How do you vvard this blow? Or vvith vvhat Ax do you sever the Links of this Chain? For vve cannot otherwise conceive of God that eter­nal Mind; than that there should be in him an eternal knowledge and prevision of things: vvhom vve be­lieve to be fix'd, firme, and immu­table, alwaies one and the same; not at all varying, or altering in those things, vvhich he hath once willed, and beheld.

The Eternal Gods are not inclin'd,
To variations of the Mind.

vvhich if you acknowledge to be true (as of necessity you must, un­less you have divested your self of all Reason and Sense) you vvill then also acknowledge, that all the de­crees of God are firme and immove­able from Eternity to Eternity. Now from thence doth Necessity derive it self together vvith that Fate vvhich [Page 101] you so despise. The truth of vvhich is so very obvious and clear; that a­mongst all sorts of Men, there is not a more ancient or receiv'd Opinion. And look to how many the light of a Deity, and Providence hath shin'd to vvell nigh as many hath this of Fate. Insomuch that those very same privative Fires vvhich discovered the knowledge of a God to Men; seem also to have guided Man in the knowledge of this other. Consult Homer that first and vvisest of all Po­ets. There is not any one path vvherein that Divine Muse hath so frequently pass'd and repass'd, as this of Fatality: Nor hath the vvhole Race of the Poets dissented from their Ancestour. Look upon Euri­pides, Sophocles, Pindar, and our Vir­gil. Look upon Historians; their common Language is, such a thing fell out by Fate, and Kingdomes owe their Ruine, and establishment to Fate. Look upon Philosophers, [Page 102] vvhose charge it vvas to ransome and defend Truth against the encroach­ments of the vulgar: Howsoever these have in most other things dis­sented from one another; (transpor­ted thereunto, by an over eager itch after contention and dispute) yet 'tis maryellous to observe, vvhat a Uni­versal accord, there is amongst them as to the beginning of this vvay vvhich leads to Fate. I say in the beginning of the vvay: For I am not about to deny, but that soon after it vvas trod out into divers paths. All vvhich not­vvithstanding seem to be reducible to these four, Mathematical, Natural, Violent and true Fate. Each of these I shall briefly explain, and (as it vvere) set a foot in each: Foras­much, as commonly much of confu­sion, and errour doth arise from hence.

CHAP. XVIII.

The three First kinds of Fate briefly ex­plained. The description of them. The Stoicks in part excused.

MAthematical Fate I call that, vvhich chaines and fastens all Actions and Events vvhatsoever, unto the influences of the Starrs, and the Positions of Heaven. Of vvhich the Chaldeans and Astrologers vvere the First Authors; and amongst the Phi­losophers that profound and sublime vvriter Mercurius Trismegistus; vvho subtilly and not altogether idlely, di­stinguishing of Providence, Necessity, and Fate; hath these vvords. Pro­vidence (saith he) is the perfect, and absolute Counsel of the Heavenly God; to which there are two faculties nearly ally'd; Necessity, and Fate. Fate doth administer, and is subservient at one [Page 104] and the same time, both to Providence and Necessity; and the Stars are sub­ject to Fate. For no man can ev [...]de the force of Fate, nor with all his cau­tion prevent the powerful influence of the Starrs. For these are the Artil­lery, and weapons of Fate, by whose direction they cause and conclude all those things which are in Nature or amongst Men. And in this Ship of Folly are (at this day) embarked; the most of the Astrologers amongst us to the great reproach of Christianity.

Natural Fate; I call such an Order of Natural causes vvhich (unless they are hindred) do by their own Na­ture, and efficacy produce alwayes a certain and the same effect. Ari­stotle is for such a Fate if vve may credit Alexander Aphrodisiensis one of the most Faithful of his Interpre­ters; and of the like Mind vvas Theo­phrastus; vvho plainly asserts that Fate is nothing else, but every Mans Na­ture. Agreeable to those Mens O­pinions [Page 105] it is, that a man's begetting a Man, is by Fate; that if a man ar­rive to his death; by internall causes; vvithout the accession of such as are forreigne, and outward; this is by Fate: On the other-side that a Man be­gets a Serpent or some other Monster this is not by Fate, neither if he pe­rish by the Sword or Fire. An o­pinion truly not very peccant; inas­much as it rises not to the force and height of Fate: And how can that be in danger of falling vvhich never adventures to climb? And such is Aristotle almost every vvhere in Di­vine matters; I except only that little Book of his, de Mundo; vvhich is a golden one indeed; and such as seems to me, to be inspired by some other and more heavenly Genius. I read also farther in a Greek Writer; that Aristotle vvas of Opinion: That Fate it self is not a cause, but a certain accidental Mode to the cause; in such things as proceed from Neces­sity. [Page 106] O the courage of a Philoso­pher! Who durst seriously Number, Fortune and chance amongst the cau­ses, but not Fate. But I pass him, and return to my Stoicks (for not to dissemble I have a great affection and esteem for that Sect) vvho are the Authors of violent Fate; vvhich I de­fine vvith Seneca, such a Necessity of all things and actions; as no power is able to interrupt: Or vvith Chry­sippus; a spiritual power that doth orderly govern this vvhole Universe. Nor are these Definitions very remote from that vvhich is right and true: if they may have a sound and modest interpretation: As neither is their vvhole Opinion perhaps; vvere it not that it hath been already murthered by the retorted Thumbs of the whole hand of the vulgar. These charge them vvith two crimes; that they subject God himself to the disposal of Fate: and that they place also, the internal actions of our vvill, under [Page 107] the same power. Nor vvill I over­confidently undertake to clear them of either of these faults. For amongst those few of their vvritings vvhich are yet extant, there are such, from vvhence these Tenents may be col­lected; as there are others, from vvhence, vvee may receive that vvhich is sound and Orthodox. It must be confess'd that Seneca (no mean Trumpet of that School) seems to dash upon that first Rock, in that Book (vvhere he had least Reason to do so) of Providence. The same Necessity saith he doth bind even the Gods themselves, that irrevocable de­cree doth equally carry along with it, both humane and Divine things. The great Creator and Ruler of all things; did indeed write down this Law of Fate: But he followes it himself; and ever obeys, what he once commanded. And that indissoluble Chain, and twist of causes, vvhereunto they fasten all things and Persons, seems (and that [Page 108] not Obscurely neither) to offer violence to the vvill of Man. But the Genuine and true Stoicks, did never openly avouch these things. Or if any such matter, did fall from them (as it is possible enough) in their heat of writing and dispute; you shall rather find it in vvords, than in their sense and meaning. Chrysippus himself vvho first corrup­ted and Enervated that Masculine Sect, vvith the intricate niceness of Questions, he in Agellius suffici­ently cleares them from attempting upon the liberty of the vvill. Nor doth our Seneca subject God to Fate (he vvas better advised) but (in a certain Mode of speech) God to God. For those amongst them, vvho came nearest to the truth, do by Fate sometimes understand Pro­vidence, and at others, God. And therefore Zeno when he defines Fate to be a power moving the matter ac­cording to the same respects, in the [Page 109] same manner, he adds; it matters not, if I had called it, either Pro­vidence or Nature. And Chrysippus from the same Principle, doth else­where call Fate, the Eternal pur­pose of Providence. Now Paneti­us the Stoick, affirm'd that God himself vvas Fate; and the same thing is clearly the Opinion of Se­neca: You may (saith he) as you please, vary the Title of this Author of things, and Natures: You may lawfully call him, either the best and greatest Jove; or the Thunderer, or the Stayer: Nor for that Reason which Historians as­signe; because after a Vow made to him; He stayed the flying Army of the Romans, but he is therefore the Stayer and Establisher, because all things do stand, and consist by his goodness, neither shall you erre, if you call him. Fate. For since Fate is nothing else but an implexed series of causes, he is the Principall cause of all things, on which the rest do depend. [Page 110] Which last vvords are so piously spoken, that even Calumny it self, is not able to calumniate them. Nor did that great vvriter (unto A­lexander the Great) in this at all dis­sent from the Stoicks. I conceive (saith he) that Necessity, ought not to be call'd any thing else than God, as an unchangeable Nature: And so also Fate it self; because it knits together all things, and is moved and carryed on, without any impediment. Which Speeches though possibly they may have something in them vvhich is not so advised: Yet they contain no­thing that is impious; and by mo­dest interpreters vvill be thought not farr distant from that true Fate, vvhich I am about to assert. The truth is, I do heartily applaud the Stoicks in this: That there is not any Sect, vvhich hath more studi­ously asserted the Majesty, and Pro­vidence of God; or more earnestly endeavoured to incline the Minds of [Page 111] Men, to things Heavenly, and E­ternal, than they. And if in the performance of this fatal Race, they have at any time stumbled: I believe it occasioned, by a good and praise-vvorthy desire; to recall blind Mortalls from their blind goddess; I mean Fortune, not only vvhose Deity, but Name too, was by them very manfully exploded.

CHAP. XIX.

The Fourth, true Fate explained. Of its Name, its Definition. How it differs from Providence.

BUt I have said enough of the Sen­timents and dissents of the anci­ents, for why should I over curious­ly or subtilly search into the Myste­ries of Hell? my business is vvith true Fate; this I shall now propound and illustrate. And I here call it, an eternal decree of Providence, vvhich is as inseparable from things, as Providence it self. Nor let any one cavil at the Name; for I do confidently affirm that the Latine lan­guage doth not afford any other that is proper to the thing. Did the an­cients abuse it? Let us use it never­theless; and inlarging the vvord from the Prison of the Stoicks, let us bring [Page 113] it forth into a better light. For cer­tainly Fate is derived a fando from speaking: Nor is it properly any o­ther than the Divine Sentence and injunction, vvhich is that very thing I here mean by it. For I define the true Fate either vvith the illustrious Picus Mirandula, a Series and Order of Causes depending upon Divine Counsel, or in my own termes (though not so plainly, yet more exactly) an immoveable decree of Providence in­herent in things moveable, vvhich surely disposes every of them in its own Order, Place and Time. I call it a decree of Providence; for I am not altogether of the same Mind, vvith the Divines of our dayes (I crave leave for a free Investigation of Truth) vvho confound it as vvell in Name as Thing vvith Providence it self. I know it is a high and rash presumption to enterprize the com­prisal and limitation of that supersub­stantial and supercelestial Nature (I [Page 114] mean God) or vvhatsoever pertains to him, vvithin the compass of de­finite Termes: Yet according to our humane capacity; I am sensible that Providence is one thing properly, and this Fate I am speaking of is another. For I apprehend not, nor conceive of Providence any otherwise, than that it is a faculty and power in God, by vvhich he sees, knows and governs all things; such a power (I mean) as is universal, undivided, guarded, and as Lucretius faith firmly united. But now the notion of Fate, seems rather to descend to things them­selves, and in each of them to be observed: That so there may be such a digestion and explication of com­mon Providence, as is distinct and agreeable to its parts. Providence therefore is in God, and is ascribed unto him alone: Fate is in things, and to them it is ascribed. It is pos­sible I may seem to you to trifle, and as (one saith) to drill Millet. No [Page 115] Lipsius I have these things from the common discourses of the Vulgar, amongst whom nothing is more usu­all than to say, this or that came to pass, by my Good or Evil Fate: This is the Fate of that Kingdom or City. But of Providence no man vvill speak after this manner: I mean none can attribute it to things themselves with­out impiety or folly. I have there­fore justly said that Providence is in God: Fate is indeed from God, but is understood in things. I add fur­ther, that howsoever Providence is really inseparable from Fate, yet it seems to be something more excel­lent, and superiour to it, as vve com­monly say in the Schools, the Sun excells Light, Eternity Time; and the intellect Reason. Not to enlarge my felf any farther about these seri­ous (though uncommon matters) by what hath passed, you may readily apprehend the Reason of my distin­ction; as also of my retaining the old [Page 116] Name, against the new Senate of Di­vines. For those ancient and hereto­fore Conscript Fathers; do not at all op­pose me, but that I may very freely use this word Fate, in the found and true notion of it. But to return to the clear­ing of my Definition, I call'd it an inhe­rent Decree; to shew that Fate is to be observed in those things to vvhich, not in him from vvhence it comes. I added in moveable things; signifying thereby, that howsoever Fate it self is immove­able, yet it doth not destroy the infixed Nature, and proper motion of things but acts in a mild and gentle vvay, according as those marks and Cha­racters do require vvhich God hath engraven upon every thing: In causes (I understand second ones) necessa­ry, necessarily; in natural ones na­turally; in contingent, contingently. In respect therefore of things, it is no vvay violent or compulsory, but bends and leads on every thing, according as the Nature of it is to do or suffer. [Page 117] But if you reduce it to its own Ori­ginal, that is to say to Providence and God: Then I must affirm vvith the greatest Constancy and boldness, that all things vvhich are by Fate, do ne­cessarily come to pass. I added in the last place somewhat of the Or­der, Time, and Place, confirming vvhat I had before asserted; that Pro­vidence is of all things taken together, but Fate is by vvay of distribution of particulars. By Order I understand a Series of Causes vvhich Fate de­fines. By Place, and Time I under­stand that vvonderfull and inexplica­ble power, by vvhich all Events are ty'd to certain circumscriptions of place, and moments of time. Is it the Fate of Tarquine to be expell'd his Kingdom? Let it be done, but vvithall let Adultery precede. You see the Order: Is it the Fate of Ce­sar to be slain? Be it so; but be it also in the Senate-house, and at the foot of Pompey's Statue. You see [Page 118] the Place. Shall Domitian be mur­ther'd by his Servants? Let him fall, but let it be in that very hour, which he sought in vain to decline, viz. the Fifth, you see the time.

CHAP. XX.

Its Difference from the Stoicks Fate; in four respects. That it offers no violence to the will. That God is neither a Copartner in, nor the Au­thor of Evil.

ARe you sufficiently apprehensive of these things young Man, or do you yet stand in need of a fur­ther and a clearer light? I (shaking my Head) a clearer Langius, a clear­er said I, or you will leave me for e­ver in the midst of this Night. For [Page 119] vvhat means the subtile thread of di­stinctions? What captious snares of questions are these? Believe me, I vvas in fear of some stratagem; and began to be as suspitious of these your vveigh'd and vvary vvords, as of so many Enemies. Langius smiling; you may be confident (said he) no Hani­bal is here, nor are you fallen into an Ambush, but into a safe place of re­treat. I shall very vvillingly enlight­en you; declare only vvhere and in vvhat part it is you desire a further satisfaction. There Langius (said I) vvhere you speak of force and neces­sity. For I am not able to appre­hend, vvhich vvay you dissever this Fate of yours, from that of the Sto­icks. For howsoever you have ex­cluded it in vvords, and (as they say) at the Portall; yet in reality and at the Postern, you seem to me to read­mit it. Langius readily, farr, farr be it from me Lipsius said he; I vvould not so much as in my dreams intro­duce [Page 120] that Fate of the Stoicks; nor do I endeavour to revive those long sinceex­pired Beldames the destinies. It is a modest and pious fate I contend for, and vvhich differs from the violent one these four vvayes. The Stoicks subject God to Fate; neither was Iupiter himself in Homer able to exempt his Sarpedon from its bonds, when he earnestly desired it. But we on the contrary subject Fate to God vvhom vve acknowledge to be a most free Author, and independent A­gent in all things: Who vvhen he pleases can surpass, and break through all the strengths, and intricate foldings of Fate. They also constitute a Series and Flux of Natural causes from Eternity; vve admit not such a Series of these causes vvithout interruption (for God makes Prodigies, and worketh Miracles, oft­entimes besides, yea contrary to Nature) nor can this Series of causes be from E­ternity. For Second causes are not Eter­nal, as having (most certainly) their be­ginings vvith that of the world. Thirdly, [Page 121] they seem to have remov'd contingen­cy from things; vve restore it, and as often as second causes are such, vve admit contingency and accident in events. Lastly, they seem to have brought in a violent force upon the Will; this is farr from us, vvho as vve do assert Fate, so vve reconcile it with the Liberty of the Will. For vve so avoid the deceitfull Gust of Fortune and Chance, as that yet vve do not force our Ship upon the Rock of Necessity. Is there Fate? That Fate is the first cause, which is so farr from removing the second and subordinate ones, that ordinarily, and for the most part, it acts not but by them. Now amongst these second causes is the Will, vvhich never be­lieve that God vvill either enforce or destroy. Here is all the Errour, and Cloud in this matter, no Man knowes or thinks that he wills what Fate vvills, and yet that he wills it freely. For that God who created all things, [Page 122] employes those things, vvithout the destruction of them. As the highest Heaven doth so carry along with it all the inferiour Orbs, as not to stop, or break off the proper motion of any of them: So God by the force of Fate disposes of all things; but de­stroyes not the peculiar power or mo­tion of any of them. Is it his vvill that Trees, and Fruits should grow? They do so by Nature, without any compulsion. Is it his pleasure that Men should deliberate, and choose? They deliberate without any inforce­ment, and they choose vvith their own vvill. And yet God from Eter­nity foresaw that very thing in which their choice vvould determine: But he only foresaw, he did not inforce; he knew, but did not enjoyn; he foretold it, but he did not prescribe it. Why stumble our Curioso's at this? Poor wretches! There is no point, that seems to me, to carry a greater evidence of truth vvith it; [Page 123] vvere it not for that vvanton Mind of ours vvhich (being infected vvith an evil Itch of wrangling and dispute) is ever and anon urging and exaspe­rating it self. For (say they if God foresaw that I should sin; and this fore­sight of his is no vvay to be deceiv'd: How can it otherwise be, but that I should sin Necessarily? I acknow­ledge it is Necessarily, but not in re­spect of your Mind; since your own free vvill doth here intervene. For he foresaw that you should sin the same vvay he foresaw; but he foresaw you should do it freely, and therefore of Necessity you must sin freely. Is not this sufficiently clear? But they urge again; that God is the Author of all motions in us. He is indeed (I confess) the Author of all motions in common, but the fautor, and fa­vourer of nothing but vvhat is good. Do you prepare your self to an acti­on that is virtuous? He knowes and assists it. Or to one that is vitious? [Page 124] He knows, and permits it, nor is he herein chargeable vvith any fault. I ride upon, and spur a dull and lame Horse, that I spur him is from me, that he is dull is from himself. I play upon a Harp that is out of tune, and ill strung: You vvill easily acknow­ledge, that the discordancy of the in­strument is not imputable to me, but to it self. This very Earth doth feed all sorts of Trees and Plants vvith one common juice; and yet some of these bring forth vvholesome Fruits, and some others Poysons. What vvill you here say? That this is from the Earth? Or rather in that inbred Nature of the Trees, which converts the good nourishment, into their own poyson? In like manner it is here: That you move is from God; from your self, and in your self, that you move to Evil. Finally, that I may at last finish my discourse about this Liberty; Fate is as it were the Leader of the Dance, in this Masque of the world: But so [Page 125] that we also have our parts to act, of alwayes vvilling or nilling; but not fur­ther of effecting. For it is only a will that is left unto Man whereby he may be desirous to oppugne and resist God: But he hath not a power whereby he is able. As I may vvalk up and dovvn the Decks and Hatches of a Ship; but this little motion doth not at all avail to hinder its course: So in this fatall Ship, in vvhich vve are all em­bark'd, though our vvills move this or that vvay, they are not able to di­vert, or put a stop to it. For that supream Will will alwayes hold and manage the reines, and guide this Chariot, with a gentle kind of go­vernment.

CHAP. XXI.

The Conclusion of the Discourse about Fate; that it is dangerous and doubt­full, not curiously to be pry'd into. An exhortation to strengthen our Minds from the consideration of Necessity.

BUt vvhy should I dwell longer up­on these things? I shall now alter my Course, and vvithdravv my self from this Charybdis in vvhich the vvits of so many have been svvallovved up. I behold here the vvreck of Cicero who had rather destroy Providence, than derogate in the least from the free­dom of the vvill. Who (as the Bi­shop of Hippo said elegantly) vvhile he made Men Free, made them Sa­crilegious. Hovv many even at this day are swimming in this Sea; and at length carry'd away vvith the Waves [Page 127] of disputation. By vvhose dangers Lipsius vve being vvarned let us ra­ther choose to coast about the Shore, than to hazzard our selves too farr in the depths of this Ocean. Euclid to one that ask'd him many things con­cerning the Gods, made this appo­site reply: Other things I know not; but this I know that they hate the curious. Think the same of Fate, vvhich vvill be look'd upon, but not pry'd into; believ'd, but not known. I think it is the saying of Bias; of the Gods say that they are, vvhich I may pertinently apply unto Fate, of vvhich I advise you, that it is enough if you knovv it to be: in other matters a­bout it, it is no Sin to be ignorant. That properly belongs to our Pro­vince (for I novv return from this intang­led path into the old and beaten vvay) that you believe there is a Necessity an­nex'd to publick evils: and that you de­rive from thence some consolation in your Griefs. What doth it concern you, [Page 128] curiously to enquire about the Liber­ty or Servitude of the Will? Wretch! Thy Syracuse is taken, and thou art drawing lines in the dust. Warr is a­bout thee, Tyranny, Slaughters, Death, which certainly are sent from above, and not at all under the disposal of thy Will. These things you may fear but not prevent: Fly, but not be able to evade. Arme your self therefore against them, and catch up this fatal weapon, which will not only pierce, but kill; not only diminish, but de­stroy all your Griefs. As if you slight­ly touch a Nettle it stings; but if hard, it hath no such power: So doth the asperity of your Grief encrease upon you if you ply it with gentle reme­dies, but gives back in the use of those which are more forcible and severe. Now there is nothing more forcible than necessity; whose first on­set doth rout and conquer these fee­ble troops. For what does your grief aim at? There is no place for it in [Page 129] those things which not only may, but must come to pass. What would your complaints? You may struggle vvith a Yoke vvhich Heaven hath im­pos'd; but not be able to shake it off.

By our complaints we hope in vain
To frustrate what the Gods ordain.

There is no other evasion of Ne­cessity, than to vvill that which it self will compell. That excellent wise Man said excellently; thou may'st be unconquerable if thou never enter in­to such a combat, vvherein it is im­possible for thee to overcome. And such is the conflict with Necessity, vvhich vvhosoever undertakes, falls un­der it, and vvhich is the greater won­der, he falls even before the fight.

CHAP. XXII.

A pretence for Sloth usually drawn from Fate. Its Detection. Fate acts by second causes, and therefore they not to be idle. How farr we are to help our Country, and when to forbear. The Close of the first Discourse.

ANd here Langius pawsing a little; I cheerfully broke out, and thus interrupted him. If (said I) the wind shall continue thus to fill the Sail; I shall quickly arrive at the Haven. For now I dare follow God, I dare obey Necessity, and methinks I may say vvith Euripides.

I'le rather Sacrifice to mighty Jove
Than with vain rage combat the powers above.

[Page 131] But I am yet tossed vvith the vvave of one troubled thought, and this Lan­gius I pray you calme: For if publick Evils are from [...]ate, and that can nei­ther be overcome nor avoided: Why do we further concern our selves or labour for our Country? Wh do we not resign up all, to that great and un­controulable Governour, and (as they say) sit down vvith our hands folded? since as your self do confess; all con­trivance and power is but vain, when the Fates do oppose. Obstinacy and perverseness said Langius smiling, have set thee at distance Young Man from that vvhich is right and true. Is this to obey Fate, or to contemne and elude it? I vvill sit (say you) vvith my hands folded; 'tis well; I vvish you had done so vvith your Lips too. For vvho ever assented, that Fate acts singly vvithout the intervention of middle and assisting causes? It is Fate that your Children dye: Yet so, as that they shall first be begotten. It is Fate that [...] [Page 130] [...] [Page 131] [Page 132] you recover of a Disease: But then you must employ the Physitian, and make use of remedies. In like man­ner it is Fate, that the fluctuating sinking Ship of your Country, shall be preserv'd: It is then also Fate, that it shall be supported and defended. If you vvill arrive at the Haven, you must apply your hands to the Oare, and hoise the Sailes; not idlely gap­ing after, or expecting a Wind from above. On the other side if it is Fate that this Country of yours shall perish; by Fate also those things shall come to pass, vvhich shall promote and further the ruine of it. The Commons shall be at variance vvith the Peers, and amongst themselves none shall know how to command, or to obey. Many shall be valiant in the tongue; all shall be sluggish in a­ction: And to conclude amongst the Commanders themselves, there shall be found neither Prudence nor Inte­grity. Velleius said vvell; the irresi­stible [Page 133] force of Fate, doth corrupt the Councells of him, vvhose Fortune it is determin'd to change: And again it comes to pass for the most part that God perverts their Councels, vvhose Fortune he is about to alter; and (vvhich is the greatest unhappi­ness) so orders things, that those ca­lamities vvhich happen to such per­sons, seem deservedly to have fallen upon them, Neither ought you pre­sently to conclude, that the last and fatal revolution is now come upon your Country. For how do you know it? Or vvhich vvay can you be certain, vvhether it is some light distemper, or a Disease unto Death? Assist her therefore, and vvhile the Patient hath yet breath (as they say) hope. But if by certain and infallible discove­ries, it shall appear, that its fatall change is upon it; then (in my judg­ment) that is vvholsome advice; fight not against God. That Example of Solon I may here safely commend, [Page 134] vvho vvhen Pisistratus had seised A­thens; and he saw that all endeavours for Liberty vvere vain, laying down his shield and armes at the doors of the Curia: O my Country said he, I have assisted thee both vvith my coun­cells and actions; and so vvent home, resolving for the future to be quiet. Do you thus, give place to God, give place to the times; and if you are a good Common-wealths Man, reserve your self to better and more gentle Fates. That Liberty which is now perish'd, may revive; and your Country vvhich is now fallen, in pro­cess of time may yet arise: Why do you unadvisedly despond, and cast a­vvay your courage? Of those two Consuls at Cannas I esteem Varro a gallanter Person vvho fled, than Pau­lus that fell: Nor did the Senate and People of Rome judge otherwise, who gave him publick thanks, that he did not despair of the Common-vvealth. But vvhether your Country do only [Page 135] totter, or vvhether it fall; vvhether it languish only, or vvholly perish: Af­flict not your self overmuch, but es­pouse that noble courage of Crates, vvho vvhen Alexander asked him, if he could vvish his Country might be restor'd? To vvhat purpose reply'd he, possibly another Alexander vvill over­turn it again: These are the speeches of great and wise Men.

Let Griefs (though sad) within the best repose;
VVhat gain is't to awake our Sleeping woes.

As Achilles vvas vvell advised in Ho­mer; for otherwise as Creon in the Fable, embracing his burning Daugh­ter, freed her not; but himself pe­rished vvith her in the same Flames: So Lipsius, you vvill sooner drown your self in your own Tears, than vvith them extinguish these publick Fires of your Country. While Langius vvas [Page 136] yet speaking, the door opened; and a Boy from Levinus Torrentius came to tell us it was supper time? Langius as one awak'd, vvhat sayes he, has this discourse so farr impos'd upon me? and is the day thus privily slipp'd a­way? And with that rising and tak­ing me by the Arme; let's go Lipsius said he to this my wish'd Supper. Let us rather sit still, said I (being unwil­ling to go) for this to me is prefer­rable to all other food; which I may justly call the banquet of the Gods. In these entertainments I alwayes hun­ger and can never be satisfy'd. But Langius compell'd me, and said he, let us now performe our promise; to mor­row if you will we vvill finish our Sa­crifice to Constancy.

A DISCOURSE OF CONSTANCY.
BOOK. II.

CHAP. I.

The occasion of renewing the Discourse; the going to Langius his Gardens. Their commendations.

THe next day it pleased Lan­gius to conduct me to his gardens which vvith a great deal of cost and curiosity he had planted in two places, the one [Page 138] upon a gentle rise of ground opposite to his house: the other somewhat far­ther off, in a lower place, and close by the River Maes

Whose Christall streams do gentle slide
Along the pleasant City's side.

Surprising me therefore in my Chamber very early in the morning shall vve vvalk Lipsius say'd he, or vvhether had you rather repose upon a Chair here vvithin doors? Walk Langius (said I) provided it be with you; but whither shall vve go? If you approve it (reply'd he) to my Gar­dens which are by the waters side, they are not farr distant, and by the way you shall exercise your Body; see the City, and besides we shall there meet with a cool and desirable air; in the midst of this heat: With all my heart (said I) nor in your Com­pany is it possible that any vvay should seem tedious to me, though it vvere [Page 139] to the utmost Indies. And with this we called for our Cloakes, cast them upon us, went forth, and got thither. Assoon as I entred I took their pro­spect, with a wandring and curious Eve; and really wondring at the ele­gancy, and culture of the place? My Father (said I) what pleasantness, what splendour is this? You have here Langius a Heaven rather than a Garden: Nor certainly do those Starry Fires above, shine out more illustri­ously in a clear and open Night; than these your flowers, do even sparkle and glitter in a most delecta­ble Variety. Talk we of the Gar­dens of Adonis or Alcinous? com­par'd with these, they are doubtless inconsiderable trifles, and such things as are next to nothing. And with this being come somewhat nearer, beholding some; and smelling to o­thers: Oh! said I, which should I ra­ther wish the Eyes of Argus or the Nose of Catullus? So equally doth [Page 140] this pleasure even tickle and delight both Senses. Hence, hence all ye Odours of Arabia which serve only to provoke a loathing, in respect of that pure and truly Celestial sweetness that breaths from hence: Langius gently wringing my hand, and not vvithout a smile or too; Fair fall my Gardens, Lipsius saies he; for neither I nor this rustical Flora of mine can pretend any Title to so skilfull and ingenious a commenda­tion. It is yet a true one, Langius (reply'd I) suppose you that I flat­ter? I speak it vvith all the serious­ness imaginable, the Elysian Fields, are less so than these Gardens of yours. For see vvhat a comeliness and order is every vvhere? How fit­ly all things are disposed in their Beds and Borders? That the diffe­rent coloured Marbles in a pavement are not placed vvith a more becom­ing Beauty and exactness. What plenty of Herbs and Flowers? What [Page 141] rarity and strangeness? Insomuch as vvithin the narrow limits of this one place, Nature seems to have en­closed all those excellencies, vvhich either this of ours, or that other World is able to boast off.

CHAP. II.

The praise of Gardens in general. De­light taken in them is ancient, and from Nature. Kings and other ex­cellent persons addicted to them. The pleasures of them.

ANd truly Langius this your divertis­ment is a praise-worthy and com­mendable one; a pleasure vvhereun­to (if I am not deceived) the more excellent and ingenuous persons are by Nature it self inclin'd. I am ra­ther induc'd to believe this; inasmuch [Page 142] as it is not very easie to think of any one pleasure, in vvhich the most eminent amongst the Nations have in all ages so vvillingly consented. If vve turne over the sacred Volume, vve shall there find that the World and Gar­dens vvere made together, vvhich God himself bestow'd upon the first Man, as the Seat of a blessed Life: If vve search into prophane Stories, Proverbs and Fables every vvhere tell us of the Gardens of Adonis and Alcinous, Tantalus and the Hesperides: and in true and credible Histories, vve meet the mention of King Cyrus his Orchards, that were planted with his own Hands: The airy and pen­dulous Gardens of Semirdmis, and that new and celebrated Plat of Masanissa vvhich Affrick vvondred at. Amongst the ancient Greeks and Romans, how many illustrious persons am I able to name; vvho casting off all other cares, have betaken them­selves only to this? Amongst the form­er, [Page 143] it vvill suffice to say in short, that most of the Philosophers and Sages, removing from Cities and the wild cla­mour of the Courts; have cloystred up themselves vvithin private limits and bounds. And amongst the lat­ter, methinks I see King Tarquine (in that then ancient Rome) diverting him­self in his Gardens, and smiting off the heads of the Poppyes. Cato the Censour applying himself to this study, and vvriting Books vvith all seriousness about these matters. Lu­cullus retiring to his Gardens, after all his Asiatique Triumphs. Sylla having lay'd down his Dictatorship doth here more contentedly grow old; and Dioclesian the Emperour pre­ferres his Sallads and Lettuce at Sa­lona; before the imperial purple, and all the Scepters of the Universe. Nor have the Vulgar receded from the Judgement of their superiours; but even amongst them the honester sort, and such as vvere free from am­bition; [Page 144] vvere generally this way ad­dicted. For certainly there is a kind of secret impulse, that vvith us is born; the hidden Causes of which I cannot easily explicate; which thrusts into this innocent and ingenuous de­light; not only us vvho bend that vvay, but even those serious and se­vere persons; who both resist and de­ride it. And as none do behold the Heavens, and those eternal Fires; without a secret kind of horror and Religion; so neither do any take a view of the Sacred Treasures of the Earth, and the beautiful Ornaments of this lower World, without a silent kind of Gust and Titillation of de­light. Enquire but of your Mind and Soul, and it will confess it self not only to be surpriz'd; but even fed with such a prospect. Ask your Eyes and Senses and they will ac­knowledge, that they do not any where more willingly repose them­selves. Look round about I beseech [Page 145] you for a while, and observe the se­veral troops of Flowers, together vvith the manner of their growth. Behold how this uncupps, and that unsheathes, and this other swells it self out of the rich inclosure of it's Gemm-like Bud. See how suddenly the one expires, and the other shoots out to succeed it; to conclude, ob­serve in any one kind of them, the Beauty, Forme, and Appearance, a thousand vvayes divers and the same. What Mind is there so rigid, that in such entertainments as these, vvill not vvithdraw and melt it self, into soft and pleasing Meditations? Let the curious Eye dwell awhile upon those Orient and dazeling Colours: Be­hold this native Purple, this Blood, this Ivory, this Snow, this Flame, this Gold, and such diversity of Co­lours; as a skilful Pencil may pos­sibly emulate, but can never be able to express? To conclude vvhat ex­haling Odors, vvhat subtile and pierc­ing [Page 146] Spirit, and I know not what part of the Heavenly Air breathed from above? So that our Tribe of Poets seem not in vain to have feign'd, that most Flowers are born of the Blood and juice of the Immortal Gods. O thou true Fountain of dissolved plea­sure! O thou happy Seat of Venus and the Graces! May I ever pass my dayes, and repose my self in these your shades; may it be lawful for me (thus remote from popular tumults) vvith a cheer­ful yet unsatisfy'd Eye; to wander a­mongst the Plants and Flowers of the known and unknown World; busying my self now vvith t [...]e Rise of this, and than vvith the Set of that, and vvith a vvandring kind of deceit here to lose the memory of all my cares and sor­rows.

CHAP. III.

Against some curious People, who abuse their Gardens to Vanity and Sloth. Their proper use. That they are places fit for wise and learned Men; and that VVisdom it self is bred and cherished there.

WHen I had spoken this some­vvhat earnestly, and vvith a kind of Ardour both in voice and countenance; Langius looking mild­ly upon me: Certainly said he Lip­sius, you are enamour'd of this florid and purple Nymph; and I am solicitous, lest you should love her immodest­ly. For you praise Gardens, but yet so, as to admire only those things vvhich are vain and external; vvhile you omit to speak of the true and lawful Pleasures of them. You greedi­ly behold the colours, and repose [Page 148] in the beds, and enquire after Flow­ers from the known and unknown World? But for vvhat purpose I pray? Is it to assure me that you also are one of that newly sprung up Sect of curious and idle persons; vvho have converted the most excellent and simple delight, into the instru­ment of a couple of Vices; Vanity, and Sloth? For to this end have they their Gardens, vvith an ambi­tious curiosity they search after a few forraign Plants and Flowers; and vvhen they have them, they cherish and attend them, vvith the same an­xiety and passion, as a Mother doth her Son. These are they vvhose Letters vvander into Thrace, Greece, India, for some little parcel of seed, a Clove, or off-set of a Flower: Who more passionately lament the vvithering of some new fashioned Slipps; than the Death of an old try'd Friend. Does any Man laugh at that Roman, who put on mourn­ing [Page 149] for the Death of his Lamprey? After the same manner bewail they the Funerals of their Flowers. Now if any of these Candidates of Florae have got any thing more new or rare, O how he boasts it! How do his Corrivals emulate and envy him? Some of vvhom return no less pen­sive to their Houses than Sylla or Mar­cellus vvhen they vvere rejected in their suit for the Pretorship. What shall I call this but a merry kind of madness? Not unlike to that of chil­dren turning pale, and quarrelling for their Topps and Counters. Un­derstand also how these men imploy themselves in their Gardens; they sit, they vvalk round about, they gape and sleep, and nothing else; as if they intended them not as pla­ces of retirement, but as Sepulchres of Sloth. A prophane Generation, and such as I may justly exclude from the Orgyes of the true and sacred Garden, vvhich I know to be con­secrate [Page 150] to modest pleasure, not to Vanity, to ease, but not at all to Sloth. Should I be of so feeble a temper, that the gain or loss of a poor Flower, should either exalt or depress me? No, I esteem things at their just rates, and setting aside the meretricious advantage of Novelty: I know they are but Plants; I know they are but Flowers: that is, short-liv'd and transitory things; of vvhich the Prince of Poets hath pertinently spoken,

When the soft VVestern winds abroad do flye,
Some Flowers they make to spring, and others dye.

I do not then despise these elegan­cies and delights (as you see) but herein I differ from these delicate Hortensii; that as I get such things as these vvithout anxiety, so I keep, and so I lose them. Nor am I so [Page 151] stupid, or rather so dead, that I should cloyster up, and (as it vvere) bury my self in these Garden shades: For even in these retirements, I find business, and my Mind doth here meet vvith something vvhich it may performe vvithout action. I am never less a­lone than vvhen alone (said one;) nor ever less at leisure than when so. An excellent saying, and vvhich I dare affirm had its birth in such Gardens as these, vvhich are intended for the Mind, not the Body; to recreate that, not to dissolve and soften this; and for a safe retreat both from Compa­ny and Cares. Is company troublesome? Here you shall be vvith your self: Have employments exhausted your Spirits? Here they shall be re­payr'd, vvhere the Mind shall be re­fresh'd vvith its proper food of quiet, and vvhere from this purer air, you shall have as it were the inspiration of a new life. If you look therefore upon the ancient Sages, they dwelt [Page 152] in Gardens; or upon the more learn­ed and improved Spirits of our times, they delight in Gardens: And in those for the most part are those divine pieces compos'd, vvhich are the won­der of Mankind, and vvhich no Age, or successions of time shall ever a­bolish. To this green Lycaeum do we stand indebted for so many Le­ctures upon Nature: To this shady Academy vve owe those discourses about manners, and from the apart­ments of these Gardens are those a­bundant springs of Wisdom diffus'd, vvhich we drink of, and vvhich vvith their fertill inundations have enrich'd the World. For the Mind doth raise and advance it self to higher and greater things; vvhen free and at large; it beholds its own Heaven, then vvhen 'tis cloyster'd up within the Prison of a House or City. Here O ye Poets frame an everlasting and immortal Verse; here let the learned meditate and write; here O ye Philoso­phers [Page 153] dispute of Tranquility, of Con­stancy, of Life, and Death. See Lip­sius the true end and use of Gardens; it is rest, secession, meditation, read­ing, vvriting; and yet all these by way of recreation only, and divertisement. As Painters vvho by long poring have vvearied and dimm'd their sight, call it off to certain glasses and green ob­jects, thereby to quicken and refresh it; so do vve the Mind when it ei­ther straggles or is tyred. And why should I conceal my Custome from you? Do you see that Arbour set out vvith Topiary vvork? 'Tis the place I have consecrated to the Muses. It is my School of Wisdom. There I either satisfie my Mind with serious and re­tir'd reading, or improve it vvith the Seeds of profitable Meditation? And as arms are lay'd up in a Magazene: So do I from them, store up precepts in my Mind, vvhich are alwayes rea­dy by me, against every battery and impression of Fortune. As oft as I [Page 154] enter there, I forthwith command all base and servile cares to absent themselves; and (asmuch as I may) vvith an elevated Mind, I despise the studies of the prophane vulgar, and this great vanity in the affairs of Men. Yes, I seem to my self to be wholly divested of humanity; and to be trans­ported into Heaven it self, in the fi­ery Chariot of Wisdome. Do you think it there troubles me, what the French or Spaniard are designing? Who keeps, or loses the Scepter of Bel­gia? That the Tyrant of Asia, now threatens us by Land or by Sea? Or to conclude;

VVhat Plots that King is forging in his brains,
That in the North and frozen Climate raigns?

none of all these I vvill assure you. Securely fortify'd against all that is ex­ternal; I retreat within my self, free [Page 155] from all sorts of cares except this one, how I may subject this broken and subdued Mind of mine to Right Rea­son, and to God: And all other hu­mane things to my Mind, that vvhen­soever that fatal day shall come that must put a period to my Life; I may receive it vvith a compos'd, and un­sadded countenance; and may so de­part out of this life, not as he that is forc'd into exile, but as one that is set at liberty. These are my musings in my Gardens Lipsius; and these the fruits which (so long as I am my self) I shall not vvillingly exchange for all the Persian and the Indian treasures.

CHAP. IV.

An exhortation to VVisdom; thereby a Man may attain to Constancy. An admonition to Youth, to con­joyn the more serious studies of Phi­losophy to the more pleasant and li­beral ones.

LAngius had finish'd, and I confess seriously that this last generous and constant speech of his, had cast me into some amazement, vvhich vvhen I had recovered, O happy Man (said I) both in your business and retirements! O that more than humane life; vvhich I have met with in a Man! Would to God I vvere able in any Measure to imitate, and to creep along after these footsteps; though it vvere at a considerable di­stance. Langius as reprehending me; imitate sayes he? Yes excell. You have right here not only to follow, [Page 157] but to lead the vvay. For in this Path of Constancy and Vertue Lip­sius, vve have made but a small, a very small progress. As yet vve are not comparable to the more He­roick and excellent Persons, though possibly a little more assured than the utterly enfeebled and debauched sort. But you vvhose Youthfull in­clinations are Generous and Lofty, prepare your self; and agreeable to my instructions, assay that path which doth directly lead to firmness and Constancy. The vvay I speak of is Wisdom, whose smooth and even path, I beseech and advise you no longer to decline: Hath learning and the Nine Goddesses hitherto delight­ed you? I approve it. For I know the Mind ought first to be subacted and prepar'd with this more pleasing and external knowledge, as being before unfit to have divine Seeds intrusted vvith it. But vvithall I ap­prove not that you should so farr dote [Page 158] upon this as to make it both the be­ginning and end of your studies. These are to be our rudiments but not our vvork; our vvay but not our Goale. In a feast (I suppose) you vvould not feed only upon Quelk­choses or Junkets; but would gratifie your stomach vvith something that is more solid. In this publick banquet of Learning, why do you not the same? Why add you not the firmer food of Philosophy, to those delici­ous Viands of Oratours and Poets? For (mistake me not) I vvould not that the one should be deserted, but that the other should be superadded, and that those looser, and by them­selves more fluid Nymphs should be tempered and mixed, vvith this (as I may call it) severer Bacchus. Pene­lope's Suitors in Homer are justly laugh­ed at; vvho deserting the Mistress fell to courting the Maids: Take heed you do not the same, that despising the great and excellent Princess, you [Page 159] should remain enamour'd of her hand­maids. It is a desirable purchase to attain the praise of a learned Man; that of a vvise Man is beyond it, but that of a good Man surpasses all. Hereafter let us aim at these; and by all our labours endeavour not only to know, but to be vvise and do:

How vaine's that knowledge where
No VVisdome doth appear?

sayes that old and true Verse. How many are there in this our Assem­bly of the Muses, vvho dishonour both themselves, and the very name of Learning? Some in that they are even covered with the black spots of detestable impieties; and the most because they are vain, light Mete­ours only, and of no worthy design­ment. Do they learn languages? Yes, but languages alone. Do they understand the Greek and Latine Au­thors? Yet they do but understand [Page 160] them, and as Anacharsis faid vvell of the Athenians heretofore; they used money only to count it: so these their knowledge only to know. So utterly regardless are they of their lives, and of what they do, that (even in my judgement) the vulgar seem vvith some reason to look upon learn­ing as the Mistress of vice: But it is indeed the Directress to vertue; if we use it as we ought, and conjoyn it with wisdom; to which learning should prepare our Minds, but not seize upon them, and detain them to it self: For as there are some forts of Trees, that will bear no fruit, unless they are planted by other male ones (as I may call them) so will the Vir­gin Muses remain barren, unless wedded to the Masculine strength of wisdom. To what end dost thou cor­rect Tacitus? and at the same time suf­fer so many Errata's in thine own life? Why dost thou illustrate Tranquillus? and yet permit thy self to be benight­ed [Page 161] vvith Errour? Dost thou carefully expunge the faults out of Plautus, vvhen thou sufferest thy Mind to be over-grown and neglected? Espouse at the last more worthy designs, and look after such a kind of learning as may serve, not only for austentati­on and applause, but also for use. Be­take your self unto Wisdom which may reforme your manners; calme and en­lighten your troubled and dark Soul. For 'tis she alone that can fix upon you the impress of vertue; and consigne you to Constancy, and give you a free admission into the Temple of a good Mind.

CHAP. V.

Wisdom is not acquir'd by wishes, but endeavours. The discourse of Con­stancy renew'd. The desire of know­ledge, a happy presage in a Young Man.

THis admonition so inflam'd me, that not able to dissemble it; My Father said I, with my Mind I follow you already; but when shall I with my Actions also? When shall that day appear, which releasing me from these cares, shall place me in the path of true vvisdom; that there­by I may attain to true Constancy? Langius as one reproving me. Do you then (said he) choose rather to wish, than to act? It is to no pur­pose at all; and as the vulgar use to do. However Ceneus in the Fable was transformed from a Woman to [Page 163] a Man by wishing: Yet hope not you after the same manner, to pass from a fool to a wise, or from a wa­vering to a constant Man. It will concern you to use your utmost en­deavour, to turn every stone, and that vvith an industrious diligence; you must seek, read, and learn: Here interrupting him, I know it Langius reply'd I; but do you also I beseech you lend me your assistance, and continue the thread of Yesterdays discourse, vvhich our summons to supper did unhappily break off. Re­turn I say unto Constancy, vvhose in­termitted rites, it vvill be dangerous to deferre. Langius as refusing, shall I again said he be shut up in that School? I vvill not Lipsius, at least not in this place, vvhich you should con­sider I have devoted to my recrea­tions and not to business, another time vve will attend it. Yes at this time reply'd I, for vvhat place is more fit for a discourse of vvisdom, than [Page 164] this her dwelling? I mean that Ar­bour, vvhich to me seems a Temple, and the little Table in it, no other than an Altar, at vvhich sitting down let us Sacrifice to the Goddess. Besides I take an Omen from the very place. What Omen (sayes Langius?) 'Tis this faid I, that as he who sits in a place where Odors and sweet Unguents are, carrys along with him in his Garments the perfume and scent of the place: So I am not without hope, that some Air and Odour of Wisdom may ad­here unto my Mind, by sitting in this her Store-house. I am afraid (sayes Langius smiling) there is but little of vveight in so light an Omen: How­soever Lipsius let us set forward, for not to dissemble with you, this so in­genious heat of yours does excite and vvarm me too. And as the searchers after springs, when in the Morning they observe a certain vapour exhail­ing from the Earth, do forthwith con­clude that there they shall meet vvith [Page 165] vvater: So have I hopes of a plentiful spring of vertue, wheresoever I observe in Youth an early desire of knowledge to betray it self: And vvith this he, led me into the Arbour, and seated himself at the Table. But I first turn­ing my self and calling to the Boyes; stay there said I and vvaite, but be sure you lock the door, and observe vvhat I say; upon your lives see that no Man, nor Dog, nor Woman enter; no though good Fortune her self should come; and vvith that I sat down. But Langius laughing out-right, did you e­ver sway Scepter Lipsius (said he) so Princelike and so severe are your e­dicts? Yesterdays misfortune (reply'd I) has dictated to me this necessary caution, and now in Gods name pro­ceed.

CHAP. VI.

A third Argument for Constancy drawn from utility: Calamities are good both in their Original and End. Their Original is from God; who being eternally and immutably good, cannot be the cause of any Evil.

LAngius without any considerable pawse thus began. In my dis­course of Constancy it is fit I be con­stant, I shall therefore observe the same order and method vvhich Ye­sterday I propounded. Then (as you know) I form'd Four Squadrons (as I call them) to fight in its behalf against grief and dejectedness, The two former of these, from Provi­dence and Necessity; I have already drawn forth, and have sufficiently e­vinc'd that publick evils are sent down from God; as also that they are necessary [Page 167] and impossible to be declin'd. I shall now therefore bring up my Third Squadron led by Utility; vvhich I may truly call the Legion Adjutrix, a Va­liant and subtile power, vvhich I know not how doth convey and in­sinuate it self into the Minds of Men, and with a pleasing kind of violence so overcomes them, as that themselves are not unwilling to be conquer'd. It rather gains upon us by degrees, than by violent impressions, and rather per­swades than compells us. For we as readily permit our selves to be led by Utility, as drawn by Necessity. This Lipsius I now oppose against you and your failing troops. For these publick evils vvhich we suffer are pro­fitable, and contribute much to our inward advantage. Did I call them Evils? They are rather goods; if re­moving this veil of Opinion, we have a due recourse unto their Original and End; of vvhich the former is from good, and the latter is for good. For [Page 168] the Original of these Calamities (as Yesterday I sufficiently prov'd) is cer­tainly from God: That is, not only from the chiefest good it self, but from the Author, cause, and Foun­tain of all other good vvhatsoever; from vvhom it is as utterly impossi­ble that any evil should proceed, as that himself should be evil. That power is only benign and healthful, equally despising to receive and to do vvrong, and vvhose sole and chief prerogative it is to benefit. And therefore those ancient and blinder sort of Men, conceiving something of the supream Being in their Minds; did rightly give him his Name from helping. Suppose you that he is ex­asperated, and that as one in a pas­sion, he hurles down these evils as so many deadly Arrows upon man­kind? No. Anger and Revenge are humane Affections, and being the effects of vveakness, are found only amongst the infirme. But that ex­cellent [Page 169] Being doth eternally persever in its benignity, and those very se­verities vvhich vve tast off from him, are only as Medicines; sharp and bitter to the sense, but healthful in their issue and events. That Homer of Philosophers said rightly God doth no evil, and therefore cannot be the cause of any. But better and more fully that wise one of ours. What is the cause of the ods doing good? Their Nature. He errs that imagines they are either de­sirous or able to do hurt. As they cannot receive, so neither can they do an injury. The first honor that we owe to the Gods, is to believe that they are, the next is to ascribe Majesty to them, and good­ness without which there is no Maje­sty. To know they are those, who pre­side over the world; who govern all things as their own; who are the Guar­dians of Mankind, and of every parti­cular person, and that no evil is in them, neither doth any proceed from them.

CHAP. VII.

The end of Calamities alwayes directed to good; though often administred by wicked Men, and for their evil ends. The force of them is broken and allay'd by God. All things are guided to our advantage. VVhy God uses wicked Men as his Instru­ments therein.

CAlamities then are good in their Original; they are so also in their End, because they are alwayes dire­cted to our good. You vvill say vvhich vvay? Is not mischief and ruine the manifest end of Warr and Slaughter? It is I confess if you look at Men, but not if you look upon God. That you may the more clearly apprehend this, It vvill be requisite thus to di­stinguish of divine punishments; some are simple and others are mixt: Those [Page 171] I call simple vvhich are immediately from God; vvithout the intervening of any humane Contrivance or Assi­stance: The mixt, are such as are from God too; but acted and perform­ed by Men. Of the former kind are Famine, Barrenness, Earth-quakes, Inundations, Diseases, and Death: Of the latter, Tyrannies, Warres, Oppressions, Slaughters. The first sort are pure and innocent, as being deriv'd to us from the purest Foun­tain: In the other I vvill not deny, but there is some mixture of filth, inasmuch as they pass through, and are convey'd to us by the impure Channels of Affections. Man inter­meddles therein, and then vvhat vvon­der is it, if Sin and corruption do dis­cover it self? That is the vvonder that such is the merciful Providence of God, as can convert that poyson into Medicine, and that Sin into good. See you that Tyrant there, who breaths out nothing but threatnings and slaugh­ter, [Page 172] vvhose delights are in doing mis­chief, and vvho could be content to perish himself, provided he might thereby accomplish the destruction of others: Let him alone a while, he shall fail in his designes; and God by a se­cret and indiscernible thread (vvhile he thinks and vvills nothing less) shall guide him to his end. As the Arrow vvithout any sense of its own, arrives at that mark vvhich the Archer intend­ed; so do vvicked Men. For that su­pream power doth inhibit and restrain all humane powers, directing and dis­posing all their vvandring steps unto that best end of his. As in an Army the Souldiers are variously affected; spoile encourages this, glory him, and hatred that other; but all fight for their Prince and Victory: So every of these wills of ours, whether they are good or evil, serve under, and fight for God, and amidst the greatest va­riety of their own designed ends, do at last touch upon this (as I may so call it) [Page 173] End of Ends. But you vvill say vvhy does God use the help of the vvicked? Why does not he himself send that better sort of Calamities amongst us; at least the worser by more desirable instruments? Thou art over curious­ly inquisitive O Man: Neither am I certain vvhether I am able to explain these Mysteries of Providence. But this I know, that he sufficiently com­prehends the reason of his actings; even at such times as we are not able to discern the least of it in them. But vvhat is it that appears so strange, and unusual to us? The Ruler of a Province condemnes a malefactour ac­cording to the Laws; and commits the Execution of his Sentence to Bru­tianus or the Lictor. The Father of a great Family sometimes corrects his Son himself; at others commits it to the care of a Servant or Tutor. Why should not God have the same liberty? Why should not he vvhen he so pleases chastise us vvith his own hand? And [Page 174] when he sees it good vvith anothers. There is no wrong or injury done to us in all this. Does that Servant hate you? Doth he come vvith a Mind to do you a mischief? It matters not, overlooking the instrument of vvhat you suffer: Look back to the Mind of him that hath commanded it. For assuredly the Father that requires it stands by; nor will he suffer one stripe to be superadded to what himself hath prescribed. But you ask again; why is Sin here immixed? and why are these divine Arrowes dipp'd in the poyson of Affections? You put me upon a difficult task, which yet I shall adventure upon; and my answer is, that God may declare his Wisdom and Power. They are St. Austine's words; he judg'd it better to make evils good, than to permit no evills at all. For vvhat greater instance can there be of Wisdom and Goodness, than to bring good out of evil, and to make those things Conspire [Page 175] our welfare, which were found out for our ruine. You commend that Physitian who successefully mixes his Treacle with a Viper. And why should you resent it in God, if vvith this Plaister of Calamities, he shall intermixe something that is hurtfull, vvithout any damage of yours. For he doth certainly decoct and evapo­rate all the adhering poyson, by the secret fire of his Providence. Lastly, this magnifyes his power and glory; to vvhich all things are by himself of Necessity referr'd. For vvhat can more lively express his power than this? That he not only overcomes those Enemies that wrastle with him; but also overcomes them in such a manner, as brings them over to him­self, and causes them to take Armes in the pursuance of his Victories: Which every day comes to pass, vvhen the vvill of God is done by evill Men, though not of them; since he so manages all those things which [Page 176] the vvicked do in opposition to his vvill; that none of them are besides his will. And vvhat greater miracle can there be, than that vvicked Men should make vvicked Men good? Ap­proach thou Cajus Caesar, and at once tread under Foot the two Sacred Names of thy County, and Son in Law. This thy ambition vvithout thy know­ledge shall be subservient to God; yes to thy Country it self, against vvhich it vvas taken up: For it shall prove the reparation and establish­ment of the Roman State. Thou Attila fly from the remotest parts of the World, and thirsting after blood and spoile, Sack, kill, burn, and wast; all this cruelty shall fight for God, and prove nothing else but an awakening of the Christians from slumbring in the Beds of Pleasure and Security. You two Vespasians what do you? Ruine Iudea and the Jews: Take, and raze the whole City; but for what end? As you indeed intend [Page 177] it; for the glory and enlargement of the Empire, but you mistake your selves, you are only the Lictours and Executioners of the divine venge­ance upon an impious Nation. Go ye vvho possibly have martyr'd the Christians at Rome, and revenge the Death of Christ in Iudaea. All ages are full of such examples, how God by the sinful desires of some Men hath accomplished his own good pleasure; and by the injustice of o­thers, hath executed his own just and righteous Judgments. Let us therefore Lipsius rather admire than busily pry into this recluded Power of his Wisdom, and let us know, that all sorts of Calamities are good in their events: Although this Mind of ours be so blind as not to discern it, or so flow in its apprehensions as not to reach and comprehend it. For their true ends are oftentimes obscure as to us; to vvhich not­withstanding (though vve are igno­rant) [Page 178] they at last arrive: not unlike those Rivers vvhich though they re­tire from our sight, and creep under ground, do nevertheless find the vvay to pour themselves into the bosoms of their own Seas.

CHAP. VIII.

More distinctly of the Ends them­selves. They are Three-fold; and to whom each belongs. Of the first End, vvhich is for the exercise of the Good. It is advantageous three wayes. It strengthens them; tryes them, and fits them to be exem­plary to others.

IF I may therefore hoise Sail and pass on further into this depth of divine matters; I may possibly disco­ver some things more fully and distinctly [Page 179] concerning the Ends themselves. But it is fit I should preface an attempt of this Nature vvith that of Homer,

If it may be done by me,
Or the thing it self can be.

For there are some of them, which methinks I am able with some cer­tainty to comprehend and point out, but there are others vvhich I can only rove and guess at. Of the more apparent ones, are these three; to Exercise, Chastise, and Punish us. For if you observe it, the most usual and ordinary calamities do either ex­ercise the good, or chastise the of­fending, or punish the wicked; and all this for our good. For (to illu­strate and dwell awhile upon the first End) we daily see the best Men ei­ther press'd by calamities singly and apart by themselves; or else inclosed by them, in society with the wick­ed. We observe and vvonder at it; [Page 180] as neither sufficiently comprehending the cause; nor rightly considering the End. Now the cause is the love of God towards us, not his hate; and the End is not our hurt, but our be­nefit. For this exercise doth advan­tage us more wayes than one: It strengthens us, it tryes us, and it fits us to lead on others. It strengthens us, being (as it vvere) that School; vvherein God trains up his in Forti­tude and Virtue. We see vvrastlers inure themselves to sharp Tryals; that they may overcome at last: think the same of us in this School of Af­flictions. For that great Master of ours is a sharp and severe exerciser of us; and exacts our labours and patience not only unto sweat but blood: Suppose you that he fondly trains up his, and that he eherishes them in the soft blandishments of plea­sure and delight? No. They are Mothers vvhich soften and enervate their children, by an over-tenderness [Page 181] in their education; but Fathers vvho preserve them, by acquainting them vvith hardship. Now God is our Father, and therefore as he doth truly so he severel loves us. If you would be a Pilot, you must be brought up amongst stormes; if a Souldier, you must be trained up in dangers; and if you would be truly a Man, vvhy do you start at afflictions, since there is no other vvay to acquire strength. Do you see those languishing and re­tir'd Bodies, whom the Sun seldom looks upon, the vvind never assails, and the more piercing air never lights upon; the Minds of those soft and e­ver happy Men, are such as the least gust of an angry Fortune vvill over­turn and dissolve. Afflictions then do strengthen us, and as trees fasten their roots the deeper by how much the more they are shaken with the Winds; so good Men become the more fixed in vertue, when attempt­ed by the storms of adversity. Af­flictions [Page 182] do also prove and try us; for otherwise how shall any Man be able to judge of his firmness and pro­ficiency? If a prosperous vvind do ever fill the Sail, the Pilot has no opportunity to display his skill; and if all things still evenly and happily succeed to Man, he shall lose the glo­ry of his vertue; for the only unde­ceivable touch-stone of it, is affli­ction. It was a gallant Speech of De­metrius: Nothing seems to me more unhappy than that Man who ha's never tasted of Adversity, and it is most true. For our Great General doth not exempt such Men, but distrusts them; he doth not indulge, but discards and contemns them. He rases I say their names out of the Muster Rolls of his Legions, as a sort of feeble and unserviceable persons. Lastly, they adapt us to lead on others; for the courage and patience of good Men in their sufferings, is a light to this benighted World. They invite [Page 183] others by their example to the same things, and as it were trace out a path of vertue for them to walk in. Bias lost at once his Fortunes and his Country; but he yet calls out to Men, that they be sure to carry all their Treasure about them. Regulus in the midst of his Torments unwor­thily expir'd; But that excellent and noble example of promise keeping doth yet survive. Papinianus is slain by the Tyrant; but his Axe hath taught us securely to abide it, when we must dye in the maintenance of Justice. To conclude, there are a number of most admirable Persons, that through violence or injustice, have been banished or slain: but from those Rivers of blood; we daily suck and drink in our improvements in Constancy and Vertue: All which notwithstanding would for ever have been concealed in darkness, were it not for this Torch of afflictions. For as Spices do every way emit and dis­perse [Page 184] their Odours when they are pounded; so Vertue doth then chief­ly display her Glories, when she is oppressed.

CHAP. IX.

Of Chastisement, the Second End. That it avails us two wayes.

THe Second End is to Chastise us, than vvhich there could not be a more gentle or effectual means found out for our preservation. For it benefits and preserves us two wayes, either as a scourge, vvhen vve have offended, or as a Bridle lest vve should offend. As a scourge, since it is the hand of a Father vvhich oft­en corrects an offendor for his faults; but it is an Executioner, that slowly and only once punishes. As vve use [Page 185] fire or vvater for the cleansing and purging away of filth and dross: So doth God make use of afflictions to take away that of our sins. And it is deservedly a scourge upon us at this time Lipsius; for vve Belgians had before offended; and being corrupt­ed vvith vvealth and pleasures, vve Ran on Headlong in the Way of Vice. But our God gently warnes and recalls us; and scourges us with some stripes, that forewarned by these, we may return to our selves and to him. He takes away our E­states, we abused them to Lux­ury; our liberty, because we enlarg'd it to licentiousness? And vvith this gentle Ferula of Calamities, he doth (as it were) expiate and purge away our offences. A gentle one indeed, for how slight a satisfaction is this? They say the Persians when they are to punish some Illustrious and great Person, use to stripp him of his Robes and Tiara; and hanging them up [Page 186] they scourge these instead of the Man: So doth this Father of ours, vvho in every of his chastisements overpasses us, and touches onely upon our Bodies, our Lands, our Goods, and our ourward Enjoy­ments. This Chastisement serves us also for a bridle, vvhich he op­portunely casts over us, when he sees vve are about to offend. As Physitians do sometimes advisedly breath a vein, not because we are sick, but that we may not be; so by these Calamities God doth vvith­draw from us some such things, as would otherwise become incentives and fewel to our Vices. For he vvho gave a being to all things doth vvell understand their Natures; nor doth he judge of their Diseases, by the Complexion and Pulse; but by the Heart and Reins. Doth he see the Genius of the Hetrurians to be over-haughty and raised? He rules them by a Prince: The Helvetians [Page 187] easy and quiet? He indulges them liberty: The Venetians of a temper betwixt both? He fits them vvith a middle vvay of Government; and vvill possibly change all these here­after; as the persons shall vary their Conditions. Nevertheless, we com­plain, and vvhy (say vve) are vve longer harras'd vvith vvar than o­thers? and vvhy are vve crush'd under a heavier Yoke of servitude? Thou Fool, and now really sick! Art thou vviser than thy Maker? Tell me vvhy doth the Physitian pre­scribe more Wormwood or Helle­bore for this than for that Man? Is it not because his Disease or Consti­tution requires it? Think the same here; possibly he sees this people more stubborn, and therefore to be subdued by stripes; that other more tractable and apt to be reduced with the shaking of the Rod. But you do not think so: It may be so. Our Parents vvill not trust a Knife or [Page 188] Sword in the Hand of their Child (though he cry for it) as foreseeing his hurt. Why then should God in­dulge us to our destruction; since vve are truly Children, and neither know how to ask those things which are expedient for us; nor how to part vvith those that will be fatal to us? You may therefore lament if you please, and as much as you please, but you shall notwithstanding drink of that cup of sorrowes, vvhich that Heavenly Physitian presents you with, and vvhich he hath (not unadvised­ly) filled so full for you.

CHAP. X.

Of punishment the Third End; that it is good both in respect of God, Men, and him that is punish­ed.

PUnishment I confess respects evil Men, but is no evil it self. For First, it is good if you respect God, whose eternal and immoveable law of Justice doth require that the crimes of Men be either amended, or re­moved out of the vvay. Now cha­stisement amends those that can be vvashed out; and those vvhich can­not, punishment takes away. It is good also in respect of Men, amongst vvhom no society could stand and continue; if all things vvere per­mitted vvith impunity to turbulent and desperate spirits. As the punish­ment of petty Thieves and Murther­ers, [Page 190] conduces to every Mans private security: So does that of the greater and most famous ones to that of the publick welfare. Those divine ani­madversions upon Tyrants, and the great riflers of the World ought ne­cessarily sometimes to intervene, that there may be examples to admonish us,

—That there is a wakeful Eye
Of justice, which doth all descry.

And vvhich to other Potentates and people may cry out,

—Thus warn'd by others miseries,
Learn justice and the Gods not to despise.

It is good: Thirdly, if you con­sider those very persons that are pu­nished. For it is for their sakes; since it is not so properly a revenge, or an utterly destroying judgement, as a gentle cohibition and restraint from [Page 191] Sin, or to speak it fully vvith the Graecians a punishment not a revenge, for that Gracious Diety

Never consults his Anger that from thence
He may severest punishments dispense.

As that Impious Poet said piously. As Death is sometimes sent in Mer­cy to good Men before they sin: So to the incorrigeable vvicked in the midst of their Sins, because they are so devoted to them, that unless they be cut off, they cannot be divorced. God therefore stops their unbridled course, and vvhile they are commit­ing sin for the present, and design­ing others for the future; he merci­fully takes them away. To conclude all punishment is good, as it respects justice, as on the contrary impunity is evil, which makes Men sinful, that is miserable Men to continue so longer. Boetius said well, wicked [Page 192] Men are more happy under punish­ment, than if Iustice should inflict none at all upon them; and he gives this reason, because some good is come amongst them (to wit) punishment, which in all the heap of their other crimes they never yet had.

CHAP. XI.

Of a fourth End; which pertains either to the Conservation and defence of the Vniverse, or its Ornament. The Explication of each.

THese are the three certain evi­dent Ends, vvhich I have pass'd vvith a sure and steady Foot: the fourth remains vvhich I must adven­ture upon with a doubtful one. For it is more remov'd and obscure, than that our humane capacities should [Page 193] perfectly reach it. I discover it only through a Cloud, and I may guess and offer at it, but never certainly know and attain to it. The End vvhich I mean hath a double respect and regards either the conservation or the beauty of the Universe. I therefore suppose it is for its conser­vation; because that God who made and disposed all things by an excel­lent wisdom; did so make them, that he bounded every of them within a certain number, measure, and weight: Nor can any particular Creature trans­gress these limits, vvithout the weak­ning or ruine of the vvhole. Thus those great bodies the Heavens, the Earth, the Sea have their bounds; thus every Age hath its appointed num­ber, and thus both Men, Cities, and Kingdomes have their stated accounts. Will they exceed these? It is neces­sary that some storme and tempest of Calamities do check and retard them: For otherwise they vvould endanger [Page 194] and bring damage to, this beautiful frame of the World. But those things especially vvould exceed these bounds very often, that are under the com­mand of Encrease and Multiply. Look upon Men, who can deny that by na­ture vve are born faster, than we na­turally dye? So that in a few years from two persons a family of a hundred may be propagated; of vvhich in that space not above ten or twenty may dye. Look upon a flock of Sheep; how numerous would the encrease be, if the Shepheard should not year­ly choose out and set apart some to the Slaughter? The Birds and Fishes vvould in a short time fill the Air and Waters, if there vvere not certain dissentions; and (as it vvere) vvarrs amongst themselves, and the endea­vours of Men to diminish them. E­very age is building of Cities and Towns; and if fire or other wayes of destruction should not interpose; nei­ther this vvorld of ours, nor the o­ther [Page 195] vvorld vvould be able to contain them. The same may vve imagine of the vvhole Creation. What won­der therefore is it if our Saturn doth sometimes thrust his Sickle into this over-grown Field; and reap thence some superfluous thousands, either by the pestilence or vvarr? Which if he should not do, vvhat Country vvould be able to hold us, or vvhat Land could afford us sustenance? It is there­fore requisite that something should perish from the parts; that so the vvhole may be eternal. For as to Rulers in States the safety of the People is the supream Law: So is it to God in respect of the World. For the beauty or Ornament of the World I conceive calamities make two vvayes. First, because I apprehend no beauty any where in this great frame without variety, and a distinct succession and change of things. I acknowledge the Sun is exceedingly beautiful, but he becomes more ac­ceptable [Page 196] to us at his return; through the interposition of the dew-engen­dring Night; and those black Cur­tains vvhich she shuts him out vvith. The Summer is a most pleasant sea­son, but yet the vvinter sets it off, vvith it's icy marbles, and hoary Frosts: Which if you take away, you really destroy the true rellish, and that particular gust of Joy, which it's light and Warmth afford us. In this Country of ours, one and the same face of things delights me not; but I am pleasingly affected to behold the Valleys and Hills, and Rocks, fruitful and vvast places, Mea­dows and Woods, for satiety and loathing are alwayes the Companions of Equality. And vvhy then in this Scene of life (as I may so call it) should the same dress and countenance of things delight us? In my Mind it should not: Let there be sometimes some smooth and Halcyon Calmes; and let those after a while be discom­pos'd [Page 197] and ruffled vvith the vvhirle­vvinds of Warr, and the boysterous stormes of succeeding Tyrannies. For who would wish that this Universe should be like the dead Sea; without Wind or Motion? But there is also another Ornament vvhich I guess at vvhich is more serious and inwardly fruitful. Histories informe me, that better and smoother times, do still succeed storms. Do Warrs molest any people? Yet for the most part they refine and sharpen them; by in­troducing the Arts, and a various cul­ture of ingenuity. The Romans of old impos'd a heavy yoke upon the world; but vvithall it prov'd a happy one in the event; for as the Sun chases away darkness from our Eyes: So did that ignorance and barbarisme from their Minds. What had the Gaules or we Germans now been, if the light of that great Empire had not risen to us? A sort of wild and inhumane savages, glutting our selves with our own and [Page 198] others blood; and despisers both of God and Man. And if I rightly di­vine, the same will befal this new World; vvhich the Spaniards with an advantageous kind of cruelty have ex­hausted; but vvill again restore, and otherwise replenish. And as those vvho have great plantations; remove some trees elsewhere, and cut down others: Skilfully disposing all things, to make them more fruitful and to prosper the better: So doth God in this vast Field of the World. For he is the most excellent improver, in some places he prunes and cuts off the luxuriant branches of some Families, and in others (as I may so say) he plucks off some leaves of persons. This helps the stock, though the branches fall, and the leaves that drop off, become the mockery of the vvinds. He sees this Nation scorched and vvithered away; as having out-liv'd their Vertues, and he casts them out. That other he observes to be vvild [Page 199] and unfruitful; he therefore transfers them; and others he mingles toge­ther, and engrafts them (as it vvere) into one another. You Italians in the declining of the Empire, being now decayed and enfeebled: Why cumber you any longer that choice part of Earth? Depart and let those hardy and unbroken Lombards more happily improve that soil. You vici­ous and effeminate Graecians perish and let the harsh and sowre Scythians be mellowed there. So also by a kind of confusion of Nations, you French possess Gaul, you Saxons Brittain, you Normans Belgia and the places ad­joyning. All which and more Lipsius will readily occurre to him that is ver­sed in Histories and the Events of things. Let us take courage then and know, that whatever private Ca­lamity comes upon us; is some way or other advantageous to some part of the Universe. The setting of this Nation or Kingdom shall be the rise [Page 200] of another. The ruines of this City, the foundation of a new one, nor can any thing here be properly said to dye, but to change only. Shall we Belgians think to be the only choice ones with God; that shall be perpe­tually wedded to felicity; and the only white boyes of Fortune. Fooles that we are. That great Father hath many more Children whom (because he will not all at once) permit to cherish, and receive by turnes into his bosome. We have already had our Sun-shines; let the Night succeed awhile, and let those beauteous rayes withdraw to the Western Nations. Seneca (as he uses) speaks aptly and wisely to this pur­pose. Let a wise Man repine at nothing that befalls him; but let him know that those very things under which he seems to suf­fer; do make to the conservation of the Visiverse, and are of that number which fullfil that Law and Order which the World is confin'd to.

CHAP. XII.

An old and common objection against the Divine Iustice; why punish­ments are unequal. Its inquisition remov'd from Man; and therefore unlawful.

LAngius paws'd here; and thus I broke forth. What a spring of water is to the thirsty Traveller in the heats of Summer: such is this your discourse to me. It refreshes, it en­livens, and vvith its cooling juice, it mitigates and allayes my heat and Feaver. But it doth but allay; it does not quench it; for that thorne which also molested the ancients (about the inequality of punishments) remains still fixed in my breast. For Langius, if that ballance of Justice be even; [Page 202] how comes it to pass that this arrow of Calamities,

So oft the nocent passes, but is sent
Amongst the Virtuous still and inno­cent?

Why (I say) are some guiltless peo­ple rooted out? and what have our wretched posterity done, that they should rue the crimes of their ance­stours? This is that thick and trouble­some mist that is got before my Eyes; which (if you can) I pray dissolve and scatter with some ray of Reason. Lan­gius frowning upon me, Young man (said he) dost thou thus again begin to wander from the path I set thee in? I may not suffer it; for as skill­ful Huntsmen, suffer not their Doggs to change; but force them to persist in the chase of that first buck they were lay'd into: So I am resolved you shall follow me in that track which I first trac'd out to you. I was dis­coursing [Page 203] you the Ends of Calamities; that if you are good, you may know your self exercised by them, if of­fending corrected, if wicked punish'd, and you forth with hale me away to speak of the causes. And vvhat vvould that vvandring Mind of yours, by its so curious an inquisition? Would you touch those heavenly fires? They will melt you. Would you scale that Tower of Providence? You vvill fall head­long. As Moths and other little vvinged insects, towards Night, vvill fly round about a Candle till they are burnt: With the same danger doth the Mind of Man, sport it self and vvanton about that secret fire. Assign the causes (say you) vvhy divine ven­geance overpasses these; and seises upon these? The causes? I may law­fully say I know them not. For that Heavenly Court never admitted me, nor I its decrees. This only I know, that the chief cause of all other causes is the vvill of God: Beyond vvhich if [Page 204] any Man enquire, after any force or power; he is ignorant of the Divine Nature. For it is necessary that e­very cause be both before and great­er than its effect; but than God and his Will, there is nothing either be­fore or greater. There is therefore no cause of it. God strikes, and God passes by; vvhat would you have more? As Salvian sayes piously and truly; the vvill of God is the perfection of Justice: But you vvill say, vve desire some reason of this inequality from, vvhom? from God? To vvhom alone it is lawful to do vvhatsoever he pleases, and vvho is pleased to do nothing but vvhat is lawful? Shall a Servant call his Master; or a Subject his Prince to account? The one vvould call it an affront; and the other Rebellion: and vvill you be more insolent against God himself? Avvay vvith this per­verse curiosity! This reason doth not otherwise appear to be one, than be­cause it may be rendred to none. [Page 205] And yet vvhen you have all done, you shall never be able to disingage your self from these shades; nor ever arrive to the knowledge of those (truly so called) Privy Councels. Sophocles said excellently;

Divine decrees thou shalt not know
Though thou knew'st all beside;
For those from us who are below
The Gods themselves do hide.

CHAP. XIII.

Yet to satisfie the curious, three usual Objections are answered: First, of that; that evil Men are not pu­nished. To which is reply'd; that though their punishments are defer­red, they are not remitted. And this comes to pass either for Mans sake, or from the Nature of God which is slow to Revenge.

THis rude and simple vvay Lipsius is here the only safe one; the rest are slippery and deceitful. In su­periour and divine things, the only acuteness is to discern nothing; and the only knowledge is to be ignorant. But forasmuch as this Cloud hath heretofore, and doth still rest upon the Minds of Men; in a few words (if possible) I shall endeavour to remove it, and vvaft you (now at a-stand) over [Page 207] this River also. Pardon me, O thou Heavenly Mind said he (lifting up his Eyes) if I shall deliver any thing of these secrets (yet vvith a pious inten­tion) less pure and pious than I ought. And first of all Lipsius methinks I am able in general to vindicate the ju­stice of God vvith this one Argu­ment. If God doth behold humane things, he doth also care for them, if he cares for them, he governs them, if he governes them it is with judgement, and if vvith judgement, how then unjustly? For vvithout judgement there is no government, but a meer heap, confusion and Tu­mult. What have you to oppose against this Javelin; What Shield or vvhat armes? If you vvill confess it, nothing but humane ignorance; I cannot conceive (say you) vvhy these should be punish'd, and those other escape. Be it so; vvill you therefore add impudence to your imprudence; and carp at the power of that Divine [Page 208] Lavv, vvhich you cannot conceive of? What more unjust way of pro­ceeding against justice can there be than this? If any stranger should take upon him to judge of the Laws and Constitutions of your Country; you vvould command him to desist and be silent, because he understands them not, and shall you vvho are the inhabitant of earth, presume rashly to censure the Laws of Hea­ven, You understand not? Or you that are the vvork to question your Maker? But it matters not, go on, for I shall now come up more close to you, and distinctly examine (as you desire me) these misty ca­lumnies of yours by the Sun of Reason. Three things you object, that God doth not punish the vvic­ked; that he doth punish the inno­cent; and that he substitutes and and exchanges offendours. You say first divine vengeance doth ill to pass by vvicked men. Doth it then o­verpass [Page 209] them? In my apprehension it doth not, but rather deferrs their pu­nishment. If divers Men owe me money; and I require it of this deb­tour assoon as it becomes due, and allow to that other a longer time of payment: Am I therefore culpable? Or are not these things at my own dispose? The same does our Great God; to vvhom all vvicked men owe a punishment: He requires it present­ly of these, but gives day to others; yet to be paid with interest, and what injustice is this? unless (possibly) you are solicitous for God, and fear he should lose part of his debt, by his merciful forbearance: But you need not fear it; no Man ever prov'd bank­rupt to this supream Creditour. We are all under his Eye vv [...]eresoever we betake our selves; nay already in his shackles and custody. But I vvould (say you) have such a Tyrant imme­diately punished, that by his present slaughter, he may satisfie so many as [Page 210] he hath oppressed. For this vvay the Justice of God vvould shine out the more illustriously to us. Rather your stupidity in my Mind. For vvho art thou that not only presumest to lead on the judgements of God, but also to prescribe him his season? Do you think him your judge, or rather your Lictour or Executioner? Dispatch, lead him off (say you) scourge him, cover his face, and hang him up: For it is my vvill it should be so. O im­pudence! But God vvills it otherwise, vvho (you ought to know) sees more clearly into these matters, and punish­es for other ends. The heats of pas­sion, and a certain desire of Revenge transport us; from all vvhich God is most remotely distant, and intends the vvarning and correction of others: For he best knowes to vvhom and vvhen these things may be useful. The choice of times is of great moment, and for vvant of a due and seasonable administration, the safest medicines [Page 111] do oftentimes prove fatal to us. He took away Caligula in the first setting out of his Tyranny: He suffered Nero to run on longer, and Tiberius beyond either; and this no doubt for the good of those very Men, vvho then also complain'd. Our vicious and uncor­rected manners, do often stand in need of a lasting and continued scourge, though vve vvould have it straight re­mov'd, and thrown into the Fire. This is one cause of the forbearance of God, vvhich respect us; the other respects himself. To vvhom it seems natural to proceed on to his Revenge vvith a slow pace; and to recom­pence the delay of his punishment vvith the vveight of it. Synecius said vvell, the Divine inquisition moves on slowly and by degrees: And so did the Ancients vvho from this property of his; feign'd God to have feet of Wool. So that although you are passionately hasty of Revenge; you cannot yet accuse this delay, since it [Page 112] is so only a respite of punishment; that it may be also an encrease. Tell me, vvere you present at a Tragedy; vvould you stomach it that the A­treus there, or the Thyestes; in the first or second act, should in a glo­rious garbe, and vvith a stately tread, pass through the Scenes: That they should rule there, threaten and com­mand all? I suppose you would not, for you know that felicity is but short­liv'd: And expect that all this gran­deur should finish in a fatal Cata­strophe. In this Play and Fable of the World, vvhy are you more offend­ed vvith God, than you vvould be vvith any Poet? That wicked Man flourishes, and that Tyrant lives hap­py. Be it so; but think vvithall that this is but the first Act: And before possess your self inwardly vvith this, that tears and forrows press on hard to overtake those joyes. This Scene shall shortly flow vvith blood, and then those robes of Gold, and Purple shall [Page 113] be rowled up and down, and tramp­led in it. For that great Master of ours is a good Poet, and vvill not rashly exceed the Lawes of his Tra­gedy. Do vve not vvillingly bear with Discords in Musick for some time; because vve know that the last clo­sures vvill end in comfort? Do so here. But you vvill say those miserable Creatures that have suffered under this Tyranny, do not alwayes see the pu­nishment. What wonder is it? For the Play is oftentimes somewhat long; and they are not able to sit it out in this Theatre. But others see it and fear; because they see that though (in this severe Court of Judicatory) some Men are reprieved; yet they are not pardoned: And though the day of execution is prolonged, yet it is not forgot. Wherefore Lipsius re­member this; that vvicked Men are sometimes forborne, but never acquit­ed: Nor is there any Man that en­tertains a crime into his brest, but [Page 114] vvho also hath a Nemesis at his back; for that Goddess is in pursuit of him and as I may say vvith Euripides,

VVith silent unsuspected pace
She doth the guilty Sinner trace.
And though he strive with utmost hast
To scape; she seiseth him at last.

CHAP. XIV.

That there are divers sorts of punish­ments; some occult and internal, which accompany the crime it self; and which the wicked never escape. That such are more grievous than any external ones.

WHich notwithstanding that you may more clearly apprehend; and that I may once lead you into the height of this cause: You must know; [Page 115] that Divine punishments are threefold; Internal, Posthumous, and External. Those I call Internal vvhich are in­flicted on the Soul, vvhile it is yet in the Body; such are Anxiety, Peni­tence, Fears, and a thousand pangs and stings of Conscience. Those are Posthumous; vvhich are inflicted upon the same Soul, but then vvhen it is freed and separate from the Body. Such are those torments which even the Ancients (most of them) vvere of opinion did await the vvicked after Death. The third sort are such as touch upon the Body, or the things that belong to it; as Poverty, Banish­ment, Pain, Diseases, Death. All vvhich do (sometimes) by the just Judgment of God concurr against the Wicked; but the two former alwayes. To speak of internal punishments; vvhere shall we find the Man, so pro­fusely and audaciously wicked; that hath not sensibly felt in his Soul some of these sharp scourges, and stripes [Page 116] either in the Commission of his crimes or at least after he hath acted them. So true is that vvhich Plato said of old; that punishment treads upon the heels of sin: or as Hesiod more pro­perly, it is coeval and twinns with it. The punishment of evil is not only ally'd to; but is bred vvithin that evil, nor is there any thing in this Life, that can pretend to calmness and se­curity; besides innocence alone. As the Roman custome did enforce the Malefactour to bear that Cross which vvas streight to bear him: So hath God impos'd upon all wicked Men, this Cross of Conscience; on vvhich they shall begin to suffer, before their further and vvorse sufferings do begin. Do you suppose that only to be pu­nishment, which we can look upon, and which this Body doth sensibly undergo? No. All those external things do but lightly, and for no long time touch upon us; they are the internal that more exquisitely torment us. As [Page 117] we judge them to be more desperate­ly sick, who languish away under an inward waste; than those that are seis­ed vvith some visible inflammation, or preternatural hearts, though these last are more apparent: So are vvicked Men under a more grievous punish­ment, vvho vvith so low and indis­cernible procedures are lead on to their eternal Death. It used to be the cruel command of Caligula; so strike as that he may feel he dyes; the same befalls these Men, vvhom their Conscience as an Executioner, doth daily torture, and even kill by these slow degrees of lesser and repeat­ed stripes. Nor let the splendour or the inlarged power and vvealth of those Men impose upon you: Since they are no more happy and fortunate for these than they are healthful, whose Gout or Feaver rests it self upon a purple Couch. Do you see a beggarly Fel­low represent in some Play the person of a Prince, all Pompous and brave? [Page 118] You behold him yet vvithout envy; for you know how under those golden Robes his Sores and Filth, and Po­verty lye hid: Think the same of all those great and proud Tyrants: In whose Minds if they lay open to us saith Tacitus, we might behold gashes and wounds: For as Bodies are torn with stripes; so are the Souls of Men mi­serably dilacerated vvith blood, lust, and other impious contrivances. They laugh I confess sometimes, but it is no true laughter: They rejoyce, but their joyes are not genuine and kind­ly; but it fares vvith them as vvith condemned vvretches in a prison, who endeavour with Dice and Tables to shake out of their Memories the thoughts of their execution, but are not able: For the deep impression of their approaching punishment, re­mains with them; and the fearful Image of pale Death is continually before their Eyes. Look now upon the Sicilian Tyrant, vvith-dravving [Page 119] only the Veil of his outward happi­ness.

A drawn Sword hangs in a twine thread
Over the wretches impious head.

Hear that Roman lamenting, let the God's and Goddesses destroy me worse then I every day perceive my self to perish. Hear that other thus sighing; Am I then that only one, vvho have neither Friend nor Enemy? These Lip­sius are the true torments and agonies of Souls; to be in perpetual Anguish, Sorrow, Dread, and which are incom­parably beyond any Racks; or other invented wayes for the torture of the Body.

CHAP. XV.

That punishments after Death do await the wicked, and that for the most part they are not acquitted from External ones, is proved by exam­ples.

ADde to these those Posthumous and External pains vvihch vve have learned from Divinity; and which vvithout further discussion it will be sufficient only thus to mention. Adde to those also external punishments; which yet if they should be wanting, since the former are inflicted, who could reasonably blame the external Justice? But they are not vvanting. Nor was it ever, at least very seldom, but that publick oppressours, and Men openly wicked; do undergo publick and open punishments; some sooner, others later; some in their own persons, and [Page 121] others in those of their posterity. You complain of Dionysius in Sicily that for many years with impunity, he ex­ercises his Lusts, Rapine, and Mur­thers: Forbear awhile, and you shall behold him inglorious, exiled, pen­nyless; and from a Sceptre (vvho would believe it) reduc'd to a Ferula. The King of that great Island shall teach School at Corinth, being him­self become the mockery of Fortune: On the other side you resent it vvith passion that Pompey and his Army of Patricians should be vanquished in the Plains of Pharsalia; and that the con­querour for some time, doth wanton and even sport himself with Civill blood. I do not wonder at you: For I see here the helm of right reason wrested out of the hands of Cato him­self, and this faltering expression falls from him: Divine things have much of obscurity in them. But yet thou Lipsius, thou Cato, turn your eyes this way a little. One sight shall reconcile [Page 122] you both to God. See that ambitious Caesar; that prov'd commander in his own opinion, and in others too al­most a God; see him slain in the Se­nate house, and by the hands of Se­natours; not falling by a single Death, but secured by Three and twenty vvounds; like some vvild beast, wel­tring in his blood (and vvhat vvould you more) in Pompey's own Court, and at the foot of Pompey's Statue falling a great Sacrifice to that great shade. So methinks I pitty Brutus slain for and vvith his Country in the Fields of Philippi; but vvithall I am some what satisfyed, vvhen not long after I be­hold, those victorious armies like gla­diatours slaughtering one another at his Sepulchre; and one of the Gene­ralls Marcus Antonius vanquished both by Sea and land; in the Company of three Women, vvith that effeminate Arme of his scarce finding the Death he sought. Where art thou now thou once Lord of all the East; thou [Page 123] Butcher of the Roman armies; the pursuer of Pompey and the Common­vvealth? See how with thy bloody hand, thou hangest in a Cord; how being yet alive thou creepest into thy monument, and how even in Death it self thou art unwilling to be di­vorc'd from her that vvas the cause of thy Death; and then judge whether dying Brutus spent his last breath and vvish in vain.

Iove suffer not to scape from thee
The cause of this Calamity.

No Brutus, he vvas not hid; nei­ther did he escape. No more did that other General vvho smarted for his youthful crimes, not obscurely in his own person, but most evidently in all his posterity. Let him be the fortu­nate and great Caesar, and truly Au­gustus, but vvithall let him have a Iulia [Page 124] for his Daughter, and another for his Grandchild. Let him lose some of his Grandchildren by fraud, others by force, and let himself force others into exile: and out of the impatience of these crosses, let him attempt to dye by a four dayes abstinence but not be able. To conclude let him live vvith his Livia dishonestly married, and dishonestly detain'd, and let him dye an unworthy Death by her, on vvhom he so unworthily doted. In summe saith Pliny that Diety, and who I know not more vvhether he attain'd Heaven, or merited it: Let him dye and leave the Son of his Enemy to succeed him. These and such like are to be thought of Lipsius as oft as complaints of injustice are ready to break from us: and the Mind is pre­sently to reflect upon these two things; the slowness and the variety of pu­nishments. Is not that offendour pu­nished now? But he shall be. Not in his Body? Yet in his Conscience [Page 125] and Soul. Not vvhile he lives? Yet most certainly, when he is dead.

Seldome slow punishments lame Feet for­sake,
The wicked Wretch what hast soe're he make.

For that Divine Eye doth alwayes vvake; and vvhen vve suppose him to sleep, he doth but vvink: Only see you entertain not any prejudice against him: Nor go about rashly to judge him by whom shortly thy self is to be judged.

CHAP. XVI.

The Second Objection answered, that all have deserved punishment; in re­gard all have offended: That Man cannot judge who is more or less cul­pable. 'Tis God only that clearly discerns betwixt crimes, and there­fore most justly punishes.

BUut (say you) there are some people punished that are guilt­less, and have no vvay deserved it: For this is your Second complaint or rather Calumny. Unadvised Young­man! Are there then any punished vvho have not deserved it? Where I beseech you are those innocent Na­tions to be found? It is an excess of confidence, yes absolute rashness and presumption to assert thus much con­cerning any one single person; and shall you dare to justifie whole Na­tions. But to small purpose this; for I am satisfyed that all of us have sin­ed, [Page 127] and do still every day repeat it. We are born in sin, and so we live in it; and to speak vvith the Satyrist the Magazeens of Heaven had been long since emptyed, if its Thunder-bolts had alwayes fallen upon the Heads of such as deserved them. For vve must not think that as Fishes, though encreas'd and bred up in the Sea, do yet retain nothing of its saltness; so Men in the filthiness of this World should contract nothing of uncleaness. If then all are in fault; where are those guiltless people you speak of, who have not deserved the punishments they undergo; since it is most righte­ous that punishment should be the in­separable companion of unrighteousness But you vvill say it is the inequality of it that displeases me: For vve see them heavily scourged that have but lightly offended; vvhile those that are outragiously vvicked, do continue and flourish in the height of all their gran­deurs. Would you then vvrest the [Page 128] ballance out of the hands of the Hea­venly Justice, and poise it vvith your own vveights agreeable to your own apprehensions? For vvhat else can you mean by that bold pronouncing up­on the equality or inequality of crimes, otherwise than God hath done before you? You are therefore here Lip­sius to consider of two things: First, that a true estimation of the crimes of others, neither can nor ought to be attempted by Man: For how shall he do it; that not so much as ob­serves them? And vvhich vvay shall he put an exact difference, betwixt those things vvhich he hath not so much as seen? For you will easily grant it me that it is the Mind that sins; by the Body and senses indeed as its instruments, but yet so as that the main business and vveight of the crime, doth in the mean time depend upon it self. This is so exactly true; that if it appear any one hath unwilling­ly sinned; he is clear of the sin. And [Page 129] if this be so how is it possible I be­seech you, that you should throughly discern of Sin, who are not able to reach to the residence and seat of it. For so farr are you from seeing into the Heart and Soul of another; that you cannot attain to the knowledge of your own: It is therefore a won­derful vanity; and no less a temerity, to pretend to the Censure and Arbi­tration of such things, as are neither fully seen, nor to be seen; neither known, nor to be known. Consider secondly, that if what you say were true, there were yet neither Evil nor injustice done to them. No Evil; because its done for their good, who are presently punished, even for smal­ler offences. 'Tis rather the love of God to them; since that punishment vvhich is delayed is justly to be sus­pected; as portending a heavier judg­ment is to come. Neither is it un­just; because (as I said) we have all deserved punishment: Nor can the [Page 130] best of us pretend to so unblemished a purity; but there vvill be found some such spots in it, as are to be vvashed out (as I may say) vvith this salt water of Affliction. Forbear there­fore young-man this intricate pursuit of the respects and proportions of crimes: And since thou art but an earthly and pedaneous judge; leave it to God, who from his higher tri­bunal vvill determine of it; vvith great­er equity and certainty. 'Tis he only that can distinguish of our deserts; and 'tis he alone vvho (notwithstand­ing all artificial disguises) can behold both vice and vertue in their proper countenances. Who can impose up­on him vvho equally searches into things internal and external; that sees at once the Body and the Mind, the Tongue and the Heart: And (to con­clude) those things that are open, vvith those that are recluded and re­tyred? Who doth not only most clear­ly behold our actions themselves, but [Page 131] also their causes, and the vvhole progress of them. When Thales vvas ask'd, vvhether a Man might hide his evil actions from God: He answered truly; no nor his evil thoughts nei­ther. Whereas on the contrary vve are here so benighted; that vve do not only not see those close sins commit­ed in the bosome, and (as they say) vvithin the Buttons; but scarcely those vvhich are open and dragged into the light. For vve cannot behold the Crime it self, and the vigour of it; but some certain footsteps of it, vvhen it is already committed, and upon its de­parture: They oftentimes are the best Men to us, vvho are the worst in the sight of God; as on the contrary they are reprobates in our esteem, vvho are the choicest to him. Forbear therefore (if you are vvise) to discourse or judge of persons that deserve or deserve not their punishments; for such obscure causes as these are not to be decided, by some light and superficial appearances.

CHAP. XVII.

The Third Objection; that punishments are transferred, answered. That Men do the same; why God doth so?

BUt you have cast another Cloud upon Justice; vvhich I must dis­perse: It is concerning substitutes. For say you it is not so just that God should transferre punishments; and 'tis somewhat hard that posterity should rue the crimes of their Ance­stours. But vvhere is the wonder and strangeness of it. I rather vvonder at these vvonderers that they can find a wonder in that which is every day done by themselves here on Earth. Pray tell me; do not those honours, vvhich for his vertue a Prince hath conferred upon the Ancestours, descend to his posterity? Yes they do; and so also [Page 133] do those mulcts and punishments, vvhich are inflicted on him for his offences. In attaindours for treason or rebellion it is manifest that these are guilty; but others share in the pu­nishment vvhich humane cruelty doth so farr enlarge; as to make Lawes that follow the innocent Children vvith perpetual vvants; such as make life a burthen, and death a comfort. Perverse Minds, who will permit that to be lawful to a Prince or Magi­strate; which you forbid to God: Who yet if you examine it rightly hath a juster reason for his severity. For all of us in one have sinned, and rebelled against this great King; and through so many successive Generati­ons that first blot hath been derived to the unhappy Children: So that there is to God a continued twist and chain of Crimes. For instance; my Father or yours did not begin to sin, but all the Fathers of our Fathers: What vvonder then is it if he punish [Page 134] in their posterity not (properly) di­vers offences; but such as by a kind of communion of seed, have been still linked and coupled together, and ne­ver discontinued. But to omit these higher speculations, and to deal with you, in a more popular way of rea­soning. You must know this that God joynes those things, vvhich vve (through ignorance and unskilfulness) use to sever, and that he considers Families, Cities, and Kingdomes; not as divided but as one Body and Na­ture: The Family of the Scipio's or the Caesars is one thing to him. Rome or Athens, for the whole time of their duration, were but one to him; and so was the Roman Empire, and that very justly, for the Society of the same laws, and priviledges, is that bond vvhich unites these great bodyes, and intitles them though in several ages, to a communion in partaking of rewards and punishments. Were then the Scipio's of old good? That Hea­venly [Page 135] judge vvill remember it to the advantage of their posterity. Were they Evil? It shall be hurtful to them. Were the Belgians some years ago; Lascivious, Covetous, Impious? We shall suffer for it. For in every ex­ternal punishment, God not only be­holds the present, but also looks back upon pass'd times; and vvith the vveights of them both, doth most equally poise the ballance of his Just­ice. I sayd in external punishments and I vvould have you to observe it. For crimes themselves are not trans­ferr'd, nor is there a kind of confu­sion of them: God forbid there should. But certain punishments and corrections only, such as are about us not in us; and which properly respect the Body, or estate; but not this in­ward Mind of ours. And in all this where is the injury? We are doubt­less willing to be heirs of those ad­vantages, and rewards (if any) that are due to our ancestours: And if [Page 136] so; why do we refuse the burdens, and punishments?

Those Plagues for which the former times did call
On thee poor Roman undeservedly fall;

Sings the Roman Poet, and truly; had he not added undeservedly. For 'tis most deservedly, since our ance­stours did deserve it. But the Poet could only see the effect: He ascend­ed not to the cause; but as in one and the same Man, we justly punish in his old age, that offence, which he committed in his youth: So doth God the elder crimes of Empires and Kingdomes, because in respect of their outward communion, they are to him but one conjoyned thing. These in­tervalls of time do not divide us with him who comprehends all eternity in [Page 137] the vastness of his Mind. Should those martial Wolves, heretofore rase so many Cities, and break so many Scepters vvith impunity? Should they broach so much blood by the slaugh­ters of others; and themselves never bleed for't? I should then indeed con­fess that God to be no avenger, who yet hears and sees all that we do. But they shall not scape so, at length of Necessity they must undergo punish­ments at least in their posterity; such as are slow indeed, but not too late. Nor is there a conjunction of time only vvith God but of parts too. I mean thus, that as in a Man the whole Body suffers, when possibly only the hand, or groin, or belly has offend­ed: So is it in great Societies. All many times do account for the faults of a few: Especially if those that have sinned are (as it were) the more prin­cipal members; as Kings, Princes, and Magistrates. Hesiod spake truly, [Page 138] and from the most inward recess of Wisdom it self.

For one Mans crime, oft the whole City smarts
For his oppressive sacrilegious Arts;
Jove from high Heaven his dreadful ven­geance sheds
Of Plague or Famine upon all their heads.

So the vvhole Navy of the Graecians perished.

For ones offence what Ajax did commit
In the distemper of a brain-sick fit.

Thus in Iudea threescore and ten thousand were slain with a single pe­stilence; for the unlawful pleasure of their King. And sometimes on the other side; God singles out one or but some few; to be the expiatours of a general sin. In which if he recede something from the rigid Law of pa­rity; yet out of that very disparity a [Page 139] new equity is raised; and that is a merciful act of Justice towards many; which seems cruelty upen a few. Does not the School-master give the Fe­rula to some one of his wantonizing Scholars? And does not a General chastize his cowardly Army, by the decimation of them? And both these up­on the safest considerations: because the punishment though but of those few does terrify and amend all. I have often seen the Physitian strike a vein in the Foot or Arm, vvhen the whole body was distempered: how know I but it may be thus here. These are secrets Lipsius, secrets I say, and if vve are vvise let us presume no nea­rer unto this sacred fire, some spark­ling emanations and bright emissions of which Men may possibly behold, but it self they cannot. As they lose their sight that too daringly gaze up­on the Sun; So they all the light of their Minds, who too intentively fix it upon this more glorious light. Let [Page 140] us therefore abstain from that which is at once of so curious and so dan­gerous a disquisition: And let us rest satisfied at least in this, that crimes neither can nor ought to be estimat­ed by Men, that the ballance and tri­bunal of God is different from that of ours; and that how abstruse soever those judgments are, yet they are not to be blamed, but patiently undergone and trembled at by us. This one Sentence I shall immind you of, and with it, shall both close this discourse and shut the mouths too of all those Curioso's. The judgments of God are many of them hidden; but none of them unjust.

CHAP. XVIII.

A transition to the last Argument for Constancy, from Examples. That sometimes it is adviseable to mix harsher Physick with such things as are pleasant.

THis is that Lipsius which I thought meet to say in the behalf of Di­vine justice against these unjust Cavil­lers. And though (I confess) it doth not directly lead on my discourse: Yet neither is it at all besides it. For we shall doubtless undergo our Cala­mities with greater cheerfulness and patience; when once we are through­ly satisfyed that they are not unjust. And here Langius pawsing awhile, he suddenly broke forth again. 'Tis well (said he) I have recovered breath; I have got beyond all those Rocks of objections; and now (methinks) I may [Page 142] with full Sails spoom away into the Haven. I discover my fourth and last Brigade; which I shall very cheerfully lead up. And as Marriners in a tem­pest when they behold the Twins are full of hopes and mirth: So also am I (after all these storms) at the appearance of my Twinny Legion. I may safely call it so after the old custom since it is double. And two things I shall evince by it; that these miseries which we now suffer are nei­ther grievous, nor new. Which while I shall dispatch in those few things that remain yet to say; see Lipsius, that you be attentive. Never more Lan­gius (reply'd I) for it joyes me to have passed these difficulties; and after these serious and severer Medicines, I greedily long after this gentle and more popular one; for so the Title promises me it is. Nor are you mi­staken said Langius, for as Physitians after they have sufficiently made use of Causticks and Incisions; do not so [Page 143] cast off and relinquish their patients; but apply some gentle fomentations, and other remedies to asswage their pains: So will I deal vvith you; whom (because I have enough followed with the sharper methods of wisdom) I will now cherish with milder discourses, and handle (as they say) vvith a Ladies hand. I shall descend from that steep hill of Philosophy; and take a turn or two vvith you, in the pleasant plains of your Philology, and that not so much to recreate you as to compleat your cure. As they say Demochares the Physitian did to the Lady Considia since she refused all har [...]her prescrip­tions he caused her to drink the Milk of Goats; but yet such as he had fed vvith the Branches of the Lentisk Tree: So I vvill administer to you, Histo­rical and pleasing things, vvhich yet shall have a secret tincture of the juice of Wisdom. What matter is it how vve cure our patient, so vve make a perfect cure of it.

CHAP. XIX.

That publick Evils are not so great as they seem, proved first by Reason. That we fear the circumstance and dress of things rather than them­selves.

MArch on then my Legion; and before the rest, let that cohort first advance, vvith vvhich vve shall maintain that these publick evils are not grievous, this shall be performed vvith the double vveapon of reason and comparison of reason. First, for if vve respect that, all those evils which are either present or imminent, are not really either great or grievous, but are so only in appearance. It is Opinion that heightens and aggravates our calamities, and presents them to us in so tragical a garbe. But (if you are wise) disperse this circumjected [Page 145] Cloud, and examine things by a clear­er light. For instance, you fear Po­verty amongst these publick Evils, Banishment, Death: All which not­withstanding, if you look upon them vvith a perfect and setled Eye, vvhat are they? If you examine them by their own just vveights, how light are they? This Warr or Tyranny by multiplyed contributions vvill exhaust you; vvhat then? You shall be a poor Man. Did not Nature it self bring you into the World so? And vvill it not hurry you thence in the same manner? But if the despised and infamous name of it, displease you; change it, call your self free and delivered. For For­tune (if you know it not) hath dis­burdened you and placed you in a securer station, vvhere none shall ex­haust you any more: So that vvhat you esteemed a loss, is no other than a remedy. But say you I shall be an exile; call it (if you please) a stran­ger. If you change your affection; [Page 146] you change your Country. A vvise Man vvheresoever he is, is but a so­journer; a Fool is ever banished. But I daily expect Death from the Tyrant: As if you did not do the same from Nature. But that is an infamous Death that comes by the Ax or Hal­ter: Fool! nor that nor any other Death is infamous: unless your life be so. Re­call to your thoughts all the excellent and more illustrious persons since the vvorld began; and you shall find them snatched away by a violent and untime­ly Death. Thus Lipsius you must ex­amine (for I have given you but a tast) all those things vvhich have so fright­full an appearance, you must look upon them naked and apart, from those vizards and disguises; vvhich opinion hath put upon them. But alass poor creatures; vve gaze only upon the vain outsides of t [...]ings: Nor do vve dread the things themselves, so much as we do the circumstantial dresses of them. If you put to Sea, and it swell high, your [Page 147] heart fails, and you tremble at such a rate, as if (should you suffer Ship­wrack) you were to swallow it all; vvhen alass one or two Sextaries would be sufficient. If there be a sudden Earth-quake; what a cry, and vvhat fears it raises? You apprehend imme­diately, that the vvhole City (or house at least) vvill fall upon you: Not con­sidering how sufficient any single stone is to perform the vvork of Death. 'Tis thus in all these calamities; in vvhich it is the noise and vain image of things that chiefly affrights us. See that Guard; these Swords. And what can that Guard, or those Swords do? They vvill kill. And vvhat is that being kill'd? 'Tis only a single Death; and lest that name should affright you: It is the departure of the Soul from the Body. All those military troops, All those threatning Swords, shall perform no more than vvhat one Fea­ver, one Grapestone, or one Insect can do. But this is the harsher vvay of [Page 148] dying. Rather it is much the milder, for that Feaver vvhich you vvould pre­ferr, does often torture a Man for a year together; but these dispatch him vvith a blow, in an instant. Socrates therefore said vvell; vvho vvas vvont to call all these things by no other name than that of Goblins and Viz­zards, vvhich (if you put on you) will fright the children; but if you take them off again, and appear vvith your own face, they'l come again to you and embrace you. 'Tis the very same vvith these evils; vvhose Vizzards if your pluck off, and behold them apart from their disguises; you vvill confess you vvere scared vvith a childish fear. As Hail falling upon a house dashes it self in pieces: So if these calamities light upon a constant Mind, they do not break it but themselves.

CHAP. XX.

A Second proof by way of Comparison. But first the Calamities of the Bel­gians, and of the Age heightned. That common Opinion refuted. And proved that the Nature of Man is prone to aggravate our own Affli­ctions.

I Did not expect so serious a dis­course from Langius and therefore interrupting him; vvhether go you said I, was this it you promised? I expected the sweet and delicious vvines of History; and you bring me such harsh and unpleasant ones, as scarce all the stores of Wisdom vvill afford their like. Suppose you that you are speaking to some Thales? 'Tis to Lip­sius a Man; and that of the middle rank; vvho desires remedies that are somewhat more humane than these. [Page 150] Langius vvith a mild countenance and tone, I acknowledge (said he) you justly blame me. For vvhile I fol­lowed that pure ray of reason; I per­ceive I am got out of the common Road, and unawares again fallen into the path of Wisdom. But I return now; to vvalk vvith you in a vvay that is better known; since the auste­rity of that wine doth displease you; I shall quallify and allay it vvith the sweets of examples. I come now to comparison; and I vvill clearly shew you that in all these calamities vvhich every vvay surround us, there is no­thing great or grievous, if you com­pare them with those in times past, For those of old vvere greater by ma­ny degrees, and more truly to be la­mented. I replyed vvith a gesture that discovered something of impatience. Will you averre this said I

—and hope you to perswade
Me to believe what you have said?

[Page 151]Never Langius so long as I am Ma­ster of my reason; for vvhat former age (if you rightly consider it) vvas ever so calamitous as this of ours, or vvhat after one shall be? What Nation? What Country ever en­dured,

So heavy miseries and manifold
Grievous, or to be suffered, or be told?

As vve Belgians do at this day? You see vve are involved in a Warr; not in a forreign one only, but a civil; and that in the very bowels of us. For there are not only parties amongst us, but (O my Country vvhat hand shall preserve thee) a subdivision of those parties. Add to this the Pesti­lence, add Famine, add Taxes, Rapines, Slaughters, and the height of all the Tyranny and Oppression, not of our Bodies only, but our Souls too. And in the rest of Europe vvhat is there? Either Warr or the expectation of [Page 152] Warr, or if there be peace, it is con­joyned with a base subjection to pet­ty Rulers; and not a vvhit eligible before Warr it self. Which way so­ever you turn your Eyes or thoughts, you vvill find all things full of suspiti­on and suspense: And as in a house that is ill underpropt; many visible signes of an approaching ruine. To conclude Langius as there is a Gene­ral rendezvous of all Rivers at the Ocean: So all sorts of Calamities seem to Centre in this Age. And yet I now speak only of such as are at present upon us; what are those that await us? Of vvhich I may just­ly sing that of Euripides,

Such spacious Seas of ills I see
As cannot safely passed be.

Langius looking severely upon me; do you again (said he) cast your self down vvith these complainings? I thought by this time you had stood [Page 153] firme; and that your vvound had been closed: But you relapse. If ever you vvill recover, it is requisite, that there be a kind of calmness in your Mind. This Age say you is the most unhappy. It is an old com­plaint; I know your Gransier said the same, and so likewise your Father; I know also your posterity vvill have the same complaint. Nature has ri­vered this into the Disposition of Man; to look fixedly upon his Evils; and to shut his Eyes upon his mer­cies. As Flyes and other Insects, do not rest long upon smooth and po­lished places, but stick to those that are rough and soiled: So this que­rulous Mind of ours, lightly over­passes our better fortunes: But vvill not be vvithdrawn from its contem­plations of that vvhich is vvorse. It handles and pryes into its evils, and for the most part shews it self vvitty, in the aggravating comments that it maks upon them. As lovers ever find some­thing [Page 154] in their mistress; for vvhich she must needs surpass all others in excel­lency: So do those that are afflicted, vvith their miseries. Yes vve fancy to our selves vain additions, and la­ment not only our present, but future Calamities. And vvhat is the reward of this too too inquisitive Genius of ours? No other, than as some Ar­mies are frighted out of their Camp, by the dust that is raised afarr off: So vve are often cast down, by the false shaddow of a future danger.

CHAP. XXI.

A more strict confutation of it, by comparing the present Evils, with those of former times. First, of Warrs, of the wonderfull slaughter of the Jews.

LEave then those vulgar things Lip­sius, and follow me to that com­parison vvhich you challenge me to make. By this I shall clear it to you, that as to all the sorts of Calamities, not only the like have happened of old, but also greater; and that the age we live in, ha's rather matter of triumph than complaint. We are engaged in a Warr say you. What? Were there then no Warrs amongst the ancients? Yes Lipsius they vvere begun vvith the vvorld; nor are they like to end but vvith it. But possibly they were not so great, so grievous [Page 156] as ours. So farr are you from the truth; that (I speak seriously) these vvars of ours, are onely pastime and sport, if compar'd vvith those of the Antients. I cannot easily find an entrance or an exit, if I should once lanch forth into this depth of examples. Neverthe­less, vvill you that vve travel through the parts of the World? Let us s [...]r forward then, and begin vvith Iu­dea, that is to say, vvith the holy Land and Nation. I omit what they suffer­ed in AEgypt, and what after their departure from thence; for those are recorded, and easily to be met with in the Scriptures. I come to their la­ter sufferings, and such as did accom­pany their funerals; which I will place severally as in an Index. They suffe­red vvhat by civil and what by forreign warres, all that followes. viz.

Slaine at Ierusalem by the command of Florus six hundred and thirty.

At Caesaraea by the inhabitants out [Page 257] of hate to the Nation and their Religi­on; twenty thousand.

At Scythopolus a City of Caelosyria, thirteen thousand.

At Ascalon in Palestine by the inha­bitants also, two thousand five hunde­red.

At Ptolemais in like manner, two thousand.

At Alexandria in AEgypt under Ty­berius Alexander the then Governour; fifty thousand.

At Damascus, ten thousand.

All this was done seditiously, and by vvay of tumult; but there were slain besides in a just and open warr by the Romans

At the taking of Ioppa by Caesius Florus, eight thousand and four hun­dred.

On a Mountain called Cabulon, two thousand.

In a fight at Ascalon, ten thou­sand.

Besides by stratagem, eight thousand.

[Page 258]At the taking of Aphaca; fifteen thousand.

At mount Garizim vvere slain; ele­ven thousand six hundred.

At Iotapa where Iosephus himself was present, about thirty thousand.

At the second taking of Ioppa there vvere drowned, four thousand and two hundred.

Amongst the Tarychaeans vvere slain, six thousand and five hundred.

At Gamala that vvere killed, and that precipitated themselves, nine thou­sand.

Nor vvere any of that City saved, besides two vvomen that were Sist­ers.

In the desart of Giscala vvere kil­led in flight two thousand, and taken of vvomen and children, three thou­sand.

Slain of the Gadarens, thirteen thou­sand,

Taken two thousand two hunde­red.

[Page 259]Besides infinite numbers of those that perished in the vvaters.

In the Villages of Idumaea ten, thou­sand.

At Gerasa, one thousand.

At Machaerus, one thousand seven hundred.

In the Wood Iardes, three thou­sand.

In the castle of Massada vvhich slew themselves, nine hundred and six­ty.

In Cyrene by Catulus the Governour vvere slain, three thousand.

But in the City of Ierusalem through­out the whole time of the siege, the number of them that dyed or were slain is, ten hundred thousand.

Taken ninety seven thousand.

The whole number amounts to (be­sides infinite omitted) twelve hundred and forty thousand.

What say you Lipsius? Do you cast down your Eyes at these things? Look up rather; and (if you dare) compare [Page 260] with the Massacres of this one Nati­on, the Warrs of the Christian world for some years. And yet how small and inconsiderable is either this Coun­try or people; in comparison of all Europe?

CHAP. XXII.

Of the Calamities of the Graecians and Romans too occasioned by VVarr, the vast number of Men slain by some particular Commanders. The Desolations of the new found world, and the miseries of captivity.

NOt to stay here any longer; let us pass over into Greece, to re­count orderly all those warrs they maintained both against forraigners and amongst themselves; would be too tedious and to little purpose. This [Page 261] I say it was so exhausted and lop't with a constant continued Ax of Calami­ties; That Plutarch tells us (which I never read without wonder and in­dignation) all of it in his age was not able to muster up three thou­sand Souldiers; which number yet, the one small City of Megara (saith he) had formerly set forth in the Per­sian Warr. Ah! whither art thou fallen, thou once the glory of the Earth, the light and leader of the na­tions? There is scarce a Town at this day (of any name) in this our vvasted Belgia, but is able to raise such a number of Men fit to bear Armes. Let us take now a view of Italy and the Romans. Augustine and Orosius have already eased me of this trouble. Consult them and there you vvill meet vvith Seas of evils. The second Punick vvarr it self, in less than seventeen years (for I have ex­actly computed it) consumed in Ita­ly Spain and Sicily only, above fif­teen [Page 262] hundred thousand men. The civill vvar betwixt Pompey and Caesar three hundred thousand. And the Arms of Brutus, Cassius, and Sextus Pompcius a greater number. But why should insist upon such Warrs, as were managed by the conduct of several Commanders? That one Caiuis Caesar (the plague and poyson of mankind) confesses and that in a vvay of tri­umph, that there fell by him in se­veral batails, eleven hundred ninety and two thousand men; not recko­ning into this number the slaughters of the civil Warrs; But only those of forraign Nations, which he had made in those few years wherein he had the Government of Spain and Gaul. In which notwithstanding (greater in this too) the Great Pompey out-went him; who wrote in the Temple of Minerva that there were by him vanquished, put to flight, slain and taken One and twenty hundred, and eighty three thousand men. To these (if you will) [Page 263] you may adde Quintus Fabius vvho slew one hundred and ten thousand Gauls. Caius Marius two hundred thou­sand Cimbrians. And in the latter ages AEtius vvho in that memorable Cata­launican Field slevv one hundred sixty two thousand Hunnes. And lest you should think that in these Warrs, there vvere only Carcases of Men; there vvere those of Cities too. That Cato the Censour boasts that he took more Towns in Spain than he continued dayes there. Sempronius Gracchus (if vve may believe Polybius) raised Three hundred in the same Spain, nor hath any age (as I think) any thing to add to these Examples; unless it be our own, though acted in another World. A few Spaniards about Eighty years ago; passing over into those vast and nevv found Lands: Good God! vvhat funeralls, vvhat slaughters did they make? I do not discourse the causes and justness of that Warr; but only the events. I see that huge space of [Page 264] Earth (vvhich certainly vvas a great enterprize to discover, not to say to overcome) overrun by twenty or thirty Souldiers, and those unarmed multitudes every vvhere mow'd down as corn is by the sythe. Where art thou Cuba the greatest of Islands, Haytus or you Iucayans? Which heretofore were each of you guarded vvith six or ten hundred thousand men; but have now (some of you) scarce preserved fifteen of them for seed. Shew thy self a­vvhile thou Peru and thou Mexico. O vvonderful and miserable face! that immense tract, and such as may vvell be called another World, appears vast and desolate, in such a manner as if it had been blasted vvith a fire from Heaven. My Tongue and Heart fail me Lipsius, as oft as I remember these things; and I look upon all that hath befallen us (in comparison of these) to be but pieces of strawes (as the Comaedian vvords it) or little mites. Nor do I here represent to you, the [Page 265] condition of captivity, than vvhich nothing vvas more bitter in the Warrs of the Ancients. Free, noble, Men, Women and Children, all sorts vvere hurried away by the Victour; and vvho knowes but it vvas into eternal slavery? Into slavery it vvas. The footsteps of vvhich, I justly rejoyce, have not been nor yet are in the Christian World. 'Tis true the Turks practise it, nor is there any thing that ought to render that Scythian Tyran­ny more detestable or dreadfull to us.

CHAP. XXIII.

Wonderful examples of Plagues and Fa­mines in Former times. Also of ex­cessive Taxes and Rapines hereto­fore.

BUt you goe forward in your com­plaints, and speak of the plague and Famine, of Taxes and Rapines. Will you then that we proceed vvith each of these in our comparison, though briefly. Tell me in these five or six years, how many thousands, hath this plague snatched away in all Belgia? As I guess fifty or at the most one hundred thousand. But in Iudaea a single plague in the reign of King David, swept away seventy thousand in less than a day. When Gallus and Volusianus vvere Emperours, a plague beginning in AEthiopia pas­sed through all the Roman Provinces; [Page 267] and for fifteen years together did in­credibly exhaust them. Nor did I e­ver read of a mortality that lasted so long, or that spread it self so vvide. But that vvhich seised upon Constanti­nople and the neighbouring places in the reign of Iustinian the Emperour is more remarkable for the fury and fierceness of it: vvhich vvas such that it made every day five thousand fu­nerals and sometimes ten. I should not be forward to speak this; but should my self remain doubtful of the credit of this report: vvere it not confirmed by unquestionable vvitnes­ses, that lived in the same age. Nor vvas that African plague less vvonderful, vvhich began upon the ruine of Car­thage and destroyed in Numidia alone eighty thousand men, in the Sea costs of Africa two hundred thousand: about Vtica thirty thousand Souldiers left there as the guard of those parts. Again in Greece in the reign of Mi­chael Ducas there was so raging a [Page 268] plague that (they are Zonaras his vvords) the living did not suffice to bury the dead. To conclude in Pe­trarchs time (as himself reports it) so direful a one sate brooding upon Italy, that of every thousand men scarce ten survived. I come now to speak of Famine: Certainly vve of this Age have seen nothing, if vve consider the times past. When Honorius vvas Emperour, there vvas such a dearth and scarcity of all sorts of provisions, that men vvere ready to eat one ano­ther, For it vvas openly cried at the Cirque, set the price of mans flesh. In the reign of Iustinian throughout I­taly (after the Goths had vvasted it) there vvas one so great, that in Pi­cenum alone, there vvere fifty thou­sand men famished to death: and all about, they eat not only the flesh of men, but their own excrements. Two vvomen (I tremble to speak it) had at several times by night treache­rously killed seventeen men and ea­ten [Page 269] them: and vvere themselves slain by the eighteenth who had discove­red their practise. I forbear to re­late the famine in Ierusalem and the vvell known examples of it there. If I must say something of Taxes also; I deny not but they are heavy ones with which we are pressed. But they are such only, vvhen you look upon them by themselves; not when you compare them vvith those of old. All, most all the Provinces of the Ro­man Empire, payed yearly the fifth part of the profits of their pasture, and the tenth of their arable. Nor did Anthony and Caesar forbear to ex­act the tributes of nine or ten years to be payed in one. When Iulius Cae­sar vvas slain, and armes were taken up for their liberty, every Citizen was commanded to pay down the five and twentyeth part of all their goods. And more than this all that were Senatours payed for every tile of their house six asses. An immense [Page 270] contribution, above the reach of our senses as vvell as of our Estates. But Octavianus Caesar (probably vvith some reference to his name,) exacted and received of all freed men the eighth part of their Estates. I omit vvhat the Triumvir's and other Tyrants have done, lest I should teach those of our times, by the recitall of them. Let that one of Colonies, be instead of all examples of Exactions and Ra­pines. An invention then vvhich no­thing did more contribute to the strength of the Empire: and nothing could be devised more grievous to the Subject. Veterane Legions and Cohorts were drawn out into Towns and Fields, and the miserable Pro­vincials, (in a moment of time) were thrust out of all their Estates and For­tunes, and that for no offence or unlawful attempt, their riches onely and plentiful possessions vvere their crimes. In vvhich certainly the sum of all calamities is comprized. It's a [Page 271] great misfortune to be robbed of our money, vvhat is it then to be de­prived of our houses and lands? And if it is grievous to be driven thence: vvhat is it to be forced from our Country, our Temples and Altars? You might see some thousands of woful peo­ple hurryed away, children from their Parents, Masters from their Families, Wives from their Husbands, and thrown out into divers Countryes, as their lot designed them. Some a­mongst the thirsty Affricans, and as the Poet saith in this very case,

Others were into Scythia hurl'd,
Or Brittain sever'd from the world.

One single Octavianus Caesar placed eight and twenty colonies in Italy only; and in the Provinces as many as he pleased. Nor vvas there any thing (I know) that vvas more destru­ctive to the Gauls as Germans, and the Spaniards.

CHAP. XXIV.

A rehearsall of some strange Cruelties and murthers in time past, above the guilt of this Age.

BUt yet (say you) there are such cruelties and murthers at this day, as the like have not been heard of. I know vvhat you point at, and vvhat vvas done of late, but I appeal to your conscience Lipsius, vvas their no such thing amongst the ancients? How ignorant are you if you know it not, and how vvicked if you dissemble it? For there is such a plenty of Exam­ples in this matter, and they lye so ready, that it is some trouble even to choose. Know you not the name of Sylla the Fortunate? If you doe, you remember that infamous and cru­el prescription of his, by vvhich he cast out of one City four thousand se­ven [Page 273] hundred Citizens. Nor were they of the meaner sort; but one hun­dred and forty of them vvere Senators. Nor do I touch upon those infinite slaughters that were usually acted either by his permission or command. So that not undeservedly those words burst from Quintus Catulus vvith vvhom at length shall vve live; if in Warr vve kill armed Men, and in peace the dis­armed. But shortly after; this same Sylla vvas imitated by his Disciples: I mean the triumvirs, vvho in like man­ner proscribed three hundred Sena­tors, and above two thousand Roman Knights. O vvickedness! A greater cruelty than this the Sun in all its tra­vels from the East unto the West, did never yet behold; not is like to do hereafter. If you please you may look into Appianus, and there you may be­hold the various and deformed condi­tion of those times: Of those that lay hid, and fled; of those that stopped their flight, and halled them forth: [Page 274] the vvoful vvailings of Wives and Chil­dren; so that you vvould believe hu­manity itself had perished and fled from that savage and inhumane age. These cruelties were acted upon the persons of Senatours and Knights, that is to say, upon so many little less than Kings and Princes; but possibly the Com­mons were more favourably dealt with. No such matter. Look upon the same Sylla, who commanded four Legions of the contrary party (for whose secu­rity he had given his faith) to be mur­thered in the publick Villa; they in vain imploring the mercy of his treach­erous right hand: Whose dying groans reaching the Curia and the Senate be­ing startled and amazed at it: Let us mind our business Conscript Fathers, (said he) a few seditious fellows are punished by my command. I know not vvhich I should most vvonder at; that a Man could do so, or that he could speak so. Will you have more ex­amples of cruelty? Take them. Ser­vius [Page 275] Galba in Spain summoning the peo­ple of three Cities together; as if to communicate to them something to their advantage; suddenly commanded seven thousand of them to be slain; amongst vvhich vvas the flower of their youth. In the same Country Lucius Licinius Lucullus the Consul sent his Souldiers into the City of the Cau­caeans, and slew twenty thousand of them contrary to the Articles agreed upon at their yielding Octavianus Augustus vvhen he had taken Perusia; chose out three hundred of the chief­est of both orders, and though they had yielded themselves, he slew them as Sacrifices before an Altar vvhich he had erected to D. Iulius Antonius Caracalla, (being offended vvith those of Alexandria; for I knovv not vvhat jests upon him) enters that City in a semblance of peace, and vvhen he had commanded all their young Men into the Field; he surrounds them vvith his Souldiers, upon a Signal given [Page 276] he kills them every one, and using the same cruelty to the remaining multi­tude, he utterly exhausted that po­pulous and most frequented City. King Mithridates by one letter caused eighty thousand Roman Citizens to be slain; that were dispersed through­out Asia about their mercandise. Vo­lesus Messalla the Proconsul of Asia, in one day caused three hundred to be beheaded; and strutting amongst the dead bodyes with his armes on his sides, as if he had done some glori­ous act; cryed out aloud; O Princely deed! Hitherto I have only spoken of prophane and impious persons; but behold amongst those that are devoted to the service of the true God: You vvill find it of the Emperour Theodo­sius that having by the highest vvicked­ness and deceit, betrayed seven thou­sand innocent people of Thessalonica into the Theatre, under pretence of exhibiting some playes; He sent his Souldiers amongst them, and mur­thered [Page 277] them all: Than vvhich fact nothing is to be found more impious in the records of all the Heathen im­pieties. Go now my Belgians, and af­ter all this, accuse the cruelty and treachery of the Princes of this Age.

CHAP. XXV.

Of the present Tyranny. That it is from humane Nature or Malice. Oppres­sions external and internal were here­tofore.

LAstly, you complain of the Ty­ranny that is now adayes, and the oppressions at once both of our Bodies and Souls. My purpose is not (at this time) to applaud, or condemn our own age; for to what end were it? My business is to compare only. I ask you therefore when ever those [Page 278] evils vvere not; and where that place was. Assign me any one Age, any one Nation, without a remarkable Ty­ranny in it; and (for I'le run the haz­zard) I will then confess, that we are the most wretched do all that are miserable. Why do you not reply? I see that old Sarcasme is true; all the good Princes may be registred in a Ring. For it is natural to Man to use authority insolently, and hardly to keep a mean in that which it self is above it. Even we our selves who complain of Tyranny, do yet carry the feeds of it inclosed in our bosoms: Nor is there a Will wanting in most of us to discover them, but the power. A Serpent vvhen he is benummed with cold, hath poyson within him, though he do not exert it; 'Tis the same in us, whom only weakness keeps inno­cent, and a kind of Winter in our For­tunes. Give but power, give means, and I fear that the most of those that accuse would transcend the example of [Page 279] their superiours. This is every dayes instance; see that Father stern with his Children, that Master with his Servants, and that School-Master with his Scholars. Each of them is a Phalaris in his kind, and raise the same waves in their Brooks, as Kings do in their greater Seas. The same Na­ture is discernible in other creatures; most of which prey upon their own kind, both in the Air, the Earth, and the Water:

So greater Fish devaour the smaller fry,
And weaker Fowle under the Goshauks die.

sayes Varro truly; but you will say these are the oppressions of Bodies only: But this is the peculiar of our age, that ours are of the Soul also. Take heed you speak not this with more malice than truth. That Man seems to me to be little skilled in the knowledge of himself, and the heavenly nature of the Soul; that thinks it can be forced or [Page 240] compelled. For no outward violence whatsoever can make you will, that which you do not will; or to yield to that which you do not assent to. Some have power over the bond and tye of the Soul; but none over it self. A ty­rant may loose it from the Body, but he cannot dissolve the nature of it, which being pure, eternal, fiery, dis­pises every external or violent attempt. But we may not speak our own thoughts. Be it so. The bridle then curbs your Tongue only, not your Mind; your Actions, but not your Judgment. But even this is new, and unheard of. Good Man! how are you mistaken? How many can I point you out, who have suffered under Tyrants, for their o­pinions? through the heedlesness of their tongues? How many of those Tyrants have endeavoured to compel mens Judgements, and their Judge­ments too in matters of Religion? It vvas the common custom of the Per­sians and the Eastern Nations to adore [Page 281] their Kings, and we know that Alexan­der challenged to himself that divine a­doration, with the ill will of his ruder Macedonians. Amongst the Romans that good and moderate Emperour Au­gustus had in the Provinces, yes in every house, Flamens and Priests as a God. Caligula cutting off the Heads from the Statues of the Gods, with a ridiculous impiety, caused his own to be placed upon them. The same instituted a Temple, Priests and chosen Sacrifices to his own deity. Nero would be taken for Apollo, and the most illustrious of the City were slain, under this accusa­tion; that they had never sacrificed to the heavenly voice. Domitian was o­penly called our Lord and God. Which vanity or impiety if it were found at this day, in any of our Kings; what would you then say Lipsius? I vvill sail no nearer this Scylla, into which no vvinds of ambition shall either betray or force me: For a secure old age is the reward of silence. I will bring in [Page 282] only one testimony of the ancient sla­very, in this respect; and that shall be out of an Author you are well acquaint­ed vvith, and I vvould have you to at­tend him. 'Tis Tacitus in the reign of Domitian: We read (sayes he) that when Petus Thrasea was praised by Arulenus Rusticus, and Priscus Helvidius by He­rennius Senecio; it was capital to them both. Nor did the cruelty extend it self only to the Authors, but also to their Works. Charge being given to the Tri­umvirs, that the monuments of those ex­cellent wits should be burnt in the Forum and Comitium, supposing by that one fire, to have suppressed the voice of the people of Rome; the liberty of the Senate, and the conscience of Mankind. The professours also of Wisdom were banished; and all in­genious arts proscribed, lest there should any where appear the least footsteps of ho­nesty. We gave certainly a grand ex­ample of our patience; and as the forego­ing ages saw the utmost height of liberty, so did we of slavery, the commerce of hear­ing [Page 283] and speaking being barred; and in danger by informers. VVe had certainly lost our memories together vvith our speech if it had been as much in our power to for­get, as it was to be silent.

CHAP. XXVI.

Lastly, that these evils are neither strange nor new. But common to all Nations and Men; whence we may derive com­fort.

I Have done vvith comparison; and now I bring up the other Brigade of my Legion, vvhich opposes the novel­ty of these Calamities: But briefly and by vvay of Triumph. For it rather takes the spoiles of the already conquered enemy; than fights vvith him. And to speak truth, vvhat is there in these things, that can appear new to any [Page 284] man, that is not himself a gross Ignaro in humane affairs? Crantor said excel­lently and vvisely; who alwayes had this verse in his Mouth.

—Ah me! and why ah me?
VVe suffered but a humane misery.

For these Calamities do daily move in a Circle, and in a kind of round pass through this round World. Why do you sigh that these sad things fall out? Why do you vvonder at it?

O Agamemnon thou wert not
To pleasing things alone begot,
But to equal hopes and fears
Interchange of joys and tears.
For thou art mortal humane born, and though
Thou should'st refuse, the Gods will have it so.

It vvere rather a vvonder that any should be exempted from this common [Page 285] Law; and should not have his part in that burthen, vvhich lyes upon the backs of all. Solon vvhen a friend of his at Athens was sadly be wailing him­self; he brings him into the Tower, and from the top of it shews him all the houses of that great City. Think vvith your self (sayes he) how many sorrows have heretofore been under these roofs; now are, and hereafter shall be: And then cease to lament the evils of Mankind, as if they vvere your own only. I vvish I could give you the like prospect of this vvide World Lip­sius, but since it is not to be done actually, let us imagine it. I place you upon the top of some high Mountain (Olympus if you please) look down now upon all those Cities, provinces and Kingdoms beneath: And think that you see but so many inclosures of hu­mane Calamities; the Amphitheatres, and (as it vvere) the Sands, in vvhich the bloody sports of Fortune are ex­hibited. You need not look farr from [Page 286] hence; do you see Italy? It is not yet thirty years since it rested from sharp and cruel vvarrs on every side. See you the spacious Germany? The dan­gerous sparks of a Civil discord were there but of late, vvhich threaten to break forth afresh (and if I am not de­ceived) into a more destructive flame. Do you see Brittain? Warrs and slaugh­ters are perpetually in it, and that peace vvhich it now awhile enjoyes; it owes to the government of the middle Sex. See you France? Behold and pitty it. Even now the Gangrene of a bloody warr, creeps into all the Joints of it: Nor is it otherwise in all the rest of the World. Think upon these things Lipsius, and let this communion in mi­series help to alleviate those of yours. And as they used to place a slave be­hind the Triumpher, who in the midst of all the joyes of the triumph, vvas often to cry out to him; thou art yet but a Man: So let this Monitour al­vvayes stand by to remember you, that [Page 287] these are humane things. For as la­bour in Society vvith others is more easy; so is also our grief.

CHAP. XXVII.

The conclusion of the whole discourse, and a short exhortation to consider seri­ously of it.

I Have drawn forth all my forces Lip­sius; and you have had vvhat I thought meet to say for constancy a­gainst Grief: vvhich I wish may not onely be pleasant to you, but health­ful, not only delight you, but (vvhich is more) be helpful to you. This it vvill doubtless be if you admit it not only into your Ears, but into your Mind; and if you suffer not vvhat you have heard to lye and vvither as seed that is cast upon the surface of the [Page 288] ground. Lastly, if you seriously di­gest and ruminate upon it: For as fire is not forced from the flint vvith one stroke; so in these cold bosomes of ours, that retired and failing spark of goodness, is not enkindled by a single admonition. That at last it may truly flame in you; not in vvords and appearance only, but in reality and deed; I humbly beg and beseech of that divine fire. When he had thus said, he rose up hastily; I go Lipsius (sayes he) the Sun at this Noon height remembers me it is dinner time; do you follow. That I vvill readily and cheer­fully (said I) justly making that accla­mation, vvhich they use to do in their mysteries;

I have the Evil fled,
And the Good discovered.
FINIS.

THE TABLE.

A.
ABjectness of the Mind, a Vice, and whence.
21
Achilles, how advised.
135
Affliction, the touch-stone of vertue.
182
The ends of it.
180
Affrica, a great Plague there.
267
Anaxagoras, his reply.
65
Antonius, taxes by him.
269
The manner of his death.
223
Antonius Caracalla, his cruelty.
275
Arbiter, his saying.
43
Aristophanes, his saying.
5
Aristotle, his opinion of Fate.
105
Atlantis, drowned.
91
Augustine, his censure of Cicero.
126
Augustus, Flamens and Priests to him.
281
[Page]Colonies placed by him
271
His endeavour to dye
224
Taxes imposed by him
269, 270
Vnfortunate in his family.
224
B.
BElgia, its troubles
3. 39
Bias, his saying
127
Boast, of Iulius Caesar
262
Of Pompey the great
Ibid.
Of Csato the Censour
263
Boethius, his saying
191
Brutus, his wish.
223
C.
CAius Caesar, where slain
222
Calamities, are good how
167
Their Original whene.
80, 81, 82, 83
Their end what
170
The force of them broken,
172
[Page] Caligula, his saying
217
Captivity, the miseries of it
265
Cato, his saying
221
Ceneus, his story
162
Chance, ha's no rule in the world
74
Change, all things tend to it
88, 89, 90
Instances of it
91, 92, 93, 94.
Chastisement, it avails us
186
Circumstances, more feared than the things themselves
144, to 149
Cities, raised at once
263
Colonies, placed by Augustus
270
The strength of the Empire
Ibid.
Comets, not all in the air
89
Complaint, of Tiberius
219
Of Nero
Ibid.
Considia, how cured
243
Constancy, a remedy in the sickness of the Mind
19
Its definition
Ibid.
The praise of it
31, 32
Opposed by what
36
Country, what
47
Which the true one
61
Our obligation and love to it
55
[Page]Not from nature but custom
61
How to be assisted by us
134
Crantor, his saying
283
Crates, his reply to Alexander
135
Creon, his story
Ibid.
Cruelties, in times past
272, &c.
Custom, of the Romans.
216
D.
DAvid, the Plague in his reign
266
Death, punishment after it to the wicked
223
Demetrius, his saying
182
Demochares, his prescription to a Lady
243
Desires, some the stronger for being op­posed
14
Dioclesian, his retirement
143
Dyonysius, his story
221
Domitianus, at what hour slain
118
His blasphemous Title
281
His cruelty.
282
E.
EArthquakes, wonderful ones.
92, 93
Euripides, his saying.
214
Evil men, not punished why.
208
Evils present compared with those of for­mer times.
256, &c.
Evils not grievous, nor new.
242
Evils publick and private what
36
Euclid, his Apothegme.
127
F.
Famines, in former times.
268, &c.
Fate asserted.
98
Vniversally aseended to
101
Some difference about its parts.
102
How distinguished of by the anci­ents.
Ibid.
Mathematical Fate what
103
[Page]Natural Fate what
104
Violent Fate how defined
106
True Fate, its definition
112
How it differs from providence
114
How from the Stoicks Fate
119
It offers no violence to the will
121
It acts by second causes
131
No ground for sloth.
133
G.
Galba, his cruelty
275
Gardens, those of Langius
139
The praise of them
141, 142
Kings and other excellent persons addicted to them
143
How abused by some
148
How to be used
Ibid.
God, orders and rules all things
74
Not to be murmured at by us
81
His unchangeableness
100
Not the Authour of sin
122,123,124
Not the cause of Evil
168
[Page]Punishes most justly
229
He onely discernes the difference be­twixt crimes
230
Why he transferres punishment
235, 236
He joines those things we sever
Ib.
He loves his, but severely
180
He hath appointed all things their bounds
192
Greece, its calamities by war.
260, &c.
H.
Helice, and Bara swallowed up by wa­ter
91
Hesiod, his saying
216, 237, 238
Homer, his advice
5, 135
Honorius, the famine in his reign
268
Horace, his saying
64
Hunnes, how many stain at once.
263
I.
Jewes, their wonderful slaughter
257, &c.
Instruments, why God useth the wicked as his
173
Internal punishment, the most grie­vous
216
Inundations, the mischiefs by them
91
Italy, slain there in the punick war
261
Julius Caesar, the manner of his death.
222
Justice, of God wakeful
190
Justinian, the great plague in his reign.
267
The famine in his time
268
K.
KNowledge, the desire of it a happy presage in youth
165
L.
LAngius, praised
2
His gardens
139
How used by him
153
Lucullus, his cruelty
274
M.
MAn, at variance with himself
24, &c.
An in bred malice in him
48
Pindars account of him
97
Vnable to judge of crimes
229
He hath a will but not the power to resist God
125
Prone to aggravate his own afflicti­ons
254
Masanissa, his famous plat.
142
Mercy, what it is
68
How it differs from pitty
Ib.
Michael Ducas, the great plague in his reign
267, 268
Mithridates, his cruelty
276
[Page] Murthers, in times past
127, 128
Mutations, several instances of them
88, &c.
Mysteries, the acclamation usual therein,
288
N.
NAture of God, slow to revenge
211
Nature of Man, prone to aggravate afflictions
254
Necessity, what it is
85
Publick evils from it
86
Its force and power
85, 86
From what grounds derived
Ibid.
New found world, its desolations
263,264
O.
OBstinacy, how it differs from Con­stancy
20
Opinion, what it is
22
Its original whence
27, &c.
Its power and effects
Ibid.
It leads to levity
Ibid.
[Page] Oppressions, internal and external here­tofore.
279, 280
P.
PAssions, whence they rise
34
Patience, the mother of constancy
21
Its definition
Ibid.
How it differs from stupidity
Ibid.
Petrarch, a great plague in his time
268
Polus, his story
43.
Pompey, his boast
262
Philosophy, how it workes
51
Pindar, his saying
49
Pitty, what it is
68
How it differs from mercy
Ibid.
How it may be used
70
Plagues, wonderful examples of them
266, 267, 268
Plato, his councel
84
His saying
216
Proscriptions,
272, 273
Providence, what
77
〈1 page duplicate〉〈1 page duplicate〉
[Page]Nothing done below but by it
80
Publick evils, why they afflict us
44
Not so great as they seem
144
Punishment, all have deserved it
229
Good for us
189
For the safety and ornament of the u­niverse.
193
Why unequal
202
VVhy wicked men are not punished
208, 209
Deferred why
Ib,
Transferred why
232
Divers sorts of punishments
215
Q.
QUintus Catulus, his saying
273
Quintus Fabius, how many Gaules slain by him.
263
R.
RApines,
270
Regulus, how he dyed
183
Right Reason, what it is
22
[Page]Its original whence
25
Its power and effects
28, 29
It leads to constancy
26
Romans, their calamities by war
261, &c.
S.
Salvian, his saying
204
Semiramis, her pendulous gardens
142
Senatours, of Rome how taxed
269
How many at once proscribed
272 &c.
Seneca, his seeming errour
109
His sayings
83, 200
Simulation, in mens griefs
41, 42.
Socrates, his reply to a Question propoun­ded
11
Sloth, no excuse for it from Fate
133, 134
Solon, his story
Ibid.
His prospect to his Friend
285
Sophocles, his saying
205
Stoicks, commended
108
The Authors of violent Fate
105
Sylla, his cruelty,
274
T.
TAcitus, his saying
218
Tarquinius why expelled Rome
117
Thales, his Apothegme
85
His saying
230
Theodosius, his cruelty
276
Travail, helps not diseases within
8
A Symptome rather than cure
7
It removes only the lighter motions of grief
12
Rather exasperates the greater
13
Tributes, examples of them in former times
269, 270
Trismegistus, his opinion of Fate, Provi­dence and Necessity
103
Tyranny, whence.
278
V.
VAriety, delights us
195, 196
Varro, the consul praised
134
Velleius Paterculus, his saying
132
[Page] Venice, its antiquity
94
Venus, hath changed its colour magni­tude and situation
90
Violent Fate, how defined
106
Vertue, how she is directed
21, 22
Volesus Messalla, his cruelty.
276
W.
WArres, of the ancients
161,162,163
Warres, in Iudea how many slain in them
157, &c.
Wicked Men, why used by God as his instruments
173
What punishments they never escape
217
Punished after death
320
Not exempt from external punish­ments
Ibid.
Wisdom, seems stern at a distance
70
An exhortation to it
161
The way to attain to Constancy
162
Not acquired by wishes
Ibid.
The greatest instance of it, what.
174
Y.
YOuth, advised in their studies
161
A good presage in Youth, what
165
Z.
ZEno, how he defines fate
108

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.