A LETTER FROM EDINBURGH, Containing a true and perfite Relation of all the Passa­ges and Proceedings of the late Army, raised in Scotland; By order of Parliament: for the Prosecuting of the Ends of the League and Covenant, concerning Religion, Libertie, and His Majesties Law­full Authority, by the Well-affected Subjects of that Kingdom, Showing the Progresse thereof, from the beginning of the En­gagement: unto the end of that unfortunate Expedition.

Written by an Eye-witnes, who was both an Actor, and Inspector of all Mens Carriages, in the march untill the Deroute of the Army.

To a Friend at London, for the better Information of all those who desire to know the plain Truth.

Printed 12 of November, 1648.


BEeing now by the providence of God, got out of the reach of rigour, and fearing neither the doggednesse of a Iaylour nor the Voyage of Barbadoes; but Enjoying the freedome of my former life, and the companie of my Friends, know­ing also how great a desire you have to hear of me, both in my own particular Fortune, and Successe of that late Unfortunate Army in the North, I acknowledge my self bound in duety to Satisfie your longing, and give you a true and perfite Relation of the Progresse and Event of that Expedition, But shall remit the Story of mine own Adventures and return, unto another occasion, it beeing but of small moment, and the other so neces­sary to be known of every one who loves Truth, of which I may freely say; I can tell as much as any private Person that was in the Journey, for beeing an Eye-witnes and Actor from the first Le­vying of the Troupes, unto the day of the Desaster, and having haunted the Chief Commanders for my better Information of what past in the Army, I can the more assuredly give you an exact accompt of the most Materiall Passages in that Expedition, Wherein I protest before God, I shall strip my self of all Passion and Partialitie, for the discharge of my Conscience; and defence of the Truth, to give you this free and following Narration, Whatsoever malice may perhaps have blown abroad to Poyson the Seduced people with misreports.

I shall not here insist upon the opposition made in the Parlia­ment of Scotland against the Levie, nor the Jealousie that pos­sest some, in the choice of the Commanders, as perhaps beeing men who had their own ends, or aspired to that Domination which others had long Vsurped, and would be loath to lay down again, both parties still pretending the keeping of the Covenant, and that Jealousie was Fomented by the Ministrie, which every day preached against the Engagement, There was also a Partie, which not siding with any of the other two, pressed the calling [Page] home of the Prince, so to decide all differences, & prevent heart­burning in the point of Command, at which time also a black cloud in the West did threaten a Deludge to destroy the good designe, but that was soon Dissipate by the wisedome and valour of the Earle of Calander, Leivetenant Generall of the Army, and Middleton Leivetenant Generall of the Horse at Machlin­moore, by order from the Lord Duke Hamilton. And not long af­ter His Grace receaved order from the Committee of Estates, to march speedily to the English border, for securing of Carlile, and opposing of Major Generall Lambert, mean while all the strong holds of the Kingdom as Edinburgh, Sterling, Dumbarton, and the rest were yet in the hands of the well-affected Partie, (as was supposed) or might have been easily secured, But what diffi­culties were made concerning the Forces in Ireland, led by Ge­nerall Major George Monro, for the finding of moneyes to pay and transport them, it beeing resolved they should be under the Command of the Earle of Crawford Lindsay Treasurer, I need not to relate, and therefore to begin my Journall, take it thus.

About the beginning of July, His Grace appointed a Rende­vous at Annan; where the small number that resorted at first made us stay some few dayes. Upon the 8 We entered England, and quartered that night at Rokliff, the next day the Army marched by Carlile, and quartered at Thursby, there the Generall receiv­ing the keyes of the Town, and Castle, from Sir Philip Musgrave, went up into the Castle, and gave order our ammunition should be left there, though the custody of both was still in the hands of the English, for some few dayes, which showed how great con­fidence he had in them, at Thursby diverse horse and foot of ours came unto us and we heard that some, both horse and foot were come over out of Ireland, landed in Galloway; and marching toward Dumfries, there also we saw Sir Marmaduck Langdalls foot, and one Troup of horse, which were all proper men, Gene­rall Major Lambert was then at Penreth, toward which upon Fry­day the 14 we advanced, but were benighted & came short 2 or 3 [Page] miles, yet having got two horsemen prisoners, discovered the Enemy, and so posing our guards it beeing very late, we quartered there. Next morning early our Cavalrie advanced (the weather beeing very rainie) and the foot following, found that Lambert with his Forces was retired that night towards Appleby (in which Castle he had a garison,) our intention was to overtake his Rear, but we were informed that they were for certain at Appleby, be­fore we were two miles past Penreth, Which made us stay and quarter there that night, and the next day which was Sunday, upou Moonday setting forward toward Appleby with our horse, We discovered a body of Lamberts Cavalrie, which being prest upon by some of ours, was forced to retire within the barricade near unto the bridge at Appleby, which our folks could not force for want of the foot, whom the rain and waters did extreamlie hinder in their march; the Enemy having his foot at the barricade neither could our horse passe the River to reach Lamberts Army which was on the other side, by reason of the great inun­dation through excessive raines, in the evening some few foot came up to us, and we endeavouring to gain the Bridge were prevented by night, some few of each side beeing killed and hurt, amongst whom Colonell Harison of theirs was wounded, and the Earle of Calander receaved a musquet shot upon his left side, that night our Cavalrie remained on the fields, and Sir Marma­duck Langdalls foot came up, but ours stayed at Kirby-Thure, that same night also Lambert marched over Stain-moore. Leav­ing yet a garison in Appleby Castle, before which Sir Marmaduck with his foot, lay down till the Surrender thereof, during which time, Sir Thomas Tilsley had a Commission given him, for the raising of Forces in Lancashire, out of Furnis, and their-abouts, the next day the Duke sent back freely a Lievetenant to Lambert who had been taken the day before, and disposing the horse into severall quarters we stayed there a fortnight waiting for our Can­non ammunition and meall, while we stayed at Kirby-Thure, it was much prest that the Irish Forces might joyn with us, and the [Page] Cannon be left behind which was not verie considerable beeing but 4 six pound balls, and 2 twelve, in the Counsell of warre also it was debated whither the Army should march into Yorkshire, to follow Lambert, or through Lancashire, which was a plentifull Country, and into which our ammunition might with greater safety come unto us, the other being wasted and spoiled by the Enemy, at last it was resolved to march into Lancashire, it was likewise propounded to put the Kingdom of Scotland in a Pos­ture of defence, by raising of an Army to be commanded by the Earle of Lanrick. From Kirby-Thure we marched in two dayes to Kendall, where Generall Major George Monro a vali­ant and worthie commander (whose courage and conduct in the warres of Ireland, have with credit gained him an honourable name,) came unto us, and the Duke was again desired those Forces from Ireland might joyn with us, but what answer or or­der was given to Monro, himself best knowes, howsoever he re­turned to his own Forces, and we marched from Kendall to Hornby in Lancashire, and there again upon debate of the quar­tering of the horse, which was extreamly straited, it was ordained they should march under the command of the Earle of Calan­der and Middleton, leaving two brigades of horse, and the Dukes own leiff-guard to remain with him, upon the rear of the Foot: and the Irish Forces, with Monro, were again urged to be joyned with the Army, by showing what danger they might incurre, He marching by the Enemies garisons and from Skipton, if they should fall in betwixt him and us, which was of more conse­quence then the leaving of the Cannon, We having found the wickednes of the way so troublesome for carriages, that night the Cavalrie past by the Town of Lancaster, and quartered at Garstang, which was upon the 13 of August, the next morning, I saw his Grace, and the Earle of Calander, upon a hill, near Lan­caster, into which he had sent Sir Thomas Tilsleys folk who were playing with their Musquets upon the Castle, and after confe­rence, the Earle of Calander returned to his quarter at Garstang. [Page] Upon the 15 Sir Marmaduck Langdall, gave notice to Calander and Middleton who were then quartered at Blackburn of the Enemies advancing toward Skipton, and to the Duke also, as Calander likewise did, whereupon the next morning Calander and Middleton, meeting with Sir Marmaduck, at the Earle Mar­shalls quarter, some 5 or 6 miles above Preston, he confirmed the intelligence of the Enemies advance, and desired quarters nearer Preston, which was granted, and order given to the Lord Leving­ston to remove his brigade, as he did, drawing into a field, where the foot was thought to have been, as was concluded before at Hornby, that night Middleton returned to Blackburn, and Ca­lander going to finde the Duke, whom he supposed to be at Pres­ton according as was resolved, by the way was informed that he was 3 miles short of it, and quartered at Broughtoun with the foot, which should have been a Preston that night, which fault was the main ground of all our misfortune, at last Calander com­ming to the Dukes quarter late, shew him of Sir Marmaducks drawing nearer Preston, and of the order given to those Regi­ments of the Lord Levingstouns Brigade to do the like, and how his Grace was expected there with the Army, seeing the safety thereof, depended wholly thereupon, the horse being quartered on the other side, toward Whiggin (except those two brigades, were left with him,) the Duke answered that he could not get car­riages for the ammunition, Calander told him of the enemies ad­vancing, & that some of them had been seen among their friends, as also by some Parties of Horse who were sent out to discover, the Duke confest he had notice of it, but is was then late, and they should speak of it to morrow, But whither that securitie proceed­ed from a confidence, or weaknes, in a Generall God knowes. Next morning Calander comming to him, asked where the Ar­mie was, he answered that they marched timely in the morning, and he thought by that time they were the length of Preston; (where they should have been the day before) afterward Calan­der asked him where were these two brigades of horse which [Page] were left with him, he said hee had given them no orders, and that they were still lying in their quarters, not having sent any ordinance Ruyters to receave order, Whereupon I heard Ca­lander say, he much admired his Grace had caused the Foot to march, and not sent order expresse to the horse which marched with him, though they had been wanting in that point, Seeing his own safety and the Armies, was so deeply interest into it, and im­mediatly Calander sent two expresse (least the Enemy should fall in betwixt them, as they did:) with orders to those brigades, to march to Preston, and joyn with the foot, which nevertheles, they could not, after breakfast the Duke called for his horse, it beeing about nine a-clock, and as he was going to get up, Sir Mar­maduck came, where I heard Calander say, your Grace is too far from your Army, get on before he light, which he did, & so they saluted on horse-back riding towards the Army, within twice twelve score, one came and told Sir Marmaduck, that the Ene­my was falling upon his rear, (you must know that he had still marched upon our left hand, from his quartering at Settle and Sigelswyk) and thereupon they all fell a galloping, untill they came near Preston, to the entry of the lane upon the end of the moore, where they found Leivetenant Generall Baylie, with the Foot, drawn up in battle, and all the baggage by him, yet a little before we came to the foot, we were told it was but a mistake, though shortly after the Enemy did appear, and fell a skirmish­ing with Sir Marmaducks rear, when Calander Baylie and Colo­nell Turner comming to the Duke, after some discourse amongst them, order was given to the Foot to passe the bridge, some of the Enemies horse showing themselves upon the heath on our left hand. Then the Earle of Calander desired the Duke to send for Middleton with the Cavalrie, and whilst the foot were march­ing, the Duke thought fit to leave three brigades upon the moore to favour Sir Marmaducks retreat, which Calander de­sired his Grace to consider, and that commanded musquetiers would be better in those narrow lanes, whereof the best both of [Page] Officers & Souldiours might be piked out, and so they were and Calander commanded out 500 Musquetiers to line the hedges and 600 more further down towards the end of the bridge, (if the enemies horses should advance) and a brigade consisting of the Earle of Roxburghs regiment, and Colonell Tours to favour Sir Marmaducks retreat, on the other hand two parties of Horse were commanded out of those few troupes we had to discover the enemies advance which left but few remaining, by reason of a partie had been sent to Sir Marmaduck at his own desire, the two brigades not beeing come up, for the Lord Levingstouns brigade being prest by the enemy had past the water marching down on the other side towards Preston bridge, where he came about two of the clock in the after-noon, and having sent before to receave orders the Duke commanded one Glasse who did the duety of Quarter-master Generall, to give out quarters for his brigade in such Towns as he named, and that after sight of the billet hee should march to his quarter, there was likewise, afterward ano­ther hundred commanded which the Earle of Calander desired might stay untill they saw whether the enemy did advance to­ward the moore, in regard there were so few horse there (the word and sign beeing then given) but seeing none advanced, that hundred horse with the same officers was sent to Sir Marmaduck, besides 200 musquetiers which had been sent before; though un­demanded of him, but the Scots foot and baggage were so long in marching and passing the narrow lane and bridge as spent much time, and ammunition, Sir Marmaduck sending twice or thrice for supplie of ammunition which he had, the Duke remained still on the head of those few horse never visiting Sir Marmaducks post, but Calander riding to and again, betwixt the horse and foot where the most eminent danger did appear, went up to Sir Mar­maduck to know what he wanted (though he had no interest in his Army) the other thanked him kindly and desired to know if the whole Army was past, Calander told him it was very near, Whereupon Sir Marmaduck entreated him that he might know [Page] of it and Calander assured him he should do it, thereafter it was my fortune to be near the Duke, when Calander came to him, his Grace asked where he had been, and why he did not stay upon the head of the horse, he answered that he did not conceive the greatest danger to be there in regard the enemies horse did not advance.

But let me here stay a little, while the foot and baggage are passing the bridge to consider the reasons given for this Resolu­tion, our Cavalrie being far distant, and the enemie according to Sir Marmaducks intelligence, beeing said to have divided his Forces, whereof some part was marched toward Colne & Man­chester, was it not likelie that Sir Marmaduck was able to deall with them having betwixt 3 and 4 thousand foot, and 7 or 8 hun­dred horse, with the assistance of some of our horse which was marching towards us? Or say, was it fit to expose our foot having no horse but a handfull to the enemies whole Cavalrie and Foot, Upon a flat campagne or moore if his intelligence was false? His Graces great judgement and long experience (having been twice before a Generall, by sea and land, at home and abroad; together with his earnest desire of that command, notwithstanding the advice of his friends to the contrary, and the jealousie that posses­sed all men of him, which rather kindled then quenche the fire of his high spiritfull of his own sufficiency) was no question capa­ble to weigh any counsell in the scales of Reason, whether it were of valour to be taken or not, and therefore I may say in all free­dome who ever gave it, was no raw nor fresh-water souldiour, however the end proved, and now the foot and baggage beeing almost past the bridge, the Earle of Calander drew the Troupes nearer unto it within the lane, where he and Colonell Turner (I fortuned to be with them for the time also) riding back to the Townes end of Preston toward the bridge, we found a Troup re­turning from thence upon sight of us, whereat we wondered un­till by their armes and sign, (which was a green bough) We per­ceaved them to be enemy (for ours was white) Whereupon the [Page] Earle of Calander called to the Musquetiers to give fire, which though they did not upon the order, yet the Enemy hearing re­treated within the lane, and himself advancing gave fire with his pistoll upon them and they faced about, So he and I parted about this time I was informed that Captain Watsone who command­ed the Dukes lieff-guard of horse doth affirm that he beeing on Prestoun-moore perceiving the enemies horse to be drawing out of an narrow lane into the moore where they stood, he went to his Grace who was close by and shew him of it beseeching him to give them leave to charge the enemy before they should be in order, hoping with that advantage, to give him an accompt of them, but contrair to his expectation the Duke in passion com­manded him not to loose a pistoll upon no pretext whatsoever, I riding afterward towards the bridge, heard a great noise behind me, the enemy turning again toward the Town and all our peo­ple running, comming near I found some stragglers and baggage horse, and after a little while Calander came alone, his horse much spent & wearied, who gave presently order to Rally these stragglers and rode himself and brought Kelheads Regiment of foot which was upon the rear and said the musquetiers into some dry ditches near the bridge, the pikes he placed in the most Ad­vantageous ground, the enemy advanced presently but our men giving fire upon them they retired again to pursue the rest of our people, who had quited their ground, We not having any Horse and Baylie beeing with the foot upon a hill, half a mile distant from the bridge on the other side of the water, then came one to the Earle of Calander telling him that the enemy was passing the River, below the bridge at a Church, whereupon giving order to Kelhead to make good that post, promising to supplie him with fresh men, if it were needfull: and having sent before to Baylie for 300 musquetiers he met them by the way as he was going to the Church and sent Leivetenant Colonell Halst with one hundred and fresh ammunition to the bridge, another hundred he left up­on a little hill betwixt the bridge and the Army, and the third he [Page] took along to the Church where it was said that the enemy was passing, where beeing come he found no such thing, then leaving some to man the Church-yard he and Colonell Turner, came back and heard that they were passing above which made them rerire to the Leagger where they met the Duke (who told them how narrowly he had escaped, and almost been taken prisoner, in the Town of Preston) and there they were again told of the Enemies passing above, the Earle of Calander presently called fo [...] horse, it was long before any came: And these few only of the Lord Kenmoores, with which he drew down to the bridge to se­cond the foot, but the third time beeing advertised that they were passing above the bridge, he drew towards the place, and sending out three horsemen before, followed with the rest, till on the way those three returning told him there was no such matter, but on­ly some of our own stragglers passing which were routed on the other side, and comming back toward the bridge: he found that the enemy had forced it after a long and hard dispute through the advantage of the ground and cover of houses and hedges, whereas on our side it was very low and no shelter at all, and was pursuing of our folks toward the Leagger, which made him cause a house bee set on fire in their way a little below the Leagger, about a musquet shot, The day being near spent a small party of the enemy passing by the second bridge followed up the hill within a lane where the Duke, Calander, Baylie, and many other Officers were standing on the other side of the hedge within the foot Leagger, the musquetiers having order to give fire, they pre­sently retreated but we had no horse to follow; Kennioores Regi­ment beeing retired behind the foot, then a counsell was called, where the Duke, Calander, Baylie, Colonell Turner, the Earle of Dumfries, the Lord Bargeny, and many other Officers were (Sir Lewis Dives was there likewise) there Calander enclyned to re­tire to a moore on this side of Wiggan, where we might expect our horse and attend the enemy to fight them. But afterwards upon some consideration finding the impossibility of transport­ing [Page] the ammunition hee altered his opinion (as I heard) and though the most part of the Votes run in that strain yet he upon more mature deliberation, disassented from it, protesting he would bear no blame if things did not succeed according to his wish and reall intention. The Duke replyed it was concluded and too late to oppose, giving order to the Regiments to send for as much ammunition as they pleased, and that Calander should march presently with those few horse they had then there toward Standish-moore, the night beeing very dark, and the lanes narrow and deep, a Regiment of foot which was advanced be­fore the horse Rencountring, some of our own horse who had been quartered with Middleton (and by some of the foot strag­glers were supposed to be enemy; upon whom they gave fire) took the alarm so hot that many quited their armes, Whereupon Calander advanced and found them to be our own, so he march­ed on to the moore where he halted till it was day, (that night we left our ammunition) but before that it was day the Duke had past through the Troupes and was gone to Wiggan, where Ca­lander and the Earle of Traquair went to him there he asking for Middleton, they told him they had no notice of him but that he was marched towards Preston, and was in the Rear, and that the foot were advancing into the moore, showing also how neces­sary his presence was to encourage the Souldiours after so ill for­tune and hard marches as they had, Then he desired Calander to draw them all up in battell upon the moore: & he would follow, which was straightway done, & after some time the Duke came, Leivetenant Generall Middleton according to his order ad­vancing toward Preston, and not finding the Army retired after them, and the enemy falling upon his rear he repulsed them di­verse times, and forced them to give back, carrying himself most bravely like a gallant man, and wise commander, and came to the moore about ten a-clock, where he found the foot, and those horse they had with them drawn up, the Marques of Argyles Re­giment and the dragoons were placed at the entry of the moore [Page] to favour his retreat, and staying there till two a-clock some small parties of the enemy skirmishing, it was resolved to march, the body of the horse first leavying upon the rear of the foot, Gene­rall Major Vandrosk, Leivetenant Colonell Iames Innes, and Leivetenant Colonell David Lindsay with some troupes of horse, together with Argyles Regiment of foot, and Colonell Mills few dragoons, in this order the Army marched, and the Earle of Calandar, Middleton, Baylie, and Turner, stayed upon the moore, untill the most of them were marched into the lane, Middleton then advancing to the horse, Calander remained till the whole rear of the foot was entred the lane, at which time hee had notice given him of the enemies advancing upon the right hand to fall in betwixt the horse and foot, between there & Wig­gan, upon the advertisment he advanced to know the certainty, but it proved false in regard of some marish ground, and no ap­pearance of Enemy there, afterward comming to Wiggan hee found the Duke, (of whom he went to receave orders) at the fur­ther end of the Town marching with the horse, but by the strait­nes of the lane and narrownes of the bridge, together with the deepnes of the way, many of the foot which was extreamly wea­ried having before suffered hugely in the want of victuals was lost, and the horse were a long time in passing the water, so as night drew on when Middleton hearing of the enemy upon the Rear went back and there the Officers of the commanded Troupes of horse behaving themselves like brave men were most hurt and taken. The Duke sending for Calander told him hee should do well to march on with the Cavalrie to Warringtoun, where there was a passe and bridge of which he much feared the Enemy should possesse themselves, and so bring the Army into great inconveniences, a little after as he was marching, the Duke sent him word he would yet speak with him so he let the Troupes march on forward thorow the narrow lanes, (it beeing moon­light) and stayed till the Duke and Sir Marmaduck came up to him, there the Duke again showed him his apprehension of the [Page] Enemies seazing upon that passe from the neighbour Garisons, willing him to march without ever halting untill he had made himself master of the same, Calander forth-with sending a Partie before to discover the Enemy, and save the stragglers, from plun­dering by reason of the night, (some of Sir Marmaducks and our [...] also being gone out before) when we were within a mile of Warrington, we heard that the Enemy had taken in the Bridge, but upon the advance of our fore-troupes had again quited and was run away, before we entered the Town, the Duke and Sir Marmaduck came up, and there lighting his Grace sent order to Leivetenant Generall Middleton, & Baylie, to advance thither, seeing the next day they were to march to White-Church; and so for the Peak, Calander gave order for the Horse to Rende­vous the next morning at the bridge, the most part beeing quar­tered on the other side, but betimes newes was brought that the Enemy had routed the Foot, though the Generall had not heard any thing from Baylie, nor Middleton, about eight a clock at the Rendevous, we heard that the Enemy was passing the River upon our left hand, Whereupon Calander sent out a Partie to a foard, and a little after I saw the Duke march by, to the top of the hill where Sir Marmaducks Horse were, and but few of the Scots Horse were yet come to the Rendevous, there I heard the Earle of Calander ask Colonell Mill, if any of his Dragoons were come up, his answer was, none, by reason they were all dispersed in the evening before, by this time Sir Marmaducks Troopes were marching off the hill, and Calander with his own three Troopes, and three of the Earle of Errolls, which were all verie weak reti­red to the top of the hill, where hee was told that orders were sent to the Foot to make their own conditions, But let me here tell you, that I beleeve, if that had been propounded to Calander Hee would have been as refractary from it, as he was after­wards upon the like occasion concerning the Horse, there he was likewise told that the Duke was marched after Sir Mar­maduck, and after some stay there, not hearing any thing [Page] hee marched after the Duke, supposing the intelligence to be true, Sir Marmaduck marching still on the Van, with his few Horse, and his Rear beeing pretty-well advanced before the Scots horse, some few of the Enemies Foot lying at a passe Sal­lyed out upon certain Stragglers of the Scots, but were presently beat back by the Lord Levingstoun; and Major Drummond, down to their Barricade, having lost some, and others hurt; there Calander made some Troupers light from their horses, and force their passage, thinking that to be the way, which was not, and therefore we took to the left hand, and followed Sir Marma­ducks Troupes that were marched on with the Duke, about four miles further at a halt, Middleton came up alone, and after some conference returned, (with great discontent) to his Troupes showing that the Foot was yeelded up at Warrington, we were that night to quarter at White-Church, and upon the march I heard an Officer of qualitie, propound to the Earle of Calander, the necessity of thinking upon a Treaty, in regard of the Soul­diours long and wearisome marches, they beeing in great disor­der and their horses tired, which if he and Middleton would con­descend unto, they put no question but the Duke would like­wise, but he absolutely refused to hear of it, saying, they were yet a considerable body of Horse with which they might shortly recover an Army of Foot, and that they were within a day and a halfs marching, of a place where they might be in safety to re­fresh themselves and their Horses, but upon the march we were so hindred with frequent, though false alarmes and halts, (no Enemy beeing near us, but Garisons) that we came short of White-Church, 2 or 3 miles, and quartered in the fields that night near Malpas, in Chesshire, where Sir Marmaduck, Calan­der, and Middleton, attended the Duke, resolving from thence to march to Vtoxater and to so Ashburn, in the Peak, that night diverse Officers left their Troupes, and rendred themselves pri­soners to the Enemy, which did much dishearten the Souldiours, diverse Officers likewise of the Foot, who would not accept of [Page] the conditions which Leivetenant Generall Baylie made at Warrington, came up to the Cavalrie, the next day we marched about a mile beyond Drayton, and quartered in the fields, upon the 12 of August we marched toward Vtoxater, and comming near Stone a troup of the enemies which lay there, drew out up­on the hill on our left hand, we saw also more troupes from Staf­foord upon our right hand, there at a halt, what paines Calander and Middleton did take to get the disorderly troupes, (whose dis­content and disobedience upon their Officers abandoning of them, had forgot all respect unto command) into order, and bring them under their standards, can neither be expressed by me, nor imagined by those who have never seen the like mutiny, yet at length they brought them to it. But by the way between the bridge and Stone, I saw Calander and Middleton come to the Duke, who shew them a letter he had receaved from the Com­mittee of Shropshire, brought by two Committee men, the tenor of it was to give quarters to the Duke, and his people upon lay­ing down of their armes, whereat they both did much wonder, that a Committee would offer any such thing to an Army, they having no other Forces but their Garisons, (but there was a whis­pering amongst the troupers, that a trumpet had been sent to the Enemy) Sir Marmaducks troupes having the Van marched tho­row the Town, Calander with his next, and Middleton in the rear placing a guard on this side of Stone, till all were past, the Com­missioners were appointed by the Duke, to stay and dine in the Town, upon a halt on the other side, I saw the Duke, Calander, Sir Marmaduck, & Middleton, speaking together where there came a Trumpet to them, from Staffoord, who belonged to some of those who had rendred themselves prisoners the night before, here a Trouper upon some question shot Captain Gray, and was pistold by publick order for it. So on we marched for Utoxater, Sir Marmaduck in the Van of all, the Duke in the Van of the Scottish horse, Calander in the middle, and Middleton in the rear having marched about two miles in narrow lanes, (it began to [Page] rain hugely) the Staffoord troupes beeing upon our rear, Middle­ton gave order to charge them, but some troupers repining said it was nothing to bid charge, whereunto he replyed that it was not his custome to be sparing of himself upon any occasian that was needfull, and therewithall bid them follow him, and charged like a gallant man, and wise commander, thereby to animate his dis­couraged horsemen, and show them a good example, in such an extreamity, but beeing upon the side of a hill, and the ground ex­ceeding slipperie thorow the great raines, his horse fell and he was taken prisoner, and the night drawing on, the enemy retired being prest by Colonell Lockhart, who was in the rear with him, the rest of the horse were drawn up upon a moore, where there came two Countrey Gentlemen to the Duke, but from whence or what they brought, I could not learn. Upon the notice of Middletons beeing taken, Calander faced about and marched to the rear, where speaking to the souldiours, he desired them now to do for the honour of their Nation, which then had so much suffered, and the recovery of so gallant a man, swear­ing to them never to leave them if they would but perform their part, and with that resolution went on to rescue Middle­ton untill he understood from Colonell Lockhart, that the Enemy was retired, Whereupon hee returned to the moore, where he halted untill the rear came up, before which time it was dark night, beeing then about 4 miles from Utoxater, unto which by reason of the darknes and foulnes of the way, it was very late before the troupes did come, quartering most upon the fields and streets, next morning betimes Calander, and Sir Matmaduck, attended the Generall, who was a bed (because of a pain in his leggs,) there he having heard before that Calander was marched away, with the most part of the horse told it him, but Calander answered that he had not used to give any orders where his Grace was, but such as he receaved from him, there it was debated what was next to be done, But then Sir Marmaduck shew the necessity of his [Page] marching when it was propounded to Capitulate, and that hee could expect no quarter, Calander also declared plain­ly that upon no tearms hee would consent to a Capitulation, but such Troupes or Troupers as would march with him he would undergo the same hazard with Sir Marmaduck, and they might follow him, which the Duke hearing, said that he would not stay behind, and therewith Sir Marmaduck and Calander went to horse, and gave order to the Troupes to draw out to a hill, about half a mile on the other side of the Town beyond the River, yet it was long before any considerable number came to the place, and Sir Marmaduck sending to Calander, to know if he was ready, my Lord desired him to have a little patience, but he sent him back word that the day was well advanced, and hee was to have a long march he could not, and so marched away, which Calander seeing spoke to the Officers and Souldiours, willing them to repair to their standards in order, but none al­most or very few did, though he assured them that he would die with his armes in his hand, after such misfortune, rather then Capitulate, yet what ever he said, was little regarded, and be­cause the Duke was absent no man obeyed, at last he told them, that such as had a minde to show themselves men, for the credit of their Countrey, might march along with him, and those that were ill mounted and had a minde to treat, might stay with the Duke, but few offered to stirre, so that he rode after Sir Marmaduck alone, to show him how things stood, and take leave of him, comming back he found some Officers sent from the Duke, to desire his return for consultation, and the Duke gave order that a partie should be sent back to Utoxater, whi­ther the Army might return, and there deliberate of what should be done, to that effect the Lord Levinstoun was sent, and Calan­der visited all the avenues and barricaded them, posing guards every where, then orders beeing given, for all Officers to repair to the Duke, Hee then desired Calander to go and advise with them what was most expedient, thereupon Calander asked him [Page] whither to march, or to fight, he was ready to obey, but if it were to Capitulate he absolutely disclamed it, and so went to his quarter, where he instantly gave order to the dismounted men, and Stragglers of the Foot, to go to the Church-yard, and that all Officers that were quartered in the Town, should bring thither such armes as could be found there, for arming of them These Officers who were assembled by the Dukes order having deliver­ed there opinions, when Calander came back, the Duke told him they had found it fit to send a trumpet to the Enemy, but Calan­der replyed that he disassented from such a base way, and there­fore would give no advice, nor adhere to their Treaty, neither be included into it, but rather die like a man of honour, fighting if he could finde but ten men, to share in his fortune with him, the Duke notwithstanding sent out a Trumpet, and in a short while after, some Troupers drew up on the markat-place before his lodging (which certainly was not done without the knowledge of some chief Officers,) for when Calander went out to speak to them, they were not so well instructed as afterwards, till putting them in minde of the Oath he made unto them the night before never to leave them, if they would play the part of gallant men, but that he would upon no condition Capitulate, choosing ra­ther to run the uttermost hazard of his life with honour, then condescend to so base a way of Treaty, if otherwayes he could not escape the hands of his Enemies, at length they seemed to be a little satisfied, so he returned to the Dukes lodging, and Colonell Lockhart was sent down to dismisse them, but toward the evening, their number increased and seasing upon Calanders Horse and armes, they would not suffer him to go out of the Dukes lodging, but keept him there prisoner, nor were any of his servants permitted to come near him, but before that uproar began, assoon as it was concluded by the Duke, and the other Officers to send and Capitulate, the trumpet beeing gone, Major Gib and another were sent as Ostages. In the evening the trum­pet came back, and one of the Enemies with him, who found us [Page] in this posture of munity, and that encreasing hourly, (it was then clear moon-shine) when they rose to such a height that they releived the guards, which the Leivetenaut General had posed, sent up 2 or 3 of their number to the Dukes chamber, with their armes in their hands, as Commissioners from the rest, which he seeing, declared to them that he had no minde to leave them, and spoke unto the whole body upon the market place, out at a win­dow, the Enemies trumpet who was in the next room heard all, Calander incensed with that scurvy dealling, told that such base way of detaining him prisoner was not the meanes to get good quarters, beside the dishonour of it, Whereupon some words past betwixt the Duke and him, upon his averring of the same, as they sate down to Supper, he still telling him he would not ad­here to any Treaty but die sooner, if he could not otherwise escape, and that they would repent and quite their posts if the Enemy did once approach. at last after diverse false alarmes that night, toward the morning they had one for certain of the Ene­mies advance, which made these mutiniers abandon the market­place, returning some of the Earle of Calanders horses, and armes unto his quarter, at which time the Duke beeing in his na­ked bed, Calander took horse with some few Officers, and visited all the posts; where there was yet no sight of the Enemy, after having told the Duke, that he would upon no condition Capitu­late, and that so often before, but particularlie when the Lord Kenmoore parted when it was also time for him to be gone, as any judicious man may think, seeing the duke had Capitulate, and sent out Ostages, and so with his Nephew the Lord Leving­fton, & some others he went away leaving the Duke to his Trea­ty, but as he came about a quarter of a mile from the Town, he was told by certain Officers, and some Country people, that or­der was given from some Officers at Utoxater to barricade the end of the lane, whereby neither Officer nor Souldiour might escape that way, and drawing up those Troupers that came with him, he again told them as before he had done, that all such as [Page] were ill mounted or had a minde to Capitulate, might return to the Duke, and though he had no guide yet notwithstanding holding fast to his first resolution he would take his hazard, and then riding on with the number of sixscore horse or there­about, Himself took the charge of one third part, giving an­other to the Lord Levingstoun, and the third to be com­manded by Colonell Keyth, brother to the Earle Marshall, past through Asburn, intending to follow Sir Marmaduck Langdall; but there he was informed of his disbanding of his people, and marching on further, came amongst hills, where the Countrey people rose in armes upon him, and there by reason many horses lost their shooes with so long marching, diverse were taken prisoners, Colonell Keyth with the first, by some of the troupes of Darby, but marching on still to­ward Chesterfield, about the evening beeing within a mile and a half of the Town, intending to have past through it, and there halting to know whether there were any of the Enemy quartered, night fell on, and the Countrey all about, firing to give notice of us, we were informed that some troupes were come there, and before we could get on horse-back, a partie of foot fell upon us, which we repulsed killing some, and so marcht away, (it beeing very dark) to the right hand toward Bolsover, the Lord Levingstoun having the Rear, with Major Drummond and other Officers before we came near Bolsover lost their way, we then halting upon a heath, and missing them, beeing very few in number, our horses ex­treamly wearied, the Earle of Calander marched back a mile, to see if he could learn any thing of them, whom not find­ing, (and it beeing very rainie weather) hee intended not­withstanding (if he could) to march to Pomfret. But being misled by the guide he then had, those few Officers which were remaining, assoon as it was day, (the Countrey beeing full of the enemies Troupes;) thought it fittest every man to shift for himself, and so we parted, recommending one ano­ther [Page] to the protection of God, and I took my own way, not doubting but that same providence which had brought mee so far in an Unfortunate journey, would yet bring me out of dan­ger, bnt what befell me in my taking afterwards, and my prison, (from which I am now by the grace of God got free) before I found Scots ground to go upon, Shall bee the Subject of your next entertaynment.

And now, to conclude all our misfortunes, and end this tedious discourse, I shall briefly tell you, that after all the difficulties, op­positions, and delayes, in the levying of the Army in Scotland, our slow march at our entry into England, wanting provision, and waiting for the cannon and ammunition, the not joyning of the Forces from Ireland, and the Dukes falling short of Preston, (gi­ving the enemy a fair opportunity to fall in betwixt the horse and the foot) then the leaving of the ammunition, was the losse of the foot, the tampering to Capitulate discouraged the horsemen, and the Dukes design to treat, after so many great oversights, toge­ther with the mutiny at Utoxater, lost the horse shamefully, when they might have been saved to recover a new Army of foot again; And thus craving you pardon for my prolixity, and de­taining you so long in a discourse which could not be contracted in fewer words, when the full and plain Truth was to bee told, I here take my leave, what rests concerning my self, and our other Friends, you shall hear at another occasion from,

Your Servant.

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