A REFUTATION OF Three Opposers of Truth, By plain Evidence of the holy Scripture, VIZ.

I. Of Pardon Tillinghast, who pleadeth for Water-Baptism, its being a Gospel-Precept, and opposeth Christ within, as a false Christ. To which is added, something concerning the Supper, &c.

II. Of B. Keech, in his Book called, A Tutor for Children, where he disputeth against the Sufficiency of the Light within, in order to Salvation; and calleth Christ in the heart, A false Christ in the secret Chamber.

III. Of Cotton Mather, who in his Appendix to his Book, called, Memorable Providences, relating to Witchcrafts, &c. doth so weakly defend his Father Increase Mather from being justly charge­able with abusing the honest People called Quakers, that he doth the more lay open his Fathers Nakedness; and beside the Abuses and Injuries that his Father had cast upon that People, C. Mather, the Son, addeth new Abuses of his own.

And a few Words of a Letter to Iohn Cotton, called a Minister, at Plymouth in New-England.


Zephaniah 3.4.

Her Prophets are Light and Treacherous Persons, her Priests have polluted the Sanctuary, they have done Violence to the Law.

Philadelphia, Printed and Sold by William Bradford, Anno 1690.

Water-Baptism No Gospel-Precept &c.

Pardon Tillinghast,

AFter I had read thy small Treatise in print, where­in thou undertakest to prove Water-Baptism to be a Gospel Precept, by plain Scripture; I was sorry on thy account, to find thee with such confidence, to publish thy Ignorance and Folly, as well as thy great bitterness of Spirit and Prejudice against the Truth, and the Witnesses of it, so openly in the face of the World. But when I call to mind how that God in his infinite Wis­dom permits men to rise up to oppose the Truth, that the Truth it self may be the more clearly discovered, by the breakings forth of Gods Light still more and more; the more that the Truth is opposed, I am truly comforted and encouraged. And for thy Reviling and Reproachful words against me, I regard them not, further, than to pity thee, and heartily to desire, that God may open thy Eyes, and give thee true Repentance & Forgiveness; for I have that Charity, that what thou dost in this thy work of opposition, it is through thy ignorance and therefore upon thy Repentance is pardonable. But as for me and my Brethren, it is a small thing for us to be reproached and falsly accused by thee, seeing thou art so ignorantly bold and fool-hardy to reproach the Lord Iesus Christ in his inward appearance, and Light, in the hearts of men, calling him a false Christ, as if these who preach Christ in the hearts of Gods Saints, were those of whom Christ fore­told, that should come in the latter days and preach a false [Page 2] Christ, saying, he is in the secret Chamber, which thou understandest as if Christ had meant, the secret Chamber of the heart, following herein thy Brother in Iniquity & Darkness, Benjamin Keech, who in his Book called, The Childs Instructor, hath these express words in that Section concerning the Light within) Therefore believe not him that saith, behold he is here in the secret Chamber, viz. the heart. The which expression thou seemest to have borrowed from the said Book: But if thou hadst any true knowledg in the Mystery of Christ, thou wouldst sooner have chosen, that thy right hand, that pen'd these words, had been cut off, than to have used them. But by this, and other the like expressions in thy Treatise, thou plain­ly discovers thy self to be a man altogether ignorant of the true knowledge of Christ; yea, thou seemest ignorant of the very Letter of the Scripture, which in plain and express words doth mention Christ dwelling in the heart, and Christ within the hope of Glory, the Mystery hid from Ages and Ge­nerations; And said Paul to the Corinthians, Know ye not that Iesus Christ is in you, unless ye be Reprobates? And said Christ in his Prayer unto his Father, Thou in me and I in them: And when he told the Pharisees, who looked that the Kingdom of God should come with Observations, as to say, lo here, or lo there, he said, for behold the King­dom of God is within you, Luke 17.21. and surely, where the Kingdom of God is, there are God and Christ [...] So that the plain letter of the Scripture is against thy most absurd and Anti-christian Doctrine, That the Christ in the hearts of men, yea, even of the Saints, as thou wouldst have it (for thou makest no distinction) is a false Christ; for the plain tendency of this thy Work of Darkness is to make People believe, that Christ is not a Light within the Saints, because, as thou alledgest, the Light within was not [Page 3] crucified for us, but Iesus Christ of Nazareth. And in this absurd distinction and dividing of Christ, thou acts the part of Socinus and his followers, who are called Socinians, that affirm most absurdly, That Christ is only a meer man, and that he had no being nor existance before Mary. But if thou say, thou believest that Christ is both God and Man, and that he was from the beginning, to wit, that Word by whom all things were made, then, why dost thou deny that Christ, as he is that Word, is in the Saints? for though Christ only suffered in the flesh, and as Man upon the Tree of the Cross, yet he who suffered, was not meer Man, but God and Man, and yet still one Christ. And thus also Christ within spiritually and inwardly revealed in the Saints, is not another Christ from him that came in the flesh, and was crucified for us, even Jesus of Nazareth. And hadst thou taken a little pains to read my book and consider it impartially and fairly, thou shouldst have seen what a plain and single account I give of mine and my Friends Faith concerning the Man Christ Iesus, as he came in the flesh, and dyed for our sins, and rose again and ascended, &c. even Jesus of Nazareth; and that true faith in Christ Jesus is not only a believing in him, as he is the Word, &c. but as the same Word did take flesh and was God manifest in the flesh, &c. to wit, Christ crucified and risen again, made of a Woman, made under the Law, &c. and that the true faith of a Christian doth not divide Christ, &c. as false Christians do, who say, they believe in Christ without them, but do not believe and receive Christ within them, as God the Father doth inwardly reveal him, or as Ranters and other high Notionists, who pretend to believe in Christ, as the Word and Light in them, but slight and blaspheme [Page 4] against Christ that was crucified without them, as is plainly to be seen in my late book, pag. 131, 132, 133, and pag. 103, 104, 108. and p. 229. and hereby it doth plainly appear how safely I guard against both extreams of false Teachers, some preaching Christ without, but denying him within, as thou Pardon Tillinghast, and most of thy Brethren called Baptists, most Anti-christianly have done, and yet continue to do (Oh Pardon! Pardon! God Almighty give thee pardon, through unfeigned Repent­ance, for this thy great sin) others, not these sober People called in scorn Quakers, but Ranters, and high Notionists, who pretend to own Christ within them, but deny him without, as come in the Flesh, &c. And though thou call'st thy self in thy title page A Servant of Iesus Christ, yet thou hast plainly discovered, that thou yet art ignorant of him, and in this thy Work thou hast rather proved thy self a servant of Anti-christ; for what greater opposition can Anti-christ make against Christ, than to oppose the presence and in-being of Christ in his People, who is their Life? And if he who is their Life be not in them, they cannot live, yea, if Christ live not in thee, thou art dead in thy tre [...]passes and sins, and the old man is alive in thee, and his servant thou art, and Christ is not like to live in thee, as he did in Paul, and as he doth in all true Christians, so long as thou judgest, That the Christ in the heart is a false Christ. Oh, Pardon Tillinghast! thou hast made too great haste in this thy undertaking, as in many other thy works, wherein possibly thou mayst imagine thou art tilling and plowing in Gods field; but remember, that the Scripture saith, The plowing of the Wicked is sin; and when thou makest haste to till, with­out the true knowledge of God and Christ, thou hadst [Page 5] better let alone, and imploy thy self in some other lawful occupation. Hast thou no other way to defend thy Idol of Water-baptism, but to smite against the Lord Jesus Christ, in his inward appearance in his Saints? But know, O vain and foolish man! that as that idol Dagon did fall before Gods Ark, so thy idol of Water-baptism shall fall before the Lord Jesus Christ, inwardly appearing in thousands and ten thousands of his Saints; and let none be offended that I call thy Water-baptism an [...]dol; for whatever man sets up in opposition to the inward ap­pearance of Christ in his People, they make it unto them­selves an Idol, and it will fall, and they together with it. But as for Iohn's Baptism with Water, or that baptism with water that others of the Disciples of Christ used, I call it not an Idol, far be it from me, it had its blessing and service in its day, and pointed, as a figure, to Christs inward and spiritual Baptism; and if there be an inward baptism of Christ, then is not Christ the inward baptiser, and minister of this inward baptism? yea, certainly; and yet thou denyest Christ within, calling him, A false Christ in the secret Chamber of the heart.

And as for thy undertaking to prove thy Water Baptism to be a Gospel Precept by plain Scripture, I question not, but through Gods assistance, I shall prove, that thou hast grosly perverted & mis-applied the scriptures, not understan­ding the scriptures nor the power of God, like unto the Sad­duces of old. Thou comparest thy self to David with his sling, & his few stones smiting at Goliah. But, alas, poor man! that sling and these stones, and that River or brook, out of which he did take these stones, according to the deep Mystery, signified under that figure or allegory, thou understandst not, it is a dark Riddle and Parable unto [Page 6] thee, and thou thy self art more a kin to Goliah than to David.

In the beginning of thy work, thou dost not fairly state the Question; first, that thou takest no notice of my plain and express words in my book, pag. 184. where I say expresly as followeth, If any were raised up by the Lord as John was, and could prove and instruct their being sent to baptize with Water, as he was, these to whom they should be sent, ought gladly to receive it; but to do it by bare imitation, or a meer pretended Call, which they cannot prove to be either mediate or immediate, is great Presumption, yea, Superstition. This one short section is enough to overthrow thy whole Work, and yet thou hast made no Reply to it, nor given the least notice of it in thy book; and all that thou hast said for Water-baptism doth not in the least give any ground for thy Water-Baptism thou and thy brethren set up in your vain Imaginations, without any call, either immediate or mediate from God; so that your work in your Water-baptism is a Will-worship. Secondly, Thou dost not fairly cite my words, in thy stating the Question, saying, That I affirmed, that the Apostles practiced it viz. Water-baptism, Only by permission, &c. The word [Only] is thy addition and is not in my book: but my words are these following, The Apostles generally thought fit both to use and tolerate the use of Water-baptism, that belonged to John, and divers other things of the Law, which was by permission for a time, and not by any Gospel standing Commission, &c. Now the word [Only] being added, doth derogate from my words, as if I did understand that the Apostles only bap­tized by a bare dry or naked permission; whereas I did understand, and so I do still, that it was not a meer or bare permission, but they they thought fit both to use it, [Page 7] and tolerate the use of it; and that which made them think and judge it fit to use it for sometime, was really the Spirit of God in them, that gave them, not only a spi­ritual and chearful freedom to use it for some time, but let them see a great service and conveniency in it for somtime, until men began to contend about it, and lay more weight on it, and other things of the like nature, than they ought to have done; for as in the change of an outward form of Government, or a new administration of worldly and civil Laws, the former Laws and the ex­ecution of them, cannot in an instant be removed, but gradually, otherwise great inconveniences would follow; as when a house is to be supported with new Pillars, the o [...]d Pillars must not be first removed, else the House would be in danger of falling; but the new Pillars must first, in great part, be well placed and fixed, and then the old are by degrees safely and wisely removed: Even so Iohn's Baptism and other things of like nature, were not presently and suddainly to be removed, because many, both Iews and proselited Gentiles laid great stress and weight on them; And therefore, I say, the Apostles, not by a meer bare and naked permission, but in the wis­dom and counsel of God used Water-baptism for a time; and yet all this will not prove that it is a Gospel Precept, or a standing Gospel Ordinance that was to continue in the Church to the end of the World

Nor art thou more successful in managing this Contro­versy about Water Baptism, than in stating it; for almost throughout thou fight'st against thy own shadow, and takest much pains▪ and usest many Arguments to prove many things no wise denyed by me; as first, That the out­ward Form and inward Power of Godliness may not be sepera­ted: [Page 8] This we affirm as well as thou, and much better than thou; for seeing thou denyest Christ within the heart to be the true Christ, how canst thou really own the inward power of Godliness? Can there be any inward power of Godliness, without Christ living, dwelling and ruling in the heart? Again, many of you Baptists affirm, That men may be called of God both to preach and baptize, and yet have no true Piety or Holyness: Which a Baptist Teacher affirmed to me in the hearing of divers witnesses last summer, in the shop of one of our Friends at Newport in Rhode-Island; and whether this be not thy own perswa­sion, thou art concerned to clear thy self. But further, how many Hypocrites and vain persons do ye baptize with Water, that no real signs do in the least appear in them, that the inward power of godliness was joyned with their being baptized with Water: Now the thing that thou shouldst have proved, was, that your Water baptism, taken up by you, without any true command, or so much as a true inward liberty by the spirit of God in your hearts, is a Gospel-Precept. But this the Apostles wit­nessed, when Peter baptized, or caused to be baptized, Cornelius, and others with him, no doubt, he both saw and felt his liberty, and good allowance, by the revela­tion of Gods holy spirit in his heart, so to do; and there­fore he might well command it at that time to be done▪ & yet it doth not follow that it is a Gospel-Precept. I say further, the outward form of Godliness is intire without Water baptism, as at this day administred, though when it was practised by the command of God, it was a part of the outvvard form. And vvhereas thou sayst, Iohns preaching and baptizing related to Christs Gospel disenspation, citing for this, Mark 1. cap. 1, 2, 3. v. [...] Ansvver; All [Page 9] this may be granted in a true sence, yea, I do readily grant it in the true sence, & so did all the Figures & Types of Moses Law, all which obscurely and darkly pointed at Christ, & the pure Gospel dispensation, & were, as it were, a symbolical way of preaching Christ & his Gospel; and therefore it was a good and worthy observation that many antient Christians have made, That the Gospel and New Testament lay hid within the vail of the Law and old Testa­ment; All these Figures and Shadows of the Law, sha­dowing and figuring Gospel Mysteries unto those whose Eyes are spiritually enlightned to see and understand them. And whereas thou citest Mark's words in the beginning of his book, saying, The beginning of the Gospel of Iesus Christ the Son of God. If I grant thee that both Iohn's preaching and baptism, in a true sence, is a begin­ning of the Gospel, what gainest thou by it? doth it therefore follow that Water-baptism is a pure Gospel Pre­cept, and to be observed to the end of the world? I de­ny the consequence: And the vanity and falshood of it I shall, by Gods assistance, plainly demonstrate But first, I shall lay down a few plain Positions, which I hope scarce any professing themselves Christians, that are in any degree intelligent, can deny. 1st, The Gospel did begin to be preached by the Lord to our first Parents im­mediately after the Fall, when he gave the Promise, That the Seed of the Woman should bruise the head of the Serpent: And this was before any Law of Types of Figures was given, and before Water baptism. 2dly, This Gospel Promise was in a solmn way renewed by the Lord to Abraham, That in his Seed all Nations of the Earth should be blessed; and this was 430 years, as Paul noticeth, before the Law of Moses: And the same Paul saint, That the [Page 10] Gospel was preacht to Abraham; which is the everlasting Gospel, & is one & the same in all Ages of the world, & therefore, to spake strictly, did not take its beginning neither at the be­ginning of the book of Mark (that beginneth with a Voice crying in the Wilderness, Prepare the way of the Lord, that as it related to Iohn's Ministration in part, so it hath a further reach, as pointing to an inward Ministration) nor yet of Luke, who goeth further backward, to wit, to Zacharias his burning Incence in the Temple; and Mat­thew goeth yet farther backward, to Abraham, Isaac and Iacob; and Iohn furthest of all, to the Word that was in the beginning, which Word is Christ, by whom all things were made, and are upheld. 3dly, This one everlasting Gospel hath had it various and divers breakings forth and administrations in clearer discoveries and dispensations from age to age, until the fullness of time, & before that ful­ness of time, until Christ had suffered for the sins of the World, rose again, ascended and gave the holy Ghost to all true believers, the Gospel dispensation remained among all the faithful in all Ages, but as vai [...]ed, or as the Kirnel within the Shell of the Figures and Types of the Law. 4thly, The Law was never given alone by the Lord, nor was ever intended by him, that any should have eternal Life by the bare observation of the Figures and Shadows of the Law, but by faith in Christ, and true Gospel Obedience to him; but it was as a School­master to lead unto Christ, as Paul hath declared. 5tly, These several more clear discoveries and dispensations of the Gospel, may be branched forth, or distinguished in­to several degrees, and these several degrees may be re­duced into three, each of which dispensations had their peculiar and proper divine inward Illuminations and in­fluences [Page 11] of Grace and Truth, to wit, First, That disco­very that God gave to men by Moses, and the written Law and the Prophets, until Iohn. Secondly, From Iohn until Christ dyed and rose again, & gave the holy Ghost. Thirdly, That last and most glorious discovery and reve­lation by the giving of the holy Ghost generally to all true believers in a peculiar influence and operation, be­yond what ever formerly was given in a general way to believers. Again, these three may be reduced into two, viz. Law and Gospel, called by Paul the Two Covenants, which (until the last greatest and most excellent disco­very of the Gospel) have been administred, as with an excellent mixture, as when Water and Wine are mixed together, though the liquors be only two in kind, yet they admit of many various Mixtures▪ all which are service­able, according to the desire, and ability of the drinkers. And therefore whereas thou sayst, Nor is there any third Dispensation, that is neither Law nor Gospel of John's, as is imagined. In this, as in many other things, thou fightst against thy own shadow; for though in my late book I writ of three Dispensations, and prove them sufficiently out of the Scriptures, yet I never imagined that there was any one of these three Dispensations that vvas nei­ther Lavv nor Gospel: but I thus distinguish them, The first is both legal and evangelical, but the Evangelical doth but obscurely and hiddenly appear, and therefore the first may be called more Legal, and in that respect is called by Paul, and others, The Law, by a synecdoche, the deno­mination being taken from the larger part; and this Dis­pensation continued until Iohn, according to Christs own Words, The Law and the Prophets were unto John. The Second Dispensation of the same Gospel may vvell enough [Page 12] be understood to begin at Iohn, according to Acts 1.22. beginning from the Baptism of Iohn, unto that same day that he vvas taken up from us; see also Acts 10.37, 38. and to continue until the plentiful pouring forth of the holy Ghost, both at and after the day of Pentecost; and this second Dispensation comprehendeth all the time of Christ his being on Earth in the flesh, vvhich, though a more clear and glorious Dispensation of the Gospel yet vvas in some degree vailed vvith the figures of the Lavv, for not only Iohn's Baptism, but the vvhole Lavv of Moses vvas in force until Christ suffered on the Cross, and be­came a Sacrifice of a svveet smell unto God, and a Propi­tiation for the sins of the vvhole World, and thereby put an end to all these Sacrifices of Rams, Lambs and Bullocks, &c. for Christ himself being made of a Woman, vvas made under the Lavv, and fulfilled it, both in his being circumcised and baptised; and he preached the Law and Gospel, and sent one vvhom he had cured of his Leprosie, to the Priest, according to the Lavv, and told the Iews, That their paying Tythes, which wholly belong­ed to the Law, was a thing to be done, but that withal, the greater things of the Law, as Mercy and Iudgment were not to be neglected: And Christ told that it is written in the Law, They shall be all taught of God; which is a Gospel Promise: So that the Gospel and Law were united and joyned together in both these former Dispensations; and the Gospel was in the Law, as some precious Treasure hid within some vail. The Third and last Dispensation began from the giving of the holy Ghost at Pentecost most apparently, and was to encrease until it should come to its Meridian or Noon-tide Glory, as so it may be said, it did really so come in the days of the Apostles, before [Page 13] their decease; And this third Dispensation of the Gospel is that which ought to be called, The pure and perfect Gospel Dispensation, purely and perfectly unvailed and uncover­ed, declaring and revealing that great Mystery of Christ, and of eternal Salvation by faith in him, both as he came and suffered outwardly in the flesh, and dyed for us, and rose again, and ascended, and is now in Heaven, at the right hand of Majesty, making intercession for us, and also as he doth come inwardly to live, dwell and rule in our hearts; for both his outward and inward coming are a most choice and excellent Doctrine of the Gospel of our Salvation, but the one without the other is lame and de­fective; for as it is most glad Tidings (which the word Gospel or Evangel signifieth) that Christ hath dyed for us, & purchased to us the forgiveness of all our sins, (through Faith in his Name) so likewise, that the Father hath given him to us in our hearts, to kill and destroy the very life of sin in us, and perfectly to sanctifie and renew us into the Image of God; and no Vails, nor Figures, nor Types of things to come belong to this third Dispensation of the Gospel, but the Truth of the Gospel is held forth, purely and perfectly in its own native lustre, beauty and glory, without any figure or shadow of the Law, such as Circumcision and Iohn's Baptism was. These Positions thus being laid down and well understood (the substance of which are sufficiently laid down in my late book, tho' not so largely, or in so many express words,) may serve sufficiently to answer to every one of thy Objections against us, without a particular application to every par­ticular of thy Treatise.

And thus it plainly doth appear, how it may be grant­ed that Iohn's Ministry and Baptism was the beginning [Page 14] of that second Dispensation of the Gospel, that as yet had its Vails and Figures in some degree remaining, & vailing that more abundant glory that was to follow: But it doth not follow, that Iohn's Baptism or Water baptism of any that did baptize, did really belong to the third Dispensation of the Gospel, as any part thereof; and this third Dispen­sation is (being the Gospel perfected and consummated, as it cometh to its Meridian or Noon-tide Glory and Brightness) that which is most commonly and frequent­ly called the Gospel in the New Testament, being cleared and discharged from all these Vails and Figures of the Law; even as when Christ arose, he laid aside his grave Clothes, and did not after his Resurrection re-assume his Garments, which he did use as a cloathing before he suf­fered, but left them to remain with the Souldiers that put him to death; A figure of this very Mystery.

And thou art at great pains to prove, That John was sent to baptize with Water, and Christ's Disciples baptized with Water, and so did the Apostles after the giving of the holy Ghost; and a great many other things thou bringest, no wise contradicted by us the People called Quakers, and therefore thou might'st have spared thy needless pains. But the great thing for thee to prove, was, That John's Baptism, or Water Baptism is any part or precept of the Gospel Dispensation, and Administration, as it began to take place after the Death and Resurrection of Christ, and the giving of the holy Ghost; This thou hast not done in the least, and therefore thou hast done nothing to purpose. And whereas thou pleadest, That Christ sent John to baptize and preach; I answer; And so I say, as truly he sent Moses to give the Law and Circumcision; for the Spirit of Christ was in Moses, and in Aaron, and in the holy [Page 15] Priests under the Law, that circumcised and sacrificed; and Christ gave both the Law and Gospel, and was the Mediator under both, and the Minister of both; for without Christ, the Word, that was in the beginning, by whom all things were made, neither Law nor the Prophets could have been. But the thing thou shouldst have proved, That Christ, as the Mediator of the New-Covenant, in the pure and perfect Dispensation of the Gospel, in the last administration of it, ever commanded Water Baptism; or that Christ after he rose from the dead, commanded Water Baptism, which thou dost not do in the least. Thou seemest to lay great stress on these words, Acts 10.48. That Peter commanded them to be baptized who had received the holy Ghost, to wit, Cornelius and his company. But this I have answered already, and I say further, this doth not prove that Water Baptism is a Gospel Precept, but only that that second Dispensation being not yet vvholly abolished, Peter savv a service in it, in the Wisdom of God, revealed in him, and therefore he might vvell command it for that time, tho' no Gospel Precept.

But vvhereas thou sayst, That Peter and the Apostles did command in Christ Iesus, the Lords Name, Water Bap­tism, is a thing utterly false, the Scripture saith no such thing; but That Peter commanded them to be baptized in the Name of the Lord; so that the Name of the Lord is rela­tive to their being baptized, & not to the command, and their being baptized in the Name of the Lord doth plainly signifie, that their being baptized vvith Water vvas som outward sign, that they became the Lords, and were true believers in him. Next, vvhereas thou sayst, I af­firm that Water Baptism was at that time an abolished Cere­mony, [Page 16] is false, I said no such thing; It was beginning to be abolishing and decaying, and was decreasing, as John said in respect of his Baptism, I must decrease, but Christ must en­crease: But that it vvas then totally abolished, I say not; for it could not be safely abolished all at once, but by de­grees, and after some time, as I have above demonstrated. And novv that I call this third and last Dispensation, that began to take place after the Death and Resurrection of Christ, the pure and perfect Dispensation of the Gospel, I understand it not, as if the first and second Dispensations before and under Moses, or before and under Christ, as he vvas present in the flesh, had any mixture or impurity of sin or evil, nay, far be it from me; but I call it pure and perfect as having none of these Figures and Types of the Lavv mixed vvith it, as formerly. And though the Apostles, after the giving of the holy Ghost, did grovv up into the attainment of this most pure and perfect Go­spel state and Dispensation; yet many Christians vvho had a measure of sincere Faith in Christ, vvere short of it, and for the cause of such vvho vvere vveak, and but as Babes in Christ they savv it meet in the Wisdom of God to use it for some time. But after the days of the Apostles and their Successors, about three or four hundred years there-after, the true Gospel Spirit was generally lost (a Remnant excepted of hidden ones, who in some measure retained it) and the inward Power of Godliness departed from, and then Water Baptism, and many other things belonging to the outward form, became as a dead thing, and was more fit to be buried than to be used. And none ought to presume to raise it up again, unless it could be said, That the Power of God had raised it, or renewed it in the users or practisers of it, and that they could sin­cerely [Page 17] say and prove, that God had sent them, or given them Authority to use Water Baptism, and other the like things; but this I do not find that any called Baptists so much as pretend unto, and if they did pretend to it, their bare pretence, without some real and effectual prooff, were not to be believed. And that Peter caused Water-baptism to be administred to Cornelius, and other Gentiles, doth not prove it to be a Gospel Precept; for under the Law the Gentiles who became Proselites of the Covenant, so called, were generally baptized into Water, as well as Circumcised, long before Iohn's time, as the Iews Books plainly declare, and as may be gathered from Scripture, and as divers Christian Writers relate from the Iews, and particularly Thomas Godwin in his Book called Moses and Aaron, lib. 1. cap. 3. And seeing it was so commonly pra­ctised by the Iews, as well before Iohn's time as then, and thereafter, as both Iewish and Christian Writers affirm, and as the Epistle to the Hebrews doth plainly declare, Heb. 9.10. how that the Law had its divers Baptisms (so the Greek translated into English, Washings) and carnal Ordinances, until the time of Reformation; it doth more plainly evince, that Water Baptism was a legal thing, tho' both it & Circumcision, with all the other Types and Figures of the Law, pointed at Gospel Mysteries, and in so far may be said to relate or belong to the Gospel in its more obscure Administration; but that whole Dis­pensation both of Moses and the Prophets, is in Scripture stile, call'd, The Law, altho' Moses himself and all the Prophets saw beyond the Figures of the Law, and were truly endowed, in great part, with a Gospel spirit.

That, thou say'st, if Water Baptism had not been com­prehended in Paul's Commission, then he had done evil in bap­tizing [Page 18] so many. I Answ. It doth not follow, any more than that he did evil in circumcising Timothy; for things may be done upon occasions without a Command from God, and that not only by a bare or simple permission, but in a sweet heavenly freedom of Gods holy Spirit in­wardly revealed, which is the only chief and principal Rule of every true Christians freedom, as well as of their Obedience. How many good Christians joyn in Mar­riage, having no command so to do, but knowing and en­joying an inward Liberty by the Spirit of the Lord so to do, and therein receiving the blessing of the Lord; and many other the like cases might be mention'd.

Thou givest a very strange and exceeding strained Gloss upon Paul's words, That he was not sent to baptize, but to preach the Gospel, to wit, that Water Baptism was not so bound to Paul, or any other sent to preach the Gospel, that they with their own hands must needs perform that Work of Baptizing; and Paul and the other Apostles had such and such for their Ministers, as John, Timothy and others. But what then? what Paul commanded other Disciples to do, is all one as if he had done it himself, as thou ar­guest in another case, but not to thy purpose; and there­fore it cannot be reasonably judged, that if Paul had been sent to baptize, either by himself, or making use of others to assist him in that work, he would have said, He was not sent to baptize; for that would imply a plain Contradiction, to be sent, and not to be sent. But this thy strein'd gloss on Pauls words is grounded upon a meer sup­position of thine, That Paul was sent to baptize with Water, which thou hast not in the least proved, nor art ever like to do; Matth. 28. saith nothing of Water.

Thy similitude betwixt Solomons Temple and the Gospel-Church, [Page 19] as thou dost apply it, is exceeding vain & foolish, and proceedeth from great Ignorance, as if the Stones that were the Foundation of Solomon's Temple, cut out of the Mountains, and the Timber-work, did signifie, that the Foun­dation of God's Spiritual House should be Water-Baptism. But this is plain contrary to Scripture, that saith, The Church is built on the Foundation of the Prophets & Apostles, Iesus Christ himself being the chief Corner Stone; And thou that sets up Water-Baptism as the Foundation of the Go­spel Church, preachest another Foundation than Christ Jesus, and another Gospel. If Solomon's Temple had been built on the Waters, thou mightst have had some slender pretext or colour to use such a Comparison; but what Resemblance Stone and Timber hath to Water Baptism, I do not understand. And if Water-Baptism be the Foundation of the Church, then the Church hath had no Foundation for many Ages past; for Infant Bap­tism, by sprinkling, ye Baptists do not acknowledge to be any true Baptism at all, but a meer fiction or invention, and yet for many Ages there hath been no other Water-Baptism used, but that of sprinkling Infants; for that party or society of People called Baptists or Anabaptists did but appear about Luther's time, or since, and there­fore if Water Baptism be the Foundation of Gods Church, the Church hath had no Foundation for many Ages, and therefore hath quite ceased to be; for she cannot be or subsist without a Foundation.

And as concerning the Allegorical and Spiritual signi­fycation of Solomon's Temple, it is very well understood without your Water Baptism; for Solomon's Temple, as it was a figure of Christs Body, which was crucified and rose again, and ascended into Glory, so also it was a figure [Page 20] of the Gospel Church under the pure Gospel Dispensation, the Foundation whereof is Christ Jesus, as he came in the likeness of sinful flesh, and took upon himself the form of a Servant, and humbled himself unto Death, even the Death of the Cross, made of a Woman, made under the Law, the Seed of Abraham and David: I say, Christ thus come in the flesh, and crucified for our sins, as the My­stery of him is inwardly revealed by the holy Spirit in the hearts of all true believers, in respect of his thus hum­bling himself, and taking hold of the seed of Abraham, may well be compared to the Stone & Wood of Solomons Temple, which were but mean, and not very costly Materials, but the fullness of the Godhead, that dwelt in Christ Bodily, and his being anointed with the holy Spirit without measure, being the only begotton Son of God, full of Grace and Truth, of whose fullness all true believers do plentifully receive, and Grace for Grace, and the many most rich and excellent divine Virtues where­with both Christ and his Church are most richly endued, and adorned, are well signified by that great plenty of Gold and Silver, and other precious Furniture, where­with the Temple of Solomon was beautified. But it is much thou didst not make the Sea in Solomon's Temple to sig­nifie Water-Baptism; possibly some of thy Brethren may judge this a great omission or neglect in thee; but hadst thou brought it, it could have made nothing for thy Water Baptism; for that Sea in Solomon's Temple was not a figure of outward Water (which it self was but a figure) but of these spiritual Waters of the Sanctuary, mentioned by the Prophet Ezekiel, chap. 47.1, 7, 8, 9. and by Iohn, c. 4. v. 6. and Rev. 22.1.

But this most idle and ignorant gloss and comparison [Page 21] of thine, is like to that other passage in thy book, where thou sayst, Repenting Believers, baptized with Water (being a sign and token from God to them of the remission of sins) are the only true Heirs of the Promise of the holy ghost, &c. Which assertion thou dost falsly ground on Peter's words to the Iews, Repent and be baptized, every one of you (mind it (sayst thou) every one that expects Salvation) in the Name of Iesus Christ for the Remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the holy ghost. But whether Water Baptism is to be here understood, or not, thy arguing, that it must be Water Baptism, is most weak and idle, as if to render it only Spirit, is to charge the Spirit of God in Peter with gross Impertinencies and Tautologies, as if he should say, Repent and be baptized with the holy Spirit, and you shall receive the holy Spirit. To this I Answer; This is no Impertinency nor Tautology in the least, but very proper, as it is very proper to say, White Cloth being dip't into the Dyers Fat, that hath a red dye, receiveth the said red dye; even so, the Soul being dipt into that spiritual Wa­ter of Gods holy Spirit, receiveth it, as the Cloth recei­veth the dye: But this to thee is a Mystery and Parable, and therefore it is not strange thou talkest such gross im­pertinencies. And it is plain by these words of thine, thou makest Water Baptism equally necessary to Salvation with Faith and Repentance, and therefore all are eternally and finally Lost, who have not been baptized or plunged into Water. O Monster of uncharitableness! This most Uncharitable Doctrine damneth all to the Pit of Hell, for many Ages, that never received Water Baptism; this is like one of thy Brethren, who printed a book with this Title, Dip or Damn. It is no wonder to find you Baptists generally so bitter and peevish; for this your [Page 22] Uncharitable Doctrine of Condemning all to Hell, who are not baptized into Water, begetteth this evil nature in you, even as the narrow Doctrine of the Presbyterians as touch­ing the Grace of God, maketh them of the like evil nature; for evil Principles and Perswasions have a great influence upon mens Hearts and Lives. And now I find thee in this thy work against us, joyn'd with the Priests of New-England, and particularly these of Boston (tho' formerly some of thy Brethren suffered great persecution by the Priests of New-England) where it seems thou hast got thy book printed,—and so like Herod and Pontius Pilate joyning together against Christ, as he came in the flesh, so ye joyn together against him, as he is come, and coming more abundantly in Spirit; but this Stone, which ye builders of Babylon have refused, will God exalt, and is exalting, to be the head of the Corner.

Thou art as idle and impertinent to alledge, That by Water and Blood, mentioned 1 Iohn 5.6. This is he that came by Water and Blood, is to be meant Water Baptism, and that call'd the Supper, in giving and receiving Bread & Wine. But this being thy bare alledgance, without any shadow of proof, it is altogether denyed; and the Virtue of both the Water and Blood, together with the Spirit, are in­wardly and spiritually felt, which three agree in one, and are inseperable; but so are not your Water Baptism and Bread and Wine, which ye your selves confess are oft se­perated from the Spirit, as the many vain persons among you, and the many dry and barren Souls of your society, too palpably demonstrate; for who more gawdy and vain in their Attire and Cloathing, both men and women, than many call'd Baptists? as I have seen and observed, in part, to my great grief; Who greater Enemies to the [Page 23] Spirits inward Revelation, and to Christ's inward pre­sence and Appearance in Believers, than thou, and the Baptists generally (perhaps some few excepted?) And therefore the Spirit, and your Water Baptism, and break­ing of Bread, agree not in one, and are not in unity.

And whereas thou chargest it on me and my Friends, the People called in scorn Quakers, as if we did presume or boast of our being arrived to a state above or beyond the Apostles, after they had receiv'd the holy Ghost; for thou say'st, Here we may note the pride that this Boaster is filled with, counting even the Master Builders of God's House, but Children in comparison of them, &c. And again, thou sayst, The Generation of Quakers, it seems, are got into an higher degree of stature and fullness, thinking they are in an higher Dispensation, than they had attained, &c. All this is a most injurious and gross Perversion of my words, and of our Principle; I never said, writ or thought any such thing. But take notice on what false foundation he grounds this his Perversion, because I said in my last book, If they who are so zealous for Water Baptism, were cordially zealous for the inward and spiritual Baptism, they might be the more born with, as Men bear with Children, &c. and Charity might be allowed them in that case, to be as Children or Babes in Christ. I intreat the Readers to take notice, that I say nothing here of the Apostles, or any living in that Age, but of these now living in our Age, who are generally too zealous for the Water Baptism, but have little or no zeal, most of them, for the inward and spiri­tual, plainly denying inward Divine Revelation, as the priviledge given to the Saints in our Age, and calling Christ in the hearts of the Saints, a false Christ, as this Pardon Tillinghast hath done, and as many others do. And [Page 24] though the Apostles, after they received the holy Ghost, used Water Baptism, yet it was not for themselves, who saw beyond it, and were attained to that One Baptism, Not the putting away the filth of the Flesh, but the answer of a good Conscience, as Peter declared; but in the Apostles days, there were Babes in Christ and many scarce arrived at the true state of spiritual babes, whom the Apostles saw meet to baptize into Water; but yet that Water baptism was not the Milk where with they were fed, but rather as stilts or Crutches that these babes or lame Persons used for some time. And whereas thou further sayst, That we called Quakers are born Monsters, not Babes to be fed with Milk, as the Saints heretofore. Here thy scornful Spirit, full of bitterness and prejudice, doth plainly appear: How many thousand babes in Christ have been, before ever baptism with Water was in being, and since it re­ceived its burial? and whoever seek to raise it again, or restore it in their own self-will, and meer imaginations, from what they falsly infer or draw from the Letter of the Scripture, they but raise a dead thing, that is not the sincere Milk; for the Milk of Babes, is the sincere Milk of the Word, and that is not Water-baptism And where­as thou alledgest, That to pretend to the Power, and deny the Form of Godliness, is as Hypocritical as the other is Formal: This we agree unto; but it remaineth as yet to be pro­ved, that Water baptism is any part of the Form of God­liness, since the form and practice of it hath generally ceased, since the Apostles, for many Ages past, and but again is raised up by the meer will of Man, without any divine Call or Authority, so far as ever I could yet learn; for I never yet heard that any in this Age, or since the Apostacy began, did pretend to an inward divine Call for [Page 25] Water Baptism. But whether when the Gospel shall have it free course to be yet preached to all Nations, any shall be raised up to baptize with Water, by a divine Authority, belongs not to the present debate.

And thus I hope it will appear to the impartial Readers, that I have sufficiently answered to thy Objections and pretended Reasons, from plain Scripture, which thou hast but grosly wrested and perverted.

In the close of thy book thou sayst, I strike as well at the Lords Supper as at Water Baptism; alledging further, that I say, our common eating that we use, is the Lords Sup­per, whether two or three, more or less; but both these are thy false alledgings, and none of my words, nor justly can be gathered from my words. And first, as to the Lords Supper, I say, where Christ is not inwardly and spiritually seen, tasted and fed upon, by his inward Revelation in mens hearts, there is not the Lords Supper, altho' they gather together with ever so great a Solemnity, as out­wardly, to eat outward Bread and drink outward Wine in remembrance, as they pretend, of Christ. Secondly, There is neither Number of Persons, nor any set Times appointed by Christ, in relation to the outward eating and drinking, which ye call the Supper; and therefore as the Church of England use it once Quarterly, and some Baptists Monethly or perhaps some Weekly, why may not others, with as good reason, use it daily; and seeing the Number of Persons is no essential part, as ye must con­fess, then why may not two or three, as well as some hundreds, use it with equal Solemnity and religious De­votion, viz. eating and drinking together, both with a holy fear and chearfulness, remembring the Lords Death, [Page 26] even until his last coming, as well as until his more a­bundant inward spiritual Coming into their hearts.

And whereas I queried in my last book, Wherein we are behind you, or wherein we fall short of you, or what excel­lency, worth or value hath your Supper above and beyond ours? To this thou hast not answered one syllable, nor hast thou shewed any one particular instance wherein your eating and drinking excelleth ours, and therefore I return it again unto thee to be answered. And I thus further query, Is the difference about the bear Name, that ye call it The Supper of the Lord, and we have no freedom to call the bare outward eating and drinking, unless Christ be inwardly enjoyed, the Supper of the Lord, but where Christ is inwardly enjoyed and fed upon, together with the outward eating and drinking, as most frequently is wit­nessed, to God's praise, that we can freely call the Lords Supper? Or, 2dly, Is the difference, because ye have some Priest, or Pastor, or gifted Brother, to consecrate the Bread, and make it more holy than our Bread that we eat, even when we use Prayer and Thanks-giving before eating, either vocal or only mental, and frequently both? Or, 3dly, Is it because we do not use that formality of re­peating the words, Take, eat, this is my Body, which we find no where commanded to be used in the Saints eat­ing? Or, 4thly, Is it because the eating and drinking that was among the Saints, called by thee and others, the Supper, was never in ended for satisfying hunger, as thou hintest? And what if I should say the same, thou gainest nothing; for it is not the simple eating and drinking that I call a holy Remembrance of Christs Death, but the holy and religious way and manner of performing it; and yet thou canst not prove, that the Saints, when they did eat [Page 27] that commonly called the Supper, did not really eat and drink sufficiently to refresh & nourish the Natural Body, as well as together with that, their Souls were refreshed and nourished with spiritual food; for it is most clear, that in the Church of Corinth they did eat together to refresh the outward man, and this the Apostle did not reprove, but their disorderly manner of eating, so that some were hungery, and others were drunken, and some eat at home in private, and others did not, but tarried to eat together with their Brethren, and were at times disappointed: This plainly proveth they used to make a real Meal of their eating to­gether; but your manner of eating about the quantity of a Nut in Bread, and a spoonful, one or two in Wine, we find no where in all the New Testament; and that ye give the cup but once, and Christ gave it twice, as I have showed in my late book, this ye can give no account of, and thou hast not taken the least notice of it, although it is material to you, who pretend to observe every thing as Christ did. And why are ye not as zealous for wash­ing one anothers feet, and anointing the sick with Oyl? I am sure more expresly commanded by Christ, and Iames the Apostle, than your Water baptism? ye can give no just account. It seems, thou art zealous for laying on of hands, which thou reckons also as belonging to the foun­dation of the Gospel, falsly citing and perverting these words in Heb. 6.1, 2. for though that place mention the foundation of Faith and Repentance, and afterwards the Do­ctrine of Baptisms, and of laying on of hands, yet it saith not, that either Water baptism or laying on of hands is any part of the foundation; and the Doctrine of Baptisms and the laying on of hands is one thing, the use of Water baptism is quite another: The Doctrine of all the legal [Page 28] Rites, Figures and Types remaineth in the Church at this day, but the practice of them is abolished, and so of Water baptism.

Before the close of this my Answer, I shall further take notice of some other of thy gross impertinencies: First, Thou usest these idle words, by way of reproach, So that upon hearing Peter's Testimony, not of killing the Light within, as the Quakers preach, &c. Here thou makest it a matter of derision, to say, Christ, who is the Light, and the Life, may be killed or crucified by mens sins, whereby thou declarest thy great ignorance of the Letter of the Scripture, that said of some, that they crucified the Son of God afresh; and surely that was within them, and not without; and said Iames, Ye have killed the just, and he hath not resisted you; which cannot be understood, as if all these to whom he had writ, had been guilty of outward Murder. But understand how these call'd Quakers mean, that Christ is inwardly crucified or slain by mens great sins, to wit, not in himself, for his Life is an Immortal Principle, but unto them; so that by their sins they wholly deprive themselves of the enjoyment of it. 2dly, Thou sayst, While Peter is speaking, not mentioning ought of the Light within, (altho' we deny it not where God would have it spoken of.) Be­hold here another bitter and satyrical Scoff against the Light within; and what altho' Peter mention not the Light within in that place, Acts 10. in express words, let the place be considered, and it shall be found plainly enough implied in that very discourse of Peter, see v. 42. said Peter, that it is even Jesus of Nazareth, who was or­dained to be judge of quick and dead: And can this be without the Light within, that shall be as a thousand Wit­nesses against the wicked in that great day of Judgment, [Page 29] when the books shall be opened, not only the book of Conscience, but the Lords Light in the Conseience, that did see and reprove them, and witness against them, when they sinned. And whereas thou sayst, thou denyest not the Light within when God would have it spoken of: I say, thou denyest it in so far as thou denyest Christ in the heart, who is the true Light, & callest him a false Christ; and also that thou blamest the Quakers for pretending to inward Reve­lations, which ye Baptists generally deny, therein agree­ing with the dark Priests, and other dark Professors. 3dly, Thou dost represent the Quakers as denying, that Christ is come in the flesh, and carrying it in a subtil notion, that he is come in their flesh. This is a most false and injurious Accusation; we most faithfully believe and embrace it, as a most faithful saying, That Christ Iesus is come in the flesh, to wit, in that very Body of Flesh which was conceived by the holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin Mary, dyed, and rose again, &c. and yet, according to Scripture, we also believe, That the Life of Iesus is made manifest in mortal Flesh; and that the Bodies of the Saints are the Temples of God, and of Christ & of the holy Spirit; and that the Saints are his Mem­bers, and He their Head, and that they enjoy and possess a mea­sure of the same holy Spirit that dwelt and dwelleth in him in all fullness; and tho' some divine Illumination and manife­station of the Spirit of God be given to all men in a day or time, according to plain Scripture, yet we do not say, tha [...] all men have the holy Spirit or are baptized with it, as thou dost falsly represent us; for many men are sen­sual, not having the Spirit, and the Spirit of God hath left many men, and doth no more invite and call them to Repentance the day of their Visitation being over. 4thly, Thou dost insinuate, as if we did not believe any [Page 30] other Coming of Christ, than his inward coming in his Saints; which is false, as also is that other gross alledgance of thine. That our opposition to Water Baptism is raised against the Person of Iesus Christ, and the remembrance of his last Coming. This I altogether deny, as False, Wicked, and Injurious; we do believe, and make it our care to re­member that our Lord Jesus is in Heaven, in his glorified Body, Soul and Spirit of true Man, that Seed of David and Abraham, and that he shall come again, and jud [...]e both quick and dead, even the Man Christ Iesus. And as for thy other many false Accusations, and hard bitter and reproachful Speeches against us, and me in particular, I shall not waste paper nor time to repeat them, but hear­tily wish thy Repentance, and the opening of thy dark Understanding, to the acknowledging and confessing to the Truth, if it be the good will of God that so it may come to pass, before thy dayes be expired.

And now ye Water Baptists, who plead so earnestly for Water Baptism, though in opposition to the living and glorious Appearance of the Lord Jesus Christ in the hearts of his Saints, some of you calling Christ in the heart a false Christ in the secret Chamber, the which Water Baptism of yours is neither Iohn's, nor the same that some of Christs Disciples and Apostles administred for some time, seeing ye can show no Line of Succession, either from Iohn or the Apostles, of your call to administer Water Baptism, that proves ye have no shadow of any mediate Call, and to an immediate Call ye have no pretence; nor can it be truly said, that the Letter of the Scripture barely and alone considered, calleth any to a Ministerial Office or Function; for the Scripture saith, No man taketh an Office [Page 31] unto him but he that is called of God, as Aaron was: And thus Iohn was sent of God by the Spirit of God in his heart, and did not draw his Call from the Letter of the Scripture, tho' he was of Aaron's Posterity, and the Son of a Priest; And therefore your Water Baptism is a meer Idol, like the golden Calf that the Children of Israel set up when Moses was absent. But suppose your Water baptism were as good as Iohn's (which it is not) go and learn what that meaneth, Mark 9.5. how when Moses and Elias (and ye know that Christ said of Iohn, that he was Elias, who came in the Spirit and Power of Elias) did appear with Christ at his Transfiguration, Peter said, Let us build three Tabernacles, one for Moses (that signifieth the Law of Circumcision and Sacrifices) another for Elias, (i. e. Iohn with his Water Baptism) the Scriptures saith, he knew not what he said; and a Cloud came and took away Moses and Elias, (i. e. Iohn Baptist) out of their sight, and left only Christ present with them: and well consider, whe­ther this doth not signifie, that Believers in Christ, under the pure and perfect Gospel Dispensation, are not to build Tabernacles neither for Moses nor Iohn, i. e. neither for the Levitical Law of Moses, nor the Water Baptism of Iohn?

A brief Answer to the weak and impertinent Arguments of Benj. Keech, against the Light within, in his Book, call'd, The Childs Instructor, in that Section of his Book concerning the Light within, wherein he undertaketh to prove, That the Light in every man hath not the least tendency or service to mans Salvation, but only to condemn him. And also an Answer to his gross Calum­nies and false Accusations, that in his ignorance he raiseth up against both the Principles and Persons of the People called in scorn Quakers.

FIrst, he granteth, That the Light in every man contain­eth in it the Law or substance of the first Covenant, writ­ten or implanted in the hearts of the worst of men. Next, he doth acknowledge, That it doth show or teach every man that there is a God, which did create all things, and that he is the Soveraign Lord of the whole Creation; that he is to be worship­ed; also, that it doth convince of sin but not of evey sin: Also, That it doth teach Righteousness towards men, and to render due respect unto all, and to do unto all men as they would be done unto; and from this he concludeth, saying, There­fore take heed, and walk according to this Light, for it is a Candle lighted and set up by the Lord in thy Intellectuals.

Answ. This seemeth a fair acknowledgment, and is more than many do acknowledge; for if men are to take heed unto it, and walk according to it, (as he saith they ought) it is given of God for a Rule of Obedience unto men, and therefore the Scripture is not the only Rule, as many affirm. But that he saith, It doth convince of sin, but not of every sin, this he only affirmeth, and doth not prove in the least; and seeing it containeth in it the sub­stance of the Law of the first Covenant, it followeth most evidently, that being duly improved, and the mind duly [Page 33] applied unto it, it convinceth of all sin against the first Covenant. Next, as to sins against the second Covenant, called the Gospel or New Covenant, if the Gentiles (who have not heard the Gospel outwardly preached) have no­thing of the Law of the New Covenant revealed or made known unto them, they cannot be said to sin against it; for where no Law is, there is no Transgression; if then these Gentiles, who never as yet heard the Gospel or Christ out­wardly preach'd, have only the Law of the first Cove­nant, they are only sinners against that Covenant; and consequently, that Light in the Gentiles doth convince them of every sin that they are or can be guilty of in the Gentile state. But seeing he hath granted, That there are some sins that they are guilty of, that the first Covenant in them doth not convince them of, it followeth most necessarily, that there is some Law or Light of the new Covenant in them: And thus it doth plainly appear, that the snare or net which this Benj. Keech hath been making for the People called Quakers, he is entangled himself therein. But we can most clearly prove from Scripture, that the Light that is generally in men, the Heathens not except­ed, hath in it some small degree of a discovery or revelation of the New Testament or New Covenant; 1st, Because it revealeth to men generally the goodness of God that lead­eth to Repentance, according to Rom. 2.4. yea, the Riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering; and therefore it revealeth in men universally, that God is mer­ciful and gracious, as well as just, and pardoning sin and transgression to every one that truly repenteth and turns from sin: And this may be proved also from B. Keech's own confession; for he plainly confesseth, That the Light in every man teacheth him, that God is the best, the highest, and chiefest Beeing; therefore it doth clearly follow, that the [Page 34] Light in men teacheth them, that God is a gracious God, and one that pardons Iniquity, otherwise he could not be un­derstood to be the best beeing; for seeing among the Children of men many men have that goodness that inclines them to forgive the greatest Trespasses, upon their Repentance and asking forgiveness; therefore God himself is infinitely more gracious and ready to forgive. 2dly, The Gentiles or Heathens of the better sort, who have not heard Christ outwardly preached unto them, have offered up Sacrifices unto the only true God, as well as the Iews; and Aristotle, tho' a Heathen, did affirm, That it was proper to Mankind, universally, to Sacrifice unto God; and as the Sacrifices of the People of Israel, as B. Keech confesseth, was a spiritual and shadowing Ministration, given in mercy unto men, to discover and hold forth unto them the glorious and great Sacrifice and Attonement of the Lord Jesus Christ, the same may be said of the Sacrifices of these Gentiles, who sacrificed unto the only true God. And if it be said, The Gentiles who did so Sacrifice, as Iob and others, did it, being taught by some outward means: I answer, allowing it so to be; so did also the Iews and People of Israel; but as among the Iews, so among the Gentiles, the Light of God in them did accord in Harmony with the outward means of their Instruction. 3dly, The Apostle Paul doth plainly declare, That the Gentiles, who did the things con­tained in the Law, had their thoughts excusing them (or apolo­gizing, as the Greek hath it) and therefore there is some Light or Illumination in them, other than that of the first Covenant, that only condemneth, as B. K. affirmeth. 4thly, Cornelius, before Christ was outwardly preached unto him, hath this Testimony, by the Spirit of God record­ed in Scripture, That he was a devout man, and feared God, and his Prayers and Alms were accepted of God, according to [Page 35] his state, and that he was not singular, or the only man in the World that was sincerely devout, and that knew not Christ as come in the flesh, Peter's words plainly de­clare, how that in every Nation, he that feareth God and worketh Righteousness, is accepted of him. And if it be said, that Cornelius was a Proselite, or at least had some know­ledge of the Iews Religion: I Answer; This is only sup­posed, but not proved; but granting it were so, it is certain he had not faith in Christ crucified and raised again, until Peter preached Christ unto him; and there­fore a man may be accepted of God in Christ, and for Christ's sake, in some respect and degree, who at present hath not faith in Christ crucified and raised again; which most evidently overthroweth all that B. K. hath built up in his vain & dark Imagination against the Light within, and yet such are not without faith altogether; for they have faith in God, and in his living Word in their hearts.

And whereas B. K. frames an objection in behalf of the Light within, viz. If this be a Light flowing from God, and a Ministration of God, how can it fail in any respect, and be insufficient? He answereth, First, The Law given to Israel was a Ministration of God, and yet it could not give Life. But this is easily answered; for God gave not the Law to Israel only for that end to condemn them, and send all & every one of them to Hell, but to be a School­master to lead unto Christ, and therefore together with the Law of the first Covenant, he gave them the Levitical Law of Sacrifices, and many other Types, which had some real Ministration in it of the New Covenant, tho' obscure, yet such as served for that time. But according to B. K. the best of the Gentiles, who were most diligent to frame their lives according to the Light in them, and have not heard Christ preached unto them, as crucified, &c. are [Page 36] all sent to Hell, and the Light in them, tho' a Ministra­tion given them of God, hath no other end but to con­demn them, and make them guilty of Hell Fire, and that forever; which is a most injurious Reflection upon both the Justice and Mercy of God. Secondly, he saith, Every Light and Ministration of God serveth for the end, time and purpose it was appointed and ordain [...]d: This saying is very true, but very badly applied, as if that Light and Mini­stration of God in the Gentiles, were only given to make them guilty of eternal Damnation, but having not the least service, use or tendency to the least beginning of their Salvation; which is a horrible Reflection upon God, as representing him altogether Cruel and Unmer­ciful, worse than most men, and therefore is a blasphe­mous Assertion.

In the next place he undertakes to prove, That the Light in every man is not God, nor Christ, nor the Holy Spirit: First, he proveth that the Light in men is not God, Be­cause tho' all Light doth come from God, yet all Light is not God. I Answ. And who saith all Light is God? but because all Light is not God, it doth not therefore follow, that God is not Light, no more than it doth follow, that be­cause all Spirit is, not God, therefore God is not a Spirit. But seeing he confesseth, This Light floweth from God, it doth necessarily follow, that God himself is present with and in this Light; for God cannot be locally seperated from any thing or being that proceedeth from him, other­wise he were not Omnipresent; and the Name Light doth as properly belong to God, as the Name Spirit; for as the Scripture saith, God is a Spirit, so it saith, God is Light. Nor is his Argument any more valid to prove, that Christ is not Light in men; Because Christ signifieth, [Page 37] Anointed, and only the Man Christ is Gods anointed: I Answer; Thus we see how B. K. acts the Socinian, like his Brother P.T for if Christ be only and wholly restrict­ed to Christ's outward Person, as he came in the flesh, then there was no Christ, nor Saviour, nor Mediator be­fore Mary; but this is express contrary to Scripture in many places, which saith▪ By Iesus Christ all things were created; And Israel in the Wilderness drank of the Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ: And most surely, all the faithful in all Ages were partakers of Christ, and he lived in them as well as in Paul. And that Christ was Anointed from the beginning, before all Time and Ages, is expresly affirmed, Prov. 8.23. the true Translation out of the Hebrew Text being, I was anointed from the begin­ning; The Hebrew word Nissak is rendred by Buxtorf in his Hebrew Lexicon, To anoint; and surely David, Isaiah, and all the faithful were partakers of the holy anointing, and they had it from Christ God's anointed from the beginning. And Lastly, he is as foolish and idle in his arguing, That the holy Spirit is not a Light in all men, be­cause Christ said, The World cannot receive him Ioh. 14.16. and whoever have the Spirit of Christ are Christs, Rom. 3.9. for to have and receive, in these places, signifie Vnion and Possession, and in that sense we say, Unbelievers and Un­godly men have not the Spirit; but yet it doth not fol­low, that the Spirit is not in them to reprove and con­vince them, and also to call, invite and move them to Repentance, otherwise men could not be said to resist the holy Spirit; and as a rich Treasure may be laid in a mans House and yet that man have not the right and possession of it, even so, the Spirit of God is in Unbelievers, to con­vince, call and move them to repent and turn to God, and [Page 38] yet they have no right nor interest therein, while remain­ing in their unbelieving state. But it is to be further con­sidered, that the holy Spirit, throughout the Scripture, doth signifie, not the Spirit of God abstractly consider­ed, but as influencing men with a peculiar holy or san­ctifying influence and operation; and these are only such who have faith in Christ crucified and raised again, as is clear in the case of Cornelius, and all other Believers in Christ crucified, &c. whose Faith is wrought in them by the mighty Power of God; and therefore this peculiar influence and operation of the holy Ghost, the Gentiles have not in their meer Gentile state, but yet they have that which is preparatory thereunto, and infallibly will bring them to partake of it, as they are diligent, rightly to improve that first degree of divine Grace and Illumi­nation already given unto them.

Now let us hear his Arguments against the Sufficiency of the Light within, so much as to begin the least good Work of God in the Gentiles. 1st, he saith, It cannot discover unto thee that there is a Redeemer, who suffered Death without the Gates of Jerusalem. 2dly, Tho' it convince of many sins, yet it cannot cleanse thee from them. 3dly, It cannot make Satisfaction for the sins that are past. 4thly, It cannot lead thee into Evangelical or Gospel Truths. 5thly, It cannot teach thee the Righteousness of God, without the Law, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, even the Righteousness of God by Faith of Iesus Christ, unto all & upon all that do believe. 6thly, It leaveth thee under the sentence of Death and Misery, without affording any directions or help for thy Recovery, (Note these words, whereby it plainly appeareth, he taketh away from it all sufficiency, so much as to begin any good work in men, as having the least tendency to [Page 39] begin the work of Salvation, or prepare thereunto.) 7thly, It cannot give thee (he saith) eternal Peace and Salvation, as these Miserable men (meaning the People called Quakers) do affirm. Thus he argueth.

In Answer to these his Arguments, I say, it is really a degree of Blasphemy to say, that there is no Light, or Principle, or Being in men, that can do these things; for God and Christ can do all things, and both God and Christ are in all men, not only as to that general presence in all the Creatures, but in a special way of Revelation, as being the Off-spring of God, as Paul declared to the Athenians. But it is one thing what God and Christ can do, and far another thing what they commonly and uni­versally do. Now it is readily granted, that God and Christ do not commonly reveal unto men the knowledge and faith of Christ crucified, &c. without the Scriptures Testimony, or some outward Teaching; but this doth not prove that the Light in men hath no preparatory ser­vice, use or tendency, in order to receive the knowledge & faith of Christ crucified, as we see it hath, according to Scrip­ture, as is clear in the [...]ase of Cornelius, and in the Parable of the good ground, that signified the good and honest heart, even before the Seed of the pure and perfect evan­gelical Dispensation was sown in it. And at this race he might as well argue against the Light in the be [...]t Saints or Christians, in these Ages of the World, as being insuffi­cient to give eternal Life and Salvation; for the ordinary and usual way of God to beget in all true Believers the true knowledge and faith of Christ crucified, is by some out­ward means of Preaching, Reading, or Hearing the Scrip­tures read, and not without them, the inward Light and Grace of God mightily co-operating and working toge­ther [Page 40] with the outward means of the Scriptures preached, read or heard. And whereas he directeth his Book ge­nerally to these called Christians, many of whom are of his own Profession, if his Doctrine be to be received, none of his own Brethren, nor any Christians whatsoever, have any saving Light or Grace in them; for he maketh no di­stinction betwixt Christians and Heathens, but saith gene­rally to all, That they have no saving Light in them.

But for the better understanding of the whole matter, let it be considered, that the Light in men hath a two fold sence and signification; 1st, It may and doth signifie God who is Light, and Christ who also is Light as the holy Scripture declareth: 2dly, It may and doth signifie some divine inward Illumination and Revelation of God and Christ in men, which hath also a quickening and cleansing operation in it. Now admitting that the divine Illumination and Revelation of God and Christ doth not at first reveal or discover these peculiar Mysteries of the pure Gospel Dispensation, as Christ crucified, and Faith in him, yet it doth suffice that I have proved, that it can begin, and doth really begin a good Work of God in them that are diligent to obey it; and where this good Work of God is begun in any, they cannot perish, altho' they dye in that state: for as no Unrighteous Soul can (while such go into Heaven, so none that are in any the least degree Righteous by the Work of God in their hearts, (while such,) can go to Hell, or finally perish. But to determine at what precise time, and how this work of God begun in honest Gentiles, is perfected in them, and at what precise time the knowledge and faith of Christ is wrought in them, is not a difficulty that is singular to us the People, call'd in scorn Quakers, but doth equally urge [Page 41] and pinch our Adversaries; yea, I suppose generally the Baptists themselves; for first, They acknowledge, That many Infants dying in infancy, belong to Gods Election, and are saved: 2dly, That not only Infants, but others come to Age, may belong to God's Election, who are born Deaf and Dumb; and many will acknowledge also, That God hath his Elect among the Gentiles, who have not heard Christ out­wardly preached, and shall be saved, God working by his Spirit when, where, and how he pleaseth, as the Presbyterian Con­fession of Faith owned by Baptists, doth expresly declare. Now it is plain, the Difficulty is equal to them, with us, and is a great secret, known (perhaps) to few of the Sons of men, the precise time, way, manner and means of Gods saving them with eternal Salvation, who have not had Christ outwardly preached unto them, neither by men nor Scripture; and let it suffice to clear us, that we say, the knowledge and faith of Christ crucified, even Jesus of Nazareth, is universally necessary to the full and final perfecting the work of mens eternal Salvation and Hap­piness, and is ordinarily and commonly wrought in men, by outward preaching, reading, or hearing the Scriptures Testimony. But again, let it be considered, when we say, That the inward Light and Grace of God is suffici­ent to Salvation, it is to be understood, that its sufficiency reacheth to the present time, work and purpose for which it is given, even as B. K. hath confessed; for not only the Gentiles have not received at once all that divine Illu­mination, and Grace, and Assistance of God, that sufficeth unto all time to come, but even none of the Saints have received at once so much as is sufficient for all time to come; otherwise, they might say, We are Lords, and will come no more to God, nor pray any more to him; whereas all [Page 42] true Believers feel their continual need and want of a new and fresh supply of Gods Grace and gracious Assistance, both to think, to will and to do any thing good and ac­ceptable unto God. And as true Believers in Christ cru­cified, &c. have that which is sufficient for the time pre­sent of divine Grace and Illumination, suitable to their state and dispensation, so have the Gentiles that measure of divine Grace and Illumination which is sufficient for the time present, suitable to their state and dispensation, which is readily granted to be a Dispensation or Admini­stration really distinct or diverse from that pure and per­fect Gospel Dispensation, which true Believers in Christ crucified and raised again, are under, yet both coming from one fountain, and both tending to one end, and meeting together in one, yea, embracing one another in due season. Moreover, that the Law state and dispen­sation, before that the faith of Christ crucified and raised again, &c. doth come, is a good state to all such as are dili­gent Improvers of the same, is most clear from Gal. 3.23. Before Faith came, we were kept under the Law (and as Beza, a Protestant, doth well translate it) we were preserved or kept sub Legis presidio, i. e. under the safeguard of the Law, as in a City of Refuge even as the Man-slayer under the Law, escaping to the City of Refuge, did remain there safe from death, tho' as in a Prison or Confinement, until the News did arrive unto him of the death of the High Priest: A real Type and Figure of this great Mystery. And therefore it is readily granted, that no man, until he attain to the true Faith and Knowledge of Christ crucified & raised again, is per­fectly justified, nor can his most exact Obedience to the Light in him be an Attonement or Propitiation unto God for sins past or present, as neither is the Saints greatest [Page 43] inward Righteousness or Holiness wrought in them by the Spirit of God, an Attonement or Propitiation for their Sins, but Christ alone, who dyed for us, the Just for the Unjust, &c. But as God is gracious to true believers in Christ, who have not attained to a Perfection in Holiness, but have the Work begun in them, for Christs sake, and also when they are perfected in Holiness, God doth accept them in Christ, and for his sake, even so doth he extend his favour and mercy, in some measure, to the honest Gentiles, for Christs sake, and doth not leave them without all hope of Mercy. And as God hath promised to reward the diligent Improvers of his Grace, with giving them more Grace, who are true Believers in Christ crucified, so no doubt the Promise is good to all Gentiles, who are faithful Improvers of that Light that God hath given them in their Gentile-state, to encrease his Grace unto them, and to give them that further degree of Faith and Knowledge of Christ crucified, which they have not as yet attained unto; for the Promise is universal, To every one that hath shall be given. And therefore it is a most foolish and rash undertaking in B. K. or any others to affirm, That these Gentiles, who were diligent to frame their Lives according to the Light in them, never at any time had, nor ever shall have the knowledge and faith of Christ crucified and raised again, who have lived in remote parts of the World, where the Gospel hath not as yet been outwardly preached. Hath not God many ways to reveal himself to the ouls of men, and the depth of his Counsel, that passeth our search and understanding? Who knoweth what God doth reveal to honest Gentiles on their Death-bed, when by reason of Bodily weakness they cannot declare unto others, what God doth then reveal unto them, or even possibly at the instant of Death or [Page 44] after Death, as many Professors use to say, as well Baptists as others, That the Souls of Believers, at or after death, are made perfect in Holiness: But this is only an Argument ad hominem, as it is called, i. e. such as can be raised from their own Principle, by way of retorsion or counter-argu­ing; but let us leave secret things unto God, until he reveal them, and keep close to the Scriptures Testimony, so far as it is opened to us, that giveth us sufficient cause and ground of Charity, to conclude, that none of the Gentiles, who were diligent to improve that Light that God gave them, are finally and utterly lost, and yet that the faith and knowledge of Christ crucified and raised again, is altogether necessary, tho' not to the beginning, yet to the full and final consumating and perfecting mens eternal Salvation and Happiness, both which are well consistent, altho' B. K. and his Brethren, through the ignorance and prejudice that is in them against the Truth, do not see or understand it.

I shall now take notice of his gross Calumnies and false Accusations that he raiseth up, in his ignorance, against both the Principle and Persons of the People called, in scorn, Quakers.

First, That he saith, The tenor of our Doctrine showeth plainly, that Iesus Christ our blessed Lord and dear Mediator dyed in vain. Answ. This is a most false & unjust Charge, and no wise reacheth to us, because, first, we say the Light that is in the Gentiles, and in every man, is the real fruit and purchase of Christs Death, and also, that none can be eternally saved, as in respect of the perfect Accom­plishment of the Work of their Salvation, without some measure of the Knowledge and Faith of Christ crucified, [Page 45] tho' we cannot assign the precise time and manner, how and when that knowledge and faith is given them, as no more can they, when or how it is given to elect Infants, and other elect Persons, suppose Deaf and Dumb from the Womb.

Secondly, he saith, We set up an inherent legal Righteous­ness in man, as his only Righteousness, whereby he shall be eternally saved. Answ. This is grosly false.

Thirdly, That we deny the imputed Righteousness of Christ, wrought in his own Person for us, and the virtue of the Price of his most precious Blood. Answ. This also is grosly false.

Fourthly, That it is a fancy to believe, that Christ hath fullfilled the Righteousness of the Law for us, any other wayes than our Pattern. Answ. And this likewise is most grosly false; for we faithfully believe, that Christ hath fulfilled the Law for us and the Righteousness thereof, not only as our pattern but as being therein and thereby, both in what he did and suffered for us, an Attonement and Pro­pitiation unto God for our sins, and that his Obedience and Sufferings hath purchased unto us, as a most precious and great Price, Iustification, Remission Sanctification & Eternal Life; and that he gave himself a Ransom unto God for us, and all men, which these called particular Baptists, deny; yet this Price and Ransom, or fullfilling the Law for us, is not so to be understood, as if thereby a liberty were procured unto us to sin at pleasure, but as Christ hath fullfilled the Law for us, he must also fulfill it in us, according to Rom: 8. in order to our perfect San­ctification and Justification. And here it is to be noted, That these Accusations of his, in the aforesaid particulars, are not gathered from any express words of the People called Quakers, but are only the false and absurd Conse­quences [Page 46] he gathers from our Principle, altogether grounded upon his Ignorance and Mistakes, and especial­ly his Prejudice against the Truth.

A Brief ANSWER to Cotton Mather his Appendix to a little Book of his, called, Memorable Providences, relating to Witchcrafts, &c.

THe main design of Cotton Mather in this his Appen­dix is to vindicate and defend his Father Increase Mather, as no wise guilty of these Charges which I laid against him towards the end of my late Book, call'd, The Presbyterian and Independent Churches, in New-England, and else-where, brought to the Test. Now if Cotton Mather had made any true and just Vindication of his said Father, it had been a commendable work in him, but he is so far from that, that his so weak and impertinent pretended Vindication doth not in the least excuse him; and he is so far from any just Vindication of his Father, that he doth rather more lay open his Fathers Nakedness in the sight of the world, and addeth to his Fathers grosly abusing the honest People called Quakers, new Abuses, and lying abu­sive Speeches of his own, besides that, in the judgment of any impartial & understanding Reader, he discovers him­self to be a very shallow man, airy and full of froth, but showing nothing of Solidity in his whole discourse.

As for his scornful and disdainful words and reflections on me, calling me, One Keith, a Quaker, not deigning to design me by my full Name, and Our little Author, This new Apostle, This waspishman, &c. I value them not, so as to be any discouragement unto me to bear my Testimony for the [Page 47] blessed Truth of God, against his and his Brethrens false Doctrine and Hypocrisy; and the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, left upon record in Scripture, in a measure of the sence of that holy Spirit that gave them forth, have been & are made comfortable unto me, Mat. 5.11. Bles­sed are ye when men shall revile you, &c. I desire to bless the Lord who hath truly made me little in my own eyes, and hath let me see not only my littleness but nothingness, as of my self, and given me also to know, that I am one of his little Ones, which to me is greater satisfaction than to have the greatest worldly advantages; and that he seems to reflect upon the littleness of my stature (as is apparent) showeth in him little wit or discretion; many excellent men were of little bodily stature, far exceeding Cotton Mather or me either; and Goliah was a man of great bodily stature, who defied the host of God, and yet fell before little David; and tho' I do readily acknowledge my self little every way, yet by the Grace of God I doubt not but to be made able to defend the Truth, against all that thou and all thy Brethren can do to withstand it; for the Truth is the greatest and strongest of all, and when he who is the Truth pleaseth to use an Instrument, let it be ever so little or mean, it is well enabled to do the work it is raised up for: And tho' in the close of his Appendix (that contain­eth little else but silly drolling) he saith, G. K. has given sufficient cause why his own Sect should be ashamed of him, if shame were compatible to such a perfect People; Which last part is a meer Scoff, yet he hath not made it appear, and I hope in the Lord he never shall be able to make it appear that my Friends have any cause to be ashamed of me.

Before he cometh to his Fathers Vindication, he thought fit to tell the world of the strange liberty which the Devils [Page 48] gave to some possessed Children to come to the Meetings of the Quakers, and to read their writings: And if all this be true, what saith it against the Quakers, in the least to dis­credit them, or their Religion? We know many wicked People, whose Souls the Devils possess (and that is worse than a meer Bodily Possession) may read both our Books and the Scriptures also, yet as this is no discredit to the Scriptures, so no more to our books; yea, the Devil could and did cite Scripture to Christ, and could use the outward names of God and Iesus. And thou grantest that that Girle possessed, as thou alledgest, Bodily with the Devil, did read the 59 Psalm; And what may be concluded from this, according to Cotton Mathers pretended Logick, that tho' the Devil would not suffer the Girle to read some Presby­terian Books, but gave her liberty to read some of the Com­mon Prayer, or other Episcopal Books, and Quakers Books, and also the 59 Psalm, that all these are of the like quality? Thou further sayst, The Girle so possessed, as thou alledgest, could hear the Scripture read, and called to one to read of Mary Magdalen; and I see not what difference the Devil doth make, in good earnest, betwixt reading and hearing the Scripture read. Again, That the Devil suffered some of them to come to the Quakers Meetings: Supposing it were so, is this any more in prejudice of the Quakers Meetings, than that Cotton Mather saith, The same Girle, so possessed, came to a study or Closet in his House, and entred therein, and there read on the Bible, and good Books? And if he say, It was because the Devil had left her, how soon she came there, Why may not the same be alledged on behalf of the Quakers Meetings? Who seeth not how shallow this man is, that from so ridiculous an instance would represent the Quakers Meetings and Books such as the Devil had a good liking [Page 49] to? But it seems the holiness of his Study drove the Devils away, and made the Girle so quiet in his Study, as is im­plied in his words, where he saith, She added a Reason for it, which the Owner of the Study thought more kind than true. It seemeth then that Cotton Mather thinketh himself in that respect obliged to the Devils kindness, more than to the truth of the Reason, That they left the Girle how soon she entred into his Closet: But why could not the Devil carry the Girle into his Closet, as well as the Devil took Christ into the holy City, and set him on a Pinacle of the Temple, Mat. 4.5. and as it is in Iob, When the Sons of God came together, Sathan also came among them? and if Sa­than can come where the Sons of God are met together, why may he not quietly suffer some possessed by him, to come either to C.M's Closet or the Quakers Meeting, with­out any just reflection on either of the places? But if C. M. think the Devil more kind than true to him, he had need beware of his Kindness, left it turn to his damage in the end; for a kind Devil is the most dangerous Devil.

In the beginning of the Vindication of his Father, he saith, One would think that if an Historian did but secure his Veracity from being impeached, most of his other fauls were pardonable, &c. But to this I Answer; That Increase Mather hath not secur'd his veracity from being impeached; for it belongeth to Veracity, and to him who hath it, not only to tell some true matters of fact, but to tell them with a true intention, and for a true and upright end, and to assign the true and right Names to the Persons that have done the things alledged; as when a man is murdered, tho' the matter of Fact be true, yet if he who relates it, doth charge it upon a person or persons no wise guilty, his Ve­racity may justly be impeached; and so the case is here, [Page 50] as to I. Mather, suppose the matter of fact be true, yet it is as gross and false a charge and imputation to cast these things acted and done by Tho. Case and his Crew upon the Quakers, as to cast them upon any other People whatso­ever, yea, as upon them whom he may judge to be true Christians, or suppose Presbyterians and Independents; for what tho' they call themselves or that others ignorantly call them Quakers? doth it therefore follow that they are owned by that People, or are of their Society? no wise, no more than it doth follow, that they are Christians, be­cause they call themselves also by that name: And suppose these of T. Case's crew should call themselves Presbyterians & Independents, or Members of the Congregational Churches of New-England, doth it therefore follow that ye of New-England should be charged with these things?

And whereas I said in my last book, That I. M. relates these stories on purpose to abuse the honest & sober People call'd Quakers, without making any distinction, thou Cotton Mather leavest out altogether the following words, that were most material for the clearing of the Quakers, and proving I. M. guilty of slandering and falsly accusing an innocent Peo­ple, my following words being these, nor giving the least information to the world, how that the Body of the People call'd Quakers doth not in the least own these ungodly and wicked People, &c. But what doth his Son C. M. answer to this that may satisfie the impartial Reader? surely nothing, but answers with a Scoff, like to himself (it seems he hath largely accustomed himself to sit in the Seat of the Scorner) saying, But what Mettal is this mans fore-head made of? and then he proceeds to alledge, That his Father very carefully made a distinction, because once or twice he calleth them, the late singing and dancing Quakers: And again, that he [Page 51] saith, The Quakers are some of them possessed with evil Spirits. But I Answer; Thou C. Mather rather bearest in thy fore­head the print of him that hath a face of Brass, than of an ingenuous man, in thy undertaking so to palliate and excuse thy Fathers gross abuse and slander. Doth not every one that knoweth what a distinction is, know, that it consisteth at least of two Members or parts, and not of one only member or part: Now I challenge Cotton Mather to produce one word or syllable in all Increase Mathers dis­course, where the other Member or part of the distinction is named or exprest in the least: whereas if he had indeed made any distinction, he would at least have informed the world, That there is another s [...]rt of People called Quakers that doth no wise own Thomas Case or any of his Crew, nor their Spirit, nor Doctrine, nor Practices, but abhor them and their way as much as any People can do, and do as widely differ from them as white from black, or as one contrary from another; yea, it is easie to show, that Tho. Case and his Crew are more near to many called Presbyterians and Independents, than to the honest Quakers, both in Doctrine and some Practices; for the honest People called Quakers own no carnal Singing, and do not own dancing on any account, and yet to my certain knowledge, many called Presbyteri­ans do both own and practise carnal Singings, and Dan­cings, and Pipings, and Fiddlings also at Feasts and Wed­dings; all which practices are more like to the mad Crew of Tho Case, than to the sober and honest Quakers, who own no singing but what is truly spiritual and holy; and it doth not appear, that when I. M. nameth the late sing­ing & dancing Quakers, that he intended any distinction, but that he gave such Names only as certain Epithets to the Quakers, or to some of them; as when Cott. Mather [...] [Page 50] [...] [Page 51] [Page 52] calleth us, absurd and angry People, it doth not appear that he intendeth a distinction, as if some of us were not absurd nor angry, or as when his Brethren used to call us, The Cursed Quakers, that they intended any distinction, as if some of us were blessed; or if he had called us, The late upstart Heretical Quakers, as some have called us, as if some or us were not late nor heretical, but Antient & Orthodox; nor is it any real or true distinction to say, Some of the Quakers, as implying not all; for all and some are no spe­cifical distinction, but only numerical; whereas I said in my book, without any distinction, it is most clear from my following words in that book, (purposely, as it seemeth, omitted by C. M.) that I meant a specifical distinction; for what I. M. alledgeth on some of the Quakers, as such, belongeth to all of the same society, even as what belong­eth to some men, as men, belongeth to all men; and if these wild, and mad, and abominable Practices do not be­long to T. Case's Crew, as Quakers, then why doth he so charge them as [...]uakers? or why doth he not inform the People of New-England, That T. Case's Crew are no Quakers, any more than real Christians, altho' they falsly are so cal­led, and are no wise owned by the Body or Society of that People▪ this he hath not done in the least; and no man that hath not some better Information what the Quakers are, than what I. M. hath given of them, can know any other, but that the Quakers generally are all sing­ing and dancing Quakers, or at least own these mad Pra­ctices; for as I said before, I say again, he maketh no di­stinction betwixt them he calleth Mad Quakers, and others that are sober; and there are many hundreds in New-England that reading I.M's Book, will be ready enough to believe, the Quakers generally are such as these of T. Cases [Page 53] Crew, seeing he mentioneth no other sort, and they have no other intelligence what the Quakers are, having never seen any of them, nor heard them, nor read their Books. But C. M. perceiving this pinch or strait, how he could not make it appear, that his Father made any real distin­ction, takes another course, and plainly telleth us, His Father needed not make any distinction at all; and rather than C. Mather will allow the least Charity to the Quakers, he will fall at variance with his Father, and show himself of a con­trary mind, as one would think, to his supposed reverend Father, that whereas he thinketh, or would have it be­lieved, his Father made a distinction betwixt the late singing and dancing Quakers, yet the Son Cotton, thinking himself more wise than his Father, maketh no distinction at all, and will have Cases Crew, and all other Quakers (which he as falsly as foolishly, calleth, Keith's Crew) to be substan­tially of the same drove, both Mad, tho' with some variety of application in their Phrensies. This is barely alledged, but not in the least proved, and therefore needeth no further Answer. The honest People called Quakers, through the Love and Grace of God, whereof they are made partakers, without boasting or vain-glorying, may in general be compared to the best of your Church Members in Sobri­ety and good Christian Behaviour: It hath been the lot of good men before us, to be called Mad, and worse. But thou hast given us no evidence or proof that we are so, and therefore it returns upon thee as a Calumny and Slander

And whereas thou sayst, One Keith, a Quaker, had been compassing Sea and Land to make Proselites, visits New-England in his Progress, where meeting with small Applause, and less Success, instead of Converts, picks up what Quarrels [Page 54] our Country could afford him, and among the rest, this Book of Providences. Answ. That I have travelled in many places both by Sea and Land, to turn People unto the Lord, and from Darkness to Light, I am not ashamed to acknow­ledge; for so did many of the Servants of God in former Generations, and not like Cotton Mather, and his Brethren generally, who creep into one certain place or House, and there continue to preach for hire, and rarely remove, but when the motive of a greater Sallary doth invite them: And as for mens applause, I regard it not, whether great or small; I seek not honour of men, but the honour that cometh of God, that doth satisfie me, and the good and Christian esteem that I have in the hearts of many Bre­thren, as well as my honest Report among men, that tru­ly know me, which hath not been wanting to me in New-England as well as in other places where I have travell'd; and as for Success in my Ministry, and being made instru­mental to convert some, and build up others in the most holy Faith, through the Grace of God, I need not bear witness to my self, but if need were, many can bear wit­ness to it, even in New-England, so that my labour in New-England hath not been in vain, and I hope yet to see more the fruit and effect of it, through the blessing of God. Next, whereas thou sayst, At my return to Penn­silvania, I bless the World with a little Volumn of Heresies and Blasphemies against the Protestant Religion. Here thy scoffing airy Spirit appeareth, as oft else-where; how can the world be blessed with a Volumn of Heresies and Blas­phemies? But that my book containeth either Heresie or Blasphemy, thou hast not yet showed, far less proved: Thou callest my Book, Some further improvements of Non-sence, than the Abilities of the Quakers had heretofore helped [Page 55] them to; and after a few lines, thou sayst, I have been craftily assaying to spoil your Vines: This seemeth not well to consist; if my Book be nothing but Non-sence, how can it, or I by it, craftily assay to spoil your Vines? Craft and Non-sence seldom go all along together. And that thou sayst, thou supposest, I will not be long without the Castigations of a full, though short Answer, &c. I fear not this menacing; if any such pretended Castigation come forth (tho' thou callest me a Fly) I doubt not, but if I live, God will enable me to detect the vanity and im­pertinency thereof, or if removed by Death, that he will raise up some of his Servants to do it. But that thou sayst, The twelfth Article I charge on you, is directly contrary to what ye assert, and maintain, and preach every day; and then add'st scoffingly, after thy wonted manner, This was his Inspiration then! I Answer; Then why dost thou not produce this twefth Article, and demonstrate it so to be, as thou affirmest? But I say, thy Affirmation is false in that very thing, the 12th Article being this in express words, That the Scriptures ought to be believed only for their own outward Evidence and Testimony, and not for the inward Evidence and Testimony of the holy Spirit in mens hearts. That this is justly charged on you, I need not much en­large to prove it at present, only in short I prove it thus: Seeing ye deny true divine Inspiration, and inward Re­velation of the holy Spirit in the hearts of the Saints, ye must needs deny the inward Evidence and Testimony of the holy Spirit, for they are one; and that ye deny the former, is plain, from the express words of your Con­fession, that saith, There is no new Revelation; and the former wayes of Gods revealing his Mind, are ceased. 2dly Iohn Owen, whom ye used to call your Reverend Brother, [Page 56] hath writ a large Book to prove the self-evidencing Power and Authority of the Scriptures, and denyeth that it de­riveth its evidence from the inward Revelation or In­spiration of the holy Spirit in mens hearts; yea, thou thy self scoffest at Inspiration in this very place, and else-where, and tho' in words ye seem to own the inward Testimony of the Spirit, yet in Deed ye disown it, while ye deny true divine Revelation, and Inspiration, properly so call'd. 3dly, If ye did indeed believe the Scriptures for the inward Evidence and Testimony of the holy Spirit, then ye would acknowledge it to be the principal Rule of Faith, but this ye do not; for ye say in your Confession, The Word of God contained in the Scriptures is the only Rule, &c. Where­as I said in my Book, That when some of T. Cases Crew were whipt at Plymouth, some of the honest People call'd Quakers openly declared before the People, that the Quakers did not at all own them to be of their Society. To this thou makest no direct Reply, but sayst, I am to ask him, who of this honest People then it was, that then declared them to be the dear Chil­dren of God? I Answer readily, No, not one; and I chal­lenge thee to instance any one owned by the Society of that honest People, that so declared. But this question of thine is a meer deceitful Evasion, containing in it some Insinuation, as if some did so declare, which is utterly false.

Next, as to the story in old England, taken from H. More, concerning one Robert Churchman, that was no Quaker, but only had some inclination to be a Quaker, as H. More doth alledge, and he imagined that the Spirit of God spake in him, and at last it appeared it was not so, but that the man was un­der some mistake, or suppose a real Possession of the Devil. To this I answered; ‘What can all this say to discredit the [Page 57] Quakers Religion and Principle? Have there not been mad People, and whimsical both of the Presbyterian and Independent Churches?’ To this thou answerest, not denying, but that a Possession of evil Spirits may befall one of your Communion: What then? the Possession does not move any to be of that Communion, we see the contrary. But the stories recorded by thy Father (thou sayst) plainly enough demonstrate, that Diabolical Possession was the thing which did dispose and incline men unto Quakerism: Also, thou sayst, their Quakerism was the proper effect of their Possession, and not an unconcerned consequence. Answ. This is most wretchedly alledged, but no wise proved; for none of these Instances prove in the least, that Diabolical Posses­sion did dispose and incline any man to be really of our fellowship or Society, tho' it may well enough be grant­ed, that the Devil may dispose and incline men to think or imagine themselves to be true Christians; but it doth not therefore follow, that he doth dispose or incline them to be really such: And let Cotton Mather answer me this Question, Whether he thinks it not possible that some Di­abolical Possession may incline or dispose a man, to pre­tend to be, in outward Profession, a Presbyterian or Inde­pendent? This he cannot deny; for there is no outward Profession of Godliness but the Devil may incline men unto, while in the mean time he have the Government of them, he careth not what they profess, yea, he may incline them to the highest Profession, so as even to con­fess to Christ, & to his true Servants, as is most clear in the case of those Devils that did Bodily possess some, who did confess to Christ, Mat. 8.29. and also to his true Servants, Acts 16.17. These men are the Servants of the most high God, which shew unto us the way of Salvation. Now, what sayst [Page 58] thou, Cotton Mather, to this? doth it not here plainly appear, that the Devil in this possessed Damsel did acknow­ledge Paul and Silas to be the Servants of the living God, and consequently, that the Religion they professed was the true Religion? Doth it therefore follow, that Diabo­lical Possession in this Damsel did incline her to be of Pauls Religion? Doth not both thy Fathers weakness and thine also manifestly appear in this Charge? for if either thou or thy Father had lived at that time, when the Devil gave that Testimony to Christ, and to Paul, and to Silas, by your Argument, the Christian Faith and Religion was not true. Thou and thy Father also are very ignorant of the Devils devices, if ye know not, that he can transform himself as an Angel of Light, and incline or dispose men to any outward form or profession whatsoever, and also to confess to the Truth it self, but not to live and walk in the Truth. But however, seeing by this instance of Rob. Churchman brought by thy Father, thou grantest, That thy Fathers design was to show, that Diabolical Possession was the thing that did incline men unto Quakerism. By this thou quite over turnest what thou saidst formerly, That thy Fa­ther made a distinction betwixt Quakers Mad, and Bodily pos­sessed with the Devil, and other Quakers; for now thou plainly confessest, That thy Father brought these Stories to prove that Diabolical Possession did dispose and incline men unto Quakerism; And that our Religion (called in scorn, by thee, Quakerism) was the effect of Diabolical Possession, without making any distinction. It seems thou didst not mind that true saying, [A Lyar should have a good Memory] Is this thy Vindication of thy Father, as if he had made a distinction betwixt Mad Quakers and Others, and pre­sently again to say, They are all one? It is rather Ham-like [Page 59] to uncover thy Father Nakedness, as I leave to every im­partial Reader to judge.

And whereas I said in my Book, ‘That I. M. hath shewed his rashness and folly in some other passages of his Life, if not Malice, that hath occasioned him for some time past to abscond, &c.’ In answer to this, thou art so far from covering thy Fathers Nakedness, that thou layest it open in the face of the world, telling a long story, How thy Father did declare in a Letter to a certain Person, that several shrowd things would make him suspect a Person he nameth, the Author of a Letter, that was a most villanous Forgery, filled with Treason and Madness, whereupon that Per­son sued him in an Action of Defamation Now doth not Increase Mather's Folly and Rashness plainly appear, to charge a man with a Crime he could no wise sufficiently prove, and fearing the event of the Tryal, being sued in an Action of Defamation, did abscond, and so privately escaped to England? all which C. Mather cannot deny; only he telleth the World, That his Father intended a Voyage to England, to endeavour the service of his afflicted Country: But whether it was so or not, doth not clear him of great Rashness and Folly, to charge a man with what he could not prove; and for his Success of Affairs in England, what­ever Cotton his Son boasteth of it, it doth not yet appear. It had been more becoming Increase Mather, if he had been a true Minister of Christ, not to meddle so much in worldly Affairs, as to have left them he calleth his Flock, now for some years, without returning to look after them. And it had been better for New-England that the men called their Ministers, had not meddled so much with their out­ward Affairs and Concerns, which hath proved to their great damage in many respects. I can truly say, I bear [Page 60] a good will to the People of all sorts in New-England, and do heartily desire their well-fare in all respects, but am very sorry to see them so mis-led by their blind Guides, to their great danger, both as to their Eternal and Tem­poral state. O that the Lord may open their Eyes, so as no more to follow these blind Leaders of the blind, which I hope in due time he will do to many.

As to these scurrilous and most indecent Expressions and Words he useth against some lately in outward Authority, I need say no more, but that he showeth thereby the meanness of his Spirit and ill breeding.

He quarrelleth against my Book, because some of the Copies were bound up in Ozenburgs Linnin, which he calleth Canvas, and thereupon maketh a silly jest, as if like one of the Witnesses, I would prophesie in Sack-cloth. But that some of my Books were bound up in Ozenburgs, was only, that the Printer could not have Leather to bind them all up in, the condition of the Country at present, (after so new and late settling) not affording largeness of Leather (nor is this manner of binding up Books in Ozen­burgs unusual in some more antient Plantations than this) And must this Cotton Mather turn this into a Jest? Hath he forgot how the first settlers in New-England, not very long ago, were reduced to a few grains of Indian Corn, many of them and had no other Bread? But now Iesurun like, many of them through plenty are waxed fat & kick.

He professeth, as seemingly, to be against the Magi­strates inflicting any punishment upon any supposed He­retick. But how shall we believe him, for he saith in his Book of Witchcraft, he and others with him, could cheat the Devils, when they spoke one thing and meant another, pag. 38. And seeing this is Cotton Mathers way with Devils, to speak [Page 61] one thing and mean another, why may it not be supposed, that he thinks to take that way with men, or how can he assure us to the contrary? But it is a most intolerable Abuse in Cotton Mather, to say as he doth, There is far more to be said for the Iustification of our antient Severities on two or three Quakers here, than the World has yet been acquainted with. Is this then the manner of your Justice, to hang men for Crimes meerly alledged, but not proved, no, not so much as charged in the face of the World, till many years after they are put to Death! Is not this highest Injustice, with a witness, first to hang men, and then to publish their supposed Crimes, or rather only to accuse them, being innocent? Is not this worse than that call'd Abbington Law, where it is said, Men were first hanged and afterwards tryed? But what thou Cotton Mather dost al­ledge in this case, is notoriously false, and hath not the least shadow or show of probability; for surely, those who put these men, call'd Quakers, to death at Boston, if they had had any thing further to charge them with, than what they openly charged, they would have done it; for they wanted no will to Charge them after the highest manner. But I charge thee Cotton Mather, seeing thou art so impudent to charge these worthy men, (after they have now above twenty eight years been put to Death) of things that the World hath not yet been acquainted with, to produce these things against them otherwise thou art to be accounted A most Infamous Defamer and False Accuser of Gods faithful Servants, who are long since deceased, and at rest in the Lord.

Thou praisest thy self, and others there call'd Ministers (I suppose at Boston for their Voluntary Poverty and Tran­scendent Self-denyal, that hath scarce its Parralel in the [Page 62] Christian World; saying further, If any Maintenance extort­ed from Quakers, hath ever been paid unto them, thou art confident, it was without their knowledge or consent. Answ. This is a very fair Testimony in show, but coming from thy bare self, is not worthy of credit. I question much, and so may thousands more, whether your, so call'd, Volun­tary Poverty doth near equal that of the thousands of Beging Fryars and Monks, pretending as much to Christianity as ye do. And if ye have not so large Sallaries, as some of your Brethren in other places have, it doth not appear that it is your own choice that maketh it so, but that ye know not where to get more, or where to have a better conve­nience; and the least any of you have, is far too much, beyond what ye deserve for preaching false Doctrine, and mis-leading the People; for instead of turning them to Gods Light and divine Revelation in their hearts, ye turn them away from it, in that, acting more the part of the Ministers of Anti-christ and Sathan; And tho' little, or perhaps nothing hath been extorted from these called Quakers at Boston, because very few have had Estates there to extort any thing from, yet seeing thou dost not con­demn this practice in many or most of thy Brethren, but justifiest it in all places in New-England, where great ex­torting of Goods hath been used from the People called Quakers, not only at Plymouth, but at Hampton, and many other places in New-England, as well as in Old England, Scotland, Ireland, and else-where, thou art equally guilty with them. Nor doth it excuse, thy saying That the Grants of Lands, there made by the Court, have still been with an express Condition and Proviso, That the allowed Ministry be therewith supported, to wit, at Plymouth, or some other places; for supposing this were so, which yet in great [Page 63] part may be justly questioned, (for some of the Quakers Relations and Parents had as good a Right to their Lands in New-England as any others, and that before any such Grant of Court) it doth not therefore follow, That they are obliged to uphold a false Ministry, not sent of God; for no man is bound to a thing unlawful, saith both the Law of God and man. The Popish Clergy use to argue at the same rate, for all the great Lands and Revenues that were given to them in Old England, Scotland and Ireland; but this saith nothing, that they do justly belong to them, no more it doth, that our Friends are bound to maintain these in New-England, whom they cannot own in Con­science to be true Ministers of Christ; and all true Mini­sters of the Gospel ought only to live by the Gospel, and not by the Law of any earthly Court: None of the Apo­stles, or Ministers of Christ in the Apostles days, had any such way of Maintenance allowed them but as they freely gave, so they did freely receive, without any extorting what was necessary.

Thou sayst. The Barnstable story is a Romance, of the same piece with the rest; but of this thou givest no proof, but that thou hearest so. But is a bare Report or Hear-say sufficient to discredit a Passage that is known to so many living Witnesses in that Town? the Persons are yet living that testified these things, and if need were, their Testi­mony can be produced under their hands, being of good Credit and Report, yea, not only these called Quakers, but some of New England Church can witness to the sub­stance of it.

Thou Mockest, after thy wonted manner (not mind­ing how far he who fits in the seat of the Scorner is from the state of the blessed man, Psal. 1.1.) at my saying, My [Page 64] hope is, in due time your Meeting-Houses shall no more receive you into them, where after thou hast diminished from my words, most unfairly and disinguously thou puts thy false and malicious Gloss upon them, as if I did guess from either the private Conversation I had with your Persecu­tors, as thou callest them, or their Publick Administration there, that your Churches were quickly to be overturned. All which is notoriously false. It is manifest whom thou callest Persecutors, viz. some eminent in Authority at that time, whom I did not know to have persecuted you, for ye had your liberty for your Profession of Religion as much as could be desired, or as any others, unless ye call that Persecution, that ye were restrained from persecuting others. And as for worldly concerns and transactions be­twixt these in Authority and you, I had not the least meddling, neither in private nor publick. But finding that the Governour was favourable to our Friends in New-England, in restraining some Persecuting Priests and Ju­stices to strein our Friends goods for Maintenance to the Priests, I judged it my duty to visit him, being also there­unto particularly recommended by a Person of good Qua­lity and Report, of his former Acquaintance; and I must needs say, that both He, and They were very civil who were with him; but as to any Worldly or Civil Concern, either with him or any other, or as to any intention or purpose that he or they had to hurt or damage you in any of your Religious or Civil Concerns, I had no knowledge, nor have from any of them. But the ground of my say­ing what I have affirmed in my Book, was simply and wholly, as I there in my Book have affirmed, That my hope is, that in due time many People both in Boston & New England shall have their Eyes opened by the Spirit of the [Page 65] Lord, which ye blaspheme, to see you to be these false Teachers, who bring not the Doctrine of Christ; and the Houses ye preach in, not being your Houses, buc the Houses of the People, they shall not any more receive you into them, &c. Hereby it doth most evidently appear, that I had not the least ground in my most remote thoughts, that these in present Authority, or any others, by any outward Force, would destroy your Churches, or extrude you out of your Meeting Houses, but that in due time God would open the Eyes of the People to see you to be that sort of false Teachers, who bring not Christs Do­ctrine, and that on that account the People would not receive you into these Houses, being their Houses, and not yours. It is there­fore most evident, this gloss of thine upon my words, is a meer Forgery and Calumny, as if I did either wish or predict, by some conjecture, That any in present Authority at that time, were e'er long purposed to destroy or overturn your Churches or Meeting-Houses. But it is no wonder thou putest such false Interpretations on my words, when thou and thy Brethren dare so frequently put false Interpretations on the Scriptures themselves. And I never had the least ground to think or conjecture, that any at that time in Authority, had the least intention to overturn any of your Churches, or in the least to straiten you in the Profession of your Religion, and I believe they had none. And as to my words that I laid, In due time, my hope was, that God would open the Eyes of many People, both in Boston and New-England, thou also makest a Mock of that Ex­pression [In Due Time] saying, Ay, no doubt of it in due time; but I pray, friend George, (sayst thou) when shall this due time be? I Answer thee, sooner than thou dost expect, or thinkest of; but as to the precise time of what Year, Moneth, or so, I leave it wholly to the Lords ordering, who hath said, He will Overturn, Overturn, Overturn, till He come to reign, whose right it is, and that is the Lord Jesus Christ, spiritually and inwardly revealed to reign and rule in mens hearts, whom ye oppose and blaspheme against, and all his Enemies will fall before him in Due Time, according to Deut. 32.35. To me belongeth Vengeance and Recompence (saith the Lord) their feet shall slide in DVE TIME, for the Day of their Calamity is at hand, and the things that shall come upon them make hast. So thou mayst see, [Page 66] that the true words of Prophecy in Deut. 32.35, are so expressed, with a respect to the Due Time. As for us, and me in particular, neither we nor I have any evil will or wish in our hearts towards the Land or People of New-England; but we, and I in particular can and do say, I wish the Well-fare and Happiness of it every way, and my Hope is great, and my Faith sure and firm, That God hath a chosen Seed and People in it, to whom he will inwardly reveal himself in great Power and Glory, and gather them to the living knowledge of himself, and into a living acquaintance with himself, and his living Way and Truth, and this will make them indeed a blessed and happy People; but as for all such who shall be found continuing to oppose and resist the heavenly inward and spiritual Appearance and Revelation of God and Christ in the hearts of People, and shall be found saying, as these Scoffers, of whom Peter prophesied, who should come in the last dayes, and say, Where is the Promise of his coming? and as this Cotton Mather, in the same scoffing nature and spirit, hath said, When is that due Time, that I have said shall come, that God will open the Eyes of People, &c? both thou, and all such, and all Hypocrites, and all false Teachers of all sorts, who do all that ye can to uphold your Babylonish buildings, shall be greatly disappointed of all your vain and false Hopes, and a dread­ful Cup of Wrath and Judgment will be given to all such who shall still continue to gainsay and oppose, yea, to blaspheme this heavenly inward Appearance and Revelation of Christ in his People. And therefore I do sincerely and earnestly exhort and request, both thee C. Mather, and Increase Mather thy Father, if this ever come to his hands, and all others of you call'd Ministers and Teachers in New-England, to Repent of all your hard Speeches, Revilings, false Accusations and Calumnies that ye have raised against the Truth and Witnesses of it, and bow and submit to that divine Light of Christ in your hearts, that ye have so long and so much gain-said, and blasphemed against heretofore.

And as for thy Conclusion in thy Appendix, it is so dirty and un­clean, that it is not worth mentioning, being an old Latine Rhyme made by some old doting Priest or Clergy-man, in the former time of Ignorance; and as it hath no good favour to any that understand [Page 67] a little Latine, so no more would it have if translated into English. But we may well bear it, to be called or esteemed by thee in thy ig­norance and darkness of understanding, as Dung and Filth, when the Apostles of the Lord, by men of thy dark Spirit, were made as the Filth of the World, and the Off-scouring of all things, 1 Cor. 4.13. [...].

There is another Passage in Cotton Mathers Appendix, which though I could easily have passed by altogether, without any just Reflection on us, yet because it showeth now foolish and inconsi­derate he is, to accuse others for that, which these of his own Soci­ety have been sufficiently liable to, I shall take some notice of it. He saith, That the Quakers fall out amont themselves, is but a natural Consequence of their Tempers, and Errors, which cannot be otherwise than incoherent; and sometimes their Credit forces them to explode in one ano­ther, what they (wish they could, but) can't excuse. Answ. That we have denyed Thomas Case and all his ungodly Crew and Followers, is not the least proof that the Quakers fall out among themselves; for tho' they or others may falsly call them Quakers, as being of our Reli­gion and Society, yet it doth not follow, any more, than that many of the most Wicked, called Christians, are of the true Christian Re­ligion, or are Christians, because falsly so called. But in this thou actest more like Celsus, and others in antient times, who upbraided the sincere Christians, yea, and the Christian Religion it self, with all the vile and gross Heresies & wicked Practices of some Apostates, and other vile and lewd Persons, who called themselves Christians, and were not. We have better learn'd Christ and Christianity, than to judge any to be of our Religion or Society, because of any out­ward Name whatsoever. But if thou hadst any common discretion, thou wouldst have spared these words, to upbraid the People call'd Quakers, with falling out among themselves, and that their so falling out, is but a natural consequence of their Tempers and Errors, for through the great love and mercy of God, the honest and sincere People call'd Quakers (the which Name of Quakers is but a Nick-name, raised upon them by Scoffers, like Cotton Mather, even as the Name Round-head and Puritan were Nick names raised upon sober People [Page 68] fifty years ago, and upwards) have been preserved, as to the main, in great Unity, both of Perswasion and Love, beyond any People that have appeared, pretending to a Reformation, in these latter Ages. But for any Presbyterian or Independent, who reckon them­selves one in matters of Religion, to upbraid any other People with falling out, when they have had so great Contentions and Fallings out among themselves, not only with one another, but with these call'd the Episcopal and Church of England, whom they deny not to be their Protestant Brethren, and one with them, in the main, doth evidence, not only great Partiality, but Hypocrisie and Indiscretion. For who have had greater Quarrels and Fa [...]ings out one with ano­ther, than them who have professed one and the same Protestant Re­ligion, not only to hard Speeches one against another, but great Persecution one of another, and all this on the pretence of Religion. And even in New-England it self, Cotton Mather cannot be ignorant what Quarrels, Disputes and Fallings out have been among these call'd Ministers and Teachers in New-England: There are divers yet alive, who were both eye and ear Witnesses to the hot Contentions and Fallings out among some call'd Preachers and Ministers in New-England of the Congregational way, and particularly that great Opposition and Falling out that was betwixt old Iohn Cotton of New England (of whom this Cotton Mather is descended) and some of his Brethren; the said old Iohn Cotton being accused severely by his pretended Brethren of the Ministry, for false Doctrine, though that Doctrine for which he was accused, was not false, but true, and agreeable both to the Scriptures Testimony, and to what the honest People, call'd Quakers, are raised up to witness unto, as namely, That not only the Graces and Operations of God, of Christ, and of the holy Spirit, are in all true Saints and Believers, but that God, and Christ, and the holy Spirit, together with these Graces and Operations, are really present and in-dwelling in the hearts of all true Saints and Be­lievers: And Iohn Owen hath asserted in some of his Books printed in Old England, to wit, That the holy Ghost doth really dwell in Belie­vers, together with his Graces and Virtues: The which Doctrine both of old Iohn Cotton, and Iohn Owen, an Independent Preacher in Old England, hath been judged by others of their Brethren, not only [Page 69] Heresie, but Blasphemy, and is the main Article of Blasphemy, that the Presbyterian and Independent Priests and Professors charge upon the People call'd Quakers. And thus it doth appear, what little Wit, Discretion or common Prudence this Cotton Mather hath, to charge the Quakers with falling out among themselves (which, in the case mentioned by him, is altogether false) when they themselves, and his Brethren, have been so deeply chargeable in that matter; besides that of late there have been very unhappy Differences among these of your Church in New-England, the which, how agreeable to true Christian Religion, or Civil Authority, Truth, in due time, will discover.

Nor is he any more pertinent, to say of a Woman, (that God moved, as she declared, to come with her face made black, for a sign of some Iudgment ready to come upon many People of New-England) That she dressed her self like a Devil, and frighted some of her Sex almost out of their Lives, in one of their biggest Assemblies; for the Judgment, she was moved to come as a sign, to warn you of, did soon after come to pass, by a very sore and dreadful Visitation, of that, called by some, The Black Pock, that cut off many, both Young and Old among you, as I noticed in my late Book. But if Cotton Mather were not full of a scornful, light and airy spirit, he would not make so light of a matter of so great weight, so to sport and make merry with these whom God moved to warn of his approaching Judgments, that come to pass accordingly, & thereby it was made apparent, her Message was true. But why should the colour of black be judged by Cotton Mather so much to resemble the Devil? How many Negro's are there in New-England, whom People daily see and converse with, some of which may come to your Assemblies, and none are affright­ed thereby? But if the colour of Black so much resemble the De­vil, as C. M. alledgeth, then what saith he to his Brethren, the men call'd Ministers in New-England, who generally are Black in Habit from the Crown of the head to the foot, like the Black-coats or C [...]marims of old? must they also by Cotton Mathers Authority be like unto the Devil? So that in all his discourse C. M. showeth himself a meer silly Triffler, but no sollid Disputer, nor Defender, either of his Father or himself.

[Page 70]Another thing I think fit to acquaint the Reader with, That he need, not think strange to find Cotton Mather so falsifying and wrest­ing my words, and abusing the honest People called Quakers, when down-right and in plain words he falsifieth the holy Scripture, and alledgeth a down-right falshood upon Christ himself, who is the Truth; for in his thing call'd a Sermon, upon 1 Pet. 5.8. pag. 9. he saith, We are told in Mat. 12.26. Sathan is NOT divided against himself. Now let the Reader view the place, and he shall find no such words, nor indeed any where in all the Scripture; for the words are, Mat. 12.26. And if Sathan cast out Sathan, he is divided against himself, how shall then his Kingdom stand? And here every one that hath a right, though ordinary, understanding of things, and who see even but a very little, may see that Christ doth not so much as imply That Sathan is not divided against Sathan, but only argueth the case with them against themselves, by an Argument that is commonly called Argumentum ad hominem, as doth plainly appear by the following Verse, v. 27. And if I by Belzebub cast out Devils, by whom do your Children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges; for Christ had this manifest advantage against them, that they could no more alledge, that he did cast out Devils by the Prince of Devils, than that it might be alledged, that any of their Children did cast them out; for their Children did believe, they did cast out Devils by the Power of God, and Christ had far greater cause to say the same, to wit, that he did cast out Devils by the Power of God: Nor doth the manner of Expression, If Sathan cast out Sathan, argue or imply in the least, that Sathan is not divided against himself, or that his Kingdom is not divided; for the Particle [if] is not always to be understood to imply a negative, but frequently an affirmative, as in v. 28. said Christ, But If I cast out Devils by the Spirit of God, &c. the sense is not Negative. And hereby it doth plainly appear, that Cotton Mather is a Falsifier and Wrester of Christs words, who would bring Christs Authority to prove, That Sathan is is not divided against Sathan, which is utterly false; for Sathan is divided manifestly oft times against Sathan, and his Kingdom is divided also, and there­fore it cannot stand, but must needs fall, and great will be the Fall thereof; for there is no true nor real Unity betwixt the Devils, [Page 71] nor can there be, because they are not in unity with God, nor Truth, which is the alone foundation & ground of all true Unity; and tho' Devils may seem to agree, and the parts of his Kingdom to be in Union, yet that is no real unity, and therefore they oft fall at vari­ance, as their wicked Actions and Work, in wicked men, plainly de­monstrate, that are most commonly divided and discordant.

And as for thy Book of Witchcraft (though I believe there is such a thing, that is too frequent, as real Witchcraft, and too many that are real Witches) yet I find little, or indeed nothing in all thy book th [...]t doth effectually prove, th [...]t any of these Children were really bewitched; the most it proveth, is, that some Whimsies and Fancies, together with some sits of Madness or Melancholy Distractions, did seize upon them, or suppose a Diabolical Possession; all this doth not prove they were bewitched, nor do I find any effectual proof, that it was a Bodily Possession of the Devil. But whether it was so or not, I am little concerned (to enquire) further, than to take notice, that C. Mather will needs have it to be so, not only to bespatter and abuse the People called Quakers, because a whimsical Boy became well when his going to the Quakers Meeting was but mentioned (which might be used, rather for, than against them, but really is of no force either for or against) but to make simple and too credulous People believe, That some of his Brethrens, or his own, Prayers did conjure the Devil, and cast him out: And all this to prove the great worth and excellency of the Presbyterian or Independent Religion. But I have both read & heard as great, or rather greater instances of evil Spirits and Devils being cast out of some by Popish Priests, which doth no more prove either the truth or worth of Pope or Papacy, than this pretended or supposed Ejection, and casting out, or perhaps the going out of the Devil, without any force, but on his crafty design to make Cotton Mather imagin it to be so, and others of the like silly credulity, doth prove the truth or worth of your Religion; for C. Mather should remember his own words in that thing call'd his Sermon on Witchcraft, p. 36. Sometimes (saith he) the Devil will use a digression, he will seem to give over his intent in one thing, but make sure of his intent in another: such a Stratagem he [...]seth, as what Joshua took Ai withal, he retires, and so he con [...]uors. I say then, what doth Cotton Mather know, or how [Page 72] can he prove to the contrary, but that the Devil used this Stratagem in retiring or going out, without being conjured by the force of his and his Brethrens Prayers? And though the great worth and power of true Prayer, I most willingly acknowledge, which is only per­formed by the Inspiration and Revelation of the holy Spirit, yet seeing Cotton Mather and his Brethren generally mock at any, at this day laying claim to divine Inspiration and Revelation, I cannot own their Prayers to be true, they are liker to Charms and Spells of super­stitious Persons, all such Prayers that are performed without divine Inspiration and true internal divine Revelation.

Nor doth it content or satisfie Cotton Mather to accuse and speak evil of the honest People called Quakers, and to belye CHRIST him­self, and the Scripture, as I have above sufficiently proved, but he also falleth foul upon his own Native Country, and the People in it, saying expresly of the Country of New-England, A COUNTRY FULL OF LYES! pag. 28. in his discourse of Witchcraft: How may the People of New-England relish this? a People gene­rally all over (few excepted) your Church Members, and yet by Cotton Mathers Authority, full of Lyes. Also, he doth plainly accuse not a few of them for using and practising manifold Sorceries and Charms. Had the People called Quakers, so accused them of New-England, it would have been judged great impiety. But what saith the People of New-England now to Cotton Mather, who doth so accuse them? let them see to it, and if they be not guilty of his Charge, whether is he not severely to be reprehended? And what say his Brethren, the men called Ministers in Boston, who have so highly praised his Book, have they no Garment to cast over their Naked Brother?

Here follow a few words of a Letter to Iohn Cotton, called, a Minister, at Plymouth in New-England.

John Cotton;

HAving seeen a few Lines from thy hand, attested by thee, and other two Witnesses, wherein thou and they declare, That in the Town of Plymouth in New-England, last Summer, save one, ye heard me affirm, That the Scriptures are the Word of God. My Answer to thee and them, is, That ye have not dealt fairly, nor as becoming true Witnesses, in this case; for every Witness should declare all the Truth, and conceal nothing of the Truth which they heard. Now this ye have not done, but diminished from my words, as your Consciences may bear witness, if your Memory be not bad; for I very well remember my words at that time, which were these, That I did acknowledge the true Sense of the Scripture to be the Word of God, and that in the same I was not singular in my Perswasion, from the People called Quakers; for Samuell Fisher in his Book called, Rusticus ad Academicos, that hath been in print up­wards of twenty five Years, hath affirmed the same, to wit, That the true Sense of the Scripture is the Word of God. And at that time I fur­ther said, That not every one who had the Letter of the Scripture, had the Word of God, to speak properly, because they had not the true sense of Scripture, which none have, but such to whom it is given by the Spirit of God. I also did further affirm, That the Letter or words of Scrip­ture may be called the Word in a figurative sense, as the Map or Card of England is called England, and that the Greek word is used in Scrip­ture in divers acceptations. All this, and more to the same purpose I spoke to thee at that time.

G. K.

The substance of this I have more largely asserted in my late Book, printed, called, The Presbyterian and Independent visible Churches, &c. cap. 1.


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